WorldWideScience

Sample records for monitor station network

  1. A comprehensive network of measuring stations to monitor climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hari, P. (Dept. of Forest Ecology, Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)); Andreae, M. (Biogeochemistry Dept., Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz (Germany)); Kabat, P. (Wageningen Univ. and Research Centre (Netherlands)); Kulmala, M. (Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Helsinki (Finland))

    2009-07-01

    The atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration and temperature have been rather stable at the time scale of millennia, although rather large variations have occurred during longer periods. The extensive use of fossil fuels and destruction of forests have recently increased the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. Temperature and circulation of water on the globe are reacting to the increase in the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration. Mankind urgently needs knowledge on the present climate change and on its effects on living nature. We propose that a network of comprehensive measuring stations should be constructed, utilizing modern technology to provide documentation of the climate change and data for research related to it. To be able to cover spatial and temporal variations, a hierarchy of stations is needed. (orig.)

  2. Climate Monitoring Network on Maunakea - Master Station at Summit and Lower Elevation Satellite Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, M. M.; Klasner, F.; Giambelluca, T. W.; Businger, S.

    2014-12-01

    Maunakea, a dormant shield volcano on the Big Island of Hawai'i, rises 13,796 feet above sea level, making it the highest point in the Pacific Basin. From sea floor to summit, it's the tallest mountain in the world. The high elevation, low air and light pollution, as well as dry weather year round make it the best location in the world for astronomy observations. The summit is home to 13 ground based telescope facilities. Like all alpine regions, it is an extremely fragile and unique ecosystem because of the harsh conditions and short growing seasons located at high altitudes. The summit is home to several federal and/or state protected species. It supports 11 species of arthropods found nowhere else on Earth. Most noted of these is the Wēkiu bug, whose habitat has been altered by the infrastructural development on the mountain. Arthropod habitat model development has highlighted gaps in climate information, for example, lack of climate precipitation data, snow data and reliable temperature data. Furthermore, in tropical regions, precipitation is the most variable climate component due to topography and local winds. The telescopes collect weather data for the purpose of knowing when it is dry and clear for astronomical observation. Although existing weather stations associated with the telescopes meet some weather and climate monitoring needs, it cannot address the full range of issues needed due to technological limitation and site design. Precipitation does not occur often and is likely to be in the form of snow or ice. Snow cover data has not been directly recorded despite astronomical recording of other meteorological data that began in the1960s. Therefore, the need to monitor the weather and climate in a long-term and well-calibrated way is critical for management of the ecosystems on the slopes of Maunakea. Long-term weather and climate monitoring stations are the primary building blocks for research partnerships, which encourage collaboration and ultimately

  3. Research and Practice on the Crustal Deformation Mobile Monitoring Network Layout in the Hydropower Station Reservoir Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shang Hong; Liu Tianhai; Zhang Jincheng; Zhang Chengqiang; Yu Haisheng; Sun Baicheng; Yang Huaining; Du Xiaoxia

    2010-01-01

    According to the construction project of the crustal deformation mobile monitoring network in the cascade hydropower stations built in the lower reaches of Jinsha River,this paper analyzes the design ideas and layout principles of crustal deformation mobile monitoring used in the monitoring of reservoir induced earthquakes.This paper introduces three types of monitoring networks used in the Xiluodu reservoir and Xiangjiaba reservoir,as well as the work already undertaken,in order to provide a kind of reference for the reiated engineering construction and comprehensive monitoring of reservoir induced earthquakes.

  4. Trends in Surface-Water Quality at Selected Ambient-Monitoring Network Stations in Kentucky, 1979-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Angela S.; Martin, Gary R.

    2009-01-01

    Increasingly complex water-management decisions require water-quality monitoring programs that provide data for multiple purposes, including trend analyses, to detect improvement or deterioration in water quality with time. Understanding surface-water-quality trends assists resource managers in identifying emerging water-quality concerns, planning remediation efforts, and evaluating the effectiveness of the remediation. This report presents the results of a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kentucky Energy and Environment Cabinet-Kentucky Division of Water, to analyze and summarize long-term water-quality trends of selected properties and water-quality constituents in selected streams in Kentucky's ambient stream water-quality monitoring network. Trends in surface-water quality for 15 properties and water-quality constituents were analyzed at 37 stations with drainage basins ranging in size from 62 to 6,431 square miles. Analyses of selected physical properties (temperature, specific conductance, pH, dissolved oxygen, hardness, and suspended solids), for major ions (chloride and sulfate), for selected metals (iron and manganese), for nutrients (total phosphorus, total nitrogen, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, nitrite plus nitrate), and for fecal coliform were compiled from the Commonwealth's ambient water-quality monitoring network. Trend analyses were completed using the S-Plus statistical software program S-Estimate Trend (S-ESTREND), which detects trends in water-quality data. The trend-detection techniques supplied by this software include the Seasonal Kendall nonparametric methods for use with uncensored data or data censored with only one reporting limit and the Tobit-regression parametric method for use with data censored with multiple reporting limits. One of these tests was selected for each property and water-quality constituent and applied to all station records so that results of the trend procedure could be compared among

  5. Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS). This file provides information on the numbers and distribution (latitude/longitude) of air monitoring sites...

  6. European experience on air and water pollution control: monitoring network and warning station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aflalo, Sergio S. [Groupe Environnement S.A., Poissy (France)

    1993-12-31

    After a review of the energy consumption and pollutants emitted in the European Community, especially those concerning the `green house effect`, the author proceeded a summary of the actual legislation and Europeans directives, and also, the Best Available Technology for reducing air pollution is discussed. Original Air Quality monitoring networks performed by Environnement SA are described including measurements obtained around Paris and other areas of France. 7 refs., 11 figs.

  7. Air and radiation monitoring stations

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)582709

    2015-01-01

    CERN has around 100 monitoring stations on and around its sites. New radiation measuring stations, capable of detecting even lower levels of radiation, were installed in 2014. Two members of HE-SEE group (Safety Engineering and Environment group) in front of one of the new monitoring stations.

  8. UMTS Network Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, C.

    2010-09-01

    The weakness of small island electrical grids implies a handicap for the electrical generation with renewable energy sources. With the intention of maximizing the installation of photovoltaic generators in the Canary Islands, arises the need to develop a solar forecasting system that allows knowing in advance the amount of PV generated electricity that will be going into the grid, from the installed PV power plants installed in the island. The forecasting tools need to get feedback from real weather data in "real time" from remote weather stations. Nevertheless, the transference of this data to the calculation computer servers is very complicated with the old point to point telecommunication systems that, neither allow the transfer of data from several remote weather stations simultaneously nor high frequency of sampling of weather parameters due to slowness of the connection. This one project has developed a telecommunications infrastructure that allows sensorizadas remote stations, to send data of its sensors, once every minute and simultaneously, to the calculation server running the solar forecasting numerical models. For it, the Canary Islands Institute of Technology has added a sophisticated communications network to its 30 weather stations measuring irradiation at strategic sites, areas with high penetration of photovoltaic generation or that have potential to host in the future photovoltaic power plants connected to the grid. In each one of the stations, irradiance and temperature measurement instruments have been installed, over inclined silicon cell, global radiation on horizontal surface and room temperature. Mobile telephone devices have been installed and programmed in each one of the weather stations, which allow the transfer of their data taking advantage of the UMTS service offered by the local telephone operator. Every minute the computer server running the numerical weather forecasting models receives data inputs from 120 instruments distributed

  9. Weather Monitoring Station: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Dipak V. Sose

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Weather monitoring plays a very important role in human life hence study of weather system is necessary. Currently there are two types of the weather monitoring stations available i.e. wired and wireless. Wireless system has some advantages over the wired one hence popular now a days. The parameters are include in weather monitoring usually temperature, humidity atmospheric pressure, light intensity, rainfall etc. There are many techniques existed using different processor such as PIC, AVR, ARM etc. Analog to digital channel are used to fetch the analog output of the sensors. The wireless techniques used in the weather monitoring having GSM, FM channel, Zigbee, RF etc Protocols

  10. Using a neural network approach and time series data from an international monitoring station in the Yellow Sea for modeling marine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingying; Wang, Juncheng; Vorontsov, A M; Hou, Guangli; Nikanorova, M N; Wang, Hongliang

    2014-01-01

    The international marine ecological safety monitoring demonstration station in the Yellow Sea was developed as a collaborative project between China and Russia. It is a nonprofit technical workstation designed as a facility for marine scientific research for public welfare. By undertaking long-term monitoring of the marine environment and automatic data collection, this station will provide valuable information for marine ecological protection and disaster prevention and reduction. The results of some initial research by scientists at the research station into predictive modeling of marine ecological environments and early warning are described in this paper. Marine ecological processes are influenced by many factors including hydrological and meteorological conditions, biological factors, and human activities. Consequently, it is very difficult to incorporate all these influences and their interactions in a deterministic or analysis model. A prediction model integrating a time series prediction approach with neural network nonlinear modeling is proposed for marine ecological parameters. The model explores the natural fluctuations in marine ecological parameters by learning from the latest observed data automatically, and then predicting future values of the parameter. The model is updated in a "rolling" fashion with new observed data from the monitoring station. Prediction experiments results showed that the neural network prediction model based on time series data is effective for marine ecological prediction and can be used for the development of early warning systems.

  11. Industry leading satellite based GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) positioning and monitoring solutions with real-time CORS (Continuously Operating Reference Station) networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janousek, Martin

    2010-05-01

    Real-Time CORS (Continuously Operating Reference Station Networks) today are typically GNSS networks for positioning and monitoring purposes. Real-Time networks can consist of a few stations for a local network up to nation- or continental wide networks with several hundred CORS stations. Such networks use wide area modeling of GNSS error sources including ionospheric, tropospheric and satellite orbit correction parameters to produce highest precision and efficiency method of positioning using GNSS. In 1998 Trimble Navigation Ltd. introduced a method of surveying with a non-physical or computed base station, called VRS (Virtual Reference Station). It is the most widely supported method of producing a network solution for precise carrier phase positioning in the industry. Surveying historically required one base as the fixed point of reference, and one or multiple rovers using that point of reference to compute their location by processing a vector result, either in real-time or in a postprocessed sense. Real-time survey is often referred to as RTK, short for real-time kinematic, and as the name suggests the results are in real time and you can move. The power of VRS is in the ability to compute a real-time wide-area solution to the factors that cause single base methods to degrade with distance. Namely, ionospheric and tropospheric modeling, and satellite orbit corrections. This is achieved by the reference network of CORS. A wide scattering of CORS across a state, typically 50-70km in mid-latitudes, creates a ground based sampling which significantly reduces the distance dependent errors that accumulate in the single base-rover relationship described early. Furthermore, GNSS networks can be used for real-time monitoring purposes at various distance range. Trimble Integrity Manager software provides a suite of motion engines designed to detect and quantify any movement in a range of scales from slow, creeping movement like subsidence, through sudden events such as

  12. Innovation in monitoring: The U.S. Geological Survey Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta, California, flow-station network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burau, Jon; Ruhl, Cathy; Work, Paul

    2016-01-29

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) installed the first gage to measure the flow of water into California’s Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta from the Sacramento River in the late 1800s. Today, a network of 35 hydro-acoustic meters measure flow throughout the delta. This region is a critical part of California’s freshwater supply and conveyance system. With the data provided by this flow-station network—sampled every 15 minutes and updated to the web every hour—state and federal water managers make daily decisions about how much freshwater can be pumped for human use, at which locations, and when. Fish and wildlife scientists, working with water managers, also use this information to protect fish species affected by pumping and loss of habitat. The data are also used to help determine the success or failure of efforts to restore ecosystem processes in what has been called the “most managed and highly altered” watershed in the country.

  13. Magnetospheric effects of cosmic rays. 1. Long-term changes in the geomagnetic cutoff rigidities for the stations of the global network of neutron monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvozdevskii, B. B.; Abunin, A. A.; Kobelev, P. G.; Gushchina, R. T.; Belov, A. V.; Eroshenko, E. A.; Yanke, V. G.

    2016-07-01

    Vertical geomagnetic cutoff rigidities are obtained for the stations of the global network of neutron monitors via trajectory calculations for each year of the period from 1950 to 2020. Geomagnetic cutoff rigidities are found from the model of the Earth's main field International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) for 1950-2015, and the forecast until 2020 is provided. In addition, the geomagnetic cutoff rigidities for the same period are obtained by Tsyganenko model T89 (Tsyganenko, 1989) with the average annual values of the Kp-index. In each case, the penumbra is taken into account in the approximation of the flat and power spectra of variations of cosmic rays. The calculation results show an overall decrease in geomagnetic cutoff rigidities, which is associated with the overall decrease and restructuring of the geomagnetic field during the reporting period, at almost all points.

  14. Network Monitoring with Nagios

    CERN Document Server

    Dondich, Taylor

    2006-01-01

    Network monitoring can be a complex task to implement and maintain in your IT infrastructure. Nagios, an open-source host, service and network monitoring program can help you streamline your network monitoring tasks and reduce the cost of operation.With this shortcut guide, we'll go over how Nagios fits in the overall network monitoring puzzle. We'll also cover installation and basic usage. Finally, we'll show you how to extend Nagios with other tools to extend functionality.

  15. Citizen Science Seismic Stations for Monitoring Regional and Local Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucca, J. J.; Myers, S.; Srikrishna, D.

    2016-12-01

    The earth has tens of thousands of seismometers installed on its surface or in boreholes that are operated by many organizations for many purposes including the study of earthquakes, volcanos, and nuclear explosions. Although global networks such as the Global Seismic Network and the International Monitoring System do an excellent job of monitoring nuclear test explosions and other seismic events, their thresholds could be lowered with the addition of more stations. In recent years there has been interest in citizen-science approaches to augment government-sponsored monitoring networks (see, for example, Stubbs and Drell, 2013). A modestly-priced seismic station that could be purchased by citizen scientists could enhance regional and local coverage of the GSN, IMS, and other networks if those stations are of high enough quality and distributed optimally. In this paper we present a minimum set of hardware and software specifications that a citizen seismograph station would need in order to add value to global networks. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  16. Single-station monitoring of volcanoes using seismic ambient noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Plaen, Raphael S. M.; Lecocq, Thomas; Caudron, Corentin; Ferrazzini, Valérie; Francis, Olivier

    2016-08-01

    Seismic ambient noise cross correlation is increasingly used to monitor volcanic activity. However, this method is usually limited to volcanoes equipped with large and dense networks of broadband stations. The single-station approach may provide a powerful and reliable alternative to the classical "cross-station" approach when measuring variation of seismic velocities. We implemented it on the Piton de la Fournaise in Reunion Island, a very active volcano with a remarkable multidisciplinary continuous monitoring. Over the past decade, this volcano has been increasingly studied using the traditional cross-correlation technique and therefore represents a unique laboratory to validate our approach. Our results, tested on stations located up to 3.5 km from the eruptive site, performed as well as the classical approach to detect the volcanic eruption in the 1-2 Hz frequency band. This opens new perspectives to successfully forecast volcanic activity at volcanoes equipped with a single three-component seismometer.

  17. Operation of International Monitoring System Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolova, Svetlana; Araujo, Fernando; Aktas, Kadircan; Malakhova, Marina; Otsuka, Riyo; Han, Dongmei; Assef, Thierry; Nava, Elisabetta; Mickevicius, Sigitas; Agrebi, Abdelouaheb

    2015-04-01

    The IMS is a globally distributed network of monitoring facilities using sensors from four technologies: seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasound and radionuclide. It is designed to detect the seismic and acoustic waves produced by nuclear test explosions and the subsequently released radioactive isotopes. Monitoring stations transmit their data to the IDC in Vienna, Austria, over a global private network known as the GCI. Since 2013, the data availability (DA) requirements for IMS stations account for quality of the data, meaning that in calculation of data availability data should be exclude if: - there is no input from sensor (SHI technology); - the signal consists of constant values (SHI technology); Even more strict are requirements for the DA of the radionuclide (particulate and noble gas) stations - received data have to be analyzed, reviewed and categorized by IDC analysts. In order to satisfy the strict data and network availability requirements of the IMS Network, the operation of the facilities and the GCI are managed by IDC Operations. Operations has following main functions: - to ensure proper operation and functioning of the stations; - to ensure proper operation and functioning of the GCI; - to ensure efficient management of the stations in IDC; - to provide network oversight and incident management. At the core of the IMS Network operations are a series of tools for: monitoring the stations' state of health and data quality, troubleshooting incidents, communicating with internal and external stakeholders, and reporting. The new requirements for data availability increased the importance of the raw data quality monitoring. This task is addressed by development of additional tools for easy and fast identifying problems in data acquisition, regular activities to check compliance of the station parameters with acquired data by scheduled calibration of the seismic network, review of the samples by certified radionuclide laboratories. The DA for the networks of

  18. GSM Base Stations Location Monitoring using Geographic Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuboye B. M.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM is a digital system developed to meet the desires of the entire public. As the population of a particular area, city or country increases, the number of mobile subscribers increases too. GSM network operators have to reduce congestion on their networks in order to satisfy their subscribers, therefore, a means of monitoring the base stations' locations and the geographical area of where they are located are important factor to achieve this purpose. This work provides a simple step-by-step approach on how to monitor the location of the base stations. A review of GSM and Global Positioning System (GPS technology and their applications to the Geographic Information System (GIS are presented. The means of taken the coordinates of base stations using a GPS device is also presented. ESRI's ArcView application software was used to design the map that shows the location of the base station and thereafter was integrated into the web. It concluded with the recommendation to GSM operators in Nigeria. If the recommendations are given necessary attention, the planning and optimization of cell sites will be enhanced and thereby reduce congestion on network. As a result, the performance of Network will improve, and it will give rise to subscribers' satisfaction and increasing profit returns to the operators.

  19. Phytoplankton Monitoring Network (PMN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Phytoplankton Monitoring Network (PMN) is a part of the National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS). The PMN was created as an outreach program to connect...

  20. 基于VPN网络技术的无人值守换热站监控系统%Unmanned Heat Exchanger Station Monitoring System Based on VPN Network Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩松林

    2011-01-01

    随着计算机技术和通讯技术发展和应用,企业信息化已经成为企业实现可持续发展和提高市场竞争力的重要保障。介绍了基于VPN的无人值守换热站监控系统的组成、功能及实现方法。数据监控中心上位机采用组态王软件和远程站点PLC通过VPN专网相连接,组成一个封闭的无人值守站监控系统。基于VPN网络的无人值守换热站监控系统体现了信息化在城市供热行业中的应用。%With the computer technology and communication technology development and application of information technology has become a business enterprise to achieve sustainable development and improve market competitiveness is an important guarantee.Describes the VPN-based unmanned station monitoring system heat exchanger composition, function and implementation.Data Monitoring Center PC with remote sites,and Configuration software PLC connected through the VPN special network, form a closed unmanned station monitoring system.VPN-based network monitoring system unattended heat exchange station in the city reflects the information in the application of the heating industry.

  1. 基于无线传感器网络的河流自动监测站设计%Design of River Auto-monitoring Station Based on Wireless Sensor Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 王福豹; 段渭军

    2011-01-01

    河流作为水资源的重要组成部分对日常生活、经济发展有着重要影响.因此建立完备的监测系统,提高河流监测效率对生产、生活都有着重要意义.针对现有河流监测系统自动监测站存在的监测范围小、灵活性差的问题,提出基于无线传感器网络的河流自动监测站.通过利用无线传感器网络节点部署容易、无线自组织网络的特点,扩充自动监测站,扩大监测范围,提高监测密度.%As an important parr of the water resource, rivers have a significant influence on daily life and economic development.Therefore, the establishment of a monitoring system and improvement of the monitoring efficiency are of great significance.The river auto-monitoring station based on wireless sensor network is proposed, whice can overcome the weakness of original system like small monitoring scope and poor flexibility.The wireless sensor network can expand the monitoring range of the station and improve the monitoring density by wireless sensor nodes deployed in proper places.

  2. Solar Powered Radioactive Air Monitoring Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.; Gervais, Todd L.

    2013-10-30

    Environmental monitoring of ambient air for radioactive material is required as stipulated in the PNNL Site radioactive air license. Sampling ambient air at identified preferred locations could not be initially accomplished because utilities were not readily available. Therefore, solar powered environmental monitoring systems were considered as a possible option. PNNL purchased two 24-V DC solar powered environmental monitoring systems which consisted of solar panels, battery banks, and sampling units. During an approximate four month performance evaluation period, the solar stations operated satisfactorily at an on-site test location. They were subsequently relocated to their preferred locations in June 2012 where they continue to function adequately under the conditions found in Richland, Washington.

  3. Netherlands grass monitoring network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stienezen, M.W.J.; Remmelink, G.J.; |Weiden, van der T.; Tjoonk, L.; Nolles, J.E.; Voskamp-Harkema, W.; Pol, van den A.

    2016-01-01

    To support on farm grazing management in the Netheralnds a grass monitoring was established in 2014. The aim of the network is to share and publish data on grass quality, grass growth and soil temperature in different regions of the Netherlands to serve as a benchmark. Grass quality, sward height

  4. The Austrian UV monitoring network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumthaler, Mario; Klotz, Barbara; Schwarzmann, Michael; Schreder, Josef

    2017-02-01

    The Austrian UV Monitoring network is operational since 1998 providing a large data set of erythemally weighted UV irradiance recorded with broadband UV biometer at 12 stations distributed all over Austria. In order to obtain high quality data all biometer are recalibrated once a year, the detectors are checked regularly for humidity and quality control is done routinely. The collected data are processed and then published on the website http://www.uv-index.at where the UV-Index of all measurement sites is presented in near real time together with a map of the distribution of the UV-Index over Austria. These UV-Index data together with measurements of global radiation and ozone levels from OMI are used to study long term trends for the stations of the monitoring network. Neither for all weather conditions nor for clear sky conditions is a statistically significant trend found for the UV-Index (with one exception) and for ozone. Furthermore, the radiation amplification factor (RAF) is determined experimentally from the power law correlation between UV-Index and ozone level for the site Innsbruck (577 m above sea level, 47.26°N, 11.38°E) for 19°solar elevation. A value of 0.91 ± 0.05 is found for the RAF for clear sky days with low ground albedo and a value of 1.03 ± 0.08 for days with high ground albedo (snow cover).

  5. Monitoring and optimization of energy consumption of base transceiver stations

    CERN Document Server

    Spagnuolo, Antonio; Vetromile, Carmela; Formosi, Roberto; Lubritto, Carmine

    2015-01-01

    The growth and development of the mobile phone network has led to an increased demand for energy by the telecommunications sector, with a noticeable impact on the environment. Monitoring of energy consumption is a great tool for understanding how to better manage this consumption and find the best strategy to adopt in order to maximize reduction of unnecessary usage of electricity. This paper reports on a monitoring campaign performed on six Base Transceiver Stations (BSs) located central Italy, with different technology, typology and technical characteristics. The study focuses on monitoring energy consumption and environmental parameters (temperature, noise, and global radiation), linking energy consumption with the load of telephone traffic and with the air conditioning functions used to cool the transmission equipment. Moreover, using experimental data collected, it is shown, with a Monte Carlo simulation based on power saving features, how the BS monitored could save energy.

  6. Wireless Sensor Network for Wearable Physiological Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Pandian

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Wearable physiological monitoring system consists of an array of sensors embedded into the fabric of the wearer to continuously monitor the physiological parameters and transmit wireless to a remote monitoring station. At the remote monitoring station the data is correlated to study the overall health status of the wearer. In the conventional wearable physiological monitoring system, the sensors are integrated at specific locations on the vest and are interconnected to the wearable data acquisition hardware by wires woven into the fabric. The drawbacks associated with these systems are the cables woven in the fabric pickup noise such as power line interference and signals from nearby radiating sources and thereby corrupting the physiological signals. Also repositioning the sensors in the fabric is difficult once integrated. The problems can be overcome by the use of physiological sensors with miniaturized electronics to condition, process, digitize and wireless transmission integrated into the single module. These sensors are strategically placed at various locations on the vest. Number of sensors integrated into the fabric form a network (Personal Area Network and interacts with the human system to acquire and transmit the physiological data to a wearable data acquisition system. The wearable data acquisition hardware collects the data from various sensors and transmits the processed data to the remote monitoring station. The paper discusses wireless sensor network and its application to wearable physiological monitoring and its applications. Also the problems associated with conventional wearable physiological monitoring are discussed.

  7. Metsahovi Radio Observatory - IVS Network Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uunila, Minttu; Zubko, Nataliya; Poutanen, Markku; Kallunki, Juha; Kallio, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, Metsahovi Radio Observatory together with Finnish Geodetic Institute officially became an IVS Network Station. Eight IVS sessions were observed during the year. Two spacecraft tracking and one EVN X-band experiment were also performed. In 2012, the Metsahovi VLBI equipment was upgraded with a Digital Base Band Converter, a Mark 5B+, a FILA10G, and a FlexBuff.

  8. Optimal estuarine sediment monitoring network design with simulated annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, L M; Caeiro, S; Cunha, M C; Ribeiro, L

    2006-02-01

    An objective function based on geostatistical variance reduction, constrained to the reproduction of the probability distribution functions of selected physical and chemical sediment variables, is applied to the selection of the best set of compliance monitoring stations in the Sado river estuary in Portugal. These stations were to be selected from a large set of sampling stations from a prior field campaign. Simulated annealing was chosen to solve the optimisation function model. Both the combinatorial problem structure and the resulting candidate sediment monitoring networks are discussed, and the optimal dimension and spatial distribution are proposed. An optimal network of sixty stations was obtained from an original 153-station sampling campaign.

  9. Study on the Monitoring Capability of the Seismic Network at the Dagangshan Hydropower Station%大岗山水电站地震台网的地震监测能力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景晟; 康昊天

    2014-01-01

    Located at the northern section of the NS-trending seismic tectonic zone at the border between Sichuan and Yunnan,the reservoir of the Dagangshan hydropower station is at the intersection of three seismic belts,Xianshuihe, Longmenshan,and Anninghe,which present a complex geological environment.The earthquake seismic network at the Dagangshan hydropower station is a dedicated small diameter minor earthquake monitoring network for hydro-power station projects and consists of eight stationary monitoring sites located across the Luding county of Ganzi and the Shimian county of Yaan,Sichuan province.The monitoring sites are located at both sides of the Dadu river,a-round the dam,at the main reservoir area,and at the fault zones,in accordance with the identified key fault zones to monitor reservoir induced earthquakes,increase the precision of locating seismic events,and decrease the lower limit of seismic magnitudes detectable in the area.The theoretical minimum monitoring capability of the designed seismic network in the focused monitoring area is M L 0.5.Based on the velocity records,the displacements recorded by the W-A short period seismometer are emulated,and then the max.P-P and the corresponding period on the displacement waveform emulated are substituted into the formula for near earthquake magnitude to calculate the earthquake mag-nitude.For validation of the background noise of earth motion,the PSD per hour at each station and the RMS values in the range of 1~20 Hz are calculated based on the noise data randomly selected from the background noise of earth motion recorded in a 48-hr interval at the Dagangshan earthquake monitoring network and the mean RMS value is taken as the average background noise of earth motion.Taking the ratio of the maximum magnitude of the S wave to the background noise as the minimum lower limit for seismic velocity detection by the system,the calibration func-tion value R (Δ)is calculated using the earthquake magnitude formula

  10. Icinga network monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Mehta, Viranch

    2013-01-01

    This book is written in a concise and easy-to-follow approach, it will guide you to get you started with Icinga and lead you through the difficult concepts with illustrated examples and screenshots.If you are a system administrator or Linux enthusiast who is looking for a flexible tool to monitor network infrastructure efficiently, or trying to understand the Icinga software, this is a great book for you. You are expected to have solid foundation in Linux.

  11. A Brazilian network of carbon flux stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberti, Débora R.; Acevedo, Otávio C.; Moraes, Osvaldo L. L.

    2012-05-01

    First Brasflux Workshop; Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 14-15 November 2011 Last November, 33 researchers participated in a workshop to establish Brasflux, the Brazilian network of carbon flux stations, with the objective of integrating previous efforts and planning for the future. Among the participants were those leading ongoing flux observation projects and others planning to establish flux stations in the near future. International scientists also participated to share the experiences gained with other networks. The need to properly characterize terrestrial ecosystems for their roles in the global carbon, water, and energy budgets has motivated the implementation of hundreds of micrometeorological research sites throughout the world in recent years. The eddy covariance (EC) technique for turbulent flux determination is the preferred method to provide integral information on ecosystematmosphere exchanges. Integrating the observations regionally and globally has proven to be an effective approach to maximizing the usefulness of this technique for carbon cycle studies at multiple scales.

  12. Microbial Monitoring of the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Botkin, Douglas J.; Bruce, Rebekah J.; Castro, Victoria A.; Smith, Melanie J.; Oubre, Cherie M.; Ott, C. Mark

    2013-01-01

    microbial growth. Air filtration can dramatically reduce the number of airborne bacteria, fungi, and particulates in spacecraft breathing air. Waterborne bacteria can be reduced to acceptable levels by thermal inactivation of bacteria during water processing, along with a residual biocide, and filtration at the point of use can ensure safety. System design must include onboard capability to achieve recovery of the system from contamination. Robust housekeeping procedures that include periodic cleaning and disinfection will prevent high levels of microbial growth on surfaces. Food for consumption in space must be thoroughly tested for excessive microbial content and pathogens before launch. Thorough preflight examination of flight crews, consumables, payloads, and the environment can greatly reduce pathogens in spacecraft. Many of the lessons learned from the Space Shuttle and previous programs were applied in the early design phase of the International Space Station, resulting in the safest space habitat to date. This presentation describes the monitoring program for the International Space Station and will summarize results from preflight and on-orbit monitoring.

  13. Optimizing the spatial pattern of networks for monitoring radioactive releases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melles, S.J.; Heuvelink, G.B.M.; Twenhofel, C.J.W.; Dijk, van A.; Hiemstra, P.H.; Baume, O.P.; Stohlker, U.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a method to optimize the sampling design of environmental monitoring networks in a multi-objective setting. We optimize the permanent network of radiation monitoring stations in the Netherlands and parts of Germany as an example. The optimization method proposed combines

  14. Optimizing the spatial pattern of networks for monitoring radioactive releases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melles, S.J.; Heuvelink, G.B.M.; Twenhofel, C.J.W.; Dijk, van A.; Hiemstra, P.H.; Baume, O.P.; Stohlker, U.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a method to optimize the sampling design of environmental monitoring networks in a multi-objective setting. We optimize the permanent network of radiation monitoring stations in the Netherlands and parts of Germany as an example. The optimization method proposed combines minimiza

  15. MOBILLAB-NIVA - a complete station for monitoring water quality

    OpenAIRE

    A. Henriksen; Røgeberg, E.; Andersen, S.; Veidel, A.

    1986-01-01

    MOBILLAB-NIVA is a complete mobile station for monitoring water quality with telemetric transmission of recorded data to a central receiving station. It is intended for use in studies of rapid changes in water quality and its effects on aquatic life and short term studies to decide on water quality monitoring strategy. The present version of Mobillab-niva is specially designed to study effects of acid inputs on water chemistry, fish and invertebrates. The station is equipped with physical and...

  16. Environmental Monitoring Using Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J.; Zhang, C.; Li, X.; Huang, Y.; Fu, S.; Acevedo, M. F.

    2008-12-01

    Environmental observatories, consisting of a variety of sensor systems, computational resources and informatics, are important for us to observe, model, predict, and ultimately help preserve the health of the nature. The commoditization and proliferation of coin-to-palm sized wireless sensors will allow environmental monitoring with unprecedented fine spatial and temporal resolution. Once scattered around, these sensors can identify themselves, locate their positions, describe their functions, and self-organize into a network. They communicate through wireless channel with nearby sensors and transmit data through multi-hop protocols to a gateway, which can forward information to a remote data server. In this project, we describe an environmental observatory called Texas Environmental Observatory (TEO) that incorporates a sensor network system with intertwined wired and wireless sensors. We are enhancing and expanding the existing wired weather stations to include wireless sensor networks (WSNs) and telemetry using solar-powered cellular modems. The new WSNs will monitor soil moisture and support long-term hydrologic modeling. Hydrologic models are helpful in predicting how changes in land cover translate into changes in the stream flow regime. These models require inputs that are difficult to measure over large areas, especially variables related to storm events, such as soil moisture antecedent conditions and rainfall amount and intensity. This will also contribute to improve rainfall estimations from meteorological radar data and enhance hydrological forecasts. Sensor data are transmitted from monitoring site to a Central Data Collection (CDC) Server. We incorporate a GPRS modem for wireless telemetry, a single-board computer (SBC) as Remote Field Gateway (RFG) Server, and a WSN for distributed soil moisture monitoring. The RFG provides effective control, management, and coordination of two independent sensor systems, i.e., a traditional datalogger-based wired

  17. Smart Sensor Network System For Environment Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Ali Baloch

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available SSN (Smart Sensor Network systems could be used to monitor buildings with modern infrastructure, plant sites with chemical pollution, horticulture, natural habitat, wastewater management and modern transport system. To sense attributes of phenomena and make decisions on the basis of the sensed value is the primary goal of such systems. In this paper a Smart Spatially aware sensor system is presented. A smart system, which could continuously monitor the network to observe the functionality and trigger, alerts to the base station if a change in the system occurs and provide feedback periodically, on demand or even continuously depending on the nature of the application. The results of the simulation trials presented in this paper exhibit the performance of a Smart Spatially Aware Sensor Networks.

  18. Monitoring Stations at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument, Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is a vector point file showing the monitoring stations at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument (LIBI). The coordinates for this dataset were collected...

  19. Total Station Survey Monitoring Through an Observation Window: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Windows User

    entirely different method, such as taking total station distance measurements ...... error and ensured that all distances measured through the glass medium fall within ... monitoring with RTS from transfer beacon shelter is called refractive effects ...

  20. Master station control and capacity assignment for Italsat network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Adrian; Sampson, Nicholas; Lopes, Antonino; di Martino, Roberto; Saitto, Antonio

    1990-11-01

    The design approach to developing a network-controller and capacity-assignment software package for the Italsat satellite switched/time division multiple-access (SS/TDMA) network is covered. The network consists of TDMA traffic stations (TS) allowing a full mesh connectivity between all sites; one of the TSs is designated as a control station (CS). The major processing elements of the network, the functions of the master station, and database configurations are discussed, along with TDMA-station control and traffic reconfiguration, the assignment of satellite capacity on demand, and interactions among these network elements. Emphasis is placed on the traffic reconfiguration process, and it is pointed out that the satellite network control processor and the CS overhead burst processor work together to provide the system with the necessary support to operate the network.

  1. ICFA SCIC Network Monitoring Report

    CERN Document Server

    McKee, Shawn; Babik, Marian; Hayashi, Soichi; Tierney, Brian; Giemza, Henryk; Vukotic, Ilija; O’Connor, Mike; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

    2016-01-01

    This report may be regarded as a follow up to the previous ICFA Standing Committee on Inter-regional Connectivity (SCIC) Monitoring working group’s Network reports dating back to 1997. The current report updates the January 2015 report. As noted, PingER activities will not be covered in the same depth as earlier reports because of a lack of funding for this effort. We will be including some new areas related to network monitoring in HEP including updates and status on the perfSONAR efforts globally as well as the WLCG Network and Transfer Metrics Working Group activities.

  2. Low Cost Wireless Sensor Network for Continuous Bridge monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Bo; Kalis, A; Tragas, P

    2012-01-01

    Continuous monitoring wireless sensor networks (WSN) are considered as one of the most promising means to harvest information from large structures in order to assist in structural health monitoring and management. At the same time, continuous monitoring WSNs suffer from limited network lifetimes...... the network increases. Therefore, in order for WSNs to be considered as an efficient tool to monitor the health state of large structures, their energy consumption should be reduced to a bare minimum. In this work we consider a couple of novel techniques for increasing the life-time of the sensor network......, related to both node and network architecture. Namely, we consider new node de-signs that are of low cost, low complexity, and low energy consumption. Moreover, we present a new net-work architecture for such small nodes, that would enable them to reach a base station at large distances from the network...

  3. A new watershed assessment framework for Nova Scotia: A high-level, integrated approach for regions without a dense network of monitoring stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Shannon M.; Garroway, Kevin; Guan, Yue; Ambrose, Sarah M.; Horne, Peter; Kennedy, Gavin W.

    2014-11-01

    High-level, integrated watershed assessments are a basic requirement for freshwater planning, as they create regional summaries of multiple environmental stressors for the prioritization of watershed conservation, restoration, monitoring, and mitigation. There is a heightened need for a high-level, integrated watershed assessment in Nova Scotia as it faces pressing watershed issues relating to acidification, soil erosion, acid rock drainage, eutrophication, and water withdrawals related to potential shale gas development. But because of the relative sparseness of the on-the-ground effects-based data, for example on water quality or fish assemblages, previously created approaches for integrated watershed assessment cannot be used. In a government/university collaboration, we developed a new approach that relies solely on easier-to-collect and more available exposure-based variables to perform the first high-level watershed assessment in Nova Scotia. In this assessment, a total of 295 watershed units were studied. We used Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to map and analyze 13 stressor variables that represent risks to aquatic environment (e.g., road/stream crossing density, acid rock drainage risk, surface water withdrawals, human land use, and dam density). We developed a model to link stressors with impacts to aquatic systems to serve as a basis for a watershed threat ranking system. Resource management activities performed by government and other stakeholders were also included in this analysis. Our assessment identifies the most threatened watersheds, enables informed comparisons among watersheds, and indicates where to focus resource management and monitoring efforts. Stakeholder communication tools produced by the NSWAP include a watershed atlas to communicate the assessment results to a broader audience, including policy makers and public stakeholders. This new framework for high-level watershed assessments provides a resource for other regions that also

  4. Assessment of SRS ambient air monitoring network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jannik, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-03

    Three methodologies have been used to assess the effectiveness of the existing ambient air monitoring system in place at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, SC. Effectiveness was measured using two metrics that have been utilized in previous quantification of air-monitoring network performance; frequency of detection (a measurement of how frequently a minimum number of samplers within the network detect an event), and network intensity (a measurement of how consistent each sampler within the network is at detecting events). In addition to determining the effectiveness of the current system, the objective of performing this assessment was to determine what, if any, changes could make the system more effective. Methodologies included 1) the Waite method of determining sampler distribution, 2) the CAP88- PC annual dose model, and 3) a puff/plume transport model used to predict air concentrations at sampler locations. Data collected from air samplers at SRS in 2015 compared with predicted data resulting from the methodologies determined that the frequency of detection for the current system is 79.2% with sampler efficiencies ranging from 5% to 45%, and a mean network intensity of 21.5%. One of the air monitoring stations had an efficiency of less than 10%, and detected releases during just one sampling period of the entire year, adding little to the overall network intensity. By moving or removing this sampler, the mean network intensity increased to about 23%. Further work in increasing the network intensity and simulating accident scenarios to further test the ambient air system at SRS is planned

  5. Nitrogen and phosphorus trend analysis in Latvia agricultural monitoring stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimanta, Z.; Vircavs, V.; Veinbergs, A.; Lauva, D.; Ambramenko, K.; Gailuma, A.; VÄ«tola, I.

    2012-04-01

    Water quality depends on human activity. Intensive agriculture is one of the main sources, that cause water quality pollution and eutrophication. The use of fertilizers not only improves soil fertility, crop yield and quality, but also causes water pollution. Human activities, including the use of fertilizer, promote nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) concentrations in water. Compared to the 90th agricultural production in Latvia has progressed. Vulnerable zones have been specified in the country. It is situated in the region of Zemgale's south site, within the border Lithuania. There are defined requirements for water and soil protection from agricultural activity that cause nitrate pollution. The EU Nitrates Directive aim is to protect water from nitrate pollution. In Latvia defined nitrate values are: 50 mg/l NO3 or 11.2 mg/l N/NO3 and Ptot - 0.2 mg/l. As agriculture has became intensive and the use of fertilizers has grown, results indicate that the leaching potential and values of N and P has increased. Nutrients leaching in agricultural areas have observed all year in vulnerable zones, but it's values changes depending on season. The highest nutrient concentrations observe in winter and spring periods, particularly in snow and ice melting periods. The lowest values are in summer. Nutrient leaching potencial depends on precipitation, plant vegetation, season, fertilization type and soil cultivation process. N and P leaching can decrease, taking consideration the use time of fertilizers and good agricultural practices. Research objects are monitoring stations Bērze and Mellupīte with tree research scales: drainage fields, small catchments and observation wells. The research analyses N and P concentrations in groundwater (2006-2010) and drain field and small catchment runoff (1995-2010). The aim of the research is to analyze nitrate and phosphorus concentration fluctuations in a time period. To determine nutrient concentrations, water samples were collected

  6. R2 Water Quality Portal Monitoring Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Quality Data Portal (WQP) provides an easy way to access data stored in various large water quality databases. The WQP provides various input parameters on the form including location, site, sampling, and date parameters to filter and customize the returned results. The The Water Quality Portal (WQP) is a cooperative service sponsored by the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Water Quality Monitoring Council (NWQMC) that integrates publicly available water quality data from the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) the EPA STOrage and RETrieval (STORET) Data Warehouse, and the USDA ARS Sustaining The Earth??s Watersheds - Agricultural Research Database System (STEWARDS).

  7. Assessment of SRS ambient air monitoring network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jannik, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-03

    Three methodologies have been used to assess the effectiveness of the existing ambient air monitoring system in place at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, SC. Effectiveness was measured using two metrics that have been utilized in previous quantification of air-monitoring network performance; frequency of detection (a measurement of how frequently a minimum number of samplers within the network detect an event), and network intensity (a measurement of how consistent each sampler within the network is at detecting events). In addition to determining the effectiveness of the current system, the objective of performing this assessment was to determine what, if any, changes could make the system more effective. Methodologies included 1) the Waite method of determining sampler distribution, 2) the CAP88- PC annual dose model, and 3) a puff/plume transport model used to predict air concentrations at sampler locations. Data collected from air samplers at SRS in 2015 compared with predicted data resulting from the methodologies determined that the frequency of detection for the current system is 79.2% with sampler efficiencies ranging from 5% to 45%, and a mean network intensity of 21.5%. One of the airmonitoring stations had an efficiency of less than 10%, and detected releases during just one sampling period of the entire year, adding little to the overall network intensity. By moving or removing this sampler, the mean network intensity increased to about 23%. Further work in increasing the network intensity and simulating accident scenarios to further test the ambient air system at SRS is planned

  8. Environmental monitoring networks in Spain; Redes de vigilancia radiologica ambiental en Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luque Heredia, S.; Martin Matarranz, J. L.; Marugan Tovar, I.; Rey del Castillo, C.; Salas Collantes, R.; Sterling Carmona, A.; Ramos Salvador, L. M.

    2011-07-01

    Environmental monitoring in Spain is carried out by several networks with different objectives and scope, a monitoring network in the vicinity of nuclear facilities and radioactive nuclear fuel cycle and various monitoring networks nationally funded and managed by agencies public. The aim of this paper is to present a summary of all monitoring networks, including a series of figures with the stations that are, their geographical distribution and the programs in them.

  9. Wireless Sensor Network for Wearable Physiological Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    P. S. Pandian; K. P. Safeer; Pragati Gupta; D. T. Shakunthala; B. S. Sundersheshu; V. C. Padaki

    2008-01-01

    Wearable physiological monitoring system consists of an array of sensors embedded into the fabric of the wearer to continuously monitor the physiological parameters and transmit wireless to a remote monitoring station. At the remote monitoring station the data is correlated to study the overall health status of the wearer. In the conventional wearable physiological monitoring system, the sensors are integrated at specific locations on the vest and are interconnected to the wearable data acqui...

  10. 金安桥水电站专一级平面监测控制网的建立与研究%The Estabilishment and Research of Super-one-level Plane Monitoring Control Network in the Jin An Qiao Hydroelectric Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁学智; 张亮; 柳志云

    2014-01-01

    金安桥水电站平面监测控制网点位多,网形复杂,精度要求高,而特殊的地理环境和气象条件,对监测控制网的实施造成很大影响。本文介绍了金安桥水电站专一级平面监测控制网的建立过程,通过采用科学的技术手段,使监测控制网各项技术指标满足设计要求,对类似工程的实施有借鉴意义。%There are so much points in the plane monitoring control network of the Jin An Qiao Hydroelectric Station.And the structure of the network is very complicated.However,high precision is demanded.So the special geographical and meteoro-logical conditions can make a great impact on the application of the monitoring control network..This paper introduces the es-tablishment of super-one-level plane monitoring control network in the Jin An Qiao Hydroelectric Station.Using the scientific methods,all the designed technological targets of the monitoring control network were accomplished.This example can be bor-rowed by other similar proj ects.

  11. Stations in the USGS's National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a point coverage of stations in the U.S. Geological Survey's National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN). NASQAN was established in 1973....

  12. INEGI's Network of GPS permanent stations in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Franco, G. A.

    2013-05-01

    The Active National Geodetic Network administered by INEGI (Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía) is a set of 24 GPS permanent stations in Mexico that was established in 1993 for a national rural cadastral project, its has been mainly used for geodetic surveys through Mexico including international borders, and has been progressing to contribute to national, regional and international reference frames through the delivering of GPS data or coordinate solutions from INEGI Processing Center to SIRGAS and NAREF. Recently GAMIT/GLOBK Processing of permanent stations in Mexico was realized from 2007-2011 to determine station's velocity. Related to natural hazards, a subset of INEGI network contributes to the project Real Time Integrated Atmosferic Water Wapor and TEC from GPS. The GPS network planned evolution consider changing to a GNSS network, adding stations to IGS, maintain the services of the present, and contribute to multidisciplinary geodetic studies through data publicly available.

  13. Design of the Network Monitoring Applications Using SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol with Early Warning System and Network Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muazam Nugroho

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP adalah sebuah protokol yang digunakan untuk kebutuhan monitoring pada jaringan komputer. Dalam bekerja, SNMP terdiri dari Network Management Station (NMS atau manager dan SNMP agent. NMS berfungsi sebagai mesin pengolahan informasi dari perangkat-perangkat jaringan yang dipantau (yang disebut sebagai SNMP agent. SNMP agent  terimplementasi  pada manageable node seperti router, server, dan perangkat jaringan lainnya.Pada periode sebelumnya,di Laboratorium Jaringan Telekomunikasi Jurusan Teknik Elektro ITS telah dibuat tiga sistem monitoring jaringan, yaitu network monitor yang dilengkapi dengan database, sistem peringatan dini, dan pemetaan jaringan (Network Mapping. Ketiga sistem ini masih berdiri sendiri, sehingga perlu dilakukan integrasi agar didapat suatu sistem yang memiliki fungsi lengkap.Dalam tugas akhir ini dilakukan perancangan dan pembuatan suatu Network Monitoring System yang merupakan integrasi antara Network Monitoring, Network Mapping, dan Sistem Peringatan Dini.

  14. DMA Reference Base Station Network Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data (15,904 records documenting 9,090 worldwide gravity base stations) were gathered by various governmental organizations (and academia) using a variety of...

  15. The seismic monitoring network of Mt. Vesuvius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Orazi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mt. Vesuvius (southern Italy is one of the most hazardous volcanoes in the world. Its activity is currently characterized by moderate seismicity, with hypocenters located beneath the crater zone with depth rarely exceeding 5 km and magnitudes generally less than 3. The current configuration of the seismic monitoring network of Mt. Vesuvius consists of 18 seismic stations and 7 infrasound microphones. During the period 2006-2010 a seismic array with 48 channels was also operative. The station distribution provides appropriate coverage of the area around the volcanic edifice. The current development of the network and its geometry, under conditions of low seismic noise, allows locating seismic events with M<1. Remote instruments continuously transmit data to the main acquisition center in Naples. Data transmission is realized using different technological solutions based on UHF, Wi-Fi radio links, and TCP/IP client-server applications. Data are collected in the monitoring center of the Osservatorio Vesuviano (Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology, Naples section, which is equipped with systems for displaying and analyzing signals, using both real-time automatic and manual procedures. 24-hour surveillance allows to immediately communicate any significant anomaly to the Civil Protection authorities.

  16. FLAME MONITORING IN POWER STATION BOILERS USING IMAGE PROCESSING

    OpenAIRE

    K Sujatha; VENMATHI, M.; N. Pappa

    2012-01-01

    Combustion quality in power station boilers plays an important role in minimizing the flue gas emissions. In the present work various intelligent schemes to infer the flue gas emissions by monitoring the flame colour at the furnace of the boiler are proposed here. Flame image monitoring involves capturing the flame video over a period of time with the measurement of various parameters like Carbon dioxide (CO2), excess oxygen (O2), Nitrogen dioxide (NOx), Sulphur dioxide (SOx) and Carbon monox...

  17. Near-Real-Time Sismo-acoustic Submarine Station for offshore monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Anna, Giuseppe; D'Alessandro, Antonino; Fertitta, Gioacchino; Fraticelli, Nicola; Calore, Daniele

    2016-04-01

    From the early 1980's, Italian seismicity is monitored by the National Seismic Network (NSN). The network has been considerably enhanced by INGV since 2005 by 24-bit digital stations equipped with broad-band sensors. The NSN is nowadays constituted by about 300 on-land seismic station able to detect and locate also small magnitude earthquake in the whole Italian peninsula. However, the lack of offshore seismic stations does not allow the accurate estimation of hypocentral and focal parameters of small magnitude earthquakes occurring in offshore areas. As in the Mediterranean area there is an intense offshore seismic activity, an extension of the seismic monitoring to the sea would be beneficial. There are two types of stations that could be used to extend the network towards the sea: the first type is connected to the coast though a cable, the second type is isolated (or stand alone) and works autonomously. Both solutions have serious limitations: the first one, for several technical and economic problems, linked to the indispensable transmission/alimentation cable, cannot be installed far from the coast; the second one, allows access to the recorded data, only after they are recovered from the seabed. It is clear that these technical solutions are not suitable for the real time monitoring of the offshore seismicity or for the realization of a tsunami warning system. For this reason, in early 2010, the OBSLab of Gibilmanna begins the design of a submarine station able to overcome the limitations of the two systems above. The station isbuilt under the project EMSO-MedIT. The two stations built have already been tested in dock and ready for installation. One of this station will be installed, in few time, in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea, near the epicentre of the Palermo 2002 main shock. The sea bottom station will be equipped with 2 very broadband 3C seismometers, a broad band hydrophone, a differential and an absolute pressure gauge. The station includes a submarine

  18. Reducing Range Anxiety by Unifying Networks of Charging Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Khalil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Availability of charging infrastructure is an important factor in penetration of electric vehicles into daily transportation system. Several factors in electric vehicle industry have caused range anxiety including insufficient charging stations, limited range of electric vehicles, long charging time, inaccurate estimation of available range, and energy consumption of auxiliary in-vehicle devices. However less attention has been paid to universality in charging station networks. This paper reviews the solutions to range anxiety. With regards to availability of charging station as one of the solutions, accessibility of charging stations by electric vehicle owners is also represented as another cause of range anxiety and a possible solution is provided.

  19. FLAME MONITORING IN POWER STATION BOILERS USING IMAGE PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sujatha

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Combustion quality in power station boilers plays an important role in minimizing the flue gas emissions. In the present work various intelligent schemes to infer the flue gas emissions by monitoring the flame colour at the furnace of the boiler are proposed here. Flame image monitoring involves capturing the flame video over a period of time with the measurement of various parameters like Carbon dioxide (CO2, excess oxygen (O2, Nitrogen dioxide (NOx, Sulphur dioxide (SOx and Carbon monoxide (CO emissions plus the flame temperature at the core of the fire ball, air/fuel ratio and the combustion quality. Higher the quality of combustion less will be the flue gases at the exhaust. The flame video was captured using an infrared camera. The flame video is then split up into the frames for further analysis. The video splitter is used for progressive extraction of the flame images from the video. The images of the flame are then pre-processed to reduce noise. The conventional classification and clustering techniques include the Euclidean distance classifier (L2 norm classifier. The intelligent classifier includes the Radial Basis Function Network (RBF, Back Propagation Algorithm (BPA and parallel architecture with RBF and BPA (PRBFBPA. The results of the validation are supported with the above mentioned performance measures whose values are in the optimal range. The values of the temperatures, combustion quality, SOx, NOx, CO, CO2 concentrations, air and fuel supplied corresponding to the images were obtained thereby indicating the necessary control action taken to increase or decrease the air supply so as to ensure complete combustion. In this work, by continuously monitoring the flame images, combustion quality was inferred (complete/partial/incomplete combustion and the air/fuel ratio can be automatically varied. Moreover in the existing set-up, measurements like NOx, CO and CO2 are inferred from the samples that are collected periodically or by

  20. Resilient design of recharging station networks for electric transportation vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kris Villez; Akshya Gupta; Venkat Venkatasubramanian

    2011-08-01

    As societies shift to 'greener' means of transportation using electricity-driven vehicles one critical challenge we face is the creation of a robust and resilient infrastructure of recharging stations. A particular issue here is the optimal location of service stations. In this work, we consider the placement of battery replacing service station in a city network for which the normal traffic flow is known. For such known traffic flow, the service stations are placed such that the expected performance is maximized without changing the traffic flow. This is done for different scenarios in which roads, road junctions and service stations can fail with a given probability. To account for such failure probabilities, the previously developed facility interception model is extended. Results show that service station failures have a minimal impact on the performance following robust placement while road and road junction failures have larger impacts which are not mitigated easily by robust placement.

  1. A climatological network for regional climate monitoring in Sardinia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delitala, Alessandro M. S.

    2016-04-01

    In recent years the Region of Sardinia has been working to set-up a Regional Climatological Network of surface stations, in order to monitor climate (either stationary or changing) at sub-synoptic scale and in order to make robust climatological information available to researchers and to local stake-holders. In order to do that, an analysis of long climatological time series has been performed on the different historical networks of meteorological stations that existed over the past two centuries. A set of some hundreds of stations, with about a century of observations of daily precipitation, was identified. An important subset of them was also defined, having long series of observations of temperature, wind, pressure and other quantities. Specific investments were made on important stations sites where observations had been carried for decades, but where the climatological stations did not exist anymore. In the present talk, the Regional Climatological Network of Sardinia will be presented and its consistency discussed. Specific attention will be given to the most important climatological stations which have got more than a century of observations of meteorological quantities. Critical issues of the Regional Climatological Network, like relocation of stations and inhomogeneity of data due to instrumental changes or environmental modifications, will be discussed.

  2. Site response and station performance of the newly-upgraded Myanmar National Seismic Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolin, E.; Thiam, H. N.; MIN Htwe, Y. M.; Kyaw, T. L.; Tun, P. P.; Min, Z.; Htwe, S. H.; Aung, T. M.; Lin, K. K.; Aung, M. M.; De Cristofaro, J. L.; Franke, M.; Hough, S. E.

    2016-12-01

    Myanmar is in a tectonically complex region between the eastern edge of the Himalayan collision zone and the northern end of the Sunda megathrust. Faults accommodating the oblique motion between India and Southeast Asia pose a hazard to the population of Myanmar, with few Mw>7 events in recent decades, but a number of Mw7-8 events documented in the historical record. A primary concern is the right-lateral Sagaing fault stretching more than 1000 km through the center of Myanmar in proximity to large cities such as Yangon, Mandalay, and the capital Nay Pyi Taw. Until recently, earthquake monitoring and research efforts have been hampered by a lack of modern instrumentation and communication infrastructure. In January of 2016, a major upgrade of the Myanmar National Seismic Network (MNSN; network code MM) was undertaken to improve earthquake monitoring capability. We installed five permanent broadband/strong-motion seismic stations and real-time data telemetry using newly improved cellular networks. Data are telemetered to the MNSN hub in Nay Pyi Taw and archived at the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology Data Management Center. We analyzed station performance and site response using noise and events recorded over the first six months of station operation. Background noise characteristics vary across the array, but indicate that the new stations are performing well. With data from the upgraded stations, the MNSN is able to lower the event detection threshold relative to the threshold provided by the global network, improving the ability of the MNSN to report on locally felt events, and improving significantly the monitoring of ground motions within the country. MM stations have recorded more than 20 earthquakes of M≥4.5 within Myanmar and its immediate surroundings, including a M6.8 earthquake located northwest of Mandalay on 13 April 2016. We use this new dataset to calculate horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratios and evaluate the site response of MM

  3. Contribution of Geodetic Datum in GNSS Networks to Monitored Displacements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Alpay; Dogan, Ugur; Aydin, Cuneyt

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of datum definition on the monitored displacements of GNSS networks. The datum definition is a significant problem in terms of reliable deformation analysis and interpretation on determining the deformation in GNSS networks. The observations have been analyzed to show the reliability analysis of a group of station in the network and the influence of datum definition on the deformations of GNSS monitoring networks. For this purpose, we studied GPS observations in the CORS-TR network collected on a set of 13 station to detect co-seismic deformation of the 23 October 2011 (Mw=7.2) Van earthquake in the eastern of Turkey. The GPS observations were processed in the ITRF 2008 reference frame using the Bernese 5.2 GNSS software. Seven datum configuration modes which depend on the number of datum stations, which are selected from 9 IGS stations, were defined to determine co-seismic deformation of the Van earthquake and the deformations of GPS stations were computed for every datum definition. Our results indicate that each station showed different temporal behavior and significant relative motions with respect to datum definition. On the other hand, the distribution of the datum stations around the monitored region seems to be very important factor for determining the displacements. To show the effect of datum station distribution, we compare the displacements obtained from two different datum configuration modes (mode 1: 4 datum station "BUCU, GRAZ, MATE, SOFI" located at Eurasian plate, which are far away from the region, and mode 2: 9 datum station "BUCU, GRAZ, MATE, SOFI, TUBI, CRAO, ZECK, NICO, DRAG" located around the region). For instance, co-seismic displacements for station MURA, which is the closest station to the earthquake epicenter (˜43 km), amounted to -82.24 ± 0.60 mm for the north component, 12.01 ± 0.76 mm for the east component and -25.19 ± 2.49 mm for the up component with respect to mode 1, -89

  4. Host Event Based Network Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonathan Chugg

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of INL’s research on this project is to demonstrate the feasibility of a host event based network monitoring tool and the effects on host performance. Current host based network monitoring tools work on polling which can miss activity if it occurs between polls. Instead of polling, a tool could be developed that makes use of event APIs in the operating system to receive asynchronous notifications of network activity. Analysis and logging of these events will allow the tool to construct the complete real-time and historical network configuration of the host while the tool is running. This research focused on three major operating systems commonly used by SCADA systems: Linux, WindowsXP, and Windows7. Windows 7 offers two paths that have minimal impact on the system and should be seriously considered. First is the new Windows Event Logging API, and, second, Windows 7 offers the ALE API within WFP. Any future work should focus on these methods.

  5. Performance Monitoring in Transparent Reconfigurable WDM Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Kit.Chan; Frank; Tong

    2003-01-01

    This paper classifies and surveys different approaches proposed for performance monitoring, in particular the optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) monitoring, in transparent reconfigurable WDM networks. Some considerations for future monitoring schemes are discussed.

  6. Real-time trend monitoring of gas compressor stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hardeveld, T. (Nova, an Alberta Corp., AB (Canada))

    1991-02-01

    The authors' company has developed a machinery health monitoring system (MHealth) for short-term and long-term historical trending and analysis of data from its 40 gas compressor stations. The author discusses the benefits of real-time trending in troubleshooting operations, in preventative maintenance scheduling and cites specific applications in the startup operations of several new gas compressor/centrifugal compressor units.

  7. Radio-location of mobile stations in third generation networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Manojle Šunjevarić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile station localization in mobile networks started with simple methods (e.g. Cell-ID method which required only slight modifications of network infrastructures. Principally, it was about network localization by which a localization service became available to all types of mobile phones. Due to low precision, the initiated development of more sophisticated methods has not been finished yet. Among the advanced location-based methods are those based on the measurement of location parameters in the time domain. In this paper the general consideration of radio location methods in 3G (UMTS radio networks is presented. The use of time based measurement methods was analysed in detail. Due to the limited article length, the use of other locating methods in 3G networks (based on power measurements, on radio direction measurement, and on cells identification – Cell ID and global positioning system - GPS are not described. Introduction Mobile station localization within modern cellular networks increases the level of user security and opens wide opportunities for commercial operators who provide this service. The major obstacle for the implementation of this service, which also prevents its practical usage, is the modification of the existing network infrastructure. In general, depending on the infrastructure used, positioning methods can be divided into two groups: integrated and independent. Integrated methods are primarily created for communication networks. A possibility to locate users represents just an additional service within a radio network. Independent methods are totally detached from the communication network in which the user whose location is being determined is. Radio location methods Determining the location of a mobile radio station is performed by determining the intersection of two or more lines of position. These lines represent the position of the set of points at which the mobile station may be located. These lines can be: (a

  8. Implementation of Biogas Stations into Smart Heating and Cooling Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milčák, P.; Konvička, J.; Jasenská, M.

    2016-10-01

    The paper is aimed at the description of implementation of a biogas station into software environment for the "Smart Heating and Cooling Networks". The aim of this project is creation of a software tool for preparation of operation and optimization of treatment of heat/cool in small regions. In this case, the biogas station represents a kind of renewable energy source, which, however, has its own operational specifics which need to be taken into account at the creation of an implementation project. For a specific biogas station, a detailed computational model was elaborated, which is parameterized in particular for an optimization of the total computational time.

  9. Sensor Network Architectures for Monitoring Underwater Pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Imad Jawhar; Jameela Al-Jaroodi; Nader Mohamed; Liren Zhang

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops and compares different sensor network architecture designs that can be used for monitoring underwater pipeline infrastructures. These architectures are underwater wired sensor networks, underwater acoustic wireless sensor networks, RF (Radio Frequency) wireless sensor networks, integrated wired/acoustic wireless sensor networks, and integrated wired/RF wireless sensor networks. The paper also discusses the reliability challenges and enhancement approaches for these network...

  10. Analysis and Distribution of the Rainfall Monitoring Network in a Brazilian Pantanal Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Ferreira Cristaldo

    Full Text Available Abstract To better understand drought and flood dynamics in the Pantanal is crucial an adequate hydrometeorological monitoring network. However, few studies have investigated whether the current monitoring systems are suitable in this region. Here, we analyzed the hydrometeorological monitoring network of the Aquidauana region, composed of pluviometric, meteorological and fluviatile gauging stations. We obtained data of all hydrometeorological gauges available in this region to compare with the World Meteorological Organization (WMO recommendation. We found that although the number of stations in operation is satisfactory when compared with that established by the WMO, the network is not satisfactory in the operating stations because of lack of maintenance, thus creating a need for additional stations. This fact was also observed when analyzing the meteorological network. Using remote sensing data may be possible to fill these data gap. However, to improve the knowledge on hydrological processes in this region is still necessary to install additional ground-based stations.

  11. Greening radio access networks using distributed base station architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kardaras, Georgios; Soler, José; Dittmann, Lars

    2010-01-01

    . However besides this, increasing energy efficiency represents a key factor for reducing operating expenses and deploying cost effective mobile networks. This paper presents how distributed base station architectures can contribute in greening radio access networks. More specifically, the advantages...... of introducing remote radio head modules are discussed. Substantial flexibility is provided in terms of power consumption, as a result of combining efficient hardware with intelligent software. Additionally, it is underlined that designing eco-sustainable systems needs to follow a holistic approach towards...

  12. Application of the dynamic information construction about mobile earthquake monitoring network description of station based on Google Map%基于Google Map浏览的流动地震监测网点志记动态信息化应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方韡; 许仪西; 蔡宗文; 陈新泽; 谢忠云

    2011-01-01

    介绍了基于Google Map浏览的流动地震监测网点志记动态信息化的开发过程与目的,描述了该应用的实现过程.借助Internet网络,以B/S(浏览器/服务器)体系结构作为基础架构,采用Joomla集成平台开发,使当前的地震监测点点志记具有动态电子地图(借助Google Map自身强大的地理信息功能,如交通背景、地形地貌、卫星地图等功能)的浏览功能,如:漫游、缩放、采用鸟瞰图显示福建省监测网点、快速定位测点、动态浏览测点详细信息、根据比例尺显示等.%In this paper, the development and purpose of mobile earthquake monitoring network description of station is introduced, and the design and implementation process is described. By Internet/Intranet Web, the network, which bases on B/S, is developed by Joomla integrated platform, to fulfill the dynamic electronic map feature to current earthquake monitoring network dot distribution, based on the strong geographic information support of Google Map,include traffic background, landform, GPS map and so on. And with the following functions, such as roaming, zooming and narrow features, monitoring the aerialview of every monitoring website all over the province, quick positioning of station, dynamic display of the details in the station and adapt to the scale etc.

  13. Deploying temporary networks for upscaling of sparse network stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coopersmith, Evan J.; Cosh, Michael H.; Bell, Jesse E.; Kelly, Victoria; Hall, Mark; Palecki, Michael A.; Temimi, Marouane

    2016-10-01

    Soil observations networks at the national scale play an integral role in hydrologic modeling, drought assessment, agricultural decision support, and our ability to understand climate change. Understanding soil moisture variability is necessary to apply these measurements to model calibration, business and consumer applications, or even human health issues. The installation of soil moisture sensors as sparse, national networks is necessitated by limited financial resources. However, this results in the incomplete sampling of the local heterogeneity of soil type, vegetation cover, topography, and the fine spatial distribution of precipitation events. To this end, temporary networks can be installed in the areas surrounding a permanent installation within a sparse network. The temporary networks deployed in this study provide a more representative average at the 3 km and 9 km scales, localized about the permanent gauge. The value of such temporary networks is demonstrated at test sites in Millbrook, New York and Crossville, Tennessee. The capacity of a single U.S. Climate Reference Network (USCRN) sensor set to approximate the average of a temporary network at the 3 km and 9 km scales using a simple linear scaling function is tested. The capacity of a temporary network to provide reliable estimates with diminishing numbers of sensors, the temporal stability of those networks, and ultimately, the relationship of the variability of those networks to soil moisture conditions at the permanent sensor are investigated. In this manner, this work demonstrates the single-season installation of a temporary network as a mechanism to characterize the soil moisture variability at a permanent gauge within a sparse network.

  14. Simultaneous optimization of transit network and public bicycle station network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洋; 朱宁; 马寿峰

    2015-01-01

    The traditional manner to design public transportation system is to sequentially design the transit network and public bicycle network. A new public transportation system design problem that simultaneously considers both bus network design and public bicycle network design is proposed. The chemical reaction optimization (CRO) is designed to solve the problem. A shortcoming of CRO is that, when the two-molecule collisions take place, the molecules are randomly picked from the container. Hence, we improve CRO by employing different mating strategies. The computational results confirm the benefits of the mating strategies. Numerical experiments are conducted on the Sioux-Falls network. A comparison with the traditional sequential modeling framework indicates that the proposed approach has a better performance and is more robust. The practical applicability of the approach is proved by employing a real size network.

  15. Journal Article: the National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    In June, 1998, the U.S. EPA established the National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (NDAMN). The primary goal of NDAMN is determine the temporal and geographical variability of atmospheric CDDs, CDFs, and coplanar PCBs at rural and nonimpacted locations throughout the United States. Currently operating at 32 sampling stations, NDAMN has three primary purposes: (1) to determine the atmospheric levels and occurrences of dioxin-like compounds in rural and agricultural areas where livestock, poultry and animal feed crops are grown; (2) to provide measurements of atmospheric levels of dioxin-like compounds in different geographic regions of the U.S.; and (3) to provide information regarding the long-range transport of dioxin-like compounds in air over the U.S. At Dioxin 2000, we reported on the preliminary results of monitoring at 9 rural locations from June 1998 through June 1999. By the end of 1999, NDAMN had expanded to 21 sampling stations. Then, at Dioxin 2001, we reported the results of the first 18 months of operation of NDAMN at 15 rural and 6 National Park stations in the United States. The following is intended to be an update to this national monitoring effort. We are reporting the air monitoring results of 17 rural and 8 National Park NDAMN stations operational over 4 sampling moments during calendar year 2000. Two stations located in suburban Washington DC and San Francisco, CA are more urban in character and serve as an indicator of CDD/F and cop

  16. How minimum detectable displacement in a GNSS Monitoring Network change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilmi Erkoç, Muharrem; Doǧan, Uǧur; Aydın, Cüneyt

    2016-04-01

    The minimum detectable displacement in a geodetic monitoring network shows the displacement magnitude which may be just discriminated with known error probabilities. This displacement, which is originally deduced from sensitivity analysis, depends on network design, observation accuracy, datum of the network, direction of the displacement and power of the statistical test used for detecting the displacements. One may investigate how different scenarios on network design and observation accuracies influence the minimum detectable displacements for the specified datum, a-priorly forecasted directions and assumed power of the test and decide which scenario is the best or most optimum. It is sometimes difficult to forecast directions of the displacements. In that case, the minimum detectable displacements in a geodetic monitoring network are derived on the eigen-directions associated with the maximum eigen-values of the network stations. This study investigates how minimum detectable displacements in a GNSS monitoring network change depending on the accuracies of the network stations. For this, CORS-TR network in Turkey with 15 stations (a station fixed) is used. The data with 4h, 6h, 12 h and 24 h observing session duration in three sequential days of 2011, 2012 and 2013 were analyzed with Bernese 5.2 GNSS software. The repeatabilities of the daily solutions belonging to each year were analyzed carefully to scale the Bernese cofactor matrices properly. The root mean square (RMS) values for daily repeatability with respect to the combined 3-day solution are computed (the RMS values are generally less than 2 mm in the horizontal directions (north and east) and < 5 mm in the vertical direction for 24 h observing session duration). With the obtained cofactor matrices for these observing sessions, the minimum detectable displacements along the (maximum) eigen directions are compared each other. According to these comparisons, more session duration less minimum detectable

  17. Sensor network architectures for monitoring underwater pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Nader; Jawhar, Imad; Al-Jaroodi, Jameela; Zhang, Liren

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops and compares different sensor network architecture designs that can be used for monitoring underwater pipeline infrastructures. These architectures are underwater wired sensor networks, underwater acoustic wireless sensor networks, RF (radio frequency) wireless sensor networks, integrated wired/acoustic wireless sensor networks, and integrated wired/RF wireless sensor networks. The paper also discusses the reliability challenges and enhancement approaches for these network architectures. The reliability evaluation, characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages among these architectures are discussed and compared. Three reliability factors are used for the discussion and comparison: the network connectivity, the continuity of power supply for the network, and the physical network security. In addition, the paper also develops and evaluates a hierarchical sensor network framework for underwater pipeline monitoring.

  18. Sensor Network Architectures for Monitoring Underwater Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imad Jawhar

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops and compares different sensor network architecture designs that can be used for monitoring underwater pipeline infrastructures. These architectures are underwater wired sensor networks, underwater acoustic wireless sensor networks, RF (Radio Frequency wireless sensor networks, integrated wired/acoustic wireless sensor networks, and integrated wired/RF wireless sensor networks. The paper also discusses the reliability challenges and enhancement approaches for these network architectures. The reliability evaluation, characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages among these architectures are discussed and compared. Three reliability factors are used for the discussion and comparison: the network connectivity, the continuity of power supply for the network, and the physical network security. In addition, the paper also develops and evaluates a hierarchical sensor network framework for underwater pipeline monitoring.

  19. A collaborative network middleware project by Lambda Station, TeraPaths, and Phoebus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobyshev, A.; /Fermilab; Bradley, S.; /Brookhaven; Crawford, M.; /Fermilab; DeMar, P.; /Fermilab; Katramatos, D.; /Brookhaven; Shroff, K.; /Brookhaven; Swany, M.; /Delaware U.; Yu, D.; /Brookhaven

    2010-01-01

    The TeraPaths, Lambda Station, and Phoebus projects, funded by the US Department of Energy, have successfully developed network middleware services that establish on-demand and manage true end-to-end, Quality-of-Service (QoS) aware, virtual network paths across multiple administrative network domains, select network paths and gracefully reroute traffic over these dynamic paths, and streamline traffic between packet and circuit networks using transparent gateways. These services improve network QoS and performance for applications, playing a critical role in the effective use of emerging dynamic circuit network services. They provide interfaces to applications, such as dCache SRM, translate network service requests into network device configurations, and coordinate with each other to setup up end-to-end network paths. The End Site Control Plane Subsystem (ESCPS) builds upon the success of the three projects by combining their individual capabilities into the next generation of network middleware. ESCPS addresses challenges such as cross-domain control plane signalling and interoperability, authentication and authorization in a Grid environment, topology discovery, and dynamic status tracking. The new network middleware will take full advantage of the perfSONAR monitoring infrastructure and the Inter-Domain Control plane efforts and will be deployed and fully vetted in the Large Hadron Collider data movement environment.

  20. Categorisation of air quality monitoring stations by evaluation of PM(10) variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrero, M A; Orza, J A G; Cabello, M; Cantón, L

    2015-08-15

    Air Quality Monitoring Networks (AQMNs) are composed by a number of stations, which are typically classified as urban, suburban or rural, and background, industrial or traffic, depending on the location and the influence of the immediate surroundings. These categories are not necessarily homogeneous and distinct from one another, regarding the levels of the monitored pollutants. A classification providing groups with these features is of interest for air quality management and research purposes, and therefore, other classification criteria should be explored. In this work, the variations of PM10 concentrations in 43 stations in the AQMN of the Basque Country in the period 2005-2012 have been studied to group them according to common characteristics. The characteristic variations in time are synthesised by the autocorrelation function (ACF), with both daily and hourly data, and by the average diurnal evolution pattern of the normalised concentrations on a seasonal basis (Evol-P). A methodology based on k-means clustering of these features is proposed. Each classification gives a different piece of information that has been phenomenologically related with specific dispersion and emission dynamics. The classification based on Evol-Ps is found to be the most influential one when comparing PM10 levels between groups. A combination of these categorisations provides 5 groups with significantly different levels of PM10, improving the discrimination of the conventional classification. Our results indicate that the time series of the pollutant concentrations contain enough information to provide an objective classification of the monitoring stations in an AQMN.

  1. A design proposal of real-time monitoring stations: implementation and performance in contrasting environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose González

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of creating a real-time monitoring network for both oceanographic and meteorological data, a monitoring station conceptual design was developed. A common framework for software and electronics was adapted to different environmental conditions using two buoy approaches: one intended for oceanic waters, to be moored up to 30-40 m depth, where waves are the critical design factor, and one for continental waters (rivers, lakes and the inner part of estuaries, where currents are the critical design factor. When structures such as bridges are present in the area, the monitoring station can be installed on these structures, thus reducing its impact and increasing safety. In this paper, the design, implementation, operation and performance of these stations are described. A reliability index is calculated for the longest time series of the three related deployment options on the Galician coast: Cíes (oceanic buoy in front of the Ría de Vigo, Catoira (continental buoy in the Ulla river and Cortegada (installation in a bed in the Ría de Arousa.

  2. 40 CFR 52.430 - Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Stations (PAMS) Program. 52.430 Section 52.430 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program. On March 24, 1994 the Delaware Department of... Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program as a state implementation plan (SIP) revision,...

  3. 40 CFR 52.2426 - Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Stations (PAMS) Program. 52.2426 Section 52.2426 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.2426 Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program. On November 23, 1994 Virginia's... Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program as a state implementation plan (SIP) revision,...

  4. 40 CFR 52.480 - Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Stations (PAMS) Program. 52.480 Section 52.480 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.480 Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program. On January 14, 1994 the District... and implementation of a Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program as a...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1080 - Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Stations (PAMS) Program. 52.1080 Section 52.1080 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.1080 Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program. On March 24, 1994 Maryland's... Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program as a state implementation plan (SIP) revision, as required...

  6. The meteorological monitoring system for the Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianic, Allan V.

    1994-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS) are involved in many weather-sensitive operations. Manned and unmanned vehicle launches, which occur several times each year, are obvious example of operations whose success and safety are dependent upon favorable meteorological conditions. Other operations involving NASA, Air Force, and contractor personnel, including daily operations to maintain facilities, refurbish launch structures, prepare vehicles for launch, and handle hazardous materials, are less publicized but are no less weather-sensitive. The Meteorological Monitoring System (MMS) is a computer network which acquires, processes, disseminates, and monitors near real-time and forecast meteorological information to assist operational personnel and weather forecasters with the task of minimizing the risk to personnel, materials, and the surrounding population. CLIPS has been integrated into the MMS to provide quality control analysis and data monitoring. This paper describes aspects of the MMS relevant to CLIPS including requirements, actual implementation details, and results of performance testing.

  7. Optimising base station location for UMTS cellular networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalata, G.; Pozniak-Koszalka, I.; Koszalka, L.; Kasprzak, A.

    2014-12-01

    Rapid development of universal mobile telecommunication systems put demands on tools for assisting planning of cellular network infrastructure. The tools need to focus on critical issues in modern cellular networks and techniques used for previous generation system no longer serve useful. In this paper, an algorithm based on Branch & Bound approach is proposed for solving base station location problem, covering interference levels, traffic demands and power control mechanism. The efficiency of the algorithm is evaluated with respect to existing approaches for solving this problem - using the designed and implemented experimentation system.

  8. A tactical, permanent telemetered volcano monitoring station design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, A. B.; LaFevers, M.; Couchman, M. R.

    2012-12-01

    The USGS-USAID Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (VDAP) designs, constructs and installs telemetered volcano-monitoring stations for use in developing countries, at a wide range of latitudes and elevations, weather and environmental conditions. The stations typically house seismometers, GPS and webcams, singly or in combination. They are frequently installed quickly during a volcanic crisis, but are expected to function over the long term as permanent stations. The primary design goal is for a simple, highly portable station that can be installed in less than a day, but not require maintenance until the natural end of battery life, usually 2-5 years. The station consists of a pair of aluminum boxes (43x46x71cm, approx.) placed on the ground facing each other, 2-3m apart, forming the lower part of a metal framework made of 2" pipe to mount solar panels and antennae. Vertical sections of 2" pipe, 3-4m long, are clamped to each end of both the boxes, the lower ends buried into cement-filled holes. This makes 4 masts on a rectangular footprint of 1m X 3-4m. Two horizontal crosspieces of 2" pipe 3-4m long are clamped across the masts. Solar panels are laid across the crosspieces, mounted with 2" angle aluminum extending from the high crosspiece to the low one. Relative height of the crosspieces controls the angle of the solar panels. The crosspieces can be lengthened to increase mounting space for additional solar panels. Inside the aluminum boxes, the radios and electronics are housed in plastic boxes. All external cables are protected by flexible aluminum conduit. Important elements of the design include: -Redundant dual solar power supplies of expandable capacity for loads from 1W to 10W or more. -Robust lightning protection afforded by grounded metal footlockers and framework, and a built-in common grounding point. -Strongly resistant to ice loads. -Waterproof, insect-proof plastic boxes for radios and electronics. -Aluminum boxes are easily fabricated, fit within

  9. Monitoring the Topology of Growing Dynamical Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhaoyan; Fu, Xinchu; Chen, Guanrong

    In this paper, topology monitoring of growing networks is studied. When some new nodes are added into a network, the topology of the network is changed, which needs to be monitored in many applications. Some auxiliary systems (network monitors) are designed to achieve this goal. Both linear feedback control and adaptive strategy are applied to designing such network monitors. Based on the Lyapunov function method via constructing a potential or energy function decreasing along any solution of the system, and the LaSalle's invariance principle, which is a generalization of the Lyapunov function method, some sufficient conditions for achieving topology monitoring are obtained. Illustrative examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the new method.

  10. Single-frequency receivers as master permanent stations in GNSS networks: precision and accuracy of the positioning in mixed networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabove, Paolo; Manzino, Ambrogio Maria

    2015-04-01

    The use of GPS/GNSS instruments is a common practice in the world at both a commercial and academic research level. Since last ten years, Continuous Operating Reference Stations (CORSs) networks were born in order to achieve the possibility to extend a precise positioning more than 15 km far from the master station. In this context, the Geomatics Research Group of DIATI at the Politecnico di Torino has carried out several experiments in order to evaluate the achievable precision obtainable with different GNSS receivers (geodetic and mass-market) and antennas if a CORSs network is considered. This work starts from the research above described, in particular focusing the attention on the usefulness of single frequency permanent stations in order to thicken the existing CORSs, especially for monitoring purposes. Two different types of CORSs network are available today in Italy: the first one is the so called "regional network" and the second one is the "national network", where the mean inter-station distances are about 25/30 and 50/70 km respectively. These distances are useful for many applications (e.g. mobile mapping) if geodetic instruments are considered but become less useful if mass-market instruments are used or if the inter-station distance between master and rover increases. In this context, some innovative GNSS networks were developed and tested, analyzing the performance of rover's positioning in terms of quality, accuracy and reliability both in real-time and post-processing approach. The use of single frequency GNSS receivers leads to have some limits, especially due to a limited baseline length, the possibility to obtain a correct fixing of the phase ambiguity for the network and to fix the phase ambiguity correctly also for the rover. These factors play a crucial role in order to reach a positioning with a good level of accuracy (as centimetric o better) in a short time and with an high reliability. The goal of this work is to investigate about the

  11. Configurable Monitoring for Multi-domain Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Belghith, Aymen; Cousin, Bernard; Lahoud, Samer

    2014-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we review the state-of-the-art monitoring architectures proposed for multi-domain networks. We establish the five requirements a multi-domain monitoring architecture must fulfilled. We note that these architectures do not support measurement configuration that enables the providers to perform flexible multi-domain measurements. Therefore, we propose a configurable multi-domain network monitoring architecture in order to give more flexibility in monitorin...

  12. Bridge monitoring using heterogeneous wireless sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haran, Shivan; Kher, Shubhalaxmi; Mehndiratta, Vandana

    2010-03-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are proving to be a good fit where real time monitoring of multiple physical parameters is required. In many applications such as structural health monitoring, patient data monitoring, traffic accident monitoring and analysis, sensor networks may involve interface with conventional P2P systems and it is challenging to handle heterogeneous network systems. Heterogeneous deployments will become increasingly prevalent as it allows for systems to seamlessly integrate and interoperate especially when it comes to applications involving monitoring of large infrastructures. Such networks may have wireless sensor network overlaid on a conventional computer network to pick up data from one distant location and carry out the analysis after relaying it over to another distant location. This paper discusses monitoring of bridges using WSN. As a test bed, a heterogeneous network of WSN and conventional P2P together with a combination of sensing devices (including vibration and strain) is to be used on a bridge model. Issues related to condition assessment of the bridge for situations including faults, overloads, etc., as well as analysis of network and system performance will be discussed. When conducted under controlled conditions, this is an important step towards fine tuning the monitoring system for recommendation of permanent mounting of sensors and collecting data that can help in the development of new methods for inspection and evaluation of bridges. The proposed model, design, and issues therein will be discussed, along with its implementation and results.

  13. An Air-Ground Wireless Sensor Network for Crop Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Rossi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a collaborative system made up of a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN and an aerial robot, which is applied to real-time frost monitoring in vineyards. The core feature of our system is a dynamic mobile node carried by an aerial robot, which ensures communication between sparse clusters located at fragmented parcels and a base station. This system overcomes some limitations of the wireless networks in areas with such characteristics. The use of a dedicated communication channel enables data routing to/from unlimited distances.

  14. Promoting Social Network Awareness: A Social Network Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadima, Rita; Ferreira, Carlos; Monguet, Josep; Ojeda, Jordi; Fernandez, Joaquin

    2010-01-01

    To increase communication and collaboration opportunities, members of a community must be aware of the social networks that exist within that community. This paper describes a social network monitoring system--the KIWI system--that enables users to register their interactions and visualize their social networks. The system was implemented in a…

  15. Promoting Social Network Awareness: A Social Network Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadima, Rita; Ferreira, Carlos; Monguet, Josep; Ojeda, Jordi; Fernandez, Joaquin

    2010-01-01

    To increase communication and collaboration opportunities, members of a community must be aware of the social networks that exist within that community. This paper describes a social network monitoring system--the KIWI system--that enables users to register their interactions and visualize their social networks. The system was implemented in a…

  16. Greening radio access networks using distributed base station architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kardaras, Georgios; Soler, José; Dittmann, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Several actions for developing environmentally friendly technologies have been taken in most industrial fields. Significant resources have also been devoted in mobile communications industry. Moving towards eco-friendly alternatives is primarily a social responsibility for network operators....... However besides this, increasing energy efficiency represents a key factor for reducing operating expenses and deploying cost effective mobile networks. This paper presents how distributed base station architectures can contribute in greening radio access networks. More specifically, the advantages...... of introducing remote radio head modules are discussed. Substantial flexibility is provided in terms of power consumption, as a result of combining efficient hardware with intelligent software. Additionally, it is underlined that designing eco-sustainable systems needs to follow a holistic approach towards...

  17. Pipelining in structural health monitoring wireless sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xu; Dorvash, Siavash; Cheng, Liang; Pakzad, Shamim

    2010-04-01

    Application of wireless sensor network (WSN) for structural health monitoring (SHM), is becoming widespread due to its implementation ease and economic advantage over traditional sensor networks. Beside advantages that have made wireless network preferable, there are some concerns regarding their performance in some applications. In long-span Bridge monitoring the need to transfer data over long distance causes some challenges in design of WSN platforms. Due to the geometry of bridge structures, using multi-hop data transfer between remote nodes and base station is essential. This paper focuses on the performances of pipelining algorithms. We summarize several prevent pipelining approaches, discuss their performances, and propose a new pipelining algorithm, which gives consideration to both boosting of channel usage and the simplicity in deployment.

  18. Evaluation of a Possibility to Identify Port Pollutants Trace in Klaipeda City Air Pollution Monitoring Stations

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. dr. habil. Vytautas SMAILYS; Renata Strazdauskienė; Kristina Bereišienė

    2009-01-01

    Attempts are made to determine whether it is possible to identify fractions of air pollutants emitted in Klaipeda port in the data recorded in the city air monitoring station. Two components, SO2 and NOx , controlled aboard ship since 2006 were chosen for evaluation. To determine the port influence, a due account was taken of the location of monitoring stations. For this purpose the sectors where port pollutants could enter the samplers of air monitoring stations were identified. For the asse...

  19. Patient Health Monitoring Using Wireless Body Area Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Myat Thwe

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nowadays remote patient health monitoring using wireless technology plays very vigorous role in a society. Wireless technology helps monitoring of physiological parameters like body temperature heart rate respiration blood pressure and ECG. The main aim of this paper is to propose a wireless sensor network system in which both heart rate and body temperature ofmultiplepatients can monitor on PC at the same time via RF network. The proposed prototype system includes two sensor nodes and receiver node base station. The sensor nodes are able to transmit data to receiver using wireless nRF transceiver module.The nRF transceiver module is used to transfer the data from microcontroller to PC and a graphical user interface GUI is developed to display the measured data and save to database. This system can provide very cheaper easier and quick respondent history of patient.

  20. Dynamic safety assessment of natural gas stations using Bayesian network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Esmaeil; Azadeh, Ali; Khakzad, Nima; Aliabadi, Mostafa Mirzaei; Mohammadfam, Iraj

    2017-01-05

    Pipelines are one of the most popular and effective ways of transporting hazardous materials, especially natural gas. However, the rapid development of gas pipelines and stations in urban areas has introduced a serious threat to public safety and assets. Although different methods have been developed for risk analysis of gas transportation systems, a comprehensive methodology for risk analysis is still lacking, especially in natural gas stations. The present work is aimed at developing a dynamic and comprehensive quantitative risk analysis (DCQRA) approach for accident scenario and risk modeling of natural gas stations. In this approach, a FMEA is used for hazard analysis while a Bow-tie diagram and Bayesian network are employed to model the worst-case accident scenario and to assess the risks. The results have indicated that the failure of the regulator system was the worst-case accident scenario with the human error as the most contributing factor. Thus, in risk management plan of natural gas stations, priority should be given to the most probable root events and main contribution factors, which have identified in the present study, in order to reduce the occurrence probability of the accident scenarios and thus alleviate the risks.

  1. WiMAX network performance monitoring & optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Qi; Dam, H

    2008-01-01

    frequency reuse, capacity planning, proper network dimensioning, multi-class data services and so on. Furthermore, as a small operator we also want to reduce the demand for sophisticated technicians and man labour hours. To meet these critical demands, we design a generic integrated network performance......In this paper we present our WiMAX (worldwide interoperability for microwave access) network performance monitoring and optimization solution. As a new and small WiMAX network operator, there are many demanding issues that we have to deal with, such as limited available frequency resource, tight...... this integrated network performance monitoring and optimization system in our WiMAX networks. This integrated monitoring and optimization system has such good flexibility and scalability that individual function component can be used by other operators with special needs and more advanced function components can...

  2. Application of artificial neural networks for the wind speed prediction of target station using reference stations data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilgili, Mehmet; Sahin, Besir; Yasar, Abdulkadir [Cukurova University, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Mechanical Engineering Department, 01330 Adana (Turkey)

    2007-11-15

    In this study, artificial neural networks (ANNs) were applied to predict the mean monthly wind speed of any target station using the mean monthly wind speeds of neighboring stations which are indicated as reference stations. Hourly wind speed data, collected by the Turkish State Meteorological Service (TSMS) at 8 measuring stations located in the eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey were used. The long-term wind data, containing hourly wind speeds, directions and related information, cover the period between 1992 and 2001. These data were divided into two sections. According to the correlation coefficients, reference and target stations were defined. The mean monthly wind speeds of reference stations were used and also corresponding months were specified in the input layer of the network. On the other hand, the mean monthly wind speed of the target station was utilized in the output layer of the network. Resilient propagation (RP) learning algorithm was applied in the present simulation. The hidden layers and output layer of the network consist of logistic sigmoid transfer function (logsig) and linear transfer function (purelin) as an activation function. Finally, the values determined by ANN model were compared with the actual data. The maximum mean absolute percentage error was found to be 14.13% for Antakya meteorological station and the best result was found to be 4.49% for Mersin meteorological station. (author)

  3. Site characterization of the Romanian Seismic Network stations: a national initiative and its first preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecu, Bogdan; Zahria, Bogdan; Manea, Elena; Neagoe, Cristian; Borleanu, Felix; Diaconescu, Mihai; Constantinescu, Eduard; Bala, Andrei

    2017-04-01

    The seismic activity in Romania is dominated by the intermediate-depth earthquakes occurring in Vrancea region, although weak to moderate crustal earthquakes are produced regularly in different areas of the country. The National Institute for Earth Physics (NIEP) built in the last years an impressive infrastructure for monitoring this activity, known as the Romanian Seismic Network (RSN). At present, RSN consists of 122 seismic stations, of which 70 have broadband velocity sensors and 42 short period sensors. One hundred and eleven stations out of 122 have accelerometer sensors collocated with velocity sensors and only 10 stations have only accelerometers. All the stations record continuously the ground motion and the data are transmitted in real-time to the Romanian National Data Center (RoNDC), in Magurele. Last year, NIEP has started a national project that addresses the characterization of all real-time seismic stations that constitute the RSN. We present here the steps that were undertaken and the preliminary results obtained since the beginning the project. The first two activities consisted of collecting all the existent technical and geological data, with emphasize on the latter. Then, we performed station noise investigations and analyses in order to characterize the noise level and estimate the resonances of the sites. The computed H/V ratios showed clear resonant peaks at different frequencies which correlate relatively well with the thickness of the sedimentary package beneath the stations. The polarization analysis of the H/V ratios indicates for some stations a strong directivity of the resonance peak which suggests possible topographic effects at the stations. At the same time, special attention was given to the estimation of the site amplification from earthquake data. The spectral ratios obtained from the analysis of more than 50 earthquakes with magnitudes (Mw) larger than 4.1 are characterized by similar resonance peaks as those obtained from

  4. Online APAN IPv6 Network Monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    APAN [4] has native IPv6 network across all major APAN exchange points. It is important to validate the performance of the links in the network to ensure the link stability. This paper discusses the technique and mechanism that are used to perform online monitoring of the APAN IPv6 network status. Pchar tool is used to check the performance of the network. Metrics such as bandwidth, hop count and round trip time between nodes in each country's have been adopted for these monitoring activity.

  5. Monitoring the Dead Sea Region by Multi-Parameter Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsen, A.; Weber, M. H.; Kottmeier, C.; Asch, G.

    2015-12-01

    The Dead Sea Region is an exceptional ecosystem whose seismic activity has influenced all facets of the development, from ground water availability to human evolution. Israelis, Palestinians and Jordanians living in the Dead Sea region are exposed to severe earthquake hazard. Repeatedly large earthquakes (e.g. 1927, magnitude 6.0; (Ambraseys, 2009)) shook the whole Dead Sea region proving that earthquake hazard knows no borders and damaging seismic events can strike anytime. Combined with the high vulnerability of cities in the region and with the enormous concentration of historical values this natural hazard results in an extreme earthquake risk. Thus, an integration of earthquake parameters at all scales (size and time) and their combination with data of infrastructure are needed with the specific aim of providing a state-of-the-art seismic hazard assessment for the Dead Sea region as well as a first quantitative estimate of vulnerability and risk. A strong motivation for our research is the lack of reliable multi-parameter ground-based geophysical information on earthquakes in the Dead Sea region. The proposed set up of a number of observatories with on-line data access will enable to derive the present-day seismicity and deformation pattern in the Dead Sea region. The first multi-parameter stations were installed in Jordan, Israel and Palestine for long-time monitoring. All partners will jointly use these locations. All stations will have an open data policy, with the Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ, Potsdam, Germany) providing the hard and software for real-time data transmission via satellite to Germany, where all partners can access the data via standard data protocols.

  6. GIS based assessment of the spatial representativeness of air quality monitoring stations using pollutant emissions data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righini, G.; Cappelletti, A.; Ciucci, A.; Cremona, G.; Piersanti, A.; Vitali, L.; Ciancarella, L.

    2014-11-01

    Spatial representativeness of air quality monitoring stations is a critical parameter when choosing location of sites and assessing effects on population to long term exposure to air pollution. According to literature, the spatial representativeness of a monitoring site is related to the variability of pollutants concentrations around the site. As the spatial distribution of primary pollutants concentration is strongly correlated to the allocation of corresponding emissions, in this work a methodology is presented to preliminarily assess spatial representativeness of a monitoring site by analysing the spatial variation of emissions around it. An analysis of horizontal variability of several pollutants emissions was carried out by means of Geographic Information System using a neighbourhood statistic function; the rationale is that if the variability of emissions around a site is low, the spatial representativeness of this site is high consequently. The methodology was applied to detect spatial representativeness of selected Italian monitoring stations, located in Northern and Central Italy and classified as urban background or rural background. Spatialized emission data produced by the national air quality model MINNI, covering entire Italian territory at spatial resolution of 4 × 4 km2, were processed and analysed. The methodology has shown significant capability for quick detection of areas with highest emission variability. This approach could be useful to plan new monitoring networks and to approximately estimate horizontal spatial representativeness of existing monitoring sites. Major constraints arise from the limited spatial resolution of the analysis, controlled by the resolution of the emission input data, cell size of 4 × 4 km2, and from the applicability to primary pollutants only.

  7. Geophysical monitoring of a complex geologic framework: the multi-disciplinary sensor networks in Sicily (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarero, M.; Di Prima, S.; Mattia, M.; Patanè, D.; Rossi, M.

    2012-04-01

    Since 2004 the Osservatorio Etneo INGV has begun a new approach to the geophysical monitoring of volcanic and seismic areas of Sicily (Italy) where the core is a new type of remote infrastructure able to efficiently accommodate different kinds of sensor. In particular our multi-parametric network is mainly focused on the monitoring of different geophysical parameters (seismic ground velocity and acceleration, infrasound and ground deformation GPS).The whole seismic network consists of 66 broad band digital stations, 19 analog stations, 13 accelerometric stations and 12 infrasonic stations, for a total of 110 stations while the Continuous GPS network consist of 80 stations. Every station is equipped with solar panels in order to satisfy the power requirements of the instruments and with satellite-based communication systems. In this work we show both the technical solutions of this integrated network and its main advantages, if compared with older kinds of remote stations. Moreover we show some examples of the more interesting scientific results achieved thank to this technologically advanced network.

  8. Integrating wireless sensor network for monitoring subsidence phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marturià, Jordi; Lopez, Ferran; Gigli, Giovanni; Intrieri, Emanuele; Mucchi, Lorenzo; Fornaciai, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    An innovative wireless sensor network (WSN) for the 3D superficial monitoring of deformations (such as landslides and subsidence) is being developed in the frame of the Wi-GIM project (Wireless sensor network for Ground Instability Monitoring - LIFE12 ENV/IT/001033). The surface movement is detected acquiring the position (x, y and z) by integrating large bandwidth technology able to detect the 3D coordinates of the sensor with a sub-meter error, with continuous wave radar, which allows decreasing the error down to sub-cm. The Estació neighborhood in Sallent is located over the old potassium mine Enrique. This zone has been affected by a subsidence process over more than twenty years. The implementation of a wide network for ground auscultation has allowed monitoring the process of subsidence since 1997. This network consists of: i) a high-precision topographic leveling network to control the subsidence in surface; ii) a rod extensometers network to monitor subsurface deformation; iii) an automatic Leica TCA Total Station to monitor building movements; iv) an inclinometers network to measure the horizontal displacements on subsurface and v) a piezometer to measure the water level. Those networks were implemented within an alert system for an organized an efficient response of the civil protection authorities in case of an emergency. On 23rd December 2008, an acceleration of subsoil movements (of approx. 12-18 cm/year) provoked the activation of the emergency plan by the Catalan Civil Protection. This implied the preventive and scheduled evacuation of the neighbours (January 2009) located in the area with a higher risk of collapse: around 120 residents of 43 homes. As a consequence, the administration implemented a compensation plan for the evacuation of the whole neighbourhood residents and the demolition of 405 properties. In this work, the adaptation and integration process of Wi-GIM system with those conventional monitoring network are presented for its testing

  9. New Network of Automatic Stations integrated in the CSNs Environmental Radiological Surveillance Network; Nueva Red de Estaciones Automaticas integrada en la Red de Vigilancia Radiologica Ambiental del CSN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parages Perez del Yerro, C.; Garcia Cadierno, J. P.; Calvin Cuartero, M.

    2016-05-01

    In 1992, the Council put into operation a network comprising 25 automatic stations for continuous monitoring of the radiological quality of the air and the detection of anomalous situations. It has now decided to undertake the renewal and modernisation of these installations, incorporating sensors and automatic connection and communication systems based on the best technology currently available. (Author)

  10. Wireless network topology for monitoring mobile agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Matthew J.; James, Daniel A.; Thiel, David V.

    2005-02-01

    A wireless network of multiple sensor nodes for monitoring large numbers of mobile agents is described and investigated. Wireless monitoring provides time critical information from a number of data sources allowing near real-time analysis of the collected data. The developed wireless network provides a moderate data rate, is able to support many wireless nodes and is a low power solution. Novel network structures have been developed to satisfy all of these requirements. This paper evaluates a number of currently available wireless communication protocols, concluding that a Bluetooth wireless network satisfies the above criteria. To support a large number of devices, topologies using inter-piconet and piconet sharing methods have been developed. These network structures are outlined in detail and have been developed with the current Bluetooth hardware limitations in mind. The proposed wireless networks have been developed to be implemented with current Bluetooth hardware. A summary of network performance is included for each developed network structure, and from these figures an appropriate network structure has been chosen that satisfies the requirements of a wireless sensor network for monitoring mobile agents.

  11. Project of a Near-Real-Time Sismo-acoustic Submarine Station for offshore monitoring (NRTSSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Anna, G.; Calore, D.; Mangano, G.; D'Alessandro, A.; Favali, P.

    2011-12-01

    The INGV seismic network ensures reliable and continuous monitoring of the Italian territory. However, the peculiarity of the Italian peninsula, characterised by an intense offshore geodynamic and seismic activity, requires the extension of the seismic monitoring to the sea. The aim of this project is: - to identify bottleneck is related to the construction, installation and use of underwater seismic station; - to define the most appropriate and low-cost architecture to guarantee the minimum functionality required for a seismic station. In order to obtain reliable seafloor seismic signals integrated to land-based network, the requirements to be fulfill are: - an acceptable coupling with the seabed; - the orientation of the components with respect to the magnetic North and to the verticality; - the correct time stamp of the data; - the data transfer to the land for the integration. Currently, the optimal solution for offshore seismic station is a cable connection to power and real-time data transfer, like the case of Western Ionian Sea cabled observatory, one of the operative node of the EMSO research infrastructure (European Multidisciplinary Seafloor and water column Observatory, http://emso-eu.org). But in the Mediterranean many seismic areas are located a few tens-hundreds of miles from the coast and cabled solutions are not feasible essentially for economic reasons. For this kind of installations EMSO research infrastructure foresees no-cabled solution, that requires a surface buoy deployed in the vicinity seafloor modules.This project plans to develop a surface buoy equipped with autonomous power supply system to power also the seafloor platforms and two-way communication system enabling the data transfer through latest generation of broadband radio communication or satellite link (Fig. 1). All the components of the prototype system are described.

  12. Network Monitoring as a Streaming Analytics Problem

    KAUST Repository

    Gupta, Arpit

    2016-11-02

    Programmable switches make it easier to perform flexible network monitoring queries at line rate, and scalable stream processors make it possible to fuse data streams to answer more sophisticated queries about the network in real-time. Unfortunately, processing such network monitoring queries at high traffic rates requires both the switches and the stream processors to filter the traffic iteratively and adaptively so as to extract only that traffic that is of interest to the query at hand. Others have network monitoring in the context of streaming; yet, previous work has not closed the loop in a way that allows network operators to perform streaming analytics for network monitoring applications at scale. To achieve this objective, Sonata allows operators to express a network monitoring query by considering each packet as a tuple and efficiently partitioning each query between the switches and the stream processor through iterative refinement. Sonata extracts only the traffic that pertains to each query, ensuring that the stream processor can scale traffic rates of several terabits per second. We show with a simple example query involving DNS reflection attacks and traffic traces from one of the world\\'s largest IXPs that Sonata can capture 95% of all traffic pertaining to the query, while reducing the overall data rate by a factor of about 400 and the number of required counters by four orders of magnitude. Copyright 2016 ACM.

  13. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. Progress report, October--December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struckmeyer, R.

    1997-03-01

    This report presents the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1996. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 74 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network progress report, October--December 1994. Volume 14, No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struckmeyer, R.

    1995-03-01

    This report presents the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1994. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 75 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program.

  15. Prototyping Web Services based Network Monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drevers, Thomas; van de Meent, R.; Pras, Aiko; Harjo, J.; Moltchanov, D.; Silverajan, B.

    Web services is one of the emerging approaches in network management. This paper describes the design and implementation of four Web services based network monitoring prototypes. Each prototype follows a speci��?c approach to retrieve management data, ranging from retrieving a single management

  16. International Remote Monitoring Project Embalse Nuclear Power Station, Argentina Embalse Remote Monitoring System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Sigfried L.; Glidewell, Donnie D.; Bonino, Anibal; Bosler, Gene; Mercer, David; Maxey, Curt; Vones, Jaromir; Martelle, Guy; Busse, James; Kadner, Steve; White, Mike; Rovere, Luis

    1999-07-21

    The Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear of Argentina (ARN), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), ABACC, the US Department of Energy, and the US Support Program POTAS, cooperated in the development of a Remote Monitoring System for nuclear nonproliferation efforts. This system was installed at the Embalse Nuclear Power Station last year to evaluate the feasibility of using radiation sensors in monitoring the transfer of spent fuel from the spent fuel pond to dry storage. The key element in this process is to maintain continuity of knowledge throughout the entire transfer process. This project evaluated the fundamental design and implementation of the Remote Monitoring System in its application to regional and international safeguard efficiency. New technology has been developed to enhance the design of the system to include storage capability on board sensor platforms. This evaluation has led to design enhancements that will assure that no data loss will occur during loss of RF transmission of the sensors.

  17. Reference Station Network Based RTK Systems-Concepts and Progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C. Rizos; S. Han

    2003-01-01

    The limitation of single base "real-time kinematic"(RTK) techniques is the distance between base receiver and the rover receiver due to distance-dependent biases, namely orbit bias,ionosphere bias and troposphere bias. Techniques have been developed to overcome this distance dependence using a network of GPS reference stations spread over a wide geographic area. Because the measurement biases will be modelled and corrected for, the positioning accuracy will be almost independent of the inter-receiver distance.Since the mid-1990s investigators have been investigating the optimal means of processing reference receiver data, and then providing generally referred to as Network-RTK. In 1993 the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) established a Special Study Group on"Wide Area Modelling for Precise Satellite Positioning" . This paperfocusses on the progress made during the last few years in designing Network-RTK architectures and the associated data processing algorithms and issues. Although many university investigators have been researching the fundamental challenges in functional and stochastic modelling, currently there is only one commercially available Network-RTK product, the Trimble VRS. However, with the use of the Internet as the primary data communication link, it is predicted that various sites around the world, over the next few years.

  18. EMMNet: sensor networking for electricity meter monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhi-Ting; Zheng, Jie; Ji, Yu-Sheng; Zhao, Bao-Hua; Qu, Yu-Gui; Huang, Xu-Dong; Jiang, Xiu-Fang

    2010-01-01

    Smart sensors are emerging as a promising technology for a large number of application domains. This paper presents a collection of requirements and guidelines that serve as a basis for a general smart sensor architecture to monitor electricity meters. It also presents an electricity meter monitoring network, named EMMNet, comprised of data collectors, data concentrators, hand-held devices, a centralized server, and clients. EMMNet provides long-distance communication capabilities, which make it suitable suitable for complex urban environments. In addition, the operational cost of EMMNet is low, compared with other existing remote meter monitoring systems based on GPRS. A new dynamic tree protocol based on the application requirements which can significantly improve the reliability of the network is also proposed. We are currently conducting tests on five networks and investigating network problems for further improvements. Evaluation results indicate that EMMNet enhances the efficiency and accuracy in the reading, recording, and calibration of electricity meters.

  19. Monitoring of air radioactivity at the Jungfraujoch research station: Test of a new high volume aerosol sampler

    OpenAIRE

    Flury, Thomas; Völkle, Hansruedi

    2008-01-01

    The Swiss Federal Office of Public Health (SFOPH) is responsible for the surveillance of environmental radioactivity in Switzerland and for the protection of the public from ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. In order to improve the Swiss radioactivity monitoring network, a new high volume air sampler (DIGITEL DHA-80) was tested in Fribourg and at the Jungfraujoch High Altitude Research Station at 3454 m. The filters are analyzed in the laboratory by a high purity coaxial germanium detector...

  20. Introduction of a terrestrial free-space optical communications network facility: IN-orbit and Networked Optical ground stations experimental Verification Advanced testbed (INNOVA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoshima, Morio; Munemasa, Yasushi; Takenaka, Hideki; Takayama, Yoshihisa; Koyama, Yoshisada; Kunimori, Hiroo; Kubooka, Toshihiro; Suzuki, Kenji; Yamamoto, Shinichi; Taira, Shinichi; Tsuji, Hiroyuki; Nakazawa, Isao; Akioka, Maki

    2014-03-01

    A terrestrial free-space optical communications network facility, named IN-orbit and Networked Optical ground stations experimental Verification Advanced testbed (INNOVA) is introduced. Many demonstrations have been conducted to verify the usability of sophisticated optical communications equipment in orbit. However, the influence of terrestrial weather conditions remains as an issue to be solved. One potential solution is site diversity, where several ground stations are used. In such systems, implementing direct high-speed optical communications links for transmission of data from satellites to terrestrial sites requires that links can be established even in the presence of clouds and rain. NICT is developing a terrestrial free-space optical communications network called INNOVA for future airborne and satellitebased optical communications projects. Several ground stations and environmental monitoring stations around Japan are being used to explore the site diversity concept. This paper describes the terrestrial free-space optical communications network facility, the monitoring stations around Japan for free-space laser communications, and potential research at NICT.

  1. GuMNet - Guadarrama Monitoring Network. Installation and set up of a high altitude monitoring network, north of Madrid. Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santolaria-Canales, Edmundo

    2015-04-01

    An observational monitoring network in the Guadarrama Mountains is due to be operational at the end of 2015. This network integrates atmospheric measurements as well as subsurface observations in a high mountain climate, located up to 2.400 m.a.s.l. The data provided by GuMNet will help to improve the characterization of microclimate in high mountain areas, as well as land-atmosphere interations. The network information aims at meeting the needs of accuracy to be used for biological, agricultural, hydrological, meteorological and climatic investigations in this area. This initiative is supported and developed by research groups integrating the GuMNet Consortiuma from the Complutense and Polytechnical Universities of Madrid (UCM and UPM), the Energetic Environmental and Technological Research Centre (CIEMAT), the Spanish National Meteorological Agency (AEMET), and the National Park Sierra de Guadarrama (PNSG). The starting setup includes seven meteorological stations compatible with WMO standards, to be installed in the central area of the massif. Including a four-component net radiation sensor, an ultrasonic snow height, a pluviometer specialized for snow capture, air temperature and humidity devices and wind speed/direction sensor. Along with these atmospheric measurements, each station will include a set of subsurface measurements of temperature in shallow boreholes ( 20 m depth ) and temperature and humidity in trenches up to 1 m depth. These compatible WMO stations will be complemented by a station specialized in eddy covariance measuremets with CO2 fluxes at low altitude pastureland near Madrid. Another portable station is available to develop ad hoc comparison studies. This setup is embedded in a broader network of meteorological stations run partly by AEMET and partly by the PNSG. Most of the AEMET stations are distributed over lower altitudes, and will provide a very reliable boundary information for the atmosphere state around the Sierra. In the same way

  2. Neural Network for Positioning Space Station Solar Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Ronald E.; Lin, Paul P.

    1994-01-01

    As a shuttle approaches the Space Station Freedom for a rendezvous, the shuttle's reaction control jet firings pose a risk of excessive plume impingement loads on Freedom solar arrays. The current solution to this problem, in which the arrays are locked in a feathered position prior to the approach, may be neither accurate nor robust, and is also expensive. An alternative solution is proposed here: the active control of Freedom's beta gimbals during the approach, positioning the arrays dynamically in such a way that they remain feathered relative to the shuttle jet most likely to cause an impingement load. An artificial neural network is proposed as a means of determining the gimbal angles that would drive plume angle of attack to zero. Such a network would be both accurate and robust, and could be less expensive to implement than the current solution. A network was trained via backpropagation, and results, which compare favorably to the current solution as well as to some other alternatives, are presented. Other training options are currently being evaluated.

  3. Environmental Monitoring and Greenhouse Control by Distributed Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R.BOSELIN PRABHU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A sensor is a miniature component which measure physical parameters from the environment. Sensors measure the physical parameters and transmit them either by wired or wireless medium. In wireless medium the sensor and its associated components are called as node. A node is self-possessed by a processor, local memory, sensors, radio, battery and a base station responsible for receiving and processing data collected by the nodes. They carry out joint activities due to limited resources such as battery, processor and memory. Nowadays, the applications of these networks are numerous, varied and the applications in agriculture are still budding. One interesting application is in environmental monitoring and greenhouse control, where the crop conditions such as climate and soil do not depend on natural agents. To control and monitor the environmental factors, sensors and actuators are necessary. Under these circumstances, these devices must be used to make a distributed measure, spreading sensors all over the greenhouse using distributed clustering. This paper reveals an idea of environmental monitoring and greenhouse control using a sensor network. The hardware implementation shows periodic monitoring and control of greenhouse gases in an enhanced manner. Future work is concentrated in application of the same mechanism using wireless sensor network.

  4. Predicting PM10 concentration in Seoul metropolitan subway stations using artificial neural network (ANN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sechan; Kim, Minjeong; Kim, Minhae; Namgung, Hyeong-Gyu; Kim, Ki-Tae; Cho, Kyung Hwa; Kwon, Soon-Bark

    2018-01-05

    The indoor air quality of subway systems can significantly affect the health of passengers since these systems are widely used for short-distance transit in metropolitan urban areas in many countries. The particles generated by abrasion during subway operations and the vehicle-emitted pollutants flowing in from the street in particular affect the air quality in underground subway stations. Thus the continuous monitoring of particulate matter (PM) in underground station is important to evaluate the exposure level of PM to passengers. However, it is difficult to obtain indoor PM data because the measurement systems are expensive and difficult to install and operate for significant periods of time in spaces crowded with people. In this study, we predicted the indoor PM concentration using the information of outdoor PM, the number of subway trains running, and information on ventilation operation by the artificial neural network (ANN) model. As well, we investigated the relationship between ANN's performance and the depth of underground subway station. ANN model showed a high correlation between the predicted and actual measured values and it was able to predict 67∼80% of PM at 6 subway station. In addition, we found that platform shape and depth influenced the model performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Base Station Placement Algorithm for Large-Scale LTE Heterogeneous Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungseob; Lee, SuKyoung; Kim, Kyungsoo; Kim, Yoon Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    Data traffic demands in cellular networks today are increasing at an exponential rate, giving rise to the development of heterogeneous networks (HetNets), in which small cells complement traditional macro cells by extending coverage to indoor areas. However, the deployment of small cells as parts of HetNets creates a key challenge for operators' careful network planning. In particular, massive and unplanned deployment of base stations can cause high interference, resulting in highly degrading network performance. Although different mathematical modeling and optimization methods have been used to approach various problems related to this issue, most traditional network planning models are ill-equipped to deal with HetNet-specific characteristics due to their focus on classical cellular network designs. Furthermore, increased wireless data demands have driven mobile operators to roll out large-scale networks of small long term evolution (LTE) cells. Therefore, in this paper, we aim to derive an optimum network planning algorithm for large-scale LTE HetNets. Recently, attempts have been made to apply evolutionary algorithms (EAs) to the field of radio network planning, since they are characterized as global optimization methods. Yet, EA performance often deteriorates rapidly with the growth of search space dimensionality. To overcome this limitation when designing optimum network deployments for large-scale LTE HetNets, we attempt to decompose the problem and tackle its subcomponents individually. Particularly noting that some HetNet cells have strong correlations due to inter-cell interference, we propose a correlation grouping approach in which cells are grouped together according to their mutual interference. Both the simulation and analytical results indicate that the proposed solution outperforms the random-grouping based EA as well as an EA that detects interacting variables by monitoring the changes in the objective function algorithm in terms of system

  6. Optimisation of Lilla Edet Landslide GPS Monitoring Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh-Khameneh, M. A.; Eshagh, M.; Sjöberg, L. E.

    2015-06-01

    Since the year 2000, some periodic investigations have been performed in the Lilla Edet region to monitor and possibly determine the landslide of the area with GPS measurements. The responsible consultant has conducted this project by setting up some stable stations for GPS receivers in the risky areas of Lilla Edet and measured the independent baselines amongst the stations according to their observation plan. Here, we optimise the existing surveying network and determine the optimal configuration of the observation plan based on different criteria.We aim to optimise the current network to become sensitive to detect 5 mm possible displacements in each net point. The network quality criteria of precision, reliability and cost are used as object functions to perform single-, bi- and multi-objective optimisation models. It has been shown in the results that the single-objective model of reliability, which is constrained to the precision, provides much higher precision than the defined criterion by preserving almost all of the observations. However, in this study, the multi-objective model can fulfil all the mentioned quality criteria of the network by 17% less measurements than the original observation plan, meaning 17%of saving time, cost and effort in the project.

  7. Optical Networks for Cost Monitoring and Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Buvanesvari

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on cost reduction and monitoring in optical networks. Optical mesh networks are cost savings with switching systems that are interconnected by point-to-point networks. Transponders play a major role in it. All-optical packet switching has been intensively investigated in recent years as an alternative to static, cross connect based networks. Several switch architectures have been proposed, all of them using buffers made of fiber delay lines. We consider the problem of minimizing the congestion in wireless optical (FSO backbone networks by placing controllable relay nodes. We propose algorithms for placement of relays in the network under node interface constraints. Further reduction in cost is done by the conversion of optical to electrical at the intermediate nodes. Optical transport networks offer a new level of flexibility in the optical layer allowing various services and thereby improving the efficiency, performance and robustness. An optical path with a transparent feature allows the transmission of signals that are optical and also independent of data rate and modulation format. Client layer protocol provides transparency for the transport layer in optical networks. Thus there is a significant challenge in terms of function, flexibility and monitoring cost.

  8. Monitoring Weather Station Fire Rehabilitation Treatments: Hanford Reach National Monument

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Weather Station Fire (July, 2005) burned across 4,918 acres in the Saddle Mountain Unit of the Hanford Reach National Monument, which included parts of the...

  9. Predicting origins of passerines migrating through Canadian migration monitoring stations using stable-hydrogen isotope analyses of feathers: a new tool for bird conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Hobson, Keith A.; Steve L. Van Wilgenburg; Dunn, Erica H.; Hussell, David J. T.; Taylor, Philip D; Douglas M. Collister

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian Migration Monitoring Network (CMMN) consists of standardized observation and migration count stations located largely along Canada's southern border. A major purpose of CMMN is to detect population trends of migratory passerines that breed primarily in the boreal forest and are otherwise poorly monitored by the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS). A primary limitation of this approach to monitoring is that it is currently not clear which geographic regions of the boreal for...

  10. Cost-effective monitoring of land subsidence in developing countries using semipermanent GPS stations: a test study over Houston, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Donghwan; Lee, Hyongki; Okeowo, Modurodoluwa A.; Basnayake, Senaka; Jayasinghe, Susantha

    2017-04-01

    We present a cost-effective method for monitoring land subsidence in developing countries using measurements from semipermanent global positioning system (GPS) stations and interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) observations. The cost of maintaining a network of permanent GPS stations to monitor subsidence in developing countries might be implausible due to the high cost of maintenance. Hence, semipermanent GPS stations could be an alternative method, which densifies a GPS network with relatively inexpensive costs. We used three statistical methods to estimate the subsidence. We investigated the optimum time intervals for semipermanent GPS measurements based on the similarities of subsidence magnitudes and curve patterns with the permanent GPS measurements. In addition, we assessed the open source GPS processing tools based on the data quality of different session durations. Among the three models, the smoothing spline model showed the best estimation of subsidence. Among the different time interval data, 10- or 30-day time interval data were optimum for semipermanent GPS stations. Finally, we compared the GPS results to the InSAR-derived subsidence result, and both methods show that the northwestern Houston area subsides by about 1.5 to 2.0 cm/year. We anticipate that our method can be applied to other cities experiencing subsidence in developing countries.

  11. BABY MONITORING SYSTEM USING WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rajesh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS is marked by the sudden death of an infant during sleep that is not predicted by the medical history and remains unexplained even after thorough forensic autopsy and detailed death investigation. In this we developed a system that provides solutions for the above problems by making the crib smart using the wireless sensor networks (WSN and smart phones. The system provides visual monitoring service through live video, alert services by crib fencing and awakens alert, monitoring services by temperature reading and light intensity reading, vaccine reminder and weight monitoring.

  12. Gamma-radiation monitoring network at sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedekind, Ch.; Schilling, G.; Gruettmueller, M.; Becker, K

    1999-04-01

    A stationary monitoring network to observe the sea for radioactive contaminations, using a newly constructed NaI-detector system, is described. The monitoring efficiency for total-{gamma} counting and {gamma}-spectrometry as well as a method suppressing the registration of natural radioactivity are discussed. On the basis of three accident scenarios with releases of radioactivity into the sea it is demonstrated that under sea conditions the limit of detection of this 'in situ' method is comparable to the regularly performed monitoring by radiochemical {sup 137}Cs analysis of seawater samples.

  13. Wireless sensor networks and ecological monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Joe-Air

    2013-01-01

    This book presents the state of the art technologies and solutions to tackle the critical challenges faced by the building and development of the WSN and ecological monitoring system but also potential impact on society at social, medical and technological level. This book is dedicated to Sensing systems for Sensors, Wireless Sensor Networks and Ecological Monitoring. The book aims at Master and PhD degree students, researchers, practitioners, especially WSN engineers involved with ecological monitoring. The book will provide an opportunity of a dedicated and a deep approach in order to improve their knowledge in this specific field.  

  14. Value of monitoring in road network management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zouch, M.; Courage, W.; Napoles-Morales, O.

    2014-01-01

    We present a framework for road network management to assist road authorities in maintenance budget estimations and long-term maintenance strategies definition. Information about road conditions is obtained from monitoring. Available data are used to estimate and update prediction of degradation evo

  15. Development of ICT for Leaching Monitoring in Taiwan Agricultural LTER Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yankuang Chan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the groundwater subsidy from different cropping systems, leaching monitoring in Taiwan started in 2008 and implemented agricultural long-term ecological research (LTER stations. Initially, leaching data was received by lysimeters, and then collected manually by laborers in the field twice per month. The cost of data collection and transmission is high, real-time monitoring is not possible, and maintenance of instruments is inefficient. In this study, the goal is to develop a data transmission path. ICT (Information and Communication Technology with different data transmission schemes was applied to improve the efficiency and immediacy of data transfer from the field to the databases in labs. Between 2010 and 2017, four versions of ICT have been developed and applied in LTER stations. WiFi, 2.5G (General Packet Radio Service, GPRS, 3G/4G network transmission, and Arduino cores are applied in different ICT versions. The first version of data transmission used data loggers, developed by the original factory, with a lower cost of renovation of instruments. However, complicated transmission paths, diverse instruments, poor weather resistance, and lack of wireless functionality are the limitations of the first version. Those limitations had been overcome by the second and third versions by using 2.5G (GPRS and 3G/4G network transmission, respectively. Nevertheless, these versions are limited to the processes of data compression and encryption transmission which were developed by the system vendors. In addition, data can only be collected through the webpage provided by the vendors, instead of being received directly from the database using SQL (Structured Query Language. This is inappropriate for advanced data treatment, organization, and analysis. Finally, the fourth version of data transmission has been developed using Arduino. This system allows redesigning of the data loggers and transmission instrument with more feasibility and

  16. 40 CFR 52.2035 - Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Stations (PAMS) Program. 52.2035 Section 52.2035 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...) Pennsylvania § 52.2035 Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program. On September 23, 1994... (PAMS) Program as a state implementation plan (SIP) revision, as required by section 182(c)(1) of...

  17. Monitoring the Performance of the Pedestrian Transfer Function of Train Stations Using Automatic Fare Collection Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Heuvel, J.P.A.; Hoogenraad, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last years all train stations in The Netherlands have been equipped with automatic fare collection gates and/or validators. All public transport passengers use a smart card to pay their fare. In this paper we present a monitor for the performance of the pedestrian function of train stations

  18. City and County of Denver Off Post Water Quality Monitoring Station : 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This memorandum encloses a letter and drawings from the City and County of Denver showing the design and location of the Off Post Water Quality Monitoring Station on...

  19. METHOD OF MAXIMAL INFORMATIVE ZONE FOR VIRTUAL REFERENCE STATION DEVELOPMENT IN KINEMATIC SYSTEMS OF GPS NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Eminov,

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The existing actual material on experimental assessment of positioning error in VRS GPS networks is analyzed where the mobile receiver is provided with virtual reference station. The method of highly informative zone is suggested for removal of initial uncertainty in reference station selection with the aim to develop minimal GPS network consisting of three reference stations. Methodical recommendations and directions are given for the suggested method application.

  20. Efficient 3-D Placement of an Aerial Base Station in Next Generation Cellular Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Yaliniz, R. Irem Bor; El-Keyi, Amr; Yanikomeroglu, Halim

    2016-01-01

    Agility and resilience requirements of future cellular networks may not be fully satisfied by terrestrial base stations in cases of unexpected or temporary events. A promising solution is assisting the cellular network via low-altitude unmanned aerial vehicles equipped with base stations, i.e., drone-cells. Although drone-cells provide a quick deployment opportunity as aerial base stations, efficient placement becomes one of the key issues. In addition to mobility of the drone-cells in the ve...

  1. Development of integrated marine monitoring network on southern coastline of Caspian sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Najafi-Jilani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of water surfaces through permanent measurement of hydrodynamic and meteorological data is one of the main requirements in safe and sustainable water management. The Caspian Sea, the major surface water body in Iran, significantly affects more than 600 km of urban and industrial coastline. In the present work, an integrated marine monitoring network for the entire southern coastline of the Caspian Sea was developed. The main design concerns centered on the network measuring components and data recording, checking, filtering, gap recognition, and transferring systems. Four coastal monitoring stations were assigned, along with two regional collecting stations and one central data station for gathering, checking and delivering recorded data at different access levels. Applicable guidelines on selection of measuring devices for both shallow and deep water zones are presented herein.

  2. Modular Subsea Monitoring Network (MSM) - Realizing Integrated Environmental Monitoring Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosch, Thomas; Fietzek, Peer

    2016-04-01

    In a variety of scientific and industrial application areas, ranging i.e. from the supervision of hydrate fields over the detection and localization of fugitive emissions from subsea oil and gas production to fish farming, fixed point observatories are useful and applied means. They monitor the water column and/or are placed at the sea floor over long periods of time. They are essential oceanographic platforms for providing valuable long-term time series data and multi-parameter measurements. Various mooring and observatory endeavors world-wide contribute valuable data needed for understanding our planet's ocean systems and biogeochemical processes. Continuously powered cabled observatories enable real-time data transmission from spots of interest close to the shore or to ocean infrastructures. Independent of the design of the observatories they all rely on sensors which demands for regular maintenance. This work is in most cases associated with cost-intensive maintenance on a regular time basis for the entire sensor carrying fixed platform. It is mandatory to encounter this asset for long-term monitoring by enhancing hardware efficiency. On the basis of two examples of use from the area of hydrate monitoring (off Norway and Japan) we will present the concept of the Modular Subsea Monitoring Network (MSM). The modular, scalable and networking capabilities of the MSM allow for an easy adaptation to different monitoring tasks. Providing intelligent power management, combining chemical and acoustical sensors, adaptation of the payload according to the monitoring tasks, autonomous powering, modular design for easy transportation, storage and mobilization, Vessel of Opportunity-borne launching and recovery capability with a video-guided launcher system and a rope recovery system are key facts addressed during the development of the MSM. Step by step the MSM concept applied to the observatory hardware will also be extended towards the gathered data to maximize the

  3. Slope Monitoring using Total Station: What are the Challenges and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Afeni

    using total station start with staffing and budget, in addition to systems design and ... different survey methods and equipment) have great influence in selection of .... If the point is not too high for a hydraulic water hose to reach, the prism can be .... decisions and design changes with supporting evidence (i.e. planned versus ...

  4. Performance assessment of air quality monitoring networks using principal component analysis and cluster analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Wei-Zhen [Department of Building and Construction, City University of Hong Kong (China); He, Hong-Di [Department of Building and Construction, City University of Hong Kong (China); Logistics Research Center, Shanghai Maritime University, Shanghai (China); Dong, Li-yun [Shanghai Institute of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, Shanghai University, Shanghai (China)

    2011-03-15

    This study aims to evaluate the performance of two statistical methods, principal component analysis and cluster analysis, for the management of air quality monitoring network of Hong Kong and the reduction of associated expenses. The specific objectives include: (i) to identify city areas with similar air pollution behavior; and (ii) to locate emission sources. The statistical methods were applied to the mass concentrations of sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), respirable suspended particulates (RSP) and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), collected in monitoring network of Hong Kong from January 2001 to December 2007. The results demonstrate that, for each pollutant, the monitoring stations are grouped into different classes based on their air pollution behaviors. The monitoring stations located in nearby area are characterized by the same specific air pollution characteristics and suggested with an effective management of air quality monitoring system. The redundant equipments should be transferred to other monitoring stations for allowing further enlargement of the monitored area. Additionally, the existence of different air pollution behaviors in the monitoring network is explained by the variability of wind directions across the region. The results imply that the air quality problem in Hong Kong is not only a local problem mainly from street-level pollutions, but also a region problem from the Pearl River Delta region. (author)

  5. Monitoring of the Atmosphere on the International Space Station with the Air Quality Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace William T.; Limero, Thomas F.; Loh, Leslie J.; Mudgett, Paul D.; Gazda, Daniel B.

    2017-01-01

    During the early years of human spaceflight, short duration missions allowed for monitoring of the spacecraft environment to be performed via archival sampling, in which samples were returned to Earth for analysis. With the construction of the International Space Station (ISS) and the accompanying extended mission durations, the need for enhanced, real-time monitors became apparent. The Volatile Organic Analyzer (VOA) operated on ISS for 7 years, where it assessed trace volatile organic compounds in the cabin air. The large and fixed-position VOA was eventually replaced with the smaller Air Quality Monitor (AQM). Since March 2013, the atmosphere of the U.S. Operating Segment (USOS) has been monitored in near real-time by a pair of AQMs. These devices consist of a gas chromatograph (GC) coupled with a differential mobility spectrometer (DMS) and currently target detection list of 22 compounds. These targets are of importance to both crew health and the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) on ISS. Data is collected autonomously every 73 hours, though the units can be controlled remotely from mission control to collect data more frequently during contingency or troubleshooting operations. Due to a nominal three-year lifetime on-orbit, the initial units were replaced in February 2016. This paper will focus on the preparation and use of the AQMs over the past several years. A description of the technical aspects of the AQM will be followed by lessons learned from the deployment and operation of the first set of AQMs. These lessons were used to improve the already-excellent performance of the instruments prior to deployment of the replacement units. Data trending over the past several years of operation on ISS will also be discussed, including data obtained during a survey of the USOS modules. Finally, a description of AQM use for contingency and investigative studies will be presented.

  6. Performance Monitoring Techniques Supporting Cognitive Optical Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caballero Jambrina, Antonio; Borkowski, Robert; Zibar, Darko

    2013-01-01

    to solve this issue by realizing a network that can observe, act, learn and optimize its performance, taking into account end-to-end goals. In this letter we present the approach of cognition applied to heterogeneous optical networks developed in the framework of the EU project CHRON: Cognitive...... Heterogeneous Reconfigurable Optical Network. We focus on the approaches developed in the project for optical performance monitoring, which enable the feedback from the physical layer to the cognitive decision system by providing accurate description of the performance of the established lightpaths.......High degree of heterogeneity of future optical networks, such as services with different quality-of-transmission requirements, modulation formats and switching techniques, will pose a challenge for the control and optimization of different parameters. Incorporation of cognitive techniques can help...

  7. Integrated condition monitoring of space information network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhilin; Li, Xinming; Li, Yachen; Yu, Shaolin

    2015-11-01

    In order to solve the integrated condition monitoring problem in space information network, there are three works finished including analyzing the characteristics of tasks process and system health monitoring, adopting the automata modeling method, and respectively establishing the models for state inference and state determination. The state inference model is a logic automaton and is gotten by concluding engineering experiences. The state determination model is a double-layer automaton, the lower automaton is responsible for parameter judge and the upper automaton is responsible for state diagnosis. At last, the system state monitoring algorithm has been proposed, which realizes the integrated condition monitoring for task process and system health, and can avoid the false alarm.

  8. Analysis and monitoring design for networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorov, V.; Flanagan, D.; Rowan, T.; Batsell, S.

    1998-06-01

    The idea of applying experimental design methodologies to develop monitoring systems for computer networks is relatively novel even though it was applied in other areas such as meteorology, seismology, and transportation. One objective of a monitoring system should always be to collect as little data as necessary to be able to monitor specific parameters of the system with respect to assigned targets and objectives. This implies a purposeful monitoring where each piece of data has a reason to be collected and stored for future use. When a computer network system as large and complex as the Internet is the monitoring subject, providing an optimal and parsimonious observing system becomes even more important. Many data collection decisions must be made by the developers of a monitoring system. These decisions include but are not limited to the following: (1) The type data collection hardware and software instruments to be used; (2) How to minimize interruption of regular network activities during data collection; (3) Quantification of the objectives and the formulation of optimality criteria; (4) The placement of data collection hardware and software devices; (5) The amount of data to be collected in a given time period, how large a subset of the available data to collect during the period, the length of the period, and the frequency of data collection; (6) The determination of the data to be collected (for instance, selection of response and explanatory variables); (7) Which data will be retained and how long (i.e., data storage and retention issues); and (8) The cost analysis of experiments. Mathematical statistics, and, in particular, optimal experimental design methods, may be used to address the majority of problems generated by 3--7. In this study, the authors focus their efforts on topics 3--5.

  9. Design of a monitoring network over France in case of a radiological accidental release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abida, Rachid; Bocquet, Marc; Vercauteren, Nikki; Isnard, Olivier

    The Institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (France) is planning the set-up of an automatic nuclear aerosol monitoring network over the French territory. Each of the stations will be able to automatically sample the air aerosol content and provide activity concentration measurements on several radionuclides. This should help monitor the French and neighbouring countries nuclear power plants set. It would help evaluate the impact of a radiological incident occurring at one of these nuclear facilities. This paper is devoted to the spatial design of such a network. Here, any potential network is judged on its ability to extrapolate activity concentrations measured on the network stations over the whole domain. The performance of a network is quantitatively assessed through a cost function that measures the discrepancy between the extrapolation and the true concentration fields. These true fields are obtained through the computation of a database of dispersion accidents over one year of meteorology and originating from 20 French nuclear sites. A close to optimal network is then looked for using a simulated annealing optimisation. The results emphasise the importance of the cost function in the design of a network aimed at monitoring an accidental dispersion. Several choices of norm used in the cost function are studied and give way to different designs. The influence of the number of stations is discussed. A comparison with a purely geometric approach which does not involve simulations with a chemistry-transport model is performed.

  10. The Earthscope USArray Array Network Facility (ANF): Metadata, Network and Data Monitoring, Quality Assurance During the Second Year of Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakins, J. A.; Vernon, F. L.; Martynov, V.; Newman, R. L.; Cox, T. A.; Lindquist, K. L.; Hindley, A.; Foley, S.

    2005-12-01

    The Array Network Facility (ANF) for the Earthscope USArray Transportable Array seismic network is responsible for: the delivery of all Transportable Array stations (400 at full deployment) and telemetered Flexible Array stations (up to 200) to the IRIS Data Management Center; station command and control; verification and distribution of metadata; providing useful remotely accessible world wide web interfaces for personnel at the Array Operations Facility (AOF) to access state of health information; and quality control for all data. To meet these goals, we use the Antelope software package to facilitate data collection and transfer, generation and merging of the metadata, real-time monitoring of dataloggers, generation of station noise spectra, and analyst review of individual events. Recently, an Antelope extension to the PHP scripting language has been implemented which facilitates the dynamic presentation of the real-time data to local web pages. Metadata transfers have been simplified by the use of orb transfer technologies at the ANF and receiver end points. Web services are being investigated as a means to make a potentially complicated set of operations easy to follow and reproduce for each newly installed or decommissioned station. As part of the quality control process, daily analyst review has highlighted areas where neither the regional network bulletins nor the USGS global bulletin have published solutions. Currently four regional networks (Anza, BDSN, SCSN, and UNR) contribute data to the Transportable Array with additional contributors expected. The first 100 stations (42 new Earthscope stations) were operational by September 2005 with all but one of the California stations installed. By year's end, weather permitting, the total number of stations deployed is expected to be around 145. Visit http://anf.ucsd.edu for more information on the project and current status.

  11. Approach of virtual observations generation of a multi-reference GPS station network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guorong

    2007-11-01

    The generation of virtual reference station observations to relay the corrections to the rover receiver for use with standard RTK software is one of important architectures of reference station networks RTK positioning. The approach of virtual observations generation based on a multi-reference GPS station network is presented in this paper. Ambiguities for the baselines in the reference network are determined firstly. The inter-reference-station differential spatially-correlated errors are estimated using highly accurate coordinates of the reference stations and resolved ambiguities. These spatially-correlated errors are interpolated among the network region as corrections. These network-generated corrections are used to correct the zero-differential observables of one reference station, which is usually the closest one to the rover (the so-called primary reference station). These corrected zero-differential observables, named virtual observations, are processed using conventional single reference station differential GPS algorithms. A test conducted using regional reference networks in Jiangsu(China) demonstrates the effectiveness of the approach to reduce the time to integer ambiguity resolution, and to increase the distance over which centimeter level accuracies can be achieved.

  12. Design and validation of wireless acceleration sensor network for structural health monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Yan; Ou Jinping

    2006-01-01

    A wireless sensor network is proposed to monitor the acceleration of structures for the purpose of structural health monitoring of civil engineering structures. Using commercially available parts, several modules are constructed and integrated into complete wireless sensors and base stations. The communication protocol is designed and the fusion arithmetic of the temperature and acceleration is embedded in the wireless sensor node so that the measured acceleration values are more accurate. Measures are adopted to finish energy optimization, which is an important issue for a wireless sensor network. The test is performed on an offshore platform model, and the experimental results are given to show the feasibility of the designed wireless sensor network.

  13. [Air quality monitoring on the International Space Station].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhomova, A A; Mukhamedieva, L N; Mikos, K N

    2006-01-01

    Chemical contamination of air in space cabins occurs mainly due to permanent offgassing of equipment and materials, and leaks. Methods and means of qualitative and quantitative air monitoring on the ISS are powerful enough as for routine so emergency (e.g. local fire, toxic leak) air control. The ISS air quality has suited to the adopted standards and crew safety requirements. Yet, there is a broad field of action toward improvement of the space cabin air monitoring.

  14. Analysis of coastal sea-level station records and implications for tsunami monitoring in the Adriatic Apulia region, southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, Lidia; Tinti, Stefano; Tallarico, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    The region of Apulia, southern Italy, was theater of one of the largest tsunami disaster in Italian history (the 30 July 1627 event) and is considered to be exposed to tsunami hazard coming from local Italian sources as well as from sources on the eastern side of the Adriatic and from the Ionian sea, including the Hellenic Arc earthquakes. Scientific interest for tsunami studies and monitoring in the region is only recent and this theme was specifically addressed by the international project OTRIONS, coordinated by the University of Bari. In the frame of this project the University of Bologna contributed to the analysis of the tsunami hazard and to the evaluation of the regional tide-gauge network with the scope of assessing its adequacy for tsunami monitoring. This latter is the main topic of the present work. In eastern Apulia, facing the Adriatic sea, the sea-level data network is sufficiently dense being formed of stations of the Italian tide-gauge network (Rete Mareografica Nazionale, RMN), of four additional stations operated by the Apulia Port Authority (in Brindisi, Ischitella, Manfredonia and Porto Cesareo) and of two more stations that were installed in the harbours of Barletta and Monopoli in the frame of the project OTRIONS with real-time data transmission and 1-sec sampling period. Pre-processing of the sea-level data of these stations included quality check and spectral analysis. Where the sampling rate was adequate, the records were also examined by means of the specific tools provided by the TEDA package. This is a Tsunami Early Detection Algorithm, developed by the Tsunami Research Team of the University of Bologna, that allows one to characterize the sea-level background signal in the typical tsunami frequency window (from 1 to several minutes) and consequently to optimize TEDA parameters for an efficient tsunami detection. The results of the analysis show stability of the spectral content and seasonal variations.

  15. Network developments and network monitoring in Internet2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, E.; Evett, S.

    Given that performance is excellent across backbone networks, and that performance is a problem end-to-end, it is clear that problems are concentrated towards the edge and in network transitions. To achieve good end-to-end performance, we need to diagnose (understand the limits of performance) and address (work with members and application communities to address those performance issues). We envision readily available performance information that is easy to find, ubiquitous, reliable, valuable, actionable (analysis suggests course of action), and automated (applications act on data received). The Internet2 End-to-End Performance Initative (E2Epi) currently focuses on the development and widespread deployment of perfSONAR [1][2], an international consortium developing a performance middleware architecture and a set of protocol standards for inter-operability between measurement and monitoring systems. perfSONAR is a set of open source web services that can be added, piecemeal, and extended to create a performance monitoring framework. It is designed to be standards-based, modular, decentralized, and open source. This makes it applicable to multiple generations of network monitoring systems and encourages outside development while still allowing it to be customized for individual science applications. perfSONAR is a joint effort of ESnet, GÉANT2 JRA1, Internet2, and RNP. The Internet2 Network is a hybrid optical and IP network, that offers dynamic and static wavelength services. The Internet2 Network Observatory supports three types of services: measurement, co-location, and experimental servers to support specific projects. The Observatory collects data and makes it publicly available.

  16. OGS improvements in 2012 in running the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network: the Ferrara VBB borehole seismic station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesaresi, Damiano; Romanelli, Marco; Barnaba, Carla; Bragato, Pier Luigi; Durì, Giorgio

    2013-04-01

    The Centro di Ricerche Sismologiche (CRS, Seismological Research Center) of the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS, Italian National Institute for Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics) in Udine (Italy) after the strong earthquake of magnitude M=6.4 occurred in 1976 in the Italian Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, started to operate the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network: it currently consists of 17 very sensitive broad band and 18 simpler short period seismic stations, all telemetered to and acquired in real time at the OGS-CRS data center in Udine. Real time data exchange agreements in place with other Italian, Slovenian, Austrian and Swiss seismological institutes lead to a total number of about 100 seismic stations acquired in real time, which makes the OGS the reference institute for seismic monitoring of Northeastern Italy. The southwestern edge of the OGS seismic network stands on the Po alluvial basin: earthquake localization and characterization in this area is affected by the presence of soft alluvial deposits. OGS ha already experience in running a local seismic network in high noise conditions making use of borehole installations in the case of the micro-seismicity monitoring of a local gas storage site for a private company. Following the ML=5.9 earthquake that struck the Emilia region around Ferrara in Northern Italy on May 20, 2012 at 02:03:53 UTC, a cooperation of Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, OGS, the Comune di Ferrara and the University of Ferrara lead to the reinstallation of a previously existing very broad band (VBB) borehole seismic station in Ferrara. The aim of the OGS intervention was on one hand to extend its real time seismic monitoring capabilities toward South-West, including Ferrara and its surroundings, and on the other hand to evaluate the seismic response at the site. We will describe improvements in running the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network, including details of the Ferrara VBB

  17. Design and implementation of an integrated safety management system for compressed natural gas stations using ubiquitous sensor network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jae Mo; Ko, Byung Seok; Park, Chulhwan; Ko, Jae Wook [Kwangwoon University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Byungtae [National Disaster Management Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Dongil [Myongji University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    To increase awareness of safety in facilities where hazards may exist, operators, managers, and executive officers on the site should be able to monitor such facilities. However, most compressed natural gas (CNG) service stations in Korea use only local-mode monitoring, with only on-site operators to monitor the facility. To complement this local-mode monitoring, an online safety management system called Ubiquitous-gas safety management system (U-GSMS) was developed. The U-GSMS consists largely of software and hardware. The software consists of systems that can manage safety and operations, while the hardware consists of sensors installed in the gas facility and wireless communication systems using a ubiquitous sensor network (USN) technology that facilitates communication between sensors as well as between sensors and other devices. As these systems are web-based, on-site operators as well as managers and executive officers at the headquarters can more effectively and efficiently perform monitoring and safety management.

  18. The Monitoring Network of the Vancouver 2010 Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, Paul; Scott, Bill; Doyle, Chris; Isaac, George; Gultepe, Ismail; Forsyth, Douglas; Cober, Stewart; Campos, Edwin; Heckman, Ivan; Donaldson, Norman; Hudak, David; Rasmussen, Roy; Kucera, Paul; Stewart, Ron; Thériault, Julie M.; Fisico, Teresa; Rasmussen, Kristen L.; Carmichael, Hannah; Laplante, Alex; Bailey, Monika; Boudala, Faisal

    2014-01-01

    An innovative monitoring network was implemented to support the operational and science programs for the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympics. It consisted of in situ weather stations on custom-designed platforms. The sensors included an HMP45C for temperature, humidity and pressure, a tipping bucket rain gauge, an acoustic snow depth sensor, a Pluvio 1 precipitation gauge and an anemometer placed at gauge height and at 10 m height. Modifications to commercial automated precipitation gauges were necessary for the heavy snowfall conditions. Advanced or emerging technologies were deployed to support scientific and nowcasting studies into precipitation intensity, typing, visibility and wind. The sensors included an FD12P visibility and precipitation sensor, a precipitation occurrence sensing system (POSS) present weather sensor, a Hotplate precipitation sensor and a Parsivel disdrometer. Data were collected at 1 min sampling intervals. A Doppler weather radar was deployed in a valley location and provided critical detailed low-level data. An X-band dual-polarized radar was deployed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration to monitor Vancouver and Cypress Mountain. Three remote sensing stations for vertical profiling were established. At the base of Whistler Mountain, a micro-rain radar, a 22-channel radiometer, a ceilometer, a Parsivel and a POSS were installed. At the base of Cypress Mountain, a micro-rain radar, a ceilometer, a low cost rain sensor (LCR by ATTEX) and a POSS were installed. At Squamish, a wind profiler and a POSS were installed. Weather sensors were mounted on the Whistler Village Gondola and on the Peak to Peak gondola. Sites were established along the Whistler Mountain slope and at other key locations. The combination of sites and instruments formed a comprehensive network to provide observations appropriate for nowcasting in winter complex terrain and investigate precipitation, visibility and wind processes. The contribution provides a

  19. Risk-based maintenance in network stations; Risikobasert vedlikehold i nettstasjoner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solum, Geir

    2004-07-01

    The so-called KILE scheme instructs the network owners to give compensation to their customers when the mains go off, in cases for which notification has been given, such as maintenance on network stations. This is an extra cost for the electricity company. The compensation frequently exceeds the technical maintenance costs. Thus, KILE effectively motivates for less maintenance. It is slowly being realized, however, that issues relating to the personal safety for the technicians will play a role long before it becomes economically optimal to service or replace a network station. In particular this is true of the network stations having air-insulated circuit breakers, which was very common up to the 1980s. TEV Nett, a subsidiary of Trondheim Energiverk, has developed a maintenance strategy for network stations that tries to consider risk factors relating to both personnel security and economical risk in a way that is systematic and purpose-built.

  20. Establishment of a Background Environmental Monitoring Station for the PNNL Campus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, Brad G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Snyder, Sandra F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Barnett, J. Matthew [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bisping, Lynn E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rishel, Jeremy P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The environmental surveillance of background levels of radionuclides and, in particular, the siting of a background environmental surveillance (monitoring) station are examined. Many published works identify and stress the need for background monitoring; however, little definitive and comprehensive information for siting a station exists. A definition of an ideal background monitoring location and the generic criteria recommended for use in establishing such a background monitoring location are proposed. There are seven primary (mandatory) criteria described with two additional, optional criteria. The criteria are applied to the Richland, Washington (WA), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Campus, which currently uses background monitoring data from the nearby Hanford Site. Eleven potential background monitoring sites were identified, with one location in Benton City, WA found to meet all of the mandatory and optional criteria. It is expected that the new sampler will be installed and operating by the end of June, 2015.

  1. Establishment of a Background Environmental Monitoring Station for the PNNL Campus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, Brad G.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.; Rishel, Jeremy P.

    2014-12-18

    The environmental surveillance of background levels of radionuclides and, in particular, the siting of a background environmental surveillance (monitoring) station are examined. Many published works identify and stress the need for background monitoring; however, little definitive and comprehensive information for siting a station exists. A definition of an ideal background monitoring location and the generic criteria recommended for use in establishing such a background monitoring location are proposed. There are seven primary (mandatory) criteria described with two additional, optional criteria. The criteria are applied to the Richland, Washington (WA), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Campus, which currently uses background monitoring data from the nearby Hanford Site. Eleven potential background monitoring sites were identified, with one location in Benton City, WA found to meet all of the mandatory and optional criteria. It is expected that the new sampler will be installed and operating by the end of June, 2015.

  2. Network Formation Games Among Relay Stations in Next Generation Wireless Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Saad, Walid; Başar, Tamer; Debbah, Mérouane; Hjørungnes, Are

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of relay station (RS) nodes is a key feature in next generation wireless networks such as 3GPP's long term evolution advanced (LTE-Advanced), or the forthcoming IEEE 802.16j WiMAX standard. This paper presents, using game theory, a novel approach for the formation of the tree architecture that connects the RSs and their serving base station in the \\emph{uplink} of the next generation wireless multi-hop systems. Unlike existing literature which mainly focused on performance analysis, we propose a distributed algorithm for studying the \\emph{structure} and \\emph{dynamics} of the network. We formulate a network formation game among the RSs whereby each RS aims to maximize a cross-layer utility function that takes into account the benefit from cooperative transmission, in terms of reduced bit error rate, and the costs in terms of the delay due to multi-hop transmission. For forming the tree structure, a distributed myopic algorithm is devised. Using the proposed algorithm, each RS can individuall...

  3. Intrusion detection and monitoring for wireless networks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Eric D.; Van Randwyk, Jamie A.; Lee, Erik J.; Stephano, Amanda (Indiana University); Tabriz, Parisa (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign); Pelon, Kristen (Cedarville University); McCoy, Damon (University of Colorado, Boulder); Lodato, Mark (Lafayette College); Hemingway, Franklin (University of New Mexico); Custer, Ryan P.; Averin, Dimitry (Polytechnic University); Franklin, Jason (Carnegie Mellon University); Kilman, Dominique Marie

    2005-11-01

    complete network coverage for use by emergency responders and other municipal agencies. In short, these Wi-Fi networks are being deployed everywhere. Much thought has been and is being put into evaluating cost-benefit analyses of wired vs. wireless networks and issues such as how to effectively cover an office building or municipality, how to efficiently manage a large network of wireless access points (APs), and how to save money by replacing an Internet service provider (ISP) with 802.11 technology. In comparison, very little thought and money are being focused on wireless security and monitoring for security purposes.

  4. Terrestrial Environmental Observation Network (TEON) Watershed and Stations, 2014.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — The Terrestrial Environmental Observation Network (TEON) is an effort to establish a sustainable environmental observing network of northern Alaska. TEON will focus...

  5. RadNet Air Quality (Fixed Station) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — RadNet is a national network of monitoring stations that regularly collect air for analysis of radioactivity. The RadNet network, which has stations in each State,...

  6. LONG-TERM MONITORING SENSOR NETWORK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen P. Farrington; John W. Haas; Neal Van Wyck

    2003-10-16

    Long-term monitoring (LTM) associated with subsurface contamination sites is a key element of Long Term Stewardship and Legacy Management across the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. However, both within the DOE and elsewhere, LTM is an expensive endeavor, often exceeding the costs of the remediation phase of a clean-up project. The primary contributors to LTM costs are associated with labor. Sample collection, storage, preparation, analysis, and reporting can add a significant financial burden to project expense when extended over many years. Development of unattended, in situ monitoring networks capable of providing quantitative data satisfactory to regulatory concerns has the potential to significantly reduce LTM costs. But survival and dependable operation in a difficult environment is a common obstacle to widespread use across the DOE complex or elsewhere. Deploying almost any sensor in the subsurface for extended periods of time will expose it to chemical and microbial degradation. Over the time-scales required for in situ LTM, even the most advanced sensor systems may be rendered useless. Frequent replacement or servicing (cleaning) of sensors is expensive and labor intensive, offsetting most, if not all, of the cost savings realized with unattended, in situ sensors. To enable facile, remote monitoring of contaminants and other subsurface parameters over prolonged periods, Applied Research Associates, Inc has been working to develop an advanced LTM sensor network consisting of three key elements: (1) an anti-fouling sensor chamber that can accommodate a variety of chemical and physical measurement devices based on electrochemical, optical and other techniques; (2) two rapid, cost effective, and gentle means of emplacing sensor packages either at precise locations directly in the subsurface or in pre-existing monitoring wells; and (3) a web browser-based data acquisition and control system (WebDACS) utilizing field-networked microprocessor-controlled smart

  7. Networked Computing in Wireless Sensor Networks for Structural Health Monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Jindal, Apoorva

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the problem of distributed computation over a network of wireless sensors. While this problem applies to many emerging applications, to keep our discussion concrete we will focus on sensor networks used for structural health monitoring. Within this context, the heaviest computation is to determine the singular value decomposition (SVD) to extract mode shapes (eigenvectors) of a structure. Compared to collecting raw vibration data and performing SVD at a central location, computing SVD within the network can result in significantly lower energy consumption and delay. Using recent results on decomposing SVD, a well-known centralized operation, into components, we seek to determine a near-optimal communication structure that enables the distribution of this computation and the reassembly of the final results, with the objective of minimizing energy consumption subject to a computational delay constraint. We show that this reduces to a generalized clustering problem; a cluster forms a unit on w...

  8. An intelligent environment monitoring system based on wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Minghua; Wang, Huiqin; Peng, Duo; Jia, Kejun

    2009-07-01

    Nowadays, information technology is becoming more and more important to improve the productivity of agriculture, especially for real time environment monitoring. However, the traditional method of environmental data collection is unable to provide real-time and highly accurate data of the monitored region to meet the requirements of precision agriculture. As wireless sensor networks(WSNs) has profound impacts on many fields due to its promising capability, in this paper, a WSN-based environment monitoring system is proposed. A prototype of the system that utilizes GAINSJ nodes based on Zigbee communication protocol has been implemented, and its packet error rate in different conditions was evaluated. Based on the proposed system architecture and technologies, the real time data can be measured, transmitted and stored in high accuracy. Moreover, the system was applied in upland grassland in Yushu, Qinghai province, and compared the results with the data acquired by local weather station. The system evaluation and experimental results show the effectiveness and reliability of the system in measuring the variations of temperature and humidity data within monitored region.

  9. Monitoring of Power Station Steels Using Electromagnetic Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Karimian, Noushin

    2014-01-01

    With the world’s aging power generation network, especially in Europe and the United States, life-extension of steel plant components is increasingly a critical issue, as components are exposed to high temperatures and pressures during their lifetime, potentially resulting in carbide coarsening, making them prone to creep cavitation, possibly leading to component failure. Therefore, in order to evaluate the likelihood of component failure, non-destructive testing and evaluation procedures mus...

  10. Latest developments in advanced network management and cross-sharing of next-generation flux stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burba, George; Johnson, Dave; Velgersdyk, Michael; Begashaw, Israel; Allyn, Douglas

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, spatial and temporal flux data coverage improved significantly and on multiple scales, from a single station to continental networks, due to standardization, automation, and management of the data collection, and better handling of the extensive amounts of generated data. However, operating budgets for flux research items, such as labor, travel, and hardware, are becoming more difficult to acquire and sustain. With more stations and networks, larger data flows from each station, and smaller operating budgets, modern tools are required to effectively and efficiently handle the entire process, including sharing data among collaborative groups. On one hand, such tools can maximize time dedicated to publications answering research questions, and minimize time and expenses spent on data acquisition, processing, quality control and overall station management. On the other hand, cross-sharing the stations with external collaborators may help leverage available funding, and promote data analyses and publications. A new low-cost, advanced system, FluxSuite, utilizes a combination of hardware, software and web-services to address these specific demands. It automates key stages of flux workflow, minimizes day-to-day site management, and modernizes the handling of data flows: (i) The system can be easily incorporated into a new flux station, or as un upgrade to many presently operating flux stations, via weatherized remotely-accessible microcomputer, SmartFlux 2, with fully digital inputs (ii) Each next-generation station will measure all parameters needed for flux computations in a digital and PTP time-synchronized mode, accepting digital signals from a number of anemometers and data loggers (iii) The field microcomputer will calculate final fully-processed flux rates in real time, including computation-intensive Fourier transforms, spectra, co-spectra, multiple rotations, stationarity, footprint, etc. (iv) Final fluxes, radiation, weather and soil data will

  11. Extending permanent volcano monitoring networks into Iceland's ice caps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogfjörd, Kristín S.; Bergsson, Bergur H.; Kjartansson, Vilhjálmur; Jónsson, Thorsteinn; Ófeigsson, Benedikt G.; Roberts, Matthew J.; Jóhannesson, Tómas; Pálsson, Finnur; Magnússon, Eyjólfur; Erlendsson, Pálmi; Ingvarsson, Thorgils; Pálssson, Sighvatur K.

    2015-04-01

    The goals of the FUTUREVOLC project are the establishment of a volcano Supersite in Iceland to enable access to volcanological data from the country's many volcanoes and the development of a multiparametric volcano monitoring and early warning system. However, the location of some of Iceland's most active volcanoes inside the country's largest ice cap, Vatnajökull, makes these goals difficult to achieve as it hinders access and proper monitoring of seismic and deformation signals from the volcanoes. To overcome these obstacles, one of the developments in the project involves experimenting with extending the permanent real-time networks into the ice cap, including installation of stations in the glacier ice. At the onset of the project, only one permanent seismic and GPS site existed within Vatnajökull, on the caldera rim of the Grímsvötn volcano. Two years into the project both seismic and GPS stations have been successfully installed and operated inside the glacier; on rock outcrops as well as on the glacier surface. The specific problems to overcome are (i) harsh weather conditions requiring sturdy and resilient equipment and site installations, (ii) darkness during winter months shutting down power generation for several weeks, (iii) high snow accumulation burying the instruments, solar panels and communication and GPS antennae, and in some locations (iv) extreme icing conditions blocking transmission signals and connection to GPS satellites, as well as excluding the possibility of power generation by wind generators. In 2013, two permanent seismic stations and one GPS station were installed on rock outcrops within the ice cap in locations with 3G connections and powered by solar panels and enough battery storage to sustain operation during the darkest winter months. These sites have successfully operated for over a year with mostly regular maintenance requirements, transmitting data in real-time to IMO for analysis. Preparations for two permanent seismic

  12. On the identification of representative in situ soil moisture monitoring stations for the validation of SMAP soil moisture products in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Mei Sun; Walker, Jeffrey P.; Monerris, Alessandra; Rüdiger, Christoph; Jackson, Thomas J.

    2016-06-01

    The high spatio-temporal variability of soil moisture complicates the validation of remotely sensed soil moisture products using in situ monitoring stations. Therefore, a standard methodology for selecting the most representative stations for the purpose of validating satellites and land surface models is essential. Based on temporal stability and geostatistical studies using long-term soil moisture records, intensive ground measurements and airborne soil moisture products, this study investigates the representativeness of soil moisture monitoring stations within the Yanco study area for the validation of NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) products at 3 km for radar, 9 km for radar-radiometer and 36 km for radiometer pixels. This resulted in the identification of a number of representative stations according to the different scales. Although the temporal stability method was found to be suitable for identifying representative stations, stations based on the mean relative difference (MRD) were not necessarily the most representative of the areal average. Moreover, those identified from standard deviation of the relative difference (SDRD) may be dry-biased. It was also found that in the presence of heterogeneous land use, stations should be weighted based on proportions of agricultural land. Airborne soil moisture products were also shown to provide useful a priori information for identifying representative locations. Finally, recommendations are made regarding the design of future networks for satellite validation, and specifically the most representative stations for the Yanco area.

  13. A network monitor for HTTPS protocol based on proxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yangxin; Zhang, Lingcui; Zhou, Shuguang; Li, Fenghua

    2016-10-01

    With the explosive growth of harmful Internet information such as pornography, violence, and hate messages, network monitoring is essential. Traditional network monitors is based mainly on bypass monitoring. However, we can't filter network traffic using bypass monitoring. Meanwhile, only few studies focus on the network monitoring for HTTPS protocol. That is because HTTPS data is in the encrypted traffic, which makes it difficult to monitor. This paper proposes a network monitor for HTTPS protocol based on proxy. We adopt OpenSSL to establish TLS secure tunes between clients and servers. Epoll is used to handle a large number of concurrent client connections. We also adopt Knuth- Morris-Pratt string searching algorithm (or KMP algorithm) to speed up the search process. Besides, we modify request packets to reduce the risk of errors and modify response packets to improve security. Experiments show that our proxy can monitor the content of all tested HTTPS websites efficiently with little loss of network performance.

  14. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. Volume 15, No. 4: Quarterly progress report, October--December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struckmeyer, R.

    1996-03-01

    This report presents the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1995. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 75 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program.

  15. Quality control in bio-monitoring networks, Spanish Aerobiology Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oteros, Jose; Galán, Carmen; Alcázar, Purificación; Domínguez-Vilches, Eugenio

    2013-01-15

    Several of the airborne biological particles, such as pollen grains and fungal spores, are known to generate human health problems including allergies and infections. A number of aerobiologists have focused their research on these airborne particles. The Spanish Aerobiology Network (REA) was set up in 1992, and since then dozens of research groups have worked on a range of related topics, including the standardization of study methods and the quality control of data generated by this network. In 2010, the REA started work on an inter-laboratory survey for proficiency testing purposes. The main goal of the study reported in the present paper was to determine the performance of technicians in the REA network using an analytical method that could be implemented by other bio-monitoring networks worldwide. The results recorded by each technician were compared with the scores obtained for a bounded mean of all results. The performance of each technician was expressed in terms of the relative error made in counting each of several pollen types. The method developed and implemented here proved appropriate for proficiency testing in interlaboratory studies involving bio-monitoring networks, and enabled the source of data quality problems to be pinpointed. The test revealed a variation coefficient of 10%. The relative error was significant for 3.5% of observations. In overall terms, the REA staff performed well, in accordance with the REA Management and Quality Manual. These findings serve to guarantee the quality of the data obtained, which can reliably be used for research purposes and published in the media in order to help prevent pollen-related health problems.

  16. Data Rescue for precipitation station network in Slovak Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasko, Pavel; Bochníček, Oliver; Švec, Marek; Paľušová, Zuzana; Markovič, Ladislav

    2016-04-01

    Transparency of archive catalogues presents very important task for the data saving. It helps to the further activities e.g. digitalization and homogenization. For the time being visualization of time series continuation in precipitation stations (approximately 1250 stations) is under way in Slovak Republic since the beginning of observation (meteorological stations gradually began to operate during the second half of the 19th century in Slovakia). Visualization is joined with the activities like verification and accessibility of the data mentioned in the archive catalogue, station localization according to the historical annual books, conversion of coordinates into x-JTSK, y-JTSK and hydrological catchment assignment. Clustering of precipitation stations at the specific hydrological catchment in the map and visualization of the data duration (line graph) will lead to the effective assignment of corresponding precipitation stations for the prolongation of time series. This process should be followed by the process of turn or trend detection and homogenization. The risks and problems at verification of records from archive catalogues, their digitalization, repairs and the way of visualization will be seen in poster. During the searching process of the historical and often short time series, we realized the importance of mainly those stations, located in the middle and higher altitudes. They might be used as replacement for up to now quoted fictive points used at the construction of precipitation maps. Supplementing and enhancing the time series of individual stations will enable to follow changes in precipitation totals during the certain period as well as area totals for individual catchments in various time periods appreciated mainly by hydrologists and agro-climatologists.

  17. Changes in satellite-derived impervious surface area at US historical climatology network stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Kevin; Xian, George

    2016-10-01

    The difference between 30 m gridded impervious surface area (ISA) between 2001 and 2011 was evaluated within 100 and 1000 m radii of the locations of climate stations that comprise the US Historical Climatology Network. The amount of area associated with observed increases in ISA above specific thresholds was documented for the climate stations. Over 32% of the USHCN stations exhibited an increase in ISA of ⩾20% between 2001 and 2011 for at least 1% of the grid cells within a 100 m radius of the station. However, as the required area associated with ISA change was increased from ⩾1% to ⩾10%, the number of stations that were observed with a ⩾20% increase in ISA between 2001 and 2011 decreased to 113 (9% of stations). When the 1000 m radius associated with each station was examined, over 52% (over 600) of the stations exhibited an increase in ISA of ⩾20% within at least 1% of the grid cells within that radius. However, as the required area associated with ISA change was increased to ⩾10% the number of stations that were observed with a ⩾20% increase in ISA between 2001 and 2011 decreased to 35 (less than 3% of the stations). The gridded ISA data provides an opportunity to characterize the environment around climate stations with a consistently measured indicator of a surface feature. Periodic evaluations of changes in the ISA near the USHCN and other networks of stations are recommended to assure the local environment around the stations has not significantly changed such that observations at the stations may be impacted.

  18. Third harmonics of cosmic ray intensity on quiet days at Deep River Neutron Monitoring Station

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M K Richharia

    2007-06-01

    The cosmic ray (CR) intensity data recorded in Deep River Neutron Monitoring Station have been investigated on quietest days (QD) for third harmonics of daily variation during solar cycles 21 and 22. It has been observed that in spite of abrupt change in the amplitude and phase of tri-diurnal anisotropy in CR intensity, the amplitude is quite significant throughout the period of investigation with larger amplitude during the years 1980 and 1985. Thus, tri-diurnal anisotropy clearly shows 11-year variation at the mid latitude neutron monitoring station.

  19. The Research and Implementation of Three Stages Traffic Stations Intelligent Monitor Systems Based on GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong-ying, Chen; Ting, Xiao; WangTao; Jin-yi, He

    This system used three stage intelligent traffic station subsystems to forecast the path on which vehicle will go. First stage subsystem can forecast road node which adjacented to traffic station. Second stage subsystem was designed for bigger area, for example city, the third stage subsystem was for the larger area between city. Second stage subsystem system used A* based on orientation to calculate shortest path, third stage subsystem calculated critical node of a large area. The system can compose dispersed monitor information, forecast vehicle path, dynamic analysis, hierarchical monitor .It played an important role in ITS.

  20. Automating security monitoring and analysis for Space Station Freedom's electric power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolce, James L.; Sobajic, Dejan J.; Pao, Yoh-Han

    1990-01-01

    Operating a large, space power system requires classifying the system's status and analyzing its security. Conventional algorithms are used by terrestrial electric utilities to provide such information to their dispatchers, but their application aboard Space Station Freedom will consume too much processing time. A novel approach for monitoring and analysis using adaptive pattern techniques is presented. This approach yields an on-line security monitoring and analysis algorithm that is accurate and fast; and thus, it can free the Space Station Freedom's power control computers for other tasks.

  1. A data fusion-based methodology for optimal redesign of groundwater monitoring networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Marjan; Kerachian, Reza

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, a new data fusion-based methodology is presented for spatio-temporal (S-T) redesigning of Groundwater Level Monitoring Networks (GLMNs). The kriged maps of three different criteria (i.e. marginal entropy of water table levels, estimation error variances of mean values of water table levels, and estimation values of long-term changes in water level) are combined for determining monitoring sub-areas of high and low priorities in order to consider different spatial patterns for each sub-area. The best spatial sampling scheme is selected by applying a new method, in which a regular hexagonal gridding pattern and the Thiessen polygon approach are respectively utilized in sub-areas of high and low monitoring priorities. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and a S-T kriging models are used to simulate water level fluctuations. To improve the accuracy of the predictions, results of the ANN and S-T kriging models are combined using a data fusion technique. The concept of Value of Information (VOI) is utilized to determine two stations with maximum information values in both sub-areas with high and low monitoring priorities. The observed groundwater level data of these two stations are considered for the power of trend detection, estimating periodic fluctuations and mean values of the stationary components, which are used for determining non-uniform sampling frequencies for sub-areas. The proposed methodology is applied to the Dehgolan plain in northwestern Iran. The results show that a new sampling configuration with 35 and 7 monitoring stations and sampling intervals of 20 and 32 days, respectively in sub-areas with high and low monitoring priorities, leads to a more efficient monitoring network than the existing one containing 52 monitoring stations and monthly temporal sampling.

  2. Design of water quality monitoring networks with two information scenarios in tropical Andean basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastidas, Juan Carlos; Vélez, Jorge Julián; Zambrano, Jeannette; Londoño, Adela

    2017-04-21

    Design and redesign of water quality monitoring networks were evaluated for two similarly sized watersheds in the tropical Andes via optimization techniques using geographic information system technology (GIS) and a matter-element analysis of 5-day biological oxygen demand (BOD5) and total suspended solids (TSS). This resulted in a flexible, objectively based design for a 1128-km(2) watershed without prior water quality data (La Miel River), and a network redesign of a 1052-km(2) watershed with historical water quality monitoring (Chinchiná River). Monitoring design for the undocumented basin incorporated mathematical expressions for physical, anthropological, and historical factors-and was based on clear objectives for diagnosis and intervention of water pollution. Network redesign identified network redundancy, which resulted in a 64% reduction in the number of water quality monitoring stations along the channel, and a 78% reduction of stations throughout the basin. Most tropical drainage basins throughout the world have little to no prior water quality data. But even in well-studied drainage basins like the Chinchiná River, which is among the most thoroughly studied basins in Colombia, redesign of historical and existing monitoring networks will become a standard tool to advance the restoration of polluted surface waters, not only in Colombia, but also throughout the world.

  3. Dynamic Shortest Path Monitoring in Spatial Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuo Shang; Lisi Chen; Zhe-Wei Wei; Dan-Huai Guo; Ji-Rong Wen

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing availability of real-time traffic information, dynamic spatial networks are pervasive nowa-days and path planning in dynamic spatial networks becomes an important issue. In this light, we propose and investigate a novel problem of dynamically monitoring shortest paths in spatial networks (DSPM query). When a traveler aims to a des-tination, his/her shortest path to the destination may change due to two reasons: 1) the travel costs of some edges have been updated and 2) the traveler deviates from the pre-planned path. Our target is to accelerate the shortest path computing in dynamic spatial networks, and we believe that this study may be useful in many mobile applications, such as route planning and recommendation, car navigation and tracking, and location-based services in general. This problem is challenging due to two reasons: 1) how to maintain and reuse the existing computation results to accelerate the following computations, and 2) how to prune the search space effectively. To overcome these challenges, filter-and-refinement paradigm is adopted. We maintain an expansion tree and define a pair of upper and lower bounds to prune the search space. A series of optimization techniques are developed to accelerate the shortest path computing. The performance of the developed methods is studied in extensive experiments based on real spatial data.

  4. Developing hydrological monitoring networks with Arduino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buytaert, Wouter; Vega, Andres; Villacis, Marcos; Moulds, Simon

    2015-04-01

    The open source hardware platform Arduino is very cost-effective and versatile for the development of sensor networks. Here we report on experiments on the use of Arduino-related technologies to develop and implement hydrological monitoring networks. Arduino Uno boards were coupled to a variety of commercially available hydrological sensors and programmed for automatic data collection. Tested sensors include water level, temperature, humidity, radiation, and precipitation. Our experiments show that most of the tested analogue sensors are quite straightforward to couple to Arduino based data loggers, especially if the electronic characteristics of the sensor are available. However, some sensors have internal digital interfaces, which are more challenging to connect. Lastly, tipping bucket rain gauges prove the most challenging because of the very specific methodology, i.e. registration of bucket tips instead of measurements at regular intervals. The typically low data generation rate of hydrological instruments is very compatible with available technologies for wireless data transmission. Mesh networks such as Xbee prove very convenient and robust for dispersed networks, while wifi is also an option for shorter distances and particular topographies. Lastly, the GSM shield of the Arduino can be used to transfer data to centralized databases. In regions where no mobile internet (i.e. 3G) connection is available, data transmission via text messages may be an option, depending on the bandwidth requirements.

  5. IPTV based on IP network and streaming media service station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jifeng; Gao, Songbo

    2007-11-01

    IPTV can be a new service performed on the Internet in that network transmission and streaming media technologies are getting mature. In this paper, IPTV system infrastructure of UTStarcom, key technologies deployed, and applications will be discussed and evaluated. The key technologies to achieve IPTV services include 1) codec and compression; 2) streaming media; and 3) broadband networks and access to such networks. The implementation of Media Switch IPTV system in Harbin CNC city network is also discussed.

  6. Locating air quality monitoring station using wind impact area diagram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, K V; Verma, P; Devotta, S

    2008-10-01

    In this study a new methodology is suggested to approximate the impact area downwind of an air pollution source, where air quality monitoring can be carried out to capture the maximum pollutant concentration. Hourly wind speed for a given month is grouped in to different wind speed ranges and the distance of pollutant travel is approximated from the average wind speed of that wind speed range. Since change in wind direction causes the impact distance to rotate, its rotation is approximated by the SD of wind direction change. Using this approach, area or region down wind of a source is determined and plotted. The pattern of monthly change of wind is better represented by the new type of diagram as compared to the wind rose diagram.

  7. The status and prospective of environmental radiation monitoring stations in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kheliewi, Abdullah S.; Holzheimer, Clous

    2014-09-01

    The use of nuclear technology requires an environmental monitoring program to ensure the safety of the environment, and to protect people from the hazards of radioactive materials, and nuclear accidents. Nuclear accidents are unique, for they incur effects that surpass international frontiers, and can even have a long lasting impact on Earth. Such was the case of the Chernobyl accident in the Ukraine on April 6, 1986. For that purpose, international and national efforts come together to observe for any nuclear or radioactive accident. Many states, including Saudi Arabia which oversees the operation of the National Radiation, Environmental and Early Monitoring Stations, The Radiation Monitoring Stations(RMS's) are currently scattered across 35 cities in the country,. These locations are evaluated based on various technological criteria such as border cities, cities of high population density, wind direction, etc. For new nuclear power plants hovering around, it is strongly recommended to increase the number of radiation monitoring stations to warn against any threat that may arise from a nuclear leak or accident and to improve the performance of the existing RMS's. SARA (Spectroscopic Monitoring Station for air) should be implemented due to the high sensitivity to artificial radiation, automatic isotope identification, free of maintenance, and fully independent due to solar power supply (incl. battery backup) and wireless communication (GPRS).

  8. The status and prospective of environmental radiation monitoring stations in Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Kheliewi, Abdullah S. [National Center for Radiation Protection, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, 11442 Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Holzheimer, Clous [ENVINET GmbH, Environmental Radiation Detection, Hans-Pinsel-Straße 4, 85540 Haar (Munich) (Germany)

    2014-09-30

    The use of nuclear technology requires an environmental monitoring program to ensure the safety of the environment, and to protect people from the hazards of radioactive materials, and nuclear accidents. Nuclear accidents are unique, for they incur effects that surpass international frontiers, and can even have a long lasting impact on Earth. Such was the case of the Chernobyl accident in the Ukraine on April 6, 1986. For that purpose, international and national efforts come together to observe for any nuclear or radioactive accident. Many states, including Saudi Arabia which oversees the operation of the National Radiation, Environmental and Early Monitoring Stations, The Radiation Monitoring Stations(RMS’s) are currently scattered across 35 cities in the country,. These locations are evaluated based on various technological criteria such as border cities, cities of high population density, wind direction, etc. For new nuclear power plants hovering around, it is strongly recommended to increase the number of radiation monitoring stations to warn against any threat that may arise from a nuclear leak or accident and to improve the performance of the existing RMS’s. SARA (Spectroscopic Monitoring Station for air) should be implemented due to the high sensitivity to artificial radiation, automatic isotope identification, free of maintenance, and fully independent due to solar power supply (incl. battery backup) and wireless communication (GPRS)

  9. Role of monitoring network in the control management of air quality. An industrial case history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerbo, G. [Catania Univ. (Italy). Inst. of Merceology; Fabiano, B.; Ferraiolo, A.; Solisio, C.; Ruaro, R.

    1995-12-31

    Air quality control by a system of monitoring station is indispensable for the environmental protection. Moreover, a monitoring network have not to be only a mere data collection a good air quality control is possible only if the network management allows to prevent unacceptable pollutants level. In other terms, elaboration and interpretation data are fundamental in order to make monitoring system really able for regulations of corrective measures as, for example, the reduction of local emissions. The case of monitoring network run from the Industrial Society CIPA of Siracusa (Italy) is discussed. The management of the data obtained from a continuous survey allows to keep pollutants level below the current limits set down by the Italian law. Furthermore, elaboration of the data allows useful evaluations about atmospheric dispersion phenomena. (author)

  10. Geo-technical Instrumentation And Monitoring For Tuen Mun Station, West Railway, Hong Kong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Geo-technical instrumentation and monitoring is very important for the construction of civil works in urban area, by which the affect or even damage to the existing building and underground utilities in the working site or vicinity caused by construction activities can be predicted. During the construction of Tuen Mun station, West Railway, Hong Kong, series of Geo-technical instruments were installed and monitored in time, and the monitoring data were transferred to the Geo-technical Monitoring System in the headquarter of the Employer promptly. Meanwhile, the alarming data were responded immediately and the modified construction methods have been adopted to avoid the damage to the building and underground utility in working site to ensure the smooth construction of the station.

  11. A super base station based centralized network architecture for 5G mobile communication systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manli Qian

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To meet the ever increasing mobile data traffic demand, the mobile operators are deploying a heterogeneous network with multiple access technologies and more and more base stations to increase the network coverage and capacity. However, the base stations are isolated from each other, so different types of radio resources and hardware resources cannot be shared and allocated within the overall network in a cooperative way. The mobile operators are thus facing increasing network operational expenses and a high system power consumption. In this paper, a centralized radio access network architecture, referred to as the super base station (super BS, is proposed, as a possible solution for an energy-efficient fifth-generation (5G mobile system. The super base station decouples the logical functions and physical entities of traditional base stations, so different types of system resources can be horizontally shared and statistically multiplexed among all the virtual base stations throughout the entire system. The system framework and main functionalities of the super BS are described. Some key technologies for system implementation, i.e., the resource pooling, real-time virtualization, adaptive hardware resource allocation are also highlighted.

  12. Continuous broadband seismic observation on the Greenland Ice Sheet under Greenland Ice Sheet monitoring Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboi, Seiji; Kanao, Masaki; Tono, Yoko; Himeno, Tetsuto; Toyokuni, Genti; Childs, Dean; Dahl-Jensen, Trine; anderson, Kent

    2013-04-01

    We have installed the ice sheet broadband seismograph station, called ICE-S (DK.ICESG) in June 2011, in collaboration with IRIS Polar Services under the GreenLand Ice Sheet monitoring Network (GLISN), which is a new, international, broadband seismic capability for Greenland being implemented through the collaboration between Denmark, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Norway, Poland, Switzerland, and the USA. The primary purpose of GLISN project is to define the fine structure and detailed mechanisms of glacial earthquakes within the Greenland Ice Sheet. These glacial earthquakes in the magnitude range 4.6-5.1 may be modeled as a large glacial ice mass sliding downhill several meters on its basal surface over duration of 30 to 60 seconds. Glacial earthquakes have been observed at seismic stations within Greenland (Larsen et al, 2006), but the coverage was very sparse and a broadband, real-time seismic network was needed to be installed throughout Greenland's Ice Sheet and perimeter. The National Institute for Polar Research and Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology are members of GLISN project and we have started to operate ICESG station since 2011. The station is equipped with a CMG-3T broadband seismometer and a Quanterra Q330 data logger. We have visited the station again in May, 2012 and successfully retrieved one year of continuous records from the broadband seismometer and updated the telemetry system to eventually allow real time monitoring of the station. ICESG station is now daily sending 1 Hz continuous data over the iridium satellite system using RUDICS. The observed three component seismograms demonstrate that the quality of this ice sheet station is good enough to record not only local earthquakes around Greeland but also teleseismic earthquakes. We could record three component broadband seismograms for April 11, 2012 Off the west coast of Northern Sumatra earthquake (Mw8.6). These seismograms show high signal to noise ratio

  13. Numerical modeling and monitoring analysis of Heroísmo station, Metro do Porto

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, P.; Sousa, T.; Silva, P.

    2007-01-01

    Metro do Porto is a major light rail infrastructure built in the city of Porto and surrounding municipalities. In Porto's downtown, classified by UNESCO as World Heritage, the metro was built underground. From a technical point of view, one of the most challenging underground metro stations due...... to the geomechanical unique heterogeneous characteristics of the granite rock mass in the Heroísmo station. This station was the first to be built. To better understand the behaviour and interaction of the structures with the surrounding rock masses numerical models were carried out. The geomechanical properties...... of the granite formations were given by the designer and also obtained through the software GEOPAT. The models' outputs were compared with the monitored results in order to validate the structural behaviour of the underground station....

  14. A Wireless Sensor Network For Soil Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szlavecz, K.; Cogan, J.; Musaloiu-Elefteri, R.; Small, S.; Terzis, A.; Szalay, A.

    2005-12-01

    The most spatially complex stratum of a terrestrial ecosystem is its soil. Among the major challenges of studying the soil ecosystem are the diversity and the cryptic nature of biota, and the enormous heterogeneity of the soil substrate. Often this patchiness drives spatial distribution of soil organisms, yet our knowledge on the spatio-temporal patterns of soil conditions is limited. To monitor the environmental conditions at biologically meaningful spatial scales we have developed and deployed a wireless sensor network of thirty nodes. Each node is based on a MICAz mote connected to a custom-built sensor suite that includes a Watermark soil moisture sensor, an Irrometer soil temperature sensor, and sensors capable of recording ambient temperature and light intensity. To assess CO2 production at the ground level a subset of the nodes is equipped with Telaire 6004 CO2 sensor. We developed the software running on the motes from scratch, using the TinyOS development environment. Each mote collects measurements every minute, and stores them persistently in a non-volatile memory. The decision to store data locally at each node enables us to reliably retrieve the data in the face of network losses and premature node failures due to power depletion. Collected measurements are retrieved over the wireless network through a PC-class computer acting as a gateway between the sensor network and the Internet. Considering that motes are battery powered, the largest obstacle hindering long-term sensor network deployments is power consumption. To address this problem, our software powers down sensors between sampling cycles and turns off the radio (the most energy prohibitive mote component) when not in use. By doing so we were able to increase node lifetime by a factor of ten. We collected field data over several weeks. The data was ingested into a SQL Server database, which provides data access through a .NET web services interface. The database provides functions for spatial

  15. Wireless Sensor Networks for Environmental Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, X.; Liang, Y.; Navarro, M.; Zhong, X.; Villalba, G.; Li, Y.; Davis, T.; Erratt, N.

    2015-12-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have gained an increasing interest in a broad range of new scientific research and applications. WSN technologies can provide high resolution for spatial and temporal data which has not been possible before, opening up new opportunities. On the other hand, WSNs, particularly outdoor WSNs in harsh environments, present great challenges for scientists and engineers in terms of the network design, deployment, operation, management, and maintenance. Since 2010, we have been working on the deployment of an outdoor multi-hop WSN testbed for hydrological/environmental monitoring in a forested hill-sloped region at the Audubon Society of Western Pennsylvania (ASWP), Pennsylvania, USA. The ASWP WSN testbed has continuously evolved and had more than 80 nodes by now. To our knowledge, the ASWP WSN testbed represents one of the first known long-term multi-hop WSN deployments in an outdoor environment. As simulation and laboratory methods are unable to capture the complexity of outdoor environments (e.g., forests, oceans, mountains, or glaciers), which significantly affect WSN operations and maintenance, experimental deployments are essential to investigate and understand WSN behaviors and performances as well as its maintenance characteristics under these harsh conditions. In this talk, based on our empirical studies with the ASWP WSN testbed, we will present our discoveries and investigations on several important aspects including WSN energy profile, node reprogramming, network management system, and testbed maintenance. We will then provide our insight into these critical aspects of outdoor WSN deployments and operations.

  16. Real-time processing of interferograms for monitoring protein crystal growth on the Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudry, A.; Dupuis, N.

    1988-01-01

    The possibility of using microscopic interferometric techniques to monitor the growth of protein crystals on the Space Station is studied. Digital image processing techniques are used to develop a system for the real-time analysis of microscopic interferograms of nucleation sites during protein crystal growth. Features of the optical setup and the image processing system are discussed and experimental results are presented.

  17. Real-time processing of interferograms for monitoring protein crystal growth on the Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudry, A.; Dupuis, N.

    1988-01-01

    The possibility of using microscopic interferometric techniques to monitor the growth of protein crystals on the Space Station is studied. Digital image processing techniques are used to develop a system for the real-time analysis of microscopic interferograms of nucleation sites during protein crystal growth. Features of the optical setup and the image processing system are discussed and experimental results are presented.

  18. Improving evaluation criteria for monitoring networks of weak radioactive plumes after nuclear emergencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urso, L.; Astrup, Poul; Helle, K.B.

    2012-01-01

    . Germany and the Netherlands decided to set up relatively dense networks for the detection of weak radioactive plumes and, additionally, environmental radioactivity from deposited aerosols. Plausible evaluation criteria are presented here to assess important properties which determine the reliability......Networks of monitoring stations have been set up in many European countries to detect the passage of a radioactive cloud in the event of a large-scale nuclear emergency. The layout and spatial density of these networks differs according to the needs and criteria defined by national authorities...

  19. An Analysis of Base Station Location Accuracy within Mobile-Cellular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam Smit

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An important feature within a mobile-cellular net- work is that the location of a cellphone can be determined. As long as the cellphone is powered on, the location of the cellphone can always be traced to at least the cell from which it is receiving, or last received, signal from the cellular network. Such network-based methods of estimating the location of a cellphone is useful in cases where the cellphone user is unable or unwilling to reveal his or her location, and have practical value in digital forensic investigations. This study investigates the accuracy of using mobile-cellular network base station information for estimating the location of cellphones. Through quantitative analysis of mobile-cellular network base station data, large variations between the best and worst accuracy of recorded location information is exposed. Thus, depending on the requirements, base station locations may or may not be accurate enough for a particular application.

  20. GuMNet - Guadarrama Monitoring Network initiative (Madrid,Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santolaria-Canales, Edmundo

    2017-04-01

    The Guadarrama Monitoring Network initiative (GuMNet) is an observational infrastructure focused on monitoring the state of the atmosphere, surface and subsurface in the Sierra de Guadarrama, 50 km NW of the city of Madrid. The network is composed of 10 automatic real time weather stations ranging from low altitude (ca. 900 m.a.s.l) to high mountain areas (ca. 2400 m.a.s.l). The GuMNet infrastructure consists in 10 real time automatic weather stations with instrumentation for observing the state of the atmosphere, surface and the subsurface at the Sierra de Guadarrama, just 50 km north-northwest of the city of Madrid. GuMNet lays the foundations of a research network on weather, soil thermodynamics, boundary layer physics, climate and ecosystem oriented impacts, air pollutions, etc. in the Sierra de Guadarrama. GuMNet represents a first step to provide a unique observational network in an environment of high protection to be used as a laboratory serving a wide range of scientific and educational interests. High altitude sites are focused on periglacial areas and lower altitude sites have emphasis on pastures. One of the low altitude sites is equipped with a 10 m high anemometric tower with a 3D sonic anemometer at the top jointly with a CO2/H2O analyzer that will allow sampling of wind profiles and H2O and CO2 eddy covariance fluxes, important for soil respiration and CO2 and water vapor exchange. A portable station has also a 3D sonic anemometer with CO2/H2O analyzer, this 4 meters-high portable tower is designed for comparison with other soil terrain fluxes. The network is connected via general packet radio service (GPRS) to the central lab in the Campus of Excellence of Moncloa and a management software has been developed to handle the operation of the infrastructure. The deployment of instrumentation and connection of sites to the network was finished in 2016. GuMNet is currently in the process of becoming operational. Conceptually, GuMNet intends to convert a

  1. Planning the improvement of a seismic network for monitoring active volcanic areas: the experience on Mt. Etna

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, A.; Scarfì, L.; Scaltrito, A.; Di Prima, S.; Rapisarda, S.

    2013-10-01

    Seismology and geodesy are generally seen as the most reliable diagnostic tools for monitoring highly active or erupting volcanoes, like Mt. Etna. From the early 1980's, seismic activity was monitored at Mt. Etna by a permanent seismic network, progressively improved in the following years. This network has been considerably enhanced since 2005 by 24-bit digital stations equipped with broad-band (40 s) sensors. Today, thanks to a configuration of 33 broad-band and 12 short-period stations, we have a good coverage of the volcanic area as well as a high quality of the collected data. In the framework of the VULCAMED project a workgroup of Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia has taken on the task of developing the seismic monitoring system, through the installation of other seismic stations. The choice of optimal sites must be clearly made through a careful analysis of the geometry of the existing seismic network. In this paper, we applied the Seismic Network Evaluation through Simulation in order to evaluate the performance of the Etna Seismic Network before and after the addition of the stations in the candidate sites. The main advantage of the adopted method is that we can evaluate the improvement of the network before the actual installation of the stations. Our analysis has permitted to identify some critical issues of the current permanent seismic network related to the lack of stations in the southern sector of the volcano, which is nevertheless affected by a number of seismogenic structures. We have showed that the addition of stations at the candidate sites would greatly extend the coverage of the network to the south by significantly reducing the errors in the hypocenter parameters estimation.

  2. A High-Resolution Sensor Network for Monitoring Glacier Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, S.; Murray, T.; O'Farrell, T.; Rutt, I. C.; Loskot, P.; Martin, I.; Selmes, N.; Aspey, R.; James, T.; Bevan, S. L.; Baugé, T.

    2013-12-01

    Changes in Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets due to ice flow/ice-berg calving are a major uncertainty affecting sea-level rise forecasts. Latterly GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) have been employed extensively to monitor such glacier dynamics. Until recently however, the favoured methodology has been to deploy sensors onto the glacier surface, collect data for a period of time, then retrieve and download the sensors. This approach works well in less dynamic environments where the risk of sensor loss is low. In more extreme environments e.g. approaching the glacial calving front, the risk of sensor loss and hence data loss increases dramatically. In order to provide glaciologists with new insights into flow dynamics and calving processes we have developed a novel sensor network to increase the robustness of data capture. We present details of the technological requirements for an in-situ Zigbee wireless streaming network infrastructure supporting instantaneous data acquisition from high resolution GNSS sensors thereby increasing data capture robustness. The data obtained offers new opportunities to investigate the interdependence of mass flow, uplift, velocity and geometry and the network architecture has been specifically designed for deployment by helicopter close to the calving front to yield unprecedented detailed information. Following successful field trials of a pilot three node network during 2012, a larger 20 node network was deployed on the fast-flowing Helheim glacier, south-east Greenland over the summer months of 2013. The utilisation of dual wireless transceivers in each glacier node, multiple frequencies and four ';collector' stations located on the valley sides creates overlapping networks providing enhanced capacity, diversity and redundancy of data 'back-haul', even close to ';floor' RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indication) levels around -100 dBm. Data loss through radio packet collisions within sub-networks are avoided through the

  3. Probabilistic Harmonic Calculation in Distribution Networks with Electric Vehicle Charging Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxue Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Integrating EV charging station into power grid will bring impacts on power system, among which the most significant one is the harmonic pollution on distribution networks. Due to the uncertainty of the EV charging process, the harmonic currents brought by EV charging stations have a random nature. This paper proposed a mathematical simulation method for studying the working status of charging stations, which considers influencing factors including random leaving factor, electricity price, and waiting time. Based on the proposed simulation method, the probability distribution of the harmonic currents of EV charging stations is obtained and used in the calculation of the probability harmonic power flow. Then the impacts of EVs and EV charging stations on distribution networks can be analyzed. In the case study, the proposed simulation and analysis method is implemented on the IEEE-34 distribution network. The influences of EV arrival rates, the penetration rate, and the accessing location of EV charging station are also investigated. Results show that this research has good potential in guiding the planning and construction of charging station.

  4. Monitoring of benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylene isomers emission from Shahreza gas stations in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Esmaelnejad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aims of this study were to monitor the concentration of benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylenes (BTEX in the ambient air of the city of Shahreza gas stations and to identify the spreading distance of the pollutants from the fueling stations. Materials and Methods: Sampling was carried out from the air of 10 existing fuel stations, (2 compressed natural gas and 8 gasoline and diesel stations and points of 50, 150 and 250 m away from the stations during cold and warm seasons in 2013. Air samples were taken via active sampling process using activated carbon tubes, extracted by carbon disulfide and analyzed by a gas chromatograph coupled to a flame ionization detector. Results: The averages of all achieved BTEX concentrations were under/around the permitted guideline levels for occupational exposure. According to the ambient air guidelines, the benzene level was much higher than the suggested levels in all the stations. However, the average concentrations of toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylene were not exceeded from the standards. The seasonal variation had no influence on the concentrations of BTEX. There was no significant difference between the pollutants concentrations at points 50, 150 and 250 m away from the stations. Conclusions: Fuel stations could be the main sources of volatile organic compounds emission in the city of Shahreza. The number and volume of refueling in the gas stations influence the emission rates. Therefore, it is suggested to take preventive actions such as repairing of pumps and tanks leak and installing vapor return systems at the time of fuel transferring.

  5. Helicopter Rotor Blade Monitoring using Autonomous Wireless Sensor Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez Ramirez, Andrea; Loendersloot, Richard; Tinga, Tiedo; Basu, B.

    2013-01-01

    The advancement on Wireless Sensor Networks for vibration monitoring presents important possibilities for helicopter rotor health and usage monitoring. While main rotor blades account for the main source of lift for helicopters, rotor induced vibration establishes an important source for

  6. Air Quality System (AQS) Monitoring Network, EPA OAR OAQPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains points which depict air quality monitors within EPA's Air Quality System (AQS) monitoring network. This dataset is updated weekly to...

  7. Automated high-volume aerosol sampling station for environmental radiation monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toivonen, H.; Honkamaa, T.; Ilander, T.; Leppaenen, A.; Nikkinen, M.; Poellaenen, R.; Ylaetalo, S

    1998-07-01

    An automated high-volume aerosol sampling station, known as CINDERELLA.STUK, for environmental radiation monitoring has been developed by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), Finland. The sample is collected on a glass fibre filter (attached into a cassette), the airflow through the filter is 800 m{sup 3}/h at maximum. During the sampling, the filter is continuously monitored with Na(I) scintillation detectors. After the sampling, the large filter is automatically cut into 15 pieces that form a small sample and after ageing, the pile of filter pieces is moved onto an HPGe detector. These actions are performed automatically by a robot. The system is operated at a duty cycle of 1 d sampling, 1 d decay and 1 d counting. Minimum detectable concentrations of radionuclides in air are typically 1Ae10 x 10{sup -6} Bq/m{sup 3}. The station is equipped with various sensors to reveal unauthorized admittance. These sensors can be monitored remotely in real time via Internet or telephone lines. The processes and operation of the station are monitored and partly controlled by computer. The present approach fulfils the requirements of CTBTO for aerosol monitoring. The concept suits well for nuclear material safeguards, too 10 refs.

  8. Intrinsic Monitoring Using Behaviour Models in IPv6 Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfig, Edzard; Coşkun, Hakan

    In conventional networks, correlating path information to resource utilisation on the granularity of packets is a hard problem when using policy-based traffic handling schemes. We introduce a new approach termed ‘intrinsic monitoring’ which relies on the use of IPv6 extension headers in combination with formal behaviour models to gather resource information along a path. This allows a network monitoring system to delegate monitoring functionality to the network devices themselves, with the result of a drastic reduction in management traffic due to the increased autonomy of the monitoring system. As monitoring information travels in-band with the network traffic, path information remains perfectly accurate.

  9. Local seismic network for monitoring of a potential nuclear power plant area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiira, Timo; Uski, Marja; Kortström, Jari; Kaisko, Outi; Korja, Annakaisa

    2016-04-01

    This study presents a plan for seismic monitoring of a region around a potential nuclear power plant. Seismic monitoring is needed to evaluate seismic risk. The International Atomic Energy Agency has set guidelines on seismic hazard evaluation and monitoring of such areas. According to these guidelines, we have made a plan for a local network of seismic stations to collect data for seismic source characterization and seismotectonic interpretations, as well as to monitor seismic activity and natural hazards. The detection and location capability of the network were simulated using different station configurations by computing spatial azimuthal coverages and detection threshold magnitudes. Background noise conditions around Pyhäjoki were analyzed by comparing data from different stations. The annual number of microearthquakes that should be detected with a dense local network centered around Pyhäjoki was estimated. The network should be dense enough to fulfill the requirements of azimuthal coverage better than 180° and automatic event location capability down to ML ˜ 0 within a distance of 25 km from the site. A network of 10 stations should be enough to reach these goals. With this setup, the detection threshold magnitudes are estimated to be ML = -0.1 and ML = 0.1 within a radius of 25 and 50 km from Pyhäjoki, respectively. The annual number of earthquakes detected by the network is estimated to be 2 (ML ≥ ˜ -0.1) within 25 km radius and 5 (ML ≥ ˜-0.1 to ˜0.1) within 50 km radius. The location accuracy within 25 km radius is estimated to be 1-2 and 4 km for horizontal coordinates and depth, respectively. Thus, the network is dense enough to map out capable faults with horizontal accuracy of 1-2 km within 25 km radius of the site. The estimation is based on the location accuracies of five existing networks in northern Europe. Local factors, such as seismic noise sources, geology and infrastructure might limit the station configuration and detection and

  10. Research on network integration technology of observation stations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN; Yanjun; MA; Shangchang; ZHUANG; Ting; ZHANG; Sujuan

    2015-01-01

    According to the phenomenon of "four more"and"four low "problems in the observation stations,the surface-based meteorological observing system can’t adapt to the change of the adaptive observation equipment and reduce of business intensification. A station integrated system is proposed,w hich can be configured,connected and extended to all kinds of observation equipment. And the integrated processor is designed,supporting a variety of communication interface standards. Flexible configuration,connection and expansion betw een conventional and new type of meteorological observation equipment are supported. It is capable for online calibration and maintenance of observation equipment. The effectiveness of automatic observation equipment is totally achieved to provide basic information support for disaster prevention and mitigation and national economic development.

  11. Designing optimal greenhouse gas monitoring networks for Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziehn, T.; Law, R. M.; Rayner, P. J.; Roff, G.

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric transport inversion is commonly used to infer greenhouse gas (GHG) flux estimates from concentration measurements. The optimal location of ground-based observing stations that supply these measurements can be determined by network design. Here, we use a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (LPDM) in reverse mode together with a Bayesian inverse modelling framework to derive optimal GHG observing networks for Australia. This extends the network design for carbon dioxide (CO2) performed by Ziehn et al. (2014) to also minimise the uncertainty on the flux estimates for methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), both individually and in a combined network using multiple objectives. Optimal networks are generated by adding up to five new stations to the base network, which is defined as two existing stations, Cape Grim and Gunn Point, in southern and northern Australia respectively. The individual networks for CO2, CH4 and N2O and the combined observing network show large similarities because the flux uncertainties for each GHG are dominated by regions of biologically productive land. There is little penalty, in terms of flux uncertainty reduction, for the combined network compared to individually designed networks. The location of the stations in the combined network is sensitive to variations in the assumed data uncertainty across locations. A simple assessment of economic costs has been included in our network design approach, considering both establishment and maintenance costs. Our results suggest that, while site logistics change the optimal network, there is only a small impact on the flux uncertainty reductions achieved with increasing network size.

  12. Designing optimal greenhouse gas monitoring networks for Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ziehn

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric transport inversion is commonly used to infer greenhouse gas (GHG flux estimates from concentration measurements. The optimal location of ground based observing stations that supply these measurements can be determined by network design. Here, we use a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (LPDM in reverse mode together with a Bayesian inverse modelling framework to derive optimal GHG observing networks for Australia. This extends the network design for carbon dioxide (CO2 performed by Ziehn et al. (2014 to also minimize the uncertainty on the flux estimates for methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O, both individually and in a combined network using multiple objectives. Optimal networks are generated by adding up to 5 new stations to the base network, which is defined as two existing stations, Cape Grim and Gunn Point, in southern and northern Australia respectively. The individual networks for CO2, CH4 and N2O and the combined observing network show large similarities because the flux uncertainties for each GHG are dominated by regions of biologically productive land. There is little penalty, in terms of flux uncertainty reduction, for the combined network compared to individually designed networks. The location of the stations in the combined network is sensitive to variations in the assumed data uncertainty across locations. A simple assessment of economic costs has been included in our network design approach, considering both establishment and maintenance costs. Our results suggest that while site logistics change the optimal network, there is only a small impact on the flux uncertainty reductions achieved with increasing network size.

  13. Analysis and evolution of air quality monitoring networks using combined statistical information indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Osses

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present combined statistical indexes for evaluating air quality monitoring networks based on concepts derived from the information theory and Kullback–Liebler divergence. More precisely, we introduce: (1 the standard measure of complementary mutual information or ‘specificity’ index; (2 a new measure of information gain or ‘representativity’ index; (3 the information gaps associated with the evolution of a network and (4 the normalised information distance used in clustering analysis. All these information concepts are illustrated by applying them to 14 yr of data collected by the air quality monitoring network in Santiago de Chile (33.5 S, 70.5 W, 500 m a.s.l.. We find that downtown stations, located in a relatively flat area of the Santiago basin, generally show high ‘representativity’ and low ‘specificity’, whereas the contrary is found for a station located in a canyon to the east of the basin, consistently with known emission and circulation patterns of Santiago. We also show interesting applications of information gain to the analysis of the evolution of a network, where the choice of background information is also discussed, and of mutual information distance to the classifications of stations. Our analyses show that information as those presented here should of course be used in a complementary way when addressing the analysis of an air quality network for planning and evaluation purposes.

  14. An infrastructure for passive network monitoring of application data streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Deb [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gonzalez, Jose Maria [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jin, Guojun [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tierney, Brian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2003-03-01

    When diagnosing network problems, it is often desirable to have a view of traffic inside the network. In this paper we describe an infrastructure for passive monitoring that can be used to determine which segments of the network are the source of problems for an application data stream. The monitoring hosts are relatively low-cost, off-the-shelf PCs. A unique feature of the infrastructure is secure activation of monitoring hosts in the core of the network without direct network administrator intervention.

  15. Lambda Station: Alternate network path forwarding for production SciDAC applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Maxim; Bobyshev, Andrey; Crawford, Matt; DeMar, Phil; Grigaliunas, Vyto; Moibenko, Alexander; Petravick, Don; /Fermilab; Newman, Harvey; Steenberg, Conrad; Thomas, Michael; /Caltech

    2007-09-01

    The LHC era will start very soon, creating immense data volumes capable of demanding allocation of an entire network circuit for task-driven applications. Circuit-based alternate network paths are one solution to meeting the LHC high bandwidth network requirements. The Lambda Station project is aimed at addressing growing requirements for dynamic allocation of alternate network paths. Lambda Station facilitates the rerouting of designated traffic through site LAN infrastructure onto so-called 'high-impact' wide-area networks. The prototype Lambda Station developed with Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) approach in mind will be presented. Lambda Station has been successfully integrated into the production version of the Storage Resource Manager (SRM), and deployed at US CMS Tier1 center at Fermilab, as well as at US-CMS Tier-2 site at Caltech. This paper will discuss experiences using the prototype system with production SciDAC applications for data movement between Fermilab and Caltech. The architecture and design principles of the production version Lambda Station software, currently being implemented as Java based web services, will also be presented in this paper.

  16. The International Remote Monitoring Project -- First results of the Argentina nuclear power station field trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonino, A.; Pizarro, L.; Perez, A. [Ente Nacional Regulador Nuclear, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Schoeneman, J.L.; Dupree, S.A.; Martinez, R.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Maxey, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    As part of the International Remote Monitoring Project field trials, during the month of March, 1995 a Remote Monitoring System (RMS) was installed at the Embalse Nuclear Power Station in Embalse, Argentina. This system monitors the status of four typical Candu spent fuel dry storage silos. The monitoring equipment for each silo consists of analog temperature and gamma radiation sensors and digital motion and electronic fiber-optic seals connected to a wireless Authenticate Item Monitoring System (AIMS). All sensor data are authenticated and transmitted via RF link to Receiver Processor Units (RPU) coupled to Remote Monitoring System equipment located in a nearby IAEA/ENREN inspector office. One of these RPUs is connected to Remote Monitoring equipment capable of information transmission (via commercial telephone links) to Data Review Stations (DRS) at ENREN laboratories in Buenos Aires, Argentina, and at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. The other RPU is used for on-site data storage and analysis. It is anticipated that this information will soon be transmitted to a DRS at the ABACC facility in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. During these trials site data will be collected and analyzed periodically from Buenos Aires, Albuquerque, and Rio de Janeiro. Installation detail and data analysis will be presented in this paper.

  17. A framework for recovery-oriented, COTS-based ground station networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, James William

    The complexity of space communication has limited our access to space systems and kept mission operations costs high. Ultimately, this results in reduced mission capabilities and yields. In particular, ground stations, the access point between space and terrestrial networks, suffer from monolithic designs, narrow interfaces, and unreliability that raise significant financial barriers for low-cost, experimental satellite missions. This research reduces these barriers by developing technology for recovery-oriented, flexible access networks built from commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components. Based on our extensive small satellite experiences, we decomposed ground station services and captured them in an extensible framework that simplified reuse of ground station services and improved portability across heterogeneous installations. This capability, combined with selective customization through virtual machine technology, allowed us to deliver "just in time" ground stations for QuakeSat-1 at a fraction of the price of current commodity solutions. This decomposition is also informed by principles of robust system design. Thus, our ground station reference implementation called Mercury was a candidate for recursive recovery (RR), a high availability technique whose effectiveness in reducing recovery time has been demonstrated on research prototypes of Internet server systems. Augmenting Mercury to implement RR reduced recovery time of typical ground station software failures by a factor of four, dropping recovery time to within the "window of recovery" and effectively eliminating the adverse effects of these failures. Since the time of failures cannot be predicted, RR allowed us to mitigate the effects of the failures and greatly reduce their potential impact on ground station operations. Our ground station architecture harnessed the benefits of COTS components, including rapid prototyping and deployment, while overcoming the challenges of COTS reliability and mission

  18. Environmental Monitoring using Measurements from Cellular Network Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, N.; Gao, O. H.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate measurements of atmospheric parameters at ground level are fundamentally essential for hazard warning, meteorological forecasting and for various applications in agriculture, hydrology, transportation and more. The accuracy of existing instruments, however, is often limited as a result of technical and practical constraints. Existing technologies such as satellite systems cover large areas but may experience lack of precision at near surface level. On the other hand, ground based in-situ sensors often suffer from low spatial representativity. In addition, these conventional monitoring instruments are costly to implement and maintain. At frequencies of tens of GHz, various atmospheric hydrometeors affect microwave beams, causing perturbations to radio signals. Consequently, commercial wireless links that constitute the infrastructure for data transport between cellular base stations can be considered as a built in environmental monitoring facility (Messer et al., Science, 2006). These microwave links are widely deployed worldwide at surface level altitudes and can provide measurements of various atmospheric phenomena. The implementation costs are minimal since the infrastructure is already situated in the field. This technique has been shown to be applicable for 2D rainfall monitoring (e.g. Overeem et al., PNAS, 2013; Liberman et al., AMT, 2014) and potentially for water vapor observations (David et al., ACP, 2009; Chwala et al., Atmos. Res., 2013). Moreover, it has been recently shown that the technology has strong potential for detection of fog and estimation of its intensity (David et al., JGR-Atmos., 2013; David et al., BAMS, 2014). The research conducted to this point forms the basis for the initiation of a research project in this newly emerging field at the School of Civil and Environmental Engineering of Cornell University. The presentation will provide insights into key capabilities of the novel approach. The potential to monitor various

  19. Efficient Network Monitoring for Large Data Acquisition Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Savu, DO; The ATLAS collaboration; Al-Shabibi, A; Sjoen, R; Batraneanu, SM; Stancu, SN

    2011-01-01

    Though constantly evolving and improving, the available network monitoring solutions have limitations when applied to the infrastructure of a high speed real-time data acquisition (DAQ) system. DAQ networks are particular computer networks where experts have to pay attention to both individual subsections as well as system wide traffic flows while monitoring the network. The ATLAS Network at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has more than 200 switches interconnecting 3500 hosts and totaling 8500 high speed links. The use of heterogeneous tools for monitoring various infrastructure parameters, in order to assure optimal DAQ system performance, proved to be a tedious and time consuming task for experts. To alleviate this problem we used our networking and DAQ expertise to build a flexible and scalable monitoring system providing an intuitive user interface with the same look and feel irrespective of the data provider that is used. Our system uses custom developed components for critical performance monitoring and...

  20. A multidisciplinary monitoring network at Mayon volcano, Philippines: A collaborative effort between PHIVOLCS and EOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwandner, F. M.; Hidayat, D.; Laguerta, E. P.; Baloloy, A. V.; Valerio, R.; Vaquilar, R.; Arpa, M. C.; Marcial, S. S.; Novianti, M. L.

    2012-04-01

    Mount Mayon in Albay province (Philippines) is an openly-degassing basaltic-andesitic stratovolcano, located on the northern edge of the northwest-trending OAS graben. Its latest eruptions were in Aug-Sept 2006 and Dec 2009. Mayon's current status is PHIVOLCS' level 1 with low seismicity dominated mostly local and regional tectonic earthquakes and continuous emission of SO2 from its summit crater. A research collaboration between the Earth Observatory of Singapore-NTU and the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) was initiated in 2009, aimed at developing a multi-disciplinary monitoring network around Mayon. The network design comprises a network of co-located geophysical, geochemical, hydrological and meteorological sensors, in both radial and circular arrangements. Radially arranged stations are intended to capture and distinguish vertical conduit processes, while the circular station design (including existing PHIVOLCS stations in cooperation with JICA, Japan) is meant to distinguish locations and sector activity of subsurface events. Geophysical instrumentation from EOS currently includes 4 broadband seismographs (in addition to 3 existing broadbands and 3 short period instruments from PHIVOLCS & JICA), and 5 tiltmeters. Four continuous cGPS stations will be installed in 2012, complementing 5 existing PHIVOLCS stations. Stations are also designed to house a multi-sensor package of static subsurface soil CO2 monitoring stations, the first of which was installed in early 2012, and which include subsoil sensors for heat flux, temperature, and moisture, as well as meteorological stations (with sonic anemometers and contact rain gages). These latter sensors are all controlled from one control box per station. Meteorological stations will help us to validate tilt, gas permeability, and also know lahar initiation potential. Since early 2011, separate stations downwind of the two prevailing wind directions from the summit continuously monitor

  1. Ukrainian network of Optical Stations for man-made space objects observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sybiryakova, Yevgeniya

    2016-07-01

    The Ukrainian Network of Optical Stations (UNOS) for man-made objects research was founded in 2012 as an association of professional astronomers. The main goals of network are: positional and photometric observations of man-made space objects, calculation of orbital elements, research of shape and period of rotation. The network consists of 8 stations: Kiev, Nikolaev, Odesa, Uzhgorod, Lviv, Yevpatoriya, Alchevsk. UNOS has 12 telescopes for observation of man-made space objects. The new original methods of positional observation were developed for optical observation of geosynchronous and low earth orbit satellites. The observational campaigns of LEO satellites held in the network every year. The numerical model of space object motion, developed in UNOS, is using for orbit calculation. The results of orbital elements calculation are represented on the UNOS web-site http://umos.mao.kiev.ua/eng/. The photometric observation of selected objects is also carried out in network.

  2. ULF radio monitoring network in a seismic area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toader, Victorin; Moldovan, Iren-Adelina; Ionescu, Constantin; Marmureanu, Alexandru

    2017-04-01

    ULF monitoring is a part of a multidisciplinary network (AeroSolSys) located in Vrancea (Curvature Carpathian Mountains). Four radio receivers (100 kHz - microwave) placed on faults in a high seismic area characterized by deep earthquakes detect fairly weak radio waves. The radio power is recorded in correlation with many other parameters related to near surface low atmosphere phenomena (seismicity, solar radiation, air ionization, electromagnetic activity, radon, CO2 concentration, atmospheric pressure, telluric currents, infrasound, seismo-acoustic emission, meteorological information). We follow variations in the earth's surface propagate radio waves avoiding reflection on ionosphere. For this reason the distance between stations is less than 60 km and the main source of emission is near (Bod broadcasting transmitter for long- and medium-wave radio, next to Brasov city). In the same time tectonic stress affects the radio propagation in air and it could generates ULF waves in ground (LAI coupling). To reduce the uncertainty is necessary to monitor a location for extended periods of time to outline local and seasonal fluctuations. Solar flares do not affect seismic activity but they produce disturbances in telecommunications networks and power grids. Our ULF monitoring correlated with two local magnetometers does not indicate this so far with our receivers. Our analysis was made during magnetic storms with Kp 7 and 8 according to NOAA satellites. To correlate the results we implemented an application that monitors the satellite EUTELSAT latency compared to WiMAX land communication in the same place. ULF band radio monitoring showed that our receiver is dependent on temperature and that it is necessary to introduce a band pass filter in data analysis. ULF data acquisition is performed by Kinemetrics and National Instruments digitizers with a sampling rate of 100 Hz in Miniseed format and then converted into text files with 1 Hz rate for analysis in very low

  3. Improved GNSS processing and screening for ZTD monitoring in national network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepniak, K.; Bock, O.

    2016-12-01

    Discontinuities in Zenith Total Delay (ZTD) series estimated from ground-based GNSS data are detrimental to climate monitoring applications. This study aims at improving the processing strategy to reprocess GNSS data from national networks. A network of 136 GNSS stations (including 32 stations from the EUREF Permanent Network and 104 stations from ASG-EUPOS network in Poland) was reprocessed for year 2014 using Bernese GNSS Software v.5.2. The average distance between the stations is about 70 km. In order to investigate the influence of network design strategy, three variants of processing were carried out and analyzed: 1) using network design strategy which works quite well for coordinates; 2) the standard "obs-max" strategy recommended for Bernese software; 3) a newly developed baselines design strategy optimized for ZTD estimation. The study shows that the network design has a strong impact on the quality and continuity of ZTD estimates. In case of sub-daily gaps in the measurements at reference stations, small clusters of stations can be disconnected from the main network in the first network strategy. This has little impact on coordinates, but offsets of a few centimeters in ZTD estimates and spikes in their formal errors can appear at all stations of the disconnected cluster. It is also responsible for significant discontinuities in the estimated ZTD series. This problem is observed also with "obs-max" strategy. The new network design strategy proposed here allows to avoid this problem. The reprocessed ZTD time series are much more continuous and homogeneous in comparison to the standard strategies. However, even when an optimal processing procedure is used, some outliers in the ZTD series still remain (e.g. due to short data gaps). Therefore, a post-processing screening procedure consisting of the removal of the first and the last ZTD estimates around observations gaps, range and outlier check of ZTD and formal errors was applied to remove these bad values

  4. An automatic continuous monitoring station for groundwater geochemistry at an active fault zone in SW Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chun-Wei; Yang, Tsanyao F.; Fu, Ching-Chou; Hilton, David R.; Liu, Tsung-Kwei; Walia, Vivek; Lai, Tzu-Hua

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have revealed that gas compositions of fluid samples collected from southwestern Taiwan where many hot springs and mud volcanoes are distributed along tectonic sutures show significant variation prior to and after some disaster seismic events. Such variations, including radon activity, CH4/CO2, CO2/3He and 3He/4He ratios of gas compositions, are considered to be precursors of earthquakes in this area. To validate the relationship between fluid compositions and local earthquakes, a continuous monitoring station has been established at Yun-Shui, which is an artesian well located at an active fault zone in SW Taiwan. It is equipped with a radon detector and a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) for in-situ measurement of the dissolved gas composition. Data is telemetered to Taipei so we are able to monitor variations of gas composition in real time. Furthermore, we also installed a syringe pump apparatus for the retrieval and temporal analysis of helium (SPARTAH) at this station. From the SPARTAH samples, we can obtain detailed time series records of H-O isotopic compositions, DIC concentration and δ13C isotopic ratios, and anion concentration of the water samples at this station. After continuous monitoring for about one year, some anomalies occurred prior to some local earthquakes. It demonstrates that this automated system is feasible for long-term continuous seismo-geochemical research in this area. Keywords: monitoring; geochemistry; isotope; dissolved gases; pre-seismic signal.

  5. Landslide monitoring using terrestrial laser scanner and robotic total station in Rancabali, West Java (Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumilar, Irwan; Fattah, Alif; Abidin, Hasanuddin Z.; Sadarviana, Vera; Putri, Nabila S. E.; Kristianto

    2017-07-01

    West Java is one of the provinces in Indonesia which is prone to landslide. Over the past few years, landslides in this area have resulted in a large number of victims. One of the areas in West Java with the highest risk of landslide occurrence is Rancabali Ciwidey. In general, the morphology around the landslide location is steep hills, with the slope > 30° and the altitude between 1550 - 1865 m above sea level. Several indications of ground movements can be seen in the form of slumps and cracks on the village roads and tea plantation, as well as slanting trees and electricity poles. The ground movement monitoring in this area is necessary for disaster mitigation. Several methods that can be used to monitor the landslide are using Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) and robotic total station. This research aims is monitoring the landslide using these methods. The methodology used in this research is by obtaining the scanning data using TLS C-10 and Robotic total station MS05 measurements to obtain the coordinates of monitoring point clouds and prism. The TLS software that we used are Cyclone 8.1 and Maptek I-Site. For robotic total station, the software that we used is MSP software. These method hopefully can be used for early warning system of landslide in Rancabali area.

  6. DBSR: Dynamic base station Repositioning using Genetic algorithm in wireless sensor network

    CERN Document Server

    Mollanejad, Amir; Zeynali, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are commonly used in various ubiquitous and pervasive applications. Due to limited power resources, the optimal dynamic base station (BS) replacement could be Prolong the sensor network lifetime. In this paper we'll present a dynamic optimum method for base station replacement so that can save energy in sensors and increases network lifetime. Because positioning problem is a NPhard problem [1], therefore we'll use genetic algorithm to solve positioning problem. We've considered energy and distance parameters for finding BS optimized position. In our represented algorithm base station position is fixed just during each round and its positioning is done at the start of next round then it'll be placed in optimized position. Evaluating our proposed algorithm, we'll execute DBSR algorithm on LEACH & HEED Protocols.

  7. Construction and precision evaluation of the GPS virtual reference station network in North Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, T.; Lee, Z.; Chang, M.; Chen, C.

    2006-12-01

    The conventional single-reference station positioning is affected by systematic errors such as ionospheric and tropospheric delay, so that the rover must be located within 10 km from the reference station in order to acquire centimeter-level accuracy. The medium-range real-time kinematic has been proven feasible and can be used for high precision applications. However, the longer of the baseline, the more of the time for resolving the integer ambiguity. This is due to the fact that systematic errors can't be eliminated effectively by double- differencing. Recently, network approaches have been proposed to overcome the limitation of the single- reference station positioning. The real-time systematic error modeling can be achieved with the use of GPS network. For expanding the effective range and decreasing the density of the reference stations, Land Survey Bureau, Ministry of the Interior in Taiwan have set up a national GPS network. In order to obtain the high precision positioning and provide the multi-goals services, a GPS network including 27 stations already been constructed in North Taiwan. The users can download the corrections from the data center via the wireless internet and obtain the centimeter-level accuracy positioning. The service is very useful for surveyors and the high precision coordinates can be obtained real time.

  8. OGS improvements in 2012 in running the North-eastern Italy Seismic Network: the Ferrara VBB borehole seismic station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesaresi, D.; Romanelli, M.; Barnaba, C.; Bragato, P. L.; Durì, G.

    2014-07-01

    The Centro di Ricerche Sismologiche (CRS, Seismological Research Centre) of the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS, Italian National Institute for Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics) in Udine (Italy) after the strong earthquake of magnitude M=6.4 occurred in 1976 in the Italian Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, started to operate the North-eastern Italy Seismic Network: it currently consists of 17 very sensitive broad band and 18 simpler short period seismic stations, all telemetered to and acquired in real time at the OGS-CRS data centre in Udine. Real time data exchange agreements in place with other Italian, Slovenian, Austrian and Swiss seismological institutes lead to a total number of about 100 seismic stations acquired in real time, which makes the OGS the reference institute for seismic monitoring of North-eastern Italy. The south-western edge of the OGS seismic network (Fig. 1) stands on the Po alluvial basin: earthquake localization and characterization in this area is affected by the presence of soft alluvial deposits. OGS ha already experience in running a local seismic network in high noise conditions making use of borehole installations in the case of the micro-seismicity monitoring of a local gas storage site for a private company. Following the ML = 5.9 earthquake that struck the Emilia region around Ferrara in Northern Italy on 20 May 2012 at 02:03:53 UTC, a cooperation of Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, OGS, the Comune di Ferrara and the University of Ferrara lead to the reinstallation of a previously existing very broad band (VBB) borehole seismic station in Ferrara. The aim of the OGS intervention was on one hand to extend its real time seismic monitoring capabilities toward South-West, including Ferrara and its surroundings, and on the other hand to evaluate the seismic response at the site. We will describe improvements in running the North-eastern Italy Seismic Network, including details of

  9. Optimizing Groundwater Monitoring Networks Using Integrated Statistical and Geostatistical Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Krishna Thakur

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to investigate new approaches using methods based on statistics and geo-statistics for spatio-temporal optimization of groundwater monitoring networks. The formulated and integrated methods were tested with the groundwater quality data set of Bitterfeld/Wolfen, Germany. Spatially, the monitoring network was optimized using geo-statistical methods. Temporal optimization of the monitoring network was carried out using Sen’s method (1968. For geostatistical network optimization, a geostatistical spatio-temporal algorithm was used to identify redundant wells in 2- and 2.5-D Quaternary and Tertiary aquifers. Influences of interpolation block width, dimension, contaminant association, groundwater flow direction and aquifer homogeneity on statistical and geostatistical methods for monitoring network optimization were analysed. The integrated approach shows 37% and 28% redundancies in the monitoring network in Quaternary aquifer and Tertiary aquifer respectively. The geostatistical method also recommends 41 and 22 new monitoring wells in the Quaternary and Tertiary aquifers respectively. In temporal optimization, an overall optimized sampling interval was recommended in terms of lower quartile (238 days, median quartile (317 days and upper quartile (401 days in the research area of Bitterfeld/Wolfen. Demonstrated methods for improving groundwater monitoring network can be used in real monitoring network optimization with due consideration given to influencing factors.

  10. Complex network theory, streamflow, and hydrometric monitoring system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halverson, M. J.; Fleming, S. W.

    2015-07-01

    Network theory is applied to an array of streamflow gauges located in the Coast Mountains of British Columbia (BC) and Yukon, Canada. The goal of the analysis is to assess whether insights from this branch of mathematical graph theory can be meaningfully applied to hydrometric data, and, more specifically, whether it may help guide decisions concerning stream gauge placement so that the full complexity of the regional hydrology is efficiently captured. The streamflow data, when represented as a complex network, have a global clustering coefficient and average shortest path length consistent with small-world networks, which are a class of stable and efficient networks common in nature, but the observed degree distribution did not clearly indicate a scale-free network. Stability helps ensure that the network is robust to the loss of nodes; in the context of a streamflow network, stability is interpreted as insensitivity to station removal at random. Community structure is also evident in the streamflow network. A network theoretic community detection algorithm identified separate communities, each of which appears to be defined by the combination of its median seasonal flow regime (pluvial, nival, hybrid, or glacial, which in this region in turn mainly reflects basin elevation) and geographic proximity to other communities (reflecting shared or different daily meteorological forcing). Furthermore, betweenness analyses suggest a handful of key stations which serve as bridges between communities and might be highly valued. We propose that an idealized sampling network should sample high-betweenness stations, small-membership communities which are by definition rare or undersampled relative to other communities, and index stations having large numbers of intracommunity links, while retaining some degree of redundancy to maintain network robustness.

  11. Recent trends in chemical composition of bulk precipitation at Estonian monitoring stations 1994-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treier, K.; Pajuste, K.; Frey, J.

    Monthly and annual means of main anions (SO 42-, NO 3-, Cl -) and summed base cations (Ca 2+, Mg 2+, K +, Na +) in bulk precipitation were studied at 10 stations during an 8-year monitoring period. The data showed statistically significant decreasing trends in most cases. Average declines of mean annual volume-weighted concentrations for both anions and cations were about two-fold. Despite the decrease, the loads of S and cations are still relatively high in Estonia (about 4-14 kg S ha -1 and 0.6-1.2 keq ha -1, respectively) compared with the loads in Finland and Sweden. Estimated linear decline trends followed the same pattern as annually combusted oil shale from Estonian power plants and emissions of SO 2 and fly ash. Recent trends in chemical composition of bulk precipitation at the monitoring stations reflected economic changes in Estonia as well as transboundary fluxes from neighbouring countries.

  12. Modeling and Simulating Passenger Behavior for a Station Closure in a Rail Transit Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Haodong; Han, Baoming; Li, Dewei; Wu, Jianjun; Sun, Huijun

    2016-01-01

    A station closure is an abnormal operational situation in which the entrances or exits of a rail transit station have to be closed for some time due to an unexpected incident. A novel approach is developed to estimate the impacts of the alternative station closure scenarios on both passenger behavioral choices at the individual level and passenger demand at the disaggregate level in a rail transit network. Therefore, the contributions of this study are two-fold: (1) A basic passenger behavior optimization model is mathematically constructed based on 0-1 integer programming to describe passengers' responses to alternative origin station closure scenarios and destination station closure scenarios; this model also considers the availability of multi-mode transportation and the uncertain duration of the station closure; (2) An integrated solution algorithm based on the passenger simulation is developed to solve the proposed model and to estimate the effects of a station closure on passenger demand in a rail transit network. Furthermore, 13 groups of numerical experiments based on the Beijing rail transit network are performed as case studies with 2,074,267 records of smart card data. The comparisons of the model outputs and the manual survey show that the accuracy of our proposed behavior optimization model is approximately 80%. The results also show that our model can be used to capture the passenger behavior and to quantitatively estimate the effects of alternative closure scenarios on passenger flow demand for the rail transit network. Moreover, the closure duration and its overestimation greatly influence the individual behavioral choices of the affected passengers and the passenger demand. Furthermore, if the rail transit operator can more accurately estimate the closure duration (namely, as g approaches 1), the impact of the closure can be somewhat mitigated.

  13. Mutual Information in the Air Quality Monitoring Network of Bogota - Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, O. J.; Jimenez-Pizarro, R.

    2012-12-01

    Large urban areas in the developing world are characterized by high population density and a great variety of activities responsible for emission of trace gases and particulate matter to the atmosphere. In general, these pollutants are unevenly distributed over cities according to the location of sources, meteorological variability and geographical features. Urban air quality monitoring networks are primarily designed to protect public health. The meteorological and air quality information gathered by monitoring networks can also be used to understand pollutant sources, sinks, and dispersion processes and to assess the spatial coverage of the network itself. Several statistical and numerical simulation methods allow for the identification of the domain that influences observations at each of the stations, i.e, the zone and respective population truly covered by the measurements. We focused on Bogota, Colombia, a dense city of approximately 9.6 million inhabitants in its metropolitan area. We analyzed the measurements obtained by the Bogotá Air Quality Monitoring Network (RMCAB) between the years 1997 and 2010 for TSP, PM10, CO, NOx and O3. RMCAB is composed of 16 stations, 13 of which are fixed and measure both atmospheric pollutants and meteorological variables. The method applied consisted of a statistical approach based on the mutual information that each station shares with its complement, i.e. the set formed by the other stations of the network. In order to improve our understanding and interpretation of the results, virtual data created for selected receptors along a simple modeled Gaussian plume spreading throughout Bogotá was analyzed. In this Gaussian model, we accounted for the prevailing weather conditions of this city and for different emission features under which the pollutants are emitted. The spatial location of the monitoring stations and emission sources, and the quality of the measurements are relevant factors when assessing the mutual

  14. The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station Ground Temperature Sensor: A Pyrometer for Measuring Ground Temperature on Mars

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    We describe the parameters that drive the design and modeling of the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) Ground Temperature Sensor (GTS), an instrument aboard NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory, and report preliminary test results. REMS GTS is a lightweight, low-power, and low cost pyrometer for measuring the Martian surface kinematic temperature. The sensor’s main feature is its innovative design, based on a simple mechanical structure with no moving parts. It includes an in-flight cal...

  15. In situ monitoring of animal micronuclei before the operation of Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y.N. Cai; H.Y. He; L.M. Qian; G.C. Sun; J.Y. Zhao [Guangzhou College of Education, Guangzhou (China)

    1994-12-31

    Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station, a newly-built nuclear power station in southern mainland China, started its operation in 1993. We examined micro-nucleated cells of Invertibrate (Bivalves) and Vertibrate (Fish and Amphibia) in different spots within the 50km surroundings of the Power Station during 1986-1993. This paper reports the results of the investigation carried out in Dong Shan, a place 4.7km to the Power Station:Bivalves; Pteria martensil 5.1(1986),4.8(1988),4.8(1991),5,0(1993),Mytilus smardinus 4.7(1987),4.6(1988); Chamys nobilis 4.9(1987);4.9(1991),4.5(1992),4.5(1993). Fish; Therapon jarbua 0.48(1991),0.67(1992),0.47(1993). Amphibia; Bufo melanostictus 0.29 (1987), 0.34(1988),0.39(1992),0.39(1993). These results showed that the environmental situation, estimated by using the frequencies of micronucleated cells, was stable-there was no obvious chromosome damage in the animals studied. It was found that the incidence of micronucleated cells of Bivalves was higher than that of Fish and Amphibia, suggesting the epithelial cells to be more sensitive than peripheral erythrocytes to environmental genotoxic effects. The results of our studies for other spots will be reported afterward. These data can be used as the original background information to monitor the environment when the Nuclear Power Station is in operation.

  16. Using stochastic activity networks to study the energy feasibility of automatic weather stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassano, Luca [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informatica e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano (Italy); Cesarini, Daniel [Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Pisa (Italy); Avvenuti, Marco [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell’Informazione, University of Pisa (Italy)

    2015-03-10

    Automatic Weather Stations (AWSs) are systems equipped with a number of environmental sensors and communication interfaces used to monitor harsh environments, such as glaciers and deserts. Designing such systems is challenging, since designers have to maximize the amount of sampled and transmitted data while considering the energy needs of the system that, in most cases, is powered by rechargeable batteries and exploits energy harvesting, e.g., solar cells and wind turbines. To support designers of AWSs in the definition of the software tasks and of the hardware configuration of the AWS we designed and implemented an energy-aware simulator of such systems. The simulator relies on the Stochastic Activity Networks (SANs) formalism and has been developed using the Möbius tool. In this paper we first show how we used the SAN formalism to model the various components of an AWS, we then report results from an experiment carried out to validate the simulator against a real-world AWS and we finally show some examples of usage of the proposed simulator.

  17. The role of Environmental Health System air quality monitors in Space Station Contingency Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limero, Thomas F.; Wilson, Steve; Perlot, Susan; James, John

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Environmental Health System's air-quality monitoring strategy and instrumentation. A two-tier system has been developed, consisting of first-alert instruments that warn the crew of airborne contamination and a volatile organic analyzer that can identify volatile organic contaminants in near-real time. The strategy for air quality monitoring on SSF is designed to provide early detection so that the contamination can be confined to one module and so that crew health and safety can be protected throughout the contingency event. The use of air-quality monitors in fixed and portable modes will be presented as a means of following the progress of decontamination efforts and ensuring acceptable air quality in a module after an incident. The technology of each instrument will be reviewed briefly; the main focus of this paper, however, will be the use of air-quality monitors before, during, and after contingency incidents.

  18. High-Speed Monitoring of Multiple Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Array Configurations and Supplementary Weather Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Matthew T

    2017-06-01

    Three grid-connected monocrystalline silicon photovoltaic arrays have been instrumented with research-grade sensors on the Gaithersburg, MD campus of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). These arrays range from 73 kW to 271 kW and have different tilts, orientations, and configurations. Irradiance, temperature, wind, and electrical measurements at the arrays are recorded, and images are taken of the arrays to monitor shading and capture any anomalies. A weather station has also been constructed that includes research-grade instrumentation to measure all standard meteorological quantities plus additional solar irradiance spectral bands, full spectrum curves, and directional components using multiple irradiance sensor technologies. Reference photovoltaic (PV) modules are also monitored to provide comprehensive baseline measurements for the PV arrays. Images of the whole sky are captured, along with images of the instrumentation and reference modules to document any obstructions or anomalies. Nearly, all measurements at the arrays and weather station are sampled and saved every 1s, with monitoring having started on Aug. 1, 2014. This report describes the instrumentation approach used to monitor the performance of these photovoltaic systems, measure the meteorological quantities, and acquire the images for use in PV performance and weather monitoring and computer model validation.

  19. Energy Monitoring and Management Mechanism for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papadakis Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we discuss a mechanism for the monitoring and management of energy consumption in Wireless Sensor Networks. We consider that the Wireless Sensor Network consists of nodes that operate individually and collaborate with each other. After briefly discussing the typical network topologies and associating with the expected communications needs, we describe a conceptual framework for monitoring and managing the energy consumption on per process basis.

  20. Evaluating long-term trends in mean- and high- river flows using a network of reference stations in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilby, R. L.; Murphy, C.; Harrigan, S.; Hall, J.

    2012-12-01

    This paper describes the development of a reference hydrometric network for Ireland established primarily for the detection of climate driven trends in mean and high river flows. Thirty-five stations were identified for inclusion in the network plus a further 8 from the UK Benchmark Network. Their average record length is 40 years with a minimum of 28 and maximum of 63 years. Time series were derived for eight river flow indices: annual and seasonal mean flows and the annual maximum 1-, 10- and 30-day flows. Mann Kendall and Theil Sen statistics were applied to all indices using fixed and variable start/end dates. Trends in the winter mean are found to be highly dependent on the chosen period of analysis with the longest records showing increased flows. Contrary to expectations (of regional climate change scenarios), increases are also evident for long-term summer mean flows. High flow metrics exhibit positive and persistent trends that are less affected by inter-annual variability and period of record. Overall, there is strong spatial coherence in these patterns of change, linked to temporal variations in precipitation. Our results highlight the dangers of using conventional fixed periods such as 1961-1990 for trend detection, recognising that there is always a trade-off between record length, density of the network, and geographic coverage. Furthermore, outliers at the beginning of the record can be an artefact of the original motivation for installing the gauging station(s). In this case, water resource concerns during a markedly dry period in the mid-1970s favour positive trends over subsequent decades. Future work will focus on detection times for climate change signals and the identification of sentinel sites for discerning early signs of anthropogenic climate change across Ireland. Broader lessons for monitoring and detection of anthropogenic climate change signals will also be distilled.

  1. Simple random sampling-based probe station selection for fault detection in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rimao; Qiu, Xuesong; Rui, Lanlan

    2011-01-01

    Fault detection for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) has been studied intensively in recent years. Most existing works statically choose the manager nodes as probe stations and probe the network at a fixed frequency. This straightforward solution leads however to several deficiencies. Firstly, by only assigning the fault detection task to the manager node the whole network is out of balance, and this quickly overloads the already heavily burdened manager node, which in turn ultimately shortens the lifetime of the whole network. Secondly, probing with a fixed frequency often generates too much useless network traffic, which results in a waste of the limited network energy. Thirdly, the traditional algorithm for choosing a probing node is too complicated to be used in energy-critical wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we study the distribution characters of the fault nodes in wireless sensor networks, validate the Pareto principle that a small number of clusters contain most of the faults. We then present a Simple Random Sampling-based algorithm to dynamic choose sensor nodes as probe stations. A dynamic adjusting rule for probing frequency is also proposed to reduce the number of useless probing packets. The simulation experiments demonstrate that the algorithm and adjusting rule we present can effectively prolong the lifetime of a wireless sensor network without decreasing the fault detected rate.

  2. Towards a network of Urban Forest Eddy Covariance stations: a unique case study in Naples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidolotti, Gabriele; Pallozzi, Emanuele; Esposito, Raffaela; Mattioni, Michele; Calfapietra, Carlo

    2015-04-01

    Urban forests are by definition integrated in highly human-made areas, and interact with different components of our cities. Thanks to those interactions, urban forests provide to people and to the urban environment a number of ecosystem services, including the absorption of CO2 and air pollutants thus influencing the local air quality. Moreover, in urban areas a relevant role is played by the photochemical pollution which is strongly influenced by the interactions between volatile organic compounds (VOC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). In several cities, a high percentage of VOC is of biogenic origin mainly emitted from the urban trees. Despite their importance, experimental sites monitoring fluxes of trace gases fluxes in urban forest ecosystems are still scarce. Here we show the preliminary results of an innovative experimental site located in the Royal Park of Capodimonte within the city of Naples (40°51'N-14°15'E, 130 m above sea level). The site is mainly characterised by Quercus ilex with some patches of Pinus pinea and equipped with an eddy-covariance tower measuring the exchange of CO2, H2O, N2O, CH4, O3, PM, VOCs and NOx using state-of-the art instrumentations; it is running since the end of 2014 and it is part of the large infrastructural I-AMICA project. We suggest that the experience gained with research networks such as Fluxnet and ICOS should be duplicated for urban forests. This is crucial for carbon as there is now the ambition to include urban forests in the carbon stocks accounting system. This is even more important to understand the difficult interactions between anthropogenic and biogenic sources that often have negative implications for urban air quality. Urban environment can thus become an extraordinary case study and a network of such kind of stations might represent an important strategy both from the scientific and the applicative point of view.

  3. Wireless sensor networks for structural health monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Jiannong

    2016-01-01

    This brief covers the emerging area of wireless sensor network (WSN)-based structural health monitoring (SHM) systems, and introduces the authors’ WSN-based platform called SenetSHM. It helps the reader differentiate specific requirements of SHM applications from other traditional WSN applications, and demonstrates how these requirements are addressed by using a series of systematic approaches. The brief serves as a practical guide, explaining both the state-of-the-art technologies in domain-specific applications of WSNs, as well as the methodologies used to address the specific requirements for a WSN application. In particular, the brief offers instruction for problem formulation and problem solving based on the authors’ own experiences implementing SenetSHM. Seven concise chapters cover the development of hardware and software design of SenetSHM, as well as in-field experiments conducted while testing the platform. The brief’s exploration of the SenetSHM platform is a valuable feature for civil engine...

  4. Modeling Wireless Sensor Networks for Monitoring in Biological Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadimi, Esmaeil

    parameters, as the use of wired sensors is impractical. In this thesis, a ZigBee based wireless sensor network was employed and only a part of the herd was monitored, as monitoring each individual animal in a large herd under practical conditions is inefficient. Investigations to show that the monitored...

  5. Study on the three-station typical network deployments of workspace Measurement and Positioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zhi; Zhu, J. G.; Xue, B.; Ye, Sh. H.; Xiong, Y.

    2013-10-01

    As a novel network coordinate measurement system based on multi-directional positioning, workspace Measurement and Positioning System (wMPS) has outstanding advantages of good parallelism, wide measurement range and high measurement accuracy, which makes it to be the research hotspots and important development direction in the field of large-scale measurement. Since station deployment has a significant impact on the measurement range and accuracy, and also restricts the use-cost, the optimization method of station deployment was researched in this paper. Firstly, positioning error model was established. Then focusing on the small network consisted of three stations, the typical deployments and error distribution characteristics were studied. Finally, through measuring the simulated fuselage using typical deployments at the industrial spot and comparing the results with Laser Tracker, some conclusions are obtained. The comparison results show that under existing prototype conditions, I_3 typical deployment of which three stations are distributed in a straight line has an average error of 0.30 mm and the maximum error is 0.50 mm in the range of 12 m. Meanwhile, C_3 typical deployment of which three stations are uniformly distributed in the half-circumference of an circle has an average error of 0.17 mm and the maximum error is 0.28 mm. Obviously, C_3 typical deployment has a higher control effect on precision than I_3 type. The research work provides effective theoretical support for global measurement network optimization in the future work.

  6. Relationship between total Non-Methane Hydrocarbons (NMHC) and Speciated NMHCs by Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Station (PAMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S.; Ou Yang, C.; Chang, J.; Wang, J.

    2012-12-01

    Total NMHC observations were made in some of the EPA air quality stations (AQS) across Taiwan, along with measurements of ozone, CO, NOx, SO2 and PM10. This network is also complimented by another eight-station network, called photochemical assessment monitoring stations (PAMS), to provide hourly observations of 56 individual volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In this study, the relationship of the total NMHC and PAMS NMHC observations for the period of 2007-2011 at four sites were cross-examined. It was found that both the hourly mixing ratios and variations of the summed PAMS NMHC values were in excellent agreement with the total NMHC data, with the summed PAMS NMHC observations accounted for at least 80% of the total NMHC observations. However, when looking into the VOC emission database, the PAMS NMHC emissions only contributed 58% of the total NMHC emissions. This then leads to about 30% difference in the traditionally observed NMHCs and estimated emissions. The three-dimensional Eulerian air quality model (PAMS-AQM) was used to simulate both the total NMHC and individual PAMS NMHCs, which showed that the sum of the simulated PAMS NMHCs agreed well with the observed PAMS values. However, the modeled total VOC values were significantly higher than the observed total NMHC values, and such findings were consistent among all four stations. This and the above findings combine to suggest that the customarily labeled "total NMHC" reported by almost all air quality stations are underestimates by about 30%. This underestimate is rather uncertain for two reasons: One, both total NMHC and PAMS speciated NMHC measurements underestimate VOC levels in ambient air. Since both types of measurements use the same method of flame ionization detection, it is less sensitive to oxygen containing VOCs (OVOCs), e.g., aldehydes, esters, ketones, ether, acids, etc. than other VOCs. In contrast, the PAMS measurements only target 56 PAMS NMHCs although more directly, and OVOCs also are

  7. Predicting origins of passerines migrating through Canadian migration monitoring stations using stable-hydrogen isotope analyses of feathers: a new tool for bird conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith A. Hobson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Canadian Migration Monitoring Network (CMMN consists of standardized observation and migration count stations located largely along Canada's southern border. A major purpose of CMMN is to detect population trends of migratory passerines that breed primarily in the boreal forest and are otherwise poorly monitored by the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS. A primary limitation of this approach to monitoring is that it is currently not clear which geographic regions of the boreal forest are represented by the trends generated for each bird species at each station or group of stations. Such information on "catchment areas" for CMMN will greatly enhance their value in contributing to understanding causes of population trends, as well as facilitating joint trend analysis for stations with similar catchments. It is now well established that naturally occurring concentrations of deuterium in feathers grown in North America can provide information on their approximate geographic origins, especially latitude. We used stable hydrogen isotope analyses of feathers (δ²Hf from 15 species intercepted at 22 CMMN stations to assign approximate origins to populations moving through stations or groups of stations. We further constrained the potential catchment areas using prior information on potential longitudinal origins based upon bird migration trajectories predicted from band recovery data and known breeding distributions. We detected several cases of differences in catchment area of species passing through sites, and between seasons within species. We discuss the importance of our findings, and future directions for using this approach to assist conservation of migratory birds at continental scales.

  8. Application of Terrestrial Ecosystem Monitoring under the CAFF Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program: Designing and Implementing Terrestrial Monitoring to Establish the Canadian High Arctic Research Station as a Flagship Arctic Environmental Monitoring Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, D.; Kehler, D.

    2016-12-01

    The Canadian High Arctic Research Station (CHARS) is scheduled for completion in July 2017 and is the northern science component of Polar Knowledge Canada (POLAR). A mandated goal for POLAR is to establish the adjacent Experimental and Reference Area (ERA) as an Arctic Flagship monitoring site that will track change in Arctic terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems. Situated in the community of Cambridge Bay, CHARS provides the opportunity to draw on the Indigenous Knowledge of local residents to help design and conduct the monitoring, and to operate 12 months a year. Monitoring at CHARS will be linked to networks nationally and internationally, and is being designed so that change in key indicators can be understood in terms of drivers and processes, modeled and scaled up regionally, and used to predict important changes in critical indicators. As a partner in the Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program (CBMP), the monitoring design for terrestrial ecosystems follows approaches outlined by the CBMP Terrestrial Expert Monitoring Group, who have listed key monitoring questions and identified a list of important Focal Ecosystem Components (FECs). To link drivers to FECs we are proposing a multi-scaled approach: 1) an Intensive Monitoring Area to establish replicated monitoring plots that track change in snow depth and condition, active layer depth, soil temperature, soil moisture, and soil solution chemistry that are spatially and temporally linked to changes in microbiological activity, CO2/CH4 net ecosystem flux, vegetation relative frequency, species composition, growth and foliar nutrient concentration, arthropod abundance, lemming abundance and health, and shorebird/songbird abundance and productivity. 2) These intensive observations are supported by watershed scale measures that will monitor, during the growing season, lemming winter nest abundance, songbird, shorebird and waterfowl staging and nesting, and other observations; in the winter we will

  9. Building Capacity for Earthquake Monitoring: Linking Regional Networks with the Global Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemann, R. J.; Lerner-Lam, A.

    2006-12-01

    Installing or upgrading a seismic monitoring network is often among the mitigation efforts after earthquake disasters, and this is happening in response to the events both in Sumatra during December 2004 and in Pakistan during October 2005. These networks can yield improved hazard assessment, more resilient buildings where they are most needed, and emergency relief directed more quickly to the worst hit areas after the next large earthquake. Several commercial organizations are well prepared for the fleeting opportunity to provide the instruments that comprise a seismic network, including sensors, data loggers, telemetry stations, and the computers and software required for the network center. But seismic monitoring requires more than hardware and software, no matter how advanced. A well-trained staff is required to select appropriate and mutually compatible components, install and maintain telemetered stations, manage and archive data, and perform the analyses that actually yield the intended benefits. Monitoring is more effective when network operators cooperate with a larger community through free and open exchange of data, sharing information about working practices, and international collaboration in research. As an academic consortium, a facility operator and a founding member of the International Federation of Digital Seismographic Networks, IRIS has access to a broad range of expertise with the skills that are required to help design, install, and operate a seismic network and earthquake analysis center, and stimulate the core training for the professional teams required to establish and maintain these facilities. But delivering expertise quickly when and where it is unexpectedly in demand requires advance planning and coordination in order to respond to the needs of organizations that are building a seismic network, either with tight time constraints imposed by the budget cycles of aid agencies following a disastrous earthquake, or as part of more informed

  10. The monitoring network for radioactivity in air in Norway. Annual report 2000; Nettverket for overvaaking av radioaktivitet i luft i Norge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Thor Chr.

    2002-06-01

    On the instruction of the Radiation Monitoring Authority (SSV), NILU has assumed responsibility for the operation of a monitoring network for radioactivity. This report describes this network. None of the 29 stations of the network detected radiation in 2000 that cannot be attributed to the natural variation of the radiation levels or to normal technical irregularities. However, much of the equipment was acquired in the years following the Chernobyl accident of 1986 and is in need of replacement.

  11. DISPLACEMENT TIME SERIS AT FIDUCIAL STATIONS OBTAINED FROM GPS OBSERVATIONS IN CRUSTALMOVEMENT OBSEREVATION NETWORK OF CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GuGuohua; ZhangJing

    2003-01-01

    A preliminary analysis of the time series of displacements at fiducial stations obtained from continuous GPS observations during the period of Sept. 1998 to Oct. 2001 in the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China (CMONOC) is made. The selection of datum for producing displacement time series suitable for earthquake prediction is discussed. Time series of horizontal crustal displacements are obtained by using a datum of a stable group of 9 stations with very small relative horizontal displacements in eastern China as reference. Time series of vertical crustal displacements are obtained by using a stable group of 7 stations scattered in different regions with relatively small relative vertical displacements as reference. During the period of 2000 to 2001, anomalous horizontal and vertical displacements occurred twice at the fiducial stations in western China. These anomalies may be related to seismic activities of magnitudes about 6 in the Yunnan region on the North-South seismic belt.

  12. Green Cellular - Optimizing the Cellular Network for Minimal Emission from Mobile Stations

    CERN Document Server

    Ezri, Doron

    2009-01-01

    Wireless systems, which include cellular phones, have become an essential part of the modern life. However the mounting evidence that cellular radiation might adversely affect the health of its users, leads to a growing concern among authorities and the general public. Radiating antennas in the proximity of the user, such as antennas of mobile phones are of special interest for this matter. In this paper we suggest a new architecture for wireless networks, aiming at minimal emission from mobile stations, without any additional radiation sources. The new architecture, dubbed Green Cellular, abandons the classical transceiver base station design and suggests the augmentation of transceiver base stations with receive only devices. These devices, dubbed Green Antennas, are not aiming at coverage extension but rather at minimizing the emission from mobile stations. We discuss the implications of the Green Cellular architecture on 3G and 4G cellular technologies. We conclude by showing that employing the Green Cell...

  13. National Air Quality Monitoring Network. Technical description

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elskamp HJ

    1989-01-01

    In dit rapport wordt een uitgebreide technische beschrijving van het Landelijk Meetnet Luchtkwaliteit gegeven. Het betreft behuizing, monitoren en computerapparatuur. Geografische locatie en de omgevingskarakteristiek van de stations van het meetnet, zowel in landelijke als in stadsomgeving word

  14. Spatiotemporal Variability in Potential Evapotranspiration across an Urban Monitoring Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, G. R.; Long, M. R.; Fipps, G.; Swanson, C.; Traore, S.

    2015-12-01

    Evapotranspiration in urban and peri-urban environments is difficult to measure and predict. Barriers to accurate assessment include: the wide range of microclimates caused by urban canyons, heat islands, and park cooling; limited instrument fetch; and the patchwork of native soils, engineered soils, and hardscape. These issues combine to make an accurate assessment of the urban water balance difficult, as evapotranspiration calculations require accurate meteorological data. This study examines nearly three years of data collected by a network of 18 weather stations in Dallas, Texas, designed to measure potential evapotranspiration (ETo) in support of the WaterMyYard conservation program (http://WaterMyYard.org). Variability amongst stations peaked during the summer irrigation months, with a maximum standard deviation of 0.3 mm/hr and 4 mm/d. However, we found a significant degree of information overlap in the network. Most stations had a high correlation (>0.75) with at least one other station in the network, and many had a high correlation with at least 10 others. Correlation strength between station ETo measurements did not necessarily decrease with Euclidean distance, as expected, but was more closely related to differences in station elevation and longitude. Stations that had low correlations with others in the network typically had siting and fetch issues. ETo showed a strong temporal persistence; average station autocorrelation was 0.79 at a 1-hour lag and 0.70 at a 24-hour lag. To supplement the larger-scale network data, we deployed a mobile, vehicle-mounted weather station to quantify deviations present in the atmospheric drivers of evapotranspiration: temperature, humidity, wind, and solar radiation. Data were collected at mid-day during the irrigation season. We found differences in mobile and station ETo predictions up to 0.2 mm/hr, primarily driven by wind speed variations. These results suggest that ETo variation at the neighborhood to municipality

  15. First Ingv Cnt GPS Permanent Stations for Monitoring Crustal Deformation in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvani, A.; Anzidei, M.; Casula, G.; Pietrantonio, G.; Riguzzi, F.; Serpelloni, E.

    2004-12-01

    The National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology in 1999 started to set up a first set of new continuosly operating GPS stations. The aims are to detect the geodinamic pattern at regional scale in the mediterranean area and densify the existing CGPS network belonging to ASI and to support the not permanent networks. Six stations (MAOO INGP RSTO INGR VVLO MTTM) are located in central appennine belt and one (GIBI) in northern Sicily. Geodetic pillars are located in the outcropping geological units and across tha main seismogenic sources of historical and recent eathquakes. Different monuments was planned, depending on local lithology, with 3D self centering system for precise antenna set up designed at INGV Daily 24 hours DAT and RINEX data at 30 sec sampling rate are locally collected by Trimble Reference Station (www.trimble.com) and transferred by telephone line to a server located at INGV. Data are stored in specific directory and compressed by Hatanaka procedures. Data transfer, storage and compression are controlled by automated tasks implemented on Windows operative system. Data are daily quality checked by TEQC software (UNAVCO) and processed with Bernese 4.0 software, producing daily and weekly coordinate solution in sinex format and velocity and strain field solution in sinex format.

  16. REDUCING THE BOOSTER STATIONS ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY WAY OF ELIMINATING OVERPRESSURE IN THE WATER SUPPLY NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Zdor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy efficiency improvement of the city housing-and-utilities infrastructure and watersupply and water-disposal systems poses an occurrent problem. The water-supply systems energy consumption sizable share falls on the pump plants. The article deals with the issues of the operating regime management of the existing booster stations equipped with a group of pumping units regulated with frequency converters. One of the optimization directions of their energy consumption is the reduction of over-pressure in the water-distribution network and its sustentation within the regulatory values. The authors offer the structure and methodology of the data collection-and-analysis automated system utilization for revealing and eliminating the overpressure in the water-supply network. This system is designed for the group management of booster-stations operating regimes on the ground of data obtained from the pressure controlling devices at the consumers. The data exchange in the system is realized via GSM.The paper presents results of the tests carried out at the booster stations in some major cities of the Republic of Belarus. The authors analyze dependence of overpressure in the network on the methods of the plant output pressure sustentation (daily graph or constant pressure. The authors study the elimination effect of over-pressure in the water distribution network on changing the booster station pumping units operation regimes. The study shows that eliminating over pressure in the water distributing network leads to lowering the booster station pressure. This in its turn decreases its energy consumption by 15–20 % depending on the over pressure fixed level.

  17. Improving the monitoring of quantitative conditions of peacetime fuel stocks at pumping stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slaviša M. Ilić

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper has solved the problem of optimizing the existing inefficient and irrational system of the quantitative monitoring of the situation in peacetime fuel supplies at the pumping stations in the Army of Serbia. A study of existing organizational forms, military pumping stations as well as civilian ones, was carried out. Based on the completion of the survey by competent persons in the military, the methods of expert evaluation and the obtained quantitative indicator of the tested models, a multicriteria optimization was performed in order to select the optimal model. The optimization of the existing models, in terms of efficiency and economy, would be the rationalization and modernization - automation of military capacity and greater reliance on automated civilian pumping stations. Introduction Within the framework of the undergoing reform of the Serbian Army and in order to reduce the total costs, it is necessary to optimize the existing supply system that is technologically outdated, inefficient and uneconomic. The problem of research in this paper is reduced to the selection of an optimal model of the quantitative monitoring of the state of peacetime stocks of fuel at the pumping stations in the Serbian Army, in order to ensure economical operation and efficient monitoring of available and issued quantities, aiming at better decision making and management in the supply system as well as at achieving faster system response, with greater reliance on government logistics. Organization of work and monitoring the fuel quantitative status at pumping stations The existing system of monitoring the quantitative state of fuel pumping stations in the Army of Serbia has the following disadvantages: getting unreliable data, due to outdated equipment for fuel handling and measuring equipment, and manual collection of data; creation of unauthorized shortages (due to subjective human error or deception; inadequate engagement of respective material and

  18. ANITA Air Monitoring on the International Space Station: Results Compared to Other Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honne, A.; Schumann-Olsen, H.; Kaspersen, K.; Limero, T.; Macatangay, A.; Mosebach, H.; Kampf, D.; Mudgett, P. D.; James, J. T.; Tan, G.; hide

    2009-01-01

    ANITA (Analysing Interferometer for Ambient Air) is a flight experiment precursor for a permanent continuous air quality monitoring system on the ISS (International Space Station). For the safety of the crew, ANITA can detect and quantify quasi-online and simultaneously 33 gas compounds in the air with ppm or sub-ppm detection limits. The autonomous measurement system is based on FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy). The system represents a versatile air quality monitor, allowing for the first time the detection and monitoring of trace gas dynamics in a spacecraft atmosphere. ANITA operated on the ISS from September 2007 to August 2008. This paper summarizes the results of ANITA s air analyses with emphasis on comparisons to other measurements. The main basis of comparison is NASA s set of grab samples taken onboard the ISS and analysed on ground applying various GC-based (Gas Chromatography) systems.

  19. Intelligent local network stations as an alternative to grid extension; Intelligente Ortsnetzstationen als Alternative zum Netzausbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofstaetter, Frank [Schneider Electric Energy GmbH, Kassel (Germany); Weber, Thomas [Schneider Electric Energy GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Bereich Netzplanung; Rabanus, Sebastian [Schneider Electric Energy GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Bereich Energy Automation

    2012-04-15

    When the term 'Smart Grid' was a synonymous with impractical visions of the future for a long time, increasingly operating materials and concepts are presented taking account of the current development of power supply networks. In addition to the increasingly powerful renewable producers the development of a variable distribution transformer for local network stations is a central resource for future network developments. These distribution transformers allow a remote control of a medium voltage switchgear and adjusting the voltage levels within defined limits.

  20. High frequent total station measurements for the monitoring of bridge vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienhart, Werner; Ehrhart, Matthias; Grick, Magdalena

    2017-03-01

    Robotic total stations (RTS) are frequently used for the measurement of temperature induced bridge deformations or during load testing of bridges. In experimental setups, total stations have also been used for the measurement of dynamic bridge deformations. However, with standard configurations the measurement rate is not constant and on average an update rate of 7-10Hz can be achieved. This is not sufficient for the vibration monitoring of bridges considering their natural frequencies which are also in the same range. In this paper, we present different approaches to overcome these problems. In the first two approaches we demonstrate how the measurement rate to prisms can be increased to 20Hz to determine vertical deformations of bridges. Critical aspects like the measurement resolution of the automated target tracking and the correct sequence of steering commands are discussed. In another approach we demonstrate how vertical bridge vibrations can be measured using an image assisted total station (IATS) and corresponding processing techniques. The advantage of image-based methods is that structural features of a bridge like bolts can be used as targets. Therefore, no expensive prisms have to be mounted and access to the bridge is not required. All approaches are verified by laboratory investigations and their suitability is proven in a field experiment on a 74m long footbridge. In this field experiment the natural frequencies derived from the total station measurements are compared to the results of accelerometer measurements.

  1. Spatio-Temporal Clustering of Monitoring Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, I.; Pilz, J.

    2009-04-01

    Pakistan has much diversity in seasonal variation of different locations. Some areas are in desserts and remain very hot and waterless, for example coastal areas are situated along the Arabian Sea and have very warm season and a little rainfall. Some areas are covered with mountains, have very low temperature and heavy rainfall; for instance Karakoram ranges. The most important variables that have an impact on the climate are temperature, precipitation, humidity, wind speed and elevation. Furthermore, it is hard to find homogeneous regions in Pakistan with respect to climate variation. Identification of homogeneous regions in Pakistan can be useful in many aspects. It can be helpful for prediction of the climate in the sub-regions and for optimizing the number of monitoring sites. In the earlier literature no one tried to identify homogeneous regions of Pakistan with respect to climate variation. There are only a few papers about spatio-temporal clustering of monitoring network. Steinhaus (1956) presented the well-known K-means clustering method. It can identify a predefined number of clusters by iteratively assigning centriods to clusters based. Castro et al. (1997) developed a genetic heuristic algorithm to solve medoids based clustering. Their method is based on genetic recombination upon random assorting recombination. The suggested method is appropriate for clustering the attributes which have genetic characteristics. Sap and Awan (2005) presented a robust weighted kernel K-means algorithm incorporating spatial constraints for clustering climate data. The proposed algorithm can effectively handle noise, outliers and auto-correlation in the spatial data, for effective and efficient data analysis by exploring patterns and structures in the data. Soltani and Modarres (2006) used hierarchical and divisive cluster analysis to categorize patterns of rainfall in Iran. They only considered rainfall at twenty-eight monitoring sites and concluded that eight clusters

  2. Home medical monitoring network based on embedded technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guozhong; Deng, Wenyi; Yan, Bixi; Lv, Naiguang

    2006-11-01

    Remote medical monitoring network for long-term monitoring of physiological variables would be helpful for recovery of patients as people are monitored at more comfortable conditions. Furthermore, long-term monitoring would be beneficial to investigate slowly developing deterioration in wellness status of a subject and provide medical treatment as soon as possible. The home monitor runs on an embedded microcomputer Rabbit3000 and interfaces with different medical monitoring module through serial ports. The network based on asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL) or local area network (LAN) is established and a client - server model, each embedded home medical monitor is client and the monitoring center is the server, is applied to the system design. The client is able to provide its information to the server when client's request of connection to the server is permitted. The monitoring center focuses on the management of the communications, the acquisition of medical data, and the visualization and analysis of the data, etc. Diagnosing model of sleep apnea syndrome is built basing on ECG, heart rate, respiration wave, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, air temperature of mouth cavity or nasal cavity, so sleep status can be analyzed by physiological data acquired as people in sleep. Remote medical monitoring network based on embedded micro Internetworking technology have advantages of lower price, convenience and feasibility, which have been tested by the prototype.

  3. Complex networks, streamflow, and hydrometric monitoring system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halverson, M.; Fleming, S.

    2014-12-01

    Network theory is applied to an array of streamflow gauges located in the Coast Mountains of British Columbia and Yukon, Canada. The goal of the analysis is to assess whether insights from this branch of mathematical graph theory can be meaningfully applied to hydrometric data, and more specifically, whether it may help guide decisions concerning stream gauge placement so that the full complexity of the regional hydrology is efficiently captured. The streamflow data, when represented as a complex network, has a global clustering coefficient and average shortest path length consistent with small-world networks, which are a class of stable and efficient networks common in nature, but the results did not clearly suggest a scale-free network. Stability helps ensure that the network is robust to the loss of nodes; in the context of a streamflow network, stability is interpreted as insensitivity to station removal at random. Community structure is also evident in the streamflow network. A community detection algorithm identified 10 separate communities, each of which appears to be defined by the combination of its median seasonal flow regime (pluvial, nival, hybrid, or glacial, which in this region in turn mainly reflects basin elevation) and geographic proximity to other communities (reflecting shared or different daily meteorological forcing). Betweenness analyses additionally suggest a handful of key stations which serve as bridges between communities and might therefore be highly valued. We propose that an idealized sampling network should sample high-betweenness stations, as well as small-membership communities which are by definition rare or undersampled relative to other communities, while retaining some degree of redundancy to maintain network robustness.

  4. Complex networks, streamflow, and hydrometric monitoring system design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Halverson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Network theory is applied to an array of streamflow gauges located in the Coast Mountains of British Columbia and Yukon, Canada. The goal of the analysis is to assess whether insights from this branch of mathematical graph theory can be meaningfully applied to hydrometric data, and more specifically, whether it may help guide decisions concerning stream gauge placement so that the full complexity of the regional hydrology is efficiently captured. The streamflow data, when represented as a complex network, has a global clustering coefficient and average shortest path length consistent with small-world networks, which are a class of stable and efficient networks common in nature, but the results did not clearly suggest a scale-free network. Stability helps ensure that the network is robust to the loss of nodes; in the context of a streamflow network, stability is interpreted as insensitivity to station removal at random. Community structure is also evident in the streamflow network. A community detection algorithm identified 10 separate communities, each of which appears to be defined by the combination of its median seasonal flow regime (pluvial, nival, hybrid, or glacial, which in this region in turn mainly reflects basin elevation and geographic proximity to other communities (reflecting shared or different daily meteorological forcing. Betweenness analyses additionally suggest a handful of key stations which serve as bridges between communities and might therefore be highly valued. We propose that an idealized sampling network should sample high-betweenness stations, as well as small-membership communities which are by definition rare or undersampled relative to other communities, while retaining some degree of redundancy to maintain network robustness.

  5. Network monitoring of speciated vs. total non-methane hydrocarbon measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng-Po; Liao, Wei-Cheng; Chang, Chih-Chung; Su, Yuan-Chang; Tong, Yu-Huei; Chang, Julius S.; Wang, Jia-Lin

    2014-06-01

    The total non-methane hydrocarbon (TNMHC) level in the atmosphere is defined as the level of total hydrocarbons minus the level of methane. TNMHC observations are made in selected air quality stations (AQS) of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) across Taiwan. The AQS network is also complemented by a network of photochemical assessment monitoring stations (PAMS) to provide hourly observations of 56 speciated non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs). In this study, the relationship between the AQS and PAMS TNMHC values was cross-examined for the period of 2007-2011 at four sites that conducted both types of measurements. Although the two observations differ in their methods of collection, the variations in the two datasets showed high synchronicity. However, because some of the NMHCs were missed in the summation of 56 species, the PAMS TNMHC values were consistently lower than those of the AQS TNMHC by an average of 30%.

  6. Long-Range Geo-Monitoring Using Image Assisted Total Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Andreas; Huber, Ben; Wiedemann, Wolfgang; Paar, Gerhard

    2014-09-01

    Image Assisted Total Stations (IATS) unify geodetic precision of total stations with areal coverage of images. The concept of using two IATS devices for high-resolution, long-range stereo survey of georisk areas has been investigated in the EU-FP7 project DE-MONTES (www.de-montes.eu). The paper presents the used methodology and compares the main features with other terrestrial geodetic geo-monitoring methods. The theoretically achievable accuracy of the measurement systemis derived and verified by ground truth data of a distant clay pit slope and simulated deformations. It is shown that the stereo IATS concept is able to obtain higher precision in the determination of 3D deformations than other systems of comparable sensor establishment effort.

  7. Geo-enviromental monitoring system of the oil storages on petrol stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimenkova Anastasiya Anatol'evna

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In large cities, fuel consumption is growing rapidly, and therefore the number of filling stations. And they are a source of anthropogenic impact on the environment and represent current scientific and practical task, because recently no research was conducted into the optimization of monitoring systems in the construction of gas station storage tanks, and no activity on replacing the obsolete design with new storage tanks. In this regard, much attention should be paid to the creation of geo-environmental systems integrated assessment of the environment, as well as modeling and forecasting various negative situations. In the modern world, the creation of such systems is possible with the help of modern computer tools such as geographic information systems.

  8. Identifying uncertainty of the mean of some water quality variables along water quality monitoring network of Bahr El Baqar drain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein G. Karaman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Assigning objectives to the environmental monitoring network is the pillar of the design to these kinds of networks. Conflicting network objectives may affect the adequacy of the design in terms of sampling frequency and the spatial distribution of the monitoring stations which in turn affect the accuracy of the data and the information extracted. The first step in resolving this problem is to identify the uncertainty inherent in the network as the result of the vagueness of the design objective. Entropy has been utilized and adopted over the past decades to identify uncertainty in similar water data sets. Therefore it is used to identify the uncertainties inherent in the water quality monitoring network of Bahr El-Baqar drain located in the Eastern Delta. Toward investigating the applicability of the Entropy methodology, comprehensive analysis at the selected drain as well as their data sets is carried out. Furthermore, the uncertainty calculated by the entropy function will be presented by the means of the geographical information system to give the decision maker a global view to these uncertainties and to open the door to other researchers to find out innovative approaches to lower these uncertainties reaching optimal monitoring network in terms of the spatial distribution of the monitoring stations.

  9. The Austrian radiation monitoring network ARAD - best practice and added value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olefs, Marc; Baumgartner, Dietmar; Obleitner, Friedrich; Bichler, Christoph; Foelsche, Ulrich; Pietsch, Helga; Rieder, Harald; Weihs, Philipp; Geyer, Florian; Haiden, Thomas; Schöner, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    The Austrian RADiation monitoring network (ARAD) has been established to advance the national climate monitoring and to support satellite retrieval, atmospheric modelling and solar energy techniques development. Measurements cover the downwelling solar and thermal infrared radiation using instruments according to Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) standards. A unique feature of ARAD is its vertical dimension of five stations, covering an air column between about 200 m a.s.l. (Vienna) and 3100 m a.s.l. (BSRN site Sonnblick). The contribution outlines the aims and scopes of ARAD, its measurement and calibration standards, methods, strategies and station locations. ARAD network operation uses innovative data processing for quality assurance and quality control, applying manual and automated control algorithms. A combined uncertainty estimate for the broadband shortwave radiation fluxes at all five ARAD stations indicates that accuracies range from 1.5 to 23 %. If a directional response error of the pyranometers and the temperature response of the instruments and the data acquisition system (DAQ) is corrected, this expanded uncertainty reduces to 1.4 to 5.2 %. Thus, for large signals (global: 1000 W m-2, diffuse: 500 W m-2) BSRN target accuracies are met or closely met for 70 % of valid measurements at the ARAD stations after this correction. For small signals (50 W m-2), the targets are not achieved as a result of uncertainties associated with the DAQ or the instrument sensitivities. Additional accuracy gains can be achieved in future by additional measurements and corrections. However, for the measurement of direct solar radiation improved instrument accuracy is needed. ARAD could serve as a powerful example for establishing state-of-the-art radiation monitoring at the national level with a multiple-purpose approach. Instrumentation, guidelines and tools (such as the data quality control) developed within ARAD are best practices which could be adopted in other

  10. APPLICATION OF ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS FOR PREDICTION OF AIR POLLUTION LEVELS IN ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Pawul

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a lot of attention was paid to the improvement of methods which are used to air quality forecasting. Artificial neural networks can be applied to model these problems. Their advantage is that they can solve the problem in the conditions of incomplete information, without the knowledge of the analytical relationship between the input and output data. In this paper we applied artificial neural networks to predict the PM 10 concentrations as factors determining the occurrence of smog phenomena. To create these networks we used meteorological data and concentrations of PM 10. The data were recorded in 2014 and 2015 at three measuring stations operating in Krakow under the State Environmental Monitoring. The best results were obtained by three-layer perceptron with back-propagation algorithm. The neural networks received a good fit in all cases.

  11. Delay/Disruption Tolerant Networking for the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, Adam; Willman, Brett M.; Pitts, Lee; Davidson, Suzanne R.; Pohlchuck, William A.

    2017-01-01

    Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN) is an emerging data networking technology designed to abstract the hardware communication layer from the spacecraft/payload computing resources. DTN is specifically designed to operate in environments where link delays and disruptions are common (e.g., space-based networks). The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has demonstrated DTN on several missions, such as the Deep Impact Networking (DINET) experiment, the Earth Observing Mission 1 (EO-1) and the Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration (LLCD). To further the maturation of DTN, NASA is implementing DTN protocols on the International Space Station (ISS). This paper explains the architecture of the ISS DTN network, the operational support for the system, the results from integrated ground testing, and the future work for DTN expansion.

  12. Monitoring of Coliforms and chlorine residual in water distribution network of Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Shaukat; Hashmi, Imran; Qazi, Ishtiaq A; Qaiser, Sara; Rasheed, Sajida

    2008-05-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine the drinking water quality of Rawal Treatment Plant, Rawalpindi and its distribution network by collecting samples from eight different locations. The aim was to determine potential relationship between the presence of microorganisms and chlorine residual in the distribution network. Quantification of chlorine residual, turbidity, standard plate count (SPC), fecal and total coliforms by Most Probable Number (MPN) was performed. Three different forms of chlorine were measured at each sampling station such as free chlorine, residual chlorine, chloramines and total chlorine residual. A critical evaluation of data presented indicated that pH generally ranged from 7.02-7.30; turbidity varied from 0.34-2.79 NTU; conductivity fluctuated from 359-374 microS/cm; and TDS values were found to be ranging between 180-187 mg/l. Station # 7 was found to be most contaminated. The value of total chlorine was found to be 0.86 to1.7 mg/l at Station # 3 and 6, respectively. Highest standard plate count was 62 CFU/ml at Station # 7. Total coliforms were less than 1.1 MPN/100 ml at almost most of the stations except at Station # 3 where it was found to be greater than 23.0 MPN /100 ml. Overall aim of this study is to create awareness about contamination of drinking water in the water distribution networks and to make recommendations to provincial agencies such as EPA, CDA and WASA that regular monitoring should be carried out to ensure that the chlorine residual is available at consumer end.

  13. Hogthrob: Towards a Sensor Network Infrastructure for Sow Monitoring (wireless sensor network special day)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnet, Philippe; Leopold, Martin; Madsen, K

    2006-01-01

    We aim at developing a next-generation system for sow monitoring. Today, farmers use RFID based solutions with an ear tag on the sows and a reader located inside the feeding station. This does not allow the farmers to locate a sow in a large pen, or to monitor the life cycle of the sow (detect heat...

  14. Optimizing streamflow monitoring networks using joint permutation entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stosic, Tatijana; Stosic, Borko; Singh, Vijay P.

    2017-09-01

    Using joint permutation entropy we address the issue of minimizing the cost of monitoring, while minimizing redundancy of the information content, of daily streamflow data recorded during the period 1989-2016 at twelve gauging stations on Brazos River, Texas, USA. While the conventional entropy measures take into account only the probability of occurrence of a given set of events, permutation entropy also takes into account local ordering of the sequential values, thus enriching the analysis. We find that the best cost efficiency is achieved by performing weekly measurements, in comparison with which daily measurements exhibit information redundancy, and monthly measurements imply information loss. We also find that the cumulative information redundancy of the twelve considered stations is over 10% for the observed period, and that the number of monitoring stations can be reduced by half bringing the cumulative redundancy level to less than 1%.

  15. Perancangan Network Monitoring Tools Menggunakan Autonomous Agent Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khurniawan Eko S

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Tugas pengelolaan jaringan yang dilakukan administrator jaringan diantaranya yaitu pengumpulan informasi resource jaringan yang tersedia. Teknologi SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol memberikan fleksibilitas bagi administrator jaringan dalam mengatur network secara keseluruhan dari satu lokasi. Aplikasi Network Monitoring Tools berbasis Agent JAVA terdiri dari Master agent yang bertugas untuk melakukan management Request agent serta akses database. Request agent yang bertugas untuk melakukan pemantauan server yang mengimplementasi library SNMP4j dengan sistem multi-agent. Disisi interface, aplikasi Network Monitoring Tools menggunakan media web sebagai interface administrator sehingga dapat digunakan darimana saja  dan kapan saja.  Hasil dari penelitian ini memperlihatkan bahwa aplikasi yang dibuat bekerja sebagai Network Monitoring Tools mampu bekerja dengan persen error pada kisaran 0-18%. Selain itu Aplikasi ini menghasilkan tren pembacaan data server lebih stabil dan cepat dibandingkan dengan aplikasi Cacti. Hal ini didukung oleh kemampuan Request Agent yang mampu merespon tingkat beban kerja server yang di pantau.

  16. Distributed and Redundant Design of Ship Monitoring and Control Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Jun-dong; SUI; Jiang-hua

    2002-01-01

    The world trend in ship automation is to integrate the monitoring, intelligent control and systematic management of the instruments and equipments both on bridge and in engine room. The paper presents a design scheme of the ship integrated monitoring and operating system based on two layers distributed and redundant computer network. The lower layer network is the field bus network connected mainly by CAN bus; the upper one is the PC local network in TCP/IP protocol, which consisted of a database server, monitoring and operating computers, industrial computers and a set of switches. Distributed schemes are fully applied to both software and hardware. This paper specifically describes the composition, software distribution and redundant technology of the upper local network and gives some important sample codes for the implement of the redundant and distributed design. The technologies here have been proved in the many applications and it may be applied to other industrial fields.

  17. Enhanced Multi-Objective Optimization of Groundwater Monitoring Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bode, Felix; Binning, Philip John; Nowak, Wolfgang

    Drinking-water well catchments include many sources for potential contaminations like gas stations or agriculture. Finding optimal positions of monitoring wells for such purposes is challenging because there are various parameters (and their uncertainties) that influence the reliability and optim...

  18. Simultaneous monitoring of total gaseous mercury at four urban monitoring stations in Seoul, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Yoon, Hye-On; Brown, Richard J. C.; Jeon, Eui-Chan; Sohn, Jong-Ryeul; Jung, Kweon; Park, Chan-Goo; Kim, Ik-Soo

    2013-10-01

    The monitoring of total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentrations together with other trace gases and meteorological parameters was made at hourly intervals over 2-year period (1 January 2010 to 31 December 2011) at four urban monitoring sites: Guro-gu (G), Nowon-gu (N), Songpa-gu (S), and Yongsan-gu (Y) in Seoul, Korea. The mean concentrations of TGM at these sites were found to span the range of 3.28 (Y) to 3.47 ng m- 3 (N). Inspection of the seasonal patterns indicates that the maximum concentrations (ng m- 3) occur at different times of year across the four sites: winter at N (3.67 ± 1.77), fall at S (3.64 ± 1.12), summer at G (3.61 ± 1.51), and spring at Y (3.40 ± 1.26). The long-term trend in Hg concentrations, when also considering data sets from previous studies, suggests modest reductions in concentrations at all four sites, from 2.89 to 4.49 ng m- 3 in 2004 and from 2.49 to 3.42 ng m- 3 in 2011.

  19. Vapor Online Monitor Model of Vapor Power Station Based on UML

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    We presents a vapor online monitor system model of vapor power station developed by visual tool rational rose2000. Use cases such as on line instrument (onlineinstr), control, query, report, real database (realdb) and alarm are generated according to the system requirements. Use case view and class view of the system are formed at the same time. As for all the UML models of the system, this paper focuses the discussion on the class view, the component diagram of the control class and the sequence diagram of the query class. Corresponding C++ codes are produced and finally transferred into the spot running software.

  20. UV climatology at Palmer Station, Antarctica, based on Version 2 NSF network data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, Germar; Booth, Charles R.; Ehramjian, James C.

    2005-08-01

    Spectral ultraviolet (UV) and visible irradiance has been measured at Palmer Station, Antarctica, between 1988 and 2004 with a SUV-100 spectroradiometer. The instrument is part of the U.S. National Science Foundation's UV Monitoring Network. Here we present a UV climatology for Palmer Station based on the recently produced "Version 2" data edition. This data set will supersede the original release "Version 0". Corrections applied to the new version increased biologically effective UV dose rates by 0-9%. Values of UV-A irradiance changed by -8% to +10%. A comparison with results of a radiative transfer model confirmed that measurements of different years are consistent to within +/-5%. Total ozone column was calculated from UV spectra and was found to agree with measurements of NASA's Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) installed on the Nimbus-7 satellite to within 1%. TOMS measurements on the Earth Probe satellite are 3% lower than SUV-100 data. Effective surface albedo was estimated from clear sky spectra. Between August and November, albedo typically ranges between 0.6 and 0.95. After melting of snow and sea ice, albedo varies between 0.3 and 0.5. Biologically effective UV radiation is largest in November and December when low total ozone amounts coincide with relatively small solar zenith angles (SZA). During these months, the noon-time UV Index typically varies between 4 and 7, but UV indices as high as 14.8 have been observed. The largest erythemal daily dose of 8.8 kJ/m2 was measured on 11/10/97 and 12/7/98. Linear regression analyses did not indicate statistically significant trends in UV or visible radiation, with the exception of February when small downward trends with statistical significance were observed. On average, clouds reduce UV irradiance at 345 nm between 28% (October and November) and 42% (February) compared to clear sky levels. In extreme cases, reductions by clouds can be as high as 90%. Between September and November, the variability

  1. Fine Registration of Kilo-Station Networks - a Modern Procedure for Terrestrial Laser Scanning Data Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullo, J.-F.

    2016-06-01

    We propose a complete methodology for the fine registration and referencing of kilo-station networks of terrestrial laser scanner data currently used for many valuable purposes such as 3D as-built reconstruction of Building Information Models (BIM) or industrial asbuilt mock-ups. This comprehensive target-based process aims to achieve the global tolerance below a few centimetres across a 3D network including more than 1,000 laser stations spread over 10 floors. This procedure is particularly valuable for 3D networks of indoor congested environments. In situ, the use of terrestrial laser scanners, the layout of the targets and the set-up of a topographic control network should comply with the expert methods specific to surveyors. Using parametric and reduced Gauss-Helmert models, the network is expressed as a set of functional constraints with a related stochastic model. During the post-processing phase inspired by geodesy methods, a robust cost function is minimised. At the scale of such a data set, the complexity of the 3D network is beyond comprehension. The surveyor, even an expert, must be supported, in his analysis, by digital and visual indicators. In addition to the standard indicators used for the adjustment methods, including Baarda's reliability, we introduce spectral analysis tools of graph theory for identifying different types of errors or a lack of robustness of the system as well as in fine documenting the quality of the registration.

  2. Power system monitoring and source control of the Space Station Freedom DC power system testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimnach, Greg L.; Baez, Anastacio N.

    1992-01-01

    Unlike a terrestrial electric utility which can purchase power from a neighboring utility, the Space Station Freedom (SSF) has strictly limited energy resources; as a result, source control, system monitoring, system protection, and load management are essential to the safe and efficient operation of the SSF Electric Power System (EPS). These functions are being evaluated in the DC Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) Testbed which NASA LeRC has developed at the Power System Facility (PSF) located in Cleveland, Ohio. The testbed is an ideal platform to develop, integrate, and verify power system monitoring and control algorithms. State Estimation (SE) is a monitoring tool used extensively in terrestrial electric utilities to ensure safe power system operation. It uses redundant system information to calculate the actual state of the EPS, to isolate faulty sensors, to determine source operating points, to verify faults detected by subsidiary controllers, and to identify high impedance faults. Source control and monitoring safeguard the power generation and storage subsystems and ensure that the power system operates within safe limits while satisfying user demands with minimal interruptions. System monitoring functions, in coordination with hardware implemented schemes, provide for a complete fault protection system. The objective of this paper is to overview the development and integration of the state estimator and the source control algorithms.

  3. Development of a Ground-Based Atmospheric Monitoring Network for the Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sprovieri F.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Consistent, high-quality measurements of atmospheric mercury (Hg are necessary in order to better understand Hg emissions, transport, and deposition on a global scale. Although the number of atmospheric Hg monitoring stations has increased in recent years, the available measurement database is limited and there are many regions of the world where measurements have not been extensively performed. Long-term atmospheric Hg monitoring and additional ground-based monitoring sites are needed in order to generate datasets that will offer new insight and information about the global scale trends of atmospheric Hg emissions and deposition. In the framework of the Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS project, a coordinated global observational network for atmospheric Hg is being established. The overall research strategy of GMOS is to develop a state-of-the-art observation system able to provide information on the concentration of Hg species in ambient air and precipitation on the global scale. This network is being developed by integrating previously established ground-based atmospheric Hg monitoring stations with newly established GMOS sites that are located both at high altitude and sea level locations, as well as in climatically diverse regions. Through the collection of consistent, high-quality atmospheric Hg measurement data, we seek to create a comprehensive assessment of atmospheric Hg concentrations and their dependence on meteorology, long-range atmospheric transport and atmospheric emissions.

  4. Online Monitor Framework for Network Distributed Data Acquisition Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Tomoyuki; Cabrera, Anatael; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Kuze, Masahiro; Sakamoto, Yasunobu; the Double Chooz Collaboration

    Data acquisition (DAQ) systems for recent high energy physics experiments consist of lots of subsystems distributed in the local area network. Therefore, scalability for the number of connections from subsystems and availability of access via the Internet are required. "Online monitor framework" is a general software framework for online data monitoring, which provides a way to collect monitoring information distributed in the network and pass them though the firewalls. The framework consists of two subsystems; "Monitor Sever" and "Monitor Viewer". Monitor Server is a core system of the framework. The server collects monitoring information from the DAQ subsystems to provide them to Monitor Viewer. Monitor Viewer is a graphical user interface of the monitor framework, which displays plots in itself. We adapted two types of technologies; Java and HTML5 with Google Web Toolkit, which are independent of operating systems or plugin-libraries like ROOT and contain some functionalities of communicating via the Internet and drawing graphics. The monitoring framework was developed for the Double Chooz reactor neutrino oscillation experiment but is general enough for other experiments. This document reports the structure of the online monitor framework with some examples from the adaption to the Double Chooz experiment.

  5. Base station selection for energy efficient network operation with the majorization-minimization algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Pollakis, Emmanuel; Stańczak, Slawomir

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study the problem of reducing the energy consumption in a mobile communication network; we select the smallest set of active base stations that can preserve the quality of service (the minimum data rate) required by the users. In more detail, we start by posing this problem as an integer programming problem, the solution of which shows the optimal assignment (in the sense of minimizing the total energy consumption) between base stations and users. In particular, this solution shows which base stations can then be switched off or put in idle mode to save energy. However, solving this problem optimally is intractable in general, so in this study we develop a suboptimal approach that builds upon recent techniques that have been successfully applied to, among other problems, sparse signal reconstruction, portfolio optimization, statistical estimation, and error correction. More precisely, we relax the original integer programming problem as a minimization problem where the objective function is ...

  6. Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs for flood forecasting at Dongola Station in the River Nile, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulafa Hag Elsafi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Heavy seasonal rains cause the River Nile in Sudan to overflow and flood the surroundings areas. The floods destroy houses, crops, roads, and basic infrastructure, resulting in the displacement of people. This study aimed to forecast the River Nile flow at Dongola Station in Sudan using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN as a modeling tool and validated the accuracy of the model against actual flow. The ANN model was formulated to simulate flows at a certain location in the river reach, based on flow at upstream locations. Different procedures were applied to predict flooding by the ANN. Readings from stations along the Blue Nile, White Nile, Main Nile, and River Atbara between 1965 and 2003 were used to predict the likelihood of flooding at Dongola Station. The analysis indicated that the ANN provides a reliable means of detecting the flood hazard in the River Nile.

  7. Helicopter Rotor Blade Monitoring using Autonomous Wireless Sensor Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez Ramirez, Andrea; Loendersloot, Richard; Tinga, Tiedo; Basu, B.

    2013-01-01

    The advancement on Wireless Sensor Networks for vibration monitoring presents important possibilities for helicopter rotor health and usage monitoring. While main rotor blades account for the main source of lift for helicopters, rotor induced vibration establishes an important source for understandi

  8. A Novel Method for Enhancing Network Monitoring in Remote Medical Applications Using Software Defined Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Parsaei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The most important way for providing health in a large population, particularly developing countries, is developing efficient health care services such that everyone can use the services equally and justly. Telemedicine is a new area which uses modern communication technology for exchanging medical information. This communication might be between a patient and a doctor or two medical centers for consultation. Implementation of a Telemedicine system requires creating the necessary infrastructures, among which network monitoring is one of the most important ones. From hundreds to thousands of computers, hubs to switched networks, and Ethernet to either ATM or 10Gbps Ethernet, administrators need more sophisticated network traffic monitoring and analysis tools in order to deal with development. These tools are needed, not only to fix network problems on time, but also to prevent network failure, to detect inside and outside threats, and make good decisions for network planning. In this paper, a comprehensive survey on Telemedicine and network monitoring is performed. Afterward, network monitoring techniques and methods in current networks are discussed. Finally, an efficient architecture based on Software Defined Networks (SDNs in remote surgical applications is presented which significantly improves monitoring of the communication networks. The results showed the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  9. Infrasonic Monitoring Network on the Big Island of Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Weston; Garces, Milton; Cooper, Jennifer; Badger, Nickles; Perttu, Anna; Williams, Brian

    2013-04-01

    The USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) with the participation of the University of Hawaii Infrasound Lab (ISLA) installed three new permanent infrasound arrays on the south half of the Island of Hawaii. Together with three existing permanent arrays maintained by ISLA, the current infrasound network around Kīlauea and Mauna Loa volcanoes is one of the most advanced of any volcano in the world. Open-vent volcanoes such as Kīlauea are particularly good infrasound emitters as lava spattering and unsteady gas release is common. The network was designed with two main goals in mind: 1) to monitor and study the infrasound sources associated with the ongoing Pu`u `Ō`ō and Halema'u'mau eruption, and 2) to detect in near real-time new eruptions at Mauna Loa or Kīlauea volcanoes. Each HVO array consists of 4 sensors, which form an equilateral triangle ~100 m on a side surrounding a central sensor. Three other permanent arrays maintained by ISLA (I59US, MENE, KHLU) have been operational since 2000, 2006, and 2009, respectively, and consist of a combination of Chaparral 25 and 50 sensors. Each infrasound instrument within the HVO arrays is built around an low- cost AllSensor MEMS sensor, which has higher noise characteristics than a Chaparral 25, but similar frequency response. ISLA also operates stations on Maui and Kauai that provide --statewide coverage. Since the full network has been established, we have recorded several infrasound signals including infrasonic tremor from Halema`uma`u, collapses from the craters of Halema`uma`u and Pu`u `Ō`ō, and other natural and anthropogenic infrasound from diverse sources on- island, offshore, and aloft. Future developments will include real-time detection, location, and identification of infrasonic signals for eruption notification. We hope to increase public awareness of volcanic infrasound by posting real-time locations on an interactive display, similar to how seismicity is currently reported. MENE data is presently

  10. Network and Service Monitoring in Heterogeneous Home Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delphinanto, A.

    2012-01-01

    Home networks are becoming dynamic and technologically heterogeneous. They consist of an increasing number of devices which offer several functionalities and can be used for many different services. In the home, these devices are interconnected using a mixture of networking technologies (for

  11. Network and Service Monitoring in Heterogeneous Home Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delphinanto, A.

    2012-01-01

    Home networks are becoming dynamic and technologically heterogeneous. They consist of an increasing number of devices which offer several functionalities and can be used for many different services. In the home, these devices are interconnected using a mixture of networking technologies (for example

  12. Station velocities from a permanent GNSS network in the Eastern Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madzak, Matthias; Mitterschiffthaler, Philipp; Stangl, Günter

    2017-04-01

    The APOS network of permanent GNSS stations consists of more than 80 sites covering the Austrian territory and its surrounding area. A comprehensive analysis of this network is performed and station velocities are derived using the Bernese GNSS Software. Coordinate time series from satellite system offer the possibility to study the geophysical setting in that region. The results indicate a NE-migration of the boundary zone between the Eastern Alps and Pannonian Basin, probably indirectly caused by the Adriatic Microplate as well as a slight northern migration of the Alpine Zone, probably caused directly by the Adriatic Microplate, ending in the Northern Alpine foreland. A minor up movement of the Alpine Zone, possibly caused by post-glacial uplift, and slight sinking in the forelands, potentially caused by water reduction in the ground of sediments, can be identified.

  13. Combined Base Station Association and Power Control in Multi-channel Cellular Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Chandramani; Sundaresan, Rajesh

    2011-01-01

    A combined base station association and power control problem is studied for the uplink of multichannel multicell cellular networks, in which each channel is used by exactly one cell (i.e., base station). A distributed association and power update algorithm is proposed and shown to converge to a Nash equilibrium of a noncooperative game. We consider network models with discrete mobiles (yielding an atomic congestion game), as well as a continuum of mobiles (yielding a population game). We find that the equilibria need not be Pareto efficient, nor need they be system optimal. To address the lack of system optimality, we propose pricing mechanisms. It is shown that these mechanisms can be implemented in a distributed fashion.

  14. A new permanent multi-parameter monitoring network in Central Asian high mountains – from measurements to data bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Schöne

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Long-term monitoring of water resources and climate parameters at the scale of river basins requires networks of continuously operated in-situ stations. Since 2009, GFZ and CAIAG, in cooperation with the National Hydrometeorological Services (NHMS, are establishing such a regional monitoring network in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and Afghanistan which is collecting observations of meteorological and hydrological parameters and delivering them to the end-users. The network design focuses mainly on the higher elevations where the recent decline of monitoring stations and networks established in Soviet times was strongest, and the resulting observational gap hinders research on climate and hydrological change as well as operational tasks in water management such as the seasonal runoff forecast. The newly developed and installed Remotely Operated Multi-Parameter Stations (ROMPS do not only monitor standard meteorological and hydrological parameters, but also deliver GPS data for atmospheric sounding as well as tectonic studies. The observational data from the ROMPS is transmitted at least once a day to a centralized geo-database infrastructure for long-term storage and data redistribution. Users can access the data manually using a web-interface or automatically using SOS requests; in addition, data is distributed to the NHMS through standard communication and data exchange channels.

  15. Applied network security monitoring collection, detection, and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Applied Network Security Monitoring is the essential guide to becoming an NSM analyst from the ground up. This book takes a fundamental approach to NSM, complete with dozens of real-world examples that teach you the key concepts of NSM. Network security monitoring is based on the principle that prevention eventually fails. In the current threat landscape, no matter how much you try, motivated attackers will eventually find their way into your network. At that point, it is your ability to detect and respond to that intrusion that can be the difference between a small incident and a major di

  16. The Technique of Building a Networked Manufacturing Process Monitoring System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Yong; ZHANG Yu; YANG Musheng

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the constitute, structure and the software model of a set of networked manufacturing process monitoring system, using JAVA network technique to realize a set of three layer distributed manufacturing process monitoring system which is comprised with remote manage center, manufacturing process supervision center and the units of measure and control layer such as displacement sensor, the device of temperature measure and alarm etc. The network integration of the production management layer, the process control layer and the hard ware control layer is realized via using this approach. The design using object-oriented technique based on JAVA can easily transport to different operation systems with high performance of the expansibility.

  17. Is a salinity monitoring network "Worth its salt"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinos, Scott T.

    2013-01-01

    Saltwater intrusion threatens the water supplies of many coastal communities. Management of these water supplies requires well-designed and properly maintained and operated salinity monitoring networks. Long-standing deficiencies identified in a salinity monitoring network in southwest Florida during a 2013 study (Prinos, 2013) help to illustrate the types of problems that can occur in aging and poorly maintained networks. This cooperative U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) study also describes improvements that can be implemented to overcome these deficiencies.

  18. Coal mine gas monitoring system based on wireless sensor network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian; WANG Ru-lin; WANG Xue-min; SHEN Chuan-he

    2007-01-01

    Based on the nowadays'condition.it is urgent that the gas detection cable communication system must be replaced by the wireless communication systems.The wireless sensors distributed in the environment can achieve the intelligent gas monitoring system.Apply with multilayer data fuse to design working tactics,and import the artificial neural networks to analyze detecting result.The wireless sensors system communicates with the controI center through the optical fiber cable.All the gas sensor nodes distributed in coal mine are combined into an intelligent,flexible structure wireless network system.forming coal mine gas monitoring system based on wireless sensor network.

  19. 对空气质量实时发布站点的监控研究%Study on Monitoring of Air Quality Real-time Publishing Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴成磊; 黄祖照; 刘叶新; 邝俊侠

    2015-01-01

    Combining with the working practice of real-time publishing of Guangzhou environmental monito-ring central station,it studied on monitoring of publishing station in the aspects of data consistency,abnormal da-ta,data quality,etc.Based on real-time communication technology and cloud technology,the network information platform was established and the work of recognizing anomalies of real-time publishing station and responding without delay was done well.The reliability and effective rate of real-time publishing data were improved and the stability of real-time publishing station was guaranteed.%结合广州市环境监测中心站空气质量实时发布工作的实践,开展对发布站点的监控研究。在数据一致性、异常数据和数据质量等方面对发布站点实施监控,并使用实时通讯技术和云技术,建立网络化信息平台,有效识别发布站点的异常问题并及时响应,提高了实时发布数据的可靠性和有效率,保障了发布站点的稳定运行。

  20. Microseismic Monitoring of Strainburst Activities in Deep Tunnels at the Jinping II Hydropower Station, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, N. W.; Li, T. B.; Dai, F.; Zhang, R.; Tang, C. A.; Tang, L. X.

    2016-03-01

    Rockbursts were frequently encountered during the construction of deep tunnels at the Jinping II hydropower station, Southwest China. Investigations of the possibility of rockbursts during tunnel boring machine (TBM) and drilling and blasting (D&B) advancement are necessary to guide the construction of tunnels and to protect personnel and TBM equipment from strainburst-related accidents. A real-time, movable microseismic monitoring system was installed to forecast strainburst locations ahead of the tunnel faces. The spatiotemporal distribution evolution of microseismic events prior to and during strainbursts was recorded and analysed. The concentration of microseismic events prior to the occurrence of strainbursts was found to be a significant precursor to strainbursts in deep rock tunnelling. During a 2-year microseismic investigation of strainbursts in the deep tunnels at the Jinping II hydropower station, a total of 2240 strainburst location forecasts were issued, with 63 % correctly forecasting the locations of strainbursts. The successful forecasting of strainburst locations proved that microseismic monitoring is essential for the assessment and mitigation of strainburst hazards, and can be used to minimise damage to equipment and personnel. The results of the current study may be valuable for the construction management and safety assessment of similar underground rock structures under high in situ stress.

  1. Metropolitan garbage dumps: possible winter migratory raptor monitoring stations in peninsular India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pande

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Winter raptor migration and movement is poorly documented for peninsular India, mainly due to the lack of geographical bottlenecks. We describe, for the first time, the use of a garbage dump in a metropolitan city as an alternative visual winter raptor monitoring station. The daily count, adult to juvenile ratios and species composition of three migratory raptor species, Steppe Eagle Aquila nipalensis, Black-eared Kite Milvus migrans lineatus and Tawny Eagle Aquila rapax are presented. Ground temperatures at the garbage dump site and surrounding area, and the wing beat rate of migratory raptors before and after arrival in the early morning were measured. A total of 355 raptors migrating over a period of six observation days with 250 adults and 105 juveniles were recorded. The temperature of the garbage dump was significantly higher than the surrounding area, while the wing flapping rate was significantly lower over the garbage dump area. It is possible that migrating raptors use garbage dump thermals in the early morning to save energy with soaring and gliding flight (versus flapping flight. We propose that such sites may be used as visual winter migration monitoring stations in metropolitan cities in peninsular India.

  2. Subsidence monitoring network: an Italian example aimed at a sustainable hydrocarbon E&P activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacome, M. C.; Miandro, R.; Vettorel, M.; Roncari, G.

    2015-11-01

    According to the Italian law in order to start-up any new hydrocarbon exploitation activity, an Environmental Impact Assessment study has to be presented, including a monitoring plan, addressed to foresee, measure and analyze in real time any possible impact of the project on the coastal areas and on those ones in the close inland located. The occurrence of subsidence, that could partly be related to hydrocarbon production, both on-shore and off-shore, can generate great concern in those areas where its occurrence may have impacts on the local environment. ENI, following the international scientific community recommendations on the matter, since the beginning of 90's years, implemented a cutting-edge monitoring network, with the aim to prevent, mitigate and control geodynamics phenomena generated in the activity areas, with a particular attention to conservation and protection of environmental and territorial equilibrium, taking care of what is known as "sustainable development". The current ENI implemented monitoring surveys can be divided as: - Shallow monitoring: spirit levelling surveys, continuous GPS surveys in permanent stations, SAR surveys, assestimeter subsurface compaction monitoring, ground water level monitoring, LiDAR surveys, bathymetrical surveys. - Deep monitoring: reservoir deep compaction trough radioactive markers, reservoir static (bottom hole) pressure monitoring. All the information, gathered through the monitoring network, allow: 1. to verify if the produced subsidence is evolving accordingly with the simulated forecast. 2. to provide data to revise and adjust the prediction compaction models 3. to put in place the remedial actions if the impact exceeds the threshold magnitude originally agreed among the involved parties. ENI monitoring plan to measure and monitor the subsidence process, during field production and also after the field closure, is therefore intended to support a sustainable field development and an acceptable exploitation

  3. The network architecture and site test of DCIS in Lungmen nuclear power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C. K. [Instrument and Control Section, Lungmen Nuclear Power Station, Taiwan Power Company, Taipei County Taiwan (China)

    2006-07-01

    The Lungmen Nuclear Power Station (LMNPS) is located in North-Eastern Seashore of Taiwan. LMNPP has two units. Each unit generates 1350 Megawatts. It is the first ABWR Plant in Taiwan and is under-construction now. Due to contractual arrangement, there are seven large I and C suppliers/designers, which are GE NUMAC, DRS, Invensys, GEIS, Hitachi, MHI, and Stone and Webster company. The Distributed Control and Information System (DCIS) in Lungmen are fully integrated with the state-of-the-art computer and network technology. General Electric is the leading designer for integration of DCIS. This paper presents Network Architecture and the Site Test of DCIS. The network architectures are follows. GE NUMAC System adopts the point to point architecture, DRS System adopts Ring type architecture with SCRAMNET protocol, Inevnsys system adopts IGiga Byte Backbone mesh network with Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol, GEIS adopts Ethernet network with EGD protocol, Hitachi adopts ring type network with proprietary protocol. MHI adopt Ethernet network with UDP. The data-links are used for connection between different suppliers. The DCIS architecture supports the plant automation, the alarm prioritization and alarm suppression, and uniform MMI screen for entire plant. The Test Program regarding the integration of different network architectures and Initial DCIS architecture Setup for 161KV Energization will be discussed. Test tool for improving site test schedule, and lessons learned from FAT will be discussed too. And conclusions are at the end of this paper. (authors)

  4. Analysis of antenna position measurements and weather station network data during the ALMA Long Baseline Campaign of 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Hunter, Todd R; Broguiere, Dominique; Fomalont, Ed B; Dent, William R F; Phillips, Neil; Rabanus, David; Vlahakis, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    In a radio interferometer, the determination of geometrical antenna positions relies on accurate calibration of the dry and wet delay of the atmosphere above each antenna. For the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA), which has baseline lengths up to 16 kilometers, the geography of the site forces the height above mean sea level of the more distant antenna pads to be significantly lower than the central array. Thus, both the ground level meteorological values and the total water column can be quite different between antennas in the extended configurations. During 2015, a network of six additional weather stations was installed to monitor pressure, temperature, relative humidity and wind velocity, in order to test whether inclusion of these parameters could improve the repeatability of antenna position determinations in these configurations. We present an analysis of the data obtained during the ALMA Long Baseline Campaign of Oct. through Nov. 2015. The repeatability of antenna position measurem...

  5. Optical Performance Monitoring and Signal Optimization in Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Martin Nordal

    2006-01-01

    -optical-electrical regeneration points decreases. This thesis evaluates the impact of signal degrading effects that are becoming of increasing concern in all-optical high-speed networks due to all-optical switching and higher bit-rates. Especially group-velocity-dispersion (GVD) and a number of nonlinear effects will require......The thesis studies performance monitoring for the next generation optical networks. The focus is on all-optical networks with bit-rates of 10 Gb/s or above. Next generation all-optical networks offer large challenges as the optical transmitted distance increases and the occurrence of electrical...... enhanced attention to avoid signal degradations. The requirements for optical performance monitoring features are discussed, and the thesis evaluates the advantages and necessity of increasing the level of performance monitoring parameters in the physical layer. In particular, methods for optical...

  6. Application of Multivariate Statistical Methods to Optimize Water Quality Monitoring Network with Emphasis on the Pollution Caused by Fish Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakol, Mitra; Arjmandi, Reza; Shayeghi, Mansoureh; Monavari, Seyed Masoud; Karbassi, Abdolreza

    2017-01-01

    One of the key issues in determining the quality of water in rivers is to create a water quality control network with a suitable performance. The measured qualitative variables at stations should be representative of all the changes in water quality in water systems. Since the increase in water quality monitoring stations increases annual monitoring costs, recognition of the stations with higher importance as well as main parameters can be effective in future decisions to improve the existing monitoring network. Sampling was carried out on 12 physical and chemical parameters measured at 15 stations during 2013-2014 in Haraz River, northern Iran. The results of the measurements were analyzed using multivariate statistical analysis methods including cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis (PCA), factor analysis (FA), and discriminant analysis (DA). According to the CA, PCA, and FA, the stations were divided into three groups of high pollution, medium pollution, and low pollution. The research findings confirm applicability of multivariate statistical techniques in the interpretation of large data sets, water quality assessment, and source apportionment of different pollution sources.

  7. Network Traffic Anomalies Detection and Identification with Flow Monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Huy; Kim, Dong Il; Choi, Deokjai

    2010-01-01

    Network management and security is currently one of the most vibrant research areas, among which, research on detecting and identifying anomalies has attracted a lot of interest. Researchers are still struggling to find an effective and lightweight method for anomaly detection purpose. In this paper, we propose a simple, robust method that detects network anomalous traffic data based on flow monitoring. Our method works based on monitoring the four predefined metrics that capture the flow statistics of the network. In order to prove the power of the new method, we did build an application that detects network anomalies using our method. And the result of the experiments proves that by using the four simple metrics from the flow data, we do not only effectively detect but can also identify the network traffic anomalies.

  8. The Reliability of Wireless Sensor Network on Pipeline Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafizh Prihtiadi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The wireless sensor network (WSN is an attractive technology, which combines embedded systems and communication networks making them more efficient and effective. Currently, WSNs have been developed for various monitoring applications. In this research, a wireless mesh network for a pipeline monitoring system was designed and developed. Sensor nodes were placed at each branch in the pipe system. Some router fails were simulated and the response of each node in the network was evaluated. Three different scenarios were examined to test the data transmission performance. The results proved that the wireless mesh network was reliable and robust. The system is able to perform link reconfiguration, automatic routing and safe data transmission from the beginning node to the end node.

  9. A study of reactor monitoring method with neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabeshima, Kunihiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the methodology of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) monitoring with neural networks, which create the plant models by the learning of the past normal operation patterns. The concept of this method is to detect the symptom of small anomalies by monitoring the deviations between the process signals measured from an actual plant and corresponding output signals from the neural network model, which might not be equal if the abnormal operational patterns are presented to the input of the neural network. Auto-associative network, which has same output as inputs, can detect an kind of anomaly condition by using normal operation data only. The monitoring tests of the feedforward neural network with adaptive learning were performed using the PWR plant simulator by which many kinds of anomaly conditions can be easily simulated. The adaptively trained feedforward network could follow the actual plant dynamics and the changes of plant condition, and then find most of the anomalies much earlier than the conventional alarm system during steady state and transient operations. Then the off-line and on-line test results during one year operation at the actual NPP (PWR) showed that the neural network could detect several small anomalies which the operators or the conventional alarm system didn't noticed. Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis suggests that the plant models by neural networks are appropriate. Finally, the simulation results show that the recurrent neural network with feedback connections could successfully model the slow behavior of the reactor dynamics without adaptive learning. Therefore, the recurrent neural network with adaptive learning will be the best choice for the actual reactor monitoring system. (author)

  10. Artificial Neural Networks Applications: from Aircraft Design Optimization to Orbiting Spacecraft On-board Environment Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules, Kenol; Lin, Paul P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the recent applications of artificial neural networks taken from various works performed by the authors over the last four years at the NASA Glenn Research Center. This paper focuses mainly on two areas. First, artificial neural networks application in design and optimization of aircraft/engine propulsion systems to shorten the overall design cycle. Out of that specific application, a generic design tool was developed, which can be used for most design optimization process. Second, artificial neural networks application in monitoring the microgravity quality onboard the International Space Station, using on-board accelerometers for data acquisition. These two different applications are reviewed in this paper to show the broad applicability of artificial intelligence in various disciplines. The intent of this paper is not to give in-depth details of these two applications, but to show the need to combine different artificial intelligence techniques or algorithms in order to design an optimized or versatile system.

  11. Earthquake Monitoring: SeisComp3 at the Swiss National Seismic Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, J. F.; Diehl, T.; Cauzzi, C.; Kaestli, P.

    2011-12-01

    The Swiss Seismological Service (SED) has an ongoing responsibility to improve the seismicity monitoring capability for Switzerland. This is a crucial issue for a country with low background seismicity but where a large M6+ earthquake is expected in the next decades. With over 30 stations with spacing of ~25km, the SED operates one of the densest broadband networks in the world, which is complimented by ~ 50 realtime strong motion stations. The strong motion network is expected to grow with an additional ~80 stations over the next few years. Furthermore, the backbone of the network is complemented by broadband data from surrounding countries and temporary sub-networks for local monitoring of microseismicity (e.g. at geothermal sites). The variety of seismic monitoring responsibilities as well as the anticipated densifications of our network demands highly flexible processing software. We are transitioning all software to the SeisComP3 (SC3) framework. SC3 is a fully featured automated real-time earthquake monitoring software developed by GeoForschungZentrum Potsdam in collaboration with commercial partner, gempa GmbH. It is in its core open source, and becoming a community standard software for earthquake detection and waveform processing for regional and global networks across the globe. SC3 was originally developed for regional and global rapid monitoring of potentially tsunamagenic earthquakes. In order to fulfill the requirements of a local network recording moderate seismicity, SED has tuned configurations and added several modules. In this contribution, we present our SC3 implementation strategy, focusing on the detection and identification of seismicity on different scales. We operate several parallel processing "pipelines" to detect and locate local, regional and global seismicity. Additional pipelines with lower detection thresholds can be defined to monitor seismicity within dense subnets of the network. To be consistent with existing processing

  12. LANDMON a new integrated system for the management of landslide monitoring networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrzesniak, Aleksandra; Giordan, Daniele; Allasia, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Over the last decades, technological development has strongly increased the number of instruments that can be used to monitor landslide phenomena. Robotized Total Stations, GB-InSAR and GPS are only few examples of the devices that can be adapted to monitor the topographic changes due to mass movements. They are often organized in a complex network, aimed at controlling physical parameters related to the evolution of landslide activity. The level of complexity of these monitoring networks increases with the number of new available monitoring devices and this could generate a paradox: the source of data is so numerous and difficult to interpret that a full understanding of the phenomenon could be hampered. The Geohazard Monitoring Group (GMG) of Italian National Research Council (CNR) has a long experience in landslide monitoring. Over the years, GMG has developed a multidisciplinary approach for landslide management strategy called LANDMON (LANDslide MOnitoring Network). It is an automatic hybrid system focused not only on capturing and elaborating data from monitored site but also on web applications and on publishing bulletins aimed to disseminate monitoring results and to support decision makers. LANDMON is currently active in many landslide sites distributed in several areas in Italy and in Europe. LANDMON is derived from the previously developed systems like ADVICE (ADVanced dIsplaCement monitoring system for Early warning) and 3DA (three-dimensional Displacement Analysis). These systems are aimed to collect and to process monitoring dataset, to manage early warning application based on pre-defined thresholds, and to publish three-dimensional displacement maps in near real time. In addition, LANDMON integrates several new features, such as WebGIS application, modelling using inverse velocity method, and management of webcam monitoring system, meteorological parameters and borehole inclinometric data. Moreover, LANDMON is a communication strategy that focuses

  13. The GAW-PFR aerosol optical depth network: The 2008-2013 time series at Cape Point Station, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyeki, S.; Wehrli, C.; Gröbner, J.; Kouremeti, N.; Wacker, S.; Labuschagne, C.; Mbatha, N.; Brunke, E.-G.

    2015-05-01

    A ground-based aerosol optical depth (AOD) climatology is presented for Cape Point (CPT) station, South Africa, for the 2008-2013 period. CPT is part of the Global Atmosphere Watch-Precision Filter Radiometer network which conducts long-term AOD measurements at remote background sites. AOD (λ = 500 nm) and Ångström exponent (368 to 862 nm; α368-862) averages for the entire period were 0.059 and 0.68, displaying only a weak seasonality. Based on an established method for air mass classification using the in situ wind direction and 222Rn concentration, the following four air mass types were used to further investigate AOD: background marine, marine, mixed, and continental. AOD was similar for all types, but α368-862 was distinctly lower (0.43) for background marine and higher (1.07) for continental air masses, illustrating the presence of coarse mode and anthropogenic aerosols, respectively. Trajectory cluster analysis of 5 day back trajectories confirmed/augmented this classification. AOD for background marine and marine air mass types were consistent with ship-based (Maritime Aerosol Network) and island (AErosol RObotic NETwork) measurements, suggesting that CPT is a suitable site to monitor pristine conditions in the South Atlantic and Southern Oceans when 222Rn concentrations are < 100 mBq m-3.

  14. Leveraging network connectivity for quality assurance of clinical display monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersten, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The VA Midwest Health Care Network, VISN 23, is one of 21 veteran integrated health service networks (VISN) under the Department of Veterans Affairs. There are approximately 300,000 imaging studies generated per year and currently more than 14,000 picture archiving and communication system (PACS) users in VISN 23. Biomedical Engineering Services within VISN 23 coordinates the provision of medical technology support. One emerging technology leverages network connectivity as a method of calibrating and continuously monitoring clinical display monitors in support of PACS. Utilizing a continuous calibration monitoring system, clinical displays can be identified as out of Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) compliance through a centralized server. The technical group can receive immediate notification via e-mail and respond proactively. Previously, this problem could go unnoticed until the next scheduled preventive maintenance was performed. This system utilizes simple network management protocols (SNMP) and simple mail transfer protocols (SMTP) across a wide area network for real-time alerts from a centralized location. This central server supports and monitors approximately 320 clinical displays deployed across five states. Over the past three years of implementation in VISN 23, the remote calibration and monitoring capability has allowed for more efficient support of clinical displays and has enhanced patient safety by ensuring a consistent display of images on these clinical displays.

  15. Representativeness of air quality monitoring networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duyzer, J.; Hout, D. van den; Zandveld, P.; Ratingen, S. van

    2015-01-01

    The suitability of European networks to check compliance with air quality standards and to assess exposure of the population was investigated. An air quality model (URBIS) was applied to estimate and compare the spatial distribution of the concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in ambient air in

  16. Expansion of Microbial Monitoring Capabilities on the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadad, Christina L.; Oubre, Cherie; Castro, Victoria; Flint, Stephanie; Melendez, Orlando; Ott, C. Mark; Roman, Monsi

    2017-01-01

    Microbial monitoring is one of the tools that the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) uses on the International Space Station (ISS) to help maintain crew health and safety. In combination with regular housekeeping and disinfection when needed, microbial monitoring provides important information to the crew about the quality of the environment. Rotation of astronauts, equipment, and cargo on the ISS can affect the microbial load in the air, surfaces, and water. The current ISS microbial monitoring methods are focused on culture-based enumeration during flight and require a significant amount of crew time as well as long incubation periods of up to 5 days there by proliferating potential pathogens. In addition, the samples require return to Earth for complete identification of the microorganisms cultivated. Although the current approach assess the quality of the ISS environment, molecular technology offers faster turn-around of information particularly beneficial in an off-nominal situation. In 2011, subject matter experts from industry and academia recommended implementation of molecular-based technologies such as quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for evaluation to replace current, culture-based technologies. The RAZOR EX (BioFire Defense, Inc, Salt Lake City, UT) a ruggedized, compact, COTS (commercial off the shelf) qPCR instrument was tested, evaluated and selected in the 2 X 2015 JSC rapid flight hardware demonstration initiative as part of the Water Monitoring Suite. RAZOR EX was launched to ISS on SpaceX-9 in July 2016 to evaluate the precision and accuracy of the hardware by testing various concentrations of DNA in microgravity compared to ground controls. Flight testing was completed between September 2016 and March 2017. Data presented will detail the hardware performance of flight testing results compared to ground controls. Future goals include additional operational ground-based testing and assay development to

  17. High Accuracy Human Activity Monitoring using Neural network

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Annapurna; Chung, Wan-Young

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the designing of a neural network for the classification of Human activity. A Triaxial accelerometer sensor, housed in a chest worn sensor unit, has been used for capturing the acceleration of the movements associated. All the three axis acceleration data were collected at a base station PC via a CC2420 2.4GHz ISM band radio (zigbee wireless compliant), processed and classified using MATLAB. A neural network approach for classification was used with an eye on theoretical and empirical facts. The work shows a detailed description of the designing steps for the classification of human body acceleration data. A 4-layer back propagation neural network, with Levenberg-marquardt algorithm for training, showed best performance among the other neural network training algorithms.

  18. GULF OF MEXICO SEAFLOOR STABILITY AND GAS HYDRATE MONITORING STATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Robert Woolsey; Thomas M. McGee; Robin C. Buchannon

    2004-11-01

    The gas hydrates research Consortium (HRC), established and administered at the University if Mississippi's Center for Marine Research and Environmental Technology (CMRET) has been active on many fronts in FY 03. Extension of the original contract through March 2004, has allowed completion of many projects that were incomplete at the end of the original project period due, primarily, to severe weather and difficulties in rescheduling test cruises. The primary objective of the Consortium, to design and emplace a remote sea floor station for the monitoring of gas hydrates in the Gulf of Mexico by the year 2005 remains intact. However, the possibility of levering HRC research off of the Joint Industries Program (JIP) became a possibility that has demanded reevaluation of some of the fundamental assumptions of the station format. These provisions are discussed in Appendix A. Landmark achievements of FY03 include: (1) Continuation of Consortium development with new researchers and additional areas of research contribution being incorporated into the project. During this period, NOAA's National Undersea Research Program's (NURP) National Institute for Undersea Science and Technology (NIUST) became a Consortium funding partner, joining DOE and Minerals Management Service (MMS); (2) Very successful annual and semiannual meetings in Oxford Mississippi in February and September, 2003; (3) Collection of piston cores from MC798 in support of the effort to evaluate the site for possible monitoring station installation; (4) Completion of the site evaluation effort including reports of all localities in the northern Gulf of Mexico where hydrates have been documented or are strongly suspected to exist on the sea floor or in the shallow subsurface; (5) Collection and preliminary evaluation of vent gases and core samples of hydrate from sites in Green Canyon and Mississippi Canyon, northern Gulf of Mexico; (6) Monitoring of gas activity on the sea floor, acoustically

  19. Mobile sensor networks for environmental monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballari, D.E.

    2012-01-01

    Vulnerability to natural disasters and the human pressure on natural resources have increased the need for environmental monitoring. Proper decisions, based on real-time information gathered from the environment, are critical to protecting human lives and natural resources. To this end, mobile senso

  20. Mobile sensor networks for environmental monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballari, D.E.

    2012-01-01

    Vulnerability to natural disasters and the human pressure on natural resources have increased the need for environmental monitoring. Proper decisions, based on real-time information gathered from the environment, are critical to protecting human lives and natural resources. To this end, mobile

  1. Locomotive monitoring system using wireless sensor networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Croucamp, PL

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Theft of cables used for powering a locomotive not only stops the train from functioning but also paralyzes the signalling and monitoring system. This means that information on certain locomotive's cannot be passed onto other locomotives which may...

  2. Monitoring activities in the Dutch National Air Quality Monitoring Network in 2000 and 2001

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzakker BG van; LLO

    2001-01-01

    The Dutch National Air Quality Monitoring Network (LML in Dutch) is one of the responsibilities of the Air Research Laboratory of the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment. The main objectives of the LML are to monitor ambient air quality, facilitate implementation of air quality

  3. Monitoring activities in the Dutch National Air Quality Monitoring Network in 2000 and 2001

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzakker BG van; LLO

    2001-01-01

    The Dutch National Air Quality Monitoring Network (LML in Dutch) is one of the responsibilities of the Air Research Laboratory of the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment. The main objectives of the LML are to monitor ambient air quality, facilitate implementation of air quality s

  4. Analysis of lifetime of wireless sensor network with base station moving on different paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ashutosh Kumar; Purohit, N.; Varma, S.

    2014-05-01

    Energy saving is the top most requirement of the wireless sensor network (WSN) for making it a cost effective technology. In this direction, minimisation of the distance between the communicating nodes should be an obvious choice, as it consumes the biggest chunk of the node energy. But the stationary nature of nodes (including the base station) in the standard WSN does not allow it; thus, the provision of a moving base station has been recently introduced. A few schemes with moving base station have already been developed but they suffer from several drawbacks, for example, the path over which the base station can move has not been considered which is highly unfeasible. An efficient and implementable moving strategy is needed to be developed, which is the primary goal of the present work. The fuzzy logic inference mechanism has been developed and the performance of the same is illustrated in terms of WSN lifetime. Lifetime of a WSN depends on many factors, for example, residual energy of nodes, distance between communicating nodes and base station, etc. Ability of fuzzy logic theory to address more than one factor simultaneously gives it an upper edge over other alternatives. The present work explores the possibilities of building either a circular shaped or a cross-shaped path in the deployment area. A relative study of the movement of base station on these paths has been presented. Simulation results show that the cross path always give better performance than circular path and the lifetime improves with increase in the length of the predefined path.

  5. Bacterial monitoring with adhesive sheet in the international space station-"Kibo", the Japanese experiment module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichijo, Tomoaki; Hieda, Hatsuki; Ishihara, Rie; Yamaguchi, Nobuyasu; Nasu, Masao

    2013-01-01

    Microbiological monitoring is important to assure microbiological safety, especially in long-duration space habitation. We have been continuously monitoring the abundance and diversity of bacteria in the International Space Station (ISS)-"Kibo" module to accumulate knowledge on microbes in the ISS. In this study, we used a new sampling device, a microbe-collecting adhesive sheet developed in our laboratory. This adhesive sheet has high operability, needs no water for sampling, and is easy to transport and store. We first validated the adhesive sheet as a sampling device to be used in a space habitat with regard to the stability of the bacterial number on the sheet during prolonged storage of up to 12 months. Bacterial abundance on the surfaces in Kibo was then determined and was lower than on the surfaces in our laboratory (10(5) cells [cm(2)](-1)), except for the return air grill, and the bacteria detected in Kibo were human skin microflora. From these aspects of microbial abundance and their phylogenetic affiliation, we concluded that Kibo has been microbiologically well maintained; however, microbial abundance may increase with the prolonged stay of astronauts. To ensure crew safety and understand bacterial dynamics in space habitation environments, continuous bacterial monitoring in Kibo is required.

  6. The JPL Electronic Nose: Monitoring Air in the US Lab on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, M. A.; Manatt, K. S.; Gluck, S.; Shevade, A. V.; Kisor, A. K.; Zhou, H.; Lara, L. M.; Homer, M. L.

    2010-01-01

    An electronic nose with a sensor array of 32 conductometric sensors has been developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to monitor breathing air in spacecraft habitat. The Third Generation ENose is designed to operate in the environment of the US Lab on the International Space Station (ISS). It detects a selected group of analytes at target concentrations in the ppm regime at an environmental temperature range of 18 - 30 oC, relative humidity from 25 - 75% and pressure from 530 to 760 torr. The monitoring targets are anomalous events such as leaks and spills of solvents, coolants or other fluids. The JPL ENose operated as a technology demonstration for seven months in the U.S. Laboratory Destiny during 2008-2009. Analysis of ENose monitoring data shows that there was regular, periodic rise and fall of humidity and occasional releases of Freon 218 (perfluoropropane), formaldehyde, methanol and ethanol. There were also several events of unknown origin, half of them from the same source. Each event lasted from 20 to 100 minutes, consistent with the air replacement time in the US Lab.

  7. Optical Multi-Gas Monitor Technology Demonstration on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.; Wood, William R.; Casias, Miguel E.; Vakhtin, Andrei B.; Johnson, Michael D.; Mudgett, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) employs a suite of portable and permanently located gas monitors to insure crew health and safety. These sensors are tasked with functions ranging from fixed mass spectrometer based major constituents analysis to portable electrochemical sensor based combustion product monitoring. An all optical multigas sensor is being developed that can provide the specificity of a mass spectrometer with the portability of an electrochemical cell. The technology, developed under the Small Business Innovation Research program, allows for an architecture that is rugged, compact and low power. A four gas version called the Multi-Gas Monitor was launched to ISS in November 2013 aboard Soyuz and activated in February 2014. The portable instrument is comprised of a major constituents analyzer (water vapor, carbon dioxide, oxygen) and high dynamic range real-time ammonia sensor. All species are sensed inside the same enhanced path length optical cell with a separate vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) targeted at each species. The prototype is controlled digitally with a field-programmable gate array/microcontroller architecture. The optical and electronic approaches are designed for scalability and future versions could add three important acid gases and carbon monoxide combustion product gases to the four species already sensed. Results obtained to date from the technology demonstration on ISS are presented and discussed.

  8. Recent development of infrasound monitoring network in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghica, Daniela; Popa, Mihaela; Ionescu, Constantin

    2017-04-01

    The second half of 2016 was marked at National Institute for Earth Physics (NIEP) by a significant development of infrasound monitoring infrastructure in Romania. In addition to IPLOR, the 6-element acoustic array installed at Plostina, in the central part of Romania, since 2009, two other four-element arrays were deployed. The first one, BURARI infrasound research array, was deployed in late July 2016, under a joint effort of AFTAC, USA and NIEP, in the northern part of Romania, in Bucovina region. The sites, placed in vicinity of the central elements of BURAR seismic array (over 1.2 km aperture), are equipped with Chaparral Physics Model 21 microbarometers and Reftek RT 130 data loggers. The data, used mainly for research purposes within the scientific collaboration project between NIEP and AFTAC, are available to scientific community. The second one is a PTS portable infrasound array (I67RO) deployed for one year, starting with the end of September 2016, within a collaboration project between NIEP and PTS of the Preparatory Commission for CTBTO. This array is located in the western part of Romania, at Marisel, Cluj County, covering a 0.9 km aperture and being equipped with CEA/DAM MB2005 microbarometers and Reftek RT 130 data loggers. This joint experiment aims to contribute both to advanced understanding of infrasound sources in Central-Europe and to ARISE design study project, as an expansion of the spatial coverage of the European infrasound network. The data recorded by the three infrasound arrays deployed in Romania, during a same time interval (October - December 2016) were processed into detection arrival bulletins applying CEA/DASE PMCC algorithm embedded in DTK-GPMCC (extended CTBTO NDC-in-a-box) and WinPMCC software applications. The results were plotted and analyzed using DTK-DIVA software (extended CTBTO NDC-in-a-box), in order to assess detectability of each station, as well as the capacity of fusing detections into support of infrasound monitoring

  9. A Great Lakes atmospheric mercury monitoring network: evaluation and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, Martin R.; Kenski, Donna M.; ,; David, A.

    2014-01-01

    As many as 51 mercury (Hg) wet-deposition-monitoring sites from 4 networks were operated in 8 USA states and Ontario, Canada in the North American Great Lakes Region from 1996 to 2010. By 2013, 20 of those sites were no longer in operation and approximately half the geographic area of the Region was represented by a single Hg-monitoring site. In response, a Great Lakes Atmospheric Mercury Monitoring (GLAMM) network is needed as a framework for regional collaboration in Hg-deposition monitoring. The purpose of the GLAMM network is to detect changes in regional atmospheric Hg deposition related to changes in Hg emissions. An optimized design for the network was determined to be a minimum of 21 sites in a representative and approximately uniform geographic distribution. A majority of the active and historic Hg-monitoring sites in the Great Lakes Region are part of the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) Mercury Deposition Network (MDN) in North America and the GLAMM network is planned to be part of the MDN. To determine an optimized network design, active and historic Hg-monitoring sites in the Great Lakes Region were evaluated with a rating system of 21 factors that included characteristics of the monitoring locations and interpretations of Hg data. Monitoring sites were rated according to the number of Hg emissions sources and annual Hg emissions in a geographic polygon centered on each site. Hg-monitoring data from the sites were analyzed for long-term averages in weekly Hg concentrations in precipitation and weekly Hg-wet deposition, and on significant temporal trends in Hg concentrations and Hg deposition. A cluster analysis method was used to group sites with similar variability in their Hg data in order to identify sites that were unique for explaining Hg data variability in the Region. The network design included locations in protected natural areas, urban areas, Great Lakes watersheds, and in proximity to areas with a high density of annual Hg

  10. SURFmap: A Network Monitoring Tool Based on the Google Maps API

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, R.J.; Hofstede, R. J.; Fioreze, Tiago

    2009-01-01

    Network monitoring allows network managers to get a better insight in the network traffic transiting in a managed network. In order to make the tasks of a network manager easier, many network monitoring tools are made available for a wide range of purposes (e.g., traffic accounting, performance

  11. SURFmap: A Network Monitoring Tool Based on the Google Maps API

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, R. J.; Fioreze, T.

    2009-01-01

    Network monitoring allows network managers to get a better insight in the network traffic transiting in a managed network. In order to make the tasks of a network manager easier, many network monitoring tools are made available for a wide range of purposes (e.g., traffic accounting, performance anal

  12. Hermes: Distributed social network monitoring system

    OpenAIRE

    Cea Royes, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    [ANGLÈS] Nowadays, social network services play a very important role in the way people interact with each other and with the world. This generates big amounts of data that can be used to study social relationships and extract useful information about preferences and trends. When analysing this information, two main problems emerge: The need to aggregate dif- ferent data coming from multiple sources, and hardware limitations due to the incapability traditional systems have to d...

  13. A Wireless Sensor Network Air Pollution Monitoring System

    CERN Document Server

    Khedo, Kavi K; Mungur, Avinash; Mauritius, University of; Mauritius,; 10.5121/ijwmn.2010.2203

    2010-01-01

    Sensor networks are currently an active research area mainly due to the potential of their applications. In this paper we investigate the use of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) for air pollution monitoring in Mauritius. With the fast growing industrial activities on the island, the problem of air pollution is becoming a major concern for the health of the population. We proposed an innovative system named Wireless Sensor Network Air Pollution Monitoring System (WAPMS) to monitor air pollution in Mauritius through the use of wireless sensors deployed in huge numbers around the island. The proposed system makes use of an Air Quality Index (AQI) which is presently not available in Mauritius. In order to improve the efficiency of WAPMS, we have designed and implemented a new data aggregation algorithm named Recursive Converging Quartiles (RCQ). The algorithm is used to merge data to eliminate duplicates, filter out invalid readings and summarise them into a simpler form which significantly reduce the amount of dat...

  14. The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station Ground Temperature Sensor: A Pyrometer for Measuring Ground Temperature on Mars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ramos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe the parameters that drive the design and modeling of the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS Ground Temperature Sensor (GTS, an instrument aboard NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory, and report preliminary test results. REMS GTS is a lightweight, low-power, and low cost pyrometer for measuring the Martian surface kinematic temperature. The sensor’s main feature is its innovative design, based on a simple mechanical structure with no moving parts. It includes an in-flight calibration system that permits sensor recalibration when sensor sensitivity has been degraded by deposition of dust over the optics. This paper provides the first results of a GTS engineering model working in a Martian-like, extreme environment.

  15. Energy Efficient Networks for Monitoring Water Quality in Subterranean Rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Ge

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The fresh water in rivers beneath the Earth’s surface is as significant to humans as that on the surface. However, the water quality is difficult to monitor due to its unapproachable nature. In this work, we consider building networks to monitor water quality in subterranean rivers. The network node is designed to have limited functions of floating and staying in these rivers when necessary. We provide the necessary conditions to set up such networks and a topology building method, as well as the communication process between nodes. Furthermore, we provide every an node’s energy consumption model in the network building stage, the data acquiring and transmission stage. The numerical results show that the energy consumption in every node is different, and the node number should be moderate to ensure energy efficiency.

  16. New idea of geomagnetic monitoring through ENA detection from the International Space Station: ENAMISS project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milillo, Anna; De Angelis, Elisabetta; Orsini, Stefano; Rubini, Alda; Evangelista, Yuri; Mura, Alessandro; Rispoli, Rosanna; Vertolli, Nello; Carrubba, Elisa; Donati, Alessandro; Di Lellis, Andrea Maria; Plainaki, Christina; Lazzarotto, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    Remote sensing of Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENA) in the Earth's environment has been proven to be a successful technique able to provide detailed information on the ring current plasma population at energies below 100 keV. Indeed, the existing space weather databases usually include a good coverage of Sun and solar wind monitoring. The global imaging of the Earth's magnetosphere/ ionosphere is usually obtained by the high-latitudes monitoring of aurorae, ground magnetic field variations and high-latitude radio emissions. The equatorial magnetic field variations on ground, from which the geomagnetic indices like Dst, Sym-H and Asym-H are derived, include the effects of all current systems (i.e. ring current, Chapman -Ferraro current, tails currents, etc...) providing a kind of global information. Nevertheless, the specific information related to the ring current cannot be easily derived from such indices. Only occasional local plasma data are available by orbiting spacecraft. ENA detection is the only way to globally view the ring current populations. Up-to-now this technique has been used mainly from dedicated high altitude polar orbiting spacecraft, which do not allow a continuous and systematic monitoring, and a discrimination of the particle latitude distribution. The Energetic Neutral Atoms Monitor on the International space Station (ENAMISS) project intends to develop an ENA imager and install it on the ISS for continuous monitoring of the spatially distributed ring current plasma population. ISS is the ideal platform to perform continuous ENA monitoring since its particular low altitude and medium/low latitude orbit allows wide-field ENA images of various magnetospheric regions. The calibrated ENA data, the deconvolved ion distributions and ad-hoc ENA-based new geomagnetic indices will be freely distributed to the space weather community. Furthermore, new services based on plasma circulation models, spacecraft surface charging models and radiation dose models

  17. DESIGN OF GROUNDWATER LEVEL MONITORING NETWORK WITH ORDINARY KRIGING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Feng-guang; CAO Shu-you; LIU Xing-nian; YANG Ke-jun

    2008-01-01

    The primary network of groundwater level observation wells aims at realizing a regional groundwater management policy. It may give a regional picture of groundwater level with emphasis on the natural situation. Observation data from the primary network can be used to estimate the actual state of groundwater system. Since the cost of the installation and maintenance of a groundwater monitoring network is extremely high, the assessment of effectiveness of the network becomes very necessary. Groundwater level monitoring networks are the examples of discontinuous sampling on variables presenting spatial continuity and highly skewed frequency distributions. Anywhere in the aquifer, ordinary kriging provides estimates of the variable sampled and a standard error of the estimate. In this article, the average Kriging standard deviation was used as a criterion for the determination of network density,and the GIS-based approach was analysized. A case study of groundwater level network simulation in the Chaiwopu Basin, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China, was presented. In the case study, the initial phreatic water observation wells were 18, a comparison of the three variogram parameters of the three defferent variogram models shows that the Gaussian model is the best. Finally, a network with 55 wells was constructed.

  18. Hybrid wireless sensor network for rescue site monitoring after earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Wang, Shuo; Tang, Chong; Zhao, Xiaoguang; Hu, Weijian; Tan, Min; Gao, Bowei

    2016-07-01

    This paper addresses the design of a low-cost, low-complexity, and rapidly deployable wireless sensor network (WSN) for rescue site monitoring after earthquakes. The system structure of the hybrid WSN is described. Specifically, the proposed hybrid WSN consists of two kinds of wireless nodes, i.e., the monitor node and the sensor node. Then the mechanism and the system configuration of the wireless nodes are detailed. A transmission control protocol (TCP)-based request-response scheme is proposed to allow several monitor nodes to communicate with the monitoring center. UDP-based image transmission algorithms with fast recovery have been developed to meet the requirements of in-time delivery of on-site monitor images. In addition, the monitor node contains a ZigBee module that used to communicate with the sensor nodes, which are designed with small dimensions to monitor the environment by sensing different physical properties in narrow spaces. By building a WSN using these wireless nodes, the monitoring center can display real-time monitor images of the monitoring area and visualize all collected sensor data on geographic information systems. In the end, field experiments were performed at the Training Base of Emergency Seismic Rescue Troops of China and the experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the monitor system.

  19. Performance of static positioning for medium distances based on data from a virtual reference station and ASG-PL Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakula, M.

    The use of a network of reference stations instead of a single reference station allows the modelling of some systematic errors in a region and allows a user to increase the distance between the rover receiver and reference stations. In some countries, GPS reference stations exist and GPS observations are available for users in real-time mode and in post-processing. Observations from several GPS reference stations in a regional network enable modelling spatially-correlated errors and their modelling on an epoch-by-epoch and satellite-by-satellite basis. As a result, observations of a virtual reference station can be created at a rover's approximate position and its observations can be used in the precise baseline positioning of the rover. This paper presents the performance of the static positioning of a rover station, its quality and reliability for two different baselines. Single-baseline and network static solutions are presented and compared. Network solutions are based on data from a virtual reference station (VRS) obtained by the Wasoft/Virtuall software. In both cases, the same strategy of ambiguity resolution was used. These approaches have been tested with the use of 24-hour GPS data from the Polish Active Geodetic Network (ASG-PL). The data from three reference stations with medium-range separation were used in the process of generating VRS data. GPS data of the rover station were divided into 20, 10 and 5-min. sessions with a sampling interval of 5 sec. Practical calculations and analyses of horizontal and vertical accuracy of coordinates clearly show the improvement of static positioning in terms of time observation span and ambiguity reliability.

  20. Multicriteria relocation analysis of an off-site radioactive monitoring network for a nuclear power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ni-Bin; Ning, Shu-Kuang; Chen, Jen-Chang

    2006-08-01

    Due to increasing environmental consciousness in most countries, every utility that owns a commercial nuclear power plant has been required to have both an on-site and off-site emergency response plan since the 1980s. A radiation monitoring network, viewed as part of the emergency response plan, can provide information regarding the radiation dosage emitted from a nuclear power plant in a regular operational period and/or abnormal measurements in an emergency event. Such monitoring information might help field operators and decision-makers to provide accurate responses or make decisions to protect the public health and safety. This study aims to conduct an integrated simulation and optimization analysis looking for the relocation strategy of a long-term regular off-site monitoring network at a nuclear power plant. The planning goal is to downsize the current monitoring network but maintain its monitoring capacity as much as possible. The monitoring sensors considered in this study include the thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) and air sampling system (AP) simultaneously. It is designed for detecting the radionuclide accumulative concentration, the frequency of violation, and the possible population affected by a long-term impact in the surrounding area regularly while it can also be used in an accidental release event. With the aid of the calibrated Industrial Source Complex-Plume Rise Model Enhancements (ISC-PRIME) simulation model to track down the possible radionuclide diffusion, dispersion, transport, and transformation process in the atmospheric environment, a multiobjective evaluation process can be applied to achieve the screening of monitoring stations for the nuclear power plant located at Hengchun Peninsula, South Taiwan. To account for multiple objectives, this study calculated preference weights to linearly combine objective functions leading to decision-making with exposure assessment in an optimization context. Final suggestions should be useful for

  1. Chemical sensor network for pH monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Manjarrés

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of water sources is a major concern worldwide. Wireless sensor networks (WSN may be used for this monitoring. However, current systems employ mainly physical sensors for variables such as temperature, pressure, humidity and light. Wireless chemical sensors networks (WCSNs for environmental monitoring are scarce due to the lack of autonomy of conventional sensors. This paper presents results of a WCSN for monitoring pH based on ion selective field effect transistors (ISFETs. Sensing nodes employ a human interface required for in situ calibration of chemical sensors. Unlike most studies, our work evaluates the network employing chemical measurements and wireless network metrics. Results show zero packet losses by using a time division multiple access (TDMA protocol. The network allows wireless communication within 300 m including attenuation from buildings and trees. Therefore, the system presented in this paper is suitable for long range applications with unobstructed line of sight. pH measurements present a standard deviation below 1%, showing high repeatability. When compared to a commercial pH meter, difference in measurements is below 5%. As a consequence, accuracy is adequate for the application. Measurements also presented high stability during 3 h of continuous measurement.

  2. Mechanism Design for Base Station Association and Resource Allocation in Downlink OFDMA Network

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Mingyi

    2012-01-01

    We consider a resource management problem in a multi-cell downlink OFDMA network, whereby the goal is to find the optimal per base station resource allocation and user-base station assignment. The users are assumed to be strategic/selfish who have private information on downlink channel states and noise levels. To induce truthfulness among the users as well as to enhance the spectrum efficiency, the resource management strategy needs to be both incentive compatible and efficient. However, due to the mixed (discrete and continuous) nature of resource management in this context, the implementation of any incentive compatible mechanism that maximizes the system throughput is NP-hard. We consider the dominant strategy implementation of an approximately optimal resource management scheme via a computationally tractable mechanism. The proposed mechanism is decentralized and dynamic. More importantly, it ensures the truthfulness of the users and it implements a resource allocation solution that yields at least 1/2 o...

  3. Monitoring air quality in mountains: Designing an effective network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    A quantitatively robust yet parsimonious air-quality monitoring network in mountainous regions requires special attention to relevant spatial and temporal scales of measurement and inference. The design of monitoring networks should focus on the objectives required by public agencies, namely: 1) determine if some threshold has been exceeded (e.g., for regulatory purposes), and 2) identify spatial patterns and temporal trends (e.g., to protect natural resources). A short-term, multi-scale assessment to quantify spatial variability in air quality is a valuable asset in designing a network, in conjunction with an evaluation of existing data and simulation-model output. A recent assessment in Washington state (USA) quantified spatial variability in tropospheric ozone distribution ranging from a single watershed to the western third of the state. Spatial and temporal coherence in ozone exposure modified by predictable elevational relationships ( 1.3 ppbv ozone per 100 m elevation gain) extends from urban areas to the crest of the Cascade Range. This suggests that a sparse network of permanent analyzers is sufficient at all spatial scales, with the option of periodic intensive measurements to validate network design. It is imperative that agencies cooperate in the design of monitoring networks in mountainous regions to optimize data collection and financial efficiencies.

  4. The Italian National Seismic Network and the earthquake and tsunami monitoring and surveillance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelini, Alberto; Margheriti, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cecere, Gianpaolo; D'Anna, Giuseppe; Delladio, Alberto; Moretti, Milena; Pintore, Stefano; Amato, Alessandro; Basili, Alberto; Bono, Andrea; Casale, Paolo; Danecek, Peter; Demartin, Martina; Faenza, Licia; Lauciani, Valentino; Mandiello, Alfonso Giovanni; Marchetti, Alessandro; Marcocci, Carlo; Mazza, Salvatore; Mariano Mele, Francesco; Nardi, Anna; Nostro, Concetta; Pignone, Maurizio; Quintiliani, Matteo; Rao, Sandro; Scognamiglio, Laura; Selvaggi, Giulio

    2016-11-01

    The Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) is an Italian research institution, with focus on Earth Sciences. INGV runs the Italian National Seismic Network (Rete Sismica Nazionale, RSN) and other networks at national scale for monitoring earthquakes and tsunami as a part of the National Civil Protection System coordinated by the Italian Department of Civil Protection (Dipartimento di Protezione Civile, DPC). RSN is composed of about 400 stations, mainly broadband, installed in the Country and in the surrounding regions; about 110 stations feature also co-located strong motion instruments, and about 180 have GPS receivers and belong to the National GPS network (Rete Integrata Nazionale GPS, RING). The data acquisition system was designed to accomplish, in near-real-time, automatic earthquake detection, hypocenter and magnitude determination, moment tensors, shake maps and other products of interest for DPC. Database archiving of all parametric results are closely linked to the existing procedures of the INGV seismic monitoring environment and surveillance procedures. INGV is one of the primary nodes of ORFEUS (Observatories & Research Facilities for European Seismology) EIDA (European Integrated Data Archive) for the archiving and distribution of continuous, quality checked seismic data. The strong motion network data are archived and distributed both in EIDA and in event based archives; GPS data, from the RING network are also archived, analyzed and distributed at INGV. Overall, the Italian earthquake surveillance service provides, in quasi real-time, hypocenter parameters to the DPC. These are then revised routinely by the analysts of the Italian Seismic Bulletin (Bollettino Sismico Italiano, BSI). The results are published on the web, these are available to both the scientific community and the general public. The INGV surveillance includes a pre-operational tsunami alert service since INGV is one of the Tsunami Service providers of the North

  5. Concept of Complex Environmental Monitoring Network - Vardzia Rock Cut City Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elashvili, Mikheil; Vacheishvili, Nikoloz; Margottini, Claudio; Basilaia, Giorgi; Chkhaidze, Davit; Kvavadze, Davit; Spizzichino, Daniele; Boscagli, Franceso; Kirkitadze, Giorgi; Adikashvili, Luka; Navrozashvili, Levan

    2016-04-01

    Vardzia represents an unique cultural heritage monument - rock cut city, which unites architectural monument and Natural-Geological complex. Such monuments are particularly vulnerable and their restoration and conservation requires complex approach. It is curved in various layers of volcanic tuffs and covers several hectares of area, with chronologically different segments of construction. This monument, as many similar monuments worldwide, is subjected to slow but permanent process of destruction, expressed in following factors: surface weathering of rock, active tectonics (aseismic displacement along the active faults and earthquakes), interaction between lithologically different rock layers, existence of major cracks and associated complex block structure, surface rainwater runoff and infiltrated ground water, temperature variations, etc. During its lifetime, Vardzia was heavily damaged by Historical Earthquake of 1283 and only partly restored afterwards. The technological progress together with the increased knowledge about ongoing environmental processes, established the common understanding that the complex monitoring of the environment represents the essential component for resolving such a principal issues, as: Proper management and prevention of natural disasters; Modeling of environmental processes, their short and long term prognosis; Monitoring of macro and micro climate; Safe functioning and preservation of important constructions. Research Center of Cultural Heritage and Environment of Ilia State University in cooperation with Experts from ISPRA, with the funding from the State agency of Cultural Heritage, has developed a concept of Vardzia complex monitoring network. Concept of the network includes: monitoring local meteorological conditions (meteorological station), monitoring microclimate in caves (temperature and humidity in the air and rock), monitoring microtremors and ambient seismic noise in Vardzia (local strong motion network), monitoring

  6. A wireless sensor network compatible wearable u-healthcare monitoring system using integrated ECG, accelerometer and SpO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Wan-Young; Lee, Young-Dong; Jung, Sang-Joong

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the design and development of a wearable ubiquitous healthcare monitoring system using integrated electrocardiogram (ECG), accelerometer and oxygen saturation (SpO(2)) sensors. In this design, non-intrusive healthcare system was designed based on wireless sensor network (WSN) for wide area coverage with minimum battery power to support RF transmission. We have developed various devices such as wearable ubiquitous sensor network (USN) node, wearable chest sensor belt and wrist pulse oximeter for this system. Low power ECG, accelerometer and SpO(2) sensors board was integrated to the wearable USN node for user's health monitoring. The wearable ubiquitous healthcare monitoring system allows physiological data to be transmitted in wireless sensor network using IEEE 802.15.4 from on-body wearable sensor devices to a base-station which is connected to a server PC. Physiological data can be displayed and stored in the server PC continuously.

  7. Base Station Ordering for Emergency Call Localization in Ultra-dense Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Elsawy, Hesham

    2017-10-04

    This paper proposes the base station ordering localization technique (BoLT) for emergency call localization in cellular networks. Exploiting the foreseen ultra-densification of the next-generation (5G and beyond) cellular networks, we utilize higher-order Voronoi tessellations to provide ubiquitous localization services that are in compliance to the public safety standards in cellular networks. The proposed localization algorithm runs at the base stations (BSs) and requires minimal operation from agents (i.e., mobile users). Particularly, BoLT requires each agent to feedback a neighbor cell list (NCL) that contains the order of neighboring BSs based on the received signal power in the pilots sent from these BSs. Moreover, this paper utilizes stochastic geometry to develop a tractable mathematical model to assess the performance of BoLT in a general network setting. The goal of this paper is to answer the following two fundamental questions: i) how many BSs should be ordered and reported by the agent to achieve a desirable localization accuracy? and ii) what is the localization error probability given that the pilot signals are subject to shadowing? Assuming that the BSs are deployed according to a Poisson point process (PPP), we answer these two questions via characterizing the tradeoff between the area of location region (ALR) and the localization error probability in terms of the number of BSs ordered by the agent. The results show that reporting the order of six neighboring BSs is sufficient to localize the agent within 10% of the cell area. Increasing the number of reported BSs to ten confines the location region to 1% of the cell area. This would translate to the range of a few meters to decimeters in the foreseen ultra-dense 5G networks.

  8. The Austrian radiation monitoring network ARAD - best practice and added value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olefs, Marc; Baumgartner, Dietmar J.; Obleitner, Friedrich; Bichler, Christoph; Foelsche, Ulrich; Pietsch, Helga; Rieder, Harald E.; Weihs, Philipp; Geyer, Florian; Haiden, Thomas; Schöner, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    The Austrian RADiation monitoring network (ARAD) has been established to advance the national climate monitoring and to support satellite retrieval, atmospheric modeling and the development of solar energy techniques. Measurements cover the downward solar and thermal infrared radiation using instruments according to Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) standards. A unique feature of ARAD is its vertical dimension of five stations, covering an altitude range between about 200 m a.s.l (Vienna) and 3100 m a.s.l. (BSRN site Sonnblick). The paper outlines the aims and scopes of ARAD, its measurement and calibration standards, methods, strategies and station locations. ARAD network operation uses innovative data processing for quality assurance and quality control, utilizing manual and automated control algorithms. A combined uncertainty estimate for the broadband shortwave radiation fluxes at all five ARAD stations, using the methodology specified by the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement indicates that relative accuracies range from 1.5 to 2.9 % for large signals (global, direct: 1000 W m-2, diffuse: 500 W m-2) and from 1.7 to 23 % (or 0.9 to 11.5 W m-2) for small signals (50 W m-2) (expanded uncertainties corresponding to the 95 % confidence level). If the directional response error of the pyranometers and the temperature response of the instruments and the data acquisition system (DAQ) are corrected, this expanded uncertainty reduces to 1.4 to 2.8 % for large signals and to 1.7 to 5.2 % (or 0.9-2.6 W m-2) for small signals. Thus, for large signals of global and diffuse radiation, BSRN target accuracies are met or nearly met (missed by less than 0.2 percentage points, pps) for 70 % of the ARAD measurements after this correction. For small signals of direct radiation, BSRN targets are achieved at two sites and nearly met (also missed by less than 0.2 pps) at the other sites. For small signals of global and diffuse radiation, targets are achieved

  9. Rainfall monitoring with microwave link networks -state of the art

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Lotte; Overeem, Aart; Ríos Gaona, Manuel; van Leth, Tommy; Uijlenhoet, Remko

    2017-04-01

    For the purpose of hydrological applications, meteorology, climate monitoring and agriculture, accurate high resolution rainfall monitoring is highly desirable. Often used techniques to measure rainfall include rain gauge networks and radar. However, accurate rainfall information is lacking in large areas in the world, and the number of rain gauges is even severely declining in Europe, South-America and Africa. The investments required for the installation and maintenance of dense sensor networks can form a large obstacle. Over the past decade, various investigations have shown that microwave links from cellular communication networks may be used for rainfall monitoring. These commercial networks are installed for the purpose of cellular communication. These consist of antennas that transmit microwave link signals through the atmosphere over a path of typically several kilometers. Microwave signals are sensitive to rainfall at the frequencies that are typically used. The loss of signal (attenuation) over the link-path, which is logged in real-time by cellular communication companies for quality monitoring, can therefore be interpreted as a rainfall measurement. In recent years, various techniques have been developed to quantitatively determine rainfall from these microwave link attenuations. An overview of error sources in this process, quantitative rainfall determination techniques, as well as the results of various validation studies are provided. These studies show that there is considerable potential in using commercial microwave link networks for rainfall monitoring. This is a promising development, as these networks cover 20% of the land surface of the earth and have high density, especially in urban areas where there is generally a lack of in situ ground measurements.

  10. [Mathematical simulation support to the dosimetric monitoring on the Russian segment of the International Space Station].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrikas, V G

    2014-01-01

    To ensure radiation safety of cosmonauts, it is necessary not only to predict, but also to reconstruct absorbed dose dynamics with the knowledge of how long cosmonauts stay in specific space vehicle compartments with different shielding properties and lacking equipment for dosimetric monitoring. In this situation, calculating is one and only way to make a correct estimate of radiation exposure of cosmonaut's organism as a whole (tissue-average dose) and of separate systems and organs. The paper addresses the issues of mathematical simulation of epy radiation environment of standard dosimetric instruments in the Russian segments of the International Space Station (ISS RS). Results of comparing the simulation and experimental data for the complement of dosimeters including ionization chamber-based radiometer R-16, DB8 dosimeters composed of semiconductor detectors, and Pille dosimeters composed of thermoluminescent detectors evidence that the current methods of simulation in support of the ISS RS radiation monitoring provide a sufficiently good agreement between the calculated and experimental data.

  11. Air Pollution Monitoring and Control System for Subway Stations Using Environmental Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyu-Sik Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The metropolitan city of Seoul uses more energy than any other area in South Korea due to its high population density. It also has high emissions of air pollutants. Since an individual usually spends most of his/her working hours indoors, the ambient air quality refers to indoor air quality. In particular, PM10 concentration in the underground areas should be monitored to preserve the health of commuters in the subway system. Seoul Metro and Seoul Metropolitan Rapid Transit Corporation measure several air pollutants regularly. In this study, the accuracy of an instrument for PM measurement using the light scattering method was improved with the help of a linear regression analysis technique to continuously measure the PM10 concentrations in subway stations. In addition, an air quality monitoring system based on environmental sensors was implemented to display and record the data of PM10, CO2, temperature, and humidity. Through experimental studies, we found that ventilation fans could improve air quality and decrease PM10 concentrations in the tunnels effectively by increasing the air flow rate.

  12. Performance of Network and Service Monitoring Frameworks

    CERN Document Server

    Lahmadi, Abdelkader; Festor, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    The efficiency and the performance of anagement systems is becoming a hot research topic within the networks and services management community. This concern is due to the new challenges of large scale managed systems, where the management plane is integrated within the functional plane and where management activities have to carry accurate and up-to-date information. We defined a set of primary and secondary metrics to measure the performance of a management approach. Secondary metrics are derived from the primary ones and quantifies mainly the efficiency, the scalability and the impact of management activities. To validate our proposals, we have designed and developed a benchmarking platform dedicated to the measurement of the performance of a JMX manager-agent based management system. The second part of our work deals with the collection of measurement data sets from our JMX benchmarking platform. We mainly studied the effect of both load and the number of agents on the scalability, the impact of management...

  13. A Pressure Control Method for Emulsion Pump Station Based on Elman Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Tan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to realize pressure control of emulsion pump station which is key equipment of coal mine in the safety production, the control requirements were analyzed and a pressure control method based on Elman neural network was proposed. The key techniques such as system framework, pressure prediction model, pressure control model, and the flowchart of proposed approach were presented. Finally, a simulation example was carried out and comparison results indicated that the proposed approach was feasible and efficient and outperformed others.

  14. Wireless Sensor Network for Electric Transmission Line Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alphenaar, Bruce

    2009-06-30

    Generally, federal agencies tasked to oversee power grid reliability are dependent on data from grid infrastructure owners and operators in order to obtain a basic level of situational awareness. Since there are many owners and operators involved in the day-to-day functioning of the power grid, the task of accessing, aggregating and analyzing grid information from these sources is not a trivial one. Seemingly basic tasks such as synchronizing data timestamps between many different data providers and sources can be difficult as evidenced during the post-event analysis of the August 2003 blackout. In this project we investigate the efficacy and cost effectiveness of deploying a network of wireless power line monitoring devices as a method of independently monitoring key parts of the power grid as a complement to the data which is currently available to federal agencies from grid system operators. Such a network is modeled on proprietary power line monitoring technologies and networks invented, developed and deployed by Genscape, a Louisville, Kentucky based real-time energy information provider. Genscape measures transmission line power flow using measurements of electromagnetic fields under overhead high voltage transmission power lines in the United States and Europe. Opportunities for optimization of the commercial power line monitoring technology were investigated in this project to enable lower power consumption, lower cost and improvements to measurement methodologies. These optimizations were performed in order to better enable the use of wireless transmission line monitors in large network deployments (perhaps covering several thousand power lines) for federal situational awareness needs. Power consumption and cost reduction were addressed by developing a power line monitor using a low power, low cost wireless telemetry platform known as the ''Mote''. Motes were first developed as smart sensor nodes in wireless mesh networking applications

  15. Network-Oriented Radiation Monitoring System (NORMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahmat Aryaeinejad; David F. Spencer

    2007-10-01

    We have developed a multi-functional pocket radiation monitoring system capable of detecting and storing gamma ray and neutron data and then sending the data through a wireless connection to a remote central facility upon request. The device has programmable alarm trigger levels that can be modified for specific applications. The device could be used as a stand-alone device or in conjunction with an array to cover a small or large area. The data is stored with a date/time stamp. The device may be remotely configured. Data can be transferred and viewed on a PDA via direct connection or wirelessly. Functional/bench tests have been completed successfully. The device detects low-level neutron and gamma sources within a shielded container in a radiation field of 10 uR/hr above the ambient background level.

  16. The influence of interpolation and station network density on the distributions and trends of climate variables in gridded daily data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofstra, Nynke [University of Oxford, School of Geography and the Environment, Oxford (United Kingdom); Wageningen University, Environmental Systems Analysis Group, P.O. Box 47, Wageningen (Netherlands); New, Mark; McSweeney, Carol [University of Oxford, School of Geography and the Environment, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    We study the influence of station network density on the distributions and trends in indices of area-average daily precipitation and temperature in the E-OBS high resolution gridded dataset of daily climate over Europe, which was produced with the primary purpose of Regional Climate Model evaluation. Area averages can only be determined with reasonable accuracy from a sufficiently large number of stations within a grid-box. However, the station network on which E-OBS is based comprises only 2,316 stations, spread unevenly across approximately 18,000 0.22 grid-boxes. Consequently, grid-box data in E-OBS are derived through interpolation of stations up to 500 km distant, with the distance of stations that contribute significantly to any grid-box value increasing in areas with lower station density. Since more dispersed stations have less shared variance, the resultant interpolated values are likely to be over-smoothed, and extreme daily values even more so. We perform an experiment over five E-OBS grid boxes for precipitation and temperature that have a sufficiently dense local station network to enable a reasonable estimate of the area-average. We then create a series of randomly selected station sub-networks ranging in size from four to all stations within the E-OBS interpolation search radii. For each sub-network realisation, we estimate the grid-box average applying the same interpolation methodology as used for E-OBS, and then evaluate the effect of network density on the distribution of daily values, as well as trends in extremes indices. The results show that when fewer stations have been used for the interpolation, both precipitation and temperature are over-smoothed, leading to a strong tendency for interpolated daily values to be reduced relative to the ''true'' area-average. The smoothing is greatest for higher percentiles, and therefore has a disproportionate effect on extremes and any derived extremes indices. For many regions of the

  17. An agronomic field-scale sensor network for monitoring soil water and temperature variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. J.; Gasch, C.; Brooks, E. S.; Huggins, D. R.; Campbell, C. S.; Cobos, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    Environmental sensor networks have been deployed in a variety of contexts to monitor plant, air, water and soil properties. To date, there have been relatively few such networks deployed to monitor dynamic soil properties in cropped fields. Here we report on experience with a distributed soil sensor network that has been deployed for seven years in a research farm with ongoing agronomic field operations. The Washington State University R. J. Cook Agronomy Farm (CAF), Pullman, WA, USA has recently been designated a United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Long-Term Agro-Ecosystem Research (LTAR) site. In 2007, 12 geo-referenced locations at CAF were instrumented, then in 2009 this network was expended to 42 locations distributed across the 37-ha farm. At each of this locations, Decagon 5TE probes (Decagon Devices Inc., Pullman, WA, USA) were installed at five depths (30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 cm), with temperature and volumetric soil moisture content recorded hourly. Initially, data loggers were wirelessly connected to a data station that could be accessed through a cell connection, but due to the logistics of agronomic field operations, we later buried the dataloggers at each site and now periodically download data via local radio transmission. In this presentation, we share our experience with the installation, maintenance, calibration and data processing associated with an agronomic soil monitoring network. We also present highlights of data derived from this network, including seasonal fluctuations of soil temperature and volumetric water content at each depth, and how these measurements are influenced by crop type, soil properties, landscape position, and precipitation events.

  18. GENASIS national and international monitoring networks for persistent organic pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabec, Karel; Dušek, Ladislav; Holoubek, Ivan; Hřebíček, Jiří; Kubásek, Miroslav; Urbánek, Jaroslav

    2010-05-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) remain in the centre of scientific attention due to their slow rates of degradation, their toxicity, and potential for both long-range transport and bioaccumulation in living organisms. This group of compounds covers large number of various chemicals from industrial products, such as polychlorinated biphenyls, etc. The GENASIS (Global Environmental Assessment and Information System) information system utilizes data from national and international monitoring networks to obtain as-complete-as-possible set of information and a representative picture of environmental contamination by persistent organic pollutants (POPs). There are data from two main datasets on POPs monitoring: 1.Integrated monitoring of POPs in Košetice Observatory (Czech Republic) which is a long term background site of the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) for the Central Europe; the data reveals long term trends of POPs in all environmental matrices. The Observatory is the only one in Europe where POPs have been monitored not only in ambient air, but also in wet atmospheric deposition, surface waters, sediments, soil, mosses and needles (integrated monitoring). Consistent data since the year 1996 are available, earlier data (up to 1998) are burdened by high variability and high detection limits. 2.MONET network is ambient air monitoring activities in the Central and Eastern European region (CEEC), Central Asia, Africa and Pacific Islands driven by RECETOX as the Regional Centre of the Stockholm Convention for the region of Central and Eastern Europe under the common name of the MONET networks (MONitoring NETwork). For many of the participating countries these activities generated first data on the atmospheric levels of POPs. The MONET network uses new technologies of air passive sampling, which was developed, tested, and calibrated by RECETOX in cooperation with Environment Canada and Lancaster University, and was originally launched as a

  19. Searchlight Correlation Detectors: Optimal Seismic Monitoring Using Regional and Global Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Steven J.; Kværna, Tormod; Näsholm, Sven Peter

    2015-04-01

    The sensitivity of correlation detectors increases greatly when the outputs from multiple seismic traces are considered. For single-array monitoring, a zero-offset stack of individual correlation traces will provide significant noise suppression and enhanced sensitivity for a source region surrounding the hypocenter of the master event. The extent of this region is limited only by the decrease in waveform similarity with increasing hypocenter separation. When a regional or global network of arrays and/or 3-component stations is employed, the zero-offset approach is only optimal when the master and detected events are co-located exactly. In many monitoring situations, including nuclear test sites and geothermal fields, events may be separated by up to many hundreds of meters while still retaining sufficient waveform similarity for correlation detection on single channels. However, the traveltime differences resulting from the hypocenter separation may result in significant beam loss on the zero-offset stack and a deployment of many beams for different hypothetical source locations in geographical space is required. The beam deployment necessary for optimal performance of the correlation detectors is determined by an empirical network response function which is most easily evaluated using the auto-correlation functions of the waveform templates from the master event. The correlation detector beam deployments for providing optimal network sensitivity for the North Korea nuclear test site are demonstrated for both regional and teleseismic monitoring configurations.

  20. Landbird Monitoring Protocol for National Parks in the North Coast and Cascades Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Rodney B.; Wilkerson, Robert L.; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Kuntz, Robert C.; Boetsch, John R.; Schaberl, James P.; Happe, Patricia J.

    2007-01-01

    This protocol narrative outlines the rationale, sampling design and methods for monitoring landbirds in the North Coast and Cascades Network (NCCN) during the breeding season. The NCCN, one of 32 networks of parks in the National Park System, comprises seven national park units in the Pacific Northwest, including three large, mountainous, natural area parks (Mount Rainier [MORA] and Olympic [OLYM] National Parks, North Cascades National Park Service Complex [NOCA]), and four small historic cultural parks (Ebey's Landing National Historical Reserve [EBLA], Lewis and Clark National Historical Park [LEWI], Fort Vancouver National Historical Park [FOVA], and San Juan Island National Historical Park [SAJH]). The protocol reflects decisions made by the NCCN avian monitoring group, which includes NPS representatives from each of the large parks in the Network as well as personnel from the U.S. Geological Survey Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center (USGS-FRESC) Olympic Field Station, and The Institute for Bird Populations, at meetings held between 2000 (Siegel and Kuntz, 2000) and 2005. The protocol narrative describes the monitoring program in relatively broad terms, and its structure and content adhere to the outline and recommendations developed by Oakley and others (2003) and adopted by NPS. Finer details of the methodology are addressed in a set of standard operating procedures (SOPs) that accompany the protocol narrative. We also provide appendixes containing additional supporting materials that do not clearly belong in either the protocol narrative or the standard operating procedures.

  1. Transformation of Air Quality Monitor Data from the International Space Station into Toxicological Effect Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.; Zalesak, Selina M.

    2011-01-01

    The primary reason for monitoring air quality aboard the International Space Station (ISS) is to determine whether air pollutants have collectively reached a concentration where the crew could experience adverse health effects. These effects could be near-real-time (e.g. headache, respiratory irritation) or occur late in the mission or even years later (e.g. cancer, liver toxicity). Secondary purposes for monitoring include discovery that a potentially harmful compound has leaked into the atmosphere or that air revitalization system performance has diminished. Typical ISS atmospheric trace pollutants consist of alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic compounds, halo-carbons, siloxanes, and silanols. Rarely, sulfur-containing compounds and alkanes are found at trace levels. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) have been set in cooperation with a subcommittee of the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology. For each compound and time of exposure, the limiting adverse effect(s) has been identified. By factoring the analytical data from the Air Quality Monitor (AQM), which is in use as a prototype instrument aboard the ISS, through the array of compounds and SMACs, the risk of 16 specific adverse effects can be estimated. Within each adverse-effect group, we have used an additive model proportioned to each applicable 180-day SMAC to estimate risk. In the recent past this conversion has been performed using archival data, which can be delayed for months after an air sample is taken because it must be returned to earth for analysis. But with the AQM gathering in situ data each week, NASA is in a position to follow toxic-effect groups and correlate these with any reported crew symptoms. The AQM data are supplemented with data from real-time CO2 instruments aboard the ISS and from archival measurements of formaldehyde, which the AQM cannot detect.

  2. Materials International Space Station Experiment-6 (MISSE-6) Atomic Oxygen Fluence Monitor Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Miller, Sharon K.; Waters, Deborah L.

    2010-01-01

    An atomic oxygen fluence monitor was flown as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment-6 (MISSE-6). The monitor was designed to measure the accumulation of atomic oxygen fluence with time as it impinged upon the ram surface of the MISSE 6B Passive Experiment Container (PEC). This was an active experiment for which data was to be stored on a battery-powered data logger for post-flight retrieval and analysis. The atomic oxygen fluence measurement was accomplished by allowing atomic oxygen to erode two opposing wedges of pyrolytic graphite that partially covered a photodiode. As the wedges of pyrolytic graphite erode, the area of the photodiode that is illuminated by the Sun increases. The short circuit current, which is proportional to the area of illumination, was to be measured and recorded as a function of time. The short circuit current from a different photodiode, which was oriented in the same direction and had an unobstructed view of the Sun, was also to be recorded as a reference current. The ratio of the two separate recorded currents should bear a linear relationship with the accumulated atomic oxygen fluence and be independent of the intensity of solar illumination. Ground hyperthermal atomic oxygen exposure facilities were used to evaluate the linearity of the ratio of short circuit current to the atomic oxygen fluence. In flight, the current measurement circuitry failed to operate properly, thus the overall atomic oxygen mission fluence could only be estimated based on the physical erosion of the pyrolytic graphite wedges. The atomic oxygen fluence was calculated based on the knowledge of the space atomic oxygen erosion yield of pyrolytic graphite measured from samples on the MISSE 2. The atomic oxygen fluence monitor, the expected result and comparison of mission atomic oxygen fluence based on the erosion of the pyrolytic graphite and Kapton H atomic oxygen fluence witness samples are presented in this paper.

  3. Development of a mobile and high-precision atmospheric CO2 monitoring station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, M.; Haszpra, L.; Major, I.; Svingor, É.; Veres, M.

    2009-04-01

    Nowadays one of the most burning questions for the science is the rate and the reasons of the recent climate change. Greenhouse gases (GHG), mainly CO2 and CH4 in the atmosphere could affect the climate of our planet. However, the relation between the amount of atmospheric GHG and the climate is complex, full with interactions and feedbacks partly poorly known even by now. The only way to understand the processes, to trace the changes, to develop and validate mathematical models for forecasts is the extensive, high precision, continuous monitoring of the atmosphere. Fossil fuel CO2 emissions are a major component of the European carbon budget. Separation of the fossil fuel signal from the natural biogenic one in the atmosphere is, therefore, a crucial task for quantifying exchange flux of the continental biosphere through atmospheric observations and inverse modelling. An independent method to estimate trace gas emissions is the top-down approach, using atmospheric CO2 concentration measurements combined with simultaneous radiocarbon (14C) observations. As adding fossil fuel CO2 to the atmosphere, therefore, leads not only to an increase in the CO2 content of the atmosphere but also to a decrease in the 14C/12C ratio in atmospheric CO2. The ATOMKI has more than two decade long experience in atmospheric 14CO2 monitoring. As a part of an ongoing research project being carried out in Hungary to investigate the amount and temporal and spatial variations of fossil fuel CO2 in the near surface atmosphere we developed a mobile and high-precision atmospheric CO2 monitoring station. We describe the layout and the operation of the measuring system which is designed for the continuous, unattended monitoring of CO2 mixing ratio in the near surface atmosphere based on an Ultramat 6F (Siemens) infrared gas analyser. In the station one atmospheric 14CO2 sampling unit is also installed which is developed and widely used since more than one decade by ATOMKI. Mixing ratio of CO2 is

  4. A heuristic optimization approach for Air Quality Monitoring Network design with the simultaneous consideration of multiple pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkamel, A; Fatehifar, E; Taheri, M; Al-Rashidi, M S; Lohi, A

    2008-08-01

    An interactive optimization methodology for allocating the number and configuration of an Air Quality Monitoring Network (AQMN) in a vast area to identify the impact of multiple pollutants is described. A mathematical model based on the multiple cell approach (MCA) was used to create monthly spatial distributions for the concentrations of the pollutants emitted from different emission sources. These spatial temporal patterns were subject to a heuristic optimization algorithm to identify the optimal configuration of a monitoring network. The objective of the optimization is to provide maximum information about multi-pollutants (i.e., CO, NO(x) and SO(2)) emitted from each source within a given area. The model was applied to a network of existing refinery stacks and the results indicate that three stations can provide a total coverage of more than 70%. In addition, the effect of the spatial correlation coefficient (R(C)) on total area coverage was analyzed. The modeling results show that as the cutoff correlation coefficient R(C) is increased from 0.75 to 0.95, the number of monitoring stations required for total coverage is increased. A high R(C) based network may not necessarily cover the entire region, but the covered region will be well represented. A low R(C) based network, on the other hand, would offer more coverage of the region, but the covered region may not be satisfactorily represented.

  5. A Flexible Acoustic Sensor Network for Various Monitoring Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basten, T.G.H.; Wessels, P.W.

    2013-01-01

    Acoustic monitoring using a sensor network is a powerful instrument to assess and manage complex noise situations. It can provide a basis to identify appropriate and cost effective measures, and to assess their effect by comparing before and after implementation. It can also be an instrument for com

  6. BANip: Enabling Remote Healthcare Monitoring with Body Area Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokovski, Nikolay; Halteren, van Aart; Widya, Ing; Guelfi, Nicolas; Astesiano, Egidio; Reggio, Gianna

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a Java service platform for mobile healthcare that enables remote health monitoring using 2.5/3G public wireless networks. The platform complies with todayrsquos healthcare delivery models, in particular it incorporates some functionality of a healthcare call center, a healthport

  7. A proposed ground-water quality monitoring network for Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, R.L.; Parliman, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    A ground water quality monitoring network is proposed for Idaho. The network comprises 565 sites, 8 of which will require construction of new wells. Frequencies of sampling at the different sites are assigned at quarterly, semiannual, annual, and 5 years. Selected characteristics of the water will be monitored by both laboratory- and field-analysis methods. The network is designed to: (1) Enable water managers to keep abreast of the general quality of the State 's ground water, and (2) serve as a warning system for undesirable changes in ground-water quality. Data were compiled for hydrogeologic conditions, ground-water quality, cultural elements, and pollution sources. A ' hydrologic unit priority index ' is used to rank 84 hydrologic units (river basins or segments of river basins) of the State for monitoring according to pollution potential. Emphasis for selection of monitoring sites is placed on the 15 highest ranked units. The potential for pollution is greatest in areas of privately owned agricultural land. Other areas of pollution potential are residential development, mining and related processes, and hazardous waste disposal. Data are given for laboratory and field analyses, number of site visits, manpower, subsistence, and mileage, from which costs for implementing the network can be estimated. Suggestions are made for data storage and retrieval and for reporting changes in water quality. (Kosco-USGS)

  8. BANip: Enabling Remote Healthcare Monitoring with Body Area Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokovski, N.T.; van Halteren, Aart; Widya, I.A.; Guelfi, Nicolas; Astesiano, Egidio; Reggio, Gianna

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a Java service platform for mobile healthcare that enables remote health monitoring using 2.5/3G public wireless networks. The platform complies with todayrsquos healthcare delivery models, in particular it incorporates some functionality of a healthcare call center, a healthport

  9. Combine harvester monitor system based on wireless sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    A measurement method based on Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) was developed to monitor the working condition of combine harvester for remote application. Three JN5139 modules were chosen for sensor data acquisition and another two as a router and a coordinator, which could create a tree topology netwo...

  10. Joint Base Station Clustering and Beamformer Design for Partial Coordinated Transmission in Heterogenous Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Mingyi; Baligh, Hadi; Luo, Zhi-Quan

    2012-01-01

    We consider the interference management problem in a multicell MIMO heterogenous network. Within each cell there are a large number of distributed micro/pico base stations (BSs) that can be potentially coordinated for joint transmission. To reduce coordination overhead, we consider user-centric BS clustering so that each user is served by only a small number of (potentially overlapping) BSs. Thus, given the channel state information, our objective is to jointly design the BS clustering and the linear beamformers for all BSs in the network. In this paper, we formulate this problem from a {sparse optimization} perspective, and propose an efficient algorithm that is based on iteratively solving a sequence of group LASSO problems. A novel feature of the proposed algorithm is that it performs BS clustering and beamformer design jointly rather than separately as is done in the existing approaches for partial coordinated transmission. Moreover, the cluster size can be controlled by adjusting a single penalty paramet...

  11. Scalable Base-Station Model-Based Multicast in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao-Liang Peng; Shan-Shan Li; Lei Chen; Yu-Xing Peng; Nong Xiao

    2008-01-01

    Multicast is essential for wireless sensor network (WSN) applications. Existing multicast protocols in WSNs are often designed in a P2P pattern, assuming small number of destination nodes and frequent changes in network topologies.In order to truly adopt multicast in WSNs, we propose a base-station model-based multicast, SenCast, to meet the general requirements of applications. SenCast is scalable and energy-efficient for large group communications in WSNs. Theoretical analysis shows that SenCast is able to approximate the Minimum Nonleaf Nodes (MNN) problem to a ratio of In |R| (R is the set of all destinations), the best known lowest bound. We evaluate our design through comprehensive simulations and prototype implementations on Mica2 motes. Experimental results demonstrate that SenCast outperforms previous multicast protocols including the most recent work uCast.

  12. A Camera and Multi-Sensor Automated Station Design for Polar Physical and Biological Systems Monitoring: AMIGOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlander, J. A.; Ross, R.; Scambos, T.; Haran, T. M.; Bauer, R. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Automated Meteorology - Ice/Indigenous species - Geophysics Observation System (AMIGOS) consists of a set of measurement instruments and camera(s) controlled by a single-board computer with a simplified Linux operating system and an Iridium satellite modem supporting two-way communication. Primary features of the system relevant to polar operations are low power requirements, daily data uploading, reprogramming, tolerance for low temperatures, and various approaches for automatic resets and recovery from low power or cold shut-down. Instruments include a compact weather station, C/A or dual-frequency GPS, solar flux and reflectivity sensors, sonic snow gages, simplified radio-echo-sounder, and resistance thermometer string in the firn column. In the current state of development, there are two basic designs. One is intended for in situ observations of glacier conditions. The other design supports a high-resolution camera for monitoring biological or geophysical systems from short distances (100 m to 20 km). The stations have been successfully used in several locations for operational support, monitoring rapid ice changes in response to climate change or iceberg drift, and monitoring penguin colony activity. As of June, 2012, there are 9 AMIGOS systems installed, all on the Antarctic continent. The stations are a working prototype for a planned series of upgraded stations, currently termed 'Sentinels'. These stations would carry further instrumentation, communications, and processing capability to investigate ice - ocean interaction from ice tongue, ice shelf, or fjord coastline areas.

  13. Active Low Intrusion Hybrid Monitor for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon Navia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Several systems have been proposed to monitor wireless sensor networks (WSN. These systems may be active (causing a high degree of intrusion or passive (low observability inside the nodes. This paper presents the implementation of an active hybrid (hardware and software monitor with low intrusion. It is based on the addition to the sensor node of a monitor node (hardware part which, through a standard interface, is able to receive the monitoring information sent by a piece of software executed in the sensor node. The intrusion on time, code, and energy caused in the sensor nodes by the monitor is evaluated as a function of data size and the interface used. Then different interfaces, commonly available in sensor nodes, are evaluated: serial transmission (USART, serial peripheral interface (SPI, and parallel. The proposed hybrid monitor provides highly detailed information, barely disturbed by the measurement tool (interference, about the behavior of the WSN that may be used to evaluate many properties such as performance, dependability, security, etc. Monitor nodes are self-powered and may be removed after the monitoring campaign to be reused in other campaigns and/or WSNs. No other hardware-independent monitoring platforms with such low interference have been found in the literature.

  14. Active Low Intrusion Hybrid Monitor for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navia, Marlon; Campelo, Jose C; Bonastre, Alberto; Ors, Rafael; Capella, Juan V; Serrano, Juan J

    2015-09-18

    Several systems have been proposed to monitor wireless sensor networks (WSN). These systems may be active (causing a high degree of intrusion) or passive (low observability inside the nodes). This paper presents the implementation of an active hybrid (hardware and software) monitor with low intrusion. It is based on the addition to the sensor node of a monitor node (hardware part) which, through a standard interface, is able to receive the monitoring information sent by a piece of software executed in the sensor node. The intrusion on time, code, and energy caused in the sensor nodes by the monitor is evaluated as a function of data size and the interface used. Then different interfaces, commonly available in sensor nodes, are evaluated: serial transmission (USART), serial peripheral interface (SPI), and parallel. The proposed hybrid monitor provides highly detailed information, barely disturbed by the measurement tool (interference), about the behavior of the WSN that may be used to evaluate many properties such as performance, dependability, security, etc. Monitor nodes are self-powered and may be removed after the monitoring campaign to be reused in other campaigns and/or WSNs. No other hardware-independent monitoring platforms with such low interference have been found in the literature.

  15. Integrated System for Performance Monitoring of ATLAS TDAQ Network

    CERN Document Server

    Savu, D; The ATLAS collaboration; Martin, B; Sjoen, R; Batraneanu, S; Stancu, S

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS TDAQ Network consists of three separate networks spanning four levels of the experimental building. Over 200 edge switches and 5 multi-blade chassis routers are used to interconnect 2000 processors, adding up to more than 7000 high speed interfaces. In order to substantially speed-up ad-hoc and post mortem analysis, a scalable, yet flexible, integrated system for monitoring both network statistics and environmental conditions, processor parameters and data taking characteristics was required. For successful up-to-the-minute monitoring, information from many SNMP compliant devices, independent databases and custom APIs was gathered, stored and displayed in an optimal way. Easy navigation and compact aggregation of multiple data sources were the main requirements; characteristics not found in any of the tested products, either open-source or commercial. This paper describes how performance, scalability and display issues were addressed and what challenges the project faced during development and deplo...

  16. IPv6-Based Smart Metering Network for Monitoring Building Electricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A smart electricity monitoring system of building is presented using ZigBee and internet to establish the network. This system consists of three hardware layers: the host PC, the router, and the sensor nodes. A hierarchical ant colony algorithm is developed for data transmission among the wireless sensor nodes. The wireless communication protocol is also designed based on IPv6 protocol on IEEE 802.15.4 wireless network. All-IP approach and peer-to-peer mode are integrated to optimize the network building. Each node measures the power, current, and voltage and transmits them to the host PC through the router. The host software is designed for building test characteristics, having a tree hierarchy and a friendly interface for the user. The reliability and accuracy of this monitoring system are verified in the experiment and application.

  17. A Unified Monitoring Framework for Energy Consumption and Network Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentin Clouet

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Providing experimenters with deep insight about the effects of their experiments is a central feature of testbeds. In this paper, we describe Kwapi, a framework designed in the context of the Grid'5000 testbed, that unifies measurements for both energy consumption and network traffic. Because all measurements are taken at the infrastructure level (using sensors in power and network equipment, using this framework has no dependencies on the experiments themselves. Initially designed for OpenStack infrastructures, the Kwapi framework allows monitoring and reporting of energy consumption of distributed platforms. In this article, we present the extension of Kwapi to network monitoring, and outline how we overcame several challenges: scaling to a testbed the size of Grid'5000 while still providing high-frequency measurements; providing long-term loss-less storage of measurements; handling operational issues when deploying such a tool on a real infrastructure.

  18. Novel method for fog monitoring using cellular networks infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, N.; Alpert, P.; Messer, H.

    2012-08-01

    A major detrimental effect of fog is visibility limitation which can result in serious transportation accidents, traffic delays and therefore economic damage. Existing monitoring techniques including satellites, transmissometers and human observers - suffer from low spatial resolution, high cost or lack of precision when measuring near ground level. Here we show a novel technique for fog monitoring using wireless communication systems. Communication networks widely deploy commercial microwave links across the terrain at ground level. Operating at frequencies of tens of GHz they are affected by fog and are, effectively, an existing, spatially world-wide distributed sensor network that can provide crucial information about fog concentration and visibility. Fog monitoring potential is demonstrated for a heavy fog event that took place in Israel. The correlation between transmissomters and human eye observations to the visibility estimates from the nearby microwave links was found to be 0.53 and 0.61, respectively. These values indicate the high potential of the proposed method.

  19. Wireless sensor networks for monitoring physiological signals of multiple patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilmaghani, R S; Bobarshad, H; Ghavami, M; Choobkar, S; Wolfe, C

    2011-08-01

    This paper presents the design of a novel wireless sensor network structure to monitor patients with chronic diseases in their own homes through a remote monitoring system of physiological signals. Currently, most of the monitoring systems send patients' data to a hospital with the aid of personal computers (PC) located in the patients' home. Here, we present a new design which eliminates the need for a PC. The proposed remote monitoring system is a wireless sensor network with the nodes of the network installed in the patients' homes. These nodes are then connected to a central node located at a hospital through an Internet connection. The nodes of the proposed wireless sensor network are created by using a combination of ECG sensors, MSP430 microcontrollers, a CC2500 low-power wireless radio, and a network protocol called the SimpliciTI protocol. ECG signals are first sampled by a small portable device which each patient carries. The captured signals are then wirelessly transmitted to an access point located within the patients' home. This connectivity is based on wireless data transmission at 2.4-GHz frequency. The access point is also a small box attached to the Internet through a home asynchronous digital subscriber line router. Afterwards, the data are sent to the hospital via the Internet in real time for analysis and/or storage. The benefits of this remote monitoring are wide ranging: the patients can continue their normal lives, they do not need a PC all of the time, their risk of infection is reduced, costs significantly decrease for the hospital, and clinicians can check data in a short time.

  20. The World Radiation Monitoring Center of the Baseline Surface Radiation Network: Status 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driemel, Amelie; König-Langlo, Gert; Sieger, Rainer; Long, Charles N.

    2017-04-01

    The World Radiation Monitoring Center (WRMC) is the central archive of the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN). The BSRN was initiated by the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) Working Group on Radiative Fluxes and began operations in 1992. One of its aims is to provide short and long-wave surface radiation fluxes of the best possible quality to support the research projects of the WCRP and other scientific projects. The high quality, uniform and consistent measurements of the BSRN network can be used to monitor the short- and long-wave radiative components and their changes with the best methods currently available, to validate and evaluate satellite-based estimates of the surface radiative fluxes, and to verify the results of global climate models. In 1992 the BSRN/WRMC started at ETH Zurich, Switzerland with 9 stations. Since 2007 the archive is hosted by the Alfred-Wegener-Institut (AWI) in Bremerhaven, Germany (http://www.bsrn.awi.de/) and comprises a network of currently 59 stations in contrasting climatic zones, covering a latitude range from 80°N to 90°S. Of the 59 stations, 23 offer the complete radiation budget (down- and upwelling short- and long-wave data). In addition to the ftp-service access instituted at ETH Zurich, the archive at AWI offers data access via PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science (https://www.pangaea.de). PANGAEA guarantees the long-term availability of its content through a commitment of the operating institutions. Within PANGAEA, the metadata of the stations are freely available. To access the data itself an account is required. If the scientist accepts to follow the data release guidelines of the archive (http://bsrn.awi.de/data/conditions-of-data-release/) he or she can get an account from amelie.driemel@awi.de. Currently, more than 9,400 station months (>780 years) are available for interested scientists (see also https://dataportals.pangaea.de/bsrn/?q=LR0100 for an overview on available data

  1. Ionosphere Plasma State Determination in Low Earth Orbit from International Space Station Plasma Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    A plasma diagnostic package is deployed on the International Space Station (ISS). The system - a Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) - is used by NASA to monitor the electrical floating potential of the vehicle to assure astronaut safety during extravehicular activity. However, data from the unit also reflects the ionosphere state and seems to represent an unutilized scientific resource in the form of an archive of scientific plasma state data. The unit comprises a Floating Potential probe and two Langmuir probes. There is also an unused but active plasma impedance probe. The data, at one second cadence, are collected, typically for a two week period surrounding extravehicular activity events. Data is also collected any time a visiting vehicle docks with ISS and also when any large solar events occur. The telemetry system is unusual because the package is mounted on a television camera stanchion and its data is impressed on a video signal that is transmitted to the ground and streamed by internet to two off center laboratory locations. The data quality has in the past been challenged by weaknesses in the integrated ground station and distribution systems. These issues, since mid-2010, have been largely resolved and the ground stations have been upgraded. Downstream data reduction has been developed using physics based modeling of the electron and ion collecting character in the plasma. Recursive algorithms determine plasma density and temperature from the raw Langmuir probe current voltage sweeps and this is made available in real time for situational awareness. The purpose of this paper is to describe and record the algorithm for data reduction and to show that the Floating probe and Langmuir probes are capable of providing long term plasma state measurement in the ionosphere. Geophysical features such as the Appleton anomaly and high latitude modulation at the edge of the Auroral zones are regularly observed in the nearly circular, 51 deg inclined, 400 km

  2. Building an alternative fuel refueling network: How many stations are needed and where should they be placed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Michael Anselm

    Gasoline stations are so numerous that the fear of running out of fuel is likely not a top concern among drivers. This may not be the case with the introduction of a new alternative fuel such as hydrogen or electricity. The next three chapters, originally written as peer reviewed journal papers[1,2,3], examine the characteristics of refueling in today's gasoline network and compares these characteristics to hypothetical new alternative fuel networks. Together, they suggest that alternative fuel networks with many fewer stations than exist in the gasoline network could be acceptable to future consumers. This acceptability is measured in three ways. The first chapter examines the distance from home to the nearest station and finds that if alternative fuel stations were one-third as numerous as gasoline stations, the travel time to the nearest station was virtually identical to that of gasoline stations. The results suggest that even for station networks numbering only one-twentieth the current number of outlets, the difference in travel time with respect to gasoline is relatively small. Acceptability was examined in the second chapter by analyzing the spatial refueling patterns of gasoline. This reveals that the volume of fuel sold is greater around the highways and that the route from home to the nearest highway entrance may account for a large portion of refueling. This suggests that the first alternative fuel stations could be sited along the highway near entrances and could provide acceptable access to fuel for those who use these highway entrances to access the wider region. Subsequent stations could be sited closer to the homes of customers. The third chapter estimates acceptability, measured in terms of initial vehicle purchase price, of refueling away from one's own town. A pilot survey using a map-based questionnaire was distributed to 20 respondents. Respondents chose ten stations locations to enable their most important destinations. The alternative fuel

  3. Exploring the Cigala/calibra Network Data Base for Ionosphere Monitoring Over Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vani, B. C.; Galera Monico, J. F.; Shimabukuro, M. H.; Pereira, V. A.; Aquino, M. H.

    2013-12-01

    The ionosphere in Brazil is strongly influenced by the equatorial anomaly, therefore GNSS based applications are widely affected by ionospheric disturbances. A network for continuous monitoring of the ionosphere has been deployed over its territory since February/2011, as part of the CIGALA and CALIBRA projects. Through CIGALA (Concept for Ionospheric Scintillation Mitigation for Professional GNSS in Latin America), which was funded by European Commission (EC) in the framework of the FP7-GALILEO-2009-GSA (European GNSS Agency), the first stations were deployed at Presidente Prudente, São Paulo state, in February 2011. CIGALA was finalized in February 2012 with eight stations distributed over the Brazilian territory. Through CALIBRA (Countering GNSS high Accuracy applications Limitations due to Ionospheric disturbances in BRAzil), which is also funded by the European Commission now in the framework of the FP7-GALILEO-2011-GSA, new stations are being deployed. Some of the stations are being specifically placed according to geomagnetic considerations aiming to support the development of a local scintillation and TEC model. CALIBRA started in November 2012 and will have two years of duration, focusing on the development of improved and new algorithms that can be applied to high accuracy GNSS techniques in order to tackle the effects of ionospheric disturbances. PolarRxS-PRO receivers, manufactured by Septentrio, have been deployed at all stations This multi-GNSS receiver can collect data at rates of up to 100 Hz, providing ionospheric TEC, scintillation parameters like S4 and Sigma-Phi, and other signal metrics like locktime for all satellites and frequencies tracked. All collected data (raw and ionosphere monitoring records) is stored at a central facility located at the Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCT/UNESP) in Presidente Prudente. To deal with the large amount of data, an analysis infrastructure has also been established

  4. Event localization in underwater wireless sensor networks using Monitoring Courses

    KAUST Repository

    Debont, Matthew John Robert

    2012-08-01

    We propose m-courses (Monitoring Courses), a novel solution to localize events in an underwater wireless sensor network. These networks consists of surface gateways and relay nodes. GPS can localize the position of surface gateways which can then distribute their locations through the network using acoustic modems. Relay nodes are deployed to remain static, but these untethered nodes may drift due to water currents, resulting in disruption of communication links. We develop a novel underwater alarm system using a cyclic graph model. In the event of link failure, a series of alarm packets are broadcast in the network. These alarms are then captured by the underwater m-courses, which can also be used to assure network connectivity and identify node failures. M-courses also allow the network to localize events and identify network issues locally before forwarding results upwards to a Surface Gateway node. This reduces communication overhead and allows for efficient management of nodes in a mobile network. Our results show that m-course routing reduces the number of sends required to report an event to a Surface Gateway by up to 80% when compared to a naïve routing implementation.

  5. GuMNet - A high altitude monitoring network in the Sierra de Guadarrama (Madrid, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santolaria-Canales, Edmundo

    2016-04-01

    The Guadarrama Monitoring Network (GuMNet) is an observational infrastructure focused on monitoring the state of the atmosphere and the ground in the Sierra de Guadarrama, 50 km NW of the city of Madrid. The network is composed of10 stations ranging from low altitude (900 m a.s.l.) to high mountain climate (2400 m a.s.l.). The atmospheric instrumentation includes sensors for air temperature, air humidity, 4-component net radiation, precipitation, snow height and wind speed and direction. The surface and subsurface infrastructure includes temperature and humidity sensors distributed in 9 trenches up to a maximum of 1 m depth and additionally temperature sensors in 15 PVC cased boreholes down to 20 m and 2 m with a higher vertical resolution close to the surface. All stations are located in exposed open areas except for one site that is in a forested area for measuring air-ground fluxes under forest conditions. High altitude sites are focused on periglacial areas and lower altitude sites have emphasis on pastures. One of the low altitude sites is equipped with a 10 m high tower with 3D sonic anemometers and a CO2/H2O analyzer that will allow the sampling of wind profiles and H2O and CO2 eddy covariance fluxes, important for estimation of CO2 and energy exchanges over complex vegetated surfaces. The network is connected via general packet radio service to the central lab in the Campus of Excellence of Moncloa and management software has been developed to handle the operation of the infrastructure. The data provided by GuMNet will help to improve the characterization of atmospheric variability from turbulent scales to meteorology and climate at high mountain areas, as well as land-atmosphere interactions. The network information aims at meeting the needs of accuracy to be used for biological, agricultural, hydrological, meteorological and climatic investigations in this area with relevance for ecosystem oriented studies. This setup will complement the broader network

  6. Distributed Linear Precoder Optimization and Base Station Selection for an Uplink Heterogeneous Network

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Mingyi

    2012-01-01

    In a heterogeneous wireless cellular network, each user may be covered by multiple access points such as macro/pico/relay/femto base stations (BS). An effective approach to maximize the sum utility (e.g., system throughput) in such a network is to jointly optimize users' linear procoders as well as their base station associations. In this paper we first show that this joint optimization problem is NP-hard and thus is difficult to solve to global optimality. To find a locally optimal solution, we formulate the problem as a noncooperative game in which the users and the BSs both act as players. We introduce a set of new utility functions for the players and show that every Nash equilibrium (NE) of the resulting game is a stationary solution of the original sum utility maximization problem. Moreover, we develop a best-response type algorithm that allows the players to distributedly reach a NE of the game. Simulation results show that the proposed distributed algorithm can effectively relieve local BS congestion ...

  7. A new permanent multi-parameter monitoring network in Central Asian high mountains – from measurements to data bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Schöne

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Long-term monitoring of water resources and climate parameters at the scale of river basins requires networks of continuously operated in-situ stations. Since 2009, GFZ and CAIAG, in cooperation with the National Hydrometeorological Services (NHMS of Central Asia, are establishing such a regional monitoring network in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and lately Afghanistan to collect observations of meteorological and hydrological parameters and to deliver them to the end-users for operational tasks and scientific studies. The newly developed and installed remotely operated multi-parameter stations (ROMPS do not only monitor standard meteorological and hydrological parameters, but also deliver Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS data for atmospheric sounding as well as tectonic studies. Additionally, three stations integrate seismic sensors for earthquake monitoring. The observational data from the ROMPS is transmitted nominally in near-real time, but at least once a day to a centralized geo-database infrastructure for long-term storage and data redistribution. Users can access the data manually using a web-interface or automatically using SOS requests; in addition, data is planed to be distributed to the NHMS through standard communication and data exchange channels.

  8. Impacts on particles and ozone by transport processes recorded at urban and high-altitude monitoring stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolás, J.F., E-mail: j.nicolas@umh.es [Laboratory of Atmospheric Pollution (LCA), Miguel Hernández University, Av. de la Universidad s/n, Edif. Alcudia, 03202 Elche (Spain); Crespo, J.; Yubero, E.; Soler, R. [Laboratory of Atmospheric Pollution (LCA), Miguel Hernández University, Av. de la Universidad s/n, Edif. Alcudia, 03202 Elche (Spain); Carratalá, A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Alicante, P.O. Box 99, 03080 Alicante (Spain); Mantilla, E. [Instituto Universitario CEAM-UMH, Parque Tecnológico, C/Charles R. Darwin 14, E-46980 Paterna (Spain)

    2014-01-01

    In order to evaluate the influence of particle transport episodes on particle number concentration temporal trends at both urban and high-altitude (Aitana peak-1558 m a.s.l.) stations, a simultaneous sampling campaign from October 2011 to September 2012 was performed. The monitoring stations are located in southeastern Spain, close to the Mediterranean coast. The annual average value of particle concentration obtained in the larger accumulation mode (size range 0.25–1 μm) at the mountain site, 55.0 ± 3.0 cm{sup − 3}, was practically half that of the value obtained at the urban station (112.0 ± 4.0 cm{sup − 3}). The largest difference between both stations was recorded during December 2011 and January 2012, when particles at the mountain station registered the lowest values. It was observed that during urban stagnant episodes, particle transport from urban sites to the mountain station could take place under specific atmospheric conditions. During these transports, the major particle transfer is produced in the 0.5–2 μm size range. The minimum difference between stations was recorded in summer, particularly in July 2012, which is most likely due to several particle transport events that affected only the mountain station. The particle concentration in the coarse mode was very similar at both monitoring sites, with the biggest difference being recorded during the summer months, 0.4 ± 0.1 cm{sup − 3} at the urban site and 0.9 ± 0.1 cm{sup − 3} at the Aitana peak in August 2012. Saharan dust outbreaks were the main factor responsible for these values during summer time. The regional station was affected more by these outbreaks, recording values of > 4.0 cm{sup − 3}, than the urban site. This long-range particle transport from the Sahara desert also had an effect upon O{sub 3} levels measured at the mountain station. During periods affected by Saharan dust outbreaks, ozone levels underwent a significant decrease (3–17%) with respect to its mean

  9. Technical Note: Novel method for water vapor monitoring using wireless communication networks measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, N.; Alpert, P.; Messer, H.

    2008-06-01

    We propose a new technique that overcomes the obstacles of the existing methods for monitoring near-surface water vapor, by estimating humidity from data collected through existing wireless communication networks. Weather conditions and atmospheric phenomena affect the electromagnetic channel, causing attenuations to the radio signals. Thus, wireless communication networks are in effect built-in environmental monitoring facilities. The wireless microwave links, used in these networks, are widely deployed by cellular providers for backhaul communication between base stations, a few tens of meters above ground level. As a result, the proposed method can provide moisture observations at high temporal and spatial resolution. Further, the implementation cost is minimal, since the data used are already collected and saved by the cellular operators. In addition - many of these links are installed in areas where access is difficult such as orographic terrain and complex topography. As such, our method enables measurements in places that have been hard to measure in the past, or have never been measured before. We present results from real-data measurements taken from two microwave links used in a backhaul cellular network that show excellent correlation to surface station humidity measurements. The measurements were taken daily in two sites, one in northern Israel (28 measurements), the other in central Israel (29 measurements).The correlation of the microwave link measurements to those of the humidity gauges were 0.9 and 0.82 for the north and central sites, respectively. The RMSE were 20.8% and 33.1% for the northern and central site measurements, respectively.

  10. Technical Note: Novel method for water vapour monitoring using wireless communication networks measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, N.; Alpert, P.; Messer, H.

    2009-04-01

    We propose a new technique that overcomes the obstacles of the existing methods for monitoring near-surface water vapour, by estimating humidity from data collected through existing wireless communication networks. Weather conditions and atmospheric phenomena affect the electromagnetic channel, causing attenuations to the radio signals. Thus, wireless communication networks are in effect built-in environmental monitoring facilities. The wireless microwave links, used in these networks, are widely deployed by cellular providers for backhaul communication between base stations, a few tens of meters above ground level. As a result, if all available measurements are used, the proposed method can provide moisture observations with high spatial resolution and potentially high temporal resolution. Further, the implementation cost is minimal, since the data used are already collected and saved by the cellular operators. In addition - many of these links are installed in areas where access is difficult such as orographic terrain and complex topography. As such, our method enables measurements in places that have been hard to measure in the past, or have never been measured before. The technique is restricted to weather conditions which exclude rain, fog or clouds along the propagation path. Strong winds that may cause movement of the link transmitter or receiver (or both) may also interfere with the ability to conduct accurate measurements. We present results from real-data measurements taken from two microwave links used in a backhaul cellular network that show convincing correlation to surface station humidity measurements. The measurements were taken daily in two sites, one in northern Israel (28 measurements), the other in central Israel (29 measurements). The correlation between the microwave link measurements and the humidity gauges were 0.9 and 0.82 for the north and central sites, respectively. The Root Mean Square Differences (RMSD) were 1.8 g/m3 and 3.4 g/m3 for

  11. Novel method for water vapour monitoring using wireless communication networks measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, N.; Alpert, P.; Messer, H.

    2010-09-01

    We propose a new technique for monitoring near-surface water vapour, by estimating humidity from data collected through existing wireless communication networks. Weather conditions and atmospheric phenomena affect the electromagnetic channel, causing attenuations to the radio signals. Thus, wireless communication networks are in effect built-in environmental monitoring facilities. The wireless microwave links, used in these networks, are widely deployed by cellular providers for backhaul communication between base stations, a few tens of meters above ground level. As a result, if all available measurements are used, the proposed method can provide moisture observations with high spatial resolution and potentially high temporal resolution. Further, the implementation cost is minimal, since the data used are already collected and saved by the cellular operators. In addition - many of these links are installed in areas where access is difficult such as orographic terrain and complex topography. As such, our method enables measurements in places that have been hard to measure in the past, or have never been measured before. The technique is restricted to weather conditions which exclude rain, fog or clouds along the propagation path. Strong winds that may cause movement of the link transmitter or receiver (or both) may also interfere with the ability to conduct accurate measurements. We present results from real-data measurements taken from microwave links used in a backhaul cellular network that show very good correlation with surface station humidity measurements (comparisons were performed for several links, found at different locations, during different time periods, showing correlations in the range of 0.5-0.9).

  12. Design of FPGA Based Neural Network Controller for Earth Station Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen T. Dorrah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Automation of generating hardware description language code from neural networks models can highly decrease time of implementation those networks into a digital devices, thus significant money savings. To implement the neural network into hardware designer, it is required to translate generated model into device structure. VHDL language is used to describe those networks into hardware. VHDL code has been proposed to implement ANNs as well as to present simulation results with floating point arithmetic of the earth station and the satellite power systems using ModelSim® PE 6.6 simulator tool. Integration between MATLAB® and VHDL is used to save execution time of computation. The results shows that a good agreement between MATLAB and VHDL and a fast/flexible feed forward NN which is capable of dealing with floating point arithmetic operations; minimum number of CLB slices; and good speed of performance. FPGA synthesis results are obtained with view RTL schematic and technology schematic from Xilinix tool. Minimum number of utilized resources is obtained by using Xilinix VERTIX5.

  13. Plan for a groundwater monitoring network in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Shiang-Kueen

    In Taiwan, rapid economic growth, rising standards of living, and an altered societal structure have in recent years put severe demands on water supplies. Because of its stable quantity and quality, groundwater has long been a reliable source of water for domestic, agricultural, and industrial users, but the establishment of a management program that integrates groundwater and surface-water use has been hampered by the lack of groundwater data. In 1992, the Department of Water Resources (DWR) initiated a program entitled "Groundwater Monitoring Network Plan in Taiwan." Under this program, basic groundwater data, including water-level and water-quality data, are being collected, and a reliable database is being established for the purpose of managing total water resources. This paper introduces the goals, implementation stages, and scope of that plan. The plan calls for constructing 517 hydrogeologic survey stations and 990 groundwater monitoring wells within 17 years. Under this program, water-level fluctuations are continuously monitored, whereas water-quality samples are taken for analysis only at the initial drilling stage and, subsequently, at the time when a monitoring well is being serviced. In 1996, the DWR and the Water Resources Planning Commission were merged to form today's Water Resources Bureau. Résumé A Taïwan, l'expansion économique rapide, l'amélioration des conditions de vie et la transformation de la structure sociale ont provoqué, ces dernières années, une très forte demande en eau. Du fait de sa constance en qualité et en quantité, l'eau souterraine a longtemps été considérée comme une ressource en eau sûre pour les usages domestiques, agricoles et industriels. Mais la mise en place d'un programme de gestion intégrant les utilisations d'eaux souterraines et de surface a été gênée par l'absence de données sur les eaux souterraines. En 1992, le Département des Ressources en Eau a lancé le programme "Plan pour un réseau de

  14. EPMOSt: An Energy-Efficient Passive Monitoring System for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando P. Garcia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring systems are important for debugging and analyzing Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN. In passive monitoring, a monitoring network needs to be deployed in addition to the network to be monitored, named the target network. The monitoring network captures and analyzes packets transmitted by the target network. An energy-efficient passive monitoring system is necessary when we need to monitor a WSN in a real scenario because the lifetime of the monitoring network is extended and, consequently, the target network benefits from the monitoring for a longer time. In this work, we have identified, analyzed and compared the main passive monitoring systems proposed for WSN. During our research, we did not identify any passive monitoring system for WSN that aims to reduce the energy consumption of the monitoring network. Therefore, we propose an Energy-efficient Passive MOnitoring SysTem for WSN named EPMOSt that provides monitoring information using a Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP agent. Thus, any management tool that supports the SNMP protocol can be integrated with this monitoring system. Experiments with real sensors were performed in several scenarios. The results obtained show the energy efficiency of the proposed monitoring system and the viability of using it to monitor WSN in real scenarios.

  15. Delay/Disruption Tolerance Networking (DTN) Implementation and Utilization Options on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Mark; Pitts, Robert Lee; Gifford, Kevin K.; Jenkins, Andrew; Kuzminsky, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is in an operational configuration and nearing final assembly. With its maturity and diverse payloads onboard, the opportunity exists to extend the orbital lab into a facility to exercise and demonstrate Delay/Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN). DTN is an end-to-end network service providing communications through environments characterized by intermittent connectivity, variable delays, high bit error rates, asymmetric links and simplex links. The DTN protocols, also known as bundle protocols, provide a store-and-forward capability to accommodate end-to-end network services. Key capabilities of the bundling protocols include: the Ability to cope with intermittent connectivity, the Ability to take advantage of scheduled and opportunistic connectivity (in addition to always up connectivity), Custody Transfer, and end-to-end security. Colorado University at Boulder and the Huntsville Operational Support Center (HOSC) have been developing a DTN capability utilizing the Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA) payload resources onboard the ISS, at the Boulder Payload Operations Center (POC) and at the HOSC. The DTN capability is in parallel with and is designed to augment current capabilities. The architecture consists of DTN endpoint nodes on the ISS and at the Boulder POC, and a DTN node at the HOSC. The DTN network is composed of two implementations; the Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) and the open source DTN2 implementation. This paper presents the architecture, implementation, and lessons learned. By being able to handle the types of environments described above, the DTN technology will be instrumental in extending networks into deep space to support future missions to other planets and other solar system points of interest. Thus, this paper also discusses how this technology will be applicable to these types of deep space exploration missions.

  16. Delay/Disruption Tolerance Networking (DTN) Implementation and Utilization Options on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Mark; Pitts, Robert Lee; Gifford, Kevin K.; Jenkins, Andrew; Kuzminsky, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is in an operational configuration and nearing final assembly. With its maturity and diverse payloads onboard, the opportunity exists to extend the orbital lab into a facility to exercise and demonstrate Delay/Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN). DTN is an end-to-end network service providing communications through environments characterized by intermittent connectivity, variable delays, high bit error rates, asymmetric links and simplex links. The DTN protocols, also known as bundle protocols, provide a store-and-forward capability to accommodate end-to-end network services. Key capabilities of the bundling protocols include: the Ability to cope with intermittent connectivity, the Ability to take advantage of scheduled and opportunistic connectivity (in addition to always up connectivity), Custody Transfer, and end-to-end security. Colorado University at Boulder and the Huntsville Operational Support Center (HOSC) have been developing a DTN capability utilizing the Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA) payload resources onboard the ISS, at the Boulder Payload Operations Center (POC) and at the HOSC. The DTN capability is in parallel with and is designed to augment current capabilities. The architecture consists of DTN endpoint nodes on the ISS and at the Boulder POC, and a DTN node at the HOSC. The DTN network is composed of two implementations; the Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) and the open source DTN2 implementation. This paper presents the architecture, implementation, and lessons learned. By being able to handle the types of environments described above, the DTN technology will be instrumental in extending networks into deep space to support future missions to other planets and other solar system points of interest. Thus, this paper also discusses how this technology will be applicable to these types of deep space exploration missions.

  17. New PBO GPS Station Construction: Eastern Region Network Enhancements and Multiple-Monument Stability Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmann, S. T.; Austin, K. E.; Berglund, H. T.; Blume, F.; Feaux, K.; Mann, D.; Mattioli, G. S.; Walls, C. P.

    2013-12-01

    The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) network consists of 1100 continuously operating, permanent GPS stations throughout the United States. The majority of this network was constructed using NSF-MREFC funding as part of the EarthScope Project during FY2003-FY2008. Since FY2009, UNAVCO has operated and maintained PBO through a Cooperative Agreement (CA) with NSF. Construction of new, permanent GPS monuments in the PBO network was the result of two change orders to the original PBO O&M CA. Change Order 33 (CO33) allocated funds to construct additional GPS stations at six locations in the Eastern Region of PBO. Three of these locations were designed to replace poorly performing existing GPS monuments in Georgia, Texas and New York. The remaining three new locations were selected to fill in gaps in network coverage in Pennsylvania, Wisconsin and North Dakota. Construction of all six new sites was completed in September 2013. Important scientific goals for CO33 include improvement of the stable North American reference frame, measurement of the vertical signal associated with the Glacial Isostatic Adjustment, and improved constraints on surface deformation and possible earthquakes, which occur in the low-strain tectonic setting of the eastern North American Plate. Change Order 35 (CO35) allocated funds to construct two additional geodetic monuments at five existing PBO stations in order to test and compare the long-term stability of various monument designs under near-identical geologic conditions. Sites were chosen to yield a variety of geographic, hydrologic and geologic conditions, including both fine-grained alluvium and crystalline bedrock. At each location, three different monuments (deep drill braced, short drill braced/driven-braced, mast/pillar) were built with 10 meter spacing, with shared power systems and data telemetry infrastructure. Construction of these multi-monument test locations began in October 2012 and finished in September 2013. See G010- Berglund

  18. A Statewide Private Microwave Wide Area Network for Real-time Natural Hazard Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M. C.; Kent, G.; Smith, K. D.; Plank, G.; Slater, D.; Torrisi, J.; Presser, R.; Straley, K.

    2013-12-01

    datalogger in our seismic network not only for data collection, but also for maintenance and quality control. This has resulted in several partnerships with other agencies. In addition to our seismic station network for earthquake monitoring, we currently manage ~400 more channels of data (many running at 500 Hz) for the National Center for Nuclear Security (NCNS) Source Physics Experiments, a series of chemical explosions at the Nevada National Security Site. Some of our mountaintop stations have been experimentally equipped with near-infrared high-definition fire cameras for wildfire monitoring, and have recently recorded the Bison and Pedlar fires in northwest Nevada. Data for the Nevada EPSCor climate program also utilizes the NSL WAN. Real-time access to data for these experiments greatly reduces the effort required for data archival, quality control, and monitoring equipment failures. Future plans include increasing density of stations in urban areas such as Reno and Las Vegas, and expanding coverage to Tahoe and eastern Nevada.

  19. Vibration monitoring of EDF rotating machinery using artificial neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alguindigue, I.E.; Loskiewicz-Buczak, A.; Uhrig, R.E. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Hamon, L.; Lefevre, F. (Electricite de France, 78 - Chatou (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches)

    1991-01-01

    Vibration monitoring of components in nuclear power plants has been used for a number of years. This technique involves the analysis of vibration data coming from vital components of the plant to detect features which reflect the operational state of machinery. The analysis leads to the identification of potential failures and their causes, and makes it possible to perform efficient preventive maintenance. Earlydetection is important because it can decrease the probability of catastrophic failures, reduce forced outgage, maximize utilization of available assets, increase the life of the plant, and reduce maintenance costs. This paper documents our work on the design of a vibration monitoring methodology based on neural network technology. This technology provides an attractive complement to traditional vibration analysis because of the potential of neural networks to operate in real-time mode and to handle data which may be distorted or noisy. Our efforts have been concentrated on the analysis and classification of vibration signatures collected by Electricite de France (EDF). Two neural networks algorithms were used in our project: the Recirculation algorithm and the Backpropagation algorithm. Although this project is in the early stages of development it indicates that neural networks may provide a viable methodology for monitoring and diagnostics of vibrating components. Our results are very encouraging.

  20. Vibration monitoring of EDF rotating machinery using artificial neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alguindigue, I.E.; Loskiewicz-Buczak, A.; Uhrig, R.E. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Hamon, L.; Lefevre, F. [Electricite de France, 78 - Chatou (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches

    1991-12-31

    Vibration monitoring of components in nuclear power plants has been used for a number of years. This technique involves the analysis of vibration data coming from vital components of the plant to detect features which reflect the operational state of machinery. The analysis leads to the identification of potential failures and their causes, and makes it possible to perform efficient preventive maintenance. Earlydetection is important because it can decrease the probability of catastrophic failures, reduce forced outgage, maximize utilization of available assets, increase the life of the plant, and reduce maintenance costs. This paper documents our work on the design of a vibration monitoring methodology based on neural network technology. This technology provides an attractive complement to traditional vibration analysis because of the potential of neural networks to operate in real-time mode and to handle data which may be distorted or noisy. Our efforts have been concentrated on the analysis and classification of vibration signatures collected by Electricite de France (EDF). Two neural networks algorithms were used in our project: the Recirculation algorithm and the Backpropagation algorithm. Although this project is in the early stages of development it indicates that neural networks may provide a viable methodology for monitoring and diagnostics of vibrating components. Our results are very encouraging.

  1. Network Distributed Monitoring System Based on Robot Technology Middleware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunikatsu Takase

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a network distributed monitoring system for human assistance robot system was developed to improve the interaction among the users and local service robotic system and enable a remote user to get a better understanding of what is going on in the local environment. Home integration robot system and network monitoring system using QuickCam Orbit cameras were developed and demonstrated from June 9 to June 19 at the 2005 World Exposition, Aichi, Japan. Improvements of network distributed monitoring system using IEEE1394 cameras with high performance and high resolution have been done in order to extend the application of system. Robot Technology Middleware (RTM was used in the developed system. By using RTM, we can develop cameras functional elements as RT software components that can be implemented by different programming languages, run in different operating system, or connected in different networks to interoperate.It is also easy to create comprehensive robot system application by reusing existing modules thus facilitating networkdistributed software sharing and improving the cost of writing and maintaining software.

  2. Rapid Monitoring of Bacteria and Fungi aboard the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, D.; Flores, G.; Effinger, M.; Maule, J.; Wainwright, N.; Steele, A.; Damon, M.; Wells, M.; Williams, S.; Morris, H.; hide

    2009-01-01

    Microorganisms within spacecraft have traditionally been monitored with culture-based techniques. These techniques involve growth of environmental samples (cabin water, air or surfaces) on agar-type media for several days, followed by visualization of resulting colonies or return of samples to Earth for ground-based analysis. Data obtained over the past 4 decades have enhanced our understanding of the microbial ecology within space stations. However, the approach has been limited by the following factors: i) Many microorganisms (estimated > 95%) in the environment cannot grow on conventional growth media; ii) Significant time lags (3-5 days for incubation and up to several months to return samples to ground); iii) Condensation in contact slides hinders colony counting by crew; and iv) Growth of potentially harmful microorganisms, which must then be disposed of safely. This report describes the operation of a new culture-independent technique onboard the ISS for rapid analysis (within minutes) of endotoxin and beta-1, 3-glucan, found in the cell walls of gramnegative bacteria and fungi, respectively. The technique involves analysis of environmental samples with the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay in a handheld device, known as the Lab-On-a-Chip Application Development Portable Test System (LOCAD-PTS). LOCADPTS was launched to the ISS in December 2006, and here we present data obtained from Mach 2007 until the present day. These data include a comparative study between LOCADPTS analysis and existing culture-based methods; and an exploratory survey of surface endotoxin and beta-1, 3-glucan throughout the ISS. While a general correlation between LOCAD-PTS and traditional culture-based methods should not be expected, we will suggest new requirements for microbial monitoring based upon culture-independent parameters measured by LOCAD-PTS.

  3. The Antarctic permafrost as a testbed for REMS (Rover Environmental Monitoring Station-Mars Science Laboratory)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, B.; Ramos, M.; Sebastián, E.; Armiens, C.; Gómez-Elvira, J.; Cabos, W.; de Pablo, M. A.

    2009-04-01

    The present climatic characteristics of Mars favor the presence of extense permafrost areas in this lonely planet. Therefore environmental parameters that are included in Martian Rover missions are also used for monitoring thermal soil surface evolution in order to study the permafrost active layer thickness and the energy balance in the soil-atmosphere boundary limit layer. The REMS (Rover Environmental Monitoring Station) is an environmental station designed by the Centro de Astrobiología (CAB- Spain) with the collaboration of national and international partners (CRISA/EADS, UPC and FMI), which is part of the payload of the MSL (Mars Science Laboratory) NASA mission to Mars (http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/msl/overview/). This mission is expected to be launched in the final months of 2009, and mainly consists of a Rover, with a complete set of scientific instruments; the Rover will carry the biggest, most advanced suite of instruments for scientific studies ever sent to the Martian surface. Five sensors compose the REMS instrument: ground (GT-REMS) and air temperatures, wind speed and direction, pressure, humidity and ultraviolet radiation (UV-REMS). A simplified setup of the REMS was deployed on Antarctica in the surroundings of the Spanish Antarctic Stations on Livingston and Deception Islands (Maritime Antarctica), where the permafrost distribution is well-known. The aim of the experiment was to check REMS's sensors response against hard environmental conditions and calibrates their measures with standard Antarctic devices. The experimental apparatuses included some standard meteorological and thermopiles sensors corresponding to the REMS. All the sensors are mounted in a 1.8 m mast and include a Pt100 air temperature sensor with shield solar protection on the mast top, a Kipp and Zonnen CNR1 net radiometer for measuring infrared (5-50 μm) and short wave solar (305-2800 nm) radiation at 1.5 m high, GT-REMS sensor and its amplification box at 0.7 m high and finally

  4. Evaluation of the Air Quality Monitor's Performance on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limero, Thomas; Reese, Eric; Ballard, Ken; Durham, Tamara

    2010-01-01

    The Air Quality Monitor (AQM) was flown to the International Space Station (ISS) as an experiment to evaluate its potential to replace the aging Volatile Organic Analyzer (VOA), which ceased operations in August 2009. The AQM (Figure 1) is a small gas chromatography/differential mobility spectrometer (GC/DMS) manufactured by Sionex. Data was presented at last year s ISIMS conference that detailed the preparation of the AQM for flight, including instrument calibration. Furthermore, initial AQM data was compared to VOA results from simultaneous runs of the two instruments. Although comparison with VOA data provided a measure of confidence in the AQM performance, it is the comparison with results from simultaneously acquired air samples (grab sample containers-GSCs) that will define the success (or failure) of the AQM performance. This paper will update the progress in the AQM investigation by comparing AQM data to results from the analyses of GSC samples, returned from ISS. Additionally, a couple of example will illustrate the AQM s ability to detect disruptions in the spacecraft s air quality. Discussion will also focus upon a few unexpected issues that have arisen and how these will be a addressed in the final operational unit now being built.

  5. Association between air pollution and hospital admission: Case study at three monitoring stations in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahari, Marina; Zin@Ibrahim, Wan Zawiah Wan; Ismail, Noriszura; Ni, Tan Hui

    2014-06-01

    The relationships between the exposure of pollutants towards hospitalized admission and mortality have been identified in several studies on Asian cities such as Taipei, Bangkok and Tokyo. In Malaysia, evidence on the health risks associated with exposure to pollutants is limited. In this study, daily time-series data were analysed to estimate risks of cardiovascular and respiratory hospitalized admissions associated with particulate matter ≤ 10 μm (PM10), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, and ozone concentrations in Klang Valley during 2004-2009. Daily counts of hospital admissions for cardiovascular and respiratory outcomes were obtained from eleven hospitals while pollutants data were taken from several air quality monitoring stations located nearest to the hospitals. These data were fitted with Generalised Additive Poisson regression models. Additionally, temperature, humidity, and time data were also included to allow for potential effect of weather and time-varying influences on hospital admissions. CO showed the most significant (P risk of admission per 10 ug/m3 increment in PM10. Exposure to CO and PM10 increases the risk of hospitalization for cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses in Klang Valley, Malaysia.

  6. Trends in surface-water quality at selected National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) stations, in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Atiq U.; Fogarty, Lisa R.

    2005-01-01

    To demonstrate the value of long-term, water-quality monitoring, the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ), in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), initiated a study to evaluate potential trends in water-quality constituents for selected National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) stations in Michigan. The goal of this study is to assist the MDEQ in evaluating the effectiveness of water-pollution control efforts and the identification of water-quality concerns. The study included a total of nine NASQAN stations in Michigan. Approximately 28 constituents were analyzed for trend tests. Station selection was based on data availability, land-use characteristics, and station priority for the MDEQ Water Chemistry Monitoring Project. Trend analyses were completed using the uncensored Seasonal Kendall Test in the computer program Estimate Trend (ESTREND), a software program for the detection of trends in water-quality data. The parameters chosen for the trend test had (1) at least a 5-year period of record (2) about 5 percent of the observations censored at a single reporting limit, and (3) 40 percent of the values within the beginning one-fifth and ending one-fifth of the selected period. In this study, a negative trend indicates a decrease in concentration of a particular constituent, which generally means an improvement in water quality; whereas a positive trend means an increase in concentration and possible degradation of water quality. The results of the study show an overall improvement in water quality at the Clinton River at Mount Clemens, Manistee River at Manistee, and Pigeon River near Caseville. The detected trend for these stations show decreases in concentrations of various constituents such as nitrogen compounds, conductance, sulfate, fecal coliform bacteria, and fecal streptococci bacteria. The negative trend may indicate an overall improvement in agricultural practices, municipal and industrial wastewater

  7. Novel anomaly detection approach for telecommunication network proactive performance monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanhua YU; Jun WANG; Xiaosu ZHAN; Junde SONG

    2009-01-01

    The mode of telecommunication network management is changing from "network oriented" to "subscriber oriented". Aimed at enhancing subscribers'feeling, proactive performance monitoring (PPM) can enable a fast fault correction by detecting anomalies designating performance degradation. In this paper, a novel anomaly detection approach is the proposed taking advantage of time series prediction and the associated confidence interval based on multiplicative autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA). Furthermore, under the assumption that the training residual is a white noise process following a normal distribution, the associated confidence interval of prediction can be figured out under any given confidence degree 1-α by constructing random variables satisfying t distribution. Experimental results verify the method's effectiveness.

  8. Digital station control technology with system bus in RWE's transmission network; Digitale Stationsleittechnik mit Systembus im RWE-Transportnetz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessmer, Kai [Siemens Energy Automation, Dortmund (Germany). RWE Transportnetzprojekte; Friedrich, Wolfgang [Helmut Mauell GmbH, Velbert (Germany); Krueger, Roland; Ruemenapp, Peter [RWE Westfalen Weser Ems Netzservice GmbH (Germany). Bereich Grundsatzplanung Sekundaertechnik

    2009-10-15

    As early as the 1990s RWE began equipping its transmission network stations with digital station control technology, this involving control station linkage and a proprietary station bus. Ten years later, however, a market analysis taking account of the costs and the technical possibilities found that the use of a standardised RWE-profile station bus in accordance with 60870-5-104 offers substantial advantages. Integration tests followed to determine how this might be implemented. The experiences gained in these tests will go into the development of a migration concept for the introduction of IEC 61850 in transmission network stations.

  9. Air Monitoring Network at Tonopah Test Range: Network Description, Capabilities, and Analytical Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartwell, William T.; Daniels, Jeffrey; Nikolich, George; Shadel, Craig; Giles, Ken; Karr, Lynn; Kluesner, Tammy

    2012-01-01

    During the period April to June 2008, at the behest of the Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO); the Desert Research Institute (DRI) constructed and deployed two portable environmental monitoring stations at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) as part of the Environmental Restoration Project Soils Activity. DRI has operated these stations since that time. A third station was deployed in the period May to September 2011. The TTR is located within the northwest corner of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR), and covers an area of approximately 725.20 km2 (280 mi2). The primary objective of the monitoring stations is to evaluate whether and under what conditions there is wind transport of radiological contaminants from Soils Corrective Action Units (CAUs) associated with Operation Roller Coaster on TTR. Operation Roller Coaster was a series of tests, conducted in 1963, designed to examine the stability and dispersal of plutonium in storage and transportation accidents. These tests did not result in any nuclear explosive yield. However, the tests did result in the dispersal of plutonium and contamination of surface soils in the surrounding area.

  10. Event Localization in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks using Monitoring Courses

    KAUST Repository

    Debont, Matthew

    2011-11-01

    In this thesis we consider different methods to localize events in a multi-hop wireless sensor network operating underwater using acoustic modems. The network consists of surface gateway nodes and relay nodes. Localization of surface gateways can be achieved through GPS, but we cannot rely on this technology for localizing underwater nodes. Surface Gateway nodes can distribute their locations through the network using the incoming signals by the acoustic modems from the relay nodes. Relay nodes are deployed to remain static but due to water currents, floating, and the untethered nature of the nodes, they often suffer from frequent drifting which can result in a deployed network suffering link failures. In this work, we developed a novel concept of an underwater alarming system, which adapts a cyclic graph model. In the event of link failure, a series of alarm packets are broadcasted in the network. These alarms are then captured through a novel concept of underwater Monitoring Courses (M-Courses), which can also be used to assure network connectivity and identify node faults. M-Courses also allow the network to localize events and identify network issues at a local level before forwarding any results upwards to a Surface Gateway nodes. This reduces the amount of communication overhead needed and allowing for distributed management of nodes in a network which may be constantly moving. We show that the proposed algorithms can reduce the number of send operations needed for an event to be localized in a network. We have found that M-Course routing reduces the number of sends required to report an event to a Surface Gateway by up to 80% in some cases when compared to a naive routing implementation. But this is achieved by increasing the time for an event to reach a Surface Gateway. These effects are both due to the buffering effect of M-Course routing, which allows us to efficiently deal with multiple events in an local area and we find that the performance of M

  11. Optimal Design of Air Quality Monitoring Network and its Application in an Oil Refinery Plant: An Approach to Keep Health Status of Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZoroufchiBenis, Khaled; Fatehifar, Esmaeil; Ahmadi, Javad; Rouhi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Industrial air pollution is a growing challenge to humane health, especially in developing countries, where there is no systematic monitoring of air pollution. Given the importance of the availability of valid information on population exposure to air pollutants, it is important to design an optimal Air Quality Monitoring Network (AQMN) for assessing population exposure to air pollution and predicting the magnitude of the health risks to the population. A multi-pollutant method (implemented as a MATLAB program) was explored for configur-ing an AQMN to detect the highest level of pollution around an oil refinery plant. The method ranks potential monitoring sites (grids) according to their ability to represent the ambient concentration. The term of cluster of contiguous grids that exceed a threshold value was used to calculate the Station Dosage. Selection of the best configuration of AQMN was done based on the ratio of a sta-tion's dosage to the total dosage in the network. Six monitoring stations were needed to detect the pollutants concentrations around the study area for estimating the level and distribution of exposure in the population with total network efficiency of about 99%. An analysis of the design procedure showed that wind regimes have greatest effect on the location of monitoring stations. The optimal AQMN enables authorities to implement an effective program of air quality management for protecting human health.

  12. Network analysis of geomagnetic substorms using the SuperMAG database of ground-based magnetometer stations

    CERN Document Server

    Dods, J; Gjerloev, J W

    2016-01-01

    The overall morphology and dynamics of magnetospheric substorms is well established in terms of the observed qualitative auroral features seen in ground-based magnetometers. This paper focuses on the quantitative characterization of substorm dynamics captured by ground-based magnetometer stations. We present the first analysis of substorms using dynamical networks obtained from the full available set of ground-based magnetometer observations in the Northern Hemisphere. The stations are connected in the network when the correlation between the vector magnetometer time series from pairs of stations within a running time window exceeds a threshold. Dimensionless parameters can then be obtained that characterize the network and by extension, the spatiotemporal dynamics of the substorm under observation. We analyze four isolated substorm test cases as well as a steady magnetic convection (SMC) event and a day in which no substorms occur. These test case substorms are found to give a consistent characteristic netwo...

  13. Calibration and study of the measurement capabilities of real-time gamma spectrometry equipment developed for the renewal of the network of stations automatic monitoring environmental radiation of the Generalitat of Catalunya; Calibracion y estudio de las capacidades de medida de los equipos de espectrometria gamma en tiempo real desarrollados para la renovacion de la Red de Estaciones Automaticas de vigilancia radiologia ambiental de la Generalitat de Catalunya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casanovas, R.; Prieto, E.; Salvado, M.

    2014-10-01

    The renewal of the automatic environmental radiation surveillance network of the Generalitat of Catalunya has been carried out through the development and implementation of gamma-spectrometry-based equipment. the monitors use scintillation crystals, either Na(TI) or LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) and currently, there are 3 types of equipment water radioactivity monitors, aerosols on a particulate filter monitors and direct measurement monitors. In this paper, we expose the basic features of its operation, the details of their calibration and the minimum detectable activity concentration for some isotopes. (Author)

  14. Networked simulation for team training of Space Station astronauts, ground controllers, and scientists - A training and development environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajare, Ankur R.; Wick, Daniel T.; Bovenzi, James J.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe plans for the Space Station Training Facility (SSTF) which has been designed to meet the envisioned training needs for Space Station Freedom. To meet these needs, the SSTF will integrate networked simulators with real-world systems in five training modes: Stand-Alone, Combined, Joint-Combined, Integrated, and Joint-Integrated. This paper describes the five training modes within the context of three training scenaries. In addition, this paper describes an authoring system which will support the rapid integration of new real-world system changes in the Space Station Freedom Program.

  15. Global positioning system measurements over a strain monitoring network in the eastern two-thirds of the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strange, W.E.

    1991-09-01

    A 45-station geodetic network was established in 1987 using global positioning system (GPS) technology to provide a means of monitoring strain and deformation in the central and eastern United States. Reduction of the initial epoch data showed that accuracies of 1 to 3 cm can be achieved for horizontal position, provided sufficient observations are available and there are four or more fiducial stations whose positions are known a priori, for example from Very Long Baseline Interferometry measurements. Accuracies obtained provide the ability to determine strain at the 1:10{sup 7} to 1:10{sup 8} level. Vertical positions are less accurate because of problems in modeling refraction and are determined at the 5 to 7 cm level. It is planned to remeasure this network at regular intervals in the coming years to place bounds on the strain occurring in the central and eastern United States. This network is also expected to serve as a reference network for more detailed monitoring networks in areas of high risk such as the New Madrid area. Future measurements are expected to provide more accurate results because of increased numbers of GPS satellites available and improved computation software. The improved software will also allow future upgrading of the accuracy of the 1987 observations. 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Wireless body sensor networks for health-monitoring applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yang; Foster, Robert

    2008-11-01

    Current wireless technologies, such as wireless body area networks and wireless personal area networks, provide promising applications in medical monitoring systems to measure specified physiological data and also provide location-based information, if required. With the increasing sophistication of wearable and implantable medical devices and their integration with wireless sensors, an ever-expanding range of therapeutic and diagnostic applications is being pursued by research and commercial organizations. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive review of recent developments in wireless sensor technology for monitoring behaviour related to human physiological responses. It presents background information on the use of wireless technology and sensors to develop a wireless physiological measurement system. A generic miniature platform and other available technologies for wireless sensors have been studied in terms of hardware and software structural requirements for a low-cost, low-power, non-invasive and unobtrusive system.

  17. Investigation of Wireless Sensor Networks for Structural Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs are one of the most able technologies in the structural health monitoring (SHM field. Through intelligent, self-organising means, the contents of this paper will test a variety of different objects and different working principles of sensor nodes connected into a network and integrated with data processing functions. In this paper the key issues of WSN applied in SHM are discussed, including the integration of different types of sensors with different operational modalities, sampling frequencies, issues of transmission bandwidth, real-time ability, and wireless transmitter frequency. Furthermore, the topology, data fusion, integration, energy saving, and self-powering nature of different systems will be investigated. In the FP7 project “Health Monitoring of Offshore Wind Farms,” the above issues are explored.

  18. A versatile and interoperable network sensors for water resources monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortolani, Alberto; Brandini, Carlo; Costantini, Roberto; Costanza, Letizia; Innocenti, Lucia; Sabatini, Francesco; Gozzini, Bernardo

    2010-05-01

    Monitoring systems to assess water resources quantity and quality require extensive use of in-situ measurements, that have great limitations like difficulties to access and share data, and to customise and easy reconfigure sensors network to fulfil end-users needs during monitoring or crisis phases. In order to address such limitations Sensor Web Enablement technologies for sensors management have been developed and applied to different environmental context under the EU-funded OSIRIS project (Open architecture for Smart and Interoperable networks in Risk management based on In-situ Sensors, www.osiris-fp6.eu). The main objective of OSIRIS was to create a monitoring system to manage different environmental crisis situations, through an efficient data processing chain where in-situ sensors are connected via an intelligent and versatile network infrastructure (based on web technologies) that enables end-users to remotely access multi-domain sensors information. Among the project application, one was focused on underground fresh-water monitoring and management. With this aim a monitoring system to continuously and automatically check water quality and quantity has been designed and built in a pilot test, identified as a portion of the Amiata aquifer feeding the Santa Fiora springs (Grosseto, Italy). This aquifer present some characteristics that make it greatly vulnerable under some conditions. It is a volcanic aquifer with a fractured structure. The volcanic nature in Santa Fiora causes levels of arsenic concentrations that normally are very close to the threshold stated by law, but that sometimes overpass such threshold for reasons still not fully understood. The presence of fractures makes the infiltration rate very inhomogeneous from place to place and very high in correspondence of big fractures. In case of liquid-pollutant spills (typically hydrocarbons spills from tanker accidents or leakage from house tanks containing fuel for heating), these fractures can act

  19. Monitoring water distribution systems: understanding and managing sensor networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Ediriweera

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Sensor networks are currently being trialed by the water distribution industry for monitoring complex distribution infrastructure. The paper presents an investigation in to the architecture and performance of a sensor system deployed for monitoring such a distribution network. The study reveals lapses in systems design and management, resulting in a fifth of the data being either missing or erroneous. Findings identify the importance of undertaking in-depth consideration of all aspects of a large sensor system with access to either expertise on every detail, or to reference manuals capable of transferring the knowledge to non-specialists. First steps towards defining a set of such guidelines are presented here, with supporting evidence.

  20. SensIs - Underwater acoustic network for ice-monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Reinen, Tor Arne; Knudsen, Finn Tore

    2016-01-01

    Routing for low latency underwater acoustic network-communication is investigated. The application is monitoring of ice-threats to offshore operations in the Arctic - to provide warnings that enable operators to react to such threats. The scenario produces relatively high traffic load, and the network should favour low delay and adequate reliability rather than energy usage minimization. The ICRP (Information-Carrying based Routing Protocol), originally proposed by Wei Liang et al. in 2007, is chosen as basis. ICRP obtains unicast routing paths by sending data payload as broadcast packets when no route information is available. Thus, data can be delivered without the cost of reactive signalling latency. In this paper we explore the capabilities of a slightly enhanced/adapted ICRP, tailored to the ice monitoring application. By simulations and experiments at sea it is demonstrated that the protocol performs well and can manage the applications high traffic load - this provided that the point-to-point links pro...

  1. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Based Wireless Sensor Network for Marine-Coastal Environment Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trasviña-Moreno, Carlos A; Blasco, Rubén; Marco, Álvaro; Casas, Roberto; Trasviña-Castro, Armando

    2017-02-24

    Marine environments are delicate ecosystems which directly influence local climates, flora, fauna, and human activities. Their monitorization plays a key role in their preservation, which is most commonly done through the use of environmental sensing buoy networks. These devices transmit data by means of satellite communications or close-range base stations, which present several limitations and elevated infrastructure costs. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) are another alternative for remote environmental monitoring which provide new types of data and ease of use. These aircraft are mainly used in video capture related applications, in its various light spectrums, and do not provide the same data as sensing buoys, nor can they be used for such extended periods of time. The aim of this research is to provide a flexible, easy to deploy and cost-effective Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) for monitoring marine environments. This proposal uses a UAV as a mobile data collector, low-power long-range communications and sensing buoys as part of a single WSN. A complete description of the design, development, and implementation of the various parts of this system is presented, as well as its validation in a real-world scenario.

  2. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Based Wireless Sensor Network for Marine-Coastal Environment Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Trasviña-Moreno

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Marine environments are delicate ecosystems which directly influence local climates, flora, fauna, and human activities. Their monitorization plays a key role in their preservation, which is most commonly done through the use of environmental sensing buoy networks. These devices transmit data by means of satellite communications or close-range base stations, which present several limitations and elevated infrastructure costs. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV are another alternative for remote environmental monitoring which provide new types of data and ease of use. These aircraft are mainly used in video capture related applications, in its various light spectrums, and do not provide the same data as sensing buoys, nor can they be used for such extended periods of time. The aim of this research is to provide a flexible, easy to deploy and cost-effective Wireless Sensor Network (WSN for monitoring marine environments. This proposal uses a UAV as a mobile data collector, low-power long-range communications and sensing buoys as part of a single WSN. A complete description of the design, development, and implementation of the various parts of this system is presented, as well as its validation in a real-world scenario.

  3. Field-Scale Distributed Wireless Network for Monitoring Dynamic Hydrologic Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, C. S.; Crupper, J.; Brown, D. J.; Cobos, D. R.; Campbell, G. S.; Uberuaga, D.; Huggins, D. R.; Smith, J. L.; Gill, R. A.

    2007-12-01

    Measuring and monitoring field-scale hydrology is important to understanding the fate of water in the vadoze zone, especially in concert with pedological information. Historically, single point measurements of hydrologic and pedological information have been straightforward to obtain, while monitoring widely distributed locations over time has been more challenging, both in expense and labor. As radios have become more available, distributed wireless networks have been developed and constructed to meet this need. However, there remain relatively few commercially available, inexpensive, and simple options. The objective of this study was to test the viability of a distributed wireless network to monitor soil parameters (moisture, temperature, and electrical conductivity) across a growing season on the 36.5 hectare Cook Agronomy Farm in Eastern Washington. Using landscape analysis, 12 representative sites were selected using a stratified random procedure and sensors were installed at 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 cm depths. Radio frequency wireless transmitters linked sensors to a central data station where data were made available anywhere in the world via a cell modem link. Data were analyzed to show relationships between soil features, crop type, and water use. Results show that a system can be assembled from commercially available components with excellent reliability across all communication links. Data from the system showed correlations between water use, directly sampled static soil features and crop type.

  4. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Based Wireless Sensor Network for Marine-Coastal Environment Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trasviña-Moreno, Carlos A.; Blasco, Rubén; Marco, Álvaro; Casas, Roberto; Trasviña-Castro, Armando

    2017-01-01

    Marine environments are delicate ecosystems which directly influence local climates, flora, fauna, and human activities. Their monitorization plays a key role in their preservation, which is most commonly done through the use of environmental sensing buoy networks. These devices transmit data by means of satellite communications or close-range base stations, which present several limitations and elevated infrastructure costs. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) are another alternative for remote environmental monitoring which provide new types of data and ease of use. These aircraft are mainly used in video capture related applications, in its various light spectrums, and do not provide the same data as sensing buoys, nor can they be used for such extended periods of time. The aim of this research is to provide a flexible, easy to deploy and cost-effective Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) for monitoring marine environments. This proposal uses a UAV as a mobile data collector, low-power long-range communications and sensing buoys as part of a single WSN. A complete description of the design, development, and implementation of the various parts of this system is presented, as well as its validation in a real-world scenario. PMID:28245587

  5. Impacts on particles and ozone by transport processes recorded at urban and high-altitude monitoring stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolás, J F; Crespo, J; Yubero, E; Soler, R; Carratalá, A; Mantilla, E

    2014-01-01

    In order to evaluate the influence of particle transport episodes on particle number concentration temporal trends at both urban and high-altitude (Aitana peak-1558 m a.s.l.) stations, a simultaneous sampling campaign from October 2011 to September 2012 was performed. The monitoring stations are located in southeastern Spain, close to the Mediterranean coast. The annual average value of particle concentration obtained in the larger accumulation mode (size range 0.25-1 μm) at the mountain site, 55.0 ± 3.0 cm(-3), was practically half that of the value obtained at the urban station (112.0 ± 4.0 cm(-3)). The largest difference between both stations was recorded during December 2011 and January 2012, when particles at the mountain station registered the lowest values. It was observed that during urban stagnant episodes, particle transport from urban sites to the mountain station could take place under specific atmospheric conditions. During these transports, the major particle transfer is produced in the 0.5-2 μm size range. The minimum difference between stations was recorded in summer, particularly in July 2012, which is most likely due to several particle transport events that affected only the mountain station. The particle concentration in the coarse mode was very similar at both monitoring sites, with the biggest difference being recorded during the summer months, 0.4 ± 0.1cm(-3) at the urban site and 0.9 ± 0.1cm(-3) at the Aitana peak in August 2012. Saharan dust outbreaks were the main factor responsible for these values during summer time. The regional station was affected more by these outbreaks, recording values of >4.0 cm(-3), than the urban site. This long-range particle transport from the Sahara desert also had an effect upon O3 levels measured at the mountain station. During periods affected by Saharan dust outbreaks, ozone levels underwent a significant decrease (3-17%) with respect to its mean value.

  6. 东江—深圳供水工程太圆泵站计算机监控系统%The computer monitoring and controlling system of Taiyuan pumping station of Dongjiang—Shenzhen Water supply project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐叶琴; 张宇; 粟海; 郭华

    2001-01-01

    结合开发太园泵站计算机监控系统工程实例,系统地研究了泵站计算机监控系统的网络结构\\,功能及主要特征.%The network structure, function and main feature of the computer monitoring and controlling system of Taiyuan Pumping Station are discused and has been applyed to the project successfully.

  7. Significant breakthroughs in monitoring networks of the volcanological and seismological French observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemarchand, Arnaud; Anglade, andré; Saurel, jean-marie

    2014-05-01

    In the last few years, French West Indies observatories, in collaboration with the Seismic Research Center (University of West Indies-Trinidad), have modernized the Lesser Antilles Arc seismic and deformation monitoring network. 16 new permanent stations have been installed to strengthen and expand its detection capabilities. The global network of the IPGP-SRC consortium is now composed of 21 modernized stations, all equipped with broadband seismometers, strong motion sensors, GNSS sensors and satellite communication for real-time data transfer to the observatories of Trinidad (SRC), Guadeloupe (OVSG), Martinique (OVSM). To improve the sensitivity and reduce ambient noise, special efforts were made to enhance the design of the seismic vault and the original Stuttgart shielding (D. Kurrle R. Widmer-Schnidrig, 2005) of the broadband seismometers (240 and 120 sec). Several months of tests have been performed in order to get the maximum performance level out of the seismometers with different types of shields. This renewed network feeds the Caribbean Tsunami Warning System supported by UNESCO and establishes a monitoring tool that produces high quality data for studying subduction and volcanism interactions in the Lesser Antilles arc. The project has been an opportunity to migrate the seismic data processing to SeisComP3 with new developed plugins to compute the duration magnitude and locate (modified HYPO71PC ) ever small events such as volcanic ones. The new plugins are integrated in Seiscomp3 releases. Several tools for data management and treatment (Earthworm and WebObs [Beauducel et al., 2004]) are also continuously improved. GPS data, real-time and validated seismic data (only broadband) are now available at the IPGP data center.

  8. Establishing an air pollution monitoring network for intra-urban population exposure assessment : a location-allocation approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanaroglou, P.S. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). School of Geography and Geology; Jerrett, M.; Beckerman, B.; Arain, M.A. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). School of Geography and Geology]|[McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). McMaster Inst. of Environment and Health; Morrison, J. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). School of Computer Science; Gilbert, N.L. [Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Air Health Effects Div; Brook, J.R. [Meteorological Service of Canada, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2004-10-01

    A study was conducted to assess the relation between traffic-generated air pollution and health reactions ranging from childhood asthma to mortality from lung cancer. In particular, it developed a formal method of optimally locating a dense network of air pollution monitoring stations in order to derive an exposure assessment model based on the data obtained from the monitoring stations and related land use, population and biophysical information. The method for determining the locations of 100 nitrogen dioxide monitors in Toronto, Ontario focused on land use, transportation infrastructure and the distribution of at-risk populations. The exposure assessment produced reasonable estimates at the intra-urban scale. This method for locating air pollution monitors effectively maximizes sampling coverage in relation to important socio-demographic characteristics and likely pollution variability. The location-allocation approach integrates many variables into the demand surface to reconfigure a monitoring network and is especially useful for measuring traffic pollutants with fine-scale spatial variability. The method also shows great promise for improving the assessment of exposure to ambient air pollution in epidemiologic studies. 19 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  9. A Wireless Sensor Network Air Pollution Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavi K. Khedo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Sensor networks are currently an active research area mainly due to the potential of their applications. Inthis paper we investigate the use of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN for air pollution monitoring inMauritius. With the fast growing industrial activities on the island, the problem of air pollution isbecoming a major concern for the health of the population. We proposed an innovative system namedWireless Sensor Network Air Pollution Monitoring System (WAPMS to monitor air pollution inMauritius through the use of wireless sensors deployed in huge numbers around the island. The proposedsystem makes use of an Air Quality Index (AQI which is presently not available in Mauritius. In order toimprove the efficiency of WAPMS, we have designed and implemented a new data aggregation algorithmnamed Recursive Converging Quartiles (RCQ. The algorithm is used to merge data to eliminateduplicates, filter out invalid readings and summarise them into a simpler form which significantly reducethe amount of data to be transmitted to the sink and thus saving energy. For better power management weused a hierarchical routing protocol in WAPMS and caused the motes to sleep during idle time.

  10. Spatial and temporal variability of the refractivity over Tahiti from a coarse network of GPS stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, J.; Fadil, A.; Sichoix, L.; Barriot, J.

    2010-12-01

    Slant wet delays (SWD) caused by the presence of water vapor in the atmosphere are routinely obtained from GPS measurements. Powerful tomography techniques have been developed to derive from them the refractivity of the atmosphere, which could be subject to strong spatial and temporal variations, especially over tropical zones. In this poster we model the spatial and temporal variability of the refractivity over the Tahiti Island. In a first study, we model the spatial part of the variability. For this purpose, GPS data spanning a four months period (June-Sept 2010) from a coarse network of nine stations are analyzed using the GAMIT software package. In particular, we found that the SWD variability is more important at the South East of the Island. In a second study we reconstruct the temporal part of the variability. For this purpose, ten years of GPS data from the IGS station THTI, located on the Punaauia suburb of Papeete are processed with respect to the precise point positioning (PPP) mode of the GIPSY-OASIS II software package. The derived SWD allow us to reconstruct, through a regularized inverse process, time series of the ZWD and North / East gradients of the refractivity. We show that the main components of the SWD are relative to semi-diurnal and seasonal terms. Finally, this spatio-temporal model of the refractivity permits us to build a robust estimate of the covariance matrix of the underlying stochastic process.

  11. The community seismic network and quake-catcher network: enabling structural health monitoring through instrumentation by community participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Monica D.; Heaton, Thomas H.; Cheng, Ming-Hei

    2013-04-01

    A new type of seismic network is in development that takes advantage of community volunteers to install low-cost accelerometers in houses and buildings. The Community Seismic Network and Quake-Catcher Network are examples of this, in which observational-based structural monitoring is carried out using records from one to tens of stations in a single building. We have deployed about one hundred accelerometers in a number of buildings ranging between five and 23 stories in the Los Angeles region. In addition to a USB-connected device which connects to the host's computer, we have developed a stand-alone sensor-plug-computer device that directly connects to the internet via Ethernet or wifi. In the case of the Community Seismic Network, the sensors report both continuous data and anomalies in local acceleration to a cloud computing service consisting of data centers geographically distributed across the continent. Visualization models of the instrumented buildings' dynamic linear response have been constructed using Google SketchUp and an associated plug-in to matlab with recorded shaking data. When data are available from only one to a very limited number of accelerometers in high rises, the buildings are represented as simple shear beam or prismatic Timoshenko beam models with soil-structure interaction. Small-magnitude earthquake records are used to identify the first set of horizontal vibrational frequencies. These frequencies are then used to compute the response on every floor of the building, constrained by the observed data. These tools are resulting in networking standards that will enable data sharing among entire communities, facility managers, and emergency response groups.

  12. Assessing the weather monitoring capabilities of cellular microwave link networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fencl, Martin; Vrzba, Miroslav; Rieckermann, Jörg; Bareš, Vojtěch

    2016-04-01

    Using of microwave links for rainfall monitoring was suggested already by (Atlas and Ulbrich, 1977). However, this technique attracted broader attention of scientific community only in the recent decade, with the extensive growth of cellular microwave link (CML) networks, which form the backbone of today's cellular telecommunication infrastructure. Several studies have already shown that CMLs can be conveniently used as weather sensors and have potential to provide near-ground path-integrated observations of rainfall but also humidity or fog. However, although research is still focusing on algorithms to improve the weather sensing capabilities (Fencl et al., 2015), it is not clear how to convince cellular operators to provide the power levels of their network. One step in this direction is to show in which regions or municipalities the networks are sufficiently dense to provide/develop good services. In this contribution we suggest a standardized approach to evaluate CML networks in terms of rainfall observation and to identify suitable regions for CML rainfall monitoring. We estimate precision of single CML based on its sensitivity to rainfall, i.e. as a function of frequency, polarization and path length. Capability of a network to capture rainfall spatial patterns is estimated from the CML coverage and path lengths considering that single CML provides path-integrated rain rates. We also search for suitable predictors for regions where no network topologies are available. We test our approach on several European networks and discuss the results. Our results show that CMLs are very dense in urban areas (> 1 CML/km2), but less in rural areas (density (e.g. R2 = 0.97 in Czech Republic), thus population could be a simple proxy to identify suitable regions for CML weather monitoring. To enable a simple and efficient assessment of the CML monitoring potential for any region worldwide, we are currently integrating our approach into open source online tool. In summary

  13. Network Based Real Time Condition Monitoring of Rotating Machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a network based real time condition monitoring system of rotating machinery. The system is built up in a double net structure consisting of local net (including client and server) and intranet. The client serves as a field data collector and processor that samples the vibration signals and process parameters of a machine monitored in the net and processes the sampled data. The data collected by the client are transmitted to the server that processes the data further and provides the results of the diagnosis of each machine to any distant terminals through intranet or internet. Such a structure of the monitoring system is advantageous in safety, reliability and reasonably shares the existing net resources. In order to ensure real time transmission of the data, two procedures of data transmission, virtual channel and data pool, are developed and applied in the monitoring system. The experimental results show that the monitoring system works well and is suitable to monitor a large group of rotating machines.

  14. Water quality monitoring for high-priority water bodies in the Sonoran Desert network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry W. Sprouse; Robert M. Emanuel; Sara A. Strorrer

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a network monitoring program for “high priority” water bodies in the Sonoran Desert Network of the National Park Service. Protocols were developed for monitoring selected waters for ten of the eleven parks in the Network. Park and network staff assisted in identifying potential locations of testing sites, local priorities, and how water quality...

  15. Empirical transfer functions for stations in the Central California seismological network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakun, W.H.; Dratler, Jay

    1976-01-01

    A sequence of calibration signals composed of a station identification code, a transient from the release of the seismometer mass at rest from a known displacement from the equilibrium position, and a transient from a known step in voltage to the amplifier input are generated by the automatic daily calibration system (ADCS) now operational in the U.S. Geological Survey central California seismographic network. Documentation of a sequence of interactive programs to compute, from the calibration data, the complex transfer functions for the seismographic system (ground motion through digitizer) the electronics (amplifier through digitizer), and the seismometer alone are presented. The analysis utilizes the Fourier transform technique originally suggested by Espinosa et al (1962). Section I is a general description of seismographic calibration. Section II contrasts the 'Fourier transform' and the 'least-squares' techniques for analyzing transient calibration signals. Theoretical consideration for the Fourier transform technique used here are described in Section III. Section IV is a detailed description of the sequence of calibration signals generated by the ADCS. Section V is a brief 'cookbook description' of the calibration programs; Section VI contains a detailed sample program execution. Section VII suggests the uses of the resultant empirical transfer functions. Supplemental interactive programs by which smooth response functions, suitable for reducing seismic data to ground motion, are also documented in Section VII. Appendices A and B contain complete listings of the Fortran source Codes while Appendix C is an update containing preliminary results obtained from an analysis of some of the calibration signals from stations in the seismographic network near Oroville, California.

  16. Sensor network architecture for monitoring turtles on seashore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal-Gámez, Blanca E.; Cruz, Victor; Díaz-Casco, Manuel A.; Franco, Andrea; Escobar, Carolina; Colin, Abilene; Carreto-Arellano, Chadwick

    2017-04-01

    In the last decade, advances in information and communication technologies have made it possible to diversify the use of sensor networks in different areas of knowledge (medicine, education, militia, urbanization, protection of the environment, etc.). At present, this type of tools is used to develop applications that allow the identification and monitoring of endangered animals in their natural habitat; however, there are still limitations because some of the devices used alter the behavior of the animals, as in the case of sea turtles. Research and monitoring of sea turtles is of vital importance in identifying possible threats and ensuring their preservation, the behavior of this species (migration, reproduction, and nesting) is highly related to environmental conditions. Because of this, behavioral changes information of this species can be used to monitor global climatic conditions. This work presents the design, development and implementation of an architecture for the monitoring and identification of the sea turtle using sensor networks. This will allow to obtain information for the different investigations with a greater accuracy than the conventional techniques, through non-invasive means for the species and its habitat. The proposed architecture contemplates the use of new technology devices, selfconfigurable, with low energy consumption, interconnection with various communication protocols and sustainable energy supply (solar, wind, etc.).

  17. Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) Vegetation Volume Index: An assessment tool for marsh habitat focused on the three-dimensional structure at CRMS vegetation monitoring stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, William B.; Visser, Jenneke M.; Piazza, Sarai C.; Sharp, Leigh A.; Hundy, Laura C.; McGinnis, Tommy E.

    2015-12-04

    A Vegetation Volume (VV) variable and Vegetation Volume Index (VVI) have been developed for the Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS). The VV is a measure of the amount of three-dimensional vegetative structure present at each CRMS site and is based on vegetation data collected annually. The VV uses 10 stations per CRMS site to quantify four vegetation layers: carpet, herbaceous, shrub, and tree. For each layer an overall live vegetation percent cover and height are collected to create a layer volume; the individual layer volumes are then summed to generate a site vegetation volume profile. The VV uses the two-dimensional area of live vegetative cover (in square meters) multiplied by the height (in meters) of each layer to produce a volume (in cubic meters) for each layer present in a 2-meter by 2-meter station. These layers are additive, yielding a total volume for each of the 10 herbaceous vegetation stations and an overall CRMS marsh site average.

  18. Hydrogeological modeling for improving groundwater monitoring network and strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Jay Krishna

    2016-09-01

    The research aimed to investigate a new approach for spatiotemporal groundwater monitoring network optimization using hydrogeological modeling to improve monitoring strategies. Unmonitored concentrations were incorporated at different potential monitoring locations into the groundwater monitoring optimization method. The proposed method was applied in the contaminated megasite, Bitterfeld/Wolfen, Germany. Based on an existing 3-D geological model, 3-D groundwater flow was obtained from flow velocity simulation using initial and boundary conditions. The 3-D groundwater transport model was used to simulate transport of α-HCH with an initial ideal concentration of 100 mg/L injected at various hydrogeological layers in the model. Particle tracking for contaminant and groundwater flow velocity realizations were made. The spatial optimization result suggested that 30 out of 462 wells in the Quaternary aquifer (6.49 %) and 14 out of 357 wells in the Tertiary aquifer (3.92 %) were redundant. With a gradual increase in the width of the particle track path line, from 0 to 100 m, the number of redundant wells remarkably increased, in both aquifers. The results of temporal optimization showed different sampling frequencies for monitoring wells. The groundwater and contaminant flow direction resulting from particle tracks obtained from hydrogeological modeling was verified by the variogram modeling through α-HCH data from 2003 to 2009. Groundwater monitoring strategies can be substantially improved by removing the existing spatio-temporal redundancy as well as incorporating unmonitored network along with sampling at recommended interval of time. However, the use of this model-based method is only recommended in the areas along with site-specific experts' knowledge.

  19. Numerical modeling and monitoring analysis of Heroísmo station, Metro do Porto

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, P.; Sousa, T.; Silva, P.

    2007-01-01

    to the geomechanical unique heterogeneous characteristics of the granite rock mass in the Heroísmo station. This station was the first to be built. To better understand the behaviour and interaction of the structures with the surrounding rock masses numerical models were carried out. The geomechanical properties...

  20. Microbial detection and monitoring in advanced life support systems like the international space station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tongeren, Sandra P.; Krooneman, Janneke; Raangs, Gerwin C.; Welling, Gjalt W.; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.

    2007-01-01

    Potentially pathogenic microbes and so-called technophiles may form a serious threat in advanced life support systems, such as the International Space Station (ISS). They not only pose a threat to the health of the crew, but also to the technical equipment and materials of the space station. The dev

  1. Microbial detection and monitoring in advanced life support systems like the International Space Station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tongeren, Sandra P.; Krooneman, Janneke; Raangs, Gerwin C.; Welling, Gjalt W.; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.

    2006-01-01

    Potentially pathogenic microbes and so-called technophiles may form a serious threat in advanced life support systems, such as the International Space Station (ISS). They not only pose a threat to the health of the crew, but also to the technical equipment and materials of the space station. The dev

  2. Microbial detection and monitoring in advanced life support systems like the international space station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tongeren, Sandra P.; Krooneman, Janneke; Raangs, Gerwin C.; Welling, Gjalt W.; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.

    2007-01-01

    Potentially pathogenic microbes and so-called technophiles may form a serious threat in advanced life support systems, such as the International Space Station (ISS). They not only pose a threat to the health of the crew, but also to the technical equipment and materials of the space station. The

  3. Microbial detection and monitoring in advanced life support systems like the International Space Station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tongeren, Sandra P.; Krooneman, Janneke; Raangs, Gerwin C.; Welling, Gjalt W.; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.

    2006-01-01

    Potentially pathogenic microbes and so-called technophiles may form a serious threat in advanced life support systems, such as the International Space Station (ISS). They not only pose a threat to the health of the crew, but also to the technical equipment and materials of the space station. The

  4. Description of real-time Ada software implementation of a power system monitor for the Space Station Freedom PMAD DC testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Kimberly; Mackin, Michael; Wright, Theodore

    1991-01-01

    The authors describe the Ada language software developed to perform the electrical power system monitoring functions for the NASA Lewis Research Center's Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) DC testbed. The results of the effort to implement this monitor are presented. The PMAD DC testbed is a reduced-scale prototype of the electric power system to be used in Space Station Freedom. The power is controlled by smart switches known as power control components (or switchgear). The power control components are currently coordinated by five Compaq 386/20e computers connected through an 802.4 local area network. The power system monitor algorithm comprises several functions, including periodic data acquisition, data smoothing, system performance analysis, and status reporting. Data are collected from the switchgear sensors every 100 ms, then passed through a 2-Hz digital filter. System performance analysis includes power interruption and overcurrent detection. The system monitor required a hardware timer interrupt to activate the data acquisition function. The execution time of the code was optimized by using an assembly language routine. The routine allows direct vectoring of the processor to Ada language procedures that perform periodic control activities.

  5. Low-power wireless sensor networks for environmental monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaloiu-Elefteri, Razvan

    Significant progress has been made in the field of Wireless Sensor Networks in the decade that passed since its inception. This thesis presents several advances intended to make these networks a suitable instrument for environmental monitoring. The thesis first describes Koala, a low-power data-retrieval system that can achieve duty cycles below 1% by using bulk transfers, and Low Power Probing, a novel mechanism to efficiently wake up a network. The second contribution is Serendipity, another data-retrieval system, which takes advantage of the random rendezvous inherent in the Low Power Probing mechanism to achieve a very low duty cycle for low data rate networks. The third part explores the problem of and presents a solution for the interference between WSNs using IEEE 802.15.4 radios and the ubiquitous WiFi networks in the 2.4 GHz spectrum bandwidth. The last contribution of this thesis is Latte, a restricted version of the JavaScript language, that not only can be compiled to C and dynamically loaded on a sensing node, but can also be simulated and debugged in a JavaScript-enabled browser.

  6. Data communications method for mobile network in fourth generation communications system, involves delivering decoded data to mobile station from relay station, where mobile station receives data from both relay and base stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The method involves utilizing a base station (BS) (100) to transmit data to a relay station (RS) (110) and a mobile station (MS) (120), where the data includes two messages. The BS is utilized to transmit the two messages by utilizing a linear combination method, and the data is received in the R...

  7. Inflight Microbial Monitoring - An Alternative Method to Culture Based Detection Currently Used on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadad, Christina L.; Birmele, Michele N.; Hummerick, Mary E.; Roman, Monsi; Smith, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms including potential human pathogens have been detected on the International Space Station (ISS). The potential to introduce new microorganisms occurs with every exchange of crew or addition of equipment or supplies. Current microbial monitoring methods require enrichment of microorganisms and a 48-hour incubation time resulting in an increase in microbial load, detecting a limited number of unidentified microorganisms. An expedient, low-cost, in-flight method of microbial detection, identification, and enumeration is warranted.

  8. Distributed Interplanetary Delay/Disruption Tolerant Network (DTN) Monitor and Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shin-Ywan

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of Distributed interplanetary Delay Tolerant Network Monitor and Control System as a DTN system network management implementation in JPL is defined to provide methods and tools that can monitor the DTN operation status, detect and resolve DTN operation failures in some automated style while either space network or some heterogeneous network is infused with DTN capability. In this paper, "DTN Monitor and Control system in Deep Space Network (DSN)" exemplifies a case how DTN Monitor and Control system can be adapted into a space network as it is DTN enabled.

  9. Coupling of ground biosensor networks for water monitoring with satellite observations in assessing Leptospirosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouloudis, A. N.; Rickerby, D. G.

    2012-12-01

    Leptospirosis became recently a major public-health problem that is closely related with the environment (Nature review Oct 2009, Vol 7, pp 736-747). This disease originates from zoonotic pathogens associated with asymptomatic rodent carriers. Unfortunately, it effects human populations via various direct and indirect routes. This disease can claim many victims with large outbreaks during natural disasters or floods occurring during seasonal conditions. The severity of the illness ranges from subclinical infection to a fulminating fatal disease. Improved water quality monitoring techniques based on biosensor, optical, micro-fluidic and information technologies are leading to radical changes in our ability to perceive and monitor the aquatic environment. Biosensors are capable of providing specific, high spatial resolution information and allow unattended operation that will be particularly useful for water borne related diseases. Current research on biosensors is leading to solutions to problems for several contaminants that were previously irresolvable due to their high degree of complexity. Networking of the sensors enables sensitive monitoring systems allowing real-time monitoring of pollutants and facilitates data transmission between the measurement points and central control stations for continuous surveillance and to provide an early warning capability. The application of intelligent biosensor networks for water quality monitoring and detection of localized sources of pollution are discussed together with the setting up of a methodology that utilizes images from satellite coupled with in-situ sensors for anticipating the zones of potential evolution of this disease and assessing the population at risk. Environmental and climatic conditions that are associated the outbreaks are described and the rational of combining earth observations coupled with advanced in-situ biosensors is explained. The implementation of sensor networks for data collection and exposure

  10. Radiation monitoring around accelerator facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Shinichi [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    The present status of a network of radiation monitors (NORM) working at KEK is described in detail. NORM consists of there parts; stand-alone radiation monitors (SARM), local-monitoring stations (STATION) and a central data-handling system (CENTER). NORM has developed to a large-scaled monitoring system in which more than 250 SARMs are under operation for monitoring the radiation fields and radioactivities around accelerators in KEK. (author)

  11. Unattended wireless proximity sensor networks for counterterrorism, force protection, littoral environments, PHM, and tamper monitoring ground applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcier, Bob

    2003-09-01

    This paper describes a digital-ultrasonic ground network, which forms an unique "unattended mote sensor system" for monitoring the environment, personnel, facilities, vehicles, power generation systems or aircraft in Counter-Terrorism, Force Protection, Prognostic Health Monitoring (PHM) and other ground applications. Unattended wireless smart sensor/tags continuously monitor the environment and provide alerts upon changes or disruptions to the environment. These wireless smart sensor/tags are networked utilizing ultrasonic wireless motes, hybrid RF/Ultrasonic Network Nodes and Base Stations. The network is monitored continuously with a 24/7 remote and secure monitoring system. This system utilizes physical objects such as a vehicle"s structure or a building to provide the media for two way secure communication of key metrics and sensor data and eliminates the "blind spots" that are common in RF solutions because of structural elements of buildings, etc. The digital-ultrasonic sensors have networking capability and a 32-bit identifier, which provide a platform for a robust data acquisition (DAQ) for a large amount of sensors. In addition, the network applies a unique "signature" of the environment by comparing sensor-to-sensor data to pick up on minute changes, which would signal an invasion of unknown elements or signal a potential tampering in equipment or facilities. The system accommodates satellite and other secure network uplinks in either RF or UWB protocols. The wireless sensors can be dispersed by ground or air maneuvers. In addition, the sensors can be incorporated into the structure or surfaces of vehicles, buildings, or clothing of field personnel.

  12. Water quality forecasting at Gongju station in Geum River using neural network model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Sang-Jin; Yeon, In-Sung [Chungbuk National University, Cheongju(Korea); Han, Yang-Su [Kyungdong University, Sokcho(Korea); Lee, Jae-Kyung [Daewon Science College, Jecheon(Korea)

    2001-12-31

    Forecasting of water quality variation is not an easy process due to the complicated nature of various water quality factors and their interrelationships. The objective of this study is to test the applicability of neural network models to the forecasting of the water quality at Gongju station in Geum River. This is done by forecasting monthly water qualities such as DO, BOD, and TN, and comparing with those obtained by ARIMA model. The neural network models of this study use BP(Back Propagation) algorithm for training. In order to improve the performance of the training, the models are tested in three different styles; MANN model which uses the Moment-Adaptive learning rate method, LMNN model which uses the Levenberg-Marquardt method, and MNN model which separates the hidden layers for judgement factors from the hidden layers for water quality data. the results show that the forecasted water qualities are reasonably close to the observed data. And the MNN model shows the best results among the three models tested. (author). 14 refs., 4 tabs., 8 figs.

  13. Sources of high frequency seismic noise: insights from a dense network of ~250 stations in northern Alsace (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergne, Jerome; Blachet, Antoine; Lehujeur, Maximilien

    2015-04-01

    Monitoring local or regional seismic activity requires stations having a low level of background seismic noise at frequencies higher than few tenths of Hertz. Network operators are well aware that the seismic quality of a site depends on several aspects, among them its geological setting and the proximity of roads, railways, industries or trees. Often, the impact of each noise source is only qualitatively known which precludes estimating the quality of potential future sites before they are tested or installed. Here, we want to take advantage of a very dense temporary network deployed in Northern Alsace (France) to assess the effect of various kinds of potential sources on the level of seismic noise observed in the frequency range 0.2-50 Hz. In September 2014, more than 250 seismic stations (FairfieldNodal@ Zland nodes with 10Hz vertical geophone) have been installed every 1.5 km over a ~25km diameter disc centred on the deep geothermal sites of Soultz-sous-Forêts and Rittershoffen. This region exhibits variable degrees of human imprints from quite remote areas to sectors with high traffic roads and big villages. It also encompasses both the deep sedimentary basin of the Rhine graben and the piedmont of the Vosges massif with exposed bedrock. For each site we processed the continuous data to estimate probability density functions of the power spectral densities. At frequencies higher than 1 Hz most sites show a clear temporal modulation of seismic noise related to human activity with the well-known variations between day and night and between weekdays and weekends. Moreover we observe a clear evolution of the spatial distribution of seismic noise levels with frequency. Basically, between 0.5 and 4 Hz the geological setting modulates the level of seismic noise. At higher frequencies, the amplitude of seismic noise appears mostly related to the distance to nearby roads. Based on road maps and traffic estimation, a forward approach is performed to model the induced

  14. Passive and Active Monitoring on a High Performance Research Network.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Warren

    2001-05-01

    The bold network challenges described in ''Internet End-to-end Performance Monitoring for the High Energy and Nuclear Physics Community'' presented at PAM 2000 have been tackled by the intrepid administrators and engineers providing the network services. After less than a year, the BaBar collaboration has collected almost 100 million particle collision events in a database approaching 165TB (Tera=10{sup 12}). Around 20TB has been exported via the Internet to the BaBar regional center at IN2P3 in Lyon, France, for processing and around 40 TB of simulated events have been imported to SLAC from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). An unforseen challenge has arisen due to recent events and highlighted security concerns at DoE funded labs. New rules and regulations suggest it is only a matter of time before many active performance measurements may not be possible between many sites. Yet, at the same time, the importance of understanding every aspect of the network and eradicating packet loss for high throughput data transfers has become apparent. Work at SLAC to employ passive monitoring using netflow and OC3MON is underway and techniques to supplement and possibly replace the active measurements are being considered. This paper will detail the special needs and traffic characterization of a remarkable research project, and how the networking hurdles have been resolved (or not!) to achieve the required high data throughput. Results from active and passive measurements will be compared, and methods for achieving high throughput and the effect on the network will be assessed along with tools that directly measure throughput and applications used to actually transfer data.

  15. Total suspended solids concentrations and yields for water-quality monitoring stations in Gwinnett County, Georgia, 1996-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landers, Mark N.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Gwinnett County Department of Water Resources, established a water-quality monitoring program during late 1996 to collect comprehensive, consistent, high-quality data for use by watershed managers. As of 2009, continuous streamflow and water-quality data as well as discrete water-quality samples were being collected for 14 watershed monitoring stations in Gwinnett County. This report provides statistical summaries of total suspended solids (TSS) concentrations for 730 stormflow and 710 base-flow water-quality samples collected between 1996 and 2009 for 14 watershed monitoring stations in Gwinnett County. Annual yields of TSS were estimated for each of the 14 watersheds using methods described in previous studies. TSS yield was estimated using linear, ordinary least-squares regression of TSS and explanatory variables of discharge, turbidity, season, date, and flow condition. The error of prediction for estimated yields ranged from 1 to 42 percent for the stations in this report; however, the actual overall uncertainty of the estimated yields cannot be less than that of the observed yields (± 15 to 20 percent). These watershed yields provide a basis for evaluation of how watershed characteristics, climate, and watershed management practices affect suspended sediment yield.

  16. Integration Of Low-Cost Single-Frequency GPS Stations Using 'Spider' Technology Within Existing Dual-Frequency GPS Network at Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat (West Indies): Processing And Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal, K.; Palamartchouk, K.; Lahusen, R. G.; Young, K.; Voight, B.

    2015-12-01

    Twenty years ago, began the eruption of the explosive Soufrière Hills Volcano, dominating the southern part of the island of Montserrat, West Indies. Five phases of effusive activity have now occurred, characterized by dome building and collapse, causing numerous evacuations and the emigration of half of the population. Over the years, the volcano monitoring network has greatly expanded. The GPS network, started from few geodetic markers, now consists of 14 continuous dual frequency GPS stations, distributed on and around the edifice, where topography and vegetation allow. The continuous GPS time series have given invaluable insight into the volcano behavior, notably revealing deflation/inflation cycles corresponding to phases and pauses of effusive activity, respectively. In 2014, collaboration of the CALIPSO Project (Penn State; NSF) with the Montserrat Volcano Observatory enriched the GPS and seismic monitoring networks with six 'spider' stations. The 'spiders', developed by R. Lahusen at Cascades Volcano Observatory, are designed to be deployed easily in rough areas and combine a low cost seismic station and a L1-only GPS station. To date, three 'spiders' have been deployed on Soufrière Hills Volcano, the closest at ~1 km from the volcanic conduit, adjacent to a lava lobe on the dome. Here we present the details of GPS data processing in a network consisting of both dual and single frequency receivers ('spiders') using GAMIT/GLOBK software. Processing together single and dual frequency data allowed their representation in a common reference frame, and a meaningful geophysical interpretation of all the available data. We also present the 'spiders' time series along with the results from the rest of the network and examine if any significant deformation, correlating with other manifestations of volcanic activity, has been recorded by the 'spiders' since deployment. Our results demonstrate that low cost GNSS equipment can serve as valuable components in volcano

  17. Prairie Monitoring Protocol Development: North Coast and Cascades Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Allen; Dalby, Craig

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to conduct research that will guide development of a standard approach to monitoring several components of prairies within the North Coast and Cascades Network (NCCN) parks. Prairies are an important element of the natural environment at many parks, including San Juan Island National Historical Park (NHP) and Ebey's Landing National Historical Reserve (NHR). Forests have been encroaching on these prairies for many years, and so monitoring of the prairies is an important resource issue. This project specifically focused on San Juan Island NHP. Prairies at Ebey's Landing NHR will be monitored in the future, but that park was not mapped as part of this prototype project. In the interest of efficiency, the Network decided to investigate two main issues before launching a full protocol development effort: (1) the imagery requirements for monitoring prairie components, and (2) the effectiveness of software to assist in extracting features from the imagery. Several components of prairie monitoring were initially identified as being easily tracked using aerial imagery. These components included prairie/forest edge, broad prairie composition (for example, shrubs, scattered trees), and internal exclusions (for example, shrubs, bare ground). In addition, we believed that it might be possible to distinguish different grasses in the prairies if the imagery were of high enough resolution. Although the areas in question at San Juan Island NHP are small enough that mapping on the ground with GPS (Global Positioning System) would be feasible, other applications could benefit from aerial image acquisition on a regular, recurring basis and thereby make the investment in aerial imagery worthwhile. The additional expense of orthorectifying the imagery also was determined to be cost-effective.

  18. Application of neural networks to channel assignment for cellular CDMA networks with multiple services and mobile base stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortos, William S.

    1996-03-01

    of channels to each cell such that these constraints are satisfied. This study applies and extends the Hopfield-Tank neural network models to the channel assignment problem for both uniform and non-homogeneous cellular CDMA network topologies. These models are shown to be applicable to future networks that provide multiple types of service, dynamic demand, and mobile base stations. The derived algorithms minimize energy functions representing interference constraints and traffic demand based on local data at the cell sites. The primary objectives of the approach are to increase the forward and reverse link capacities and to distribute selected management tasks at the Mobile Telecommunications Switching Office to the cell sites. The structure of the resulting neural network algorithms have the advantage of inherent parallelism and the potential for extension to a wide range of interference criteria. Two cases are considered. In the first case, traffic demands are uniform over the radio cells, while the radio cells are assumed to be a fixed hexagonal pattern. The second case corresponds to an urban cellular radio environment, where the location of the radio cells are not homogeneous and the spatial distribution of traffic demand are non-uniform.

  19. Application of Statistical, Fuzzy and Perceptron Neural Networks in Drought Forecasting (Case Study: Gonbad-e Kavous Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Hosseini-Moghari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to economic, social, and environmental perplexities associated with drought, it is considered as one of the most complex natural hazards. To investigate the beginning along with analyzing the direct impacts of drought; the significance of drought monitoring must be highlighted. Regarding drought management and its consequences alleviation, drought forecasting must be taken into account (11. The current research employed multi-layer perceptron (MLP, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS, radial basis function (RBF and general regression neural network (GRNN. It is interesting to note that, there has not been any record of applying GRNN in drought forecasting. Materials and Methods: Throughout this paper, Standard Precipitation Index (SPI was the basis of drought forecasting. To do so, the precipitation data of Gonbad Kavous station during the period of 1972-73 to 2006-07 were used. To provide short-term, mid-term, and long-term drought analysis; SPI for 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 months was evaluated. SPI evaluation benefited from four statistical distributions, namely, Gamma, Normal, Log-normal, and Weibull along with Kolmogrov-Smirnov (K-S test. Later, to compare the capabilities of four utilized neural networks for drought forecasting; MLP, ANFIS, RBF, and GRNN were applied. MLP as a multi-layer network, which has a sigmoid activation function in hidden layer plus linear function in output layer, can be considered as a powerful regressive tool. ANFIS besides adaptive neuro networks, employed fuzzy logic. RBF, the foundation of radial basis networks, is a three-layer network with Gaussian function in its hidden layer, and a linear function in the output layer. GRNN is another type of RBF which is used for radial basis regressive problems. The performance criteria of the research were as follows: Correlation (R2, Root Mean Square Error (RMSE, Mean Absolute Error (MAE. Results Discussion: According to statistical distribution

  20. The influence of interpolation and station network density on the distributions and trends of climate variables in gridded daily data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstra, N.; New, M.; McSweeney, C.

    2010-01-01

    We study the influence of station network density on the distributions and trends in indices of area-average daily precipitation and temperature in the E-OBS high resolution gridded dataset of daily climate over Europe, which was produced with the primary purpose of Regional Climate Model evaluation

  1. Monitoring individual traffic flows within the ATLAS TDAQ network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoen, R; Batraneanu, S M; Leahu, L; Martin, B; Al-Shabibi, A [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Stancu, S; Ciobotaru, M, E-mail: rune.velle.sjoen@cern.c [' Politehnica' University of Bucharest (Romania)

    2010-04-01

    The ATLAS data acquisition system consists of four different networks interconnecting up to 2000 processors using up to 200 edge switches and five multi-blade chassis devices. The architecture of the system has been described in [1] and its operational model in [2]. Classical, SNMP-based, network monitoring provides statistics on aggregate traffic, but for performance monitoring and troubleshooting purposes there was an imperative need to identify and quantify single traffic flows. sFlow [3] is an industry standard based on statistical sampling which attempts to provide a solution to this. Due to the size of the ATLAS network, the collection and analysis of the sFlow data from all devices generates a data handling problem of its own. This paper describes how this problem is addressed by making it possible to collect and store data either centrally or distributed according to need. The methods used to present the results in a relevant fashion for system analysts are discussed and we explore the possibilities and limitations of this diagnostic tool, giving an example of its use in solving system problems that arise during the ATLAS data taking.

  2. Monitoring individual traffic flows within the ATLAS TDAQ network

    CERN Document Server

    Sjoen, R; Ciobotaru, M; Batraneanu, S M; Leahu, L; Martin, B; Al-Shabibi, A

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS data acquisition system consists of four different networks interconnecting up to 2000 processors using up to 200 edge switches and five multi-blade chassis devices. The architecture of the system has been described in [1] and its operational model in [2]. Classical, SNMP-based, network monitoring provides statistics on aggregate traffic, but for performance monitoring and troubleshooting purposes there was an imperative need to identify and quantify single traffic flows. sFlow [3] is an industry standard based on statistical sampling which attempts to provide a solution to this. Due to the size of the ATLAS network, the collection and analysis of the sFlow data from all devices generates a data handling problem of its own. This paper describes how this problem is addressed by making it possible to collect and store data either centrally or distributed according to need. The methods used to present the results in a relevant fashion for system analysts are discussed and we explore the possibilities a...

  3. DISPLACEMENT TIME SERIS AT FIDUCIAL STATIONS OBTAINED FROM GPS OBSERVATIONS IN CRUSTAL MOVEMENT OBSEREVATION NETWORK OF CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gu Guohua; Zhang Jing

    2003-01-01

    A preliminary analysis of the time series of displacements at fiducial stations obtained from continuous GPS observations during the period of Sept. 1998 to Oct. 2001 in the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China (CMONOC) is made. The selection of datum for producing displacement time series suitable for earthquake prediction is discussed. Time series of horizontal crustal displacements are obtained by using a datum of a stable group of 9 stations with very small relative horizontal displacements in eastern China as reference. Time series of vertical crustal displacements are obtained by using a stable group of 7 stations scattered in different regions with relatively small relative vertical displacements as reference. During the period of 2000 to 2001, anomalous horizontal and vertical displacements occurred twice at the fiducial stations in western China. These anomalies may be related to seismic activities of magnitudes about 6 in the Yunnan region on the North-South seismic belt.

  4. SUPPORT OF GULF OF MEXICO HYDRATE RESEARCH CONSORTIUM: ACTIVITIES TO SUPPORT ESTABLISHMENT OF A SEA FLOOR MONITORING STATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Higley; J. Robert Woolsey; Ralph Goodman; Vernon Asper; Boris Mizaikoff; Angela Davis; Bob A. Hardage; Jeffrey Chanton; Rudy Rogers

    2006-03-01

    The Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium was established in 1999 to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research. The group is administered by the Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology, CMRET, at the University of Mississippi. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station or sea floor observatory on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2005, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the sea water and sea floor sediments on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. Development of the station has always included the possibility of expanding its capabilities to include biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health. This possibility has recently received increased attention and the group of researchers working on the station has expanded to include several microbial biologists. Establishment of the Consortium has succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in this relatively new research arena. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. Initial components of the observatory, a probe that collects pore-fluid samples and another that records sea floor temperatures, were deployed in Mississippi Canyon 118 in May of 2005. Follow-up deployments are planned for fall 2005 and center about the use of the vessel M/V Ocean Quest and its two manned submersibles. The subs will be used to effect bottom surveys, emplace sensors and sea floor experiments and make connections between sensor data loggers and the integrated data power unit (IDP). Station/observatory completion is anticipated for 2007 following the

  5. Combining network and array waveform coherence for automatic location: examples from induced seismicity monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sick, Benjamin; Joswig, Manfred

    2017-03-01

    Events from induced seismicity suffer from low signal-to-noise ratios and noise spikes due to the industrial setting. Low magnitude thresholds are needed for traffic light warning systems. Conventional automatic location methods rely on independent picking of first arrivals from seismic wave onsets at recordings of single stations. Picking is done separately and without feedback from the actual location algorithm. If the recording network is small or only few phases can be associated, single wrong associations can lead to large errors in hypocentre locations and magnitude. Event location by source scanning which was established in the last two decades can provide more robust results. This study investigates how source-scanning can be extended and improved by integrating information from seismic arrays, that is, waveform stacking and Fisher ratio. These array methods rely on the coherency of the raw filtered waveforms while traditional source scanning uses a characteristic function to obtain coherency from otherwise incoherent waveforms between distant stations. Short-term/long-term average (STA/LTA) serves as the characteristic function and single station vertical-component traces for P-phases and radial and transverse components for S-phases are used. For array stations, the STA/LTA of the stacked vertical seismogram which is furthermore weighted by the STA/LTA of the Fisher ratio, dependent on backazimuth and slowness, is utilized for P-phases. The new method is tested on two diverse data sets from induced seismicity monitoring. In the chosen examples, the extension by array-processing techniques can reduce mean hypocentre errors up to a factor of 2.9, resolve ambiguities and further restrain the location.

  6. 基于Zigbee的工厂空压站监控系统设计%Zigbee-based factory air compressor station monitor and control system design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚仲敏; 李魁杰; 张裕; 潘飞

    2014-01-01

    To solve the problems of current electrical control system of air compressor station, this paper presents a zigbee-based air compressor station monitor and control system. The air compressors effective management is the foundation of the whole control system, as the control of all electrical actuators, inverters and motors is achieved through PLC. The system uses the pressure sensors and flow sensors to collect data from the air compressor network, by means of the Zigbee technology to transmit data, and apply Labview control software for the monitor and control center host computer. Meanwhile, the joints of ZigBee have low power consumption and high flexibility, easy for networking and maintenance.%针对目前的空压站电气控制系统存在的问题,提出了一种基于无线传感网的空压站监控系统。空压机组的有效管理是整个控制系统的基础,通过PLC实现对电气各执行器、变频器、电机等进行控制;利用压力传感器、流量传感器采集空压管网数据,并应用ZigBee技术进行数据传输;采用Labview设计监控中心上位机控制软件;同时ZigBee节点的低功耗和灵活性的特点,方便组网和维护。

  7. Gas expanders at M/R Stations in the natural gas distribution network. Pre-project, subreport; Gasexpandere paa distributionsnettets M/R-stationer. Forprojekt, delrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Niels Bjarne

    2010-05-15

    Danish Gas Technology Centre has been carrying out a feasibility project to clarify the possibilities of installing gas expanders at M/R-stations (Measuring and Regulating) in the Distribution system of the natural gas grid. A large number of such expanders are installed around the world. The novelty of this project is to use a heat pump to perform the necessary heating of the gas before the expander, and to ''export'' to the electricity grid the remaining electricity from the generator connected to the expander. The present project includes the small M/R-stations at the gas Distribution grid where pressure is reduced from 40 or 20 bar to 4 bar. The preliminary project (year 1 of project) has investigated whether components for such smaller systems can be found, and it has investigated prices for different quantities. A technical feasibility study has been done. Also, preliminary calculations of payback times has been carried out. A large potential of CO{sub 2}-reduction is present with this technology based on saving of natural gas combustion and on new electricity production displacing existing production without any use of primary energy. The main results and conclusions are: 1) There are component suppliers for expander systems suitable to the size of distribution network M/R stations. 2) Pressure regulators provided at the stations are laid out with significant overcapacity, enabling a simplified installation of the expander systems. 3) If the system is being rolled out across the Danish distribution grid, the realistic saving potential is approx. 2.3 million Nm3 of gas per year and a production of almost 40 million kWh of electricity. 4) If the price is 0.60 DKK/kWh for electricity sold, the simple pay-back is 6-7 years on average, covering a variation from 3 to 16 years at the various stations. The smallest stations are omitted. The best stations covering more than half of the gas flow have a pay-back time between 3 and 6 years. 5) The

  8. Global Monitoring of Mountain Glaciers Using High-Resolution Spotlight Imaging from the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnellan, A.; Green, J. J.; Bills, B. G.; Goguen, J.; Ansar, A.; Knight, R. L.; Hallet, B.; Scambos, T. A.; Thompson, L. G.; Morin, P. J.

    2013-12-01

    Mountain glaciers around the world are retreating rapidly, contributing about 20% to present-day sea level rise. Numerous studies have shown that mountain glaciers are sensitive to global environmental change. Temperate-latitude glaciers and snowpack provide water for over 1 billion people. Glaciers are a resource for irrigation and hydroelectric power, but also pose flood and avalanche hazards. Accurate mass balance assessments have been made for only 280 glaciers, yet there are over 130,000 in the World Glacier Inventory. The rate of glacier retreat or advance can be highly variable, is poorly sampled, and inadequately understood. Liquid water from ice front lakes, rain, melt, or sea water and debris from rocks, dust, or pollution interact with glacier ice often leading to an amplification of warming and further melting. Many mountain glaciers undergo rapid and episodic events that greatly change their mass balance or extent but are sparsely documented. Events include calving, outburst floods, opening of crevasses, or iceberg motion. Spaceborne high-resolution spotlight optical imaging provides a means of clarifying the relationship between the health of mountain glaciers and global environmental change. Digital elevation models (DEMs) can be constructed from a series of images from a range of perspectives collected by staring at a target during a satellite overpass. It is possible to collect imagery for 1800 targets per month in the ×56° latitude range, construct high-resolution DEMs, and monitor changes in high detail over time with a high-resolution optical telescope mounted on the International Space Station (ISS). Snow and ice type, age, and maturity can be inferred from different color bands as well as distribution of liquid water. Texture, roughness, albedo, and debris distribution can be estimated by measuring bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDF) and reflectance intensity as a function of viewing angle. The non-sun-synchronous orbit

  9. Strategy to design the sea-level monitoring networks for small tsunamigenic oceanic basins: the Western Mediterranean case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Schindelé

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami triggered a number of international and national initiatives aimed at establishing modern, reliable and robust tsunami warning systems. In addition to the seismic network for initial warning, the main component of the monitoring system is the sea level network. Networks of coastal tide gages and tsunameters are implemented to detect the tsunami after the occurrence of a large earthquake, to confirm or refute the tsunami occurrence. Large oceans tsunami monitoring currently in place in the Pacific and in implementation in the Indian Ocean will be able to detect tsunamis in 1 h. But due to the very short time of waves propagation, in general less than 1 h, a tsunami monitoring system in a smaller basin requires a denser network located close to the seismic zones. A methodology is proposed based on the modeling of tsunami travel time and waveform, and on the estimation of the delay of transmission to design the location and the spacing of the stations. In the case of Western Mediterranean, we demonstrate that a network of around 17 coastal tide gages and 13 tsunameters located at 50 km along the shore is required to detect and measure nearly all tsunamis generated on the Northern coasts of Africa.

  10. Intelligent Wireless Sensor Networks for System Health Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alena, Rick

    2011-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) based on the IEEE 802.15.4 Personal Area Network (PAN) standard are finding increasing use in the home automation and emerging smart energy markets. The network and application layers, based on the ZigBee 2007 Standard, provide a convenient framework for component-based software that supports customer solutions from multiple vendors. WSNs provide the inherent fault tolerance required for aerospace applications. The Discovery and Systems Health Group at NASA Ames Research Center has been developing WSN technology for use aboard aircraft and spacecraft for System Health Monitoring of structures and life support systems using funding from the NASA Engineering and Safety Center and Exploration Technology Development and Demonstration Program. This technology provides key advantages for low-power, low-cost ancillary sensing systems particularly across pressure interfaces and in areas where it is difficult to run wires. Intelligence for sensor networks could be defined as the capability of forming dynamic sensor networks, allowing high-level application software to identify and address any sensor that joined the network without the use of any centralized database defining the sensors characteristics. The IEEE 1451 Standard defines methods for the management of intelligent sensor systems and the IEEE 1451.4 section defines Transducer Electronic Datasheets (TEDS), which contain key information regarding the sensor characteristics such as name, description, serial number, calibration information and user information such as location within a vehicle. By locating the TEDS information on the wireless sensor itself and enabling access to this information base from the application software, the application can identify the sensor unambiguously and interpret and present the sensor data stream without reference to any other information. The application software is able to read the status of each sensor module, responding in real-time to changes of

  11. A Wireless Sensor Network for Monitoring Atmospheric Aggressiveness in Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Pancardo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Humid tropical climate favours the existence of a c orrosive atmosphere that causes deterioration of me tals. This article describes an automated system for moni toring environmental values (temperature and relati ve humidity in order to know the time of wetness (TOW , which is key factor in determining the atmospher ic aggressiveness which are exposed the metals used, f or example, in industrial facilities. System is implemented on a wireless sensor network and the ma in function of the software developed is to count t he time of wetness which is considered the effective t ime in which metals corrode. System was designed considering the user requirements as the selection of the frequency of measurements, the calculation o f TOW and verification of the residual energy of sens or nodes. The results show the effectiveness of the technology used, so that, we can conclude that this type of networks represent a feasible alternative for automated monitoring of corrosion in metals.

  12. Using graphene networks to build bioinspired self-monitoring ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picot, Olivier T.; Rocha, Victoria G.; Ferraro, Claudio; Ni, Na; D'Elia, Eleonora; Meille, Sylvain; Chevalier, Jerome; Saunders, Theo; Peijs, Ton; Reece, Mike J.; Saiz, Eduardo

    2017-02-01

    The properties of graphene open new opportunities for the fabrication of composites exhibiting unique structural and functional capabilities. However, to achieve this goal we should build materials with carefully designed architectures. Here, we describe the fabrication of ceramic-graphene composites by combining graphene foams with pre-ceramic polymers and spark plasma sintering. The result is a material containing an interconnected, microscopic network of very thin (20-30 nm), electrically conductive, carbon interfaces. This network generates electrical conductivities up to two orders of magnitude higher than those of other ceramics with similar graphene or carbon nanotube contents and can be used to monitor `in situ' structural integrity. In addition, it directs crack propagation, promoting stable crack growth and increasing the fracture resistance by an order of magnitude. These results demonstrate that the rational integration of nanomaterials could be a fruitful path towards building composites combining unique mechanical and functional performances.

  13. Wireless sensor networks for indoor air quality monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tsang-Chu; Lin, Chung-Chih; Chen, Chun-Chang; Lee, Wei-Lun; Lee, Ren-Guey; Tseng, Chao-Heng; Liu, Shi-Ping

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to build an indoor air quality monitoring system based on wireless sensor networks (WSNs) technology. The main functions of the system include (1) remote parameter adjustment and firmware update mechanism for the sensors to enhance the flexibility and convenience of the system, (2) sensor nodes are designed by referring to the IEEE 1451.4 standard. This way, sensor nodes can automatically adjust and be plug and play, and (3) calibration method to strength the measurement value's sensitivity and accuracy. The experimental results show that transmission speed improves 30% than Trickle, transmission volume reduced to 42% of the original volume, updating task in 5*5 network topology can be executed 1.79 times and power consumption reduced to 30%. When baseline drifts, we can use the firmware update mechanism to adjust the reference value. The way can reduce error percentage from 15% to 7%. Copyright © 2011 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Spatially Resolved Monitoring of Drying of Hierarchical Porous Organic Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Manuel Isaac; Silletta, Emilia V; Gomez, Cesar G; Strumia, Miriam C; Stapf, Siegfried; Monti, Gustavo Alberto; Mattea, Carlos; Acosta, Rodolfo H

    2016-03-01

    Evaporation kinetics of water confined in hierarchal polymeric porous media is studied by low field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Systems synthesized with various degrees of cross-linker density render networks with similar pore sizes but different response when soaked with water. Polymeric networks with low percentage of cross-linker can undergo swelling, which affects the porosity as well as the drying kinetics. The drying process is monitored macroscopically by single-sided NMR, with spatial resolution of 100 μm, while microscopic information is obtained by measurements of spin-spin relaxation times (T2). Transition from a funicular to a pendular regime, where hydraulic connectivity is lost and the capillary flow cannot compensate for the surface evaporation, can be observed from inspection of the water content in different sample layers. Relaxation measurements indicate that even when the larger pore structures are depleted of water, capillary flow occurs through smaller voids.

  15. Design of a geothermal monitoring network in a coastal area and the evaluation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohan Shim, Byoung; Lee, Chulwoo; Park, Chanhee

    2016-04-01

    In Seockmodo Island (area of 48.2 km2) located at the northwest of South Korea, a renewable energy development project to install photovoltaic 136 kW and geothermal 516.3 kW is initiated. Since the 1990s, more than 20 deep geothermal wells for hot springs, greenhouse and aquaculture have been developed along coastal areas. The outflow water of each site has the pumping capacity between 300 and 4,800 m3/day with the salinity higher than 20,000 mg/l, and the maximum temperature shows 70 ?C. Because of the required additional well drillings, the increased discharge rate can cause serious seawater intrusion into freshwater aquifers, which supply groundwater for drinking and living purposes from 210 wells. In order to manage the situation, advanced management skills are required to maintain the balance between geothermal energy development and water resources protection. We designed real-time monitoring networks with monitoring stations for the sustainable monitoring of the temperature and salinity. Construction of borehole temperature monitoring for deep and shallow aquifer consists with the installation of automated temperature logging system and cellular telemetry for real-time data acquisition. The DTS (distributed temperature sensing) system and fiber optic cables will be installed for the logging system, which has enough temperature resolution and accuracy. The spatial distribution and the monitoring points can be determined by geological and hydrological situations associated with the locations of current use and planned facilities. The evaluation of the temperature and salinity variation will be conducted by the web-based monitoring system. The evaluation system will be helpful to manage the balance between the hot water development and the fresh water resources conservation.

  16. Wearable and implantable wireless sensor network solutions for healthcare monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Ashraf; Hassanien, Aboul Ella

    2011-01-01

    Wireless sensor network (WSN) technologies are considered one of the key research areas in computer science and the healthcare application industries for improving the quality of life. The purpose of this paper is to provide a snapshot of current developments and future direction of research on wearable and implantable body area network systems for continuous monitoring of patients. This paper explains the important role of body sensor networks in medicine to minimize the need for caregivers and help the chronically ill and elderly people live an independent life, besides providing people with quality care. The paper provides several examples of state of the art technology together with the design considerations like unobtrusiveness, scalability, energy efficiency, security and also provides a comprehensive analysis of the various benefits and drawbacks of these systems. Although offering significant benefits, the field of wearable and implantable body sensor networks still faces major challenges and open research problems which are investigated and covered, along with some proposed solutions, in this paper.

  17. Wearable and Implantable Wireless Sensor Network Solutions for Healthcare Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Ashraf; Hassanien, Aboul Ella

    2011-01-01

    Wireless sensor network (WSN) technologies are considered one of the key research areas in computer science and the healthcare application industries for improving the quality of life. The purpose of this paper is to provide a snapshot of current developments and future direction of research on wearable and implantable body area network systems for continuous monitoring of patients. This paper explains the important role of body sensor networks in medicine to minimize the need for caregivers and help the chronically ill and elderly people live an independent life, besides providing people with quality care. The paper provides several examples of state of the art technology together with the design considerations like unobtrusiveness, scalability, energy efficiency, security and also provides a comprehensive analysis of the various benefits and drawbacks of these systems. Although offering significant benefits, the field of wearable and implantable body sensor networks still faces major challenges and open research problems which are investigated and covered, along with some proposed solutions, in this paper. PMID:22163914

  18. Wearable and Implantable Wireless Sensor Network Solutions for Healthcare Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Darwish

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor network (WSN technologies are considered one of the key research areas in computer scienc