WorldWideScience

Sample records for monitoring personal exposure

  1. Guidelines for personal exposure monitoring of chemicals: Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Haruo; Yamada, Kenichi; Hori, Hajime; Kumagai, Shinji; Murata, Masaru; Nagoya, Toshio; Nakahara, Hirohiko; Mochida, Nobuyuki

    2017-08-31

    This Document, "Guidelines for personal exposure monitoring of chemicals" ("this Guideline"), has been prepared by "The Committee for Personal Exposure Monitoring" ("the Committee") of the Expert Division of Occupational Hygiene & Ergonomics, Japan Society for Occupational Health.Considering the background of the growing importance of personal exposure monitoring in risk assessment and the need to prepare for the introduction of monitoring using personal samplers from an administrative perspective in recent years, the Committee was organized in November 2012. The Committee has prepared this Guideline as a "practical guideline" for personal exposure monitoring, so as to offer proposals and recommendations to the members of the Japan Society for Occupational Health and to society in general.The scope of this Guideline covers all chemical substances and all related workplaces regarded as targets for general assessment and the management of risk. It thus is not to be considered to comment on legal regulations and methodology. The main text provides the basic methods and concepts of personal exposure monitoring, while 31 "Appendices" are provided later in this Guideline throughout the series; technical descriptions, statistical bases, and actual workplace examples are provided in these appendices, to assist better understanding.The personal exposure monitoring described as per this Guideline is equivalent to an "expert-centered basic method to reasonably proceed with the assessment and management of risk at workplaces." It is considered that practicing and expanding on this method will significantly contribute in reforming the overall framework of occupational hygiene management in Japan.

  2. Contribution of various microenvironments to the daily personal exposure to ultrafine particles: Personal monitoring coupled with GPS tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Kjeldsen, Birthe Uldahl; Olsen, Yulia; Schipperijn, Jasper; Wierzbicka, Aneta; Karottki, Dorina Gabriela; Toftum, Jørn; Loft, Steffen; Clausen, Geo

    2015-06-01

    Exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP) may have adverse health effects. Central monitoring stations do not represent the personal exposure to UFP accurately. Few studies have previously focused on personal exposure to UFP. Sixty non-smoking residents living in Copenhagen, Denmark were asked to carry a backpack equipped with a portable monitor, continuously recording particle number concentrations (PN), in order to measure the real-time individual exposure over a period of ˜48 h. A GPS logger was carried along with the particle monitor and allowed us to estimate the contribution of UFP exposure occurring in various microenvironments (residence, during active and passive transport, other indoor and outdoor environments) to the total daily exposure. On average, the fractional contribution of each microenvironment to the daily integrated personal exposure roughly corresponded to the fractions of the day the subjects spent in each microenvironment. The home environment accounted for 50% of the daily personal exposure. Indoor environments other than home or vehicles contributed with ˜40%. The highest median UFP concentration was obtained during passive transport (vehicles). However, being in transit or outdoors contributed 5% or less to the daily exposure. Additionally, the subjects recorded in a diary the periods when they were at home. With this approach, 66% of the total daily exposure was attributable to the home environment. The subjects spent 28% more time at home according to the diary, compared to the GPS. These results may indicate limitations of using diaries, but also possible inaccuracy and miss-classification in the GPS data.

  3. Quantifying human exposure to air pollution - moving from static monitoring to spatio-temporally resolved personal exposure assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinle, Susanne; Reis, Stefan; Sabel, Clive E

    2013-01-01

    results from multifaceted relationships and interactions between environmental and human systems, adding complexity to the assessment process. Traditionally, approaches to quantify human exposure have relied on pollutant concentrations from fixed air quality network sites and static population...... distributions. New developments in sensor technology now enable us to monitor personal exposure to air pollutants directly while people are moving through their activity spaces and varying concentration fields. The literature review on which this paper is based on reflects recent developments in the assessment...... for the integrated assessment of human exposure to air pollutants taking into account latest technological capabilities and contextual information. Highlights ? We review and discuss recent developments and advances of research into personal exposure to air pollution. ? We emphasise the importance of personal...

  4. Personal exposure monitoring of PM2.5 in indoor and outdoor microenvironments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinle, Susanne; Reis, Stefan; Sabel, Clive E; Semple, Sean; Twigg, Marsailidh M; Braban, Christine F; Leeson, Sarah R; Heal, Mathew R; Harrison, David; Lin, Chun; Wu, Hao

    2015-03-01

    Adverse health effects from exposure to air pollution are a global challenge and of widespread concern. Recent high ambient concentration episodes of air pollutants in European cities highlighted the dynamic nature of human exposure and the gaps in data and knowledge about exposure patterns. In order to support health impact assessment it is essential to develop a better understanding of individual exposure pathways in people's everyday lives by taking account of all environments in which people spend time. Here we describe the development, validation and results of an exposure method applied in a study conducted in Scotland. A low-cost particle counter based on light-scattering technology - the Dylos 1700 was used. Its performance was validated in comparison with equivalent instruments (TEOM-FDMS) at two national monitoring network sites (R(2)=0.9 at a rural background site, R(2)=0.7 at an urban background site). This validation also provided two functions to convert measured PNCs into calculated particle mass concentrations for direct comparison of concentrations with equivalent monitoring instruments and air quality limit values. This study also used contextual and time-based activity data to define six microenvironments (MEs) to assess everyday exposure of individuals to short-term PM2.5 concentrations. The Dylos was combined with a GPS receiver to track movement and exposure of individuals across the MEs. Seventeen volunteers collected 35 profiles. Profiles may have a different overall duration and structure with respect to times spent in different MEs and activities undertaken. Results indicate that due to the substantial variability across and between MEs, it is essential to measure near-complete exposure pathways to allow for a comprehensive assessment of the exposure risk a person encounters on a daily basis. Taking into account the information gained through personal exposure measurements, this work demonstrates the added value of data generated by the

  5. Inter-comparison of personal monitors for nanoparticles exposure at workplaces and in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todea, Ana Maria; Beckmann, Stefanie; Kaminski, Heinz; Bard, Delphine; Bau, Sébastien; Clavaguera, Simon; Dahmann, Dirk; Dozol, Hélène; Dziurowitz, Nico; Elihn, Karine; Fierz, Martin; Lidén, Göran; Meyer-Plath, Asmus; Monz, Christian; Neumann, Volker; Pelzer, Johannes; Simonow, Barbara Katrin; Thali, Patrick; Tuinman, Ilse; van der Vleuten, Arjan; Vroomen, Huub; Asbach, Christof

    2017-12-15

    Personal monitors based on unipolar diffusion charging (miniDiSC/DiSCmini, NanoTracer, Partector) can be used to assess the individual exposure to nanoparticles in different environments. The charge acquired by the aerosol particles is nearly proportional to the particle diameter and, by coincidence, also nearly proportional to the alveolar lung-deposited surface area (LDSA), the metric reported by all three instruments. In addition, the miniDiSC/DiSCmini and the NanoTracer report particle number concentration and mean particle size. In view of their use for personal exposure studies, the comparability of these personal monitors was assessed in two measurement campaigns. Altogether 29 different polydisperse test aerosols were generated during the two campaigns, covering a large range of particle sizes, morphologies and concentrations. The data provided by the personal monitors were compared with those obtained from reference instruments: a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) for LDSA and mean particle size and a ultrafine particle counter (UCPC) for number concentration. The results indicated that the LDSA concentrations and the mean particle sizes provided by all investigated instruments in this study were in the order of ±30% of the reference value obtained from the SMPS when the particle sizes of the test aerosols generated were within 20-400nm and the instruments were properly calibrated. Particle size, morphology and concentration did not have a major effect within the aforementioned limits. The comparability of the number concentrations was found to be slightly worse and in the range of ±50% of the reference value obtained from the UCPC. In addition, a minor effect of the particle morphology on the number concentration measurements was observed. The presence of particles >400nm can drastically bias the measurement results of all instruments and all metrics determined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Occupational exposure to ultrafine particles among airport employees--combining personal monitoring and global positioning system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Karina Lauenborg; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP) has been linked to cardiovascular and lung diseases. Combustion of jet fuel and diesel powered handling equipment emit UFP resulting in potentially high exposure levels among employees working at airports. High levels of UFP have been reported......). METHOD: 30 employees from five different occupational groups (baggage handlers, catering drivers, cleaning staff and airside and landside security) at CPH were instructed to wear a personal monitor of particle number concentration in real time and a GPS device. The measurements were carried out on 8 days...... handlers were exposed to 7 times higher average concentrations (geometric mean, GM: 37×103 UFP/cm(3), 95% CI: 25-55 × 10(3) UFP/cm(3)) than employees mainly working indoors (GM: 5 × 10(3) UFP/cm(3), 95% CI: 2-11 × 103 UFP/cm(3)). Furthermore, catering drivers, cleaning staff and airside security were...

  7. Personal Exposure Monitoring of Particulate Matter, Nitrogen Dioxide, and Carbon Monoxide, including Susceptible Groups

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    R. M. Harrison; C. A. Thornton; R. G. Lawrence; D. Mark; R. P. Kinnersley; J. G. Ayres

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the relation between personal exposures to nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and PM10, and exposures estimated from static concentrations of these pollutants measured within the same...

  8. Personal Air Pollution Exposure Monitoring using Low Cost Sensors in Chennai City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy Yasa, Pavan; Shiva, Nagendra S. N.

    2016-04-01

    Air quality in many cities is deteriorating due to rapid urbanization and motorization. In the past, most of the health impacts studies in the urban areas have considered stationary air quality monitoring station data for health impact assessment. Since, there exist a spatial and temporal variation of air quality because of rapid change in land use pattern and complex interaction between emission sources and meteorological conditions, the human exposure assessment using stationary data may not provide realistic information. In such cases low cost sensors monitoring is viable in providing both spatial and temporal variations of air pollutant concentrations. In the present study an attempt has been made to use low cost sensor for monitoring the personal exposure to the two criteria pollutants CO and PM2.5 at 3 different locations of Chennai city. Maximum and minimum concentrations of CO and PM2.5 were found to be 5.4ppm, 0.8ppm and 534.8μg/m3, 1.9μg/m3 respectively. Results showed high concentrations near the intersection and low concentrations in the straight road.

  9. Breath testing and personal exposure--SIFT-MS detection of breath acetonitrile for exposure monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storer, Malina; Curry, Kirsty; Squire, Marie; Kingham, Simon; Epton, Michael

    2015-05-26

    Breath testing has potential for the rapid assessment of the source and impact of exposure to air pollutants. During the development of a breath test for acetonitrile using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) raised acetonitrile concentrations in the breath of volunteers were observed that could not be explained by known sources of exposure. Workplace/laboratory exposure to acetonitrile was proposed since this was common to the volunteers with increased breath concentrations. SIFT-MS measurements of acetonitrile in breath and air were used to confirm that an academic chemistry laboratory was the source of exposure to acetonitrile, and quantify the changes that occurred to exhaled acetonitrile after exposure. High concentrations of acetonitrile were detected in the air of the chemistry laboratory. However, concentrations in the offices were not significantly different across the campus. There was a significant difference in the exhaled acetonitrile concentrations of people who worked in the chemistry laboratories (exposed) and those who did not (non-exposed). SIFT-MS testing of air and breath made it possible to determine that occupational exposure to acetonitrile in the chemistry laboratory was the cause of increased exhaled acetonitrile. Additionally, the sensitivity was adequate to measure the changes to exhaled amounts and found that breath concentrations increased quickly with short exposure and remained increased even after periods of non-exposure. There is potential to add acetonitrile to a suite of VOCs to investigate source and impact of poor air quality.

  10. The next generation of low-cost personal air quality sensors for quantitative exposure monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Piedrahita

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Advances in embedded systems and low-cost gas sensors are enabling a new wave of low cost air quality monitoring tools. Our team has been engaged in the development of low-cost wearable air quality monitors (M-Pods using the Arduino platform. The M-Pods use commercially available metal oxide semiconductor (MOx sensors to measure CO, O3, NO2, and total VOCs, and NDIR sensors to measure CO2. MOx sensors are low in cost and show high sensitivity near ambient levels; however they display non-linear output signals and have cross sensitivity effects. Thus, a quantification system was developed to convert the MOx sensor signals into concentrations. Two deployments were conducted at a regulatory monitoring station in Denver, Colorado. M-Pod concentrations were determined using laboratory calibration techniques and co-location calibrations, in which we place the M-Pods near regulatory monitors to then derive calibration function coefficients using the regulatory monitors as the standard. The form of the calibration function was derived based on laboratory experiments. We discuss various techniques used to estimate measurement uncertainties. A separate user study was also conducted to assess personal exposure and M-Pod reliability. In this study, 10 M-Pods were calibrated via co-location multiple times over 4 weeks and sensor drift was analyzed with the result being a calibration function that included drift. We found that co-location calibrations perform better than laboratory calibrations. Lab calibrations suffer from bias and difficulty in covering the necessary parameter space. During co-location calibrations, median standard errors ranged between 4.0–6.1 ppb for O3, 6.4–8.4 ppb for NO2, 0.28–0.44 ppm for CO, and 16.8 ppm for CO2. Median signal to noise (S/N ratios for the M-Pod sensors were higher for M-Pods than the regulatory instruments: for NO2, 3.6 compared to 23.4; for O3, 1.4 compared to 1.6; for CO, 1.1 compared to 10.0; and for CO2, 42

  11. 75 FR 64411 - Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... the CMDPSU or CPDM and the sampled work shift is less than 8 hours, the value of t used for... Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register... to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors AGENCY: Mine Safety and...

  12. Wearable real-time direct reading naphthalene and VOC personal exposure monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, W. F.; Bhartia, R.; Reid, R. D.; Reid, M. R.; Oswal, P.; Lane, A. L.; Sijapati, K.; Sullivan, K.; Hulla, J. E.; Snawder, J.; Proctor, S. P.

    2012-06-01

    Naphthalene has been identified by the National Research Council as a serious health hazard for personnel working with jet fuels and oil-based sealants containing naphthalene. We are developing a family of miniature, self-contained, direct reading personal exposure monitors (PEMs) to detect, differentiate, quantify, and log naphthalene and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the breathing zone of the wearer or in the hands of an industrial hygienist with limits of detection in the low parts per billion (ppb) range. The VOC Dosimeter (VOCDos) described here is a PEM that provides real-time detection and data logging of exposure as well as accumulated dose, with alarms addressing long term and immediate exposure limits. We will describe the sensor, which employs optical methods with a unique excitation source and rapidly refreshable vapor concentrator. This paper addresses the rapidly increasing awareness of the health risks of inhaling jet fuel vapors by Department of Defense (DOD) personnel engaged in or around jet fueling operations. Naphthalene is a one to three percent component of the 5 billion gallons of jet fuels used annually by DOD. Naphthalene is also a component of many other petroleum products such as asphalt and other oil-based sealants. The DOD is the single largest user of petroleum fuels in the United States (20% of all petroleum fuel used). The VOCDos wearable sensor provides real-time detection and data logging of exposure as well as accumulated dose. We will describe the sensor, which employs endogenous fluorescence from VOCs accumulated on a unique, rapidly refreshable, patent-pending concentrator, excited by a unique deep ultraviolet excitation source.

  13. Field surveys of carbon monoxide in commercial settings using personal exposure monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flachsbart, P. G.; Ott, W. R.

    1984-02-01

    Miniaturized personal exposure monitors (PEMs) were employed to measure carbon monoxide (CO) in 588 different commercial settings (e.g., retail stores, office buildings, hotels, restaurants) in five California cities. Altogether, 5000 CO observations were made by recording the instantaneous instrument reading at 1-minute intervals as the investigators walked along sidewalks and into buildings. For 11 of 15 survey dates, two investigators walked side-by-side, permitting two adjacent PEMs to be compared. Quality assurance tests for 1706 pairs of values showed a very high degree of agreement. CO levels for indoor commercial settings were similar to those measured outdoors on sidewalks, apparently because the pollutant seeps into the structures from traffic outside. Although indoor levels usually were above 0 ppm, they seldom were above 9 ppm (the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for an 8-hour exposure), unless some indoor source could be identified. Carbon monoxide levels on outdoor streets did not vary greatly on different sides of the street, on corners and faces of blocks, and intersections.

  14. Monitoring of Persons with Risk for Exposure to Ebola Virus Disease - United States, November 3, 2014-March 8, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehling-Ariza, Tasha; Fisher, Emily; Vagi, Sara; Fechter-Leggett, Ethan; Prudent, Natasha; Dott, Mary; Daley, Randolph; Avchen, Rachel Nonkin

    2015-07-03

    On October 27, 2014, CDC released guidance for monitoring and movement of persons with potential Ebola virus disease (Ebola) exposure in the United States. For persons with possible exposure to Ebola, this guidance recommended risk categorization, daily monitoring during the 21-day incubation period, and, for persons in selected risk categories, movement restrictions. The purpose of the guidance was to delineate methods for early identification of symptoms among persons at potential risk for Ebola so that they could be isolated, tested, and if necessary, treated to improve their chance of survival and reduce transmission. Within 7 days, all 50 states and two local jurisdictions (New York City [NYC] and the District of Columbia [DC]) had implemented the guidelines. During November 3, 2014-March 8, 2015, a total of 10,344 persons were monitored for up to 21 days with >99% complete monitoring. This public health response demonstrated the ability of state, territorial, and local health agencies to rapidly implement systems to effectively monitor thousands of persons over a sustained period.

  15. The next generation of low-cost personal air quality sensors for quantitative exposure monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedrahita, R.; Xiang, Y.; Masson, N.; Ortega, J.; Collier, A.; Jiang, Y.; Li, K.; Dick, R. P.; Lv, Q.; Hannigan, M.; Shang, L.

    2014-10-01

    was also conducted to assess uncertainty estimates and sensor variability. In this study, 9 M-Pods were calibrated via collocation multiple times over 4 weeks, and sensor drift was analyzed, with the result being a calibration function that included baseline drift. Three pairs of M-Pods were deployed, while users individually carried the other three. The user study suggested that inter-M-Pod variability between paired units was on the same order as calibration uncertainty; however, it is difficult to make conclusions about the actual personal exposure levels due to the level of user engagement. The user study provided real-world sensor drift data, showing limited CO drift (under -0.05 ppm day-1), and higher for O3 (-2.6 to 2.0 ppb day-1), NO2 (-1.56 to 0.51 ppb day-1), and CO2 (-4.2 to 3.1 ppm day-1). Overall, the user study confirmed the utility of the M-Pod as a low-cost tool to assess personal exposure.

  16. Integrating smart-phone based momentary location tracking with fixed site air quality monitoring for personal exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jason G; Jerrett, Michael; Meng, Ying-Ying; Pickett, Melissa; Ritz, Beate

    2015-02-15

    Epidemiological studies investigating relationships between environmental exposures from air pollution and health typically use residential addresses as a single point for exposure, while environmental exposures in transit, at work, school or other locations are largely ignored. Personal exposure monitors measure individuals' exposures over time; however, current personal monitors are intrusive and cannot be operated at a large scale over an extended period of time (e.g., for a continuous three months) and can be very costly. In addition, spatial locations typically cannot be identified when only personal monitors are used. In this paper, we piloted a study that applied momentary location tracking services supplied by smart phones to identify an individual's location in space-time for three consecutive months (April 28 to July 28, 2013) using available Wi-Fi networks. Individual exposures in space-time to the traffic-related pollutants Nitrogen Oxides (NOX) were estimated by superimposing an annual mean NOX concentration surface modeled using the Land Use Regression (LUR) modeling technique. Individual's exposures were assigned to stationary (including home, work and other stationary locations) and in-transit (including commute and other travel) locations. For the individual, whose home/work addresses were known and the commute route was fixed, it was found that 95.3% of the time, the individual could be accurately identified in space-time. The ambient concentration estimated at the home location was 21.01 ppb. When indoor/outdoor infiltration, indoor sources of air pollution and time spent outdoors were taken into consideration, the individual's cumulative exposures were 28.59 ppb and 96.49 ppb, assuming a respective indoor/outdoor ratio of 1.33 and 5.00. Integrating momentary location tracking services with fixed-site field monitoring, plus indoor-outdoor air exchange calibration, makes exposure assessment of a very large population over an extended time period

  17. Occupational exposure to ultrafine particles among airport employees--combining personal monitoring and global positioning system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Karina Lauenborg; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP) has been linked to cardiovascular and lung diseases. Combustion of jet fuel and diesel powered handling equipment emit UFP resulting in potentially high exposure levels among employees working at airports. High levels of UFP have been reported...... at several airports, especially on the apron, but knowledge on individual exposure profiles among different occupational groups working at an airport is lacking. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare personal exposure to UFP among five different occupational groups working at Copenhagen Airport (CPH...... exposed to intermediate concentrations (GM: 12 to 20 × 10(3) UFP/cm(3)). CONCLUSION: The study demonstrates a strong gradient of exposure to UFP in ambient air across occupational groups of airport employees....

  18. Windsor, Ontario Exposure Assessment Study: Design and Methods Validation of Personal, Indoor and Outdoor Air Pollution Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Windsor, Ontario Exposure Assessment Study evaluated the contribution of ambient air pollutants to personal and indoor exposures of adults and asthmatic children living in Windsor, Ontario, Canada. In addition, the role of personal, indoor, and outdoor air pollution exposures...

  19. New tools to monitor personal exposure to respirable coal mine dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkwein, J.C.; Thimons, E.D. [NIOSH/Pittsburgh Research Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA (USA)

    2001-07-01

    The compliance sampling method for coal mine dust in the United States has not changed appreciably in the last 30 years. A call for more frequent sampling with immediately available results is leading to new instruments that may supplement or replace the existing sampler. This report discusses two such instruments that provide immediate results of dust levels. The first, called the Respirable Dust Dosimeter (RDD), is designed to supplement the existing U. S. cyclone compliance sampling method. It uses the pressure drop across a filter to provide an inexpensive screening type of measurement. The RDD has been tested in the laboratory and a limited number of coal mines. Side by side testing has compared the RDD performance with personal coal mine samplers in triplicate area sample measurements. Results show that the differential pressure of specific filtration media can be an effective surrogate for respirable mass. Data show that there is a dependence on coal type and an effect of relative humidity. There also appear to be two distinct responses related to coal type. For specific coals the coefficients of determination, R{sub 2}, are better than 0.9. For general use the detector tube, using laboratory generated calibration curves, can be used to estimate respirable dust levels. However, a calibration to a specific coal type may substantially improve the accuracy. Another sampler in development is called the Personal Dust Monitor (PDM). Designed to give compliance quality accuracy, the PDM uses the frequency change of a vibrating element to measure dust and give immediate feedback of results. Results of laboratory comparison of the prototype PDM sampler to personal gravimetric samplers indicate R{sub 2} values of better than 0.99 for three different coal types. Work is in progress to package the components into a person-wearable unit combined with a cap lamp system with a total projected weight of less than 1.4 kg (3 lbs). 4 refs., 10 figs.

  20. Personal exposure monitoring of PM2.5 in indoor and outdoor microenvironments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinle, Susanne; Reis, Stefan; Sabel, Clive E

    2015-01-01

    to define six microenvironments (MEs) to assess everyday exposure of individuals to short-term PM2.5 concentrations. The Dylos was combined with a GPS receiver to track movement and exposure of individuals across the MEs. Seventeen volunteers collected 35 profiles. Profiles may have a different overall...

  1. Monitoring of radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-01

    The guide specifies the requirements for the monitoring of radiation exposure in instances where radiation is used. In addition to workers, the guide covers students, apprentices and visitors. The guide shall also apply to exposure from natural radiation. However, the monitoring of radiation exposure in nuclear power plants is dealt with in YVL Guide 7.10 and 7.11. The guide defines the concepts relevant to the monitoring of radiation exposure and provides guidelines for determining the necessity of monitoring and subsequently arranging such in different operations. In addition, the guide specifies the criteria for the approval and regulatory control of the dosimetric service.

  2. Monitoring of radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-01

    The guide specifies the requirements for the monitoring of radiation exposure in instances where radiation is used. In addition to workers, the guide covers students, apprentices and visitors. The guide shall also apply to exposure from natural radiation. However, the monitoring of radiation exposure in nuclear power plants is dealt with in YVL Guide 7.10 and 7.11. The guide defines the concepts relevant to the monitoring of radiation exposure and provides guidelines for determining the necessity of monitoring and subsequently arranging such in different operations. In addition, the guide specifies the criteria for the approval and regulatory control of the dosimetric service.

  3. Occupational Exposure to Trichloramine and Trihalomethanes in Swedish Indoor Swimming Pools: Evaluation of Personal and Stationary Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerlund, Jessica; Graff, Pål; Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss; Westberg, Håkan; Eriksson, Kåre; Löfstedt, Håkan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Chlorination is a method commonly used to keep indoor swimming pool water free from pathogens. However, chlorination of swimming pools produces several potentially hazardous by-products as the chlorine reacts with nitrogen containing organic matter. Up till now, exposure assessments in indoor swimming pools have relied on stationary measurements at the poolside, used as a proxy for personal exposure. However, measurements at fixed locations are known to differ from personal exposure. Methods: Eight public swimming pool facilities in four Swedish cities were included in this survey. Personal and stationary sampling was performed during day or evening shift. Samplers were placed at different fixed positions around the pool facilities, at ~1.5 m above the floor level and 0–1 m from the poolside. In total, 52 personal and 110 stationary samples of trichloramine and 51 personal and 109 stationary samples of trihalomethanes, were collected. Results: The average concentration of trichloramine for personal sampling was 71 µg m−3, ranging from 1 to 240 µg m−3 and for stationary samples 179 µg m−3, ranging from 1 to 640 µg m−3. The air concentrations of chloroform were well below the occupational exposure limit (OEL). For the linear regression analysis and prediction of personal exposure to trichloramine from stationary sampling, only data from personal that spent >50% of their workday in the pool area were included. The linear regression analysis showed a correlation coefficient (r 2) of 0.693 and a significant regression coefficient β of 0.621; (95% CI = 0.329–0.912, P = 0.001). Conclusion: The trichloramine exposure levels determined in this study were well below the recommended air concentration level of 500 µg m−3; a WHO reference value based on stationary sampling. Our regression data suggest a relation between personal exposure and area sampling of 1:2, implying an OEL of 250 µg m−3 based on personal sampling. PMID:26155991

  4. 76 FR 12648 - Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    .... (2) Electronic mail: zzMSHA-comments@dol.gov . Include ``RIN 1219- AB64'' in the subject line of the message. (3) Facsimile: 202-693-9441. Include ``RIN 1219-AB64'' in the subject line of the message. (4... on appropriate timeframes to switch out sampling devices, Coal Mine Dust Personal Sampler...

  5. Vascular and lung function related to ultrafine and fine particles exposure assessed by personal and indoor monitoring: a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Yulia; Karottki, Dorina Gabriela; Jensen, Ditte Marie

    2014-01-01

    -related effects. Methods: Associations between vascular and lung function, inflammation markers and exposure in terms of particle number concentration (PNC; d = 10-300 nm) were studied in a cross-sectional design with personal and home indoor monitoring in the Western Copenhagen Area, Denmark. During 48-h, PNC...... and PM2.5 were monitored in living rooms of 60 homes with 81 non-smoking subjects (30-75 years old), 59 of whom carried personal monitors both when at home and away from home. We measured lung function in terms of the FEV1/FVC ratio, microvascular function (MVF) and pulse amplitude by digital artery...... tonometry, blood pressure and biomarkers of inflammation including C-reactive protein, and leukocyte counts with subdivision in neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes in blood. Results: PNC from personal and stationary home monitoring showed weak correlation (r = 0.15, p = 0.24). Personal UFP...

  6. Estimating individual-level exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons throughout the gestational period based on personal, indoor, and outdoor monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, H.; Perera, F.; Pac, A.; Wang, L.; Flak, E.; Mroz, E.; Jacek, R.; Chai-Onn, T.; Jedrychowski, W.; Masters, E.; Camann, D.; Spengler, J. [Columbia University, New York, NY (United States)

    2008-11-15

    Current understanding on health effects of long-term polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure is limited by lack of data on time-varying nature of the pollutants at an individual level. In a cohort of pregnant women in Krakow, Poland, we examined the contribution of temporal, spatial, and behavioral factors to prenatal exposure to airborne PAHs within each trimester and developed a predictive model of PAH exposure over the entire gestational period. The observed personal, indoor, and outdoor B(a)P levels we observed in Krakow far exceed the recommended Swedish guideline value for B(a)P of 0.1 ng/m{sup 3}. Based on simultaneously monitored levels, the outdoor PAH level alone accounts for 93% of total variability in personal exposure during the heating season. Living near the Krakow bus depot, a crossroad, and the city, center and time spent outdoors or commuting were not associated with higher personal exposure. During the nonheating season only, a 1-hr increase in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure was associated with a 10-16% increase in personal exposure to the nine measured PAHs. A 1{degree}C decrease in ambient temperature was associated with a 3-5% increase in exposure to benz(a)anthracene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, and dibenz(a,h)anthracene, after accounting for the outdoor concentration. A random effects model demonstrated that mean personal exposure at a given gestational period depends on the season, residence location, and ETS. Considering that most women reported spending < 3 hr/day outdoors, most women in the study were exposed to outdoor-originating PAHs within the indoor setting. Cross-sectional, longitudinal monitoring supplemented with questionnaire data allowed development of a gestation-length model of individual-level exposure with high precision and validity.

  7. Development and demonstration of a personal monitoring system for exposure to hydrogen fluoride. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, M.S.; Monat, J.P.

    1993-09-01

    A good, functional Hydrogen Fluoride Gasbadge dosimeter has been developed for sampling of airborne HF vapor. The device is small (7.7 cm {times} 5.4 cm {times} 1.9 cm) and can easily and conveniently be worn on one`s lapel. It consists of polyethylene and polypropylene parts and a triethanolamine-impregnated polyproylene collection element. It is completely self contained, requiring no pumps, impingers, or sampling tubes. Subsequent to sampling, the collection element is analyzed quickly and easily with a fluoride selective-ion electrode. Laboratory tests were conducted to determine precision, linearity, interference effects, influences of temperature and humidity, and collection element stability over time. Results of the tests indicate that the Abcor Gasbadge HF dosimeter is an excellent passive HF monitor for work spaces, and that results obtained with it are accurate within {plus_minus}25%. These results have been corroborated in a field study.

  8. Applicability of a modified MCE filter method with Button Inhalable Sampler for monitoring personal bioaerosol inhalation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhenqiang; Xu, Hong; Yao, Maosheng

    2013-05-01

    was found not to substantially alter the species richness. Regardless of the sampling methods, more species richness was observed in the outdoor environment than the indoor environment. This study described a new personal bioaerosol exposure assessment protocol, and it was demonstrated applicable in monitoring the personal bioaerosol exposure in replace of an Andersen-type impactor.

  9. Monitoring of 1-min personal particulate matter exposures in relation to voice-recorded time-activity data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, P J; Valenzia, J R; Delfino, R J; Liu, L J

    2001-12-01

    Recent studies on the association between exposures to airborne particulate matter (PM) and disease have identified short-term peaks in PM exposures as posing especial health threats. Lightweight personal instruments are needed to characterize short-term exposures to PM and to identify the most important sources of high PM excursions. In this study, we measured exposure to fine PM using a small personal nephelometer (pDR; MIE, Inc) to investigate the utility of this instrument in identifying activities and microenvironments most associated with high PM exposures and the magnitude and duration of peaks in PM exposures. Ten adult volunteers wore a pDR recording PM concentrations at 1-min time intervals for 1 week each. PM concentrations were measured by the pDR in units of microg/m(3) based on light scatter. The use of a time-stamped voice recorder enabled activity and location to be continuously documented in real time. In addition, a small, inexpensive light intensity logger was affixed to the pDR to evaluate the potential of this instrument to assist in verifying wearer- recorded data. For each person, patterns of PM exposure were remarkably consistent over daily activities and showed large excursions associated with specific indoor and outdoor microenvironments and activities, such as cooking. When the magnitude and duration of excursions in PM were analyzed, we found that high PM levels occurred in relatively few of the minutes measured but comprised a substantial fraction of the total exposure to PM. Fifteen-minute averaged PM levels were found to be as much as 10 times the daily average. When the data were analyzed with a generalized estimating equation model to account for effects of autocorrelation and clustering, PM exposure was significantly higher during subject-reported events including barbeque, yard work, being near pets or construction activities, cooking, and environmental tobacco smoke exposure, as compared with periods with no pollution events

  10. Personal exposure to ultrafine particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Lance; Ott, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    Personal exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP) can occur while people are cooking, driving, smoking, operating small appliances such as hair dryers, or eating out in restaurants. These exposures can often be higher than outdoor concentrations. For 3 years, portable monitors were employed in homes, cars, and restaurants. More than 300 measurement periods in several homes were documented, along with 25 h of driving two cars, and 22 visits to restaurants. Cooking on gas or electric stoves and electric toaster ovens was a major source of UFP, with peak personal exposures often exceeding 100,000 particles/cm³ and estimated emission rates in the neighborhood of 10¹² particles/min. Other common sources of high UFP exposures were cigarettes, a vented gas clothes dryer, an air popcorn popper, candles, an electric mixer, a toaster, a hair dryer, a curling iron, and a steam iron. Relatively low indoor UFP emissions were noted for a fireplace, several space heaters, and a laser printer. Driving resulted in moderate exposures averaging about 30,000 particles/cm³ in each of two cars driven on 17 trips on major highways on the East and West Coasts. Most of the restaurants visited maintained consistently high levels of 50,000-200,000 particles/cm³ for the entire length of the meal. The indoor/outdoor ratios of size-resolved UFP were much lower than for PM₂.₅ or PM₁₀, suggesting that outdoor UFP have difficulty in penetrating a home. This in turn implies that outdoor concentrations of UFP have only a moderate effect on personal exposures if indoor sources are present. A time-weighted scenario suggests that for typical suburban nonsmoker lifestyles, indoor sources provide about 47% and outdoor sources about 36% of total daily UFP exposure and in-vehicle exposures add the remainder (17%). However, the effect of one smoker in the home results in an overwhelming increase in the importance of indoor sources (77% of the total).

  11. Human biological monitoring of occupational genotoxic exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Sorsa, M

    1993-01-01

    ) occupational exposure limit value of styrene in ambient air. The consideration of ethical issues in human genetic monitoring is an important but often overlooked aspect. This includes the scientific and preventional relevance of performing a test on individuals, pre- and post study information of donors......Human biological monitoring is a valuable tool for exposure assessment in groups of persons occupationally exposed to genotoxic agents. If the monitoring activity covers genetic material the term genetic monitoring is used. The methods used for genetic monitoring are either substance specific, e...... for and the biomonitoring results should preferentially be linked with accurate ambient air monitoring. In persons occupationally exposed to styrene the endpoints of DNA-damage and DNA-repair in genetic monitoring are methods of choice in exposure situations above the current Danish (25 ppm) or Finnish (20 ppm...

  12. Assessing truck driver exposure at the World Trade Center disaster site: personal and area monitoring for particulate matter and volatile organic compounds during October 2001 and April 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyh, Alison S; Chillrud, Steven; Williams, D'Ann L; Herbstman, Julie; Symons, J Morel; Rees, Katherine; Ross, James; Kim, Sung Roul; Lim, Ho-Jin; Turpin, Barbara; Breysse, Patrick

    2005-03-01

    The destruction of the World Trade Center (WTC) in New York City on September 11, 2001, created a 16-acre debris field composed of pulverized and burning material significantly impacting air quality. Site cleanup began almost immediately. Cleanup workers were potentially exposed to airborne contaminants, including particulate matter, volatile organic compounds, and asbestos, at elevated concentrations. This article presents the results of the exposure assessment of one important group of WTC workers, truck drivers, as well as area monitoring that was conducted directly on site during October 2001 and April 2002. In cooperation with a local labor union, 54 drivers (October) and 15 drivers (April) were recruited on site to wear two monitors during their 12-hour work shifts. In addition, drivers were administered a questionnaire asking for information ranging from "first day at the site" to respirator use. Area monitoring was conducted at four perimeter locations during October and three perimeter locations during April. During both months, monitoring was also conducted at one location in the middle of the rubble. Contaminants monitored for included total dust (TD), PM10, PM2.5, and volatile organic compounds. Particle samples were analyzed for mass, as well as elemental and organic carbon content. During October, the median personal exposure to TD was 346 microg/m3. The maximum area concentration, 1742 microg/m3, was found in middle of the debris. The maximum TD concentration found at the perimeter was 392 microg/m3 implying a strong concentration gradient from the middle of debris outward. PM2.5/PM10 ratios ranged from 23% to 100% suggesting significant fire activity during some of the sampled shifts. During April, the median personal exposure to TD was 144 microg/m3, and the highest area concentration, 195 microg/m3, was found at the perimeter. During both months, volatile organic compounds concentrations were low.

  13. Biological monitoring of acrylonitrile exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houthuijs, D.; Remijn, B.; Willems, H.; Boleij, J.; Biersteker, K.

    1982-01-01

    A study was made of the excretion pattern of acrylonitrile (AN) in urine of 15 AN-exposed workers. During a 7-day working period with the following 2 days off, the workers delivered all their urines separately. Exposure data, collected by personal monitoring, showed a mean 8-hour TWA value of 0.13 ppm. The excretion of AN in urine (AN(U) ) showed a typical pattern; concentrations peaked at the end or shortly after the end of the workday and decreased rapidly until the beginning of the next workday. A control group of 41 nonexposed workers of the same company showed a significant increase of AN(U) with increasing number of cigarettes smoked. The AN(U) concentrations of the exposed workers however were, despite the low exposure, much higher than those of the controls, both during the workdays and during the days off. Biological monitoring of AN-exposed workers by assessing AN(U) therefore seems a very sensitive exposure evaluation method, especially because it accounts for inhalation as well as skin penetration as routes for entering the body.

  14. Monitoring occupational exposure to ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Button, J.B.C. [Radiation Safety Consultancy, Engadine, NSW (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    A brief overview is presented of methods of monitoring occupational exposure to ionizing radiation together with reasons for such monitoring and maintaining dose histories of radiation occupationally exposed persons. The various Australian providers of external radiation monitoring services and the types of dosemeters they supply are briefly described together with some monitoring results. Biological monitoring methods, are used to determine internal radiation dose. Whole body monitors, used for this purpose are available at Australian Radiation Lab., ANSTO and a few hospitals. Brief mention is made of the Australian National Radiation Dose Register and its objectives. 8 refs., 9 tabs.

  15. Personal Computer Monitors Instrumentation Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Bruce L.

    1994-01-01

    IBM-compatible personal computer used instead of logic analyzer or other special instrument to monitor IEEE-488 interface data bus that interconnects various pieces of laboratory equipment. Needed is short program for computer, commercial general-purpose interface bus circuit card, and adapter cable to link card to bus. Software available in Ada or Quick Basic language.

  16. Evaluation of mobile micro-sensing devices for GPS-based personal exposure monitoring of heat and particulate matter - a matter of context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueberham, Maximilian; Schlink, Uwe; Weiland, Ulrike

    2017-04-01

    The application of mobile micro-sensing devices (MSDs) for human health and personal exposure monitoring (PEM) is an emerging topic of interest in urban air quality research. In the context of climate change, urban population growth and related anthropogenic activities, an increase is expected for the intensity of citizens' exposure to heat and particulate matter (PM). Therefore more focus on the small-scale perspective of spatio-temporal distribution of air quality parameters is important to complement fixed-monitoring site data. Mobile sensors for PEM are useful for both, the investigation of the local distribution of air quality and the personal exposure profiles of individuals moving within their activity spaces. An evaluation of MSDs' accuracy is crucial, before their sophisticated application in measurement campaigns. To detect variations of exposure at small scales, it is even more important to consider the accuracy of Global Positioning System (GPS) devices within different urban structure types (USTs). We present an assessment of the performance of GPS-based MSDs under indoor laboratory conditions and outdoor testing within different USTs. The aim was to evaluate the accuracy of several GPS devices and MSDs for heat and PM 2.5 in relation to reliable standard sensing devices as part of a PhD-project. The performance parameters are summary measures (mean value, standard deviation), correlation (Pearson r), difference measures (mean bias error, mean absolute error, index of agreement) and Bland-Altman plots. The MSDs have been tested in a climate chamber under constant temperature and relative humidity. For temperature MSDs reaction time was tested because of its relevance to detect temperature variations during mobile measurements. For interpretation of the results we considered the MSDs design and technology (e.g. passive vs. active ventilation). GPS-devices have been tested within low/high dense urban residential areas and low/high dense urban green areas

  17. Personal Exposure in Displacement Ventilated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    1996-01-01

    Personal exposure in a displacement ventilated room is examined. The stratified flow and the considerable concentration gradients necessitate an improvement of the widely used fully mixing compartmental approach. The exposure of a seated and a standing person in proportion to the stratification...... height is examined by means of full-scale measurements. A breathing thermal manikin is used to simulate a person. It is found that the flow in the boundary layer around a person is able to a great extent to entrain and transport air from below the breathing zone. In the case of non-passive, heated...... in the lower part of the room close to the occupant. A personal exposure model for displacement ventilated rooms is proposed. The model takes the influence of gradients and the human thermal boundary layer into account. Two new quantities describing the interaction between a person and the ventilation...

  18. Estimating occupational beryllium exposure from compliance monitoring data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Michele P; Burstyn, Igor

    2011-01-01

    Occupational exposure to beryllium is widespread and is a health risk. The objectives of this study were to develop plausible models to estimate occupational airborne beryllium exposure. Compliance monitoring data were obtained from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration for 12,148 personal measurements of beryllium exposure from 1979 to 2005. Industry codes were maintained as reported or collapsed based on the number of measurements per cell of a job-exposure matrix (JEM). Probability of exposure was predicted based on year, industry, job, and sampling duration. In these models, probability of exposure decreased over time, was highest in full-shift personal samples, and varied with industry and job. The probability of exposure was calculated using 6 JEMs, each providing similar rankings of the likelihood of non-negligible exposure to beryllium. These statistical models, with expert appraisal, are suitable for the assessment of the probability of elevated occupational exposure to beryllium.

  19. Personal exposure to ultrafine particles and oxidative DNA damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinzents, Peter S; Møller, Peter; Sørensen, Mette

    2005-01-01

    10), nitrous oxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and/or number concentration of UFPs at urban background or busy street monitoring stations was not a significant predictor of DNA damage, although personal UFP exposure was correlated with urban background concentrations of CO and NO2......Exposure to ultrafine particles (UFPs) from vehicle exhaust has been related to risk of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease and cancer, even though exposure assessment is difficult. We studied personal exposure in terms of number concentrations of UFPs in the breathing zone, using portable...... instruments in six 18-hr periods in 15 healthy nonsmoking subjects. Exposure contrasts of outdoor pollution were achieved by bicycling in traffic for 5 days and in the laboratory for 1 day. Oxidative DNA damage was assessed as strand breaks and oxidized purines in mononuclear cells isolated from venous blood...

  20. A personal ammonia monitor utilizing permeation sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedict, A.F. (Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Baton Rouge, LA); Reiszner, K.D.; West, P.W.

    1983-01-01

    A method has been developed for the determination of the time-weighted-average personal exposure to ammonia. Sample collection was achieved by permeation through a silicone membrane into a boric acid solution. The trapped ammonia was then determined spectrophotometrically with Nessler's reagent or potentiometrically with an ion selective electrode. The device may be used for sampling periods as short as 5 minutes and was not affected by changes in the environmental parameters normally encountered at industrial locations. The detection limit is 0.4 ppm for an 8 hr sampling period and the monitor responds linearly to at least 150 ppm. The Nessler's method may be utilized in industrial environments containing monoethanol amine in conjunction with ammonia with no significant interference. Although some interference was observed from ethylenediamine with the Nessler's technique, little interference was found with the potentiometric determination.

  1. Personal exposure to total suspended particulates of adolescents living in Vanderbijlpark, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Terblanche, APS

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Personal monitoring of exposure to air pollution is becoming increasingly important in health studies as a method of characterizing total exposure. We monitored the exposure of 31 teenagers to total suspended particulates (TSP) over a 12-hour period...

  2. Estimation of Chronic Personal Exposure to Airborne Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyunok; Zdeb, Michael; Perera, Frederica; Spengler, John

    2015-01-01

    Background Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) exposure from solid fuel burning represents an important public health issue for the majority of the global population. Yet, understanding of individual-level exposures remains limited. Objectives To develop regionally adaptable chronic personal exposure model to pro-carcinogenic PAH (c-PAH) for the population in Kraków, Poland. Methods We checked the assumption of spatial uniformity in eight c-PAH using the coefficients of divergence (COD), a marker of absolute concentration differences. Upon successful validation, we developed personal exposure models for eight pro-carcinogenic PAH by integrating individual-level data with area-level meteorological or pollutant data. We checked the resulting model for accuracy and precision against home outdoor monitoring data. Results During winter, COD of 0.1 for Kraków suggest overall spatial uniformity in the ambient concentration of the eight c-PAH. The three models that we developed were associated with index of agreement approximately equal to 0.9, root mean square error < 2.6 ng/m3, and 90th percentile of absolute difference ≤ 4 ng/m3 for the predicted and the observed concentrations for eight pro-carcinogenic PAH. Conclusions Inexpensive and logistically feasible information could be used to estimate chronic personal exposure to PAH profiles, in lieu of costly and labor-intensive personal air monitoring at wide scale. At the same time, thorough validation through direct personal monitoring and assumption checking are critical for successful model development. PMID:25965038

  3. Personal dose monitoring of occupational exposure in Xuchang city in 2014%2014年许昌市职业外照射个人剂量监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁灿光

    2016-01-01

    目的:掌握许昌市2014年从事放射工作的有关人员接收外照射剂量的水平及相关防护措施情况。方法:对相关人员进行接收放射剂量的测定,根据从事行业,接收放射类型及所从事工种不同等条件进行分类,对结果进行统计、分析。结果:从事医学辐射类的人均年有效剂量平均值(0.083±0.003)mSv/a,从事工业辐射类的人均年有效剂量平均值(0.096±0.004)mSv/a。结论:2014年许昌市所有从事放射类相关行业的人员,其机体所接受的放射的剂量均低于国家规定的标准,但从事工业辐射类的人员接触放射剂量相对较高。%Objective:To grasp the level of external exposure dose and relevant protective measures for the relevant persons who are engaged in radiation work in Xuchang in 2014.Methods:We measured the radiation dose to the relevant personnel,according to the industry,the types of received radiation and the different types of jobs,and the results were statistically analyzed.Results:The average annual effective dose for medical radiation was(0.083±0.003)mSv/a,and the average annual effective dose of industrial radiation was(0.096±0.004)mSv/a.Conclusion:The dose of all engaged in the radiation related industries received by the radiation is lower than the national standards in Xuchang city in 2014,but the exposure to radiation dose is relatively high for workers engaged in industrial radiation.

  4. Exposure Due to Interacting Air flows Between Two Persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Erik; Nielsen, Peter V.

    The contaminant concentration inhaled by an occupant (ie. the personal exposure) is usually less than the return concentration in displacement ventilated rooms. Two main questions are investigated: 1) Does the exhalation from one person penetrate the breathing zone of another person placed nearby......, thus leading to larger personal exposure? 2) When two persons are placed close to each other, do the convective boundary layer flows interact so that the personal exposure to an ambient concentration field is altered?...

  5. A statistical framework for the validation of a population exposure model based on personal exposure data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Delphy; Valari, Myrto; Markakis, Konstantinos; Payan, Sébastien

    2016-04-01

    Currently, ambient pollutant concentrations at monitoring sites are routinely measured by local networks, such as AIRPARIF in Paris, France. Pollutant concentration fields are also simulated with regional-scale chemistry transport models such as CHIMERE (http://www.lmd.polytechnique.fr/chimere) under air-quality forecasting platforms (e.g. Prev'Air http://www.prevair.org) or research projects. These data may be combined with more or less sophisticated techniques to provide a fairly good representation of pollutant concentration spatial gradients over urban areas. Here we focus on human exposure to atmospheric contaminants. Based on census data on population dynamics and demographics, modeled outdoor concentrations and infiltration of outdoor air-pollution indoors we have developed a population exposure model for ozone and PM2.5. A critical challenge in the field of population exposure modeling is model validation since personal exposure data are expensive and therefore, rare. However, recent research has made low cost mobile sensors fairly common and therefore personal exposure data should become more and more accessible. In view of planned cohort field-campaigns where such data will be available over the Paris region, we propose in the present study a statistical framework that makes the comparison between modeled and measured exposures meaningful. Our ultimate goal is to evaluate the exposure model by comparing modeled exposures to monitor data. The scientific question we address here is how to downscale modeled data that are estimated on the county population scale at the individual scale which is appropriate to the available measurements. To assess this question we developed a Bayesian hierarchical framework that assimilates actual individual data into population statistics and updates the probability estimate.

  6. Remote personal health monitoring with radio waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Andrew

    2008-03-01

    We present several techniques utilizing radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology for personal health monitoring. One technique involves using RFID sensors external to the human body, while another technique uses both internal and external RFID sensors. Simultaneous monitoring of many patients in a hospital setting can also be done using networks of RFID sensors. All the monitoring are done wirelessly, either continuously or periodically in any interval, in which the sensors collect information on human parts such as the lungs or heart and transmit this information to a router, PC or PDA device connected to the internet, from which patient's condition can be diagnosed and viewed by authorized medical professionals in remote locations. Instantaneous information allows medical professionals to intervene properly and timely to prevent possible catastrophic effects to patients. The continuously monitored information provides medical professionals more complete and long-term studies of patients. All of these result in not only enhancement of the health treatment quality but also significant reduction of medical expenditure. These techniques demonstrate that health monitoring of patients can be done wirelessly at any time and any place without interfering with the patients' normal activities. Implementing the RFID technology would not only help reduce the enormous and significantly growing medical costs in the U.S.A., but also help improve the health treatment capability as well as enhance the understanding of long-term personal health and illness.

  7. Monitoring of occupational exposure to diesel exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheepers, P.

    1994-12-01

    In Chapter 1 the origin and toxicity of incomplete combustion products of diesel fuel are discussed. Chapter 2 deals with methods that can be used for the identification and quantitation of airborne diesel exhaust-derived contaminants in the working place (environmental monitoring). Chemical substances may be used as indicators for source apportionment or markers for toxicity. A short-term in vitro bioassay may be used for (semi)quantitative determination of the mutagenic potency of diesel exhaust-derived airborne contaminants. Results are presented that support the use of 1-nitropyrene as a marker for the mutagenic activity of diesel exhaust particulate extracts. In Chapter 3 the development of methods for the determination of diesel exhaust-derived metabolites in biological samples is described. The application of new Salmonella typhimurium strains for the detection of urinary metabolites of nitroarenes is investigated. An immunoassay is presented as a method that may be used to track down persons with high occupational exposure to diesel exhaust. The possibilities for measurement of early biological effects are explored in Chapter 4. A method for the determination of hemoglobin adducts was used to investigate the role of the intestinal micro flora in the formation of such adducts derived from diesel exhaust constituents in rats equipped with a human micro flora. The formation of hemoglobin adducts is compared to the formation of DNA adducts in rats treated with two model compounds, in the presence or absence of a micro flora. The applicability of the described methods is discussed in Chapter 5. Prospects and recommendations for future research are given. 23 figs., 41 tabs., 660 refs., 4 appendices

  8. 30 CFR 57.5071 - Exposure monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5071... miner's exposure to diesel particulate matter exceeds the DPM limit specified in § 57.5060, the operator... monitoring for diesel particulate matter, including any results received by a mine operator from sampling...

  9. Personality and error monitoring: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven eHoffmann

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available People differ considerably with respect to their ability to initiate and maintain cognitive control. A core control function is the processing and evaluation of errors from which we learn to prevent maladaptive behavior. People strongly differ in the degree of error processing, and how errors are interpreted and appraised. In the present study it was investigated whether a correlate of error monitoring, the error negativity (Ne or ERN, is related to personality factors. Therefore the EEG was measured continuously during a task which provoked errors, and the Ne was tested with respect to its relation to personality traits. Our results indicate a substantial trait-like relation of error processing and personality factors: The Ne was more pronounced for subjection scoring low on the Openness scale, the Impulsiveness scale and the Emotionality scale. Inversely, the Ne was less pronounced for subjects scoring low on the Social Orientation scale. The results implicate that personality traits related to emotional valences and rigidity are reflected in the way people monitor and adapt to erroneous actions. 

  10. Monitor for detecting and assessing exposure to airborne nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Johan; Voetz, Matthias; Kiesling, Heinz-Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    An important safety aspect of the workplace environment concerns the severity of its air pollution with nanoparticles (NP; workplace air pollution level and the personal exposure to airborne NPs. This article describes the design and operation of the Aerasense NP monitor that enables intelligence gathering in particular with respect to airborne particles in the 10-300 nm size range. The NP monitor provides real time information about their number concentration, average size, and surface areas per unit volume of inhaled air that deposit in the various compartments of the respiratory tract. The monitor's functionality relies on electrical charging of airborne particles and subsequent measurements of the total particle charge concentration under various conditions. Information obtained with the NP monitor in a typical workplace environment has been compared with simultaneously recorded data from a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) capable of measuring the particle size distribution in the 11-1086 nm size range. When the toxicological properties of the engineered and/or released particles in the workplace are known, personal exposure monitoring allows a risk assessment to be made for a worker during each workday, when the workplace-produced particles can be distinguished from other (ambient) particles.

  11. Privacy by design in personal health monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordgren, Anders

    2015-06-01

    The concept of privacy by design is becoming increasingly popular among regulators of information and communications technologies. This paper aims at analysing and discussing the ethical implications of this concept for personal health monitoring. I assume a privacy theory of restricted access and limited control. On the basis of this theory, I suggest a version of the concept of privacy by design that constitutes a middle road between what I call broad privacy by design and narrow privacy by design. The key feature of this approach is that it attempts to balance automated privacy protection and autonomously chosen privacy protection in a way that is context-sensitive. In personal health monitoring, this approach implies that in some contexts like medication assistance and monitoring of specific health parameters one single automatic option is legitimate, while in some other contexts, for example monitoring in which relatives are receivers of health-relevant information rather than health care professionals, a multi-choice approach stressing autonomy is warranted.

  12. Monitoring of occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a carbon-electrode manufacturing plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delft, J.H.M. van; Steenwinkel, M-J.S.T.; Asten, J.G. van; Es, J. van; Kraak, A.; Baan, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    An investigation is presented of occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in a carbon-electrode manufacturing plant, as assessed by three monitoring methods, viz, environmental monitoring of the external dose by analysis of personal air samples, biological monitoring of the

  13. Microenvironmental characteristics important for personal exposures to aldehydes in Sacramento, CA, and Milwaukee, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymer, J. H.; Akland, G.; Johnson, T. R.; Long, T.; Michael, L.; Cauble, L.; McCombs, M.

    Oxygenated additives in gasoline are designed to decrease the ozone-forming hydrocarbons and total air toxics, yet they can increase the emissions of aldehydes and thus increase human exposure to these toxic compounds. This paper describes a study conducted to characterize targeted aldehydes in microenvironments in Sacramento, CA, and Milwaukee, WI, and to improve our understanding of the impact of the urban environment on human exposure to air toxics. Data were obtained from microenvironmental concentration measurements, integrated, 24-h personal measurements, indoor and outdoor pollutant monitors at the participants' residences, from ambient pollutant monitors at fixed-site locations in each city, and from real-time diaries and questionnaires completed by the technicians and participants. As part of this study, a model to predict personal exposures based on individual time/activity data was developed for comparison to measured concentrations. Predicted concentrations were generally within 25% of the measured concentrations. The microenvironments that people encounter daily provide for widely varying exposures to aldehydes. The activities that occur in those microenvironments can modulate the aldehyde concentrations dramatically, especially for environments such as "indoor at home." By considering personal activity, location (microenvironment), duration in the microenvironment, and a knowledge of the general concentrations of aldehydes in the various microenvironments, a simple model can do a reasonably good job of predicting the time-averaged personal exposures to aldehydes, even in the absence of monitoring data. Although concentrations of aldehydes measured indoors at the participants' homes tracked well with personal exposure, there were instances where personal exposures and indoor concentrations differed significantly. Key to the ability to predict exposure based on time/activity data is the quality and completeness of the microenvironmental

  14. Personal Exposure in a Ventilated Room with Concentration Gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Nielsen, Peter V.

    This paper deals with personal exposure in rooms with concentration gradients and persons present. Results from case studies including a breathing thermal manikin in a displacement ventilated room and in a wind channel are presented.......This paper deals with personal exposure in rooms with concentration gradients and persons present. Results from case studies including a breathing thermal manikin in a displacement ventilated room and in a wind channel are presented....

  15. Assessment of radiation exposure of nuclear medicine staff using personal TLD dosimeters and charcoal detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, F.; Garcia-Talavera, M.; Pardo, R.; Deban, L. [Valladolid Univ., Dept. de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Ciencias (Spain); Garcia-Talavera, P.; Singi, G.M.; Martin, E. [Hospital Clinico Univ., Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Salamanca (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    Although the main concern regarding exposure to ionizing radiation for nuclear medicine workers is external radiation, inhalation of radionuclides can significantly contribute to the imparted doses. We propose a new approach to assess exposure to inhalation of {sup 131}I based on passive monitoring using activated charcoal detectors. We compared the inhalation doses to the staff of a nuclear medicine department, based on the measurements derived from charcoal detectors placed at various locations, and the external doses monitored using personal TLD dosimeters. (authors)

  16. Air and biological monitoring of solvent exposure during graffiti removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anundi, H; Langworth, S; Johanson, G; Lind, M L; Akesson, B; Friis, L; Itkes, N; Söderman, E; Jönsson, B A; Edling, C

    2000-11-01

    The principal aim of the study was to estimate the level of exposure to organic solvents of graffiti removers, and to identify the chemicals used in different cleaning agents. A secondary objective was to inform about the toxicity of various products and to optimise working procedures. Exposure to organic solvents was determined by active air sampling and biological monitoring among 38 graffiti removers during an 8-h work shift in the Stockholm underground system. The air samples and biological samples were analysed by gas chromatography. Exposure to organic solvents was also assessed by a questionnaire and interviews. Solvents identified were N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP), dipropylene glycol monomethyl ether (DPGME), propylene glycol monomethyl ether (PGME), diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (DEGEE), toluene, xylene, pseudocumene, hemimellitine, mesitylene, ethylbenzene, limonene, nonane, decane, undecane, hexandecane and gamma-butyrolactone. The 8-h average exposures [time-weighted average (TWA)] were below 20% of the Swedish permissible exposure limit value (PEL) for all solvents identified. In poorly ventilated spaces, e.g. in elevators etc., the short-term exposures exceeded occasionally the Swedish short-term exposure limit values (STEL). The blood and urine concentrations of NMP and its metabolites were low. Glycol ethers and their metabolites (2-methoxypropionic acid (MPA), ethoxy acetic acid (EAA), butoxy acetic acid (BAA), and 2-(2-methoxyethoxy) acetic acid (MEAA)) were found in low concentrations in urine. There were significant correlation between the concentrations of NMP in air and levels of NMP and its metabolites in blood and urine. The use of personal protective equipment, i.e. gloves and respirators, was generally high. Many different cleaning agents were used. The average exposure to solvents was low, but some working tasks included relatively high short-term exposure. To prevent adverse health effects, it is important to inform workers about the

  17. Personal Exposure to Contaminant Sources in Ventilated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik

    on the two major room ventilation principles. A personal exposure model for a displacement ventilated room is proposed. Two new quantities describing the interaction between a person and the ventilation are defined. The findings clearly stress the need for an improved exposure assessment in cases where......Three different tools for personal exposure assessment are presented. They are all able to consider the local influence of persons in ventilated rooms where concentration gradients prevail: A Breathing Thermal Manikin, a Computer Simulated Person, and a Trained Sensory Panel. The tools are applied...... a contaminant source is located in the vicinity of persons. It is also shown that it is not sufficient to know the local concentration level of an empty room, the local impact of a person is distinct and should be considered in the exposure assessment....

  18. A comparison of population air pollution exposure estimation techniques with personal exposure estimates in a pregnant cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannam, Kimberly; McNamee, Roseanne; De Vocht, Frank; Baker, Philip; Sibley, Colin; Agius, Raymond

    2013-08-01

    There is increasing evidence of the harmful effects for mother and fetus of maternal exposure to air pollutants. Most studies use large retrospective birth outcome datasets and make a best estimate of personal exposure (PE) during pregnancy periods. We compared estimates of personal NOx and NO2 exposure of pregnant women in the North West of England with exposure estimates derived using different modelling techniques. A cohort of 85 pregnant women was recruited from Manchester and Blackpool. Participants completed a time-activity log and questionnaire at 13-22 weeks gestation and were provided with personal Ogawa samplers to measure their NOx/NO2 exposure. PE was compared to monthly averages, the nearest stationary monitor to the participants' home, weighted average of the closest monitor to home and work location, proximity to major roads, as well as to background modelled concentrations (DEFRA), inverse distance weighting (IDW), ordinary kriging (OK), and a land use regression model with and without temporal adjustment. PE was most strongly correlated with monthly adjusted DEFRA (NO2r = 0.61, NOxr = 0.60), OK and IDW (NO2r = 0.60; NOxr = 0.62) concentrations. Correlations were stronger in Blackpool than in Manchester. Where there is evidence for high temporal variability in exposure, methods of exposure estimation which focus solely on spatial methods should be adjusted temporally, with an improvement in estimation expected to be better with increased temporal variability.

  19. Personal Exposure to Contaminant Sources in a Uniform Velocity Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Nielsen, Peter V.

    The objective of this study has been to determine the personal exposure to a contaminant source in a uniform velocity field. This was done by full-scale measurements and computer simulations. The results showed a significant dependence on the velocity field both regarding the direction and the ma...... the usual operation range. Guidelines for personal exposure reduction in a uniform velocity field are discussed.......The objective of this study has been to determine the personal exposure to a contaminant source in a uniform velocity field. This was done by full-scale measurements and computer simulations. The results showed a significant dependence on the velocity field both regarding the direction...

  20. A case study of personal exposure to nitrogen dioxide using a new high sensitive diffusive sampler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piechocki-Minguy, A.; Plaisance, H.; Galloo, J.C.; Guillermo, R. [Ecole des Mines de Douai, 941, rue Charles Bourseul, B.P. 838, 59508 DOUAI Cedex (France); Schadkowski, C. [APPA, 13 rue Faidherbe 59508 LILLE (France); Sagnier, I.; Saison, J.Y. [ATMO NORD PAS DE CALAIS, 5 boulevard de la Liberte, 59000 LILLE (France)

    2006-07-31

    Personal NO{sub 2} exposure measurements were achieved during two campaigns in a large northern France city. These campaigns were following an innovating approach based on sequential exposure measurements by diffusive samplers distinguishing four categories of microenvironments ('home', 'other indoor places', 'transport' and 'outdoors'). The objective of these campaigns was to obtain NO{sub 2} personal exposure data in different microenvironments and to examine the determinants of personal exposure to this pollutant. Each campaign comprised two 24-h sampling periods: one during a working day and the second during the weekend. The average total NO{sub 2} personal exposure ranged from 17 {mu}g m{sup -3} for the summer weekend samplings to 38 {mu}g m{sup -3} for the winter weekday samplings. The highest levels were found in transports and outdoors, the intermediate ones in other indoor places and the lowest in homes. Despite their weak levels, indoor environments contributed for more than 78% to total NO{sub 2} personal exposure because of more time spent in these living places. A Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) highlighted the determinants of NO{sub 2} personal exposure in the 'home' and 'transport' microenvironments. This led to a classification of NO{sub 2} personal exposure levels according to different means of transport: from the lowest to the highest exposure levels, train, tramway or underground, bicycle, car or motorcycle. In homes, the rise of NO{sub 2} personal exposures is mainly due to the use of gas stoves and gas heating and the absence of automatic airing system. A classification of NO{sub 2} personal exposure levels was set up according to the characteristics of homes. An analysis of correlations between the home NO{sub 2} personal exposures and outdoor concentrations measured by fixed ambient air monitoring stations showed weak relations suggesting that the data of these stations are

  1. Measurements of personal exposure to NO 2 and modelling using ambient concentrations and activity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physick, William; Powell, Jennifer; Cope, Martin; Boast, Kate; Lee, Sunhee

    2011-04-01

    This study was undertaken with the aim of estimating true personal exposures from data that are less costly and more easily obtained than in detailed measurement programs. We present an evaluation of simple methodologies for estimating true personal exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) that take into account spatiotemporal variability in ambient concentrations across urban areas and which link the latter to personal exposure through indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratios determined from time-activity diaries. To allow us to both develop and evaluate the methods, we designed a measurement program involving volunteers across Melbourne wearing personal passive samplers. Three methods of estimating indoor-outdoor ratios and three approaches to calculating ambient exposure, including network monitors and the complex air quality model TAPM-CTM, were evaluated. All methods except one produced good agreement with the measured values. Importantly, the percentile statistics and standard deviations predicted by these spatial-variation techniques matched well the distribution seen in the measurements. For the best estimates of personal exposure to NO 2, it is recommended that the I/O ratio be calculated using a mass balance method, requiring participants to record daily gas cooking periods and approximate house age. The recommended method for calculating the required ambient outdoor concentration is to use values from the network monitor nearest to a person's microenvironment. Our research has identified a simple exposure methodology that could be widely applied for epidemiological cohort studies and population exposure estimates in urban areas with fixed monitoring networks, with only minimum information from respondents.

  2. Sensitivity Analysis of Personal Exposure Assessment Using a Computer Simulated Person

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Jensen, H. K.

    2009-01-01

    The paper considers uncertainties related to personal exposure assessment using a computer simulated person. CFD is used to simulate a uniform flow field around a human being to determine the personal exposure to a contaminant source. For various vertical locations of a point contaminant source t...... is found to be significantly sensitive to choice of model geometry, details of computer simulated person and velocity level. Modelling uncertainty and sensitivity should always be evaluated and reported.......The paper considers uncertainties related to personal exposure assessment using a computer simulated person. CFD is used to simulate a uniform flow field around a human being to determine the personal exposure to a contaminant source. For various vertical locations of a point contaminant source...... three additional factors are varied, namely the velocity, details of the computer simulated person, and the CFD model of the wind channel. The personal exposure is found to be highly dependent on the relative source location. Variation in the range of two orders of magnitude is found. The exposure...

  3. Personal exposure to inhalable cement dust among construction workers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, S.M.; Thomassen, Y.; Fechter-Rink, E.; Kromhout, H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective- A case study was carried out to assess cement dust exposure and its determinants among construction workers and for comparison among workers in cement and concrete production.Methods- Full-shift personal exposure measurements were performed and samples were analysed for inhalable dust and

  4. Measurement of Personal Exposure Using a Breathing Thermal Manikin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik

    In this paper personal exposure measurements are performed by means of the Breathing Thermal Manikin. Contaminant concentration is measured in a number of locations in the breathing zone and in the inhaled air. Two cases are investigated: exposure to different contaminant sources in a displacement...

  5. Comparison of personal diesel and biodiesel exhaust exposures in an underground mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Eric A; Reed, Rustin J; Lee, Vivien S T; Burgess, Jefferey L

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to compare personal exposures to diesel fuel and a biodiesel blend exhaust in an underground mine. Personal exposure monitoring was performed in a non-operational, hard rock underground mine during use of a load-haul-dump vehicle. Eight-hour time-weighted average (TWA8) exposure concentrations of ultra-low sulfur diesel and 75% biodiesel/25% diesel blend (B75) fuels were compared.  Compared to diesel, use of B75 was associated with relative percent reductions of 22 and 28% in median respirable (r) diesel particulate matter (DPM) and nitrogen dioxide and 25 and 23% increases in median total DPM and nitric oxide TWA8 exposure concentrations, respectively. Diesel was associated with a slightly greater total geometric mean mass concentration and lower mean surface area concentration.  Although further testing is needed, B75 has the potential to reduce rDPM exposures.

  6. Personal and ambient PM2.5 exposure assessment in the city of Agra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Habil

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Human exposure to fine particles can have significant harmful effects on the respiratory and cardiovascular system. To investigate daily exposure characteristics to PM2.5 with ambient concentrations in an urban environment, a personal exposure measurements were conducted for school children, office workers and at their residents, in the city of Taj ‘Agra’, India. In order to account for all the sources of particulate matter exposure, measurements on several different days during December 2013 to February 2014 were carried out. Personal environment monitors (PEM and APM 550 were used to measure PM2.5 concentration. The research findings provide insight into possible sources and their interaction with human activities in modifying the human exposure levels.

  7. Personal radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure measurements in Swiss adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roser, Katharina; Schoeni, Anna; Struchen, Benjamin; Zahner, Marco; Eeftens, Marloes; Fröhlich, Jürg; Röösli, Martin

    2017-02-01

    Adolescents belong to the heaviest users of wireless communication devices, but little is known about their personal exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). The aim of this paper is to describe personal RF-EMF exposure of Swiss adolescents and evaluate exposure relevant factors. Furthermore, personal measurements were used to estimate average contributions of various sources to the total absorbed RF-EMF dose of the brain and the whole body. Personal exposure was measured using a portable RF-EMF measurement device (ExpoM-RF) measuring 13 frequency bands ranging from 470 to 3600MHz. The participants carried the device for three consecutive days and kept a time-activity diary. In total, 90 adolescents aged 13 to 17years participated in the study conducted between May 2013 and April 2014. In addition, personal measurement values were combined with dose calculations for the use of wireless communication devices to quantify the contribution of various RF-EMF sources to the daily RF-EMF dose of adolescents. Main contributors to the total personal RF-EMF measurements of 63.2μW/m(2) (0.15V/m) were exposures from mobile phones (67.2%) and from mobile phone base stations (19.8%). WLAN at school and at home had little impact on the personal measurements (WLAN accounted for 3.5% of total personal measurements). According to the dose calculations, exposure from environmental sources (broadcast transmitters, mobile phone base stations, cordless phone base stations, WLAN access points, and mobile phones in the surroundings) contributed on average 6.0% to the brain dose and 9.0% to the whole-body dose. RF-EMF exposure of adolescents is dominated by their own mobile phone use. Environmental sources such as mobile phone base stations play a minor role. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of poverty on the relationship between personal exposures and ambient concentrations of air pollutants in Ho Chi Minh City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Sumi; Sbihi, Hind; Dinh, Tuan Nguyen; Xuan, Dan Vu; Le Thi Thanh, Loan; Thanh, Canh Truong; Le Truong, Giang; Cohen, Aaron; Brauer, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Socioeconomic factors often affect the distribution of exposure to air pollution. The relationships between health, air pollution, and poverty potentially have important public health and policy implications, especially in areas of Asia where air pollution levels are high and income disparity is large. The objective of the study was to characterize the levels, determinants of exposure, and relationships between children personal exposures and ambient concentrations of multiple air pollutants amongst different socioeconomic segments of the population of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Using repeated (N = 9) measures personal exposure monitoring and determinants of exposure modeling, we compared daily average PM2.5, PM10, PM2.5 absorbance and NO2 concentrations measured at ambient monitoring sites to measures of personal exposures for (N = 64) caregivers of young children from high and low socioeconomic groups in two districts (urban and peri-urban), across two seasons. Personal exposures for both PM sizes were significantly higher among the poor compared to non-poor participants in each district. Absolute levels of personal exposures were under-represented by ambient monitors with median individual longitudinal correlations between personal exposures and ambient concentrations of 0.4 for NO2, 0.6 for PM2.5 and PM10 and 0.7 for absorbance. Exposures of the non-poor were more highly correlated with ambient concentrations for both PM size fractions and absorbance while those for NO2 were not significantly affected by socioeconomic position. Determinants of exposure modeling indicated the importance of ventilation quality, time spent in the kitchen, air conditioner use and season as important determinant of exposure that are not fully captured by the differences in socioeconomic position. Our results underscore the need to evaluate how socioeconomic position affects exposure to air pollution. Here, differential exposure to major sources of pollution, further influenced by

  9. Chlorobenzylidenemalonitrile Gas Exposure from A Novelty Personal-Protection Gun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong, Christopher

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available We present an unusual case of chlorobenzylidenemalonitrile (CS tear-gas exposure from the unwitting discharge of a personal-protection handgun loaded with CS gas. The gun was in a bag of toys purchased from a local thrift store and was discharged by a child. The responding paramedic presumptively identified the substance as CS based solely on personal experience. This recognition led to suboptimal field management of the incident with the paramedic failing to follow the standard operating procedures for an unknown chemical exposure. As this was a benign agent, there were no serious consequences. This case highlights the pre-hospital and emergency department challenges associated with the management of an unknown chemical exposure and the potential consequences if the chemical is a toxic substance. A methodical approach following established protocols can reduce the potential for negative outcomes. Review of the literature found no other report of CS gas exposure from such a personal-protection weapon.

  10. Time-activity relationships to VOC personal exposure factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Rufus D.; Schweizer, Christian; Llacqua, Vito; Lai, Hak Kan; Jantunen, Matti; Bayer-Oglesby, Lucy; Künzli, Nino

    Social and demographic factors have been found to play a significant role in differences between time-activity patterns of population subgroups. Since time-activity patterns largely influence personal exposure to compounds as individuals move across microenvironments, exposure subgroups within the population may be defined by factors that influence daily activity patterns. Socio-demographic and environmental factors that define time-activity subgroups also define quantifiable differences in VOC personal exposures to different sources and individual compounds in the Expolis study. Significant differences in exposures to traffic-related compounds ethylbenzene, m- and p-xylene and o-xylene were observed in relation to gender, number of children and living alone. Categorization of exposures further indicated time exposed to traffic at work and time in a car as important determinants. Increased exposures to decane, nonane and undecane were observed for males, housewives and self-employed. Categorization of exposures indicated exposure subgroups related to workshop use and living downtown. Higher exposures to 3-carene and α-pinene commonly found in household cleaning products and fragrances were associated with more children, while exposures to traffic compounds ethylbenzene, m- and p-xylene and o-xylene were reduced with more children. Considerable unexplained variation remained in categorization of exposures associated with home product use and fragrances, due to individual behavior and product choice. More targeted data collection methods in VOC exposure studies for these sources should be used. Living alone was associated with decreased exposures to 2-methyl-1-propanol and 1-butanol, and traffic-related compounds. Identification of these subgroups may help to reduce the large amount of unexplained variation in VOC exposure studies. Further they may help in assessing impacts of urban planning that result in changes in behavior of individuals, resulting in shifts in

  11. Human dermal exposure to galaxolide from personal care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, P; Cruz, A; Santos, L; Alves, A

    2013-06-01

    Musks are synthetic fragrances applied on personal care and household products as fixatives, by retarding the release of other fragrances with higher volatility. Galaxolide is the most used polycyclic musk since the 90th decade, and it has been detected in several environmental and biological matrices, particularly in human tissues and fluids. For exposure assessment purposes, large-monitoring data need to be obtained and rapid but reliable analytical techniques are requested. The main objective of this study is to develop and validate a new and fast analytical methodology to quantify galaxolide in personal care products and to apply this method to real matrices like skin care products (creams and lotions), shower products (soap bar), hair care products (shampoo and hair conditioner) and oral care products (toothpaste), to evaluate the human dermal exposure risk. A dispersive solid-phase extraction is proposed, using QuEChERS methodology, followed by HPLC with fluorescence detection. Some extraction parameters were studied, like the ratio of sample/solvent amounts, the homogenization time, the salt addition effect and the used sorbents. The validation parameters of the developed method were the following: a linearity range of 0.005-1.002 mg kg⁻¹ sample, a limit of detection of 0.001 mg kg⁻¹ sample, repeatability between 0.7% and 11.3% (variation coefficient of six standard injections), an intermediate precision of 2.5% (variation coefficient of six independent analysis of the same sample), mean recoveries ranging from 65% (soap bar) to 95% (body cream) and 3% of global uncertainty in most of the working range. The time of analysis, including the extraction steps, is 60 min, allowing a throughput of 4 samples h⁻¹ . Galaxolide was detected in all of the seven analysed products in concentrations ranging from 0.04 ± 0.01 mg kg⁻¹ sample (toothpaste) to 280.78 ± 8.19 mg kg⁻¹ sample (perfumed body cream), which may correspond to a significant estimated

  12. Personal UVR exposure of farming families in four European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodekær, M; Harrison, G I; Philipsen, P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The main risk factor for skin cancer is ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Farming families living in rural areas with easy outdoor access may experience excessive UVR exposure. Differences between countries in latitude, altitude and sun behaviour could result in different personal UVR......), and Spain (ES) from 2009 to 2011. Personal UVR exposure and sun behaviour were recorded by dosimetry and diaries. RESULTS: Farmers' average daily UVR exposure on working days ranged from 1.4 SED (DK, AT) to 2.7 SED (ES). Corresponding figures for partners were: 0.6 SED (DK) to 1.9 SED (PL), and for children...... (day-care/school days): 0.7 SED (ES) to 1.3 SED (PL). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Farmers' UVR exposure was comparable to that of outdoor workers in previous studies and exceeded the recommended UVR exposure limits on 36% (DK, AT), 29% (PL) and 56% (ES) of their working days. Attention to sun...

  13. Transition in occupational radiation exposure monitoring methods in diagnostic and interventional radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnroth, Nadja; Hirvonen-Kari, Mirja; Timonen, Marjut; Savolainen, Sauli; Kortesniemi, Mika

    2012-08-01

    Radiation exposure monitoring is a traditional keystone of occupational radiation safety measures in medical imaging. The aim of this study was to review the data on occupational exposures in a large central university hospital radiology organisation and propose changes in the radiation worker categories and methods of exposure monitoring. An additional objective was to evaluate the development of electronic personal dosimeters and their potential in the digitised radiology environment. The personal equivalent dose of 267 radiation workers (116 radiologists and 151 radiographers) was monitored using personal dosimeters during the years 2006-2010. Accumulated exposure monitoring results exceeding the registration threshold were observed in the personal dosimeters of 73 workers (59 radiologists' doses ranged from 0.1 to 45.1 mSv; 14 radiographers' doses ranged from 0.1 to 1.3 mSv). The accumulated personal equivalent doses are generally very small, only a few angiography radiologists have doses >10 mSv per 5 y. The typical effective doses are dosimeters. An active real-time dosimetry system is warranted to support radiation protection strategy where optimisation aspects, including improving working methods, are essential.

  14. Comparability of portable nanoparticle exposure monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbach, Christof; Kaminski, Heinz; von Barany, Daniel; Kuhlbusch, Thomas A J; Monz, Christian; Dziurowitz, Nico; Pelzer, Johannes; Vossen, Katja; Berlin, Knut; Dietrich, Silvio; Götz, Uwe; Kiesling, Heinz-Jürgen; Schierl, Rudolf; Dahmann, Dirk

    2012-07-01

    Five different portable instrument types to monitor exposure to nanoparticles were subject to an intensive intercomparison measurement campaign. Four of them were based on electrical diffusion charging to determine the number concentration or lung deposited surface area (LDSA) concentration of airborne particles. Three out of these four also determined the mean particle size. The fifth instrument type was a handheld condensation particle counter (CPC). The instruments were challenged with three different log-normally distributed test aerosols with modal diameters between 30 and 180 nm, varying in particle concentration and morphology. The CPCs showed the highest comparability with deviations on the order of only ±5%, independent of the particle sizes, but with a strictly limited upper number concentration. The diffusion charger-based instruments showed comparability on the order of ±30% for number concentration, LDSA concentration, and mean particle size, when the specified particle size range of the instruments matched the size range of the aerosol particles, whereas significant deviations were found when a large amount of particles exceeded the upper or lower detection limit. In one case the reported number concentration was even increased by a factor of 6.9 when the modal diameter of the test aerosol exceeded the specified upper limit of the instrument. A general dependence of the measurement accuracy of all devices on particle morphology was not detected.

  15. Wood dust exposure in the Danish furniture industry using conventional and passive monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlünssen, V; Vinzents, P S; Mikkelsen, A B; Schaumburg, I

    2001-03-01

    A study of wood dust exposure at furniture factories in one county in Denmark was performed as a cross sectional study. Dust exposure was measured with personal passive dust monitors and calibrated against active sampling on filters. Measurements of 1685 workers were included in the exposure assessment. The passive dust monitor conversion models for equivalent concentrations of inhalable dust and total dust based on data from the present study were not significantly different from the original models. Therefore models based on all available data were used. The parameters of the distribution of equivalent concentration of inhalable dust were 0.94 mg/m3 (geometric mean) and 2.10 (geometric standard deviation). Compared with a national cross sectional study from 1988 the exposure level (geometric mean) was reduced by a factor 2.0. Inhalable dust exposure was about 50% higher than exposure measured by the Danish 'total' dust method.

  16. Human convective boundary layer and its impact on personal exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licina, Dusan

    People spend most of their time indoors and they are constantly exposed to pollution that affects their health, comfort and productivity. Due to strong economic and environmental pressures to reduce building energy consumption, low air velocity design is gaining popularity; hence buoyancy flows...... differences in pollution concentration mean that personal exposure, rather than average space concentration, determines the risk of elevated exposure. Current room air distribution design practice does not take into account the air movement induced by the thermal flows from occupants, which often results...... in inaccurate exposure prediction. This highlights the importance of a detailed understanding of the complex air movements that take place in the vicinity of the human body and their impact on personal exposure. The two objectives of the present work are: (i) to examine the extent to which the room air...

  17. Relating indoor NO 2 levels to infant personal exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlos, David P.; Marbury, Marian; Samet, Jonathan; Spengler, John D.

    We report here the results of a field survey of personal nitrogen dioxide exposure (PNO 2) of infants and simultaneous indoor NO 2 levels from various points throughout the infants' homes. Personal nitrogen dioxide levels can be predicted by average room NO 2 concentrations when appropriately weighted by infant presence in the room. Bedroom NO 2 concentration alone presents an alternative predictor which is more suitable for use in large scale surveys. Because of the typical infant's peculiar time-location patterns, they receive most of their NO 2 exposures in bedrooms (65 %)and living rooms (32 %), while the kitchen (5 %) and outdoor environments (> 2%)contribute only a small fraction of daily exposure. Average NO 2 exposure during cooking periods can be predicted using passive samplers placed directly over stoves and hours of stove use time.

  18. Personal noise exposure assessment from small firearms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardous, Chucri A.; Murphy, William J.; Willson, Robert D.

    2003-04-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health conducted noise exposure evaluations of law-enforcement personnel during firearms training at indoor and outdoor firing ranges. A representative cross section of weapons used by officers was measured. Shooters participated in live-fire exercise at an indoor firing range using three different weapons: a Beretta .400 caliber pistol, a Remington 12-gauge shotgun, and an M4 .223-caliber assault rifle. Indoor and outdoor measurements were obtained for the Smith and Wesson .357 pistol and Colt .450 and 9-mm pistols, the Glock .400 pistol, and the Heckler and Koch and Colt AR15 .223 rifles. Impulses were measured using a Bruel and Kjaer 4136 1/4-in. microphone and TASCAM digital audio tape recorder. Relevant impulse noise metrics were calculated. Peak levels ranged from 155 to 168 dB SPL. A-weighted equivalent levels ranged from 124 to 128 dBA. The contributions of the secondary weapon firings were approximately 1 to 9 dBA. Other parameters such as A/B durations, number and mixture of impulses, spectral content, energy, kurtosis, temporal spacing, and hearing protectors' effectiveness were examined. Comparisons of applicable damage risk criteria are presented. Further studies are needed to establish an occupational impulse noise damage risk criterion.

  19. NAIL KERATIN AS MONITOR-TISSUE FOR SELENIUM EXPOSURE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANNOORD, PAH; MAAS, MJ; DEBRUIN, M

    1992-01-01

    Nail clippings might provide a way to monitor exposure to selenium in the recent past of an individual, since a clipping collected from a toe would reflect exposures months before actual clipping date. The relation between levels of exogenous selenium exposure and selenium levels in nail keratin was

  20. Outdoor, indoor, and personal exposure to VOCs in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adgate, John L; Church, Timothy R; Ryan, Andrew D; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Fredrickson, Ann L; Stock, Thomas H; Morandi, Maria T; Sexton, Ken

    2004-10-01

    We measured volatile organic compound (VOC) exposures in multiple locations for a diverse population of children who attended two inner-city schools in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Fifteen common VOCs were measured at four locations: outdoors (O), indoors at school (S), indoors at home (H), and in personal samples (P). Concentrations of most VOCs followed the general pattern O approximately equal to S long-term health risks from children's exposure to these compounds.

  1. Personal exposure to Black Carbon in transport microenvironments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dons, Evi; Int Panis, Luc; Van Poppel, Martine; Theunis, Jan; Wets, Geert

    2012-08-01

    We evaluated personal exposure of 62 individuals to the air pollutant Black Carbon, using 13 portable aethalometers while keeping detailed records of their time-activity pattern and whereabouts. Concentrations encountered in transport are studied in depth and related to trip motives. The evaluation comprises more than 1500 trips with different transport modes. Measurements were spread over two seasons. Results show that 6% of the time is spent in transport, but it accounts for 21% of personal exposure to Black Carbon and approximately 30% of inhaled dose. Concentrations in transport were 2-5 times higher compared to concentrations encountered at home. Exposure was highest for car drivers, and car and bus passengers. Concentrations of Black Carbon were only half as much when traveling by bike or on foot; when incorporating breathing rates, dose was found to be twice as high for active modes. Lowest 'in transport' concentrations were measured in trains, but nevertheless these concentrations are double the concentrations measured at home. Two thirds of the trips are car trips, and those trips showed a large spread in concentrations. In-car concentrations are higher during peak hours compared to off-peak, and are elevated on weekdays compared to Saturdays and even more so on Sundays. These findings result in significantly higher exposure during car commute trips (motive 'Work'), and lower concentrations for trips with motive 'Social and leisure'. Because of the many factors influencing exposure in transport, travel time is not a good predictor of integrated personal exposure or inhaled dose.

  2. Use of personal protective equipment under occupational exposure to cytostatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Krzemińska

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: A growing number of cancer cases enhances the usage of cytostatic agents and thereby contributes to the increase in the number of health care workers occupationally exposed to cytostatics. Material and Methods: This article presents the results of the survey aimed at obtaining data on the reduction of occupational exposure through using personal protective equipment by the medical and pharmaceutical personnel involved in handling cytostatics. The questionnaires were sent by mail or e-mail to oncology hospitals and pharmacies preparing cytostatic drugs. Responses were received from 94 people employed in these workplaces. The main questions concerned the forms of cytostatics; job activities; types of personal protective equipment used and working time under exposure to cytotoxic drugs. Results: The majority (over 90% of the healthcare personnel declared the use of personal protective equipment when working under conditions of exposure to cytostatic drugs. Depending on the type of protection, 15–35% of people reported that the most frequent time of their single use of the apron, the overalls, the gloves, the cap, the goggles or the respirators did not exceed few minutes. Gloves were changed most frequently. However, half of the responses indicated that the time after which the respondents removed protection equipment greatly differed. Conclusions: Almost the whole group of respondents applied personal protective equipment when working under exposure to cytostatics. However, personal protective equipment was not used every time in case of exposure. The medical and pharmaceutical staff worked under exposure to cytostatics for a few or even dozen hours during the working day. Med Pr 2016;67(4:499–508

  3. Monitoring of the internal contamination of occupationally exposure personnel in services of nuclear medicine through the use of gamma cameras; Monitoreo de la contaminacion interna de personal ocupacionalmente expuesto en servicios de medicina nuclear mediante el uso de gamma camaras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teran, M.; Paolino, A.; Savio, E. [Catedra de Radioquimica, Facultad de Quimica, Montevideo (Uruguay); Hermida, J.C. [Centro de Medicina Nuclear, Hospital de Clinicas, Facultad de Medicina, Montevideo (Uruguay); Dantas, B.M. [Laboratorio de Medidas In vivo, Instituto da Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The radionuclides incorporation can happen as a result of diverse activities; these include the work associated with the different stadiums of the nuclear fuel cycle, the use of radioactive sources in medicine, the scientific research, the agriculture and the industry. In Uruguay the main activities linked to the manipulation of open sources correspond those of Nuclear Medicine and from 2004, in the mark of the Project Arcal RLA 049 and being based on the Safety Guides of the IAEA it is implementing a program of internal monitoring in combined form the Nuclear Medicine Center of the Hospital of and the Radiochemistry class of the Faculty of Chemistry. In accordance with the publication of the ICRP 75 the emphasis of any monitoring program should be in the formal study of the doses in the workers to who are considered commendable of to receive in routine form an outstanding fraction of the dose limits or who work in areas where the exposures can be significant in the accident event. From April 2004, to the date has started a pilot plan by means of in that were established appropriate conditions of procedures and of safety in a reduced group of workers of the Nuclear Medicine area. In that period the first work limits, equipment adjustment, calibrations and registration systems were determined. The monitoring system implemented until the moment is carried out with a thyroid caption equipment. However these measurements are carried out in the university hospital embracing 40% of the involved workers of our country, with the purpose of reaching the covering of the biggest quantity of occupationally exposed personnel of private clinics. Also it was developed a new work proposal that allows to have an alternative measure method, in the event of not having the equipment habitually used. Among the conclusions of this work are that for the before exposed are considered the measure conditions but appropriate the following ones: Gamma Camera without collimator; Measurement

  4. Field study of sound exposure by personal stereo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ordoñez, Rodrigo Pizarro; Reuter, Karen; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2006-01-01

    on young people's habitual sound exposure to personal stereos has been carried out using a measurement method according to principles of ISO 11904-2:2004. Additionally the state of their hearing has also been assessed. This presentation deals with the methodological aspects relating to the quantification......A number of large scale studies suggest that the exposure level used with personal stereo systems should raise concern. High levels can be produced by most commercially available mp3 players, and they are generally used in high background noise levels (i.e., while in a bus or rain). A field study...... of habitual use, estimation of listening levels and exposure levels, and assessment of their state of hearing, by either threshold determination or OAE measurement, with a special view to the general validity of the results (uncertainty factors and their magnitude)....

  5. Distributions of personal VOC exposures: a population-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Chunrong; D'Souza, Jennifer; Batterman, Stuart

    2008-10-01

    Information regarding the distribution of volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations and exposures is scarce, and there have been few, if any, studies using population-based samples from which representative estimates can be derived. This study characterizes distributions of personal exposures to ten different VOCs in the U.S. measured in the 1999--2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Personal VOC exposures were collected for 669 individuals over 2-3 days, and measurements were weighted to derive national-level statistics. Four common exposure sources were identified using factor analyses: gasoline vapor and vehicle exhaust, methyl tert-butyl ether (MBTE) as a gasoline additive, tap water disinfection products, and household cleaning products. Benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, xylenes chloroform, and tetrachloroethene were fit to log-normal distributions with reasonably good agreement to observations. 1,4-Dichlorobenzene and trichloroethene were fit to Pareto distributions, and MTBE to Weibull distribution, but agreement was poor. However, distributions that attempt to match all of the VOC exposure data can lead to incorrect conclusions regarding the level and frequency of the higher exposures. Maximum Gumbel distributions gave generally good fits to extrema, however, they could not fully represent the highest exposures of the NHANES measurements. The analysis suggests that complete models for the distribution of VOC exposures require an approach that combines standard and extreme value distributions, and that carefully identifies outliers. This is the first study to provide national-level and representative statistics regarding the VOC exposures, and its results have important implications for risk assessment and probabilistic analyses.

  6. Monitoring and modelling of exposure to ethanol in hairdressing salons.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muiswinkel, van W.J.; Kromhout, H.; Onos, T.; Kersemaekers, W.

    1997-01-01

    Personal exposure to solvents was studied among hairdressers in 28 salons in two regions during two seasons in The Netherlands. Ethanol was used as a marker for solvent exposure. Auxiliary data, such as salon and work characteristics, meteorological conditions and information on the presence of

  7. Personal UV exposure in high albedo alpine sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Siani

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Mountain sites experience enhanced UV radiation levels due to the concurrent effects of shorter radiation path-length, low aerosol load and high reflectivity of the snow surfaces. This study was encouraged by the possibility to collect original data of personal dose on a specific anatomical site (erythemally effective UV dose on the forehead of two groups of volunteers (ski instructors and skiers in the mountainous areas of Italy (the Alpine site of La Thuile-Les Suches in Valle d'Aosta region. Personal doses were assessed using polysulphone dosimetry. Exposure Ratio (ER, defined as the ratio between the personal dose and the corresponding ambient dose (i.e. erythemally weighted dose received by a horizontal surface during the same exposure period was taken into account. In addition measuring skin colours as biological markers of individual response to UV exposure, was also carried out on the forearm and cheek of each volunteer before and after exposure.

    The median ER, taking into account the whole sample, is 0.60 in winter, with a range of 0.29 to 1.46, and 1.02 in spring, ranging from 0.46 to 1.72. No differences in ERs were found between skiers and instructors in spring while in winter skiers experienced lower values.

    Regarding skin colorimetric parameters the main result was that both skiers and instructors had on average significantly lower values of luminance after exposure i.e.~they became darker. It was found that the use of sunscreen and individual skin photo-type did not produce significant variations in ER across instructor/skier group by day and by seasons (p>0.05. It seems that sunscreen use only at the beginning of the exposure or in a few cases a couple of times during exposure (at difference with the specific instructions sheets, was not sufficient to change significantly skin colorimetric parameters across participants.

    In conclusion UV personal doses on the ski-fields are often

  8. Monitoring of radiation exposure and registration of doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The guide defines the concepts relevant to the monitoring of radiation exposure and working conditions and provides guidelines for determining the necessity of monitoring and subsequently organizing it. In addition, instructions are given for reporting doses to the Dose Register of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK). Also the procedures are described for situations leading to exceptional exposures. (10 refs., 1 tab.).

  9. Effectiveness of a personalized ventilation system in reducing personal exposure against directly released simulated cough droplets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantelic, J.; Tham, K. W.; Licina, Dusan

    2015-01-01

    The inhalation intake fraction was used as an indicator to compare effects of desktop personalized ventilation and mixing ventilation on personal exposure to directly released simulated cough droplets. A cough machine was used to simulate cough release from the front, back, and side of a thermal...... the inhalation intake fraction compared to mixing ventilation for all investigated distances and orientations of the cough release. The results point out that the orientation between the cough source and the breathing zone of the exposed occupant is an important factor that substantially influences exposure...

  10. Determinants of fine particle (PM{sub 2.5}) personal exposure levels in transport microenvironments, London, UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, H.S.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.J.; Colville, R.N. [Imperial Coll. of Science, Technology and Medicine, TH Huxley School of Environment, Earth Sciences and Engineering, London (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    A series of field studies were carried out in London, UK, during 1999-2000 in which over 400 fine particle (PM{sub 2.5}) personal exposure level measurements were taken for journeys in bicycle, bus, car and underground rail transport microenvironments. This was the first comprehensive PM{sub 2.5} personal exposure study of transport users. Both a fixed-route multi-transport mode study and a study of cyclists' commuter journeys were undertaken. Subsequent to these field studies regression modelling of possible influencing factors of these exposure levels was carried out. Meteorological variables, traffic density, mode and route were considered; the relationships of personal exposure levels with fixed site monitor (FSM) concentrations, and of the FSM concentrations with the potential predictor variables, were also investigated. This analysis of the determinants of transport user exposure to PM{sub 2.5} in London, UK, showed that wind speed had a significant influence on personal exposure levels, though explained only up to 20% of the variability of road transport user exposure levels. The occurrence of higher wind speeds was strongly associated with a decrease in personal exposure levels; a 1.5-2.0 fold difference in exposure level concentrations was estimated between the 10th and 90th percentiles of wind speed. Route was a significant factor, whilst mode was not a significant factor in the street microenvironment (between bicycle, bus and car modes); models incorporating route and mode, as well as wind speed, explained approximately 35% of the variability in PM{sub 2.5} exposure levels. Personal exposure levels were reasonably correlated with urban background FSM concentrations, for fixed-route road mode (bicycle, bus and car) exposure level concentrations, r=0.27 (p<0.01) and for commuter cyclists' exposure level concentrations r=0.58 (p<0.01). (Author)

  11. 18. Adduct detection in human monitoring for carcinogen exposure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Determination of the covalently bound products (adducts) of carcinogens with DNA or proteins may be used for the monitoring of exposure to these compounds. Protein adducts are generally stable and are not enzymatically repaired, and the use of these for cxposure monitoring is normally carried out with globin or albumin, because

  12. Use of personal protective equipment under occupational exposure to cytostatics

    OpenAIRE

    Sylwia Krzemińska; Małgorzata Pośniak; Małgorzata Szewczyńska

    2016-01-01

    Background: A growing number of cancer cases enhances the usage of cytostatic agents and thereby contributes to the increase in the number of health care workers occupationally exposed to cytostatics. Material and Methods: This article presents the results of the survey aimed at obtaining data on the reduction of occupational exposure through using personal protective equipment by the medical and pharmaceutical personnel involved in handling cytostatics. The questionnaires were sent by mail o...

  13. Monitoring of increased natural occuring radiation exposure; Arbeitsplatzueberwachung bei erhoehter natuerlicher Strahlenexposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guhr, Andreas [ALTRAC Radon-Messtechnik, Berlin (Germany); Leissring, Nick [Bergtechnisches Ingenieurbuero GEOPRAX, Chemnitz (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The radiation exposure due to natural occurring sources is a special challenge for the health and safety protection at workplaces. The monitoring of the radon exposure of employees in mines, radon-spa and in water works is regulated by prescription of radiation protection. The relevant compounds of the radiation exposure are the inhalation of radon and radon daughter products; terrestrial irradiation; ingestion of radioactive contaminated materials and the inhalation of contaminated dust. The monitoring of the radiation workers is realized essentially by measurements by radiation safety officer of the performing company, by an external engineering firm as well as by control measurements of experts of local authorities. The experiences in the practice have shown that in the field of operational radiation protection only a combination of personal- and operational dosimetry is suitable to avoid health hazards by work in fields with increased natural occurring radiation exposures.

  14. Personal exposure to inhalable cement dust among construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Susan; Thomassen, Yngvar; Fechter-Rink, Edeltraud; Kromhout, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Objective- A case study was carried out to assess cement dust exposure and its determinants among construction workers and for comparison among workers in cement and concrete production.Methods- Full-shift personal exposure measurements were performed and samples were analysed for inhalable dust and its cement content. Exposure variability was modelled with linear mixed models.Results- Inhalable dust concentrations at the construction site ranged from 0.05 to 34 mg/m(3), with a mean of 1.0 mg/m(3). Average concentration for inhalable cement dust was 0.3 mg/m(3) (GM; range 0.02-17 mg/m(3)). Levels in the ready-mix and pre-cast concrete plants were on average 0.5 mg/m(3) (GM) for inhalable dust and 0.2 mg/m(3) (GM) for inhalable cement dust. Highest concentrations were measured in cement production, particularly during cleaning tasks (inhalable dust GM = 55 mg/m(3); inhalable cement dust GM = 33 mg/m(3)) at which point the workers wore personal protective equipment. Elemental measurements showed highest but very variable cement percentages in the cement plant and very low percentages during reinforcement work and pouring. Most likely other sources were contributing to dust concentrations, particularly at the construction site. Within job groups, temporal variability in exposure concentrations generally outweighed differences in average concentrations between workers. 'Using a broom', 'outdoor wind speed' and 'presence of rain' were overall the most influential factors affecting inhalable (cement) dust exposure.Conclusion- Job type appeared to be the main predictor of exposure to inhalable (cement) dust at the construction site. Inhalable dust concentrations in cement production plants, especially during cleaning tasks, are usually considerably higher than at the construction site.

  15. Hand-arm vibration exposure monitoring with wearable sensor module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austad, Hanne O; Røed, Morten H; Liverud, Anders E; Dalgard, Steffen; Seeberg, Trine M

    2013-01-01

    Vibration exposure is a serious risk within work physiology for several work groups. Combined with cold artic climate, the risk for permanent harm is even higher. Equipment that can monitor the vibration exposure and warn the user when at risk will provide a safer work environment for these work groups. This study evaluates whether data from a wearable wireless multi-parameter sensor module can be used to estimate vibration exposure and exposure time. This work has been focused on the characterization of the response from the accelerometer in the sensor module and the optimal location of the module in the hand-arm configuration.

  16. Personal exposure to carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svecova, Vlasta; Topinka, Jan; Solansky, Ivo; Rossner, Pavel; Sram, Radim J

    2013-07-01

    Personal exposures to carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (c-PAHs) bound to airborne particulate matter 2.5 μm (PM2.5) were measured in the context of a large-scale molecular epidemiological study in order to identify the impacts of air pollution on human health. Sampling was carried out in three industrial cities in the Czech Republic: Ostrava, Karvina and Havirov. The city of Prague, exhibiting much lower industrial air pollution but a high level of traffic, served as a control. The first monitoring campaigns were held in winter and were repeated in the summer of 2009. The active personal monitors PV 1.7 for PM2.5-bound c-PAHs were used. Non-smoking city policemen from Prague, Karvina and Havirov, and office workers from Ostrava, participated in the study. All participants completed a personal questionnaire and a time-location-activity diary. The average personal winter exposure to c-PAHs (sum of the eight PAHs-benz[a]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, chrysene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene and indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene) was highest in Karvina, 39.1, followed by Ostrava at 15.1 and Prague at 4.3 ng/m(3). The winter levels were significantly higher than the summer values (Ppersonal benzo[a]pyrene winter/summer exposures were: 6.9/0.6 in Karvina, 2.5/0.4 in Ostrava, 0.8/0.1 in Prague and 0.2 ng/m(3) in summer in Havirov. In this study, we examined personal exposure to c-PAHs and tested it for associations with potential predictor variables collected from questionnaires, addressing life style factors and day-to-day activities. We found outdoor concentration, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, home heating fuel of coal, wood or gas, frequency of exhaust fan use, cooking and commuting by a car to be the main determinants of personal exposure.

  17. Implementation of a Portable Personal EKG Signal Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tan-Hsu; Chang, Ching-Su; Chen, Yung-Fu; Lee, Cheng

    This research develops a portable personal EKG signal monitoring system to help patients monitor their EKG signals instantly to avoid the occurrence of tragedies. This system is built with two main units: signal pro-cessing unit and monitoring and evaluation unit. The first unit consists of EKG signal sensor, signal amplifier, digitalization circuit, and related control circuits. The second unit is a software tool developed on an embedded Linux platform (called CSA). Experimental result indicates that the proposed system has the practical potential for users in health monitoring. It is demonstrated to be more convenient and with greater portability than the conventional PC-based EKG signal monitoring systems. Furthermore, all the application units embedded in the system are built with open source codes, no licensed fee is required for operating systems and authorized applications. Thus, the building cost is much lower than the traditional systems.

  18. Personality and long term exposure to organic solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindstroem, K.; Martelin, T.

    1980-01-01

    Personality, especially emotional reactions of two solvent exposed groups and a nonexposed reference group were described by means of 20 formal, content and check-list type of Rorschach variables. Another objective of the study was to explore the suitability and psychological meaning of other types of Rorschach variables than those applied earlier in the field of behavioral toxicology. The factor analyses grouped the applied variables into factors of Productivity, Ego Strength, Control of Emotionality, Defensive Introversion and Aggressiveness. One solvent group, a patient groups (N.53), was characterized by a high number of Organic signs and a low Genetic Level, indicating possible psychoorganic deterioration. The other solvent group, styrene exposed but subjectively healthy (N.98), was characterized by few emotional reactions, low Anxiety and a low number of Neurotic Signs. the long duration of exposure of the solvent patient group (mean 10.2 +/- 8.7 years) was related to variables of the Productivity factor, a finding that indicates a possible better adjustment of those exposed for a longer time. The duration of exposure of the styrene exposed group (mean 4.9 +/- 3.2 years) revealed a very slight relation to personality variables, but the mean urinary mandelic acid concentration, indicating the level of styrene exposure, correlated with increased emotional reactions. For the most part definite causal conclusions could not be drawn because of the cross-sectional design of the study.

  19. Video exposure monitoring as part of a strategy to assess exposure to nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beurskens-Comuth, P.A.W.V.; Verbist, K.; Brouwer, D.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: There is a growing awareness of the potential risks for human health of exposure to ultrafine particles or nanoparticles. In that context, workplace air measurements become important, and various strategies have been developed to monitor exposure. In addition, observations and time/activ

  20. Development of air sampling strategies for monitoring common air pollutants in a mission area at Camp Victoria in Kosovo--stationary vs. personal monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingfors, Håkan; Hägglund, Lars; Magnusson, Roger; Höjer, Karin

    2009-06-01

    It can be problematic to collect representative samples in the occupational environment of deployed soldiers using personal samplers. In this study, several air sampling strategies were examined to identify the most efficient method for collecting air samples that were representative of the soldiers' exposure profiles at the Swedish KFOR Camp Victoria outside Pristina, Kosovo. Stationary monitoring was performed during two 5-day sampling campaigns, one in summer and one in winter. The acquired data were related to measurements obtained by personal monitoring of three and four subgroups, respectively. Patrolling soldiers, mechanics, and indoor workers were selected to represent groups with different exposure profiles, and the particles, metals associated with particles, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, aldehydes, and volatile organic compounds that they were exposed to were measured. Generally, low concentrations of the analytes were found in both sampling periods, but the variability was greater in the winter campaign. Samples collected by stationary samplers captured most of the variation in the personnel's exposure, according to principal component analysis (PCA). However, the results also indicate that personal exposure to most potential pollutants would be underestimated if a single outdoor station was used to monitor them. Nevertheless, combined data from stations located outdoors and in relevant microenvironments (workshop, office, and guard station) provided substantially better representation. Thus, it may be possible to obtain monitoring data without using personal samplers in these inherently problematic situations.

  1. Measuring personal exposure from 900MHz mobile phone base stations in Australia and Belgium using a novel personal distributed exposimeter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhatt, Chhavi Raj; Thielens, Arno; Redmayne, Mary; Abramson, Michael J; Billah, Baki; Sim, Malcolm R; Vermeulen, Roel|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620; Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout; Benke, Geza

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to: i) measure personal exposure in the Global System for Mobile communications (GSM) 900MHz downlink (DL) frequency band with two systems of exposimeters, a personal distributed exposimeter (PDE) and a pair of ExpoM-RFs, ii) compare the GSM 900MHz DL exposures across

  2. Exposure Monitoring and Risk Assessment of Biphenyl in the Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon-Yeong Kim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to assess exposure to and the risk caused by biphenyl in the workplace. Biphenyl is widely used as a heat transfer medium and as an emulsifier and polish in industry. Vapor or high levels of dust inhalation and dermal exposure to biphenyl can cause eye inflammation, irritation of respiratory organs, and permanent lesions in the liver and nervous system. In this study, the workplace environment concentrations were assessed as central tendency exposure and reasonable maximum exposure and were shown to be 0.03 and 0.12 mg/m3, respectively. In addition, the carcinogenic risk of biphenyl as determined by risk assessment was 0.14 × 10−4 (central tendency exposure and 0.56 × 10−4 (reasonable maximum exposure, which is below the acceptable risk value of 1.0 × 10−4. Furthermore, the central tendency exposure and reasonable maximum exposure hazard quotients were 0.01 and 0.06 for oral toxicity, 0.05 and 0.23 for inhalation toxicity, and 0.08 and 0.39 for reproduction toxicity, respectively, which are all lower than the acceptable hazard quotient of 1.0. Therefore, exposure to biphenyl was found to be safe in current workplace environments. Because occupational exposure limits are based on socioeconomic assessment, they are generally higher than true values seen in toxicity experiments. Based on the results of exposure monitoring of biphenyl, the current occupational exposure limits in Korea could be reviewed.

  3. 30 CFR 57.5037 - Radon daughter exposure monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Radon daughter exposure monitoring. 57.5037 Section 57.5037 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND..., entitled “American National Standard Radiation Protection in Uranium Mines,” approved July 18, 1973,...

  4. Exposure Measurement Error in PM2.5 Health Effects Studies: A Pooled Analysis of Eight Personal Exposure Validation Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Exposure measurement error is a concern in long-term PM2.5 health studies using ambient concentrations as exposures. We assessed error magnitude by estimating calibration coefficients as the association between personal PM2.5 exposures from validation studies and typ...

  5. A SINGLE-EXPOSURE, MULTIDETECTOR NEUTRON SPECTROMETER FOR WORKPLACE MONITORING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedogni, R; Bortot, D; Buonomo, B; Esposito, A; Gómez-Ros, J M; Introini, M V; Mazzitelli, G; Moraleda, M; Pola, A; Romero, A M

    2016-09-01

    This communication describes a recently developed single-exposure neutron spectrometer, based on multiple active thermal neutron detectors located within a moderating sphere, which have been developed jointly by CIEMAT (Spain), INFN (Italy) and Politecnico di Milano (Italy) in the framework of Italian and Spanish collaboration projects. The fabricated prototypes permit to achieve spectrometric resolution with nearly isotropic response for neutron with energies from thermal to 100-200 MeV, thus being able to characterise the complete neutron spectrum in only one exposure by unfolding the measured responses of the detectors. This makes it especially advantageous for characterising neutron fields and workplace monitoring purposes in neutron-producing facilities.

  6. Trade-offs of Personal Versus More Proxy Exposure Measures in Environmental Epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, Marc G; Webster, Thomas F

    2017-09-01

    The technological ability to make personal measurements of toxicant exposures is growing rapidly. While this can decrease measurement error and therefore help reduce attenuation of effect estimates, we argue that as measures of exposure or dose become more personal, threats to validity of study findings can increase in ways that more proxy measures may avoid. We use directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) to describe conditions where confounding is introduced by use of more personal measures of exposure and avoided via more proxy measures of personal exposure or target tissue dose. As exposure or dose estimates are more removed from the individual, they become less susceptible to biases from confounding by personal factors that can often be hard to control, such as personal behaviors. Similarly, more proxy exposure estimates are less susceptible to reverse causation. We provide examples from the literature where adjustment for personal factors in analyses that use more proxy exposure estimates have little effect on study results. In conclusion, increased personalized exposure assessment has important advantages for measurement accuracy, but it can increase the possibility of biases from personal factors and reverse causation compared with more proxy exposure estimates. Understanding the relation between more and less proxy exposures, and variables that could introduce confounding are critical components to study design.

  7. Individual monitoring of external exposure in terms of personal dose equivalent, H{sub p}(d); Dosimetria personale esterna in termini di equivalente di dose personale, H{sub p}(d). Atti. Giornata di studio, Bologna, 28 febbraio 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fantuzzi, E. [ENEA, Div. Protezione dell' Uomo e degli Ecosistemi, Centro Ricerche Ezio Clementel, Bologna (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    The institute for Radiation Protection of ENEA - Bologna has organised a one day-workshop on the subject: Individual monitoring of external exposure in terms of personal dose equivalent, H{sub p}(d). The aim of the workshop was the discussion of the new implications and modifications to be expected in the routine individual monitoring of external radiation, due to the issue of the Decree 241/00 (G.U. 31/8/2000) in charge since 01/01/2001. The decree set up in Italian law the standards contained in the European Directive EURATOM 96/29-Basic Standards for the Protection of Health of Workers and the General Public against Dangers arising from Ionizing Radiation. Among others, the definition of the operational quantities for external radiation for personal and environmental monitoring, H{sub p}(d) e H{sup *}(d) respectively as defined by ICRU (International Commission for Radiation Units and Measurements), requires to update the methods of measurements and calibration of the personal dosemeters and environmental monitors. This report collects the papers presented at the workshop dealing with the Personal Dose Equivalent, H{sub p}(d), the conversion coefficients, H{sub p}(d)/K{sub a} e H{sub p}(d)/{sub ,} obtained through Monte Carlo calculations published by ICRU and ICRP (International Commission for Radiation Protection), the new calibration procedures and the practical implication in the routine of individual monitoring in terms of H{sub p}(d). Eventually, in the last chapter, the answers to Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) are briefly reported. [Italian] L'Istituto per la Radioprotezione dell'ENEA di Bologna ha organizzato una giornata di studio Dosimetria personale esterna in termini di equivalente di dose personale, H{sub p}(d). Lo scopo della giornata e' stato quello di discutere le novita' e le modifiche da apportare alle pratiche di monitoraggio dell'esposizione esterna alle radiazioni ionizzanti, a seguito dell'entrata in vigore

  8. Comparison of stationary and personal air sampling with an air dispersion model for children's ambient exposure to manganese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulk, Florence; Haynes, Erin N; Hilbert, Timothy J; Brown, David; Petersen, Dan; Reponen, Tiina

    2016-09-01

    Manganese (Mn) is ubiquitous in the environment and essential for normal growth and development, yet excessive exposure can lead to impairments in neurological function. This study modeled ambient Mn concentrations as an alternative to stationary and personal air sampling to assess exposure for children enrolled in the Communities Actively Researching Exposure Study in Marietta, OH. Ambient air Mn concentration values were modeled using US Environmental Protection Agency's Air Dispersion Model AERMOD based on emissions from the ferromanganese refinery located in Marietta. Modeled Mn concentrations were compared with Mn concentrations from a nearby stationary air monitor. The Index of Agreement for modeled versus monitored data was 0.34 (48 h levels) and 0.79 (monthly levels). Fractional bias was 0.026 for 48 h levels and -0.019 for monthly levels. The ratio of modeled ambient air Mn to measured ambient air Mn at the annual time scale was 0.94. Modeled values were also time matched to personal air samples for 19 children. The modeled values explained a greater degree of variability in personal exposures compared with time-weighted distance from the emission source. Based on these results modeled Mn concentrations provided a suitable approach for assessing airborne Mn exposure in this cohort.

  9. CFD Simulation of Personal Exposure to Contaminant Sources in Ventilated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik

    In this study Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used to predict the personal exposure to contaminant sources in a ventilated room. A CFD model of a person is located in a displacement ventilated room as well as in a mixing ventilated room. The personal exposure to different contaminant sources...... is simulated, taking both the concentration gradients and the local influence of the person into account....

  10. Risk of Children’s Dermal Exposure to Galaxolide through Personal Care Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Correia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Galaxolide is the most used fragrance since the early 1990s, and it has been largely detected in environmental and biological matrices. This polycyclic musk is present in almost all of our daily products, so the risk of human exposure is substantial, as it had been proved by its detection in human tissues and fluids. Due to the lack of information about the concentrations found in consumer products, monitoring data is needed for exposure assessment purposes. Dermal contact, mostly by personal care products, seems to be the major route of human exposure to galaxolide, and, due to the immaturity of young children’s skin, exposure consequences can be worse in this population. The main objective of this study was to evaluate galaxolide levels in personal care products used by children of Oporto (Portugal, aged 0–5 years, and relate it with consumer habits. Consumer patterns were obtained through 250 questionnaires to caregivers of Oporto children. The 79 most used products were extracted by a dispersive solid phase extraction methodology known as QuEChERS and galaxolide was determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC with fluorescence detection. The concentrations ranged between 0.001 ± 0.001 mg·kg−1, on a baby wipe, and 300.480 ± 8.819 mg·kg−1, on glycerin soap, which may correspond to an estimated daily dermal exposure of 277.10 ± 0.02 µg·day−1 on the population of Oporto children. This value is in the range of the results observed for adults, although no information of toxicological risk for children is available.

  11. Personal exposure between people in a room ventilated by textile terminals - with and without personalized ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, P.V.; Hyldgaard, C.E.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor;

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes an investigation made in a room ventilated by an air distribution system based on a textile terminal. The air distribution in the room is mainly controlled by buoyancy forces from the heat sources, although the flow from the textile terminal can be characterized as a displace......This paper describes an investigation made in a room ventilated by an air distribution system based on a textile terminal. The air distribution in the room is mainly controlled by buoyancy forces from the heat sources, although the flow from the textile terminal can be characterized...... as a displacement flow with a downward direction in areas of the room where no thermal load is present. The system was extended by a personalized ventilation system to study the improved Protection of people in a room. The investigation involved full-scale experiments with two breathing thermal manikins. One...... in the room with increased protection of the occupants. It is shown that personalized ventilation improves the protection of occupants by increasing the personal exposure index....

  12. Genotoxicity biomarkers for monitoring occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda M. Rodríguez-Montero

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Context: The Institute of Oncology and Radiobiology (INOR is the leading institution for the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of cancer in Cuba. The main methods used in cancer treatment are surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The last one involves the handling of hazardous substances, such as cytostatics, which implies a health risk to persons occupationally exposed to it. There are two sites where a considerable among of cytostatic is handled (Ambulatory Chemotherapy Room (ACR and the Central Unit of Cytostatic Mixture Preparation (CUCM. Genotoxicity biomarkers of exposure and effects have been widely used to detect occupational environment hazards. Aims: To evaluate genotoxicity biomarkers indicative of exposure and effects to cytostatics. Methods: In this study were tested samples taken from the surfaces of biological safety cabinets located in the Central Unit of Cytostatic Mixture using SOS – Chromotest. We also evaluated samples of oral mucosa exfoliated cells from exposed and control subjects, by micronucleus test. Results: All subjects were exposed and subjects who administered the mixes in the institution had an increased of DNA damage in comparison with the pharmaceutical staff that prepared it and wear the primary protection barriers properly. Conclusions: These results underline the efficiency of genotoxicological biomarkers in detecting the exposure levels and the deleterious effect of cytostatics on occupationally exposed personal.

  13. Personal noise exposures of operators of agricultural tractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aybek, Ali; Kamer, H Atil; Arslan, Selçuk

    2010-03-01

    Approximately one million agricultural tractors are used in Turkey for crop production and about one-third of the population lives in rural areas. The objectives of this study were to determine sound pressure levels, A-weighted sound pressure levels, and the permissible exposure time for tractors without cabins, field-installed cabins, and original cabins at ear level of agricultural tractor operators for following machines: plows, cultivators, top soil cultivators, rotary tillers, tool combinations (harrow+roller), mechanical drills, pneumatic drills, chemical applicators, fertilizer applicators, drum mowers, balers, and forage harvesters. Variance analyses showed that type of operation, type of cabins, and operation x cabin interactions were statistically significant (Ptractors without cabins. Sound pressure levels at 4000Hz center frequency was reduced 2-13dB and 4-18dB by using a field-installed cabin and an original cabin, respectively. The measured A-weighted equivalent sound pressure levels were compared to the threshold limit level, and was concluded that depending on the cabin types used, the operators could usually work from 4 to 6h a day without suffering from noise induced inconveniences while 2-3h is permissible for plowing and forage harvesting on tractors without cabins. Due to timeliness considerations in agricultural machine operations, a farmer would not be willing to interrupt the operation based on permissible exposure time set by the standards. Based on the findings of this study, particularly an original cabin is recommended to reduce machine-induced noise below the danger limit during agricultural machine operations. Personal protection devices should be used when tractors are operated without cabins, which could reduce A-weighted equivalent sound pressure levels by 10-45dB(A).

  14. Mobile Personal Health System for Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis J. Mena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The ARVmobile v1.0 is a multiplatform mobile personal health monitor (PHM application for ambulatory blood pressure (ABP monitoring that has the potential to aid in the acquisition and analysis of detailed profile of ABP and heart rate (HR, improve the early detection and intervention of hypertension, and detect potential abnormal BP and HR levels for timely medical feedback. The PHM system consisted of ABP sensor to detect BP and HR signals and smartphone as receiver to collect the transmitted digital data and process them to provide immediate personalized information to the user. Android and Blackberry platforms were developed to detect and alert of potential abnormal values, offer friendly graphical user interface for elderly people, and provide feedback to professional healthcare providers via e-mail. ABP data were obtained from twenty-one healthy individuals (>51 years to test the utility of the PHM application. The ARVmobile v1.0 was able to reliably receive and process the ABP readings from the volunteers. The preliminary results demonstrate that the ARVmobile 1.0 application could be used to perform a detailed profile of ABP and HR in an ordinary daily life environment, bedsides of estimating potential diagnostic thresholds of abnormal BP variability measured as average real variability.

  15. Exposure of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients to particulate matter: relationships between personal and ambient air concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebelt, S T; Petkau, A J; Vedal, S; Fisher, T V; Brauer, M

    2000-07-01

    Mot time-series studies of particulate air pollution and acute health outcomes assess exposure of the study population using fixed-site outdoor measurements. To address the issue of exposure misclassification, we evaluate the relationship between ambient particle concentrations and personal exposures of a population expected to be at risk of particle health effects. Sampling was conducted within the Vancouver metropolitan area during April-September 1998. Sixteen subjects (non-smoking, ages 54-86) with physician-diagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) wore personal PM2.5 monitors for seven 24-hr periods, randomly spaced approximately 1.5 weeks apart. Time-activity logs and dwelling characteristics data were also obtained for each subject. Daily 24-hr ambient PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were measured at five fixed sites spaced throughout the study region. SO4(2-), which is found almost exclusively in the fine particle fraction and which does not have major indoor sources, was measured in all PM2.5 samples as an indicator of accumulation mode particulate matter of ambient origin. The mean personal and ambient PM2.5 concentrations were 18 micrograms/m3 and 11 micrograms/m3, respectively. In analyses relating personal and ambient measurements, ambient concentrations were expressed either as an average of the values obtained from five ambient monitoring sites for each day of personal sampling, or as the concentration obtained at the ambient site closest to each subject's home. The mean personal to ambient concentration ratio of all samples was 1.75 (range = 0.24 to 10.60) for PM2.5, and 0.75 (range = 0.09 to 1.42) for SO4(2-). Regression analyses were conducted for each subject separately and on pooled data. The median correlation (Pearson's r) between personal and average ambient PM2.5 concentrations was 0.48 (range = -0.68 to 0.83). Using SO4(2-) as the exposure metric, the median r between personal and average ambient concentrations was 0.96 (range

  16. Biological monitoring of exposure to tebuconazole in winegrowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fustinoni, Silvia; Mercadante, Rosa; Polledri, Elisa; Rubino, Federico Maria; Mandic-Rajcevic, Stefan; Vianello, Giorgio; Colosio, Claudio; Moretto, Angelo

    2014-11-01

    Tebuconazole (TEB) is a fungicide widely used in vineyards and is a suspected teratogen for humans. The aim of this research was to identify urinary biomarkers and the best sampling time for the biological monitoring of exposure to TEB in agricultural workers. Seven vineyard workers of the Monferrato region, Piedemont, Italy, were investigated for a total of 12 workdays. They treated the vineyards with TEB for 1-2 consecutive days, one of them for 3 days. During each application coveralls, underwears, hand washing liquids and head coverings were used to estimate dermal exposure. For biomonitoring, spot samples of urine from each individual were collected starting from 24 h before the first application, continuing during the application, and again after the application for about 48 h. TEB and its metabolites TEB-OH and TEB-COOH were measured by liquid chromatography/triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. TEB contamination of coveralls and total dermal exposure showed median levels of 6180 and 1020 μg. Urinary TEB-OH was the most abundant metabolite; its excretion rate peaked within 24 h after product application (post 24 h). In this time frame, median levels of TEB-OH and TEB-COOH ranged from 8.0 to 387.8 μg/l and from 5.7 to 102.9 μg/l, respectively, with a ratio between the two metabolites of about 3.5. The total amount of urinary metabolites (U-TEBeq) post 24 h was significantly correlated with both TEB on coveralls and total dermal exposure (Pearson's r=0.756 and 0.577). The amount of metabolites excreted in urine represented about 17% of total dermal TEB exposure. Our results suggest that TEB-OH and TEB-COOH in post-exposure urine samples are promising candidates for biomonitoring TEB exposure in agricultural workers.

  17. Beryllium contamination and exposure monitoring in an inhalation laboratory setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Caroline; Audusseau, Séverine; Salehi, Fariba; Truchon, Ginette; Chevalier, Gaston; Mazer, Bruce; Kennedy, Greg; Zayed, Joseph

    2010-02-01

    Beryllium (Be) is used in several forms: pure metal, beryllium oxide, and as an alloy with copper, aluminum, or nickel. Beryllium oxide, beryllium metal, and beryllium alloys are the main forms present in the workplace, with inhalation being the primary route of exposure. Cases of workers with sensitization or chronic beryllium disease challenge the scientific community for a better understanding of Be toxicity. Therefore, a toxicological inhalation study using a murine model was performed in our laboratory in order to identify the toxic effects related to different particle sizes and chemical forms of Be. This article attempts to provide information regarding the relative effectiveness of the environmental monitoring and exposure protection program that was enacted to protect staff (students and researchers) in this controlled animal beryllium inhalation exposure experiment. This includes specific attention to particle migration control through intensive housekeeping and systematic airborne and surface monitoring. Results show that the protective measures applied during this research have been effective. The highest airborne Be concentration in the laboratory was less than one-tenth of the Quebec OEL (occupational exposure limit) of 0.15 microg/m(3). Considering the protection factor of 10(3) of the powered air-purifying respirator used in this research, the average exposure level would be 0.03 x 10(- 4) microg/m(3), which is extremely low. Moreover, with the exception of one value, all average Be concentrations on surfaces were below the Quebec Standard guideline level of 3 microg/100 cm(2) for Be contamination. Finally, all beryllium lymphocyte proliferation tests for the staff were not higher than controls.

  18. Personal exposures and microenvironment concentrations of PM 2.5, VOC, NO 2 and CO in Oxford, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, H. K.; Kendall, M.; Ferrier, H.; Lindup, I.; Alm, S.; Hänninen, O.; Jantunen, M.; Mathys, P.; Colvile, R.; Ashmore, M. R.; Cullinan, P.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M. J.

    Between 1998 and 2000 in Oxford, UK, simultaneous personal exposures and microenvironmental measurements (home indoor, home outdoor and work indoor) to fine particulate matters PM 2.5, volatile organic compounds (VOC), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) and carbon monoxide (CO) were carried out once per person among 50 adults over a 48-h period. Thirty-seven elements in PM 2.5 and 30 different VOCs were analysed. Questionnaires were distributed to record their time-activity patterns and exposure-related information. Results showed that participants spent more time (89.5%) in all indoors than in other microenvironments. Geometric mean (GM) of personal and home indoor levels of PM 2.5, 14 elements (aluminium, arsenic, bromine, calcium, copper, iron, gallium, potassium, sodium, phosphorus, lead, selenium, silicon, titanium), total VOC (TVOC) and 8 individual compounds (nonane, decane, undecane, trimethylbenzene, toluene, benzaldehyde, alpha-pinene and d-limonene) were over 20% higher than their GM outdoor levels. Those of NO 2, 5 aromatic VOCs (benzene, o-xylene, ethylbenzene, propylbenzene, m, p-xylene) and 5 other elements (chlorine, magnesium, manganese, sulphur, zinc) were close to their GM outdoor levels. For PM 2.5 and TVOC, personal exposures and residential indoor levels (in GM) were about 2 times higher among the tobacco-smoke exposed group compared to the non-smoke exposed group, suggesting that smoking is an important determinant of these exposures. Determinants for CO were visualised by real-time monitoring, and we showed that the peak levels of personal exposure to CO were associated with smoking, cooking and transportation activities. Moderate to good correlations were only found between the personal exposures and residential indoor levels for both PM 2.5 ( r=0.60, pp=0.003).

  19. Detailed characterization of welding fumes in personal exposure samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quémerais, B.; Mino, James; Amin, M. R.; Golshahi, H.; Izadi, H.

    2015-05-01

    The objective of the project was to develop a method allowing for detailed characterization of welding particles including particle number concentration, size distribution, surface chemistry and chemical composition of individual particles, as well as metal concentration of various welding fumes in personal exposure samples using regular sampling equipment. A sample strategy was developed to evaluate the variation of the collection methods on mass concentration. Samples were collected with various samplers and filters at two different locations using our collection system. The first location was using a robotic welding system while the second was manual welding. Collected samples were analysed for mass concentration using gravimetryand metal concentration using ICP/OES. More advanced analysis was performed on selected filters using X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy to determine surface composition of the particles, and X-Ray Diffraction to determine chemical composition of the fumes. Results showed that the robotic system had a lot of variation in space when the collection system was located close to the weld. Collection efficiency was found to be quite variable depending upon the type of filter. As well, metal concentrations in blank filters were dependent upon the type of filter with MCE presenting with the highest blank values. Results obtained with the XRD and XPS systems showed that it was possible to analyse a small of powdered welding fume sample but results on filters were not conclusive.

  20. Highly sensitive detection of urinary cadmium to assess personal exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argun, Avni A.; Banks, Ashley M.; Merlen, Gwendolynne; Tempelman, Linda A. [Giner, Inc., 89 Rumford Ave., Newton 02466, MA United States (United States); Becker, Michael F.; Schuelke, Thomas [Fraunhofer USA – CCL, 1449 Engineering Research Ct., East Lansing 48824, MI (United States); Dweik, Badawi M., E-mail: bdweik@ginerinc.com [Giner, Inc., 89 Rumford Ave., Newton 02466, MA United States (United States)

    2013-04-22

    Highlights: ► An electrochemical sensor capable of detecting cadmium at parts-per-billion levels in urine. ► A novel fabrication method for Boron-Doped Diamond (BDD) ultramicroelectrode (UME) arrays. ► Unique combination of BDD UME arrays and a differential pulse voltammetry algorithm. ► High sensitivity, high reproducibility, and very low noise levels. ► Opportunity for portable operation to assess on-site personal exposure. -- Abstract: A series of Boron-Doped Diamond (BDD) ultramicroelectrode arrays were fabricated and investigated for their performance as electrochemical sensors to detect trace level metals such as cadmium. The steady-state diffusion behavior of these sensors was validated using cyclic voltammetry followed by electrochemical detection of cadmium in water and in human urine to demonstrate high sensitivity (>200 μA ppb{sup −1} cm{sup −2}) and low background current (<4 nA). When an array of ultramicroelectrodes was positioned with optimal spacing, these BDD sensors showed a sigmoidal diffusion behavior. They also demonstrated high accuracy with linear dose dependence for quantification of cadmium in a certified reference river water sample from the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) as well as in a human urine sample spiked with 0.25–1 ppb cadmium.

  1. Hepatitis B immunisation in persons not previously exposed to hepatitis B or with unknown exposure status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathew, Joseph L; El Dib, Regina; Mathew, Preethy J

    2008-01-01

    The benefits and harms of hepatitis B vaccination in persons not previously exposed to hepatitis B infection or with unknown exposure status have not been established.......The benefits and harms of hepatitis B vaccination in persons not previously exposed to hepatitis B infection or with unknown exposure status have not been established....

  2. Personal dose monitoring of employees at the institute of modern physics, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G; Li, S; Yao, N; Zhu, X; Li, Z; Zheng, H

    2001-01-01

    The radiation field at the accelerator facility consists of radiation produced immediately and of secondary radiation induced by activation etc. As the accelerator building and the experimental hall are closed and inaccessible during accelerator operation, the exposure received by the employees at the IMP (Institute of Modern Physics) comes almost totally from the induced radiation. The methods and the results of personal dose monitoring from 1986 to 1999 at the IMP are presented. During the period, the total number of monitored individuals was 1960, and the average annual effective dose was 0.10 mSv. The number recording less than 0.1 mSv of effective dose was 1471 individuals. amounting to 77% of the total. Only six individuals had received effective doses between 5.0 mSv and 10 mSv. The maximum effective dose of 10 mSv was received by workers repairing the accelerator.

  3. Quality assurance: using the exposure index and the deviation index to monitor radiation exposure for portable chest radiographs in neonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Mervyn D. [Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Riley Children' s Hospital, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Riley Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Cooper, Matt L.; Piersall, Kelly [Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Riley Children' s Hospital, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Apgar, Bruce K. [Agfa HealthCare Corporation, Greenville, SC (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Many methods are used to track patient exposure during acquisition of plain film radiographs. A uniform international standard would aid this process. To evaluate and describe a new, simple quality-assurance method for monitoring patient exposure. This method uses the ''exposure index'' and the ''deviation index,'' recently developed by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM). The deviation index measures variation from an ideal target exposure index value. Our objective was to determine whether the exposure index and the deviation index can be used to monitor and control exposure drift over time. Our Agfa workstation automatically keeps a record of the exposure index for every patient. The exposure index and deviation index were calculated on 1,884 consecutive neonatal chest images. Exposure of a neonatal chest phantom was performed as a control. Acquisition of the exposure index and calculation of the deviation index was easily achieved. The weekly mean exposure index of the phantom and the patients was stable and showed <10% change during the study, indicating no exposure drift during the study period. The exposure index is an excellent tool to monitor the consistency of patient exposures. It does not indicate the exposure value used, but is an index to track compliance with a pre-determined target exposure. (orig.)

  4. Contraceptive efficacy of the personal hormone monitoring system Persona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trussell, J

    1999-07-01

    This is a commentary on the contraceptive effectiveness of the personal hormone-monitoring system Persona; it points out the various errors committed in computing method pregnancy rates. The modifications presented by Bonnar et al. on the incorrect procedure for computing method pregnancy rates are criticized as erroneous because the denominator includes cycles in which there is no risk of a method pregnancy according to the authors' algorithm for classifying pregnancy in an imperfect-use cycle. It is also claimed that the new exercise is a more complicated and less accurate way of computing for pregnancy rates by comparison with the simpler alternative. Since this new algorithm, used in the Persona system, is based on flawed logic, the annual risk of pregnancy is actually higher than the estimated 6% among women using Persona and having intercourse in each cycle except on red days.

  5. Does assessment of personal exposure matter during experimental neurocognitive testing in MRI-related magnetic fields?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nierop, Lotte E; Christopher-de Vries, Y.; Slottje, Pauline; Kromhout, Hans

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine whether the use of quantitative personal exposure measurements in experimental research would result in better estimates of the associations between static and time-varying magnetic field exposure and neurocognitive test performance than when exposure categories were based sole

  6. The overview of occupational exposure monitoring in Lithuania (1999-2004)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griciene, B.; Urboniene, A.; Ladygiene, R. [Radiation Protection Centre, Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2006-07-01

    This study deals with the analysis of situation and results of individual dose measurements of external and internal exposure from the year 1999 to 2004 in Lithuania. The legal basis for radiation protection was established according to the IAEA, ICRP, E.C. and other international requirements and recommendations. System of monitoring of occupational exposure was created in the regulatory authority in radiation protection in country - in the Radiation Protection Centre (R.P.C.). The R.P.C. operates the State Register of occupational exposure doses. Additionally to doses, registered by the personal dosimetric service of the R.P.C., doses of workers of Ignalina NPP measured by their own personal dosimetric service are included in the register. For direct measurement of internal exposure the whole body counters with Ge detector and NaI(Tl) thyroid counters at the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) and Radiation Protection Centre (R.P.C.) are used. The whole body counter allows detecting radionuclides with gamma energies 50 keV to 3 MeV. Internal monitoring is carried out for Ignalina NPP workers since 1988 and nuclear medicine workers working with Tc-{sup 99m}, I-131 since 2005. Intercomparison measurements of internally exposed Ignalina NPP workers between Ignalina NPP and R.P.C. dosimetry laboratories were performed in 2005. Bioassay measurements are performed at the Radiation Protection Centre since 1999. Urine samplers are analyzed by means of gamma spectrometry, liquid scintillation counting and measurements of gross beta activity after chemical separation. For assessment of committed effective and equivalent doses the L.U.D.E.P. and I.M.B.A. software packages are used. Recently two services for external dosimetry are operating in Lithuania. One of them is placed in Ignalina NPP. It evaluates doses of workers of Ignalina NPP workers (about 2900 persons) and outside workers (about 1500 persons). The personal dosimetry laboratory at the Radiation Protection Centre

  7. A Model-Driven Framework to Develop Personalized Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algimantas Venčkauskas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Both distributed healthcare systems and the Internet of Things (IoT are currently hot topics. The latter is a new computing paradigm to enable advanced capabilities in engineering various applications, including those for healthcare. For such systems, the core social requirement is the privacy/security of the patient information along with the technical requirements (e.g., energy consumption and capabilities for adaptability and personalization. Typically, the functionality of the systems is predefined by the patient’s data collected using sensor networks along with medical instrumentation; then, the data is transferred through the Internet for treatment and decision-making. Therefore, systems creation is indeed challenging. In this paper, we propose a model-driven framework to develop the IoT-based prototype and its reference architecture for personalized health monitoring (PHM applications. The framework contains a multi-layered structure with feature-based modeling and feature model transformations at the top and the application software generation at the bottom. We have validated the framework using available tools and developed an experimental PHM to test some aspects of the functionality of the reference architecture in real time. The main contribution of the paper is the development of the model-driven computational framework with emphasis on the synergistic effect of security and energy issues.

  8. Future challenges regarding personal exposure to air pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascual Pérez Ballesta

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of population exposure as a direct indicator of the impact of pollution on public health is a consequence of the fact that the final aim of air quality measurements is the protection of the individuals' health. This article presents a picture of the exposure to air pollutants in different environments: industrial hygiene, indoor pollution and air quality legislation. The reduction of the health risk of the population to air pollution exposure opens new challenges when defining exposure indicators, control strategies and an effective assessment human exposure.

  9. Mobile Messaging Services-Based Personal Electrocardiogram Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf A. Tahat

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A mobile monitoring system utilizing Bluetooth and mobile messaging services (MMS/SMSs with low-cost hardware equipment is proposed. A proof of concept prototype has been developed and implemented to enable transmission of an Electrocardiogram (ECG signal and body temperature of a patient, which can be expanded to include other vital signs. Communication between a mobile smart-phone and the ECG and temperature acquisition apparatus is implemented using the popular personal area network standard specification Bluetooth. When utilizing MMS for transmission, the mobile phone plots the received ECG signal and displays the temperature using special application software running on the client mobile phone itself, where the plot can be captured and saved as an image before transmission. Alternatively, SMS can be selected as a transmission means, where in this scenario, dedicated application software is required at the receiving device. The experimental setup can be operated for monitoring from anywhere in the globe covered by a cellular network that offers data services.

  10. Mobile messaging services-based personal electrocardiogram monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahat, Ashraf A

    2009-01-01

    A mobile monitoring system utilizing Bluetooth and mobile messaging services (MMS/SMSs) with low-cost hardware equipment is proposed. A proof of concept prototype has been developed and implemented to enable transmission of an Electrocardiogram (ECG) signal and body temperature of a patient, which can be expanded to include other vital signs. Communication between a mobile smart-phone and the ECG and temperature acquisition apparatus is implemented using the popular personal area network standard specification Bluetooth. When utilizing MMS for transmission, the mobile phone plots the received ECG signal and displays the temperature using special application software running on the client mobile phone itself, where the plot can be captured and saved as an image before transmission. Alternatively, SMS can be selected as a transmission means, where in this scenario, dedicated application software is required at the receiving device. The experimental setup can be operated for monitoring from anywhere in the globe covered by a cellular network that offers data services.

  11. Mobile Messaging Services-Based Personal Electrocardiogram Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahat, Ashraf A.

    2009-01-01

    A mobile monitoring system utilizing Bluetooth and mobile messaging services (MMS/SMSs) with low-cost hardware equipment is proposed. A proof of concept prototype has been developed and implemented to enable transmission of an Electrocardiogram (ECG) signal and body temperature of a patient, which can be expanded to include other vital signs. Communication between a mobile smart-phone and the ECG and temperature acquisition apparatus is implemented using the popular personal area network standard specification Bluetooth. When utilizing MMS for transmission, the mobile phone plots the received ECG signal and displays the temperature using special application software running on the client mobile phone itself, where the plot can be captured and saved as an image before transmission. Alternatively, SMS can be selected as a transmission means, where in this scenario, dedicated application software is required at the receiving device. The experimental setup can be operated for monitoring from anywhere in the globe covered by a cellular network that offers data services. PMID:19707531

  12. Contribution of various microenvironments to the daily personal exposure to ultrafine particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Kjeldsen, Birthe Uldahl; Olsen, Yulia;

    2015-01-01

    a backpack equipped with a portable monitor, continuously recording particle number concentrations (PN), in order to measure the real-time individual exposure over a period of similar to 48 h. A GPS logger was carried along with the particle monitor and allowed us to estimate the contribution of UFP exposure...

  13. Measuring personal exposure from 900MHz mobile phone base stations in Australia and Belgium using a novel personal distributed exposimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Chhavi Raj; Thielens, Arno; Redmayne, Mary; Abramson, Michael J; Billah, Baki; Sim, Malcolm R; Vermeulen, Roel; Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout; Benke, Geza

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to: i) measure personal exposure in the Global System for Mobile communications (GSM) 900MHz downlink (DL) frequency band with two systems of exposimeters, a personal distributed exposimeter (PDE) and a pair of ExpoM-RFs, ii) compare the GSM 900MHz DL exposures across various microenvironments in Australia and Belgium, and iii) evaluate the correlation between the PDE and ExpoM-RFs measurements. Personal exposure data were collected using the PDE and two ExpoM-RFs simultaneously across 34 microenvironments (17 each in Australia and Belgium) located in urban, suburban and rural areas. Summary statistics of the electric field strengths (V/m) were computed and compared across similar microenvironments in Australia and Belgium. The personal exposures across urban microenvironments were higher than those in the rural or suburban microenvironments. Likewise, the exposure levels across the outdoor were higher than those for indoor microenvironments. The five highest median exposure levels were: city centre (0.248V/m), bus (0.124V/m), railway station (0.105V/m), mountain/forest (rural) (0.057V/m), and train (0.055V/m) [Australia]; and bicycle (urban) (0.238V/m), tram station (0.238V/m), city centre (0.156V/m), residential outdoor (urban) (0.139V/m) and park (0.124V/m) [Belgium]. Exposures in the GSM900 MHz frequency band across most of the microenvironments in Australia were significantly lower than the exposures across the microenvironments in Belgium. Overall correlations between the PDE and the ExpoM-RFs measurements were high. The measured exposure levels were far below the general public reference levels recommended in the guidelines of the ICNIRP and the ARPANSA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Towards Personal Exposures: How Technology Is Changing Air Pollution and Health Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, A; Hystad, P

    2017-10-05

    We present a review of emerging technologies and how these can transform personal air pollution exposure assessment and subsequent health research. Estimating personal air pollution exposures is currently split broadly into methods for modeling exposures for large populations versus measuring exposures for small populations. Air pollution sensors, smartphones, and air pollution models capitalizing on big/new data sources offer tremendous opportunity for unifying these approaches and improving long-term personal exposure prediction at scales needed for population-based research. A multi-disciplinary approach is needed to combine these technologies to not only estimate personal exposures for epidemiological research but also determine drivers of these exposures and new prevention opportunities. While available technologies can revolutionize air pollution exposure research, ethical, privacy, logistical, and data science challenges must be met before widespread implementations occur. Available technologies and related advances in data science can improve long-term personal air pollution exposure estimates at scales needed for population-based research. This will advance our ability to evaluate the impacts of air pollution on human health and develop effective prevention strategies.

  15. Does cultural exposure partially explain the association between personality and political orientation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaowen; Mar, Raymond A; Peterson, Jordan B

    2013-11-01

    Differences in political orientation are partly rooted in personality, with liberalism predicted by Openness to Experience and conservatism by Conscientiousness. Since Openness is positively associated with intellectual and creative activities, these may help shape political orientation. We examined whether exposure to cultural activities and historical knowledge mediates the relationship between personality and political orientation. Specifically, we examined the mediational role of print exposure (Study 1), film exposure (Study 2), and knowledge of American history (Study 3). Studies 1 and 2 found that print and film exposure mediated the relationships Openness to Experience and Conscientiousness have with political orientation. In Study 3, knowledge of American history mediated the relationship between Openness and political orientation, but not the association between Conscientiousness and political orientation. Exposure to culture, and a corollary of this exposure in the form of acquiring knowledge, can therefore partially explain the associations between personality and political orientation.

  16. Stochastic modeling of near-field exposure to parabens in personal care products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Csiszar, Susan A.; Ernstoff, Alexi; Fantke, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Exposure assessment is a key step in determining risks to chemicals in consumer goods, including personal care products (PCPs). Exposure models can be used to estimate exposures to chemicals in the absence of biomonitoring data and as tools in chemical risk prioritization and screening. We apply...... and pathway-specific exposures during both the use and disposal stages of a product. As a case study, we stochastically quantified population level exposures to parabens in PCPs, and compared estimates with biomarker values. We estimated exposure based on the usage of PCPs in the female US population, taking...

  17. Personal exposure to household particulate matter, household activities and heart rate variability among housewives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Li Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The association between indoor air pollution and heart rate variability (HRV has been well-documented. Little is known about effects of household activities on indoor air quality and HRV alteration. To investigate changes in HRV associated with changes in personal exposure to household particulate matter (PM and household activities. METHODS: We performed 24-h continuous monitoring of electrocardiography and measured household PM exposure among 50 housewives. The outcome variables were log10-transformed standard deviation of normal-to-normal (NN intervals (SDNN and the square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent NN intervals (r-MSSD. Household PM was measured as the mass concentration of PM with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm (PM2.5. We used mixed-effects models to examine the association between household PM2.5 exposure and log10-transformed HRV indices. RESULTS: After controlling for potential confounders, an interquartile range change in household PM2.5 with 1- to 4-h mean was associated with 1.25-4.31% decreases in SDNN and 0.12-3.71% decreases in r-MSSD. Stir-frying, cleaning with detergent and burning incense may increase household PM2.5 concentrations and modify the effects of household PM2.5 on HRV indices among housewives. CONCLUSIONS: Indoor PM2.5 exposures were associated with decreased SDNN and r-MSSD among housewives, especially during stir-frying, cleaning with detergent and burning incense.

  18. Personal exposure to cough released droplets in quiescent environment and ventilated spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licina, Dusan; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Pantelic, Jovan;

    2014-01-01

    This study shows the results of an experimental investigation of personal exposure to cough released droplets. Human body is resembled by a thermal manikin with a body shape and surface temperature distribution of a real person. The objective of the study is to examine personal exposure of the ma......This study shows the results of an experimental investigation of personal exposure to cough released droplets. Human body is resembled by a thermal manikin with a body shape and surface temperature distribution of a real person. The objective of the study is to examine personal exposure...... of the manikin exposed to cough released droplets in a calm indoor environment and under uniform air patterns relative to a human body. The findings show that human body orientation relative to the direction and magnitude of invading flow from the surroundings considerably modifies personal exposure. Surrounding...... uniform flows is most of the scenarios decrease the exposure to cough droplets, however not in all scenarios. Study results show that understanding of the air patterns should be prioritized in ventilation design practice....

  19. Applicability of concentrations obtained by working environment measurement to assessment of personal exposure concentrations of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shinobu; Natsumeda, Shuichiro; Hara, Kunio; Yoshida, Satoru; Sakurai, Haruhiko; Ichiba, Masayoshi

    2014-01-01

    This study determined the applicability of Japanese working environment measurements to assessment of personal exposure concentrations of chemicals by comparing both levels of concentrations. The chemicals measured in this study comprised eight kinds of vaporous chemicals as well as two kinds of chemicals in dust. Personal exposure measurements, Japanese working environment measurements and spot sampling measurements were undertaken in 70 companies. Personal exposure concentrations and the arithmetic mean value (EA2) of the working environment measurement concentrations obtained according to the Japanese working environment control system had statistically positive correlations (r=0.732-0.893, pvalues of personal exposure concentrations divided by EA2 ranged from 0.17 to 7.69 for vaporous chemicals and from 0.27 to 18.06 for dust. There was a relatively large difference between the personal exposure concentrations and the EA2 obtained in weighing, forming and bonding use-processes. In such cases, the B-value measured in ten minutes in the Japanese working environment control system, which is almost the same as the spot measurement concentration in this study, is supposed to be substituted for the EA2 value. Ten times the EA2 of the working environment measurement concentrations, or ten times the B-value, obtained according to the Japanese working environment control system can be used to conservatively estimate the personal exposure concentrations in EU workplaces as well as in occupational exposure scenarios of the Regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals.

  20. PORTFOLIO INVOLVED INTO STUDENTS PERSONALLY-PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. GREBENNIKOV

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern evaluation activity in education is oriented to students personal achievements that’s may be reflected in different portfolio variants. In article we show the advantages of student personally-professional abilities and competencies assessment based on authentic representative portfolio. We show, that the portfolio if students competencies assessment method, students learning-vocational activity control technology and higher educational establishment informational - educational environment e-learning resources increasing factor. To accordance of author’s opinion, the portfolio using allowed to solve many didactical problems, as student competencies evaluation method and learning-vocational activity control technology. The most important is students support in personallyprofessional self-determination and sociallyprofessional competence regulative component formation, because this component is determined the students preparedness to skills and knowledge’s successful management, and to permanent personallyprofessional improving etc. The portfolio formation interrelated with learning-investigate, scientificinvestigate and scientific-practical students activity, because the students investigate activity integrated the creativity, analysis, self-control, independence, personal cognitive activity self-organization, skills of purposes and problems formation, generating of its solving methods. Its quantity evaluation is important scientific and applied problem. The students achievements in learning-investigate, scientific-investigate and scientific-practical students activity is practical criterion of his knowledge’s completeness, students investigate competence components and parameter if students individual achievements in investigate activity. The elaborated students’ evaluation method as creative independent self-controlled persona may be used in portfolio technology for individual educational

  1. New applications of biological monitoring for environmental exposure and susceptibility monitoring. Report of the 7th International Symposium on Biological Monitoring in Occupational and Environmental Health.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepers, P.T.J.; Heussen, G.A.

    2008-01-01

    Validated biological monitoring methods are used in large-scale monitoring programmes involving determination of ubiquitous environmental pollutants such as metals and pesticides. Some programmes focus on children's exposure, and policies to prevent adverse health effects. Most of these initiatives

  2. New applications of biological monitoring for environmental exposure and susceptibility monitoring. Report of the 7th International Symposium on Biological Monitoring in Occupational and Environmental Health.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepers, P.T.J.; Heussen, G.A.

    2008-01-01

    Validated biological monitoring methods are used in large-scale monitoring programmes involving determination of ubiquitous environmental pollutants such as metals and pesticides. Some programmes focus on children's exposure, and policies to prevent adverse health effects. Most of these initiatives

  3. Comparative Measurements of Cosmic Radiation Monitors for Aircrew Exposure Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getley, I. L.; Bennett, L. G. I.; Boudreau, M. L.; Lewis, B. J.; Green, A. R.; Butler, A.; Takada, M.; Nakamura, T.

    Various commercially available electronic personal dosimeters (EPDs) have recently been flown on numerous scheduled airline flights in order to determine their viability as small, convenient monitors to measure cosmic radiation at altitude. Often, frequent flyers or airline crew will acquire such dosimeters and report the readings from their flights, without due regard for the mixed radiation field at altitude, which is different from the intended fields on land. A sampling of EPDs has been compared to two types of spectrometers, which measure the total radiation spectrum. The "HAWK" tissue equivalent proportional counter is considered a reference instrument and measures the total dose equivalent H*(10). The Liulin-4N and 4SN linear energy transfer spectrometers each have a silicon semiconductor-based PIN diode detector which provides an absorbed dose, D, but have been further developed to provide H*(10). A Thermo Electron FH41B and B-10, and EPD-N2, and several personal dosimeters (Fuji NRY-21 and NRF-20, and RADOS DIS-100) were also flown.

  4. Comparative Measurements of Cosmic Radiation Monitors for Aircrew Exposure Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getley, I. L.; Bennett, L. G. I.; Boudreau, M. L.; Lewis, B. J.; Green, A. R.; Butler, A.; Takada, M.; Nakamura, T.

    Various commercially available electronic personal dosimeters (EPDs) have recently been flown on numerous scheduled airline flights in order to determine their viability as small, convenient monitors to measure cosmic radiation at altitude. Often, frequent flyers or airline crew will acquire such dosimeters and report the readings from their flights, without due regard for the mixed radiation field at altitude, which is different from the intended fields on land. A sampling of EPDs has been compared to two types of spectrometers, which measure the total radiation spectrum. The “HAWK” tissue equivalent proportional counter is considered a reference instrument and measures the total dose equivalent H * (10). The Liulin-4N and 4SN linear energy transfer spectrometers each have a silicon semiconductor-based PIN diode detector which provides an absorbed dose, D, but have been further developed to provide H * (10). A Thermo Electron FH41B and B-10, and EPD-N2, and several personal dosimeters (Fuji NRY-21 and NRF-20, and RADOS DIS-100) were also flown.

  5. Personal PM(2.5) exposure among wildland firefighters working at prescribed forest burns in Southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adetona, Olorunfemi; Dunn, Kevin; Hall, Daniel B; Achtemeier, Gary; Stock, Allison; Naeher, Luke P

    2011-08-01

    This study investigated occupational exposure to wood and vegetative smoke in a group of 28 forest firefighters at prescribed forest burns in a southeastern U.S. forest during the winters of 2003-2005. During burn activities, 203 individual person-day PM(2.5) and 149 individual person-day CO samples were collected; during non-burn activities, 37 person-day PM(2.5) samples were collected as controls. Time-activity diaries and post-work shift questionnaires were administered to identify factors influencing smoke exposure and to determine how accurately the firefighters' qualitative assessment estimated their personal level of smoke exposure with discrete responses: "none" or "very little," "low," "moderate," "high," and "very high." An average of 6.7 firefighters were monitored per burn, with samples collected on 30 burn days and 7 non-burn days. Size of burn plots ranged from 1-2745 acres (avg = 687.8). Duration of work shift ranged from 6.8-19.4 hr (avg = 10.3 hr) on burn days. Concentration of PM(2.5) ranged from 5.9-2673 μg/m(3) on burn days. Geometric mean PM(2.5) exposure was 280 μg/m(3) (95% CL = 140, 557 μg/m(3), n = 177) for burn day samples, and 16 μg/m(3) (95% CL = 10, 26 μg/m(3), n = 35) on non-burn days. Average measured PM(2.5) differed across levels of the firefighters' categorical self-assessments of exposure (p personal CO averaged over the run times of PM(2.5) pumps were correlated (correlation coefficient estimate, r = 0.79; CLs: 0.72, 0.85). Overall occupational exposures to particulate matter were low, but results indicate that exposure could exceed the ACGIH®-recommended threshold limit value of 3 mg/m(3) for respirable particulate matter in a few extreme situations. Self-assessed exposure levels agreed with measured concentrations of PM(2.5). Correlation analysis shows that either PM(2.5) or CO could be used as a surrogate measure of exposure to woodsmoke at prescribed burns.

  6. Relative exposure to fine particulate matter and VOCs between transport microenvironments in Dublin: Personal exposure and uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNabola, A.; Broderick, B. M.; Gill, L. W.

    To compare the relative exposure to and uptake of air pollutants between modes of commuter transport, measurements of personal exposure to PM 2.5 and traffic-related VOCs were obtained over an 18-month period. In total, 468 samples were recorded comprising journeys equally divided between the four main modes of commuter transport in Dublin, Ireland: the private car, pedestrian, public bus and cyclist. Samples were recorded along two fixed routes approaching/exiting the city centre at fixed times of the day (morning and evening peak traffic flows, 08:00-09:00 and 17:00-18:00). Samples were measured using a high flow gravimetric personal sampler for PM 2.5 and a low flow vacuum operated bag sampler for VOCs. Sampling was always carried out simultaneously between two modes of transport to ensure a direct comparison regardless of meteorological and traffic conditions. Significant differences were found between the personal exposures recorded in the four modes investigated. The car commuter was found to have the highest exposure to VOCs, while the bus commuter was found to have the highest exposure to PM 2.5. The pedestrian was consistently found to have the lowest exposure. Significant differences were also found between the two fixed routes investigated. However, as there were differences in physiological states, exposure durations and exposure levels between the four modes of transport, it was deemed necessary to estimate the total uptake of pollutants by means of a numerical human respiratory tract model. The results showed the cyclist to have the highest deposition of PM 2.5 in the lungs followed by the bus, pedestrian and car. The car passenger had the highest absorption of VOCs followed by the cyclist, pedestrian and bus. Hence, the findings of the human respiratory tract model give a significantly different impression of relative uptake of pollutants to the relative exposure concentrations found initially.

  7. Biological monitoring and questionnaire for assessing exposure to ethylenebisdithiocarbamates in a multicenter European field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fustinoni, S; Campo, L; Liesivuori, J; Pennanen, S; Vergieva, T; van Amelsvoort, Lgpm; Bosetti, C; Van Loveren, H; Colosio, C

    2008-09-01

    This study deals with pesticide exposure profile in some European countries with a specific focus on ethylenebisdithiocarbamates (EBDC). In all, 55 Bulgarian greenhouse workers, 51 Finnish potato farmers, 48 Italian vineyard workers, 42 Dutch floriculture farmers, and 52 Bulgarian zineb producers entered the study. Each group was matched with a group of not occupationally exposed subjects. Exposure data were gained through self-administered questionnaires and measuring ethylenethiourea (ETU) in two spot urine samples collected, respectively, before the beginning of seasonal exposure (T0), and after 30 days, at the end of the exposure period (T30). Controls underwent a similar protocol. Study agriculture workers were involved in mixing and loading pesticides, application of pesticide mixture with mechanical or manual equipments, re-entry activities, and cleaning equipments. Chemical workers were involved in synthesis, quality controls, and packing activities. The number of pesticides to whom these subjects were exposed varied from one (zineb production) to eight (potato farmers). The use of personal protective devices was variegate and regarded both aerial and dermal penetration routes. EBDC exposure, assessed by T30 urinary ETU, was found to follow the order: greenhouse workers, zineb producers, vineyard workers, potato farmers, floriculture farmers with median levels of 49.6, 23.0, 11.8, 7.5, and 0.9 microg/g creatinine; the last group having ETU at the same level of controls (approximately 0.5 microg/g creatinine). Among agriculture workers, pesticide application, especially using manual equipment, seems to be the major determinant in explaining internal dose. Although the analysis of self-administered questionnaires evidenced difficulties especially related to lack and/or poor quality of reported data, biological monitoring confirms to be a powerful tool in assessing pesticide exposure.

  8. Modeling, simulation and measurement of radiation exposure using electronic personal dosimeters on realistic and ICRU phantoms

    CERN Document Server

    Fuelle, D

    2003-01-01

    Exposure studies with voxel phantoms were carried out to understand the new personal dose measurand Hp(10) measured by personal dosimeters under realistic wearing conditions. Two simulated realistic voxel phantoms and the dosimeter assembly are described in a first step. Conditions such as photon fluence, radiation field geometry, and photon energy for simulating the external photon fields at the realistic model are specified. Person-related effective doses are calculated to evaluate the personal dose. The relation between measured deep personal dose and effective dose is demonstrated and discussed by means of the simulated response function of the dosimeters at realistic phantoms.

  9. Initial experience with personal digital assistant-based reflectance photoplethysmograph for free tissue transfer monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, Brendan C; Futran, Neal D; Zang, Billy; Scharf, John E

    2003-08-01

    Improved microsurgical technique has resulted in a high percentage of successful free tissue transfers. When a tissue transfer fails in the head and neck, however, the results are orocutaneous fistulas, carotid artery exposure, and deformity that adds morbidity, expense, and may delay adjuvant therapy. Postoperative monitoring of tissue perfusion can detect early problems in free tissue transfer that may allow for early intervention and salvage. The authors have demonstrated that reflectance photoplethysmography can detect perfusion changes in free tissue transfer within 5 minutes of a pedicle "insult" intraoperatively. Normative data for viable flaps from various donor sites have been established. The authors now report their initial experience with a newly developed reflectance photoplethysmograph based on a hand-held computer for routine clinical use. Their results are compared with a conventional surveillance protocol that included observation, bleeding to pin prick, and bedside duplex scanning of the vascular pedicle. In a series of 30 free tissue transfers (29 patients), there was one ischemic event (skin paddle loss only), which was detected by the monitor. The monitor was able to predict correctly (one flap) survival of a free tissue transfer even when duplex ultrasonic data were indicative of an absence of perfusion. Personal digital assistant-based photoplethysmography appears to be a promising device for bedside diagnosis of free tissue transfer viability or ischemia.

  10. Effects of Video Exposure to Cluttering on Undergraduate Students' Perceptions of a Person Who Clutters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Lindsey M.; Blanchet, Paul G.; Tillery, Kim L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous research suggests a negative stereotype toward people with fluency disorders (i.e. stuttering and/or cluttering), although recent findings suggest that exposure to an actual person who stutters (e.g. a live or video presentation) leads to more positive perceptions of some personality traits. However, there is a paucity of…

  11. Estimating Personal Exposures from Ambient Air Pollution Measures - Using Meta-Analysis to Assess Measurement Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although ambient concentrations of particulate matter ≤ 10μm (PM10) are often used as proxies for total personal exposure, correlation (r) between ambient and personal PM10 concentrations varies. Factors underlying this variation and its effect on he...

  12. Year-long continuous personal exposure to PM 2.5 recorded by a fast responding portable nephelometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braniš, Martin; Kolomazníková, Jana

    2010-08-01

    Personal exposure to particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter under 2.5 μm (PM 2.5) was monitored using a DustTrak nephelometer. The battery-operated unit, worn by an adult individual for a period of approximately one year, logged integrated average PM 2.5 concentrations over 5 min intervals. A detailed time-activity diary was used to record the experimental subject's movement and the microenvironments visited. Altogether 239 days covering all the months (except April) were available for the analysis. In total, 60 463 acceptable 5-min averages were obtained. The dataset was divided into 7 indoor and 4 outdoor microenvironments. Of the total time, 84% was spent indoors, 10.9% outdoors and 5.1% in transport. The indoor 5-min PM 2.5 average was higher (55.7 μg m -3) than the outdoor value (49.8 μg m -3). The highest 5-min PM 2.5 average concentration was detected in restaurant microenvironments (1103 μg m -3), the second highest 5-min average concentration was recorded in indoor spaces heated by stoves burning solid fuels (420 μg m -3). The lowest 5-min mean aerosol concentrations were detected outdoors in rural/natural environments (25 μg m -3) and indoors at the monitored person's home (36 μg m -3). Outdoor and indoor concentrations of PM 2.5 measured by the nephelometer at home and during movement in the vicinity of the experimental subject's home were compared with those of the nearest fixed-site monitor of the national air quality monitoring network. The high correlation coefficient (0.78) between the personal and fixed-site monitor aerosol concentrations suggested that fixed-site monitor data can be used as proxies for personal exposure in residential and some other microenvironments. Collocated measurements with a reference method (β-attenuation) showed a non-linear systematic bias of the light-scattering method, limiting the use of direct concentration readings for exact exposure analysis.

  13. Exposure Modeling of Residential Air Exchange Rates for NEXUS Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to cost and participant burden of personal measurements, air pollution health studies often estimate exposures using local ambient air monitors. Since outdoor levels do not necessarily reflect personal exposures, we developed the Exposure Model for Individuals (EMI) to improv...

  14. Determinants of personal ultraviolet-radiation exposure doses on a sun holiday

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, B; Thieden, E; Philipsen, P A

    2013-01-01

    A great number of journeys to sunny destinations are sold to the Danish population every year. We suspect that this travel considerably increases personal annual ultraviolet-radiation (UVR) exposure doses. This is important because such exposure is the main cause of skin cancer, and studies have ...

  15. High-throughput exposure modeling to support prioritization of chemicals in personal care products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Csiszar, Susan A.; Ernstoff, Alexi; Fantke, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the application of a high-throughput modeling framework to estimate exposure to chemicals used in personal care products (PCPs). As a basis for estimating exposure, we use the product intake fraction (PiF), defined as the mass of chemical taken by an individual or population per mass...

  16. Controlling and monitoring exposure to radiation from medical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Above a certain threshold dose, ionising radiation invariably provokes harmful effects such as burns, nausea and aplasia. Their severity increases with the dose received. There is no known threshold dose below which long-term harmful effects, such as cancer and genetic defects, do not occur. Ionising radiation comes from both natural and man-made sources. Worldwide, medical exposure accounts for 98% of the dose received from man-made sources. In France, the average dose per person received from diagnostic radiological examinations increased by more than 50% between 2002 and 2007. This increase was due to more frequent use of computed tomography (CT) and diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures. The internationally defined individual dose limits for the general population do not apply to the medical uses of ionising radiation, but medical exposure must comply with the principles of radiation protection: the examination must be justified and the dose optimised. In France, shortcomings are observed in the application of these principles. In 2012, the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) received 345 reports of "significant radiation protection incidents" affecting patients: 75% involving external beam radiotherapy, 15% involving nuclear medicine, 6% involving CT scans, and 4% involving radiology. In 2011, reference levels were established for the doses received by children during CT imaging and nuclear medicine procedures. When deciding whether to order a diagnostic procedure using ionising radiation, the harm-benefit balance of both the procedure and the chosen technique must be taken into account. When two procedures have the same performance, the technique that exposes the patient to the lowest dose of radiation should be chosen.

  17. Personal recognition using head-top image for health-monitoring system in the home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, K; Sasaki, K

    2004-01-01

    Automatic health-monitoring systems for the smart house are being developed for the elderly. An automatic health-monitoring system needs a way of personal recognition when two or more aged persons live together. We propose a personal recognition method based on the space spectrum of the head-top image. We examined 33 head-top images from eleven subjects and achieved a personal recognition rate of 86.4 percent. When one subject with thinning hair was excluded, the personal recognition rate was 90.0 percent in 30 head-top images from ten subjects.

  18. Factors affecting the association between ambient concentrations and personal exposures to particles and gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnat, Stefanie Ebelt; Coull, Brent A; Schwartz, Joel; Gold, Diane R; Suh, Helen H

    2006-05-01

    Results from air pollution exposure assessment studies suggest that ambient fine particles [particulate matter with aerodynamic diameterpersonal exposures. For particles, the strength of the personal-ambient association can differ by particle component and level of home ventilation. For gases, however, such as ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2), the impact of home ventilation on personal-ambient associations is untested. We measured 24-hr personal exposures and corresponding ambient concentrations to PM2.5, sulfate (SO2-(4)), elemental carbon, O3, NO2, and SO2 for 10 nonsmoking older adults in Steubenville, Ohio. We found strong associations between ambient particle concentrations and corresponding personal exposures. In contrast, although significant, most associations between ambient gases and their corresponding exposures had low slopes and R2 values; the personal-ambient NO2 association in the fall season was moderate. For both particles and gases, personal-ambient associations were highest for individuals spending most of their time in high- compared with low-ventilated environments. Cross-pollutant models indicated that ambient particle concentrations were much better surrogates for exposure to particles than to gases. With the exception of ambient NO2 in the fall, which showed moderate associations with personal exposures, ambient gases were poor proxies for both gas and particle exposures. In combination, our results suggest that a) ventilation may be an important modifier of the magnitude of effect in time-series health studies, and b) results from time-series health studies based on 24-hr ambient concentrations are more readily interpretable for particles than for gases.

  19. Occupational exposure to formaldehyde in an institute of morphology in Brazil: a comparison of area and personal sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochs, Soraya de M; Grotz, Lucas de O; Factorine, Luciara S; Rodrigues, Mauro R; Pereira Netto, Annibal D

    2011-08-01

    Formaldehyde (FA) is a harmful chemical, which is classified as carcinogenic to humans (Group 1) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Solutions of FA that are used to preserve cadavers in research and education morphological institutes represent a risk to occupational health of professionals and students. During the dissection of cadavers in the anatomy laboratories, FA vapors are emitted, resulting in the exposure of students and their instructors to elevated levels of FA. The World Health Organization recommends an air quality guideline value of 0.1 mg m(-3) for exposure to FA. The limit of occupational exposure adopted by the Brazilian legislation (2.3 mg m(-3)) is markedly higher than those adopted by institutions of other countries around the world. The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of personal exposure and the area concentration of FA in the morphology department of the Federal Fluminense University, Brazil, and investigate and compare the relationship between them. Four rooms distributed in the three floors of the Morphology Department were evaluated: the embalming laboratory, the anatomy laboratories, the corridor of the teachers' rooms, and the entrance hall. Thirty-six samples in total were collected in the second semester of 2010 and first semester of 2011. The air sampling and FA analysis were performed according to the EPA TO-11A Protocol, using a diffusive sampling device for carbonyl compounds. Personal samples were collected from monitors using a sampling device pinned on each person's lapel. The samples were analyzed using rapid resolution liquid chromatography with UV-DAD detection at 360 nm. The concentrations of FA ranged from 0.20 and 0.18 mg m(-3) in the corridor between the teachers' rooms, 0.03 to 0.37 mg m(-3) in the entrance hall, 0.22 to 2.07 mg m(-3) in the anatomy laboratory, 2.21 to 2.52 mg m(-3), in the embalming room. The levels found in the corridor between the teachers' rooms and in

  20. Personal and ambient exposures to air toxics in Camden, New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lioy, Paul J; Fan, Zhihua; Zhang, Junfeng; Georgopoulos, Panos; Wang, Sheng-Wei; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Wu, Xiangmei; Zhu, Xianlei; Harrington, Jason; Tang, Xiaogang; Meng, Qingyu; Jung, Kyung Hwa; Kwon, Jaymin; Hernandez, Marta; Bonnano, Linda; Held, Joann; Neal, John

    2011-08-01

    Personal exposures and ambient concentrations of air toxics were characterized in a pollution "hot spot" and an urban reference site, both in Camden, New Jersey. The hot spot was the city's Waterfront South neighborhood; the reference site was a neighborhood, about 1 km to the east, around the intersection of Copewood and Davis streets. Using personal exposure measurements, residential ambient air measurements, statistical analyses, and exposure modeling, we examined the impact of local industrial and mobile pollution sources, particularly diesel trucks, on personal exposures and ambient concentrations in the two neighborhoods. Presented in the report are details of our study design, sample and data collection methods, data- and model-analysis approaches, and results and key findings of the study. In summary, 107 participants were recruited from nonsmoking households, including 54 from Waterfront South and 53 from the Copewood-Davis area. Personal air samples were collected for 24 hr and measured for 32 target compounds--11 volatile organic compounds (VOCs*), four aldehydes, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter personal monitoring, ambient concentrations of the target compounds were measured at two fixed monitoring sites, one each in the Waterfront South and Copewood-Davis neighborhoods. To understand the potential impact of local sources of air toxics on personal exposures caused by temporal (weekdays versus weekend days) and seasonal (summer versus winter) variations in source intensities of the air toxics, four measurements were made of each subject, two in summer and two in winter. Within each season, one measurement was made on a weekday and the other on a weekend day. A baseline questionnaire and a time diary with an activity questionnaire were administered to each participant in order to obtain information that could be used to understand personal exposure to specific air toxics measured during

  1. Self-Monitoring in Middle Childhood: Personality and Social Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musser, Lynn M.; Browne, Beverly A.

    1991-01-01

    Measures of self-monitoring and other measures were completed by 93 elementary school children on 3 occasions during a 15-month period. Self-monitoring was related to peer acceptance and self-esteem, but the relation may have been influenced by gender. Boys' self-monitoring correlated with popularity measures, whereas girls' did not. (BC)

  2. Personal PM2.5 exposure and markers of oxidative stress in blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mettte; Daneshvar, Bahram; Hansen, Max

    2003-01-01

    found only in women (p oxidative stress and increase RBCs in peripheral blood. Personal exposure appears more...... and the involved mechanisms remain uncertain. We measured personal PM2.5 and carbon black exposure in 50 students four times in 1 year and analyzed blood samples for markers of protein and lipid oxidation, for red blood cell (RBC) and platelet counts, and for concentrations of hemoglobin and fibrinogen. We...... analyzed protein oxidation in terms of gamma-glutamyl semialdehyde in hemoglobin (HBGGS) and 2-aminoadipic semialdehyde in hemoglobin (HBAAS) and plasma proteins (PLAAS), and lipid peroxidation was measured as malondialdehyde (MDA) in plasma. Median exposures were 16.1 mug/m(3) for personal PM2.5 exposure...

  3. Personal exposure to grass pollen: relating inhaled dose to background concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peel, Robert George; Hertel, Ole; Smith, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Background: Very few studies on human exposure to allergenic pollen have been conducted using direct methods, with background concentrations measured at city center monitoring stations typically taken as a proxy for exposure despite the inhomogeneous nature of atmospheric pollen concentrations. A...

  4. Source of Personal Exposure to PM2.5 among College Students in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qiaorong; Zhu, Xianlei; Li, Xiang; Hui, Fan; Fu, Xianqiang; Zhang, Qiangbin

    2015-04-01

    The health risk from exposure to airborne particles arouses increasing public concern in Beijing, a megacity in China, where concentration of PM2.5 frequently exceeds the guideline values of World Health Organization (WHO). To investigate daily exposure to PM2.5, a personal exposure study was conducted for college students. The purpose of this study was to measure the daily PM2.5 personal exposures of students, to quantify the contributions of various microenvironments to personal exposure since students spend more than 85% of their time indoors, and to apportion the contributions of PM2.5 indoors origin and outdoor origin. In this work, a total of 320 paired indoor and outdoor PM2.5 samples were collected at eight types of microenvironments in both China University of Petroleum (suburban area) and Tsinghua University (urban area). The microenvironments were selected based on the time-activity diary finished by 1500 students from both universities. Simultaneously, the air exchange rate was measured in each microenvironment. PM2.5, elements, inorganic ions and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the samples were determined. The peak concentrations were observed in dinning halls, whereas PM2.5 in dormitories was the largest contributor to personal exposure because students spend more than half of a day there. Furthermore, source apportionment by positive matrix factorization (PMF) will be carried out to understand the source of personal exposure to PM2.5. Especially, efforts will be put on determing the contributions of primary combustion, secondary sulfate and organics, secondary nitrate, and mechanically generated PM, which present different infiltration behavior and are indoor PM2.5 of ambient origin, with help of air exchange rate data. The results would be benefit for refining the understanding of the contribution of PM2.5 of ambient (outdoor) origin to the daily PM2.5 personal exposures. Acknowledgments:This study has been funded by Beijing Municipal Commission

  5. Personal exposure assessment to particulate metals using a paper-based analytical device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cate, David; Volckens, John; Henry, Charles

    2013-03-01

    The development of a paper-based analytical device (PAD) for assessing personal exposure to particulate metals will be presented. Human exposure to metal aerosols, such as those that occur in the mining, construction, and manufacturing industries, has a significant impact on the health of our workforce, costing an estimated $10B in the U.S and causing approximately 425,000 premature deaths world-wide each year. Occupational exposure to particulate metals affects millions of individuals in manufacturing, construction (welding, cutting, blasting), and transportation (combustion, utility maintenance, and repair services) industries. Despite these effects, individual workers are rarely assessed for their exposure to particulate metals, due mainly to the high cost and effort associated with personal exposure measurement. Current exposure assessment methods for particulate metals call for an 8-hour filter sample, after which time, the filter sample is transported to a laboratory and analyzed by inductively-coupled plasma (ICP). The time from sample collection to reporting is typically weeks and costs several hundred dollars per sample. To exacerbate the issue, method detection limits suffer because of sample dilution during digestion. The lack of sensitivity hampers task-based exposure assessment, for which sampling times may be tens of minutes. To address these problems, and as a first step towards using microfluidics for personal exposure assessment, we have developed PADs for measurement of Pb, Cd, Cr, Fe, Ni, and Cu in aerosolized particulate matter.

  6. Exposure to ethylene oxide in hospitals: biological monitoring and influence of glutathione S-transferase and epoxide hydrolase polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haufroid, Vincent; Merz, Brigitte; Hofmann, Annette; Tschopp, Alois; Lison, Dominique; Hotz, Philippe

    2007-04-01

    Ethylene oxide is considered as a human carcinogen. A biomarker of exposure would be a useful instrument to assess the risk in occupationally exposed workers. This cross-sectional study aimed at examining (a) whether the urinary excretion of a metabolite of ethylene oxide, 2-hydroxyethyl mercapturic acid (HEMA), could be used for monitoring occupational exposure and (b) whether glutathione S-transferase (GST) and epoxide hydrolase genotypes influenced biological monitoring. Exposure to ethylene oxide was measured by personal sampling in 80 hospital workers (95% of those eligible). HEMA concentrations were determined in three urine samples (baseline, end of shift, and next morning) by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. GSTs (GSTT1, GSTM1, and GSTP1) and epoxide hydrolase (EPHX1) were also genotyped. The influence of exposure, genotypes, and several other factors was examined in multiple regression analyses. Exposure was always <1 parts per million. On a group basis, exposure and a non-null GSTT1 genotype increased the HEMA concentrations in the urine sample collected at the end of the shift and these factors remained statistically significant after considering possible confounding or modifying factors.

  7. Long-term monitoring of radiation exposure of employees in the department of nuclear medicine (Szczecin, Poland) in the years 1991-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwowarska-Bilska, H; Birkenfeld, B; Listewnik, M; Zorga, P

    2010-08-01

    Occupational radiation exposure is a hazard that should be avoided or at least minimised. This study aimed to evaluate the radiation exposure of nuclear medicine department employees monitored during the 1991-2007 period, and to investigate the relationship between the annual effective doses of the personnel and the number of radioisotope procedures performed. Overall, 2014 quarterly effective whole-body doses, categorised into six occupational groups, monitored with personal dosemeters, were analysed statistically. There was a wide variation in the average annual doses among the different occupational groups. During the 17 years covered by this study, there was no incidence of a dose exceeding the annual dose limit of 20 mSv. There was a weak correlation between the average annual dose for monitored employees and the number of nuclear medicine procedures performed. Apart from exposure, personal skill in dealing with radioactive substances, compliance with radiation protection rules is an important factor to minimise the effective dose.

  8. Sound exposure by personal stereo, field study of young people in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ordoñez, Rodrigo Pizarro; Reuter, Karen; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2006-01-01

    A number of large scale studies suggest that the exposure level used with personal stereo systems should raise concern. It has been demonstrated that 1) high levels can be produced, 2) high levels are used, especially in situations with high background noise, 3) exposure levels are comparables...... with that of industrial noise exposure. In the present study, measurements of the everyday exposure levels will be measured according to principles of ISO 11904-2:2004 for students at various school levels. The measurements will be accompanied with questionnaire detailing the individual habits of use, and with assessment...

  9. Exposure Control Indoors with Wearable Personal Exhaust Unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Barova, Maria I.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2013-01-01

    A wearable personalized ventilation (PV) unit to reduce the risk from airborne disease contamination is reported. The PV unit consists of a nozzle, installed on a headset, which is used to locally exhaust the exhaled air before it mixes with the surroundings. Experiments at 22 °C were performed...... background air distribution at 3, 6 and 12 ACH. The use of the device showed a great potential in reducing the concentration of exhaled air in the room to the level measured under mixing ventilation alone at 12 ACH. The high potential to capture exhaled air, makes the wearable PV applicable as an efficient...

  10. Personal radiation monitoring and assessment of doses received by radiation workers (1996)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, N.D.

    1996-12-01

    Since late 1986, all persons monitored by the Australian Radiation Laboratory have been registered on a data base which maintains records of the doses received by each individual wearer. At present, the Service regularly monitors approximately 30,000 persons, which is roughly 90 percent of those monitored in Australia, and maintains dose histories of over 75,000 people. The skin dose for occupationally exposed workers can be measured by using one of the five types of monitor issued by the Service: Thermoluminescent Dosemeter (TLD monitor), Finger TLD 3, Neutron Monitor, Special TLD and Environmental monitor. The technical description of the monitors is provided along with the method for calculating the radiation dose. 5 refs., 7 tabs., 5 figs.

  11. Personal volatile organic compound (VOC) exposure of children attending elementary schools adjacent to industrial complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kun-Ho; Jo, Wan-Kuen

    The major deficiency in linking the effects of environmental exposure to children's health is the lack of data on the exposure of children to hazardous environmental pollutants. Accordingly, the present study compared the personal volatile organic compound (VOC) exposure of children from four elementary schools at different proximities to the Daegu Dyeing Industrial Complex (DDIC) and adjacent to different traffic densities. The personal air concentrations of four VOCs (toluene, m, p-xylenes, and o-xylene) were significantly higher for the children attending the school (S1) closest to the boundary of the DDIC compared to the children attending the school (S2) further away. The DDIC was the likely primary cause for the elevated personal air concentrations of the four VOCs in the children attending the school nearest the DDIC. The personal exposure to toluene and methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) for the children attending the school near a major roadway with a high traffic density was significantly higher than that for the children attending the school near a roadway with a low traffic density. The difference in the breath concentrations was generally similar to the difference in the personal air concentrations among the children from the four schools. In contrast to the children attending schools in low-income areas, the children attending schools in high-income areas exhibited no significant difference in the concentrations of any of the target VOCs in the personal air and breath samples between the children living with and without a smoker in the home.

  12. Exposure assessment and heart rate variability monitoring in workers handling titanium dioxide particles: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihara, Sahoko; Li, Weihua; Omura, Seiichi; Fujitani, Yuji; Liu, Ying; Wang, Qiangyi; Hiraku, Yusuke; Hisanaga, Naomi; Wakai, Kenji; Ding, Xuncheng; Kobayashi, Takahiro; Ichihara, Gaku

    2016-03-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles are used for surface coating and in a variety of products such as inks, fibers, food, and cosmetics. The present study investigated possible respiratory and cardiovascular effects of TiO2 particles in workers exposed to this particle at high concentration in a factory in China. The diameter of particles collected on filters was measured by scanning electron microscopy. Real-time size-dependent particle number concentration was monitored in the nostrils of four workers using condensation particle counter and optical particle counter. Electrocardiogram was recorded using Holter monitors for the same four workers to record heart rate variability. Sixteen workers underwent assessment of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Mass-based individual exposure levels were also measured with personal cascade impactors. The primary particle diameter ranged from 46 to 562 nm. Analysis of covariance of the pooled data of the four workers showed that number of particles with a diameter <300 nm was associated positively with total number of N-N and negatively with total number of increase or decrease in successive RR intervals greater than 50 ms (RR50+/-) or percentage of RR 50+/- that were parameters of parasympathetic function. The total mass concentration was 9.58-30.8 mg/m3 during work, but significantly less before work (0.36 mg/m3). The clear abnormality in respiratory function was not observed in sixteen workers who had worked for 10 months to 13 years in the factory. The study showed that exposure to particles with a diameter <300 nm might affect HRV in workers handling TiO2 particles. The results highlight the need to investigate the possible impact of exposure to nano-scaled particles on the autonomic nervous system.

  13. Evaluation of exposure to PAHs in asphalt workers by environmental and biological monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Laura; Buratti, Marina; Fustinoni, Silvia; Cirla, Piero E; Martinotti, Irene; Longhi, Omar; Cavallo, Domenico; Foà, Vito

    2006-09-01

    In the present article we assessed exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Italian asphalt workers (AW, n = 100), exposed to bitumen fumes and diesel exhausts, and in roadside construction workers (CW, n = 47), exposed to diesel exhausts, by means of environmental and biological monitoring. 1-hydroxypyrene (OH-Py) was determined in urine spot samples collected, respectively, after 2 days of vacation (baseline), before, and at the end of the monitored work shift, in the second part of the workweek. Median airborne levels during the work shift of 15 PAHs (both vapor and particulate phases), from naphthalene (NAP) to indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene, ranged from below 0.03 to 426 ng/m(3). Median excretion values of OH-Py in baseline, before- and end-shift samples were 228, 402, and 690 ng/L for AW and 260, 304, and 378 ng/L for CW. Lower values were found in nonsmokers compared to smokers (e.g., in AW 565 and 781 versus 252 and 506 ng/L in before-shift and end-shift samples, respectively). In all subjects a weak correlation between personal exposure to the sum of airborne 15 PAHs and OH-Py was observed (r = 0.30). The results of this article show that AW experienced a moderate occupational exposure to airborne PAHs, resulting in a significant increase of urinary OH-Py during the workday and the workweek. The contribution of working activities to internal dose was in the same order of magnitude of the contribution of cigarette smoking.

  14. Student's music exposure: Full-day personal dose measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washnik, Nilesh Jeevandas; Phillips, Susan L; Teglas, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that collegiate level music students are exposed to potentially hazardous sound levels. Compared to professional musicians, collegiate level music students typically do not perform as frequently, but they are exposed to intense sounds during practice and rehearsal sessions. The purpose of the study was to determine the full-day exposure dose including individual practice and ensemble rehearsals for collegiate student musicians. Sixty-seven college students of classical music were recruited representing 17 primary instruments. Of these students, 57 completed 2 days of noise dose measurements using Cirrus doseBadge programed according to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health criterion. Sound exposure was measured for 2 days from morning to evening, ranging from 7 to 9 h. Twenty-eight out of 57 (49%) student musicians exceeded a 100% daily noise dose on at least 1 day of the two measurement days. Eleven student musicians (19%) exceeded 100% daily noise dose on both days. Fourteen students exceeded 100% dose during large ensemble rehearsals and eight students exceeded 100% dose during individual practice sessions. Approximately, half of the student musicians exceeded 100% noise dose on a typical college schedule. This finding indicates that a large proportion of collegiate student musicians are at risk of developing noise-induced hearing loss due to hazardous sound levels. Considering the current finding, there is a need to conduct hearing conservation programs in all music schools, and to educate student musicians about the use and importance of hearing protection devices for their hearing.

  15. Personal particulate matter exposures and locations of students in four neighborhoods in Accra, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arku, Raphael E; Dionisio, Kathie L; Hughes, Allison F; Vallarino, Jose; Spengler, John D; Castro, Marcia C; Agyei-Mensah, Samuel; Ezzati, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution exposure and places where the exposures occur may differ in cities in the developing world compared with high-income countries. Our aim was to measure personal fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure of students in neighborhoods of varying socioeconomic status in Accra, Ghana, and to quantify the main predictors of exposure. We measured 24-hour PM2.5 exposure of 56 students from eight schools in four neighborhoods. PM2.5 was measured both gravimetrically and continuously, with time-matched global positioning system coordinates. We collected data on determinants of exposure, such as distances of homes and schools from main roads and fuel used for cooking at their home or in the area of residence/school. The association of PM2.5 exposure with sources was estimated using linear mixed-effects models. Personal PM2.5 exposures ranged from less than 10 μg/m(3) to more than 150 μg/m(3) (mean 56 μg/m(3)). Girls had higher exposure than boys (67 vs 44 μg/m(3); P-value=0.001). Exposure was inversely associated with distance of home or school to main roads, but the associations were not statistically significant in the multivariate model. Use of biomass fuels in the area where the school was located was also associated with higher exposure, as was household's own biomass use. Paved schoolyard surface was associated with lower exposure. School locations in relation to major roads, materials of school ground surfaces, and biomass use in the area around schools may be important determinants of air pollution exposure.

  16. Novel approach to analysing large data sets of personal sun exposure measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blesić, Suzana M; Stratimirović, Đorđe I; Ajtić, Jelena V; Wright, Caradee Y; Allen, Martin W

    2016-11-01

    Personal sun exposure measurements provide important information to guide the development of sun awareness and disease prevention campaigns. We assess the scaling properties of personal ultraviolet radiation (pUVR) sun exposure measurements using the wavelet transform (WT) spectral analysis to process long-range, high-frequency personal recordings collected by electronic UVR dosimeters designed to measure erythemal UVR exposure. We analysed the sun exposure recordings of school children, farmers, marathon runners and outdoor workers in South Africa, and construction workers and work site supervisors in New Zealand. We found scaling behaviour in all the analysed pUVR data sets. We found that the observed scaling changes from uncorrelated to long-range correlated with increasing duration of sun exposure. Peaks in the WT spectra that we found suggest the existence of characteristic times in sun exposure behaviour that were to some extent universal across our data set. Our study also showed that WT measures enable group classification, as well as distinction between individual UVR exposures, otherwise unattainable by conventional statistical methods.

  17. Characterizing relationships between personal exposures to VOCs and socioeconomic, demographic, behavioral variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Wei; Majeed, Mohammed A.; Chu, Pei-Ling; Lin, Hui-Chih

    Socioeconomic and demographic factors have been found to significantly affect time-activity patterns in population cohorts that can subsequently influence personal exposures to air pollutants. This study investigates relationships between personal exposures to eight VOCs (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, m-,p-xylene, chloroform, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, and tetrachloroethene) and socioeconomic, demographic, time-activity pattern factors using data collected from the 1999-2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) VOC study. Socio-demographic factors (such as race/ethnicity and family income) were generally found to significantly influence personal exposures to the three chlorinated compounds. This was mainly due to the associations paired by race/ethnicity and urban residence, race/ethnicity and use of air freshener in car, family income and use of dry-cleaner, which can in turn affect exposures to chloroform, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, and tetrachloroethene, respectively. For BTEX, the traffic-related compounds, housing characteristics (leaving home windows open and having an attached garage) and personal activities related to the uses of fuels or solvent-related products played more significant roles in influencing exposures. Significant differences in BTEX exposures were also commonly found in relation to gender, due to associated significant differences in time spent at work/school and outdoors. The coupling of Classification and Regression Tree (CART) and Bootstrap Aggregating (Bagging) techniques were used as effective tools for characterizing robust sets of significant VOC exposure factors presented above, which conventional statistical approaches could not accomplish. Identification of these significant VOC exposure factors can be used to generate hypotheses for future investigations about possible significant VOC exposure sources and pathways in the general U.S. population.

  18. Consumer inhalation exposure to formaldehyde from the use of personal care products/cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Marc-André; Meuling, Wim J A; Engel, Roel; Coroama, Manuela C; Renner, Gerald; Pape, Wolfgang; Nohynek, Gerhard J

    2012-06-01

    We measured consumer exposure to formaldehyde (FA) from personal care products (PCP) containing FA-releasing preservatives. Six study subjects applied facial moisturiser, foundation, shower gel, shampoo, deodorant, hair conditioner, hair styling gel or body lotion at the 90th percentile amount of EU PCP consumer use. FA air concentrations were measured in the empty room, in the presence of study subjects prior to PCP use, and for one hour (breathing zone, area monitoring) after PCP use. The mean FA air concentration in the empty bathroom was 1.32 ± 0.67 μg/m³, in the presence of subjects it was 2.33 ± 0.86 μg/m³). Except for body lotion and hair conditioner (6.2 ± 0.1.9 or 4.5 ± 0.1.5 μg/m³, respectively), mean 1-h FA air concentrations after PCP use were similar to background. Peak FA air concentrations, ranging from baseline values (2.2 μg/m³; shower gel) to 11.5 μg/m³ (body lotion), occurred during 0-5 to 5-10 min after PCP use. Despite of exaggerated exposure conditions, FA air levels were a fraction of those considered to be safe (120 μg/m³), occurring in indoor air (22-124 μg/m³) or expired human breath (1.4-87 μg/m³). Overall, our data yielded evidence that inhalation of FA from the use of PCP containing FA-releasers poses no risk to human health.

  19. Student's music exposure: Full-day personal dose measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washnik, Nilesh Jeevandas; Phillips, Susan L.; Teglas, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that collegiate level music students are exposed to potentially hazardous sound levels. Compared to professional musicians, collegiate level music students typically do not perform as frequently, but they are exposed to intense sounds during practice and rehearsal sessions. The purpose of the study was to determine the full-day exposure dose including individual practice and ensemble rehearsals for collegiate student musicians. Sixty-seven college students of classical music were recruited representing 17 primary instruments. Of these students, 57 completed 2 days of noise dose measurements using Cirrus doseBadge programed according to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health criterion. Sound exposure was measured for 2 days from morning to evening, ranging from 7 to 9 h. Twenty-eight out of 57 (49%) student musicians exceeded a 100% daily noise dose on at least 1 day of the two measurement days. Eleven student musicians (19%) exceeded 100% daily noise dose on both days. Fourteen students exceeded 100% dose during large ensemble rehearsals and eight students exceeded 100% dose during individual practice sessions. Approximately, half of the student musicians exceeded 100% noise dose on a typical college schedule. This finding indicates that a large proportion of collegiate student musicians are at risk of developing noise-induced hearing loss due to hazardous sound levels. Considering the current finding, there is a need to conduct hearing conservation programs in all music schools, and to educate student musicians about the use and importance of hearing protection devices for their hearing. PMID:26960787

  20. Personal PM2.5 exposure and markers of oxidative stress in blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Daneshvar, Bahram; Hansen, Max;

    2003-01-01

    concentrations were found only in women (p oxidative stress and increase RBCs in peripheral blood. Personal exposure...... and the involved mechanisms remain uncertain. We measured personal PM(2.5) and carbon black exposure in 50 students four times in 1 year and analyzed blood samples for markers of protein and lipid oxidation, for red blood cell (RBC) and platelet counts, and for concentrations of hemoglobin and fibrinogen. We...... analyzed protein oxidation in terms of gamma-glutamyl semialdehyde in hemoglobin (HBGGS) and 2-aminoadipic semialdehyde in hemoglobin (HBAAS) and plasma proteins (PLAAS), and lipid peroxidation was measured as malondialdehyde (MDA) in plasma. Median exposures were 16.1 micro g/m(3) for personal PM(2...

  1. 48 CFR 1552.239-103 - Acquisition of Energy Star Compliant Microcomputers, Including Personal Computers, Monitors and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Compliant Microcomputers, Including Personal Computers, Monitors and Printers. 1552.239-103 Section 1552.239... Star Compliant Microcomputers, Including Personal Computers, Monitors and Printers. As prescribed in... Personal Computers, Monitors, and Printers (APR 1996) (a) The Contractor shall provide computer products...

  2. Measurement of personal and integrated exposure to particulate matter and co-pollutant gases: a panel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, J Jai; Gupta, Tarun; Jat, Rajmal; Tripathi, S N

    2013-03-01

    Personal exposure measurement can serve as an effective tool to understand the effect of exposure to air pollutants. Alternatively, exposure assessment using pollutant concentrations in different microenvironments and accurate time-activity information for the subjects can provide good information regarding human integrated exposure. A panel of 18 healthy students of Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Kanpur in the age group of 18 to 30 years participated in the personal exposure measurements for particulate matter, CO, NO(2) and VOC during post-monsoon and pre-monsoon seasons. Overall, 432 h person exposure data was collected in this study. The major sources of particulate and gaseous co-pollutants were identified. These directly obtained personal exposure values were then compared to the indirectly estimated integrated exposure values. Personal and integrated exposures gave statistically similar results. Through this study, we have shown that integrated exposure values could closely estimate the personal exposure values for particulate matter that can significantly reduce time and cost involved in personal exposure studies. The lung parameters for all the subjects measured during the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons showed statistically significant reduction during pre-monsoon. This was attributed to the high levels of coarse particles during pre-monsoon.

  3. A Comparison of "Total Dust" and Inhalable Personal Sampling for Beryllium Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, Colleen M. [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States). School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine

    2012-05-09

    In 2009, the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) reduced the Beryllium (Be) 8-hr Time Weighted Average Threshold Limit Value (TLV-TWA) from 2.0 μg/m3 to 0.05 μg/m3 with an inhalable 'I' designation in accordance with ACGIH's particle size-selective criterion for inhalable mass. Currently, per the Department of Energy (DOE) requirements, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is following the Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 2.0 μg/m3 as an 8-hr TWA, which is also the 2005 ACGIH TLV-TWA, and an Action Level (AL) of 0.2 μg/m3 and sampling is performed using the 37mm (total dust) sampling method. Since DOE is considering adopting the newer 2009 TLV guidelines, the goal of this study was to determine if the current method of sampling using the 37mm (total dust) sampler would produce results that are comparable to what would be measured using the IOM (inhalable) sampler specific to the application of high energy explosive work at LLNL's remote experimental test facility at Site 300. Side-by-side personal sampling using the two samplers was performed over an approximately two-week period during chamber re-entry and cleanup procedures following detonation of an explosive assembly containing Beryllium (Be). The average ratio of personal sampling results for the IOM (inhalable) vs. 37-mm (total dust) sampler was 1.1:1 with a P-value of 0.62, indicating that there was no statistically significant difference in the performance of the two samplers. Therefore, for the type of activity monitored during this study, the 37-mm sampling cassette would be considered a suitable alternative to the IOM sampler for collecting inhalable particulate matter, which is important given the many practical and economic advantages that it presents. However, similar comparison studies would be necessary for this conclusion to be

  4. Novel database for exposure to fragrance ingredients in cosmetics and personal care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiskey, D; Api, A M; Barratt, C; Daly, E J; Ellis, G; McNamara, C; O'Mahony, C; Robison, S H; Safford, B; Smith, B; Tozer, S

    2015-08-01

    Exposure of fragrance ingredients in cosmetics and personal care products to the population can be determined by way of a detailed and robust survey. The frequency and combinations of products used at specific times during the day will allow the estimation of aggregate exposure for an individual consumer, and to the sample population. In the present study, habits and practices of personal care and cosmetic products have been obtained from market research data for 36,446 subjects across European countries and the United States in order to determine the exposure to fragrance ingredients. Each subject logged their product uses, time of day and body application sites in an online diary for seven consecutive days. The survey data did not contain information on the amount of product used per occasion or body measurements, such as weight and skin surface area. Nevertheless, this was found from the literature where the likely amount of product used per occasion or body measurement could be probabilistically chosen from distributions of data based on subject demographics. The daily aggregate applied consumer product exposure was estimated based on each subject's frequency of product use, and Monte Carlo simulations of their likely product amount per use and body measurements. Statistical analyses of the habits and practices and consumer product exposure are presented, which show the robustness of the data and the ability to estimate aggregate consumer product exposure. Consequently, the data and modelling methods presented show potential as a means of performing ingredient safety assessments for personal care and cosmetics products.

  5. Personal exposure between people in a room ventilated by textile terminals - with and without personalized ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, P. V.; Hyldgaard, C.E.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2005-01-01

    with a downward direction in areas without thermal load. The system is extended by a personalized ventilation system to study the improved protection of people in a room. The investigation involves full-scale experiments with two breathing thermal manikins. One manikin is the source and the other the target...

  6. A remote sensor for electromagnetic personal safety monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pillet, K.; Buesink, F.; Leferink, F.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: Citizens are often afraid of electromagnetic fields. This creates a need for logging and quantifying the exposure to fields in the civil environment. An electromagnetic field strength sensor (from 1MHz to 1GHz) has been developed which is connected to a logging system and a modem. The syst

  7. System And Method For Monitoring Traffic While Preserving Personal Privacy

    KAUST Repository

    Canepa, Edward

    2015-08-06

    A traffic monitoring system and method for mapping traffic speed and density while preserving privacy. The system can include fixed stations that make up a network and mobile probes that are associated with vehicles. The system and method do not gather, store, or transmit any unique or identifying information, and thereby preserves the privacy of members of traffic. The system and method provide real-time traffic density and speed mapping. The system and method can further be integrated with a complementary flood monitoring system and method.

  8. The association of LUR modeled PM{sub 2.5} elemental composition with personal exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montagne, Denise; Hoek, Gerard [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), University of Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark [Center for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Barcelona (Spain); Lanki, Timo; Pennanen, Arto [Department of Environmental Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), Kuopio (Finland); Portella, Meritxell [Center for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Barcelona (Spain); Meliefste, Kees; Wang, Meng; Eeftens, Marloes [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), University of Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Yli-Tuomi, Tarja [Department of Environmental Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), Kuopio (Finland); Cirach, Marta [Center for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Barcelona (Spain); Brunekreef, Bert [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), University of Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center, University of Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2014-09-15

    Background and aims: Land use regression (LUR) models predict spatial variation of ambient concentrations, but little is known about the validity in predicting personal exposures. In this study, the association of LUR modeled concentrations of PM{sub 2.5} components with measured personal concentrations was determined. The elements of interest were copper (Cu), iron (Fe), potassium (K), nickel (Ni), sulfur (S), silicon (Si), vanadium (V) and zinc (Zn). Methods: In Helsinki (Finland), Utrecht (the Netherlands) and Barcelona (Spain) five participants from urban background, five from suburban background and five from busy street sites were selected in each city (15 participants per city). Outdoor, indoor and personal 96-hour PM{sub 2.5} samples were collected by the participants over periods of two weeks in three different seasons (winter, summer and spring/autumn) and the overall average was calculated. Elemental composition was measured by ED-XRF spectrometry. The LUR models for the average ambient concentrations of each element were developed by the ESCAPE project. Results: LUR models predicted the within-city variation of average outdoor Cu and Fe concentrations moderately well (range in R{sup 2} 27–67% for Cu and 24–54% for Fe). The outdoor concentrations of the other elements were not well predicted. The LUR modeled concentration only significantly correlated with measured personal Fe exposure in Utrecht and Ni and V in Helsinki. The LUR model predictions did not correlate with measured personal Cu exposure. After excluding observations with an indoor/outdoor ratio of > 1.5, modeled Cu outdoor concentrations correlated with indoor concentrations in Helsinki and Utrecht and personal concentrations in Utrecht. The LUR model predictions were associated with measured outdoor, indoor and personal concentrations for all elements when the data for the three cities was pooled. Conclusions: Within-city modeled variation of elemental composition of PM{sub 2.5} did not

  9. Between-country comparison of whole-body SAR from personal exposure data in Urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Wout; Frei, Patrizia; Röösli, Martin; Vermeeren, Günter; Bolte, John; Thuróczy, György; Gajšek, Peter; Trček, Tomaž; Mohler, Evelyn; Juhász, Péter; Finta, Viktoria; Martens, Luc

    2012-12-01

    In five countries (Belgium, Switzerland, Slovenia, Hungary, and the Netherlands), personal radio frequency electromagnetic field measurements were performed in different microenvironments such as homes, public transports, or outdoors using the same exposure meters. From the mean personal field exposure levels (excluding mobile phone exposure), whole-body absorption values in a 1-year-old child and adult male model were calculated using a statistical multipath exposure method and compared for the five countries. All mean absorptions (maximal total absorption of 3.4 µW/kg for the child and 1.8 µW/kg for the adult) were well below the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) basic restriction of 0.08 W/kg for the general public. Generally, incident field exposure levels were well correlated with whole-body absorptions (SAR(wb) ), although the type of microenvironment, frequency of the signals, and dimensions of the considered phantom modify the relationship between these exposure measures. Exposure to the television and Digital Audio Broadcasting band caused relatively higher SAR(wb) values (up to 65%) for the 1-year-old child than signals at higher frequencies due to the body size-dependent absorption rates. Frequency Modulation (FM) caused relatively higher absorptions (up to 80%) in the adult male.

  10. Assessment of personal noise exposure of overhead-traveling crane drivers in steel-rolling mills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Lin; CHAI Dong-liang; LI Hui-juan; LEI Zhuo; ZHAO Yi-ming

    2007-01-01

    Background Noise is widespread occupational hazard in iron and steel industry. Overhead-traveling cranes are widely used in this industry, but few studies characterized the overhead-traveling crane drivers' noise exposure level so far. In this study, we assessed and characterized personal noise exposure levels of overhead-traveling crane drivers in two steel-rolling mills.Methods One hundred and twenty-four overhead-traveling crane drivers, 76 in the cold steel-rolling mill and 48 in the hot steel-rolling mill, were enrolled in the study. Personal noise dosimeters (AIHUA Instruments Model AWA5610e,Hangzhou, China) were used to collect full-shift noise exposure data from all the participants. Crane drivers carried dosimeters with microphones placed near their collars during the work shifts. Work logs had been taken by the drivers simultaneously. Personal noise exposure data were divided into segments based on lines in which they worked. All statistical analyses were done using SPSS 13.0.Results The average personal noise exposure (LAeq.8h) of overhead-traveling crane drivers in the hot steel-rolling mills ((85.03±2.25) dB(A)) was higher than that in the cold one ((83.05±2.93) dB(A), P<0.001). There were 17 overhead traveling cranes in the hot steel-rolling mill and 24 cranes in the cold one, of which carrying capacities varied from 15 tons to 100 tons. The average noise exposure level based on different lines in the hot and cold steel-rolling mills were (85.2±2.61) dB(A) and (83.3±3.10) dB(A) respectively (P=0.001), which were similar to the average personal noise exposure in both mills. The noise exposure levels were different among different lines (P=0.021).Conclusion Noise exposure levels, depending upon background noise levels and the noise levels on the ground, are inconstant. As the noise exposure levels are above the 85 dB(A) criteria, these drivers should be involved in the Hearing Conservation Program to protect their hearing.

  11. PRD3000: A novel Personnel Radiation Detector with Radiation Exposure Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallu-Labruyere, A.; Micou, C.; Schulcz, F.; Fellinger, J. [Mirion Technologies - MGPI SA (France)

    2015-07-01

    PRD3000{sup TM} is a novel Personal Radiation Detector (PRD) with personnel radiation dose exposure monitoring. It is intended for First Responders, Law Enforcement, Customs Inspectors protecting critical infrastructures for detecting unexpected radioactive sources, who also need real time Hp(10) dose equivalent information. Traditional PRD devices use scintillator materials instrumented through either a photomultiplier tube or a photodiode photodetector. While the former is bulky and sensitive to magnetic fields, the latter has to compromise radiation sensitivity and energy threshold given its current noise per unit of photo-detection surface. Recently, solid state photodetectors (SiPM), based on arrays of Geiger operated diodes, have emerged as a scalable digital photodetector for photon counting. Their strong breakdown voltage temperature dependence (on the order of tens of milli-volts per K) has however limited their use for portable instruments where strong temperature gradients can be experienced, and limited power is available to temperature stabilize. The PRD3000 is based on the industry standard DMC3000 active dosimeter that complies with IEC 61526 Ed. 3 and ANSI 42.20 for direct reading personal dose equivalent meters and active personnel radiation monitors. An extension module is based on a CsI(Tl) scintillator readout by a temperature compensated SiPM. Preliminary nuclear tests combined with a measured continuous operation in excess of 240 hours from a single AAA battery cell indicate that the PRD3000 complies with the IEC 62401 Ed.2 and ANSI 42.32 without sacrificing battery life time. We present a summary of the device test results, starting with performance stability over a temperature range of - 20 deg. C to 50 deg. C, false alarm rates and dynamic response time. (authors)

  12. Personal Exposure to Mixtures of Volatile Organic Compounds: Modeling and Further Analysis of the RIOPA Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterman, Stuart; Su, Feng-Chiao; Li, Shi; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Jia, Chunrong

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Emission sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are numerous and widespread in both indoor and outdoor environments. Concentrations of VOCs indoors typically exceed outdoor levels, and most people spend nearly 90% of their time indoors. Thus, indoor sources generally contribute the majority of VOC exposures for most people. VOC exposure has been associated with a wide range of acute and chronic health effects; for example, asthma, respiratory diseases, liver and kidney dysfunction, neurologic impairment, and cancer. Although exposures to most VOCs for most persons fall below health-based guidelines, and long-term trends show decreases in ambient emissions and concentrations, a subset of individuals experience much higher exposures that exceed guidelines. Thus, exposure to VOCs remains an important environmental health concern. The present understanding of VOC exposures is incomplete. With the exception of a few compounds, concentration and especially exposure data are limited; and like other environmental data, VOC exposure data can show multiple modes, low and high extreme values, and sometimes a large portion of data below method detection limits (MDLs). Field data also show considerable spatial or interpersonal variability, and although evidence is limited, temporal variability seems high. These characteristics can complicate modeling and other analyses aimed at risk assessment, policy actions, and exposure management. In addition to these analytic and statistical issues, exposure typically occurs as a mixture, and mixture components may interact or jointly contribute to adverse effects. However most pollutant regulations, guidelines, and studies remain focused on single compounds, and thus may underestimate cumulative exposures and risks arising from coexposures. In addition, the composition of VOC mixtures has not been thoroughly investigated, and mixture components show varying and complex dependencies. Finally, although many factors are

  13. The Contribution of Personal and Exposure Characteristics to the Adjustment of Adolescents Following War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavi, T.; Green, O.; Dekel, R.

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the unique contribution of both personal characteristics and several types of exposure variables to the adjustment of Israeli adolescents following the Second Lebanon War. Two thousand three hundred and fourteen adolescents, who lived in areas that were the target of multiple missile attacks, completed self-report questionnaires…

  14. Pollution Comes Home and Gets Personal: Women's Experience of Household Chemical Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Rebecca Gasior; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Brody, Julia Green; Rudel, Ruthann; Brown, Phil; Averick, Mara

    2008-01-01

    We report on interviews conducted with participants in a novel study about environmental chemicals in body fluids and household air and dust. Interviews reveal how personal and collective environmental history influence the interpretation of exposure data, and how participants fashion an emergent understanding of environmental health problems from…

  15. Sensitivity Analysis of Personal Exposure Assessment Using a Breathing Thermal Manikin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Nielsen, Peter V.; Jensen, Mikael K.

    2009-01-01

    The present work deals with the investigation of uncertainties related to personal exposure assessment using a breathing thermal manikin subject to a partly uniform velocity field in a wind channel. Several parameters are investigated: velocity level, thermal manikin heat flux, Archimedes number...

  16. [Biological monitoring of PAH exposure among asphalt workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Laura; Calisti, Roberto; Polledri, Elisa; Barretta, Francesco; Stopponi, Roberta; Massacesi, Stefania; Bertazzi, Pieralberto; Fustinoni, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    Aim of this work was the assessment of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHPyr) in asphalt workers. Median levels of 1-OHPyr resulted higher in asphalt workers than in controls (184 vs. < 20 ng/L, p < 0.001). The determinants of exposure of 1-OHPyr resulted smoking habit, the number of consecutive days at work and the job task; 1-OHPyr was also associated to urinary creatinine. End of work week 1-OHPyr is suggested as an useful indicator of occupational exposure to PAHs in bitumen fumes.

  17. Subjective symptoms due to solvent mixtures, dioxin, and toluene: impact of exposure versus personality factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeber, A; Demes, P; Golka, K; Kiesswetter, E; Schäper, M; van Thriel, C; Zupanic, M

    2000-10-01

    In this study, we analyse the impact of personality factors on the frequency of self-reported symptoms for workers under different exposure conditions. Reported symptoms may depend on the level and type of exposure, as well as on personality factors such as trait anxiety of the worker or his general sensitivity with regard to the environment. The employed data stems from three studies: The first study contains information of 60 workers who suspected to be exposed to polychlorined dibenzodioxins and dibenzofuranes (Lifetime Weighted Average Exposure, LWAE, as an index for contact with the substances). The second study concerns 40 workers who are exposed to different concentrations of solvent mixtures in paint manufacturing (LWAE of total hydrocarbons about 10 ppm). The third study includes repeated measurements of two subgroups of workers from rotogravure printing plants who are exposed to different concentrations of toluene: a "high" exposure group (n = 129, LWAE about 46 ppm, current exposure 25 ppm) and a "low" exposure group (n = 96, LWAE for toluene about 9 ppm, current exposure 3 ppm). Trait anxiety, environmental sensitivity, and self-reported symptoms are measured by validated questionnaires and age as well as verbal intelligence are controlled. To determine the effect of the individual characteristics and the different exposures on self-reported symptoms, frequency analyses and variance analyses are conducted and linear models are fitted. For all analyses, trait anxiety explains the highest share of the variance. If there is no effect of the exposure on the reported symptoms (dioxin and low-level toluene study), trait anxiety seems to have a larger explanatory power in comparison with those studies where the exposure has an effect on the reported symptoms (solvent-mixture and high-level toluene study). Neurotoxicological risk analysis has to account for the detected dependence of self-reported symptoms on personality traits: assessments for elevated

  18. Personal exposure to PM2.5 and biomarkers of DNA damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Autrup, Herman; Hertel, Ole

    2003-01-01

    of many sources besides outdoor particle levels, e.g., environmental tobacco smoke and cooking. We measured personal PM(2.5) and black smoke exposure in 50 students four times over 1 year and analyzed for biomarkers of different types of DNA damages. Ambient PM(2.5) concentrations were also measured....... Exposure was measured for 48 h, after which blood samples were collected and analyzed for DNA damage in lymphocytes in terms of 7-hydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), strand breaks, endonuclease III- and fapyguanine glycosylase-sensitive sites, and polyaromatic hydrocarbon adducts. Twenty-four-h urine...... collections were analyzed for 8-oxodG and 1-hydroxypyrene. Personal PM(2.5) exposure was found to be a predictor of 8-oxodG in lymphocyte DNA with an 11% increase in 8-oxodG/10 microg/m(3) increase in personal PM(2.5) exposure (P = 0.007). No other associations between exposure markers and biomarkers could...

  19. HISTORICAL MONITORING OF BIOMARKERS OF EXPOSURE OF BROWN BULLHEAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomarkers of exposure to chemical contamination, benzo(a)pyrene (BAP) and naphthalene (NAPH) type metabolites were measured in brown bullhead from a heavily polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated section of the Black River, Ohio during and immediately after remedial ...

  20. Isopropanol exposure : environmental and biological monitoring in a printing works

    OpenAIRE

    Brugnone, F; Perbellini, L; Apostoli, P.; Bellomi, M; Caretta, D.

    1983-01-01

    Occupational exposure to isopropanol was studied in 12 workers by testing environmental air, alveolar air, venous blood, and urine during their work shift. Isopropanol, which ranged in environmental air between 7 and 645 mg/m3, was detected in alveolar air, where it ranged between 4 and 437 mg/m3, but not in blood or in urine. Alveolar isopropanol concentration (Ca) was significantly correlated with environmental isopropanol concentration (Ci) at any time of exposure. The value of the arithme...

  1. Assessment of human exposure to airborne fungi in agricultural confinements: personal inhalable sampling versus stationary sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Atin; Reponen, Tiina; Lee, Shu-An; Grinshpun, Sergey A

    2004-01-01

    Accurate exposure assessment to airborne fungi in agricultural environments is essential for estimating the associated occupational health hazards of workers. The objective of this pilot study was to compare personal and stationary sampling for assessing farmers' exposure to airborne fungi in 3 different agricultural confinements located in Ohio, USA (hog farm, dairy farm, and grain farm), using Button Personal Inhalable Samplers. Personal exposures were measured with samplers worn by 3 subjects (each carrying 2 samplers) during 3 types of activities, including animal feeding in the hog farm, cleaning and animal handling in the dairy farm, and soybean unloading and handling in the grain farm. Simultaneously, the stationary measurements were performed using 5 static Button Samplers and 1 revolving Button Sampler. The study showed that the total concentration of airborne fungi ranged from 1.4 x 10(4)-1.2 x 10(5) spores m(-3) in 3 confinements. Grain unloading and handling activity generated highest concentrations of airborne fungi compared to the other 2 activities. Prevalent airborne fungi belonged to Cladosporium, Aspergillus/Penicillium, Ascospores, smut spores, Epicoccum, Alternaria, and Basidiospores. Lower coefficients of variations were observed for the fungal concentrations measured by personal samplers (7-12%) compared to the concentrations measured by stationary samplers (27-37%). No statistically significant difference was observed between the stationary and personal measurement data for the total concentrations of airborne fungi (p > 0.05). Revolving stationary and static stationary Button Samplers demonstrated similar performance characteristics for the collection of airborne fungi. This reflects the low sensitivity of the sampler's efficiency to the wind speed and direction. The results indicate that personal exposure of agricultural workers in confinements may be adequately assessed by placing several Button Samplers simultaneously operating in a

  2. Personal Care Product Use in Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period: Implications for Exposure Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Carly; Fisher, Mandy; Neisa, Angelica; MacKinnon, Leona; Kuchta, Sandra; MacPherson, Susan; Probert, Adam; Arbuckle, Tye E

    2016-01-06

    Concern regarding the potential for developmental health risks associated with certain chemicals (e.g., phthalates, antibacterials) used in personal care products is well documented; however, current exposure data for pregnant women are limited. The objective of this study was to describe the pattern of personal care product use in pregnancy and the post-partum period. Usage patterns of personal care products were collected at six different time points during pregnancy and once in the postpartum period for a cohort of 80 pregnant women in Ottawa, Canada. The pattern of use was then described and groups of personal care product groups commonly used together were identified using hierarchical cluster analysis. The results showed that product use varied by income and country of birth. General hygiene products were the most commonly used products and were consistently used over time while cosmetic product use declined with advancing pregnancy and post-delivery. Hand soaps and baby products were reported as used more frequently after birth. This study is the first to track personal care product use across pregnancy and into the postpartum period, and suggests that pregnant populations may be a unique group of personal care product users. This information will be useful for exposure assessments.

  3. Sunscreen use related to UV exposure, age, sex, and occupation based on personal dosimeter readings and sun-exposure behavior diaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieden, Elisabeth; Philipsen, Peter A; Sandby-Møller, Jane; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2005-08-01

    To examine during what behaviors people apply sunscreen and to assess the relationship to UV exposure monitored by personal dosimetry and diaries. Open prospective observational study. University hospital. A convenience sample of 340 Danish volunteers: children, adolescents, indoor workers, sun worshippers, golfers, and gardeners (age range, 4-68 years). Intervention Subjects recorded sunscreen use and sun-exposure behavior in diaries and carried personal, electronic UV dosimeters, measuring time-stamped UV doses continuously, during a median of 119 days covering 346 sun-years (1 sun-year equals 1 subject participating during 1 summer season). Associations between sunscreen use and age, sex, skin type, occupation, sunburn, UV exposure doses, and behavior; and adequate application density and sun protection factor required to prevent sunburn. There were great variations in sunscreen use, which was highly correlated with risk behavior (sunbathing or exposing the upper body) (r = 0.39; P<.001). Sunscreens were used on a median of 5 days per sun-year (range, 1 day for gardeners to 16 days for sun worshippers). Ten percent of females and 41% of males never used sunscreens. Females used sunscreens more but also had more unprotected risk behavior than males (8 days vs 4 days; P<.001). Sunscreen use was not correlated with age, and children had as much unprotected risk behavior as adults. Sunscreens were used on 86% of the days with risk behavior in southern Europe vs 20% in northern Europe (P<.001). The UV doses were significantly higher on days with sunscreen (P< or = .03) and on sunburn days (P<.001). The median sun protection factor was 10.5. The sun-protecting effect corresponded to an application density of 0.5 mg/cm2. Days with sunscreen correlated not with days without risk behavior, but with days "sunbathing with the intention to tan," indicating that sunscreens were used as tanning aids to avoid sunburn.

  4. Personal exposure to dust and endotoxin in Robusta and Arabica coffee processing factories in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakwari, Gloria; Mamuya, Simon H D; Bråtveit, Magne; Larsson, Lennart; Pehrson, Christina; Moen, Bente E

    2013-03-01

    Endotoxin exposure associated with organic dust exposure has been studied in several industries. Coffee cherries that are dried directly after harvest may differ in dust and endotoxin emissions to those that are peeled and washed before drying. The aim of this study was to measure personal total dust and endotoxin levels and to evaluate their determinants of exposure in coffee processing factories. Using Sidekick Casella pumps at a flow rate of 2l/min, total dust levels were measured in the workers' breathing zone throughout the shift. Endotoxin was analyzed using the kinetic chromogenic Limulus amebocyte lysate assay. Separate linear mixed-effects models were used to evaluate exposure determinants for dust and endotoxin. Total dust and endotoxin exposure were significantly higher in Robusta than in Arabica coffee factories (geometric mean 3.41 mg/m(3) and 10 800 EU/m(3) versus 2.10 mg/m(3) and 1400 EU/m(3), respectively). Dry pre-processed coffee and differences in work tasks explained 30% of the total variance for total dust and 71% of the variance for endotoxin exposure. High exposure in Robusta processing is associated with the dry pre-processing method used after harvest. Dust and endotoxin exposure is high, in particular when processing dry pre-processed coffee. Minimization of dust emissions and use of efficient dust exhaust systems are important to prevent the development of respiratory system impairment in workers.

  5. The FARE: A new way to express FAlls Risk among older persons including physical activity as a measure of Exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijlhuizen, G.J.; Chorus, A.M.J.; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Common expressions of falls risk do not include exposure to hazards. We compared two expressions: the commonly used population incidence (fallers per 1000 person-years) and the FARE (FAlls Risk by Exposure): the number of fallers per 1000 physically active person-days. Methods: Prospecti

  6. [Nutritional dynamic monitoring during pregnancy: a personalized intervention of prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cristofaro, Paolo; Pompilii, Sonia; Di Bonifacio, M Teresa; Malatesta, Guido; Pantoni, Natascia; Xhebraj, Elona; Dragani, Beatrice

    2008-06-01

    Obesity is an increasing condition spreading out in all of the world, independently by race, sex and age. Obesity in pregnancy represent a risk condition for both mother and her offspring. All of the studies are observational and show intervention strategies on weight gain improvement during gestational period, a current topic, but still controversial. Our study is based on nutritional dynamic monitoring during pregnancy in order to improve health and wellbeing status of both mother and her offspring, through an early and efficacy prevention.

  7. Exposure of arctic field scientists to ultraviolet radiation evaluated using personal dosimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockell, C S; Scherer, K; Horneck, G; Rettberg, P; Facius, R; Gugg-Helminger, A; Driscoll, C; Lee, P

    2001-10-01

    During July 2000 we used an electronic personal dosimeter (X-2000) and a biological dosimeter (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt: Biofilm) to characterize the UV radiation exposure of arctic field scientists involved in biological and geological fieldwork. These personnel were working at the Haughton impact structure on Devon Island (75 degrees N) in the Canadian High Arctic under a 24 h photoperiod. During a typical day of field activities under a clear sky, the total daily erythemally weighted exposure, as measured by electronic dosimetry, was up to 5.8 standard erythemal dose (SED). Overcast skies (typically 7-8 okta of stratus) reduced exposures by a mean of 54%. We estimate that during a month of field activity in July a typical field scientist at this latitude could potentially receive approximately 80 SED to the face. Because of body movements the upper body was exposed to a UV regimen that often changed on second-to-second time-scales as assessed by electronic dosimetry. Over a typical 10 min period on vehicle traverse, we found that erythemal exposure could vary to up to 87% of the mean exposure. Time-integrated exposures showed that the type of outdoor field activities in the treeless expanse of the polar desert had little effect on the exposure received. Although absolute exposure changed in accordance with the time of day, the exposure ratio (dose received over horizontal dose) did not vary much over the day. Under clear skies the mean exposure ratio was 0.35 +/- 0.12 for individual activities at different times of the day assessed using electronic dosimetry. Biological dosimetry showed that the occupation was important in determining daily exposures. In our study, scientists in the field received an approximately two-fold higher dose than individuals, such as medics and computer scientists, who spent the majority of their time in tents.

  8. Biological monitoring as a valid tool to assess occupational exposure to mixtures of 2,4-:2,6-toluene diisocyanate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Palma, G; Cortesi, Ilenia; Ghitti, Roberta; Festa, Denise; Bergonzi, R; Apostoli, P

    2012-01-01

    Despite its advantages over environmental monitoring, biological monitoring of exposure to 2,4-:2,6-toluene diisocyanate (TDI) mixtures is still underused. The present study was designed in order to evaluate the feasibility and reliability of biological monitoring in a factory producing polyurethane foam blocks. Airborne TDI isomers were sampled by both static and personal pumps and determined by HPLC with fluorimetric detection. Specific metabolites 2,4- and 2,6-toluenediamine (TDA) were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry on hydrolysed urine samples collected from 16 workers at the beginning of the workweek and both before (BS) and at the end (ES) of the 4th workday. Additional samples were collected at the end of the 1st half-shift and at the beginning of the 2nd half-shift in 5 workers. In the foam production shop, TDI values were on average about 20 microg/m3, with higher levels in the 2nd half-shift and peak levels in workers operating along the polymerization tunnel. Average TDI levels were significantly correlated with ES TDA concentrations (p values at the beginning of the workweek (higher than in unexposed subjects) and by their elevation in subsequent BS samples. The study demonstrates the feasibility and reliability of biological monitoring in workers exposed to 2,4-:2, 6-TDI mixtures. This approach can provide information about both the daily and weekly exposure levels.

  9. Development of a Personal Integrated Environmental Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Sing Wong

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution in the urban areas of Hong Kong has become a serious public issue but most urban inhabitants have no means of judging their own living environment in terms of dangerous threshold and overall livability. Currently there exist many low-cost sensors such as ultra-violet, temperature and air quality sensors that provide reasonably accurate data quality. In this paper, the development and evaluation of Integrated Environmental Monitoring System (IEMS are illustrated. This system consists of three components: (i position determination and sensor data collection for real-time geospatial-based environmental monitoring; (ii on-site data communication and visualization with the aid of an Android-based application; and (iii data analysis on a web server. This system has shown to be working well during field tests in a bus journey and a construction site. It provides an effective service platform for collecting environmental data in near real-time, and raises the public awareness of environmental quality in micro-environments.

  10. Exposure to Community Violence, Psychopathology, and Personality Traits in Russian Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Koposov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research with the US inner-city youth demonstrated the hazardous effects of community violence exposure. It remains unclear, however, whether these findings are generalizable to other cultures and populations. Furthermore, the role of factors influencing the processing of traumatic events such as personality has not been investigated. Two groups of Russian adolescents (community youth (=546 and male delinquents (=352 completed questionnaires assessing their exposure to community violence, conduct problems, internalizing psychopathology and personality. The study demonstrates that the relationships between exposure to violence and psychopathology are similar across different populations within the same culture (community youth and juvenile delinquents, suggesting similar mechanisms behind this phenomenon. The patterns of these relationships were also similar for boys and girls, suggesting similarities in the mechanisms across gender. Hence, the effects of community violence exposure are generalizable to other cultures outside the US. The associations between personality traits and specific types of behaviors also tend to be similar across different populations. Higher levels of novelty seeking were related to more severe problem behaviors and to higher levels of witnessing and victimization, whereas higher levels of harm avoidance were related to higher levels of depression and posttraumatic stress.

  11. Personal exposure to asbestos and respiratory health of heavy vehicle brake mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cely-García, María Fernanda; Torres-Duque, Carlos A; Durán, Mauricio; Parada, Patricia; Sarmiento, Olga Lucía; Breysse, Patrick N; Ramos-Bonilla, Juan P

    2015-01-01

    Asbestos brake linings and blocks are currently used in heavy vehicle brake repair shops (BRSs) in Bogotá, Colombia. Some brake products are sold detached from their supports and without holes, requiring manipulation before installation. The aim of this study was to assess asbestos exposures and conduct a preliminary evaluation of respiratory health in workers of heavy vehicles in BRSs. To estimate asbestos exposures, personal and area samples were collected in two heavy vehicle BRSs. Each shop was sampled during six consecutive days for the entire work shift. Personal samples were collected on 10 workers including riveters, brake mechanics, and administrative staff. Among workers sampled, riveters had the highest phase contrast microscopy equivalent (PCME) asbestos concentrations, with 8-h time-weighted average (TWA) personal exposures ranging between 0.003 and 0.157 f/cm(3). Respiratory health evaluations were performed on the 10 workers sampled. Three workers (30%) had circumscribed pleural thickening (pleural plaques), with calcifications in two of them. This finding is strongly suggestive of asbestos exposure. The results of this study provide preliminary evidence that workers in heavy vehicle BRSs could be at excessive risk of developing asbestos-related diseases.

  12. Measurement of personal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, R.A.; Palausky, M.A.; Counts, R.W. [and others

    1995-12-31

    A study of personal exposure of non-smokers to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has been conducted in 16 cities in the United States. Individual participants wear one of two personal sampling pumps, one each at work and away-from-work. Samples of breathing zone air analyzed for both particle- and vapor-phase markers of ETS. In addition, prior- and post-exposure saliva samples are collected, in order that smoking status can be assessed through cotinine levels. The distribution of subjects among smoking and non-smoking workplaces and homes is such that ca. 54% of the participants worked and lived in non-smoking situations. A comparison of the demographic distribution of the sample population with that of the US non-smoking population indicates that the sample population is more female and of higher socioeconomic status. Subjects living and working with smokers are more highly exposed to ETS than those subjects who live and work in predominantly ETS-free environments. However, even the smoke exposures of subjects living and working in smoking venues are low relative to area concentrations of ETS reported in previous studies. It is clear that in general (not considering cell designation), ETS exposure is inversely correlated with household income. Additional data analysis has indicated that although participants perceive their greatest exposures to ETS to occur in the workplace, in fact, exposure to ETS when living with a smoker is demonstrably greater than that received in a smoking workplace, on an individual basis, correlation between salivary cotinine levels and ETS nicotine exposure was non-existent. However, there appears to be significant correlation between the two parameters when participants with measurable exposures are segregated into groups of 25.

  13. DOE Radiation Exposure Monitoring System (REMS) Data Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Nimi; Hagemeyer, Derek

    2012-05-05

    This slide show presents the 2011 draft data for DOE occupational radiation exposure.Clarification is given on Reporting Data regarding: reporting Total Organ Dose (TOD); reporting Total Skin Dose (TSD), and Total Extremity Dose (TExD) ; and Special individuals reporting.

  14. Uveka: a UV exposure monitoring system using autonomous instruments network for Reunion Island citizens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sébastien, Nicolas; Cros, Sylvain; Lallemand, Caroline; Kurzrock, Frederik; Schmutz, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    using the meteorological satellite Meteosat-7 data permits to complete the gaps. Kriging the punctual measurements using satellite data as spatial weights enables to obtain a continuous map with a spatially constant quality all over the Reunion Island. A significant challenge of this monitoring system is to ensure the temporal continuity of the real-time mapping. Indeed, autonomous sensors are programmed with our proprietary protocol leading to a smart management of the battery load and telecommunication costs. Measurements are sent to a server with a protocol minimizing the data amount in order to ensure low telecommunication prices. The server receives the measurements data and integrates them into a NoSql database. The server is able to handle long times series and quality control is routinely made to ensure data consistence as well as instruments float state monitoring. The database can be requested by our geographical information system server through an application programming interface. This configuration permits an easy development of a web-based or smart phone application using any external information provided by the user (personal phenotype and exposure experience) or its device (e.g. computing refinements according to its location).

  15. Personal exposure to particulate matter less than 2.5 microm in Mexico City: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, Maite; Lerma, Claudia; Infante, Oscar; Hermosillo, Antonio G; Riojas-Rodriguez, Horacio; Cárdenas, Manuel

    2004-07-01

    This study was aimed to describe the personal exposure of permanent residents in Mexico City's Metropolitan Area (MCMA) to particulate matter of less than 2.5 microm diameter (PM(2.5)) during their daily activities. A total of 40 healthy volunteers (30 women and 10 men) with sedentary activities were included. All of them carried a PM(2.5) personal monitor during 13 h and registered their activities in a written diary that classified them in indoor and outdoor microenvironments in each 30 min period. All sample collections started at 0900 hours, and even though measurements were obtained during the rainy season (April-August 2002), the relative humidity was less than 70%. The data were categorized and evaluated under the following criteria: morning and afternoon exposure, indoor and outdoor activities, and geographical location. The descriptive analysis showed that the overall outdoor median concentration of PM(2.5) (89.50 microg/m(3)) was higher than the indoor one (67.55 microg/m(3)). PM(2.5) concentrations in the morning to early afternoon were more elevated than in the late afternoon, suggesting a circadian-like behavior. In the indoor microenvironment, the highest concentration occurred in the subway (106.2 microg/m(3)) followed by school (93.27 microg/m(3)), and the lowest at home (53.1 microg/m(3)). The outdoor microenvironment with the highest concentrations was the public transportation (bus) (99.95 microg/m(3)), while the automobile had the lowest (64.9 microg/m(3)). The geographical zone with the highest concentration was the Center city area (87.87 microg/m(3)), and the one with the lowest concentration was the northeast area of the city (50 microg/m(3)). All the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis corroborated that PM(2.5) concentrations are mainly determined by geographical locations and hour of the day, but not by the type of microenvironment. The inclusion of covariables in the multivariable analysis ensures a

  16. Role of biomarkers in monitoring exposures to chemicals: present position, future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, William P; Mutti, Antonio

    2004-01-01

    Biomarkers are becoming increasingly important in toxicology and human health. Many research groups are carrying out studies to develop biomarkers of exposure to chemicals and apply these for human monitoring. There is considerable interest in the use and application of biomarkers to identify the nature and amounts of chemical exposures in occupational and environmental situations. Major research goals are to develop and validate biomarkers that reflect specific exposures and permit the prediction of the risk of disease in individuals and groups. One important objective is to prevent human cancer. This review presents a commentary and consensus views about the major developments on biomarkers for monitoring human exposure to chemicals. A particular emphasis is on monitoring exposures to carcinogens. Significant developments in the areas of new and existing biomarkers, analytical methodologies, validation studies and field trials together with auditing and quality assessment of data are discussed. New developments in the relatively young field of toxicogenomics possibly leading to the identification of individual susceptibility to both cancer and non-cancer endpoints are also considered. The construction and development of reliable databases that integrate information from genomic and proteomic research programmes should offer a promising future for the application of these technologies in the prediction of risks and prevention of diseases related to chemical exposures. Currently adducts of chemicals with macromolecules are important and useful biomarkers especially for certain individual chemicals where there are incidences of occupational exposure. For monitoring exposure to genotoxic compounds protein adducts, such as those formed with haemoglobin, are considered effective biomarkers for determining individual exposure doses of reactive chemicals. For other organic chemicals, the excreted urinary metabolites can also give a useful and complementary indication of

  17. Compliance and data reliability in sun exposure studies with diaries and personal, electronic UV dosimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieden, Elisabeth; Philipsen, Peter A; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2006-04-01

    Skin cancer risk estimations are based on sun exposure data. However, the reliability of collected data in personal ultraviolet (UV) dosimeters studies has not previously been validated. We aimed at investigating the data reliability and subject compliance in a study of sun exposure behaviour among 407 subjects (age range, 4-68 years) during 54 943 days based on time-stamped personal UV dosimeter readings and diary records. By comparing diary records and UV dosimeter readings on a daily basis, we investigated subject compliance, total sun exposure record, reasons for non-responding along with rates of diary completing errors. Efforts to improve compliance were described. The subject compliance rate was median 93.5% (percent days where the diary was completed and the UV dosimeter was worn). The total sun exposure record rate was median 84.1% (percent of participation days with both UV dosimeter and diary records and where the UV dosimeter was worn). Children, adolescents and golfers had lower sun exposure record rates than the rest of the groups (Pdosimeter maintenance service within 24 h and scrutinized data for errors and mistakes.

  18. Effects of personal exposures on pulmonary function and work-related symptoms among sawmill workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandryk, J; Alwis, K U; Hocking, A D

    2000-06-01

    Three green mills and two dry mills were studied for personal exposure to wood dust and biohazards associated with wood dust and their correlation to lung function and work-related symptoms among sawmill workers. The levels of exposure to endotoxin, (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan, bacteria and fungi were high in green mills compared with dry mills. Compared with dry mill workers, green mill workers had significantly high prevalence of regular cough, chronic bronchitis, regular blocked nose, regular sneezing, sinus problems, flu-like symptoms, and eye and throat irritation. Significant positive correlations were found among endotoxin and Gram (-)ve bacteria, (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan and fungi, and endotoxin and (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan exposure levels. Significant dose-response relationships were found for personal exposures and lung function, and lung function and work-related respiratory symptoms. The significant correlations found for respirable fractions show that not only inhalable but also respirable fractions are important in determining potential health effects of exposure to wood dust. The management and employees of the sawmilling industry should be educated on the potential health effects of wood dust. Wood dust should be controlled at the source.

  19. High-throughput exposure modeling to support prioritization of chemicals in personal care products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Csiszar, Susan A.; Ernstoff, Alexi; Fantke, Peter;

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the application of a high-throughput modeling framework to estimate exposure to chemicals used in personal care products (PCPs). As a basis for estimating exposure, we use the product intake fraction (PiF), defined as the mass of chemical taken by an individual or population per mass...... intakes were associated with body lotion. Bioactive doses derived from high-throughput in vitro toxicity data were combined with the estimated PiFs to demonstrate an approach to estimate bioactive equivalent chemical content and to screen chemicals for risk....

  20. MONITORING OF EXPOSURE RADIATION DOSES LOADS FROM MEDICAL EXPOSURE TO POPULATION OF THE KIROV REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. N. Skolotnev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes medical exposure to population of the Kirov region during the period of 50 years (1961–2011 from the main types of X-ray procedures. Steady eduction trend of exposure levels to population with increase of X-ray surveys frequency has been found.

  1. The relationship between ambient ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and objectively measured personal UVR exposure dose is modified by season and latitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, J; Lucas, R M; Harrison, S; van der Mei, I; Armstrong, B K; Nowak, M; Brodie, A; Kimlin, M G

    2014-12-01

    Despite the widespread use of ambient ultraviolet radiation (UVR) as a proxy measure of personal exposure to UVR, the relationship between the two is not well-defined. This paper examines the effects of season and latitude on the relationship between ambient UVR and personal UVR exposure. We used data from the AusD Study, a multi-centre cross-sectional study among Australian adults (18-75 years), where personal UVR exposure was objectively measured using polysulphone dosimeters. Data were analysed for 991 participants from 4 Australian cities of different latitude: Townsville (19.3°S), Brisbane (27.5°S), Canberra (35.3°S) and Hobart (42.8°S). Daily personal UVR exposure varied from 0.01 to 21 Standard Erythemal Doses (median = 1.1, IQR: 0.5-2.1), on average accounting for 5% of the total available ambient dose. There was an overall positive correlation between ambient UVR and personal UVR exposure (r = 0.23, p exposure fraction of total available ambient dose was highest in winter (7%) and amongst Hobart participants (7%) and lowest in summer (1%) and in Townsville (4%). These results suggest season and latitude modify the relationship between ambient UVR and personal UVR exposure. Ambient UVR may not be a good indicator for personal exposure dose under some circumstances.

  2. The problems of individual monitoring for internal exposure of monazite storage facility workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekidin, A.; Kirdin, I.; Yarmoshenko, I.; Zhukovsky, M. [Institute of Industrial Ecology of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Yekaterinburg, (Russian Federation)

    2006-07-01

    traditionally two situations of internal inhalation exposure by alpha emitting nuclides are considered in radiological protection: occupational exposure due to inhalation of plutonium aerosols; inhalation exposure by {sup 222}Rn daughters in working places and in home. for these situations the problems of radioactive aerosols intake, nuclide dynamics in human body, internal dosimetry, nuclide excretion, monitoring of internal exposure have been investigated in details especially for plutonium inhalation exposure. The results of these studies are presented in details in ICRP Publications and UNSCEAR reports. However there is very specific case in which the special analysis of internal inhalation exposure is need. it is the working places with anomalous, extremely high concentration of thoron ({sup 220}Rn) daughters. The problems of internal radiation exposure of workers in such working place are the main topic of this publication. (authors)

  3. Analysis of the mortality among Cogema workers monitored for external radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz-Flamant, C.; Hitz, M.; Samson, E.; Rogel, A.; Telle-Lamberton, M.; Tirmarche, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Caer, S.; Quesne, B. [Cogema, Coordination Medicale, 78 - Velizy-Villacoublay (France)

    2006-07-01

    The present study follows 9287 Cogema workers exposed to low level of ionizing radiation from the beginning of employment to the end of 1994. This paper presents analyses of the mortality of Cogema workers monitored for external radiation exposure and the relation between their mortality and their cumulative external radiation dose. Workers were followed up for an average of 13 years. The percentage of subjects lost to follow up was less than 1%. during the follow-up period, 441 deaths occurred. The mean cumulative dose among the whole cohort was 19.4 mSv. As expected, the mortality of the cohort was lower than that of the French national population. The healthy worker effect is often observed in other nuclear workers studies. Part of the healthy worker effect is explained by a proportion of unemployed persons in general population, with a higher mortality rate. All causes S.M.R. increased with calendar period and duration of employment. this increase was not significant for all cancers S.M.R. by duration of employment. This could illustrate the decrease of the initial selection at employment with time. A significant increase in risk was observed for all cancers excluding leukemia mortality with increase of radiation dose in the 15-country study. Significant excess of leukemia by cumulative radiation exposure was observed in the 3-country study and was borderline significant in the 15-country study and in the UK National register for radiation workers study. A positive trend, not statistically significant, by level of external doses was observed in our study for all cancers and leukemia excluding chronic lymphatic leukemia mortality, but the analyses lack of statistical power. A significant trend was observed only for non-Hodgkin lymphoma death, but considering the large number of statistic tests computed, this result must be carefully interpreted. A borderline significant trend was observed for lung cancer death, a significant increase risk of lung cancer death

  4. Person × Environment Interactions on Adolescent Delinquency: Sensation Seeking, Peer Deviance and Parental Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Frank D; Kretsch, Natalie; Tackett, Jennifer L; Harden, K Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M

    2015-04-01

    Sensation seeking is a personality trait that is robustly correlated with delinquent behavior in adolescence. The current study tested specific contextual factors hypothesized to facilitate, exacerbate or attenuate this risk factor for adolescent delinquency. Individual differences in sensation seeking, peer deviance, parental monitoring and self-reported delinquent behavior were assessed in a sample of 470 adolescents. Peer deviance partially mediated the effects of sensation seeking and parental monitoring on adolescent delinquency. We also found evidence for a three-way interaction between sensation seeking, peer deviance and parental monitoring, such that the highest rates of delinquency occurred from the concurrence of high sensation seeking, high peer deviance, and low levels of parental monitoring. Results highlight the importance of considering peer- and family-level processes when evaluating personality risk and problematic adolescent behavior.

  5. THE EXPOSURE PARADOX IN PARTICULATE MATTER COMMUNITY TIME-SERIES EPIDEMIOLOGY: CAN AMBIENT CONCENTRATIONS OF PM BE USED AS A SURROGATE FOR PERSONAL EXPOSURE TO PM ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Explain why epidemiologic studies find a statistically significant relationship between ambient concentrations of PM and health effects even though only a near-zero correlation is found between ambient concentrations of PM and personal exposures to PM. Method: Consider...

  6. THE EXPOSURE PARADOX IN PARTICULATE MATTER COMMUNITY TIME-SERIES EPIDEMIOLOGY: CAN AMBIENT CONCENTRATIONS OF PM BE USED AS A SURROGATE FOR PERSONAL EXPOSURE TO PM ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Explain why epidemiologic studies find a statistically significant relationship between ambient concentrations of PM and health effects even though only a near-zero correlation is found between ambient concentrations of PM and personal exposures to PM. Method: Consider...

  7. Comprehensive personal RF-EMF exposure map and its potential use in epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Rubio, Jesus; Najera, Alberto; Arribas, Enrique

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, numerous epidemiological studies, which deal with the potential effects of mobile phone antennas on health, have almost exclusively focused on their distance to mobile phone base stations. Although it is known that this is not the best approach to the problem, this situation occurs due to the numerous difficulties when determining the personal exposure to the radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). However, due to the rise of personal exposimeters, the evolution of spatial statistics, the development of geographical information systems and the use of powerful software, new alternatives are available to deal with these epidemiological studies and thus overcome the aforementioned difficulties. Using these tools, this paper presents a lattice map of personal RF-EMF exposure from exterior mobile phone base stations, covering the entire 110 administrative regions in the city of Albacete (Spain). For this purpose, we used a personal exposimeter, Satimo EME Spy 140 model, performing measurements every 4s The exposimeter was located inside the plastic basket of a bicycle, whose versatility permitted the access to all the zones of the city. Once the exposure map was prepared, its relation with the known antenna locations was studied. The 64 mobile telephone antennas of the city were also georeferenced; the randomness of both variables (exposure and antennas) were studied by means of the Moran's I test. Results showed that the distribution of the antennas follows a grouped pattern (pvalues have a random distribution (p=0.618). In addition, we showed two Spearman correlation studies: the first between the average exposure values and the number of mobile telephone antennas per administrative region, and the second, also considering the antennas of the neighbouring regions. No substantial correlation was detected in either of the two cases. This study also reveals the weaknesses of the epidemiological studies, which only take into account the distance

  8. METHODS OF STATISTICAL MONITORING OF PROFESSIONAL ORIENTATION WORK OF SOCIAL EDUCATORS IN PERSONAL LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr M. Korniiets

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the application of social services WEB 2.0 for personal learning environment creation that is used for professional orientation work of social educator. The feedback is must be in personal learning environment for the effective professional orientation work. This feedback can be organized through statistical monitoring. The typical solution for organizing personal learning environment with built-in statistical surveys and statistical data processing is considered in the article. The possibilities of the statistical data collection and processing services on the example of Google Analytics are investigated.

  9. Extending Participatory Sensing to Personal Exposure Using Microscopic Land Use Regression Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Dekoninck

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Personal exposure is sensitive to the personal features and behavior of the individual, and including interpersonal variability will improve the health and quality of life evaluations. Participatory sensing assesses the spatial and temporal variability of environmental indicators and is used to quantify this interpersonal variability. Transferring the participatory sensing information to a specific study population is a basic requirement for epidemiological studies in the near future. We propose a methodology to reduce the void between participatory sensing and health research. Instantaneous microscopic land-use regression modeling (µLUR is an innovative approach. Data science techniques extract the activity-specific and route-sensitive spatiotemporal variability from the data. A data workflow to prepare and apply µLUR models to any mobile population is presented. The µLUR technique and data workflow are illustrated with models for exposure to traffic related Black Carbon. The example µLURs are available for three micro-environments; bicycle, in-vehicle, and indoor. Instantaneous noise assessments supply instantaneous traffic information to the µLURs. The activity specific models are combined into an instantaneous personal exposure model for Black Carbon. An independent external validation reached a correlation of 0.65. The µLURs can be applied to simulated behavioral patterns of individuals in epidemiological cohorts for advanced health and policy research.

  10. Intake fraction of PM2.5 and NOX from vehicle emissions in Beijing based on personal exposure data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xuan; Wu, Ye; Fu, Lixin; Wang, Shuxiao; Zhang, Shaojun; Hao, Jiming

    2012-09-01

    The intake fraction (iF) is the portion of attributable population intake of a source emissions, and is used to link pollutant emissions and population exposure. This study is the first work that reported individual intake fraction of PM2.5 and NOX from vehicle emissions based on personal exposure data in China. We employed PM2.5 and NOX measurement data from 24-h personal exposure sampling and concentration monitoring in traffic environments in the urban area of Beijing to estimate the individual intake fraction (iFi). iFi distributions are presented in microenvironments (traffic, work, home) for adults and children. The individual results are used to calculate the intake fraction for the children group and the adults group in the urban area of Beijing. The iF of PM2.5 for the whole population of these two groups in Beijing is 153 per million, which is significantly higher than those estimates in the United States (1-50 per million) and Mexico (23-120 per million). The iF of NOX is 70 per million, among which the intake in the traffic micro-environment ranks first compared to the iF in the home and office due to a high accumulation of NOX concentration in vehicles. PM2.5 and NOX intake fraction values from vehicle emissions in this study are from at least several times to one order of magnitude higher than those from other industry sources in China. This strongly suggests the health risk from vehicle emissions is significantly higher. Therefore, to protect human health, especially for the large number of people living in the cities of China, controlling vehicle emissions should be the highest priority.

  11. Personal exposure to PM 2.5 and element composition—A comparison between outdoor and indoor workers from two Mexican cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovalin-Ahumada, Horacio; Whitehead, Lawrence; Blanco, Salvador

    Many individuals work outdoors in the formal and informal economy of the large urban areas in developing countries, where they are potentially exposed for long periods to high concentrations of ambient airborne particulate matter (PM). This study describes the personal exposures to PM of 2.5 μm aerodynamic diameter and smaller (PM 2.5) for a sample of outdoor and indoor workers in two cities, Mexico City and Puebla, in central Mexico. Thirty-six workers in Mexico City and 17 in Puebla were studied. Thirty were outdoor workers (i.e., taxi and bus drivers, street vendors, and vehicle inspectors) and 23 were indoor (office) workers. Their personal exposures to PM 2.5 were monitored for a mean 19-h period. In Mexico City, the street vendors and taxi drivers overall exposures were significantly higher than indoor workers were. In Puebla, bus drivers had a higher overall exposure than vehicle inspectors or indoor workers. Most of the exposures were above the 65 μg m -3 24-h Mexican standard. In Mexico City, exposures to Si, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Mo and Cd were higher for outdoor than for indoor workers. In Puebla, exposures to Si, S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Mn, and Zn also were higher for outdoor workers. In Mexico City outdoor workers exposures to Cu, Pb, Cr, Se and Mo were 4 or more times higher than for Puebla outdoor workers, while Puebla outdoor workers' exposures to V, Si, Fe and Ca were 3 or more times higher than Mexico City outdoor workers. These results suggest that for these outdoor workers the elevated local ambient air PM concentrations and an extended period spent outside are more important contributors to total exposures than indoor concentrations. These workers could be at particular risk of increased morbidity and mortality associated with ambient PM.

  12. Children’s Personal Exposure Measurements to Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Liorni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs exposure is still a topic of concern due to their possible impact on children’s health. Although epidemiological studies claimed an evidence of a possible association between ELF-MF above 0.4 μT and childhood leukemia, biological mechanisms able to support a causal relationship between ELF-MF and this disease were not found yet. To provide further knowledge about children’s ELF-MF exposure correlated to children’s daily activities, a measurement study was conducted in Milan (Italy. Eighty-six children were recruited, 52 of whom were specifically chosen with respect to the distance to power lines and built-in transformers to oversample potentially highly exposed children. Personal and bedroom measurements were performed for each child in two different seasons. The major outcomes of this study are: (1 median values over 24-h personal and bedroom measurements were <3 μT established by the Italian law as the quality target; (2 geometric mean values over 24-h bedroom measurements were mostly <0.4 μT; (3 seasonal variations did not significantly influence personal and bedroom measurements; (4 the highest average MF levels were mostly found at home during the day and outdoors; (5 no significant differences were found in the median and geometric mean values between personal and bedroom measurements, but were found in the arithmetic mean.

  13. Children's Personal Exposure Measurements to Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liorni, Ilaria; Parazzini, Marta; Struchen, Benjamin; Fiocchi, Serena; Röösli, Martin; Ravazzani, Paolo

    2016-05-31

    Extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs) exposure is still a topic of concern due to their possible impact on children's health. Although epidemiological studies claimed an evidence of a possible association between ELF-MF above 0.4 μT and childhood leukemia, biological mechanisms able to support a causal relationship between ELF-MF and this disease were not found yet. To provide further knowledge about children's ELF-MF exposure correlated to children's daily activities, a measurement study was conducted in Milan (Italy). Eighty-six children were recruited, 52 of whom were specifically chosen with respect to the distance to power lines and built-in transformers to oversample potentially highly exposed children. Personal and bedroom measurements were performed for each child in two different seasons. The major outcomes of this study are: (1) median values over 24-h personal and bedroom measurements were values over 24-h bedroom measurements were mostly personal and bedroom measurements; (4) the highest average MF levels were mostly found at home during the day and outdoors; (5) no significant differences were found in the median and geometric mean values between personal and bedroom measurements, but were found in the arithmetic mean.

  14. Socio-environmental exposures and health outcomes among persons with sickle cell disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight Madden, Jennifer; Reid, Marvin; Greene, Lisa-Gaye; Lyew-Ayee, Parris

    2017-01-01

    There is much variability in the expression of sickle cell disease (SCD) and recent works suggest that environmental and social factors may also influence this variability. This paper aims to use geographic information systems technology to examine the association between socio-environmental exposures and health outcomes in all persons who have attended or currently attend the Sickle Cell Unit in Jamaica. Rural patients presented for clinical care at older ages and had less annual visits to clinic. Persons travelled relatively long distances to seek SCD care and those travelling longer had less health maintenance visits. Urban patients had a higher prevalence of significant pain crises (69.4% vs. 55.8%, p value<0.001) and respiratory events (21.2% vs. 14%, p value<0.001). Prevalence of leg ulcers did not vary between rural and urban patients but was higher in males than in females. Females also had lower odds of having respiratory events but there was no sex difference in history of painful crises. Persons with more severe genotypes lived in higher poverty and travelled longer for healthcare services. Persons in areas with higher annual rainfall, higher mean temperatures and living farther from factories had less painful crises and respiratory events. The paper highlights a need for better access to healthcare services for Jamaicans with SCD especially in rural areas of the island. It also reports interesting associations between environmental climatic exposures and health outcomes. PMID:28384224

  15. Children’s Personal Exposure Measurements to Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liorni, Ilaria; Parazzini, Marta; Struchen, Benjamin; Fiocchi, Serena; Röösli, Martin; Ravazzani, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs) exposure is still a topic of concern due to their possible impact on children’s health. Although epidemiological studies claimed an evidence of a possible association between ELF-MF above 0.4 μT and childhood leukemia, biological mechanisms able to support a causal relationship between ELF-MF and this disease were not found yet. To provide further knowledge about children’s ELF-MF exposure correlated to children’s daily activities, a measurement study was conducted in Milan (Italy). Eighty-six children were recruited, 52 of whom were specifically chosen with respect to the distance to power lines and built-in transformers to oversample potentially highly exposed children. Personal and bedroom measurements were performed for each child in two different seasons. The major outcomes of this study are: (1) median values over 24-h personal and bedroom measurements were <3 μT established by the Italian law as the quality target; (2) geometric mean values over 24-h bedroom measurements were mostly <0.4 μT; (3) seasonal variations did not significantly influence personal and bedroom measurements; (4) the highest average MF levels were mostly found at home during the day and outdoors; (5) no significant differences were found in the median and geometric mean values between personal and bedroom measurements, but were found in the arithmetic mean. PMID:27258295

  16. Personal exposure of street canyon intersection users to PM 2.5, ultrafine particle counts and carbon monoxide in Central London, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, S.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.; Colvile, R.

    Short-term human exposure to PM 2.5, ultrafine particle counts (particle range: 0.02-1 μm) and carbon monoxide (CO) was investigated at and around a street canyon intersection in Central London, UK. During a four-week field campaign, groups of four volunteers collected samples at three timings (morning, lunch and afternoon), along two different routes (a heavily trafficked route and a backstreet route) via five modes of transport (walking, cycling, bus, car and taxi). PM 2.5 was sampled using high-flow gravimetric personal samplers, ultrafine particle counts were measured using TSI P-TRAKs and Langans were used to measure CO exposure. Three hundred and ninety-four samples were collected—197 PM 2.5, 86 ultrafine particle count and 111 CO. Arithmetic means of PM 2.5 personal exposure were 27.5, 33.5, 34.5, 38.0 and 41.5 μg m -3, ultrafine particle counts were 67 773, 93 968, 101 364, 99 736 and 87 545 pt cm -3 and CO levels were 0.9, 1.1, 0.8, 1.3 and 1.1 ppm for walking, cycling, bus, car and taxi respectively. On the heavily trafficked route, personal exposure was 35.3 μg m -3, 101142 pt cm -3 and 1.3 ppm, and on the backstreet route it was 31.8 μg m -3, 71628 pt cm -3 and 0.6 ppm for PM 2.5, ultrafine particle counts and CO, respectively. Personal exposure levels were high during the morning measurements for all three pollutants (34.6 μg m -3, 106 270 pt cm -3 and 1.5 ppm for PM 2.5, ultrafine particle counts and CO, respectively).There was a moderately strong correlation between personal exposure of ultrafine particle counts and CO ( r=0.7, N=67) but a weaker correlation between PM 2.5 and ultrafine particle counts ( r=0.5, N=83) and a low correlation between PM 2.5 and CO exposure ( r=0.2, N=105). The exposure assessment also revealed that the background and kerbside monitoring stations were not representative of the personal exposure of individuals to PM 2.5 and CO at and around a street canyon intersection.

  17. Agreement of land use regression models with personal exposure measurements of particulate matter and nitrogen oxides air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagne, Denise; Hoek, Gerard; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Lanki, Timo; Pennanen, Arto; Portella, Meritxell; Meliefste, Kees; Eeftens, Marloes; Yli-Tuomi, Tarja; Cirach, Marta; Brunekreef, Bert

    2013-08-06

    Land use regression (LUR) models are often used to predict long-term average concentrations of air pollutants. Little is known how well LUR models predict personal exposure. In this study, the agreement of LUR models with measured personal exposure was assessed. The measured components were particulate matter with a diameter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5), soot (reflectance of PM2.5), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). In Helsinki, Utrecht, and Barcelona, 15 volunteers (from semiurban, urban background, and traffic sites) followed prescribed time activity patterns. Per participant, six 96 h outdoor, indoor, and personal measurements spread over three seasons were conducted. Soot LUR models were significantly correlated with measured average outdoor and personal soot concentrations. Soot LUR models explained 39%, 44%, and 20% of personal exposure variability (R(2)) in Helsinki, Utrecht, and Barcelona. NO2 LUR models significantly predicted outdoor concentrations and personal exposure in Utrecht and Helsinki, whereas NOx and PM2.5 LUR models did not predict personal exposure. PM2.5, NO2, and NOx models were correlated with personal soot, the component least affected by indoor sources. LUR modeled and measured outdoor, indoor, and personal concentrations were highly correlated for all pollutants when data from the three cities were combined. This study supports the use of intraurban LUR models for especially soot in air pollution epidemiology.

  18. The impact of traffic volume, composition, and road geometry on personal air pollution exposures among cyclists in Montreal, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzopoulou, Marianne; Weichenthal, Scott; Dugum, Hussam; Pickett, Graeme; Miranda-Moreno, Luis; Kulka, Ryan; Andersen, Ross; Goldberg, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Cyclists may experience increased exposure to traffic-related air pollution owing to increased minute ventilation and close proximity to vehicle emissions. The aims of this study were to characterize personal exposures to air pollution among urban cyclists and to identify potential determinants of exposure including the type of cycling lane (separated vs on-road), traffic counts, and meteorological factors. In total, personal air pollution exposure data were collected over 64 cycling routes during morning and evening commutes in Montreal, Canada, over 32 days during the summer of 2011. Measured pollutants included ultrafine particles (UFPs), fine particles (PM(2.5)), black carbon (BC), and carbon monoxide (CO). Counts of diesel vehicles were important predictors of personal exposures to BC, with each 10 vehicle/h increase associated with a 15.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 5.7%, 24.0%) increase in exposure. Use of separated cycling lanes had less impact on personal exposures with a 12% (95% CI: -43%, 14%) decrease observed for BC and smaller decreases observed for UFPs (mean: -1.3%, 95% CI: -20%, 17%) and CO (mean: -5.6%, 95% CI: -17%, 4%) after adjusting for meteorological factors and traffic counts. On average, PM(2.5) exposure increased 7.8% (95% CI: -17%, 35%) with separate cycling lane use, but this estimate was imprecise and not statistically significant. In general, our findings suggest that diesel vehicle traffic is an important contributor to personal BC exposures and that separate cycling lanes may have a modest impact on personal exposure to some air pollutants. Further evaluation is required, however, as the impact of separate cycling lanes and/or traffic counts on personal exposures may vary between regions.

  19. Methodology and biological monitoring of exposure to chemical warfare agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, M.L.; Smith, J.R.; McMonagle, J.D. [Army Medical Research Inst. of Chemical Defense, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)

    1995-06-01

    In the past few years, our institute has developed several GC/MS methods for the detection of the breakdown products of toxic organophosphonates (soman, sarin, GF) and vesicant sulfur mustard in biological samples. Recently we developed a modified GC/MS method for VX and are continually working on the methodology for lewisite and tabun. The purpose is to have an analytical tool to verify the exposure of chemical warfare agents in humans. Analytical procedures for quantitating the hydrolyzed phosphonic acids from nerve agents in environmental samples have been reported by many analysts. For more complex matrices such as biological samples, there is not yet a method reported. To make these polar acids amenable to gas chromatographic analysis a prior derivatization is needed. We found the pentafluorobenzyl ester derivatives of the phosphonates are suitable for verification and pharmacokinetic studies in biological samples. This method may also serve as an alternative method for confirmation purposes in environmental samples.

  20. Self-Monitoring and Private Self-Consciousness: Relations to Holland's Vocational Personality Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Andrew D.; Mowsesian, Richard

    1993-01-01

    A sample of 139 (of 557) college graduates completed the Revised Self-Monitoring Scale and the Private Self-Consciousness Scale. For men, self-presentation correlated positively with Holland's social and enterprising personality types. Private self-consciousness correlated with artistic (both sexes) and investigative (men only) types. (SK)

  1. The ripple effect of personality on social structure: self-monitoring origins of network brokerage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hongseok; Kilduff, Martin

    2008-09-01

    Despite growing interest in social network brokerage, its psychological antecedents have been neglected. One possibility is that brokerage relates to self-monitoring personality orientation. High self-monitors, relative to low self-monitors, in adapting their self-presentations to the demands of different groups, may occupy positions as brokers between disconnected social worlds. For 162 Korean expatriate entrepreneurs in a Canadian urban area, the results showed that those high in self-monitoring tended to occupy direct brokerage roles within the Korean community--in terms of their direct acquaintances being unconnected with each other. Those high in self-monitoring also tended to occupy indirect brokerage roles--in terms of the acquaintances of their acquaintances being unconnected with each other. Finally, for recent arrivals, those high in self-monitoring tended to establish ties to a wider range of important non-Korean position holders outside the community. These results (which controlled for strongly significant effects of network size on individuals' brokerage within the community) suggest a ripple effect of self-monitoring on social structure and contribute to a clearer understanding of how personality relates to brokerage at different levels.

  2. Time-Based Measurement of Personal Mite Allergen Bioaerosol Exposure over 24 Hour Periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovey, Euan R; Liu-Brennan, Damien; Garden, Frances L; Oliver, Brian G; Perzanowski, Matthew S; Marks, Guy B

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis are common in many countries. Globally the most common allergen associated with symptoms is produced by house dust mites. Although the bed has often been cited as the main site of exposure to mite allergens, surprisingly this has not yet been directly established by measurement due to a lack of suitable methods. Here we report on the development of novel methods to determine the pattern of personal exposure to mite allergen bioaerosols over 24-hour periods and applied this in a small field study using 10 normal adults. Air was sampled using a miniature time-based air-sampler of in-house design located close to the breathing zone of the participants, co-located with a miniature time-lapse camera. Airborne particles, drawn into the sampler at 2L/min via a narrow slot, were impacted onto the peripheral surface of a disk mounted on the hour-hand of either a 12 or 24 hour clock motor. The impaction surface was either an electret cloth, or an adhesive film; both novel for these purposes. Following a review of the time-lapse images, disks were post-hoc cut into subsamples corresponding to eight predetermined categories of indoor or outdoor location, extracted and analysed for mite allergen Der p 1 by an amplified ELISA. Allergen was detected in 57.2% of the total of 353 subsamples collected during 20 days of sampling. Exposure patterns varied over time. Higher concentrations of airborne mite allergen were typically measured in samples collected from domestic locations in the day and evening. Indoor domestic Der p 1 exposures accounted for 59.5% of total exposure, whereas total in-bed-asleep exposure, which varied 80 fold between individuals, accounted overall for 9.85% of total exposure, suggesting beds are not often the main site of exposure. This study establishes the feasibility of novel methods for determining the time-geography of personal exposure to many bioaerosols and identifies new areas for future technical

  3. Time-Based Measurement of Personal Mite Allergen Bioaerosol Exposure over 24 Hour Periods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euan R Tovey

    Full Text Available Allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis are common in many countries. Globally the most common allergen associated with symptoms is produced by house dust mites. Although the bed has often been cited as the main site of exposure to mite allergens, surprisingly this has not yet been directly established by measurement due to a lack of suitable methods. Here we report on the development of novel methods to determine the pattern of personal exposure to mite allergen bioaerosols over 24-hour periods and applied this in a small field study using 10 normal adults. Air was sampled using a miniature time-based air-sampler of in-house design located close to the breathing zone of the participants, co-located with a miniature time-lapse camera. Airborne particles, drawn into the sampler at 2L/min via a narrow slot, were impacted onto the peripheral surface of a disk mounted on the hour-hand of either a 12 or 24 hour clock motor. The impaction surface was either an electret cloth, or an adhesive film; both novel for these purposes. Following a review of the time-lapse images, disks were post-hoc cut into subsamples corresponding to eight predetermined categories of indoor or outdoor location, extracted and analysed for mite allergen Der p 1 by an amplified ELISA. Allergen was detected in 57.2% of the total of 353 subsamples collected during 20 days of sampling. Exposure patterns varied over time. Higher concentrations of airborne mite allergen were typically measured in samples collected from domestic locations in the day and evening. Indoor domestic Der p 1 exposures accounted for 59.5% of total exposure, whereas total in-bed-asleep exposure, which varied 80 fold between individuals, accounted overall for 9.85% of total exposure, suggesting beds are not often the main site of exposure. This study establishes the feasibility of novel methods for determining the time-geography of personal exposure to many bioaerosols and identifies new areas for

  4. Personal UV exposure on a ski-field at an alpine site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Siani

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Mountain sites experience enhanced ambient UV radiation levels due to the concurrent effects of shorter radiation path-length, low aerosol load and high reflectivity of the snow surfaces.

    This study was encouraged by the possibility to collect data of personal UV exposure in the mountainous areas of Italy, for the first time. Personal UV exposure (expressed in terms of Exposure Ratio, ER of two groups of volunteers (ski instructors and skiers at the Alpine site of La Thuile (Valle d'Aosta region, Italy was assessed using polysulphone dosimetry which was tested in a mountainous snow-covered environment. In addition measurements of biological markers of individual response to UV exposure such as skin colorimetric parameters were carried out.

    It was found that snow and altitude of study site affect calibration curves of polysulphone dosimeters in comparison to a situation without snow.

    The median ER, taking into account the whole sample, is 0.60 in winter, with a range of 0.29 to 1.46, and 1.02 in spring, ranging from 0.46 to 1.72. There are no differences in exposures across skiers and instructors in spring while in winter skiers experience lower values. UV exposures are not sensitive to the use of sunscreen across instructor/skier group by day or by seasons or by photo-type. With regard to colorimetric parameters, the main result was that both skiers and instructors had on average significantly lower values of L* and b* after exposure i.e. becoming darker but the inappropriate sunscreen use did not reveal any changes in skin colorimetric parameters except in one spring day.

    In conclusions UV intensities on the ski-fields are often significantly higher than those on horizontal surfaces. Given the high levels of exposure observed in the present study, dedicated public heath messages on the correct sunscreen use should be adopted.

  5. Personal Exposure to Particulate Matter and Endotoxin in California Dairy Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Johnny

    The average number of cows per dairy has increased over the last thirty years, with little known about how this increase may impact occupational exposure. Thirteen California dairies and 226 workers participated in this study throughout the 2008 summer months. Particulate Matter (PM) and endotoxin concentrations were quantified using ambient area based and personal air samplers. Two size fractions were collected, Total Suspended Particulate matter (TSP) and PM 2.5. Differences across dairies were evaluated by placing area based integrated air samplers in established locations on the dairies, e.g. milking parlor, drylot corral, and freestall barns. The workers occupational exposure was quantified using personal air samplers. We analyzed concentrations along with the time workers spent conducting specific job tasks during their shift to identify high exposure job tasks. Biological and chemical analytical methods were employed to ascertain endotoxin concentrations in personal and area based air samples. Recombinant factor C assays (rFC) were used to analyze biologically active endotoxin and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry in tandem (GC-MS/MS) was used to quantify total endotoxin. The PM2.5 concentrations ranged from 2-116 mug/m3 for ambient area concentration and 7-495 mug/m3 for personal concentrations while TSP concentrations ranged from 74-1690 mug/m3 for area ambient concentrations and 191-4950 mug/m3 for personal concentrations. Biologically active endotoxin concentrations in the TSP size fraction from ambient area based samples ranged from 11-2095 EU/m3 and 45-2061 EU/m3 for personal samples. Total endotoxin in the TSP size fraction ranged from 75-10,166 pmol/m3 for area based samples and 34-11,689 pmol/m3 for personal samples. Drylot corrals were found to have higher sample mean concentrations when compared to other locations on the dairies for PM and endotoxin. Re-bedding, of the freestalls, was found to consistently lead to higher personal

  6. Students' personal traits, violence exposure, family factors, school dynamics and the perpetration of violence in Taiwanese elementary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ji-Kang; Astor, Ron Avi

    2011-02-01

    School violence has become an international problem affecting the well-being of students. To date, few studies have examined how school variables mediate between personal and family factors and school violence in the context of elementary schools in Asian cultures. Using a nationally representative sample of 3122 elementary school students in Taiwan, this study examined a theoretical model proposing that negative personal traits, exposure to violence and parental monitoring knowledge have both direct influences as well as indirect influences mediated through school engagement, at-risk peers and poor student-teacher relationships on school violence committed by students against students and teachers. The results of a structural equation modeling analysis provided a good fit for the sample as a whole. The final model accounted for 32% of the variance for student violence against students and 21% for student violence against teachers. The overall findings support the theoretical model proposed in this study. Similar findings were obtained for both male and female students. The study indicated that to reduce school violence more effectively in the context of elementary schools, intervention may exclusively focus on improving students' within-school experiences and the quality of the students' relationships with teachers and school peers.

  7. Comparison of exposure estimation methods for air pollutants: ambient monitoring data and regional air quality simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Mercedes A; Fuentes, Montserrat; Zhang, Yang; Burr, Michael J; Bell, Michelle L

    2012-07-01

    Air quality modeling could potentially improve exposure estimates for use in epidemiological studies. We investigated this application of air quality modeling by estimating location-specific (point) and spatially-aggregated (county level) exposure concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 μm (PM(2.5)) and ozone (O(3)) for the eastern U.S. in 2002 using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system and a traditional approach using ambient monitors. The monitoring approach produced estimates for 370 and 454 counties for PM(2.5) and O(3), respectively. Modeled estimates included 1861 counties, covering 50% more population. The population uncovered by monitors differed from those near monitors (e.g., urbanicity, race, education, age, unemployment, income, modeled pollutant levels). CMAQ overestimated O(3) (annual normalized mean bias=4.30%), while modeled PM(2.5) had an annual normalized mean bias of -2.09%, although bias varied seasonally, from 32% in November to -27% in July. Epidemiology may benefit from air quality modeling, with improved spatial and temporal resolution and the ability to study populations far from monitors that may differ from those near monitors. However, model performance varied by measure of performance, season, and location. Thus, the appropriateness of using such modeled exposures in health studies depends on the pollutant and metric of concern, acceptable level of uncertainty, population of interest, study design, and other factors.

  8. Personal exposure to mixtures of volatile organic compounds: modeling and further analysis of the RIOPA data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterman, Stuart; Su, Feng-Chiao; Li, Shi; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Jia, Chunrong

    2014-06-01

    Emission sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs*) are numerous and widespread in both indoor and outdoor environments. Concentrations of VOCs indoors typically exceed outdoor levels, and most people spend nearly 90% of their time indoors. Thus, indoor sources generally contribute the majority of VOC exposures for most people. VOC exposure has been associated with a wide range of acute and chronic health effects; for example, asthma, respiratory diseases, liver and kidney dysfunction, neurologic impairment, and cancer. Although exposures to most VOCs for most persons fall below health-based guidelines, and long-term trends show decreases in ambient emissions and concentrations, a subset of individuals experience much higher exposures that exceed guidelines. Thus, exposure to VOCs remains an important environmental health concern. The present understanding of VOC exposures is incomplete. With the exception of a few compounds, concentration and especially exposure data are limited; and like other environmental data, VOC exposure data can show multiple modes, low and high extreme values, and sometimes a large portion of data below method detection limits (MDLs). Field data also show considerable spatial or interpersonal variability, and although evidence is limited, temporal variability seems high. These characteristics can complicate modeling and other analyses aimed at risk assessment, policy actions, and exposure management. In addition to these analytic and statistical issues, exposure typically occurs as a mixture, and mixture components may interact or jointly contribute to adverse effects. However most pollutant regulations, guidelines, and studies remain focused on single compounds, and thus may underestimate cumulative exposures and risks arising from coexposures. In addition, the composition of VOC mixtures has not been thoroughly investigated, and mixture components show varying and complex dependencies. Finally, although many factors are known to

  9. Personal exposure to particulate PAHs and anthraquinone and oxidative DNA damages in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yongjie; Han, In-Kyu; Hu, Min; Shao, Min; Zhang, Junfeng Jim; Tang, Xiaoyan

    2010-11-01

    Recent studies suggest that DNA oxidative damage be related to the chemical constituents of ambient particles. The purpose of this study was to examine whether particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and quinone-structure chemicals increase body burden of oxidative stress in human exposed to heavy traffic volume. We recruited two nonsmoking security guards who worked at a university campus gate near a heavily trafficked road. Each subject wore a personal air sampler for 24h per day to estimate exposures to 24 PAHs and anthraquinone (AnQ) in PM(2.5). Daily pre- and post-work shift spot urines were collected for 29d from each subject. Urine samples were analyzed for 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). Additionally, using 19 organic tracers other than 24 PAHs and AnQ, a receptor source apportionment model of chemical mass balance was applied to determine the contributions of sources on the PM: gasoline vehicle, diesel vehicle, coal burning, vegetable debris, cooking, natural gas and biomass burning. The relationship among urinary 8-OHdG, individual PAH, and AnQ was demonstrated as follows: the average urinary concentration of 8-OHdG was increased more than three times after 8-h work-shift than those before the work shift. All the 24 PAH and AnQ levels were positively and significantly associated with the post-work urinary 8-OHdG. The results from source apportionment suggest vehicular emission to be the dominant source of personal exposure to PM(2.5). Our finding indicates that personal air exposures to 24 individual PAHs and AnQ originating from traffic emissions are important in increasing oxidative burdens in human body.

  10. Sun behaviour and personal UVR exposure among Europeans on short term holidays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bibi; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Maier, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is known to be the main cause of skin cancer, the incidence of which is rising with national differences across Europe. With this observation study we aimed to determine the impact of nationality on sun behaviour and personal UVR exposure on sun and ski holidays....... 25 Danish and 20 Spanish sun-seekers were observed during a sun holiday in Spain, and 26 Danish and 27 Austrian skiers were observed during a ski holiday in Austria. The participants recorded their location and clothing in diaries. Personal time-logged UVR data were recorded as standard erythema...... doses (SEDs) by an electronic UVR dosimeter worn on the wrist. Danish sun-seekers were outdoors for significantly longer, received significant higher percentages of ambient UVR, and received greater accumulated UVR doses than Spanish sun-seekers. Danish skiers were also outdoors for significantly longer...

  11. Dispersal of Exhaled Air and Personal Exposure in Displacement Ventilated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Erik; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    2002-01-01

    The influence of the human exhalation on flow fields, contaminant distributions, and personal exposures in displacement ventilated rooms is studied together with the effects of physical movement. Experiments are conducted in full-scale test rooms with life-sized breathing thermal manikins...... of the exhalation flow is no acute problem in most normal ventilation applications. However, exhalation and local effects caused by movement may be worth considering if one wishes to contain contaminants in certain areas, as in the case of tobacco smoking, in hospitals and clinics, or in certain industries....

  12. Phthalates and parabens in personal care products from China: concentrations and human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Wang, Lei; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2014-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that populations in China are widely exposed to phthalates and parabens. Nevertheless, sources of Chinese exposure to phthalates and parabens are not well understood. In this study, we measured concentrations of nine phthalates and six parabens in five categories of personal care products (PCPs, N = 52) collected from Tianjin, China, and estimated human exposure doses to these compounds. The most frequently detected phthalates and parabens in PCPs were diethyl phthalate (DEP) (detection frequency 54 %), methyl paraben (MeP), and n-propyl paraben (PrP) (~75 %). The concentrations of DEP in PCPs ranged from not detected (ND; parabens through dermal application of PCPs in China was estimated at 18,700 μg/d, which was two orders of magnitude greater than that calculated for phthalates (45.5 μg/d). Hand and body lotions were the major contributors to exposures, and the daily exposure doses for DEP, MeP, and PrP from these products were 38.4, 10,200 and 4,890 μg, respectively.

  13. Human monitoring of exposure to organic solvents. I Benzene, phenol, toluene, cresols and xylenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen EHJM; de Fluiter P; TOX

    1994-01-01

    In this report the conclusions of a literature study has been summarized concerning the monitoring of the general population to exposure to benzene-like solvents. Since the Dutch population is exposed to concentrations far below the ppm level, the conclusions on the suitability of biomarkers are

  14. Air nicotine monitoring for second hand smoke exposure in public places in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagdish Kaur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Air nicotine monitoring is an established method of measuring exposure to second hand smoke (SHS. Not much research has been done in India to measure air nicotine for the purpose of studying exposure to SHS. It is a risk factor and many diseases are known to occur among non smokers if they are exposed to second hand smoke. Objective: To conduct monitoring of air nicotine for second hand smoke exposure in public places across major cities in India. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional survey was conducted across four cities across the country, using passive air monitoring. The buildings included hospitals, secondary schools, Governmental offices, bars and restaurants. The buildings were selected through convenience sampling method keeping in view specific sentinel locations of interest. Result: The presence of air nicotine was recorded in most of the buildings under the study, which included government buildings, hospitals, schools, restaurants and entertainment venues (bars in all four cities under the study. The highest median levels of air nicotine were found in entertainment venues and restaurants in cities. Conclusion: The presence of air nicotine in indoor public places indicates weak implementation of existing smoke free law in India. The findings of this study provide a baseline characterization of exposure to SHS in public places in India, which could be used to promote clean indoor air policies and programs and monitor and evaluate the progress and future smoke-free initiatives in India.

  15. Multicenter Study of Posaconazole Therapeutic Drug Monitoring: Exposure-Response Relationship and Factors Affecting Concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Dolton, Michael J; Ray, John E.; Chen, Sharon C.-A.; Ng, Kingsley; Pont, Lisa; McLachlan, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    Posaconazole has an important role in the prophylaxis and salvage treatment of invasive fungal infections (IFIs), although poor and variable bioavailability remains an important clinical concern. Therapeutic drug monitoring of posaconazole concentrations has remained contentious, with the use of relatively small patient cohorts in previous studies hindering the assessment of exposure-response relationships. This multicenter retrospective study aimed to investigate relationships between posaco...

  16. Human monitoring of exposure to organic solvents. I Benzene, phenol, toluene, cresols and xylenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen EHJM; de Fluiter P; TOX

    1994-01-01

    In this report the conclusions of a literature study has been summarized concerning the monitoring of the general population to exposure to benzene-like solvents. Since the Dutch population is exposed to concentrations far below the ppm level, the conclusions on the suitability of biomarkers are ba

  17. Exposure to Violence, Parental Monitoring, and Television Viewing as Contributors to Children's Psychological Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Mark I.; Flannery, Daniel J.; Guo, Shenyang; Miller, David; Leibbrandt, Sylvia

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relative contributions of exposure to violence, parental monitoring, and television viewing habits to children's self-reported symptoms of psychological trauma. Children in grades 3-8 in 11 public schools completed an anonymous self-report questionnaire administered during usual school hours. The final sample was comprised…

  18. Exposure to Violence, Parental Monitoring, and Television Viewing as Contributors to Children's Psychological Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Mark I.; Flannery, Daniel J.; Guo, Shenyang; Miller, David; Leibbrandt, Sylvia

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relative contributions of exposure to violence, parental monitoring, and television viewing habits to children's self-reported symptoms of psychological trauma. Children in grades 3-8 in 11 public schools completed an anonymous self-report questionnaire administered during usual school hours. The final sample was comprised…

  19. Environmental monitoring and assessment of short-term exposures to hazardous chemicals of a sterilization process in hospital working environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koda S

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess short-term exposures to ethylene oxide, formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde in a sterilization process, the authors conducted continuous environmental monitoring of these chemicals in the breathing zone of workers in 2 hospitals. The arithmetic mean of ethylene oxide was 1.2 ppm near unventilated cabinets housing sterilizing materials, and environmental concentrations of ethylene oxide could not be reduced under threshold limit values time weighted average by only managing general ventilation. Environmental concentration of formaldehyde was lower in a properly ventilated pathology division in which no large specimens were stored (0.3 ppm than in the pathology division where large specimens were stored (2.3 ppm. Although environmental concentrations of glutaraldehyde in an endoscopy unit with proper general ventilation were not detectable, environmental concentration levels in an endoscopy unit without general ventilation system were 0.2 and 0.5 ppm. According to the results of environmental monitoring in the breathing zone of workers, extremely high concentrations were observed in some work practices (ethylene oxide, 300 ppm; formaldehyde, 8.6 ppm; glutaraldehyde, 2.6 ppm. In order to avoid occupational exposures to these chemicals and prevent potential chronic and acute health hazards, good communications with these chemicals, good work practices, appropriate personal protective equipment, and engineering controls should be required.

  20. A Novel Methodology to Evaluate Health Impacts Caused by VOC Exposures Using Real-Time VOC and Holter Monitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Kumano

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available While various volatile organic compounds (VOCs are known to show neurotoxic effects, the detailed mechanisms of the action of VOCs on the autonomic nervous system are not fully understood, partially because objective and quantitative measures to indicate neural abnormalities are still under development. Nevertheless, heart rate variability (HRV has been recently proposed as an indicative measure of the autonomic effects. In this study, we used HRV as an indicative measure of the autonomic effrects to relate their values to the personal concentrations of VOCs measured by a real-time VOC monitor. The measurements were conducted for 24 hours on seven healthy subjects under usual daily life conditions. The results showed HF powers were significantly decreased for six subjects when the changes of total volatile organic compound (TVOC concentrations were large, indicating a suppression of parasympathetic nervous activity induced by the exposure to VOCs. The present study indicated these real-time monitoring was useful to characterize the trends of VOC exposures and their effects on autonomic nervous system.

  1. Localizing the HL7 Personal Health Monitoring Record for Danish Telemedicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    2014-01-01

    Telemedicine holds a promise of lowering cost in health care and improving the life quality of chronic ill patients by allowing monitoring in the home. The Personal Health Monitoring Record (PHMR) is an international HL7 standard data format for encoding measurements made by devices in the home....... However, the standard needs localization to national requirements in order to facilitate semantic interoperability between clinical systems. In this paper, we report experiences and decisions from the current effort to localize PHMR in Denmark, and highlight issues relevant for any adoption...

  2. Real-time measurement of dust in the workplace using video exposure monitoring: Farming to pharmaceuticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, P. T.; Forth, A. R.; Clark, R. D. R.; Dowker, K. P.; Thorpe, A.

    2009-02-01

    Real-time, photometric, portable dust monitors have been employed for video exposure monitoring (VEM) to measure and highlight dust levels generated by work activities, illustrate dust control techniques, and demonstrate good practice. Two workplaces, presenting different challenges for measurement, were used to illustrate the capabilities of VEM: (a) poultry farming activities and (b) powder transfer operations in a pharmaceutical company. For the poultry farm work, the real-time monitors were calibrated with respect to the respirable and inhalable dust concentrations using cyclone and IOM reference samplers respectively. Different rankings of exposure for typical activities were found on the small farm studied here compared to previous exposure measurements at larger poultry farms: these were mainly attributed to the different scales of operation. Large variations in the ratios of respirable, inhalable and real-time monitor TWA concentrations of poultry farm dust for various activities were found. This has implications for the calibration of light-scattering dust monitors with respect to inhalable dust concentration. In the pharmaceutical application, the effectiveness of a curtain barrier for dust control when dispensing powder in a downflow booth was rapidly demonstrated.

  3. Personal black carbon exposure influences ambulatory blood pressure: air pollution and cardiometabolic disease (AIRCMD-China) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoyi; Sun, Zhichao; Ruan, Yanping; Yan, Jianhua; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Yang, Fumo; Duan, Fengkui; Sun, Lixian; Liang, Ruijuan; Lian, Hui; Zhang, Shuyang; Fang, Quan; Gu, Dongfeng; Brook, Jeffrey R; Sun, Qinghua; Brook, Robert D; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Fan, Zhongjie

    2014-04-01

    Few prospective studies have assessed the blood pressure effect of extremely high air pollution encountered in Asia's megacities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between combustion-related air pollution with ambulatory blood pressure and autonomic function. During February to July 2012, personal black carbon was determined for 5 consecutive days using microaethalometers in patients with metabolic syndrome in Beijing, China. Simultaneous ambient fine particulate matter concentration was obtained from the Beijing Municipal Environmental Monitoring Center and the US Embassy. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate variability were measured from day 4. Arterial stiffness and endothelial function were obtained at the end of day 5. For statistical analysis, we used generalized additive mixed models for repeated outcomes and generalized linear models for single/summary outcomes. Mean (SD) of personal black carbon and fine particulate matter during 24 hours was 4.66 (2.89) and 64.2 (36.9) μg/m(3). Exposure to high levels of black carbon in the preceding hours was associated significantly with adverse cardiovascular responses. A unit increase in personal black carbon during the previous 10 hours was associated with an increase in systolic blood pressure of 0.53 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure of 0.37 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, 0.17-0.89 and 0.10-0.65 mm Hg, respectively), a percentage change in low frequency to high frequency ratio of 5.11 and mean interbeat interval of -0.06 (95% confidence interval, 0.62-9.60 and -0.11 to -0.01, respectively). These findings highlight the public health effect of air pollution and the importance of reducing air pollution.

  4. Aggregate exposure approaches for parabens in personal care products: a case assessment for children between 0 and 3 years old

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosens, Ilse; Delmaar, Christiaan J E; ter Burg, Wouter; de Heer, Cees; Schuur, A Gerlienke

    2014-01-01

    In the risk assessment of chemical substances, aggregation of exposure to a substance from different sources via different pathways is not common practice. Focusing the exposure assessment on a substance from a single source can lead to a significant underestimation of the risk. To gain more insight on how to perform an aggregate exposure assessment, we applied a deterministic (tier 1) and a person-oriented probabilistic approach (tier 2) for exposure to the four most common parabens through personal care products in children between 0 and 3 years old. Following a deterministic approach, a worst-case exposure estimate is calculated for methyl-, ethyl-, propyl- and butylparaben. As an illustration for risk assessment, Margins of Exposure (MoE) are calculated. These are 991 and 4966 for methyl- and ethylparaben, and 8 and 10 for propyl- and butylparaben, respectively. In tier 2, more detailed information on product use has been obtained from a small survey on product use of consumers. A probabilistic exposure assessment is performed to estimate the variability and uncertainty of exposure in a population. Results show that the internal exposure for each paraben is below the level determined in tier 1. However, for propyl- and butylparaben, the percentile of the population with an exposure probability above the assumed “safe” MoE of 100, is 13% and 7%, respectively. In conclusion, a tier 1 approach can be performed using simple equations and default point estimates, and serves as a starting point for exposure and risk assessment. If refinement is warranted, the more data demanding person-oriented probabilistic approach should be used. This probabilistic approach results in a more realistic exposure estimate, including the uncertainty, and allows determining the main drivers of exposure. Furthermore, it allows to estimate the percentage of the population for which the exposure is likely to be above a specific value. PMID:23801276

  5. Aircrew exposure onboard a Czech airlines aircraft, individual monitoring of aircrew

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploc, O.; Spurny, F.; Turek, K. [Nuclear Physics Institute AS CR, Dept. of Radiation Dosimetry, Prague (Czech Republic); Ploc, O. [Czech Technical Univ., Dept. of Dosimetry and Application of Ionizing Radiation, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2006-07-01

    The contribution presents new results related to the aircraft crew exposure onboard aircraft of Czech air companies. First the results of long term monitoring onboard of an aircraft of Czech Airlines are presented. The monitoring has been performed in the period May - December 2005, more than 500 individual flights have been followed. M.D.U.-Liulin Si-diode based spectrometer was used, together with thermoluminescent and track detectors. Total effective dose was about 12 mSv, the results obtained with dosimeters mentioned are analyzed and compared with the results of calculation performed with C.A.R.I. and E.P.C.A.R.D. codes. Individual monitoring of air crew members has been started in the Czech Republic since 1998 year. The results obtained during few last years are presented, general tendencies of aircraft crew onboard exposure of Czech air companies are outlined. (authors)

  6. Repeated measures of inflammation, blood pressure, and heart rate variability associated with personal traffic exposures in healthy adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Previous human exposure studies of traffic-related air pollutants have demonstrated adverse health effects in human populations by comparing areas of high and low traffic, but few studies have utilized microenvironmental monitoring of pollutants at multiple traffic lo...

  7. Repeated measures of inflammation, blood pressure, and heart rate variability associated with personal traffic exposures in healthy adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Previous human exposure studies of traffic-related air pollutants have demonstrated adverse health effects in human populations by comparing areas of high and low traffic, but few studies have utilized microenvironmental monitoring of pollutants at multiple traffic lo...

  8. Chemical characterization and sources of personal exposure to fine particulate matter in the general population of Guangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Cui; Jahn, Heiko J.; Engling, Guenter; Ward, Tony J.; Kraemer, Alexander; Ho, Kin-Fai; Hung-Lam Yim, Steve; Chan, Chuen-Yu

    2017-04-01

    Fine particulate matter pollution severely deteriorates the environmental conditions and negatively impacts human health in the Chinese megacity Guangzhou. Concurrent ambient and personal measurements of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were conducted in Guangzhou, China. Personal-to-ambient (P-C) relationships of PM2.5 chemical components were determined and sources of personal PM2.5 exposure were evaluated using principal component analysis along with a mixed-effects model. Water-soluble inorganic ions (mainly secondary inorganic ions) and anhydrosugars exhibited median personal-to-ambient (P/C) ratios personal PM2.5 were significantly affected by ambient sources. Conversely, elemental carbon (EC) and calcium (Ca2+) showed median P/C ratios greater than unity, which indicated that among subjects who spent a great amount of time indoors, aside from particles of ambient origin, individual's total exposure to PM2.5 includes contributions of non-ambient exposure while indoors and outdoors (e.g., local traffic, indoor sources, personal activities). SO42- displayed very low coefficient of divergence (COD) values coupled with strong P-C correlations, implying a uniform distribution of SO42- in the urban area of Guangzhou. EC, Ca2+, and levoglucosan were otherwise heterogeneously distributed across individuals in different districts. Regional air pollution (50.4 ± 0.9%), traffic-related particles (8.6 ± 0.7%), dust-related particles (5.8 ± 0.7%), and biomass burning emissions (2.0 ± 0.2%) were moderate to high positive sources of personal PM2.5 exposure in Guangzhou. The observed positive and significant contribution of Ca2+ to personal PM2.5 exposure, highlighting indoor sources and/or personal activities, were driving factors determining personal exposure to dust-related particles. Considerable discrepancies (COD values ranging from 0.42 to 0.50) were shown between ambient concentrations and personal exposure, indicating caution should be taken when using ambient

  9. The PHM-Ethics methodology: interdisciplinary technology assessment of personal health monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Silke; Verweij, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    The contribution briefly introduces the PHM Ethics project and the PHM methodology. Within the PHM-Ethics project, a set of tools and modules had been developed that may assist in the evaluation and assessment of new technologies for personal health monitoring, referred to as "PHM methodology" or "PHM toolbox". An overview on this interdisciplinary methodology and its comprising modules is provided, areas of application and intended target groups are indicated.

  10. Biological monitoring in occupational exposure to low levels of 1,3-butadiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fustinoni, S; Perbellini, L; Soleo, L; Manno, M; Foà, V

    2004-04-01

    Exposure to 1,3-butadiene (BD), a probable carcinogen to humans, was investigated in two groups of subjects working in a petrochemical plant where BD is produced and used to prepare polymers: 42 occupationally exposed workers and 43 internal non-occupationally exposed controls. BD personal exposure was very low but significantly different in the two groups (median airborne BD 1.5 and 0.4 microg/m(3) in exposed and controls, respectively). Similarly, BD in blood and urine, but not in exhaled air, was higher in the exposed workers than in controls (blood BD 3.7 ng/l versus <1.8 ng/l, urinary BD 2.4 ng/l versus <1.0 ng/l). These three biomarkers correlated significantly with personal exposure ( 0.283 < or = Pearson's r < or = 0.383) and between them (0.780 < or = r < or = 0.896). Excretion of urinary mercapturic acids N-acetyl-S-(3,4-hydroxybutyl)-l-cysteine (MI), N-acetyl-S-(1-hydroxymethyl-2-propenyl)-l-cysteine and N-acetyl-S-(2-hydroxy-3-butenyl)-l-cysteine (MII), chromosomal aberrations (CA), and sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in peripheral blood lymphocytes were not influenced by occupational exposure. Our results show that unmetabolised BD in biological fluids, and particularly urinary BD, represents the biomarker of choice for assessing occupational exposure to low airborne concentrations of BD.

  11. The web-rhetoric of companies offering home-based personal health monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordgren, Anders

    2012-06-01

    In this paper I investigate the web-rhetoric of companies offering home-based personal health monitoring to patients and elderly people. Two main rhetorical methods are found, namely a reference to practical benefits and a use of prestige words like "quality of life" and "independence". I interpret the practical benefits in terms of instrumental values and the prestige words in terms of final values. I also reconstruct the arguments on the websites in terms of six different types of argument. Finally, I articulate a general critique of the arguments, namely that the websites neglect the context of use of personal health monitoring technologies. Whether or not a technology is good depends on the use of the technology by a particular individual in a particular context. The technology is not good-or bad-in itself. I support this critique with a number of more specific arguments such as the risk for reduced personal contact. For some elderly people social contact with care providers is more valuable than the independent living made possible by remote monitoring, for others independence is more important.

  12. Non-constrained blood pressure monitoring using ECG and PPG for personal healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Youngzoon; Cho, Jung H; Yoon, Gilwon

    2009-08-01

    Blood pressure (BP) is one of the important vital signs that need to be monitored for personal healthcare. Arterial blood pressure (BP) was estimated from pulse transit time (PTT) and PPG waveform. PTT is a time interval between an R-wave of electrocardiography (ECG) and a photoplethysmography (PPG) signal. This method does not require an aircuff and only a minimal inconvenience of attaching electrodes and LED/photo detector sensors on a subject. PTT computed between the ECG R-wave and the maximum first derivative PPG was strongly correlated with systolic blood pressure (SBP) (R = -0.712) compared with other PTT values, and the diastolic time proved to be appropriate for estimation diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (R = -0.764). The percent errors of SBP using the individual regression line (4-11%) were lower than those using the regression line obtained from all five subjects (9-14%). On the other hand, the DBP estimation did not show much difference between the individual regression (4-10%) and total regression line (6-10%). Our developed device had a total size of 7 x 13.5 cm and was operated by single 3-V battery. Biosignals can be measured for 72 h continuously without external interruptions. Through a serial network communication, an external personal computer can monitor measured waveforms in real time. Our proposed method can be used for non-constrained, thus continuous BP monitoring for the purpose of personal healthcare.

  13. Aggregate exposure modelling of zinc pyrithione in rinse-off personal cleansing products using a person-orientated approach with market share refinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozer, Sarah A; Kelly, Seamus; O'Mahony, Cian; Daly, E J; Nash, J F

    2015-09-01

    Realistic estimates of chemical aggregate exposure are needed to ensure consumer safety. As exposure estimates are a critical part of the equation used to calculate acceptable "safe levels" and conduct quantitative risk assessments, methods are needed to produce realistic exposure estimations. To this end, a probabilistic aggregate exposure model was developed to estimate consumer exposure from several rinse off personal cleansing products containing the anti-dandruff preservative zinc pyrithione. The model incorporates large habits and practices surveys, containing data on frequency of use, amount applied, co-use along with market share, and combines these data at the level of the individual based on subject demographics to better estimate exposure. The daily-applied exposure (i.e., amount applied to the skin) was 3.79 mg/kg/day for the 95th percentile consumer. The estimated internal dose for the 95th percentile exposure ranged from 0.01-1.29 μg/kg/day after accounting for retention following rinsing and dermal penetration of ZnPt. This probabilistic aggregate exposure model can be used in the human safety assessment of ingredients in multiple rinse-off technologies (e.g., shampoo, bar soap, body wash, and liquid hand soap). In addition, this model may be used in other situations where refined exposure assessment is required to support a chemical risk assessment.

  14. Occupational radiation exposure of the personnel due to interventional radiology; Strahlenexposition des Personals bei interventionellen Massnahmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wucherer, M. [Klinikum der Stadt Nuernberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Physik; Schmidt, T.; Loose, R. [Klinikum Nuernberg-Nord (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

    2000-07-01

    Applications of interventional radiology continue to be on an upward trend, some countries reporting a 100% increase within 2-4 years, so that the resulting radiation exposure of both patients and personnel is an issue of increasing importance. Whereas those applications in general are of advantage for the patients, they mean just a further health hazard for the medical personnel. It is therefore necessary to exploit all available means to reduce the occupational doses. Modern interventional radiology systems offer a range of measures for this purpose, as e.g. last-image-hold, or pulsed modes. Special attention has to be given to the exposure of hand and head. Particularly the hand is closest to the useful beam, and it should be a mandatory requirement to wear film rings. (orig./CB) [German] Interventionelle Massnahmen weisen immer noch eine Steigerungstendenz auf, teilweise wird in manchen Laendern von einer Verdopplungsrate von 2-4 Jahren berichtet. Eventuelle Folgen der interventionellen Massnahmen, naemlich die damit verbundene Strahlenexposition fuer Patient und Personal, werden zunehmend problematisiert. Waehrend der Patient einen unmittelbaren Nutzen von dem meist miminal invasiven Eingriff hat, ist dies beim Personal nicht der Fall. Es muessen deswegen, besonders beim Untersuchungspersonal, alle Moeglichkeiten ausgeschoepft werden, die Exposition zu reduzieren. Neben den ueblichen bekannten Methoden sind bei modernen Anlagen weitere Massnahmen moeglich. Hierzu zaehlen z.B. Speicherung des letzten Bildes, strahlungslose Einblendung, gepulste Durchleuchtung usw. In Einzelfaellen hat die Exposition des Personals die Jahresgrenzwerte erreicht. Besonderer Aufmerksamkeit ist bei interventionellen Massnahmen der Exposition von Hand und Kopf zu widmen. Die Hand ist, vor allem bei der Punktion und Kathetermanipulation, nahe dem Nutzstrahlenbuendel. Es ist deswegen zu fordern, dass bei den interventionellen Massnahmen Fingerringdosimeter getragen werden. (orig.)

  15. Personal Exposure Between People in a Room Ventilated by Textile Terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Hyldgård, Carl-Erik; Melikov, Arsen;

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes an investigation made in a room ventilated by an air distribution system based on a textile terminal. The air distribution in the room is mainly controlled by buoyancy forces from the heat sources, although the flow from the textile terminal can be characterized as a displace......This paper describes an investigation made in a room ventilated by an air distribution system based on a textile terminal. The air distribution in the room is mainly controlled by buoyancy forces from the heat sources, although the flow from the textile terminal can be characterized...... as a displacement flow with a downward direction in areas of the room where no thermal load is present. The system was extended by a personalized ventilation system to study the improved protection of people in a room. The investigation involved full-scale experiments with two breathing thermal manikins. One...... in the room with increased protection of the occupants. It is shown that personalized ventilation improves the protection of occupants by increasing the personal exposure index....

  16. Air pollution effects field research facility: 3. UV-B exposure and monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEvers, J.A.; Hileman, M.S.; Edwards, N.T.

    1993-03-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Outdoor UltraViolet-B (UV-B) Exposure and Monitoring Facility was developed in 1980 to provide well-controlled and -monitored exposure of specific terrestrial plant. species to elevated levels of ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The introduction of various anthropogenic agents into the earth`s stratosphere has resulted in a decrease in the volume of ozone (O{sub 3}) present here. The decrease in O{sub 3} has resulted in an increase in the level of UV radiation reaching thee earth`s surface. Of particular interest is the level of UV-B, because it has the most detrimental effect on living tissue. A thorough understanding of the effects of elevated levels of UV-B on living tissue is critical to the formulation of economic policy regarding production of such agents and alternative strategies. The UV region of interest is referred to as UV-B and corresponds to radiation with a wavelength of 290 to 320 nm. Design, operation, and performance of the automated generation, exposure, and monitoring system are described. The system has proved to be reliable and easy to maintain and operate, and it provides significant flexibility in exposure programs. The system software is described, and detailed listings are provided. The ability to expose plants to controlled set point percentages of UV-B above the ambient level was developed.

  17. Monitoring agricultural rodenticide use and secondary exposure of raptors in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J; Sharp, E; Taylor, M J; Melton, L; Hartley, G

    2013-08-01

    Despite the documented risk of secondary poisoning to non-target species by anticoagulant rodenticides there is no statutory post-approval monitoring of their use in the UK. This paper presents results from two Scottish monitoring schemes for the period 2000-2010; recording rodenticide use on arable farms and the presence of residues in raptor carcasses. More than three quarters of arable farms used anticoagulant rodenticides; predominately the second generation compounds difenacoum and bromadiolone. There was widespread exposure to anticoagulant rodenticides in liver tissues of the raptor species tested and the residues encountered generally reflected agricultural use patterns. As found in other studies, Red Kites (Milvus milvus) appeared to be particularly vulnerable to rodenticide exposure, 70 % of those sampled (n = 114) contained residues and 10 % died as a result of rodenticide ingestion. More unexpectedly, sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisus), which prey almost exclusively on birds, had similar exposure rates to species which prey on rodents. Although, with the exception of kites, confirmed mortality from rodenticides was low, the widespread exposure recorded is concerning. Particularly when coupled with a lack of data about the sub-lethal effects of these compounds. This raises questions regarding whether statutory monitoring of use is needed; both to address whether there are deficiencies in compliance with approval conditions or whether the recommended risk management procedures are themselves adequate to protect non-target wildlife.

  18. Energy Use and Power Levels in New Monitors and Personal Computers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberson, Judy A.; Homan, Gregory K.; Mahajan, Akshay; Nordman, Bruce; Webber, Carrie A.; Brown, Richard E.; McWhinney, Marla; Koomey, Jonathan G.

    2002-07-23

    Our research was conducted in support of the EPA ENERGY STAR Office Equipment program, whose goal is to reduce the amount of electricity consumed by office equipment in the U.S. The most energy-efficient models in each office equipment category are eligible for the ENERGY STAR label, which consumers can use to identify and select efficient products. As the efficiency of each category improves over time, the ENERGY STAR criteria need to be revised accordingly. The purpose of this study was to provide reliable data on the energy consumption of the newest personal computers and monitors that the EPA can use to evaluate revisions to current ENERGY STAR criteria as well as to improve the accuracy of ENERGY STAR program savings estimates. We report the results of measuring the power consumption and power management capabilities of a sample of new monitors and computers. These results will be used to improve estimates of program energy savings and carbon emission reductions, and to inform rev isions of the ENERGY STAR criteria for these products. Our sample consists of 35 monitors and 26 computers manufactured between July 2000 and October 2001; it includes cathode ray tube (CRT) and liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors, Macintosh and Intel-architecture computers, desktop and laptop computers, and integrated computer systems, in which power consumption of the computer and monitor cannot be measured separately. For each machine we measured power consumption when off, on, and in each low-power level. We identify trends in and opportunities to reduce power consumption in new personal computers and monitors. Our results include a trend among monitor manufacturers to provide a single very low low-power level, well below the current ENERGY STAR criteria for sleep power consumption. These very low sleep power results mean that energy consumed when monitors are off or in active use has become more important in terms of contribution to the overall unit energy consumption (UEC

  19. Human exposure monitoring and evaluation in the Arctic: the importance of understanding exposures to the development of public health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, William A; Avakian, Maureen D; Carpenter, David; Groopman, John D; Scammell, Madeleine; Wild, Christopher P

    2004-02-01

    Arctic indigenous peoples face significant challenges resulting from the contamination of Arctic air, water, and soil by persistent organic pollutants, heavy metals, and radionuclides. International cooperative efforts among governments and research institutions are under way to collect the information needed by environmental health scientists and public health officials to address environmental contamination in the Arctic. However, the climatic, political, and cultural conditions of the land and its native populations combine to present a unique set of scientific and logistic challenges to addressing this important public health issue. Public health officials have the responsibility to respect the cultural traditions of indigenous communities, while simultaneously designing strategies that will reduce their exposure to environmental contaminants and rates of disease and dysfunction. Researchers can better understand the link between environmental exposures and disease through monitoring programs for both the subsistence diets and health status of the indigenous populations. We suggest that the incorporation of community-based participatory research methods into programs designed to assess biomarkers of contaminant exposure in children and adults may be a valuable addition to ongoing and newly developed research programs. This approach could serve as a model for international environmental health initiatives, because it involves the participation of the local communities and seeks to builds trust between all stakeholders.

  20. Evaluation of Occupational Exposure and Biological Monitoring of Sand Washing Workers Exposed to Silica Dusts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Parsaseresht

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives:The health of sand washing workers could be threatened by the crystalline silica dust exposure. The aim of this study was the evaluation of occupational and biological monitoring with crystalline silica dusts in the sand washing workers. Materials and Methods: This was an analytical and cross-sectional study of 44 sand washing workers exposed to crystalline silica and also 63 municipality gardeners as a control group in the city of Dorood. Occupational exposure monitoring to respirable total dust and silica dust was performed according to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH methods 0600 and 7602-respectively. Biological monitoring of workers' was carried out according to the Karatas method for the analysis of Malondialdehyde in the blood serum of exposed and control subjects. The informed consents were taken for obtaining blood samples of workers, according to the Helsinki Declaration. Statistical analysis of data was done using SPSS version 16. The statistical test of Pearson, t-tests and linear regression was applied. Results: The occupational exposure of 54.55% was exceeded the occupational exposure limit of Iran at the level of 3 mg/m3. The mean exposure of sand miners and control group to respirable silica dust was evaluated at 0.219 ± 0.177 and 0.010 ± 0.002 as mg/m3respectively. Occupational exposure of all sand washing workers was higher than the occupational exposure limit of Iran at the level of 0.025 mg/m3.The concentration of serum Malondialdehyde (MDA exposed group and the control group were 36.64 ± 10.75 and 19.40 ± 4.68 as µM respectively. Conclusion: Due to the positive correlation between exposure of sand washing workers to silica dust sand serum MDA among exposed group(P-value<0.0001, r=0.881, periodical biological monitoring along with effective control measures of workers are recommended for the health promotion of these workers.

  1. Evaluating methods for estimating space-time paths of individuals in calculating long-term personal exposure to air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Oliver; Soenario, Ivan; Vaartjes, Ilonca; Strak, Maciek; Hoek, Gerard; Brunekreef, Bert; Dijst, Martin; Karssenberg, Derek

    2016-04-01

    Air pollution is one of the major concerns for human health. Associations between air pollution and health are often calculated using long-term (i.e. years to decades) information on personal exposure for each individual in a cohort. Personal exposure is the air pollution aggregated along the space-time path visited by an individual. As air pollution may vary considerably in space and time, for instance due to motorised traffic, the estimation of the spatio-temporal location of a persons' space-time path is important to identify the personal exposure. However, long term exposure is mostly calculated using the air pollution concentration at the x, y location of someone's home which does not consider that individuals are mobile (commuting, recreation, relocation). This assumption is often made as it is a major challenge to estimate space-time paths for all individuals in large cohorts, mostly because limited information on mobility of individuals is available. We address this issue by evaluating multiple approaches for the calculation of space-time paths, thereby estimating the personal exposure along these space-time paths with hyper resolution air pollution maps at national scale. This allows us to evaluate the effect of the space-time path and resulting personal exposure. Air pollution (e.g. NO2, PM10) was mapped for the entire Netherlands at a resolution of 5×5 m2 using the land use regression models developed in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE, http://escapeproject.eu/) and the open source software PCRaster (http://www.pcraster.eu). The models use predictor variables like population density, land use, and traffic related data sets, and are able to model spatial variation and within-city variability of annual average concentration values. We approximated space-time paths for all individuals in a cohort using various aggregations, including those representing space-time paths as the outline of a persons' home or associated parcel

  2. Monitoring daily function in persons with transfemoral amputations using a commercial activity monitor: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Mark V; Deeny, Sean; McCarthy, Cliodhna; Valentin, Juliana; Jayaraman, Arun

    2014-12-01

    To assess in a feasibility study the mobility of persons with transfemoral amputations using data collected from a popular, consumer-oriented activity monitor (Fitbit). Observational cohort study. Research hospital outpatient evaluation. Nine subjects with transfemoral amputations (4 women and 5 men, ages 21-64 years) and Medicare functional assessments (K level) of K3 (n = 7), K2 (n = 1), and K4 (n = 1). One-week monitoring of physical activity using the Fitbit One activity monitor. Daily estimates of step counts, distance walked, floors/stairs climbed, calories burned, and proprietary Fitbit activity scores. For each day, the amount of time in each of the following levels of activity was also reported: sedentary, lightly active, fairly active, and highly active. The percentage of movement time above the fairly active level had a predictable relationship to the designated K level. The average activity measures show decreased levels of activity for obese subjects (body mass index >30). Estimated step counts were highly predictive/redundant with estimated miles walked without setting individual stride lengths. Using linear regression prediction models, calorie estimates were found to be highly dependent on subject age, height, and weight, whereas the proprietary activity score was independent of all 3 demographic factors. This feasibility study demonstrates that the Fitbit activity monitor estimates the activity of subjects with transfemoral amputations, producing results that correlate with their K-level functional activity classifications. The Fitbit activity score is independent of individual variations in age, weight, and height compared with estimated calories for this small sample size. These tools may provide useful insights into prosthetic use in an at-home environment. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessment of personal exposure to airborne nanomaterials: Evaluation of a novel sampler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Bertrand; Dozol, Hélène; Brouard, Christophe; Guiot, Arnaud; Clavaguera, Simon

    2017-06-01

    A novel sampler, the NANOBADGE, has been developed to assess personal exposure to nano-objects, agglomerates and aggregates (NOAA) at the workplace. The NANOBADGE collects particles on filters subsequently analyzed by X-Ray Fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), which provides a mass-based quantification with chemical selectivity. The NANOBADGE was benchmarked against a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and a DiSCmini by carrying out simultaneous measurements on test aerosols of ZnO or TiO2 for particle sizes between 20 and 400 nm for which the DiSCmini has its highest accuracy. The effective density and shape of the NOAA present in the test aerosols were determined experimentally to compare number-based data obtained with the SMPS and the DiSCmini with mass-based data obtained with the NANOBADGE. The agreement between the SMPS and the NANOBADGE sampler was within ± 25 % on all test aerosols. The converted DiSCmini data matched the SMPS and sampler data for polydisperse aerosols in the specified size range as long as the DiSCmini assumptions meet the aerosol characteristics (i.e. lognormal size distribution with a given geometric standard deviation σg = 1.9). The detection limits of the NANOBADGE sampler were in the order of tens of nanograms per filter, which is low enough to reliably detect exposure levels below the recommended exposure limit (REL) of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and the Institut National de Recherche et de Sécurité (INRS) for ultrafine ZnO and TiO2 even for short-term exposure situations.

  4. Comparison of particulate matter exposure estimates in young children from personal sampling equipment and a robotic sampler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagona, Jessica A; Shalat, Stuart L; Wang, Zuocheng; Ramagopal, Maya; Black, Kathleen; Hernandez, Marta; Mainelis, Gediminas

    2017-05-01

    Accurate characterization of particulate matter (PM) exposure in young children is difficult, because personal samplers are often too heavy, bulky or impractical to be used. The Pretoddler Inhalable Particulate Environmental Robotic (PIPER) sampler was developed to help address this problem. In this study, we measured inhalable PM exposures in 2-year-olds via a lightweight personal sampler worn in a small backpack and evaluated the use of a robotic sampler with an identical sampling train for estimating PM exposure in this age group. PM mass concentrations measured by the personal sampler ranged from 100 to almost 1,200 μg/m(3), with a median value of 331 μg/m(3). PM concentrations measured by PIPER were considerably lower, ranging from 14 to 513 μg/m(3) with a median value of 56 μg/m(3). Floor cleaning habits and activity patterns of the 2-year-olds varied widely by home; vigorous play and recent floor cleaning were most associated with higher personal exposure. Our findings highlight the need for additional characterization of children's activity patterns and their effect on personal exposures.

  5. Personal inhalation exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their nitro-derivatives in rural residents in northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orakij, Walaiporn; Chetiyanukornkul, Thaneeya; Chuesaard, Thanyarat; Kaganoi, Yuichi; Uozaki, Waka; Homma, Chiharu; Boongla, Yaowatat; Tang, Ning; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Toriba, Akira

    2017-09-18

    A personal inhalation exposure and cancer risk assessment of rural residents in Lampang, Thailand, was conducted for the first time. This highlighted important factors that may be associated with the highest areal incidence of lung cancer. Personal exposure of rural residents to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their nitro-derivatives (NPAHs) through inhalation of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) was investigated in addition to stationary air sampling in an urban area. The personal exposure of the subjects to PM2.5 ranged from 44.4 to 316 μg/m(3), and the concentrations of PAHs (4.2-224 ng/m(3)) and NPAHs (120-1449 pg/m(3)) were higher than those at the urban site, indicating that personal exposure was affected by microenvironments through individual activities. The smoking behaviors of the rural residents barely affected their exposure to PAHs and NPAHs compared to other sources. The most important factor concerning the exposure of rural populations to PAHs was cooking activity, especially the use of charcoal open fires. The emission sources for rural residents and urban air were evaluated using diagnostic ratios, 1-nitropyrene/pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene/benzo[ghi]perylene. Their analyses showed a significant contribution to emission from residents' personal activities in addition to the atmospheric environment. Furthermore, the personal inhalation cancer risks for all rural subjects exceeded the USEPA guideline value, suggesting that the residents have a potentially increased cancer risk. The use of open fires showed the highest cancer risk. A reduction in exposure to air pollutants for the residents could potentially be achieved by using clean fuel such as liquid petroleum gas or electricity for daily cooking.

  6. Influence of the exposure time in the area monitors at radiodiagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leyton, Fernando, E-mail: leyton.fernando@gmail.com [Faculty of Health and Odontology, Diego Portales University, Santiago, Chile and Study Center in Radiological Sciences (CECRAD), Tarapaca University, Arica (Chile); Navarro, Marcus; Macedo, Eric; Navarro, Valeria; Garcia, Igor; Pereira, Lara [Instituto Federal da Bahia (LABPROSAUD/IFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Laboratorio de Produtos para a Saude; Ferreira, Mario [Universidade do Estado da Bahia (UNEB), Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Area monitoring ensures radiation exposure at an acceptable level, which must be lower than the legal limit. Experimental measurements were taken in a ionizing radiation calibration laboratory. The specified reference radiation to radiation protection N80 was used. Five area monitors were used. The ranges of dose rate inaccuracy measured in rate mode for times ≤ 2 and ≥ 3 s were from 10 to 48 % and from 1 to 15 %, respectively. The inaccuracy ranges measured in integrated mode for times ≤ 2 and ≥ 3 s were from 4 to 8 % and from 0 to 22 %, respectively. (author)

  7. Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for Personal Computer Monitors. Implications for Market Transformation Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Won Young [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Phadke, Amol [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shah, Nihar [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-06-29

    Displays account for a significant portion of electricity consumed in personal computer (PC) use, and global PC monitor shipments are expected to continue to increase. We assess the market trends in the energy efficiency of PC monitors that are likely to occur without any additional policy intervention and estimate that display efficiency will likely improve by over 40% by 2015 compared to today’s technology. We evaluate the cost effectiveness of a key technology which further improves efficiency beyond this level by at least 20% and find that its adoption is cost effective. We assess the potential for further improving efficiency taking into account the recent development of universal serial bus (USB) powered liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors and find that the current technology available and deployed in USB powered monitors has the potential to deeply reduce energy consumption by as much as 50%. We provide insights for policies and programs that can be used to accelerate the adoption of efficient technologies to capture global energy saving potential from PC monitors which we estimate to be 9.2 terawatt-hours [TWh] per year in 2015.

  8. Efficiency improvement opportunities for personal computer monitors. Implications for market transformation programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Won Young; Phadke, Amol; Shah, Nihar [Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Displays account for a significant portion of electricity consumed in personal computer (PC) use, and global PC monitor shipments are expected to continue to increase. We assess the market trends in the energy efficiency of PC monitors that are likely to occur without any additional policy intervention and estimate that PC monitor efficiency will likely improve by over 40 % by 2015 with saving potential of 4.5 TWh per year in 2015, compared to today's technology. We discuss various energy-efficiency improvement options and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of three of them, at least one of which improves efficiency by at least 20 % cost effectively beyond the ongoing market trends. We assess the potential for further improving efficiency taking into account the recent development of universal serial bus-powered liquid crystal display monitors and find that the current technology available and deployed in them has the potential to deeply and cost effectively reduce energy consumption by as much as 50 %. We provide insights for policies and programs that can be used to accelerate the adoption of efficient technologies to further capture global energy saving potential from PC monitors which we estimate to be 9.2 TWh per year in 2015.

  9. Impact of one's own mobile phone in stand-by mode on personal radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbinello, Damiano; Röösli, Martin

    2013-01-01

    When moving around, mobile phones in stand-by mode periodically send data about their positions. The aim of this paper is to evaluate how personal radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) measurements are affected by such location updates. Exposure from a mobile phone handset (uplink) was measured during commuting by using a randomized cross-over study with three different scenarios: disabled mobile phone (reference), an activated dual-band phone and a quad-band phone. In the reference scenario, uplink exposure was highest during train rides (1.19 mW/m(2)) and lowest during car rides in rural areas (0.001 mW/m(2)). In public transports, the impact of one's own mobile phone on personal RF-EMF measurements was not observable because of high background uplink radiation from other people's mobile phone. In a car, uplink exposure with an activated phone was orders of magnitude higher compared with the reference scenario. This study demonstrates that personal RF-EMF exposure is affected by one's own mobile phone in stand-by mode because of its regular location update. Further dosimetric studies should quantify the contribution of location updates to the total RF-EMF exposure in order to clarify whether the duration of mobile phone use, the most common exposure surrogate in the epidemiological RF-EMF research, is actually an adequate exposure proxy.

  10. Multiple imputation for assessment of exposures to drinking water contaminants: evaluation with the Atrazine Monitoring Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rachael M; Stayner, Leslie T; Demirtas, Hakan

    2014-10-01

    Drinking water may contain pollutants that harm human health. The frequency of pollutant monitoring may occur quarterly, annually, or less frequently, depending upon the pollutant, the pollutant concentration, and community water system. However, birth and other health outcomes are associated with narrow time-windows of exposure. Infrequent monitoring impedes linkage between water quality and health outcomes for epidemiological analyses. To evaluate the performance of multiple imputation to fill in water quality values between measurements in community water systems (CWSs). The multiple imputation method was implemented in a simulated setting using data from the Atrazine Monitoring Program (AMP, 2006-2009 in five Midwestern states). Values were deleted from the AMP data to leave one measurement per month. Four patterns reflecting drinking water monitoring regulations were used to delete months of data in each CWS: three patterns were missing at random and one pattern was missing not at random. Synthetic health outcome data were created using a linear and a Poisson exposure-response relationship with five levels of hypothesized association, respectively. The multiple imputation method was evaluated by comparing the exposure-response relationships estimated based on multiply imputed data with the hypothesized association. The four patterns deleted 65-92% months of atrazine observations in AMP data. Even with these high rates of missing information, our procedure was able to recover most of the missing information when the synthetic health outcome was included for missing at random patterns and for missing not at random patterns with low-to-moderate exposure-response relationships. Multiple imputation appears to be an effective method for filling in water quality values between measurements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Improving disclosure and consent: "is it safe?": new ethics for reporting personal exposures to environmental chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Julia Green; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Brown, Phil; Rudel, Ruthann A; Altman, Rebecca Gasior; Frye, Margaret; Osimo, Cheryl A; Pérez, Carla; Seryak, Liesel M

    2007-09-01

    The recent flood of research concerning pollutants in personal environmental and biological samples-blood, urine, breastmilk, household dust and air, umbilical cord blood, and other media-raises questions about whether and how to report results to individual study participants. Clinical medicine provides an expert-driven framework, whereas community-based participatory research emphasizes participants' right to know and the potential to inform action even when health effects are uncertain. Activist efforts offer other models. We consider ethical issues involved in the decision to report individual results in exposure studies and what information should be included. Our discussion is informed by our experience with 120 women in a study of 89 pollutants in homes and by interviews with other researchers and institutional review board staff.

  12. Commercial Smartphone-Based Devices and Smart Applications for Personalized Healthcare Monitoring and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kumar Vashist

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Smartphone-based devices and applications (SBDAs with cost effectiveness and remote sensing are the most promising and effective means of delivering mobile healthcare (mHealthcare. Several SBDAs have been commercialized for the personalized monitoring and/or management of basic physiological parameters, such as blood pressure, weight, body analysis, pulse rate, electrocardiograph, blood glucose, blood glucose saturation, sleeping and physical activity. With advances in Bluetooth technology, software, cloud computing and remote sensing, SBDAs provide real-time on-site analysis and telemedicine opportunities in remote areas. This scenario is of utmost importance for developing countries, where the number of smartphone users is about 70% of 6.8 billion cell phone subscribers worldwide with limited access to basic healthcare service. The technology platform facilitates patient-doctor communication and the patients to effectively manage and keep track of their medical conditions. Besides tremendous healthcare cost savings, SBDAs are very critical for the monitoring and effective management of emerging epidemics and food contamination outbreaks. The next decade will witness pioneering advances and increasing applications of SBDAs in this exponentially growing field of mHealthcare. This article provides a critical review of commercial SBDAs that are being widely used for personalized healthcare monitoring and management.

  13. Commercial Smartphone-Based Devices and Smart Applications for Personalized Healthcare Monitoring and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashist, Sandeep Kumar; Schneider, E Marion; Luong, John H T

    2014-08-18

    Smartphone-based devices and applications (SBDAs) with cost effectiveness and remote sensing are the most promising and effective means of delivering mobile healthcare (mHealthcare). Several SBDAs have been commercialized for the personalized monitoring and/or management of basic physiological parameters, such as blood pressure, weight, body analysis, pulse rate, electrocardiograph, blood glucose, blood glucose saturation, sleeping and physical activity. With advances in Bluetooth technology, software, cloud computing and remote sensing, SBDAs provide real-time on-site analysis and telemedicine opportunities in remote areas. This scenario is of utmost importance for developing countries, where the number of smartphone users is about 70% of 6.8 billion cell phone subscribers worldwide with limited access to basic healthcare service. The technology platform facilitates patient-doctor communication and the patients to effectively manage and keep track of their medical conditions. Besides tremendous healthcare cost savings, SBDAs are very critical for the monitoring and effective management of emerging epidemics and food contamination outbreaks. The next decade will witness pioneering advances and increasing applications of SBDAs in this exponentially growing field of mHealthcare. This article provides a critical review of commercial SBDAs that are being widely used for personalized healthcare monitoring and management.

  14. Female college student awareness of exposures to environmental toxins in personal care products and their effect on preconception health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Lisa M; Chalupka, Stephanie M; Barrett, Roseann

    2015-02-01

    This research study investigated college women's usage of personal care products and their views on health effects from exposures during the preconception period. Many personal care products and cosmetics contain chemical ingredients that have been known to disrupt human endocrine and neurological systems, and contribute to infertility and adverse birth outcomes. Seventy-two female college students from a single, medium-sized university campus completed a researcher-developed questionnaire. Findings provide insight into the daily exposures young women experience during their reproductive years. Results can inform occupational and environmental health nurses about the personal daily exposures of young women when conducting risk assessments in the workplace or at a school, and can aid in developing interventions that support the environmental health of employees or future employees. © 2015 The Author(s).

  15. The modulating effect of personality traits on neural error monitoring: evidence from event-related FMRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zrinka Sosic-Vasic

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the association between traits of the Five Factor Model of Personality (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness for Experiences, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness and neural correlates of error monitoring obtained from a combined Eriksen-Flanker-Go/NoGo task during event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging in 27 healthy subjects. Individual expressions of personality traits were measured using the NEO-PI-R questionnaire. Conscientiousness correlated positively with error signaling in the left inferior frontal gyrus and adjacent anterior insula (IFG/aI. A second strong positive correlation was observed in the anterior cingulate gyrus (ACC. Neuroticism was negatively correlated with error signaling in the inferior frontal cortex possibly reflecting the negative inter-correlation between both scales observed on the behavioral level. Under present statistical thresholds no significant results were obtained for remaining scales. Aligning the personality trait of Conscientiousness with task accomplishment striving behavior the correlation in the left IFG/aI possibly reflects an inter-individually different involvement whenever task-set related memory representations are violated by the occurrence of errors. The strong correlations in the ACC may indicate that more conscientious subjects were stronger affected by these violations of a given task-set expressed by individually different, negatively valenced signals conveyed by the ACC upon occurrence of an error. Present results illustrate that for predicting individual responses to errors underlying personality traits should be taken into account and also lend external validity to the personality trait approach suggesting that personality constructs do reflect more than mere descriptive taxonomies.

  16. The modulating effect of personality traits on neural error monitoring: evidence from event-related FMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosic-Vasic, Zrinka; Ulrich, Martin; Ruchsow, Martin; Vasic, Nenad; Grön, Georg

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the association between traits of the Five Factor Model of Personality (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness for Experiences, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness) and neural correlates of error monitoring obtained from a combined Eriksen-Flanker-Go/NoGo task during event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging in 27 healthy subjects. Individual expressions of personality traits were measured using the NEO-PI-R questionnaire. Conscientiousness correlated positively with error signaling in the left inferior frontal gyrus and adjacent anterior insula (IFG/aI). A second strong positive correlation was observed in the anterior cingulate gyrus (ACC). Neuroticism was negatively correlated with error signaling in the inferior frontal cortex possibly reflecting the negative inter-correlation between both scales observed on the behavioral level. Under present statistical thresholds no significant results were obtained for remaining scales. Aligning the personality trait of Conscientiousness with task accomplishment striving behavior the correlation in the left IFG/aI possibly reflects an inter-individually different involvement whenever task-set related memory representations are violated by the occurrence of errors. The strong correlations in the ACC may indicate that more conscientious subjects were stronger affected by these violations of a given task-set expressed by individually different, negatively valenced signals conveyed by the ACC upon occurrence of an error. Present results illustrate that for predicting individual responses to errors underlying personality traits should be taken into account and also lend external validity to the personality trait approach suggesting that personality constructs do reflect more than mere descriptive taxonomies.

  17. Multicenter study of posaconazole therapeutic drug monitoring: exposure-response relationship and factors affecting concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolton, Michael J; Ray, John E; Chen, Sharon C-A; Ng, Kingsley; Pont, Lisa; McLachlan, Andrew J

    2012-11-01

    Posaconazole has an important role in the prophylaxis and salvage treatment of invasive fungal infections (IFIs), although poor and variable bioavailability remains an important clinical concern. Therapeutic drug monitoring of posaconazole concentrations has remained contentious, with the use of relatively small patient cohorts in previous studies hindering the assessment of exposure-response relationships. This multicenter retrospective study aimed to investigate relationships between posaconazole concentration and clinical outcomes and adverse events and to assess clinical factors and drug interactions that may affect posaconazole concentrations. Medical records were reviewed for patients who received posaconazole and had ≥1 concentration measured at six hospitals in Australia. Data from 86 patients with 541 posaconazole concentrations were included in the study. Among 72 patients taking posaconazole for prophylaxis against IFIs, 12 patients (17%) developed a breakthrough fungal infection; median posaconazole concentrations were significantly lower than in those who did not develop fungal infection (median [range], 289 [50 to 471] ng/ml versus 485 [0 to 2,035] ng/ml; P posaconazole concentration was a significant predictor of breakthrough fungal infection via binary logistic regression (P posaconazole exposure, including coadministration with proton pump inhibitors, metoclopramide, phenytoin or rifampin, and the H(2) antagonist ranitidine (P posaconazole exposure (P posaconazole concentrations are common and are associated with breakthrough fungal infection, supporting the utility of monitoring posaconazole concentrations to ensure optimal systemic exposure.

  18. Paternal Monitoring: The Relationship Between Online and In-Person Solicitation and Youth Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessel, Heather; He, Yaliu; Dworkin, Jodi

    2017-02-01

    Despite extensive literature on parental monitoring, few studies have focused on father-youth solicitation in particular and none on solicitation via communication technology. To address this gap, this study explored the relationships between fathers' online and in-person solicitation of their adolescent and emerging adult children, and the youth's internalizing, externalizing, and prosocial behaviors. A sample of US fathers (N = 158) reported on solicitation patterns, use of technology, and their child's behaviors. The results revealed differences by demographics, and an inverse trend between online and in-person solicitation in relation to internalizing, externalizing, and prosocial behaviors. Regression analyses revealed that online solicitation of information from the youth's friends was related to greater internalizing and externalizing, and less prosocial behavior. These findings support research suggesting that some forms of online solicitation may be interpreted by adolescents and emerging adults as intrusive and a violation of privacy.

  19. Monitoring of exposure to cyclohexanone through the analysis of breath and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, C N; Chia, S E; Phoon, W H; Tan, K T; Kok, P W

    1991-12-01

    Occupational exposure to cyclohexanone was studied for 59 workers through the analysis of environmental air, alveolar air, and urinary cyclohexanol. Environmental cyclohexanone exposure was measured by personal sampling with a carbon-felt passive dosimeter. Cyclohexanone in alveolar air and cyclohexanol in urine were determined with gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector. The end-of-shift urinary cyclohexanol levels correlated well with the time-weighted average environmental cyclohexanone values (r = 0.66). Urinary cyclohexanol corrected for creatinine correlated best with cyclohexanone in air (r = 0.77); when corrected for specific gravity, it gave a similar correlation coefficient (r = 0.73). When the time-weighted average of the exposure was 25 ppm, the corresponding calculated concentration for urinary cyclohexanol was 54.5 mg/1, 23.3 mg/g of creatinine, or 43.5 mg/l at a specific gravity of 1.018. The relationship between cyclohexanone exposure and its concentration in exhaled breath was found to be poorer than that for cyclohexanone exposure and the urinary metabolite (r = 0.51).

  20. Radiation exposure to personnel in cardiac catheterization laboratories; Strahlenexposition des Personals im Herzkatheterlabor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boetticher, H. von [Inst. fuer Radiologie, Zentralkrankenhaus Links der Weser, Bremen (Germany); Meenen, C. [Abt. Praevention, Unfallkasse Freie Hansestadt Bremen, Bremen (Germany); Lachmund, J. [Inst. fuer Radiologie, Zentralkrankenhaus Links der Weser, Bremen (Germany); Bremer Inst. fuer Praeventionsforschung, Sozialmedizin und Epidemiologie (BIPSE) (Germany); Hoffmann, W. [Inst. fuer Community Medicine, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Univ. Greifswald (Germany); Enge, H.J. [Klinik fuer Kardiologie, Zentralkrankenhaus Links der Weser, Bremen (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Radiation exposure in personnel of cardiac catheterization units is based on local dosimetry during patient investigations. In the present study, dose rates were measured at various heights in representative locations, with and without fixed radiation protection shields in place. To determine the effective dose values, TLD measurements were performed using an Alderson phantom to generate radiation scatter and a second phantom in the position of the cardiologist performing the catheterization. Various types of personal radiation protection garment and fixed shields were considered in the calculations. Our results indicate on one hand that good protective standards can be achieved with effective doses below 1 mSv/year under optimized conditions. On the other hand, inappropriate radiation protection equipment can cause substantial increase of radiation doses. Alone the lack of a thyroid shield increases the effective dose of the cardiologist by a factor of 3. For the personnel, effective doses were generally higher than personal doses by a factor between 1.5 and 4.8 depending on the radiation protection situation. (orig.) [German] Die Strahlenexposition des Personals im Herzkatheterlabor wird auf der Basis von Messungen der Ortsdosisleistung waehrend Patientenuntersuchungen ermittelt. Dabei werden Werte in verschiedenen Hoehen an repraesentativen Aufenthaltsorten mit und ohne Dauerschutzeinrichtungen bestimmt. Zur Bestimmung der effektiven Dosen werden TLD-Messungen mit einem Alderson-Phantom als Streukoerper und einem zweiten als Untersucher durchgefuehrt. Unterschiedliche Ausfuehrungen von persoenlichen Schutzausruestungen und die Auswirkungen der Dauerschutzeinrichtungen werden rechnerisch einbezogen. Es wird gezeigt, dass einerseits unter optimierten Bedingungen ein guter Strahlenschutz mit effektiven Dosen unter 1 mSv/Jahr realisiert werden kann, andererseits aber Maengel in der Schutzausruestung zu erheblichen Dosiserhoehungen fuehren. Allein das Fehlen eines

  1. Geophysical data collection using an interactive personal computer system. Part 1. ; Experimental monitoring of Suwanosejima volcano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iguchi, M. (Kyoto Univerdity, Kyoto (Japan). Disaster Prevention Reserach Institute)

    1991-10-15

    In the article, a computer-communication system was developed in order to collect geophysical data from remote volcanos via a public telephpne network. This system is composed of a host presonal computer at an observatory and several personal computers as terminals at remote stations. Each terminal acquires geophysical data, such as seismic, intrasonic, and ground deformation date. These gara are stored in the terminals temporarily, and transmitted to the host computer upon command from host computer. Experimental monitoring was conducted between Sakurajima Volcanological Observatory and several statins in the Satsunan Islands and southern Kyushu. The seismic and eruptive activities of Suwanosejima volcano were monitored by this system. Consequently, earthquakes and air-shocks accompanied by the explosive activity were observed. B-type earthquakes occurred prio to the relatively prolonged eruptive activity. Intermittent occurrences of volcanic tremors were also clearly recognized from the change in mean amplitubes of seismic waves. 7 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Biomarkers of human exposure to personal care products: Results from the Flemish Environment and Health Study (FLEHS 2007-2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Den Hond, Elly; Paulussen, Melissa; Geens, Tinne; Bruckers, Liesbeth; Baeyens, Willy; David, Frank; Dumont, Emmie; Loots, Ilse; Morrens, Bert; de Bellevaux, Benoit Nemery; Nelen, Vera; Schoeters, Greet; Van Larebeke, Nicolas; Covaci, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Personal care products (PCPs), such as soaps, perfumes, cosmetics, lotions, etc., contain a variety of chemicals that have been described as potentially hormone disrupting chemicals. Therefore, it is important to assess the internal exposure of these chemicals in humans. Within the 2nd Flemish Environment and Health Study (FLEHS II, 2007-2011), the human exposure to three classes of pollutants that are present in a wide variety of PCPs - i.e. polycyclic musks (galaxolide, HHCB and tonalide, A...

  3. A Framework for Evaluating the Software Product Quality of Pregnancy Monitoring Mobile Personal Health Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idri, Ali; Bachiri, Mariam; Fernández-Alemán, José Luis

    2016-03-01

    Stakeholders' needs and expectations are identified by means of software quality requirements, which have an impact on software product quality. In this paper, we present a set of requirements for mobile personal health records (mPHRs) for pregnancy monitoring, which have been extracted from literature and existing mobile apps on the market. We also use the ISO/IEC 25030 standard to suggest the requirements that should be considered during the quality evaluation of these mPHRs. We then go on to design a checklist in which we contrast the mPHRs for pregnancy monitoring requirements with software product quality characteristics and sub-characteristics in order to calculate the impact of these requirements on software product quality, using the ISO/IEC 25010 software product quality standard. The results obtained show that the requirements related to the user's actions and the app's features have the most impact on the external sub-characteristics of the software product quality model. The only sub-characteristic affected by all the requirements is Appropriateness of Functional suitability. The characteristic Operability is affected by 95% of the requirements while the lowest degrees of impact were identified for Compatibility (15%) and Transferability (6%). Lastly, the degrees of the impact of the mPHRs for pregnancy monitoring requirements are discussed in order to provide appropriate recommendations for the developers and stakeholders of mPHRs for pregnancy monitoring.

  4. The potential implementation of radio-frequency identification technology for personal health examination and monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Andrew

    2009-11-16

    This paper presents several possible applications of the radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology for personal health examination and monitoring. One application involves using RFID sensors external to the human body, while another one uses both internal and external RFID sensors. Another application involves simultaneous assessment and monitoring of many patients in a hospital setting using networks of RFID sensors. All the assessment and monitoring are done wirelessly, either continuously or periodically in any interval, in which the sensors collect information on human parts such as the lungs or heart and transmit this information to a router, PC or PDA device connected to the internet, from which patient's condition can be diagnosed and viewed by authorized medical professionals in remote locations. Instantaneous information allows medical professionals to intervene properly and in a timely fashion to prevent possible catastrophic effects to patients. The continuously assessed and monitored information provides medical professionals with more complete and long-term studies of patients. The proposed ideas promise to result in not only enhancement of the health treatment quality but also in significant reduction of medical expenditure.

  5. Power levels in office equipment: Measurements of new monitors and personal computers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberson, Judy A.; Brown, Richard E.; Nordman, Bruce; Webber, Carrie A.; Homan, Gregory H.; Mahajan, Akshay; McWhinney, Marla; Koomey, Jonathan G.

    2002-05-14

    Electronic office equipment has proliferated rapidly over the last twenty years and is projected to continue growing in the future. Efforts to reduce the growth in office equipment energy use have focused on power management to reduce power consumption of electronic devices when not being used for their primary purpose. The EPA ENERGY STAR[registered trademark] program has been instrumental in gaining widespread support for power management in office equipment, and accurate information about the energy used by office equipment in all power levels is important to improving program design and evaluation. This paper presents the results of a field study conducted during 2001 to measure the power levels of new monitors and personal computers. We measured off, on, and low-power levels in about 60 units manufactured since July 2000. The paper summarizes power data collected, explores differences within the sample (e.g., between CRT and LCD monitors), and discusses some issues that arise in m etering office equipment. We also present conclusions to help improve the success of future power management programs.Our findings include a trend among monitor manufacturers to provide a single very low low-power level, and the need to standardize methods for measuring monitor on power, to more accurately estimate the annual energy consumption of office equipment, as well as actual and potential energy savings from power management.

  6. Assessment of personal exposure from radiofrequency-electromagnetic fields in Australia and Belgium using on-body calibrated exposimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Chhavi Raj; Thielens, Arno; Billah, Baki; Redmayne, Mary; Abramson, Michael J; Sim, Malcolm R; Vermeulen, Roel; Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout; Benke, Geza

    2016-11-01

    The purposes of this study were: i) to demonstrate the assessment of personal exposure from various RF-EMF sources across different microenvironments in Australia and Belgium, with two on-body calibrated exposimeters, in contrast to earlier studies which employed single, non-on-body calibrated exposimeters; ii) to systematically evaluate the performance of the exposimeters using (on-body) calibration and cross-talk measurements; and iii) to compare the exposure levels measured for one site in each of several selected microenvironments in the two countries. A human subject took part in an on-body calibration of the exposimeter in an anechoic chamber. The same subject collected data on personal exposures across 38 microenvironments (19 in each country) situated in urban, suburban and rural regions. Median personal RF-EMF exposures were estimated: i) of all microenvironments, and ii) across each microenvironment, in two countries. The exposures were then compared across similar microenvironments in two countries (17 in each country). The three highest median total exposure levels were: city center (4.33V/m), residential outdoor (urban) (0.75V/m), and a park (0.75V/m) [Australia]; and a tram station (1.95V/m), city center (0.95V/m), and a park (0.90V/m) [Belgium]. The exposures across nine microenvironments in Melbourne, Australia were lower than the exposures across corresponding microenvironments in Ghent, Belgium (pexposures across urban microenvironments were higher than those for rural or suburban microenvironments. Similarly, the exposure levels across outdoor microenvironments were higher than those for indoor microenvironments.

  7. Rabies-related knowledge and practices among persons at risk of bat exposures in Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kis Robertson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rabies is a fatal encephalitis caused by lyssaviruses. Evidence of lyssavirus circulation has recently emerged in Southeast Asian bats. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Thailand to assess rabies-related knowledge and practices among persons regularly exposed to bats and bat habitats. The objectives were to identify deficiencies in rabies awareness, describe the occurrence of bat exposures, and explore factors associated with transdermal bat exposures. METHODS: A survey was administered to a convenience sample of adult guano miners, bat hunters, game wardens, and residents/personnel at Buddhist temples where mass bat roosting occurs. The questionnaire elicited information on demographics, experience with bat exposures, and rabies knowledge. Participants were also asked to describe actions they would take in response to a bat bite as well as actions for a bite from a potentially rabid animal. Bivariate analysis was used to compare responses between groups and multivariable logistic regression was used to explore factors independently associated with being bitten or scratched by a bat. FINDINGS: Of 106 people interviewed, 11 (10% identified bats as a potential source of rabies. A history of a bat bite or scratch was reported by 29 (27%, and 38 (36% stated either that they would do nothing or that they did not know what they would do in response to a bat bite. Guano miners were less likely than other groups to indicate animal bites as a mechanism of rabies transmission (68% vs. 90%, p=0.03 and were less likely to say they would respond appropriately to a bat bite or scratch (61% vs. 27%, p=0.003. Guano mining, bat hunting, and being in a bat cave or roost area more than 5 times a year were associated with history of a bat bite or scratch. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate the need for educational outreach to raise awareness of bat rabies, promote exposure prevention, and ensure appropriate health-seeking behaviors for bat

  8. Mobile personal health records for pregnancy monitoring functionalities: Analysis and potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachiri, Mariam; Idri, Ali; Fernández-Alemán, José Luis; Toval, Ambrosio

    2016-10-01

    Personal Health Records (PHRs) are a rapidly growing area of health information technology. PHR users are able to manage their own health data and communicate with doctors in order to improve healthcare quality and efficiency. Mobile PHR (mPHR) applications for mobile devices have obtained an interesting market quota since the appearance of more powerful mobile devices. These devices allow users to gain access to applications that used to be available only for personal computers. This paper analyzes the functionalities of mobile PHRs that are specific to pregnancy monitoring. A well-known Systematic Literature Review (SLR) protocol was used in the analysis process. A questionnaire was developed for this task, based on the rigorous study of scientific literature concerning pregnancy and applications available on the market, with 9 data items and 35 quality assessments. The data items contain calendars, pregnancy information, health habits, counters, diaries, mobile features, security, backup, configuration and architectural design. A total of 33 mPHRs for pregnancy monitoring, available for iOS and Android, were selected from Apple App store and Google Play store, respectively. The results show that none of the mPHRs selected met 100% of the functionalities analyzed in this paper. The highest score achieved was 77%, while the lowest was 17%. In this paper, these features are discussed and possible paths for future development of similar applications are proposed, which may lead to a more efficient use of smartphone capabilities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Estimating mercury exposure of piscivorous birds and sport fish using prey fish monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Hartman, C. Alex; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark P.; Davis, Jay; Ichikawa, Gary; Bonnema, Autumn

    2015-01-01

    Methylmercury is a global pollutant of aquatic ecosystems, and monitoring programs need tools to predict mercury exposure of wildlife. We developed equations to estimate methylmercury exposure of piscivorous birds and sport fish using mercury concentrations in prey fish. We collected original data on western grebes (Aechmophorus occidentalis) and Clark’s grebes (Aechmophorus clarkii) and summarized the published literature to generate predictive equations specific to grebes and a general equation for piscivorous birds. We measured mercury concentrations in 354 grebes (blood averaged 1.06 ± 0.08 μg/g ww), 101 grebe eggs, 230 sport fish (predominantly largemouth bass and rainbow trout), and 505 prey fish (14 species) at 25 lakes throughout California. Mercury concentrations in grebe blood, grebe eggs, and sport fish were strongly related to mercury concentrations in prey fish among lakes. Each 1.0 μg/g dw (∼0.24 μg/g ww) increase in prey fish resulted in an increase in mercury concentrations of 103% in grebe blood, 92% in grebe eggs, and 116% in sport fish. We also found strong correlations between mercury concentrations in grebes and sport fish among lakes. Our results indicate that prey fish monitoring can be used to estimate mercury exposure of piscivorous birds and sport fish when wildlife cannot be directly sampled.

  10. Estimating Mercury Exposure of Piscivorous Birds and Sport Fish Using Prey Fish Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T; Hartman, C Alex; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Herzog, Mark P; Davis, Jay; Ichikawa, Gary; Bonnema, Autumn

    2015-11-17

    Methylmercury is a global pollutant of aquatic ecosystems, and monitoring programs need tools to predict mercury exposure of wildlife. We developed equations to estimate methylmercury exposure of piscivorous birds and sport fish using mercury concentrations in prey fish. We collected original data on western grebes (Aechmophorus occidentalis) and Clark's grebes (Aechmophorus clarkii) and summarized the published literature to generate predictive equations specific to grebes and a general equation for piscivorous birds. We measured mercury concentrations in 354 grebes (blood averaged 1.06 ± 0.08 μg/g ww), 101 grebe eggs, 230 sport fish (predominantly largemouth bass and rainbow trout), and 505 prey fish (14 species) at 25 lakes throughout California. Mercury concentrations in grebe blood, grebe eggs, and sport fish were strongly related to mercury concentrations in prey fish among lakes. Each 1.0 μg/g dw (∼0.24 μg/g ww) increase in prey fish resulted in an increase in mercury concentrations of 103% in grebe blood, 92% in grebe eggs, and 116% in sport fish. We also found strong correlations between mercury concentrations in grebes and sport fish among lakes. Our results indicate that prey fish monitoring can be used to estimate mercury exposure of piscivorous birds and sport fish when wildlife cannot be directly sampled.

  11. Wireless Fidelity Electromagnetic Field Exposure Monitoring With Wearable Body Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecoutere, Jeroen; Thielens, Arno; Agneessens, Sam; Rogier, Hendrik; Joseph, Wout; Puers, Robert

    2016-06-01

    With the breakthrough of the Internet of Things and the steady increase of wireless applications in the daily environment, the assessment of radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure is key in determining possible health effects of exposure to certain levels of RF-EMF. This paper presents the first experimental validation of a novel personal exposimeter system based on a distributed measurement approach to achieve higher measurement quality and lower measurement variability than the commonly used single point measurement approach of existing exposimeters. An important feature of the system is the integration of inertial sensors in order to determine activity and posture during exposure measurements. The system is designed to assess exposure to frequencies within the 389 to 464, 779 to 928 and 2400 to 2483.5 MHz bands using only two transceivers per node. In this study, the 2400 to 2483.5 MHz band is validated. Every node provides antenna diversity for the different bands in order to achieve higher sensitivity at these frequencies. Two AAA batteries power each standalone node and as such determine the node hardware size of this proof of concept (53 mm×25 mm×15 mm) , making it smaller than any other commercially available exposimeter.

  12. BIOMarkers for occupational diesel exhaust exposure monitoring (BIOMODEM)--a study in underground mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheepers, P T J; Coggon, D; Knudsen, L E; Anzion, R; Autrup, H; Bogovski, S; Bos, R P; Dahmann, D; Farmer, P; Martin, E A; Micka, V; Muzyka, V; Neumann, H G; Poole, J; Schmidt-Ott, A; Seiler, F; Volf, J; Zwirner-Baier, I

    2002-08-05

    Methods for the assessment of exposures to diesel exhaust were evaluated, including various biomarkers of internal exposure and early biological effects. The impact of possible biomarkers of susceptibility was also explored. Underground workers (drivers of diesel-powered excavators) at an oil shale mine in Estonia were compared with surface workers. Personal exposures to particle-associated 1-nitropyrene (NP) were some eight times higher underground than on the surface. Underground miners were also occupationally exposed to benzene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, as indicated by excretion of urinary metabolites of benzene and pyrene. In addition, increased O(6)-alkylguanine DNA adducts were detected in the white blood cells of underground workers, suggesting higher exposure to nitroso-compounds. However, no differences between underground and surface workers were observed in the levels of other bulky DNA adducts determined by 32P-postlabelling, or in DNA damage. The study indicated that smoking, diet and residential indoor air pollution are important non-occupational factors to consider when interpreting biomonitoring results.

  13. Linking high resolution mass spectrometry data with exposure and toxicity forecasts to advance high-throughput environmental monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There is a growing need in the field of exposure science for monitoring methods that rapidly screen environmental media for suspect contaminants. Measurement and...

  14. Assessment of personal exposure from radiofrequency-electromagnetic fields in Australia and Belgium using on-body calibrated exposimeters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhatt, Chhavi Raj; Thielens, Arno; Billah, Baki; Redmayne, Mary; Abramson, Michael J; Sim, Malcolm R; Vermeulen, Roel; Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout; Benke, Geza

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this study were: i) to demonstrate the assessment of personal exposure from various RF-EMF sources across different microenvironments in Australia and Belgium, with two on-body calibrated exposimeters, in contrast to earlier studies which employed single, non-on-body calibrated expos

  15. Comparison of stationary and personal air sampling with an air dispersion model for children’s ambient exposure to manganese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manganese (Mn) is ubiquitous in the environment and essential for normal growth and development, yet excessive exposure can lead to impairments in neurological function. This study modeled ambient Mn concentrations as an alternative to stationary and personal air sampling to asse...

  16. Integrating Dialectical Behavior Therapy and Prolonged Exposure to Treat Co-Occurring Borderline Personality Disorder and PTSD: Two Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harned, Melanie S.; Linehan, Marsha M.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the high rate of trauma and PTSD among individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD), no studies have specifically evaluated the treatment of PTSD in a BPD population. These case studies illustrate the use of a protocol based on prolonged exposure therapy that can be integrated into standard dialectical behavior therapy to treat…

  17. Effectiveness of personal protective equipment: Relevance of dermal and inhalation exposure to chlorpyrifos among pest control operators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagt, K. van der; Tielemans, E.; Links, I.; Brouwer, D.; Hemmen, J. van

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of a custom fit personal protective equipment (PPE) program aimed at reducing occupational exposure to pesticides. The intervention study was carried out on 15 pest control operators (PCOs) during mixing/loading and application of chlorpyrifos. Each worker was m

  18. Comparison of stationary and personal air sampling with an air dispersion model for children’s ambient exposure to manganese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manganese (Mn) is ubiquitous in the environment and essential for normal growth and development, yet excessive exposure can lead to impairments in neurological function. This study modeled ambient Mn concentrations as an alternative to stationary and personal air sampling to asse...

  19. Personal, indoor, and outdoor exposure to VOCs in the immediate vicinity of a local airport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyung-Hwa; Artigas, Francisco; Shin, Jin Young

    2011-02-01

    This study measures the effect of emissions from an airport on the air quality of surrounding neighborhoods. The ambient concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and o-, m-, and p-xylene (BTEX) were measured using passive samplers at 15 households located close to the airport (indoor, outdoor, and personal), at the end of airport runways and an out-of-neighborhood location. Measurements occurred over a 48-h period during summer 2006 and winter 2006-2007. The average concentrations were 0.84, 3.21, 0.30, 0.99, and 0.34 μg/m3 at the airport runways and 0.84, 3.76, 0.39, 1.22, and 0.39 μg/m3 in the neighborhood for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m-, p-, and o-xylene. The average neighborhood concentrations were not significantly different to those measured at the airport runways and were higher than the out-of-neighborhood location (0.48, 1.09, 0.15, 0.78, and 0.43 μg/m3, each BTEX). B/T ratios were used as a tracer for emission sources and the average B/T ratio at the airport and outdoors were 0.20 and 0.23 for the summer and 0.40 and 0.42 for the winter, suggesting that both areas are affected by the same emission source. Personal exposure was closely related to levels in the indoor environment where subjects spent most of their time. Indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratios for BTEX ranged from 1.13 to 2.60 and 1.41 to 3.02 for summer and winter. The seasonal differences in I/O ratios reflected residential ventilation patterns, resulting in increased indoor concentrations of volatile organic compounds during winter.

  20. Statistical perturbations in personal exposure meters caused by the human body in dynamic outdoor environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Begoña; Blas, Juan; Lorenzo, Rubén M; Fernández, Patricia; Abril, Evaristo J

    2011-04-01

    Personal exposure meters (PEM) are routinely used for the exposure assessment to radio frequency electric or magnetic fields. However, their readings are subject to errors associated with perturbations of the fields caused by the presence of the human body. This paper presents a novel analysis method for the characterization of this effect. Using ray-tracing techniques, PEM measurements have been emulated, with and without an approximation of this shadowing effect. In particular, the Global System for Mobile Communication mobile phone frequency band was chosen for its ubiquity and, specifically, we considered the case where the subject is walking outdoors in a relatively open area. These simulations have been contrasted with real PEM measurements in a 35-min walk. Results show a good agreement in terms of root mean square error and E-field cumulative distribution function (CDF), with a significant improvement when the shadowing effect is taken into account. In particular, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test provides a P-value of 0.05 when considering the shadowing effect, versus a P-value of 10⁻¹⁴ when this effect is ignored. In addition, although the E-field levels in the absence of a human body have been found to follow a Nakagami distribution, a lognormal distribution fits the statistics of the PEM values better than the Nakagami distribution. As a conclusion, although the mean could be adjusted by using correction factors, there are also other changes in the CDF that require particular attention due to the shadowing effect because they might lead to a systematic error. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. The Evaluation of Personal Exposure to BTEX Compounds in the Traditional Restaurants in Hamadan in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Samarghandi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: BTEX compounds (Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, Xylene iso-mers are among the most consumed and dangerous volatile organic compounds which can cause adverse health effects in humans. The water pipe smoke contains numerous toxic compounds such as BTEX compounds.The aim of this study was to evaluate the personal exposure to BTEX compounds at traditional restaurants of Hamadan. Materials & Methods: This cross sectional study was descriptive- analytical. To sample the BTEX compounds in the air inhaled during smoking of 25 people at 12 traditional restau-rants, the NIOSH 1501 method was used, and the samples were analyzed by gas chromatog-raphy. Results: The mean duration water pipe per serving was 52.23±9.28 min. The mean tempera-ture and relative humidity at the traditional restaurants were 33.24±1.72° C and 35±0.095%, respectively. The mean concentration of Benzene, Toluene, Ethyl Benzene,O,M and P-xylene in the exhaled air ofthe subjects were 1495, 2806, 2559, 810, 932 and 1146 ppb, respec-tively. Conclusion: The concentration of Benzene, Toluene and Ethyl Benzene in subjects' inhaled air during smoking was more than the limit determined by Environmental Protection Agency. In this study we found that water pipe smoke can cause absorption of high levels of BTEX compounds through inhalation and can be considered as one of the main sources of exposure to these compounds which is followed by the increased risk of adverse health ef-fects. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2014; 21 (3: 231-239

  2. Associations between personal, indoor, and residential outdoor pollutant concentrations: implications for exposure assessment to size-fractionated particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arhami, Mohammad; Polidori, Andrea; Delfino, Ralph J; Tjoa, Thomas; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2009-04-01

    The physical and chemical characteristics of indoor, outdoor, and personal quasi-ultrafine (matter (PM) levels, their particle components, and gaseous co-pollutants. Seasonal and spatial differences in the concentrations of all measured species were evaluated at all sites on the basis of P values for product terms. Outdoor quasi-ultrafine (UF) and, to a lesser extent, accumulation-mode particles were the two fractions that best correlated with outdoor concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx; during both phases of the study), and ozone (O3; only during the warmer months). Outdoor and indoor concentrations of CO, NO2, and NOx were more positively correlated to personal quasi-UF particles than larger size fractions. Despite these findings, it seems unlikely that these gaseous co-pollutants could confound epidemiologic associations between quasi-UF particles and adverse health effects. Overall, measured gaseous co-pollutants were weak surrogates of personal exposure to accumulation-mode PM, at least for subjects with similar exposure profiles and living in similar urban locations. Indoor sources were not significant contributors to personal exposure of accumulation and quasi-UF PM, which is predominantly influenced by primary emitted pollutants of outdoor origin. Correlations between personal coarse-mode PM and both outdoor and indoor gaseous co-pollutant concentrations were weak at all sites and during all seasons.

  3. Source apportionment of indoor, outdoor and personal PM2.5 exposure of pregnant women in Barcelona, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguillón, M. C.; Schembari, A.; Triguero-Mas, M.; de Nazelle, A.; Dadvand, P.; Figueras, F.; Salvado, J. A.; Grimalt, J. O.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.; Querol, X.

    2012-11-01

    Exposure to air pollution has been shown to adversely affect foetal development in the case of pregnant women. The present study aims to investigate the PM composition and sources influencing personal exposure of pregnant women in Barcelona. To this end, indoor, outdoor and personal exposure measurements were carried out for a selection of 54 pregnant women between November 2008 and November 2009. PM2.5 samples were collected during two consecutive days and then analysed for black smoke (BS), major and trace elements, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations. Personal information such as commuting patterns and cosmetics use was also collected. PM2.5 concentrations were higher for personal samples than for indoor and outdoor environments. Indoor, outdoor and personal BS and sulphate concentrations were strongly correlated, although some specific indoor and outdoor sulphate sources may exist. Average trace elements concentrations were similar indoor, outdoor and for personal exposure, but the correlations were moderate for most of them. Most of the PAHs concentrations showed strong correlations indoor-outdoor. A source apportionment analysis of the PM composition data by means of a Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) resulted in the identification of six sources for the outdoor and indoor environments: secondary sulphate, fueloil + sea salt (characterized by V, Ni, Na and Mg), mineral, cigarette (characterized by K, Ce, Cd, benzo(k)fluoranthene and benzo(ghi)perylene), road traffic (characterized by BS and low weight PAHs), and industrial (characterized by Pb, Sn, Cu, Mn and Fe). For personal exposure two specific sources were found: cosmetics (characterized by abundance of Ca, Li, Ti and Sr and the absence of Al) and train/subway (characterized by Fe, Mn, Cu and Ba). The contribution of the sources varied widely among women, especially for cigarette (from zero to up to 4 μg m-3), train/subway (up to more than 6 μg m-3) and cosmetics (up to more

  4. Psycho-social aspects of personal health monitoring: a descriptive literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlan, Holger; Schmidt, Silke

    2013-01-01

    We aimed at providing a short review on already published studies addressing psycho-social issues of personal health monitoring (PHM). Both core questions addressed within this review are: What is the impact of PHM on intended psycho-social and health-related outcomes? And which psycho-social issues affected by or related to PHM have already been investigated? This descriptive review based on a literature search using various databases (Psycinfo, Psyndex, Pubmed, SSCI). Resulting 428 abstracts were coded regarding their psycho-social content. Inspection of results was carried out along the relevance of the papers regarding psycho-social issues. Research in PHM focuses on telemonitoring and smart home applications: Tele-monitoring studies are directed to outcome-related questions, smart home studies to feasibility issues. Despite of technological matters, comparability of both systems in psycho-social issues is lacking. Tele-monitoring has been proven for impact on patient groups with chronic diseases, yet smart home still lacks evidence in health-related and psycho-social matters. Smart home applications have been investigated with respect to attitudes, perceptions and concerns of end-users, telemonitoring regarding acceptance and adherence.

  5. Bio-monitoring of mycotoxin exposure in Cameroon using a urinary multi-biomarker approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abia, Wilfred A; Warth, Benedikt; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf; Tchana, Angele; Njobeh, Patrick B; Turner, Paul C; Kouanfack, Charles; Eyongetah, Mbu; Dutton, Mike; Moundipa, Paul F

    2013-12-01

    Bio-monitoring of human exposure to mycotoxin has mostly been limited to a few individually measured mycotoxin biomarkers. This study aimed to determine the frequency and level of exposure to multiple mycotoxins in human urine from Cameroonian adults. 175 Urine samples (83% from HIV-positive individuals) and food frequency questionnaire responses were collected from consenting Cameroonians, and analyzed for 15 mycotoxins and relevant metabolites using LC-ESI-MS/MS. In total, eleven analytes were detected individually or in combinations in 110/175 (63%) samples including the biomarkers aflatoxin M1, fumonisin B1, ochratoxin A and total deoxynivalenol. Additionally, important mycotoxins and metabolites thereof, such as fumonisin B2, nivalenol and zearalenone, were determined, some for the first time in urine following dietary exposures. Multi-mycotoxin contamination was common with one HIV-positive individual exposed to five mycotoxins, a severe case of co-exposure that has never been reported in adults before. For the first time in Africa or elsewhere, this study quantified eleven mycotoxin biomarkers and bio-measures in urine from adults. For several mycotoxins estimates indicate that the tolerable daily intake is being exceeded in this study population. Given that many mycotoxins adversely affect the immune system, future studies will examine whether combinations of mycotoxins negatively impact Cameroonian population particularly immune-suppressed individuals.

  6. Risk Exposure and Net Flow in Investment Funds: Do Shareholders Monitor Asset Allocation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Felipe Schiozer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the impact of asset allocation on the net flow of fixed income funds in the Brazilian market, by exploiting the exogenous variation in the risk perception of bank liabilities (CDs caused by the financial turmoil that followed Lehman Brothers’ demise in September 2008. The central hypothesis is that the exposure to assets negatively affected by the crisis impacts negatively the fund’s net flow. We find that, for mutual funds, the larger proportion of assets negatively affected by the crisis the larger the net outflow of resources, indicating that shareholders monitor asset allocation and exert disciplining power on fund managers by withdrawing their resources. In exclusive (fundos exclusivos, i.e., funds with a single shareholder, for which the shareholder is presumed to exert more influence on asset reallocation, we find no significant relationship between the exposure to assets negatively affected by the crisis and net flows.

  7. Assessment of exposure to composite nanomaterials and development of a personal respiratory deposition sampler for nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cena, Lorenzo

    2011-12-01

    The overall goals of this doctoral dissertation are to provide knowledge of workers' exposure to nanomaterials and to assist in the development of standard methods to measure personal exposure to nanomaterials in workplace environments. To achieve the first goal, a field study investigated airborne particles generated from the weighing of bulk carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and the manual sanding of epoxy test samples reinforced with CNTs. This study also evaluated the effectiveness of three local exhaust ventilation (LEV) conditions (no LEV, custom fume hood and biosafety cabinet) for control of exposure to particles generated during sanding of CNT-epoxy nanocomposites. Particle number and respirable mass concentrations were measured with direct-read instruments, and particle morphology was determined by electron microscopy. Sanding of CNT-epoxy nanocomposites released respirable size airborne particles with protruding CNTs very different in morphology from bulk CNTs that tended to remain in clusters (>1mum). Respirable mass concentrations in the operator's breathing zone were significantly greater when sanding took place in the custom hood (p values and those estimated with the model. Compared to the original theory, the SSE calculated using the modified theory was at least threefold lower for all screens and flow rates. Since nylon fibers produce no significant spectral interference when ashed for spectrometric examination, the ability to accurately estimate collection efficiency of submicrometer particles makes nylon mesh screens an attractive collection substrate for nanoparticles. In the third study, laboratory experiments were conducted to develop a novel nanoparticle respiratory deposition (NRD) sampler that selectively collects nanoparticles in a worker's breathing zone apart from larger particles. The NRD sampler consists of a respirable cyclone fitted with an impactor and a diffusion stage containing eight nylon-mesh screens. A sampling criterion for nano

  8. Quantitative ultrasound imaging for monitoring in situ high-intensity focused ultrasound exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoshal, Goutam; Kemmerer, Jeremy P; Karunakaran, Chandra; Abuhabsah, Rami; Miller, Rita J; Sarwate, Sandhya; Oelze, Michael L

    2014-10-01

    Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) imaging is hypothesized to map temperature elevations induced in tissue with high spatial and temporal resolution. To test this hypothesis, QUS techniques were examined to monitor high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) exposure of tissue. In situ experiments were conducted on mammary adenocarcinoma tumors grown in rats and lesions were formed using a HIFU system. A thermocouple was inserted into the tumor to provide estimates of temperature at one location. Backscattered time-domain waveforms from the tissue during exposure were recorded using a clinical ultrasonic imaging system. Backscatter coefficients were estimated using a reference phantom technique. Two parameters were estimated from the backscatter coefficient (effective scatterer diameter (ESD) and effective acoustic concentration (EAC). The changes in the average parameters in the regions corresponding to the HIFU focus over time were correlated to the temperature readings from the thermocouple. The changes in the EAC parameter were consistently correlated to temperature during both heating and cooling of the tumors. The changes in the ESD did not have a consistent trend with temperature. The mean ESD and EAC before exposure were 120 ± 16 μm and 32 ± 3 dB/cm3, respectively, and changed to 144 ± 9 μm and 51 ± 7 dB/cm3, respectively, just before the last HIFU pulse was delivered to the tissue. After the tissue cooled down to 37 °C, the mean ESD and EAC were 126 ± 8 μm and 35 ± 4 dB/cm3, respectively. Peak temperature in the range of 50-60 °C was recorded by a thermocouple placed just behind the tumor. These results suggest that QUS techniques have the potential to be used for non-invasive monitoring of HIFU exposure.

  9. Surveillance methods for identifying, characterizing, and monitoring tobacco products: potential reduced exposure products as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connor, Richard J.; Cummings, K. Michael; Rees, Vaughan W.; Connolly, Gregory N.; Norton, Kaila J.; Sweanor, David; Parascandola, Mark; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Shields, Peter G.

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco products are widely sold and marketed, yet integrated data systems for identifying, tracking, and characterizing products are lacking. Tobacco manufacturers recently have developed potential reduction exposure products (PREPs) with implied or explicit health claims. Currently, a systematic approach for identifying, defining, and evaluating PREPs sold at the local, state or national levels in the US has not been developed. Identifying, characterizing, and monitoring new tobacco products could be greatly enhanced with a responsive surveillance system. This paper critically reviews available surveillance data sources for identifying and tracking tobacco products, including PREPs, evaluating strengths and weaknesses of potential data sources in light of their reliability and validity. Absent regulations mandating disclosure of product-specific information, it is likely that public health officials will need to rely on a variety of imperfect data sources to help identify, characterize, and monitor tobacco products, including PREPs. PMID:19959680

  10. Recommendations for Guidelines for EMF Personal Exposure Measurements, Rapid Project #4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Dan Bracken, Inc.

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of developing guidelines for electric and magnetic field (EMF) personal exposure measurements (lF'EM) is to ensure reliable and comparable data across I?EM studies. Study techniques may vary due to different populations or objectives, but the resulting data should be consistently reported and comparable, to the extent possible. Any guideline must allow creativity by the research-oriented investigator and provide specific guidance to industrial hygienists or other results-oriented investigators, requiring a standard protocol. Recognizing measurement studies with different purposes is an important aspect of these recommendations. The guidelines presented here intend to produce comparable data across studies while remaining flexible. The recommendations for designing and implementing an EMF PEM program describe a three-stage process. The first step is to clearly state the purpose of the PEM program. The next stage addresses the fundamental elements of an EMF PEM study, including an assessment of the scientific and organizational resources that will be required. This process is codified in a written study plan. These stages are described in 1 Section 5 of this report. The third stage of a PEM study involves the design, implementation and documentation of specific procedures and protocols fo~ sampling strategies, selection of measurement parameters; instrumentation, measurement and data collection, data management, data analysis, quality assurance, uncertainty evaluation, and archiving the study methods and results. The methods for designing these elements of an EMF PEM study are described in Section 6: Specific Guidelines for EMF I?EM Study Design.

  11. Study on the angular dependence of personal exposure dosimeter - Focus on thermoluminescent dosimeter and photoluminescent dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Kyung-Rae [Department of Radiological Technology, Gwangju Health College University (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nuclear Engineering, Chosun University (Korea, Republic of); Kweon, Dae Cheol [Department of Radiologic Science, Shin Heung College University (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Woon-Kwan, E-mail: wkchung@chosun.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Chosun University (Korea, Republic of); Goo, Eun-Hoe [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, Soonchunhyang University (Korea, Republic of); Dieter, Kevin [Department of Physical Therapy, Gwangju Health College University (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Chong-Hwan [Department of White Memorial Medical Center (United States)

    2011-02-15

    Radiation management departments place more emphasis on the accuracy of measurements than on the increase in the average dose and personal exposure dose from the use of radiation equipment and radioactive isotopes. Although current measurements are taken using devices, such as film badge dosimeters, pocket dosimeters and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), this study compared the angular dependence between the widely used TLDs and photoluminescent dosimeter (PLDs) in order to present primary data and evaluate the utility of PLD as a new dosimeter device. For X-ray fluoroscopy, a whole body phantom was placed on a table with a setting for the G-I technical factors fixed at a range of approximately 40 cm with a range of {+-}90{sup o} at an interval scale of 15{sup o} from the center location of an average radiological worker for PLDs (GD-450) and TLDs (Carot). This process was repeated 10 times, and at each time, the cumulative dosage was interpreted from 130 dosimeters using TLDs (UD-710R, Panasonic) and PLDs (FGD-650). The TLD and PLD showed a 52% and 23% decrease in the depth dosage from 0{sup o} to -90{sup o}, respectively. Therefore, PLDs have a lower angular dependence than TLDs.

  12. Simulated consumer exposure to propellant HCFC 22 (chlorodifluoromethane) in aerosol personal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartop, P J; Adams, M G

    1989-02-01

    Summary The potential human exposure to the aerosol propellant HCFC 22 (chlorodifluoromethane) arising from its use in personal products has been assessed. HCFC 22 concentrations were measured in the 'breathing zone' of an experimental manikin and an 'accompanying child' designed to simulate human use of hairsprays, body sprays and antiperspirants in a closed room. Results were expressed as the 10-min time-weighted average concentration in the air (TWA 10) and as the peak concentration in the 'breathing zone' of the 'user'. Following a 10-s use of hairspray containing approximately 20-40% HCFC 22, TWA10 values for an adult user and child were 64-116 ppm and 44-100 ppm, respectively. Use of an aerosol body spray containing 20-65% HCFC 22 for 5-20 s gave rise to TWA10 values of 32-411 ppm for an adult user and 20-395 ppm for a child. A 4-s use of an antiperspirant containing approximately 20-40% HCFC 22 sprayed at a distance of 10-30 cm from the breathing zone of the adult user generated TWA 10 values in the range of 14-34 ppm for both the adult user and child. Opening the door of the room prior to hairspray and antiperspirant spraying slightly reduced these TWA 10 values. The peak values recorded in these studies for the adult user were 208 ppm for hairspray, 1415 ppm for body sprays and 82 ppm for antiperspirants.

  13. Assessment of two portable real-time particle monitors used in nanomaterial workplace exposure evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuewei; Beaucham, Catherine C; Pearce, Terri A; Zhuang, Ziqing

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticle emission assessment technique was developed to semi-quantitatively evaluate nanomaterial exposures and employs a combination of filter based samples and portable real-time particle monitors, including a condensation particle counter (CPC) and an optical particle counter (OPC), to detect nanomaterial releases. This laboratory study evaluated the results from CPC and OPC simultaneously measuring a polydisperse aerosol to assess their variability and accuracy. Two CPCs and two OPCs were used to evaluate a polydisperse sodium chloride aerosol within an enclosed chamber. The measurement results for number concentration versus time were compared between paired particle monitors of the same type, and to results from the Scanning Mobility Particle Spectrometer (SMPS) which was widely used to measure concentration of size-specific particles. According to analyses by using the Bland-Altman method, the CPCs displayed a constant mean percent difference of -3.8% (95% agreement limits: -9.1 to 1.6%; range of 95% agreement limit: 10.7%) with the chamber particle concentration below its dynamic upper limit (100,000 particles per cubic centimeter). The mean percent difference increased from -3.4% to -12.0% (range of 95% agreement limits: 7.1%) with increasing particle concentrations that were above the dynamic upper limit. The OPC results showed the percent difference within 15% for measurements in particles with size ranges of 300 to 500 and 500 to 1000 regardless of the particle concentration. Compared with SMPS measurements, the CPC gave a mean percent difference of 22.9% (95% agreement limits: 10.5% to 35.2%); whereas the measurements from OPC were not comparable. This study demonstrated that CPC and OPC are useful for measuring nanoparticle exposures but the results from an individual monitor should be interpreted based upon the instrument's technical parameters. Future research should challenge these monitors with particles of different sizes, shapes, or

  14. Assessment of two portable real-time particle monitors used in nanomaterial workplace exposure evaluations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuewei Liu

    Full Text Available Nanoparticle emission assessment technique was developed to semi-quantitatively evaluate nanomaterial exposures and employs a combination of filter based samples and portable real-time particle monitors, including a condensation particle counter (CPC and an optical particle counter (OPC, to detect nanomaterial releases. This laboratory study evaluated the results from CPC and OPC simultaneously measuring a polydisperse aerosol to assess their variability and accuracy.Two CPCs and two OPCs were used to evaluate a polydisperse sodium chloride aerosol within an enclosed chamber. The measurement results for number concentration versus time were compared between paired particle monitors of the same type, and to results from the Scanning Mobility Particle Spectrometer (SMPS which was widely used to measure concentration of size-specific particles. According to analyses by using the Bland-Altman method, the CPCs displayed a constant mean percent difference of -3.8% (95% agreement limits: -9.1 to 1.6%; range of 95% agreement limit: 10.7% with the chamber particle concentration below its dynamic upper limit (100,000 particles per cubic centimeter. The mean percent difference increased from -3.4% to -12.0% (range of 95% agreement limits: 7.1% with increasing particle concentrations that were above the dynamic upper limit. The OPC results showed the percent difference within 15% for measurements in particles with size ranges of 300 to 500 and 500 to 1000 regardless of the particle concentration. Compared with SMPS measurements, the CPC gave a mean percent difference of 22.9% (95% agreement limits: 10.5% to 35.2%; whereas the measurements from OPC were not comparable.This study demonstrated that CPC and OPC are useful for measuring nanoparticle exposures but the results from an individual monitor should be interpreted based upon the instrument's technical parameters. Future research should challenge these monitors with particles of different sizes, shapes

  15. Application of the expanded Creme RIFM consumer exposure model to fragrance ingredients in cosmetic, personal care and air care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safford, B; Api, A M; Barratt, C; Comiskey, D; Ellis, G; McNamara, C; O'Mahony, C; Robison, S; Rose, J; Smith, B; Tozer, S

    2017-06-01

    As part of a joint project between the Research Institute for Fragrance Materials (RIFM) and Creme Global, a Monte Carlo model (here named the Creme RIFM model) has been developed to estimate consumer exposure to ingredients in personal care products. Details of the model produced in Phase 1 of the project have already been published. Further data on habits and practises have been collected which enable the model to estimate consumer exposure from dermal, oral and inhalation routes for 25 product types. . In addition, more accurate concentration data have been obtained which allow levels of fragrance ingredients in these product types to be modelled. Described is the use of this expanded model to estimate aggregate systemic exposure for eight fragrance ingredients. Results are shown for simulated systemic exposure (expressed as μg/kg bw/day) for each fragrance ingredient in each product type, along with simulated aggregate exposure. Highest fragrance exposure generally occurred from use of body lotions, body sprays and hydroalcoholic products. For the fragrances investigated, aggregate exposure calculated using this model was 11.5-25 fold lower than that calculated using deterministic methodology. The Creme RIFM model offers a very comprehensive and powerful tool for estimating aggregate exposure to fragrance ingredients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Design of a small personal air monitor and its application in aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Netten, Chris

    2009-01-15

    A small air sampling system using standard air filter sampling technology has been used to monitor the air in aircraft. The device is a small ABS constructed cylinder 5 cm in diameter and 9 cm tall and can be operated by non technical individuals at an instant notice. It is completely self contained with a 4 AAA cell power supply, DC motor, a centrifugal fan, and accommodates standard 37 mm filters and backup pads. The monitor is totally enclosed and pre assembled in the laboratory. A 45 degrees twist of the cap switches on the motor and simultaneously opens up the intake ports and exhaust ports allowing air to pass through the filter. A reverse 45 degrees twist of the cap switches off the motor and closes all intake and exhaust ports, completely enclosing the filter. The whole monitor is returned to the laboratory by standard mail for analysis and reassembly for future use. The sampler has been tested for electromagnetic interference and has been approved for use in aircraft during all phases of flight. A set of samples taken by a BAe-146-300 crew member during two flights in the same aircraft and analyzed by GC-MS, indicated exposure to tricresyl phosphate (TCP) levels ranging from 31 to 83 nanograms/m(3) (detection limit <4.5 nanograms/m(3)). The latter elevated level was associated with the use of the auxiliary power unit (APU) in the aircraft. It was concluded that the air sampler was capable of monitoring air concentrations of TCP isomers in aircraft above 4.5 nanogram/m(3).

  17. Personal-UV-monitoring in outdoor workplaces - a base for well-balanced regulations in heath prevention and care; UV-Monitoring an Arbeitsplaetzen im Freien - eine Basis fuer ausgewogene Richtlinien zum Gesundheitsschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unverricht, I.; Knuschke, P. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Dermatologie, Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany); Janssen, M.; Ott, G. [Bundesanstalt fuer Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin Dortmund (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The effects of UV-radiation on the skin and the eyes are the same - independent if the UV-exposure was during work time or during spare time. The actual individual UVexposure depends on one hand on the special profession activities on the other hand on the spare time and holiday behaviour. Therefore, the relations between the different outdoor professions in times being outside and further objective and subjective influences on the individual UV-exposure should be investigated by personal-UV-monitoring in the course of the year (BAuA(Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) research project F1777). The investigation should be compared with former results of an analogous personal-UVmonitoring in indoor workers. Guidelines on occupational safety and health for outdoor workplaces cannot be based on the ICNIRP-Guidelines for UV-exposed indoor workplaces. These guidelines refer to unexposed skin e.g. in Wintertime. The skin of outdoor workers builts up an internal self-protection (increased cornea thickness; pigmentation). Therefore, well-balanced regulations for outdoor workplaces should be based on an acceptable UV-exposure level above that of indoor workers. (orig.)

  18. Integrating local urban climate modelling and mobile sensor data for personal exposure assessments in the context of urban heat island effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueberham, Maximilian; Hertel, Daniel; Schlink, Uwe

    2017-04-01

    Deeper knowledge about urban climate conditions is getting more important in the context of climate change, urban population growth, urban compaction and continued surface sealing. Especially the urban heat island effect (UHI) is one of the most significant human induced alterations of Earth's surface climate. According to this the appearance frequency of heat waves in cities will increase with deep impacts on personal thermal comfort, human health and local residential quality of citizens. UHI can be very heterogenic within a city and research needs to focus more on the neighborhood scale perspective to get further insights about the heat burden of individuals. However, up to now, few is known about local thermal environmental variances and personal exposure loads. To monitor these processes and the impact on individuals, improved monitoring approaches are crucial, complementing data recorded at conventional fixed stations. Therefore we emphasize the importance of micro-meteorological modelling and mobile measurements to shed new light on the nexus of urban human-climate interactions. Contributing to this research we jointly present the approaches of our two PhD-projects. Firstly we illustrate on the basis of an example site, how local thermal conditions in an urban district can be simulated and predicted by a micro-meteorological model. Secondly we highlight the potentials of personal exposure measurements based on an evaluation of mobile micro-sensing devices (MSDs) and analyze and explain differences between model predictions and mobile records. For the examination of local thermal conditions we calculated ENVI-met simulations within the "Bayerischer Bahnhof" quarter in Leipzig (Saxony, Germany; 51°20', 12°22'). To accomplish the maximum temperature contrasts within the diverse built-up structures we chose a hot summer day (25 Aug 2016) under autochthonous weather conditions. From these simulations we analyzed a UHI effect between the model core (urban area

  19. In-home monitoring of persons with dementia: ethical guidelines for technology research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Diane F; Purtilo, Ruth B; Webbe, Frank M; Alwan, Majd; Bharucha, Ashok J; Adlam, Tim D; Jimison, Holly B; Turner, Beverly; Becker, S Ann

    2007-07-01

    Innovative technologies are rapidly emerging that offer caregivers the support and means to assist older adults with cognitive impairment to continue living "at home." Technology research and development efforts applied to older adults with dementia invoke special grant review and institutional review board concerns, to ensure not only safe but also ethically appropriate interventions. Evidence is emerging, however, that tensions are growing between innovators and reviewers. Reviewers with antitechnology biases are in a position to stifle needed innovation. Technology developers who fail to understand the clinical and caregiving aspects of dementia may design applications that are not in alignment with users' capabilities. To bridge this divide, we offer an analysis of the ethical issues surrounding home monitoring, a model framework, and ethical guidelines for technology research and development for persons with Alzheimer's disease and their caregivers.

  20. Use of cholinesterase activity in monitoring organophosphate pesticide exposure of cattle produced in tropical areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardío, V T; Ibarra, N; Rodríguez, M A; Waliszewski, K N

    2001-12-01

    The use of cholinesterase activity as a biochemical method for monitoring organophosphate pesticide exposure in cattle is described herein. Determination of cholinesterase activity of whole blood, erythrocyte, and plasma was carried out according to the Ellman modified kinetic method. The mean baseline acetylcholinesterase activities of 9.549 +/- 3.619 IU/mL in whole blood, 9.444 +/- 3.006 IU/mL in erythrocytes, and 0.149 +/- 0.063 IU/mL in plasma were estimated for steers from the control group. Results of multivariate analysis showed that the general responses between the control and experimental groups (in vivo, monitoring and case studies) treated with Coumaphos and Fenthion were statistically different, and the general responses of these experimental groups were statistically different over time as well. Among the fractions that were analyzed, the erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase activity could be adequate for the diagnosis of exposure or acute poisoning in cattle as it showed a good within-run and between-run precision with CVs <10% better than those in plasma.

  1. Secondary growth among former prisoners of war's adult children: The result of exposure to stress, secondary traumatization, or personality traits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerach, Gadi

    2015-07-01

    The long-term toll of war captivity on secondary traumatization (ST) on adult children has recently been exemplified. Several studies have also revealed that indirect exposure to trauma might be accompanied by positive psychological changes. This study examined secondary posttraumatic growth (SG) among adult children of former prisoners of war (ex-POWs' children) who were compared with adult children of comparable veterans (controls' children). Furthermore, we examined the role of five-factor personality traits in the associations between exposure to stress stemming from fathers' behaviors, ST symptoms, and SG. Participants were Israeli ex-POWs' children (N = 98) and controls' children (N = 90), whose fathers fought in the 1973 Yom Kippur War. Results show that ex-POWs' children reported higher levels of SG compared with controls' children. ST symptoms were found to mediate the association between research group and SG, and the direct effect was found to be conditioned at the levels of participants' extroversion. Furthermore, among ex-POWs' children, extroversion and openness to the experience personality traits, as well as exposure to stress, were found to predict SG. Forty years after the war ended, the experience of living with ex-POWs is associated with ex-POWs' children SG that might be more related to their exposure to stress and personality traits than their ST symptoms. Clinical interventions aiming to increase the levels of SG among indirect victims of captivity should consider the influence of pretrauma resources, trauma characteristics, and posttrauma factors. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. Personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funder, D C

    2001-01-01

    Personality psychology is as active today as at any point in its history. The classic psychoanalytic and trait paradigms are active areas of research, the behaviorist paradigm has evolved into a new social-cognitive paradigm, and the humanistic paradigm is a basis of current work on cross-cultural psychology. Biology and evolutionary theory have also attained the status of new paradigms for personality. Three challenges for the next generation of research are to integrate these disparate approaches to personality (particularly the trait and social-cognitive paradigms), to remedy the imbalance in the person-situation-behavior triad by conceptualizing the basic properties of situations and behaviors, and to add to personality psychology's thin inventory of basic facts concerning the relations between personality and behavior.

  3. Conduits from community violence exposure to peer aggression and victimization: contributions of parental monitoring, impulsivity, and deviancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Sabina; Espelage, Dorothy

    2014-04-01

    Community violence exposure results in heightened risk for engaging in and being a victim of interpersonal violence. Despite this robust literature, few studies have specifically examined how the relation between community violence exposure, peer aggression, and victimization is modified by individual, peer, and familial influences (considered jointly). In the current study, we used risk and resiliency theory to examine links between community violence exposure and peer aggression and victimization. Impulsivity and parental monitoring were examined as potential moderators of the link between community violence exposure and outcomes, both directly and indirectly via deviant behavior. Survey data on bullying involvement, fighting, deviancy, parental monitoring, and impulsivity were collected on 3 occasions over an 18-month period among a large cohort of adolescents (N = 1,232) in 5th-7th grades. Structural equation modeling suggests that for both male and female adolescents, impulsivity exacerbates the effects of community violence exposure by increasing involvement in deviant behavior. Parental monitoring buffered the effects of community violence exposure on perpetration and victimization (for males and female adolescents) via reduced involvement in deviant behavior. Findings suggest that impulsivity and parental monitoring are implicated in modifying the effects of community violence exposure on both victimization and perpetration through deviancy, although deviancy is not as potent of a predictor for victimization. Thus, prevention efforts would seem to be optimally targeted at multiple ecological levels, including parental involvement and peer networks.

  4. [The assessment of risk for xylene exposure in a laboratory of anatomy: comparison between computational models and environmental and biological monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fustinoni, S; Campo, L; Pasini, R; De Comite, A; Missineo, P; Riboldi, L; Bertazzi, P A

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to xylene in a pathology laboratory was evaluated using two algorithms: Stoffenmanager and Archi.me.de. The results were compared with those obtained by applying the environmental and biological monitoring of the exposure. The use of models required a period of self-learning and, for Stoffenmanager, knowledge of the English language. Information on the toxicity and safety of xylene, available from the medial and safety data sheets, and the conditions and amount of use, obtained through a survey and interviews with operators, have been imputed. Stoffenmanager estimated low the inhalation exposure and medium the dermal exposure, with a value of personal exposure during the work shift of 1.4 mg/m3. A.r.chi.me.d.e. estimated negligible the risk to health. These ratings are consistent with those obtained using the experimental approach. This result, combined with the simplicity and low cost, makes the algorithms very interesting tools for the assessment of chemical risk in the workplace.

  5. Influence of internet exposure on sexual behaviour of young persons in an urban district of Southwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulogun, Oyedunni Sola; Ogbu, Ifeyinwa Arinze; Dipeolu, Isaac Oluwafemi

    2016-01-01

    The proportion of young people exposed to pornographic materials through the internet in Nigeria is increasing. However, the influence of the exposure on their sexual behaviour has not been fully explored. This study therefore explored the effects of internet exposure on the sexual behaviour of young persons in Ibadan North Local Government Area of southwest Nigeria. A survey of 413 young persons was done using a pretested self-administered questionnaire which included questions on internet exposure and its influence on behaviour. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square test and logistic regression. Mean age of males was 21.7 ± 3.4 years while that of females was 20.9 ± 3.2 years. Forty-nine percent of the respondents used the internet for the first time between the ages of 15-19 years. Main source of information about the internet was friends (63.3%) and 99.3% accessed the internet from cybercafé. Seventy-two percent had ever stumbled on pornographic sites. Reactions included glancing through before closing (45.2%), closure of the sites (38.5%), and minimizing page to view later (12.5%). Post-exposure influence on behaviour included engagement in oral sex (48.3%), body tattoo (18.3%), having multiple sexual partners (11.6%) and homosexuality (5.0%). More males (95% CI OR =1.245-6.465) and frequent users (95% CI OR =1.168-3.497) were likely to report a change in sexual behaviour. Internet use was common among the young persons. Interventions aimed at reducing exposure to sexual content on internet targeting young persons especially the males and cybercafé operators are advocated.

  6. [The relationship between narcissistic personality traits and risk-taking behavior is mediated by self-monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Itsuko; Yazawa, Hisashi

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the hypothesis that narcissistic personality traits would affect risk-taking behaviors through self-monitoring. The Narcissistic Personality Inventory Short Version (NPI-S), the Self-monitoring Scale (SM), and the Risk-taking Behavior Scale for Undergraduates (RIBS-U) were administered to 192 university and graduate students. There were three NPI-S factors ("sense of superiority and competence", "need for attention and praise", and "self-assertion"), two SM factors ("extraversion" and "other-directedness"), and the single risk-taking factor of the RIBS-U. Covariance structure analysis was then conducted to test whether narcissistic personality traits would affect risk-taking behaviors through self-monitoring. Analysis showed that the factors of "sense of superiority and competence" and "need for attention and praise" affected risk-taking behavior through the "other-directedness" factor. However, the "self-assertion" factor was found to have a direct effect on risk-taking behavior.

  7. Women's personal and indoor exposures to PM 2.5 in Mysore, India: Impact of domestic fuel usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Penny Rechkemmer; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Pai, Pramod; Maynard, Andrew

    In traditional societies, women are more likely to be adversely affected by exposures to fine particulates from domestic fuel combustion due to their role in the family as the primary cooks. In this study, 24-h gravimetric personal and indoor PM 2.5 exposures were measured for 15 women using kerosene and another 15 women using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as their main cooking fuel in Mysore, India. The women also answered a detailed questionnaire regarding their residential housing characteristics, health status, cooking practices and socioeconomic status. Repeated measurements were obtained during two seasons. The main objective of this study was to determine whether exposures to PM 2.5 differed according to fuel usage patterns. A repeated-measures general linear model (GLM) was used to analyze the data. Women using kerosene as their primary cooking fuel had significantly higher exposures. During summer, the arithmetic mean (± standard error) for kerosene users personal exposure was 111±13 and 71±15 μg m -3 for LPG users. Kerosene users had higher exposures in winter (177±21 μg m -3) compared to summer exposures. However, for LPG users there was no difference in their seasonal geometric mean exposures at 71±13 μg m -3. Indoor concentrations followed similar patterns. In summer, kerosene-using households had an arithmetic mean concentration of 98±9 μg m -3 and LPG-using households had an arithmetic mean concentration of 71±9 μg m -3. Winter concentrations were significantly higher than summer concentrations for kerosene users (155±13 μg m -3). Again, LPG users showed only slightly higher indoor concentrations (73±6 μg m -3) than kerosene users. Socioeconomic status, age, season and income were significant predictors of cooking fuel choice.

  8. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF A PERSONAL HEALTH MONITORING SYSTEM ON ANDROID MOBILE PLATFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBERT SOWAH

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The ignorance and lack of easy access to basic health information such as Body Mass Index (BMI, standard amounts of food calorie intake and nutritional semantics on a daily basis is a problem that has been prevalent in developing countries such as Ghana for the past decade. Adverse detrimental health conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, stroke, etc. have been statistically recorded and it has been proven that these result out of poor diet and sedentariness.A solution to this problem can be attained with the application of the principles of mobile web application development, coupled with an adequate comprehension of human biology, physiology and dietetics. Individuals are privileged to have a personal way of addressing health issues and habits, based on daily interactivity with thesystem. Currently, mobile phones equipped with Android Operating System (OS and Java are widespread thus utilising existing infrastructure and resources to meet health needs. This paper implements strategic algorithms that enable mobile devices, running on the Android (OS to be utilized maximally for data collection and analysis via user-system interactivity. Positive results were obtainedafter system tests were carried out. Its impact on the healthy development of society and individuals was coherently established, buttressing how indisputable its relevance is to personal health monitoring.

  9. Real-Time Personalized Monitoring to Estimate Occupational Heat Stress in Ambient Assisted Working

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Pancardo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ambient Assisted Working (AAW is a discipline aiming to provide comfort and safety in the workplace through customization and technology. Workers’ comfort may be compromised in many labor situations, including those depending on environmental conditions, like extremely hot weather conduces to heat stress. Occupational heat stress (OHS happens when a worker is in an uninterrupted physical activity and in a hot environment. OHS can produce strain on the body, which leads to discomfort and eventually to heat illness and even death. Related ISO standards contain methods to estimate OHS and to ensure the safety and health of workers, but they are subjective, impersonal, performed a posteriori and even invasive. This paper focuses on the design and development of real-time personalized monitoring for a more effective and objective estimation of OHS, taking into account the individual user profile, fusing data from environmental and unobtrusive body sensors. Formulas employed in this work were taken from different domains and joined in the method that we propose. It is based on calculations that enable continuous surveillance of physical activity performance in a comfortable and healthy manner. In this proposal, we found that OHS can be estimated by satisfying the following criteria: objective, personalized, in situ, in real time, just in time and in an unobtrusive way. This enables timely notice for workers to make decisions based on objective information to control OHS.

  10. Real-Time Personalized Monitoring to Estimate Occupational Heat Stress in Ambient Assisted Working.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancardo, Pablo; Acosta, Francisco D; Hernández-Nolasco, José Adán; Wister, Miguel A; López-de-Ipiña, Diego

    2015-07-13

    Ambient Assisted Working (AAW) is a discipline aiming to provide comfort and safety in the workplace through customization and technology. Workers' comfort may be compromised in many labor situations, including those depending on environmental conditions, like extremely hot weather conduces to heat stress. Occupational heat stress (OHS) happens when a worker is in an uninterrupted physical activity and in a hot environment. OHS can produce strain on the body, which leads to discomfort and eventually to heat illness and even death. Related ISO standards contain methods to estimate OHS and to ensure the safety and health of workers, but they are subjective, impersonal, performed a posteriori and even invasive. This paper focuses on the design and development of real-time personalized monitoring for a more effective and objective estimation of OHS, taking into account the individual user profile, fusing data from environmental and unobtrusive body sensors. Formulas employed in this work were taken from different domains and joined in the method that we propose. It is based on calculations that enable continuous surveillance of physical activity performance in a comfortable and healthy manner. In this proposal, we found that OHS can be estimated by satisfying the following criteria: objective, personalized, in situ, in real time, just in time and in an unobtrusive way. This enables timely notice for workers to make decisions based on objective information to control OHS.

  11. Integration of biological monitoring, environmental monitoring and computational modelling into the interpretation of pesticide exposure data: introduction to a proposed approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colosio, Claudio; Rubino, Federico M; Alegakis, Athanasios; Ariano, Eugenio; Brambilla, Gabri; Mandic-Rajcevic, Stefan; Metruccio, Francesca; Minoia, Claudio; Moretto, Angelo; Somaruga, Chiara; Tsatsakis, Aristidis; Turci, Roberta; Vellere, Francesca

    2012-08-13

    Open field, variability of climatic and working conditions, and the use of complex mixtures of pesticides makes biological and environmental monitoring in agriculture, and therefore risk assessment and management, very complicated. A need of pointing out alternative risk assessment approaches, not necessarily based on measures, but simple, user-friendly and reliable, feasible also in the less advanced situations and in particular in small size enterprises, arises. This aim can be reached through a combination of environmental monitoring, biological monitoring and computational modelling. We have used this combination of methods for the creation of "exposure and risk profiles" to be applied in specific exposure scenarios, and we have tested this approach on a sample of Italian rice and maize herbicide applicators. We have given specific "toxicity scores" to the different products used and we have identified, for each of the major working phases, that is mixing and loading, spraying, maintenance and cleaning of equipment, the main variables affecting exposure and inserted them into a simple algorithm, able to produce "exposure indices". Based on the combination of toxicity indices and exposure indices it is possible to obtain semiquantitative estimates of the risk levels experienced by the workers in the exposure scenarios considered. Results of operator exposure data collected under real-life conditions can be used to validate and refine the algorithms; moreover, the AOEL derived from pre-marketing studies can be combined to estimate tentative biological exposure limits for pesticides, useful to perform individual risk assessment based on technical surveys and on simple biological monitoring. A proof of principle example of this approach is the subject of this article.

  12. Assessment of two nonnative poeciliid fishes for monitoring selenium exposure in the endangered desert pupfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, Michael K.; Martin, Barbara A.; May, Thomas W.; Brumbaugh, William G.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the suitability of two nonnative poeciliid fishes—western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) and sailfin mollies (Poecilia latipinna)—for monitoring selenium exposure in desert pupfish (Cyprinodon macularius). Our investigation was prompted by a need to avoid lethal take of an endangered species (pupfish) when sampling fish for chemical analysis. Total selenium (SeTot) concentrations in both poeciliids were highly correlated with SeTot concentrations in pupfish. However, mean SeTot concentrations varied among fish species, with higher concentrations measured in mosquitofish than in mollies and pupfish from one of three sampled agricultural drains. Moreover, regression equations describing the relationship of selenomethionine to SeTot differed between mosquitofish and pupfish, but not between mollies and pupfish. Because selenium accumulates in animals primarily through dietary exposure, we examined fish trophic relationships by measuring stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) and gut contents. According to δ13C measurements, the trophic pathway leading to mosquitofish was more carbon-depleted than trophic pathways leading to mollies and pupfish, suggesting that energy flow to mosquitofish originated from allochthonous sources (terrestrial vegetation, emergent macrophytes, or both), whereas energy flow to mollies and pupfish originated from autochthonous sources (filamentous algae, submerged macrophytes, or both). The δ15N measurements indicated that mosquitofish and mollies occupied similar trophic levels, whereas pupfish occupied a slightly higher trophic level. Analysis of gut contents showed that mosquitofish consumed mostly winged insects (an indication of terrestrial taxa), whereas mollies and pupfish consumed mostly organic detritus. Judging from our results, only mollies (not mosquitofish) are suitable for monitoring selenium exposure in pupfish.

  13. Targeting aquatic micropollutants for monitoring: Exposure categorization and application to the Swiss situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götz, C. W.; Stamm, C.; Fenner, K.; Singer, H. P.; Schärer, M.; Hollender, J.

    2009-04-01

    For water pollution control and the evaluation of water protection measures it is crucial to screen for micropollutants (MPs). However, the selection of which MPs to screen for from several hundreds to thousands of potentially important MPs is complex. Existing methods usually are limited because of a lack of requested data. We propose a simple methodology that provides a systematic overview of a broad range of MPs according to their potential to occur in the water-phase of surface waters. The method requires only input of publically available data and missing data are estimated with quantitative structure-property-relationships (QSPRs). We distinguish seven different exposure categories based on different compound properties and input dynamics. Ranking the defined exposure categories based on a chemical's potential to occur in the water-phase of surface waters, exposure categories I and II contain chemicals with a very high potential, categories III and IV contain chemicals with a high potential, and categories V and VI contain chemicals with a low potential. The presented methodology supports compound selection for (i) water quality guidance, (ii) monitoring programs, and (iii) further research on the chemical's ecotoxicology.

  14. Bioindicators of contaminant exposure and effect in aquatic and terrestrial monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melancon, Mark J.; Hoffman, David J.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Burton, G. Allen; Cairns, John

    2003-01-01

    Bioindicators of contaminant exposure presently used in environmental monitoring arc discussed. Some have been extensively field-validated and arc already in routine application. Included are (1) inhibition of brain or blood cholinesterase by anticholinesterase pesticides, (2) induction of hepatic microsomal cytochromes P450 by chemicals such as PAHs and PCBs, (3) reproductive problems such as terata and eggshell thinning, and (4) aberrations of hemoglobin synthesis, including the effects of lead and of certain chlorinated hydrocarbons. Many studies on DNA damage and of histopathological effects, particularly in the form of tumors, have already been completed. There are presently numerous other opportunities for field validation. Bile metabolites of contaminants in fish reveal exposure to contaminants that might otherwise be difficult to detect or quantify. Bile analysis is beginning to be extended to species other than fishes. Assessment of oxidative damage and immune competence appear to be valuable biomarkers. needing only additional field validation for wider use. The use of metallothioneins as biomarkers depends on the development of convenient, inexpensive methodology that provides information not available from measurements of metal ions. The use of stress proteins as biomarkers depends on development of convenient, inexpensive methodology and field validation. Gene arrays and proteomics hold promise as bioindicators for contaminant exposure or effect, particularly because of the large amount of data that could be generated, but they still need extensive development and testing.

  15. Biological monitoring of pyrethroid exposure of pest control workers in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Kamijima, Michihiro; Imai, Ryota; Suzuki, Takayoshi; Kameda, Yohei; Asai, Kazumi; Okamura, Ai; Naito, Hisao; Ueyama, Jun; Saito, Isao; Nakajima, Tamie; Goto, Masahiro; Shibata, Eiji; Kondo, Takaaki; Takagi, Kenji; Takagi, Kenzo; Wakusawa, Shinya

    2007-11-01

    Synthetic pyrethroids such as cypermethrin, deltamethrin and permethrin, which are usually used in pest control operations, are metabolized to 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) and excreted in urine. Though 3-PBA can be used to assess exposure to pyrethroids, there are few reports describing urinary 3-PBA levels in Japan. This study aimed to investigate the seasonal variation of the exposure levels of pyrethroids and the concentration of urinary 3-PBA among pest control operators (PCOs) in Japan. The study subjects were 78 and 66 PCOs who underwent a health examination in December 2004 and in August 2005, respectively. 3-PBA was determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The geometric mean concentration of urinary 3-PBA in winter (3.9 microg/g creatinine) was significantly lower than in summer (12.2 microg/g creatinine) (p0.05), respectively. A significant association of 3-PBA levels and pyrethroid spraying was thus observed only in winter. In conclusion, the results of the present study show that the exposure level of pyrethroids among PCOs in Japan assessed by monitoring urinary 3-PBA was higher than that reported in the UK but comparable to that in Germany. Further research should be accumulated to establish an occupational reference value in Japan.

  16. Solid Phase Extraction for Monitoring of Occupational Exposure to Cr (III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.J. Shahtaheri

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromium is an important constituent widely used in different industrial processes for production of various synthetic materials. For evaluation of workers’ exposure to trace toxic metal of Cr (III, environmental and biological monitoring are essential processes, in which, preparation of samples is one of the most time-consuming and error-prone aspects prior to analysis. The use of solid-phase extraction (SPE has grown and is a fertile technique of sample preparation as it provides better results than those produced by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE. SPE using mini columns filled with XAD-4 resin was optimized regarding to sample pH, ligand concentration, loading flow rate, elution solvent, sample volume, elution volume, amount of resins, and sample matrix interferences. Chromium was retained on solid sorbent and was eluted with 2 M HNO3 followed by simple determination of analytes by using flame atomic absorption spectrometery. Obtained recoveries of metal ion were more than 92%. The optimized procedure was also validated with three different pools of spiked urine samples and showed a good reproducibility over six consecutive days as well as six within-day experiments. Through this study, suitable results were obtained for relative standard deviation, therefore, it is concluded that, this optimized method can be considered to be successful in simplifying sample preparation for trace residue analysis of Cr in different matrices for evaluation of occupational and environmental exposures. To evaluate occupational exposure to chromium, 16 urine samples were taken, prepared, and analyzed based on optimized procedure.

  17. Materiomics for Oral Disease Diagnostics and Personal Health Monitoring: Designer Biomaterials for the Next Generation Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjun; Wang, Ming L; Khalili, Sammy; Cranford, Steven W

    2016-01-01

    We live in exciting times for a new generation of biomarkers being enabled by advances in the design and use of biomaterials for medical and clinical applications, from nano- to macro-materials, and protein to tissue. Key challenges arise, however, due to both scientific complexity and compatibility of the interface of biology and engineered materials. The linking of mechanisms across scales by using a materials science approach to provide structure-process-property relations characterizes the emerging field of 'materiomics,' which offers enormous promise to provide the hitherto missing tools for biomaterial development for clinical diagnostics and the next generation biomarker applications towards personal health monitoring. Put in other words, the emerging field of materiomics represents an essentially systematic approach to the investigation of biological material systems, integrating natural functions and processes with traditional materials science perspectives. Here we outline how materiomics provides a game-changing technology platform for disruptive innovation in biomaterial science to enable the design of tailored and functional biomaterials--particularly, the design and screening of DNA aptamers for targeting biomarkers related to oral diseases and oral health monitoring. Rigorous and complementary computational modeling and experimental techniques will provide an efficient means to develop new clinical technologies in silico, greatly accelerating the translation of materiomics-driven oral health diagnostics from concept to practice in the clinic.

  18. Ethically sound technology? Guidelines for interactive ethical assessment of personal health monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Elin; Nordgren, Anders; Verweij, Marcel; Collste, Göran

    2013-01-01

    Novel care-technologies possess a transformational potential. Future care and support may be provided via monitoring technologies such as smart devices, sensors, actors (robots) and Information and Communication Technologies. Such technologies enable care provision outside traditional care institutions, for instance in the homes of patients. Health monitoring may become "personalized" i.e. tailored to the needs of individual care recipients' but may also alter relations between care providers and care recipents, shape and form the care environment and influence values central to health-care. Starting out from a social constructivist theory of technology, an interactive ethical assessment-model is offered. The suggested model supplements a traditional analysis based on normative ethical theory (top-down approach) with interviews including relevant stakeholders (a bottom-up approach). This method has been piloted by small-scale interviews encircling stakeholder perspectives on three emerging technologies: (1) Careousel, a smart medicine-management device, (2) Robot Giraff, an interactive and mobile communication-device and (3) I-Care, a care-software that combines alarm and register system. By incorporating stakeholder perspectives into the analysis, the interactive ethical assessment model provides a richer understanding of the impact of PHM-technologies on ethical values than a traditional top-down model. If the assessment is conducted before the technology has reached the market - preferably in close interaction with developers and users - ethically sound technologies may be obtained.

  19. Indicator ability of biosubstances in monitoring the moderate occupational exposure to toxic metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabeklis, Andrei R; Skalny, Anatoly V; Nechiporenko, Sergei P; Lakarova, Elena V

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve the monitoring system, watching influence of toxic metals on human health in industrial plants, indicator properties of different biosubstances were compared. Four types of samples (whole blood, plasma, urine, and hair) from 263 workers of the "Khimprom" chemical plant (Novocheboksarsk, Russia) were subjected to multielement analysis by ICP-AES/ICP-MS. 19-25 chemical elements, including main toxic metals (Cd, Hg, Pb, etc.) were determined. The results were calculated with regard to workers' individual data on occupational exposure to chemical elements. Hair was found to be the most sensitive to toxic and conditionally toxic trace metals: Pb, Mn, Cr, Be, Ni, while occupational contact with macro elements (Na, P), trace metalloids (Si, B) and some other metals (Zn) was not reflected in hair. Whole blood relatively weakly indicated a moderate occupational level of metals except Pb and Mn, but effectively reflected deficiencies of essential elements: I, Cr, and shifts in K/Na ratio, which are likely to be secondary effects of harmful occupational factors. Blood plasma reflected only contact with Be, P; urine--only with Ni. In both whole blood and plasma the changes for the absolute majority of elements were similar. Thus, hair analysis is useful for monitoring the occupational exposure to toxic and conditionally toxic chemical elements, while a general estimation of occupational harmful influence on mineral metabolism requires simultaneous investigation of two biosubstances: hair and whole blood, or hair and blood plasma, with whole blood being more preferable. Analysis of urine is appropriate for monitoring particular chemical elements, e.g. nickel. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Biological Monitoring of Occupational Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons at an Electric Steel Foundry in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Laura; Hanchi, Mariem; Olgiati, Luca; Polledri, Elisa; Consonni, Dario; Zrafi, Ines; Saidane-Mosbahi, Dalila; Fustinoni, Silvia

    2016-07-01

    Occupational exposures during iron and steel founding have been classified as carcinogenic to humans, and the exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in this industrial setting may contribute to cancer risk. The occupational exposure to PAHs was assessed in 93 male workers at an electric steel foundry in Tunisia by biomonitoring, with the aims of characterizing the excretion profile and investigating the influence of job title and personal characteristics on the biomarkers. Sixteen 2-6 ring unmetabolized PAHs (U-PAHs) and eight hydroxylated PAH metabolites (OHPAHs) were analyzed by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry, respectively. Among U-PAHs, urinary naphthalene (U-NAP) was the most abundant compound (median level: 643ng l(-1)), followed by phenanthrene (U-PHE, 18.5ng l(-1)). Urinary benzo[a]pyrene (U-BaP) level was <0.30ng l(-1) Among OHPAHs, 2-hydroxynaphthalene (2-OHNAP) was the most abundant metabolite (2.27 µg l(-1)). Median 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHPYR) was 0.52 µg l(-1) Significant correlations among urinary biomarkers were observed, with Pearson's r ranging from 0.177 to 0.626. 1-OHPYR was correlated to benzo[a]pyrene, but not to five- and six-rings PAHs. A multiple linear regression model showed that job title was a significant determinant for almost all U-PAHs. In particular, employees in the steel smelter workshop had higher levels of high-boiling U-PAHs and lower levels of low-boiling U-PAHs than those of workers with other job titles. Among OHPAHs, this model was significant only for naphthols and 1-hydroxyphenanthrene (1-OHPHE). Smoking status was a significant predictor for almost all biomarkers. Among all analytes, U-PHE and 1-OHPHE were the less affected by tobacco smoke, and they were significantly correlated with both low- and high-molecular-weight compounds, and their levels were related to job titles, so they could be proposed as suitable

  1. Novel exposure units for at-home personalized testing of electromagnetic sensibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huss, Anke; Murbach, Manuel; van Moorselaar, Imke; Kuster, Niels; van Strien, Rob; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel; Slottje, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    Previous experimental studies on electromagnetic hypersensitivity have been criticized regarding inflexibility of choice of exposure and of study locations. We developed and tested novel portable exposure units that can generate different output levels of various extremely low frequency magnetic fie

  2. Gene expression profiling in persons with multiple chemical sensitivity before and after a controlled n-butanol exposure session

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dantoft, Thomas Meinertz; Skovbjerg, Sine; Andersson, Linus

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the pathophysiological pathways leading to symptoms elicitation in multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) by comparing gene expression in MCS participants and healthy controls before and after a chemical exposure optimised to cause symptoms among MCS participants.The first hypothesis...... min after being exposed to and 4 hours after the exposure. Participants suffering from MCS and healthy controls were recruited through advertisement at public places and in a local newspaper. 36 participants who considered themselves sensitive were prescreened for eligibility. 18 sensitive persons...

  3. Determination of silver in personal care nanoproducts and effects on dermal exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasukan, Nootcharin [National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA), National Nanotechnology Center (Thailand); Srisung, Sujittra, E-mail: sujittras@g.swu.ac.th [Srinakharinwirot University, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science (Thailand); Kulthong, Kornphimol; Boonrungsiman, Suwimon; Maniratanachote, Rawiwan, E-mail: rawiwan@nanotec.or.th [National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA), National Nanotechnology Center (Thailand)

    2015-11-15

    Silver (Ag) is one of the widely used nanomaterials in cosmetics, personal care, and household products. This research aimed to investigate the Ag concentration contained in 20 commercial nanoproducts using a simple and reliable procedure. The exposure and adverse effects of a single topical application of Ag on the skin were also evaluated. Herein, we demonstrated that the technique of wet acid digestion, extraction and detection of Ag with graphite furnace absorption spectrometry were effective for any and all nanoproduct matrices. The Ag morphology was characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Penetration of Ag was evaluated using a polyethersulfone (PES) membrane through a Franz cell and reconstructed human epidermis (RhE) tissue. A skin irritation test was performed on RhE, an acceptable in vitro model which was in compliance with OECD test guideline 439. The results showed that the initial Ag concentration in the tested nanoproducts ranged between 0.0058 and 94 µg/g. However, particulate Ag was only found in two products, both of a liquid formulation. Silver penetration through a PES membrane (0.12–53 % by weight) was weakly correlated with the initial Ag concentration in each sample, but more so to the product formulation. The liquid products demonstrated the highest percent of average Ag penetration, followed by the semi-solid and solid formulations, respectively. In contrast, neither any Ag diffusion from these products into the RhE tissue nor any irritation or toxicity was detected. This study suggests a screening method to evaluate the Ag level in products and their potential adverse effects on the skin that could be incorporated as a part of risk assessment for nanotechnology products.

  4. Experimental investigation on reduced exposure to pollutants indoors by applying wearable personalized ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho; Melikov, Arsen; Spilak, Michal

    2013-01-01

    A wearable personalized ventilation unit able to improve inhaled air quality and reduce risk from airborne disease contamination is reported. The performance of the personalized ventilation device relies on control over the flow interaction near the face of a person by inserting a reduced amount...

  5. Induction of gene expression as a monitor of exposure to ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundson, S A; Bittner, M; Meltzer, P; Trent, J; Fornace, A J

    2001-11-01

    The complex molecular responses to genotoxic stress are mediated by a variety of regulatory pathways. The transcription factor TP53 plays a central role in the cellular response to DNA-damaging agents such as ionizing radiation, but other pathways also play important roles. In addition, differences in radiation quality, such as the exposure to high-LET radiation that occurs during space travel, may influence the pattern of responses. The premise is developed that stress gene responses can be employed as molecular markers for radiation exposure using a combination of informatics and functional genomics approaches. Published studies from our laboratory have already demonstrated such transcriptional responses with doses of gamma rays as low as 2 cGy, and in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) irradiated ex vivo with doses as low as 20 cGy. We have also found several genes elevated in vivo 24 h after whole-body irradiation of mice with 20 cGy. Such studies should provide insight into the molecular responses to physiologically relevant doses, which cannot necessarily be extrapolated from high-dose studies. In addition, ongoing experiments are identifying large numbers of potential biomarkers using microarray hybridization and various irradiation protocols including expression at different times after exposure to low- and high-LET radiation. Computation-intensive informatics analysis methods are also being developed for management of the complex gene expression profiles resulting from these experiments. With further development of these approaches, it may be feasible to monitor changes in gene expression after low-dose radiation exposure and other physiological stresses that may be encountered during manned space flight, such as the planned mission to Mars.

  6. Electronic noses for monitoring benzene occupational exposure in biological samples of Egyptian workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab I. Mohamed

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Benzene is commonly emitted in several industries, leading to widespread environmental and occupational exposure hazards. While less toxic solvents have been substituted for benzene, it is still a component of petroleum products and is a trace impurity in industrial products resulting in continued higher occupational exposures in industrial settings in developing countries. Materials and Methods: We investigated the potential use of an electronic nose (e-nose to monitor the headspace volatiles in biological samples from benzene-exposed Egyptian workers and non-exposed controls. The study population comprised 150 non-smoking male workers exposed to benzene and an equal number of matching non-exposed controls. We determined biomarkers of benzene used to estimate exposure and risk including: benzene in exhaled air and blood; and its urinary metabolites such as phenol and muconic acid using gas chromatography technique and a portable e-nose. Results: The average benzene concentration measured in the ambient air of the workplace of all studied industrial settings in Alexandria, Egypt; was 97.56±88.12 μg/m3 (range: 4.69–260.86 μg/m3. Levels of phenol and muconic acid were signifi cantly (p < 0.001 higher in both blood and urine of benzene-exposed workers as compared to non-exposed controls. Conclusions: The e-nose technology has successfully classifi ed and distinguished benzene-exposed workers from non-exposed controls for all measured samples of blood, urine and the exhaled air with a very high degree of precision. Thus, it will be a very useful tool for the low-cost mass screening and early detection of health hazards associated with the exposure to benzene in the industry.

  7. Neurophysiological evidence of impaired self-monitoring in schizotypal personality disorder and its reversal by dopaminergic antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabella, Mireia; Grasa, Eva; Corripio, Iluminada; Romero, Sergio; Mañanas, Miquel Àngel; Antonijoan, Rosa M; Münte, Thomas F; Pérez, Víctor; Riba, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    •We assessed self-monitoring in schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) using ERPs.•SPD patients showed reduced amplitude of the error-related negativity (ERN).•Dopamine antagonism improved behavior and enhanced the ERN in patients only.•An inhibited ERN is a potential endophenotype of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders.•Results show impaired self-monitoring in SPD associated with dopamine disbalance.

  8. ASSESSING HUMAN EXPOSURE TO GRASS POLLEN IN DENMARK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peel, Robert George; Hertel, Ole; Herbert, Rob

    Objectives: Exposure to pollen is typically assessed using data collected at fixed roof-top monitoring stations, which give a general picture of airborne pollen concentrations over a wide region. Actual exposure levels can be obtained through personal exposure monitoring. This is typically done u...

  9. Specifying the interrelationship between exposure to violence and parental monitoring for younger versus older adolescents: a five year longitudinal test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spano, Richard; Rivera, Craig; Vazsonyi, Alexander T; Bolland, John M

    2012-03-01

    Five waves of longitudinal data collected from 349 African American youth living in extreme poverty were used to examine the interrelationship between exposure to violence and parenting during adolescence. Semi-parametric group based modeling was used to identify trajectories of parental monitoring and exposure to violence from T1 to T5. Results from these analyses revealed: (1) a trajectory of declining parental monitoring for 48% of youth; and (2) four distinct trajectories of exposure to violence. Multivariate findings were largely consistent with the ecological-transactional model of community violence. Youth with stable and/or increasing trajectories of exposure to violence were more likely than youth with stable-low exposure to violence to have declining parental monitoring, but additional analyses revealed a similar pattern of findings for younger adolescents (age 9-11 T1), but no evidence of linkages between trajectories of exposure to violence and parental monitoring for older adolescents (age 12-16 T1). The theoretical and policy implications of these findings as well as areas for future research are also discussed.

  10. Quantification of personal exposure concentrations to gasoline vehicle emissions in high-end exposure microenvironments: effects of fuel and season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinska, B; Fujita, E; Ollison, W; Campbell, D; Sagebiel, J

    2012-11-01

    Mobile-source air toxic (MSAT) levels increase in confining microenvironments (MEs) with numerous emission sources of vehicle exhaust or evaporative emissions or during high-load and cold-start conditions. Reformulated fuels are expected to reduce MSAT and ozone precursor emissions. This study, required under the Clean Air Act Section 211b, evaluated high-end exposures in cities using reformulated (methyl tertiary-butyl ether [MTBE] or ethanol [EtOH]) fuels and conventional gasoline blends. The study investigates 13 high-end MEs, sampling under enhanced exposure conditions expected to result in maximal fuel and exhaust component exposures to carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes), MTBE, 1,3-butadiene (1,3-BD), EtOH,formaldehyde (HCHO), and acetaldehyde (CH3CHO). The authors found that day-to-day ME variations in high-end benzene, 1,3-BD, HCHO, and CO concentrations are substantial, but independent of gasoline composition and season, and related to the activity and emission rates of ME sources, which differ from day to day.

  11. 3D Case Studies of Monitoring Dynamic Structural Tests using Long Exposure Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, D. M. J.; Chandler, J. H.; Palmeri, A.

    2014-06-01

    Structural health monitoring uses non-destructive testing programmes to detect long-term degradation phenomena in civil engineering structures. Structural testing may also be carried out to assess a structure's integrity following a potentially damaging event. Such investigations are increasingly carried out with vibration techniques, in which the structural response to artificial or natural excitations is recorded and analysed from a number of monitoring locations. Photogrammetry is of particular interest here since a very high number of monitoring locations can be measured using just a few images. To achieve the necessary imaging frequency to capture the vibration, it has been necessary to reduce the image resolution at the cost of spatial measurement accuracy. Even specialist sensors are limited by a compromise between sensor resolution and imaging frequency. To alleviate this compromise, a different approach has been developed and is described in this paper. Instead of using high-speed imaging to capture the instantaneous position at each epoch, long-exposure images are instead used, in which the localised image of the object becomes blurred. The approach has been extended to create 3D displacement vectors for each target point via multiple camera locations, which allows the simultaneous detection of transverse and torsional mode shapes. The proposed approach is frequency invariant allowing monitoring of higher modal frequencies irrespective of a sampling frequency. Since there is no requirement for imaging frequency, a higher image resolution is possible for the most accurate spatial measurement. The results of a small scale laboratory test using off-the-shelf consumer cameras are demonstrated. A larger experiment also demonstrates the scalability of the approach.

  12. Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder as a Predictor of Exposure and Ritual Prevention Outcome for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Anthony; Liebowitz, Michael R.; Edna B. Foa; Simpson, H. Blair

    2011-01-01

    Despite elevated rates of obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), no study has specifically examined comorbid OCPD as a predictor of exposure and ritual prevention (EX/RP) outcome. Participants were adult outpatients (n = 49) with primary OCD and a Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) total score ≥ 16 despite a therapeutic serotonin reuptake inhibitor dose for at least 12 weeks prior to entry. Participants received 17 ses...

  13. A Novel Alternative to Environmental Monitoring to Detect Workers at Risk for Beryllium Exposure-Related Health Effects

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe a methodology for surveillance and monitoring of beryllium exposure using biological monitoring to complement environmental monitoring. Eighty-three Israeli dental technicians (mean age 41.6 ± 1.36 years) and 80 American nuclear machining workers (54.9 ± 1.21 years) were enrolled. Biological monitoring was carried out by analyzing particle size (laser technique) and shape (image analysis) in 131/163 (80.3%) induced sputum samples (Dipa Analyser, Donne...

  14. Using smartphones to collect time-activity data for long-term personal-level air pollution exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, Mark L; Rudra, Carole B; Yoo, Eun-Hye; Demirbas, Murat; Merriman, Joel; Nayak, Pramod; Crabtree-Ide, Christina; Szpiro, Adam A; Rudra, Atri; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Mu, Lina

    2016-06-01

    Because of the spatiotemporal variability of people and air pollutants within cities, it is important to account for a person's movements over time when estimating personal air pollution exposure. This study aimed to examine the feasibility of using smartphones to collect personal-level time-activity data. Using Skyhook Wireless's hybrid geolocation module, we developed "Apolux" (Air, Pollution, Exposure), an Android(TM) smartphone application designed to track participants' location in 5-min intervals for 3 months. From 42 participants, we compared Apolux data with contemporaneous data from two self-reported, 24-h time-activity diaries. About three-fourths of measurements were collected within 5 min of each other (mean=74.14%), and 79% of participants reporting constantly powered-on smartphones (n=38) had a daily average data collection frequency of data collection occurred. The discrepancy between diary points and corresponding Apolux data was 342.3 m (Euclidian distance) and varied across mobile networks. This study's high compliance and feasibility for data collection demonstrates the potential for integrating smartphone-based time-activity data into long-term and large-scale air pollution exposure studies.

  15. Biological monitoring of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by determination of unmetabolized compounds in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Laura; Addario, Liliana; Buratti, Marina; Scibetta, Licia; Longhi, Omar; Valla, Carla; Cirla, Piero E; Martinotti, Irene; Foà, Vito; Fustinoni, Silvia

    2006-04-10

    In this paper we evaluated the possibility to assess occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) measuring unmetabolized PAHs in urine. With this aim, 24 road paving (RP) workers, exposed to bitumen fumes, and 6 road construction workers (CW), exposed to diesel exhausts, were investigated. Median personal exposure to low boiling PAHs (from naphthalene to pyrene) during the work shift ranged from 0.5 to 369 ng/m(3), with naphthalene as the most abundant compound. Three urine samples were collected for each worker: baseline (after 2 days of vacation), before- and end-shift samples (in the second part of the work week). The following urinary compounds were measured by headspace-solid phase microextraction GC/MS: naphthalene (U-NAP), acenaphthylene (U-ACY), acenaphthene (U-ACE), fluorene (U-FLE), phenanthrene (U-PHE), anthracene (U-ANT), fluoranthene (U-FLU), pyrene (U-PYR). Urinary PAHs were detected in almost all samples. Median levels for U-NAP, U-PHE, U-PYR and U-FLE in end-shift samples were 82, 48, 54 and 21 ng/L in RP and 69, 14, 24 and 15 ng/L in CW, respectively. Significant differences in the levels of U-PHE, U-FLU and U-PYR were found between RP and CW (p<0.05). Moreover in RP samples the urinary excretion of most analytes increased during the work shift (p<0.05). These results suggest that urinary PAHs may be useful biomarkers of occupational exposure.

  16. Development of radar-based system for monitoring of frail home-dwelling persons: A healthcare perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudmann, Tobba T.; Børsheim, Ingebjørg T.; Øvsthus, Knut; Ciamulski, Tomasz; Miękina, Andrzej; Wagner, Jakub; Mazurek, Paweł; Jacobsen, Frode F.

    2016-11-01

    This interdisciplinary project aims to develop and assess the functional potential of radar technology in the care services. The project mainly has an exploratory character where the technological and functional potential of impulse-radar sensor are tested out in monitoring of elderly and disabled people living in their own home. Designing a non-invasive system for monitoring of movements of frail persons living at home is the main goal, with the intent of assessing health and functional status through monitoring of activities of daily life (ADL) and detecting potentially dangerous situations, not the least related to a long lie following falls.

  17. Immunoassays and Biosensors for Monitoring Environmental and Human Exposure to Pyrethroid Insecticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Ki Chang; Kim, Hee-Joo; Mccoy, Mark R.; Gee, Shirley J.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2010-01-01

    This manuscript describes some of the early work on pyrethroid insecticides in the Casida laboratory and briefly reviews the development and application of immunochemical approaches for the detection of pyrethroid insecticides and their metabolites for monitoring environmental and human exposure. Multiple technologies can be combined to enhance the sensitivity and speed of immunochemical analysis. The pyrethroid assays are used to illustrate the use of some of these immunoreagents such as antibodies, competitive mimics, and novel binding agents such as phage-displayed peptides. We also illustrate reporters such as fluorescent dyes, chemiluminescent compounds, and luminescent lanthanide nanoparticles, as well as the application of magnetic separation, and automatic instrumental systems, biosensor and novel immunological technologies. These new technologies alone and in combination result in an improved ability to determine both if effective levels of pyrethroids are being used in the field as well as evaluate possible contamination. PMID:21105656

  18. Earth Observation Tools for Risk Exposure Monitoring: Welcoming Sentinel-2 Data in Risk Assessment Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vecchi, Daniele; Dell'Acqua, Fabio

    2016-08-01

    In the framework of different FP7 projects, a set of open-source tools has been developed and refined with the aim to monitor the exposure component in risk assessment. The recent launch of Sentinels 1 and 2 with their open data license attracted a lot of attention in the remote sensing community stimulating new research and applications. To our tools, this meant Open Data feed into Open Source code. The similarity in both spectral and geometric resolutions between Landsat and Sentinel-2 satellites raises good hopes for reusability of the developed tools. In this paper, modifications to the original algorithms will be suggested according to the experiments outcome, in view of a new generation of Open Tools in line with the new Copernicus-aware Earth Observation scenario.

  19. Personal breathing zone exposures among hot-mix asphalt paving workers; preliminary analysis for trends and analysis of work practices that resulted in the highest exposure concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Linda V; Snawder, John E; Kriech, Anthony J; Cavallari, Jennifer M; McClean, Michael D; Herrick, Robert F; Blackburn, Gary R; Olsen, Larry D

    2013-01-01

    An exposure assessment of hot-mix asphalt (HMA) paving workers was conducted to determine which of four exposure scenarios impacted worker exposure and dose. Goals of this report are to present the personal-breathing zone (PBZ) data, discuss the impact of substituting the releasing/cleaning agent, and discuss work practices that resulted in the highest exposure concentration for each analyte. One-hundred-seven PBZ samples were collected from HMA paving workers on days when diesel oil was used as a releasing/cleaning agent. An additional 36 PBZ samples were collected on days when B-100 (100% biodiesel, containing no petroleum-derived products) was used as a substitute releasing/cleaning agent. Twenty-four PBZ samples were collected from a reference group of concrete workers, who also worked in outdoor construction but had no exposure to asphalt emissions. Background and field blank samples were also collected daily. Total particulates and the benzene soluble fraction were determined gravimetrically. Total organic matter was determined using gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detection and provided qualitative information about other exposure sources contributing to worker exposure besides asphalt emissions. Thirty-three individual polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) were determined using GC with time-of-flight mass spectrometry; results were presented as either the concentration of an individual PAC or a summation of the individual PACs containing either 2- to 3-rings or 4- to 6-rings. Samples were also screened for PACs containing 4- to 6-rings using fluorescence spectroscopy. Arithmetic means, medians, and box plots of the PBZ data were used to evaluate trends in the data. Box plots illustrating the diesel oil results were more variable than the B-100. Also, the highest diesel oil results were much higher in concentration than the highest B-100 results. An analysis of the highest exposure results and field notes revealed a probable association between

  20. A portable battery powered microfluidic impedance cytometer with smartphone readout: towards personal health monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, Niloy; Furniturewalla, Abbas; Le, Tuan; Chan, Matthew; Hirday, Shreyas; Cao, Xinnan; Xie, Pengfei; Lin, Zhongtian; Gholizadeh, Azam; Orbine, Steve; Javanmard, Mehdi

    2017-06-01

    We present a portable system for personalized blood cell counting consisting of a microfluidic impedance cytometer and portable analog readout electronics, feeding into an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), and being transmitted via Bluetooth to a user-accessible mobile application. We fabricated a microfluidic impedance cytometer with a novel portable analog readout. The novel design of the analog readout, which consists of a lock-in-amplifier followed by a high-pass filter stage for subtraction of drift and DC offset, and a post-subtraction high gain stage, enables detection of particles and cells as small as 1 μm in diameter, despite using a low-end 8-bit ADC. The lock-in-amplifier and the ADC were set up to receive and transmit data from a Bluetooth module. In order to initiate the system, as well as to transmit all of the data, a user friendly mobile application was developed, and a proof-of-concept trial was run on a blood sample. Applications such as personalized health monitoring require robust device operation and resilience to clogging. It is desirable to avoid using channels comparable in size to the particles being detected thus requiring high levels of sensitivity. Despite using low-end off-the-shelf hardware, our sensing platform was capable of detecting changes in impedance as small as 0.032%, allowing detection of 3 μm diameter particles in a 300 μm wide channel. The sensitivity of our system is comparable to that of a high-end bench-top impedance spectrometer when tested using the same sensors. The novel analog design allowed for an instrument with a footprint of less than 80 cm(2). The aim of this work is to demonstrate the potential of using microfluidic impedance spectroscopy for low cost health monitoring. We demonstrated the utility of the platform technology towards cell counting, however, our platform is broadly applicable to assaying wide panels of biomarkers including proteins, nucleic acids, and various cell types.

  1. Advanced airflow distribution methods for reduction of personal exposure to indoor pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Guangyu; Kosonen, Risto; Melikov, Arsen

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to recognize possible airflow distribution methods to protect the occupants from exposure to various indoor pollutants. The fact of the increasing exposure of occupants to various indoor pollutants shows that there is an urgent need to develop advanced airflow ...... distribution methods to reduce indoor exposure to various indoor pollutants. This article presents some of the latest development of advanced airflow distribution methods to reduce indoor exposure in various types of buildings.......The main objective of this study is to recognize possible airflow distribution methods to protect the occupants from exposure to various indoor pollutants. The fact of the increasing exposure of occupants to various indoor pollutants shows that there is an urgent need to develop advanced airflow...

  2. Household air pollution and personal exposure risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons among rural residents in Shanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y; Shen, G; Huang, Y; Zhang, Y; Han, Y; Wang, R; Shen, H; Su, S; Lin, N; Zhu, D; Pei, L; Zheng, X; Wu, J; Wang, X; Liu, W; Wong, M; Tao, S

    2016-04-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of pollutants of widespread concerns. Gaseous and size-segregated particulate-phase PAHs were collected in indoor and outdoor air in rural households. Personal exposure was measured and compared to the ingestion exposure. The average concentrations of 28 parent PAHs and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) were 9000 ± 8390 and 131 ± 236 ng/m(3) for kitchen, 2590 ± 2270 and 43 ± 95 ng/m(3) for living room, and 2800 ± 3890 and 1.6 ± 0.7 ng/m(3) for outdoor air, respectively. The mass percent of high molecular weight (HMW) compounds with 5-6 rings contributed 1.3% to total 28 parent PAHs. Relatively higher fractions of HMW PAHs were found in indoor air compared to outdoor air. Majorities of particle-bound PAHs were found in the finest PM0.25 , and the highest levels of fine PM0.25 -bound PAHs were in the kitchen using peat and wood as energy sources. The 24-h personal PAH exposure concentration was 2100 ± 1300 ng/m(3) . Considering energies, exposures to those using wood were the highest. The PAH inhalation exposure comprised up to about 30% in total PAH exposure through food ingestion and inhalation, and the population attributable fraction (PAF) for lung cancer in the region was 0.85%. The risks for inhaled and ingested intakes of PAHs were 1.0 × 10(-5) and 1.1 × 10(-5) , respectively.

  3. Complexity index from a personalized wearable monitoring system for assessing remission in mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanata, Antonio; Valenza, Gaetano; Nardelli, Mimma; Gentili, Claudio; Scilingo, Enzo Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    This study discusses a personalized wearable monitoring system, which provides information and communication technologies to patients with mental disorders and physicians managing such diseases. The system, hereinafter called the PSYCHE system, is mainly comprised of a comfortable t-shirt with embedded sensors, such as textile electrodes, to monitor electrocardiogram-heart rate variability (HRV) series, piezoresistive sensors for respiration activity, and triaxial accelerometers for activity recognition. Moreover, on the patient-side, the PSYCHE system uses a smartphone-based interactive platform for electronic mood agenda and clinical scale administration, whereas on the physician-side provides data visualization and support to clinical decision. The smartphone collects the physiological and behavioral data and sends the information out to a centralized server for further processing. In this study, we present experimental results gathered from ten bipolar patients, wearing the PSYCHE system, with severe symptoms who exhibited mood states among depression (DP), hypomania(HM), mixed state (MX), and euthymia (EU), i.e., the good affective balance. In analyzing more than 400 h of cardiovascular dynamics, we found that patients experiencing mood transitions from a pathological mood state (HM, DP, or MX-where depressive and hypomanic symptoms are simultaneously present) to EU can be characterized through a commonly used measure of entropy. In particular, the SampEn estimated on long-term HRV series increases according to the patients' clinical improvement. These results are in agreement with the current literature reporting on the complexity dynamics of physiological systems and provides a promising and viable support to clinical decision in order to improve the diagnosis and management of psychiatric disorders.

  4. Monitoring of perchlorate in diverse foods and its estimated dietary exposure for Korea populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Woo; Oh, Sung-Hee; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2012-12-01

    The perchlorate concentrations in various Korean food samples were monitored, and 663 samples belonging to 39 kinds of food were analyzed. The analysis results revealed that dairy products contain the highest average concentration of 6.34 μg/kg and high detection frequency of over 85%. Fruit and vegetables showed the next highest perchlorate concentration with an average of 6.17 μg/kg. Especially, with its average concentration of 39.9 μg/kg, spinach showed the highest perchlorate level among all target food samples studied. Tomato was followed by spinach, which showed a high perchlorate average concentration of 19.8 μg/kg, and over 7 μg/kg was detected in ham and sausage (avg. 7.31 μg/kg) and in instant noodles (avg. 7.58 μg/kg). Less than 2 μg/kg was detected in fishes, meats and beverages. The exposure dose of perchlorate in Korean by food intake was calculated on the basis of the analyzed perchlorate levels in this study. The daily perchlorate dose to which Korean adults are exposed is 0.04 μg/kg bw/day, which is lower than the RfD (0.7 μg/kg bw/day) value suggested by US NAS. This result indicates that Korean people's current exposure to perchlorate from domestic food consumption is evaluated as safe. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Posaconazole exposure-response relationship: evaluating the utility of therapeutic drug monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolton, Michael J; Ray, John E; Marriott, Deborah; McLachlan, Andrew J

    2012-06-01

    Posaconazole has become an important part of the antifungal armamentarium in the prophylaxis and salvage treatment of invasive fungal infections (IFIs). Structurally related to itraconazole, posaconazole displays low oral bioavailability due to poor solubility, with significant drug interactions and gastrointestinal disease also contributing to the generally low posaconazole plasma concentrations observed in patients. While therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of plasma concentrations is widely accepted for other triazole antifungal agents such as voriconazole, the utility of TDM for posaconazole is controversial due to debate over the relationship between posaconazole exposure in plasma and clinical response to therapy. This review examines the available evidence for a relationship between plasma concentration and clinical efficacy for posaconazole, as well as evaluating the utility of TDM and providing provisional target concentrations for posaconazole therapy. Increasing evidence supports an exposure-response relationship for plasma posaconazole concentrations for prophylaxis and treatment of IFIs; a clear relationship has not been identified between posaconazole concentration and toxicity. Intracellular and intrapulmonary concentrations have been studied for posaconazole but have not been correlated to clinical outcomes. In view of the high mortality and cost associated with the treatment of IFIs, increasing evidence of an exposure-response relationship for posaconazole efficacy in the prevention and treatment of IFIs, and the common finding of low posaconazole concentrations in patients, TDM for posaconazole is likely to be of significant clinical utility. In patients with subtherapeutic posaconazole concentrations, increased dose frequency, administration with high-fat meals, and withdrawal of interacting medications from therapy are useful strategies to improve systemic absorption.

  6. The Effect of Realtime Monitoring on Dose Exposure to Staff Within an Interventional Radiology Setting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, Frederic, E-mail: fredericbaumann@hotmail.com; Katzen, Barry T. [Baptist Hospital of Miami, Miami Cardiac & Vascular Institute (MCVI) (United States); Carelsen, Bart [Philips HealthCare, Clinical Science Interventional X-ray (Netherlands); Diehm, Nicolas [Kantonsspital Aarau, Clinical and Interventional Angiology (Switzerland); Benenati, James F.; Peña, Constantino S. [Baptist Hospital of Miami, Miami Cardiac & Vascular Institute (MCVI) (United States)

    2015-10-15

    PurposeThe purpose of this study is to evaluate a new device providing real-time monitoring on radiation exposure during fluoroscopy procedures intending to reduce radiation in an interventional radiology setting.Materials and MethodsIn one interventional suite, a new system providing a real-time radiation dose display and five individual wireless dosimeters were installed. The five dosimeters were worn by the attending, fellow, nurse, technician, and anesthesiologist for every procedure taking place in that suite. During the first 6-week interval the dose display was off (closed phase) and activated thereafter, for a 6-week learning phase (learning phase) and a 10-week open phase (open phase). During these phases, the staff dose and the individual dose for each procedure were recorded from the wireless dosimeter and correlated with the fluoroscopy time. Further subanalysis for dose exposure included diagnostic versus interventional as well as short (<10 min) versus long (>10 min) procedures.ResultsA total of 252 procedures were performed (n = 88 closed phase, n = 50 learning phase, n = 114 open phase). The overall mean staff dose per fluoroscopic minute was 42.79 versus 19.81 µSv/min (p < 0.05) comparing the closed and open phase. Thereby, anesthesiologists were the only individuals attaining a significant dose reduction during open phase 16.9 versus 8.86 µSv/min (p < 0.05). Furthermore, a significant reduction of total staff dose was observed for short 51 % and interventional procedures 45 % (p < 0.05, for both).ConclusionA real-time qualitative display of radiation exposure may reduce team radiation dose. The process may take a few weeks during the learning phase but appears sustained, thereafter.

  7. Contribution of job-exposure matrices for exposure assessment in occupational safety and health monitoring systems: application from the French national occupational disease surveillance and prevention network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florentin, Arnaud; Zmirou-Navier, Denis; Paris, Christophe

    2017-08-01

    To detect new hazards ("signals"), occupational health monitoring systems mostly rest on the description of exposures in the jobs held and on reports by medical doctors; these are subject to declarative bias. Our study aims to assess whether job-exposure matrices (JEMs) could be useful tools for signal detection by improving exposure reporting. Using the French national occupational disease surveillance and prevention network (RNV3P) data from 2001 to 2011, we explored the associations between disease and exposure prevalence for 3 well-known pathology/exposure couples and for one debatable couple. We compared the associations measured when using physicians' reports or applying the JEMs, respectively, for these selected diseases and across non-selected RNV3P population or for cases with musculoskeletal disorders, used as two reference groups; the ratio of exposure prevalences according to the two sources of information were computed for each disease category. Our population contained 58,188 subjects referred with pathologies related to work. Mean age at diagnosis was 45.8 years (95% CI 45.7; 45.9), and 57.2% were men. For experts, exposure ratios increase with knowledge on exposure causality. As expected, JEMs retrieved more exposed cases than experts (exposure ratios between 12 and 194), except for the couple silica/silicosis, but not for the MSD control group (ratio between 0.2 and 0.8). JEMs enhanced the number of exposures possibly linked with some conditions, compared to experts' assessment, relative to the whole database or to a reference group; they are less likely to suffer from declarative bias than reports by occupational health professionals.

  8. Sorbent track: Quantitative monitoring of adsorbed VOCs under in-situ plasma exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zixian; Rousseau, Antoine

    2016-08-01

    Sorbent-TRACK is a new device developed to monitor adsorption and surface oxidation of pollutants under direct plasma exposure. It is based on direct transmitted Fourier Transformed Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. A pyrex reactor under controlled gas pressure and composition is inserted on the infrared beam of a commercially available Nicolet 5700 FTIR spectrometer. A substrate holder is located on the optical path of the infrared beam. A thin pellet of a dedicated catalyst (CeO2 in the present work) is inserted in a substrate holder and can be exposed to direct plasma treatment using a Dielectric Barrier Discharge. The time resolution of Sorbent-TRACK is limited by the time resolution of the Nicolet 5700 FTIR spectrometer and close to 30 s. The dynamic of the adsorption and plasma oxidation of acetone and isopropanol on CeO2 are studied and intermediates are monitored. Performances and sensitivity of Sorbent-TRACK are reported Adsorption and oxidation of acetone leads to production of adsorbed isobutene and acetic acid, where oxidation of isopropanol gives mainly to adsorbed acetone, mesityl oxide and acetate. An increase of the plasma power leads to an increase of the isopropanol and acetone oxidation rate and a related increase of the production of adsorbed intermediates.

  9. Contamination monitoring and control on ASML MS-VII 157-nm exposure tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoroanyanwu, Uzodinma; Gronheid, Roel; Coenen, Jan; Hermans, Jan; Ronse, Kurt G.

    2004-05-01

    This paper presents results of monitoring and control of contaminants in an ASML MS-VII 157nm full-field exposure tool at IMEC, as verified lithographically in terms of field uniformity, lens transmission, CD uniformity, and scattered light. The daily contamination monitoring system utilizes in-line photo-ionization detector, oxygen and moisture analyzers, as well as chemiluminescent detector, and gas chromatograph that is coupled to a mass spectrometer. On a monthly basis, contamination monitoring was performed with thermal desorption-gas chromatographi/mass spectrometric techniques. The following four locations within the optical path of the MS-VII are monitored: source optic assembly, condenser lens optic, 1X relay station, and projection optics box. Contamination control is realized in the system with an on-board purge control unit, which is equipped with gas purifiers that remove contaminants such as H2O, O2, CO, CO2, hydrocarbons, H2, and sulfur compounds. All the observed contaminants have been trending within expected values and no contamination-related tool performance degradation has been observed. The excursions observed in the contaminant concentrations are coincident with tool downtime/maintenance events. Siloxane levels appear to be consistently below 50 ppt in all the monitored locations within the optical path of the tool, except on one occasion when it reached 90 ppt in the projection optics. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) concentration within the MS-VII enclosure show a stable background level of around 10-25 ppb during weekends and levels of 45-60 ppb (during working days). VOCs concentration variations inside the MS-VII enclosure during the working days correlate well with activities inside the clean room. Air recirculation and low intake of fresh air inside the MS-VII tend to slow down the speed with which the VOCs levels decreases to stable background level, whenever there was a major upward excursion in their concentration. Average light

  10. Turnover intentions and voluntary turnover: the moderating roles of self-monitoring, locus of control, proactive personality, and risk aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, David G; Weeks, Kelly P; Moffitt, Karen R

    2005-09-01

    This article explores moderators of the relationship between turnover intentions and turnover behavior to better explain why some employees translate intentions into behavior and other employees do not. Individual differences in self-monitoring, locus of control, proactive personality, and risk aversion were examined. Results indicate that self-monitoring and risk aversion moderate the intentions-turnover link. Specifically, the relationship between turnover intentions and turnover is stronger for low self-monitors and those lower in risk aversion. Locus of control moderated the relationship in 1 of 2 samples such that the relationship was stronger for those with an internal locus of control. Proactive personality, however, did not directly moderate the relationship between intentions and turnover behaviors.

  11. Distribution of Exhaled Contaminants and Personal Exposure in a Room using Three Different Air Distribution Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olmedo, Inés; Nielsen, Peter V.; Adana, M. Ruiz de

    2012-01-01

    for one person positioned in front of another. However, in all three cases, the exhalation flow of the source penetrates the thermal plume, causing an increase in the concentration of contaminants in front of the target person. The results are significantly dependent on the distance and position between...

  12. Individual monitoring of internal exposure for nuclear medicine workers in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baechler, S; Stritt, N; Bochud, F O

    2011-03-01

    Monitoring of internal exposure for nuclear medicine workers requires frequent measurements due to the short physical half-lives of most radionuclides used in this field. The aim of this study was to develop screening measurements performed at the workplace by local staff using standard laboratory instrumentation, to detect whether potential intake has occurred. Such measurements do not enable to determine the committed effective dose, but are adequate to verify that a given threshold is not exceeded. For radioiodine, i.e. (123)I, (124)I, (125)I and (131)I, a calibrated surface contamination monitor is placed in front of the thyroid to detect whether the activity threshold has been exceeded. For radionuclides with very short physical half-lives (≤ 6 h), such as (99m)Tc and those used in positron emission tomography imaging, i.e. (11)C, (15)O, (18)F and (68)Ga, screening procedures consist in performing daily measurements of the ambient dose rate in front of the abdomen. Other gamma emitters used for imaging, i.e. (67)Ga, (111)In and (201)Tl, are measured with a scintillation detector located in front of the thorax. For pure beta emitters, i.e. (90)Y and (169)Er, as well as beta emitters with low-intensity gamma rays, i.e. (153)Sm, (177)Lu, (186)Re and (188)Re, the procedure consists in measuring hand contamination immediately after use. In Switzerland, screening procedures have been adopted by most nuclear medicine services since such measurements enable an acceptable monitoring while taking into account practical and economic considerations.

  13. Development and Performance Characteristics of Personal Gamma Spectrometer for Radiation Monitoring Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye Min; Joo, Koan Sik

    2016-06-21

    In this study, a personal gamma (γ) spectrometer was developed for use in applications in various fields, such as homeland security and environmental radiation monitoring systems. The prototype consisted of a 3 × 3 × 20 mm³ Ce-doped Gd-Al-Ga-garnet (Ce:GAGG) crystal that was coupled to a Si photomultiplier (SiPM) to measure γ radiation. The γ spectrometer could be accessed remotely via a mobile device. At room temperature, the implemented Ce:GAGG-SiPM spectrometer achieved energy resolutions of 13.5%, 6.9%, 5.8%, and 2.3% for (133)Ba at 0.356 MeV, (22)Na at 0.511 MeV, (137)Cs at 0.662 MeV, and (60)Co at 1.33 MeV, respectively. It consumed only about 2.7 W of power, had a mass of just 340 g (including the battery), and measured only 5.0 × 7.0 cm².

  14. Development and Performance Characteristics of Personal Gamma Spectrometer for Radiation Monitoring Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Min Park

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a personal gamma (γ spectrometer was developed for use in applications in various fields, such as homeland security and environmental radiation monitoring systems. The prototype consisted of a 3 × 3 × 20 mm3 Ce-doped Gd–Al–Ga–garnet (Ce:GAGG crystal that was coupled to a Si photomultiplier (SiPM to measure γ radiation. The γ spectrometer could be accessed remotely via a mobile device. At room temperature, the implemented Ce:GAGG-SiPM spectrometer achieved energy resolutions of 13.5%, 6.9%, 5.8%, and 2.3% for 133Ba at 0.356 MeV, 22Na at 0.511 MeV, 137Cs at 0.662 MeV, and 60Co at 1.33 MeV, respectively. It consumed only about 2.7 W of power, had a mass of just 340 g (including the battery, and measured only 5.0 × 7.0 cm2.

  15. The influence of impression management scales on the Personality Assessment Inventory in the epilepsy monitoring unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdom, Catherine L; Kirlin, Kristin A; Hoerth, Matthew T; Noe, Katherine H; Drazkowski, Joseph F; Sirven, Joseph I; Locke, Dona E C

    2012-12-01

    The Somatic Complaints scale (SOM) and Conversion subscale (SOM-C) of the Personality Assessment Inventory perform best in classifying psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) from epileptic seizures (ES); however, the impact of positive impression management (PIM) and negative impression management (NIM) scales on SOM and SOM-C classification has not been examined. We studied 187 patients from an epilepsy monitoring unit with confirmed PNES or ES. On SOM, the best cut score was 72.5 T when PIM was elevated and 69.5 T when there was no bias. On SOM-C, when PIM was elevated, the best cut score was 67.5 T and 76.5 T when there was no bias. Negative impression management elevations (n=9) were too infrequent to analyze separately. Despite similarities in classification accuracy, there were differences in sensitivity and specificity with and without PIM, impacting positive and negative predictive values. The presence of PIM bias generally increases positive predictive power of SOM and SOM-C but decreases negative predictive power.

  16. Instruments to assess and measure personal and environmental radiofrequency-electromagnetic field exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Chhavi Raj; Redmayne, Mary; Abramson, Michael J; Benke, Geza

    2016-03-01

    Radiofrequency-electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure of human populations is increasing due to the widespread use of mobile phones and other telecommunication and broadcasting technologies. There are ongoing concerns about potential short- and long-term public health consequences from RF-EMF exposures. To elucidate the RF-EMF exposure-effect relationships, an objective evaluation of the exposures with robust assessment tools is necessary. This review discusses and compares currently available RF-EMF exposure assessment instruments, which can be used in human epidemiological studies. Quantitative assessment instruments are either mobile phone-based (apps/software-modified and hardware-modified) or exposimeters. Each of these tool has its usefulness and limitations. Our review suggests that assessment of RF-EMF exposures can be improved by using these tools compared to the proxy measures of exposure (e.g. questionnaires and billing records). This in turn, could be used to help increase knowledge about RF-EMF exposure induced health effects in human populations.

  17. Does Combat Exposure Make You a More Violent or Criminal Person? Evidence from the Vietnam Draft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlfs, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This study exploits the differential effects of the Vietnam War across birth cohorts to measure the effects of combat exposure on later violence and crime. Combat exposure and violent acts are measured using self-reports from the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study. I find large positive effects on violence for blacks, suggestive evidence…

  18. Electrochemical sensors for the detection of lead and other toxic heavy metals: the next generation of personal exposure biomonitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yantasee, Wassana; Lin, Yuehe; Hongsirikarn, Kitiya; Fryxell, Glen E; Addleman, Raymond; Timchalk, Charles

    2007-12-01

    To support the development and implementation of biological monitoring programs, we need quantitative technologies for measuring xenobiotic exposure. Microanalytical based sensors that work with complex biomatrices such as blood, urine, or saliva are being developed and validated and will improve our ability to make definitive associations between chemical exposures and disease. Among toxic metals, lead continues to be one of the most problematic. Despite considerable efforts to identify and eliminate Pb exposure sources, this metal remains a significant health concern, particularly for young children. Ongoing research focuses on the development of portable metal analyzers that have many advantages over current available technologies, thus potentially representing the next generation of toxic metal analyzers. In this article, we highlight the development and validation of two classes of metal analyzers for the voltammetric detection of Pb, including: a) an analyzer based on flow injection analysis and anodic stripping voltammetry at a mercury-film electrode, and b) Hg-free metal analyzers employing adsorptive stripping voltammetry and novel nanostructure materials that include the self-assembled monolayers on mesoporous supports and carbon nanotubes. These sensors have been optimized to detect Pb in urine, blood, and saliva as accurately as the state-of-the-art inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry with high reproducibility, and sensitivity allows. These improved and portable analytical sensor platforms will facilitate our ability to conduct biological monitoring programs to understand the relationship between chemical exposure assessment and disease outcomes.

  19. Monitoring pharmaceuticals and personal care products in reservoir water used for drinking water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristizabal-Ciro, Carolina; Botero-Coy, Ana María; López, Francisco J; Peñuela, Gustavo A

    2017-03-01

    In this work, the presence of selected emerging contaminants has been investigated in two reservoirs, La Fe (LF) and Rio Grande (RG), which supply water to two drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) of Medellin, one of the most populated cities of Colombia. An analytical method based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) of the sample followed by measurement by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed and validated for this purpose. Five monitoring campaigns were performed in each reservoir, collecting samples from 7 sites (LF) and 10 sites (RG) at 3 different depths of the water column. In addition, water samples entering in the DWTPs and treated water samples from these plans were also analysed for the selected compounds. Data from this work showed that parabens, UV filters and the pharmaceutical ibuprofen were commonly present in most of the reservoir samples. Thus, methyl paraben was detected in around 90% of the samples collected, while ibuprofen was found in around 60% of the samples. Water samples feeding the DWTPs also contained these two compounds, as well as benzophenone at low concentrations, which was in general agreement with the results from the reservoir samples. After treatment in the DWTPs, these three compounds were still present in the samples although at low concentrations (water are still unknown. Further research is needed to evaluate the effect of chronic exposure to these compounds via consumption of drinking water.

  20. 75 FR 73995 - Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    .../PROPOSED/2010PROP/2010-25249.pdf . The proposed rule would revise the Agency's existing standards on miners....msha.gov/REGS/FEDREG/PROPOSED/2010PROP/2010-25249.pdf . The following error in the preamble to...

  1. Personal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in workplace and away from work settings: A 16 city case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, R.A.; Palausky, M.A.; Counts, R.W.; Guerin, M.R.; Dindal, A.B.; Bayne, C.K.

    1995-08-01

    A large study of personal exposure of non-smokers to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has been conducted in 16 cities in the United States. Individual participants wear two personal sampling pumps, one each at work and away-from-work. Samples of breathing zone air are collected, and subsequently analyzed for both particle phase and gas phase markers of ETS, including respirable suspended particulate matter (RSP), UV-absorbing and fluorescing particulate matter, solanesol, nicotine, 3-ethenyl pyridine, and myosmine. In addition, prior- and post-exposure saliva samples are collected, in order that smoking status may be determined using salivary cotinine. Participants are segregated into a 2{times}2 factorial study design: smoking and non-smoking homes and workplaces. A comparison of the demographic distribution of the sample population with that of the United States indicates that the sample population is more female and of higher socioeconomic status. The data indicates that median 8-hour or 16-hour exposure levels are considerably lower than those which would be extrapolated from short duration area measurements. Median exposure levels of nicotine, 3-ethenyl pyridine, and RSP were 0.034, 0.029, and 23 {mu}g/m{sup 3} respectively in non-smoking workplaces, vs. 0.21, 0.16, and 23 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in workplaces where smoking was observed. Median 16-hour exposure levels for these same components away from work where subjects observed tobacco products in use were 0.36, 0.25, and 23 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, compared with 0.024, 0.019, and 15 {mu}g/m{sup 3} when no tobacco products were observed.

  2. Lessons learnt on biases and uncertainties in personal exposure measurement surveys of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields with exposimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolte, John F B

    2016-09-01

    Personal exposure measurements of radio frequency electromagnetic fields are important for epidemiological studies and developing prediction models. Minimizing biases and uncertainties and handling spatial and temporal variability are important aspects of these measurements. This paper reviews the lessons learnt from testing the different types of exposimeters and from personal exposure measurement surveys performed between 2005 and 2015. Applying them will improve the comparability and ranking of exposure levels for different microenvironments, activities or (groups of) people, such that epidemiological studies are better capable of finding potential weak correlations with health effects. Over 20 papers have been published on how to prevent biases and minimize uncertainties due to: mechanical errors; design of hardware and software filters; anisotropy; and influence of the body. A number of biases can be corrected for by determining multiplicative correction factors. In addition a good protocol on how to wear the exposimeter, a sufficiently small sampling interval and sufficiently long measurement duration will minimize biases. Corrections to biases are possible for: non-detects through detection limit, erroneous manufacturer calibration and temporal drift. Corrections not deemed necessary, because no significant biases have been observed, are: linearity in response and resolution. Corrections difficult to perform after measurements are for: modulation/duty cycle sensitivity; out of band response aka cross talk; temperature and humidity sensitivity. Corrections not possible to perform after measurements are for: multiple signals detection in one band; flatness of response within a frequency band; anisotropy to waves of different elevation angle. An analysis of 20 microenvironmental surveys showed that early studies using exposimeters with logarithmic detectors, overestimated exposure to signals with bursts, such as in uplink signals from mobile phones and Wi

  3. Biomarkers of human exposure to personal care products: results from the Flemish Environment and Health Study (FLEHS 2007-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den Hond, Elly; Paulussen, Melissa; Geens, Tinne; Bruckers, Liesbeth; Baeyens, Willy; David, Frank; Dumont, Emmie; Loots, Ilse; Morrens, Bert; de Bellevaux, Benoit Nemery; Nelen, Vera; Schoeters, Greet; Van Larebeke, Nicolas; Covaci, Adrian

    2013-10-01

    Personal care products (PCPs), such as soaps, perfumes, cosmetics, lotions, etc., contain a variety of chemicals that have been described as potentially hormone disrupting chemicals. Therefore, it is important to assess the internal exposure of these chemicals in humans. Within the 2nd Flemish Environment and Health Study (FLEHS II, 2007-2011), the human exposure to three classes of pollutants that are present in a wide variety of PCPs--i.e. polycyclic musks (galaxolide, HHCB and tonalide, AHTN in blood), parabens (urinary para-hydroxybenzoic acid, HBA) and triclosan (urinary TCS)--was assessed in 210 Flemish adolescents (14-15 years) and in 204 adults (20-40 years) randomly selected from the general population according to a stratified two stage clustered study design. The aim of this study was to define average levels of exposure in the general Flemish population and to identify determinants of exposure. Average levels (GM (95% CI)) in the Flemish adolescents were 0.717 (0.682-0.753) μg/L for blood HHCB; 0.118 (0.108-0.128) μg/L for blood AHTN; 1022 (723-1436) μg/L for urinary HBA and 2.19 (1.64-2.92) μg/L for urinary TCS. In the adults, levels of HBA were on average 634 (471-970) μg/L. Inter-individual variability was small for HHCB and AHTN, intermediate for HBA, and large for TCS. All biomarkers were positively associated with the use of PCPs. Additionally, levels of HHCB and AHTN increased with higher educational level of the adolescents. Both in adults and adolescents, urinary HBA levels were negatively correlated with BMI. We define here Flemish exposure values for biomarkers of PCPs, which can serve as baseline exposure levels to identify exposure trends in future biomonitoring campaigns.

  4. Hypothalamic pituitary thyroid axis and exposure to interpersonal violence in childhood among women with borderline personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cave Sinai

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: A relationship between exposure to sexual violence and thyroid hormone alterations has been observed among women with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Women with borderline personality disorder (BPD report a high estimate of childhood trauma. Objective: The aim of the present study was to assess relationships between thyroid hormone measures and exposure to violence in childhood in women with BPD. Method: A total of 92 clinically euthyroid women with BPD (53% with comorbid PTSD diagnosis and at least two prior suicide attempts were assessed with the Karolinska Interpersonal Violence Scales (KIVS. The KIVS contains four subscales with concrete examples of exposure to violence and expressed violent behavior in childhood (aged 6–14 years and during adult life (15 years or older. Baseline thyroid function was evaluated by measuring plasma free and bound triiodothyronine (FT3 and T3, thyroxine (FT4 and T4, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH with immunoassays. The FT3/FT4 ratio was used to estimate peripheral deiodination. Plasma cortisol was also assessed. Results: Sixty-seven percent of patients reported medium high or high level of exposure to interpersonal violence as a child. The FT3/FT4 ratio showed a significant negative correlation with exposure to violence as a child. Patients with PTSD had significantly higher plasma cortisol levels. An ad hoc analysis revealed that the correlation between KIVS exposure to interpersonal violence as a child and FT3/FT4 ratio was significant only in patients with comorbid PTSD. Altered thyroid activity, especially FT3/FT4, levels was associated with exposure to violence in childhood in women with BPD. Conclusion: Severe childhood trauma-related stress may promote lasting altered thyroid levels and/or contribute to the development of psychopathology associated with BPD traits or PTSD.

  5. External and internal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) among workers in the production of fire-proof materials - proposal of a biological monitoring guidance value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuss, Ralf; Rossbach, Bernd; Wilhelm, Michael; Brüning, Thomas; Angerer, Jürgen

    2006-11-01

    In 1999, we introduced the German polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) study. The study was designed as a nation-wide investigation on workers exposed to PAH. One aim of the study was to establish biological monitoring guidance values (BMGVs) for different branches. Here, we report on the production of fire-proof materials. This branch of industry is typically confronted with high exposure to PAH and with PAH-induced occupational (cancer) diseases. One hundred and thirty-five employees participated in the course of seven sampling dates in four different plants in Germany. External exposure was determined by personal air monitoring of the 16 EPA-PAH. Human biological monitoring was accomplished by the determination of 1-hydroxypyrene and monohydroxyphenanthrenes in post-shift spot urine samples. Concentrations of PAH in the air of the workplaces ranged up to 1102.6microg/m(3). Maximum benzo[a]pyrene concentration was 38.2microg/m(3). The internal PAH exposure of workers was much higher compared with that of the general population. Median concentration for 1-hydroxypyrene was 6.4microg/g creatinine (maximum 279.6, 90th percentile 23.9microg/g creatinine) and for the sum of monohydroxyphenanthrene metabolites 13.3microg/g creatinine (maximum 313.4, 90th percentile 70.8microg/g creatinine). The following BMGVs for the non-smokers of this branch of industry are proposed: for 1-hydroxypyrene 18microg/g creatinine and for the sum of hydroxyphenanthrenes 77microg/g creatinine in urine measured at the end of the shift.

  6. A novel alternative to environmental monitoring to detect workers at risk for beryllium exposure-related health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fireman, Elizabeth; Lerman, Yehuda; Stark, Moshe; Pardo, Asher; Schwarz, Yehuda; Van Dyke, Michael V; Elliot, Jill; Barkes, Briana; Newman, Lee; Maier, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe a methodology for surveillance and monitoring of beryllium exposure using biological monitoring to complement environmental monitoring. Eighty-three Israeli dental technicians (mean age 41.6 ± 1.36 years) and 80 American nuclear machining workers (54.9 ± 1.21 years) were enrolled. Biological monitoring was carried out by analyzing particle size (laser technique) and shape (image analysis) in 131/163 (80.3%) induced sputum samples (Dipa Analyser, Donner Tech, Or Aquiva, Israel). Environmental monitoring was carried out only in the United States (Sioutas impactor, SKC, Inc., Eighty Four, Pa.). Pulmonary function testing performance and induced sputum retrieval were done by conventional methods. Sixty-three Israeli workers and 37 American workers were followed up for at least 2 years. Biological monitoring by induced sputum indicated that a >92% accumulation of beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test result (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.2-11.4, p = 0.015) among all participants. Environmental monitoring showed that beryllium particles were machining workers compared to dental technicians. The small fractions positively correlated with induced sputum macrophages (r = 0.21 p = 0.01) and negatively correlated with diffusion lung carbon monoxide single breath (DLCO-SB r = 0.180 p = 0.04) in all subjects. Years of exposure were positively correlated to the number of accumulated particles 2-3 μ in diameter (r = 0.2, p = 0.02) and negatively correlated to forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity findings (r = -0.18, p = 0.02). DLCO was decreased in both groups after two years of monitoring. Biological monitoring is more informative than environmental monitoring in the surveillance and monitoring of workers in beryllium industries. Induced sputum is a feasible and promising biomonitoring method that should be included in the surveillance of exposed workers.

  7. Monitoring of radioactive contamination and radiation exposure. Tasks, technical aspects, implementation; Ueberwachung radioaktiver Kontamination und Strahlenexposition. Aufgaben, Techniken, Umsetzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayer, A.

    2005-07-01

    Monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Germany started in the early Fifties with measurements of radioactive fallout, i.e. mainly airborne particles and precipitation. Since then, scientists of laboratories, universities, research institutions and authorities have become aware of the danger of increasing environmental radioactivity. The Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD) was commissioned by law with monitoring of radioactivity in atmosphere and precipitation on a large-scale basis as part of general preventive health protection. This brochure informs on the tasks, techniques and implementation of monitoring of radioactive contamination and radiation exposure. (orig.)

  8. [Is it really not possible to use electronic personal dosimeters in clinical exposure situations?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, M; Poppe, B; Looe, H K; von Boetticher, H

    2010-09-01

    Due to significant measuring inaccuracies that can occur under certain conditions, the use of electronic personal dosimeters in statutory measurements in X-ray diagnostics is currently legally restricted. The present study investigates the clinically relevant situations in which measurement errors of more then 20 % can be anticipated. Four series of experiments were made, comparing the results of the electronic personal dosimeter EPD Mk2.3 to those of reference dosimeters (TLDs and diagnostic dosimeters). On the one hand, personal doses have been determined in the routine operation of controlled areas in various departments. On the other hand, measurements on phantoms have been conducted in extreme but realistic situations under radiation protection. Experiments were conducted in unweakened scattered radiation as well as in unattenuated and attenuated direct radiation. The tested electronic personal dosimeter type meets the requirements regarding measurement accuracy for "official" personal dosimeters in all of the examined clinically relevant scattered radiation fields. Only if exposed to radiation directly, an underestimation of the dose can occur and can be greater than 90 %. In the range of scattered radiation of diagnostic X-ray equipment, even in pulsed fields, the use of electronic personal dosimeters is reasonable. Considerable measurement errors can only arise in radiation fields that are not realistic under regular conditions and even in connection with most accidents. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart, New York.

  9. Trends in monitoring pharmaceuticals and personal-care products in the aquatic environment by use of passive sampling devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, G.A.; Vrana, B.; Allan, I.; Alvarez, D.A.; Huckins, J.N.; Greenwood, R.

    2007-01-01

    The use of passive sampling in monitoring pharmaceuticals and personal-care products (PPCPs) in the aquatic environment is discussed. The utility of passive sampling methods for monitoring the fraction of heavy metals and the biologically available fraction of non-polar organic priority pollutants is recognized and these technologies are being used in surveys of water quality. These devices are used to measure the dissolved fraction and they can yield information that can be used in the development of risk assessments models. These devices can also be used to locate illegal dumping and to monitor specific sources of input of PPCPs into the environment, or to monitor the effectiveness of water treatment processes in the removal of these compounds from wastewater. These devices can provide representative information at low cost which necessitate a combination of laboratory calibration and field studies for emerging pollutants.

  10. Insufficient fluconazole exposure in pediatric cancer patients and the need for therapeutic drug monitoring in critically ill children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Elst, Kim CM; Pereboom, Marieke; van den Heuvel, Edwin R; Kosterink, Jos G W; Scholvinck, Elisabeth H.; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C

    2014-01-01

    Background. Fluconazole is recommended as first-line treatment in invasive candidiasis in children and infants. Although timely achievement of adequate exposure of fluconazole improves outcome, therapeutic drug monitoring is currently not recommended. Methods. We conducted a retrospective study of c

  11. Effects of Parental Monitoring and Exposure to Community Violence on Antisocial Behavior and Anxiety/Depression among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchini, Dario; Miranda, Maria Concetta; Affuso, Gaetana

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate the influence of gender, exposure to community violence, and parental monitoring upon antisocial behavior and anxiety/depression in adolescence. Involved in the study were 489 adolescents (290 males and 189 females) from 4 secondary schools in the city of Naples, Italy. The age of participants ranged from…

  12. Community Violence Exposure and Adolescent Substance Use: Does Monitoring and Positive Parenting Moderate Risk in Urban Communities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Rosalyn

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates whether monitoring and positive parenting moderate the relationship between community violence exposure (CVE) and youth substance use. Analyses utilized a subsample (N = 2197) of a cross-sectional, ethnically diverse, urban school district sample. Dependent variables were any past year alcohol or drug use (AOD) and binge…

  13. Effects of Parental Monitoring and Exposure to Community Violence on Antisocial Behavior and Anxiety/Depression among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchini, Dario; Miranda, Maria Concetta; Affuso, Gaetana

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate the influence of gender, exposure to community violence, and parental monitoring upon antisocial behavior and anxiety/depression in adolescence. Involved in the study were 489 adolescents (290 males and 189 females) from 4 secondary schools in the city of Naples, Italy. The age of participants ranged from…

  14. Linking high resolution mass spectrometry data with exposure and toxicity forecasts to advance high-throughput environmental monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a growing need in the field of exposure science for monitoring methods that rapidly screen environmental media for suspect contaminants. Measurement and analysis platforms, based on high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), now exist to meet this need. Here we describe r...

  15. Introduction of a new dosimetry system based on optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) in our personal monitoring service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubner, S., E-mail: stephan.huebner@helmholtz-muenchen.de [Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, D-80219, Munich (Georgia)

    2014-08-15

    The personal monitoring service named Auswertungsstelle is part of the Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, a non-profit-making research center in Germany. As one of the four monitoring services in Germany, we have been a reliable partner in radiation protection for more than 60 years. With about 1.9 million dose assessments per year, we are the largest monitoring service in Europe. For dozens of years, our main dosimeter used in whole-body dosimetry has been a film dosimeter. Although its dosimetric properties are still up to date, film dosimetry won.t be a sustainable technique for the use in monitoring services. Therefore, a project with the objective of investigating alternative dosimetric materials and methods was launched in the late 1990 at the Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen. Based on this research work, the use of Be O as an OSL dosimeter was studied by the radiation physics group of the Tu Dresden, by order and on account of the Auswertungsstelle at the Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen. It was shown, that ceramic Be O features promising dosimetric properties, making Be O detectors particularly suitable for being used in all applications in whole-body dosimetry measuring photons. Ceramic Be O material has an excellent resistance to environmental influences. The Be O chips are almost tissue equivalent. Therefore, these detectors show low photon energy dependence. A new personal dosimetry system based on the OSL dosimetry of Be O was developed. Applying this system, the Auswertungsstelle offers OSL-dosimeters for official monitoring of the Personal Dose Equivalent Hp(10) since 2011. This OSL-System is accredited according to DIN IEC 62387 and we obtained the corresponding type approval by the Ptb, the national metrology institute in Germany. Sophisticated logistics was developed and installed. High degree of automation was achieved by robots for dosimeter assembly and machines for packing, labelling and unpacking of the dosimeters. To become a sustainable dosimetry system not only

  16. Internal exposure in nuclear medicine: application of IAEA criteria to determine the need for internal monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Maranhão Dantas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The manipulation of unsealed sources in nuclear medicine poses significant risks of internal exposure to the staff. According to the International Atomic Energy Agency, the radiological protection program should include an evaluation of such risks and an individual monitoring plan, assuring acceptable radiological safety conditions in the workplace. The IAEA Safety Guide RS-G-1.2 recommends that occupational monitoring should be implemented whenever it is likely that committed effective doses from annual intakes of radionuclides would exceed 1 mSv. It also suggests a mathematical criterion to determine the need to implement internal monitoring. This paper presents a simulation of the IAEA criteria applied to commonly used radionuclides in nuclear medicine, taking into consideration usual manipulated activities and handling conditions. It is concluded that the manipulation of 131I for therapy presents the higher risk of internal exposure to the workers, requiring the implementation of an internal monitoring program by the Nuclear Medicine Centers.A manipulação de fontes abertas em Serviços de Medicina Nuclear envolve riscos de exposição externa e contaminação interna. O plano de proteção radiológica das Instalações licenciadas pela CNEN deve incluir a avaliação de tais riscos e propor um programa de monitoração individual de forma a controlar as exposições e garantir a manutenção das condições de segurança radiológica. As recomendações da AIEA apresentadas no Safety Guide RS-G-1.2 sugerem que seja implementado um programa de monitoração interna do trabalhador sempre que houver possibilidade da contaminação interna conduzir a valores de dose efetiva comprometida anual igual ou superior a 1 mSv. Este trabalho apresenta a simulação da aplicação de tais critérios para os radionuclídeos mais utilizados na área de Medicina Nuclear, levando-se em consideração as condições usuais de manipulação das fontes e as

  17. Personal samplers of bioavailable pesticides integrated with a hair follicle assay of DNA damage to assess environmental exposures and their associated risks in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidi, Pierre-Alexandre; Anderson, Kim A; Chen, Haiying; Anderson, Rebecca; Salvador-Moreno, Naike; Mora, Dana C; Poutasse, Carolyn; Laurienti, Paul J; Daniel, Stephanie S; Arcury, Thomas A

    2017-10-01

    Agriculture in the United States employs youth ages ten and older in work environments with high pesticide levels. Younger children in rural areas may also be affected by indirect pesticide exposures. The long-term effects of pesticides on health and development are difficult to assess and poorly understood. Yet, epidemiologic studies suggest associations with cancer as well as cognitive deficits. We report a practical and cost-effective approach to assess environmental pesticide exposures and their biological consequences in children. Our approach combines silicone wristband personal samplers and DNA damage quantification from hair follicles, and was tested as part of a community-based participatory research (CBPR) project involving ten Latino children from farmworker households in North Carolina. Our study documents high acceptance among Latino children and their caregivers of these noninvasive sampling methods. The personal samplers detected organophosphates, organochlorines, and pyrethroids in the majority of the participants (70%, 90%, 80%, respectively). Pesticides were detected in all participant samplers, with an average of 6.2±2.4 detections/participant sampler. DNA damage in epithelial cells from the sheath and bulb of plucked hairs follicles was quantified by immunostaining 53BP1-labled DNA repair foci. This method is sensitive, as shown by dose response analyses to γ radiations where the lowest dose tested (0.1Gy) led to significant increased 53BP1 foci density. Immunolabeling of DNA repair foci has significant advantages over the comet assay in that specific regions of the follicles can be analyzed. In this cohort of child participants, significant association was found between the number of pesticide detections and DNA damage in the papilla region of the hairs. We anticipate that this monitoring approach of bioavailable pesticides and genotoxicity will enhance our knowledge of the biological effects of pesticides to guide education programs and

  18. Can commercial low-cost sensor platforms contribute to air quality monitoring and exposure estimates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell, Nuria; Dauge, Franck R; Schneider, Philipp; Vogt, Matthias; Lerner, Uri; Fishbain, Barak; Broday, David; Bartonova, Alena

    2017-02-01

    The emergence of low-cost, user-friendly and very compact air pollution platforms enable observations at high spatial resolution in near-real-time and provide new opportunities to simultaneously enhance existing monitoring systems, as well as engage citizens in active environmental monitoring. This provides a whole new set of capabilities in the assessment of human exposure to air pollution. However, the data generated by these platforms are often of questionable quality. We have conducted an exhaustive evaluation of 24 identical units of a commercial low-cost sensor platform against CEN (European Standardization Organization) reference analyzers, evaluating their measurement capability over time and a range of environmental conditions. Our results show that their performance varies spatially and temporally, as it depends on the atmospheric composition and the meteorological conditions. Our results show that the performance varies from unit to unit, which makes it necessary to examine the data quality of each node before its use. In general, guidance is lacking on how to test such sensor nodes and ensure adequate performance prior to marketing these platforms. We have implemented and tested diverse metrics in order to assess if the sensor can be employed for applications that require high accuracy (i.e., to meet the Data Quality Objectives defined in air quality legislation, epidemiological studies) or lower accuracy (i.e., to represent the pollution level on a coarse scale, for purposes such as awareness raising). Data quality is a pertinent concern, especially in citizen science applications, where citizens are collecting and interpreting the data. In general, while low-cost platforms present low accuracy for regulatory or health purposes they can provide relative and aggregated information about the observed air quality.

  19. [Methodological aspects in environmental and biological monitoring of exposure to low doses of benzene: problems and possible solutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranfo, Giovanna; Paci, Enrico; Fustinoni, Silvia; Barbieri, Anna; Carrieri, Mariella

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to examine some methods to measure human exposure to benzene, both in life and occupational environments, through environmental and biological monitoring, examining the critical issues and optimal conditions of use. The overall performance of environmental monitoring, from the analytical point of view, strongly depend on the choice of an appropriate method of sampling and analysis. Urinary SPMA and t, t-MA are the biomarkers listed by ACGIH to evaluate occupational exposure: most of the recent studies use HPLC with tandem mass spectrometry, but since t, t-MA is present in the urine in larger quantities it is also determinable with UV detectors. The urinary benzene is an index not officially included in the list of the ACGIH BEIs, but it is useful to assess exposure and benzene at low concentrations, that most frequently are found today in the occupational and life environments.

  20. Establishing an air pollution monitoring network for intra-urban population exposure assessment : a location-allocation approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanaroglou, P.S. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). School of Geography and Geology; Jerrett, M.; Beckerman, B.; Arain, M.A. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). School of Geography and Geology]|[McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). McMaster Inst. of Environment and Health; Morrison, J. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). School of Computer Science; Gilbert, N.L. [Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Air Health Effects Div; Brook, J.R. [Meteorological Service of Canada, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2004-10-01

    A study was conducted to assess the relation between traffic-generated air pollution and health reactions ranging from childhood asthma to mortality from lung cancer. In particular, it developed a formal method of optimally locating a dense network of air pollution monitoring stations in order to derive an exposure assessment model based on the data obtained from the monitoring stations and related land use, population and biophysical information. The method for determining the locations of 100 nitrogen dioxide monitors in Toronto, Ontario focused on land use, transportation infrastructure and the distribution of at-risk populations. The exposure assessment produced reasonable estimates at the intra-urban scale. This method for locating air pollution monitors effectively maximizes sampling coverage in relation to important socio-demographic characteristics and likely pollution variability. The location-allocation approach integrates many variables into the demand surface to reconfigure a monitoring network and is especially useful for measuring traffic pollutants with fine-scale spatial variability. The method also shows great promise for improving the assessment of exposure to ambient air pollution in epidemiologic studies. 19 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  1. Experimental effects of exposure to pornography: the moderating effect of personality and mediating effect of sexual arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hald, Gert Martin; Malamuth, Neil N

    2015-01-01

    Using a randomly selected community sample of 200 Danish young adult men and women in a randomized experimental design, the study investigated the effects of a personality trait (agreeableness), past pornography consumption, and experimental exposure to non-violent pornography on attitudes supporting violence against women (ASV). We found that lower levels of agreeableness and higher levels of past pornography consumption significantly predicted ASV. In addition, experimental exposure to pornography increased ASV but only among men low in agreeableness. This relationship was found to be significantly mediated by sexual arousal with sexual arousal referring to the subjective assessment of feeling sexually excited, ready for sexual activities, and/or bodily sensations associated with being sexually aroused. In underscoring the importance of individual differences, the results supported the hierarchical confluence model of sexual aggression and the media literature on affective engagement and priming effects.

  2. Gene expression profiling in persons with multiple chemical sensitivity before and after a controlled n-butanol exposure session

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantoft, Thomas M; Skovbjerg, Sine; Andersson, Linus; Claeson, Anna-Sara; Engkilde, Kaare; Lind, Nina; Nordin, Steven; Hellgren, Lars I

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the pathophysiological pathways leading to symptoms elicitation in multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) by comparing gene expression in MCS participants and healthy controls before and after a chemical exposure optimised to cause symptoms among MCS participants. The first hypothesis was that unexposed and symptom-free MCS participants have similar gene expression patterns to controls and a second hypothesis that MCS participants can be separated from controls based on differential gene expression upon a controlled n-butanol exposure. Design Participants were exposed to 3.7 ppm n-butanol while seated in a windowed exposure chamber for 60 min. A total of 26 genes involved in biochemical pathways found in the literature have been proposed to play a role in the pathogenesis of MCS and other functional somatic syndromes were selected. Expression levels were compared between MCS and controls before, within 15 min after being exposed to and 4 hours after the exposure. Settings Participants suffering from MCS and healthy controls were recruited through advertisement at public places and in a local newspaper. Participants 36 participants who considered themselves sensitive were prescreened for eligibility. 18 sensitive persons fulfilling the criteria for MCS were enrolled together with 18 healthy controls. Outcome measures 17 genes showed sufficient transcriptional level for analysis. Group comparisons were conducted for each gene at the 3 times points and for the computed area under the curve (AUC) expression levels. Results MCS participants and controls displayed similar gene expression levels both at baseline and after the exposure and the computed AUC values were likewise comparable between the 2 groups. The intragroup variation in expression levels among MCS participants was noticeably greater than the controls. Conclusions MCS participants and controls have similar gene expression levels at baseline and it was not possible to separate

  3. The Use of Mobile, Electrochemical Sensor Nodes for the Measurement of Personal Exposure to Gas-Phase Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, G.; Popoola, O. A.; Mead, M. I.; McKeating, S. J.; Calleja, M.; Hayes, M.; Baron, R. P.; Saffell, J.; Jones, R.

    2012-12-01

    In this paper we describe how low-cost, lightweight devices, which incorporate GPS and GPRS facilities and contain electrochemical sensors for carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen monoxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), have been used to collect data representative of personal exposure to these important urban air pollutants. E.U. legislation has set target levels for gases thought to have adverse impacts on human health, and consequently led to a need for a more informed air pollution control policy. With many sites in the U.K. and in the rest of the E.U. still failing to meet annual targets for NO2, a need to better understand pollutant sources and behaviour has arisen. Moreover, while traditional chemiluminescence techniques provide precise measurements, the instruments are sparsely populated around urban centres and are thus limited in their ability to account for true personal exposure. Through a series of laboratory and field studies, it has been shown that electrochemical sensor nodes, when configured suitably and after post-processing of data, can provide selective, reproducible measurements, and that the devices have appropriate detection limits (at the low parts-per-billion level), as well as fast enough response times, for urban air quality studies. Both mobile nodes and their static analogues have been deployed with different aims. Static nodes have been used in dense networks in both the urban environment and in the grounds of a major international airport, as described in the partner papers of Mead et al and Bright et al. Mobile units are easily deployed in scalable networks for short-term studies on personal exposure; these studies have been carried out in a wide range of locations including Lagos, Kuala-Lumpur, London and Valencia. Data collected by both mobile and static sensor nodes illustrate the insufficiency of the existing infrastructure in accounting for both the spatial and temporal variability in air pollutants due to road traffic emissions

  4. Prohypertensive effect of gestational personal exposure to fine particulate matter. Prospective cohort study in non-smoking and non-obese pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw A; Perera, Frederica P; Maugeri, Umberto; Spengler, John; Mroz, Elzbieta; Flak, Elzbieta; Stigter, Laura; Majewska, Renata; Kaim, Irena; Sowa, Agata; Jacek, Ryszard

    2012-09-01

    Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM) is a recognized risk factor for elevated blood pressure (BP) and cardiovascular disease in adults, and this prospective cohort study was undertaken to evaluate whether gestational exposure to PM(2.5) has a prohypertensive effect. We measured personal exposure to fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) by personal air monitoring in the second trimester of pregnancy among 431 women, and BP values in the third trimester were obtained from medical records of prenatal care clinics. In the general estimating equation model, the effect of PM(2.5) on BP was adjusted for relevant covariates such as maternal age, education, parity, gestational weight gain (GWG), prepregnancy BMI, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and blood lead level. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) increased in a linear fashion across a dosage of PM(2.5) and on average augmented by 6.1 mm Hg (95% CI, 0.6-11.6) with log unit of PM(2.5) concentration. Effects of age, maternal education, prepregnancy BMI, blood lead level, and ETS were insignificant. Women with excessive gestational weight gain (>18 kg) had higher mean SBP parameters by 5.5 mmHg (95% CI, 2.7-8.3). In contrast, multiparous women had significantly lower SBP values (coeff. = -4.2 mm Hg; 95% CI, -6.8 to -1.6). Similar analysis performed for diastolic blood pressure (DBP) has demonstrated that PM(2.5) also affected DBP parameters (coeff. = 4.1; 95% CI, -0.02 to 8.2), but at the border significance level. DBP values were positively associated with the excessive GWG (coeff. = 2.3; 95% CI, 0.3-4.4) but were inversely related to parity (coeff. = -2.7; 95% CI, -4.6 to -0.73). In the observed cohort, the exposure to fine particulate matter during pregnancy was associated with increased maternal blood pressure.

  5. Occupational Animal Exposure Among Persons with Campylobacteriosis and Cryptosporidiosis - Nebraska, 2005-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chia-Ping; Stover, Derry T; Buss, Bryan F; Carlson, Anna V; Luckhaupt, Sara E

    2017-09-15

    Campylobacter and Cryptosporidium are two common causes of gastroenteritis in the United States. National incidence rates measured for these pathogens in 2015 were 17.7 and 3.0 per 100,000 population, respectively; Nebraska was among the states with the highest incidence for both campylobacteriosis (26.6) and cryptosporidiosis (≥6.01) (1). Although campylobacteriosis and cryptosporidiosis are primarily transmitted via consumption of contaminated food or water, they can also be acquired through contact with live animals or animal products, including through occupational exposure (2). This exposure route is of particular interest in Nebraska, where animal agriculture and associated industries are an important part of the state's economy. To estimate the percentage of disease that might be related to occupational animal exposure in Nebraska, the Nebraska Department of Health and Human Services (NDHHS) and CDC reviewed deidentified investigation reports from 2005 to 2015 of cases of campylobacteriosis and cryptosporidiosis among Nebraska residents aged ≥14 years. Case investigation notes were searched for evidence of occupational animal exposures, which were classified into discrete categories based on industry, animal/meat, and specific work activity/exposure. Occupational animal exposure was identified in 16.6% of 3,352 campylobacteriosis and 8.7% of 1,070 cryptosporidiosis cases, among which animal production (e.g., farming or ranching) was the most commonly mentioned industry type (68.2% and 78.5%, respectively), followed by employment in animal slaughter and processing facilities (16.3% and 5.4%, respectively). Among animal/meat occupational exposures, cattle/beef was most commonly mentioned, with exposure to feedlots (concentrated animal feeding operations in which animals are fed on stored feeds) reported in 29.9% of campylobacteriosis and 7.9% of cryptosporidiosis cases. Close contact with animals and manure in feedlots and other farm settings might place

  6. Reducing Phthalate, Paraben, and Phenol Exposure from Personal Care Products in Adolescent Girls: Findings from the HERMOSA Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Kim G.; Kogut, Katherine; Madrigal, Daniel S.; Cardenas, Maritza; Vera, Irene A.; Meza-Alfaro, Gonzalo; She, Jianwen; Gavin, Qi; Zahedi, Rana; Bradman, Asa; Eskenazi, Brenda; Parra, Kimberly L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Personal care products are a source of exposure to potentially endocrine-disrupting chemicals such as phthalates, parabens, triclosan, and benzophenone-3 (BP-3) for adolescent girls. Methods: We enrolled 100 Latina girls in a youth-led, community-based participatory research intervention study to determine whether using personal care products whose labels stated they did not contain these chemicals for 3 days could lower urinary concentrations. Pre- and postintervention urine samples were analyzed for phthalate metabolites, parabens, triclosan, and BP-3 using high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Urinary concentrations of mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP) decreased by 27.4% (95% CI: –39.3, –13.2) on average over the 3-day intervention; no significant changes were seen in urinary concentrations of mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) and mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP). Methyl and propyl paraben concentrations decreased by 43.9% (95% CI: –61.3, –18.8) and 45.4% (95% CI: –63.7, –17.9), respectively. Unexpectedly, concentrations of ethyl and butyl paraben concentrations increased, although concentrations were low overall and not detected in almost half the samples. Triclosan concentrations decreased by 35.7% (95% CI: –53.3, –11.6), and BP-3 concentrations decreased by 36.0% (95% CI: –51.0, –16.4). Discussion: This study demonstrates that techniques available to consumers, such as choosing personal care products that are labeled to be free of phthalates, parabens, triclosan, and BP-3, can reduce personal exposure to possible endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Involving youth in the design and implementation of the study was key to recruitment, retention, compliance, and acceptability of the intervention. Citation: Harley KG, Kogut K, Madrigal DS, Cardenas M, Vera IA, Meza-Alfaro G, She J, Gavin Q, Zahedi R, Bradman A, Eskenazi B, Parra KL. 2016. Reducing phthalate, paraben, and phenol exposure from personal care

  7. Using a personal watercraft for monitoring bathymetric changes at storm scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Son, S.T.J.; Lindenbergh, R.C.; De Schipper, M.A. .; De Vries, S.; Duijnmayer, K.

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring and understanding coastal processes is important for the Netherlands since the most densely populated areas are situated directly behind the coastal defense. Traditionally, bathymetric changes are monitored at annual intervals, although nowadays it is understood that most dramatic changes

  8. Validation of an aggregate exposure model for substances in consumer products: a case study of diethyl phthalate in personal care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmaar, Christiaan; Bokkers, Bas; ter Burg, Wouter; Schuur, Gerlienke

    2015-05-01

    As personal care products (PCPs) are used in close contact with a person, they are a major source of consumer exposure to chemical substances contained in these products. The estimation of realistic consumer exposure to substances in PCPs is currently hampered by the lack of appropriate data and methods. To estimate aggregate exposure of consumers to substances contained in PCPs, a person-oriented consumer exposure model has been developed (the Probabilistic Aggregate Consumer Exposure Model, PACEM). The model simulates daily exposure in a population based on product use data collected from a survey among the Dutch population. The model is validated by comparing diethyl phthalate (DEP) dose estimates to dose estimates based on biomonitoring data. It was found that the model's estimates compared well with the estimates based on biomonitoring data. This suggests that the person-oriented PACEM model is a practical tool for assessing realistic aggregate exposures to substances in PCPs. In the future, PACEM will be extended with use pattern data on other product groups. This will allow for assessing aggregate exposure to substances in consumer products across different product groups.

  9. Monitoring of radiation exposure. Annual report 2000; Saeteilyn kaeyttoe ja muu saeteilytoiminta. Vuosiraportti 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantanen, E. [ed.

    2001-03-01

    At the end of 2000, there were 1,779 valid safety licenses in Finland for the use of radiation. In addition, there were 2,038 responsible parties for dental x-ray diagnostics. The registry Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) listed 13,754 radiation sources and 270 radionuclide laboratories. In the year 2000 360 inspections were made concerning the safety licences and 53 concerning dental x-ray diagnostics. The import of radioactive substances amounted to 175,836 GBq and export to 74,420 GBq. Short-lived radionuclides produced in Finland amounted to 55,527 GBq. In the year 2000 there were 10,846 workers monitored for radiation exposure at 1,171 work sites. Of these employees, 27% received an annual dose exceeding the recording level. The annual effective dose limit was not exceeded. The total dose recorded in the dose registry(sum of the individual dosemeter readings) was 6.5 Sv in 2000.

  10. Association between exposure to nonactionable physiologic monitor alarms and response time in a children's hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonafide, Christopher P; Lin, Richard; Zander, Miriam; Graham, Christian Sarkis; Paine, Christine W; Rock, Whitney; Rich, Andrew; Roberts, Kathryn E; Fortino, Margaret; Nadkarni, Vinay M; Localio, A Russell; Keren, Ron

    2015-06-01

    Alarm fatigue is reported to be a major threat to patient safety, yet little empirical data support its existence in the hospital. To determine if nurses exposed to high rates of nonactionable physiologic monitor alarms respond more slowly to subsequent alarms that could represent life-threatening conditions. Observational study using video. Freestanding children's hospital. Pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) patients requiring inotropic support and/or mechanical ventilation, and medical ward patients. None. Actionable alarms were defined as correctly identifying physiologic status and warranting clinical intervention or consultation. We measured response time to alarms occurring while there were no clinicians in the patient's room. We evaluated the association between the number of nonactionable alarms the patient had in the preceding 120 minutes (categorized as 0-29, 30-79, or 80+ alarms) and response time to subsequent alarms in the same patient using a log-rank test that accounts for within-nurse clustering. We observed 36 nurses for 210 hours with 5070 alarms; 87.1% of PICU and 99.0% of ward clinical alarms were nonactionable. Kaplan-Meier plots showed incremental increases in response time as the number of nonactionable alarms in the preceding 120 minutes increased (log-rank test stratified by nurse P alarms were nonactionable, and response time increased as nonactionable alarm exposure increased. Alarm fatigue could explain these findings. Future studies should evaluate the simultaneous influence of workload and other factors that can impact response time. © 2015 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  11. When the presence of creative coworkers is related to creativity: role of supervisor close monitoring, developmental feedback, and creative personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jing

    2003-06-01

    Study 1 was conducted to examine the contribution of the joint condition of supervisor close monitoring and the presence of creative coworkers to employees' creativity. In addition to replicating Study 1's results, Study 2 examined (a) the joint condition of supervisor developmental feedback and presence of creative coworkers and (b) whether creative personality moderated the contributions of the 2 joint conditions. Converging results from the 2 field studies demonstrated that when creative coworkers were present, the less supervisors engaged in close monitoring, the more employees exhibited creativity. Study 2 also found that the contribution of this joint condition was stronger for employees with less creative personalities and that when creative coworkers were present, the more supervisors provided developmental feedback, the more employees exhibited creativity.

  12. Review of personal monitoring techniques for the measurement of absorbed dose from external beta and low energy photon radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Poul

    1986-01-01

    The techniques available at present for personal monitoring of doses from external beta and low energy photon radiation are reviewed. The performance of currently used dosimetry systems is compared with that recommended internationally, and developments for improving the actual performance...... are outlined. The subjects dealt with compromise: the quantity to be measured, the required accuracy of measurement, calibration procedures, and dosemeter design including the main parameters influencing the energy and angular response of the dosemeter, such as detector thickness, filter thickness, dosemeter...

  13. Personal Financial Disclosure: Is It Your Civic Duty or Indecent Exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficklen, Ellen

    1985-01-01

    The pros and cons of financial disclosure laws of varying strictness and their effects on school board members are discussed. Recent trends are noted and a tabulation is provided of the statutory requirements concerning disclosure of personal finances and campaign contributions in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. (PGD)

  14. Control of exposure to exhaled air from sick occupant with wearable personal exhaust unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Barova, Maria I.

    2014-01-01

    of the doctor at three different distances. It was operated at 0.25 or 0.50 L/s under mixing background ventilation at 3 ACH. The use of wearable personal exhaust resulted in cleaner air in the room compared to mixing alone at 12 ACH. The high potential to capture exhaled air makes the device efficient against...

  15. Balancing Speech Intelligibility versus Sound Exposure in Selection of Personal Hearing Protection Equipment for Chinook Aircrews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaarden, S.J. van; Rots, G.

    2001-01-01

    Background: Aircrews are often exposed to high ambient sound levels, especially in military aviation. Since long-term exposure to such noise may cause hearing damage, selection of adequate hearing protective devices is crucial. Such devices also affect speech intelligibility. When speech

  16. Stochastic modeling of near-field exposure to parabens in personal care products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Csiszar, Susan A.; Ernstoff, Alexi; Fantke, Peter;

    2016-01-01

    use is substantially larger than environmentally mediated exposure after product disposal. Modeled urine concentrations reflect well the NHANES variation of three orders of magnitude across parabens for the 50th, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles and were generally in good agreement with measurements...

  17. Balancing Speech Intelligibility versus Sound Exposure in Selection of Personal Hearing Protection Equipment for Chinook Aircrews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaarden, S.J. van; Rots, G.

    2001-01-01

    Background: Aircrews are often exposed to high ambient sound levels, especially in military aviation. Since long-term exposure to such noise may cause hearing damage, selection of adequate hearing protective devices is crucial. Such devices also affect speech intelligibility. When speech intelligibi

  18. Influence of having a home garden on personal UVR exposure behavior and risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idorn, Luise Winkel; Thieden, Elisabeth; Philipsen, Peter Alshede; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2013-03-15

    There is a need for more knowledge concerning the association of higher socioeconomic status (SES) with cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM). Having a home garden is associated with a higher SES. We aimed to study the influence of having a home garden on UVR exposure behavior and risk of CMM. Register study: We collected information from Danish national registers about gender, age, type of home and CMM among persons aged 16-75 in 2002-2006. A total of 5,118 CMM cases were identified. Risk of CMM of the trunk was increased by 46% (p Dosimeter study: During a summer season 194 participants living in the Capital area, Denmark, equally distributed in homes with and without a garden, wore personal electronic UVR dosimeters measuring time-stamped UVR doses continuously and filled in sun exposure diaries. While no difference was found in estimated yearly UVR dose between groups, participants with a home garden had more days exposing shoulders or upper body, and upper extremities outdoors than those without a garden (p = 0.026, age adjusted). People with a home garden are at increased risk of CMM of the trunk and extremities-body sites that seems to be exposed to a higher extent among people with home gardens. People with a higher SES are more likely to have a home garden. This may partly explain the well-known association of higher SES with CMM incidence. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  19. PhysioDroid: Combining Wearable Health Sensors and Mobile Devices for a Ubiquitous, Continuous, and Personal Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oresti Banos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Technological advances on the development of mobile devices, medical sensors, and wireless communication systems support a new generation of unobtrusive, portable, and ubiquitous health monitoring systems for continuous patient assessment and more personalized health care. There exist a growing number of mobile apps in the health domain; however, little contribution has been specifically provided, so far, to operate this kind of apps with wearable physiological sensors. The PhysioDroid, presented in this paper, provides a personalized means to remotely monitor and evaluate users’ conditions. The PhysioDroid system provides ubiquitous and continuous vital signs analysis, such as electrocardiogram, heart rate, respiration rate, skin temperature, and body motion, intended to help empower patients and improve clinical understanding. The PhysioDroid is composed of a wearable monitoring device and an Android app providing gathering, storage, and processing features for the physiological sensor data. The versatility of the developed app allows its use for both average users and specialists, and the reduced cost of the PhysioDroid puts it at the reach of most people. Two exemplary use cases for health assessment and sports training are presented to illustrate the capabilities of the PhysioDroid. Next technical steps include generalization to other mobile platforms and health monitoring devices.

  20. PhysioDroid: combining wearable health sensors and mobile devices for a ubiquitous, continuous, and personal monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banos, Oresti; Villalonga, Claudia; Damas, Miguel; Gloesekoetter, Peter; Pomares, Hector; Rojas, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Technological advances on the development of mobile devices, medical sensors, and wireless communication systems support a new generation of unobtrusive, portable, and ubiquitous health monitoring systems for continuous patient assessment and more personalized health care. There exist a growing number of mobile apps in the health domain; however, little contribution has been specifically provided, so far, to operate this kind of apps with wearable physiological sensors. The PhysioDroid, presented in this paper, provides a personalized means to remotely monitor and evaluate users' conditions. The PhysioDroid system provides ubiquitous and continuous vital signs analysis, such as electrocardiogram, heart rate, respiration rate, skin temperature, and body motion, intended to help empower patients and improve clinical understanding. The PhysioDroid is composed of a wearable monitoring device and an Android app providing gathering, storage, and processing features for the physiological sensor data. The versatility of the developed app allows its use for both average users and specialists, and the reduced cost of the PhysioDroid puts it at the reach of most people. Two exemplary use cases for health assessment and sports training are presented to illustrate the capabilities of the PhysioDroid. Next technical steps include generalization to other mobile platforms and health monitoring devices.

  1. An electromagnetic signals monitoring and analysis wireless platform employing personal digital assistants and pattern analysis techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninos, K.; Georgiadis, P.; Cavouras, D.; Nomicos, C.

    2010-05-01

    This study presents the design and development of a mobile wireless platform to be used for monitoring and analysis of seismic events and related electromagnetic (EM) signals, employing Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs). A prototype custom-developed application was deployed on a 3G enabled PDA that could connect to the FTP server of the Institute of Geodynamics of the National Observatory of Athens and receive and display EM signals at 4 receiver frequencies (3 KHz (E-W, N-S), 10 KHz (E-W, N-S), 41 MHz and 46 MHz). Signals may originate from any one of the 16 field-stations located around the Greek territory. Employing continuous recordings of EM signals gathered from January 2003 till December 2007, a Support Vector Machines (SVM)-based classification system was designed to distinguish EM precursor signals within noisy background. EM-signals corresponding to recordings preceding major seismic events (Ms≥5R) were segmented, by an experienced scientist, and five features (mean, variance, skewness, kurtosis, and a wavelet based feature), derived from the EM-signals were calculated. These features were used to train the SVM-based classification scheme. The performance of the system was evaluated by the exhaustive search and leave-one-out methods giving 87.2% overall classification accuracy, in correctly identifying EM precursor signals within noisy background employing all calculated features. Due to the insufficient processing power of the PDAs, this task was performed on a typical desktop computer. This optimal trained context of the SVM classifier was then integrated in the PDA based application rendering the platform capable to discriminate between EM precursor signals and noise. System's efficiency was evaluated by an expert who reviewed 1/ multiple EM-signals, up to 18 days prior to corresponding past seismic events, and 2/ the possible EM-activity of a specific region employing the trained SVM classifier. Additionally, the proposed architecture can form a

  2. Monitoring exposure of northern cardinals, Cardinalis cardinalis, to cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides: enzyme activity, reactivations, and indicators of environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maul, Jonathan D; Farris, Jerry L

    2005-07-01

    Northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) frequently use agricultural field edges in northeast Arkansas, USA, and may be at risk of exposure to cholinesterase (ChE)-inhibiting pesticides. We monitored northern cardinal exposure to ChE-inhibiting pesticides by comparing plasma total ChE (TChE) activity to reference-derived benchmarks and TChE reactivations. Total ChE and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were measured for 128 plasma samples from 104 northern cardinals from nine study sites. Of birds sampled from sites treated with ChE-inhibiting pesticides, 4.3% of the samples had TChE activities below the diagnostic threshold (2 standard deviations [SD] below the reference mean) and 8.7% of the samples had TChE reactivations. No difference was found in TChE (p = 0.553) and AChE (p = 0.288) activity between treated and reference sites; however, activity varied among treated sites (p = 0.003). These data do not suggest uniform exposure to individuals, but rather exposure was variable and likely influenced by mitigating factors at individual and site scales. Furthermore, monitoring of TChE reactivation appeared to be a more sensitive indicator of exposure than the diagnostic threshold. Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) was greater at agricultural sites than reference sites (p = 0.016), supporting the hypothesis that FA may be useful for assessing a combination of habitat- and contaminant-related environmental stress.

  3. [Exposure to mineral oils at worksites and novel solutions for polymer protective materials in selected personal protective equipment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzemińska, Sylwia; Irzmańska, Emilia

    2011-01-01

    Exposure of workers to health hazards due to contact with mineral oils occurs primarily in the chemical, petrochemical, machine-building, metallurgic and car industries. Under worksite conditions, the respiratory system and the skin are the primary routes of entry of mineral oils into the human body. Long-term exposure of the skin to oily substances may lead not only to irritation and allergic lesions. The studies conducted in this area have confirmed a significant increase in the incidence of skin cancers in persons chronically exposed to mineral oils. Protection of workers' health at worksites associated with the risk of contact with mineral oils requires, in addition to collective protective and organizational solutions, personal protective equipment with appropriate protection and utility parameters confirmed by laboratory tests. The essential preventive measures include protection of the human skin by means of appropriate protective clothing and gloves, which provide an effective barrier against a wide spectrum of chemical compounds present in mineral oils. Knowledge of polymer materials is the prerequisite for designing more and more effective and functional protective clothing and gloves. Studies aimed at obtaining higher levels of skin protection against varied toxic substances, including mineral oils, have been conducted, among others, to develop modern glove and clothing materials ensuring resistance to oils. The rapid progress of nanotechnology and the use of nanoadditives in polymer materials has made it possible to undertake works aimed at developing modern polymer nanostructures designed for construction of oil-resistant protective clothing and gloves. In this review paper the authors have presented the current knowledge of polymer materials, from traditional ones to polymer nanostructures, used in personal equipment protecting against mineral oils.

  4. Soundscape and Noise Exposure Monitoring in a Marine Protected Area Using Shipping Data and Time-Lapse Footage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Nathan D; Pirotta, Enrico; Barton, Tim R; Thompson, Paul M

    2016-01-01

    We review recent work that developed new techniques for underwater noise assessment that integrate acoustic monitoring with automatic identification system (AIS) shipping data and time-lapse video, meteorological, and tidal data. Two sites were studied within the Moray Firth Special Area of Conservation (SAC) for bottlenose dolphins, where increased shipping traffic is expected from construction of offshore wind farms outside the SAC. Noise exposure varied markedly between the sites, and natural and anthropogenic contributions were characterized using multiple data sources. At one site, AIS-operating vessels accounted for total cumulative sound exposure (0.1-10 kHz), suggesting that noise modeling using the AIS would be feasible.

  5. Multiple indicators of ambient and personal ultraviolet radiation exposure and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (United States).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, D Michal; Kimlin, Michael G; Hoffbeck, Richard W; Alexander, Bruce H; Linet, Martha S

    2010-12-02

    Recent epidemiologic studies have suggested that ultraviolet radiation (UV) may protect against non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), but few, if any, have assessed multiple indicators of ambient and personal UV exposure. Using the US Radiologic Technologists study, we examined the association between NHL and self-reported time outdoors in summer, as well as average year-round and seasonal ambient exposures based on satellite estimates for different age periods, and sun susceptibility in participants who had responded to two questionnaires (1994-1998, 2003-2005) and who were cancer-free as of the earlier questionnaire. Using unconditional logistic regression, we estimated the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals for 64,103 participants with 137 NHL cases. Self-reported time outdoors in summer was unrelated to risk. Lower risk was somewhat related to higher average year-round and winter ambient exposure for the period closest in time, and prior to, diagnosis (ages 20-39). Relative to 1.0 for the lowest quartile of average year-round ambient UV, the estimated OR for successively higher quartiles was 0.68 (0.42-1.10); 0.82 (0.52-1.29); and 0.64 (0.40-1.03), p-trend=0.06), for this age period. The lower NHL risk associated with higher year-round average and winter ambient UV provides modest additional support for a protective relationship between UV and NHL.

  6. Exposure to Psychological Aggression at Work and Job Performance: The Mediating Role of Job Attitudes and Personal Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schat, Aaron; Frone, Michael R

    2011-01-01

    Despite the growing literature on workplace aggression and the importance of employee performance at work, few studies have examined the relation between workplace aggression and job performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relations between psychological aggression at work and two forms of job performance (task performance and contextual performance) and potential mediators of these relations. Based on Conservation of Resources theory and prior research, a model was developed and tested in which overall job attitudes (i.e., job satisfaction and organizational commitment) and overall personal health (i.e., physical and psychological health) fully mediate the relations between exposure to psychological aggression at work and both task performance and contextual performance. Data were obtained from a national probability sample of US workers (N = 2376) and the model was tested using structural equation modelling. The results supported the hypothesized model, demonstrating that exposure to psychological aggression at work negatively predicted both task performance and contextual performance, and that these relations were explained by decrements in job attitudes and health associated with exposure to psychological aggression at work.

  7. Determinants of personal exposure to PM2.5, ultrafine particle counts, and CO in a transport microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, S; Nieuwenhuijsen, M J

    2009-07-01

    Short-term human exposure concentrations to PM2.5, ultrafine particle counts (particle range: 0.02-1 microm), and carbon monoxide (CO) were investigated at and around a street canyon intersection in Central London, UK. During a four week field campaign, groups of four volunteers collected samples at three timings (morning, lunch, and afternoon), along two different routes (a heavily trafficked route and a backstreet route) via five modes of transport (walking, cycling, bus, car, and taxi). This was followed by an investigation into the determinants of exposure using a regression technique which incorporated the site-specific traffic counts, meteorological variables (wind speed and temperature) and the mode of transport used. The analyses explained 9, 62, and 43% of the variability observed in the exposure concentrations to PM2.5, ultrafine particle counts, and CO in this study, respectively. The mode of transport was a statistically significant determinant of personal exposure to PM2.5, ultrafine particle counts, and CO, and for PM2.5 and ultrafine particle counts it was the most important determinant. Traffic count explained little of the variability in the PM2.5 concentrations, but it had a greater influence on ultrafine particle count and CO concentrations. The analyses showed that temperature had a statistically significant impact on ultrafine particle count and CO concentrations. Wind speed also had a statistically significant effect but smaller. The small proportion in variability explained in PM2.5 by the model compared to the largest proportion in ultrafine particle counts and CO may be due to the effect of long-range transboundary sources, whereas for ultrafine particle counts and CO, local traffic is the main source.

  8. A survey of phthalates and parabens in personal care products from the United States and its implications for human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2013-12-17

    Despite the widespread usage of phthalates and parabens in personal care products (PCPs), little is known about concentrations and profiles as well as human exposure to these compounds through the use of PCPs. In this study, nine phthalates and six parabens were determined in 170 PCPs (41 rinse-off and 109 leave-on), including 20 baby care products collected from Albany, New York. Phthalates were less frequently found in rinse-off PCPs but were more frequently found in perfumes (detection frequency of 100% for diethyl phthalate [DEP], 67% for dibutyl phthalate [DBP]), skin toners (90% for DEP), and nail polishes (90% for DBP). Parabens were found in ∼40% of rinse-off products and ∼60% of leave-on products. The highest concentrations of DEP, DBP, methyl- (MeP), ethyl- (EtP), propyl- (PrP), and butyl parabens (BuP) were on the order of 1000 μg per gram of the product. On the basis of amount and frequency of use of PCPs and the measured median concentrations of target analytes, the total dermal intake doses (sum of all phthalates or parabens) were calculated to be 0.37 and 31.0 μg/kg-bw/day for phthalates and parabens, respectively, for adult females. The calculated dermal intake of phthalates from PCPs was lower for infants and toddlers than for adult females. In contrast, dermal intake of parabens from PCPs by infants and toddlers was higher than that for adult females. The calculated maximum daily exposure dose of MeP, EtP, and PrP from PCPs ranged between 58.6 and 766 μg/kg-bw/day for infants and toddlers, which was 3 times higher than that calculated for adult females. PCPs are an important source of human exposure to parabens; the contribution of PCPs to phthalate exposure is low, except for DEP.

  9. Chemical characterization and sources of personal exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the megacity of Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Cui; Jahn, Heiko J; Engling, Guenter; Ward, Tony J; Kraemer, Alexander; Ho, Kin-Fai; Yim, S H L; Chan, Chuen-Yu

    2017-09-05

    Concurrent ambient and personal measurements of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were conducted in eight districts of Guangzhou during the winter of 2011. Personal-to-ambient (P-C) relationships of PM2.5 chemical components were determined and sources of personal PM2.5 exposures were evaluated using principal component analysis and a mixed-effects model. Water-soluble inorganic ions (e.g., SO4(2-), NO3(-), NH4(+), C2O4(2-)) and anhydrosugars (e.g., levoglucosan, mannosan) exhibited median personal-to-ambient (P/C) ratios PM2.5 were significantly affected by ambient sources. Conversely, elemental carbon (EC) and calcium (Ca(2+)) showed median P/C ratios greater than unity, illustrating significant impact of local traffic, indoor sources, and/or personal activities on individual's exposure. SO4(2-) displayed very low coefficient of divergence (COD) values coupled with strong P-C correlations, implying a uniform distribution of SO4(2-) in the urban area of Guangzhou. EC, Ca(2+), and levoglucosan were otherwise heterogeneously distributed across individuals in different districts. Regional air pollution (50.4 ± 0.9%), traffic-related particles (8.6 ± 0.7%), dust-related particles (5.8 ± 0.7%), and biomass burning emissions (2.0 ± 0.2%) were moderate to high positive sources of personal PM2.5 exposure in Guangzhou. The observed positive and significant contribution of Ca(2+) to personal PM2.5 exposure, highlighting indoor sources and/or personal activities, were driving factors determining personal exposure to dust-related particles. Considerable discrepancies (COD values ranging from 0.42 to 0.50) were shown between ambient concentrations and personal exposures, indicating caution should be taken when using ambient concentrations as proxies for personal exposures in epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Gamma radiation exposure of accompanying persons due to Lu-177 patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovan, Bilal; Demir, Bayram; Tuncman, Duygu; Capali, Veli; Turkmen, Cuneyt

    2015-07-01

    Neuroendocrine tumours (NET) are cancers usually observed and arisen in the stomach, intestine, pancreas and breathing system. Recently, radionuclide therapy applications with Lu-177 peptide compound are rapidly growing; especially effective clinical results are obtained in the treatment of well-differentiated and metastatic NET. In this treatment, Lu-177-DOTA, a beta emitter radioisotope in the radiopharmaceutical form, is given to the patient by intravenous way. Lu-177 has also gamma rays apart from beta rays. Gamma rays have 175 keV average energy and these gamma rays should be under the control in terms of radiation protection. In this study, we measured the exposure dose from the Lu-177 patient.

  11. CONCEPTUAL PRECONDITIONS OF SANOGENETICAL MONITORING OF PERSONS ENGAGED IN PHYSICAL CULTURE AND SPORTS

    OpenAIRE

    Romanchuk, A. P.

    2015-01-01

    The modern representations about human biology, theoretical medicine and psychology are reduced to that the individualized approach based on the account of typological features is necessary for optimization of the condition of a person. The purpose of occupations by sports is the development of physical qualities of the person, perfection of technical-tactical skills for achievement of the maximal sports result. At the same time the purpose of occupations by physical culture is the mainten...

  12. Increased micronucleated cell frequency related to exposure to radiation emitted by computer cathode ray tube video display monitors

    OpenAIRE

    Karina Carbonari; Luciane Gonçalves; Daniela Roth; Patrick Moreira; Ricardo Fernández; Maria da Graça Martino-Roth

    2005-01-01

    It is well recognized that electromagnetic fields can affect the biological functions of living organisms at both cellular and molecular level. The potential damaging effects of electromagnetic fields and very low frequency and extremely low frequency radiation emitted by computer cathode ray tube video display monitors (VDMs) has become a concern within the scientific community. We studied the effects of occupational exposure to VDMs in 10 males and 10 females occupationally exposed to VDMs ...

  13. Response-relapse patterns of building occupant electricity consumption following exposure to personal, contextualized and occupant peer network utilization data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peschiera, Gabriel; Taylor, John E. [Dept of Civil Engineering and Engineering Mechanics, Columbia University, New York (United States); Siegel, Jeffrey A. [Dept of Civil Architectural and Environmental Engineering, University of Texas at Austin (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Behavior can account for significant differences in building energy use. Monitoring and reporting of building energy use may induce occupants to conserve energy. The goal of this study was to assess the behavioral impact of providing building occupants with personal electricity utilization data contextualized with different social frames of reference. We installed monitoring equipment on the electrical meters for 83 rooms of a six-floor residential dormitory building and formulated three study groups and a control group from the building occupants. One study group was provided with their own electricity use, a second group was provided their own electricity use contextualized with average building occupant utilization, and a third group was provided with their own electricity use contextualized with both average occupant utilization and the electricity use of their peer network in the building. The only group that significantly reduced their electricity use when compared to the control group was the study group that could view peer network utilization. All three study groups exhibited response-relapse patterns after viewing their electricity consumption raising important questions about the sustainability of energy conservation and monitoring efforts. (author)

  14. Relevance of aerosol dynamics and dustiness for personal exposure to manufactured nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Thomas; Jensen, Keld A.

    2009-10-01

    Production and handling of manufactured nanoparticles (MNP) may result in unwanted worker exposure. The size distribution and structure of MNP in the breathing zone of workers will differ from the primary MNP produced. Homogeneous coagulation, scavenging by background aerosols, and surface deposition losses are determinants of this change during transport from source to the breathing zone, and to a degree depending on the relative time scale of these processes. Modeling and experimental studies suggest that in MNP production scenarios, workers are most likely exposed to MNP agglomerates or MNP attached to other particles. Surfaces can become contaminated by MNP, which constitute potential secondary sources of airborne MNP-containing particles. Dustiness testing can provide insight into the state of agglomeration of particles released during handling of bulk MNP powder. Test results, supported by field data, suggest that the particles released from powder handling occur in distinct size modes and that the smallest mode can be expected to have a geometric mean diameter >100 nm. The dominating presence of MNP agglomerates or MNP attached to background particles in the air during production and use of MNP implies that size alone cannot, in general, be used to demonstrate presence or absence of MNP in the breathing zone of workers. The entire respirable size fraction should be assessed for risk from inhalation exposure to MNP.

  15. Gamma radiation exposure of accompanying persons due to Lu-177 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovan Bilal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroendocrine tumours (NET are cancers usually observed and arisen in the stomach, intestine, pancreas and breathing system. Recently, radionuclide therapy applications with Lu-177 peptide compound are rapidly growing; especially effective clinical results are obtained in the treatment of well-differentiated and metastatic NET. In this treatment, Lu-177-DOTA, a beta emitter radioisotope in the radiopharmaceutical form, is given to the patient by intravenous way. Lu-177 has also gamma rays apart from beta rays. Gamma rays have 175 keV average energy and these gamma rays should be under the control in terms of radiation protection. In this study, we measured the exposure dose from the Lu-177 patient.

  16. Evaluation of sensitivity evaluation of a contamination monitor for use in monitoring of internal exposure of workers in nuclear medicine; Avaliacao da sensibilidade de um monitor de contaminacao para aplicacao em monitoracao da exposicao interna de trabalhadores em medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, Bernando Maranhao; Assis, Janima Cruz de; Oliveira, Salomao Marques de; Dantas, Ana Leticia Almeida, E-mail: bmdantas@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Monitoracao In Vivo. Div. de Dosimetria

    2014-07-01

    In practice of nuclear medicine, expert personnel routinely handle radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and radiotherapy. The control of intakes of radionuclides by workers can be performed through internal dosimetry techniques, as an integral part of the radiation protection program of the installation. The use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in vivo and in vitro in Brazil is regulated by CNEN-NE Standards and 3:05 CNEN-NN 3.01. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommends the establishment of an internal monitoring program on workers, especially those subject to possible exposure to annual effective doses greater than 1 mSv. Note that, currently, in Brazil, are not available qualified laboratories to provide internal monitoring services in all regions in the country, if it were applied by CNEN, the requirement for internal monitoring of workers. This paper presents the development of a simple and low-cost methodology for in vivo monitoring of {sup 131}I in the thyroid. The proposed methodology is the use of portable monitor of surface contamination, equipment available and routinely used in all nuclear medicine services in Brazil. The monitor is calibrated with neck-thyroid simulator developed at the Laboratory of In Vivo Monitoring of IRD/CNEN-RJ. The equipment tested is suitable for application in in vivo occupational monitoring thyroid. This conclusion is based on the fact that the detection system has sufficient sensitivity for monitoring up to seven days after the incorporation of the radionuclide and guarantees {sup 131}I detection in values that result in effective doses below 1 mSv for the exposure scenarios adopted.

  17. Concentrations of cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes in European cosmetics and personal care products: prerequisite for human and environmental exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudzina, Tatsiana; von Goetz, Natalie; Bogdal, Christian; Biesterbos, Jacqueline W H; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2014-01-01

    Low molecular weight cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes (cVMSs) are widely employed as emollients and carrier solvents in personal care formulations in order to acquire desired performance benefits owing to their distinctive physicochemical properties. Under current European legislation cosmetic ingredients such as cVMSs are required to be labeled on the product package only qualitatively, while for the assessment of environmental and consumer exposure quantitative information is needed. The aim of this study was therefore to measure concentrations of three cVMSs, namely octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6) in 51 cosmetics and personal care products (C&PCPs) that are currently available on the European market. The list of selected articles comprised a variety of hair and sun care products, skin creams and lotions, deodorants including antiperspirants, liquid foundations and a toothpaste. The target compounds were extracted from the products with different organic solvents dependent on the product matrix, followed by gas chromatography analysis with flame ionization detection (GC-FID). D5 was the predominant cVMS with the highest mean and median concentrations in all the C&PCP categories. The median concentrations of D5, D6 and D4 were 142, 2.3 and 0.053 mg/g in deodorants/antiperspirants (n = 11); 44.6, 30.0mg/g and below the limit of quantification (cosmetics (n = 5); 8.4, 0.32 mg/g and exposure to D4 and D5 from multiple C&PCPs was approximately 100 times lower than the current NOAEL derived from chronic inhalation rat studies. © 2013.

  18. Aerosol Emission Monitoring and Assessment of Potential Exposure to Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes in the Manufacture of Polymer Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Drew; Chen, Sheng-Chieh; Wang, Jing; Pui, David Y H

    2015-11-01

    Recent animal studies have shown that carbon nanotubes (CNTs) may pose a significant health risk to those exposed in the workplace. To further understand this potential risk, effort must be taken to measure the occupational exposure to CNTs. Results from an assessment of potential exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) conducted at an industrial facility where polymer nanocomposites were manufactured by an extrusion process are presented. Exposure to MWCNTs was quantified by the thermal-optical analysis for elemental carbon (EC) of respirable dust collected by personal sampling. All personal respirable samples collected (n = 8) had estimated 8-h time weighted average (TWA) EC concentrations below the limit of detection for the analysis which was about one-half of the recommended exposure limit for CNTs, 1 µg EC/m(3) as an 8-h TWA respirable mass concentration. Potential exposure sources were identified and characterized by direct-reading instruments and area sampling. Area samples analyzed for EC yielded quantifiable mass concentrations inside an enclosure where unbound MWCNTs were handled and near a pelletizer where nanocomposite was cut, while those analyzed by electron microscopy detected the presence of MWCNTs at six locations throughout the facility. Through size selective area sampling it was identified that the airborne MWCNTs present in the workplace were in the form of large agglomerates. This was confirmed by electron microscopy where most of the MWCNT structures observed were in the form of micrometer-sized ropey agglomerates. However, a small fraction of single, free MWCNTs was also observed. It was found that the high number concentrations of nanoparticles, ~200000 particles/cm(3), present in the manufacturing facility were likely attributable to polymer fumes produced in the extrusion process. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  19. The Feasibility of Using Lead in Hair Concentration in Monitoring Environmental Exposure in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wibowo, A.A.E.; Brunekreef, B.; Lebret, E.; Pieters, H.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of lead in hair as an indicator of lead exposure has been compared to that of lead in blood and zinc protoporphyrin in blood levels in 1-3 year-old children living within 1 km of a lead smelter. Lead exposure was measured as lead in house dust, outdoor and indoor lead in air

  20. The Feasibility of Using Lead in Hair Concentration in Monitoring Environmental Exposure in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wibowo, A.A.E.; Brunekreef, B.; Lebret, E.; Pieters, H.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of lead in hair as an indicator of lead exposure has been compared to that of lead in blood and zinc protoporphyrin in blood levels in 1-3 year-old children living within 1 km of a lead smelter. Lead exposure was measured as lead in house dust, outdoor and indoor lead in air concentr

  1. BIOMarkers for occupational diesel exhaust exposure monitoring (BIOMODEM) - a study in underground mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheepers, P.T.J.; Coggon, D.; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.;

    2002-01-01

    Methods for the assessment of exposures to diesel exhaust were evaluated, including various biomarkers of internal exposure and early biological effects. The impact of possible biomarkers of susceptibility was also explored. Underground workers (drivers of diesel-powered excavators) at an oil sha...

  2. Review of personal monitoring techniques for the measurement of absorbed dose from external beta and low energy photon radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Poul

    1986-01-01

    The techniques available at present for personal monitoring of doses from external beta and low energy photon radiation are reviewed. The performance of currently used dosimetry systems is compared with that recommended internationally, and developments for improving the actual performance...... materials and detector/filter geometry. Improvements in the energy and angular response of dosemeters for the measurements of doses from beta and low energy photon radiation can be achieved essentially through two different approaches: either by using thin detectors or multi-element dosemeters...

  3. Co-occupant's exposure to exhaled pollutants with two types of personalized ventilation strategies under mixing and displacement ventilation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X; Niu, J; Gao, N

    2013-04-01

    Personalized ventilation (PV) system in conjunction with total ventilation system can provide cleaner inhaled air for the user. Concerns still exist about whether the normally protecting PV device, on the other hand, facilitates the dispersion of infectious agents generated by its user. In this article, two types of PV systems with upward supplied fresh air, namely a chair-based PV and one kind of desk-mounted PV systems, when combined with mixing ventilation (MV) and displacement ventilation (DV) systems, are investigated using simulation method with regard to their impacts on co-occupant's exposure to the exhaled droplet nuclei generated by the infected PV user. Simulation results of tracer gas and particles with aerodynamic diameter of 1, 5, and 10 μm from exhaled air show that, when only the infected person uses a PV, the different PV air supplying directions present very different impacts on the co-occupant's intake under DV, while no apparent differences can be observed under MV. The findings demonstrate that better inhaled air quality can always be achieved under DV when the adopted PV system can deliver conditioned fresh air in the same direction with the mainly upward airflow patterns of DV.

  4. Wearable Personal Exhaust Ventilation, WPEV: Improved Indoor Air Quality and Reduced Exposure to Air Exhaled from a Sick Doctor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho D.; Barova, Maria; Melikov, Arsen K.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure reduction to exhaled air from a sick doctor wearing a personal exhaust unit incorporated in a headset-microphone was studied. Experiments were performed in a full-scale test room furnished as a double-bed hospital room with overhead ventilation at 3, 6, and 12 air changes per hour. Room...... air temperature was 22◦C. A breathing thermal manikin with a body size and shape similar to the body of an average Scandinavian woman was used to mimic a “sick” doctor. The manikin was equipped with artificial lungs with a realistic breathing cycle (2.5-sec inhalation, 2.5-sec exhalation, and 1-sec...... pause) and a tidal flow rate of 6 L/min. A second thermal manikin and heated dummy were used to resemble lying patients. Exhaled air by the doctor was mixed with tracer gas to mimic pathogens. The wearable personal exhaust unit was positioned frontally by the mouth of the doctor at three distances: 0...

  5. Air pollution exposure estimation using dispersion modelling and continuous monitoring data in a prospective birth cohort study in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van den Hooven Edith H

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Previous studies suggest that pregnant women and children are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of air pollution. A prospective cohort study in pregnant women and their children enables identification of the specific effects and critical periods. This paper describes the design of air pollution exposure assessment for participants of the Generation R Study, a population-based prospective cohort study from early pregnancy onwards in 9778 women in the Netherlands. Individual exposures to PM10 and NO2 levels at the home address were estimated for mothers and children, using a combination of advanced dispersion modelling and continuous monitoring data, taking into account the spatial and temporal variation in air pollution concentrations. Full residential history was considered. We observed substantial spatial and temporal variation in air pollution exposure levels. The Generation R Study provides unique possibilities to examine effects of short- and long-term air pollution exposure on various maternal and childhood outcomes and to identify potential critical windows of exposure.

  6. The Possibility of Decreasing 50-Hz Electric Field Exposure near 400-kV Power Lines with Arc Flash Personal Protective Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpinen, Leena; Pirkkalainen, Herkko; Heiskanen, Timo; Pääkkönen, Rauno

    2016-01-01

    Various guidelines for the protection of human beings against possible adverse effects resulting from exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) have been published with a view towards continual improvement; therefore, decreasing exposure is an important research area. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of decreasing electric field exposure with arc flash rated personal protective equipment (PPE), which in this case was a set of coveralls, and to compare the measurement results to calculations using the helmet-mask measuring system. We collected the data under a 400-kV power line. The test person stood on isolated aluminum paper, and the current between the ground and the aluminum paper was measured. When the test subject wore the arc flash PPE, the current to the ground was only 9.5% of the current measured when wearing normal clothes, which represents a clear decrease in exposure. PMID:27669278

  7. The Possibility of Decreasing 50-Hz Electric Field Exposure near 400-kV Power Lines with Arc Flash Personal Protective Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Korpinen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Various guidelines for the protection of human beings against possible adverse effects resulting from exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs have been published with a view towards continual improvement; therefore, decreasing exposure is an important research area. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of decreasing electric field exposure with arc flash rated personal protective equipment (PPE, which in this case was a set of coveralls, and to compare the measurement results to calculations using the helmet-mask measuring system. We collected the data under a 400-kV power line. The test person stood on isolated aluminum paper, and the current between the ground and the aluminum paper was measured. When the test subject wore the arc flash PPE, the current to the ground was only 9.5% of the current measured when wearing normal clothes, which represents a clear decrease in exposure.