WorldWideScience

Sample records for monitoring power level

  1. Power levels in office equipment: Measurements of new monitors and personal computers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberson, Judy A.; Brown, Richard E.; Nordman, Bruce; Webber, Carrie A.; Homan, Gregory H.; Mahajan, Akshay; McWhinney, Marla; Koomey, Jonathan G.

    2002-05-14

    Electronic office equipment has proliferated rapidly over the last twenty years and is projected to continue growing in the future. Efforts to reduce the growth in office equipment energy use have focused on power management to reduce power consumption of electronic devices when not being used for their primary purpose. The EPA ENERGY STAR[registered trademark] program has been instrumental in gaining widespread support for power management in office equipment, and accurate information about the energy used by office equipment in all power levels is important to improving program design and evaluation. This paper presents the results of a field study conducted during 2001 to measure the power levels of new monitors and personal computers. We measured off, on, and low-power levels in about 60 units manufactured since July 2000. The paper summarizes power data collected, explores differences within the sample (e.g., between CRT and LCD monitors), and discusses some issues that arise in m etering office equipment. We also present conclusions to help improve the success of future power management programs.Our findings include a trend among monitor manufacturers to provide a single very low low-power level, and the need to standardize methods for measuring monitor on power, to more accurately estimate the annual energy consumption of office equipment, as well as actual and potential energy savings from power management.

  2. Energy Use and Power Levels in New Monitors and Personal Computers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberson, Judy A.; Homan, Gregory K.; Mahajan, Akshay; Nordman, Bruce; Webber, Carrie A.; Brown, Richard E.; McWhinney, Marla; Koomey, Jonathan G.

    2002-07-23

    Our research was conducted in support of the EPA ENERGY STAR Office Equipment program, whose goal is to reduce the amount of electricity consumed by office equipment in the U.S. The most energy-efficient models in each office equipment category are eligible for the ENERGY STAR label, which consumers can use to identify and select efficient products. As the efficiency of each category improves over time, the ENERGY STAR criteria need to be revised accordingly. The purpose of this study was to provide reliable data on the energy consumption of the newest personal computers and monitors that the EPA can use to evaluate revisions to current ENERGY STAR criteria as well as to improve the accuracy of ENERGY STAR program savings estimates. We report the results of measuring the power consumption and power management capabilities of a sample of new monitors and computers. These results will be used to improve estimates of program energy savings and carbon emission reductions, and to inform rev isions of the ENERGY STAR criteria for these products. Our sample consists of 35 monitors and 26 computers manufactured between July 2000 and October 2001; it includes cathode ray tube (CRT) and liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors, Macintosh and Intel-architecture computers, desktop and laptop computers, and integrated computer systems, in which power consumption of the computer and monitor cannot be measured separately. For each machine we measured power consumption when off, on, and in each low-power level. We identify trends in and opportunities to reduce power consumption in new personal computers and monitors. Our results include a trend among monitor manufacturers to provide a single very low low-power level, well below the current ENERGY STAR criteria for sleep power consumption. These very low sleep power results mean that energy consumed when monitors are off or in active use has become more important in terms of contribution to the overall unit energy consumption (UEC

  3. A detector for monitoring the onset of cavitation during therapy-level measurements of ultrasonic power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodnett, M.; Zeqiri, B.

    2004-01-01

    Acoustic cavitation occurring in the water path between a transducer and the target of a radiation force balance can provide a significant source of error during measurements of ultrasonic power. These problems can be particularly acute at physiotherapy levels (>1 W), and low frequencies (leq 1 MHz). The cavitating bubbles can absorb and scatter incident ultrasound, leading to an underestimate in the measured power. For these reasons, International Specification standards demand the use of degassed water. This imposes requirements that may actually be difficult to meet, for example, in the case of hospitals. Also, initially degassed water will rapidly re-gas, increasing the likelihood of cavitation occurring. For these reasons, NPL has developed a device that monitors acoustic emissions generated by bubble activity, for detecting the onset of cavitation during power measurements. A commercially available needle hydrophone is used to detect these emissions. The acoustic signals are then monitored using a Cavitation Detector (CD) unit, comprising an analogue electrical filter that may be tuned to detect frequency components generated by cavitating bubbles, and which provides an indication of when the measured level exceeds a pre-defined threshold. This paper describes studies to establish a suitable detection scheme, the principles of operation of the CD unit, and the performance tests carried out with a range of propagation media.

  4. A detector for monitoring the onset of cavitation during therapy-level measurements of ultrasonic power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodnett, M; Zeqiri, B [National Physical Laboratory, Queens Road, Teddington, Middlesex, TW11 0LW (United Kingdom)

    2004-01-01

    Acoustic cavitation occurring in the water path between a transducer and the target of a radiation force balance can provide a significant source of error during measurements of ultrasonic power. These problems can be particularly acute at physiotherapy levels (>1 W), and low frequencies ({<=} 1 MHz). The cavitating bubbles can absorb and scatter incident ultrasound, leading to an underestimate in the measured power. For these reasons, International Specification standards demand the use of degassed water. This imposes requirements that may actually be difficult to meet, for example, in the case of hospitals. Also, initially degassed water will rapidly re-gas, increasing the likelihood of cavitation occurring. For these reasons, NPL has developed a device that monitors acoustic emissions generated by bubble activity, for detecting the onset of cavitation during power measurements. A commercially available needle hydrophone is used to detect these emissions. The acoustic signals are then monitored using a Cavitation Detector (CD) unit, comprising an analogue electrical filter that may be tuned to detect frequency components generated by cavitating bubbles, and which provides an indication of when the measured level exceeds a pre-defined threshold. This paper describes studies to establish a suitable detection scheme, the principles of operation of the CD unit, and the performance tests carried out with a range of propagation media.

  5. Development of Ribbon Fiber Type Multi-Channel Power Level Monitor with Low-Insertion/Polarization Loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maki; Inai; Akira; Haraguchi; Takeo; Komiya; Kiyotaka; Murashima; Takashi; Sasaki; Kazuhito; Saitoh

    2003-01-01

    We would like to propose a new in-line multi-channel power level monitor, which is applicable as tap-monitor for multi-channel WDM signals. Its ribbon fiber structure has far exceeded PLC performance and realized compact-size and lower insertion/polarization dependent loss.

  6. Spacecraft Power Monitor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I project will develop the Spacecraft Power Monitor (SPM) which will use non-intrusive electrical monitoring (NEMO). NEMO transforms the power...

  7. Power Transformer Intelligence Monitor System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Jianshe; Shi Lei

    2006-01-01

    An auto-monitoring system has been created that could monitor the main parameter of power transformers. It reads data of V&I by precision rectifier circuit and amplifier, and converted electric energy into pulse signal by means of sensor technique and pulse converter circuit, it is sent into microcomputer to process, completed monitoring to power transformer parameters and running state by software system. It can register all kinds of key data, and provide all kinds of virtual technical data for managing sections and can auto-form all kinds of electric annual reports and monthly reports analysis graphs such as managing graphs. It notably improves the safety and reliability of transformer, with strong anti-jamming technique and unique function, it can be used on the transformers in railway' s self-closing lines and all kinds of transformer stations.

  8. Solar Power Systems Web Monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Bimal Aklesh

    2011-01-01

    All over the world the peak demand load is increasing and the load factor is decreasing year-by-year. The fossil fuel is considered insufficient thus solar energy systems are becoming more and more useful, not only in terms of installation but monitoring of these systems is very crucial. Monitoring becomes very important when there are a large number of solar panels. Monitoring would allow early detection if the output falls below required level or one of the solar panel out of 1000 goes down. In this study the target is to monitor and control a developed solar panel by using available internet foundation. This web-enabled software will provide more flexibility over the system such as transmitting data from panel to the host computer and disseminating information to relevant stake holders barring any geographical barrier. The software would be built around web server with dynamic HTML and JAVA, this paper presents the preliminary design of the proposed system.

  9. Automatic calorimetry system monitors RF power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harness, B. W.; Heiberger, E. C.

    1969-01-01

    Calorimetry system monitors the average power dissipated in a high power RF transmitter. Sensors measure the change in temperature and the flow rate of the coolant, while a multiplier computes the power dissipated in the RF load.

  10. INSTALLATION OF A POST-ACCIDENT CONFINEMENT HIGH-LEVEL RADIATION MONITORING SYSTEM IN THE KOLA NUCLEAR POWER STATION (UNIT 2) IN RUSSIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREENE,G.A.; GUPPY,J.G.

    1998-09-01

    This is the final report on the INSP project entitled, ``Post-Accident Confinement High-Level Radiation Monitoring System'' conducted by BNL under the authorization of Project Work Plan WBS 1.2.2.6 (Attachment 1). This project was initiated in February 1993 to assist the Russians in reducing risks associated with the continued operation of older Soviet-designed nuclear power plants, specifically the Kola VVER-440/230 Unit 2, through improved accident detection capability, specifically by the installation of a dual train high-level radiation detection system in the confinement of Unit 2 of the Kola NPP. The major technical objective of this project was to provide, install and make operational the necessary hardware inside the confinement of the Kola NPP Unit 2 to provide early and reliable warning of the release of radionuclides from the reactor into the confinement air space as an indication of the occurrence of a severe accident at the plant. In addition, it was intended to provide hands-on experience and training to the Russian plant workers in the installation, operation, calibration and maintenance of the equipment in order that they may use the equipment without continued US assistance as an effective measure to improve reactor safety at the plant.

  11. CloudMonitor: Profiling Power Usage

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, James William; Ward, Jonathan Stuart; Sommerville, Ian

    2012-01-01

    In Cloud Computing platforms the addition of hardware monitoring devices to gather power usage data can be impractical or uneconomical due to the large number of machines to be metered. CloudMonitor, a monitoring tool that can generate power models for software-based power estimation, can provide insights to the energy costs of deployments without additional hardware. Accurate power usage data leads to the possibility of Cloud providers creating a separate tariff for power and therefore incentivizing software developers to create energy-efficient applications.

  12. Automatic chemical monitoring in the composition of functions performed by the unit level control system in the new projects of nuclear power plant units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisova, L. G.; Khrennikov, N. N.

    2014-08-01

    The article presents information on the state of regulatory framework and development of a subsystem for automated chemical monitoring of water chemistries in the primary and secondary coolant circuits used as part of the automatic process control system in new projects of VVER reactor-based nuclear power plant units. For the strategy of developing and putting in use the water chemistry-related part of the automated process control system within the standard AES-2006 nuclear power plant project to be implemented, it is necessary to develop regulatory documents dealing with certain requirements imposed on automatic water chemistry monitoring systems in accordance with the requirements of federal codes and regulations in the field of using atomic energy.

  13. Intelligent Component Monitoring for Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefteri Tsoukalas

    2010-07-30

    Reliability and economy are two major concerns for a nuclear power generation system. Next generation nuclear power reactors are being developed to be more reliable and economic. An effective and efficient surveillance system can generously contribute toward this goal. Recent progress in computer systems and computational tools has made it necessary and possible to upgrade current surveillance/monitoring strategy for better performance. For example, intelligent computing techniques can be applied to develop algorithm that help people better understand the information collected from sensors and thus reduce human error to a new low level. Incidents incurred from human error in nuclear industry are not rare and have been proven costly. The goal of this project is to develop and test an intelligent prognostics methodology for predicting aging effects impacting long-term performance of nuclear components and systems. The approach is particularly suitable for predicting the performance of nuclear reactor systems which have low failure probabilities (e.g., less than 10-6 year-). Such components and systems are often perceived as peripheral to the reactor and are left somewhat unattended. That is, even when inspected, if they are not perceived to be causing some immediate problem, they may not be paid due attention. Attention to such systems normally involves long term monitoring and possibly reasoning with multiple features and evidence, requirements that are not best suited for humans.

  14. Condition Monitoring of Power Cables

    OpenAIRE

    Lewin, P L; L. Hao; Swaffield, D J; Swingler, S.G.

    2007-01-01

    A National Grid funded research project at Southampton has investigated possible methodologies for data acquisition, transmission and processing that will facilitate on-line continuous monitoring of partial discharges in high voltage polymeric cable systems. A method that only uses passive components at the measuring points has been developed and is outlined in this paper. More recent work, funded through the EPSRC Supergen V, UK Energy Infrastructure (AMPerES) grant in collaboration with UK ...

  15. Inspection and Monitoring Techniques for Power Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Kaoshan; CHEN Shenen

    2011-01-01

    Structural assessment is prerequisite for proper maintenance of civil infrastructure.In the begining of this paper, modern inspection and monitoring methods are briefly reviewed.Experiences in applying imagebased methods for highway bridge inspection are described shortly afterward.Studies are then extended to explore technologies for power delivery infrastructure evaluation.Typical power line components are first introduced.Structural analyses show complicated coupling phenomena in the power line system; and its vulnerability is intensified by extreme environment or human induced events.As a main interest, the state-of-art of power line inspection is summarized.Both visual observations and inspections assisted with novel techniques are presented.Real time monitoring of the power line is also investigated in this paper.Technologies that have potentials for monitoring power cables, insulators, and support structures are identified.A conceptual integrated design is proposed by the authors through combining innovative inspection with promising monitoring methods to ensure a sustainable, smart power line.

  16. Fatigue monitoring in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ware, A.G.; Shah, V.N. [Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-04-01

    This paper summarizes fatigue monitoring methods and surveys their application in the nuclear power industry. The paper is based on a review of the technical literature. Two main reasons for fatigue monitoring are more frequent occurrence of some transients than that assumed in the fatigue design analysis and the discovery of stressors that were not included in the fatigue design analysis but may cause significant fatigue damage at some locations. One fatigue monitoring method involves use of plant operating data and procedures to update the fatigue usage. Another method involves monitoring of plant operating parameters using existing, or if needed, supplementary plant instrumentation for online computation of fatigue usage. Use of fatigue monitoring has better defined the operational transients. Most operational transients have been found less severe and fewer in numbers than anticipated in the design fatigue analysis. Use of fatigue monitoring has assisted in quantifying newly discovered stressors and has helped in detecting the presence of thermal stratification of unsuspected locations.

  17. Monitoring Biological Activity at Geothermal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Pryfogle

    2005-09-01

    The economic impact of microbial growth in geothermal power plants has been estimated to be as high as $500,000 annually for a 100 MWe plant. Many methods are available to monitor biological activity at these facilities; however, very few plants have any on-line monitoring program in place. Metal coupon, selective culturing (MPN), total organic carbon (TOC), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), respirometry, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) characterizations have been conducted using water samples collected from geothermal plants located in California and Utah. In addition, the on-line performance of a commercial electrochemical monitor, the BIoGEORGE?, has been evaluated during extended deployments at geothermal facilities. This report provides a review of these techniques, presents data on their application from laboratory and field studies, and discusses their value in characterizing and monitoring biological activities at geothermal power plants.

  18. A novel electric power quality monitoring system for transient analysis

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Electricity is vital for our daily life in modern cites. In order to ensure its reliability and supply, an electric power monitoring system is indispensable in an electric power system. Currently, most electric power monitoring systems are designed for steady-state monitoring only. They may not be able to monitor instantaneous power disturbances, such as voltage surge, happened in electric power systems. In fact, instantaneous power disturbances are frequently found in electric power systems,...

  19. Solar Powered Radioactive Air Monitoring Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.; Gervais, Todd L.

    2013-10-30

    Environmental monitoring of ambient air for radioactive material is required as stipulated in the PNNL Site radioactive air license. Sampling ambient air at identified preferred locations could not be initially accomplished because utilities were not readily available. Therefore, solar powered environmental monitoring systems were considered as a possible option. PNNL purchased two 24-V DC solar powered environmental monitoring systems which consisted of solar panels, battery banks, and sampling units. During an approximate four month performance evaluation period, the solar stations operated satisfactorily at an on-site test location. They were subsequently relocated to their preferred locations in June 2012 where they continue to function adequately under the conditions found in Richland, Washington.

  20. Remote Working Level Monitor. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-11-18

    The Remote Working Level Monitor (RWLM) is an instrument used to remotely monitor the RN-daughter concentrations and the Working Level (WL). It is an ac powered, microprocessor based instrument which multiplexes two independent detector units to a single central processor unit (CPU). The CPU controls the actuation of the detector units and processes and outputs the data received from these remote detector units. The remote detector units are fully automated and require no manual operation once they are set up. They detect and separate the alpha emitters of RaA and RaC' as well as detecting the beta emitters of RaB and RaC. The resultant pulses from these detected radioisotopes are transmitted to the CPU for processing. The programmed microprocessor performs the mathematical manipulations necessary to output accurate Rn-daughter concentrations and the WL. A special subroutine within the program enables the RWLM to run and output a calibration procedure on command. The data resulting from this request can then be processed in a separate program on most computers capable of BASIC programming. The calibration program results in the derivation of coefficients and beta efficiencies which provides calibrated coefficients and beta efficiencies.

  1. Monitoring of Low Levels of Furfural in Power Transformer Oil with a Sensor System Based on a POF-MIP Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cennamo, Nunzio; De Maria, Letizia; D’Agostino, Girolamo; Zeni, Luigi; Pesavento, Maria

    2015-01-01

    In this work an innovative, miniaturized and low cost optical chemical sensor (POF-MIP platform), based on a molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) and surface plasmon resonance in a plastic optical fiber (POF), is presented and preliminarily tested for monitoring of furfural (furan-2-carbaldehyde) in transformer oil. To this end, the optical platform was coupled to an MIP layer, highly selective for furfural. The ability of the developed sensor to directly detect furfural in the insulating oil was investigated. The detection limit of the sensor has been found to be 9 ppb, with a linear response up to about 30 ppb. However there is a sensible response up to 0.15 ppm. Because of the small linearity range, the Hill equation is suggested for the quantification. The sensor has been effectively tested in real oil samples collected from aged electrical equipment removed from service. The assessed concentration of furfural is in good agreement with that evaluated by a high pressure liquid chromatography (HLPC) method, confirming the good selectivity of the proposed sensor. PMID:25871719

  2. Monitoring of low levels of furfural in power transformer oil with a sensor system based on a POF-MIP platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cennamo, Nunzio; De Maria, Letizia; D'Agostino, Girolamo; Zeni, Luigi; Pesavento, Maria

    2015-04-13

    In this work an innovative, miniaturized and low cost optical chemical sensor (POF-MIP platform), based on a molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) and surface plasmon resonance in a plastic optical fiber (POF), is presented and preliminarily tested for monitoring of furfural (furan-2-carbaldehyde) in transformer oil. To this end, the optical platform was coupled to an MIP layer, highly selective for furfural. The ability of the developed sensor to directly detect furfural in the insulating oil was investigated. The detection limit of the sensor has been found to be 9 ppb, with a linear response up to about 30 ppb. However there is a sensible response up to 0.15 ppm. Because of the small linearity range, the Hill equation is suggested for the quantification. The sensor has been effectively tested in real oil samples collected from aged electrical equipment removed from service. The assessed concentration of furfural is in good agreement with that evaluated by a high pressure liquid chromatography (HLPC) method, confirming the good selectivity of the proposed sensor.

  3. Monitoring of Low Levels of Furfural in Power Transformer Oil with a Sensor System Based on a POF-MIP Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunzio Cennamo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work an innovative, miniaturized and low cost optical chemical sensor (POF-MIP platform, based on a molecular imprinted polymer (MIP and surface plasmon resonance in a plastic optical fiber (POF, is presented and preliminarily tested for monitoring of furfural (furan-2-carbaldehyde in transformer oil. To this end, the optical platform was coupled to an MIP layer, highly selective for furfural. The ability of the developed sensor to directly detect furfural in the insulating oil was investigated. The detection limit of the sensor has been found to be 9 ppb, with a linear response up to about 30 ppb. However there is a sensible response up to 0.15 ppm. Because of the small linearity range, the Hill equation is suggested for the quantification. The sensor has been effectively tested in real oil samples collected from aged electrical equipment removed from service. The assessed concentration of furfural is in good agreement with that evaluated by a high pressure liquid chromatography (HLPC method, confirming the good selectivity of the proposed sensor.

  4. New Passive Methodology for Power Cable Monitoring and Fault Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngdeug

    The utilization of power cables is increasing with the development of renewable energy and the maintenance replacement of old overhead power lines. Therefore, effective monitoring and accurate fault location for power cables are very important for the sake of a stable power supply. The recent technologies for power cable diagnosis and temperature monitoring system are described including their intrinsic limitations for cable health assessment. Power cable fault location methods are reviewed with two main categories: off-line and on-line data based methods. As a diagnostic and fault location approach, a new passive methodology is introduced. This methodology is based on analyzing the resonant frequencies of the transfer function between the input and output of the power cable system. The equivalent pi model is applied to the resonant frequency calculation for the selected underground power cable transmission system. The characteristics of the resonant frequencies are studied by analytical derivations and PSCAD simulations. It is found that the variation of load magnitudes and change of positive power factors (i.e., inductive loads) do not affect resonant frequencies significantly, but there is considerable movement of resonant frequencies under change of negative power factors (i.e., capacitive loads). Power cable fault conditions introduce new resonant frequencies in accordance with fault positions. Similar behaviors of the resonant frequencies are shown in a transformer (TR) connected power cable system with frequency shifts caused by the TR impedance. The resonant frequencies can be extracted by frequency analysis of power signals and the inherent noise in these signals plays a key role to measure the resonant frequencies. Window functions provide an effective tool for improving resonant frequency discernment. The frequency analysis is implemented on noise laden PSCAD simulation signals and it reveals identical resonant frequency characteristics with theoretical

  5. The development of power specific redlines for SSME safety monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maul, William A.; Bosch, Claudia M.

    1989-01-01

    Over the past several years, there has been an increased awareness in the necessity for rocket engine health monitoring because of the cost and complexity of present and future systems. A current rocket engine system, the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), combines a limited redline system with closed-loop control of the engine's thrust level and mixture ratio. Despite these features, 27 tests of the SSME have resulted in major incidents. An SSME transient model was used to examine the effect of variations in high pressure turbopump performance on various engine parameters. Based on analysis of the responses, several new parameters are proposed for further investigation as power-level specific redlines.

  6. Computer system for monitoring power boiler operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taler, J.; Weglowski, B.; Zima, W.; Duda, P.; Gradziel, S.; Sobota, T.; Cebula, A.; Taler, D. [Cracow University of Technology, Krakow (Poland). Inst. for Process & Power Engineering

    2008-02-15

    The computer-based boiler performance monitoring system was developed to perform thermal-hydraulic computations of the boiler working parameters in an on-line mode. Measurements of temperatures, heat flux, pressures, mass flowrates, and gas analysis data were used to perform the heat transfer analysis in the evaporator, furnace, and convection pass. A new construction technique of heat flux tubes for determining heat flux absorbed by membrane water-walls is also presented. The current paper presents the results of heat flux measurement in coal-fired steam boilers. During changes of the boiler load, the necessary natural water circulation cannot be exceeded. A rapid increase of pressure may cause fading of the boiling process in water-wall tubes, whereas a rapid decrease of pressure leads to water boiling in all elements of the boiler's evaporator - water-wall tubes and downcomers. Both cases can cause flow stagnation in the water circulation leading to pipe cracking. Two flowmeters were assembled on central downcomers, and an investigation of natural water circulation in an OP-210 boiler was carried out. On the basis of these measurements, the maximum rates of pressure change in the boiler evaporator were determined. The on-line computation of the conditions in the combustion chamber allows for real-time determination of the heat flowrate transferred to the power boiler evaporator. Furthermore, with a quantitative indication of surface cleanliness, selective sootblowing can be directed at specific problem areas. A boiler monitoring system is also incorporated to provide details of changes in boiler efficiency and operating conditions following sootblowing, so that the effects of a particular sootblowing sequence can be analysed and optimized at a later stage.

  7. Level Shifter Design for Low Power Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available With scaling of Vt sub-threshold leakage power is increasing and expected to become significant part oftotal power consumption.In present work three new configurations of level shifters for low powerapplication in 0.35μm technology have been presented. The proposed circuits utilize the merits ofstacking technique with smaller leakage current and reduction in leakage power. Conventional levelshifter has been improved by addition of three NMOS transistors, which shows total power consumptionof 402.2264pW as compared to 0.49833nW with existing circuit. Single supply level shifter has beenmodified with addition of two NMOS transistors that gives total power consumption of 108.641pW ascompared to 31.06nW. Another circuit, contention mitigated level shifter (CMLS with three additionaltransistors shows total power consumption of 396.75pW as compared to 0.4937354nW. Three proposedcircuit’s shows better performance in terms of power consumption with a little conciliation in delay.Output level of 3.3V has been obtained with input pulse of 1.6V for all proposed circuits.

  8. Architectural-level power estimation and experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Wu

    With the emergence of a plethora of embedded and portable applications and ever increasing integration levels, power dissipation of integrated circuits has moved to the forefront as a design constraint. Recent years have also seen a significant trend towards designs starting at the architectural (or RT) level. Those demand accurate yet fast RT level power estimation methodologies and tools. This thesis addresses issues and experiments associate with architectural level power estimation. An execution driven, cycle-accurate RT level power simulator, SimplePower, was developed using transition-sensitive energy models. It is based on the architecture of a five-stage pipelined RISC datapath for both 0.35mum and 0.8mum technology and can execute the integer subset of the instruction set of SimpleScalar . SimplePower measures the energy consumed in the datapath, memory and on-chip buses. During the development of SimplePower , a partitioning power modeling technique was proposed to model the energy consumed in complex functional units. The accuracy of this technique was validated with HSPICE simulation results for a register file and a shifter. A novel, selectively gated pipeline register optimization technique was proposed to reduce the datapath energy consumption. It uses the decoded control signals to selectively gate the data fields of the pipeline registers. Simulation results show that this technique can reduce the datapath energy consumption by 18--36% for a set of benchmarks. A low-level back-end compiler optimization, register relabeling, was applied to reduce the on-chip instruction cache data bus switch activities. Its impact was evaluated by SimplePower. Results show that it can reduce the energy consumed in the instruction data buses by 3.55--16.90%. A quantitative evaluation was conducted for the impact of six state-of-art high-level compilation techniques on both datapath and memory energy consumption. The experimental results provide a valuable insight for

  9. COLLABORATIVE MULTI-LEVEL PLAN MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad K. ALLOUCHE

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent worldwide connectivity and the net-centricity of military operations (coalition-based operations are witnessing an increasing need for the monitoring of plan execution for enhanced resource management and decision making. Monitoring of ongoing operations is the process of continuous observation recording and reporting. In this process the plan becomes a resource that needs to be managed effi ciently. The centralized approach to plan monitoring soon reaches its limits when plan execution is distributed across different organizations/countries. We propose a new framework that would allow different monitoring nodes distributed across the network. An effi cient propagation mechanism that allows information exchange between the different nodes would also be needed. The main purpose of this mechanism is to present the right information, to the right person, at the right time. To cope with a rapid increase of information fl ow through the network, an effi cient alarm management mechanism allows the presentation of the information with an appropriate level of details.

  10. Low Power Design with High-Level Power Estimation and Power-Aware Synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Ahuja, Sumit; Shukla, Sandeep Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Low-power ASIC/FPGA based designs are important due to the need for extended battery life, reduced form factor, and lower packaging and cooling costs for electronic devices. These products require fast turnaround time because of the increasing demand for handheld electronic devices such as cell-phones, PDAs and high performance machines for data centers. To achieve short time to market, design flows must facilitate a much shortened time-to-product requirement. High-level modeling, architectural exploration and direct synthesis of design from high level description enable this design process. This book presents novel research techniques, algorithms,methodologies and experimental results for high level power estimation and power aware high-level synthesis. Readers will learn to apply such techniques to enable design flows resulting in shorter time to market and successful low power ASIC/FPGA design. Integrates power estimation and reduction for high level synthesis, with low-power, high-level design; Shows spec...

  11. GNSS-Reflectometry based water level monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckheinrich, Jamila; Schön, Steffen; Beyerle, Georg; Apel, Heiko; Semmling, Maximilian; Wickert, Jens

    2013-04-01

    Due to climate changing conditions severe changes in the Mekong delta in Vietnam have been recorded in the last years. The goal of the German Vietnamese WISDOM (Water-related Information system for the Sustainable Development Of the Mekong Delta) project is to build an information system to support and assist the decision makers, planners and authorities for an optimized water and land management. One of WISDOM's tasks is the flood monitoring of the Mekong delta. Earth reflected L-band signals from the Global Navigation Satellite System show a high reflectivity on water and ice surfaces or on wet soil so that GNSS-Reflectometry (GNSS-R) could contribute to monitor the water level in the main streams of the Mekong delta complementary to already existing monitoring networks. In principle, two different GNSS-R methods exist: the code- and the phase-based one. As the latter being more accurate, a new generation of GORS (GNSS Occultation, Reflectometry and Scatterometry) JAVAD DELTA GNSS receiver has been developed with the aim to extract precise phase observations. In a two week lasting measurement campaign, the receiver has been tested and several reflection events at the 150-200 m wide Can Tho river in Vietnam have been recorded. To analyze the geometrical impact on the quantity and quality of the reflection traces two different antennas height were tested. To track separately the direct and the reflected signal, two antennas were used. To derive an average height of the water level, for a 15 min observation interval, a phase model has been developed. Combined with the coherent observations, the minimum slope has been calculated based on the Least- Squares method. As cycle slips and outliers will impair the results, a preprocessing of the data has been performed. A cycle slip detection strategy that allows for automatic detection, identification and correction is proposed. To identify outliers, the data snooping method developed by Baarda 1968 is used. In this

  12. Autonomous Monitoring Aerial Robot System for Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji H.; Gu, Beom W; Thai, Van X.; Rim, C. T. [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In this paper, autonomous monitoring aerial robot system (AMARS), which includes omnidirectional wireless charging platform, aerial robot, landing coils and a battery management board, is proposed to guarantee automatic monitoring of NPPs. The prototype of the system is fabricated, and omnidirectional charging of the system is experimentally validated with 1 C charging state. AR(Aerial Robots)s are essential for NPP accident management because human cannot access to the accident site due to the risks of unexpected explosions, collapses, and high level of radioactive contaminants. Moreover, ARs can support operators to manage normal operation of NPPs built in harsh environment of high temperature and humidity such as UAE Barakah NPP. Because these ARs usually have very low energy capacity, however, the operation time of ARs is less than 30 minutes and should be recharged regularly by human powers, which makes it impossible to monitor NPPs by ARs automatically. In this paper, the concept of AMARS has been proposed and its performance was successfully verified with a fabricated prototype. The charging state of the on board battery in AR was measured as 0.5 C with the induced voltage of 18.6 V, which is well matched to the designed induced voltage when the AR was placed on the edge of the wireless charging platform.

  13. Optical monitoring for power law fluids during spin coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardim, P L G; Michels, A F; Horowitz, F

    2012-01-30

    Optical monitoring is applied, in situ and in real time, to non-newtonian, power law fluids in the spin coating process. An analytical exact solution is presented for thickness evolution that well fits to most measurement data. As result, typical rheological parameters are obtained for several CMC (carboximetilcelullose) concentrations and rotation speeds. Optical monitoring thus precisely indicates applicability of the model to power law fluids under spin coating.

  14. Development of on-line laser power monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chien-Fang; Lee, Meng-Shiou; Li, Kuan-Ming

    2016-03-01

    Since the laser was invented, laser has been applied in many fields such as material processing, communication, measurement, biomedical engineering, defense industries and etc. Laser power is an important parameter in laser material processing, i.e. laser cutting, and laser drilling. However, the laser power is easily affected by the environment temperature, we tend to monitor the laser power status, ensuring there is an effective material processing. Besides, the response time of current laser power meters is too long, they cannot measure laser power accurately in a short time. To be more precisely, we can know the status of laser power and help us to achieve an effective material processing at the same time. To monitor the laser power, this study utilize a CMOS (Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) camera to develop an on-line laser power monitoring system. The CMOS camera captures images of incident laser beam after it is split and attenuated by beam splitter and neutral density filter. By comparing the average brightness of the beam spots and measurement results from laser power meter, laser power can be estimated. Under continuous measuring mode, the average measuring error is about 3%, and the response time is at least 3.6 second shorter than thermopile power meters; under trigger measuring mode which enables the CMOS camera to synchronize with intermittent laser output, the average measuring error is less than 3%, and the shortest response time is 20 millisecond.

  15. Analysis of Trinity Power Metrics for Automated Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalenko, Ashley Christine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-28

    This is a presentation from Los Alamos National Laboraotyr (LANL) about the analysis of trinity power metrics for automated monitoring. The following topics are covered: current monitoring efforts, motivation for analysis, tools used, the methodology, work performed during the summer, and future work planned.

  16. Versatile CAMAC power supply controller-monitor with built-in ramping and ripple monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, H.; Horelick, D.

    1984-10-01

    An integrated power supply controller-monitor has been designed and is in use to control large power supplies for SLC dc magnets. This single-width CAMAC module contains a 14-bit DAC, a 14-bit ADC, and several channels of optically coupled digital status and control signals. Additional features include built-in selectable ramping rates, self-test capabilities, and a ripple monitor circuit to measure ac ripple in the power supply current.

  17. An optically remote powered subsea video monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Fat Kit; Stewart, Brian; McStay, Danny

    2012-06-01

    The drive for Ocean pollution prevention requires a significant increase in the extent and type of monitoring of subsea hydrocarbon production equipment. Sensors, instrumentation, control electronics, data logging and transmission units comprising such monitoring systems will all require to be powered. Conventionally electrical powering is supplied by standard subsea electrical cabling. The ability to visualise the assets being monitored and any changes or faults in the equipment is advantageous to an overall monitoring system. However the effective use of video cameras, particularly if the transmission of real time high resolution video is desired, requires a high data rate and low loss communication capability. This can be challenging for heavy and costly electrical cables over extended distances. For this reason optical fibre is often adopted as the communication channel. Using optical fibre cables for both communications and power delivery can also reduce the cost of cabling. In this paper we report a prototype optically remote powered subsea video monitoring system that provides an alternative approach to powering subsea video cameras. The source power is transmitted to the subsea module through optical fibre with an optical-to-electrical converter located in the module. To facilitate intelligent power management in the subsea module, a supercapacitor based intermediate energy storage is installed. Feasibility of the system will be demonstrated. This will include energy charging and camera operation times.

  18. Power Monitoring Using the Raspberry Pi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Robin M.

    2014-01-01

    The Raspberry Pi is a credit card size low powered compute board with Ethernet connection, HDMI video output, audio, full Linux operating system run from an SD card, and more, all for $45. With cables, SD card, etc., the cost is about $70. Originally designed to help teach computer science principles to low income children and students, the Pi has…

  19. Low power wireless sensor networks for infrastructure monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaed, Mohammad Hassan; Ghahramani, Mohammad Mahdi; Chen, Gregory; Fojtik, Matthew; Blaauw, David; Flynn, Michael P.; Sylvester, Dennis

    2012-04-01

    Sensors with long lifetimes are ideal for infrastructure monitoring. Miniaturized sensor systems are only capable of storing small amounts of energy. Prior work has increased sensor lifetime through the reduction of supply voltage , necessitating voltage conversion from storage elements such as batteries. Sensor lifetime can be further extended by harvesting from solar, vibrational, or thermal energy. Since harvested energy is sporadic, it must be detected and stored. Harvesting sources do not provide voltage levels suitable for secondary power sources, necessitating DC-DC upconversion. We demonstrate a 8.75mm3 sensor system with a near-threshold ARM microcontroller, custom 3.3fW/bit SRAM, two 1mm2 solar cells, a thin-film Li-ion battery, and integrated power management unit. The 7.7μW system enters a 550pW data-retentive sleep state between measurements and harvests solar energy to enable energy autonomy. Our receiver and transmitter architectures benefit from a design strategy that employs mixed signal and digital circuit schemes that perform well in advanced CMOS integrated circuit technologies. A prototype transmitter implemented in 0.13μm CMOS satisfies the requirements for Zigbee, but consumes far less power consumption than state-of-the-art commercial devices.

  20. Monitoring and analyzing features of electrical power quality system performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genci Sharko

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Power quality is a set of boundaries that allows electrical systems to function in their intended manner without significant loss of performance or life. The term is used to describe electric power that drives an electrical load and the load's ability to function properly with that electric power. Without the proper quality of the power, an electrical device may malfunction, fail prematurely or not operate at all. There are many reasons why the electric power can be of poor quality and many more causes of such poor quality power. Power quality of power systems, which affects all connected electrical and electronic equipment, is a measure of deviations in voltages, currents, frequency, temperatures, winding forces and torques of particular supply systems and their components. In recent years, a considerable increase in nonlinear loads has been experienced; in particular distributed loads, such as computers, monitors and lighting, and distributed sources. The aim of this paper is to display a way of monitoring and analyzing features of electrical power quality system. As a monitoring example is taken output from power transformer rated at 320 kVA, part of distribution grid of Durres City in Albania.

  1. Monitoring Blood Sugar: The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Be Smart About Social Media Monitoring Blood Sugar KidsHealth > For Parents > Monitoring Blood Sugar Print A ... Tests Record Keeping The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels Besides helping to keep blood sugar levels ( ...

  2. MiSmart - Power quality and monitoring system

    OpenAIRE

    PAHULJE, JAN

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis we describe an application for collecting and analyzing power quality data of electric distribution systems. The thesis is divided into three parts. We begin with a theoretical description of electric distribution networks and define power quality. We then describe the basics of quality monitoring systems and measuring devices, which are used to measure power quality in electric distribution network. The main contribution of this thesis is an implementation of MiSmart, a web pl...

  3. MiSmart - Power quality and monitoring system

    OpenAIRE

    Pahulje, Jan

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis we describe an application for collecting and analyzing power quality data of electric distribution systems. The thesis is divided into three parts. We begin with a theoretical description of electric distribution networks and define power quality. We then describe the basics of quality monitoring systems and measuring devices, which are used to measure power quality in electric distribution network. The main contribution of this thesis is an implementation of MiSmart, a web pl...

  4. Wide-area monitoring of interconnected power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Messina, Arturo Román

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a compact yet comprehensive treatment of advanced data-driven signal processing techniques for the analysis and characterization of both ambient power system data and transient oscillations resulting from major disturbances. Inspired by recent developments in multi-sensor data fusion, multi-temporal data assimilation techniques for power system monitoring are proposed and tested in the context of modern wide-area monitoring system architectures. Recent advances in understanding and modeling nonlinear, time-varying power system processes are reviewed and factors affecting the

  5. Application of the thermoelectric MEMS microwave power sensor in a power radiation monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Gao; Jing, Yang; Si, Jiang; Debo, Wang

    2016-08-01

    A power radiation monitoring system based on thermoelectric MEMS microwave power sensors is studied. This monitoring system consists of three modules: a data acquisition module, a data processing and display module, and a data sharing module. It can detect the power radiation in the environment and the date information can be processed and shared. The measured results show that the thermoelectric MEMS microwave power sensor and the power radiation monitoring system both have a relatively good linearity. The sensitivity of the thermoelectric MEMS microwave power sensor is about 0.101 mV/mW, and the sensitivity of the monitoring system is about 0.038 V/mW. The voltage gain of the monitoring system is about 380 times, which is relatively consistent with the theoretical value. In addition, the low-frequency and low-power module in the monitoring system is adopted in order to reduce the electromagnetic pollution and the power consumption, and this work will extend the application of the thermoelectric MEMS microwave power sensor in more areas. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11304158), the Province Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu (No. BK20140890), the Open Research Fund of the Key Laboratory of MEMS of Ministry of Education, Southeast University (No. 3206005302), and the Scientific Research Foundation of Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications (Nos. NY213024, NY215139).

  6. Instrumentation for monitoring powered support behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smart, B.G.D.; Sommerville, J. M.; McGraw, W.M.

    1987-06-01

    The parameters quantifying powered support performance can be efficiently gathered underground on working faces with an electronic data logger. The paper reports modifications to a British Coal/Rapco Data Logger, to existing analogue transducers, and the development of new transducers to enable various parameters to be logged and related to mining operations. The paper also reports on the management and interpretation of the logged data by a suite of computer programs developed around a P.C. workstation. Conclusions as to the suitability of the system are drawn and recommendations about future transducer development are made. 1 ref.

  7. Real Time Monitoring and Wear Out of Power Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghimire, Pramod

    the expected lifetime of converters. Real time monitoring of power modules is very important together with a smart control and a driving technique in a converter. This ensures to operate the device within a safe operating area and also to protect from a catastrophic failure. Furthermore, the inherent physical...... parameters that deviate by thermo-mechanical stress need to be identified and also measured during operation. Major stressors for high power multi-chip IGBT modules are identified as maximum junction temperature, temperature cycle, over-voltage, over-current, humidity, vibration etc. In addition, finding...... out is monitored online and also the evolution of degradation in interconnects are studied extensively in order to understand the failure process in high power modules under sinusoidal loading conditions. A number of power modules are tested in active power or thermal cycling for different number...

  8. Energy harvesting to power embedded condition monitoring hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinholt, Kevin; Brown, Nathan; Siegel, Jake; McQuown, Justin; Humphris, Robert

    2015-04-01

    The shift toward condition-based monitoring is a key area of research for many military, industrial, and commercial customers who want to lower the overall operating costs of capital equipment and general facilities. Assessing the health of rotating systems such as gearboxes, bearings, pumps and other actuation systems often rely on the need for continuous monitoring to capture transient signals that are evidence of events that could cause (i.e. cavitation), or be the result of (i.e. spalling), damage within a system. In some applications this can be accomplished using line powered analyzers, however for wide-spread monitoring, the use of small-scale embedded electronic systems are more desirable. In such cases the method for powering the electronics becomes a significant design factor. This work presents a multi-source energy harvesting approach meant to provide a robust power source for embedded electronics, capturing energy from vibration, thermal and light sources to operate a low-power sensor node. This paper presents the general design philosophy behind the multi-source harvesting circuit, and how it can be extended from powering electronics developed for periodic monitoring to sensing equipment capable of providing continuous condition-based monitoring.

  9. Application of a power quality analyser to the monitoring of sand preparation processes in foundry plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Smyksy

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Process control plays a major role in supervision and identification of states, for example in monitoring of electric circuits power- supplying the foundry machines and devices, such as sand preparation processes, moulding technologies, melting, cleaning and finishing of castings. The monitoring and control equipment includes the power quality analysers. Testing is done using a Japanese analyser KEW 6319 (Kyoritsu applied to monitoring of the sand preparation process in a foundry plant with low level of mechanization, equipped with the sand preparation unit based on a roller mixer.

  10. A System for Wireless Power Transfer and Data Communication of Long-Term Bio-Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    A system for wireless power transfer and data communication of implantable bio-monitoring systems is presented. The proposed solution uses a servo-controlled power transmitter moved under the animal moving space. An x-y movable magnetic coil transmits the required power with a level able to keep constant the received energy by the bio-sensor system. The power is transferred via the optimized remote powering link at 13.56 MHz. The received AC signal is converted to DC voltage with a passive fu...

  11. Crosslinking and condition monitoring with wind power plants; Vernetzung und Condition Monitoring bei Windenergieanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spelter, Frank [Bachmann Electronic GmbH, Feldkirch (Austria). Unternehmenskommunikation

    2010-10-15

    Condition monitoring of wind power systems is getting increasingly important, and there are various possible approaches. The Bachmann M1 automation system allows the implementation of measuring and control processes and evaluations up to comprehensive condition monitoring. In combination with an expert system, it is possible to monitor mechanical and technical components and to detect defects before these will have negative effects on the system condition. (orig.)

  12. Power system monitoring and source control of the Space Station Freedom DC power system testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimnach, Greg L.; Baez, Anastacio N.

    1992-01-01

    Unlike a terrestrial electric utility which can purchase power from a neighboring utility, the Space Station Freedom (SSF) has strictly limited energy resources; as a result, source control, system monitoring, system protection, and load management are essential to the safe and efficient operation of the SSF Electric Power System (EPS). These functions are being evaluated in the DC Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) Testbed which NASA LeRC has developed at the Power System Facility (PSF) located in Cleveland, Ohio. The testbed is an ideal platform to develop, integrate, and verify power system monitoring and control algorithms. State Estimation (SE) is a monitoring tool used extensively in terrestrial electric utilities to ensure safe power system operation. It uses redundant system information to calculate the actual state of the EPS, to isolate faulty sensors, to determine source operating points, to verify faults detected by subsidiary controllers, and to identify high impedance faults. Source control and monitoring safeguard the power generation and storage subsystems and ensure that the power system operates within safe limits while satisfying user demands with minimal interruptions. System monitoring functions, in coordination with hardware implemented schemes, provide for a complete fault protection system. The objective of this paper is to overview the development and integration of the state estimator and the source control algorithms.

  13. FLAME MONITORING IN POWER STATION BOILERS USING IMAGE PROCESSING

    OpenAIRE

    K Sujatha; VENMATHI, M.; N. Pappa

    2012-01-01

    Combustion quality in power station boilers plays an important role in minimizing the flue gas emissions. In the present work various intelligent schemes to infer the flue gas emissions by monitoring the flame colour at the furnace of the boiler are proposed here. Flame image monitoring involves capturing the flame video over a period of time with the measurement of various parameters like Carbon dioxide (CO2), excess oxygen (O2), Nitrogen dioxide (NOx), Sulphur dioxide (SOx) and Carbon monox...

  14. A Remote Real-Time Monitoring System for Power Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄治清; 贺建闽

    2003-01-01

    An introduction is made to the composition, design method and engineering application of a remote real-time monitoring system of power quality in substations based on internet. With virtual instrument and network technique adopted, this system is characterized by good real-time property, high reliability, plentiful functions, and so on. It also can be used to monitor the load of a substation, such as electric locomotives.

  15. Events as power source: wireless sustainable corrosion monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guodong; Qiao, Guofu; Zhao, Lin; Chen, Zhibo

    2013-12-17

    This study presents and implements a corrosion-monitoring wireless sensor platform, EPS (Events as Power Source), which monitors the corrosion events in reinforced concrete (RC) structures, while being powered by the micro-energy released from the corrosion process. In EPS, the proposed corrosion-sensing device serves both as the signal source for identifying corrosion and as the power source for driving the sensor mote, because the corrosion process (event) releases electric energy; this is a novel idea proposed by this study. For accumulating the micro-corrosion energy, we integrate EPS with a COTS (Commercial Off-The-Shelf) energy-harvesting chip that recharges a supercapacitor. In particular, this study designs automatic energy management and adaptive transmitted power control polices to efficiently use the constrained accumulated energy. Finally, a set of preliminary experiments based on concrete pore solution are conducted to evaluate the feasibility and the efficacy of EPS.

  16. Self-Powered WSN for Distributed Data Center Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Brunelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring environmental parameters in data centers is gathering nowadays increasing attention from industry, due to the need of high energy efficiency of cloud services. We present the design and the characterization of an energy neutral embedded wireless system, prototyped to monitor perpetually environmental parameters in servers and racks. It is powered by an energy harvesting module based on Thermoelectric Generators, which converts the heat dissipation from the servers. Starting from the empirical characterization of the energy harvester, we present a power conditioning circuit optimized for the specific application. The whole system has been enhanced with several sensors. An ultra-low-power micro-controller stacked over the energy harvesting provides an efficient power management. Performance have been assessed and compared with the analytical model for validation.

  17. Events as Power Source: Wireless Sustainable Corrosion Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Sun

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents and implements a corrosion-monitoring wireless sensor platform, EPS (Events as Power Source, which monitors the corrosion events in reinforced concrete (RC structures, while being powered by the micro-energy released from the corrosion process. In EPS, the proposed corrosion-sensing device serves both as the signal source for identifying corrosion and as the power source for driving the sensor mote, because the corrosion process (event releases electric energy; this is a novel idea proposed by this study. For accumulating the micro-corrosion energy, we integrate EPS with a COTS (Commercial Off-The-Shelf energy-harvesting chip that recharges a supercapacitor. In particular, this study designs automatic energy management and adaptive transmitted power control polices to efficiently use the constrained accumulated energy. Finally, a set of preliminary experiments based on concrete pore solution are conducted to evaluate the feasibility and the efficacy of EPS.

  18. Self-Powered WSN for Distributed Data Center Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelli, Davide; Passerone, Roberto; Rizzon, Luca; Rossi, Maurizio; Sartori, Davide

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring environmental parameters in data centers is gathering nowadays increasing attention from industry, due to the need of high energy efficiency of cloud services. We present the design and the characterization of an energy neutral embedded wireless system, prototyped to monitor perpetually environmental parameters in servers and racks. It is powered by an energy harvesting module based on Thermoelectric Generators, which converts the heat dissipation from the servers. Starting from the empirical characterization of the energy harvester, we present a power conditioning circuit optimized for the specific application. The whole system has been enhanced with several sensors. An ultra-low-power micro-controller stacked over the energy harvesting provides an efficient power management. Performance have been assessed and compared with the analytical model for validation. PMID:26729135

  19. Self-Powered WSN for Distributed Data Center Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelli, Davide; Passerone, Roberto; Rizzon, Luca; Rossi, Maurizio; Sartori, Davide

    2016-01-02

    Monitoring environmental parameters in data centers is gathering nowadays increasing attention from industry, due to the need of high energy efficiency of cloud services. We present the design and the characterization of an energy neutral embedded wireless system, prototyped to monitor perpetually environmental parameters in servers and racks. It is powered by an energy harvesting module based on Thermoelectric Generators, which converts the heat dissipation from the servers. Starting from the empirical characterization of the energy harvester, we present a power conditioning circuit optimized for the specific application. The whole system has been enhanced with several sensors. An ultra-low-power micro-controller stacked over the energy harvesting provides an efficient power management. Performance have been assessed and compared with the analytical model for validation.

  20. Radio Frequency Based Water Level Monitor and Controller for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radio Frequency Based Water Level Monitor and Controller for Residential Applications. ... Nigerian Journal of Technology ... This paper elucidates a radio frequency (RF) based transmission and reception system used to remotely monitor ...

  1. Monitoring Blood Sugar: The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Monitoring Blood Sugar KidsHealth > For Parents > Monitoring Blood Sugar A ... Other Tests Record Keeping The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels Besides helping to keep blood sugar ...

  2. Compact Hybrid Subsystem of 16 Channel Optical Demultiplexer, 2x2 Switches, Optical Power Monitors and Control Circuit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kenichiro Takahashi; Toshihiko Kishimoto; Shintaro Mouri; Youichi Hata; Hideaki Yusa; Mitsuaki Tamura; Kazuhito Saito; Hisao Maki

    2003-01-01

    A compact hybrid subsystem of 16channel optical demultiplexer, 2x2 switches, optical power monitors and control circuit board is developed. The subsystem is able to add or drop arbitrary optical channels and monitor the optical power level by software commands. The size of the subsystem is 170x200x30(mm).

  3. Power monitoring and control for large scale projects: SKA, a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Domingos; Barraca, João. Paulo; Maia, Dalmiro; Carvalho, Bruno; Vieira, Jorge; Swart, Paul; Le Roux, Gerhard; Natarajan, Swaminathan; van Ardenne, Arnold; Seca, Luis

    2016-07-01

    Large sensor-based science infrastructures for radio astronomy like the SKA will be among the most intensive datadriven projects in the world, facing very high demanding computation, storage, management, and above all power demands. The geographically wide distribution of the SKA and its associated processing requirements in the form of tailored High Performance Computing (HPC) facilities, require a Greener approach towards the Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) adopted for the data processing to enable operational compliance to potentially strict power budgets. Addressing the reduction of electricity costs, improve system power monitoring and the generation and management of electricity at system level is paramount to avoid future inefficiencies and higher costs and enable fulfillments of Key Science Cases. Here we outline major characteristics and innovation approaches to address power efficiency and long-term power sustainability for radio astronomy projects, focusing on Green ICT for science and Smart power monitoring and control.

  4. INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND PROCESSES OF MONITORING POWER TRANSFORMERS CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litvinov V. N.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To solve the problem of reducing the power supply system’s reliability a prompt full-scale diagnostics based on modern methods can help. Inculcation of information systems for the operational diagnostics implementation allows providing the operating personnel with information that enables to predict possible infringements in power transformers work and to prepare in advance an action plan to address them. The paper presents fragments of the developed monitoring system of power transformer using programmable logic controllers. Within the work of the system there were marked such groups of controlled parameters as information about temperature and the cooling system work; magnitude of windings voltage per phase; the windings current values per phase; information about being transmitted and transmitted power; information about the insulation state. There is designed a functional scheme of the system for monitoring the state of the power transformer. There is described a general algorithm of system functioning. There is developed graphical operator interface that allows to monitor the object state and to manage the system state. Using XML markup language there was designed format of data packets. Designed hardware and software package can be used in the educational process, as it allows to improve the quality of students training, to bring them closer to the realities of modern professional activities; in operational activities as complying with the approved domestic calculating methods replacement of foreign software; in science in solving problems of analysis and optimization of operating parameters of power transformers

  5. An Integrated Health Monitoring System for Fission Surface Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemian, H. M.; Shumaker, B. D.; McCulley, J. R.; Morton, G. W.

    Based on such criteria as safety and mission success, programmatic risk, affordability, and extensibility/flexibility, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has chosen fission surface power (FSP) as the primary energy source for building a sustained human presence on the Moon, exploring Mars, and extremely long-duration space missions. The current benchmark FSP system has a mission life of at least 8 years during which time there is no opportunity for repair, sensor calibrations, or periodic maintenance tasks that are normally performed on terrestrial-based nuclear power plants during scheduled outages. Current technology relies heavily on real-time human interaction, monitoring and control. However; due to the long communication times between the Earth and Moon, or Mars, real-time human control is not possible, resulting in a critical need to develop autonomous health monitoring technology for FSP systems.This paper describes the design and development of an autonomous health monitoring system that will (1) provide on-line calibration monitoring, (2) reduce uncertainties in sensor measurements, and (3) provide sensor validation and fault detection capabilities for the control systems of various FSP subsystems. The health monitoring system design integrates a number of signal processing algorithms and techniques such as cross-calibration, empirical modeling using neural networks, and physical modeling under a modular signal processing platform that will enable robust sensor and system monitoring without the need for human interaction. Prototypes of the health monitoring system have been tested and validated on data acquired from preliminary subsystem testing of NASA's FSP Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) as well as simulated laboratory data. Results from this testing have demonstrated the utility and benefits that such autonomous health monitoring systems can provide to FSP subsystems and other potential applications within NASA such as launch

  6. User guide to power management for PCs and monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordman, B.; Piette, M.A.; Kinney, K.; Webber, C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Div.

    1997-01-01

    Power management of personal computers (PCs) and monitors has the potential to save significant amounts of electricity as well as deliver other economic and environmental benefits. The Environmental Protection Agency`s ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} program has transformed the PC market so that equipment capable of power management is now widely available. However, previous studies have found that many Energy Star compliant computer systems are not accomplishing energy savings. The principal reasons for this are systems not being enabled for power management or a circumstance that prevents power management from operating. This guide is intended to provide information to computer support workers to increase the portion of systems that successfully power manage. The guide introduces power management concepts and the variety of benefits that power management can bring. It then explains how the parts of a computer system work together to enter and leave power management states. Several common computer system types are addressed, as well as the complications that networks bring to power management. Detailed instructions for checking and configuring several system types are provided, along with trouble shooting advice. The guide concludes with a discussion of how to purchase Energy Star compliant systems and future directions for power management of PCs and related equipment.

  7. User guide to power management for PCs and monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordman, B.; Piette, M.A.; Kinney, K.; Webber, C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Div.

    1997-01-01

    Power management of personal computers (PCs) and monitors has the potential to save significant amounts of electricity as well as deliver other economic and environmental benefits. The Environmental Protection Agency`s ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} program has transformed the PC market so that equipment capable of power management is now widely available. However, previous studies have found that many Energy Star compliant computer systems are not accomplishing energy savings. The principal reasons for this are systems not being enabled for power management or a circumstance that prevents power management from operating. This guide is intended to provide information to computer support workers to increase the portion of systems that successfully power manage. The guide introduces power management concepts and the variety of benefits that power management can bring. It then explains how the parts of a computer system work together to enter and leave power management states. Several common computer system types are addressed, as well as the complications that networks bring to power management. Detailed instructions for checking and configuring several system types are provided, along with trouble shooting advice. The guide concludes with a discussion of how to purchase Energy Star compliant systems and future directions for power management of PCs and related equipment.

  8. 76 FR 55137 - Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... COMMISSION Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory..., ``Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide endorses Revision 4A to... Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants,'' which provides methods that......

  9. Monitoring Stand Level Photosynthesis from Spectral Reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilker, T.; Coops, N. C.; Hall, F. G.; Black, A. T.; Krishnan, P.; Chen, B.; Wulder, M. A.; Nesic, Z.; Huemmrich, K. F.; Middleton, E. M.; Margolis, H. A.; Drolet, G.; Cheng, Y.

    2007-12-01

    Global determination and monitoring of gross primary production (GPP) is a critical component of climate change research. On local scales, GPP can be assessed from measuring CO2 exchange above the plant canopy using tower-based eddy covariance (EC) systems. The limited footprint inherent to this method however, restricts observations to relatively few discrete areas making continuous predictions of global CO2 fluxes challenging. Recently, the advent of high resolution optical remote sensing devices has offered new possibilities to address some of the scaling issues related to GPP using approaches based on spectral reflectance. One key component for inferring GPP from remote sensing is the efficiency (e) with which plants can convert absorbed photosynthetically active radiation into biomass. Whilst recent years have seen progress determining e at the leaf level using the photochemical reflectance index PRI, little is known about the temporal and spatial requirements for upscaling PRI. For instance, satellite observations of canopy reflectance are subject to view and illumination geometry effects induced by the bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of canopies that can confound the desired signal; however little is known about interactions between these effects and PRI. Further areas of research include dependencies of PRI on canopy structure, understorey and species composition. One potential way to investigate these requirements is using automated tower-based remote sensing platforms, facilitating spectral observations of the canopy with high spatial, temporal, and spectral resolution. The experimental setup presented herein features an automated spectral radiometer (AMSPEC) with a motor-driven probe allowing observations in a nearly full circle around the tower. Year round data are sampled every 5 sec., a full rotation is completed within 15 min. The spatial similarity to the flux-footprint allows direct comparisons with EC and micro

  10. Prognostics and Health Monitoring of High Power LED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Bailey

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Prognostics is seen as a key component of health usage monitoring systems, where prognostics algorithms can both detect anomalies in the behavior/performance of a micro-device/system, and predict its remaining useful life when subjected to monitored operational and environmental conditions. Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs are optoelectronic micro-devices that are now replacing traditional incandescent and fluorescent lighting, as they have many advantages including higher reliability, greater energy efficiency, long life time and faster switching speed. For some LED applications there is a requirement to monitor the health of LED lighting systems and predict when failure is likely to occur. This is very important in the case of safety critical and emergency applications. This paper provides both experimental and theoretical results that demonstrate the use of prognostics and health monitoring techniques for high power LEDs subjected to harsh operating conditions.

  11. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory environmental monitoring report, calendar year 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-12-01

    The results of the effluent and environmental monitoring programs at the three Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) Sites are summarized and assessed in this report. Operations at the three KAPL Sites [Knolls Site, Niskayuna, New York; Kesselring Site, West Milton, New York; S1C Site, Windsor, Connecticut] during calendar year 1999 resulted in no significant release of hazardous substances or radioactivity to the environment. The effluent and environmental monitoring programs conducted by KAPL are designed to determine the effectiveness of treatment and control methods, to provide measurement of the concentrations in effluents for comparison with applicable standards, and to assess resultant concentrations in the environment. The monitoring programs include analyses of samples of liquid and gaseous effluents for chemical constituents and radioactivity as well as monitoring of environmental air, water, sediment, and fish. Radiation measurements are also made around the perimeter of each Site and at off-site background locations.

  12. Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassin, David P.; Donnelly, Matthew K.; Dagle, Jeffery E.

    2006-12-12

    Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices are described. In one aspect, an electrical power distribution control method includes providing electrical energy from an electrical power distribution system, applying the electrical energy to a load, providing a plurality of different values for a threshold at a plurality of moments in time and corresponding to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy, and adjusting an amount of the electrical energy applied to the load responsive to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy triggering one of the values of the threshold at the respective moment in time.

  13. 42 CFR 403.754 - Monitoring expenditure level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Monitoring expenditure level. 403.754 Section 403.754 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES..., Conditions of Participation, and Payment § 403.754 Monitoring expenditure level. (a) Tracking expenditures...

  14. Distributed Monitoring for Prevention of Cascading Failures in Operational Power Grids

    CERN Document Server

    Warnier, Martijn; Koç, Yakup; Pauwels, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Electrical power grids are vulnerable to cascading failures that can lead to large blackouts. Detection and prevention of cascading failures in power grids is impor- tant. Currently, grid operators mainly monitor the state (loading level) of individual components in power grids. The complex architecture of power grids, with many interdependencies, makes it difficult to aggregate data provided by local compo- nents in a timely manner and meaningful way: monitoring the resilience with re- spect to cascading failures of an operational power grid is a challenge. This paper addresses this challenge. The main ideas behind the paper are that (i) a robustness metric based on both the topology and the operative state of the power grid can be used to quantify power grid robustness and (ii) a new proposed a distributed computation method with self-stabilizing properties can be used to achieving near real-time monitoring of the robustness of the power grid. Our con- tributions thus provide insight into the resilience wit...

  15. Automated chemical monitoring in new projects of nuclear power plant units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobanok, O. I.; Fedoseev, M. V.

    2013-07-01

    The development of automated chemical monitoring systems in nuclear power plant units for the past 30 years is briefly described. The modern level of facilities used to support the operation of automated chemical monitoring systems in Russia and abroad is shown. Hardware solutions suggested by the All-Russia Institute for Nuclear Power Plant Operation (which is the General Designer of automated process control systems for power units used in the AES-2006 and VVER-TOI Projects) are presented, including the structure of additional equipment for monitoring water chemistry (taking the Novovoronezh 2 nuclear power plant as an example). It is shown that the solutions proposed with respect to receiving and processing of input measurement signals and subsequent construction of standard control loops are unified in nature. Simultaneous receipt of information from different sources for ensuring that water chemistry is monitored in sufficient scope and with required promptness is one of the problems that have been solved successfully. It is pointed out that improved quality of automated chemical monitoring can be supported by organizing full engineering follow-up of the automated chemical monitoring system's equipment throughout its entire service life.

  16. Advanced targeted monitoring of high temperature components in power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, E.; Maile, K.; Jovanovic, A. [MPA Stuttgart (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The article presents the idea of targeted monitoring of high-temperature pressurized components in fossil-fueled power plants, implemented within a modular software system and using, in addition to pressure and temperature data, also displacement and strain measurement data. The concept has been implemented as a part of a more complex company-oriented Internet/Intranet system of MPA Stuttgart (ALIAS). ALIAS enables to combine smoothly the monitoring results with those of the off-line analysis, e. g. sensitivity analyses, comparison with preceding experience (case studies), literature search, search in material databases -(experimental and standard data), nonlinear FE-analysis, etc. The concept and the system have been implemented in real plant conditions several power plants in Germany and Europe: one of these applications and its results are described more in detail in the presentation. (orig.) 9 refs.

  17. Wide Area Measurement Based Security Assessment & Monitoring of Modern Power System: A Danish Power System Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rather, Zakir Hussain; Chen, Zhe; Thøgersen, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Power System security has become a major concern across the global power system community. This paper presents wide area measurement system (WAMS) based security assessment and monitoring of modern power system. A new three dimensional security index (TDSI) has been proposed for online security...... monitoring of modern power system with large scale renewable energy penetration. Phasor measurement unit (PMU) based WAMS has been implemented in western Danish Power System to realize online security monitoring and assessment in power system control center. The proposed security monitoring system has been...

  18. Development of Core Monitoring System for Nuclear Power Plants (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.H.; Kim, Y.B.; Park, M.G; Lee, E.K.; Shin, H.C.; Lee, D.J. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    1.Object and Necessity of the Study -The main objectives of this study are (1)conversion of APOLLO version BEACON system to HP-UX version core monitoring system, (2)provision of the technical bases to enhance the in-house capability of developing more advanced core monitoring system. 2.Results of the Study - In this study, the revolutionary core monitoring technologies such as; nodal analysis and isotope depletion calculation method, advanced schemes for power distribution control, and treatment of nuclear databank were established. The verification and validation work has been successfully performed by comparing the results with those of the design code and measurement data. The advanced graphic user interface and plant interface method have been implemented to ensure the future upgrade capability. The Unix shell scripts and system dependent software are also improved to support administrative functions of the system. (author). 14 refs., 112 figs., 52 tabs.

  19. Accounting for complementarity to maximize monitoring power for species management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulloch, Ayesha I T; Chadès, Iadine; Possingham, Hugh P

    2013-10-01

    To choose among conservation actions that may benefit many species, managers need to monitor the consequences of those actions. Decisions about which species to monitor from a suite of different species being managed are hindered by natural variability in populations and uncertainty in several factors: the ability of the monitoring to detect a change, the likelihood of the management action being successful for a species, and how representative species are of one another. However, the literature provides little guidance about how to account for these uncertainties when deciding which species to monitor to determine whether the management actions are delivering outcomes. We devised an approach that applies decision science and selects the best complementary suite of species to monitor to meet specific conservation objectives. We created an index for indicator selection that accounts for the likelihood of successfully detecting a real trend due to a management action and whether that signal provides information about other species. We illustrated the benefit of our approach by analyzing a monitoring program for invasive predator management aimed at recovering 14 native Australian mammals of conservation concern. Our method selected the species that provided more monitoring power at lower cost relative to the current strategy and traditional approaches that consider only a subset of the important considerations. Our benefit function accounted for natural variability in species growth rates, uncertainty in the responses of species to the prescribed action, and how well species represent others. Monitoring programs that ignore uncertainty, likelihood of detecting change, and complementarity between species will be more costly and less efficient and may waste funding that could otherwise be used for management. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  20. Pier scour monitoring system by bed-level image tracking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Yi CHANG; Jihn-Sung LAI; Teng-Yi YU; Franco LIN; Lung-Cheng LEE; Whey-Fone TSAI; Chin-Hsiung LOH

    2014-01-01

    A scour monitoring system with a micro camera tracking the bed-level images is proposed in this study. Two image recognition algorithms have been developed to support the bed-level image tracking approach. Through the laboratory experiments of pier scour, this study demonstrates that the proposed system is able to accurately monitor the scour-depth evolution in real time. In addition, five commonly-used temporal scour models are employed to simulate scour-depth evolution and their results are compared with monitoring data. In general, the results indicate that the proposed scour monitoring system has the potential for further applications in the field.

  1. Monitoring levels of preservative sensitivity in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilkinson, J D; Shaw, S; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2002-01-01

    A 10-year multicentre analysis of the frequency of sensitivity to common preservatives collected in 16 centres in 11 countries has shown stable but persisting high levels of sensitivity to formaldehyde and 5-chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one + 2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (MCI/MI). It has als...

  2. Retrieval of Intermediate Level Waste at Trawsfyndd Nuclear Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, S.; Shaw, I.

    2002-02-25

    In 1996 RWE NUKEM Limited were awarded two contracts by BNFL Magnox Generation as part of the decommissioning programme for the Trawsfynydd power station. From the normal operations of the two Magnox reactors, intermediate level waste (ILW) had accumulated on site, this was Miscellaneous Activated Components (MAC) and Fuel Element Debris (FED). The objective of these projects is retrieval of the waste from storage vaults, monitoring, packaging and immobilization in a form suitable for on site storage in the medium term and eventual disposal to a waste repository. The projects involve the design, supply, commissioning and operation of equipment to retrieve, pack and immobilize the waste, this includes recovery from vaults in both reactor and pond locations and final decommissioning and removal of plant from site after completion of waste recovery.

  3. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory environmental monitoring report, calendar year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-12-01

    The results of the effluent and environmental monitoring programs at the three Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) Sites are summarized and assessed in this report. Operations at the Knolls Site, Niskayuna, New York and the Kesselring Site, West Milton, New York and site closure activities at the S1C Site, Windsor, Connecticut, continued to have no adverse effect on human health and the quality of the environment during calendar year 2000. The effluent and environmental monitoring programs conducted by KAPL are designed to determine the effectiveness of treatment and control methods, to provide measurement of the concentrations in effluents for comparison with applicable standards, and to assess resultant concentrations in the environment. The monitoring programs include analyses of samples of liquid and gaseous effluents for chemical constituents and radioactivity as well as monitoring of environmental air, water, sediment, and fish. Radiation measurements are also made around the perimeter of each Site and at off-site background locations. Monitoring programs at the S1C Site were reduced in scope during calendar year 2000 due to completion of site dismantlement activities during 1999.

  4. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory environmental monitoring report, calendar year 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-12-31

    The results of the effluent and environmental monitoring programs at the three Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) Sites are summarized and assessed in this report. Operations at the Knolls and Kesselring Sites and Site closure activities at the S1C Site (also known as the KAPL Windsor Site) continue to have no adverse effect on human health and the quality of the environment. The effluent and environmental monitoring programs conducted by KAPL at the Knolls and Kesselring Sites are designed to determine the effectiveness of treatment and control methods, to provide measurement of the concentrations in effluents for comparison with applicable standards, and to assess resultant concentrations in the environment. The monitoring programs include analyses of samples of liquid and gaseous effluents for chemical constituents and radioactivity as well as environmental monitoring of air, water, sediment, and fish. Radiation measurements are also made around the perimeter of the Knolls and Kesselring Sites and at off-site background locations. The environmental monitoring program for the S1C Site continues to be reduced in scope from previous years due to the completion of Site dismantlement activities during 1999 and a return to green field conditions during 2000.

  5. The Relationship with Self Esteem Between Self Monitoring Levels of Sub Elite In - Door Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Behzat T U R A N

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship with self - esteem between self monitoring levels of sub - elite in - door soccer players. For this aim, 86 male and 91 female athletes at the ages of 18 – 28 years were participated in this study voluntarily. The participants were studying at 7 different universities that join ed the in - door soccer championship of Turkish University Sport Federati on. The Socio - demographic data form, Self - monitoring Scale , and Coopersmith Self - Esteem Inventory were performed by the participants. The d ata was analyzed by using IBM SPSS (version 20.0. The Spearman Correlation parameter calculated in order to comment the relationship with data, Multiple regret ion analysis were performed for the predictive power of self - esteem for self monitoring levels of the participants. According to the analysis, a negative relationship was found among self - esteem, self - monitoring total score , and extraversion levels . A nd it was found that self - esteem levels predictived self monitoring levels substantially. It was found that the s elf - monitoring and extraversion affected self - esteem negatively, it was thought that highly self - esteem ed athletes have a tendency to see themselves as superior than the other athletes, ignore the extraneous criticism. No matter what self - esteem levels is that extraversion and acting altitute (attitude ? has not change. Consequently, self - esteem has revers e relationship with self - monitoring properties since trainers and teachers both is raised self - esteem and is helped self - monitoring themselves.

  6. Microminiature Monitor for Vital Electrolyte and Metabolite Levels of Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohda, Koji; Gratzl, Miklos

    2004-01-01

    Ions, such as proton (pH) and potassium, play a crucial role in body fluids to maintain proper basic functioning of cells and tissues. Metabolites, such as glucose, control the energy available to the entire human body in normal as well as stress situations, and before, during, and after meals. These molecules diffuse easily between blood in the capillaries and the interstitial fluid residing between cells and tissues. We have developed and approach to monitoring of critical ions (called electrolytes) and glucose in the interstitial fluid under the human skin. Proton and potassium levels sensed using optode technology that translates the respective ionic concentrations into variable colors of corresponding ionophore/dye/polymeric liquid membranes. Glucose is monitored indirectly, by coupling through immobilized glucose oxidase with local pH that is then detected using a similar color scheme. The monitor consists of a tiny plastic bar, 100-200 microns wide and 1-2 mm long, placed just under the skin, with color changing spots for each analyte as well as blanks. The colors are read and translated into concentration values by a CCD camera. Direct optical coupling between the in vivo sensing bar and the ex vivo detector device requires no power, and thus eliminates the need for wires or optical fibers crossing the skin. The microminiature bar penetrates the skin easily and painlessly, so that astronauts could insert it themselves. The approach is fully compatible with telemetry in space, and thus, in vivo clinical data will be available real time in the Earth based command center once the device is fully developed. The information provided can be used for collecting hitherto unavailable vital data on clinical effects of space travel. Managing clinical emergencies in space with the sensor already in place should also become much more efficient than without a continuous monitor, as is currently the case. Civilian applications may include better glucose control of

  7. Microminiature Monitor for Vital Electrolyte and Metabolite Levels of Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohda, Koji; Gratzl, Miklos

    2004-01-01

    Ions, such as proton (pH) and potassium, play a crucial role in body fluids to maintain proper basic functioning of cells and tissues. Metabolites, such as glucose, control the energy available to the entire human body in normal as well as stress situations, and before, during, and after meals. These molecules diffuse easily between blood in the capillaries and the interstitial fluid residing between cells and tissues. We have developed and approach to monitoring of critical ions (called electrolytes) and glucose in the interstitial fluid under the human skin. Proton and potassium levels sensed using optode technology that translates the respective ionic concentrations into variable colors of corresponding ionophore/dye/polymeric liquid membranes. Glucose is monitored indirectly, by coupling through immobilized glucose oxidase with local pH that is then detected using a similar color scheme. The monitor consists of a tiny plastic bar, 100-200 microns wide and 1-2 mm long, placed just under the skin, with color changing spots for each analyte as well as blanks. The colors are read and translated into concentration values by a CCD camera. Direct optical coupling between the in vivo sensing bar and the ex vivo detector device requires no power, and thus eliminates the need for wires or optical fibers crossing the skin. The microminiature bar penetrates the skin easily and painlessly, so that astronauts could insert it themselves. The approach is fully compatible with telemetry in space, and thus, in vivo clinical data will be available real time in the Earth based command center once the device is fully developed. The information provided can be used for collecting hitherto unavailable vital data on clinical effects of space travel. Managing clinical emergencies in space with the sensor already in place should also become much more efficient than without a continuous monitor, as is currently the case. Civilian applications may include better glucose control of

  8. Solar powered wrist worn acquisition system for continuous photoplethysmogram monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieffenderfer, James P; Beppler, Eric; Novak, Tristan; Whitmire, Eric; Jayakumar, Rochana; Randall, Clive; Qu, Weiguo; Rajagopalan, Ramakrishnan; Bozkurt, Alper

    2014-01-01

    We present a solar-powered, wireless, wrist-worn platform for continuous monitoring of physiological and environmental parameters during the activities of daily life. In this study, we demonstrate the capability to produce photoplethysmogram (PPG) signals using this platform. To adhere to a low power budget for solar-powering, a 574 nm green light source is used where the PPG from the radial artery would be obtained with minimal signal conditioning. The system incorporates two monocrystalline solar cells to charge the onboard 20 mAh lithium polymer battery. Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) is used to tether the device to a smartphone that makes the phone an access point to a dedicated server for long term continuous storage of data. Two power management schemes have been proposed depending on the availability of solar energy. In low light situations, if the battery is low, the device obtains a 5-second PPG waveform every minute to consume an average power of 0.57 mW. In scenarios where the battery is at a sustainable voltage, the device is set to enter its normal 30 Hz acquisition mode, consuming around 13.7 mW. We also present our efforts towards improving the charge storage capacity of our on-board super-capacitor.

  9. Power Plant Emission Monitoring in Munich Using Differential Column Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia; Nguyen, Hai; Toja-Silva, Francisco; Heinle, Ludwig; Hase, Frank; Butz, André

    2017-04-01

    Differential column measurements using compact Fourier transform spectrometers (EM27/SUN) have shown to be an effective method to determine the greenhouse gas emissions. Citywide measurement campaigns were carried out in Boston, Indianapolis, San Francisco, etc., focusing on city (e.g. emissions from natural gas infrastructure) and local sources. We are particularly working on validating this novel method for attributing and quantifying local emission sources. Optimal strategies are developed for measuring in different seasons with various sun elevations. We have deployed two spectrometers to monitor the CO2 and CH4 emission rates (kg s-1) of a natural gas fired combined heat-and-power plant in Munich, Germany (Heizkraftwerk Süd). We placed our spectrometers in the vicinity (differential column measurements for determining power plant emissions and explore their sensitivities to meteorological and model parameters. In addition, we present measurement strategies and experimental design criteria for different meteorological conditions and time of the year, including winter when the sun elevation is low and the column inclination becomes very important. Differential column measurements using compact spectrometers are shown to be a reliable method to monitor power plant emissions.

  10. Initial Survey Instructions for management unit water monitoring : level

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Initial survey instructions for 1.08 management unit water monitoring (level) survey on Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. This survey is conducted weekly and is...

  11. Integrated online condition monitoring system for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashemian, Hashem M. [Analysis and Measurement Services Corporation, Knoxville, TN (United States). AMS Technology Center

    2010-09-15

    Online condition monitoring or online monitoring (OLM) uses data acquired while a nuclear power is operating to continuously assess the health of the plant's sensors, processes, and equipment; to measure the dynamic performance of the plant's process instrumentation; to verify in-situ the calibration of the process instrumentation; to detect blockages, voids, and leaks in the pressure sensing lines; to identify core flow anomalies; to extend the life of neutron detectors and other sensors; and to measure the vibration of reactor internals. Both the steady-state or DC output of plant sensors and their AC signal or noise output can be used to assess sensor health, depending on whether the application is monitoring a rapidly changing (e.g., core barrel motion) or a slowly changing (e.g., sensor calibration) process. The author has designed, developed, installed, and tested OLM systems (comprised of software/hardware-based data acquisition and data processing modules) that integrate low-frequency (1 mHz to 1 Hz) techniques such as RTD cross-calibration, pressure transmitter calibration monitoring, and equipment condition monitoring and high-frequency (1 Hz to 1 kHz) techniques such as the noise analysis technique. The author has demonstrated the noise analysis technique's effectiveness for measuring the dynamic response-time of pressure transmitters and their sensing lines; for performing predictive maintenance on reactor internals; for detecting core flow anomalies; and for extending neutron detector life. Integrated online condition monitoring systems can combine AC and DC data acquisition and signal processing techniques, can use data from existing process sensors during all modes of plant operation, including startup, normal operation, and shutdown; can be retrofitted into existing PWRs, BWRs, and other reactor types and will be integrated into next-generation plants. (orig.)

  12. Power Analysis in Two-Level Unbalanced Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantopoulos, Spyros

    2010-01-01

    Previous work on statistical power has discussed mainly single-level designs or 2-level balanced designs with random effects. Although balanced experiments are common, in practice balance cannot always be achieved. Work on class size is one example of unbalanced designs. This study provides methods for power analysis in 2-level unbalanced designs…

  13. Efficient species-level monitoring at the landscape scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noon, Barry R; Bailey, Larissa L; Sisk, Thomas D; McKelvey, Kevin S

    2012-06-01

    Monitoring the population trends of multiple animal species at a landscape scale is prohibitively expensive. However, advances in survey design, statistical methods, and the ability to estimate species presence on the basis of detection-nondetection data have greatly increased the feasibility of species-level monitoring. For example, recent advances in monitoring make use of detection-nondetection data that are relatively inexpensive to acquire, historical survey data, and new techniques in genetic evaluation. The ability to use indirect measures of presence for some species greatly increases monitoring efficiency and reduces survey costs. After adjusting for false absences, the proportion of sample units in a landscape where a species is detected (occupancy) is a logical state variable to monitor. Occupancy monitoring can be based on real-time observation of a species at a survey site or on evidence that the species was at the survey location sometime in the recent past. Temporal and spatial patterns in occupancy data are related to changes in animal abundance and provide insights into the probability of a species' persistence. However, even with the efficiencies gained when occupancy is the monitored state variable, the task of species-level monitoring remains daunting due to the large number of species. We propose that a small number of species be monitored on the basis of specific management objectives, their functional role in an ecosystem, their sensitivity to environmental changes likely to occur in the area, or their conservation importance.

  14. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory environmental monitoring report, calendar year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The results of the effluent and environmental monitoring programs at the three Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) sites are summarized and assessed in this report. The principal function at KAPL sites (Knolls, Kesselring, and Windsor) is research and development in the design and operation of Naval nuclear propulsion plants. The Kesselring Site is also used for the training of personnel in the operation of these plants. The Naval nuclear propulsion plant at the Windsor Site is currently being dismantled. Operations at the three KAPL sites resulted in no significant release of hazardous substances or radioactivity to the environment. The effluent and environmental monitoring programs conducted by KAPL are designed to determine the effectiveness of treatment and control methods, to provide measurement of the concentrations in effluents for comparison with applicable standards, and to assess resultant concentrations in the environment. The monitoring programs include analyses of samples of liquid and gaseous effluents for chemical constituents and radioactivity as well as monitoring of environmental air, water, sediment, and fish. Radiation measurements are also made around the perimeter of each site and at off-site background locations.

  15. A real time status monitor for transistor bank driver power limit resistor in boost injection kicker power supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mi, J.; Tan, Y.; Zhang, W.

    2011-03-28

    For years suffering of Booster Injection Kicker transistor bank driver regulator troubleshooting, a new real time monitor system has been developed. A simple and floating circuit has been designed and tested. This circuit monitor system can monitor the driver regulator power limit resistor status in real time and warn machine operator if the power limit resistor changes values. This paper will mainly introduce the power supply and the new designed monitoring system. This real time resistor monitor circuit shows a useful method to monitor some critical parts in the booster pulse power supply. After two years accelerator operation, it shows that this monitor works well. Previously, we spent a lot of time in booster machine trouble shooting. We will reinstall all 4 PCB into Euro Card Standard Chassis when the power supply system will be updated.

  16. Error, Power, and Blind Sentinels: The Statistics of Seagrass Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Stewart T.; Kruschel, Claudia; Bakran-Petricioli, Tatjana; Petricioli, Donat

    2015-01-01

    We derive statistical properties of standard methods for monitoring of habitat cover worldwide, and criticize them in the context of mandated seagrass monitoring programs, as exemplified by Posidonia oceanica in the Mediterranean Sea. We report the novel result that cartographic methods with non-trivial classification errors are generally incapable of reliably detecting habitat cover losses less than about 30 to 50%, and the field labor required to increase their precision can be orders of magnitude higher than that required to estimate habitat loss directly in a field campaign. We derive a universal utility threshold of classification error in habitat maps that represents the minimum habitat map accuracy above which direct methods are superior. Widespread government reliance on blind-sentinel methods for monitoring seafloor can obscure the gradual and currently ongoing losses of benthic resources until the time has long passed for meaningful management intervention. We find two classes of methods with very high statistical power for detecting small habitat cover losses: 1) fixed-plot direct methods, which are over 100 times as efficient as direct random-plot methods in a variable habitat mosaic; and 2) remote methods with very low classification error such as geospatial underwater videography, which is an emerging, low-cost, non-destructive method for documenting small changes at millimeter visual resolution. General adoption of these methods and their further development will require a fundamental cultural change in conservation and management bodies towards the recognition and promotion of requirements of minimal statistical power and precision in the development of international goals for monitoring these valuable resources and the ecological services they provide. PMID:26367863

  17. Power Monitoring and Control for Large Scale projects: SKA, a case study

    CERN Document Server

    Barbosa, Domingos; Maia, Dalmiro; Carvalho, Bruno; Vieira, Jorge; Swart, Paul; Roux, Gerhard Le; Natarajan, Swaminathan; van Ardenne, Arnold; Seca, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Large sensor-based science infrastructures for radio astronomy like the SKA will be among the most intensive data-driven projects in the world, facing very high demanding computation, storage, management, and above all power demands. The geographically wide distribution of the SKA and and its associated processing requirements in the form of tailored High Performance Computing (HPC) facilities, require a Greener approach towards the Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) adopted for the data processing to enable operational compliance to potentially strict power budgets. Addressing the reduction of electricity costs, improve system power monitoring and the generation and management of electricity at system level is paramount to avoid future inefficiencies and higher costs and enable fulfillments of Key Science Cases. Here we outline major characteristics and innovation approaches to address power efficiency and long-term power sustainability for radio astronomy projects, focusing on Green ICT for s...

  18. Reactive Power Impact on Lifetime Prediction of Two-level Wind Power Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dao; Blaabjerg, Frede; Lau, M.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of reactive power injection on the dominating two-level wind power converter is investigated and compared in terms of power loss and thermal behavior. Then the lifetime of both the partial-scale and full-scale power converter is estimated based on the widely used Coffin-Manson model...

  19. blood glucose level in Bufo gutturalis (power)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Human Physiology and Physiological Chemistry, ... the influence of dehydration on the blood glucose level of anurans. .... J. Cell. Compo Physiol. 44: 233 - 246. VAWDA, A. 1978. The loss of sodium across the skin of the.

  20. Low-power hybrid wireless network for monitoring infant incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, D I; Shin, K H; Kim, I K; Park, K S; Lee, T S; Kim, S I; Lim, K S; Huh, S J

    2005-10-01

    We have created a pilot wireless network for the convenient monitoring of temperature and humidity of infant incubators. This system combines infrared and radio frequency (RF) communication in order to minimize the power consumption of slave devices, and we therefore call it a hybrid wireless network. The slave module installed in the infant incubator receives the calling signal from the host with an infrared receiver, and sends temperature and humidity data to the host with an RF transmitter. The power consumption of the host system is not critical, and hence it uses the maximum power of infrared transmission and continuously operating RF receiver. In our test implementation, we included four slave devices. The PC calls each slave device every second and then waits for 6 s, resulting in a total scan period of 10 s. Slave devices receive the calling signals and transmit three data values (temperature, moisture, and skin temperature); their power demand is 1 mW, and can run for about 1000 h on four AA-size nickel-hydride batteries.

  1. Mortality monitoring design for utility-scale solar power facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huso, Manuela; Dietsch, Thomas; Nicolai, Chris

    2016-05-27

    IntroductionSolar power represents an important and rapidly expanding component of the renewable energy portfolio of the United States (Lovich and Ennen, 2011; Hernandez and others, 2014). Understanding the impacts of renewable energy development on wildlife is a priority for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) in compliance with Department of Interior Order No. 3285 (U.S. Department of the Interior, 2009) to “develop best management practices for renewable energy and transmission projects on the public lands to ensure the most environmentally responsible development and delivery of renewable energy.” Recent studies examining effects of renewable energy development on mortality of migratory birds have primarily focused on wind energy (California Energy Commission and California Department of Fish and Game, 2007), and in 2012 the FWS published guidance for addressing wildlife conservation concerns at all stages of land-based wind energy development (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012). As yet, no similar guidelines exist for solar development, and no published studies have directly addressed the methodology needed to accurately estimate mortality of birds and bats at solar facilities. In the absence of such guidelines, ad hoc methodologies applied to solar energy projects may lead to estimates of wildlife mortality rates that are insufficiently accurate and precise to meaningfully inform conversations regarding unintended consequences of this energy source and management decisions to mitigate impacts. Although significant advances in monitoring protocols for wind facilities have been made in recent years, there remains a need to provide consistent guidance and study design to quantify mortality of bats, and resident and migrating birds at solar power facilities (Walston and others, 2015).In this document, we suggest methods for mortality monitoring at solar facilities that are based on current methods used at wind power facilities but adapted for the

  2. Reactive Power Impact on Lifetime Prediction of Two-level Wind Power Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dao; Blaabjerg, Frede; Lau, M.;

    2013-01-01

    The influence of reactive power injection on the dominating two-level wind power converter is investigated and compared in terms of power loss and thermal behavior. Then the lifetime of both the partial-scale and full-scale power converter is estimated based on the widely used Coffin-Manson model....... It is concluded that the injection of the reactive power could have serious impact on the power loss and thermal profile, especially at lower wind speed. Furthermore, the introduction of the reactive power could also shorten the lifetime of the wind power converter significantly....

  3. International Remote Monitoring Project Embalse Nuclear Power Station, Argentina Embalse Remote Monitoring System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Sigfried L.; Glidewell, Donnie D.; Bonino, Anibal; Bosler, Gene; Mercer, David; Maxey, Curt; Vones, Jaromir; Martelle, Guy; Busse, James; Kadner, Steve; White, Mike; Rovere, Luis

    1999-07-21

    The Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear of Argentina (ARN), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), ABACC, the US Department of Energy, and the US Support Program POTAS, cooperated in the development of a Remote Monitoring System for nuclear nonproliferation efforts. This system was installed at the Embalse Nuclear Power Station last year to evaluate the feasibility of using radiation sensors in monitoring the transfer of spent fuel from the spent fuel pond to dry storage. The key element in this process is to maintain continuity of knowledge throughout the entire transfer process. This project evaluated the fundamental design and implementation of the Remote Monitoring System in its application to regional and international safeguard efficiency. New technology has been developed to enhance the design of the system to include storage capability on board sensor platforms. This evaluation has led to design enhancements that will assure that no data loss will occur during loss of RF transmission of the sensors.

  4. Level monitoring system with pulsating sensor—Application to online level monitoring of dashpots in a fast breeder reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malathi, N.; Sahoo, P.; Ananthanarayanan, R.; Murali, N.

    2015-02-01

    An innovative continuous type liquid level monitoring system constructed by using a new class of sensor, viz., pulsating sensor, is presented. This device is of industrial grade and it is exclusively used for level monitoring of any non conducting liquid. This instrument of unique design is suitable for high resolution online monitoring of oil level in dashpots of a sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor. The sensing probe is of capacitance type robust probe consisting of a number of rectangular mirror polished stainless steel (SS-304) plates separated with uniform gaps. The performance of this novel instrument has been thoroughly investigated. The precision, sensitivity, response time, and the lowest detection limit in measurement using this device are reactor. With the evolution of this level measurement approach, it is possible to provide dashpot oil level sensors in fast breeder reactor for the first time for continuous measurement of oil level in dashpots of Control & Safety Rod Drive Mechanism during reactor operation.

  5. Level monitoring system with pulsating sensor--application to online level monitoring of dashpots in a fast breeder reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malathi, N; Sahoo, P; Ananthanarayanan, R; Murali, N

    2015-02-01

    An innovative continuous type liquid level monitoring system constructed by using a new class of sensor, viz., pulsating sensor, is presented. This device is of industrial grade and it is exclusively used for level monitoring of any non conducting liquid. This instrument of unique design is suitable for high resolution online monitoring of oil level in dashpots of a sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor. The sensing probe is of capacitance type robust probe consisting of a number of rectangular mirror polished stainless steel (SS-304) plates separated with uniform gaps. The performance of this novel instrument has been thoroughly investigated. The precision, sensitivity, response time, and the lowest detection limit in measurement using this device are reactor. With the evolution of this level measurement approach, it is possible to provide dashpot oil level sensors in fast breeder reactor for the first time for continuous measurement of oil level in dashpots of Control & Safety Rod Drive Mechanism during reactor operation.

  6. Long distance high power optical laser fiber break detection and continuity monitoring systems and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinzler, Charles C.; Gray, William C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2016-02-23

    A monitoring and detection system for use on high power laser systems, long distance high power laser systems and tools for performing high power laser operations. In particular, the monitoring and detection systems provide break detection and continuity protection for performing high power laser operations on, and in, remote and difficult to access locations.

  7. Long distance high power optical laser fiber break detection and continuity monitoring systems and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinzler, Charles C.; Gray, William C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2016-02-23

    A monitoring and detection system for use on high power laser systems, long distance high power laser systems and tools for performing high power laser operations. In particular, the monitoring and detection systems provide break detection and continuity protection for performing high power laser operations on, and in, remote and difficult to access locations.

  8. An Intelligent Sensor for the Ultra-High-Frequency Partial Discharge Online Monitoring of Power Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-high-frequency (UHF partial discharge (PD online monitoring is an effective way to inspect potential faults and insulation defects in power transformers. The construction of UHF PD online monitoring system is a challenge because of the high-frequency and wide-frequency band of the UHF PD signal. This paper presents a novel, intelligent sensor for UHF PD online monitoring based on a new method, namely a level scanning method. The intelligent sensor can directly acquire the statistical characteristic quantities and is characterized by low cost, few data to output and transmit, Ethernet functionality, and small size for easy installation. The prototype of an intelligent sensor was made. Actual UHF PD experiments with three typical artificial defect models of power transformers were carried out in a laboratory, and the waveform recording method and intelligent sensor proposed were simultaneously used for UHF PD measurement for comparison. The results show that the proposed intelligent sensor is qualified for the UHF PD online monitoring of power transformers. Additionally, three methods to improve the performance of intelligent sensors were proposed according to the principle of the level scanning method.

  9. The Power of Cross-Level Partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngerman, Stephanie

    1998-01-01

    Much credit for the tangible feeling of caring at an Idaho elementary school is due to partnerships that faculty, families, and students have forged across grade levels. These cross-grade buddy systems have put the brakes on bullies, fostered student friendships, and resolved personality conflicts among staff members. (MLH)

  10. Analysis of superconducting microstrip resonator at various microwave power levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, G.P.; Jacob, M.V.; Jayakumar, M.; Bhatnagar, P.K. [Department of Electronic Science, University of Delhi, South Campus, Benito Juarez Road, New Delhi 110021 (India); Kataria, N.D. [National Physical Laboratory, K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110 012 (India)

    1997-05-01

    The real and imaginary parts of the surface impedance of YBCO superconductors have been studied at different microwave power levels. Using the relations for the critical current density and the grain boundary resistance, a relation for calculating the power dependence of the surface resistance has been obtained. Also, a relation to find the resonant frequency of a superconducting microstrip resonator at various input power levels has been derived. Measurements have been carried out on various microstrip resonators to study the variation of surface resistance and resonant frequency at different rf power levels. The experimental results are in good agreement with theoretical results. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. 77 FR 30030 - Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... COMMISSION Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide endorses Revision 4A to Nuclear Management and Resources... Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants,'' Part 50, ``Domestic......

  12. Remote monitoring of nuclear power plants in Baden-Wuerttemberg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, U; Müller, U; Mandel, C; Coutinho, P; Aures, R; Grimm, C; Hagmann, M; Wilbois, T; Ren, Y

    2014-08-01

    As part of its responsibilities as nuclear supervisory authority, the Ministry of the Environment, Climate Protection and the Energy Sector Baden-Wuerttemberg (UM) operates a computer-based system for remote monitoring of nuclear power plants (NPPs) (KFUe, Kernreaktor-Fernüberwachung). In addition to the Baden-Wuerttemberg NPPs located at Philippsburg, Neckarwestheim and the disused Obrigheim, those in foreign locations close to the border area, i.e. Fessenheim in France, and Leibstadt and Beznau in Switzerland, are monitored. The KFUe system provides several methods to evaluate and present the measured data as well as to ensure compliance of threshold limits and safety objectives. For the UM, it serves as an instrument of the nuclear supervision. In case of a radioactive release, the authorities responsible for civil protection can use dispersion calculations in order to identify potentially affected areas and to initiate protective measures for the population. Beyond the data collected at the plant sites, various international radiation and meteorological measuring networks are integrated in the KFUe. The State Institute for Environment, Measurements and Nature Protection (LUBW), the technical operator of the KFUe, runs its own special monitoring network for ambient gamma dose rate and nuclide specific activity concentration measurements in the vicinity of each NPP. This article gives an overview of the solution to combine data of different sources on a single screen: dose rate networks, dose rate traces measured by car, airborne gamma spectra of helicopters, mobile dose rate probes, grid data of weather forecasts, dispersion calculations, etc.

  13. Optical monitoring of high power direct diode laser cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuang; Farahmand, Parisa; Kovacevic, Radovan

    2014-12-01

    Laser cladding is one of the most advanced surface modification techniques which can be used to build and repair high-value components. High power direct diode laser (HPDDL) offers unique quality and cost advantages over other lasers (CO2, Nd:YAG). Especially its rectangular laser beam with top-hat intensity distribution makes HPDDL an ideal tool for large area cladding. In order to utilize this technique successfully, the development of on-line monitoring and process control is necessary. In this study, an optical monitoring system consisting of a high-speed CCD camera, a pyrometer, and an infrared camera was used to analyze the mass- and heat-transfer in the cladding process. The particle transport in flight was viewed by a high-speed CCD camera; the interaction between powder flow and laser beam was observed by an infrared camera; and the thermal behavior of the molten pool was recorded by the pyrometer and the infrared camera. The effects of the processing parameters on the laser attenuation, particle heating and clad properties were investigated based on the obtained signals. The optical monitoring method improved the understanding about mutual interrelated phenomena in the cladding process.

  14. Challenges with Tertiary-Level Mechatronic Fluid Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dransfield, Peter; Conrad, Finn

    1996-01-01

    As authors we take the view that mechatronics, as it relates to fluid power, has three levels which we designate as primary, secondary and tertiary. A brief review of the current status of fluid power, hydraulic and pneumatic, and of electronic control of it is presented and discussed. The focus...... is then on tertiary-level mechatronic fluid power and the challenges to it being applied successfully....

  15. Advanced Detection Technology of Trace-level Borate for SG Leakage Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seban; Kang, Dukwon; Kim, Seungil; Kim, Hyunki; Heo, Jun; Sung, Jinhyun [Radiation Eng. Center, Shihung (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dongbum [Academic Support Dept., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Many studies have been reported for monitoring technology of steam generator, however, all of these methods have their own limitations. The leakage monitoring technology of steam generator of PWR has also got a limit due to the adoption of specific radionuclides (N-16, Ar-41, H-3, Xe, etc.) generated by nuclear fission, which are available only when reactor output is 20% or more. Most of domestic NPPs apply the N-16 technique for monitoring tube leakage but it has some problem that it is difficult to calculate the leakage rate because neutron flux are not completely formed during low power operation. For example, tube leakage of steam generator occurred in the Uljin nuclear power plant in 2002 during coast down operation for periodic plant maintenance. This plant could not prevent a rupture accident in advance because N-16 method is not possible the leak monitoring less than 20% reactor power. The development of excellent alternative monitoring technology that can monitor the real-time leakage is required under a variety of operating conditions like start-up and abnormal conditions of NPPs. This study was performed to lay a foundation in monitoring the leakage of steam generator coping with the lower output and low power operational condition using trace level of boron which is non-radioactive nuclide to inject control neutron injection. In this study, non-radioactive nuclide boron ion, which existed in the secondary system water, as leakage monitoring indicator was investigated for the separation of complex cation and anion phase. Borate was detected by using borate concentrator column coupled with the ion-exclusion column analytical column, revealing the problem of overlapped peak between fluoride and boron ions. Meanwhile, ion-exchange column could confirm the possibility as a leakage monitoring indicator of steam generator, despite the peak of glycolic acid salts was slightly overlapped. It will be needed for further research regarding the selectivity of the

  16. A Low-Power and Portable Biomedical Device for Respiratory Monitoring with a Stable Power Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiachen Yang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Continuous respiratory monitoring is an important tool for clinical monitoring. Associated with the development of biomedical technology, it has become more and more important, especially in the measuring of gas flow and CO2 concentration, which can reflect the status of the patient. In this paper, a new type of biomedical device is presented, which uses low-power sensors with a piezoresistive silicon differential pressure sensor to measure gas flow and with a pyroelectric sensor to measure CO2 concentration simultaneously. For the portability of the biomedical device, the sensors and low-power measurement circuits are integrated together, and the airway tube also needs to be miniaturized. Circuits are designed to ensure the stability of the power source and to filter out the existing noise. Modulation technology is used to eliminate the fluctuations at the trough of the waveform of the CO2 concentration signal. Statistical analysis with the coefficient of variation was performed to find out the optimal driving voltage of the pressure transducer. Through targeted experiments, the biomedical device showed a high accuracy, with a measuring precision of 0.23 mmHg, and it worked continuously and stably, thus realizing the real-time monitoring of the status of patients.

  17. Locational Marginal Pricing in the Campus Power System at the Power Distribution Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Jun; Gu, Yi; Zhang, Yingchen; Zhang, Jun Jason; Gao, David Wenzhong

    2016-11-14

    In the development of smart grid at distribution level, the realization of real-time nodal pricing is one of the key challenges. The research work in this paper implements and studies the methodology of locational marginal pricing at distribution level based on a real-world distribution power system. The pricing mechanism utilizes optimal power flow to calculate the corresponding distributional nodal prices. Both Direct Current Optimal Power Flow and Alternate Current Optimal Power Flow are utilized to calculate and analyze the nodal prices. The University of Denver campus power grid is used as the power distribution system test bed to demonstrate the pricing methodology.

  18. Monitoring of raptors and their contamination levels in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjershaug, Jan Ove; Kålås, John Atle; Nygård, Torgeir; Herzke, Dorte; Folkestad, Alv Ottar

    2008-09-01

    This article summarizes results from raptor monitoring and contamination studies in Norway of the golden eagle, gyrfalcon, white-tailed sea eagle, osprey, peregrine, and merlin. Golden eagle and gyrfalcon populations have been monitored since 1990 as part of the "Monitoring Programme for Terrestrial Ecosystems" (TOV). No long-term trend in the population size or productivity of golden eagle has been shown in any of the 5 study areas. The reproductive output of gyrfalcon is monitored in 3 areas. It is positively correlated with the populations of its main prey species, the rock ptarmigan and the willow ptarmigan. The white-tailed sea eagle population has been monitored since 1974 by the Norwegian Ornithological Society, and the population is increasing. The levels of pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls are low in the eggs of both the golden eagle and the gyrfalcon, but elevated levels and effects on reproduction have been indicated for a coastal subpopulation of golden eagle. The pollutant levels in white-tailed sea eagle are lower than in the Baltic population of sea eagles, and shell thinning was never severe overall, but individual eggs have contained pollutant concentrations above critical levels. The levels of pollutants in the bird-eating falcons, peregrine, and merlin were higher than in other species. New emerging pollutants, like brominated diphenylethers and perfluorinated organic compounds, could be detected in all species. By incorporating available published and unpublished data, we were able to produce time trends for pollutants and shell thickness over 4 decades.

  19. Models for thermal and mechanical monitoring of power transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilaithong, Rummiya

    2011-07-01

    At present, for economic reasons, there is an increasing emphasis on keeping transformers in service for longer than in the past. A condition-based maintenance using an online monitoring and diagnostic system is one option to ensure reliability of the transformer operation. The key parameters for effectively monitoring equipment can be selected by failure statistics and estimated failure consequences. In this work, two key aspects of transformer condition monitoring are addressed in depth: thermal behaviour and behaviour of on-load tap changers. In the first part of the work, transformer thermal behaviour is studied, focussing on top-oil temperatures. Through online comparison of a measured value of the top-oil temperature and its calculated value, some rapidly developing failures in power transformers such as malfunction of the cooling unit may be detected. Predictions of top-oil temperature can be obtained by means of a mathematical model. Long-term investigations on some dynamic top-oil temperature models are presented for three different types of transformer units. The last-state top-oil temperature, load current, ambient temperature and the operating state of pumps and fans are applied as inputs of the top-oil temperature models. In the fundamental physical models presented, some constant parameters are required and can be estimated using a least-squares optimization technique. Multilayer Feed-forward and Recurrent neural network models are also proposed and investigated. The neural network models are trained with three different Backpropagation training algorithms: Levenberg-Marquardt, Scaled Conjugate Gradient and Automated Bayesian Regularization. The effect of varying operating conditions of the cooling units and the non-steady-state behaviour of loading conditions, as well as ambient temperature are noted. Results show sophisticated temperature prediction is possible using the neural network models that is generally more accurate than with the physical

  20. Low-power wireless sensor networks for environmental monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaloiu-Elefteri, Razvan

    Significant progress has been made in the field of Wireless Sensor Networks in the decade that passed since its inception. This thesis presents several advances intended to make these networks a suitable instrument for environmental monitoring. The thesis first describes Koala, a low-power data-retrieval system that can achieve duty cycles below 1% by using bulk transfers, and Low Power Probing, a novel mechanism to efficiently wake up a network. The second contribution is Serendipity, another data-retrieval system, which takes advantage of the random rendezvous inherent in the Low Power Probing mechanism to achieve a very low duty cycle for low data rate networks. The third part explores the problem of and presents a solution for the interference between WSNs using IEEE 802.15.4 radios and the ubiquitous WiFi networks in the 2.4 GHz spectrum bandwidth. The last contribution of this thesis is Latte, a restricted version of the JavaScript language, that not only can be compiled to C and dynamically loaded on a sensing node, but can also be simulated and debugged in a JavaScript-enabled browser.

  1. Experimental Study of a Multi Level Overtopping Wave Power Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Hald, Tue; Frigaard, Peter Bak

    2002-01-01

    Results of experimental investigations of a floating wave energy device called Power Pyramid is presented. The Power Pyramid utilizes reservoirs in multiple levels when capturing wave overtopping and converting it into electrical energy. The effect of capturing the overtopping in multiple levels......, compared to only one level, has been evaluated experimentally. From the experimental results, and the performed optimizations based on these, it has been found that the efficiency of a wave power device of the overtopping type can be increased by as much as 76 % by using 5 levels instead of 1. However...

  2. Water-Level Monitoring Plan for the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.R. Newcomer; J.P. McDonald; M.A. Chamness

    1999-09-30

    This document presents the water-level monitoring plan for the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project, conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Water-level monitoring of the groundwater system beneath the Hanford Site is performed to fulfill the requirements of various state and federal regulations, orders, and agreements. The primary objective of this monitoring is to determine groundwater flow rates and directions. To meet this and other objectives, water-levels are measured annually in monitoring wells completed within the unconfined aquifer system, the upper basalt-confined aquifer system, and in the lower basalt-confined aquifers for surveillance monitoring. At regulated waste units, water levels are taken monthly, quarterly, semi-annually, or annually, depending on the hydrogeologic conditions and regulatory status of a given site. The techniques used to collect water-level data are described in this document along with the factors that affect the quality of the data and the strategies employed by the project to minimize error in the measurement and interpretation of water levels. Well networks are presented for monitoring the unconfined aquifer system, the upper basalt-confined aquifer system, and the lower basalt-confined aquifers, all at a regional scale (surveillance monitoring), as well as the local-scale well networks for each of the regulated waste units studied by this project (regulated-unit monitoring). The criteria used to select wells for water-table monitoring are discussed. It is observed that poor well coverage for surveillance water-table monitoring exists south and west of the 200-West Area, south of the 100-F Area, and east of B Pond and the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). This poor coverage results from a lack of wells suitable for water-table monitoring, and causes uncertainty in representation of the regional water-table in these areas. These deficiencies are regional in scale and apply to regions outside

  3. A novel oil level monitoring sensor based on string tilted fiber Bragg grating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Qi

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel oil level monitoring sensor based on string tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG). The mea- surement range and sensitivity of oil level monitoring can be modulated via changing the length and number of string tilted fiber gratings. The transmission spectrum of string TFBGs immersed in oil changes obviously with the oil level variation. Experiments are conducted on three 2 crn-length serial TFBGs with the same tilted angle of 10°. A sensitivity of 3.28 dB/cm in the string TFBG sensor is achieved with good linearity by means of TFBG spectrum characteristic with peak-low value. The cladding mode transmission power and the amplitude of high order cladding mode resonance are nearly linear to the oil level variation. This kind of sensor is insensitive to temperature and attributed to be employed in extremely harsh environ- ment oil monitoring.

  4. Thoughts on Integrated Monitoring of Ecological Environment at Provincial Level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Hong; Jack E. Coster; SONG Xiao-qiang

    2004-01-01

    The Law of Soil and Water Conservation entitles the administrations of water resources at various level to monitor ecological environment and to proclaim status of soil erosion periodically.Monitoring units of soil and water conservation approved by local governments are obliged to undertake this work.How to develop a monitoring program needs an overall and long-term concept.Particularity and objectives of ecological environment monitoring was discussed. Monitoring at provincial level may be divided into two levels:province-wide and at project level. Those indicators meaningful,sensitive to any disturbances,and simple to measure may be selected to test status of ecosystem stability and health.It makes sense to have an integrated sampling design,to set up permanent observation plots and to collect data, so that to have a relative timely,accurate understanding of ecosystems in the province.A program regarding sampling design,field methods, data analysis,documentation and implementation was detailed.

  5. An Interference-Aware Transmission Power Control Scheme for Vehicular On-board Monitoring Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajun Bu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor network (WSN has been used widely in vehicular on-board monitoring area. In the scenario of vehicular monitoring, the wireless sensor nodes share similar electromagnet environment. This phenomenon can be used by the sending node to infer the receiver’s noise level. Moreover, the sender can decide the transmitting power accordingly. In this paper, we proposed a interference-aware approaching to control the transmission power of nodes in a vehicular on-board monitoring WSN. By making use of the relationship of noise level on the sender side and the receiver side, the sender node can decide the necessary transmitting power to send a packet successfully. Because the packets are sent at high enough transmission power, the Packet Reception Rate (PRR is improved. At the same time, the network latency caused by communication failure is reduced.

  6. PC and monitor night status: Power management enabling and manual turn-off

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordman, Bruce; Meier, Alan; Piette, Mary Ann

    1998-07-30

    While office equipment accounts for about 7 percent of commercial building energy use, this reflects considerable energy savings from the use of automatic power management. Most of these savings were gained through the use of low-power modes that meet the criteria of the U.S. EPA's Energy Star program. Despite this success, there are large amounts of additional savings that could be gained if all equipment capable of power management use were enabled and functioning. A considerable portion of equipment is not enabled for power management at all, enabled only partially, or is enabled but prevented from functioning. Additional savings could be gained if more equipment were turned off at night manually. We compiled results from 17 studies from the office equipment literature addressing PCs and monitors. Some factors important for annual energy use, such as power levels, have been documented elsewhere and are not covered. We review methods for estimating office equipment use patterns and energy use, and present findings on night status--power management and manual turn-off rates. In early studies, PC power management was often found to function in 25 percent or less of the Energy Star compliant units (10 percent of all PCs). However, recent assessments have found higher rates, and we estimate that for Energy Star models, 35 percent of PC CPUs and 65 percent of PC monitors are enabled for power management. While the data lack statistical rigor, they can be used to estimate the magnitude of current and potential power management savings, which we did for major types of office equipment. The data also make clear that the topic of enabling rates, and the factors which influence them, deserve greater scrutiny.

  7. 76 FR 65753 - Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... COMMISSION Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory..., ``Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants,'' in the Federal Register for a 60 day... (NUMARC) 93-01, ``Industry Guideline for Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear......

  8. FLAME MONITORING IN POWER STATION BOILERS USING IMAGE PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sujatha

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Combustion quality in power station boilers plays an important role in minimizing the flue gas emissions. In the present work various intelligent schemes to infer the flue gas emissions by monitoring the flame colour at the furnace of the boiler are proposed here. Flame image monitoring involves capturing the flame video over a period of time with the measurement of various parameters like Carbon dioxide (CO2, excess oxygen (O2, Nitrogen dioxide (NOx, Sulphur dioxide (SOx and Carbon monoxide (CO emissions plus the flame temperature at the core of the fire ball, air/fuel ratio and the combustion quality. Higher the quality of combustion less will be the flue gases at the exhaust. The flame video was captured using an infrared camera. The flame video is then split up into the frames for further analysis. The video splitter is used for progressive extraction of the flame images from the video. The images of the flame are then pre-processed to reduce noise. The conventional classification and clustering techniques include the Euclidean distance classifier (L2 norm classifier. The intelligent classifier includes the Radial Basis Function Network (RBF, Back Propagation Algorithm (BPA and parallel architecture with RBF and BPA (PRBFBPA. The results of the validation are supported with the above mentioned performance measures whose values are in the optimal range. The values of the temperatures, combustion quality, SOx, NOx, CO, CO2 concentrations, air and fuel supplied corresponding to the images were obtained thereby indicating the necessary control action taken to increase or decrease the air supply so as to ensure complete combustion. In this work, by continuously monitoring the flame images, combustion quality was inferred (complete/partial/incomplete combustion and the air/fuel ratio can be automatically varied. Moreover in the existing set-up, measurements like NOx, CO and CO2 are inferred from the samples that are collected periodically or by

  9. VIBRATION SENSOR FOR HEALTH MONITORING OF ELECTRICAL MACHINES IN POWER STATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Gupta

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Vibration monitoring in high power electric machines, such as generators and transformers, presents some difficulties due to the insulation and EM immunity requirements .However, the negative influence of the electromagnetic interference (EMI can be a real problem when electrical signals are used to detect and transmitphysical parameters in noisy environments such as electric power generator plants with high levels of EMI. Such problems can be solved using optical fiber sensors, which allow in situ measurements and remote control without electrical wires. The present paper describes a novel fiber optic vibration sensor for health monitoring of electrical machines, which utilizes relatively simple technologies and offers moderate costs. The sensor is optimized for detection of mechanical vibrations in the frequency range 20-100 Hz. Design details and experimental results are reported.

  10. Using Data-Mining Approaches for Wind Turbine Power Curve Monitoring: A Comparative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlechtingen, Meik; Santos, Ilmar; Achiche, Sofiane

    2013-01-01

    Four data-mining approaches for wind turbine power curve monitoring are compared. Power curve monitoring can be applied to evaluate the turbine power output and detect deviations, causing financial loss. In this research, cluster center fuzzy logic, neural network, and -nearest neighbor models...

  11. Use of existing standards to measure sound power levels of powered hand tools-necessary revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Charles S.; Zechmann, Edward

    2005-09-01

    At recent NOISE-CON and Acoustical Society of America meetings, noise rating labeling was discussed as a way of manufacturers providing full disclosure information for their noise emitting products. The first step is to gather sound power level data from these products. Sound power level data should be gathered in accordance with existing ANSI and/or ISO standards. Some standards, such as ANSI 12.15, may not define true operational noise emissions[r1] and thus may provide inaccurate information when that information is used to choose a hearing protection device or used to make a purchasing decision. A number of standards were systematically combined by NIOSH researchers to provide the most accurate information on sound power levels of powered hand tools used in the construction industry. This presentation will detail some of the challenges of existing ANSI 12.15 (and draft ANSI 12.41) to measure sound power levels of electric (and pneumatic) powered hand tools.

  12. Monitoring the level of sustainable development of the enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Markina

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comprehensive approach to monitoring the level of sustainable development of the enterprise. The basic principles and elements of forming the system of monitoring sustainable development of the enterprise were considered and systematized. The paper provides an analysis of existing approaches to assessing the sustainability of the enterprise during its development. The analysis of the results of monitoring the sustainable development of the enterprise allows to record stable and unstable periods of its development, which helps managers choose the strength of management impact according to the current situation. The theoretical foundations of the concept of sustainable development of economic systems are elucidated on the basis of the analysis of scientific publications. The authors have pointed out the importance of introducing the concept of sustainable development and possible benefits from its use. The enterprises implementing the sustainable development strategy in Ukraine have been highlighted. Based on the results of the study, the information and analytical content of the monitoring system for sustainable development of some processing enterprises of Ukraine was substantiated. The analysis of the application directions of the sustainable concept development has been carried out and a practical example of the information implementation and analytical system for monitoring the sustainable development of a food industry enterprise has been examined using as an example the Obolon Corporation, Kiev. The positive experience of using this method of monitoring the sustainable development of the Obolon Corporation should become an example for most processing enterprises in Ukraine.

  13. We Need to Talk... Developing Communicating Power Supplies to Monitor & Control Miscellaneous Electric Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Andrew; Lanzisera, Steven; Liao, Anna; Meier, Alan

    2014-08-11

    Plug loads represent 30percent of total electricity use in residential buildings. Significant energy savings would result from an accurate understanding of which miscellaneous electric devices are using energy, at what time, and in what quantity. Commercially available plug load monitoring and control solutions replace or limit the attached device's native controls - forcing the user to adapt to a separate set of controls associated with the monitoring and control hardware. A better solution is integration of these capabilities at the power supply level. In this paper, we demonstrate a method achieving this integration. Our solution allows unobtrusive power monitoring and control while retaining native device control features. Further, our prototype enables intelligent behaviors by allowing devices to respond to the state of one another automatically. The CPS enables energy savings while demonstrating an added level of functionality to the user. If CPS technology became widespread in devices, a combination of automated and human interactive solutions would enable high levels of energy savings in buildings.

  14. Autonomus I&C Maintenance and Health Monitoring System for Fission Surface Power Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There currently exists no end-to-end reactor/power conversion monitoring system that can provide both autonomous health monitoring, but also in-situ sensor...

  15. Non-intrusive load monitoring based on low frequency active power measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinthaka Dinesh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring (NILM method for residential appliances based on active power signal is presented. This method works effectively with a single active power measurement taken at a low sampling rate (1 s. The proposed method utilizes the Karhunen Loéve (KL expansion to decompose windows of active power signals into subspace components in order to construct a unique set of features, referred to as signatures, from individual and aggregated active power signals. Similar signal windows were clustered in to one group prior to feature extraction. The clustering was performed using a modified mean shift algorithm. After the feature extraction, energy levels of signal windows and power levels of subspace components were utilized to reduce the number of possible appliance combinations and their energy level combinations. Then, the turned on appliance combination and the energy contribution from individual appliances were determined through the Maximum a Posteriori (MAP estimation. Finally, the proposed method was modified to adaptively accommodate the usage patterns of appliances at each residence. The proposed NILM method was validated using data from two public databases: tracebase and reference energy disaggregation data set (REDD. The presented results demonstrate the ability of the proposed method to accurately identify and disaggregate individual energy contributions of turned on appliance combinations in real households. Furthermore, the results emphasise the importance of clustering and the integration of the usage behaviour pattern in the proposed NILM method for real households.

  16. Power Constrained High-Level Synthesis of Battery Powered Digital Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sune Fallgaard; Madsen, Jan

    2003-01-01

    We present a high-level synthesis algorithm solving the combined scheduling, allocation and binding problem minimizing area under both latency and maximum power per clock-cycle constraints. Our approach eliminates the large power spikes, resulting in an increased battery lifetime, a property...... of utmost importance for battery powered embedded systems. Our approach extends the partial-clique partitioning algorithm by introducing power awareness through a heuristic algorithm which bounds the design space to those of power feasible schedules. We have applied our algorithm on a set of dataflow graphs...

  17. An extensible database architecture for nationwide power quality monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuecuek, Dilek; Inan, Tolga; Salor, Oezguel; Demirci, Turan; Buhan, Serkan; Boyrazoglu, Burak [TUBITAK Uzay, Power Electronics Group, TR 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Akkaya, Yener; Uensar, Oezguer; Altintas, Erinc; Haliloglu, Burhan [Turkish Electricity Transmission Co. Inc., TR 06490 Ankara (Turkey); Cadirci, Isik [TUBITAK Uzay, Power Electronics Group, TR 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Hacettepe University, Electrical and Electronics Eng. Dept., TR 06532 Ankara (Turkey); Ermis, Muammer [METU, Electrical and Electronics Eng. Dept., TR 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-07-15

    Electrical power quality (PQ) data is one of the prevalent types of engineering data. Its measurement at relevant sampling rates leads to large volumes of PQ data to be managed and analyzed. In this paper, an extensible database architecture is presented based on a novel generic data model for PQ data. The proposed architecture is operated on the nationwide PQ data of the Turkish Electricity Transmission System measured in the field by mobile PQ monitoring systems. The architecture is extensible in the sense that it can be used to store and manage PQ data collected by any means with little or no customization. The architecture has three modules: a PQ database corresponding to the implementation of the generic data model, a visual user query interface to enable its users to specify queries to the PQ database and a query processor acting as a bridge between the query interface and the database. The operation of the architecture is illustrated on the field PQ data with several query examples through the visual query interface. The execution of the architecture on this data of considerable volume supports its applicability and convenience for PQ data. (author)

  18. Cardiac power integral: a new method for monitoring cardiovascular performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimehaug, Audun E; Lyng, Oddveig; Nordhaug, Dag O; Løvstakken, Lasse; Aadahl, Petter; Kirkeby-Garstad, Idar

    2013-11-01

    Cardiac power (PWR) is the continuous product of flow and pressure in the proximal aorta. Our aim was to validate the PWR integral as a marker of left ventricular energy transfer to the aorta, by comparing it to stroke work (SW) under multiple different loading and contractility conditions in subjects without obstructions in the left ventricular outflow tract. Six pigs were under general anesthesia equipped with transit time flow probes on their proximal aortas and Millar micromanometer catheters in their descending aortas to measure PWR, and Leycom conductance catheters in their left ventricles to measure SW. The PWR integral was calculated as the time integral of PWR per cardiac cycle. SW was calculated as the area encompassed by the pressure-volume loop (PV loop). The relationship between the PWR integral and SW was tested during extensive mechanical and pharmacological interventions that affected the loading conditions and myocardial contractility. The PWR integral displayed a strong correlation with SW in all pigs (R (2) > 0.95, P integral relationship was similar among all six animals, whereas loading and contractility conditions tended to affect the slope. The PWR integral followed SW and appeared to be a promising parameter for monitoring the energy transferred from the left ventricle to the aorta. This conclusion motivates further studies to determine whether the PWR integral can be evaluated using less invasive methods, such as echocardiography combined with a radial artery catheter.

  19. Power Consideration for Three-Level Growth Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Konstantopoulos, Spyros

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is extend previous methods by Raudenbush and Liu (2001) and Spybrook et al. (2011), and provide methods for power analysis of tests of treatment effects in studies of polynomial change with two levels of nesting (e.g., students and schools) where the treatment is either at the third level (e.g., school intervention) or at…

  20. Holistic data analysis at the condition monitoring of wind power plants; Gesamtheitliche Datenanalyse beim Condition Monitoring von Windenergieanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenner, Daniel; Tilch, Dietmar [Bosch Rexroth Monitoring Systems GmbH, Dresden (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    First of all, the holistic condition monitoring implies a combination of various sources of information. Currently, there are different systems of condition monitoring of single components at wind power plants. Furthermore, there are various sensors being integrated into the SCADA system. This requires a handling with different solutions as well as control rooms and thus with increased training costs, enhanced personnel costs and enhanced system costs. DMT GmbH (Essen, Federal Republic of Germany) and Bosch Rexroth Monitoring Systems GmbH (Dresden, Federal Republic of Germany) show how a solution can be created by means of a rotor blade monitoring system BLADEcontrol as well as the power train monitoring system Windsafe. This solution enables a combined analysis and is open to other monitoring systems under a unified user interface.

  1. Radiation monitoring for the HTTR rise-to-power test (1) and (2)'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakazawa, Takashi; Yoshino, Toshiaki; Yasu, Katsuji; Ashikagaya, Yoshinobu; Kikuchi, Toshiki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment

    2001-02-01

    The High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) is the first high temperature gas-cooled research reactor in Japan. This reactor is a helium-gas-cooled and graphite-moderated reactor with a thermal output of 30 MW. The rated operation temperature of the outlet coolant is 850degC. (During high temperature test operation, this reaches 950degC). The first criticality of the HTTR was attained in November 1998. The single loaded, parallel loaded operation with a thermal output of 9 MW (called the HTTR Rise-to-Power Test (1)) was completed between September 16, 1999 and July 8, 2000. The single loaded, parallel loaded continuous operation with a thermal output of 20 MW (called the HTTR Rise-to-Power Test (2)) has also been carried out, but it was shutdown at the halfway stage by a single from the reactor, when the thermal output was 16.5 MW and the reactor outlet coolant temperature was 500degC. This report describes the radiation monitoring carried out during the HTTR Rise-to-Power Tests (1) and (2)'. The data measured by the various radiation monitors is also reported. These data will be used for the estimation of radiation levels (such as the radiation dose equivalent rate, the radioactive concentration in effluents, etc.) for the next HTTR Rise-to-Power Test, and for periodic inspections. (author)

  2. Peak-power-point monitor for solar panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloss, A. I.

    1972-01-01

    Attempt was made to determine solar cell panel peak power capability without disrupting power flow from panel. Separate solar cell strings were switched from panel circuits, and increasingly larger loads were added rapidly until peak power points were transversed. String wattage output was recorded and all stored string measurements summed together indicate peak power point in panel.

  3. Data analysis from monitoring of radionuclides in the nuclear power plant Temelin ecosystem area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thinova, Lenka [Czech Technical University, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Department of Dosimetry, Brehova 7, 110 00 Prague (Czech Republic)], E-mail: thinova@fjfi.cvut.cz; Trojek, Tomas [Czech Technical University, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Department of Dosimetry, Brehova 7, 110 00 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2009-07-15

    Changes in the ecosystem occur naturally, however, can also be due to man's activity. The unique ecosystem monitoring based on studying contamination of the bioindicators by man-made radionuclides has been providing data from the area of nuclear power plant (NPP) Temelin (CR) using laboratory gamma spectrometry for past 8 years. The increase in radioactivity in the NPP ecosystem area resulting from its operation is evaluated through comparison with a zero level of {sup 137}Cs mass activities and by obtained data trend analysis.

  4. Data analysis from monitoring of radionuclides in the nuclear power plant Temelin ecosystem area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thinova, Lenka; Trojek, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    Changes in the ecosystem occur naturally, however, can also be due to man's activity. The unique ecosystem monitoring based on studying contamination of the bioindicators by man-made radionuclides has been providing data from the area of nuclear power plant (NPP) Temelin (CR) using laboratory gamma spectrometry for past 8 years. The increase in radioactivity in the NPP ecosystem area resulting from its operation is evaluated through comparison with a zero level of (137)Cs mass activities and by obtained data trend analysis.

  5. Thawing of foods in a microwave oven: I. Effect of power levels and power cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamchong, M; Datta, A K

    1999-01-01

    Microwave thawing is faster than other methods, but it can produce significant non-uniformity of heating. The objective of this study was to perform comprehensive experimentation and heat transfer modeling to relate the time to thaw and the non-uniformity of thawing to power cycling, power level and the surface heat transfer coefficient. The governing energy equation was formulated with an exponential decay of the microwave flux from the surface. Surface microwave flux was obtained from the measured temperature rise using inverse heat transfer analysis. Gradual phase change was formulated as an apparent specific heat, and was obtained for the experimental material tylose from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements. The temperatures were measured immediately following heating with a fast response thermocouple. Dielectric properties were measured above freezing. Results show that the microwave flux at the surface and its decay are affected by the changes in the power level. Power cycling has an almost identical effect as continuous power at the reduced level of the average cycled power. As power level increases, the surface flux increases by the same fraction. At higher power levels, however, the outside thaws relatively faster. A "shield" develops due to a much reduced microwave penetration depth at the surface. This thawing time at higher power levels is reduced considerably. Temperature increases initially are non-uniform since the surface is heated at a faster rate than the interior. In keeping with the assumption that once the temperature reaches 100 degrees C, all energy absorbed goes into evaporation, and subsequent temperature is maintained at 100 degrees C. Thus, eventually, non-uniformity starts to decrease.

  6. Monitoring the Thermal Power of Nuclear Reactors with a Prototype Cubic Meter Antineutrino Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Bernstein, A; Misner, A; Palmer, T

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we estimate how quickly and how precisely a reactor's operational status and thermal power can be monitored over hour to month time scales, using the antineutrino rate as measured by a cubic meter scale detector. Our results are obtained from a detector we have deployed and operated at 25 meter standoff from a reactor core. This prototype can detect a prompt reactor shutdown within five hours, and monitor relative thermal power to three percent within seven days. Monitoring of short-term power changes in this way may be useful in the context of International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) Reactor Safeguards Regime, or other cooperative monitoring regimes.

  7. Improved Power Quality Monitoring through Phasor Measurement Unit Data Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pertl, Michael; Marinelli, Mattia; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2015-01-01

    the correct actions for operating the system. In future power systems more measuring sensors including phasor measurement units will be available distributed all over the power system. They can and should be utilized to increase the observability of the power system. In this paper the impact of photovoltaic....... The voltage unbalance factor (VUF) could be a ‘new’ observable for a particular power system condition. Information about the actual injected wind power for a certain grid area could be derived without knowing/measuring the real wind power injection....

  8. DESIGN OF GROUNDWATER LEVEL MONITORING NETWORK WITH ORDINARY KRIGING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Feng-guang; CAO Shu-you; LIU Xing-nian; YANG Ke-jun

    2008-01-01

    The primary network of groundwater level observation wells aims at realizing a regional groundwater management policy. It may give a regional picture of groundwater level with emphasis on the natural situation. Observation data from the primary network can be used to estimate the actual state of groundwater system. Since the cost of the installation and maintenance of a groundwater monitoring network is extremely high, the assessment of effectiveness of the network becomes very necessary. Groundwater level monitoring networks are the examples of discontinuous sampling on variables presenting spatial continuity and highly skewed frequency distributions. Anywhere in the aquifer, ordinary kriging provides estimates of the variable sampled and a standard error of the estimate. In this article, the average Kriging standard deviation was used as a criterion for the determination of network density,and the GIS-based approach was analysized. A case study of groundwater level network simulation in the Chaiwopu Basin, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China, was presented. In the case study, the initial phreatic water observation wells were 18, a comparison of the three variogram parameters of the three defferent variogram models shows that the Gaussian model is the best. Finally, a network with 55 wells was constructed.

  9. ATLAS level-1 calorimeter trigger: Monitoring and data reprocessing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimond, David; Hong, Tae; Carlson, Benjamin; Atlas Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    We present the monitoring and data reprocessing for the calorimeter-based hardware level-1 trigger system (L1Calo) for the ATLAS experiment. This trigger system was upgraded after the Run-1 data taking period (2009-2012) to prepare for Run-2 (2015-current), which allowed better control the event rates for algorithms based on jets and/or missing energy. Monitoring tools for the upgraded system is described. We also present a new offline tool to reprocess previous data samples with altered L1Calo settings, such as calibration constants and noise cuts. The samples are used to study the dependence of the event rates and signal efficiencies on the settings. The studies can help plan the appropriate L1Calo settings for upcoming data taking periods as well as for future runs.

  10. Battery Energy Storage System for PV Output Power Leveling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkiran Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuating photovoltaic (PV output power reduces the reliability in power system when there is a massive penetration of PV generators. Energy storage systems that are connected to the PV generators using bidirectional isolated dc-dc converter can be utilized for compensating the fluctuating PV power. This paper presents a grid connected energy storage system based on a 2 kW full-bridge bidirectional isolated dc-dc converter and a PWM converter for PV output power leveling. This paper proposes two controllers: a current controller using the d-q synchronous reference and a phase-shift controller. The main function of the current controller is to regulate the voltage at the high-side dc, so that the voltage ratio of the high-voltage side (HVS with low-voltage side (LVS is equal to the transformer turns ratio. The phase-shift controller is employed to manage the charging and discharging modes of the battery based on PV output power and battery voltage. With the proposed system, unity power factor and efficient active power injection are achieved. The feasibility of the proposed control system is investigated using PSCAD simulation.

  11. Smart Technique for Induction Motors Diagnosis by Monitoring the Power Factor Using Only the Measured Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shnibha, R. A.; Albarabar, A. S.

    2012-05-01

    This paper is concerned with accurate, early and reliable induction motor IM fault detection and diagnosis using an enhanced power parameter measurement technique. IM protection devices typically monitor the motor current and/or voltage to provide the motor protection from e.g. current overload, over/under voltage, etc. One of the interesting parameters to monitor is the operating power factor (PF) of the IM which provides better under-load protection compared to the motor current based approaches. The PF of the motor is determined by the level of the current and voltage that are drawn, and offers non-intrusive monitoring. Traditionally, PF estimation would require both voltage and the current measurements to apply the displacement method. This paper will use a method of determining the operating PF of the IM using only the measured current and the manufacturer data that are typically available from the nameplate and/or datasheet for IM monitoring. The novelty of this work lies in detecting very low phase imbalance related faults and misalignment. Much of the previous work has dealt with detecting phase imbalance faults at higher degrees of severity, i.e. voltage drops of 10% or more. The technique was tested by empirical measurements on test rig comprised a 1.1 kW variable speed three phase induction motor with varying output load (No load, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% load). One common faults was introduced; imbalance in one phase as the electrical fault The experimental results demonstrate that the PF can be successfully applied for IM fault diagnosis and the present study shows that severity fault detection using PF is promising. The proposed method offers a potentially reliable, non-intrusive, and inexpensive CM tool which can be implemented with real-time monitoring systems

  12. Power monitoring in space nuclear reactors using silicon carbide radiation detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddy, Frank H.; Patel, Jagdish U.; Williams, John G.

    2005-01-01

    Space reactor power monitors based on silicon carbide (SiC) semiconductor neutron detectors are proposed. Detection of fast leakage neutrons using SiC detectors in ex-core locations could be used to determine reactor power: Neutron fluxes, gamma-ray dose rates and ambient temperatures have been calculated as a function of distance from the reactor core, and the feasibility of power monitoring with SiC detectors has been evaluated at several ex-core locations. Arrays of SiC diodes can be configured to provide the required count rates to monitor reactor power from startup to full power Due to their resistance to temperature and the effects of neutron and gamma-ray exposure, SiC detectors can be expected to provide power monitoring information for the fill mission of a space reactor.

  13. Remote and Centralized Monitoring of PV Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopacz, Csaba; Spataru, Sergiu; Sera, Dezso

    2014-01-01

    the inverters within each PV plant. The monitoring software stores the PV measurements in a data warehouse optimized for managing and data mining large amounts of data, from where it can be later visualized, analyzed and exported. By combining PV production measurements data with I-V curve measurements......This paper presents the concept and operating principles of a low-cost and flexible monitoring system for PV plants. Compared to classical solutions which can require dedicated hardware and/or specialized data logging systems, the monitoring system we propose allows parallel monitoring of PV plants...

  14. Industrial power monitoring and control : Power management system helps plant reduce energy demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crossley, L.E. [E2MS Inc., Whitby, ON (Canada); Demysh, M. [Diversa Cast Technologies, Guelph, ON (Canada)

    2001-05-01

    A power management system, consisting of a real time demand management system designed to allow managers to reduce operating costs via the automatic control of plant furnace loads with interference to production kept to a minimum, was installed at Diversa Cast Technologies in Guelph, Ontario. Diversa Cast Technologies manufactures aluminium, gray and ductile iron automotive lost foam castings. The potential load at the plant is approximately 5000 kW, and comprises two coreless induction melters and supporting equipment. Used for iron batch melting in the off peak hours between 2300 hours and 0700 hours, the first melter is rated at 2750 kW with 8000 lbs capacity. The aluminium heal melting during the on peak hours is handled by the second melter rated at 1250 kW with a 2700 lbs capacity. The electric utility operates on a time-of-use basis which includes penalties for on-peak demand. The installation of the system is described, along with its operation. The software comprises a number of modules to control all the necessary functions associated with data acquisition and analysis. The modules include: communications module, display module, analysis module, report module, database filer, and a system and cost configuration module. Commissioned in February 2000, the system has operated for approximately two months. After the initial period of two weeks where the system was in a monitoring mode to determine the baseline of energy demand and consumption, the demand control was activated. The numerous advantages of the system include better efficiency in the way energy is used, a reduction in the power factor penalties, power factor savings. The payback for this system is less than 8 months. The overall demand was lowered, the productivity improved along with the energy consumption efficiency. 4 figs.

  15. Aerobic Capacity and Anaerobic Power Levels of the University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskin, Cengiz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of study was to analyze aerobic capacity and anaerobic power levels of the university students. Total forty university students who is department physical education and department business (age means; 21.15±1.46 years for male and age means; 20.55±1.79 years for female in department physical education), volunteered to participate in this…

  16. A low power sub- μW chemical gilbert cell for ISFET differential reaction monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalofonou, Melpomeni; Toumazou, Christofer

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents a low power current-mode method for monitoring differentially derived changes in pH from ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET) sensors, by adopting the Chemical Gilbert Cell. The fabricated system, with only a few transistors, achieves differential measurements and therefore drift minimisation of continuously recorded pH signals obtained from biochemical reactions such as DNA amplification in addition to combined gain tunability using only a single current. Experimental results are presented, demonstrating the capabilities of the front-end at a microscopic level through integration in a lab-on-chip (LoC) setup combining a microfluidic assembly, suitable for applications that require differential monitoring in small volumes, such as DNA detection where more than one gene needs to be studied. The system was designed and fabricated in a typical 0.35 μ m CMOS process with the resulting topology achieving good differential pH sensitivity with a measured low power consumption of only 165 nW due to weak inversion operation. A tunable gain is demonstrated with results confirming 15.56 dB gain at 20 nA of ISFET bias current and drift reduction of up to 100 times compared to a single-ended measurement is also reported due to the differential current output, making it ideal for robust, low-power chemical measurement.

  17. Geodetic infrastructure at the Barcelona harbour for sea level monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Benjamin, Juan Jose; Gili, Josep; Lopez, Rogelio; Tapia, Ana; Pros, Francesc; Palau, Vicenc; Perez, Begona

    2015-04-01

    The presentation is directed to the description of the actual geodetic infrastructure of Barcelona harbour with three tide gauges of different technologies for sea level determination and contribution to regional sea level rise and understanding past and present sea level rise in the Barcelona harbour. It is intended that the overall system will constitute a CGPS Station of the ESEAS (European Sea Level) and TIGA (GPS Tide Gauge Benchmark Monitoring) networks. At Barcelona harbour there is a MIROS radar tide gauge belonging to Puertos del Estado (Spanish Harbours).The radar sensor is over the water surface, on a L-shaped structure which elevates it a few meters above the quay shelf. 1-min data are transmitted to the ENAGAS Control Center by cable and then sent each 1 min to Puertos del Estado by e-mail. The information includes wave forescast (mean period, significant wave height, sea level, etc.This sensor also measures agitation and sends wave parameters each 20 min. There is a GPS station Leica Geosystems GRX1200 GG Pro and antenna AX 1202 GG. The Control Tower of the Port of Barcelona is situated in the North dike of the so-called Energy Pier in the Barcelona harbor (Spain). This tower has different kind of antennas for navigation monitoring and a GNSS permanent station. As the tower is founded in reclaimed land, and because its metallic structure, the 50 m building is subjected to diverse movements, including periodic fluctuations due to temperature changes. In this contribution the 2009, 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014 the necessary monitoring campaigns are described. In the framework of a Spanish Space Project, the instrumentation of sea level measurements has been improved by providing the Barcelona site with a radar tide gauge Datamar 2000C from Geonica S.L. in June 2014 near an acoustic tide gauge from the Barcelona Harbour installed in 2013. Precision levelling has been made several times in the last two years because the tower is founded in reclaimed land and

  18. Wireless power transfer and data communication for neural implants case study : epilepsy monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Yilmaz, Gürkan

    2017-01-01

    This book presents new circuits and systems for implantable biomedical applications targeting neural recording. The authors describe a system design adapted to conform to the requirements of an epilepsy monitoring system. Throughout the book, these requirements are reflected in terms of implant size, power consumption, and data rate. In addition to theoretical background which explains the relevant technical challenges, the authors provide practical, step-by-step solutions to these problems. Readers will gain understanding of the numerical values in such a system, enabling projections for feasibility of new projects. Provides complete, system-level perspective for implantable batteryless biomedical system; Extends design example to implementation and long term in-vitro validation; Discusses system design concerns regarding wireless power transmission and wireless data communication, particularly for systems in which both are performed on the same channel/frequency; Presents fully-integrated, implantable syste...

  19. Using Fyrite to monitor incubator carbon dioxide levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J E; Boone, W R; Lee, S T; Blackhurst, D W

    1995-02-01

    The Fyrite analyzer (Bacharach, Incorporated) was evaluated to ascertain whether it would perform within the range specified by the manufacturer (+/- 0.5%). Fyrite analyzer samples were compared to control samples obtained using an infrared CO2 monitor (Ohmeda, Model Number 5200). Ten Fyrite analyzer measurements from each of three incubators were obtained using two different analyzers by three investigators for a total of 60 measurements per investigator. Twenty control measurements for each of the three incubators were obtained using an infrared monitor calibrated at the 5.0% CO2 level. Fyrite analyzer values fell outside of an acceptable range (Control mean CO2 +/- 0.5%) for 7 of 60 (11.7%) observations for Incubator 1 and 4 of 60 (6.7%) observations for Incubator 2. (Incubator 3 had no values outside the range.) The Fyrite analyzers were significantly different from each other (P = 0.002). The three investigators (I) differed significantly from the control (I1 and I3, P incubator calibration and monthly CO2 checks in concert with daily use of the Fyrite as a monitoring tool only is the better method.

  20. Protoflight photovoltaic power module system-level tests in the space power facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Juan C.; Kirch, Luke A.

    1989-01-01

    Work Package Four, which includes the NASA-Lewis and Rocketdyne, has selected an approach for the Space Station Freedom Photovoltaic (PV) Power Module flight certification that combines system level qualification and acceptance testing in the thermal vacuum environment: The protoflight vehicle approach. This approach maximizes ground test verification to assure system level performance and to minimize risk of on-orbit failures. The preliminary plans for system level thermal vacuum environmental testing of the protoflight PV Power Module in the NASA-Lewis Space Power Facility (SPF), are addressed. Details of the facility modifications to refurbish SPF, after 13 years of downtime, are briefly discussed. The results of an evaluation of the effectiveness of system level environmental testing in screening out incipient part and workmanship defects and unique failure modes are discussed. Preliminary test objectives, test hardware configurations, test support equipment, and operations are presented.

  1. Design of megawatt power level heat pipe reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mcclure, Patrick Ray [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Poston, David Irvin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dasari, Venkateswara Rao [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reid, Robert Stowers [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-12

    An important niche for nuclear energy is the need for power at remote locations removed from a reliable electrical grid. Nuclear energy has potential applications at strategic defense locations, theaters of battle, remote communities, and emergency locations. With proper safeguards, a 1 to 10-MWe (megawatt electric) mobile reactor system could provide robust, self-contained, and long-term power in any environment. Heat pipe-cooled fast-spectrum nuclear reactors have been identified as a candidate for these applications. Heat pipe reactors, using alkali metal heat pipes, are perfectly suited for mobile applications because their nature is inherently simpler, smaller, and more reliable than “traditional” reactors. The goal of this project was to develop a scalable conceptual design for a compact reactor and to identify scaling issues for compact heat pipe cooled reactors in general. Toward this goal two detailed concepts were developed, the first concept with more conventional materials and a power of about 2 MWe and a the second concept with less conventional materials and a power level of about 5 MWe. A series of more qualitative advanced designs were developed (with less detail) that show power levels can be pushed to approximately 30 MWe.

  2. 10 CFR 50.65 - Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... maintenance at nuclear power plants. 50.65 Section 50.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC... Construction Permits § 50.65 Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power..., including normal shutdown operations. (a)(1) Each holder of an operating license for a nuclear power......

  3. Condition based maintenance optimization for wind power generation systems under continuous monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Zhigang; Wu, Bairong; Ding, Fangfang [Concordia Institute for Information Systems Engineering, Concordia University, 1515 Ste-Catherine Street, West EV-7.637, Montreal (Canada); Jin, Tongdan [Ingram School of Engineering, Texas State University (United States)

    2011-05-15

    By utilizing condition monitoring information collected from wind turbine components, condition based maintenance (CBM) strategy can be used to reduce the operation and maintenance costs of wind power generation systems. The existing CBM methods for wind power generation systems deal with wind turbine components separately, that is, maintenance decisions are made on individual components, rather than the whole system. However, a wind farm generally consists of multiple wind turbines, and each wind turbine has multiple components including main bearing, gearbox, generator, etc. There are economic dependencies among wind turbines and their components. That is, once a maintenance team is sent to the wind farm, it may be more economical to take the opportunity to maintain multiple turbines, and when a turbine is stopped for maintenance, it may be more cost-effective to simultaneously replace multiple components which show relatively high risks. In this paper, we develop an optimal CBM solution to the above-mentioned issues. The proposed maintenance policy is defined by two failure probability threshold values at the wind turbine level. Based on the condition monitoring and prognostics information, the failure probability values at the component and the turbine levels can be calculated, and the optimal CBM decisions can be made accordingly. A simulation method is developed to evaluate the cost of the CBM policy. A numerical example is provided to illustrate the proposed CBM approach. A comparative study based on commonly used constant-interval maintenance policy demonstrates the advantage of the proposed CBM approach in reducing the maintenance cost. (author)

  4. Fractional-power-law level statistics due to dynamical tunneling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäcker, Arnd; Ketzmerick, Roland; Löck, Steffen; Mertig, Normann

    2011-01-14

    For systems with a mixed phase space we demonstrate that dynamical tunneling universally leads to a fractional power law of the level-spacing distribution P(s) over a wide range of small spacings s. Going beyond Berry-Robnik statistics, we take into account that dynamical tunneling rates between the regular and the chaotic region vary over many orders of magnitude. This results in a prediction of P(s) which excellently describes the spectral data of the standard map. Moreover, we show that the power-law exponent is proportional to the effective Planck constant h(eff).

  5. Grid Monitoring and Advanced Control of Distributed Power Generation Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Timbus, Adrian Vasile

    2007-01-01

    The movement towards a clean technology for energy production and the constraints in reducing the CO2 emissions are some factors facilitating the growth of distributed power generation systems based on renewable energy resources. Consequently, large penetration of distributed generators has been reported in some countries creating concerns about power system stability. This leads to a continuous evolution of grid interconnection requirements towards a better controllability of generated power...

  6. Functional Level Power Analysis: An Efficient Approach for Modeling the Power Consumption of Complex Processors

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    A high-level consumption estimation methodology and its associated tool, SoftExplorer, are presented. The estimation methodology uses a functional modeling of the processor combined with a parametric model to allow the designer to estimate the power consumption when the embedded software is executed on the target. SoftExplorer uses as input the assembly code generated by the compiler; its efficiency is compared to SimplePower's approach. Results for different processors (TI C62, C67, C55 and ...

  7. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory Environmental Monitoring Report, Calendar Year 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-12-31

    The effluent and environmental monitoring programs conducted by KAPL at the Knolls and Kesselring Sites are designed to determine the effectiveness of treatment and control methods, to provide measurement of the concentrations in effluents for comparison with applicable standards, and to assess resultant concentrations in the environment. The monitoring programs include analyses of samples of liquid and gaseous effluents for chemical constituents and radioactivity as well as environmental monitoring of air, water, sediment, and fish. Radiation measurements are also made around the perimeter of the Knolls and Kesselring Sites and at off-site background locations.

  8. Monitoring the levels of important nutrients in the food supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, B; Sacks, G; Swinburn, B; Vandevijvere, S; Dunford, E; Snowdon, W; Webster, J; Barquera, S; Friel, S; Hawkes, C; Kelly, B; Kumanyika, S; L'Abbé, M; Lee, A; Lobstein, T; Ma, J; Macmullan, J; Mohan, S; Monteiro, C; Rayner, M; Sanders, D; Walker, C

    2013-10-01

    A food supply that delivers energy-dense products with high levels of salt, saturated fats and trans fats, in large portion sizes, is a major cause of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The highly processed foods produced by large food corporations are primary drivers of increases in consumption of these adverse nutrients. The objective of this paper is to present an approach to monitoring food composition that can both document the extent of the problem and underpin novel actions to address it. The monitoring approach seeks to systematically collect information on high-level contextual factors influencing food composition and assess the energy density, salt, saturated fat, trans fats and portion sizes of highly processed foods for sale in retail outlets (with a focus on supermarkets and quick-service restaurants). Regular surveys of food composition are proposed across geographies and over time using a pragmatic, standardized methodology. Surveys have already been undertaken in several high- and middle-income countries, and the trends have been valuable in informing policy approaches. The purpose of collecting data is not to exhaustively document the composition of all foods in the food supply in each country, but rather to provide information to support governments, industry and communities to develop and enact strategies to curb food-related NCDs.

  9. Fiber optical magnetic field sensor for power generator monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willsch, Michael; Bosselmann, Thomas; Villnow, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Inside of large electrical engines such as power generators and large drives, extreme electric and magnetic fields can occur which cannot be measured electrically. Novel fiber optical magnetic field sensors are being used to characterize the fields and recognize inner faults of large power generators.

  10. Optimized MPPT-based converter for TEG energy harvester to power wireless sensor and monitoring system in nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Shaoxu; Anakok, Isil; Zuo, Lei

    2017-04-01

    Accidents like Fukushima Disasters push people to improve the monitoring systems for the nuclear power plants. Thus, various types of energy harvesters are designed to power these systems and the Thermoelectric Generator (TEG) energy harvester is one of them. In order to enhance the amount of harvested power and the system efficiency, the power management stage needs to be carefully designed. In this paper, a power converter with optimized Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) is proposed for the TEG Energy Harvester to power the wireless sensor network in nuclear power plant. The TEG Energy Harvester is installed on the coolant pipe of the nuclear plant and harvests energy from its heat energy while the power converter with optimized MPPT can make the TEG Energy Harvester output the maximum power, quickly response to the voltage change and provide sufficient energy for wireless sensor system to monitor the operation of the nuclear power plant. Due to the special characteristics of the Single-Ended Primary Inductor Converter (SEPIC) when it is working in the Discontinuous Inductor Current Mode (DICM) and Continuous Conduction Mode (CCM), the MPPT method presented in this paper would be able to control the converter to achieve the maximum output power in any working conditions of the TEG system with a simple circuit. The optimized MPPT algorithm will significantly reduce the cost and simplify the system as well as achieve a good performance. Experiment test results have shown that, comparing to a fixed- duty-cycle SEPIC which is specifically designed for the working on the secondary coolant loop in nuclear power plant, the optimized MPPT algorithm increased the output power by 55%.

  11. Analog-experiment analysis of ash-deposition monitoring model of boiler economizers in power plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Wei-liang; XIA Guo-dong; XU Shou-chen

    2005-01-01

    Ash deposition is a form of particulate fouling, and appears usually in boiler economizers. The ash deposition increases capital expenditure, energy input and maintenance costs. An analog experiment for monitoring ash deposition was performed from the analogous objective of a 410 t/h boiler economizer to verify the rationality and reliability of the ash-deposition-monitoring model presented in order to increase the security and economy in economizer running. The analog experiment platform is a tube-shell exchanger that conforms well to the conditions of a self-modeling area. The analog flue gas in the shell side is the heated air mixed with ash,and in the tube side the fluid is water heated by the flue gas. The fluid state in the water side and the flue gas side follows the second self-modeling area. A 4-factor-3 level orthogonal table was used to schedule 9 operation conditions of orthogonal experiment, with the 4 factors being heat power, flue gas velocity, ashes grain diameter and adding ashes quantity while the three levels are different values due to different position classes in every factor. The ash deposition thermal resistances is calculated by the model with the measure parameters of temperature and pressure drop. It shows that the values of the ash deposition thermal resistances gradually increase up to a stable state. And the experimental results are reliable by F testing method at α = 0. 001. Therefore, the model can be applied in online monitoring of ash deposition in a boiler economizers in power plants and provides scientific decision on ash deposition prediction and sootblowing.

  12. Striction-based Power Monitoring in Space Environment Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The program delivers a completely new technology solution to isolation and sensing of power flow (current and voltage). Based on striction materials technology,...

  13. Power Replenishment Patch for Spacecraft Health Monitoring Sensors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Metis Design Corporation (MDC) proposes the development of a strain-based power replenishment technology to harvest energy for recharging remote sensors. MDC has...

  14. SEVEN LEVEL CONTROL OF SHUNT ACTIVE POWER FILTER FOR POWER QUALITY ENHANCEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. JAYAKRISHNA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Shunt Active Power Filter (SAPF is one of the controllers to enhance power quality (PQ. This paper presents Hybrid Cascaded Seven-Level Inverter (HCSLI used in SAPF to compensate reactive power, improve the power factor and to suppress the total harmonic distortion (THD in supply current due to linear load and Non- Linear Diode Rectifier Loads (NLDRLs.In this paper d-q reference frame theory for reference current computation, Constant Switching Frequency Multicarrier Sub-Harmonic Pulse Width Modulation (CSFMSHPWM technique for controlling the switches of HCSLI, Fuzzy logic controller (FLC for regulating dc side capacitor voltage are proposed. The results are validated through simulation using Mat Lab/simulink with and without SAPF for linear and nonlinear loads.

  15. A development of ITV system for power transmission line monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Hong Keun; Kim, Seok Ku; Lee, Kwang Joong; Lee, Won Bin [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center

    1995-12-31

    Transmission lines which are important to supply the electricity installed on the terrestrially severe site such as mountains needed to be monitored to prevent electric fault by snow accelerating, icing, tree contact, fire etc. Inspections by human patrol has been done but it seems not so efficient and satisfiable. To cope with this a transmission line monitoring system using industrial television and OPGW was developed and field trilled at the site. This paper describes about the optical video transceiver, video distributor and control devices (author).

  16. Device for timing and power level setting for microwave applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursu, M.-P.; Buidoş, T.

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays, the microwaves are widely used for various technological processes. The microwaves are emitted by magnetrons, which have strict requirements concerning power supplies for anode and filament cathodes, intensity of magnetic field, cooling and electromagnetic shielding. The magnetrons do not tolerate any alteration of their required voltages, currents and magnetic fields, which means that their output microwave power is fixed, so the only way to alter the power level is to use time-division, by turning the magnetron on and off by repetitive time patterns. In order to attain accurate and reproducible results, as well as correct and safe operation of the microwave device, all these requirements must be fulfilled. Safe, correct and reproducible operation of the microwave appliance can be achieved by means of a specially built electronic device, which ensures accurate and reproducible exposure times, interlocking of the commands and automatic switch off when abnormal operating conditions occur. This driving device, designed and realized during the completion of Mr.Ursu's doctoral thesis, consists of a quartz time-base, several programmable frequency and duration dividers, LED displays, sensors and interlocking gates. The active and passive electronic components are placed on custom-made PCB's, designed and made by means of computer-aided applications and machines. The driving commands of the electronic device are delivered to the magnetron power supplies by means of optic zero-passing relays. The inputs of the electronic driving device can sense the status of the microwave appliance. The user is able to enter the total exposure time, the division factor that sets the output power level and, as a novelty, the clock frequency of the time divider.

  17. Automatic and Intelligent Power Quality Disturbances Monitoring Based on Multi-Agent Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hajian

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Power quality monitoring is the first step in the identification of power quality disturbances and reducing them in order to improve the performance of the power system. The aim of this paper is to propose the architecture of a new intelligent strategy for online and offline power quality monitoring system based on multi-agent systems. In this study, a multi-agent system for solving some problems in power quality monitoring, including computational complexity, low accuracy, change in the data pattern, non adaptive structure of detection system to changing conditions is proposed. In the proposed strategy, the agent characteristics, such as automatic and dynamic performance, intelligent, learning, reasoning ability, objectively and interoperability of agents are used. This paper is presented in two stages. In the one stage, to indicate problems in power quality monitoring, different methods of feature extraction, feature selection and classification for automatic recognition of power quality disturbances have been analyzed. Optimal selection of input feature vector of distinguish system is applied using different methods of data mining. Also, three well-known classifiers are considered. In another stage of the paper, to solve some challenges, the design of investigated structures in the form of a multi-agent system is expressed. The results of the experiments in this paper demonstrate the superiority of agents and multi-agent systems for online and offline power quality monitoring.

  18. A two-tiered self-powered wireless monitoring system architecture for bridge health management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurata, Masahiro; Lynch, Jerome P.; Galchev, Tzeno; Flynn, Michael; Hipley, Patrick; Jacob, Vince; van der Linden, Gwendolyn; Mortazawi, Amir; Najafi, Khalil; Peterson, Rebecca L.; Sheng, Li-Hong; Sylvester, Dennis; Thometz, Edward

    2010-04-01

    Bridges are an important societal resource used to carry vehicular traffic within a transportation network. As such, the economic impact of the failure of a bridge is high; the recent failure of the I-35W Bridge in Minnesota (2007) serves as a poignant example. Structural health monitoring (SHM) systems can be adopted to detect and quantify structural degradation and damage in an affordable and real-time manner. This paper presents a detailed overview of a multi-tiered architecture for the design of a low power wireless monitoring system for large and complex infrastructure systems. The monitoring system architecture employs two wireless sensor nodes, each with unique functional features and varying power demand. At the lowest tier of the system architecture is the ultra-low power Phoenix wireless sensor node whose design has been optimized to draw minimal power during standby. These ultra low-power nodes are configured to communicate their measurements to a more functionally-rich wireless sensor node residing on the second-tier of the monitoring system architecture. While the Narada wireless sensor node offers more memory, greater processing power and longer communication ranges, it also consumes more power during operation. Radio frequency (RF) and mechanical vibration power harvesting is integrated with the wireless sensor nodes to allow them to operate freely for long periods of time (e.g., years). Elements of the proposed two-tiered monitoring system architecture are validated upon an operational long-span suspension bridge.

  19. New methods for the condition monitoring of level crossings

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Márquez, Fausto Pedro; Pedregal, Diego J.; Roberts, Clive

    2015-04-01

    Level crossings represent a high risk for railway systems. This paper demonstrates the potential to improve maintenance management through the use of intelligent condition monitoring coupled with reliability centred maintenance (RCM). RCM combines advanced electronics, control, computing and communication technologies to address the multiple objectives of cost effectiveness, improved quality, reliability and services. RCM collects digital and analogue signals utilising distributed transducers connected to either point-to-point or digital bus communication links. Assets in many industries use data logging capable of providing post-failure diagnostic support, but to date little use has been made of combined qualitative and quantitative fault detection techniques. The research takes the hydraulic railway level crossing barrier (LCB) system as a case study and develops a generic strategy for failure analysis, data acquisition and incipient fault detection. For each barrier the hydraulic characteristics, the motor's current and voltage, hydraulic pressure and the barrier's position are acquired. In order to acquire the data at a central point efficiently, without errors, a distributed single-cable Fieldbus is utilised. This allows the connection of all sensors through the project's proprietary communication nodes to a high-speed bus. The system developed in this paper for the condition monitoring described above detects faults by means of comparing what can be considered a 'normal' or 'expected' shape of a signal with respect to the actual shape observed as new data become available. ARIMA (autoregressive integrated moving average) models were employed for detecting faults. The statistical tests known as Jarque-Bera and Ljung-Box have been considered for testing the model.

  20. Development of self-powered wireless high temperature electrochemical sensor for in situ corrosion monitoring of coal-fired power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Naing Naing; Crowe, Edward; Liu, Xingbo

    2015-03-01

    Reliable wireless high temperature electrochemical sensor technology is needed to provide in situ corrosion information for optimal predictive maintenance to ensure a high level of operational effectiveness under the harsh conditions present in coal-fired power generation systems. This research highlights the effectiveness of our novel high temperature electrochemical sensor for in situ coal ash hot corrosion monitoring in combination with the application of wireless communication and an energy harvesting thermoelectric generator (TEG). This self-powered sensor demonstrates the successful wireless transmission of both corrosion potential and corrosion current signals to a simulated control room environment.

  1. Autonomus I&C Maintenance and Health Monitoring System for Fission Surface Power Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary goal of this project is to design and develop an autonomous instrumentation and control (I&C) health monitoring system for space nuclear power...

  2. On-Line Partial Discharge Monitoring and Diagnostic System for Power Transformer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Du; JIANG Lei; LI Fuqi; ZHU Deheng; TAN Kexiong; WU Chengqi; JIN Xianhe; WANG Changchang; CHENG T. C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces a computerized on-line partial discharge (PD) monitoring and diagnostic system for transformers. The system, which is already in use in a power station, uses wide-band active transducers and a data acquisition unit with modularized and exchangeable components. The system software is a power equipment monitoring and diagnostic system, which is based on the component object model, and was developed for monitoring multiple parameters in multiple power supply systems. The statistical characteristics of PDs in power transformers were studied using 7 experimental models for simulating PDs in transformers and 3 models for simulating interfering discharges in air. The discharge features were analyzed using a 3-D pattern chart with a three-layer back-propagation artificial neural network used to recognize the patterns. The results show that PDs in air and oil can be distinguished. The model can be used for interference rejection on-line monitoring of partial discharge in transformers.

  3. 77 FR 24228 - Condition Monitoring Techniques for Electric Cables Used in Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    ...The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC or the Commission) is issuing a new guide regulatory guide, (RG) 1.218, ``Condition Monitoring Techniques for Electric Cables Used in Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide describes techniques that the staff of the NRC considers acceptable for condition monitoring of electric cables for nuclear power plants. RG 1.218 is not intended to be prescriptive,......

  4. Power analysis and trend detection for water quality monitoring data. An application for the Greater Yellowstone Inventory and Monitoring Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Kathryn M.; Manlove, Kezia; Hollimon, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    An important consideration for long term monitoring programs is determining the required sampling effort to detect trends in specific ecological indicators of interest. To enhance the Greater Yellowstone Inventory and Monitoring Network’s water resources protocol(s) (O’Ney 2006 and O’Ney et al. 2009 [under review]), we developed a set of tools to: (1) determine the statistical power for detecting trends of varying magnitude in a specified water quality parameter over different lengths of sampling (years) and different within-year collection frequencies (monthly or seasonal sampling) at particular locations using historical data, and (2) perform periodic trend analyses for water quality parameters while addressing seasonality and flow weighting. A power analysis for trend detection is a statistical procedure used to estimate the probability of rejecting the hypothesis of no trend when in fact there is a trend, within a specific modeling framework. In this report, we base our power estimates on using the seasonal Kendall test (Helsel and Hirsch 2002) for detecting trend in water quality parameters measured at fixed locations over multiple years. We also present procedures (R-scripts) for conducting a periodic trend analysis using the seasonal Kendall test with and without flow adjustment. This report provides the R-scripts developed for power and trend analysis, tutorials, and the associated tables and graphs. The purpose of this report is to provide practical information for monitoring network staff on how to use these statistical tools for water quality monitoring data sets.

  5. High-power fiber optic cable with integrated active sensors for live process monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomster, Ola; Blomqvist, Mats; Bergstrand, Hans; Pålsson, Magnus

    2012-03-01

    In industrial applications using high-brilliance lasers at power levels up to and exceeding 20 kW and similarly direct diode lasers of 10 kW, there is an increasing demand to continuously monitor component status even in passive components such as fiber-optic cables. With fiber-optic cables designed according to the European Automotive Industry fiber standard interface there is room for integrating active sensors inside the connectors. In this paper we present the integrated active sensors in the new Optoskand QD fiber-optic cable designed to handle extreme levels of power losses, and how these sensors can be employed in industrial manufacturing. The sensors include photo diodes for detection of scattered light inside the fiber connector, absolute temperature of the fiber connector, difference in temperature of incoming and outgoing cooling water, and humidity measurement inside the fiber connector. All these sensors are connected to the fiber interlock system, where interlock break enable functions can be activated when measured signals are higher than threshold levels. It is a very fast interlock break system as the control of the signals is integrated in the electronics inside the fiber connector. Also, since all signals can be logged it is possible to evaluate what happened inside the connector before the interlock break instance. The communication to the fiber-optic connectors is via a CAN interface. Thus it is straightforward to develop the existing laser host control to also control the CAN-messages from the QD sensors.

  6. Automated system for monitoring groundwater levels at an experimental low-level waste disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newbold, J.D.; Bogle, M.A.

    1984-06-01

    One of the major problems with disposing of low-level solid wastes in the eastern United States is the potential for water-waste interactions and leachate migration. To monitor groundwater fluctuations and the frequency with which groundwater comes into contact with a group of experimental trenches, work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Engineered Test Facility (ETF) has employed a network of water level recorders that feed information from 15 on-site wells to a centralized data recording system. The purpose of this report is to describe the monitoring system being used and to document the computer programs that have been developed to process the data. Included in this report are data based on more than 2 years of water level information for ETF wells 1 through 12 and more than 6 months of data from all 15 wells. The data thus reflect both long-term trends as well as a large number of short-term responses to individual storm events. The system was designed to meet the specific needs of the ETF, but the hardware and computer routines have generic application to a variety of groundwater monitoring situations. 5 references.

  7. Monitored Natural Attenuation as a Remediation Strategy for Nuclear Power Plant Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K.; Bushart, S.

    2009-12-01

    A NRC Information Notice (IN 2006-13) was produced to inform holders of nuclear operating licenses “of the occurrence of radioactive contamination of ground water at multiple facilities due to undetected leakage from facility structures, systems, or components (SSCs) that contain or transport radioactive fluids” so that they could consider actions, as appropriate, to avoid similar problems. To reinforce their commitment to environmental stewardship the nuclear energy industry has committed to improving management of situations that have the potential to lead to the inadvertent release of radioactive fluids. This Industry Groundwater Protection Initiative, finalized in June 2007 as [NEI 07-07], calls for implementation and improvement of on-site groundwater monitoring programs and enhanced communications with stakeholders and regulators about situations related to inadvertent releases. EPRI developed its Groundwater Protection Program to provide the nuclear energy industry with the technical support needed to implement the Industry Groundwater Initiative. An objective of the EPRI Groundwater Protection Program is to provide the nuclear industry with technically sound guidance for implementing and enhancing on-site groundwater monitoring programs. EPRI, in collaboration with the EPRI Groundwater Protection Committee of utility members, developed the EPRI Groundwater Protection Guidelines for Nuclear Power Plants (EPRI Report 1015118, November 2007), which provides site-specific guidance for implementing a technically sound groundwater monitoring program. The guidance applies a graded approach for nuclear plants to tailor a technically effective and cost efficient groundwater monitoring program to the site’s hydrogeology and risk for groundwater contamination. As part of the Groundwater Protection Program, EPRI is also investigating innovative remediation technologies for addressing low-level radioactive contamination in soils and groundwater at nuclear power

  8. Environmental Radiation Monitoring During Visits of Nuclear Powered Warships to Australian Ports

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    through the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation ( ANSTO ), is to ensure that an appropriately qualified officer is available for each...monitoring equipment, * Radiation Monitoring Handbook for Visits by Nuclear Powered Warships to Australian Ports, ANSTO , 1985 L.ai 6 c. communication

  9. Sound power and vibration levels for two different piano soundboards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squicciarini, Giacomo; Valiente, Pablo Miranda; Thompson, David J.

    2016-09-01

    This paper compares the sound power and vibration levels for two different soundboards for upright pianos. One of them is made of laminated spruce and the other of solid spruce (tone-wood). These differ also in the number of ribs and manufacturing procedure. The methodology used is defined in two major steps: (i) acoustic power due to a unit force is obtained reciprocally by measuring the acceleration response of the piano soundboards when excited by acoustic waves in reverberant field; (ii) impact tests are adopted to measure driving point and spatially-averaged mean-square transfer mobility. The results show that, in the midhigh frequency range, the soundboard made of solid spruce has a greater vibrational and acoustic response than the laminated soundboard. The effect of string tension is also addressed, showing that is only relevant at low frequencies.

  10. Stochastic modeling and performance monitoring of wind farm power production

    CERN Document Server

    Milan, Patrick; Peinke, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    We present a new stochastic approach to describe and remodel the conversion process of a wind farm at a sampling frequency of 1Hz. When conditioning on various wind direction sectors, the dynamics of the conversion process appear as a fluctuating trajectory around an average IEC-like power curve, see section II. Our approach is to consider the wind farm as a dynamical system that can be described as a stochastic drift/diffusion model, where a drift coefficient describes the attraction towards the power curve and a diffusion coefficient quantifies additional turbulent fluctuations. These stochastic coefficients are inserted into a Langevin equation that, once properly adapted to our particular system, models a synthetic signal of power output for any given wind speed/direction signals, see section III. When combined with a pre-model for turbulent wind fluctuations, the stochastic approach models the power output of the wind farm at a sampling frequency of 1Hz using only ten-minute average values of wind speed ...

  11. Low-Power Wearable Systems for Continuous Monitoring of Environment and Health for Chronic Respiratory Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieffenderfer, James; Goodell, Henry; Mills, Steven; McKnight, Michael; Yao, Shanshan; Lin, Feiyan; Beppler, Eric; Bent, Brinnae; Lee, Bongmook; Misra, Veena; Zhu, Yong; Oralkan, Omer; Strohmaier, Jason; Muth, John; Peden, David; Bozkurt, Alper

    2016-09-01

    We present our efforts toward enabling a wearable sensor system that allows for the correlation of individual environmental exposures with physiologic and subsequent adverse health responses. This system will permit a better understanding of the impact of increased ozone levels and other pollutants on chronic asthma conditions. We discuss the inefficiency of existing commercial off-the-shelf components to achieve continuous monitoring and our system-level and nano-enabled efforts toward improving the wearability and power consumption. Our system consists of a wristband, a chest patch, and a handheld spirometer. We describe our preliminary efforts to achieve a submilliwatt system ultimately powered by the energy harvested from thermal radiation and motion of the body with the primary contributions being an ultralow-power ozone sensor, an volatile organic compounds sensor, spirometer, and the integration of these and other sensors in a multimodal sensing platform. The measured environmental parameters include ambient ozone concentration, temperature, and relative humidity. Our array of sensors also assesses heart rate via photoplethysmography and electrocardiography, respiratory rate via photoplethysmography, skin impedance, three-axis acceleration, wheezing via a microphone, and expiratory airflow. The sensors on the wristband, chest patch, and spirometer consume 0.83, 0.96, and 0.01 mW, respectively. The data from each sensor are continually streamed to a peripheral data aggregation device and are subsequently transferred to a dedicated server for cloud storage. Future work includes reducing the power consumption of the system-on-chip including radio to reduce the entirety of each described system in the submilliwatt range.

  12. Survey of ambient electromagnetic and radio-frequency interference levels in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kercel, S.W.; Moore, M.R.; Blakeman, E.D.; Ewing, P.D.; Wood, R.T.

    1996-11-01

    This document reports the results of a survey of ambient electromagnetic conditions in representative nuclear power plants. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research engaged the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to perform these measurements to characterize the electromagnetic interference (EMI) and radio-frequency interference (RFI) levels that can be expected in nuclear power plant environments. This survey is the first of its kind, being based on long-term unattended observations. The data presented in this report were measured at eight different nuclear units and required 14 months to collect. A representative sampling of power plant conditions (reactor type, operating mode, site location) monitored over extended observation periods (up to 5 weeks) were selected to more completely determine the characteristic electromagnetic environment for nuclear power plants. Radiated electric fields were measured over the frequency range of 5 MHz to 8 GHz. Radiated magnetic fields and conducted EMI events were measured over the frequency range of 305 Hz to 5 MHz. Highest strength observations of the electromagnetic ambient environment across all measurement conditions at each site provide frequency-dependent profiles for EMI/RFI levels in nuclear power plants.

  13. WAMS-based monitoring and control of Hopf bifurcations in multi-machine power systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao-bu WANG; Quan-yuan JIANG; Yi-jia CAO

    2008-01-01

    A method is proposed to monitor and control Hopf bifurcations in multi-machine power systems using the information from wide area measurement systems (WAMSs). The power method (PM) is adopted to compute the pair of conjugate eigenvalues with the algebraically largest real part and the corresponding eigenvectors of the Jacobian matrix of a power system. The distance between the current equilibrium point and the Hopf bifurcation set can be monitored dynamically by computing the pair of conjugate eigenvalues. When the current equilibrium point is close to the Hopf bifurcation set, the approximate normal vector to the Hopf bifurcation set is computed and used as a direction to regulate control parameters to avoid a Hopf bifurcation in the power system described by differential algebraic equations (DAEs). The validity of the proposed method is demonstrated by regulating the reactive power loads in a 14-bus power system.

  14. Monitoring of Power Station Steels Using Electromagnetic Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Karimian, Noushin

    2014-01-01

    With the world’s aging power generation network, especially in Europe and the United States, life-extension of steel plant components is increasingly a critical issue, as components are exposed to high temperatures and pressures during their lifetime, potentially resulting in carbide coarsening, making them prone to creep cavitation, possibly leading to component failure. Therefore, in order to evaluate the likelihood of component failure, non-destructive testing and evaluation procedures mus...

  15. ZigBee Based Industrial Automation Profile for Power Monitoring Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Archana R. Raut,; Dr. L. G. Malik

    2011-01-01

    Industrial automations which are mostly depend upon the power systems & which requires distance controlled and regulated systems. Mostly voltage and current equipped parameters along with power and energy management system forms the industrial scenario for automations. Wireless technology which meets to cost, speed and distance scenario will always be a point of an interest for research. In this research work we mainly monitored power related parameters and enable remote switching devices for...

  16. Self-Powered, Wireless, Remote Meteorologic Monitoring Based on Triboelectric Nanogenerator Operated by Scavenging Wind Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hulin; Wang, Jie; Xie, Yuhang; Yao, Guang; Yan, Zhuocheng; Huang, Long; Chen, Sihong; Pan, Taisong; Wang, Liping; Su, Yuanjie; Yang, Weiqing; Lin, Yuan

    2016-12-07

    Meteorologic monitoring plays a key role on weather forecast and disaster warning and deeply relies on various sensor networks. It is an optimal choice that grabbing the environmental energy around sensors for driving sensor network. Here, we demonstrate a self-powered, wireless, remote meteorologic monitoring system based on an innovative TENG. The TENG has been proved capable of scavenging wind energy and can be employed for self-powered, wireless meteorologic sounding. This work not only promotes the development of renewable energy harvesting, but also exploits and enriches promising applications based on TENGs for self-powered, wireless, remote sensing.

  17. Triboelectric Nanogenerator Enabled Body Sensor Network for Self-Powered Human Heart-Rate Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhiming; Chen, Jun; Li, Xiaoshi; Zhou, Zhihao; Meng, Keyu; Wei, Wei; Yang, Jin; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-09-26

    Heart-rate monitoring plays a critical role in personal healthcare management. A low-cost, noninvasive, and user-friendly heart-rate monitoring system is highly desirable. Here, a self-powered wireless body sensor network (BSN) system is developed for heart-rate monitoring via integration of a downy-structure-based triboelectric nanogenerator (D-TENG), a power management circuit, a heart-rate sensor, a signal processing unit, and Bluetooth module for wireless data transmission. By converting the inertia energy of human walking into electric power, a maximum power of 2.28 mW with total conversion efficiency of 57.9% was delivered at low operation frequency, which is capable of immediately and sustainably driving the highly integrated BSN system. The acquired heart-rate signal by the sensor would be processed in the signal process circuit, sent to an external device via the Bluetooth module, and displayed on a personal cell phone in a real-time manner. Moreover, by combining a TENG-based generator and a TENG-based sensor, an all-TENG-based wireless BSN system was developed, realizing continuous and self-powered heart-rate monitoring. This work presents a potential method for personal heart-rate monitoring, featured as being self-powered, cost-effective, noninvasive, and user-friendly.

  18. Ultracompact on-chip photothermal power monitor based on silicon hybrid plasmonic waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Ma, Ke; Shi, Yaocheng; Wosinski, Lech; Dai, Daoxin

    2017-08-01

    We propose and demonstrate an ultracompact on-chip photothermal power monitor based on a silicon hybrid plasmonic waveguide (HPWG), which consists of a metal strip, a silicon core, and a silicon oxide (SiO2) insulator layer between them. When light injected to an HPWG is absorbed by the metal strip, the temperature increases and the resistance of the metal strip changes accordingly due to the photothermal and thermal resistance effects of the metal. Therefore, the optical power variation can be monitored by measuring the resistance of the metal strip on the HPWG. To obtain the electrical signal for the resistance measurement conveniently, a Wheatstone bridge circuit is monolithically integrated with the HPWG on the same chip. As the HPWG has nanoscale light confinement, the present power monitor is as short as 3 μm, which is the smallest photothermal power monitor reported until now. The compactness helps to improve the thermal efficiency and the response speed. For the present power monitor fabricated with simple fabrication processes, the measured responsivity is as high as about 17.7 mV/mW at a bias voltage of 2 V and the power dynamic range is as large as 35 dB.

  19. Ultracompact on-chip photothermal power monitor based on silicon hybrid plasmonic waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Hao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose and demonstrate an ultracompact on-chip photothermal power monitor based on a silicon hybrid plasmonic waveguide (HPWG, which consists of a metal strip, a silicon core, and a silicon oxide (SiO2 insulator layer between them. When light injected to an HPWG is absorbed by the metal strip, the temperature increases and the resistance of the metal strip changes accordingly due to the photothermal and thermal resistance effects of the metal. Therefore, the optical power variation can be monitored by measuring the resistance of the metal strip on the HPWG. To obtain the electrical signal for the resistance measurement conveniently, a Wheatstone bridge circuit is monolithically integrated with the HPWG on the same chip. As the HPWG has nanoscale light confinement, the present power monitor is as short as ~3 μm, which is the smallest photothermal power monitor reported until now. The compactness helps to improve the thermal efficiency and the response speed. For the present power monitor fabricated with simple fabrication processes, the measured responsivity is as high as about 17.7 mV/mW at a bias voltage of 2 V and the power dynamic range is as large as 35 dB.

  20. Fixed-Level Frequency Threshold Testing for Ototoxicity Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieke, Catherine C; Clavier, Odile H; Allen, Lindsay V; Anderson, Allison P; Brooks, Chris A; Fellows, Abigail M; Brungart, Douglas S; Buckey, Jay C

    2017-03-30

    Hearing loss from ototoxicity is often most pronounced at high frequencies. To improve patient monitoring and compliance, high-frequency testing methods should be short and easy to administer. We evaluated the repeatability and accuracy of a Békésy-like, fixed-level frequency threshold (FLFT) technique. This test takes less than a minute and could provide a rapid and effective way to determine the highest audible frequency. We hypothesized the FLFT test would be repeatable in normal-hearing subjects, and accurate when compared with Békésy fixed-frequency audiometry in the sensitive region for ototoxicity (SRO). Twenty-nine normal-hearing subjects (20 females, 9 males) performed 2 different automated audiometry tests at least 4 times over a period of no less than 3 weeks. Ages ranged from 23 to 35 years (average = 28 years). Subjects completed testing under Sennheiser HDA-200 headsets. Initial fixed-frequency audiometry thresholds were obtained at frequencies ranging from 0.5 to 20 kHz to identify each subject's highest audible frequency, which was used to determine the SRO. The SRO was defined as the seven frequencies at and below the highest audible frequency in 1/6-octave steps. These frequencies were monitored with fixed-frequency audiometry. At each session, the FLFT test was administered at 80 dB SPL. Subjects used a Békésy-style tracking method to determine the frequency threshold. All testing was completed in a sound booth (single wall, Industrial Acoustics Company) using a computerized, laptop-based, system. FLFT repeatability was calculated as the root mean square difference from the first test session. FLFT accuracy was calculated as the difference from the highest audible frequency determined from fixed-frequency audiometry interpolated to 80 dB SPL level. The FLFT average RMSD for intersession variability was 0.05 ± 0.05 octaves. The test showed no learning effect [F(3,78) = 0.7; p = 0.6]. The overall intersession variability for SRO fixed

  1. Partial Discharge Monitoring in Power Transformers Using Low-Cost Piezoelectric Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Castro

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Power transformers are crucial in an electric power system. Failures in transformers can affect the quality and cause interruptions in the power supply. Partial discharges are a phenomenon that can cause failures in the transformers if not properly monitored. Typically, the monitoring requires high-cost corrective maintenance or even interruptions of the power system. Therefore, the development of online non-invasive monitoring systems to detect partial discharges in power transformers has great relevance since it can reduce significant maintenance costs. Although commercial acoustic emission sensors have been used to monitor partial discharges in power transformers, they still represent a significant cost. In order to overcome this drawback, this paper presents a study of the feasibility of low-cost piezoelectric sensors to identify partial discharges in mineral insulating oil of power transformers. The analysis of the feasibility of the proposed low-cost sensor is performed by its comparison with a commercial acoustic emission sensor commonly used to detect partial discharges. The comparison between the responses in the time and frequency domain of both sensors was carried out and the experimental results indicate that the proposed piezoelectric sensors have great potential in the detection of acoustic waves generated by partial discharges in insulation oil, contributing for the popularization of this noninvasive technique.

  2. Partial Discharge Monitoring in Power Transformers Using Low-Cost Piezoelectric Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Bruno; Clerice, Guilherme; Ramos, Caio; Andreoli, André; Baptista, Fabricio; Campos, Fernando; Ulson, José

    2016-08-10

    Power transformers are crucial in an electric power system. Failures in transformers can affect the quality and cause interruptions in the power supply. Partial discharges are a phenomenon that can cause failures in the transformers if not properly monitored. Typically, the monitoring requires high-cost corrective maintenance or even interruptions of the power system. Therefore, the development of online non-invasive monitoring systems to detect partial discharges in power transformers has great relevance since it can reduce significant maintenance costs. Although commercial acoustic emission sensors have been used to monitor partial discharges in power transformers, they still represent a significant cost. In order to overcome this drawback, this paper presents a study of the feasibility of low-cost piezoelectric sensors to identify partial discharges in mineral insulating oil of power transformers. The analysis of the feasibility of the proposed low-cost sensor is performed by its comparison with a commercial acoustic emission sensor commonly used to detect partial discharges. The comparison between the responses in the time and frequency domain of both sensors was carried out and the experimental results indicate that the proposed piezoelectric sensors have great potential in the detection of acoustic waves generated by partial discharges in insulation oil, contributing for the popularization of this noninvasive technique.

  3. Partial Discharge Monitoring in Power Transformers Using Low-Cost Piezoelectric Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Bruno; Clerice, Guilherme; Ramos, Caio; Andreoli, André; Baptista, Fabricio; Campos, Fernando; Ulson, José

    2016-01-01

    Power transformers are crucial in an electric power system. Failures in transformers can affect the quality and cause interruptions in the power supply. Partial discharges are a phenomenon that can cause failures in the transformers if not properly monitored. Typically, the monitoring requires high-cost corrective maintenance or even interruptions of the power system. Therefore, the development of online non-invasive monitoring systems to detect partial discharges in power transformers has great relevance since it can reduce significant maintenance costs. Although commercial acoustic emission sensors have been used to monitor partial discharges in power transformers, they still represent a significant cost. In order to overcome this drawback, this paper presents a study of the feasibility of low-cost piezoelectric sensors to identify partial discharges in mineral insulating oil of power transformers. The analysis of the feasibility of the proposed low-cost sensor is performed by its comparison with a commercial acoustic emission sensor commonly used to detect partial discharges. The comparison between the responses in the time and frequency domain of both sensors was carried out and the experimental results indicate that the proposed piezoelectric sensors have great potential in the detection of acoustic waves generated by partial discharges in insulation oil, contributing for the popularization of this noninvasive technique. PMID:27517931

  4. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory annual environmental monitoring report, calendar year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The results of the effluent and environmental monitoring programs at the three Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) sites are summarized and assessed in this report. The effluent and environmental monitoring programs conducted by KAPL are designed to determine the effectiveness of treatment and control methods, to provide measurement of the concentrations in effluents for comparison with applicable standards, and to assess resultant concentrations in the environment. The monitoring programs include analyses of samples of liquid and gaseous effluents for chemical constituents and radioactivity as well as monitoring of environmental air, water, sediment, and fish. Radiation measurements are also made around the perimeter of each site and at off-site background locations.

  5. Technical basis for staffing levels at nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shurberg, D.A.; Haber, S.B. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Morisseau, D. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this project is to provide a technical basis for the establishment of criteria for minimum staffing levels of licensed and non-licensed NPP shift personnel. Minimum staffing levels for the purpose of this study, are defined as those necessary for successful accomplishment of all safety and additional functions that must be performed in order for the licensee to meet applicable regulatory requirements. This project involves a multi-faceted approach to the investigation of the issue. Relevant NRC documentation was identified and reviewed. Using the information obtained from this documentation review, a test plan was developed to aid in the collection of further information regarding the adequacy of current shift staffing levels. The test plan addresses three different activities to be conducted to provide information to the NRC for use in the assessment of current minimum staffing levels. The first activity is collection of data related to industry shift staffing practices through site visits to seven nuclear power plants. The second activity is a simulator study, which will use licensed operator crews responding to a simulated event, under two different staffing levels. Finally, workload models will be constructed for both licensed and non-licensed personnel, using a priori knowledge of the simulator scenarios with data resulting from one of the staffing levels studied in the simulator, and the data collected from the site visits. The model will then be validated against the data obtained from the second staffing level studied in the simulator. The validated model can then be used to study the impact of changing staffing-related variables on the plant shift crew`s ability to effectively mitigate an event.

  6. Analysis of individual- and school-level clustering of power frequency magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, I-Fan; Li, Chung-Yi; Wang, Jung-Der

    2008-10-01

    This study reports the continuous 8-h monitoring of data on extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) relating to 14 children and 35 teachers in 11 elementary schools in Northern Taiwan. It was anticipated that the subjects in two of these campuses would have elevated exposure to ELF-MF as a result of their close proximity to high-voltage (161 kilo-Volt, kV) power lines. The results of our analysis reveal that in those schools with high-voltage power lines running through the campuses, the mean ELF-MF exposure level (0.38 +/- 0.51 micro-Tesla (microT), or 0.15, 0.25 and 0.44 microT at the respective 25th, 50th and 75th percentiles) was higher than the mean ELF-MF exposure level for campuses situated far away from such high-voltage power lines (0.14 +/- 0.27 microT, or 0.04, 0.06 and 0.10 microT at the respective 25th, 50th and 75th percentiles). The multi-level analytical technique, which takes individual measurements as the analytical unit, and which also takes into consideration the inter-correlation between measurements from the same individual and/or campus, was also applied to the analysis of the data. We conclude that individual-level and school-level clustering of the measurements, both of which were discernible in this study, should be taken into consideration in any future analysis of data obtained from the continuous monitoring of exposure to ELF-MF.

  7. Power estimation on functional level for programmable processors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schneider

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In diesem Beitrag werden verschiedene Ansätze zur Verlustleistungsschätzung von programmierbaren Prozessoren vorgestellt und bezüglich ihrer Übertragbarkeit auf moderne Prozessor-Architekturen wie beispielsweise Very Long Instruction Word (VLIW-Architekturen bewertet. Besonderes Augenmerk liegt hierbei auf dem Konzept der sogenannten Functional-Level Power Analysis (FLPA. Dieser Ansatz basiert auf der Einteilung der Prozessor-Architektur in funktionale Blöcke wie beispielsweise Processing-Unit, Clock-Netzwerk, interner Speicher und andere. Die Verlustleistungsaufnahme dieser Bl¨ocke wird parameterabhängig durch arithmetische Modellfunktionen beschrieben. Durch automatisierte Analyse von Assemblercodes des zu schätzenden Systems mittels eines Parsers können die Eingangsparameter wie beispielsweise der erzielte Parallelitätsgrad oder die Art des Speicherzugriffs gewonnen werden. Dieser Ansatz wird am Beispiel zweier moderner digitaler Signalprozessoren durch eine Vielzahl von Basis-Algorithmen der digitalen Signalverarbeitung evaluiert. Die ermittelten Schätzwerte für die einzelnen Algorithmen werden dabei mit physikalisch gemessenen Werten verglichen. Es ergibt sich ein sehr kleiner maximaler Schätzfehler von 3%. In this contribution different approaches for power estimation for programmable processors are presented and evaluated concerning their capability to be applied to modern digital signal processor architectures like e.g. Very Long InstructionWord (VLIW -architectures. Special emphasis will be laid on the concept of so-called Functional-Level Power Analysis (FLPA. This approach is based on the separation of the processor architecture into functional blocks like e.g. processing unit, clock network, internal memory and others. The power consumption of these blocks is described by parameter dependent arithmetic model functions. By application of a parser based automized analysis of assembler codes of the systems to be estimated

  8. Using Data-Mining Approaches for Wind Turbine Power Curve Monitoring: A Comparative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlechtingen, Meik; Santos, Ilmar; Achiche, Sofiane

    2013-01-01

    Four data-mining approaches for wind turbine power curve monitoring are compared. Power curve monitoring can be applied to evaluate the turbine power output and detect deviations, causing financial loss. In this research, cluster center fuzzy logic, neural network, and -nearest neighbor models...... are built and their performance compared against literature. Recently developed adaptive neuro-fuzzy-interference system models are set up and their performance compared with the other models, using the same data. Literature models often neglect the influence of the ambient temperature and the wind...... direction. The ambient temperature can influence the power output up to 20%. Nearby obstacles can lower the power output for certain wind directions. The approaches proposed in literature and the ANFIS models are compared by using wind speed only and two additional inputs. The comparison is based...

  9. Design of Nuclear Power Plant Online Monitoring System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Sang-ha; Jeong, Yong-hoon; Chang, Soon-heung [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Song-kyu [Korea Power Engineering Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Statistical Quality Control techniques have been applied to many aspects of industrial engineering. An application to nuclear power plant maintenance and control is also presented that can greatly improve plant safety. As a demonstration of such an approach, a specific system is analyzed: the reactor coolant pumps (RCPs) and the fouling resistance of heat exchanger. This research uses Shewart X-bar, R charts, Cumulative Sum charts (CUSUM), and Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT) to analyze the process for the state of statistical control. And the Control Chart Analyzer (CCA) has been made to support these analyses that can make a decision of error in process. The analysis shows that statistical process control methods can be applied as an early warning system capable of identifying significant equipment problems well in advance of traditional control room alarm indicators. Such a system would provide operators with enough time to respond to possible emergency situations and thus improve plant safety and reliability.

  10. Grid Monitoring and Advanced Control of Distributed Power Generation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timbus, Adrian Vasile

    . First part of the thesis investigates possible algorithms for fast and accurate identi cation of utility network variables such as voltage amplitude, frequency, phase angle and line impedance. Special attention has been paid to grid synchronization algorithm in terms of accurate estimation of grid...... of grid voltage and the frequency of utility network. As a result, fast and accurate identi cation of both variables has been achieved. In addition, positive and negative sequence components of grid voltage can also be calculated. Simple, yet powerful ltering techniques, based on second order generalized...... integrator (SOGI) and delay signal cancellation (DSC) have been used to separate the sequence components. Simulation and experimental results attest the accuracy and e ectiveness of the developed algorithms in identifying the frequency, phase angle and magnitude of grid voltages during severe distortions...

  11. Development of Self-Powered Wireless Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) for Wind Turbine Blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dong-Won

    Wind turbine blade failure can lead to unexpected power interruptions. Monitoring wind turbine blades is important to ensure seamless electricity delivery from power generation to consumers. Structural health monitoring (SHM) enables early recognition of structural problems so that the safety and reliability of operation can be enhanced. This dissertation focuses on the development of a wireless SHM system for wind turbine blades. The sensor is comprised of a piezoelectric energy harvester (EH) and a telemetry unit. The sensor node is mounted on the blade surface. As the blade rotates, the blade flexes, and the energy harvester captures the strain energy on the blade surface. Once sufficient electricity is captured, a pulse is sent from the sensing node to a gateway. Then, a central monitoring algorithm processes a series of pulses received from all three blades. This wireless SHM, which uses commercially available components, can be retrofitted to existing turbines. The harvested energy for sensing can be estimated in terms of two factors: the available strain energy and conversion efficiency. The available strain energy was evaluated using the FAST (Fatigue, Aerodynamics, Structures, and Turbulence) simulator. The conversion efficiency was studied analytically and experimentally. An experimental set-up was designed to mimic the expected strain frequency and amplitude for rotor blades. From a series of experiments, the efficiency of a piezoelectric EH at a typical rotor speed (0.2 Hz) was approximately 0.5%. The power requirement for sending one measurement (280 muJ) can be achieved in 10 minutes. Designing a detection algorithm is challenging due to this low sampling rate. A new sensing approach-the timing of pulses from the transmitter-was introduced. This pulse timing, which is tied to the charging time, is indicative of the structural health. The SHM system exploits the inherent triple redundancy of the three blades. The timing data of the three blades are

  12. Impact of grounding and filtering on power insulation monitoring in insulated terrestrial power networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vugt, Pieter Karel Anton; Bijman, Rob; Timens, R.B.; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Insulated terrestrial power networks are used for reliable systems such as large production plants, hospital operating rooms and naval ships. The system is isolated from ground and a first fault, such as a short circuit between a phase and ground, will not result in disconnection of the power via

  13. A Design of Wireless Sensor Networks for a Power Quality Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanggil Kang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Power grids deal with the business of generation, transmission, and distribution of electric power. Recently, interest in power quality in electrical distribution systems has increased rapidly. In Korea, the communication network to deliver voltage, current, and temperature measurements gathered from pole transformers to remote monitoring centers employs cellular mobile technology. Due to high cost of the cellular mobile technology, power quality monitoring measurements are limited and data gathering intervals are large. This causes difficulties in providing the power quality monitoring service. To alleviate the problems, in this paper we present a communication infrastructure to provide low cost, reliable data delivery. The communication infrastructure consists of wired connections between substations and monitoring centers, and wireless connections between pole transformers and substations. For the wireless connection, we employ a wireless sensor network and design its corresponding data forwarding protocol to improve the quality of data delivery. For the design, we adopt a tree-based data forwarding protocol in order to customize the distribution pattern of the power quality information. We verify the performance of the proposed data forwarding protocol quantitatively using the NS-2 network simulator.

  14. Monitoring Wind Turbine Loading Using Power Converter Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieg, C. A.; Smith, C. J.; Crabtree, C. J.

    2016-09-01

    The ability to detect faults and predict loads on a wind turbine drivetrain's mechanical components cost-effectively is critical to making the cost of wind energy competitive. In order to investigate whether this is possible using the readily available power converter current signals, an existing permanent magnet synchronous generator based wind energy conversion system computer model was modified to include a grid-side converter (GSC) for an improved converter model and a gearbox. The GSC maintains a constant DC link voltage via vector control. The gearbox was modelled as a 3-mass model to allow faults to be included. Gusts and gearbox faults were introduced to investigate the ability of the machine side converter (MSC) current (I q) to detect and quantify loads on the mechanical components. In this model, gearbox faults were not detectable in the I q signal due to shaft stiffness and damping interaction. However, a model that predicts the load change on mechanical wind turbine components using I q was developed and verified using synthetic and real wind data.

  15. Implementation of an on-line monitoring system for transmitters in a CANDU nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbe, A.; Abdul-Nour, G.; Vaillancourt, R.; Komljenovic, D.

    2012-05-01

    Many transmitters (pressure, level and flow) are used in a nuclear power plant. It is necessary to calibrate them periodically to ensure that their measurements are accurate. These calibration tasks are time consuming and often contribute to worker radiation exposure. Human errors can also sometimes degrade their performance since the calibration involves intrusive techniques. More importantly, experience has shown that the majority of current calibration efforts are not necessary. These facts motivated the nuclear industry to develop new technologies for identifying drifting instruments. These technologies, well known as on-line monitoring (OLM) techniques, are non-intrusive and allow focusing the maintenance efforts on the instruments that really need a calibration. Although few OLM systems have been implemented in some PWR and BWR plants, these technologies are not commonly used and have not been permanently implemented in a CANDU plant. This paper presents the results of a research project that has been performed in a CANDU plant in order to validate the implementation of an OLM system. An application project, based on the ICMP algorithm developed by EPRI, has been carried out in order to evaluate the performance of an OLM system. The results demonstrated that the OLM system was able to detect the drift of an instrument in the majority of the studied cases. A feasibility study has also been completed and has demonstrated that the implementation of an OLM system at a CANDU nuclear power plant could be advantageous under certain conditions.

  16. CMOS Amperometric ADC With High Sensitivity, Dynamic Range and Power Efficiency for Air Quality Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haitao; Boling, C Sam; Mason, Andrew J

    2016-08-01

    Airborne pollutants are a leading cause of illness and mortality globally. Electrochemical gas sensors show great promise for personal air quality monitoring to address this worldwide health crisis. However, implementing miniaturized arrays of such sensors demands high performance instrumentation circuits that simultaneously meet challenging power, area, sensitivity, noise and dynamic range goals. This paper presents a new multi-channel CMOS amperometric ADC featuring pixel-level architecture for gas sensor arrays. The circuit combines digital modulation of input currents and an incremental Σ∆ ADC to achieve wide dynamic range and high sensitivity with very high power efficiency and compact size. Fabricated in 0.5 [Formula: see text] CMOS, the circuit was measured to have 164 dB cross-scale dynamic range, 100 fA sensitivity while consuming only 241 [Formula: see text] and 0.157 [Formula: see text] active area per channel. Electrochemical experiments with liquid and gas targets demonstrate the circuit's real-time response to a wide range of analyte concentrations.

  17. Uncertainty Quantification Techniques for Sensor Calibration Monitoring in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Lin, Guang; Crawford, Susan L.; Konomi, Bledar A.; Braatz, Brett G.; Coble, Jamie B.; Shumaker, Brent; Hashemian, Hash

    2013-09-01

    This report describes the status of ongoing research towards the development of advanced algorithms for online calibration monitoring. The objective of this research is to develop the next generation of online monitoring technologies for sensor calibration interval extension and signal validation in operating and new reactors. These advances are expected to improve the safety and reliability of current and planned nuclear power systems as a result of higher accuracies and increased reliability of sensors used to monitor key parameters. The focus of this report is on documenting the outcomes of the first phase of R&D under this project, which addressed approaches to uncertainty quantification (UQ) in online monitoring that are data-driven, and can therefore adjust estimates of uncertainty as measurement conditions change. Such data-driven approaches to UQ are necessary to address changing plant conditions, for example, as nuclear power plants experience transients, or as next-generation small modular reactors (SMR) operate in load-following conditions.

  18. Uncertainty Quantification Techniques for Sensor Calibration Monitoring in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Lin, Guang; Crawford, Susan L.; Konomi, Bledar A.; Coble, Jamie B.; Shumaker, Brent; Hashemian, Hash

    2014-04-30

    This report describes research towards the development of advanced algorithms for online calibration monitoring. The objective of this research is to develop the next generation of online monitoring technologies for sensor calibration interval extension and signal validation in operating and new reactors. These advances are expected to improve the safety and reliability of current and planned nuclear power systems as a result of higher accuracies and increased reliability of sensors used to monitor key parameters. The focus of this report is on documenting the outcomes of the first phase of R&D under this project, which addressed approaches to uncertainty quantification (UQ) in online monitoring that are data-driven, and can therefore adjust estimates of uncertainty as measurement conditions change. Such data-driven approaches to UQ are necessary to address changing plant conditions, for example, as nuclear power plants experience transients, or as next-generation small modular reactors (SMR) operate in load-following conditions.

  19. Development of On-Line Monitoring Systems for High Temperature Components in Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongcai Zhang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available To accurately detect deformation and extend the component life beyond the original design limits, structural safety monitoring techniques have attracted considerable attention in the power and process industries for decades. In this paper an on-line monitoring system for high temperature pipes in a power plant is developed. The extension-based sensing devices are amounted on straight pipes, T-Joints and elbows of a main steam pipeline. During on-site monitoring for more than two years, most of the sensors worked reliably and steadily. However, the direct strain gauge could not work for long periods because of the high temperature environment. Moreover, it is found that the installation and connection of the extensometers can have a significant influence on the measurement results. The on-line monitoring system has a good alarming function which is demonstrated by detecting a steam leakage of the header.

  20. Development of on-line monitoring systems for high temperature components in power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongcai; Jia, Jiuhong; Wang, Ning; Hu, Xiaoyin; Tu, Shan-Tung; Zhou, Shaoping; Wang, Zhengdong

    2013-11-13

    To accurately detect deformation and extend the component life beyond the original design limits, structural safety monitoring techniques have attracted considerable attention in the power and process industries for decades. In this paper an on-line monitoring system for high temperature pipes in a power plant is developed. The extension-based sensing devices are amounted on straight pipes, T-Joints and elbows of a main steam pipeline. During on-site monitoring for more than two years, most of the sensors worked reliably and steadily. However, the direct strain gauge could not work for long periods because of the high temperature environment. Moreover, it is found that the installation and connection of the extensometers can have a significant influence on the measurement results. The on-line monitoring system has a good alarming function which is demonstrated by detecting a steam leakage of the header.

  1. Development of On-Line Monitoring Systems for High Temperature Components in Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongcai; Jia, Jiuhong; Wang, Ning; Hu, Xiaoyin; Tu, Shan-Tung; Zhou, Shaoping; Wang, Zhengdong

    2013-01-01

    To accurately detect deformation and extend the component life beyond the original design limits, structural safety monitoring techniques have attracted considerable attention in the power and process industries for decades. In this paper an on-line monitoring system for high temperature pipes in a power plant is developed. The extension-based sensing devices are amounted on straight pipes, T-Joints and elbows of a main steam pipeline. During on-site monitoring for more than two years, most of the sensors worked reliably and steadily. However, the direct strain gauge could not work for long periods because of the high temperature environment. Moreover, it is found that the installation and connection of the extensometers can have a significant influence on the measurement results. The on-line monitoring system has a good alarming function which is demonstrated by detecting a steam leakage of the header. PMID:24233026

  2. Increasing the Performance and Reliability of Power Boiler by Monitoring Thermal and Strength Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Sobota Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents a method for determination of thermo-flow parameters for steam boilers. This method allows to perform the calculations of the boiler furnace chamber and heat flow rates absorbed by superheater stages. These parameters are important for monitoring the performance of the power unit. Knowledge of these parameters allows determining the degree of the furnace chamber slagging. The calculation can be performed in online mode and use to monitoring of steam boiler. The presented me...

  3. The Design of Partial Discharge On-Line Monitoring System for XLPE Power Cable

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Rui-Long; Qian Yong; Ye Hai-Feng; Sheng Ge-Hao; Jiang Xiu-Chen

    2013-01-01

    Partial discharge detection is an important means to assess the situation of XLPE power cable’s insulation. This study has developed an on-line monitoring system which applies to the medium voltage XLPE cable on partial discharge, described its working principle, components of hardware, software designing and program implementation in details. Through monitoring the partial discharge signal in grounding lines of the XLPE cable’s shield, the system integrated assess the situation of XLPE cable...

  4. A feasibility study on the predictive emission monitoring system applied to the Hsinta power plant of Taiwan Power Company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, T W; Chu, H; Hsu, W C; Tseng, T K; Hsu, C H; Chen, K Y

    2003-08-01

    The continuous emission monitoring system (CEMS) can monitor flue gas emissions continuously and instantaneously. However, it has the disadvantages of enormous cost, easily producing errors in sampling periods of bad weather, lagging response in variable ambient environments, and missing data in daily zero and span tests and maintenance. The concept of a predictive emission monitoring system (PEMS) is to use the operating parameters of combustion equipment through thermodynamic or statistical methods to construct a mathematic model that can predict emissions by a computer program. The goal of this study is to set up a PEMS in a gas-fired combined cycle power generation unit at the Hsinta station of Taiwan Power Co. The emissions to be monitored include nitrogen oxides (NOx) and oxygen (O2) in flue gas. The major variables of the predictive model were determined based on the combustion theory. The data of these variables then were analyzed to establish a regression model. From the regression results, the influences of these variables are discussed and the predicted values are compared with the CEMS data for accuracy. In addition, according to the cost information, the capital and operation and maintenance costs for a PEMS can be much lower than those for a CEMS.

  5. Wide-range structurally optimized channel for monitoring the certified power of small-core reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshelev, A. S., E-mail: alexsander.coshelev@yandex.ru; Kovshov, K. N.; Ovchinnikov, M. A.; Pikulina, G. N.; Sokolov, A. B. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center—All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The results of tests of a prototype version of a channel for monitoring the certified power of small-core reactors performed at the BR-K1 reactor at the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics are reported. An SNM-11 counter and commercial KNK-4 and KNK-3 compensated ion chambers were used as neutron detectors in the tested channel, and certified NCMM and CCMM measurement modules controlled by a PC with specialized software were used as measuring instruments. The specifics of metrological assurance of calibration of the channel in the framework of reactor power monitoring are discussed.

  6. Automating security monitoring and analysis for Space Station Freedom's electric power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolce, James L.; Sobajic, Dejan J.; Pao, Yoh-Han

    1990-01-01

    Operating a large, space power system requires classifying the system's status and analyzing its security. Conventional algorithms are used by terrestrial electric utilities to provide such information to their dispatchers, but their application aboard Space Station Freedom will consume too much processing time. A novel approach for monitoring and analysis using adaptive pattern techniques is presented. This approach yields an on-line security monitoring and analysis algorithm that is accurate and fast; and thus, it can free the Space Station Freedom's power control computers for other tasks.

  7. Evaluation of Haddam Neck (Connecticut Yankee) Nuclear Power Plant, environmental impact prediction, based on monitoring programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gore, K.L.; Thomas, J.M.; Kannberg, L.D.; Mahaffey, J.A.; Waton, D.G.

    1976-12-01

    A study was undertaken by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to evaluate the nonradiological environmental data obtained from three nuclear power plants operating for a period of one year or longer. The document presented reports the second of three nuclear power plants to be evaluated in detail by Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories. Haddam Neck (Connecticut Yankee) Nuclear Power Plant nonradiological monitoring data were assessed to determine their effectiveness in the measurement of environmental impacts. Efforts were made to determine if: (1) monitoring programs, as designed, can detect environmental impacts, (2) appropriate statistical analyses were performed and if they were sensitive enough to detect impacts, (3) predicted impacts could be verified by monitoring programs, and (4) monitoring programs satisfied the requirements of the Environmental Technical Specifications. Both preoperational and operational monitoring data were examined to test the usefulness of baseline information in evaluating impacts. This included an examination of the methods used to measure ecological, chemical, and physical parameters, and an assessment of sampling periodicity and sensitivity where appropriate data sets were available. From this type of analysis, deficiencies in both preoperational and operational monitoring programs may be identified and provide a basis for suggested improvement.

  8. Research of on-line monitoring method for insulation condition of power transformer bushing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jiuyun; Qian, Zheng; Yu, Hao; Yao, Junda

    2016-01-01

    The power transformer is the key equipment of the power system; its insulation condition will directly influence the security and reliability of the power system. Thus, the on-line monitoring of power transformer is urgently required in order to guarantee the normal operation of the power system. Moreover, the dielectric loss factor is a significant parameter reflecting the condition of transformer bushing, so the on-line measurement of dielectric loss factor is really important. In this paper, the phase-to-phase comparison method is selected as the on-line monitoring method based on the overall analysis and discussion of the existing on-line monitoring methods. At first, the harmonic analysis method is utilized to calculate the dielectric loss of each phase of the three-phase transformer bushing, and then the differences of dielectric loss between every two phases are calculated and analyzed. So the insulation condition of each bushing could be achieved based on the careful analysis of different phase-to-phase dielectric loss. The simulation results of phase-to-phase comparison method are carried out in this paper, and the validity is verified. At last, this method is utilized in an actual equipment of on-line monitoring.

  9. Online Condition Monitoring to Enable Extended Operation of Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Bond, Leonard J.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep

    2012-03-31

    Safe, secure, and economic operation of nuclear power plants will remain of strategic significance. New and improved monitoring will likely have increased significance in the post-Fukushima world. Prior to Fukushima, many activities were already underway globally to facilitate operation of nuclear power plants beyond their initial licensing periods. Decisions to shut down a nuclear power plant are mostly driven by economic considerations. Online condition monitoring is a means to improve both the safety and economics of extending the operating lifetimes of nuclear power plants, enabling adoption of proactive aging management. With regard to active components (e.g., pumps, valves, motors, etc.), significant experience in other industries has been leveraged to build the science base to support adoption for online condition-based maintenance and proactive aging management in the nuclear industry. Many of the research needs are associated with enabling proactive management of aging in passive components (e.g., pipes, vessels, cables, containment structures, etc.). This paper provides an overview of online condition monitoring for the nuclear power industry with an emphasis on passive components. Following the overview, several technology/knowledge gaps are identified, which require addressing to facilitate widespread online condition monitoring of passive components.

  10. In Vivo Self-Powered Wireless Cardiac Monitoring via Implantable Triboelectric Nanogenerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qiang; Zhang, Hao; Shi, Bojing; Xue, Xiang; Liu, Zhuo; Jin, Yiming; Ma, Ye; Zou, Yang; Wang, Xinxin; An, Zhao; Tang, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Fan; Liu, Yang; Lang, Xilong; Xu, Zhiyun; Li, Zhou; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-07-26

    Harvesting biomechanical energy in vivo is an important route in obtaining sustainable electric energy for powering implantable medical devices. Here, we demonstrate an innovative implantable triboelectric nanogenerator (iTENG) for in vivo biomechanical energy harvesting. Driven by the heartbeat of adult swine, the output voltage and the corresponding current were improved by factors of 3.5 and 25, respectively, compared with the reported in vivo output performance of biomechanical energy conversion devices. In addition, the in vivo evaluation of the iTENG was demonstrated for over 72 h of implantation, during which the iTENG generated electricity continuously in the active animal. Due to its excellent in vivo performance, a self-powered wireless transmission system was fabricated for real-time wireless cardiac monitoring. Given its outstanding in vivo output and stability, iTENG can be applied not only to power implantable medical devices but also possibly to fabricate a self-powered, wireless healthcare monitoring system.

  11. Self-powered Real-time Movement Monitoring Sensor Using Triboelectric Nanogenerator Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Liangmin; Tao, Juan; Bao, Rongrong; Sun, Li; Pan, Caofeng

    2017-09-05

    The triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) has great potential in the field of self-powered sensor fabrication. Recently, smart electronic devices and movement monitoring sensors have attracted the attention of scientists because of their application in the field of artificial intelligence. In this article, a TENG finger movement monitoring, self-powered sensor has been designed and analysed. Under finger movements, the TENG realizes the contact and separation to convert the mechanical energy into electrical signal. A pulse output current of 7.8 μA is generated by the bending and straightening motions of the artificial finger. The optimal output power can be realized when the external resistance is approximately 30 MΩ. The random motions of the finger are detected by the system with multiple TENG sensors in series. This type of flexible and self-powered sensor has potential applications in artificial intelligence and robot manufacturing.

  12. Virtual instrument for controlling and monitoring digitalized power supply in SSRF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) needs extremely precise power supplies for their various magnets. A digital controller is being developed for the power converters of the SSRF power supply (PS). In the digital controller, a fully digital pulse-width modulator (PWM) directly controls the power unit insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) of the PS. A program in LabVIEW language has been developed to control and monitor the digital PS via serial communication (RS232) from a PC and to modify its parameters as well. In this article, the software design of the virtual instrument for controlling and monitoring digitalized PS and its associated functions are described, and the essential elements of the program graphical main-Ⅵ and sub-Ⅵ source code are presented and explained. The communication protocol and the structure of the developed system are also included in this article.

  13. ZigBee Based Industrial Automation Profile for Power Monitoring Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana R. Raut,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Industrial automations which are mostly depend upon the power systems & which requires distance controlled and regulated systems. Mostly voltage and current equipped parameters along with power and energy management system forms the industrial scenario for automations. Wireless technology which meets to cost, speed and distance scenario will always be a point of an interest for research. In this research work we mainly monitored power related parameters and enable remote switching devices for proper power management systems using ZigBee. This paper proposes a digital system for condition monitoring, diagnosis, and supervisory control for electric systems parameters like voltage and current using wireless sensor networks (WSNs based on ZigBee. Its main feature is its use of the ZigBee protocol as the communication medium between the transmitter and receiver modules. It illustrates that the new ZigBee standard performs well industrial environments.

  14. BP-Neural-Network-Based Tool Wear Monitoring by Using Wavelet Decomposition of the Power Spectrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Jian-ming; XI Chang-qing; LI Yan; XIAO Ji-ming

    2004-01-01

    In a drilling process, the power spectrum of the drilling force is related to the tool wear and is widely applied in the monitoring of tool wear. But the feature extraction and identification of the power spectrum have always been an unresolved difficult problem. This paper solves it through decomposition of the power spectrum in multilayers using wavelet transform and extraction of the low frequency decomposition coefficient us the envelope information of the power spectrum. Intelligent identification of the tool wear status is achieved in the drilling process through fusing the wavelet decomposition coefficient of the power spectrum by using a BP ( Back Propagation) neural network. The experimental results show that the features of the power spectrum can be extracted efficiently through this method, and the trained neural networks show high identification precision and the ability of extension.

  15. Monitoring of power demand of foundry machinery, using the example of paddle mixers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Wrona

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The study outlines the basic features of a newly-designed computer-supported system for monitoring and recording the instantaneous power consumption, used to control the operating parameters of foundry machinery. Explored are potential applications of the module for fast recording of instantaneous currents and voltages in a triple phase power supply system in a paddle mixer. Further research areas are indicated, to extend the system and the range of its potential applications.

  16. In-situ laser material process monitoring using a cladding power detection technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Daoning; Norris, Ian; Peters, Chris; Hall, Denis R.; Jones, Julian D. C.

    Progress in laser material processing may require real-time monitoring and process control for consistent quality and productivity. We report a method of in-situ monitoring of laser metal cutting and drilling using cladding power monitoring of an optical fibre beam delivery system—a technique which detects the light reflected or scattered from the workpiece. The light signal carries information about the quality of the process. Experiments involving drilling and cutting of two samples, a thin aluminum foil and a 2-mm thick stainless steel plate, confirmed the effectiveness of this method.

  17. Low power and self-reconfigurable WBAN controller for continuous bio-signal monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seulki; Yoo, Hoi-Jun

    2013-04-01

    The WBAN controller with Branched Bus (BB) topology and Continuous Data Transmission (CDT) protocol with low power consumption and self-reconfigurability is proposed for wearable healthcare applications. The BB topology and CDT protocol is a combination of conventional Bus and Star topology and a variation from TDMA protocol, respectively, while they are able to compensate for the electrical fault in bio-signal monitoring system caused by the electrode deformation. Thanks to them, the proposed WBAN controller enables more reliable operation in continuous bio-signal monitoring applications such as sleep monitoring.

  18. Low-Carbon Based Multi-Objective Bi-Level Power Dispatching under Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This research examines a low-carbon power dispatch problem under uncertainty. A hybrid uncertain multi-objective bi-level model with one leader and multiple followers is established to support the decision making of power dispatch and generation. The upper level decision maker is the regional power grid corporation which allocates power quotas to each follower based on the objectives of reasonable returns, a small power surplus and low carbon emissions. The lower level decision makers are the...

  19. Frequency Monitoring and Control during Power System Restoration Based on Wide Area Measurement System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Nourizadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Frequency control during power system restoration has not been strongly addressed. Operators are often concerned with the offline sizing of load and generation steps, but, nowadays, the introduction of Wide Area Measurement System (WAMS makes it possible to monitor the stability of power system online. The constraints of WAMS operation result in some changes in power system frequency control. This paper proposes a novel methodology for frequency control and monitoring during the early steps of power system restoration based on WAMS. Detailed load modeling is achieved based on the static load modeling approach. Power generators' modeling is also accomplished utilizing the single machine equivalent of the power system based on PMU measurements. Simulation results of the presented methodology on the 39 bus New England power system clearly show the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed method. The simulation results show that the presented approach has a completely acceptable precision and an outstanding speed with less than 0.05% error. The outstanding speed of the presented approach along with the result precision will result in a great promotion in power system restoration methodologies.

  20. 36 CFR 223.281 - Monitoring and revising sustainable harvest levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sustainable harvest levels. 223.281 Section 223.281 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE....281 Monitoring and revising sustainable harvest levels. The Forest Service shall monitor and revise sustainable harvest levels for forest botanical products in accordance with § 223.219 of subpart G....

  1. Data gateway for prognostic health monitoring of ocean-based power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundel, Joseph

    On August 5, 2010 the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has designated the Center for Ocean Energy Technology (COET) at Florida Atlantic University (FAU) as a national center for ocean energy research and development. Their focus is the research and development of open-ocean current systems and associated infrastructure needed to development and testing prototypes. The generation of power is achieved by using a specialized electric generator with a rotor called a turbine. As with all machines, the turbines will need maintenance and replacement as they near the end of their lifecycle. This prognostic health monitoring (PHM) requires data to be collected, stored, and analyzed in order to maximize the lifespan, reduce downtime and predict when failure is eminent. This thesis explores the use of a data gateway which will separate high level software with low level hardware including sensors and actuators. The gateway will standardize and store the data collected from various sensors with different speeds, formats, and interfaces allowing an easy and uniform transition to a database system for analysis.

  2. Assessing the long term impact of power plant emissions on regional air pollution using extensive monitoring data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuval; Broday, David M

    2009-02-01

    In spite of the recent increasing interest in energy production from renewable sources, polluting hydrocarbon-fueled power plants will continue to provide most of the electricity to the world's population in the coming decades. This work studies the long term impact on the regional ambient air which can be attributable to three plants with different power outputs, fuel types, and stack heights. The study is carried out in an area with relatively flat topography and typical coastal meteorology. A dense air pollution monitoring network, operating for many years, makes this area a real life laboratory for studying the pollution routes, the impact of the sources at different directions and distances, and the effects of transition to cleaner fuel. The direct impact of each of the two large power plants on the ambient SO2 levels could be clearly detected in most of the monitoring stations at distances up to 40 km away. Interestingly, a relatively large impact can also be attributed to the indirect effect of emissions that are recirculated back to the region with the land breeze. The transition from using fuel oil to natural gas in one of the large power plants resulted in a dramatic reduction in the mean SO2 levels in all of the monitoring stations. The contribution of the industrial emissions to the ambient NO2 levels seems to be very modest relative to that from traffic. An analysis of the NO, NO2 and O3 records suggests that the highest mean NO2 concentrations, and a large proportion of the total NO2 encountered in the study area, are probably due to recirculated NOx emitted by traffic in a densely populated region north of it.

  3. Multicriteria relocation analysis of an off-site radioactive monitoring network for a nuclear power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ni-Bin; Ning, Shu-Kuang; Chen, Jen-Chang

    2006-08-01

    Due to increasing environmental consciousness in most countries, every utility that owns a commercial nuclear power plant has been required to have both an on-site and off-site emergency response plan since the 1980s. A radiation monitoring network, viewed as part of the emergency response plan, can provide information regarding the radiation dosage emitted from a nuclear power plant in a regular operational period and/or abnormal measurements in an emergency event. Such monitoring information might help field operators and decision-makers to provide accurate responses or make decisions to protect the public health and safety. This study aims to conduct an integrated simulation and optimization analysis looking for the relocation strategy of a long-term regular off-site monitoring network at a nuclear power plant. The planning goal is to downsize the current monitoring network but maintain its monitoring capacity as much as possible. The monitoring sensors considered in this study include the thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) and air sampling system (AP) simultaneously. It is designed for detecting the radionuclide accumulative concentration, the frequency of violation, and the possible population affected by a long-term impact in the surrounding area regularly while it can also be used in an accidental release event. With the aid of the calibrated Industrial Source Complex-Plume Rise Model Enhancements (ISC-PRIME) simulation model to track down the possible radionuclide diffusion, dispersion, transport, and transformation process in the atmospheric environment, a multiobjective evaluation process can be applied to achieve the screening of monitoring stations for the nuclear power plant located at Hengchun Peninsula, South Taiwan. To account for multiple objectives, this study calculated preference weights to linearly combine objective functions leading to decision-making with exposure assessment in an optimization context. Final suggestions should be useful for

  4. Power optimization of digital baseband WCDMA receiver components on algorithmic and architectural level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schämann

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available High data rates combined with high mobility represent a challenge for the design of cellular devices. Advanced algorithms are required which result in higher complexity, more chip area and increased power consumption. However, this contrasts to the limited power supply of mobile devices.

    This presentation discusses the application of an HSDPA receiver which has been optimized regarding power consumption with the focus on the algorithmic and architectural level. On algorithmic level the Rake combiner, Prefilter-Rake equalizer and MMSE equalizer are compared regarding their BER performance. Both equalizer approaches provide a significant increase of performance for high data rates compared to the Rake combiner which is commonly used for lower data rates. For both equalizer approaches several adaptive algorithms are available which differ in complexity and convergence properties. To identify the algorithm which achieves the required performance with the lowest power consumption the algorithms have been investigated using SystemC models regarding their performance and arithmetic complexity. Additionally, for the Prefilter Rake equalizer the power estimations of a modified Griffith (LMS and a Levinson (RLS algorithm have been compared with the tool ORINOCO supplied by ChipVision. The accuracy of this tool has been verified with a scalable architecture of the UMTS channel estimation described both in SystemC and VHDL targeting a 130 nm CMOS standard cell library.

    An architecture combining all three approaches combined with an adaptive control unit is presented. The control unit monitors the current condition of the propagation channel and adjusts parameters for the receiver like filter size and oversampling ratio to minimize the power consumption while maintaining the required performance. The optimization strategies result in a reduction of the number of arithmetic operations up to 70% for single components which leads to an

  5. The Autonomous Stress Indicator for Remotely Monitoring Power System State and Watching for Potential Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geza Joos

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The proposed Autonomous Stress Indicator (ASI is a device that monitors the contents of the protection relays on a suspect weak power system bus and generates a performance level related to the degree of system performance degradation or instability. This gives the system operators some time (minutes to take corrective action. In a given operating area there would not likely be a need for an ASI on every bus. Note that the ASI does not trip any breakers; it is an INFORMATION ONLY device. An important feature is that the system operator can subsequently interrogate the ASI to determine the factor(s that led to the performance level that has been initially annunciated, thereby leading to a course of action. This paper traces the development of the ASI which is an ongoing project. The ASI could be also described as a stress-alert device whose function is to alert the System Operator of a stressful condition at its location. The characteristics (or essential qualities of this device are autonomy, selectivity, accuracy and intelligence. These will fulfill the requirements of the recommendation of the Canada –US Task Force in the August 2003 system collapse. Preliminary tests on the IEEE 39-bus model indicate that the concept has merit and development work is in progress. While the ASI can be applied to all power system operating conditions, its principal application is to the degraded state of the system where the System Operator must act to restore the system to the secure state before it migrates to a stage of collapse. The work of ASI actually begins with the Areas of Vulnerability and ends with the Predictive Module as described in detail in this paper. An application example of a degraded system using the IEEE 39-bus system is included.

  6. Analyzing Effects of Turbulence on Power Generation Using Wind Plant Monitoring Data: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J.; Chowdhury, S.; Hodge, B. M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a methodology is developed to analyze how ambient and wake turbulence affects the power generation of a single wind turbine within an array of turbines. Using monitoring data from a wind power plant, we selected two sets of wind and power data for turbines on the edge of the wind plant that resemble (i) an out-of-wake scenario (i.e., when the turbine directly faces incoming winds) and (ii) an in-wake scenario (i.e., when the turbine is under the wake of other turbines). For each set of data, two surrogate models were then developed to represent the turbine power generation (i) as a function of the wind speed; and (ii) as a function of the wind speed and turbulence intensity. Support vector regression was adopted for the development of the surrogate models. Three types of uncertainties in the turbine power generation were also investigated: (i) the uncertainty in power generation with respect to the published/reported power curve, (ii) the uncertainty in power generation with respect to the estimated power response that accounts for only mean wind speed; and (iii) the uncertainty in power generation with respect to the estimated power response that accounts for both mean wind speed and turbulence intensity. Results show that (i) under the same wind conditions, the turbine generates different power between the in-wake and out-of-wake scenarios, (ii) a turbine generally produces more power under the in-wake scenario than under the out-of-wake scenario, (iii) the power generation is sensitive to turbulence intensity even when the wind speed is greater than the turbine rated speed, and (iv) there is relatively more uncertainty in the power generation under the in-wake scenario than under the out-of-wake scenario.

  7. Environmental wodking level monitor. Final report. [for measuring airborne Rn-daughter concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keefe, D.; McDowell, W. P.; Groer, P. G.

    1978-09-29

    The Environmental Working Level Monitor (EWLM) is an instrument used to automatically monitor airborne Rn-daughter concentrations and the Working Level (WL). It is an ac powered, microprocessor--based instrument with an external inverter provided for dc operation if desired. The microprocessor's control processor unit (CPU) controls the actuation of the detector assembly and processes its output signals to yield the measurements in the proper units. The detectors are fully automated and require no manual operations once the instrument is programmed. They detect and separate the alpha emitters of RaA and RaC' as well as detecting the beta emitters of RaB and RaC. The resultant pulses from these detected radioisotopes are transmitted to the CPU. The programmed microprocessor performs the mathematical manipulations necessary to output accurate Rn-daughter concentrations and the WL. A special subroutine within the system program enables the EWLM to run a calibration procedure on command which yields calibration data. This data can then be processed in a separate program on most computers capable of BASIC programming. This calibration program results in the derivation of coefficients and beta efficiencies which provides the calibrated coefficients and beta efficiencies required by the main system program to assure proper calibration of the individual EWLM's.

  8. Multi-level Simulation of a Real Time Vibration Monitoring System Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Bryan A.; Wilkerson, Delisa

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a custom built Digital Signal Processing (DSP) printed circuit board designed to implement the Advanced Real Time Vibration Monitoring Subsystem proposed by Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Transportation Directorate in 2000 for the Space Shuttle Main Engine Advanced Health Management System (AHMS). This Real Time Vibration Monitoring System (RTVMS) is being developed for ground use as part of the AHMS Health Management Computer-Integrated Rack Assembly (HMC-IRA). The HMC-IRA RTVMS design contains five DSPs which are highly interconnected through individual communication ports, shared memory, and a unique communication router that allows all the DSPs to receive digitized data fiom two multi-channel analog boards simultaneously. This paper will briefly cover the overall board design but will focus primarily on the state-of-the-art simulation environment within which this board was developed. This 16-layer board with over 1800 components and an additional mezzanine card has been an extremely challenging design. Utilization of a Mentor Graphics simulation environment provided the unique board and system level simulation capability to ascertain any timing or functional concerns before production. By combining VHDL, Synopsys Software and Hardware Models, and the Mentor Design Capture Environment, multiple simulations were developed to verify the RTVMS design. This multi-level simulation allowed the designers to achieve complete operability without error the first time the RTVMS printed circuit board was powered. The HMC-IRA design has completed all engineering and deliverable unit testing. P

  9. A Rotating Speed Controller Design Method for Power Levelling by Means of Inertia Energy in Wind Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Zian; Blaabjerg, Frede; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2015-01-01

    Power fluctuation caused by wind speed variations may be harmful for the stability of the power system as well as the reliability of the wind power converter, since it may induce thermal excursions in the solder joints of the power modules. Using the wind turbine rotor inertia energy for power...... leveling has been studied before, but no quantified analysis or generic design method have been found. In this paper, the transfer functions from the wind speed to electrical power, electromagnetic torque, and rotating speed are built based on which the rotating speed controller is designed...

  10. Decision about criticality of power transformers using whitenization weight functions on DGA caution levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikal R. Ingle

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Power transformers are the most significant as well as the major asset of any power system network. The condition monitoring and assessment is the main concern in transformer management activities. As a first information source, dissolved gases-in-oil analysis (DGA is universally accepted. The assessment of dissolved gases is characteristically observed analogous to grey system analysis. Grey system theory is supportive to the cases, when less information about the system is available. The cluster of grey incidences and whitenization weight functions classifies the factors of same type, in order to simplify a complex system. Three caution levels of key gases specified in IEEE standards are utilized in this study, to whiten the weight functions. The whitenization weight function with lower measure is selected for caution level-1. However, whitenization weight functions with middle measure are preferred for level-2 and level-3. Several key gas samples of the equal rating transformers are collected from gas analyzer section and utilized in condition assessment computations. The test samples are verified with variable and equal weight clustering criteria. The criticality judgment of transformer with variable weight clustering successfully identifies the crucial elements amongst samples.

  11. A low-power multi-modal body sensor network with application to epileptic seizure monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altini, Marco; Del Din, Silvia; Patel, Shyamal; Schachter, Steven; Penders, Julien; Bonato, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring patients' physiological signals during their daily activities in the home environment is one of the challenge of the health care. New ultra-low-power wireless technologies could help to achieve this goal. In this paper we present a low-power, multi-modal, wearable sensor platform for the simultaneous recording of activity and physiological data. First we provide a description of the wearable sensor platform, and its characteristics with respect to power consumption. Second we present the preliminary results of the comparison between our sensors and a reference system, on healthy subjects, to test the reliability of the detected physiological (electrocardiogram and respiration) and electromyography signals.

  12. Comparison of leachable trace element levels in coal gasifier ash with levels in power plant ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bombaugh, K.J.; Milosavljevic, M.; Janes, T.K.

    1984-04-01

    The levels of 14 trace elements in leachates from three types of ash of a common origin coal were compared. The study was conducted over a one year period at the Kosovo plant in Obilic, Yugoslavia comparing coal gasifier ash with fly ash and bottom ash from a coal-fired power plant using lignite from the Dobro Solo mine. Results obtained indicate that levels of Sb, As, Be, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mo, Ni and Zn in gasifier ash leachate were similar to those in fly ash leachate. Barium levels in gasifier ash leachate averaged 2.7 times that in fly ash and selenium levels averaged 0.33 times. The average ratio for the total set was 0.99. The set average, relative to bottom ash, was 2.1 with the nickel ratio differing significantly from the average. Metal oxides, CaO, MgO, Na/SUB/2O, K/SUB/2O and MgO; in the Kosovo gasifier ash were found at levels similar to those in Kosovo fly ash, and except for K/SUB/2O, were approximately twice those in bottom ash. Concentration levels of all components showed relatively small variations averaging 50% of their mean annual concentration over the test period. (14 refs.)

  13. Upcoming Role of Condition Monitoring in Risk-Based Asset Management for the Power Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehairjan, R.P.Y.; Zhuang, Q.; Djairam, D.; Smit, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    The electrical power sector is stimulated to evolve under the pressures of the energy transition, the deregulation of electricity markets and the introduction of intelligent grids. In general, engineers believe that technologies such as monitoring, control and diagnostic devices, can realize this ev

  14. Upcoming Role of Condition Monitoring in Risk-Based Asset Management for the Power Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehairjan, R.P.Y.; Zhuang, Q.; Djairam, D.; Smit, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    The electrical power sector is stimulated to evolve under the pressures of the energy transition, the deregulation of electricity markets and the introduction of intelligent grids. In general, engineers believe that technologies such as monitoring, control and diagnostic devices, can realize this ev

  15. Assessing browse trend at the landscape level Part 2: Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keigley, R.B.; Frisina, M.R.; Fager, C.W.

    2002-01-01

    In Part 1, we assessed browse trend across a wide geographic area of Mt. Haggin Wildlife Management Area by conducting surveys of browsing-related architectures. Those data were qualitative. Below we describe the periodic collection of quantitative data from permanently marked locations; we refer to this phase of the trend assessment program as "monitoring." Trend was monitored by three methods: 1 Repeat photography. 2 Comparison of the height of live stems with the height of stems killed by browsing (LD Index). 3 Net annual stem growth rate (NAGRL3). The photography provides an assessment of trend from the comparison of photographs taken at intervals of a few years. The LD Index and NAGRL3 measurements provide an immediate assessment of trend.

  16. A Review of the Condition Monitoring of Capacitors in Power Electronic Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soliman, Hammam Abdelaal Hammam; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    Capacitors are one type of reliability-critical components in power electronic systems. In the last two decades, many efforts in academic research have been devoted to the condition monitoring of capacitors to estimate their health status. Industry applications are demanding more reliable power...... electronics products with preventive maintenance. Nevertheless, most of the developed capacitor condition monitoring technologies are rarely adopted by industry due to the complexity, increased cost, and other relevant issues. An overview of the prior-art research in this area is therefore needed to justify......, this paper first classifies the capacitor condition monitoring methods into three categories, then the respective technology evolution in the last two decades is summarized. Finally, the state-of-the-art research and the future opportunities targeting for industry applications are given....

  17. An Online Monitoring and Fault Location Methodology for Underground Power Cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Sudarshan

    With the growing importance of underground power systems and the need for greater reliability of the power supply, cable monitoring and accurate fault location detection has become an increasingly important issue. The presence of inherent random fluctuations in power system signals can be used to extract valuable information about the condition of system equipment. One such component is the power cable, which is the primary focus of this research. This thesis investigates a unique methodology that allows online monitoring of an underground power cable. The methodology analyzes conventional power signals in the frequency domain to monitor the condition of a power cable. First, the proposed approach is analyzed theoretically with the help of mathematical computations. Frequency domain analysis techniques are then used to compute the power spectral density (PSD) of the system signals. The importance of inherent noise in the system, a key requirement of this methodology, is also explained. The behavior of resonant frequencies, which are unique to every system, are then analyzed under different system conditions with the help of mathematical expressions. Another important aspect of this methodology is its ability to accurately estimate cable fault location. The process is online and hence does not require the system to be disconnected from the grid. A single line to ground fault case is considered and the trend followed by the resonant frequencies for different fault positions is observed. The approach is initially explained using theoretical calculations followed by simulations in MATLAB/Simulink. The validity of this technique is proved by comparing the results obtained from theory and simulation to actual measurement data.

  18. Nanopillar Arrayed Triboelectric Nanogenerator as a Self-Powered Sensitive Sensor for a Sleep Monitoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Weixing; Gan, Baoheng; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Yue; Yu, Aifang; Yuan, Hongtao; Chen, Ning; Sun, Chunwen; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-08-23

    A flexible and low-cost triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) based on a patterned aluminum-plastic film and an entrapped cantilever spring leaf is developed as a self-powered sensitive triboelectric sensor for sleep-body movement monitoring. The working mechanism and the impact factors of electric output performance were systematically investigated and elaborated. Due to the patterned nanostructures of the recently designed TENG, both the output voltage and current are greatly enhanced, and thereby the sensitivity of the device is significantly improved. The self-powered and sensitive device has been demonstrated as a smart body motion sensor of sleep monitoring for diagnosis of sleep disorders due to its high sensitivity and excellent stability. This work may promote the application of self-powered TENGs for healthcare and be helpful for the development of real-time mobile healthcare services and smart external portable electronics.

  19. A METHOD OF COMPLEX AUTOMATED MONITORING OF UKRAINIAN POWER ENERGY SYSTEM OBJECTS TO INCREASE ITS OPERATION SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye.I. Sokol

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes an algorithm of the complex automated monitoring of Ukraine’s power energy system, aimed at ensuring safety of its personnel and equipment. This monitoring involves usage of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs for planned and unplanned registration status of power transmission lines (PTL and high-voltage substations (HVS. It is assumed that unscheduled overflights will be made in emergency situations on power lines. With the help of the UAV, pictures of transmission and HVS will be recorded from the air in the optical and infrared ranges, as well as strength of electric (EF and magnetic (MF fields will be measured along the route of flight. Usage specially developed software allows to compare the recorded pictures with pre-UAV etalon patterns corresponding to normal operation of investigated transmission lines and the HVSs. Such reference pattern together with the experimentally obtained maps of HVS’s protective grounding will be summarized in a single document – a passport of HVS and PTL. This passport must also contain the measured and calculated values of strength levels of EF and MF in the places where staff of power facilities stay as well as layout of equipment, the most vulnerable to the effects of electromagnetic interference. If necessary, as part of ongoing monitoring, recommendations will be given on the design and location of electromagnetic screens, reducing the levels of electromagnetic interference as well as on location of lightning rods, reducing probability lightning attachment to the objects. The paper presents analytic expressions, which formed the basis of the developed software for calculation of the EF strength in the vicinity of power lines. This software will be used as a base at UAV navigation along the transmission lines, as well as to detect violations in the transmission lines operation. Comparison of distributions of EF strength calculated with the help of the elaborated software with the known

  20. Design of a Human Machine Interface for a Reliability Monitoring System of Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuxin; Yang, Ming; Yan, Shengyuan [Harbin Engineering University, Harbin (Switzerland)

    2014-08-15

    This paper presents the design of a Reliability Monitoring System (RMS) for nuclear power plant which was newly developed by authors. The RMS, combining a dynamic reliability analysis system with an online fault management system, can assist technical personnel with their daily tasks such as system configuration management, maintenance plan making and state monitoring from a point of view that degradation of equipment performance, bad plant configurations and incorrect actions will decrease the probability of systems performing designed functions. For utilizing the RMS, technical personnel will monitor the plant operational state, conform the fault diagnosis, input the intended operating or maintenance actions, and monitor the probability changes of systems through a graphical HMI. A HMI evaluation experiment was conducted using an eye tracking system and a full scale simulator of PWR NPP. Visual data was recorded and analyzed after the experiment. The experiment results are presented and the HMI design problems revealed by the evaluation experiment are discussed.

  1. The International Remote Monitoring Project -- First results of the Argentina nuclear power station field trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonino, A.; Pizarro, L.; Perez, A. [Ente Nacional Regulador Nuclear, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Schoeneman, J.L.; Dupree, S.A.; Martinez, R.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Maxey, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    As part of the International Remote Monitoring Project field trials, during the month of March, 1995 a Remote Monitoring System (RMS) was installed at the Embalse Nuclear Power Station in Embalse, Argentina. This system monitors the status of four typical Candu spent fuel dry storage silos. The monitoring equipment for each silo consists of analog temperature and gamma radiation sensors and digital motion and electronic fiber-optic seals connected to a wireless Authenticate Item Monitoring System (AIMS). All sensor data are authenticated and transmitted via RF link to Receiver Processor Units (RPU) coupled to Remote Monitoring System equipment located in a nearby IAEA/ENREN inspector office. One of these RPUs is connected to Remote Monitoring equipment capable of information transmission (via commercial telephone links) to Data Review Stations (DRS) at ENREN laboratories in Buenos Aires, Argentina, and at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. The other RPU is used for on-site data storage and analysis. It is anticipated that this information will soon be transmitted to a DRS at the ABACC facility in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. During these trials site data will be collected and analyzed periodically from Buenos Aires, Albuquerque, and Rio de Janeiro. Installation detail and data analysis will be presented in this paper.

  2. Flexible piezoelectric nanogenerator in wearable self-powered active sensor for respiration and healthcare monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Zhang, S.; Jin, Y. M.; Ouyang, H.; Zou, Y.; Wang, X. X.; Xie, L. X.; Li, Z.

    2017-06-01

    A wearable self-powered active sensor for respiration and healthcare monitoring was fabricated based on a flexible piezoelectric nanogenerator. An electrospinning poly(vinylidene fluoride) thin film on silicone substrate was polarized to fabricate the flexible nanogenerator and its electrical property was measured. When periodically stretched by a linear motor, the flexible piezoelectric nanogenerator generated an output open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current of up to 1.5 V and 400 nA, respectively. Through integration with an elastic bandage, a wearable self-powered sensor was fabricated and used to monitor human respiration, subtle muscle movement, and voice recognition. As respiration proceeded, the electrical output signals of the sensor corresponded to the signals measured by a physiological signal recording system with good reliability and feasibility. This self-powered, wearable active sensor has significant potential for applications in pulmonary function evaluation, respiratory monitoring, and detection of gesture and vocal cord vibration for the personal healthcare monitoring of disabled or paralyzed patients.

  3. Emissions, Monitoring and Control of Mercury from Subbituminous Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan Bland; Kumar Sellakumar; Craig Cormylo

    2007-08-01

    The Subbituminous Energy Coalition (SEC) identified a need to re-test stack gas emissions from power plants that burn subbituminous coal relative to compliance with the EPA mercury control regulations for coal-fired plants. In addition, the SEC has also identified the specialized monitoring needs associated with mercury continuous emissions monitors (CEM). The overall objectives of the program were to develop and demonstrate solutions for the unique emission characteristics found when burning subbituminous coals. The program was executed in two phases; Phase I of the project covered mercury emission testing programs at ten subbituminous coal-fired plants. Phase II compared the performance of continuous emission monitors for mercury at subbituminous coal-fired power plants and is reported separately. Western Research Institute and a number of SEC members have partnered with Eta Energy and Air Pollution Testing to assess the Phase I objective. Results of the mercury (Hg) source sampling at ten power plants burning subbituminous coal concluded Hg emissions measurements from Powder River Basin (PBR) coal-fired units showed large variations during both ICR and SEC testing. Mercury captures across the Air Pollution Control Devices (APCDs) present much more reliable numbers (i.e., the mercury captures across the APCDs are positive numbers as one would expect compared to negative removal across the APCDs for the ICR data). Three of the seven units tested in the SEC study had previously shown negative removals in the ICR testing. The average emission rate is 6.08 lb/TBtu for seven ICR units compared to 5.18 lb/TBtu for ten units in the SEC testing. Out of the ten (10) SEC units, Nelson Dewey Unit 1, burned a subbituminous coal and petcoke blend thus lowering the total emission rate by generating less elemental mercury. The major difference between the ICR and SEC data is in the APCD performance and the mercury closure around the APCD. The average mercury removal values

  4. Research of on-line monitoring equipment for power capacitor based on wireless sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hao; Qian, Zheng; Yao, Junda; Xia, Jiuyun

    2016-01-01

    As the main electrical component for the reactive power compensation, the power capacitors are widely applied in many fields. And since the insulation condition of power capacitor could be identified accurately by using the on-line monitoring system, it attracts more and more attentions in recent years. In this paper, a novel on-line monitoring equipment for power capacitor based on wireless sensor network is presented. The operation data which includes the current and voltage of every capacitor is collected at first, and then the FFT is utilized to calculate the amplitude and phase of every signal, thus the insulation condition and the fault symptom could all be diagnosed accurately by analyzing the FFT results. In order to realize the effective isolation and the reliable communication between the sensing part and the merging unit, the wireless sensor network is adopted. The high reliability and transmission rate could be realized by using 2.4GHz UHF and 5GHz ISM radio bands. Thus the on-line monitoring system could be manufactured, and the lab test is carried at last. The testing results illustrate that this system could satisfy the requirement of on-site real-time measurement.

  5. radio frequency based radio frequency based water level monitor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    used for point level sensing of sediments, liquids with suspended solids, and liquid-liquid interfaces. These sensors sense the decrease or change ... This RF data sent from the transmitter is received by the receiver sub-circuit placed remotely.

  6. Power Grid Construction Project Portfolio Optimization Based on Bi-level programming model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Erdong; Li, Shangqi

    2017-08-01

    As the main body of power grid operation, county-level power supply enterprises undertake an important emission to guarantee the security of power grid operation and safeguard social power using order. The optimization of grid construction projects has been a key issue of power supply capacity and service level of grid enterprises. According to the actual situation of power grid construction project optimization of county-level power enterprises, on the basis of qualitative analysis of the projects, this paper builds a Bi-level programming model based on quantitative analysis. The upper layer of the model is the target restriction of the optimal portfolio; the lower layer of the model is enterprises’ financial restrictions on the size of the enterprise project portfolio. Finally, using a real example to illustrate operation proceeding and the optimization result of the model. Through qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis, the bi-level programming model improves the accuracy and normative standardization of power grid enterprises projects.

  7. Aquatic indicator organisms as a tool to monitor discharges from nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Outola, Iisa; Vartti, Vesa-Pekka; Klemola, Seppo [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, P.O. Box 14, 00881 Helsinki (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    There are four operating nuclear power plant units in Finland at two separate locations. The units started operation during 1977-1980. The surveillance of radioactive substances in the vicinities of the nuclear power plant is carried out under the permanent monitoring programs. Some 1000 samples are taken annually from the surroundings of the power plants to confirm that the discharges from the power plants are within permissible release limits and to monitor the dispersion of discharges in the environment. Aquatic indicator organisms (macro-algae, periphyton, mussels, crustacean, submerged aquatic plants) are included in the monitoring program. The indicator organisms are valuable monitoring objects both in normal and emergency situations because they accumulate effectively and often very rapidly radioactive substances from the medium. Six different species (Periphyton, Fucus vesiculosus, Myriophyllum spicatum, Potamogeton pectinatus, Saduria entomon, Macoma Baltica/Mytilus edulis) are collected regularly. Number of sampling location for each species varies from 1 to 7. Some species are collected continuously, some 1-2 times in a year. In this study we have evaluated the monitoring results for the aquatic indicator organisms for the period of 2005-2010 concerning concentration of discharge nuclides. Our aim was to answer the following questions using the monitoring data from aquatic organisms: 1) Which radionuclides are released to the marine environment and how often do we detect them? 2) How far from the nuclear power plants discharge radionuclides are detected? 3) How concentration of discharge radionuclides has changed with time in aquatic organisms? The number of discharge nuclides detected in the aquatic indicator samples was 11. Most of them were only detected in few samples, but {sup 58}Co, {sup 60}Co, {sup 54}Mn and {sup 110m}Ag were detected more frequently. Most of the observations above detection limits were made within the 5 km distance from the

  8. A New Remote Monitoring System Application in Laser Power Based on LabVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Gaoqiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new remote monitoring system based on LabVIEW was proposed to measure laser power automatically and remotely. This system consists of four basic components: an DH-JG2 optical power meter, a NI-USB 6008 data acquisition card, a personal computer (PC, and HP laserJet 1020 Plus printer. Since power output of laser is generally so unstable that abnormal work situation could not retroaction to inspectors right away, new system was designed to solve this problem. The detection system realized function of remote control by TCP protocol and mobile phone. Laser power curve that is measured by detection system demonstrated that the design has a good performance in real-time detection and operability.

  9. Developing a PQ monitoring system for assessing power quality and critical areas detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Romero

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the development of a power quality monitoring system. The system is aimed at assessing power quality and detecting critical areas throughout at distribution system. Such system integrates a hardware system and a software processing tool developed in four main stages. Power quality disturbances are registered by PQ meters and the data is transmitted through a 3G wireless network. This data is processed and filtered in an open source database. Some interesting statistical indices related to voltage sags, swells, flicker and voltage unbalance are obtained. The last stage displays the indices geo-referenced on power quality maps, allowing the identification of critical areas according to different criteria. The results can be analyzed using clustering tools to identify differentiated quality groups in a city. The proposed system is an open source tool useful to electricity utilities to analyze and manage large amount of data.

  10. Monitoring of radionuclides in the vicinities of Finnish nuclear power plants in 1993 and 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klemola, S.; Ilus, E.; Ikaeheimonen, T.K

    1998-08-01

    Monitoring of radioactive substances around Finnish nuclear power plants continued in 1993-1994 in accordance with the regular programmes. Some 1000 samples are analysed annually from the terrestrial and aquatic environments of the two power plant sites. Trace amounts of activation products originating from airborne releases from the local power plants were detected in several air, deposition and soil samples. Discharged nuclides were more abundant in the aquatic environment, especially in samples of indicator organisms, sinking matter and sediments. However, the concentrations were so low that they did not significantly increase the radiation burden in the environment. The dominant artificial radionuclides in the vicinity of the power plants remained the cesium isotopes, especially {sup 137}Cs but also {sup 134}Cs, originating from the Chernobyl accident. (orig.) 14 refs.

  11. Emissions, Monitoring, and Control of Mercury from Subbituminous Coal-Fired Power Plants - Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan Bland; Jesse Newcomer; Allen Kephart; Volker Schmidt; Gerald Butcher

    2008-10-31

    Western Research Institute (WRI), in conjunction with Western Farmers Electric Cooperative (WFEC), has teamed with Clean Air Engineering of Pittsburgh PA to conduct a mercury monitoring program at the WEFC Hugo plant in Oklahoma. Sponsored by US Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-26-98FT40323, the program included the following members of the Subbituminous Energy Coalition (SEC) as co-sponsors: Missouri Basin Power Project; DTE Energy; Entergy; Grand River Dam Authority; and Nebraska Public Power District. This research effort had five objectives: (1) determine the mass balance of mercury for subbituminous coal-fired power plant; (2) assess the distribution of mercury species in the flue gas (3) perform a comparison of three different Hg test methods; (4) investigate the long-term (six months) mercury variability at a subbituminous coal-fired power plant; and (5) assess operation and maintenance of the Method 324 and Horiba CEMS utilizing plant personnel.

  12. Monitoring and Automatic Control for Ship Power Plants Based Logical Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mohammad Salem Al-suod

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Controlling power station systems with diesel engines is vital issue. Algorithms of microprocessors are developed to be used in the control unit of this type of power station systems. Such Algorithms are built in a logic form, and then the control functions are derived using logic functions. Analyzing the contents of the received logic signals allows us to overcome structural redundancy of the systems. Monitor the network parameter is very important to protect the devices used in the power station systems. In this paper automated controller is developed using microprocessor algorithms to view and control the parameters of the system devices such as generator, synchronizers, and load sharers on-line, this will help in improving the system to be fast, reliable and more accurate. This paper proposes an implementation of a subsequent optimization for structural and algorithmic blocks of microprocessor systems automation of ship power plants.

  13. Increasing the Performance and Reliability of Power Boiler by Monitoring Thermal and Strength Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobota Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a method for determination of thermo-flow parameters for steam boilers. This method allows to perform the calculations of the boiler furnace chamber and heat flow rates absorbed by superheater stages. These parameters are important for monitoring the performance of the power unit. Knowledge of these parameters allows determining the degree of the furnace chamber slagging. The calculation can be performed in online mode and use to monitoring of steam boiler. The presented method allows to the operation of steam boiler with high efficiency.

  14. An Internet of Things Approach to Electrical Power Monitoring and Outage Reporting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Daniel B [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    The so-called Internet of Things concept has captured much attention recently as ordinary devices are connected to the Internet for monitoring and control purposes. One enabling technology is the proliferation of low-cost, single board computers with built-in network interfaces. Some of these are capable of hosting full-fledged operating systems that provide rich programming environments. Taken together, these features enable inexpensive solutions for even traditional tasks such as the one presented here for electrical power monitoring and outage reporting.

  15. Development of a remote controlled robot system for monitoring nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Hee Gon; Song, Myung Jae; Shin, Hyun Bum; Oh, Gil Hwan; Maeng, Sung Jun; Choi, Byung Jae; Chang, Tae Woo [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Bum Hee; Yoo, Jun; Choi, Myung Hwan; Go, Nak Yong; Lee, Kee Dong; Lee, Young Dae; Cho, Hae Kyeng; Nam, Yoon Suk [Electric and Science Research Center, (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    It`s a final report of the development of remote controlled robot system for monitoring the facilities in nuclear power plant and contains as follows, -Studying the technologies in robot developments and analysing the requirements and working environments - Development of the test mobile robot system - Development of the mobile-robot - Development of the Mounted system on the Mobile robot - Development of the Monitoring system - Mobil-robot applications and future study. In this study we built the basic technologies and schemes for future robot developments and applications. (author). 20 refs., figs.

  16. Online Vce measurement method for wear-out monitoring of high power IGBT modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beczkowski, Szymon; Ghimire, Pramod; de Vega, Angel Ruiz

    2013-01-01

    A simple Vce online monitoring circuit is presented in this paper. It allows an accurate wear out prediction of IGBT modules, in high-power applications, during normal converter operation. Bipolar measurement allows monitoring of both IGBT and antiparallel diode. The circuit uses two serial...... connected diodes to sense the Vce voltage with millivolt accuracy. One diode acts as a protection to block high DC voltage present on input terminals. When the device is conducting the voltage on the second diode is measured to compensate for the voltage drop on the protection diode thus eliminating voltage...

  17. The Design of Partial Discharge On-Line Monitoring System for XLPE Power Cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Rui-Long

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Partial discharge detection is an important means to assess the situation of XLPE power cable’s insulation. This study has developed an on-line monitoring system which applies to the medium voltage XLPE cable on partial discharge, described its working principle, components of hardware, software designing and program implementation in details. Through monitoring the partial discharge signal in grounding lines of the XLPE cable’s shield, the system integrated assess the situation of XLPE cable’s insulation. The results of running show that the system is stable and reliable.

  18. Gross β activity level of fallout in the environment around Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Ji-Da; CHEN Bin; WU Zong-Mei

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the measurement results of gross β activities in fallout samples collected from the environment around Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) during 1993-2002. The gross β activity of 191 samples collected at five monitoring spots were (0.11~3.64) Bq · m-2 · d-1, with an average of (0.91 ±0.49) Bq · m-2 · d-1. This value was lower than (1.02±0.35) Bq·m-2·d-1 , the average of the samples collected at the reference spot in Hangzhou.It indicated that no obvious rise in the gross β activity level of fallout was observed in ambience of Qinshan NPP.

  19. Online Monitoring of Concrete Structures in Nuclear Power Plants: Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahadevan, Sankaran [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cai, Guowei [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Agarwal, Vivek [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The existing fleet of nuclear power plants in the United States have initial operating licenses of 40 years, and many of these plants have applied for and received license extensions. As plant structures, systems, and components age, their useful life—considering both structural integrity and performance—is reduced as a result of deterioration of the materials. Assessment and management of aging concrete structures in nuclear plants require a more systematic approach than simple reliance on existing code-based design margins of safety. Structural health monitoring is required to produce actionable information regarding structural integrity that supports operational and maintenance decisions. The online monitoring of concrete structures project conducted under the Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Technologies Pathway of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability program at Idaho National Laboratory is seeking to develop and demonstrate capabilities for concrete structures health monitoring. Through this research project, several national laboratories and Vanderbilt University propose to develop a framework of research activities for the health monitoring of nuclear power plant concrete structures that includes the integration of four elements—damage modeling, monitoring, data analytics, and uncertainty quantification. This report briefly discusses activities in this project during October-December, 2014. The most significant activity during this period was the organizing of a two-day workshop on research needs in online monitoring of concrete structures, hosted by Vanderbilt University in November 2014. Thirty invitees from academia, industry and government participated in the workshop. The presentations and discussions at the workshop surveyed current activities related to concrete structures deterioration modeling and monitoring, and identified the challenges, knowledge gaps, and opportunities for advancing the state of the art; these

  20. Towards efficient real-time submarine power cable monitoring using distributed fibre optic acoustic sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicke, Konstantin; Krebber, Katerina

    2017-04-01

    Online condition monitoring of submarine power cables helps to avert failures and damages produced by mechanical impacts. We report, to our knowledge for the first time, on investigations regarding the feasibility of distributed fiber optic acoustic sensors based on C-OTDR, with the sensor fibers being embedded in the cable, to detect vibrations due to mechanical disturbances along the cable. We present first results of sensing experiments where acoustic signals are transmitted through water to simulate the corresponding submarine conditions. Furthermore, we show results evaluating the usefulness of fibre commonly embedded in existing power cable designs for our sensing purposes.

  1. Can Weather Radars Help Monitoring and Forecasting Wind Power Fluctuations at Large Offshore Wind Farms?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trombe, Pierre-Julien; Pinson, Pierre; Madsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    The substantial impact of wind power fluctuations at large offshore wind farms calls for the development of dedicated monitoring and prediction approaches. Based on recent findings, a Local Area Weather Radar (LAWR) was installed at Horns Rev with the aim of improving predictability, controlability...... and potentially maintenance planning. Additional images are available from a Doppler radar covering the same area. The parallel analysis of rain events detection and of regime sequences in wind (and power) fluctuations demonstrates the interest of employing weather radars for a better operation and management...

  2. Determination of the Power Transformer Efficiency Monitoring the Electrical Insulation Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Munteanu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the monitoring methods for the insulating state of power transformers. For a transformer with oil-paper insulation system the ageing curves was obtained using the criterion of insulating resistance, and the correction coefficients for directly obtained the real insulation resistance. All these measurements are realized on the same transformer with S = 250 MVA power and 400/110/20 kV voltages. Using graphical method, the lifetime of insulation, respectively, of transformer is possible to be quickly obtained.

  3. Cognitive Aspects of Power in a Two-Level Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvina, Ion; Lebiere, Christian; Martin, Jolie; Gonzalez, Cleotilde

    The Intergroup Prisoner's Dilemma with Intragroup Power Dynamics (IPD^2) is a new game paradigm for studying human behavior in conflict situations. IPD^2 adds the concept of intragroup power to an intergroup version of the standard Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma game. We conducted an exploratory laboratory study in which individual human participants played the game against computer strategies of various complexities. We also developed a cognitive model of human decision making in this game. The model was run in place of the human participant under the same conditions as in the laboratory study. Results from the human study and the model simulations are presented and discussed, emphasizing the value of including intragroup power in game theoretic models of conflict.

  4. Health monitoring of electric power communication line using a distributed optical fiber sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lidong; Liang, Yun; Li, Binglin; Guo, Jinghong; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Xuping

    2014-11-01

    Optical fiber ground wire (OPGW) is used for both the earth line and communication line in electric power systems. It is important to find an effective to monitor the status of OPGW and diagnose some possible damages. Fault location of the optical fiber transmission line, lightning stroke location and early-warning of ice covering of OPGW are common tasks for OPGW health monitoring and maintenance. As to these issues, Brillouin optical time domain reflectometry (BOTDR) is employed for the health monitoring of OPGW. In experiment, a positive electrode with high pulsed current and a negative electrode are adopted to form a lightning impulse system with duration time of 200ms for simulation of the lightning stroke process, and a tensile force loading apparatus is also constructed to simulate the strain influence of the ice covering on the OPGW. Experimental results demonstrate that the BOTDR can sensitively locate the lightning stroke incidents with the quantity of electric discharging larger than 100C and the strain component has little interference on temperature monitoring as the fiber contained in the OPGW is generally free of strain, and in the ice covering condition the strain feature appears only when the extra tensile force on the OPGW is over 30kN. In addition, the vibration of OPGW does not disturb both the temperature and strain monitoring. As to further applications of distributed optical fiber sensors (DOFS) for the OPGW health monitoring, it is important to enhance its spatial resolution.

  5. Development of an automated system for continuous monitoring of powered roof support in longwall panel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ATUL Kumar; DHEERAJ Kumar; SINGH U.K.; GUPTA P.S.

    2010-01-01

    Described the development of an Intrinsically Safe System for continuous monitoring of load and convergence of powered roof supports installed at longwall faces.The system developed for monitoring of behavior of a powered support in a mechanized longwall sublevel caving face. The logging system can be programmed for logging the data from the sensors at different logging intervals ranging from 16 h to 1 ms for logging variation in hydraulic pressures in legs and convergence of the support during progressive face advance. For recording dynamic loads, the data logger can be programmed to start fast logging, say at 10 ms intervals, when the pressure in a leg reaches a pre-specified threshold value, and continue fast logging until the pressure drops below this threshold value. This fast logging automatically stops when the pressure drops below this threshold value.

  6. A high-efficiency self-powered wireless sensor node for monitoring concerning vibratory events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dacheng; Li, Suiqiong; Li, Mengyang; Xie, Danpeng; Dong, Chuan; Li, Xinxin

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents a self-powered wireless alarming sensor node (SWASN), which was designed to monitor the occurrence of concerning vibratory events. The major components of the sensor node include a vibration-threshold-triggered energy harvester (VTTEH) that powers the sensor node, a dual threshold voltage control circuit (DTVCC) for power management and a radio frequency (RF) signal transmitting module. The VTTEH generates significant electric energy only when the input vibration reaches certain amplitude. Thus, the VTTEH serves as both the power source and the vibration-event-sensing element for the sensor node. The DTVCC was specifically designed to utilize the limited power supply from the VTTEH to operate the sensor node. Constructed with only voltage detectors and MOSFETs, the DTVCC achieved low power consumption, which was 65% lower compared with the power management circuit designed in our previous work. Meanwhile, a RF transmit circuit was constructed based on the commercially available CC1110-F32 wireless transceiver chip and a compact planar antenna was designed to improve the signal transmission distance. The sensor node was fabricated and was characterized both in the laboratory and in the field. Experimental results showed that the SWASN could automatically send out alarming signals when the simulated concerning event occurred. The waiting time between two consecutive transmission periods is less than 125 s and the transmission distance can reach 1.31 km. The SWASN will have broad applications in field surveillances.

  7. Thermometric- and Acoustic-Based Beam Power Monitor for Ultra-Bright X-Rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentsen, Gregory; /Rochester U. /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    A design for an average beam power monitor for ultra-bright X-ray sources is proposed that makes simultaneous use of calorimetry and radiation acoustics. Radiation incident on a solid target will induce heating and ultrasonic vibrations, both of which may be measured to give a fairly precise value of the beam power. The monitor is intended for measuring ultra-bright Free-Electron Laser (FEL) X-ray beams, for which traditional monitoring technologies such as photo-diodes or scintillators are unsuitable. The monitor consists of a Boron Carbide (B{sub 4}C) target designed to absorb most of the incident beam's energy. Resistance temperature detectors (RTD) and piezoelectric actuators are mounted on the outward faces of the target to measure the temperature changes and ultrasonic vibrations induced by the incident beam. The design was tested using an optical pulsed beam (780 nm, 120 and 360 Hz) from a Ti:sapphire oscillator at several energies between 0.8 and 2.6 mJ. The RTDs measured an increase in temperature of about 10 K over a period of several minutes. The piezoelectric sensors recorded ringing acoustic oscillations at 580 {+-} 40 kHz. Most importantly, the amplitude of the acoustic signals was observed to scale linearly with beam power up to 2 mJ of pulse energy. Above this pulse energy, the vibrational signals became nonlinear. Several causes for this nonlinearity are discussed, including amplifier saturation and piezoelectric saturation. Despite this nonlinearity, these measurements demonstrate the feasibility of such a beam power measurement device. The advantage of two distinct measurements (acoustic and thermometric) provides a useful method of calibration that is unavailable to current LCLS diagnostics tools.

  8. FDD-1 System On-line Monitoring Fuel Rod Failure of Nuclear Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENPeng; ZHANGYing-chao; JISong-tao; GAOYong-guang; YINZhen-guo; HANChuan-bin

    2003-01-01

    The FDD-1 system developed by CIAE for on-line monitoring fuel rod failure of nuclear power plant consists of γ-ray detector, γ-ray spectrum analyzer, computer, and an analysis code for evaluating the status of fuel rod failure. It would be determined that the fuel rod failure occurs when a large amount of γ activity increases in the primary system measured by γ-ray detector near the CVCS.

  9. Monitoring the power system stability; Monitoramento da estabilidade dos sistemas de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bretas, Newton G. [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia

    1994-12-31

    This work presents a method to monitor the stability of a power system, after a major disturbance, using of adaptive time series approach. The model parameters are updated every time the prediction stage is completed. Besides, according to the values of the parameters, one may conclude the system will be unstable, will go to be a damped sine wave or even a damped exponential. (author) 29 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. The development of a milliwatt-level radioisotope power source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugby, David C.; McBirney, Thomas R.

    1998-01-01

    Future NASA spacecraft for unmanned planetary exploration will be much smaller and require much less power than the large systems used in prior missions. The ``Powerstick'', a miniaturized isotopic electrical power generator, uses a flight-qualified, DoE-manufactured, 1.1 W Radioisotope Heater Unit (RHU) to generate the high temperature sink for a thermoelectric converter (TEC). The TEC generates sufficient electrical power (~40 mW) to trickle-charge an external rechargeable battery pack, which can then be used in low duty cycle, low power applications. The original Powerstick concept (proposed by JPL) was refined at Swales Aerospace (SA), which has: repackaged it, constructed a prototype, and performed limited testing. The prototype Powerstick is 63.5 mm (2.500'') in diameter, 76.2 mm (3.000'') long, and weighs about 0.3 kg (0.66 lb). Structural analysis indicates the Powerstick can easily survive typical launch loads. Thermal analysis indicates that over 70% of the RHU energy enters the TEC. This paper will describe the design and analysis of the Powerstick prototype and present the key test results.

  11. Module-Level Power Converters For Parallel Connected Photovoltaic Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Secondary Bare Wire Area Rs Secondary Resistance Ps Secondary Copper Loss Pcu Total Copper Loss W/kg Watts Per Kilogram Pfe Core Loss PΣ Total...material properties of the chosen core [30]. The calculated core loss power density was was 17.2712 W/kg. The core loss, Pfe , was calculated

  12. Panorama Image Processing for Condition Monitoring with Thermography in Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Byoung Joon; Kim, Tae Hwan; Kim, Soon Geol; Mo, Yoon Syub [UNETWARE, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Won Tae [Kongju National University, Gongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    In this paper, imaging processing study obtained from CCD image and thermography image was performed in order to treat easily thermographic data without any risks of personnel who conduct the condition monitoring for the abnormal or failure status occurrable in industrial power plants. This imaging processing is also applicable to the predictive maintenance. For confirming the broad monitoring, a methodology producting single image from the panorama technique was developed no matter how many cameras are employed, including fusion method for discrete configuration for the target. As results, image fusion from quick realtime processing was obtained and it was possible to save time to track the location monitoring in matching the images between CCTV and thermography

  13. Recurrence plots and its quantification analysis applied to the monitoring and surveillance in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naranjo, Alberto R.; Otero, Maria Elena M.; Poveda, Aylin G. [Higher Institute of Technologies and Applied Sciences, Havana City (Cuba)]. E-mails: rolo@instec.cu; mmontesi@instec.cu; Guerra, Alexeis C. [University of Informatic Sciences, Havana City (Cuba)]. E-mail: alexeis@uci.cu

    2007-07-01

    The application of non-linear dynamic methods in many scientific fields has demonstrated its great potentiality in the early detection of significant dynamic singularities. The introduction of these methods oriented to the surveillance of anomalies and failures of nuclear reactors and their fundamental equipment have been demonstrated in the last years. Specifically, Recurrence Plot and its Quantification Analysis are methods currently used in many scientific fields. The paper focuses its attention on the estimation of the Recurrence Plots and its Quantification Analysis applied to signal samples obtained from different types of reactors: research reactor TRIGA MARK-III, BWR/5 and PHWR. Different behaviors are compared in order to look for a pattern for the characterization of the power instability events in the nuclear reactor. These outputs have a great importance for its application in systems of surveillance and monitoring in Nuclear Power Plants. For its introduction in a real time monitoring system, the authors propose some useful approaches. The results indicate the potentiality of the method for its implementation in a system of surveillance and monitoring in Nuclear Power Plants. All the calculations were performed with two computational tools developed by Marwan: Cross Recurrence Plot Toolbox for Matlab (Version 5.7, Release 22) and Visual Recurrence Analysis (Version 4.8). (author)

  14. The advantages and disadvantages of centralized control of air power at operational level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arisoy, Uǧur

    2014-05-01

    People do not want to see and hear a war. In today's world, if war is inevitable, the use of air power is seen as the preferable means of conducting operations instead of financially burdensome land battles which are more likely to cause heavy loss of life. The use of Air Power has gained importance in NATO operations in the Post-Cold War era. For example, air power has undertaken a decisive role from the beginning to the end of the operation in Libya. From this point of view, the most important issue to consider is how to direct air power more effectively at operational level. NATO's Core JFAC (Joint Force Air Command) was established in 2012 to control joint air power at operational level from a single center. US had experienced JFAC aproach in the Operation Desert Storm in 1991. UK, France, Germany, Italy and Spain are also directing their air power from their JFAC structures. Joint air power can be directed from a single center at operational level by means of JFAC. JFAC aproach provides complex planning progress of Air Power to be controled faster in a single center. An Air Power with a large number of aircrafts, long range missiles of cutting-edge technology may have difficulties in achieving results unless directed effectively. In this article, directing air power more effectively at operational level has been studied in the framework of directing air power from a single center carried out by SWOT analysis technique. "Directing Air Power at operational level from a single center similar to JFAC-like structure" is compared with "Directing Air Power at operational level from two centers similar to AC (Air Command) + CAOC (Combined Air Operations Center) structure" As a result of this study, it is assessed that directing air power at operational level from a single center would bring effectiveness to the air campaign. The study examines directing air power at operational level. Developments at political, strategic and tactical levels have been ignored.

  15. Radiation monitoring handbook for visits by nuclear powered warships to Australian ports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, D.A

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to detail the Radiation Monitoring (RMG) roles and procedures, and to provide technical and background information useful to RMG personnel. It has been written on the assumption that all members of the RMG have had appropriate radiation safety (Health Physics) training. Separate standing procedures, for both routine and emergency activities, are required for each port. These are incorporated in Port Safety Plans and specify the routine monitoring requirements for individual berths or anchorages and the procedures to be followed after indication of a reactor accident to a nuclear powered warship. A Visit Operation Order, issued for each Nuclear Powered warships (NPW) visit, presents information specific to that visit. Routine monitoring is performed to confirm normal conditions. The objectives of emergency radiation monitoring are: to provide early detection of a reactor accident of sufficient severity to possibly cause a major release of fission products to the environment; to determine the nature and extent of any fission product release; to provide information to assist in evaluating the accident; to assess the need and extent of required countermeasures; and to determine when the release has terminated and when affected areas have returned to normal Prepared on behalf of the Visiting Ship Panel (Nuclear), Department of Defence; 11 refs., 11 tabs., 21 figs.

  16. A technical system to improve the operational monitoring of the Zaporozhye nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, M.; Carl, H.; Nowak, K. [Technischer Ueberwachungsverein Rheinland, Koeln (Germany). Inst. for Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Protection; Schumann, P.; Seidel, A.; Weiss, F.P.; Zschau, J.

    1998-10-01

    As part of the programme implemented by the German Ministry of Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety to cooperate with the Central and Eastern European States (CEES) and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) in the area of nuclear safety, a technical system to improve operational monitoring has been designed, specified and established since 1992 as a pilot project in the Zaporozhye/Ukraine nuclear power plant by Forschungszentrum Rossendorf and Technischer Ueberwachungsverein Rheinland with a significant contribution from the State Scientific and Technical Centre of the Ukrainian supervisory authority. The technical system complements existing operational checking and monitoring facilities by including modern means of information technology. It enables a continuous monitoring of the state of unit 5 in normal operation and in cases of anomalies or incidents so that when recognisable deviations from the regular plant operation occur, the Ukrainian supervisory authority can immediately inquire and if necessary impose conditions on the operator. The radiological and meteorological parameters at the nuclear power plant location are monitored to the extent necessary to assess the current radiation situation and to implement efficient emergency management measures. (orig.)

  17. Energy Efficient Monitoring for Intrusion Detection in Battery-Powered Wireless Mesh Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Hassanzadeh, Amin

    2011-07-18

    Wireless Mesh Networks (WMN) are easy-to-deploy, low cost solutions for providing networking and internet services in environments with no network infrastructure, e.g., disaster areas and battlefields. Since electric power is not readily available in such environments battery-powered mesh routers, operating in an energy efficient manner, are required. To the best of our knowledge, the impact of energy efficient solutions, e.g., involving duty-cycling, on WMN intrusion detection systems, which require continuous monitoring, remains an open research problem. In this paper we propose that carefully chosen monitoring mesh nodes ensure continuous and complete detection coverage, while allowing non-monitoring mesh nodes to save energy through duty-cycling. We formulate the monitoring node selection problem as an optimization problem and propose distributed and centralized solutions for it, with different tradeoffs. Through extensive simulations and a proof-of-concept hardware/software implementation we demonstrate that our solutions extend the WMN lifetime by 8%, while ensuring, at the minimum, a 97% intrusion detection rate.

  18. Intelligent Monitoring System With High Temperature Distributed Fiberoptic Sensor For Power Plant Combustion Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwang Y. Lee; Stuart S. Yin; Andre Boheman

    2005-12-26

    The objective of the proposed work is to develop an intelligent distributed fiber optical sensor system for real-time monitoring of high temperature in a boiler furnace in power plants. Of particular interest is the estimation of spatial and temporal distributions of high temperatures within a boiler furnace, which will be essential in assessing and controlling the mechanisms that form and remove pollutants at the source, such as NOx. The basic approach in developing the proposed sensor system is three fold: (1) development of high temperature distributed fiber optical sensor capable of measuring temperatures greater than 2000 C degree with spatial resolution of less than 1 cm; (2) development of distributed parameter system (DPS) models to map the three-dimensional (3D) temperature distribution for the furnace; and (3) development of an intelligent monitoring system for real-time monitoring of the 3D boiler temperature distribution. Under Task 1, we set up a dedicated high power, ultrafast laser system for fabricating in-fiber gratings in harsh environment optical fibers, successfully fabricated gratings in single crystal sapphire fibers by the high power laser system, and developed highly sensitive long period gratings (lpg) by electric arc. Under Task 2, relevant mathematical modeling studies of NOx formation in practical combustors. Studies show that in boiler systems with no swirl, the distributed temperature sensor may provide information sufficient to predict trends of NOx at the boiler exit. Under Task 3, we investigate a mathematical approach to extrapolation of the temperature distribution within a power plant boiler facility, using a combination of a modified neural network architecture and semigroup theory. The 3D temperature data is furnished by the Penn State Energy Institute using FLUENT. Given a set of empirical data with no analytic expression, we first develop an analytic description and then extend that model along a single axis. Extrapolation

  19. Towards a Cyber Defense Framework for SCADA Systems Based on Power Consumption Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez Jimenez, Jarilyn M [ORNL; Chen, Qian [Savannah State University; Nichols, Jeff A. {Cyber Sciences} [ORNL; Calhoun, Chelsea [Savannah State University; Sykes, Summer [Savannah State University

    2017-01-01

    Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) is an industrial automation system that remotely monitor, and control critical infrastructures. SCADA systems are major targets for espionage and sabotage attackers. According to the 2015 Dell security annual threat report, the number of cyber-attacks against SCADA systems has doubled in the past year. Cyber-attacks (i.e., buffer overflow, rootkits and code injection) could cause serious financial losses and physical infrastructure damages. Moreover, some specific cyber-attacks against SCADA systems could become a threat to human life. Current commercial off-the-shelf security solutions are insufficient in protecting SCADA systems against sophisticated cyber-attacks. In 2014 a report by Mandiant stated that only 69% of organizations learned about their breaches from third entities, meaning that these companies lack of their own detection system. Furthermore, these breaches are not detected in real-time or fast enough to prevent further damages. The average time between compromise and detection (for those intrusions that were detected) was 205 days. To address this challenge, we propose an Intrusion Detection System (IDS) that detects SCADA-specific cyber-attacks by analyzing the power consumption of a SCADA device. Specifically, to validate the proposed approach, we chose to monitor in real-time the power usage of a a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). To this end, we configured the hardware of the tetsbed by installing the required sensors to monitor and collect its power consumption. After that two SCADA-specific cyber-attacks were simulated and TracerDAQ Pro was used to collect the power consumption of the PLC under normal and anomalous scenarios. Results showed that is possible to distinguish between the regular power usage of the PLC and when the PLC was under specific cyber-attacks.

  20. Monitoring levels of deoxynivalenol in wheat flour of Brazilian varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano L Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium graminearum and its intake represents a severe risk to human and animal health. The objective of this study was to evaluate levels of DON in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. flour from two representative locations of south Brazil. Experiments were carried out in Pato Branco (Paraná and Coxilha (Rio Grande do Sul in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. Levels of DON were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS. This mycotoxin was detected in 97% of samples, ranging from 200 to 4140 u,g kg-1. Only 17% of samples presented DON beyond of the maximum allowed by the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency up to the year 2012; even though, Fusarium head blight (FHB epidemics were slight low in the growing season that the study was performed. According to our knowledge, this is the first report showing genetic variability of Brazilian cultivars to DON contamination and some genotypes have potential to be exploited as a source of low accumulation of this toxin.

  1. Real-Time Monitoring System for a Utility-Scale Photovoltaic Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel M. Moreno-Garcia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available There is, at present, considerable interest in the storage and dispatchability of photovoltaic (PV energy, together with the need to manage power flows in real-time. This paper presents a new system, PV-on time, which has been developed to supervise the operating mode of a Grid-Connected Utility-Scale PV Power Plant in order to ensure the reliability and continuity of its supply. This system presents an architecture of acquisition devices, including wireless sensors distributed around the plant, which measure the required information. It is also equipped with a high-precision protocol for synchronizing all data acquisition equipment, something that is necessary for correctly establishing relationships among events in the plant. Moreover, a system for monitoring and supervising all of the distributed devices, as well as for the real-time treatment of all the registered information, is presented. Performances were analyzed in a 400 kW transformation center belonging to a 6.1 MW Utility-Scale PV Power Plant. In addition to monitoring the performance of all of the PV plant’s components and detecting any failures or deviations in production, this system enables users to control the power quality of the signal injected and the influence of the installation on the distribution grid.

  2. A Novel Self-Powered Wireless Sensor Node Based on Energy Harvesting for Mechanical Vibration Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xihai Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs have been expected to improve the capability of capturing mechanical vibration dynamic behaviors and evaluating the current health status of equipment. While the expectation for mechanical vibration monitoring using WSNs has been high, one of the key limitations is the limited lifetime of batteries for sensor node. The energy harvesting technologies have been recently proposed. One of them shares the same main idea, that is, energy harvesting from ambient vibration can be converted into electric power. Employing the vibration energy harvesting, a novel self-powered wireless sensor node has been developed to measure mechanical vibration in this paper. The overall architecture of node is proposed. The wireless sensor node is described into four main components: the energy harvesting unit, the microprocessor unit, the radio transceiver unit, and accelerometer. Moreover, the software used to control the operation of wireless node is also suggested. At last, in order to achieve continuous self-powered for nodes, two operation modes including the charging mode and discharging mode are proposed. This design can effectively solve the problem of continuous supply power of sensor node for mechanical vibration monitoring.

  3. Real-Time Monitoring System for a Utility-Scale Photovoltaic Power Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Garcia, Isabel M; Palacios-Garcia, Emilio J; Pallares-Lopez, Victor; Santiago, Isabel; Gonzalez-Redondo, Miguel J; Varo-Martinez, Marta; Real-Calvo, Rafael J

    2016-05-26

    There is, at present, considerable interest in the storage and dispatchability of photovoltaic (PV) energy, together with the need to manage power flows in real-time. This paper presents a new system, PV-on time, which has been developed to supervise the operating mode of a Grid-Connected Utility-Scale PV Power Plant in order to ensure the reliability and continuity of its supply. This system presents an architecture of acquisition devices, including wireless sensors distributed around the plant, which measure the required information. It is also equipped with a high-precision protocol for synchronizing all data acquisition equipment, something that is necessary for correctly establishing relationships among events in the plant. Moreover, a system for monitoring and supervising all of the distributed devices, as well as for the real-time treatment of all the registered information, is presented. Performances were analyzed in a 400 kW transformation center belonging to a 6.1 MW Utility-Scale PV Power Plant. In addition to monitoring the performance of all of the PV plant's components and detecting any failures or deviations in production, this system enables users to control the power quality of the signal injected and the influence of the installation on the distribution grid.

  4. Application of Compressive Sampling in Computer Based Monitoring of Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarasij Das

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Shannon’s Nyquist theorem has always dictated the conventional signal acquisition policies. Power system is not an exception to this. As per this theory, the sampling rate must be at least twice the maximum frequency present in the signal. Recently, compressive sampling (CS theory has shown that the signals can be reconstructed from samples obtained at sub-Nyquist rate. Signal reconstruction in this theory is exact for “sparse signals” and is near exact for compressible signals provided certain conditions are satisfied. CS theory has already been applied in communication, medical imaging, MRI, radar imaging, remote sensing, computational biology, machine learning, geophysical data analysis, and so forth. CS is comparatively new in the area of computer based power system monitoring. In this paper, subareas of computer based power system monitoring where compressive sampling theory has been applied are reviewed. At first, an overview of CS is presented and then the relevant literature specific to power systems is discussed.

  5. Pd/Ag coated fiber Bragg grating sensor for hydrogen monitoring in power transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, G. M.; Jiang, J.; Li, C. R.; Song, H. T.; Luo, Y. T.; Wang, H. B.

    2015-04-01

    Compared with conventional DGA (dissolved gas analysis) method for on-line monitoring of power transformers, FBG (fiber Bragg grating) hydrogen sensor represents marked advantages over immunity to electromagnetic field, time-saving, and convenience to defect location. Thus, a novel FBG hydrogen sensor based on Pd/Ag (Palladium/Silver) along with polyimide composite film to measure dissolved hydrogen concentration in large power transformers is proposed in this article. With the help of Pd/Ag composite coating, the enhanced performance on mechanical strength and sensitivity is demonstrated, moreover, the response time and sensitivity influenced by oil temperature are solved by correction lines. Sensitivity measurement and temperature calibration of the specific hydrogen sensor have been done respectively in the lab. And experiment results show a high sensitivity of 0.055 pm/(μl/l) with instant response time about 0.4 h under the typical operating temperature of power transformers, which proves a potential utilization inside power transformers to monitor the health status by detecting the dissolved hydrogen concentration.

  6. Monitoring of the thermoeconomic performance in an actual combined cycle power plant bottoming cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cafaro, S.; Napoli, L.; Traverso, A.; Massardo, A.F. [DIMSET (TPG), University of Genoa, Via Montallegro 1, 16145 Genoa (Italy)

    2010-02-15

    This paper presents a research project carried out by TPG (Thermochemical Power Group) of University of Genoa to develop innovative monitoring and diagnostics procedures and software tools for software-aided maintenance and customer support. This work is concerned with preliminary outcomes regarding the thermoeconomic monitoring of the bottoming cycle of a combined cycle power plant, using real historical data. The software is able to calculate functional exergy flows (y), their related costs (c) (using the plant functional diagram); after that non dimensional parameters for the characteristic exergonomic indexes ({delta}c, {delta}c*, {delta}k*) are determined. Through a plant optimization (not described here) the reference conditions of the plant at each operating condition can be determined. Then, non dimensional indexes related to each thermoeconomic parameter are defined, in order to depict a ''cost degradation'', and thus a significant rise in the production cost of the main products of the bottoming cycle (steam and power). The methodology developed has been successfully applied to historical logged data of an existing 400 MW power plant, showing the capabilities in estimating the ''cost degradation'' of the elements of the BC over the plant life, and trends in the thermoeconomic indexes. (author)

  7. Low-power laser effects at the single-cell level: a confocal microscopy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandratou, Eleni; Yova, Dido M.; Atlamazoglou, Vassilis; Handris, Panagiotis; Kletsas, Dimitris; Loukas, Spyros

    2000-11-01

    Confocal microscopy was used for irradiation and observation of the same area of interest, allowing the imaging of low power laser effects in subcellular components and functions, at the single cell level. Coverslips cultures of human fetal foreskin fibroblasts (HFFF2) were placed in a small incubation chamber for in vivo microscopic observation. Cells were stimulated by the 647 nm line of the Argon- Krypton laser of the confocal microscope (0.1 mW/cm2). Membrane permeability, mitochondrial membrane potential ((delta) Psim), intracellular pHi, calcium alterations and nuclear chromatin accessibility were monitored, at different times after irradiation, using specific fluorescent vital probes. Images were stored to the computer and quantitative evaluation was performed using image- processing software. After irradiation, influx and efflux of the appropriate dyes monitored changes in cell membrane permeability. Laser irradiation caused alkalizatoin of the cytosolic pHi and increase of the mitochondrial membrane potential ((delta) Psim). Temporary global Ca2+ responses were also observed. No such effects were noted in microscopic fields other than the irradiated ones. No toxic effects were observed, during time course of the experiment.

  8. Photovoltaic Shading Testbed for Module-Level Power Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deline, C.; Meydbray, J.; Donovan, M.; Forrest, J.

    2012-05-01

    This document describes a repeatable test procedure that attempts to simulate shading situations, as would be experienced by typical residential rooftop photovoltaic (PV) systems. This type of shading test is particularly useful to evaluate the impact of different power conversion setups, including microinverters, DC power optimizers and string inverters, on overall system performance. The performance results are weighted based on annual estimates of shade to predict annual performance improvement. A trial run of the test procedure was conducted with a side by side comparison of a string inverter with a microinverter, both operating on identical 8kW solar arrays. Considering three different shade weighting conditions, the microinverter was found to increase production by 3.7% under light shading, 7.8% under moderate shading, and 12.3% under heavy shading, relative to the reference string inverter case. Detail is provided in this document to allow duplication of the test method at different test installations and for different power electronics devices.

  9. Power analysis for biomarkers in mussels for use in coastal pollution monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, J K H; Wu, R S S; Yip, C K M; Shin, P K S

    2009-08-01

    Data from literature on neutral red retention time (NRRT) in lysosomes, micronucleus (MN) frequency and condition index (CI) in mussel Mytilus, especially Mytilus edulis and Mytilus galloprovincialis, were re-analyzed to ascertain their statistical power in detecting a minimum 20% spatial/temporal change in field studies. Results showed that CI largely displayed higher statistical power (>90%) than lysosomal NRRT and MN frequency (power, the optimal sample sizes for monitoring lysosomal NRRT, MN frequency, CI and gonosomatic index (GSI) were determined as >or=34, >or=90, >or=16 and >or=29, respectively. Natural variability of lysosomal NRRT and MN frequency was significantly greater than CI and/or GSI in mussels, rejecting the general belief in the greater variability of higher-tiered hierarchical biomarkers.

  10. An RF powering system with adaptive impedance matching for individual health monitoring applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemin Liu; Yu-Pin Hsu; Hella, Mona M

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a high-efficiency RF powering system, suitable for individual health monitoring applications. The system is composed of an antenna, an impedance matching network, and a two-stage full-wave RF-DC rectifier. A novel tuning mechanism is proposed to automatically adjust the impedance of the matching network. This mechanism can effectively improve the power efficiency of the system by 47% compared to the case without tuning. For the adaptive impedance, only a 5-bits binary weighted capacitor bank is required in the matching network. The complete system, designed in a standard 0.13μm CMOS technology, converts a -6dBm 915MHz RF signal to a 1.7V DC voltage with an output current of 85μA. The simulated maximum power efficiency of the complete RF harvester is 66%.

  11. Internal dose assessment for environmental monitoring in nuclear power plant accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mianji Fereidoun A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for exploiting human's internal contamination data for radioactive release estimation in nuclear power plant accidents is proposed. Nevertheless, such data is often very rough and uncertain; it is accessible even in toughest situations when most of the active and passive monitors are damaged by the accident. These data can be used in combination with other collectable data for estimating the event scale in severe nuclear power plan accidents. The rationale behind the method is that nuclear power plant accidents are often associated with internal contamination of radiation workers involved in the early stages of emergency response activities mainly due to the release of 131I in atmosphere. The proposed inverse analytical approach uses the 131I intake of contaminated workers, their working conditions, chronology of events, and applied personal safety measures during the first hours or days of the emergency response activities to estimate the magnitude of 131I concentration in the air.

  12. A wearable wireless ECG monitoring system with dynamic transmission power control for long-term homecare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yishan; Doleschel, Sammy; Wunderlich, Ralf; Heinen, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a wearable wireless ECG monitoring system based on novel 3-Lead electrode placements for long-term homecare. The experiment for novel 3-Lead electrode placements is carried out, and the results show that the distance between limb electrodes can be significantly reduced. Based on the new electrode position, a small size sensor node, which is powered by a rechargeable battery, is designed to detect, amplify, filter and transmit the ECG signals. The coordinator receives the data and sends it to PC. Finally the signals are displayed on the GUI. In order to control the power consumption of sensor node, a dynamic power adjustment method is applied to automatically adjust the transmission power of the sensor node according to the received signal strength indicator (RSSI), which is related to the distance and obstacle between sensor node and coordinator. The system is evaluated when the user, who wears the sensor, is walking and running. A promising performance is achieved even under body motion. The power consumption can be significantly reduced with this dynamic power adjustment method.

  13. Water levels in continuously monitored wells in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, 1985--88

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luckey, R.R.; Lobmeyer, D.H.; Burkhardt, D.J.

    1993-07-01

    Water levels have been monitored hourly in 15 wells completed in 23 depth intervals in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada. Water levels were monitored using pressure transducers and were recorded by data loggers. The pressure transducers were periodically calibrated by raising and lowering them in the wells. The water levels were normally measured at approximately the same time that the transducers were calibrated. Where the transducer output appeared reasonable, it was converted to water levels using the calibrations and manual water- level measurements. The amount of transducer output that was converted to water levels ranged from zero for several intervals to about 98 percent for one interval. Fourteen of the wells were completed in Tertiary volcanic rocks and one well was completed in Paleozoic carbonate rocks. Each well monitored from one to four depth intervals. Water-level fluctuation caused by barometric pressure changes and earth tides were observed.

  14. A zero power harmonic transponder sensor for ubiquitous wireless μL liquid-volume monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haiyu; Chen, Pai-Yen; Hung, Cheng-Hsien; Gharpurey, Ranjit; Akinwande, Deji

    2016-01-06

    Autonomous liquid-volume monitoring is crucial in ubiquitous healthcare. However, conventional approach is based on either human visual observation or expensive detectors, which are costly for future pervasive monitoring. Here we introduce a novel approach based on passive harmonic transponder antenna sensor and frequency hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) pattern analysis, to provide a very low cost wireless μL-resolution liquid-volume monitoring without battery or digital circuits. In our conceptual demonstration, the harmonic transponder comprises of a passive nonlinear frequency multiplier connected to a metamaterial-inspired 3-D antenna designed to be highly sensitive to the liquid-volume within a confined region. The transponder first receives some FHSS signal from an interrogator, then converts such signal to its harmonic band and re-radiates through the antenna sensor. The harmonic signal is picked up by a sniffer receiver and decoded through pattern analysis of the high dimensional FHSS signal strength data. A robust, zero power, absolute accuracy wireless liquid-volume monitoring is realized in the presence of strong direct coupling, background scatters, distance variance as well as near-field human-body interference. The concepts of passive harmonic transponder sensor, metamaterial-inspired antenna sensor, and FHSS pattern analysis based sensor decoding may help establishing cost-effective, energy-efficient and intelligent wireless pervasive healthcare monitoring platforms.

  15. On the Wind Stress - Sea Level Power Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    The response of coastal sea level to local forcing by synpotic scale winds is usually assumed to be linear in wind stress . However, the response of...response to wind stress may allow significant improvement in the analysis of some sea-level problems. (Author)

  16. A Review of Sensor Calibration Monitoring for Calibration Interval Extension in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coble, Jamie B.; Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Bond, Leonard J.; Hashemian, Hash; Shumaker, Brent; Cummins, Dara

    2012-08-31

    Currently in the United States, periodic sensor recalibration is required for all safety-related sensors, typically occurring at every refueling outage, and it has emerged as a critical path item for shortening outage duration in some plants. Online monitoring can be employed to identify those sensors that require calibration, allowing for calibration of only those sensors that need it. International application of calibration monitoring, such as at the Sizewell B plant in United Kingdom, has shown that sensors may operate for eight years, or longer, within calibration tolerances. This issue is expected to also be important as the United States looks to the next generation of reactor designs (such as small modular reactors and advanced concepts), given the anticipated longer refueling cycles, proposed advanced sensors, and digital instrumentation and control systems. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) accepted the general concept of online monitoring for sensor calibration monitoring in 2000, but no U.S. plants have been granted the necessary license amendment to apply it. This report presents a state-of-the-art assessment of online calibration monitoring in the nuclear power industry, including sensors, calibration practice, and online monitoring algorithms. This assessment identifies key research needs and gaps that prohibit integration of the NRC-approved online calibration monitoring system in the U.S. nuclear industry. Several needs are identified, including the quantification of uncertainty in online calibration assessment; accurate determination of calibration acceptance criteria and quantification of the effect of acceptance criteria variability on system performance; and assessment of the feasibility of using virtual sensor estimates to replace identified faulty sensors in order to extend operation to the next convenient maintenance opportunity. Understanding the degradation of sensors and the impact of this degradation on signals is key to

  17. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory annual environmental monitoring report. Calendar Year 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    The results of the effluent and environmental monitoring programs at the three Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) sites are summarized and assessed in this report. Operations at the three KAPL sites resulted in no significant release of hazardous substances or radioactivity to the environment. The effluent and environmental monitoring programs conducted by KAPL are designed to determine the effectiveness of treatment and control methods, to provide measurement of the concentrations in effluents for comparison with applicable standards, and to assess resultant concentrations in the environment. The monitoring programs include analyses of samples of liquid and gaseous effluents for chemical constituents and radioactivity as well as monitoring of environmental air, water, sediment, and fish. Radiation measurements are also made around the perimeter of each site and at off-site background locations. KAPL environmental controls are subject to applicable state and federal regulations governing use, emission, treatment, storage and/or disposal of solid, liquid and gaseous materials. Some non-radiological water and air emissions are generated and treated on-site prior to discharge to the environment. Liquid effluents and air emissions are controlled and monitored in accordance with permits issued by the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection (CTDEP) for the Windsor Site and by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) for the Knolls and Kesselring Sites. The liquid effluent monitoring data show that KAPL has maintained a high degree of compliance with permit requirements. Where required, radionuclide air emission sources are authorized by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The non-radiological air emissions, with the exception of opacity for the boilers, are not required to be monitored.

  18. GROUND WATER MONITORING AND SAMPLING: MULTI-LEVEL VERSUS TRADITIONAL METHODS – WHAT’S WHAT?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent studies have been conducted to evaluate different sampling techniques for determining VOC concentrations in groundwater. Samples were obtained using multi-level and traditional sampling techniques in three monitoring wells at the Raymark Superfund site in Stratford, CT. Ve...

  19. Preferred and Minimum Acceptable Listening Levels for Musicians while Using Floor and In-Ear Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federman, Jeremy; Ricketts, Todd

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the impact that changing on-stage music and crowd noise levels during musical performance had on preferred listening levels (PLLs) and minimum acceptable listening levels (MALLs) across both floor and in-ear monitors. Method: Participants for this study were 23- to 48-year-old musicians, with and without hearing loss,…

  20. Intelligent Monitoring System with High Temperature Distributed Fiberoptic Sensor for Power Plant Combustion Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwang Y. Lee; Stuart S. Yin; Andre Boehman

    2006-09-26

    The objective of the proposed work is to develop an intelligent distributed fiber optical sensor system for real-time monitoring of high temperature in a boiler furnace in power plants. Of particular interest is the estimation of spatial and temporal distributions of high temperatures within a boiler furnace, which will be essential in assessing and controlling the mechanisms that form and remove pollutants at the source, such as NOx. The basic approach in developing the proposed sensor system is three fold: (1) development of high temperature distributed fiber optical sensor capable of measuring temperatures greater than 2000 C degree with spatial resolution of less than 1 cm; (2) development of distributed parameter system (DPS) models to map the three-dimensional (3D) temperature distribution for the furnace; and (3) development of an intelligent monitoring system for real-time monitoring of the 3D boiler temperature distribution. Under Task 1, we have set up a dedicated high power, ultrafast laser system for fabricating in-fiber gratings in harsh environment optical fibers, successfully fabricated gratings in single crystal sapphire fibers by the high power laser system, and developed highly sensitive long period gratings (lpg) by electric arc. Under Task 2, relevant mathematical modeling studies of NOx formation in practical combustors have been completed. Studies show that in boiler systems with no swirl, the distributed temperature sensor may provide information sufficient to predict trends of NOx at the boiler exit. Under Task 3, we have investigated a mathematical approach to extrapolation of the temperature distribution within a power plant boiler facility, using a combination of a modified neural network architecture and semigroup theory. Given a set of empirical data with no analytic expression, we first developed an analytic description and then extended that model along a single axis.

  1. Powering embedded electronics for wind turbine monitoring using multi-source energy harvesting techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, S. R.; Taylor, S. G.; Raby, E. Y.; Farinholt, K. M.

    2013-03-01

    With a global interest in the development of clean, renewable energy, wind energy has seen steady growth over the past several years. Advances in wind turbine technology bring larger, more complex turbines and wind farms. An important issue in the development of these complex systems is the ability to monitor the state of each turbine in an effort to improve the efficiency and power generation. Wireless sensor nodes can be used to interrogate the current state and health of wind turbine structures; however, a drawback of most current wireless sensor technology is their reliance on batteries for power. Energy harvesting solutions present the ability to create autonomous power sources for small, low-power electronics through the scavenging of ambient energy; however, most conventional energy harvesting systems employ a single mode of energy conversion, and thus are highly susceptible to variations in the ambient energy. In this work, a multi-source energy harvesting system is developed to power embedded electronics for wind turbine applications in which energy can be scavenged simultaneously from several ambient energy sources. Field testing is performed on a full-size, residential scale wind turbine where both vibration and solar energy harvesting systems are utilized to power wireless sensing systems. Two wireless sensors are investigated, including the wireless impedance device (WID) sensor node, developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and an ultra-low power RF system-on-chip board that is the basis for an embedded wireless accelerometer node currently under development at LANL. Results indicate the ability of the multi-source harvester to successfully power both sensors.

  2. Level shifter for low power applications with body bias technique

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    With the rapid growth in high speed computation and battery operated devices like ... consideration for integrated circuits includes size, propagation delay, throughput ..... A new level-up shifter for high speed and wide range interface in ultra.

  3. ACCOUNTING OF REACTIVE POWER COMPENSATION LEVEL AT PAYMENT CALCULATION OF TECHNOLOGICAL CONSUMPTION (LOSSES OF ELECTRIC POWER FOR ITS TRANSMISSION IN POWER NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. P. Zabello

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The method is proposed to make a correction in payment for consumption of reactive energy and power which is attributed to deviation of actual activation energy losses for reactive power compensation from their standard value. It is recommended to calculate standard loss values for every voltage level and actual loss values are to be determined with the help of application of remote electronic accounting means in the current mode of power consumption.

  4. Toward the Next Level of PCB Usage in Power Electronic Converters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, E.C.W.; Ferreira, B.J.A.; Bauer, P.

    2008-01-01

    A means for power electronics to exploit the level of 3-D packaging already being implemented in compact consumer products, such as digital cameras, is investigated in order to increase its power density. The increase in functionality and usage of printed circuit board (PCB) in power electronic conv

  5. System-level Reliability Assessment of Power Stage in Fuel Cell Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dao; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    the lifetime model and the stress levels, the Weibull distribution of the power semiconductors lifetime can be obtained by using Monte Carlo analysis. Afterwards, the reliability block diagram can further be adopted to evaluate the reliability of the power stage based on the estimated power semiconductor...

  6. Online Monitoring Technical Basis and Analysis Framework for Large Power Transformers; Interim Report for FY 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nancy J. Lybeck; Vivek Agarwal; Binh T. Pham; Heather D. Medema; Kirk Fitzgerald

    2012-09-01

    The Light Water Reactor Sustainability program at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is actively conducting research to develop and demonstrate online monitoring (OLM) capabilities for active components in existing Nuclear Power Plants. A pilot project is currently underway to apply OLM to Generator Step-Up Transformers (GSUs) and Emergency Diesel Generators (EDGs). INL and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) are working jointly to implement the pilot project. The EPRI Fleet-Wide Prognostic and Health Management (FW-PHM) Software Suite will be used to implement monitoring in conjunction with utility partners: the Shearon Harris Nuclear Generating Station (owned by Duke Energy for GSUs, and Braidwood Generating Station (owned by Exelon Corporation) for EDGs. This report presents monitoring techniques, fault signatures, and diagnostic and prognostic models for GSUs. GSUs are main transformers that are directly connected to generators, stepping up the voltage from the generator output voltage to the highest transmission voltages for supplying electricity to the transmission grid. Technical experts from Shearon Harris are assisting INL and EPRI in identifying critical faults and defining fault signatures associated with each fault. The resulting diagnostic models will be implemented in the FW-PHM Software Suite and tested using data from Shearon-Harris. Parallel research on EDGs is being conducted, and will be reported in an interim report during the first quarter of fiscal year 2013.

  7. In situ monitoring of animal micronuclei before the operation of Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y.N. Cai; H.Y. He; L.M. Qian; G.C. Sun; J.Y. Zhao [Guangzhou College of Education, Guangzhou (China)

    1994-12-31

    Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station, a newly-built nuclear power station in southern mainland China, started its operation in 1993. We examined micro-nucleated cells of Invertibrate (Bivalves) and Vertibrate (Fish and Amphibia) in different spots within the 50km surroundings of the Power Station during 1986-1993. This paper reports the results of the investigation carried out in Dong Shan, a place 4.7km to the Power Station:Bivalves; Pteria martensil 5.1(1986),4.8(1988),4.8(1991),5,0(1993),Mytilus smardinus 4.7(1987),4.6(1988); Chamys nobilis 4.9(1987);4.9(1991),4.5(1992),4.5(1993). Fish; Therapon jarbua 0.48(1991),0.67(1992),0.47(1993). Amphibia; Bufo melanostictus 0.29 (1987), 0.34(1988),0.39(1992),0.39(1993). These results showed that the environmental situation, estimated by using the frequencies of micronucleated cells, was stable-there was no obvious chromosome damage in the animals studied. It was found that the incidence of micronucleated cells of Bivalves was higher than that of Fish and Amphibia, suggesting the epithelial cells to be more sensitive than peripheral erythrocytes to environmental genotoxic effects. The results of our studies for other spots will be reported afterward. These data can be used as the original background information to monitor the environment when the Nuclear Power Station is in operation.

  8. Axial power monitor rod issues and resolution for K-14.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Easterling, T.C.; Fields, C.C.; Hightower, N.T. III; Wooten, L.A. [eds.; Andre, S.K.; Apperson, C.E.; Bailey, M.H.; Bell, D.L.; Clare, G.H.; Collins, S.L.; Croft, W.D.; Edwards, T.B.; Geiger, G.T.; Harris, S.P.; Lietzow, J.L.; McCulloch, R.W.; McFarlane, A.F.; Randolph, H.W.; Reed, R.L.; Reeve, C.P.; Revolinski, S.M.; Sessions, H.T.; Shine, E.P.; Smith, T.A.; Sossman, C.L.; Taylor, J.J.; Weber, J.H.

    1992-05-01

    A recent concern arose over the treatment of uncertainty associated with the K-Reactor axial power monitors (APMs). There are nine axial power monitor rods located at various positions in the K-Reactor core. By comparing the output of one sensor near the top of the rod to the output of another sensor near the bottom of the rod, the relative ratio of the neutron flux from the top to the bottom of the core can be determined. This ratio is called the roof-top-ratio (RTR) and is the output of a top sensor (Sensor 2) divided by the output of a bottom sensor (Sensor 6). The RTR is important to the safety analyses because when the RTR is maintained within certain ranges, the severity of reactivity transients is limited. There are uncertainties associated with the equipment`s ability to measure the true roof top ratio. It was determined recently that sufficient uncertainty was not accounted for either in reactor operation or in the safety analyses. The concern about uncertainty was addressed for three separate issues. One issue dear with the linear response of the sensors for power ranges planned for K-Reactor operation. The second issue dear with overall uncertainty in the RTR channel. The third issue dear with apparent large ranges in confidence bands for the RTR at low reactor powers as represented by original vendor data. Plots of sparse vendor data indicated unacceptably large uncertainties in RTR would have to be accounted for at the power ranges planned for K-Reactor operation. These concerns were brought to management`s attention through the existing procedures for notification, irrespective of their potential impact on the restart schedule. Analyses have been completed to resolve the APM issues described above, and work is progressing to take the needed steps to change operational procedures.

  9. Design and analysis of aquatic monitoring programs at nuclear power plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenzie, D.H.; Kannberg, L.D.; Gore, K.L.; Arnold, E.M.; Watson, D.G.

    1977-11-01

    This report addresses some of the problems of designing, conducting, and analyzing aquatic environmental monitoring programs for impact assessment of nuclear power plants. The concepts discussed are applicable to monitoring the effects of chemical, radioactive, or thermal effluents. The concept of control and treatment station pairs is the fundamental basis for the experimental method proposed. This concept is based on the hypothesis that the relationship between the two stations forming the pair can be estimated from the preoperational period and that this relationship holds during the operational period. Any changes observed in this relationship during the operational period are assumed to be the result of the power plant impacts. Thus, it is important that station pairs are selected so it can be assumed that they respond to natural environmental changes in a manner that maintains that relationship. The major problem in establishing the station pairs will be the location of the control station. The universal heterogeneity in the environment will prevent the establishment of identical station pairs. The requirement that the control station remain unaffected by the operation of the power plant dictates a spacial separation with its associated differences in habitat. Thus, selection of the control station will be based upon balancing the following two criteria: (1) far enough away from the plant site to be beyond the plant influence, and (2) close enough to the treatment station that the biological communities will respond to natural environmental changes consistently in the same manner.

  10. Self-Powered Real-Time Arterial Pulse Monitoring Using Ultrathin Epidermal Piezoelectric Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dae Yong; Joe, Daniel J; Kim, Dong Hyun; Park, Hyewon; Han, Jae Hyun; Jeong, Chang Kyu; Park, Hyelim; Park, Jung Gyu; Joung, Boyoung; Lee, Keon Jae

    2017-10-01

    Continuous monitoring of an arterial pulse using a pressure sensor attached on the epidermis is an important technology for detecting the early onset of cardiovascular disease and assessing personal health status. Conventional pulse sensors have the capability of detecting human biosignals, but have significant drawbacks of power consumption issues that limit sustainable operation of wearable medical devices. Here, a self-powered piezoelectric pulse sensor is demonstrated to enable in vivo measurement of radial/carotid pulse signals in near-surface arteries. The inorganic piezoelectric sensor on an ultrathin plastic achieves conformal contact with the complex texture of the rugged skin, which allows to respond to the tiny pulse changes arising on the surface of epidermis. Experimental studies provide characteristics of the sensor with a sensitivity (≈0.018 kPa(-1) ), response time (≈60 ms), and good mechanical stability. Wireless transmission of detected arterial pressure signals to a smart phone demonstrates the possibility of self-powered and real-time pulse monitoring system. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. TEG BASED POWER SYSTEM for OPERATION of HEALTH MONITORING SERVER in INDUSTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S.Raghavendran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Hazardous environment industries where the emission of toxic gases and effluents will have an impact on the health of the operators, the recording of health parameters of individual operators is very important. In such situation the health monitoring of operators are being monitored and processed centrally by a server and this can be powered by a system of batteries which can be operated from TEG to ensure reliability and to utilize the exhaust heat energy of industries for better performance. This paper describes the Thermo electric generator with battery that supports medical server. The thermoelectric generator converts heat energy into electrical energy. Mathematical model of thermoelectric generator was developed in MATLAB SIMULINK. This exhibits different voltage and current for various temperature differences. The proposed system uses maximum power point tracking algorithm to obtain the maximum power from the thermoelectric generator. This algorithm is developed in embedded MATLAB controller, which gives the firing angle to the DC-DC Boost converter for various temperature differences. This will increase the efficiency of the system.

  12. A configurable and low-power mixed signal SoC for portable ECG monitoring applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyejung; Kim, Sunyoung; Van Helleputte, Nick; Artes, Antonio; Konijnenburg, Mario; Huisken, Jos; Van Hoof, Chris; Yazicioglu, Refet Firat

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes a mixed-signal ECG System-on-Chip (SoC) that is capable of implementing configurable functionality with low-power consumption for portable ECG monitoring applications. A low-voltage and high performance analog front-end extracts 3-channel ECG signals and single channel electrode-tissue-impedance (ETI) measurement with high signal quality. This can be used to evaluate the quality of the ECG measurement and to filter motion artifacts. A custom digital signal processor consisting of 4-way SIMD processor provides the configurability and advanced functionality like motion artifact removal and R peak detection. A built-in 12-bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is capable of adaptive sampling achieving a compression ratio of up to 7, and loop buffer integration reduces the power consumption for on-chip memory access. The SoC is implemented in 0.18 μm CMOS process and consumes 32 μ W from a 1.2 V while heart beat detection application is running, and integrated in a wireless ECG monitoring system with Bluetooth protocol. Thanks to the ECG SoC, the overall system power consumption can be reduced significantly.

  13. On-Line Condition Monitoring System for High Level Trip Water in Steam Boiler’s Drum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Alnaimi Firas B.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a monitoring technique using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN with four different training algorithms for high level water in steam boiler’s drum. Four Back-Propagations neural networks multidimensional minimization algorithms have been utilized. Real time data were recorded from power plant located in Malaysia. The developed relevant variables were selected based on a combination of theory, experience and execution phases of the model. The Root Mean Square (RMS Error has been used to compare the results of one and two hidden layer (1HL, (2HL ANN structures

  14. Power Analysis for Cross Level Mediation in CRTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelcey, Ben

    2014-01-01

    A common design in education research for interventions operating at a group or cluster level is a cluster randomized trial (CRT) (Bloom, 2005). In CRTs, intact clusters (e.g., schools) are assigned to treatment conditions rather than individuals (e.g., students) and are frequently an effective way to study interventions because they permit…

  15. Frameworks to monitor and predict resource usage in the ATLAS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Tim; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS High Level Trigger Farm consists of around 30,000 CPU cores which filter events at up to 100 kHz input rate. A costing framework is built into the high level trigger, this enables detailed monitoring of the system and allows for data-driven predictions to be made utilising specialist datasets. This talk will present an overview of how ATLAS collects in-situ monitoring data on both CPU usage and dataflow over the data-acquisition network during the trigger execution, and how these data are processed to yield both low level monitoring of individual selection-algorithms and high level data on the overall performance of the farm. For development and prediction purposes, ATLAS uses a special `Enhanced Bias' event selection. This mechanism will be explained along with how is used to profile expected resource usage and output event-rate of new physics selections, before they are executed on the actual high level trigger farm.

  16. Frameworks to monitor and predict rates and resource usage in the ATLAS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Tim; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS High Level Trigger Farm consists of around 40,000 CPU cores which filter events at an input rate of up to 100 kHz. A costing framework is built into the high level trigger, this enables detailed monitoring of the system and allows for data-driven predictions to be made utilising specialist datasets. An overview is presented in to how ATLAS collects in-situ monitoring data on CPU usage during the trigger execution, and how these data are processed to yield both low level monitoring of individual selection-algorithms and high level data on the overall performance of the farm. For development and prediction purposes, ATLAS uses a special `Enhanced Bias' event selection. This mechanism is explained along with how it is used to profile expected resource usage and output event rate of new physics selections, before they are executed on the actual high level trigger farm.

  17. Operating the Irish power system with increased levels of wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuohy, A.; Denny, E.; Meibom, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarises some of the main impacts of large amounts of wind power installed in the island of Ireland. Using results from various studies performed on this system, it is shown that wind power will impact on all time frames, from seconds to daily planning of the system operation. Results...... from studies examining operation of the system with up to approximately 40% of electricity provided by wind show that some of the most important aspects to be considered include the type of wind turbine technology, the provision of reserve to accommodate wind forecasting error and the method used...

  18. Promoting health equity: WHO health inequality monitoring at global and national levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Reza Hosseinpoor

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health equity is a priority in the post-2015 sustainable development agenda and other major health initiatives. The World Health Organization (WHO has a history of promoting actions to achieve equity in health, including efforts to encourage the practice of health inequality monitoring. Health inequality monitoring systems use disaggregated data to identify disadvantaged subgroups within populations and inform equity-oriented health policies, programs, and practices. Objective: This paper provides an overview of a number of recent and current WHO initiatives related to health inequality monitoring at the global and/or national level. Design: We outline the scope, content, and intended uses/application of the following: Health Equity Monitor database and theme page; State of inequality: reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health report; Handbook on health inequality monitoring: with a focus on low- and middle-income countries; Health inequality monitoring eLearning module; Monitoring health inequality: an essential step for achieving health equity advocacy booklet and accompanying video series; and capacity building workshops conducted in WHO Member States and Regions. Conclusions: The paper concludes by considering how the work of the WHO can be expanded upon to promote the establishment of sustainable and robust inequality monitoring systems across a variety of health topics among Member States and at the global level.

  19. MEMS acceleration sensor with remote optical readout for continuous power generator monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tormen Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Miniaturized accelerometers with remote optical readout are required devices for the continuous monitoring of vibrations inside power generators. In turbo and hydro generators, end-winding vibrations are present during operation causing in the long term undesirable out-of-service repairs. Continuous monitoring of these vibrations is therefore mandatory. The high electromagnetic fields in the generators impose the use of devices immune to electromagnetic interferences. In this paper a MEMS based accelerometer with remote optical readout is presented. Advantages of the proposed device are the use of a differential optical signal to reject the common mode signal and noise, the reduced number of steps for the MEMS chip fabrication and for the system assembly, and the reduced package volume.

  20. Atmospheric radioxenon isotope monitoring in Beijing after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chongyang; Zhou, Guoqing; Feng, Shujuan; Jin, Yuren; Zhao, Xinhua; Cheng, Ziwei; Huang, Xiongliang; Xu, Hui; Zhou, Xu

    2013-02-01

    A custom-made, on-site radioxenon sampling, separation and monitoring system was used to monitor atmospheric radioxenon concentrations in Beijing, released from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant after the earthquake of 11 March 2011. The results show that (133)Xe concentrations ranged from 393 to 26 mBq/m(3) from 12 to 27 April 2011, and those of (131 m)Xe were 84 and 40 mBq/m(3) on 13 and 15 April 2011, respectively. The highest dose rate caused by (133)Xe was 2 × 10(-5)mSv/yr, and the average (133)Xe/(131 m)Xe ratio was 3.8 ± 0.4.

  1. Real time power consumption monitoring for energy efficiency analysis in micro EDM milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tristo, Gianluca; Bissacco, Giuliano; Lebar, Andrej

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability has become a major concern in many countries and is leading to strict regulations regarding the impact of products and services during their manufacturing, use, and disposal. Power consumption monitoring in manufacturing companies can lead to a reduction of machine tools energy...... for manufacturing sustainability. Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is considered an attractive solution for the manufacturing of microcomponents. In this paper, a low cost and modular data acquisition system, based on open-hardware and open-source software, for online energy consumption monitoring, is presented....... The system described is applied for energy efficiency analysis of the micro EDM milling process by using a state of the art commercial machine tool. A number of sensors is connected to the data acquisition system to measure the energy consumption of the main sub-systems of the machine tool, data is recorded...

  2. Monitoring for vertical creep in concrete in two silos at Wivenhoe pumped storage hydro power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, M.W. [Queensland Univ. of Technology, Brisbane (Australia). School of Surveying

    1996-12-31

    The need for structural monitoring is generated by expected or unexpected (newly discovered in the life of the structure) behaviour. Due to the long vertical driveshafts involved at Wivenhoe the phenomenon of `concrete creep` which, if it is occurring, could contribute to shaft misalignment and unscheduled bearing wear or failure, was used as a motivation to establish a vertical monitoring system. The particular system developed for this site is traceable, replaceable, expandable and inexpensive. Measurements are obtained by precise levelling and the use of specially calibrated vertically suspended tapes. The analysis of the vertical loops is performed using constrained variance estimation and `robust` inter-epoch comparison. (orig.)

  3. Design of a DCS Based Model for Continuous Leakage Monitoring System of Rotary Air Preheater of a Thermal Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madan BHOWMICK

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The leakage in rotary air preheater makes a considerable contribution to the reduced overall efficiency of fossil-fuel-fired thermal power plants and increase the effect on environment. Since it is normal phenomenon, continuous monitoring of leakage is generally omitted in most power plants. But for accurate analysis of the operation of the thermal power plant, this leakage monitoring plays a vital role. In the present paper, design of a DCS based model for continuous leakages monitoring of rotary air preheater has been described. In the proposed model, the existing DCS based instrumentation system has been modified and online leakage monitoring system has been developed. This model has been installed in a captive power plant with high capacity boilers and very much satisfactory operation of this system has been observed. The observed online data along with their analysis results are presented in this paper.

  4. Real time simulation application to monitor the stability limit of power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartono, Kuo, Ming-Tse

    2017-06-01

    If the power system falls into an unsteady state, there will be voltage collapse in which the power system will be separated into small systems. Identifying the stability reserve in conformity with a certain practical operation condition is very important for the system management and operation. In fact, the global power system issue has caused serious outages due to voltage collapse such as in the United States-Canada in August 14, 2003; South London in August 28, 2003; southern Sweden and eastern Denmark in September 23, 2003; and Italy on September 28, 2003, and in Vietnam where power system problem led to power loss on 17 May 2005, 27 December 2006, 20 July 2007, and 10 September 2007. The analysis shows that the phenomenon is related to the loss of system stability. Thus, the operational system as well as the power system designs should be studied related to the issue of the system stability. To study the static stability of the power system, different approximate standards, called pragmatic criteria, were examined. Markovits has investigated the application of the standard of dP/dd to test the stability of the power button and dq/dU to check the voltage stability of the load button [1]. However, the storage stability when calculating standard dP/d d is usually much larger than the reserves when calculating standard dq/dU [1]. This paper presents a method to build a possible operation region in the power plane of load bus which works in comply with the stability limit to evaluate the stability reserve of the power system. This method is used to build a program to monitor the stability reserve of IEEE 39 Bus Power System in real time. To monitor the stability reserve of IEEE 39 nodes power system, articles based on the standard dq/dU was used to calculate the assessment. When using standard dq/dU to check for voltage stability load button, the amount of storage stability can be calculated by the following steps: first, transformed replacement scheme Masonry on

  5. The far-reaching effects of power: at the individual, dyadic, and group levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galinsky, A.D.; Chou, E.Y.; Halevy, N.; Van Kleef, G.A.; Neale, M.A.; Mannix, E.A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - This chapter provides a framework that captures the fundamental impacts of power at the individual, dyadic, small group, and organizational levels. Within each level, we trace the psychological, cognitive, and behavioral consequences of having or lacking power. Approach - We integrate theo

  6. Evaluation of a regional monitoring program's statistical power to detect temporal trends in forest health indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perles, Stephanie J.; Wagner, Tyler; Irwin, Brian J.; Manning, Douglas R.; Callahan, Kristina K.; Marshall, Matthew R.

    2014-01-01

    Forests are socioeconomically and ecologically important ecosystems that are exposed to a variety of natural and anthropogenic stressors. As such, monitoring forest condition and detecting temporal changes therein remain critical to sound public and private forestland management. The National Parks Service’s Vital Signs monitoring program collects information on many forest health indicators, including species richness, cover by exotics, browse pressure, and forest regeneration. We applied a mixed-model approach to partition variability in data for 30 forest health indicators collected from several national parks in the eastern United States. We then used the estimated variance components in a simulation model to evaluate trend detection capabilities for each indicator. We investigated the extent to which the following factors affected ability to detect trends: (a) sample design: using simple panel versus connected panel design, (b) effect size: increasing trend magnitude, (c) sample size: varying the number of plots sampled each year, and (d) stratified sampling: post-stratifying plots into vegetation domains. Statistical power varied among indicators; however, indicators that measured the proportion of a total yielded higher power when compared to indicators that measured absolute or average values. In addition, the total variability for an indicator appeared to influence power to detect temporal trends more than how total variance was partitioned among spatial and temporal sources. Based on these analyses and the monitoring objectives of theVital Signs program, the current sampling design is likely overly intensive for detecting a 5 % trend·year−1 for all indicators and is appropriate for detecting a 1 % trend·year−1 in most indicators.

  7. Evaluation of a regional monitoring program's statistical power to detect temporal trends in forest health indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perles, Stephanie J; Wagner, Tyler; Irwin, Brian J; Manning, Douglas R; Callahan, Kristina K; Marshall, Matthew R

    2014-09-01

    Forests are socioeconomically and ecologically important ecosystems that are exposed to a variety of natural and anthropogenic stressors. As such, monitoring forest condition and detecting temporal changes therein remain critical to sound public and private forestland management. The National Parks Service's Vital Signs monitoring program collects information on many forest health indicators, including species richness, cover by exotics, browse pressure, and forest regeneration. We applied a mixed-model approach to partition variability in data for 30 forest health indicators collected from several national parks in the eastern United States. We then used the estimated variance components in a simulation model to evaluate trend detection capabilities for each indicator. We investigated the extent to which the following factors affected ability to detect trends: (a) sample design: using simple panel versus connected panel design, (b) effect size: increasing trend magnitude, (c) sample size: varying the number of plots sampled each year, and (d) stratified sampling: post-stratifying plots into vegetation domains. Statistical power varied among indicators; however, indicators that measured the proportion of a total yielded higher power when compared to indicators that measured absolute or average values. In addition, the total variability for an indicator appeared to influence power to detect temporal trends more than how total variance was partitioned among spatial and temporal sources. Based on these analyses and the monitoring objectives of the Vital Signs program, the current sampling design is likely overly intensive for detecting a 5 % trend·year(-1) for all indicators and is appropriate for detecting a 1 % trend·year(-1) in most indicators.

  8. An inductively powered telemetry system for temperature, EKG, and activity monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, T. B.; Lund, G. F.; Williams, B. A.

    1978-01-01

    An implant telemetry system for the simultaneous monitoring of temperature, activity, and EKG from small animals, such as rats, was designed with the feature that instead of a battery the system is energized by an inductive field. A 250 kHz resonant coil surrounds the cage (30 x 30 x 20 cm) and provides the approximately 100 microns of power required to operate the implant transmitter while allowing the animal unrestrained movement in the cage. The implant can also be battery operated if desired. RF transmission is in the 8-10 MHz band, which allows the use of a simple, essentially single IC chip, receiver.

  9. Using Smart Meters Data for Energy Management Operations and Power Quality Monitoring in a Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palacios-Garcia, Emilio J.; Diaz, Enrique Rodriguez; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad

    2017-01-01

    Smart metering devices have become an essential part in the development of the current electrical network toward the paradigm of Smart Grid. These meters present in most of the cases, functionalities whose analysis capabilities go further beyond the basic automated meter readings for billing...... of a commercial advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) in the context of a smart building with an energy management system (EMS). Furthermore, power quality monitoring based on this AMI is explained. All the details regarding the implementation in a laboratory scale application, as well as the obtained results...

  10. Corrosion monitoring in a straw-fired power plant using an electrochemical noise probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappeln, Frederik Vilhelm; Bjerrum, Niels; Petrushina, Irina

    2007-01-01

    Electrochemical Noise Measurements have been carried out in situ in a straw-fired power plant using an experimental probe constructed from alumina and AlSl 347 steel. Based on a framework of controlled laboratory experiments it has been found that electrochemical noise has the unique ability...... to provide in-situ monitoring of intergranular corrosion in progress. The probe had a lifetime of two months. It was shown that down-time corrosion in the boiler was negligible. Electrochemical noise data indicated that metal temperatures around 590 degrees C should be avoided as the intergranular corrosion...

  11. Vapor Online Monitor Model of Vapor Power Station Based on UML

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    We presents a vapor online monitor system model of vapor power station developed by visual tool rational rose2000. Use cases such as on line instrument (onlineinstr), control, query, report, real database (realdb) and alarm are generated according to the system requirements. Use case view and class view of the system are formed at the same time. As for all the UML models of the system, this paper focuses the discussion on the class view, the component diagram of the control class and the sequence diagram of the query class. Corresponding C++ codes are produced and finally transferred into the spot running software.

  12. Power system low frequency oscillation monitoring and analysis based on multi-signal online identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The advance in the wide-area measurement system (WAMS) is driving the power system to the trend of wide-area monitoring and control.The Prony method is usually used for low frequency oscillation online identification.However,the identified amplitude and phase information is not sufficiently used.In this paper,the amplitude is adopted to detect the occurrence of the oscillation and to obtain the mode observability of the sites.The phase is adopted to identify the oscillation generator grouping and to obtain the mode shapes.The time varying characteristics of low frequency oscillations are studied.The behaviors and the characters of low frequency oscillations are displayed by dynamic visual techniques.Demonstrations on the "11.9" low frequency oscillation of the Guizhou Power Grid substantiate the feasibility and the validation of the proposed methods.

  13. Monitoring applications of power generators for the increase of energy efficiency using novel fiber optical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villnow, Michael; Willsch, Michael; Bosselmann, Thomas; Schmauss, Bernhard

    2011-05-01

    To verify optimization measures of power generators to improve the energy efficiency and to monitor critical parameters, fiber optical sensors have been developed and investigated. A fiber optical hot wire anemometer based on the thermooptic effect of Fiber Bragg Gratings was investigated to measure the flow distribution along the stator core. Fiber optical magnetic field sensors, based on the strain-optic effect of FBGs, were used to measure the magnetic field distribution on the end windings of a power generator. A novel fiber-optical accelerometer was used to measure the end winding vibrations. In this paper the functionality of each sensor is described and results of field test under real conditions are shown and discussed.

  14. National Biological Monitoring Inventory. [Data base for information on biological monitoring of power plant impacts on environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    The National Biological Monitoring Inventory, initiated in 1975, currently consists of four computerized data bases and voluminous manual files. MAIN BIOMON contains detailed information on 1,021 projects, while MINI BIOMON provides skeletal data for over 3,000 projects in the 50 states, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, plus a few in Canada and Mexico. BIBLIO BIOMON and DIRECTORY BIOMON complete the computerized data bases. The structure of the system provides for on-line search capabilities to generate details of agency sponsorship, indications of funding levels, taxonomic and geographic coverage, length of program life, managerial focus or emphasis, and condition of the data. Examples of each of these are discussed and illustrated, and potential use of the Inventory in a variety of situations is emphasized.

  15. Toward a Wirelessly Powered On-Lens Intraocular Pressure Monitoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Jin-Chern; Hsu, Shun-Hsi; Liao, Yu-Te; Huang, Yu-Chieh; Yeh, Guan-Ting; Kuei, Cheng-Kai; Dai, Kai-Shiun

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a wireless on-lens intraocular pressure monitoring system, comprising a capacitance-to-digital converter and a wirelessly powered radio-frequency identification (RFID)-compatible communication system, for sensor control and data communication. The capacitive sensor was embedded on a soft contact lens of 200 μm thickness using commercially available biocompatible lens material, to improve compliance and reduce user discomfort. The sensor chip was shown to achieve effective number of bits greater than 10 over a capacitance range up to 50 pF while consuming only 64-μW power. The on-lens capacitive sensor could detect dielectric variation caused by changes in water content from a distance of 2 cm by using incident power from an RFID reader at 20 dBm. The maximum detectable distance was 11 cm with 30-dBm incident RF power. The rise in eye tissue temperature under 30-dBm RF exposure over an interval of 1 s was simulated and found to be less than 0.01°C.

  16. An ultra low-power front-end IC for wearable health monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu-Pin Hsu; Zemin Liu; Hella, Mona M

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a low-power front-end IC for wearable health monitoring systems. The IC, designed in a standard 0.13μm CMOS technology, fully integrates a low-noise analog front-end (AFE) to process the weak bio-signals, followed by an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) to digitize the extracted signals. An AC-coupled driving buffer, that interfaces between the AFE and the ADC is introduced to scale down the power supply of the ADC. The power consumption decreases by 50% compared to the case without power supply scaling. The AFE passes signals from 0.5Hz to 280Hz and from 0.7Hz to 160Hz with a simulated input referred noise of 1.6μVrms and achieves a maximum gain of 35dB/41dB respectively, with a noise-efficiency factor (NEF) of the AFE is 1. The 8-bit ADC achieves a simulated 7.96-bit resolution at 10KS/s sampling rate under 0.5V supply voltage. The overall system consumes only 0.86μW at dual supply voltages of 1V (AFE) and 0.5 V (ADC).

  17. Intelligent Monitoring and Predicting Output Power Losses of Solar Arrays Based on Particle Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzheng Fang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar arrays are the main source of energy to the on-orbit satellite, whose output power largely determines the life cycle of on-orbit satellites. Monitoring and further forecasting the output power of solar arrays by using the real-time observational data are very important for the study of satellite design and on-orbit satellite control. In this paper, we firstly describe the dynamical model of output power with summarizing the influencing factors of attenuation for solar arrays and elaborating the evolution trend of influencing factors which change with time. Based on the empirical model, a particle filtering algorithm is formulated to predict the output power of solar arrays and update the model parameters, simultaneously. Finally, using eight-year observational data of voltage and current from a synchronous on-orbit satellite, an experiment is carried out to illustrate the reliability and accuracy of the particle filtering method. Comparative results with classical curve fitting also are presented with statistical root mean square error and mean relative error analysis.

  18. Design of a telemetry system based on wireless power transmission for physiological parameter monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Zhiwei, E-mail: jiayege@hotmail.com [College of Electrical and Information Engineering, Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha (China); Yan, Guozheng; Zhu, Bingquan [820 Institute, School of Electronic Information and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China)

    2015-04-15

    An implanted telemetry system for experimental animals with or without anaesthesia can be used to continuously monitor physiological parameters. This system is significant not only in the study of organisms but also in the evaluation of drug efficacy, artificial organs, and auxiliary devices. The system is composed of a miniature electronic capsule, a wireless power transmission module, a data-recording device, and a processing module. An electrocardiograph, a temperature sensor, and a pressure sensor are integrated in the miniature electronic capsule, in which the signals are transmitted in vitro by wireless communication after filtering, amplification, and A/D sampling. To overcome the power shortage of batteries, a wireless power transmission module based on electromagnetic induction was designed. The transmitting coil of a rectangular-section solenoid and a 3D receiving coil are proposed according to stability and safety constraints. Experiments show that at least 150 mW of power could pick up on the load in a volume of Φ10.5 mm × 11 mm, with a transmission efficiency of 2.56%. Vivisection experiments verified the feasibility of the integrated radio-telemetry system.

  19. Impact of CDMA wireless phone power output and puncture rate on hearing aid interference levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, T L; Schlegel, R E; Grant, H

    2000-01-01

    Interference between digital wireless phones and hearing aids occurs when the radiofrequency bursts from the phone transmission are demodulated by the hearing aid amplifier. The amplified interference signal is heard as a "buzz" or "static" by the hearing aid wearer. Most research and standards development activity has focused on worst-case scenarios with the phone operating at its maximum power. Since this power level is often not typical in urban and suburban settings, it is of value to determine the impact of lower power levels on the overall level of audible interference. Using a frequency analyzer, and several hearings aids and code division multiple access (CDMA) phones, the audio frequency spectrum of interference was recorded for each phone-aid combination and for a range of power levels producing from no interference to maximum interference. As phone power is increased, the interference signal becomes distinguishable from the ambient noise level and a linear response region is observed in which a specified increase in power output results in a proportional increase in the overall input referenced interference level (OIRIL). As power is increased beyond the linear region, the hearing aid enters a saturation region where an additional power increase results in a reduction or no increase in the OIRIL. The numeric differences in interference documented in this study were used in conjunction with the results of a previous study by the authors to determine the impact of reduced power on speech intelligibility and annoyance. The amount of improvement for a given power reduction depends on the radiofrequency immunity of the hearing aid and is substantial for hearing aids with poor immunity. For high-immunity aids, the level of audible interference remains low even at high phone power levels.

  20. System Level Power Optimization of Digital Audio Back End for Hearing Aids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pracny, Peter; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger; Bruun, Erik

    2017-01-01

    This work deals with power optimization of the audio processing back end for hearing aids - the interpolation filter (IF), the sigma-delta (SD modulator and the Class D power amplifier (PA) as a whole. Specifications are derived and insight into the tradeoffs involved is used to optimize...... the interpolation filter and the SD modulator on the system level so that the switching frequency of the Class D PA - the main power consumer in the back end - is minimized. A figure-of-merit (FOM) which allows judging the power consumption of the digital part of the back end early in the design process is used...... to track the hardware and power demands as the tradeoffs of the system level parameters are investigated. The result is the digital part of the back end optimized with respect to power which provides audio performance comparable to state-of-theart. A combination of system level parameters leading...

  1. Dual Monitoring of Secretion and ATP Levels during Chondrogenesis Using Perfusion Culture-Combined Bioluminescence Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuck Joon Kwon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal pattern formation in limb development depends on prechondrogenic condensation which prefigures the cartilage template. However, although morphogens such as TGF-βs and BMPs have been known to play essential roles in skeletal patterning, how the morphogens induce prechondrogenic cells to aggregate and determine patterns of cartilage elements has remained unclear. Our previous study reported that ATP oscillations are induced during chondrogenesis. This result suggests the possibility that ATP oscillations lead to the oscillatory secretion of morphogens, due to the fact that secretion process requires ATP. To examine the correlation between ATP oscillations and secretion levels of morphogens, we have developed perfusion culture-combined bioluminescence monitoring system to simultaneously monitor intracellular ATP levels and secretion levels. Using this system, we found that secretory activity oscillates in phase with ATP oscillations and that secretion levels of TGF-β1 and BMP2 oscillate during chondrogenesis. The oscillatory secretion of the morphogens would contribute to amplifying the fluctuation of the morphogens, underlie the spatial patterning of morphogens, and consequently lead to skeletal pattern formation.

  2. Dual Monitoring of Secretion and ATP Levels during Chondrogenesis Using Perfusion Culture-Combined Bioluminescence Monitoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyuck Joon; Han, Youngbae

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal pattern formation in limb development depends on prechondrogenic condensation which prefigures the cartilage template. However, although morphogens such as TGF-βs and BMPs have been known to play essential roles in skeletal patterning, how the morphogens induce prechondrogenic cells to aggregate and determine patterns of cartilage elements has remained unclear. Our previous study reported that ATP oscillations are induced during chondrogenesis. This result suggests the possibility that ATP oscillations lead to the oscillatory secretion of morphogens, due to the fact that secretion process requires ATP. To examine the correlation between ATP oscillations and secretion levels of morphogens, we have developed perfusion culture-combined bioluminescence monitoring system to simultaneously monitor intracellular ATP levels and secretion levels. Using this system, we found that secretory activity oscillates in phase with ATP oscillations and that secretion levels of TGF-β1 and BMP2 oscillate during chondrogenesis. The oscillatory secretion of the morphogens would contribute to amplifying the fluctuation of the morphogens, underlie the spatial patterning of morphogens, and consequently lead to skeletal pattern formation.

  3. Design and Analysis of Multi Level D-STATCOM to Improve the Power Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh. Badavath,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, the electrical power quality issue has been the main concern of the power companies. Power quality is defined as the index which both the delivery and consumption of electric power affect on the performance of electrical apparatus. From a customer point of view, a power quality problem can be defined as any problem is manifested on voltage, current, or frequency deviation that results in power failure. The power electronics progressive, especially in flexible alternating-current transmission system (FACTS and custom power devices, affects power quality improvement. This paper presents an investigation of seven-Level Cascaded H - bridge (CHB Inverter as Distribution Static Compensator (DSTATCOM in Power System (PS for compensation of reactive power and harmonics. The advantages of CHB inverter are low harmonic distortion, reduced number of switches and suppression of switching losses. The DSTATCOM helps to improve the power factor and eliminate the Total Harmonics Distortion (THD drawn from a Non-Liner Diode Rectifier Load (NLDRL. The D-Q reference frame theory is used to generate the reference compensating currents for DSTATCOM while Proportional and Integral (PI control is used for capacitor dc voltage regulation. A CHB Inverter is considered for shunt compensation of a 11 Kv distribution system. Finally a level shifted PWM (LSPWM and phase shifted PWM (PSPWM techniques are adopted to investigate the performance of CHB Inverter. The results are obtained through Matlab/Simulink software package.

  4. The Power of Individual-level Drivers of Inventive Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zwick, Thomas; Frosch, Katharina; Hoisl, Karin

    2017-01-01

    We combine two lines of research on inventive and creative performance that have been separated before. We use empirical models of the performance of inventors over their careers based on an established theoretical framework of the drivers of creativity, the Knowledge, Skills, Abilities, and Other...... (KSAO) model. We link survey information spanning the inventors’ entire careers and psychometric test evidence with patent history data for more than 1000 inventors. We also control for variables that have traditionally been used in studies of inventive performance including inventor age, applicant type......, technology, patent, and time information. We show that educational level, skills acquired during the career, personality traits, career motivation, cognitive ability, and cognitive problem-solving style are significantly related to inventive performance....

  5. Water Level Loggers as a Low-Cost Tool for Monitoring of Stormwater Control Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Toran

    2016-01-01

    Stormwater control measures (SCMs) are a key component of watershed health in urbanized areas. SCMs are used to increase infiltration and reduce discharge to streams or storm sewer systems during rain events. Monitoring is important for the evaluation of design and causes of failure in SCMs. However, the expense of monitoring means it is not always included in stormwater control planning. This study shows how low-cost water level loggers can be used to answer certain questions about SCM perfo...

  6. Continuous monitoring methods for assessment of structural integrity in nuclear power plants; Jatkuvan monitoroinnin menetelmaet rakenteiden eheyden varmistamiseen ydinvoimaloissa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkimo, M.

    1998-01-01

    This report is a review of the frequently used continuous monitoring methods that are applied or can possibly be applied in nuclear power plants. The methods covered include condition monitoring and non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques that can be used to detect flaws in components and the malfunction of machinery. The specific techniques for water chemistry monitoring are not covered by this report. The systems based on acoustic emission are considered to be suitable for continuous monitoring applications and these are discussed in greater detail compared to other methods. The loose parts monitoring and leak detection systems based on acoustic emission have practical applications in several nuclear power plants. The real-time monitoring of crack-tip movement using the ultrasonic method is also discussed. Some results are also referred to from the research and development work to monitor crack initiation and growth on the surface of high-speed rotating components using the electromagnetic method. Vibration measurements and analysis are mentioned as a usual tool for monitoring the condition of rotating machinery but also some special aspects of nuclear power plants are included. Finally the on-line fatigue and integrity monitoring systems are briefly discussed and given some considerations regarding the material property measurements using continuous non-destructive methods. (orig.). 34 refs.

  7. Continuous monitoring methods for assessment of structural integrity in nuclear power plants; Jatkuvan monitoroinnin menetelmaet rakenteiden eheyden varmistamiseen ydinvoimaloissa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkimo, M.

    1998-01-01

    This report is a review of the frequently used continuous monitoring methods that are applied or can possibly be applied in nuclear power plants. The methods covered include condition monitoring and non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques that can be used to detect flaws in components and the malfunction of machinery. The specific techniques for water chemistry monitoring are not covered by this report. The systems based on acoustic emission are considered to be suitable for continuous monitoring applications and these are discussed in greater detail compared to other methods. The loose parts monitoring and leak detection systems based on acoustic emission have practical applications in several nuclear power plants. The real-time monitoring of crack-tip movement using the ultrasonic method is also discussed. Some results are also referred to from the research and development work to monitor crack initiation and growth on the surface of high-speed rotating components using the electromagnetic method. Vibration measurements and analysis are mentioned as a usual tool for monitoring the condition of rotating machinery but also some special aspects of nuclear power plants are included. Finally the on-line fatigue and integrity monitoring systems are briefly discussed and given some considerations regarding the material property measurements using continuous non-destructive methods. (orig.). 34 refs.

  8. Development of a Functional Platform for System Reliability Monitoring of Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ming; Zhang, Zhijian; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu [Harbin Engineering University, Harbin (China)

    2014-08-15

    This paper presents MFM builder, a platform based on Multilevel Flow Modeling (MFM), which provides a graphical interface for modeling functions of complex artificial systems such as nuclear power plant with emphasizing the designed purposes of systems. Several algorithms based on MFM have been developed for dynamic system reliability analysis, fault diagnosis and quantitative software reliability analysis. A Reliability Monitoring System (RMS) of PWR nuclear power plant was developed by integrating above algorithms. Experiments by connecting RMS with a full scale PWR simulator showed that it took 16 seconds for RMS calculating the reliability changes over time of safety-related systems according to given system configurations in the 31 days by one computer run. The proposed reliability monitoring system can be used not only offline as a reliability analysis tool to assist the plant maintenance staffs in maintenance plan making, but also online as a operator support system to assist the operators in Main Control Room (MCR) in their various tasks such as configuration management, fault diagnosis and operational decision making.

  9. A Denoising Based Autoassociative Model for Robust Sensor Monitoring in Nuclear Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Shaheryar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensors health monitoring is essentially important for reliable functioning of safety-critical chemical and nuclear power plants. Autoassociative neural network (AANN based empirical sensor models have widely been reported for sensor calibration monitoring. However, such ill-posed data driven models may result in poor generalization and robustness. To address above-mentioned issues, several regularization heuristics such as training with jitter, weight decay, and cross-validation are suggested in literature. Apart from these regularization heuristics, traditional error gradient based supervised learning algorithms for multilayered AANN models are highly susceptible of being trapped in local optimum. In order to address poor regularization and robust learning issues, here, we propose a denoised autoassociative sensor model (DAASM based on deep learning framework. Proposed DAASM model comprises multiple hidden layers which are pretrained greedily in an unsupervised fashion under denoising autoencoder architecture. In order to improve robustness, dropout heuristic and domain specific data corruption processes are exercised during unsupervised pretraining phase. The proposed sensor model is trained and tested on sensor data from a PWR type nuclear power plant. Accuracy, autosensitivity, spillover, and sequential probability ratio test (SPRT based fault detectability metrics are used for performance assessment and comparison with extensively reported five-layer AANN model by Kramer.

  10. Plastic Optical Fibre Sensor for Spine Bending Monitoring with Power Fluctuation Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Anwar Zawawi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the implementation of power fluctuation compensation for an intensity-based optical fibre bending sensor aimed at monitoring human spine bending in a clinical environment. To compensate for the light intensity changes from the sensor light source, a reference signal was provided via the light reflection from an aluminum foil surface fixed at a certain distance from the source fibre end tips. From the results, it was found that the investigated sensor compensation technique was capable of achieving a 2° resolution for a bending angle working range between 0° and 20°. The study also suggested that the output voltage ratio has a 0.55% diversion due to input voltage variation between 2.9 V and 3.4 V and a 0.25% output drift for a 2 h measurement. With the achieved sensor properties, human spine monitoring in a clinical environment can potentially be implemented using this approach with power fluctuation compensation.

  11. Leveraging the Power of Smartphones: Real Time Monitoring of Water Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ally S. Nyamawe

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the world has become more sophisticated. Different aspects of today’s life has been digitized, this include; business, education, health, communication and numerous community services. With the existing extended coverage of cellular networks, most services are constantly deployed to be accessed via mobile phones, as they are also the most pervasive pocket carried devices. Though, both regular and smartphone can be used to convey the basics of mobile based services such as mobile banking, calling and text messaging, smartphone goes extra mile. While regular phones are still the better choice for some, smartphones are tremendously taking over the cellphone market. Smartphones are powered by the vast amount of mobile apps available today which offer unprecedented features and functionalities and as well more advanced internet connectivity. To ensure reliable, sufficient and safe water supply to public, the installed water points need to be well monitored. Quality and quantity parameters of water produced from the water points are constantly tracked to determine if they are within the acceptable range. In case of acute condition, the identified parameters need to be instantly communicated to the District Water Engineer (DWE for prompt intervention. In this paper we explore the popularity and advantages of smartphones and present a proposed prototype that exploit the power of smartphones in real time monitoring of water points.

  12. Water Level Loggers as a Low-Cost Tool for Monitoring of Stormwater Control Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Toran

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Stormwater control measures (SCMs are a key component of watershed health in urbanized areas. SCMs are used to increase infiltration and reduce discharge to streams or storm sewer systems during rain events. Monitoring is important for the evaluation of design and causes of failure in SCMs. However, the expense of monitoring means it is not always included in stormwater control planning. This study shows how low-cost water level loggers can be used to answer certain questions about SCM performance. Five case studies are presented that use water level loggers to evaluate the overflow of basins, compare a traditional stormpipe trench with an infiltration trench, monitor timing of blue roof storage, show the effects of retrofitting a basin, and provide long term performance data. Water level loggers can be used to answer questions about the timing and location of stormwater overflows, which helps to evaluate the effectiveness of SCMs. More expensive monitoring and modeling can be used as a follow up if needed to more thoroughly assess a site. Nonetheless, low-cost monitoring can be a first step in identifying sites that need improvement or additional monitoring.

  13. RF Power Detector/Monitor Upgrade for the 500MHz Systems at the ALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptiste, K.

    2003-05-08

    Several systems rely on the accurate and linear detection of 500 MHz signals, (the fundamental frequency of both the Booster Ring and Storage Ring) over a dynamic range in excess of 25dB. Prior to this upgrade, the detector/monitor was diode based and though this type of detector could handle the dynamic range requirement it could not do so in an accurate and linear manner. In order to meet the requirements (dynamic range greater than or equal to 25dB, accurate and linear to +-0.25dB over the range, and additional circuitry to interface to the legacy control system and interlocks), a new RF Power Detector/Monitor has been developed using two AD8361, Analog Devices Tru RMS Detectors and a fuzzy comparator, which extends the overall detector's range to twice that of the AD8361. Further information is available [www.analogedevices.com/]. Details of the design requirements and the detector/monitor's circuit as well as the performance of the detector will be presented.

  14. Demonstration of TEG-powered wireless autonomous transducer solution for condition monitoring in industrial environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ziyang; Patrascu, Mihai; Su, Jiale; Vullers, Ruud J.M. [imec the Netherlands, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2011-07-01

    Imec/Holst Centre focuses on the development of wireless autonomous transducer solution, which is poised to bring about huge impact in the sectors of health care, machinery, transportation and energy, etc. In this paper, we first showcase a TEG-powered demonstration for condition monitoring in industrial environment. Composing of sensor-actuator, front-end interface, digital signal processing unit and radio, the developed wireless sensor node can monitor the changing operating condition, i.e. the loading on a rolling-element bearing, on a rotating shaft. The use of a specially designed TEG, working in tandem with an energy storage device, can significantly improve the energy autonomy of the condition monitoring system as a whole. The different components in the demonstration are presented. Subsequently, the experimental results of vibration signature analysis are exhibited. On one hand, the presented demonstration sheds light on the huge potential of thermoelectric energy harvesting to achieve energy autonomy. On the other hand, it also points to the aspects that are in need of further development, namely miniaturization and cost reduction of energy harvesters. Aimed at the delivery of cost-effective miniaturized thermoelectric harvesting devices, imec/Holst Centre has been tackling with the relevant challenges by resorting to, but not limited to, its expertise in micromachining. An update on the latest research results is subsequently given with regard to various micromachined thermoelectric devices, fully fledged wearable TEGs with custom designed package and thermoelectric material property optimization. (orig.)

  15. INTELLIGENT MONITORING SYSTEM WITH HIGH TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTED FIBEROPTIC SENSOR FOR POWER PLANT COMBUSTION PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwang Y. Lee; Stuart S. Yin; Andre Boheman

    2004-12-26

    The objective of the proposed work is to develop an intelligent distributed fiber optical sensor system for real-time monitoring of high temperature in a boiler furnace in power plants. Of particular interest is the estimation of spatial and temporal distributions of high temperatures within a boiler furnace, which will be essential in assessing and controlling the mechanisms that form and remove pollutants at the source, such as NOx. The basic approach in developing the proposed sensor system is three fold: (1) development of high temperature distributed fiber optical sensor capable of measuring temperatures greater than 2000 C degree with spatial resolution of less than 1 cm; (2) development of distributed parameter system (DPS) models to map the three-dimensional (3D) temperature distribution for the furnace; and (3) development of an intelligent monitoring system for real-time monitoring of the 3D boiler temperature distribution. Under Task 1, improvement was made on the performance of in-fiber grating fabricated in single crystal sapphire fibers, test was performed on the grating performance of single crystal sapphire fiber with new fabrication methods, and the fabricated grating was applied to high temperature sensor. Under Task 2, models obtained from 3-D modeling of the Demonstration Boiler were used to study relationships between temperature and NOx, as the multi-dimensionality of such systems are most comparable with real-life boiler systems. Studies show that in boiler systems with no swirl, the distributed temperature sensor may provide information sufficient to predict trends of NOx at the boiler exit. Under Task 3, we investigate a mathematical approach to extrapolation of the temperature distribution within a power plant boiler facility, using a combination of a modified neural network architecture and semigroup theory. The 3D temperature data is furnished by the Penn State Energy Institute using FLUENT. Given a set of empirical data with no analytic

  16. Power analysis as a tool to identify statistically informative indicators for monitoring coral reef disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wynsberge, Simon; Gilbert, Antoine; Guillemot, Nicolas; Heintz, Tom; Tremblay-Boyer, Laura

    2017-07-01

    Extensive biological field surveys are costly and time consuming. To optimize sampling and ensure regular monitoring on the long term, identifying informative indicators of anthropogenic disturbances is a priority. In this study, we used 1800 candidate indicators by combining metrics measured from coral, fish, and macro-invertebrate assemblages surveyed from 2006 to 2012 in the vicinity of an ongoing mining project in the Voh-Koné-Pouembout lagoon, New Caledonia. We performed a power analysis to identify a subset of indicators which would best discriminate temporal changes due to a simulated chronic anthropogenic impact. Only 4% of tested indicators were likely to detect a 10% annual decrease of values with sufficient power (>0.80). Corals generally exerted higher statistical power than macro-invertebrates and fishes because of lower natural variability and higher occurrence. For the same reasons, higher taxonomic ranks provided higher power than lower taxonomic ranks. Nevertheless, a number of families of common sedentary or sessile macro-invertebrates and fishes also performed well in detecting changes: Echinometridae, Isognomidae, Muricidae, Tridacninae, Arcidae, and Turbinidae for macro-invertebrates and Pomacentridae, Labridae, and Chaetodontidae for fishes. Interestingly, these families did not provide high power in all geomorphological strata, suggesting that the ability of indicators in detecting anthropogenic impacts was closely linked to reef geomorphology. This study provides a first operational step toward identifying statistically relevant indicators of anthropogenic disturbances in New Caledonia's coral reefs, which can be useful in similar tropical reef ecosystems where little information is available regarding the responses of ecological indicators to anthropogenic disturbances.

  17. Simultaneous Monitoring of Glucose and Lactate by Self-powered Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Baingane

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A dual self-powered biosensing system integrated with energy amplification circuit is described, for simultaneously monitoring glucose and lactate. The self-powered biosensing system is based on the conventional enzymatic biofuel cell equipped with three 4 mm x 4 mm massively dense mesh network of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs bioelectrodes in parallel configuration. The bioelectrodes employed pyroquinoline quinone glucose dehydrogenase (PQQ-GDH as the biocatalyst for the glucose oxidation and D-Lactate dehydrogenase (D-LDH as the biocatalyst for lactate oxidation. A common laccase modified-MWCNTs bioelectrode served as the cathode for the reduction of molecular oxygen. Two charge pump circuits were coupled with 0.1 mF capacitors functioning as transducers. The advantages of employing capacitors were coupled with the efficient energy amplification of the charge pump circuit to amplify the power output from each of the biofuel and charge/discharge the corresponding capacitor. Under operating conditions, the open circuit voltages and short circuit current densities for 180 mg/dL glucose and 25 mM lactate were 339.2 mV and 228.75 µA/cm2 and 370 mV and 66.17 µA/cm2, respectively. The responses for glucose and lactate were linear up to 630 mg/dL and 30 mM with sensitivities of 20.11 Hz/ mM cm-2 and 9.869 Hz/ mM cm-2, respectively. The potential of the described system was demonstrated to provide stable voltage and current output that was capable of driving the charge pump circuit integrated with the capacitor for simultaneously monitoring glucose and lactate. These results were in good agreement with those previously reported.

  18. Flood monitoring for ungauged rivers: the power of combining space-based monitoring and global forecasting models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revilla-Romero, Beatriz; Netgeka, Victor; Raynaud, Damien; Thielen, Jutta

    2013-04-01

    world map, with detailed reports for individual gauging sites. A comparison of discharge estimates from the Global Flood Detection System (GFDS) and the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS) with observations for representative climatic zones is presented. Both systems have demonstrated strong potential in forecasting and detecting recent catastrophic floods. The usefulness of their combined information on global scale for decision makers at different levels is discussed. Combining space-based monitoring and global forecasting models is an innovative approach and has significant benefits for international river commissions as well as international aid organisations. This is in line with the objectives of the Hyogo and the Post-2015 Framework that aim at the development of systems which involve trans-boundary collaboration, space-based earth observation, flood forecasting and early warning.

  19. Condition Monitoring for wind power plants. Structure monitoring and lifetime monitoring of wind power plants (SCMS and LCMS); Condition Monitoring fuer Windenergieanlagen. Strukturmonitoring and Lebensdauerueberwachung von Windenergieanlagen (SCMS and LCMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, Holger [P.E. Concepts GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Knowledge about the condition and the remaining lifetime of the structural components of WEPs provides considerable advantages for the manufacturers, owners and insurers. To gain this knowledge, two monitoring systems have been developed, one for the structural condition monitoring and one for the lifetime condition monitoring. Both systems need only little additional measuring expense or none at all, the main part is in the software evaluating the measurement results and parts of the wind and control data. The results of the verification at multi-megawatt wind turbines show that the systems work satisfactorily and that even a sensor-free lifetime monitoring is possible. (orig.)

  20. Optimization of the Electric Power Leveling System Using a Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage with Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funabiki, Shigeyuki; Tanaka, Toshihiko; Fujii, Toshinori

    A new optimization method of the electric power leveling system using an SMES is proposed. The SMES is parallelly connected with rolling mills in steel works. The leveling control is based on fuzzy reasoning. The SMES capacity and the scaling factors of the fuzzy controller will be optimized so that the power leveling control can be achieved and then the total cost of the added SMES cost and reduced contract electricity rate becomes lower. The optimization is carried out using the genetic algorithm and the cost reduction of 7.76 billion yen can be achieved. It is confirmed by the power leveling simulation that the proposed optimization method is very effective for designing the power leveling system.

  1. Establishment and evolution of Radiological Environmental Monitoring Programmes in nuclear power plants; Establecimiento y evolucion de los programas de vigilancia radiologica ambiental en las centrales nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marugan, I.; Luque, S.; Martin, J. L.; Rey, C.; Salas, R.; Sterling, A.; Ramos, L. M.

    2013-09-01

    This article presents a brief overview of how the Radiological Environmental Monitoring Programmes carried out around nuclear power plants have evolved associated to different reasons as the legal framework, operational phases of the facilities, development on the detection and measurement of low levels of radiation due to the state of art and best available technologies, changes within sites as well as in their surroundings and accident taken place inside and outside of our borders. (Author)

  2. Levels of Involvement: The Power of Choice in a Middle School Level System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havill, Laura K.

    2004-01-01

    This article outlines the development of a level system for a self-contained middle school program serving students with emotional and behavioral disorders. This level system is a real alternative to traditional control and coercion models. The Turning Point Middle School's level system incorporates aspects of the Circle of Courage, Choice Theory,…

  3. Monitoring of hot pipes at the power plant Neurath using guided waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihnacht, Bianca; Klesse, Thomas; Neubeck, Robert; Schubert, Lars

    2013-04-01

    In order to reduce the CO2-emissions and to increase the energy efficiency, the operating temperatures of power plants will be increased up to 720°C. This demands for novel high-performance steels in the piping systems. Higher temperatures lead to a higher risk of damage and have a direct impact on the structure stability and the deposition structure. Adequately trusted results for the prediction of the residual service life of those high strength steels are not available so far. To overcome these problems the implementation of an online monitoring system in addition to periodic testing is needed. RWE operates the lignite power plant Neurath. All test and research activities have to be checked regarding their safety and have to be coordinated with the business operation of the plant. An extra bypass was established for this research and made the investigations independent from the power plant operating. In order to protect the actuators and sensors from the heat radiated from the pipe, waveguides were welded to the bypass. The data was evaluated regarding their dependencies on the environmental influences like temperature and correction algorithms were developed. Furthermore, damages were introduced into the pipe with diameters of 8 mm to 10 mm and successfully detected by the acoustic method.

  4. Levels of consciousness during regional anesthesia and monitored anesthesia care: patient expectations and experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esaki, Roy K; Mashour, George A

    2009-05-01

    Complaints of "intraoperative awareness" after regional anesthesia and monitored anesthesia care have been reported. We hypothesized that this may be due to either unmet expectations regarding levels of consciousness or states of consciousness resembling general anesthesia. A structured interview assessing expected and experienced levels of consciousness was given to 117 patients who underwent regional anesthesia or monitored anesthesia care. Complete unconsciousness was the state most often expected and subjectively experienced. Furthermore, only 58% of patients had expectations set by the anesthesia provider. These data indicate that, from the patient's perspective, the boundary between general and nongeneral anesthesia is obscured.

  5. Environmental radiation monitoring of low-level wastes by the State of Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conklin, A.W.; Mooney, R.R.; Erickson, J.L. [Dept. of Health, Olympia, WA (United States). Div. of Radiation Protection

    1989-11-01

    The Washington State Department of Health, as the state`s regulatory agency for radiation, monitors several forms of low-level radioactive wastes. The monitoring is done to assess the potential impact on the environment and on public health. The emphasis of the monitoring program is placed on the solid and liquid wastes from defense activities on the Hanford Reservation, commercial wastes at the site located on leased land at Hanford and uranium mill tailings in Northeastern Washington. Although not classified as low-level waste, monitoring is also periodically conducted at selected landfills and sewage treatment facilities and other licensees, where radioactive wastes are known or suspected to be present. Environmental pathways associated with waste disposal are monitored independently, and/or in conjunction with the waste site operators to verify their results and evaluate their programs. The Department also participates in many site investigations conducted by site operators and other agencies, and conducts it`s own special investigations when deemed necessary. Past investigations and special projects have included allegations of adverse environmental impact of I-129, uranium in ground water, impacts of wastes on the agricultural industry, radioactivity in seeps into the Columbia River from waste sites, identifying lost waste sites at Hanford, differentiating groundwater contamination from defense versus commercial sources, and radioactivity in municipal landfills and sewers. The state`s environmental radiation monitoring program has identified and verified a number of environmental problems associated with radioactive waste disposal, but has, to date, identified no adverse offsite impacts to public health.

  6. The Level of Power Quality Measurement and Evaluation in A Stone Crusher Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa ŞEKKELİ

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Both electric utilities and end users of electric power are becoming increasingly concerned about the quality of electric power. Quality of electrical energy in the electrical system that is requested continuous power (uninterrupted power, constant frequency and with constant amplitude can be explained by sinusoidal voltage. Deformation of voltage in the form of sinusoidal waveform is explained as a harmonic. Harmonics are most important factors in decreasing quality of energy in the electrical system. In industrial plants, existence of harmocins and voltage drop, causes serious problems both in plant and network. This problem affects the cost. In this study, a power quality measurements are carried out in stone crusher plant. Harmonics and voltage drop has been measured and evaluated with the power analyzer. In the power quality measurements, harmonic level of the plant is not so bad. However, it is recommended that compensation system with harmonic elimination can be established in plant.

  7. Optimization of Electric Power Leveling Systems by a Novel Cluster-Structured GA with Masking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Jyunpei; Fujii, Toshinori; Funabiki, Shigeyuki

    Power fluctuations of the rolling mill may cause the instability of electric power systems, and increase the cost of the electric power facility and electricity charges. Therefore, in order to compensate the power fluctuations, the development of the electric power-leveling systems (EPLS) is very important in the future electric power system. The EPLS with a SMES has been proposed as one of the countermeasures for the electric power quality improvement. However, the SMES is very expensive and it is difficult to decide the gains of the controller. It is essential in the practical use that the reduction of SMES capacity is realized. This paper proposes a new optimization method of the EPLS. The proposed algorithm is Cluster-Structured GA with Masking (CSGA). The optimization of the EPLS can be achieved by the proposed CSGA compared to the GA.

  8. Monitoring pest insect traps by means of low-power image sensor technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Otoniel; Rach, Miguel Martinez; Migallon, Hector; Malumbres, Manuel P; Bonastre, Alberto; Serrano, Juan J

    2012-11-13

    Monitoring pest insect populations is currently a key issue in agriculture and forestry protection. At the farm level, human operators typically must perform periodical surveys of the traps disseminated through the field. This is a labor-, time- and cost-consuming activity, in particular for large plantations or large forestry areas, so it would be of great advantage to have an affordable system capable of doing this task automatically in an accurate and a more efficient way. This paper proposes an autonomous monitoring system based on a low-cost image sensor that it is able to capture and send images of the trap contents to a remote control station with the periodicity demanded by the trapping application. Our autonomous monitoring system will be able to cover large areas with very low energy consumption. This issue would be the main key point in our study; since the operational live of the overall monitoring system should be extended to months of continuous operation without any kind of maintenance (i.e., battery replacement). The images delivered by image sensors would be time-stamped and processed in the control station to get the number of individuals found at each trap. All the information would be conveniently stored at the control station, and accessible via Internet by means of available network services at control station (WiFi, WiMax, 3G/4G, etc.).

  9. Monitoring Pest Insect Traps by Means of Low-Power Image Sensor Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. Serrano

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring pest insect populations is currently a key issue in agriculture and forestry protection. At the farm level, human operators typically must perform periodical surveys of the traps disseminated through the field. This is a labor-, time- and cost-consuming activity, in particular for large plantations or large forestry areas, so it would be of great advantage to have an affordable system capable of doing this task automatically in an accurate and a more efficient way. This paper proposes an autonomous monitoring system based on a low-cost image sensor that it is able to capture and send images of the trap contents to a remote control station with the periodicity demanded by the trapping application. Our autonomous monitoring system will be able to cover large areas with very low energy consumption. This issue would be the main key point in our study; since the operational live of the overall monitoring system should be extended to months of continuous operation without any kind of maintenance (i.e., battery replacement. The images delivered by image sensors would be time-stamped and processed in the control station to get the number of individuals found at each trap. All the information would be conveniently stored at the control station, and accessible via Internet by means of available network services at control station (WiFi, WiMax, 3G/4G, etc..

  10. A low-power inverter-based CMOS level-crossing analog-to-digital converter for low-frequency biosignal sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Suiki; Niitsu, Kiichi; Nakazato, Kazuo

    2016-03-01

    Low-power analog-to-digital conversion is a key technique for power-limited biomedical applications such as power-limited continuous glucose monitoring. However, a conventional uniform-sampling analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is not suitable for nonuniform biosignals. A level-crossing ADC (LC-ADC) is a promising candidate for low-power biosignal processing because of its event-driven properties. The LC-ADC acquires data by level-crossing sampling. When an input signal crosses the threshold level, the LC-ADC samples the signal. The conventional LC-ADC employs a power-hungry comparator. In this paper, we present a low-power inverter-based LC-ADC. By adjusting the threshold level of the inverter, it can be used as a threshold-fixed window comparator. By using the inverter as an alternative to a comparator, power consumption can be markedly reduced. As a result, the total power consumption is successfully reduced by 90% of that of previous LC-ADC. The inverter-based LC-ADC was found to be very suitable for use in power-limited biomedical devices.

  11. Water levels in continuously monitored wells in the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobmeyer, D.H.; Luckey, R.R.; O`Brien, G.M.; Burkhardt, D.J.

    1995-02-01

    Water levels have been monitored hourly in 16 wells representing 24 intervals in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada. Water levels were monitored using pressure transducers and were recorded by data loggers. The pressure transducers were periodically calibrated by raising and lowering them in the wells. The water levels were normally measured at approximately the same time that the transducers were calibrated. Where the transducer output appeared reasonable, it was converted to water levels using the calibrations and manual water-level measurements. The amount of transducer output that was converted to water levels ranged from zero for one interval to 100 percent for one interval. Fifteen of the wells were completed in Tertiary volcanic rocks and one well was completed in Paleozoic carbonate rocks. Each well monitored from one to four depth intervals. Water-level fluctuation caused by barometric pressure changes and earth tides were observed. Transducer output is presented in graphic form and, where appropriate, water-level altitude is presented in graphical and tabular form.

  12. A Fast Approach for System-Level Power Modeling and Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAJun; ZOUXuecheng

    2004-01-01

    Power is one of the main constraints in SOC (System-on-a-chip) design. System-level power modeling and simulation help to reduce the power dissipation in early stage. But by reason of the variability of system architecture, the amount of simulation is vast which result in the simulation time is unacceptable. On the basis of previous work, a modified hybrid approach for core-based system-level power modeling is proposed in this paper, which enables SOC designers to estimate system power consumption under different core parameters and just simulates the system only once. Thereafter designers can make a trade-off rapidly between performance characters (such as power, area, speed and test, etc) and make a decision about which architecture is the best solution to implement system functionality. The key of our approach is to help the core designers to provide a power metric function to the core users and the effectiveness and efficiency of our approach hinge on whether the IP provider could provide an accurate power model of each core. A linear model is chosen to describe the relationship between power consumption and parameters and least-square-error is selected as the optimization criterion to mitigate error. Although the power is given as an example, our approach can be applied to speed and area performance trade-off also because speed and area performance modeling is simpler relatively.

  13. Building America Case Study: Photovoltaic Systems with Module-Level Power Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    Direct current (DC) power optimizers and microinverters (together known as module-level power electronics, or MLPE) are one of the fastest growing market segments in the solar industry. According to GTM Research in The Global PV Inverter Landscape 2015, over 55% of all residential photovoltaic (PV) installations in the United States used some form of MLPE in 2014.

  14. Transmission Power Measurements for Wireless Sensor Nodes and their Relationship to the Battery Level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, S.; Bellettini, C.; Sinigalliesi, A.; Stabellini, L.; Rossi, M.; Mazzini, G.

    2005-01-01

    In this work we focus on the new generation EYESIFXv2 [1] wireless sensor nodes by carrying out experimental measurements on power related quantities. In particular, our aim is to characterize the relationship between the level of the battery and the transmission power radiated by the node. The pres

  15. Honeybees and honey as monitors for heavy metal contamination near thermal power plants in Mugla, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silici, Sibel; Uluozlu, Ozgur Dogan; Tuzen, Mustafa; Soylak, Mustafa

    2016-03-01

    In the present work, 6 honeydew samples of known geographical and botanical origins and 11 honeybee samples were analyzed to detect possible contamination by the thermoelectric power plants in Mugla, Turkey. The contents of trace elements were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry after application of microwave digestion. The samples from the thermal power plants, which were 10-22 km away from the hives, that did not cause pollution in honeydew honeys were also analyzed. The levels of copper, cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), zinc, manganese, iron, chromium, nickel, and aluminum were similar to the values found in other recent studies in literature. However, it was found that the contamination levels of the toxic elements such as Pb and Cd in honeybee samples measured relatively higher than that of honey samples. The study concludes that honeybees may be better bioindicators of heavy metal pollution than honey.

  16. Bidirectional Five-Level Power Processing Interface for Low Voltage Battery Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jain-Yi; Jou, Hurng-Liahng; Wu, Kuen-Der; Lin, You-Si; Wu, Jinn-Chang

    A bidirectional five-level power processing interface for low voltage battery energy storage system (BESS) is developed in this paper. This BESS consists of a bidirectional five-level DC-AC converter, a bidirectional dual boost/buck DC-DC converter and a battery set. This five-level DC-AC converter includes a bidirectional full-bridge converter and a bidirectional dual buck DC-DC converter. The five-level power processing interface can charge power to the battery set form the utility or discharge the power from the battery set to the utility depending on the demanded operation of user. A hardware prototype is developed to verify the performance of this BESS. Experimental results show the performance of the developed BESS is as expected.

  17. Integrating High Levels of Variable Renewable Energy into Electric Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroposki, Benjamin D. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-01

    As more variable renewable energy is integrated into electric power systems, there are a range of challenges and solutions to accommodating very high penetration levels. This presentation highlights some of the recent research in this area.

  18. Low-Carbon Based Multi-Objective Bi-Level Power Dispatching under Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyang Zhou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research examines a low-carbon power dispatch problem under uncertainty. A hybrid uncertain multi-objective bi-level model with one leader and multiple followers is established to support the decision making of power dispatch and generation. The upper level decision maker is the regional power grid corporation which allocates power quotas to each follower based on the objectives of reasonable returns, a small power surplus and low carbon emissions. The lower level decision makers are the power generation groups which decide on their respective power generation plans and prices to ensure the highest total revenue under consideration of government subsidies, environmental costs and the carbon trading. Random and fuzzy variables are adopted to describe the uncertain factors and chance constrained and expected value programming are used to handle the hybrid uncertain model. The bi-level models are then transformed into solvable single level models using a satisfaction method. Finally, a detailed case study and comparative analyses are presented to test the proposed models and approaches to validate the effectiveness and illustrate the advantages.

  19. Optimisation of groundwater level monitoring networks using geostatistical modelling based on the Spartan family variogram and a genetic algorithm method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasyris, Antonios E.; Spanoudaki, Katerina; Kampanis, Nikolaos A.

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater level monitoring networks provide essential information for water resources management, especially in areas with significant groundwater exploitation for agricultural and domestic use. Given the high maintenance costs of these networks, development of tools, which can be used by regulators for efficient network design is essential. In this work, a monitoring network optimisation tool is presented. The network optimisation tool couples geostatistical modelling based on the Spartan family variogram with a genetic algorithm method and is applied to Mires basin in Crete, Greece, an area of high socioeconomic and agricultural interest, which suffers from groundwater overexploitation leading to a dramatic decrease of groundwater levels. The purpose of the optimisation tool is to determine which wells to exclude from the monitoring network because they add little or no beneficial information to groundwater level mapping of the area. Unlike previous relevant investigations, the network optimisation tool presented here uses Ordinary Kriging with the recently-established non-differentiable Spartan variogram for groundwater level mapping, which, based on a previous geostatistical study in the area leads to optimal groundwater level mapping. Seventy boreholes operate in the area for groundwater abstraction and water level monitoring. The Spartan variogram gives overall the most accurate groundwater level estimates followed closely by the power-law model. The geostatistical model is coupled to an integer genetic algorithm method programmed in MATLAB 2015a. The algorithm is used to find the set of wells whose removal leads to the minimum error between the original water level mapping using all the available wells in the network and the groundwater level mapping using the reduced well network (error is defined as the 2-norm of the difference between the original mapping matrix with 70 wells and the mapping matrix of the reduced well network). The solution to the

  20. Output power levels from mobile phones in different geographical areas; implications for exposure assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Lonn, S; Forssen, U; P. Vecchia; Ahlbom, A; Feychting, M

    2004-01-01

    Background: The power level used by the mobile phone is one of the most important factors determining the intensity of the radiofrequency exposure during a call. Mobile phone calls made in areas where base stations are densely situated (normally urban areas) should theoretically on average use lower output power levels than mobile phone calls made in areas with larger distances between base stations (rural areas).

  1. WATER-LEVEL MONITOR FOR BOREWELL AND WATER TANK BASED ON GSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Ramani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Now a days, home automation & remote control and monitoring systems have seen a rapid growth in terms of technology. Apparently there is no early warning system to monitor the tank water level and bore well water level when it has reached the critical level. In this paper we have provided water level monitoring in the tank as well as in the bore well. If the water level in a bore well drops below the threshold level for pumping its pump motor may get air locked or more burn out due to dry running. It is awkward for farmers to walk all the way to their fields at night just to switch the pump motor off. Besides, he may never get to identify the problem. This problem can be solved by using this GSM based system that will automatically make a call to the user mobile phone, when the water Level in the bore well drops threshold below or rises to the threshold level for pumping. The user can also remotely switch on or off the pump motor by sending a SMS from his mobile phone. The system is simple, reliable, portable and affordable. We proposed the work in which, Whenever water level in the tankdrops below the required level the system try to fill the tank by switching on the bore well motor to pump the water into the tank It is must to have enough water in the bore well to avoid the formation of air gap or empty running of bore well motor. High precision water level sensor is used to identify the reference water level to activate and deactivate the motor and system properly by interfacing the sensor devices into the well definedembedded system.

  2. Thermal analysis of multi-MW two-level wind power converter

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Dao; Blaabjerg, Frede; Mogens, Lau; Tonnes, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the multi-MW wind turbine of partial-scale and full-scale two-level power converter with DFIG and direct-drive PMSG are designed and compared in terms of their thermal performance. Simulations of different configurations regarding loss distribution and junction temperature in the power device in the whole range of wind speed are presented and analyzed. It is concluded that in both partial-scale and full-scale power converter the most thermal stressed power device in the generat...

  3. Dynamic monitoring of weight data at the pen vs at the individual level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dan Børge; Toft, Nils; Kristensen, Anders Ringgaard

    recorded weight data from finisher pigs. Data are collected at insertion and at the exit of the first pigs in the pen, and in few pens, the weight is recorded weekly. Dynamic linear models are fitted on the weight data, at the pig level (univariate), at the double pen level using averaged weight...... (univariate) and using individual pig values as parameters in a hierarchical (multivariate) model including section, double pen, and individual level. Variance components of the different models are estimated using the Expectation Maximization algorithm. The difference of information obtained...... at the individual vs. pen level is thereafter assessed. Whereas weight data is usually monitored after a batch is being sent to the slaughter house, this method provides with weekly updating of the data. Perspectives of application include dynamic monitoring of weight data in relation to events such as diarrhoea...

  4. Dynamic monitoring of weight data at the pen vs at the individual level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dan; Toft, Nils; Kristensen, A. R. K.

    recorded weight data from finisher pigs. Data are collected at insertion and at the exit of the first pigs in the pen, and in few pens, the weight is recorded weekly. Dynamic linear models are fitted on the weight data, at the pig level (univariate), at the double pen level using averaged weight...... (univariate) and using individual pig values as parameters in a hierarchical (multivariate) model including section, double pen, and individual level. Variance components of the different models are estimated using the Expectation Maximization algorithm. The difference of information obtained...... at the individual vs pen level is thereafter assessed. Whereas weight data is usually monitored after a batch is being sent to the slaughter house, this method provides weekly updating of the data. Perspectives of application include dynamic monitoring of weight data in relation to events such as diarrhoea, tail...

  5. Long-term monitoring dataset of fish assemblages impinged at nuclear power plants in northern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hungyen; Liao, Yun-Chih; Chen, Ching-Yi; Tsai, Jeng-I; Chen, Lee-Sea; Shao, Kwang-Tsao

    2015-12-08

    The long-term species diversity patterns in marine fish communities are garnering increasing attention from ecologists and conservation biologists. However, current databases on quantitative abundance information lack consistent long-term time series, which are particularly important in exploring the possible underlying mechanism of community changes and evaluating the effectiveness of biodiversity conservation measures. Here we describe an impinged fish assemblage dataset containing 1, 283, 707 individuals from 439 taxa. Once a month over 19 years (1987-1990 and 2000-2014), we systematically collected the fish killed by impingement upon cooling water intake screens at two nuclear power plants on the northern coast of Taiwan. Because impingement surveys have low sampling errors and can be carried out over many years, they serve as an ideal sampling tool for monitoring how fish diversity and community structure vary over an extended period of time.

  6. Duke Power Company's development of a biofouling monitoring program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derwort, J.E.; Gnilka, A. (Duke Power Co., Huntersville, NC (United States))

    1991-11-01

    Biofouling programs at Duke Power Company (DPC) can be traced to the invasion of the Catawba River system by Corbicula in 1968. Raw water systems at Plant Allen, a coal-fired station on Lake Wylie, became heavily infested by clams during the 1970s. Development of programs was accelerated as a result of the shutdown of Catawba nuclear station (CNS) on lake Wylie in 1986 due to clam infestations in safety-related systems, increased biofouling problems at McGuire nuclear station (MNS) on lake Norman, and by the issuance of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) Generic Letter (GL) 89-13 (issued in 1989). Historical data were reviewed to identify pertinent questions, and a refined, multifaceted Corbicula monitoring plan was developed. This plan was implemented at CNS and MNS in 1989.

  7. Suppressed ion chromatography for monitoring chemical impurities in steam for geothermal power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoyo, E; Verma, S P; Sandoval, F; Aparicio, A; García, R

    2002-03-08

    A suppressed ion chromatography (IC) technique has been evaluated as a chemical monitoring tool for detecting major anions (F-, Cl-, NO3- and SO4(2-)) of condensed steam in geothermal power plants. It is shown that the suppressed IC technique provides a suitable means for preventing possible damage to generating equipment in the geothermal industry. An electrical conductivity detector (0.1 microS sensitivity) with an anion-exchange column (IonPac AS4A-SC), a micro-membrane suppressor (AMMS II), and an isocratic high-pressure pump system were successfully used for detecting low concentrations of inorganic anions. Method detection limits for the anions of interest were geothermal steam pipes are also described.

  8. Formal specification and animation of a water level monitoring system. Research report No. INFO-0428

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, P.S.; Stokes, P.A.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the Vienna Development Method (VDM), a formal method for software specification and development, and its use for a real-time application where it is used to formally specify the requirements of a water level monitoring system. The procedure and techniques used to produce an executable form (animation) of the specification are covered.

  9. Modelling and Monitoring in Preparedness for Nuclear Powered Warship Visits in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grzechnik, Marcus P.; Orr, Blake W.; Bokor, Ilonka; Solomon, Stephen B. [Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency, 619 Lower Plenty Road, Yallambie, Victoria, 3084 (Australia)

    2014-07-01

    As a part of reciprocal inter-Governmental arrangements, Australia hosts regular Governmental-approved peacetime visits of naval vessels. These vessels can be conventionally or nuclear-powered. Because of the nature of Nuclear Powered Warships (NPWs), special procedures have been adopted to ensure that the safety of the general public is maintained during visits by such vessels (Nimitz class carriers or submarines). These procedures include Conditions of Entry and the arrangements for visits, as well as contingency arrangements in the unlikely event of an accident resulting in the hazardous release of radioactivity to the environment. The Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) is involved in an inter-departmental committee, the Visiting Ships Panel (Nuclear) (VSP(N)), which oversees the arrangements for visits to Australian Ports by NPWs. This panel includes representatives from Navy and Jurisdictions which host NPW visits. As well as existing arrangements (including reference accident scenarios and sampling of sediment and local seafood), ARPANSA has initiated programmes to; - Present automated atmospheric dispersion products based on current and predicted weather - these are expected to be housed on a secure web site with outputs tailored to the needs of first responders using the ARGOS decision support tool. - Monitor water concentrations within NPW ports prior to visits, in order to establish baseline values. The monitoring (for Cs-137) involves a high volume filtering and extraction technique which has been developed at ARPANSA and will be discussed. An update on progress will be discussed. This includes an overview of relevant systems, procedures in place and work to be completed. Issues to be resolved and lessons learned will also be considered. (authors)

  10. A Low-Power Sensor Network for Long Duration Monitoring in Deep Caves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A.; Johnson, I.; Bick, T.; Winclechter, C.; Jorgensen, A. M.; Teare, S. W.; Arechiga, R. O.

    2010-12-01

    Monitoring deep and inaccessible caves is important and challenging for a variety of reasons. It is of interest to study caves environments for understanding cave ecosystems, and human impact on the ecosystems. Caves may also hold clues to past climate changes. Cave instrumentation must however carry out its job with minimal human intervention and without disturbing the fragile environment. This requires unobtrusive and autonomous instrumentation. Earth-bound caves can also serve as analogs for caves on other planets and act as testbeds for autonomous sensor networks. Here we report on a project to design and implement a low-power, ad-hoc, wireless sensor network for monitoring caves and similar environments. The implemented network is composed of individual nodes which consist of a sensor, processing unit, memory, transceiver and a power source. Data collected at these nodes is transmitted through a wireless ZigBee network to a central data collection point from which the researcher may transfer collected data to a laptop for further analysis. The project accomplished a node design with a physical footprint of 2 inches long by 3 inches wide. The design is based on the EZMSP430-RF2480, a Zigbee hardware base offered by Texas Instruments. Five functioning nodes have been constructed at very low cost and tested. Due to the use of an external analog-to-digital converter the design was able to achieve a 16-bit resolution. The operational time achieved by the prototype was calculated to be approximately 80 days of autonomous operation while sampling once per minute. Each node is able to support and record data from up to four different sensors.

  11. `Power storage system` dealing with leveling of electric power use; Denryoku riyo no heijunka ni kotaeru `denryoku chozo system`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igarashi, M. [Meidensha Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-06-28

    An overview is given on the development situation of a Zn-Br battery as a power storage system. The system is aimed at storing excess power at night and supplying the on-load demand during daytime. The power storage technology requires a large output and capacity of MWh level, long term stability and durability, and cost as low as pumped storage power generation. Four kinds of batteries have been examined to cope with the conditions, in which development of Zn-Br batteries along with Na-S batteries is in progress towards practicability. As a power conversion method for this system, GTO has been employed for a large capacity unit and IGBT for a medium/small capacity unit. The reliability of the Zn-Br batteries against leakage was improved by laminating each cell by hot plate welding. The service life was improved by using a material with a high bromine resistance in place of the conventional electrode constituent material. Although the battery efficiency was influenced by each resistance of electrode, film and electrolytic solution, distance between electrodes, temperature, etc., these correlations were clarified so as to establish the simulation technology. At present, the system realizes 50kW and 40kWh/m{sup 3}. 1 ref., 8 figs.

  12. Interim Status Groundwater Monitoring Plan for Low-Level Waste Management Areas 1 to 4, RCRA Facilities, Hanford,Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P Evan

    2004-10-25

    This document describes the monitoring plan to meet the requirements for interim status groundwater monitoring at Hanford Site low-level waste burial grounds as specified by 40 CFR 265, incorporated by reference in WAC 173-303-400. The monitoring will take place at four separate low-level waste management areas in the 200-West and 200-East Areas, in the central part of the site. This plan replaces the previous monitoring plan.

  13. The utility of gravity and water-level monitoring at alluvial aquifer wells in southern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, D.R.

    2008-01-01

    Coincident monitoring of gravity and water levels at 39 wells in southern Arizona indicate that water-level change might not be a reliable indicator of aquifer-storage change for alluvial aquifer systems. One reason is that water levels in wells that are screened across single or multiple aquifers might not represent the hydraulic head and storage change in a local unconfined aquifer. Gravity estimates of aquifer-storage change can be approximated as a one-dimensional feature except near some withdrawal wells and recharge sources. The aquifer storage coefficient is estimated by the linear regression slope of storage change (estimated using gravity methods) and water-level change. Nonaquifer storage change that does not percolate to the aquifer can be significant, greater than 3 ??Gal, when water is held in the root zone during brief periods following extreme rates of precipitation. Monitor-ing of storage change using gravity methods at wells also can improve understanding of local hydrogeologic conditions. In the study area, confined aquifer conditions are likely at three wells where large water-level variations were accompanied by little gravity change. Unconfined conditions were indicated at 15 wells where significant water-level and gravity change were positively linearly correlated. Good positive linear correlations resulted in extremely large specific-yield values, greater than 0.35, at seven wells where it is likely that significant ephemeral streamflow infiltration resulted in unsaturated storage change. Poor or negative linear correlations indicate the occurrence of confined, multiple, or perched aquifers. Monitoring of a multiple compressible aquifer system at one well resulted in negative correlation of rising water levels and subsidence-corrected gravity change, which suggests that water-level trends at the well are not a good indicatior of overall storage change. ?? 2008 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. All rights reserved.

  14. Groundwater level monitoring sampling and analysis plan for environmental monitoring in Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan addresses groundwater level monitoring activities that will be conducted in support of the Environmental Monitoring Plan for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6. WAG 6 is a shallow-burial land disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a research facility owned by the US Department of Energy and managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. Groundwater level monitoring will be conducted at 129 sites within the WAG. All of the sites will be manually monitored on a semiannual basis. Forty-five of the 128 wells, plus one site in White Oak Lake, will also be equipped with automatic water level monitoring equipment. The 46 sites are divided into three groups. One group will be equipped for continuous monitoring of water level, conductivity, and temperature. The other two groups will be equipped for continuous monitoring of water level only. The equipment will be rotated between the two groups. The data collected from the water level monitoring will be used to support determination of the contaminant flux at WAG 6.

  15. Transient stability enhancement of modern power grid using predictive Wide-Area Monitoring and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefian, Reza

    This dissertation presents a real-time Wide-Area Control (WAC) designed based on artificial intelligence for large scale modern power systems transient stability enhancement. The WAC using the measurements available from Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) at generator buses, monitors the global oscillations in the system and optimally augments the local excitation system of the synchronous generators. The complexity of the power system stability problem along with uncertainties and nonlinearities makes the conventional modeling non-practical or inaccurate. In this work Reinforcement Learning (RL) algorithm on the benchmark of Neural Networks (NNs) is used to map the nonlinearities of the system in real-time. This method different from both the centralized and the decentralized control schemes, employs a number of semi-autonomous agents to collaborate with each other to perform optimal control theory well-suited for WAC applications. Also, to handle the delays in Wide-Area Monitoring (WAM) and adapt the RL toward the robust control design, Temporal Difference (TD) is proposed as a solver for RL problem or optimal cost function. However, the main drawback of such WAC design is that it is challenging to determine if an offline trained network is valid to assess the stability of the power system once the system is evolved to a different operating state or network topology. In order to address the generality issue of NNs, a value priority scheme is proposed in this work to design a hybrid linear and nonlinear controllers. The algorithm so-called supervised RL is based on mixture of experts, where it is initialized by linear controller and as the performance and identification of the RL controller improves in real-time switches to the other controller. This work also focuses on transient stability and develops Lyapunov energy functions for synchronous generators to monitor the stability stress of the system. Using such energies as a cost function guarantees the convergence

  16. Power estimation for intellectual property-based digital systems at the architectural level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaseer Arafat Durrani

    2014-09-01

    We present an efficient power macro-modeling technique at the architectural level for digital electronic systems. This technique estimates the power dissipation of intellectual property (IP components to their statistical knowledge of the primary inputs/outputs. During the power estimation method, the sequence of an input stream is generated by a genetic algorithm (GA using input metrics and the macro-model function to construct a set of functions that map the input metrics of a macro-block to its output metrics. Then, a Monte Carlo zero-delay simulation is performed and the power dissipation is predicted by a macro-model function. The most important contribution of the technique is that it allows fast power estimation of IP-based design by the simple addition of individual power consumption. This makes the power modeling of SoCs an easy task that permits evaluation of power features at the architectural level. In order to evaluate our model, we have constructed IP-based digital systems using different IP macro-blocks. In experiments with an individual IP macro-block the average error is 1–2% and for an entire IP-based system with interconnects, the error range is from 9% to 15%. The preliminary results are effective and our macro-model provides accurate power estimation.

  17. The Level of Difficulty and Discrimination Power of the Basic Knowledge and Skills Examination (EXHCOBA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Backhoff Escudero

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available The Basic Knowledge and Skills Examination (EXHCOBA is one of the few great-scale examinations in Mexico which has been publishing its psychometric parameters.  In this paper we describe the  item analysis results, regarding the exam’s difficulty level and discrimination power.  Results show that most of the items have a medium difficulty and a high discrimination power.  They also reveal that the mathematics items have better discrimination power levels than the ones which belong to social science.

  18. Modular Multi-level converter based HVDC System for Grid Connection of Offshore Wind Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnanarathna, U.N.; Chaudhary, Sanjay Kumar; Gole, A.M.;

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the application of modular multi-level converters (MMC) as a means for harnessing the power from off-shore wind power plants. The MMC consists of a large number of simple voltage sourced converter (VSC) submodules that can be easily assembled into a converter for high......-voltage and high power. The paper shows that the MMC converter has a fast response and low harmonic content in comparison with a two-level VSC option. The paper discusses the modeling approach used, including a solution to the modeling challenge imposed by the very large number of switching devices in the MMC....

  19. Power Spectrum Analysis and Missing Level Statistics of Microwave Graphs with Violated Time Reversal Invariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białous, Małgorzata; Yunko, Vitalii; Bauch, Szymon; Ławniczak, Michał; Dietz, Barbara; Sirko, Leszek

    2016-09-01

    We present experimental studies of the power spectrum and other fluctuation properties in the spectra of microwave networks simulating chaotic quantum graphs with violated time reversal invariance. On the basis of our data sets, we demonstrate that the power spectrum in combination with other long-range and also short-range spectral fluctuations provides a powerful tool for the identification of the symmetries and the determination of the fraction of missing levels. Such a procedure is indispensable for the evaluation of the fluctuation properties in the spectra of real physical systems like, e.g., nuclei or molecules, where one has to deal with the problem of missing levels.

  20. Lifetime Estimation of Electrolytic Capacitors in Fuel Cell Power Converter at Various Confidence Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dao; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    DC capacitors in power electronic converters are a major constraint on improvement of the power density and the reliability. In this paper, according to the degradation data of tested capacitors, the lifetime model of the component is analyzed at various confidence levels. Then, the mission profile...... based lifetime expectancy of the individual capacitor and the capacitor bank is estimated in a fuel cell backup power converter operating in both standby mode and operation mode. The lifetime prediction of the capacitor banks at different confidence levels is also obtained....

  1. Lifetime Estimation of Electrolytic Capacitors in Fuel Cell Power Converter at Various Confidence Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dao; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    DC capacitors in power electronic converters are a major constraint on improvement of the power density and the reliability. In this paper, according to the degradation data of tested capacitors, the lifetime model of the component is analyzed at various confidence levels. Then, the mission profile...... based lifetime expectancy of the individual capacitor and the capacitor bank is estimated in a fuel cell backup power converter operating in both standby mode and operation mode. The lifetime prediction of the capacitor banks at different confidence levels is also obtained....

  2. System-level Reliability Assessment of Power Stage in Fuel Cell Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dao; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    High efficient and less pollutant fuel cell stacks are emerging and strong candidates of the power solution used for mobile base stations. In the application of the backup power, the availability and reliability hold the highest priority. This paper considers the reliability metrics from...... the component-level to the system-level for the power stage used in a fuel cell application. It starts with an estimation of the annual accumulated damage for the key power electronic components according to the real mission profile of the fuel cell system. Then, considering the parameter variations in both...... reliability. In a case study of a 5 kW fuel cell power stage, the parameter variations of the lifetime model prove that the exponential factor of the junction temperature fluctuation is the most sensitive parameter. Besides, if a 5-out-of-6 redundancy is used, it is concluded both the B10 and the B1 system...

  3. Power level effects on thorium-based fuels in pressure-tube heavy water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bromley, B.P.; Edwards, G.W.R., E-mail: blair.bromley@cnl.ca [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Sambavalingam, P. [Univ. of Ontario Inst. of Technology, Oshawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Lattice and core physics modeling and calculations have been performed to quantify the impact of power/flux levels on the reactivity and achievable burnup for 35-element fuel bundles made with Pu/Th or U-233/Th. The fissile content in these bundles has been adjusted to produce on the order of 20 MWd/kg burnup in homogeneous cores in a 700 MWe-class pressure-tube heavy water reactor, operating on a once-through thorium cycle. Results demonstrate that the impact of the power/flux level is modest for Pu/Th fuels but significant for U-233/Th fuels. In particular, high power/flux reduces the breeding and burnup potential of U-233/Th fuels. Thus, there may be an incentive to operate reactors with U-233/Th fuels at a lower power density or to develop alternative refueling schemes that will lower the time-average specific power, thereby increasing burnup.(author)

  4. Monitoring progress towards universal health coverage at country and global levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerma, Ties; Eozenou, Patrick; Evans, David; Evans, Tim; Kieny, Marie-Paule; Wagstaff, Adam

    2014-09-01

    Universal health coverage (UHC) has been defined as the desired outcome of health system performance whereby all people who need health services (promotion, prevention, treatment, rehabilitation, and palliation) receive them, without undue financial hardship. UHC has two interrelated components: the full spectrum of good-quality, essential health services according to need, and protection from financial hardship, including possible impoverishment, due to out-of-pocket payments for health services. Both components should benefit the entire population. This paper summarizes the findings from 13 country case studies and five technical reviews, which were conducted as part of the development of a global framework for monitoring progress towards UHC. The case studies show the relevance and feasibility of focusing UHC monitoring on two discrete components of health system performance: levels of coverage with health services and financial protection, with a focus on equity. These components link directly to the definition of UHC and measure the direct results of strategies and policies for UHC. The studies also show how UHC monitoring can be fully embedded in often existing, regular overall monitoring of health sector progress and performance. Several methodological and practical issues related to the monitoring of coverage of essential health services, financial protection, and equity, are highlighted. Addressing the gaps in the availability and quality of data required for monitoring progress towards UHC is critical in most countries.

  5. Monitoring progress towards universal health coverage at country and global levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ties Boerma

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Universal health coverage (UHC has been defined as the desired outcome of health system performance whereby all people who need health services (promotion, prevention, treatment, rehabilitation, and palliation receive them, without undue financial hardship. UHC has two interrelated components: the full spectrum of good-quality, essential health services according to need, and protection from financial hardship, including possible impoverishment, due to out-of-pocket payments for health services. Both components should benefit the entire population. This paper summarizes the findings from 13 country case studies and five technical reviews, which were conducted as part of the development of a global framework for monitoring progress towards UHC. The case studies show the relevance and feasibility of focusing UHC monitoring on two discrete components of health system performance: levels of coverage with health services and financial protection, with a focus on equity. These components link directly to the definition of UHC and measure the direct results of strategies and policies for UHC. The studies also show how UHC monitoring can be fully embedded in often existing, regular overall monitoring of health sector progress and performance. Several methodological and practical issues related to the monitoring of coverage of essential health services, financial protection, and equity, are highlighted. Addressing the gaps in the availability and quality of data required for monitoring progress towards UHC is critical in most countries.

  6. Life assessment and emissions monitoring of Indian coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    At the request of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), the traveler, along with Dr. R. P. Krishnan, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee spent three weeks in India planning and performing emissions monitoring at the coal-fired Vijayawada Thermal Power Station (VTPS). The coordination for the Indian participants was provided by BHEL, Trichy and CPRI, Bangalore. The trip was sponsored by the PETC under the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)/Government of India (GOI)P Alternate Energy Resources Development (AERD) Project. The AERD Project is managed by PETC, and ORNL is providing the technical coordination and support for four coal projects that are being implemented with BHEL, Trichy. The traveler, after briefing the USAID mission in New Delhi visited BHEL, Trichy and CPRI, Bangalore to coordinate and plan the emissions test program. The site selection was made by BHEL, CPRI, TVA, and PETC. Monitoring was performed for 4 days on one of the 4 existing 210 MW coal-fired boilers at the VTPS, 400 km north of Madras, India.

  7. Life assessment and emissions monitoring of Indian coal-fired power plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    At the request of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), the traveler, along with Dr. R. P. Krishnan, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee spent three weeks in India planning and performing emissions monitoring at the coal-fired Vijayawada Thermal Power Station (VTPS). The coordination for the Indian participants was provided by BHEL, Trichy and CPRI, Bangalore. The trip was sponsored by the PETC under the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)/Government of India (GOI)P Alternate Energy Resources Development (AERD) Project. The AERD Project is managed by PETC, and ORNL is providing the technical coordination and support for four coal projects that are being implemented with BHEL, Trichy. The traveler, after briefing the USAID mission in New Delhi visited BHEL, Trichy and CPRI, Bangalore to coordinate and plan the emissions test program. The site selection was made by BHEL, CPRI, TVA, and PETC. Monitoring was performed for 4 days on one of the 4 existing 210 MW coal-fired boilers at the VTPS, 400 km north of Madras, India.

  8. Monitoring radionuclides in the atmosphere over the Czech Republic after the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulík, Petr; Hýža, Miroslav; Bečková, Věra; Borecký, Zdeněk; Havránek, Jiří; Hölgye, Zoltán; Lušňák, Jan; Malá, Helena; Matzner, Jan; Pilátová, Helena; Rada, Jiří; Schlesingerová, Eva; Šindelková, Eva; Dragounová, Lenka; Vlček, Jaroslav

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents the results of atmospheric radioactivity monitoring over the Czech Republic, as obtained by the Radiation Monitoring Network, following the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Maximum values for (131)I were 5.6 mBq m(-3) in aerosol form and 13 mBq m(-3) in gaseous form. The maximum values for (134)Cs and (137)Cs were 0.64 and 0.72 mBq m(-3), respectively. The estimated effective half-time for removing the activity from the atmosphere was 6-7 d and 3.5 d for caesium and iodine, respectively. The gaseous-to-total activity ratios of (131)I ranged between 0.3 and 0.9, with an arithmetic mean value of 0.77. The mean value for the (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratios was close to 1.0. The effective inhalation dose due to the accident for an adult living in the Czech Republic was estimated at <4 × 10(-5) mSv, out of which the proportion of (131)I was 88%.

  9. Four-level time decomposition quasi-static power flow and successive disturbances analysis. [Power system disturbances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovanovic, S.M. (Nikola Tesla Inst., Belgrade (YU))

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a model and an appropriate numerical procedure for a four-level time decomposition quasi-static power flow and successive disturbances analysis of power systems. The analysis consists of the sequential computation of the zero, primary, secondary and tertiary quasi-static states and of the estimation of successive structural disturbances during the 1200 s dynamics after a structural disturbance. The model is developed by detailed inspection of the time decomposition characteristics of automatic protection and control devices. Adequate speed of the numerical procedure is attained by a specific application of the inversion matrix lemma and the decoupled model constant coefficient matrices. The four-level time decomposition quasi-static method is intended for security and emergency analysis. (author).

  10. A fence line noble gas monitoring system for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasty, R.L.; Hovgaard, J.; LaMarre, J.R

    2001-07-01

    A noble gas monitoring system has been installed at Ontario Power Generations' Pickering Nuclear Generating Station (PNGS) near Toronto, Canada. This monitoring system allows a direct measure of air kerma from external radiation instead of calculating this based on plant emission data and meteorological models. This has resulted in a reduction in the reported effective dose from external radiation by a factor of at least ten. The system consists of nine self-contained units, each with a 7.6 cm x 7.6 cm (3 inch x 3 inch) NaI(Tl) detector that is calibrated for air kerma. The 512-channel gamma ray spectral information is downloaded daily from each unit to a central computer where the data are stored and processed. A spectral stripping procedure is used to remove natural background variations from the spectral windows used to monitor xenon-133 ({sup 133}Xe), xenon-135 ({sup 135}Xe), argon-41 ({sup 41}Ar), and skyshine radiation from the use of radiography sources. Typical monthly minimum detection limits in air kerma are 0.3 nGy for {sup 133}Xe, 0.7 nGy for {sup 135}Xe, 3 nGy for {sup 41}Ar and 2 nGy for skyshine radiation. Based on 9 months of continuous operation, the annualised air kerma due to {sup 133}Xe, {sup 135}Xe and {sup 41}Ar and skyshine radiation were 7 nGy, 8 nGy, 26 nGy and 107 nGy respectively. (author)

  11. Scalability of components for kW-level average power few-cycle lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hädrich, Steffen; Rothhardt, Jan; Demmler, Stefan; Tschernajew, Maxim; Hoffmann, Armin; Krebs, Manuel; Liem, Andreas; de Vries, Oliver; Plötner, Marco; Fabian, Simone; Schreiber, Thomas; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, the average power scalability of components that can be used for intense few-cycle lasers based on nonlinear compression of modern femtosecond solid-state lasers is investigated. The key components of such a setup, namely, the gas-filled waveguides, laser windows, chirped mirrors for pulse compression and low dispersion mirrors for beam collimation, focusing, and beam steering are tested under high-average-power operation using a kilowatt cw laser. We demonstrate the long-term stable transmission of kW-level average power through a hollow capillary and a Kagome-type photonic crystal fiber. In addition, we show that sapphire substrates significantly improve the average power capability of metal-coated mirrors. Ultimately, ultrabroadband dielectric mirrors show negligible heating up to 1 kW of average power. In summary, a technology for scaling of few-cycle lasers up to 1 kW of average power and beyond is presented.

  12. A stationary reference frame current control for a multi-level H-bridge power converter for universal and flexible power management in future electricity network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciobotaru, Mihai; Iov, Florin; Zanchetta, Pericle

    2008-01-01

    More "green" power provided by Distributed Generation will enter into the European electricity network in the near future. In order to control the power flow and to ensure proper and secure operation of this future grid, with an increased level of the renewable power, new power electronic convert...

  13. Operational Monitoring of GOME-2 and IASI Level 1 Product Processing at EUMETSAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livschitz, Yakov; Munro, Rosemary; Lang, Rüdiger; Fiedler, Lars; Dyer, Richard; Eisinger, Michael

    2010-05-01

    The growing complexity of operational level 1 radiance products from Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) platforms like EUMETSATs Metop series makes near-real-time monitoring of product quality a challenging task. The main challenge is to provide a monitoring system which is flexible and robust enough to identify and to react to anomalies which may be previously unknown to the system, as well as to provide all means and parameters necessary in order to support efficient ad-hoc analysis of the incident. The operational monitoring system developed at EUMETSAT for monitoring of GOME-2 and IASI level 1 data allows to perform near-real-time monitoring of operational products and instrument's health in a robust and flexible fashion. For effective information management, the system is based on a relational database (Oracle). An Extract, Transform, Load (ETL) process transforms products in EUMETSAT Polar System (EPS) format into relational data structures. The identification of commonalities between products and instruments allows for a database structure design in such a way that different data can be analyzed using the same business intelligence functionality. An interactive analysis software implementing modern data mining techniques is also provided for a detailed look into the data. The system is effectively used for day-to-day monitoring, long-term reporting, instrument's degradation analysis as well as for ad-hoc queries in case of an unexpected instrument or processing behaviour. Having data from different sources on a single instrument and even from different instruments, platforms or numerical weather prediction within the same database allows effective cross-comparison and looking for correlated parameters. Automatic alarms raised by checking for deviation of certain parameters, for data losses and other events significantly reduce time, necessary to monitor the processing on a day-to-day basis.

  14. Radiation monitoring data of the HTTR rise-to-power test. Results up to 30 MW operation on the rated operation mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashikagaya, Yoshinobu; Yoshino, Toshiaki; Yasu, Katsuji; Sawa, Kazuhiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Kurosawa, Yoshiaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2002-12-01

    The High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) have completed the Rise-to-Power test of 9 MW (the single and parallel loaded operation) in the rated operation mode, the rated operation mode and the high-temperature test operation mode with a thermal output of 20 MW (the single and parallel loaded operation). After that the Rise-to-Power test in the rated operation mode (the reactor outlet coolant temperature of 850degC) with a thermal output of 30 MW (the single and parallel loaded operation) were performed between October 20, 2001 and March 11, 2002. This report describes the radiation monitoring data carried out during the HTTR Rise-to-Power test in the rated operation mode with a thermal output of 30 MW. The dose equivalent rate the radioactive air concentration in the working place where the radiation workers enter during the reactor operation were respectively the back ground level and the lower detection limit. There were no release of the radioactive gaseous effluents to the environment through the stack. These radiation monitoring showed clearly the radiation level were very low. This report also describes the part of radiation monitoring data in the HTTR first cycle operation carried out during July 6, 2002 from March 20, 2002. (author)

  15. Radiation monitoring data of the HTTR rise-to-power test. Results up to 30 MW operation on the rated operation mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashikagaya, Yoshinobu; Yoshino, Toshiaki; Yasu, Katsuji; Sawa, Kazuhiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Kurosawa, Yoshiaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2002-12-01

    The High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) have completed the Rise-to-Power test of 9 MW (the single and parallel loaded operation) in the rated operation mode, the rated operation mode and the high-temperature test operation mode with a thermal output of 20 MW (the single and parallel loaded operation). After that the Rise-to-Power test in the rated operation mode (the reactor outlet coolant temperature of 850degC) with a thermal output of 30 MW (the single and parallel loaded operation) were performed between October 20, 2001 and March 11, 2002. This report describes the radiation monitoring data carried out during the HTTR Rise-to-Power test in the rated operation mode with a thermal output of 30 MW. The dose equivalent rate the radioactive air concentration in the working place where the radiation workers enter during the reactor operation were respectively the back ground level and the lower detection limit. There were no release of the radioactive gaseous effluents to the environment through the stack. These radiation monitoring showed clearly the radiation level were very low. This report also describes the part of radiation monitoring data in the HTTR first cycle operation carried out during July 6, 2002 from March 20, 2002. (author)

  16. Monitoring of aerosols in Tsukuba after Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant incident in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanai, Yutaka

    2012-09-01

    Artificial radionuclides were released into the atmosphere by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant incident after a strong earthquake on 11 March 2011. Aerosol monitoring at the Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba, was started 20 d after the incident. Radionuclides such as (99)Mo/(99m)Tc, (132)Te/(132)I, (129 m)Te/(129)Te, (131)I, (137)Cs, (136)Cs, (134)Cs, (140)Ba/(140)La, (110 m)Ag, and (95)Nb were observed and, with the exception of (137)Cs and (134)Cs, these radionuclides decreased to below the limit of detection in the middle of June. The activity ratio of atmospheric (134)Cs/(137)Cs in aerosols decreased over time almost following physical decays. Therefore, the (134)Cs/(137)Cs activity ratio in the averaged air mass in this study could be regarded as homogeneous although those of several reactors in the Nuclear Power Plant were not ascertained. A further research on the released (137)Cs and (134)Cs would be necessary for the sedimentology of lake sediment.

  17. MONITORING POWER PLANT EFFICIENCY USING THE MICROWAVE-EXCITED PHOTOACOUSTIC EFFECT TO MEASURE UNBURNED CARBON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert C. Brown; Robert J. Weber; Andrew A. Suby

    2002-01-01

    Three test instruments are to be used to determine the abilities of photo-acoustic technology for the ultimate purpose of measuring unburned carbon in fly ash in an on-line configuration. The first test instrument is in a single microwave frequency system previously constructed to measure photo-acoustic signals in an off-line configuration. This system was assembled and used to begin testing parameters thought to be influential in the resulting photo-acoustic signal output. A standard modulation frequency was chosen based upon signal to noise data gained from experimentation and sample heterogeneity was tested and found not to be influential. Simultaneously, a second instrument is to be constructed based in part on lessons learned with the first instrument, and to expand the capabilities of the first instrument. Improvements include a control loop to allow more constant microwave power output and an ability to operate over a range of microwave frequencies. To date, the design of the second instrument has been completed and components ordered. The third instrument will be designed based on the experiences of the first two instruments and will operate in an on-line carbon-in-ash monitoring system for coal-fired power plants.

  18. Detecting temporal change in freshwater fisheries surveys: statistical power and the important linkages between management questions and monitoring objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Tyler; Irwin, Brian J.; James R. Bence,; Daniel B. Hayes,

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring to detect temporal trends in biological and habitat indices is a critical component of fisheries management. Thus, it is important that management objectives are linked to monitoring objectives. This linkage requires a definition of what constitutes a management-relevant “temporal trend.” It is also important to develop expectations for the amount of time required to detect a trend (i.e., statistical power) and for choosing an appropriate statistical model for analysis. We provide an overview of temporal trends commonly encountered in fisheries management, review published studies that evaluated statistical power of long-term trend detection, and illustrate dynamic linear models in a Bayesian context, as an additional analytical approach focused on shorter term change. We show that monitoring programs generally have low statistical power for detecting linear temporal trends and argue that often management should be focused on different definitions of trends, some of which can be better addressed by alternative analytical approaches.

  19. Time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography: a powerful tool for landslide monitoring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, A.

    2011-12-01

    The extreme rainfall events and the quick snowmelt occurrences play an important role in the triggering of the landslides. The occurrence of one of these factors can determine the variation of water content in the first layers of the subsoil and as a consequence a quick soil saturation inducing both an increase in pore-water pressures and the overloaded of the slopes progressively collapsing. The electrical resistivity, self-potential, electromagnetic induction and GPR methods can be considered as the most appropriate for assessing the presence of water in the underground. Such methods allow us to study the behavior of water content over much wider and deeper areas than those offered by traditional methods (thermo-gravimetric, tensiometric, TDR, etc) based on spot measures and concerning small volumes. In particular, the Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), which has already proved to be a powerful tool both for the geometrical reconstruction of a landslide body (location of sliding surface, estimation of the thickness of the slide material) and the individuation of high water content areas, can be considered as an alternative tool to be employed for a qualitative and quantitative water content monitoring in the first layers of the subsoil. Indeed, time-lapse 2D ERT can be tested in order to gather information on the temporal and spatial patterns of water infiltration processes and water content variation. This work reports the preliminary results from a new prototype system planned to obtain time-lapse 2D ERTs, TDR and precipitation measurements in two landslide areas located in the Southern Apennine chain (Italy). The system was planned with the aim to estimate the variation of the resistivity parameter on a long period considering the water content variation, the rain water infiltration and the seasonal changes. The prototype system, linked to a pc used for storing data and managing the time interval acquisition, consists of: a resistivimeter connected to a

  20. Use of VIIRS DNB Data to Monitor Power Outages and Restoration for Significant Weather Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlovec, Gary; Molthan, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    NASA fs Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) project operates from NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. The team provides unique satellite data to the National Weather Service (NWS) and other agencies and organizations for weather analysis. While much of its work is focused on improving short-term weather forecasting, the SPoRT team supported damage assessment and response to Hurricane Superstorm Sandy by providing imagery that highlighted regions without power. The team used data from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP) satellite. The VIIRS low-light sensor, known as the day-night-band (DNB), can detect nighttime light from wildfires, urban and rural communities, and other human activity which emits light. It can also detect moonlight reflected from clouds and surface features. Using real time VIIRS data collected by our collaborative partner at the Space Science and Engineering Center of the University of Wisconsin, the SPoRT team created composite imagery to help detect power outages and restoration. This blackout imagery allowed emergency response teams from a variety of agencies to better plan and marshal resources for recovery efforts. The blackout product identified large-scale outages, offering a comprehensive perspective beyond a patchwork GIS mapping of outages that utility companies provide based on customer complaints. To support the relief efforts, the team provided its imagery to the USGS data portal, which the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and other agencies used in their relief efforts. The team fs product helped FEMA, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and U.S. Army monitor regions without power as part of their disaster response activities. Disaster responders used the images to identify possible outages and effectively distribute relief resources. An enhanced product is being developed and integrated into a web

  1. SmartStep: A Fully Integrated, Low-Power Insole Monitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraj Hegde

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Shoe-mounted wearable sensors can be used in applications, such as activity monitoring, gait analysis, post-stroke rehabilitation, body weight measurements and energy expenditure studies. Such wearable sensors typically require the modification or alteration of the shoe, which is not typically feasible for large populations without the direct involvement of shoe manufacturers. This article presents an insole-based wearable sensor (SmartStep that has its electronics fully embedded into a generic insole, which is usable with a large variety of shoes and, thus, resolves the need for shoe modification. The SmartStep is an always-on electronic device that comprises a 3D accelerometer, a 3D gyroscope and resistive pressure sensors implemented around a CC2540 system-on-chip with an 8051 processor core, Bluetooth low energy (BLE connectivity and flash memory buffer. The SmartStep is wirelessly interfaced to an Android smart phone application with data logging and visualization capabilities. This article focuses on low-power implementation methods and on the method developed for reliable data buffering, alleviating intermittent connectivity resulting from the user leaving the vicinity of the smart phone. The conducted tests illustrate the power consumption for several possible usage scenarios and the reliability of the data retention method. The trade-off between the power consumption and supported functionality is discussed, demonstrating that SmartStep can be worn for more than two days between battery recharges. The results of the mechanical reliability test on the SmartStep indicate that the pressure sensors in the SmartStep tolerated prolonged human wear. The SmartStep system collected more than 98.5% of the sensor data, in real usage scenarios, having intermittent connectivity with the smart phone.

  2. Local seismic network for monitoring of a potential nuclear power plant area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiira, Timo; Uski, Marja; Kortström, Jari; Kaisko, Outi; Korja, Annakaisa

    2016-04-01

    This study presents a plan for seismic monitoring of a region around a potential nuclear power plant. Seismic monitoring is needed to evaluate seismic risk. The International Atomic Energy Agency has set guidelines on seismic hazard evaluation and monitoring of such areas. According to these guidelines, we have made a plan for a local network of seismic stations to collect data for seismic source characterization and seismotectonic interpretations, as well as to monitor seismic activity and natural hazards. The detection and location capability of the network were simulated using different station configurations by computing spatial azimuthal coverages and detection threshold magnitudes. Background noise conditions around Pyhäjoki were analyzed by comparing data from different stations. The annual number of microearthquakes that should be detected with a dense local network centered around Pyhäjoki was estimated. The network should be dense enough to fulfill the requirements of azimuthal coverage better than 180° and automatic event location capability down to ML ˜ 0 within a distance of 25 km from the site. A network of 10 stations should be enough to reach these goals. With this setup, the detection threshold magnitudes are estimated to be ML = -0.1 and ML = 0.1 within a radius of 25 and 50 km from Pyhäjoki, respectively. The annual number of earthquakes detected by the network is estimated to be 2 (ML ≥ ˜ -0.1) within 25 km radius and 5 (ML ≥ ˜-0.1 to ˜0.1) within 50 km radius. The location accuracy within 25 km radius is estimated to be 1-2 and 4 km for horizontal coordinates and depth, respectively. Thus, the network is dense enough to map out capable faults with horizontal accuracy of 1-2 km within 25 km radius of the site. The estimation is based on the location accuracies of five existing networks in northern Europe. Local factors, such as seismic noise sources, geology and infrastructure might limit the station configuration and detection and

  3. Wafer-level chip-scale packaging analog and power semiconductor applications

    CERN Document Server

    Qu, Shichun

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a state-of-art and in-depth overview in analog and power WLCSP design, material characterization, reliability, and modeling. Recent advances in analog and power electronic WLCSP packaging are presented based on the development of analog technology and power device integration. The book covers in detail how advances in semiconductor content, analog and power advanced WLCSP design, assembly, materials, and reliability have co-enabled significant advances in fan-in and fan-out with redistributed layer (RDL) of analog and power device capability during recent years. Along with new analog and power WLCSP development, the role of modeling is a key to assure successful package design. An overview of the analog and power WLCSP modeling and typical thermal, electrical, and stress modeling methodologies is also provided. This book also: ·         Covers the development of wafer-level power discrete packaging with regular wafer-level design concepts and directly bumping technology ·    �...

  4. On-Road Driver Monitoring System Based on a Solar-Powered In-Vehicle Embedded Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Lin Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an on-road driver monitoring system, which is implemented on a stand-alone in-vehicle embedded system and driven by effective solar cells. The driver monitoring function is performed by an efficient eye detection technique. Through the driver’s eye movements captured from the camera, the attention states of the driver can be determined and any fatigue states can be avoided. This driver monitoring technique is implemented on a low-power embedded in-vehicle platform. Besides, this study also proposed monitoring machinery that can detect the brightness around the car to effectively determine whether this in-vehicle system is driven by the solar cells or by the vehicle battery. On sunny days, the in-vehicle system can be powered by solar cell in places without the vehicle battery. While in the evenings or on rainy days, the ambient solar brightness is insufficient, and the system is powered by the vehicle battery. The proposed system was tested under the conditions that the solar irradiance is 10 to 113 W/m2 and solar energy and brightness at 10 to 170. From the testing results, when the outside solar radiation is high, the brightness of the inside of the car is increased, and the eye detection accuracy can also increase as well. Therefore, this solar powered driver monitoring system can be efficiently applied to electric cars to save energy consumption and promote the driving safety.

  5. Multiple external hazards compound level 3 PSA methods research of nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Handing; Liang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Xiaoming; Yang, Jianfeng; Liu, Weidong; Lei, Dina

    2017-01-01

    2011 Fukushima nuclear power plant severe accident was caused by both earthquake and tsunami, which results in large amount of radioactive nuclides release. That accident has caused the radioactive contamination on the surrounding environment. Although this accident probability is extremely small, once such an accident happens that is likely to release a lot of radioactive materials into the environment, and cause radiation contamination. Therefore, studying accidents consequences is important and essential to improve nuclear power plant design and management. Level 3 PSA methods of nuclear power plant can be used to analyze radiological consequences, and quantify risk to the public health effects around nuclear power plants. Based on multiple external hazards compound level 3 PSA methods studies of nuclear power plant, and the description of the multiple external hazards compound level 3 PSA technology roadmap and important technical elements, as well as taking a coastal nuclear power plant as the reference site, we analyzed the impact of off-site consequences of nuclear power plant severe accidents caused by multiple external hazards. At last we discussed the impact of off-site consequences probabilistic risk studies and its applications under multiple external hazards compound conditions, and explained feasibility and reasonableness of emergency plans implementation.

  6. GPRS在电力监控系统中的应用%Application of GPRS Technology in Power Monitoring System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张同良; 孙璐

    2011-01-01

    随着移动通汛技术的发展,GPRS也被应用到电力监控系统中来.本文分析了GPRS技术应用于电力监控系统的优缺点,提出了利用GPRS对电力系统进行监控的方案.%With mobile technology development, GPRS is gradually used in power system state monitoring recently. The aim of thispaper is to analyze the advantages and disadvantages of GPRS in monitoring of power system and gives a scheme.

  7. SWATCH Common software for controlling and monitoring the upgraded CMS Level-1 trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Lazaridis, Christos

    2017-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider at CERN restarted in 2015 with a higher centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. The instantaneous luminosity is expected to increase significantly in the coming years. An upgraded Level-1 trigger system is being deployed in the CMS experiment in order to maintain the same efficiencies for searches and precision measurements as those achieved in the previous run. This system must be controlled and monitored coherently through software, with high operational efficiency.The legacy system is composed of approximately 4000 data processor boards, of several custom application-specific designs. These boards are organised into several subsystems; each subsystem receives data from different detector systems (calorimeters, barrel/endcap muon detectors), or with differing granularity. These boards have been controlled and monitored by a medium-sized distributed system of over 40 computers and 200 processes. Only a small fraction of the control and monitoring software was common between the different s...

  8. Hybrid PV/diesel solar power system design using multi-level factor analysis optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Joshua P.

    Solar power systems represent a large area of interest across a spectrum of organizations at a global level. It was determined that a clear understanding of current state of the art software and design methods, as well as optimization methods, could be used to improve the design methodology. Solar power design literature was researched for an in depth understanding of solar power system design methods and algorithms. Multiple software packages for the design and optimization of solar power systems were analyzed for a critical understanding of their design workflow. In addition, several methods of optimization were studied, including brute force, Pareto analysis, Monte Carlo, linear and nonlinear programming, and multi-way factor analysis. Factor analysis was selected as the most efficient optimization method for engineering design as it applied to solar power system design. The solar power design algorithms, software work flow analysis, and factor analysis optimization were combined to develop a solar power system design optimization software package called FireDrake. This software was used for the design of multiple solar power systems in conjunction with an energy audit case study performed in seven Tibetan refugee camps located in Mainpat, India. A report of solar system designs for the camps, as well as a proposed schedule for future installations was generated. It was determined that there were several improvements that could be made to the state of the art in modern solar power system design, though the complexity of current applications is significant.

  9. A DC-DC Converter Efficiency Model for System Level Analysis in Ultra Low Power Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benton H. Calhoun

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model of inductor based DC-DC converters that can be used to study the impact of power management techniques such as dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS. System level power models of low power systems on chip (SoCs and power management strategies cannot be correctly established without accounting for the associated overhead related to the DC-DC converters that provide regulated power to the system. The proposed model accurately predicts the efficiency of inductor based DC-DC converters with varying topologies and control schemes across a range of output voltage and current loads. It also accounts for the energy and timing overhead associated with the change in the operating condition of the regulator. Since modern SoCs employ power management techniques that vary the voltage and current loads seen by the converter, accurate modeling of the impact on the converter efficiency becomes critical. We use this model to compute the overall cost of two power distribution strategies for a SoC with multiple voltage islands. The proposed model helps us to obtain the energy benefits of a power management technique and can also be used as a basis for comparison between power management techniques or as a tool for design space exploration early in a SoC design cycle.

  10. Measuring laser power as a force: a new paradigm to accurately monitor optical power during laser-based machining operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paul; Simonds, Brian; Sowards, Jeffrey; Hadler, Joshua

    2016-03-01

    In laser manufacturing operations, accurate measurement of laser power is important for product quality, operational repeatability, and process validation. Accurate real-time measurement of high-power lasers, however, is difficult. Typical thermal power meters must absorb all the laser power in order to measure it. This constrains power meters to be large, slow and exclusive (that is, the laser cannot be used for its intended purpose during the measurement). To address these limitations, we have developed a different paradigm in laser power measurement where the power is not measured according to its thermal equivalent but rather by measuring the laser beam's momentum (radiation pressure). Very simply, light reflecting from a mirror imparts a small force perpendicular to the mirror which is proportional to the optical power. By mounting a high-reflectivity mirror on a high-sensitivity force transducer (scale), we are able to measure laser power in the range of tens of watts up to ~ 100 kW. The critical parameters for such a device are mirror reflectivity, angle of incidence, and scale sensitivity and accuracy. We will describe our experimental characterization of a radiation-pressure-based optical power meter. We have tested it for modulated and CW laser powers up to 92 kW in the laboratory and up to 20 kW in an experimental laser welding booth. We will describe present accuracy, temporal response, sources of measurement uncertainty, and hurdles which must be overcome to have an accurate power meter capable of routine operation as a turning mirror within a laser delivery head.

  11. A detection-level hazardous waste ground-water monitoring compliance plan for the 200 areas low-level burial grounds and retrievable storage units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-02-01

    This plan defines the actions needed to achieve detection-level monitoring compliance at the Hanford Site 200 Areas Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Compliance will be achieved through characterization of the hydrogeology and monitoring of the ground water beneath the LLBG located in the Hanford Site 200 Areas. 13 refs., 20 figs.

  12. Design and Development of Low Power Wireless Sensor System for Measurement and Monitoring of Bio-Medical Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Vishnu Vardhan, K. Soundara Rajan, Y. Narasimha Murthy

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and development of a low power embedded system for the measurement and monitoring of physiological parameters like body temperature, respiration, blood pressure and ECG. The design is developed around a low power microcontroller MSP430 from Texas Instruments. A wireless sensor module is used to transfer the data from microcontroller to the PC and a graphical user interface (GUI is developed to display the measured data in the graphical form.

  13. On-Road Driver Monitoring System Based on a Solar-Powered In-Vehicle Embedded Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Yen-Lin Chen; Chao-Wei Yu; Zi-Jie Chien; Chin-Hsuan Liu; Hsin-Han Chiang

    2014-01-01

    This study presents an on-road driver monitoring system, which is implemented on a stand-alone in-vehicle embedded system and driven by effective solar cells. The driver monitoring function is performed by an efficient eye detection technique. Through the driver’s eye movements captured from the camera, the attention states of the driver can be determined and any fatigue states can be avoided. This driver monitoring technique is implemented on a low-power embedded in-vehicle platform. Besides...

  14. Real-time monitoring of trace-level VOCs by an ultrasensitive compact lamp-based VUV photoionization mass spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Q. Sun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we report on the development of a compact lamp-based vacuum ultraviolet (VUV photoionization mass spectrometer (PIMS; hereafter referred to as VUV-PIMS in our laboratory; it is composed of a radio frequency-powered VUV lamp, a VUV photoionizer, an ion-immigration region, and a reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer. By utilizing the novel photoionizer consisting of a photoionization cavity and a VUV light baffle, extremely low background noise was obtained. An ultrasensitive detection limit (2σ of 3 pptv was achieved for benzene after an acquisition time of 10 s. To examine its potential for application in real-time sample monitoring, the developed VUV-PIMS was employed for the continuous measurement of urban air for six days in Beijing, China. Strong signals of trace-level volatile organic compounds such as benzene and its alkylated derivatives were observed in the mass spectra. These initial experimental results reveal that the instrument can be used for the online monitoring of trace-level species in the atmosphere.

  15. Update on acrylamide levels in food from monitoring years 2007 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Recommendations on the monitoring of acrylamide levels in food by the European Commission (EC were extended in 2010 (EC, 2010. The new Recommendation includes a revised categorisation of food products for monitoring purposes. This report describes the results of European acrylamide monitoring during the period from 2007 to 2010 using the revised product categorisation with 10 main food categories and an additional 26 sub-categories. Twenty-five European countries submitted a total of 13 162 acrylamide results for the four-year period including 2 200 results for the year 2010. During the monitoring period, time trends in acrylamide levels for the food categories were estimated. In 2010, middle bound mean acrylamide values ranged from 31 μg/kg for ‘other processed cereal based foods for infants and young children’ to 1 350 μg/kg for ‘coffee substitutes’. The highest 95th percentile value of 8 044 μg/kg was reported for ‘instant coffee’. The trend analysis showed only few changes in acrylamide levels from 2007 to 2010. At main food category level, a ‘common European trend’ was a decrease in acrylamide levels for ‘processed cereal based foods for infants and young children’ and an increase for ‘coffee and coffee substitutes’. As a ‘common European trend’ at sub-category level, acrylamide levels of ‘biscuits and rusks for infants and young children’ and ‘non-potato savoury snacks’ showed a decrease and an increase was seen for ‘crisp bread’. A marginal decrease was observed for the sub-category ‘other processed cereal based foods for infants and young children’ and a marginal increase was observed for ‘French fries from fresh potatoes’ as well as for ‘instant coffee’. Although only applicable from 2011, acrylamide levels were compared with indicative values recommended by the EC. Indicative values were exceeded in the case of 3-20 % of samples in different food categories based on

  16. Nonlinear Power-Level Control of the MHTGR Only with the Feedback Loop of Helium Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Dong

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Power-level control is a crucial technique for the safe, stable and efficient operation of modular high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors (MHTGRs, which have strong inherent safety features and high outlet temperatures. The current power-level controllers of the MHTGRs need measurements of both the nuclear power and the helium temperature, which cannot provide satisfactory control performance and can even induce large oscillations when the neutron sensors are in error. In order to improve the fault tolerance of the control system, it is important to develop a power-level control strategy that only requires the helium temperature. The basis for developing this kind of control law is to give a state-observer of the MHTGR a relationship that only needs the measurement of helium temperature. With this in mind, a novel nonlinear state observer which only needs the measurement of helium temperature is proposed. This observer is globally convergent if there is no disturbance, and has the L2 disturbance attenuation performance if the disturbance is nonzero. The separation principle of this observer is also proven, which denotes that this observer can recover the performance of both globally asymptotic stabilizers and L2 disturbance attenuators. Then, a new dynamic output feedback power-level control strategy is established, which is composed of this observer and the well-built static state-feedback power-level control based upon iterative dissipation assignment (IDA-PLC. Finally, numerical simulation results show the high performance and feasibility of this newly-built dynamic output feedback power-level controller.

  17. Power Control and Monitoring Requirements for Thermal Vacuum/Thermal Balance Testing of the MAP Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Chris; Hinkle, R. Kenneth (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The specific heater control requirements for the thermal vacuum and thermal balance testing of the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) Observatory at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt, Maryland are described. The testing was conducted in the 10m wide x 18.3m high Space Environment Simulator (SES) Thermal Vacuum Facility. The MAP thermal testing required accurate quantification of spacecraft and fixture power levels while minimizing heater electrical emissions. The special requirements of the MAP test necessitated construction of five (5) new heater racks.

  18. Design and implementation of a DSP with multi-level low power strategies for cochlear implants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mai Songping; Zhang Chun; Chao Jun; Wang Zhihua

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of a low power digital signal processor (THUCIDSP-1) targeting at application for cochlear implants. Multi-level low power strategies including algorithm optimization, operand isolation, clock gating and memory partitioning are adopted in the processor design to reduce the power consumption. Experimental results show that the complexity of the Continuous Interleaved Sampling (CIS) algorithm is reduced by more than 80% and the power dissipation of the hardware alone is reduced by about 25% with the low power methods. The THUCIDSP-1 prototype, fabricated in 0.18-μm standard CMOS process, consumes only 1.91 mW when executing the CIS algorithm at 3 MHz.

  19. US power plant sites at risk of future sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierkandt, R.; Auffhammer, M.; Levermann, A.

    2015-12-01

    Unmitigated greenhouse gas emissions may increase global mean sea-level by about 1 meter during this century. Such elevation of the mean sea-level enhances the risk of flooding of coastal areas. We compute the power capacity that is currently out-of-reach of a 100-year coastal flooding but will be exposed to such a flood by the end of the century for different US states, if no adaptation measures are taken. The additional exposed capacity varies strongly among states. For Delaware it is 80% of the mean generated power load. For New York this number is 63% and for Florida 43%. The capacity that needs additional protection compared to today increases by more than 250% for Texas, 90% for Florida and 70% for New York. Current development in power plant building points towards a reduced future exposure to sea-level rise: proposed and planned power plants are less exposed than those which are currently operating. However, power plants that have been retired or canceled were less exposed than those operating at present. If sea-level rise is properly accounted for in future planning, an adaptation to sea-level rise may be costly but possible.

  20. Modeling of interior noise levels in large combustion turbine power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedeen, R.A. [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Loud, R.L. [GE Energy, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    2007-07-01

    A study was conducted to predict noise emissions from power generating stations. In particular, the SoundPLAN4 ray-tracing program originally designed for exterior environmental noise propagation analysis, was used to predict the sound levels coming from inside combustion turbines and combined-cycle power plants. Although exterior sound levels are of interest due to their propagation into nearby communities, interior sound levels are important because of their influence on occupational noise exposure. Most regulations are concerned with an 85 dBA, 8 hour exposure. Therefore, plant designers, operators, and owners must be able to predict and control the areas in their plants where these regulations must be considered. In this study, the Raynoise 5 program was also used to analyze sound propagation. The ray-trace model considered the known sound power levels of the major pieces of equipment and was able to predict the sound distribution through the turbine hall with acceptable accuracy. The models used in this study were suitable for both compliance evaluation and noise target optimization of the individual power train components. It was concluded that the location and arrangement of the power train, off-base skids, and stand-alone equipment can be altered to control the sound level in desired areas of the plant. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Radioactivity monitoring and import regulation of the contaminated foodstuffs in Japan following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izumo, Yoshiro [Institute of Public Health, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    Radioactivity monitoring and import regulation of the contaminated foodstuffs executed by Minstry of Health and Welfare following the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident were reviewed as follows; (1) background of socio-psychological effects and environmental radioactivity leading to the regulation (to may 3, 1986); (2) intial intervention for imported foodstuffs in Japan (may 8, `86), and (3) in european countries (to may 31, `86), immediately after the Accident, respectively; (4) determination of the interim driven intervention level for radionuclides in imported foodstuffs (({sup 134}Cs + {sup 137}Cs): 370 Bq/Kg) and activation of the monitoring, (5) outline of the monitoring with elapsed time, number of foodstuffs monitored, number of foodstuffs exceeded radioactivity of the intervention level and re-exported; (6) guideline in international trade of radioactive contaminated foodstuffs adopted by CODEX Alimentarius Commission (FAO/WHO) and the intervention level recommended by ICRP following the Accident; (7) discussion for problems and scopes in future based on the results of monitoring. As the results, a number of imported foodstuffs (about 75,000 samples at present) has been monitored, 55 samples exceeding the interim intervention level were re-exported to each export`s country, and socio-psychological doubts for radioactive contamination of imported foodstuffs have been dispersed. In addition, problems for several factors based on calculation of the interim intervention level, radioactivity level of foodstuffs exceeding about 50 Bq/Kg as radiocesiums and necessity of monitoring for the other radionuclides in foods except radiocesiums were also discussed. (author)

  2. Disentangling Bargaining Power from Individual and Household Level to Institutions: Evidence on Women’s Position in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P. van Staveren (Irene); R. Mabsout (Ramzi)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractSUMMARY Women's bargaining power is generally analyzed only with individual level and household level variables. We add a third level, namely institutional bargaining power. We define this as bargaining power which one party freely derives from unequal social norms. In the bargaining lit

  3. Electromyographic monitoring of facial nerve under different levels of neuromuscular blockade during middle ear microsurgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Yi-rong; XU Jing; CHEN Lian-hua; CHI Fang-lu

    2009-01-01

    Background The evoked electromyography (EMG) is frequently used to identify facial nerve in order to prevent its damage during surgeries. Partial neuromuscular blockade (NMB) has been suggested to favor EMG activity and insure patients' safety. The aim of this study was to determine an adequate level of NMB correspondent to sensible facial nerve identification by evaluating the relationship between facial EMG responses and peripheral NMB levels during the middle ear surgeries.Methods Facial nerve evoked EMG and NMB monitoring were performed simultaneously in 40 patients who underwent tympanoplasty. Facial electromyographic responses were recorded by insertion of needle electrodes into the orbicularis oris and orbicularis oculi muscles after electrical stimulation on facial nerve. The NMB was observed objectively with the hypothenar muscle's twitching after electrical stimulation of ulnar nerve, and the intensity of blockade was adjusted at levels of 0, 25%, 50%, 75%, 90%, and 100% respectively with increased intravenous infusion of Rocuronium (muscle relaxant).Results All of the patients had detectable EMG responses at the levels of NMB ≤50%. Four out of forty patients had no EMG response at the levels of NMB ≥75%. A significant linear positive correlation was present between stimulation thresholds and NMB levels while a linear negative correlation was present between EMG amplitudes and NMB levels.Conclusions The facial nerve monitoring via facial electromyographic responses can be obtained when an intraoperative partial neuromuscular blockade is induced to provide an adequate immobilization of the patient. The 50% NMB should be considered as the choice of anesthetic management for facial nerve monitoring in otologic microsurgery based on the relationship of correlation.

  4. Design and operation of 140 GHz gyrotron oscillators for power levels up to 1 MW CW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jory, H.; Bier, R.; Craig, L.J.; Felch, K.; Ives, L.; Lopez, N.; Spang, S.

    1986-12-01

    Varian has designed and tested 140 GHz gyrotron oscillators that have generated output powers of 100 kW CW and 200 kW for 1 ms pulses. Upcoming tubes will be designed to operate at power levels of 200 kW CW and ultimately up to 1 MW CW. The important design considerations which are addressed in the higher power tubes include the design of the electron gun, interaction circuit, and output window. These issues will be discussed and the results of the earlier 140 GHz gyrotron work at Varian will be summarized.

  5. Level-one modules library for DSNP: Dynamic Simulator for Nuclear Power-plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saphier, D.

    1978-09-01

    The Dynamic Simulator for Nuclear Power-plants (DSNP) is a system of programs and data sets by which a nuclear power plant or part thereof can be simulated at different levels of sophistication. The acronym DSNP is used interchangeably for the DSNP language, for the DSNP precompiler, for the DSNP libraries, and for the DSNP document generator. The DSNP language is a set of simple block oriented statements, which together with the appropriate data, comprise a simulation of a nuclear power plant. The majority of the DSNP statements will result in the inclusion of a simulated physical module into the program. FORTRAN statements can be inserted with no restrictions among DSNP statements.

  6. Battery Recharging Issue for a Two-Power-Level Flywheel System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Gonçalves de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel battery recharging system for an all-electric driveline comprising a flywheel with a permanent magnet double wound synchronous machine (motor/generator is presented. The double winding enables two voltage levels and two different power levels. This topology supersedes other all-electric drivelines. The battery operates in a low-power regime supplying the average power whereas the flywheel delivers and absorbs power peaks, which are up to a higher order of magnitude. The topology presents new challenges for the power conversion system, which is the focus of this investigation. The main challenge is the control of the power flow to the battery when the vehicle is parked despite the decay of the flywheel machine voltage; which is dependent on its charge state, that is, rotational speed. The design and simulation of an unidirectional DC/DC buck/boost converter for a variable rotational speed flywheel is presented. Conventional power electronic converters are used in a new application, which can maintain a constant current or voltage on the battery side. Successful PI current control has been implemented and simulated, together with the complete closed loop system.

  7. Crustaceous lichens sensitive monitor of caesium-137 radiation level in terrestrial environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du Chunguang; Zhao Ye; Zhang Jing; Xu Cuihua

    2005-01-01

    The activity of caesium-137 (Bq/kg) in the crustaceous lichens and other samples was determined to prove the feasibility that crustaceous lichens work as a sensitive biology monitor to record the caesium-137 (Bq/kg) radiation levels of terrestrial environment. The measurements were performed with GEM series HPGe (high-purity Germanium) coaxial detector system (ADCAM -100) made by EC & GORTEC Company in USA. It was found that the activity of caesium-137 (Bq/kg) in the crustaceous lichens was one order of magnitude higher than that found in surface soil,and was over three orders of magnitude higher than those found in the familiar biological samples. These results proved that crustaceous lichens may be one of the most sensitive biological monitors about the remote transmission and environmental radiation levels of caesium-137.

  8. SWATCH Common software for controlling and monitoring the upgraded CMS Level-1 trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Bologna, Simone; Dirkx, Glenn; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lazaridis, Christos; Paradas, Evangelos; Rose, A; Thea, Alessandro; Williams, Thomas Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider at CERN restarted in 2015 with a higher centre-of-mass energy of 13TeV. The instantaneous luminosity is expected to increase significantly in the coming years. An upgraded Level-1 trigger system has been deployed in the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment, in order to maintain the same efficiencies for searches and precision measurements as those achieved in the previous run. This system consists of the order of 100 electronics boards connected by the order of 3000 optical links, which must be controlled and monitoring coherently through software, with high operational efficiency. In this paper, we present the design of the software framework that is used to control and monitor the upgraded Level-1 trigger system, and experiences from using this software to commission the upgraded system.

  9. Architecture-level performance/power tradeoff in network processor design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hong-song; JI Zhen-zhou; HU Ming-zeng

    2007-01-01

    Network processors are used in the core node of network to flexibly process packet streams. With the increase of performance, the power of network processor increases fast, and power and cooling become a bottleneck. Architecture-level power conscious design must go beyond low-level circuit design. Architectural power and performance tradeoff should be considered at the same time. Simulation is an efficient method to design modern network processor before making chip. In order to achieve the tradeoff between performance and power,the processor simulator is used to design the architecture of network processor. Using Netbench, Commubench benchmark and processor simulator-SimpleScalar, the performance and power of network processor are quantitatively evaluated. New performance tradeoff evaluation metric is proposed to analyze the architecture of network processor. Based on the high performance Intel IXP 2800 Network processor configuration, optimized instruction fetch width and speed 、instruction issue width, instruction window size are analyzed and selected. Simulation results show that the tradeoff design method makes the usage of network processor more effectively. The optimal key parameters of network processor are important in architecture-level design. It is meaningful for the next generation network processor design.

  10. Implementation of ground water level monitoring system based on GPRS%基于GPRS的地下水位监测系统的实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐尧铮; 毛潭; 段震

    2012-01-01

    针对水位监测中的供电可靠性差和上线率低的问题,设计了一种地下水位监测系统.监测终端采用双电源供电,上位机采用Java实现网络通信,通过GPRS无线网络实现了监测终端和监控中心之间的数据实时采集和传输,并在实际中得到很好的应用.%In order to solve the problems of poor power supply reliability and low utilization rate of terminals in the process of monitoring ground water level. a ground water level monitoring system was designed in this paper. In the terminal of the monitoring system,a double power supply device was adopted. Network communication of the upper computer was realized by a program written in Java. Real-time data collection and data transmission between the terminals and the surveillance & control center was accomplished by use of GPRS wireless network, which is applied well in practical water level monitoring.

  11. System-level power optimization for real-time distributed embedded systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jiong

    Power optimization is one of the crucial design considerations for modern electronic systems. In this thesis, we present several system-level power optimization techniques for real-time distributed embedded systems, based on dynamic voltage scaling, dynamic power management, and management of peak power and variance of the power profile. Dynamic voltage scaling has been widely acknowledged as an important and powerful technique to trade off dynamic power consumption and delay. Efficient dynamic voltage scaling requires effective variable-voltage scheduling mechanisms that can adjust voltages and clock frequencies adaptively based on workloads and timing constraints. For this purpose, we propose static variable-voltage scheduling algorithms utilizing criticalpath driven timing analysis for the case when tasks are assumed to have uniform switching activities, as well as energy-gradient driven slack allocation for a more general scenario. The proposed techniques can achieve closeto-optimal power savings with very low computational complexity, without violating any real-time constraints. We also present algorithms for power-efficient joint scheduling of multi-rate periodic task graphs along with soft aperiodic tasks. The power issue is addressed through both dynamic voltage scaling and power management. Periodic task graphs are scheduled statically. Flexibility is introduced into the static schedule to allow the on-line scheduler to make local changes to PE schedules through resource reclaiming and slack stealing, without interfering with the validity of the global schedule. We provide a unified framework in which the response times of aperiodic tasks and power consumption are dynamically optimized simultaneously. Interconnection network fabrics point to a new generation of power-efficient and scalable interconnection architectures for distributed embedded systems. As the system bandwidth continues to increase, interconnection networks become power/energy limited as

  12. Quantitative Analysis of VIIRS DNB Nightlight Point Source for Light Power Estimation and Stability Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changyong Cao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The high sensitivity and advanced onboard calibration on the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS Day/Night Band (DNB enables accurate measurements of low light radiances which leads to enhanced quantitative applications at night. The finer spatial resolution of DNB also allows users to examine social economic activities at urban scales. Given the growing interest in the use of the DNB data, there is a pressing need for better understanding of the calibration stability and absolute accuracy of the DNB at low radiances. The low light calibration accuracy was previously estimated at a moderate 15% using extended sources while the long-term stability has yet to be characterized. There are also several science related questions to be answered, for example, how the Earth’s atmosphere and surface variability contribute to the stability of the DNB measured radiances; how to separate them from instrument calibration stability; whether or not SI (International System of Units traceable active light sources can be designed and installed at selected sites to monitor the calibration stability, radiometric and geolocation accuracy, and point spread functions of the DNB; furthermore, whether or not such active light sources can be used for detecting environmental changes, such as aerosols. This paper explores the quantitative analysis of nightlight point sources, such as those from fishing vessels, bridges, and cities, using fundamental radiometry and radiative transfer, which would be useful for a number of applications including search and rescue in severe weather events, as well as calibration/validation of the DNB. Time series of the bridge light data are used to assess the stability of the light measurements and the calibration of VIIRS DNB. It was found that the light radiant power computed from the VIIRS DNB data matched relatively well with independent assessments based on the in situ light installations, although estimates have to be

  13. INTELLIGENT MONITORING SYSTEM WITH HIGH TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTED FIBEROPTIC SENSOR FOR POWER PLANT COMBUSTION PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwang Y. Lee; Stuart S. Yin; Andre Boheman

    2003-12-26

    The objective of the proposed work is to develop an intelligent distributed fiber optical sensor system for real-time monitoring of high temperature in a boiler furnace in power plants. Of particular interest is the estimation of spatial and temporal distributions of high temperatures within a boiler furnace, which will be essential in assessing and controlling the mechanisms that form and remove pollutants at the source, such as NOx. The basic approach in developing the proposed sensor system is three fold: (1) development of high temperature distributed fiber optical sensor capable of measuring temperatures greater than 2000 C degree with spatial resolution of less than 1 cm; (2) development of distributed parameter system (DPS) models to map the three-dimensional (3D) temperature distribution for the furnace; and (3) development of an intelligent monitoring system for real-time monitoring of the 3D boiler temperature distribution. Under Task 1, the efforts focused on developing an innovative high temperature distributed fiber optic sensor by fabricating in-fiber gratings in single crystal sapphire fibers. So far, our major accomplishments include: Successfully grown alumina cladding layers on single crystal sapphire fibers, successfully fabricated in-fiber gratings in single crystal sapphire fibers, and successfully developed a high temperature distributed fiber optic sensor. Under Task 2, the emphasis has been on putting into place a computational capability for simulation of combustors. A PC workstation was acquired with dual Xeon processors and sufficient memory to support 3-D calculations. An existing license for Fluent software was expanded to include two PC processes, where the existing license was for a Unix workstation. Under Task 3, intelligent state estimation theory is being developed which will map the set of 1D (located judiciously within a 3D environment) measurement data into a 3D temperature profile. This theory presents a semigroup

  14. Method for Calculating CO2 Emissions from the Power Sector at the Provincial Level in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Cui-Mei; GE Quan-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Based on the detailed origins of each province’s electricity consumption, a new method for calculating CO2 emissions from the power sector at the provincial level in China is proposed. With this so-called consumer responsibility method, the emissions embodied in imported electricity are calculated with source-specific emission factors. Using the new method, we estimate CO2 emissions in 2005 and 2010. Compared with those derived from the producer responsibility method, the power exporters’ emissions decreased sharply. The emissions from the power sector in Inner Mongolia, the largest power exporter of China, decreased by 109 Mt in 2010. The value is equivalent to those from Shaanxi’s power production and Canada’s power and heat production. In contrast, the importers’ emissions increased substantially. The emissions from the power sector in Hebei, the largest power importer of China, increased by 74 Mt. Emissions of Beijing, increased by 60 Mt (320%), in 2010. Thus, we suggest that the Chinese government should take the emissions, as calculated from the consumption perspective, into account when formulating and assessing local CO2 emission reduction targets.

  15. System-Level Value of a Gas Engine Power Plant in Electricity and Reserve Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti Alahäivälä

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Power systems require a certain amount of flexibility to meet varying demand and to be able to cope with unexpected events, and this requirement is expected to increase with the emergence of variable power generation. In this paper, we focus on gas engine power plant technology and the beneficial influence its flexible operation can have on a power system. The study introduces the concept of a combined-cycle gas engine power plant (CCGE, which comprises a combination of several gas-fired combustion engines and a steam turbine. The operation of CCGE is then comprehensively analyzed in electricity and reserve production in the South African power system and compared with combined-cycle gas turbine (CCGT technology. Even though CCGE is a form of technology that has already been commercialized, it is rarely considered as a source of flexibility in the academic research. That is the notion providing the motivation for this study. Our core contribution is to show that the flexibility of CCGE can be valuable in power systems. The methodology is based on the unit-level model of the studied system and the solving of a day-ahead unit commitment problem for each day of the simulated 11-year period. The simulation studies reveal how a CCGE is able to offer system flexibility to follow hourly load variations and capacity to provide reserve power effectively.

  16. Wearable Sensor System Powered by a Biofuel Cell for Detection of Lactate Levels in Sweat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, S O; Ulyanova, Y V; Figueroa-Teran, R; Bhatt, K H; Singhal, S; Atanassov, P

    An NAD(+)-dependent enzymatic sensor with biofuel cell power source system for non-invasive monitoring of lactate in sweat was designed, developed, and tested. The sensor component, based on lactate dehydrogenase, showed linear current response with increasing lactate concentrations with limits of detection from 5 to 100 mM lactate and sensitivity of 0.2 µA.mM(-1) in the presence of target analyte. In addition to the sensor patch a power source was also designed, developed and tested. The power source was a biofuel cell designed to oxidize glucose via glucose oxidase. The biofuel cell showed excellent performance, achieving over 80 mA at 0.4 V (16 mW) in a footprint of 3.5 × 3.5 × 0.7 cm. Furthermore, in order to couple the sensor to the power source, system electronic components were designed and fabricated. These consisted of an energy harvester (EH) and a micropotentiostat (MP). The EH was employed for harvesting power provided by the biofuel cell as well as up-converting the voltage to 3.0 V needed for the operation of the MP. The sensor was attached to MP for chronoamperometric detection of lactate. The Sensor Patch System was demonstrated under laboratory conditions.

  17. [Monitoring the thermal plume from coastal nuclear power plant using satellite remote sensing data: modeling, and validation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li; Zhao, Li-Min; Wang, Qiao; Zhang, Ai-Ling; Wu, Chuan-Qing; Li, Jia-Guo; Shi, Ji-Xiang

    2014-11-01

    Thermal plume from coastal nuclear power plant is a small-scale human activity, mornitoring of which requires high-frequency and high-spatial remote sensing data. The infrared scanner (IRS), on board of HJ-1B, has an infrared channel IRS4 with 300 m and 4-days as its spatial and temporal resolution. Remote sensing data aquired using IRS4 is an available source for mornitoring thermal plume. Retrieval pattern for coastal sea surface temperature (SST) was built to monitor the thermal plume from nuclear power plant. The research area is located near Guangdong Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station (GNPS), where synchronized validations were also implemented. The National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) data was interpolated spatially and temporally. The interpolated data as well as surface weather conditions were subsequently employed into radiative transfer model for the atmospheric correction of IRS4 thermal image. A look-up-table (LUT) was built for the inversion between IRS4 channel radiance and radiometric temperature, and a fitted function was also built from the LUT data for the same purpose. The SST was finally retrieved based on those preprocessing procedures mentioned above. The bulk temperature (BT) of 84 samples distributed near GNPS was shipboard collected synchronically using salinity-temperature-deepness (CTD) instruments. The discrete sample data was surface interpolated and compared with the satellite retrieved SST. Results show that the average BT over the study area is 0.47 degrees C higher than the retrieved skin temperature (ST). For areas far away from outfall, the ST is higher than BT, with differences less than 1.0 degrees C. The main driving force for temperature variations in these regions is solar radiation. For areas near outfall, on the contrary, the retrieved ST is lower than BT, and greater differences between the two (meaning > 1.0 degrees C) happen when it gets closer to the outfall. Unlike the former case, the convective heat

  18. Evaluation of sulcular sulphide level monitoring using a portable sensor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleissner, C; Springborn, I; Willershausen, B

    2002-11-25

    Volatile sulphur compounds (VSC) such as hydrogen sulphide and methyl mercaptan are toxic bacterial metabolites considered to contribute to the progression of periodontitis. However, the quantitative determination of sulcular VSC concentration requires costly time-consuming laboratory methods limiting its evaluation in large clinical trials. Recently, a portable monitor with a sulphide microsensor has been developed to measure sulcular VSC levels (SU). This cross-sectional study evaluated 1) the clinical usage of the sulphide sensor system, 2) the reproducibility of SU-measurements, 3) the distribution of SU-values in periodontal health and disease and 4) the relationship between SU and clinical parameters documenting periodontal disease severity. The specificity, the measuring range and the reproducibility of the sensor system were tested with reference solutions in vitro. 10 probands with healthy gingiva, 23 patients with gingivitis and 30 patients with chronic periodontitis were examined recording periodontal parameters (clinical attachment loss, CAL, probing depth, PD, bleeding on probing intensity BI, plaque and gingival index PI, GI) and sulcular sulphide level (SU) measured by the portable monitor as a digital score ranging from 0.0 (data. The portable sulphide monitor is a reliable method for the chairside determination of sulcular sulphide level in periodontal disease and in spite of its limitations a valuable supplementation of traditional clinical examination methods. It offers the possibility of relating in vitro results on the toxicity of VSC to clinical findings and might provide new insight into the impact of sulcular sulphide on the pathophysiology of periodontitis.

  19. Using a crowdsourced approach for monitoring water level in a remote Kenyan catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeser, Björn; Jacobs, Suzanne; Rufino, Mariana; Breuer, Lutz

    2017-04-01

    Hydrological models or effective water management strategies only succeed if they are based on reliable data. Decreasing costs of technical equipment lower the barrier to create comprehensive monitoring networks and allow both spatial and temporal high-resolution measurements. However, these networks depend on specialised equipment, supervision, and maintenance producing high running expenses. This becomes particularly challenging for remote areas. Low income countries often do not have the capacity to run such networks. Delegating simple measurements to citizens living close to relevant monitoring points may reduce costs and increase the public awareness. Here we present our experiences of using a crowdsourced approach for monitoring water levels in remote catchments in Kenya. We established a low-cost system consisting of thirteen simple water level gauges and a Raspberry Pi based SMS-Server for data handling. Volunteers determine the water level and transmit their records using a simple text message. These messages are automatically processed and real-time feedback on the data quality is given. During the first year, more than 1200 valid records with high quality have been collected. In summary, the simple techniques for data collecting, transmitting and processing created an open platform that has the potential for reaching volunteers without the need for special equipment. Even though the temporal resolution of measurements cannot be controlled and peak flows might be missed, this data can still be considered as a valuable enhancement for developing management strategies or for hydrological modelling.

  20. Monitoring the mining effect at drainage basin level using geoinformation technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naydenova, Vanya; Roumenina, Eugenia

    2009-09-01

    One of the priority lines of modern regional policy with regard to mining is a territory's sustainable use. One of the key issues is the development of local level monitoring systems to assess and control territories that are subject to intensive anthropogenic activity. The current work proposes a developed geodatabase model for remote sensing and ground-based monitoring of the effects of coal mining at drainage level using geoinformation technologies. Based on this model, the Kutina geographic information system for the drainage basin of the Kutina River has been constructed. The geodatabase is open and may be updated and supplemented with other types of information. This is the first monitoring of coal mining's anthropogenic impact on the land cover and the Kutina Pyramids natural landmark carried out on the territory of the Kutina River drainage basin, Bulgaria. It may assist local level managerial decision-making, among others. Generation of landslide processes and self-ignition of coal layers has been identified as well. The recorded change in the hydrographic network resulting from the performed open coal extraction affects directly the change of the erosion basis. Its increase enhances lateral erosion at the expense of vertical, which is one of the major causes for the Kutina Pyramids natural landmark's degradation.

  1. Performance Assessment Monitoring Plan for the Hanford Site Low Level Waste Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SONNICHSEN, J.C.

    2000-11-15

    As directed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL), Fluor Hanford, Inc. will implement the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, as the requirements relate to the continued operation of the low-level waste disposal facilities on the Hanford Site. DOE Order 435.1 requires a disposal authorization statement authorizing operation (or continued operation) of a low-level waste disposal facility. The objective of this Order is to ensure that all DOE radioactive waste is managed in a manner that protects the environment and personnel and public health and safety. The manual (DOE Order 435.1 Manual) implementing the Order states that a disposal authorization statement shall be issued based on a review of the facility's performance assessment and composite analysis or appropriate Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980 documentation. The disposal authorization shall specify the limits and conditions on construction, design, operations, and closure of the low-level waste facility. Failure to obtain a disposal authorization statement shall result in shutdown of an operational disposal facility. In fulfillment of the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, a disposal authorization statement was issued on October 25, 1999, authorizing the Hanford Site to transfer, receive, possess, and dispose of low-level radioactive waste at the 200 East Area and the 200 West Area Low-Level Burial Grounds. The disposal authorization statement constitutes approval of the performance assessment and composite analysis, authorizes operation of the facility, and includes conditions that the disposal facility must meet. One of the conditions is that monitoring plans for the 200 East Area and 200 West Area Low-Level Burial Grounds be written and approved by the DOE-RL. The monitoring plan is to be updated and implemented within 1 year following issuance of the disposal authorization statement to

  2. Dynamic Output Feedback Power-Level Control for the MHTGR Based On Iterative Damping Assignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Dong

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Because of its strong inherent safety features and high outlet temperature, the modular high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor (MHTGR is already seen as the central part of the next generation of nuclear plants. Such power plants are being considered for industrial applications with a wide range of power levels, and thus power-level control is an important technique for their efficient and stable operation. Stimulated by the high regulation performance provided by nonlinear controllers, a novel dynamic output-feedback nonlinear power-level regulator is developed in this paper based on the technique of iterative damping assignment (IDA. This control strategy can provide the L2 disturbance attenuation performance under modeling uncertainty or exterior disturbance, and can also guarantee the globally asymptotic closed-loop stability without uncertainty and disturbance. This newly built control strategy is then applied to the power-level regulation of the HTR-PM plant, and numerical simulation results show both the feasibility and high performance of this newly-built control strategy. Furthermore, the relationship between the values of the parameters and the performance of this controller is not only illustrated numerically but also analyzed theoretically.

  3. Improvement of High-Power Three-Level Explosion-Proof Inverters Using Soft Switching Control Based on Optimized Power-Loss Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Zhou Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The high-power three-level explosion-proof inverters demand high thermal stability of power devices, and a set of theories and methods is needed to achieve an accurate power-loss calculation of power devices, to establish heat dissipation model, and ultimately to reduce the power loss to improve thermal stability of system. In this paper, the principle of neutral point clamped three-level (NPC3L inverter is elaborated firstly, and a fourth-order RC equivalent circuit of IGBT is derived, on which basis the power-loss model of IGBT and the optimized maternal power-loss thermal model, using an optimized power-loss algorithm, are established. Secondly, in accordance with the optimized maternal power-loss thermal model, the generic formulas of power-loss calculation are deduced to calculate the power-loss modification values of NPC3L and soft switching three-level (S3L inverters, which will be the thermal sources during thermal analysis for maternal power-loss thermal models. Finally, the experiment conducted on the 2.1 MW experimental platform shows that S3L inverter has the same excellent output characteristics with NPC3L inverter, reduces the power loss significantly by 213 W in each half-bridge, and decreases the temperature by 10°C, coinciding with the theoretical calculation, which verifies the accuracy of optimized power-loss algorithm and the effectiveness of the improvement.

  4. Antifactor Xa levels versus activated partial thromboplastin time for monitoring unfractionated heparin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandiver, Jeremy W; Vondracek, Thomas G

    2012-06-01

    Intravenous unfractionated heparin (UFH) remains an important therapeutic agent, particularly in the inpatient setting, for anticoagulation. Historically, the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) has been the primary laboratory test used to monitor and adjust UFH. The aPTT test has evolved since the 1950s, and the historical goal range of 1.5-2.5 times the control aPTT, which first gained favor in the 1970s, has fallen out of favor due to a high degree of variability in aPTT readings from one laboratory to another, and even from one reagent to another. As a result, it is now recommended that the aPTT goal range be based on a corresponding heparin concentration of 0.2-0.4 unit/ml by protamine titration or 0.3-0.7 unit/ml by antifactor Xa assay. Given that several biologic factors can influence the aPTT independent of the effects of UFH, many institutions have transitioned to monitoring heparin with antifactor Xa levels, rather than the aPTT. Clinical data from the last 10-20 years have begun to show that a conversion from aPTT to antifactor Xa monitoring may offer a smoother dose-response curve, such that levels remain more stable, requiring fewer blood samples and dosage adjustments. Given the minimal increased acquisition cost of the antifactor Xa reagents, it can be argued that the antifactor Xa is a cost-effective method for monitoring UFH. In this review, we discuss the relative advantages and disadvantages of the aPTT, antifactor Xa, and protamine titration tests, and provide a clinical framework to guide practitioners who are seeking to optimize UFH monitoring within their own institutions.

  5. Multi-interface Level Sensors and New Development in Monitoring and Control of Oil Separators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuqiang Yang

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available In the oil industry, huge saving may be made if suitable multi-interface levelmeasurement systems are employed for effectively monitoring crude oil separators andefficient control of their operation. A number of techniques, e.g. externally mounteddisplacers, differential pressure transmitters and capacitance rod devices, have beendeveloped to measure the separation process with gas, oil, water and other components.Because of the unavailability of suitable multi-interface level measurement systems, oilseparators are currently operated by the trial-and-error approach. In this paper someconventional techniques, which have been used for level measurement in industry, and newdevelopment are discussed.

  6. Intelligent Low-level RF System by Non-destructive Beam Monitoring Device for Cyclotrons

    CERN Document Server

    Malafeh, M S Sharifi Asadi; Afarideh, H; Chai, J S

    2015-01-01

    The project of a10MeV PET cyclotron accelerator for medical diagnosis and treatment was started at Amirkabir University of Technology in 2012. The low-level RF system of cyclotron accelerator is designed to stabilize acceleration voltage and control the resonance frequency of the cavity. In this work Intelligent Low Level Radio Frequency Circuit or ILLRF suitable for Most of the AVF cyclotron accelerators was designed by the beam monitoring device and narrow band tunable band-pass filter. In this design, for the RF phase detection does not need to signal processing by microcontroller

  7. Understanding and estimating the power to detect cross-level interaction effects in multilevel modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, John E; Aguinis, Herman; Culpepper, Steven A; Chen, Gilad

    2012-09-01

    Cross-level interaction effects lie at the heart of multilevel contingency and interactionism theories. Researchers have often lamented the difficulty of finding hypothesized cross-level interactions, and to date there has been no means by which the statistical power of such tests can be evaluated. We develop such a method and report results of a large-scale simulation study, verify its accuracy, and provide evidence regarding the relative importance of factors that affect the power to detect cross-level interactions. Our results indicate that the statistical power to detect cross-level interactions is determined primarily by the magnitude of the cross-level interaction, the standard deviation of lower level slopes, and the lower and upper level sample sizes. We provide a Monte Carlo tool that enables researchers to a priori design more efficient multilevel studies and provides a means by which they can better interpret potential explanations for nonsignificant results. We conclude with recommendations for how scholars might design future multilevel studies that will lead to more accurate inferences regarding the presence of cross-level interactions.

  8. A NOVEL CAPACITY ANALYZING METHOD FOR MULTIMEDIA CDMA SYSTEMS BASED ON POWER LEVEL ALLOCATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Su; Tung Sang Ng; Feng Guangzeng

    2006-01-01

    A novel method is proposed to analyze the capacity of future Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) systems carrying multimedia services. The power level allocation is firstly investigated to meet each call's Bit Error Rate (BER) requirement, then the system capacity is defined from the conditions for the existence of the physical meaning of these power levels. Simulation results have shown that the capacity analyzing methods can be well used in the performance evaluation of the system accommodating heterogeneous services and the spectral efficiency of this scheme is higher than the existing ones.

  9. An interation of lifetime monitoring of steam generators in power control systems; Integration der Lebensdauerueberwachung von Dampferzeugern in die Kraftwerksleittechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunze, Ulrich; Pels Leusden, Christoph; Spinner, Ralf [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany). Energy Sector; Hackstein, Holger [Siemens AG, Offenbach am Main (Germany). Energy Sector; Walz, Horst [Siemens AG, Karlsruhe (Germany). Energy Sector

    2008-07-01

    The substantial cost-relevant requirements of the operation of power stations are a highly flexible operation, efficient maintenance, a high efficiency and a high availability. Computer-assisted procedures are indispensable for the continuous monitoring of lifetime consumption and for the condition-dependent maintenance of the boiler. The fatigue monitoring system (FMS) offers all possibilities of the control system. The authors of the contribution under consideration report on an integration of life time monitoring of steam generators into the power station control technology. The technical fundamentals for the computation of the boiler lifetime as well as the fundamentals of integration philosophy and their conversion are presented. Subsequently, a configuration exemplarily is presented, and its results are described.

  10. Self-Powered Acceleration Sensor Based on Liquid Metal Triboelectric Nanogenerator for Vibration Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Binbin; Zhang, Lei; Deng, Weili; Jin, Long; Chun, Fengjun; Pan, Hong; Gu, Bingni; Zhang, Haitao; Lv, Zekai; Yang, Weiqing; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-07-25

    An acceleration sensor is an essential component of the vibration measurement, while the passivity and sensitivity are the pivotal features for its application. Here, we report a self-powered and highly sensitive acceleration sensor based on a triboelectric nanogenerator composed of a liquid metal mercury droplet (LMMD) and nanofiber-networked polyvinylidene fluoride (nn-PVDF) film. Due to the ultrahigh surface-to-volume ratio of nn-PVDF film and high surface tension, high mass density, high elastic as well as mechanical robustness of LMMD, the open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current reach up to 15.5 V and 300 nA at the acceleration of 60 m/s(2), respectively. The acceleration sensor has a wide detection range from 0 to 60 m/s(2) with a high sensitivity of 0.26 V·s/m(2). Also, the output voltage and current show a negligible decrease over 200,000 cycles, evidently presenting excellent stability. Moreover, a high-speed camera was employed to dynamically capture the motion state of the acceleration sensor for insight into the corresponding work mechanism. Finally, the acceleration sensor was demonstrated to measure the vibration of mechanical equipment and human motion in real time, which has potential applications in equipment vibration monitoring and troubleshooting.

  11. 2011 Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident: summary of regional radioactive deposition monitoring results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Katsumi

    2012-09-01

    After the Great East Japan Earthquake and resulting Tsunami on March 11, 2011, serious accident of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant has been occurred. Huge amounts of radionuclides were released in atmosphere and ocean. Japanese prefectural governments have carried out environmental radioactivity monitoring; external dose rate, radioactivity measurements in environmental samples and others. Since March 18, 2011, daily and monthly deposition samples were collected in 45 stations covering Japanese Islands and radionuclides in the deposition samples were determined. We summarize radioactive deposition data reported by Japanese Government and study the depositional behaviors of the Fukushima-derived radionuclides. The results revealed that Fukushima-derived radioactive cloud dominantly affected in the central and eastern part of Honshu-Island, although it affected all of Japanese land area and also western North Pacific. The temporal change of the Fukushima-derived (137)Cs revealed that the apparent atmospheric residence time of the Fukushima-derived (137)Cs in sites within 300 km from the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPPis about 10 d.

  12. Bushfire Disaster Monitoring System Using Low Power Wide Area Networks (LPWAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Jin Kang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Some applications, including disaster monitoring and recovery networks, use low-power wide-area networks (LPWAN. LPWAN sensors capture data bits and transmit them to public carrier networks (e.g., cellular networks via dedicated gateways. One of the challenges encountered in disaster management scenarios revolves around the carry/forward sensed data and geographical location information dissemination to the disaster relief operatives (disaster relief agency; DRA to identify, characterise, and prioritise the affected areas. There are network topology options to reach its destination, including cellular, circuit switched, and peer-to-peer networks. In the context of natural disaster prediction, it is vital to access geographical location data as well as the timestamp. This paper proposes the usage of Pseudo A Number (PAN, that is, the calling party address, which is used by every network to include the location information instead of the actual calling party address of the gateway in LPWAN. This PAN information can be further analysed by the DRA to identify the affected areas and predict the complications of the disaster impacts in addition to the past history of damages. This paper aims to propose a solution that can predict disaster proceedings based on propagation and the velocity of impact using vector calculation of the location data and the timestamp, which are transmitted by sensors through the PAN of the gateway in LPWAN.

  13. ON-BOARD MONITORING OF TECHNICAL STATE FOR POWER UNITS OF WHEELED AND TRACKED VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. D. Karpievich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers new methodologies pertaining to on-board diagnosis of wear-out rate for friction linings of a clutch driven disk and friction discs of a hydraulic press clutch of transmission gear boxes which are based on physical process that uses friction work as an integrated indicator. A new methodology in determination of life-span rate for engine oil has been developed in the paper. The paper presents block schematic diagrams for on-board monitoring of technical state for power units of wheeled and tracked vehicles. Usage of friction work as an integrated indicator for determination of wear-out rate for friction linings of clutch driven disk and friction discs of a haydraulic press clutch makes it possible timely at any operational period of wheeled and tracked vehicles to determine their residual operation life and forecast their replacement.While taking volume of the used fuel for determination of engine oil life-span rate it permits quickly and effectively at any operational period of wheeled and tracked vehicles to determine residual useful life of the engine oil and also forecast its replacement.

  14. Can we successfully monitor a population density decline of elusive invertebrates? A statistical power analysis on Lucanus cervus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno Thomaes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring global biodiversity is essential for understanding and countering its current loss. However, monitoring of many species is hindered by their difficult detection due to crepuscular activity, hidden phases of the life cycle, short activity period and low population density. Few statistical power analyses of declining trends have been published for terrestrial invertebrates. Consequently, no knowledge exists of the success rate of monitoring elusive invertebrates. Here data from monitoring transects of the European stag beetle, Lucanus cervus, is used to investigate whether the population trend of this elusive species can be adequately monitored. Data from studies in UK, Switzerland and Germany were compiled to parameterize a simulation model explaining the stag beetle abundance as a function of temperature and seasonality. A Monte-Carlo simulation was used to evaluate the effort needed to detect a population abundance decline of 1%/year over a period of 12 years. To reveal such a decline, at least 240 1-hour transect walks on 40 to 100 transects need to be implemented in weekly intervals during warm evenings. It is concluded that monitoring of stag beetles is feasible and the effort is not greater than that which has been found for other invertebrates. Based on this example, it is assumed that many other elusive species with similar life history traits can be monitored with moderate efforts. As saproxylic invertebrates account for a large share of the forest biodiversity, although many are elusive, it is proposed that at least some flagship species are included in monitoring programmes.

  15. Evaluation of internal contamination levels after a radiological dispersal device incident using portal monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, R C; Hertel, N E; Ansari, A; Manger, R P; Freibert, E J

    2012-08-01

    Following a radioactive dispersal device (RDD) incident, it may be necessary to evaluate the internal contamination levels of a large number of potentially affected individuals to determine if immediate medical follow-up is necessary. Since the current laboratory capacity to screen for internal contamination is limited, rapid field screening methods can be useful in prioritising individuals. This study evaluated the suitability of a radiation portal monitor for such screening. A model of the portal monitor was created for use with models of six anthropomorphic phantoms in Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code Version 5 (MCNP) X-5 Monte Carlo Team (MCNP-A General Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code Version 5. LA-CP-03-0245. Vol. 2. Los Alamos National Laboratory, 2004.). The count rates of the portal monitor were simulated for inhalation and ingestion of likely radionuclides from an RDD for each of the phantoms. The time-dependant organ concentrations of the radionuclides were determined using Dose and Risk Calculation Software Eckerman, Leggett, Cristy, Nelson, Ryman, Sjoreen and Ward (Dose and Risk Calculation Software Ver. 8.4. ORNL/TM-2001/190. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 2006.). Portal monitor count rates corresponding to a committed effective dose E(50) of 10 mSv are reported.

  16. New method for the detection and monitoring of subsea power cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Philipp; Schneider, Jens; Feldens, Peter; Wilken, Dennis

    2016-04-01

    Marine renewable energy farms, no matter what kind of, have in common that they need a connection with the onshore power grid. Thus, not only their offshore generation facilities could have impacts on the surrounding environment, but also associated submarine power cables. These cables have to be buried in the seabed - at least in coastal heavy shipping environments - for safety reasons. Cable laying disturbs the local seafloor and the sub-bottom. Refillment of dredged sediments are expected softer than the original material and could be washed away by currents. Therefore, buried cables have to be repeatedly monitored to ensure their burial depth. This study presents a new method for efficient cable detection. A parametric echosounder system using 15 kHz as secondary frequency was adapted to investigate the angular response of sub-bottom backscatter strength of layered mud and to introduce a new method for enhanced acoustic detection of buried targets. Adaptations to achieve both vertical (0°) and non-vertical inclination of incident sound on the seabed (1-15°, 30°, 45°, and 60°) comprise mechanical tilting of the acoustic transducer and electronic beam steering. A sample data set was acquired at a study site at 18 m water depth and a flat and muddy seafloor. At this site, a 0.1 m diameter power cable is buried 1-2 m below the sea floor. Surveying the cable with vertical incidence revealed that the buried cable can hardly be discriminated against the backscatter strength of the layered mud. However, the backscatter strength of layered mud was found to strongly decrease at >3±0.5° incidence and the layered mud echo pattern vanished beyond 5°. As a consequence the visual recognition of the cable echo in acoustic images improves for higher incidence angles of 15°, 30°, 45°, and 60°. Data analysis support this visual impression. The size of the cable echo pattern was found to linearly increase with incidence, whereas the signal-to-noise ratio peaks at about

  17. Thermal analysis of multi-MW two-level wind power converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dao; Blaabjerg, Frede; Mogens, Lau;

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the multi-MW wind turbine of partial-scale and full-scale two-level power converter with DFIG and direct-drive PMSG are designed and compared in terms of their thermal performance. Simulations of different configurations regarding loss distribution and junction temperature in the p......In this paper, the multi-MW wind turbine of partial-scale and full-scale two-level power converter with DFIG and direct-drive PMSG are designed and compared in terms of their thermal performance. Simulations of different configurations regarding loss distribution and junction temperature...... in the power device in the whole range of wind speed are presented and analyzed. It is concluded that in both partial-scale and full-scale power converter the most thermal stressed power device in the generator-side converter will have higher mean junction temperature and larger junction temperature...... fluctuation compared to grid-side converter at the rated wind speed. Moreover, the thermal performance of the generator-side converter in the partial-scale power converter becomes crucial around the synchronous operating point and should be considered carefully....

  18. A novel synthetic test system for thyristor level in the converter valve of HVDC power transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Longchen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The converter valve is the core equipment in the HVDC power transmission system, a+-nd its performance has a direct effect on the reliability, stability and efficiency of the whole power system. As the basic unit of HVDC converter valve, the thyristor level needs to be test routinely in order to grasp the state of the converter valve equipment. Therefore, it is urgent to develop a novel synthetic test system for the thyristor level with thyristor control unit (TCU. However, currently there is no specific test scheme for the thyristor level of HVDC converter valve. In this paper, the synthetic test principle, content and methods for the thyristor level with TCU are presented based on the analysis of the thyristor reverse recovery characteristic and the IEC technology standard. And a transient high-voltage pulse is applied to the thyristor level during its reverse recovery period in order to test the characteristics of thyristor level. Then, the synthetic test system for the thyristor level is applied to the converter valve test of ±800 kV HVDC power transmission project, and the practical test result verifies the reasonability and validity of the proposed synthetic test system.

  19. Determining plasma morphine levels using GC-MS after solid phase extraction to monitor drug levels in the postoperative period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Santos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To implement a selective and sensitive analytical method to quantify morphine in small volumes of plasma by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, aimed at post-operatively monitoring the drug. METHOD: A gas-liquid chromatographic method with mass detection has been developed to determine morphine concentration in plasma after solid phase extraction. Morphine-d3 was used as an internal standard. Only 0.5 mL of plasma is required for the drug solid-phase extraction in the Bond Elut-Certify®, followed by the quantification of morphine derivative by GC-MS using a linear temperature program, a capillary fused silica column, and helium as the carrier and make-up gas. The method was applied to determine morphine content in plasma samples of four patients during the postoperative period of cardiac surgery. Patient-controlled analgesia with morphine was performed by a venous catheter, and a series of venous blood samples were collected. After the oro-After the orotracheal extubation, morphine plasma levels were monitored for up to 36 hours. RESULTS: The run time was 16 minutes because morphine and the internal standard were eluted after 8.8 minutes. The GC-MS method had 0.5 -1000 ng/mL linearity range (r²=0.9995, 0.1 ng/mL limit of detection, intraday and interday precision equivalent to 1.9% and 6.8%, and 0.1% and 0.8% systematic error (intraday and interday, respectively. The analytical method showed optimal absolute (98% and relative (100.7% recoveries. Morphine dose requirements and plasma levels are discussed. CONCLUSION: The analytical gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method is selective and adequate for morphine measurements in plasma for applications in clinical studies.

  20. Determining plasma morphine levels using GC-MS after solid phase extraction to monitor drug levels in the postoperative period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Veronica; López, Karin Jannet Vera; Santos, Luciana Moraes; Yonamine, Mauricio; Carmona, Maria José Carvalho; Santos, Silvia Regina Cavani Jorge

    2008-06-01

    To implement a selective and sensitive analytical method to quantify morphine in small volumes of plasma by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), aimed at post-operatively monitoring the drug. A gas-liquid chromatographic method with mass detection has been developed to determine morphine concentration in plasma after solid phase extraction. Morphine-d3 was used as an internal standard. Only 0.5 mL of plasma is required for the drug solid-phase extraction in the Bond Elut-Certify, followed by the quantification of morphine derivative by GC-MS using a linear temperature program, a capillary fused silica column, and helium as the carrier and make-up gas. The method was applied to determine morphine content in plasma samples of four patients during the postoperative period of cardiac surgery. Patient-controlled analgesia with morphine was performed by a venous catheter, and a series of venous blood samples were collected. After the oro-After the orotracheal extubation, morphine plasma levels were monitored for up to 36 hours. The run time was 16 minutes because morphine and the internal standard were eluted after 8.8 minutes. The GC-MS method had 0.5 -1000 ng/mL linearity range (r(2)=0.9995), 0.1 ng/mL limit of detection, intraday and interday precision equivalent to 1.9% and 6.8%, and 0.1% and 0.8% systematic error (intraday and interday, respectively). The analytical method showed optimal absolute (98%) and relative (100.7%) recoveries. Morphine dose requirements and plasma levels are discussed. The analytical gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method is selective and adequate for morphine measurements in plasma for applications in clinical studies.