WorldWideScience

Sample records for monitor station network

  1. The central monitoring station of Indian Environmental Radiation Monitoring Network (IERMON): the architecture and functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, Saurabh; Ratheesh, M.P.; Mukundan, T.; Patel, M.D.; Nair, C.K.G.; Puranik, V.D.

    2010-01-01

    The Indian Environmental Radiation Monitoring Network (IERMON) is being established across the country by the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai. The network consists of stations with automated systems for environmental radiation monitoring with online data communication facility. Currently about 100 stations are operational and additional 500 stations are expected to be installed by March, 2012. The network is established with different objectives, the main objective being the detection and reporting of any nuclear emergency anywhere in the country. The central monitoring station of the network is established in Mumbai. This paper describes the architecture and functions of IERMON Central Station. The Central Station consists of server room for online data collection from remote stations and maintenance of databases for various applications; central monitoring room for user interaction with database and IERMON website maintenance and development room for the development of new applications. The functions of IERMON Central Station include detection and reporting of nuclear emergency, maintenance of remote stations, enhancement of public awareness on environmental radiation through public display systems and website, etc. The details on system layout and data protocols can be found in the paper. (author)

  2. Air pollution assessment in the Slovak Republic in 2005. Measurement stations of air quality monitoring network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2006-05-01

    In this Appendix to the report 'Air pollution assessment in the Slovak Republic in 2005' the main characteristics of measurement stations of air quality monitoring network of the Slovak Republic are presented

  3. Air pollution assessment in the Slovak Republic in 2004. Measurement stations of air quality monitoring network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2005-07-01

    In this Appendix to the report 'Air pollution assessment in the Slovak Republic in 2004' the main characteristics of measurement stations of air quality monitoring network of the Slovak Republic are presented

  4. Locations of Sampling Stations for Water Quality Monitoring in Water Distribution Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, Shweta; Gupta, Rajesh

    2014-04-01

    Water quality is required to be monitored in the water distribution networks (WDNs) at salient locations to assure the safe quality of water supplied to the consumers. Such monitoring stations (MSs) provide warning against any accidental contaminations. Various objectives like demand coverage, time for detection, volume of water contaminated before detection, extent of contamination, expected population affected prior to detection, detection likelihood and others, have been independently or jointly considered in determining optimal number and location of MSs in WDNs. "Demand coverage" defined as the percentage of network demand monitored by a particular monitoring station is a simple measure to locate MSs. Several methods based on formulation of coverage matrix using pre-specified coverage criteria and optimization have been suggested. Coverage criteria is defined as some minimum percentage of total flow received at the monitoring stations that passed through any upstream node included then as covered node of the monitoring station. Number of monitoring stations increases with the increase in the value of coverage criteria. Thus, the design of monitoring station becomes subjective. A simple methodology is proposed herein which priority wise iteratively selects MSs to achieve targeted demand coverage. The proposed methodology provided the same number and location of MSs for illustrative network as an optimization method did. Further, the proposed method is simple and avoids subjectivity that could arise from the consideration of coverage criteria. The application of methodology is also shown on a WDN of Dharampeth zone (Nagpur city WDN in Maharashtra, India) having 285 nodes and 367 pipes.

  5. Mobile environmental radiation monitoring station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assido, H.; Shemesh, Y.; Mazor, T.; Tal, N.; Barak, D.

    1997-01-01

    A mobile environmental radiation monitoring station has been developed and established for the Israeli Ministry of Environment. The radiation monitoring station is ready for immediate placing in any required location, or can be operated from a vehicle. The station collects data Tom the detector and transfers it via cellular communication network to a Computerized Control Center for data storage, processing, and display . The mobile station is fully controlled from the. Routinely, the mobile station responses to the data request accumulated since the last communication session. In case of fault or alarm condition in the mobile station, a local claim is activated and immediately initiates communication with the via cellular communication network. (authors)

  6. Identification of Homogeneous Stations for Quality Monitoring Network of Mashhad Aquifer Based on Nitrate Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moslem Akbarzadeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: For water resources monitoring, Evaluation of groundwater quality obtained via detailed analysis of pollution data. The most fundamental analysis is to identify the exact measurement of dangerous zones and homogenous station identification in terms of pollution. In case of quality evaluation, the monitoring improvement could be achieved via identifying homogenous wells in terms of pollution. Presenting a method for clustering is essential in large amounts of quality data for aquifer monitoring and quality evaluation, including identification of homogeneous stations of monitoring network and their clustering based on pollution. In this study, with the purpose of Mashhad aquifer quality evaluation, clustering have been studied based on Euclidean distance and Entropy criteria. Cluster analysis is the task of grouping a set of objects in such a way that objects in the same group (called a cluster are more similar (in some sense or another to each other than to those in other groups (clusters. SNI as a combined entropy measure for clustering calculated from dividing mutual information of two values (pollution index values to the joint entropy. These measures apply as similar distance criteria for monitoring stations clustering. Materials and Methods: First, nitrate data (as pollution index and electrical conductivity (EC (as covariate collected from the related locational situation of 287 wells in statistical period 2002 to 2011. Having identified the outlying data and estimating non-observed points by spatial-temporal Kriging method and then standardizes them, the clustering process was carried out. A similar distance of wells calculated through a clustering process based on Euclidean distance and Entropy (SNI criteria. This difference explained by characteristics such as the location of wells (longitude & latitude and the pollution index (nitrate. Having obtained a similar distance of each well to others, the hierarchical clustering

  7. Present day geodynamics in Iceland monitored by a permanent network of continuous GPS stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völksen, Christof; Árnadóttir, Thóra; Geirsson, Halldór; Valsson, Guðmundur

    2009-12-01

    Iceland is located on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and thereby offers a rare opportunity to study crustal movements at a divergent plate boundary. Iceland is not only characterized by the divergence of the Eurasian and North American Plates, as several active volcanoes are located on the island. Moderate size earthquakes occur in the transform zones, causing measurable crustal deformation. In 1999 the installation of a permanent network of continuous GPS stations (ISGPS) was initiated in order to observe deformation due to unrest in the Hengill volcanic system and at the Katla volcano. The ISGPS network has been enlarged over the years and consists today of more than 25 CGPS stations. Most of the stations are located along the plate boundary, where most of the active deformation takes place. Uplift due to post-glacial rebound due to the melting of the largest glacier in Europe, Vatnajökull, is also detected by the ISGPS network. This study presents results from analysis of 9 years of data from the ISGPS network, in the global reference frame PDR05, which has been evaluated by the Potsdam-Dresden-Reprocessing group with reprocessed GPS data only. We thus determine subsidence or land uplift in a global frame. The horizontal station velocities clearly show spreading across the plate boundary of about 20 mm/a. Stations in the vicinity of the glacier Vatnajökull indicate uplift in the range of 12 mm/a, while a station in the central part of Iceland shows uplift rates of about 25 mm/a. Tide gauge readings in Reykjavik and current subsidence rates observed with CGPS agree also quite well.

  8. Trends in Surface-Water Quality at Selected Ambient-Monitoring Network Stations in Kentucky, 1979-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Angela S.; Martin, Gary R.

    2009-01-01

    Increasingly complex water-management decisions require water-quality monitoring programs that provide data for multiple purposes, including trend analyses, to detect improvement or deterioration in water quality with time. Understanding surface-water-quality trends assists resource managers in identifying emerging water-quality concerns, planning remediation efforts, and evaluating the effectiveness of the remediation. This report presents the results of a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kentucky Energy and Environment Cabinet-Kentucky Division of Water, to analyze and summarize long-term water-quality trends of selected properties and water-quality constituents in selected streams in Kentucky's ambient stream water-quality monitoring network. Trends in surface-water quality for 15 properties and water-quality constituents were analyzed at 37 stations with drainage basins ranging in size from 62 to 6,431 square miles. Analyses of selected physical properties (temperature, specific conductance, pH, dissolved oxygen, hardness, and suspended solids), for major ions (chloride and sulfate), for selected metals (iron and manganese), for nutrients (total phosphorus, total nitrogen, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, nitrite plus nitrate), and for fecal coliform were compiled from the Commonwealth's ambient water-quality monitoring network. Trend analyses were completed using the S-Plus statistical software program S-Estimate Trend (S-ESTREND), which detects trends in water-quality data. The trend-detection techniques supplied by this software include the Seasonal Kendall nonparametric methods for use with uncensored data or data censored with only one reporting limit and the Tobit-regression parametric method for use with data censored with multiple reporting limits. One of these tests was selected for each property and water-quality constituent and applied to all station records so that results of the trend procedure could be compared among

  9. Development of low cost wireless radiation monitoring station using GSM network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Aira Abd Rahman; Mohd Ashhar Khalid; Nor Arymaswati Abdullah; Roslan Md Dan

    2006-01-01

    SMS or Short Message Service is a mean of GSM wireless communication that allow text messages to be sent to and from mobile cell phones. While SMS communication is mainly utilized at personal level or person to person basis; the usage of SMS can be extended into nuclear application specifically in radiation monitoring. This paper explains the development of a wireless station assembled by using a recycled Siemens M50 cell phone as substitutes to GSM modem, a PIC micro controller, and MINT-ISG home made digital survey meter at the remote transmitting site. While at the receiving end; an online monitoring system is set-up by using a Bluetooth enabled cell phone, a Bluetooth dongle, and a PC with Labview 8.0 software written as the Data logger which also served as the PC-Bluetooth interface platform. Wireless station at the remote area operates by continuously sending SMS in every 3 minutes to a predefined cellular number located at the monitoring system. The SMS consists of 6 data which individually is a survey meter readings recorded at each 30 seconds duration. At the receiver, Data logger program will retrieve the SMS from the cell phone via Bluetooth and extract the original 6 readings to be displayed on PC. The system has been successfully tested to detect and log radiation data for extended period of time. (Author)

  10. European experience on air and water pollution control: monitoring network and warning station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aflalo, Sergio S. [Groupe Environnement S.A., Poissy (France)

    1993-12-31

    After a review of the energy consumption and pollutants emitted in the European Community, especially those concerning the `green house effect`, the author proceeded a summary of the actual legislation and Europeans directives, and also, the Best Available Technology for reducing air pollution is discussed. Original Air Quality monitoring networks performed by Environnement SA are described including measurements obtained around Paris and other areas of France. 7 refs., 11 figs.

  11. European experience on air and water pollution control: monitoring network and warning station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aflalo, Sergio S [Groupe Environnement S.A., Poissy (France)

    1994-12-31

    After a review of the energy consumption and pollutants emitted in the European Community, especially those concerning the `green house effect`, the author proceeded a summary of the actual legislation and Europeans directives, and also, the Best Available Technology for reducing air pollution is discussed. Original Air Quality monitoring networks performed by Environnement SA are described including measurements obtained around Paris and other areas of France. 7 refs., 11 figs.

  12. Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS). This file provides information on the numbers and distribution (latitude/longitude) of air monitoring sites...

  13. Air and radiation monitoring stations

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)582709

    2015-01-01

    CERN has around 100 monitoring stations on and around its sites. New radiation measuring stations, capable of detecting even lower levels of radiation, were installed in 2014. Two members of HE-SEE group (Safety Engineering and Environment group) in front of one of the new monitoring stations.

  14. UMTS Network Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, C.

    2010-09-01

    The weakness of small island electrical grids implies a handicap for the electrical generation with renewable energy sources. With the intention of maximizing the installation of photovoltaic generators in the Canary Islands, arises the need to develop a solar forecasting system that allows knowing in advance the amount of PV generated electricity that will be going into the grid, from the installed PV power plants installed in the island. The forecasting tools need to get feedback from real weather data in "real time" from remote weather stations. Nevertheless, the transference of this data to the calculation computer servers is very complicated with the old point to point telecommunication systems that, neither allow the transfer of data from several remote weather stations simultaneously nor high frequency of sampling of weather parameters due to slowness of the connection. This one project has developed a telecommunications infrastructure that allows sensorizadas remote stations, to send data of its sensors, once every minute and simultaneously, to the calculation server running the solar forecasting numerical models. For it, the Canary Islands Institute of Technology has added a sophisticated communications network to its 30 weather stations measuring irradiation at strategic sites, areas with high penetration of photovoltaic generation or that have potential to host in the future photovoltaic power plants connected to the grid. In each one of the stations, irradiance and temperature measurement instruments have been installed, over inclined silicon cell, global radiation on horizontal surface and room temperature. Mobile telephone devices have been installed and programmed in each one of the weather stations, which allow the transfer of their data taking advantage of the UMTS service offered by the local telephone operator. Every minute the computer server running the numerical weather forecasting models receives data inputs from 120 instruments distributed

  15. Radiation monitoring network in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowski, D.; Kurowski, W.; Muszynski, W.; Rubel, B.; Smagala, G.; Swietochowska, J.

    2001-01-01

    In Poland the radioactive contamination of the environment and food has been controlled since the early sixties by the Service for Measurements of Radioactive Contamination (SPSP). The service comprises a network of measuring stations and the Centre of Radioactive Contamination Measurements (COPSP). Actually, there are 100 measurement stations. The main task of such station is systematic measurement of radioactivity level in samples of environment components and food. Nine stations of SPSP acting within meteorological stations, ten stations of low level air radioactivity measurements (Aerosols Sampling Stations-500) and eleven permanent monitoring stations (PMS) form the radiation monitoring warning system in Poland. (author)

  16. ICUD-0499 Low-cost remotely sensed environmental monitoring stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke

    2017-01-01

    This study contributes with extensive research of applying low-cost remotely sensed monitoring stations to an urban environment. Design requirements are scrutinized, including applications for remote data access, hardware design, and monitoring network design. A network of 9 monitoring stations...... measuring stream water level is deployed during July 2017. Data is streamed to a web page using cellular-based data transmission. Monitoring network performance is quantified with respect to local physical and weather conditions....

  17. Monitoring surface-water quality in Arizona: the fixed-station network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadayon, Saeid

    2000-01-01

    Arizona is an arid State in which economic development is influenced largely by the quantity and quality of water and the location of adequate water supplies. In 1995, surface water supplied about 58 percent of total withdrawals in Arizona. Of the total amount of surface water used in 1995, about 89 percent was for agriculture, 10 percent for public supply, and 1 percent for industrial supply (including mining and thermoelectric; Solley and others, 1998). As a result of rapid population growth in Arizona, historic agricultural lands in the Phoenix (Maricopa County) and Tucson (Pima County) areas are now being developed for residential and commercial use; thus, the amount of water used for public supply is increasing. The Clean Water Act was established by U.S. Congress (1972) in response to public concern about water-pollution control. The act defines a process by which the United States Congress and the citizens are informed of the Nation’s progress in restoring and maintaining the quality of our waters. The Arizona Department of Environmental Quality (ADEQ) is the State-designated agency for this process and, as a result, has developed a monitoring program to assess water quality in Arizona. The ADEQ is required to submit a water-quality assessment report to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) every 2 years. The USEPA summarizes the reports from each State and submits a report to the Congress characterizing water quality in the United States. These reports serve to inform Congress and the public of the Nation’s progress toward the restoration and maintenance of water quality in the United States (Arizona Department of Environmental Quality, 1998).

  18. Using a neural network approach and time series data from an international monitoring station in the Yellow Sea for modeling marine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingying; Wang, Juncheng; Vorontsov, A M; Hou, Guangli; Nikanorova, M N; Wang, Hongliang

    2014-01-01

    The international marine ecological safety monitoring demonstration station in the Yellow Sea was developed as a collaborative project between China and Russia. It is a nonprofit technical workstation designed as a facility for marine scientific research for public welfare. By undertaking long-term monitoring of the marine environment and automatic data collection, this station will provide valuable information for marine ecological protection and disaster prevention and reduction. The results of some initial research by scientists at the research station into predictive modeling of marine ecological environments and early warning are described in this paper. Marine ecological processes are influenced by many factors including hydrological and meteorological conditions, biological factors, and human activities. Consequently, it is very difficult to incorporate all these influences and their interactions in a deterministic or analysis model. A prediction model integrating a time series prediction approach with neural network nonlinear modeling is proposed for marine ecological parameters. The model explores the natural fluctuations in marine ecological parameters by learning from the latest observed data automatically, and then predicting future values of the parameter. The model is updated in a "rolling" fashion with new observed data from the monitoring station. Prediction experiments results showed that the neural network prediction model based on time series data is effective for marine ecological prediction and can be used for the development of early warning systems.

  19. Monitoring of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ull, E.; Labudda, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the invention is to create a process for undelayed automated detection and monitoring of accidents in the operation of nuclear power stations. According to the invention, this problem is solved by the relevant local measurements, such as radiation dose, components and type of radiation and additional relevant meteorological parameters being collected by means of wellknown data collection platforms, these being transmitted via transmission channels by means of satellites to suitable worldwide situated receiving stations on the ground, being processed there and being evaluated to recognise accidents. The local data collection platforms are used in the immediate vicinity of the nuclear power station. The use of aircraft, ships and balloons as data collection systems is also intended. (HWJ)

  20. Water shortage and drought monitoring in Bačka region (Vojvodina, North Serbia: Setting-up measurement stations network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Mlađen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Water shortage and drought, as the most important hydro-climatic hazards, cause significant damages in case of most continents including SE Europe. An experimental field established in Bačka region (Vojvodina Autonomous Province, North Serbia for the purpose of droughts/water shortage monitoring and remote sensing under ongoing IPA project 'Water shortage hazard and adaptive water management strategies in the Hungarian-Serbian cross-border region' (WAHASTRAT. The main objective of this project is to determine water shortage con­flicts on a local and regional level, and to reveal the frequency, extent and severity of future hydro-cli­matic hazards. The locations of eight measurement stations selected on the principle of representativeness in term of terrain configuration and soil cover. An area in which measurement stations were placed, covers about 1000 km2 (12% of total area of Bačka and includes geomorphic units which reliable represent the relief of the whole Bačka region. Measurement stations were placed on 4 out of 5 most common soil types in the Bačka and Vojvodina: chernozem, alluvial soils, smonitza and saline and alkali soils. A measurement equipment system was constructed for the requirements of the WAHASTRAT project. The aim was to design a user-friendly and affordable IT solution, which would enable continuous re­mote monitoring of meteorological parameters and soil moisture. Independent solar-powered meas­urement stations are able to automatically measure air temperature, air humidity, wind speed, wind di­rection, precipitation and soil moisture.

  1. The Remote Monitoring of Earth’s Atmosphere Based on Operative Processing GNSS Data in the UA-EUPOS/ZAKPOS Network of Active Reference Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Kablak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The system of remote monitoring of atmosphere is designed to obtain information about the state of atmosphere. The principle of the remote monitoring of atmosphere is based on registering and processing GLONASS/GPS radio signals. Modern networks of active reference stations allow us to solve both practical problems of geodesy, navigation, and purely scientific problems that are important in all geosciences. The paper investigates a spatiotemporal instability in the atmosphere, based on 845 temporal measurements of tropospheric delay over the territory covered by 20 active reference stations of the UA-EUPOS/ZAKPOS network. The method elaborated by the authors for the determination of tropospheric delay in the UA-EUPOS/ZAKPOS network in real time takes relief of the region into account. The results are very good, since mapping tropospheric delay can be made with an average RMSE of 1.5 mm. The method developed in this research can be used to improve the quality of weather forecasts and the prevention of natural disasters.

  2. Innovation in monitoring: The U.S. Geological Survey Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta, California, flow-station network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burau, Jon; Ruhl, Cathy; Work, Paul A.

    2016-01-29

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) installed the first gage to measure the flow of water into California’s Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta from the Sacramento River in the late 1800s. Today, a network of 35 hydro-acoustic meters measure flow throughout the delta. This region is a critical part of California’s freshwater supply and conveyance system. With the data provided by this flow-station network—sampled every 15 minutes and updated to the web every hour—state and federal water managers make daily decisions about how much freshwater can be pumped for human use, at which locations, and when. Fish and wildlife scientists, working with water managers, also use this information to protect fish species affected by pumping and loss of habitat. The data are also used to help determine the success or failure of efforts to restore ecosystem processes in what has been called the “most managed and highly altered” watershed in the country.

  3. GSFC contamination monitors for Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carosso, P. A.; Tveekrem, J. L.; Coopersmith, J. D.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the Work Package 3 activities in the area of neutral contamination monitoring for the Space Station. Goddard Space Flight Center's responsibilities include the development of the Attached Payload Accommodations Equipment (APAE), the Polar Orbiting Platform (POP), and the Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS). GSFC will also develop the Customer Servicing Facility (CSF) in Phase 2 of the Space Station.

  4. Atmospheric air contamination monitoring. Monitoring station ASS-500, GIG Katowice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalik, B.

    1993-01-01

    The results obtained during the period of 1991-1993 in monitoring station ASS-500 working in Katowice have been presented. The concentration of 137 Cs, 226 Ra, 40 K, 7 Be and dustiness in atmospheric air have been shown. Some proposals about the modifications of monitoring station ASS-500 have been introduced. 3 figs, 5 tabs

  5. Serial Network Flow Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Julie A.; Tate-Brown, Judy M.

    2009-01-01

    Using a commercial software CD and minimal up-mass, SNFM monitors the Payload local area network (LAN) to analyze and troubleshoot LAN data traffic. Validating LAN traffic models may allow for faster and more reliable computer networks to sustain systems and science on future space missions. Research Summary: This experiment studies the function of the computer network onboard the ISS. On-orbit packet statistics are captured and used to validate ground based medium rate data link models and enhance the way that the local area network (LAN) is monitored. This information will allow monitoring and improvement in the data transfer capabilities of on-orbit computer networks. The Serial Network Flow Monitor (SNFM) experiment attempts to characterize the network equivalent of traffic jams on board ISS. The SNFM team is able to specifically target historical problem areas including the SAMS (Space Acceleration Measurement System) communication issues, data transmissions from the ISS to the ground teams, and multiple users on the network at the same time. By looking at how various users interact with each other on the network, conflicts can be identified and work can begin on solutions. SNFM is comprised of a commercial off the shelf software package that monitors packet traffic through the payload Ethernet LANs (local area networks) on board ISS.

  6. A report on upgraded seismic monitoring stations in Myanmar: Station performance and site response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiam, Hrin Nei; Min Htwe, Yin Myo; Kyaw, Tun Lin; Tun, Pa Pa; Min, Zaw; Htwe, Sun Hninn; Aung, Tin Myo; Lin, Kyaw Kyaw; Aung, Myat Min; De Cristofaro, Jason; Franke, Mathias; Radman, Stefan; Lepiten, Elouie; Wolin, Emily; Hough, Susan E.

    2017-01-01

    Myanmar is in a tectonically complex region between the eastern edge of the Himalayan collision zone and the northern end of the Sunda megathrust. Until recently, earthquake monitoring and research efforts have been hampered by a lack of modern instrumentation and communication infrastructure. In January 2016, a major upgrade of the Myanmar National Seismic Network (MNSN; network code MM) was undertaken to improve earthquake monitoring capability. We installed five permanent broadband and strong‐motion seismic stations and real‐time data telemetry using newly improved cellular networks. Data are telemetered to the MNSN hub in Nay Pyi Taw and archived at the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology Data Management Center. We analyzed station noise characteristics and site response using noise and events recorded over the first six months of station operation. Background noise characteristics vary across the array, but indicate that the new stations are performing well. MM stations recorded more than 20 earthquakes of M≥4.5 within Myanmar and its immediate surroundings, including an M 6.8 earthquake located northwest of Mandalay on 13 April 2016 and the Mw 6.8 Chauk event on 24 August 2016. We use this new dataset to calculate horizontal‐to‐vertical spectral ratios, which provide a preliminary characterization of site response of the upgraded MM stations.

  7. Status of radionuclide monitoring stations in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, P.A.

    2001-01-01

    The Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ANSTO) first became involved in the monitoring of radionuclides in the environment in 1955 when assessing the effects on the Australian population of the radioactive releases associated with the atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons. (At that time ARPANSA was known as the Commonwealth X-ray and Radium Laboratory). The United Kingdom had tested weapons in Australia in 1952 and 1953 and in August 1954 entered into an agreement with the Australian Government to establish a test range at Maralinga in South Australia. The government established a Maralinga Safety Committee and through this Committee ARPANSA became involved in the surveillance of radioactive fallout over Australia. The primary function of this surveillance was to ensure that the nuclear trials would not adversely effect the health of the Australian population. A program was established to reliably assess the deposition of radioactive fallout over Australia so that exposure to the population could be estimated. This task was performed in conjunction with the Bureau of Meteorology and the Department of Supply. Measurements were made on daily samples of fallout dawn from 10 centres throughout Australia. A low level radiochemical facility was established in 1961 for the measurement of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in environmental samples so that the long term distribution of fallout could be tracked. In the 1960s the program was extended to measure fresh fission products reaching Australia from atmospheric testing in other countries, usually originating from test sites in the northern hemisphere. The sampling program that was established was designed so that it could be rapidly expanded when a new testing program started. At this time a permanent fallout monitoring network was established around Australia using high volume air samplers capable of sampling up to 10000 m 3 per week. Approximately six stations have been operated at any one time but the

  8. Phytoplankton Monitoring Network (PMN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Phytoplankton Monitoring Network (PMN) is a part of the National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS). The PMN was created as an outreach program to connect...

  9. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struckmeyer, R.

    1994-03-01

    This report presents the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1993. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 75 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program

  10. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struckmeyer, R.; McNamara, N.

    1993-03-01

    This report present the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1992. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 75 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program

  11. New Seismic Monitoring Station at Mohawk Ridge, Valles Caldera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Peter Morse [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-20

    Two new broadband digital seismic stations were installed in the Valles Caldera in 2011 and 2012. The first is located on the summit of Cerros del Abrigo (station code CDAB) and the second is located on the flanks of San Antonio Mountain (station code SAMT). Seismic monitoring stations in the caldera serve multiple purposes. These stations augment and expand the current coverage of the Los Alamos Seismic Network (LASN), which is operated to support seismic and volcanic hazards studies for LANL and northern New Mexico (Figure 1). They also provide unique continuous seismic data within the caldera that can be used for scientific studies of the caldera’s substructure and detection of very small seismic signals that may indicate changes in the current and evolving state of remnant magma that is known to exist beneath the caldera. Since the installation of CDAB and SAMT, several very small earthquakes have already been detected near San Antonio Mountain just west of SAMT (Figure 2). These are the first events to be seen in that area. Caldera stations also improve the detection and epicenter determination quality for larger local earthquakes on the Pajarito Fault System east of the Preserve and the Nacimiento Uplift to the west. These larger earthquakes are a concern to LANL Seismic Hazards assessments and seismic monitoring of the Los Alamos region, including the VCNP, is a DOE requirement. Currently the next closest seismic stations to the caldera are on Pipeline Road (PPR) just west of Los Alamos, and Peralta Ridge (PER) south of the caldera. There is no station coverage near the resurgent dome, Redondo Peak, in the center of the caldera. Filling this “hole” is the highest priority for the next new LASN station. We propose to install this station in 2018 on Mohawk Ridge just east of Redondito, in the same area already occupied by other scientific installations, such as the MCON flux tower operated by UNM.

  12. Development of the Arctic radionuclide monitoring station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, S.E.; Phillips, G.W.; Aakenes, U.R.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, the world has learned about the dumping of nuclear reactors and other waste into the Arctic seas by the former Soviet Union. Most of the information on the present levels of radioactivity in the region has been obtained by oceanographic expeditions conducted during the brief Arctic summers. Year-round monitoring of the movement of radio-activity during dynamic seasonal and episodic chances is hampered by the difficulties caused by sea ice, logistics and communication constraints associated with deployment and maintenance of monitoring equipment in this remote region. We have designed an autonomous station to measure the benthic gamma-ray emitting radioactivity for periods of at least one year. The station is capable of detecting a 30 Bq/m 3 increase in the 137 Cs activity in a 24 hour period. After a year-long deployment, the station releases its anchor and rises to the surface to transmit the accumulated spectra and oceanographic data via an Argos satellite link. The design and performance characteristics of the prototype station will be discussed

  13. Development of the Arctic radionuclide monitoring station

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, S. E.; Aakenes, U. R.; McCoy, K.; Phillips, G. W.

    1997-06-01

    The world has learned about the dumping of nuclear reactors and other waste into the Arctic seas by the former Soviet Union. Most of the information on the present levels of radioactivity in the region has been obtained by oceanographic expeditions conducted during the brief Arctic summers. Year-round monitoring of the movement of radioactivity during dynamic seasonal and episodic changes is hampered by the difficulties caused by sea ice, logistics and communication constraints associated with deployment and maintenance of monitoring equipment in this remote region. The authors have designed an autonomous station to measure the benthic gamma-ray emitting radioactivity for periods of at least one year. The station is capable of detecting a 30 Bq/m/sup 3/ increase in the /sup 137/Cs activity in a 24 hour period. After a year-long deployment, the station releases its anchor and rises to the surface to transmit the accumulated spectra and oceanographic data via an Argos satellite link. The design and performance characteristics of the prototype station are discussed.

  14. Limerick Nuclear Generating Station vibration monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikulski, R.

    1988-01-01

    Philadelphia Electric Company utilizes a vibration monitoring computer system at its Limerick Nuclear Generating Station to evaluate machine performance. Performance can be evaluated through instantaneous sampling, online static and transient data. The system functions as an alarm monitor, displaying timely alarm data to the control area. The passage of time since the system's inception has been a learning period. Evaluation through continuous use has led to many enhancements in alarm handling and in the acquisition and display of machine data. Due to the system's sophistication, a routine maintenance program is a necessity. This paper describes the system's diagnostic tools and current utilization. System development and maintenance techniques will also be discussed

  15. Icinga network monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Mehta, Viranch

    2013-01-01

    This book is written in a concise and easy-to-follow approach, it will guide you to get you started with Icinga and lead you through the difficult concepts with illustrated examples and screenshots.If you are a system administrator or Linux enthusiast who is looking for a flexible tool to monitor network infrastructure efficiently, or trying to understand the Icinga software, this is a great book for you. You are expected to have solid foundation in Linux.

  16. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struckmeyer, R.; McNamara, N.

    1991-04-01

    This report presents the results of the NRC [Nuclear Regulatory Commission] Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1990. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 75 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program. 3 figs., 4 tabs

  17. Urban Noise Recorded by Stationary Monitoring Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bąkowski, Andrzej; Radziszewski, Leszek; Dekýš, Vladimir

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents the analysis results of equivalent sound level recorded by two road traffic noise monitoring stations. The stations were located in Kielce (an example of a medium-size town in Poland) at the roads in the town in the direction of Łódź and Lublin. The measurements were carried out through stationary stations monitoring the noise and traffic of motor vehicles. The RMS values based on A-weighted sound level were recorded every 1 s in the buffer and the results were registered every 1 min over the period of investigations. The registered data were the basis for calculating the equivalent sound level for three time intervals: from 6:00 to 18:00, from 18:00 to 22:00 and from 22:00 to 6:00. Analysis included the values of the equivalent sound level recorded for different days of the week split into 24h periods, nights, days and evenings. The data analysed included recordings from 2013. The agreement of the distribution of the variable under analysis with normal distribution was evaluated. It was demonstrated that in most cases (for both roads) there was sufficient evidence to reject the null hypothesis at the significance level of 0.05. It was noted that compared with Łódź Road, in the case of Lublin Road data, more cases were recorded for which the null hypothesis could not be rejected. Uncertainties of the equivalent sound level measurements were compared within the periods under analysis. The standard deviation, coefficient of variation, the positional coefficient of variation, the quartile deviation was proposed for performing a comparative analysis of the obtained data scattering. The investigations indicated that the recorded data varied depending on the traffic routes and time intervals. The differences concerned the values of uncertainties and coefficients of variation of the equivalent sound levels.

  18. Personal exposure versus monitoring station data for respirable particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sega, K; Fugas, M

    1982-01-01

    Personal exposure to respirable particles of 12 subjects working at the same location, but living in various parts of Zagreb, was monitored for 7 consecutive days and compared with simultaneously obtained data from the outdoor network station nearest to subject's home. Although personal exposure is related to the outdoor pollution, other sources play a considerable role. Indoor exposure takes, on the average, more than 80% of the total time. The ratio between average personal exposure and respirable particle levels in the outdoor air decreases with the increased outdoor concentration (r = -0.93), indicating that this relationship might serve as a basis for a rough estimate of possible personal exposure.

  19. Hawaii Munitions Monitoring Station and Natural Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, M.; Trimble, A. Z.; Rognstad, M. R.

    2017-12-01

    Hundreds of thousands of tons of conventional munitions were fired into the ocean at military ranges or deliberately disposed at sea during the twentieth century. Potential contaminants from munitions and explosives of concern (MEC) affect virtually every coast in the United States, including Alaska, the Hawaiian Islands, Guam, American Samoa and other U.S. territories as well as inland waterways. It is necessary to develop methods to assess the concentrations of munitions constituents present at a site to address concerns about the presence of environmentally relevant concentrations and their potential impacts. Having a well-characterized site to test instruments and methods is important for continued development and refinement of technology. Most sites are too big to characterize comprehensively in three dimensions over time periods lasting days or longer. We are working to develop a monitoring station and natural laboratory near Oahu, Hawaii to create a cost-effective demonstration and validation natural laboratory where emerging technologies can be evaluated and compared. Ordnance Reef (OR) is an ideal location to establish a munitions monitoring station for historical, logistical and environmental reasons. OR is an area of shallow fringing reef measuring approximately 4.2 km by 2.2 km along the Waianae coast of Oahu that was used as a disposal area for military munitions following World War II. OR has been the subject of multiple investigations including an inventory of munitions conducted by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in 2002 and a screening-level risk investigation conducted by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the University of Hawaii in 2006. As a result, there are multiple datasets collected over the past fifteen years that can be leveraged to serve as a baseline for the natural laboratory. These extant datasets are being supplemented with data from integrated unmanned systems deployed at OR to characterize and visualize the

  20. International remote monitoring project Argentina Nuclear Power Station Spent Fuel Transfer Remote Monitoring System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, S.; Lucero, R.; Glidewell, D.

    1997-01-01

    The Autoridad Regulataria Nuclear (ARN) and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) are cooperating on the development of a Remote Monitoring System for nuclear nonproliferation efforts. A Remote Monitoring System for spent fuel transfer will be installed at the Argentina Nuclear Power Station in Embalse, Argentina. The system has been designed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) providing gamma and neutron sensors. This project will test and evaluate the fundamental design and implementation of the Remote Monitoring System in its application to regional and international safeguards efficiency. This paper provides a description of the monitoring system and its functions. The Remote Monitoring System consists of gamma and neutron radiation sensors, RF systems, and video systems integrated into a coherent functioning whole. All sensor data communicate over an Echelon LonWorks Network to a single data logger. The Neumann DCM 14 video module is integrated into the Remote Monitoring System. All sensor and image data are stored on a Data Acquisition System (DAS) and archived and reviewed on a Data and Image Review Station (DIRS). Conventional phone lines are used as the telecommunications link to transmit on-site collected data and images to remote locations. The data and images are authenticated before transmission. Data review stations will be installed at ARN in Buenos Aires, Argentina, ABACC in Rio De Janeiro, IAEA Headquarters in Vienna, and Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. 2 refs., 2 figs

  1. Optimizing the spatial pattern of networks for monitoring radioactive releases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melles, S.J.; Heuvelink, G.B.M.; Twenhofel, C.J.W.; Dijk, van A.; Hiemstra, P.H.; Baume, O.P.; Stohlker, U.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a method to optimize the sampling design of environmental monitoring networks in a multi-objective setting. We optimize the permanent network of radiation monitoring stations in the Netherlands and parts of Germany as an example. The optimization method proposed combines

  2. ANZA Seismic Network- From Monitoring to Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, F.; Eakin, J.; Martynov, V.; Newman, R.; Offield, G.; Hindley, A.; Astiz, L.

    2007-05-01

    The ANZA Seismic Network (http:eqinfo.ucsd.edu) utilizes broadband and strong motion sensors with 24-bit dataloggers combined with real-time telemetry to monitor local and regional seismicity in southernmost California. The ANZA network provides real-time data to the IRIS DMC, California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN), other regional networks, and the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS), in addition to providing near real-time information and monitoring to the greater San Diego community. Twelve high dynamic range broadband and strong motion sensors adjacent to the San Jacinto Fault zone contribute data for earthquake source studies and continue the monitoring of the seismic activity of the San Jacinto fault initiated 24 years ago. Five additional stations are located in the San Diego region with one more station on San Clemente Island. The ANZA network uses the advance wireless networking capabilities of the NSF High Performance Wireless Research and Education Network (http:hpwren.ucsd.edu) to provide the communication infrastructure for the real-time telemetry of Anza seismic stations. The ANZA network uses the Antelope data acquisition software. The combination of high quality hardware, communications, and software allow for an annual network uptime in excess of 99.5% with a median annual station real-time data return rate of 99.3%. Approximately 90,000 events, dominantly local sources but including regional and teleseismic events, comprise the ANZA network waveform database. All waveform data and event data are managed using the Datascope relational database. The ANZA network data has been used in a variety of scientific research including detailed structure of the San Jacinto Fault Zone, earthquake source physics, spatial and temporal studies of aftershocks, array studies of teleseismic body waves, and array studies on the source of microseisms. To augment the location, detection, and high frequency observations of the seismic source spectrum from local

  3. Monitoring and optimization of energy consumption of base transceiver stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spagnuolo, Antonio; Petraglia, Antonio; Vetromile, Carmela; Formosi, Roberto; Lubritto, Carmine

    2015-01-01

    The growth and development of the mobile phone network has led to an increased demand for energy by the telecommunications sector, with a noticeable impact on the environment. Monitoring of energy consumption is a great tool for understanding how to better manage this consumption and find the best strategy to adopt in order to maximize reduction of unnecessary usage of electricity. This paper reports on a monitoring campaign performed on six BSs (Base Transceiver Stations) located central Italy, with different technology, typology and technical characteristics. The study focuses on monitoring energy consumption and environmental parameters (temperature, noise, and global radiation), linking energy consumption with the load of telephone traffic and with the air conditioning functions used to cool the transmission equipment. Moreover, using experimental data collected, it is shown, with a Monte Carlo simulation based on power saving features, how the BS monitored could save energy. - Highlights: • Energy consumption and environmental parameters of a base transceiver system have been monitored. • Energy consumption is related to the air conditioning functions and to the load of telephone traffic. • Energy saving can be obtained by careful choice of cooling parameters and by turn off BS transceivers. • Energy saving parameters can be estimated by a simulation Monte Carlo method

  4. Continuous environmental radiation monitoring network at Kalpakkam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somayaji, K.M.; Mathiyarasu, R.; Prakash, G.S.; Meenakshisundaram, V.; Rajagopal, V.

    1997-01-01

    The report highlights our experience in the design and installation of monitoring stations as part of continuous environmental radiation monitoring network around the periphery of the nuclear complex at Kalpakkam. Five monitoring stations, one each in south-west sector (Main Gate I) and south-south west (Main Gate II) and the others in North sector (HASL and ESG) and in north-west section (WIP) have been set up. Two independent detector systems, based on high pressure ionisation chamber (HPIC) and energy compensated GM have been installed at each of these locations and the data has been logged continuously using a data logger. The data so gathered at each monitoring station is retrieved every week by means of a hand held terminal (HHT) with a built-in non-volatile memory and transferred to an IBM PC-AT for data analysis and archival. The report discusses in depth the design and developmental efforts undertaken to set up the network, starting from the basic detectors. The work involved the design of suitable electrometer circuits for measuring the low levels of current from HPICs, and the subsequent study of the performance of the highly sensitive preamplifier under diurnal variations of ambient conditions. The report includes, in detail the design aspects and fabrication details of low current measuring electrometer circuits

  5. Smart Sensor Network System For Environment Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Ali Baloch

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available SSN (Smart Sensor Network systems could be used to monitor buildings with modern infrastructure, plant sites with chemical pollution, horticulture, natural habitat, wastewater management and modern transport system. To sense attributes of phenomena and make decisions on the basis of the sensed value is the primary goal of such systems. In this paper a Smart Spatially aware sensor system is presented. A smart system, which could continuously monitor the network to observe the functionality and trigger, alerts to the base station if a change in the system occurs and provide feedback periodically, on demand or even continuously depending on the nature of the application. The results of the simulation trials presented in this paper exhibit the performance of a Smart Spatially Aware Sensor Networks.

  6. Environmental radiation monitoring system in nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Sadazumi; Tadachi, Katsuo; Endo, Mamoru; Yuya, Hiroshi

    1983-01-01

    At the time of the construction of nuclear power stations, prior to their start of operation, the state of environmental radiation must be grasped. After the start of the power stations, based on those data, the system of environmental radiation monitoring is established. Along with the construction of Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station, The Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. jointly with Fujitsu Ltd. has developed a high-reliability, environmental radiation monitoring system, and adopted ''optical data highways'' using optical fiber cables for communication. It consists of a central monitoring station and 11 telemeter observation points, for collecting both radiation and meteorological data. The data sent to the central station through the highways are then outputted on a monitoring panel. They are analyzed with a central processor, and the results are printed out. (Mori, K.)

  7. Slope Monitoring using Total Station: What are the Challenges and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... survey perspective on the typical problems that can be expected during slope monitoring using total station (also known as prism monitoring) and second, to suggest ways of mitigating such problems. The aim is to create awareness of the implications of incorrect use or negligence during slope monitoring surveys utilising ...

  8. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struckmeyer, R.; McNamara, N.

    1992-06-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Direct Radiation Monitoring Network is operated by the NRC in cooperation with participating states to provide continuous measurement of the ambient radiation levels around licensed NRC facilities, primarily power reactors. Ambient radiation levels result from naturally occurring radionuclides present in the soil, cosmic radiation constantly bombarding the earth from outer space, and the contribution, if any, from the monitored facilities and other man-made sources. The Network is intended to measure radiation levels during routine facility operations and to establish background radiation levels used to assess the radiological impact of an unusual condition, such as an accident. This report presents the radiation levels measured around all facilities in the Network for the first quarter of 1992. All radiation measurements are made using small, passive detectors called thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), which provide a quantitative measurement of the radiation levels in the area in which they are placed. Each site is monitored by arranging approximately 40 to 50 TLD stations in two concentric rings extending to about five miles from the facility. All TLD stations are outside the site boundary of the facility

  9. Emergency protection and nuclear power station remote monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, K.; Wolf, H.

    1986-01-01

    The States of the Federal Republic of Germany are planning emergency protection measures for the environment of nuclear power stations based on their statutory duty of care. In this connection the paper explains to what extent remote monitoring of nuclear power stations practised by the Federal Supervisory Authorities may support the design and implementation of emergency protection measures. (orig.) [de

  10. Benzene monitoring at CPPI service stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, C.S.

    1996-01-01

    A study was conducted in which ambient airborne concentration levels of benzene were measured at a representative set of gasoline service stations in Toronto and Vancouver. Benzene is considered to be toxic under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA). It is a component in gasoline (0.1 to 4.7 per cent by volume) and is present in vehicle evaporative and exhaust emissions. Measurements were made every 18 days at each station for one year. The objective of the study was to assess the ambient and employee exposure levels of benzene at service stations and to determine whether the levels were typical of those published in the literature. In a 1986 PACE (Petroleum Association for Conservation of the Canadian Environment) survey of exposure to gasoline hydrocarbon vapours at Canadian service stations, airborne benzene concentration data was inconsistent with similar ambient and personal exposure data in the international literature. It was concluded that both the mean ambient benzene concentration and the personal exposure level measurements in this study were generally lower than similar measurements made in other countries. The same observation was made with respect to ambient and personal exposure levels measured in this study vis-a-vis those measured during the PACE study conducted in 1985/86. . 31 refs., 24 tabs., 5 figs

  11. RadNet Radiological Air Monitoring Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott Telofski, J.; Askren, D.R.; Petko, Ch.M.; Fraass, R.G.

    2010-01-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency operates a national environmental radiation monitoring program called RadNet. RadNet monitors airborne particulates, precipitation, milk, and drinking water for radiation levels. The primary purpose of the original program in the 1950's and 1960's was to collect and analyze samples in various media to assess the effects of radioactive fallout from above-ground nuclear weapon testing. As above-ground testing diminished in the 1970's, the program, especially the air network, became critical in evaluating effects of other types of nuclear incidents, such as the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl, as well as monitoring trends in environmental radioactive contamination. The value of rapid data collection subsequent to such incidents led to the consideration of developing air monitors with radiation detectors and telecommunication equipment for real-time radiation measurement. The strengthened United States homeland security posture after 2001 led to production and installation of the current real-time RadNet air monitors. There are now 118 stationary, continuously operating air monitoring stations and 40 mobile air monitors for site specific monitoring. The stationary air monitors include radiation detectors, meteorological sensors, a high-volume air sampler, and communication devices for hourly data transfers. When unusual levels are detected, scientists download a full sodium iodide detector spectrum for analysis. The real-time data collected by RadNet stationary systems permit rapid identification and quantification of airborne nuclides with sufficient sensitivity to provide critical information to help determine protective actions. The data also may help to rapidly refine long-range radioactive plume models and estimate exposure to the population. This paper provides an overview of the airborne particulate monitoring conducted during above-ground nuclear weapon testing, summarizes the uses of data from the program

  12. Vibration monitoring of large vertical pumps via a remote satellite station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, S.A.; Crowe, R.D.; Roblyer, S.P.; Toffer, H.

    1985-01-01

    The Hanford N Reactor is operated by UNC Nuclear Industries for the Department of Energy for the production of special isotopes and electric energy. The reactor has a unique design in which the equipment such as pumps, turbines, generators and diesel engines are located in separate buildings. This equipment arrangement has led to the conclusion that the most cost-effective implementation of a dedicated vibration monitoring system would be to install a computerized network system in lieu of a single analyzing station. In this approach, semi-autonomous micro processor based data collection stations referred to as satellite stations are located near each concentration of machinery to be monitored. The satellite stations provide near continuous monitoring of the machinery. They are linked to a minicomputer using voice grade telephone circuits and hardware and software specifically designed for network communications. The communications link between the satellite stations and the minicomputer permits data and programs to be transmitted between the units. This paper will describe the satellite station associated with large vertical pumps vibration monitoring. The reactor has four of these pumps to supply tertiary cooling to reactor systems. 4 figs

  13. Assessment of SRS ambient air monitoring network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jannik, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-03

    Three methodologies have been used to assess the effectiveness of the existing ambient air monitoring system in place at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, SC. Effectiveness was measured using two metrics that have been utilized in previous quantification of air-monitoring network performance; frequency of detection (a measurement of how frequently a minimum number of samplers within the network detect an event), and network intensity (a measurement of how consistent each sampler within the network is at detecting events). In addition to determining the effectiveness of the current system, the objective of performing this assessment was to determine what, if any, changes could make the system more effective. Methodologies included 1) the Waite method of determining sampler distribution, 2) the CAP88- PC annual dose model, and 3) a puff/plume transport model used to predict air concentrations at sampler locations. Data collected from air samplers at SRS in 2015 compared with predicted data resulting from the methodologies determined that the frequency of detection for the current system is 79.2% with sampler efficiencies ranging from 5% to 45%, and a mean network intensity of 21.5%. One of the air monitoring stations had an efficiency of less than 10%, and detected releases during just one sampling period of the entire year, adding little to the overall network intensity. By moving or removing this sampler, the mean network intensity increased to about 23%. Further work in increasing the network intensity and simulating accident scenarios to further test the ambient air system at SRS is planned

  14. A new watershed assessment framework for Nova Scotia: A high-level, integrated approach for regions without a dense network of monitoring stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Shannon M.; Garroway, Kevin; Guan, Yue; Ambrose, Sarah M.; Horne, Peter; Kennedy, Gavin W.

    2014-11-01

    High-level, integrated watershed assessments are a basic requirement for freshwater planning, as they create regional summaries of multiple environmental stressors for the prioritization of watershed conservation, restoration, monitoring, and mitigation. There is a heightened need for a high-level, integrated watershed assessment in Nova Scotia as it faces pressing watershed issues relating to acidification, soil erosion, acid rock drainage, eutrophication, and water withdrawals related to potential shale gas development. But because of the relative sparseness of the on-the-ground effects-based data, for example on water quality or fish assemblages, previously created approaches for integrated watershed assessment cannot be used. In a government/university collaboration, we developed a new approach that relies solely on easier-to-collect and more available exposure-based variables to perform the first high-level watershed assessment in Nova Scotia. In this assessment, a total of 295 watershed units were studied. We used Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to map and analyze 13 stressor variables that represent risks to aquatic environment (e.g., road/stream crossing density, acid rock drainage risk, surface water withdrawals, human land use, and dam density). We developed a model to link stressors with impacts to aquatic systems to serve as a basis for a watershed threat ranking system. Resource management activities performed by government and other stakeholders were also included in this analysis. Our assessment identifies the most threatened watersheds, enables informed comparisons among watersheds, and indicates where to focus resource management and monitoring efforts. Stakeholder communication tools produced by the NSWAP include a watershed atlas to communicate the assessment results to a broader audience, including policy makers and public stakeholders. This new framework for high-level watershed assessments provides a resource for other regions that also

  15. Establishing a mobile automatic monitoring station for emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Hsin-Fa

    2008-01-01

    Full text: A radiological/nuclear emergency event may cause environmental contamination. The emergency response works always need to plan an environmental survey programme incorporating the assessment results to see what is happening. The places where are assessed to have the highest radioactive contamination/radiation dose will catch more concern and need continuous monitoring. It will cause unnecessary dangers and dose to command that personnel conduct surveying in such places when the radiological/nuclear accident become more severe. A mobile automatic monitoring station has been established for emergency response by INER (Institute of Nuclear Energy Research) to solve the problem practically. The monitoring station involves a HPIC to monitor radiation dose, an anemometer to monitor wind speed and direction, a GPS to get position data, a GPRS/3G communication module to send monitoring and positioning data to the monitoring centre where can show the monitoring result directly on a map shown on the computer. These instruments are integrated in a trailer easy to be towed to the place need to be monitored. The electric power of the station is supplied by s a solar power energy system. It can supply the station working at least 10 days without extra electric power supply designed based on the expected time length of a nuclear power plant event. The HPIC is very sensitive and stable that can discriminate a 10 nSv/hr increasing of dose rate with the monitoring time period every ten seconds. Where the radiological dispersion device events happened is not predictable, it is difficult to get suitable wind monitoring data to assess the result of radiological dispersion device events. The anemometer added on the station can provide the real time wind monitoring data to help assessment works. (author)

  16. Trends of chemical monitoring in power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, R.; Venz, H.

    1983-01-01

    Frequently, the state-of-the-art of chemical monitoring in power plants is still determined by conservative methods. A thorough rationalization requires not only modern analytical procedures, but also the consideration of chemically affected processes in complex process analyses and the combination of automatic analyzers with available process computers. Using some examples, ways of reducing monitoring efforts without impairing safety and economy of nuclear power plant operation are pointed out. (author)

  17. Slope Monitoring using Total Station: What are the Challenges and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Afeni

    implications of incorrect use or negligence during slope monitoring surveys ... Data collection, processing and the presentation of results in a concise format ..... There are several software packages on the market for total station error propagation, ..... Thomas, H.G., 2011, Slope stability prism monitoring: A guide for practising ...

  18. Low-cost automatic station for compost temperature monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo D. L. Jordão

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Temperature monitoring is an important procedure to control the composting process. Due to cost limitation, temperature monitoring is manual and with daily sampling resolution. The objective of this study was to develop an automatic station with US$ 150 dollars, able to monitor air temperature at two different points in a compost pile, with a 5-min time resolution. In the calibration test, the sensors showed an estimated uncertainty from ± 1 to ± 1.9 ºC. In the field validation test, the station guaranteed secure autonomy for seven days and endured high humidity and extreme temperature (> 70 °C.

  19. Space Station Environmental Health System water quality monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincze, Johanna E.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1990-01-01

    One of the unique aspects of the Space Station is that it will be a totally encapsulated environment and the air and water supplies will be reclaimed for reuse. The Environmental Health System, a subsystem of CHeCS (Crew Health Care System), must monitor the air and water on board the Space Station Freedom to verify that the quality is adequate for crew safety. Specifically, the Water Quality Subsystem will analyze the potable and hygiene water supplies regularly for organic, inorganic, particulate, and microbial contamination. The equipment selected to perform these analyses will be commercially available instruments which will be converted for use on board the Space Station Freedom. Therefore, the commercial hardware will be analyzed to identify the gravity dependent functions and modified to eliminate them. The selection, analysis, and conversion of the off-the-shelf equipment for monitoring the Space Station reclaimed water creates a challenging project for the Water Quality engineers and scientists.

  20. Environmental monitoring network for India

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.V. Sundareshwar; R. Murtugudde; G. Srinivasan; S. Singh; K.J. Ramesh; R. Ramesh; S.B. Verma; D. Agarwal; D. Baldocchi; C.K. Baru; K.K. Baruah; G.R. Chowdhury; V.K. Dadhwal; C.B.S. Dutt; J. Fuentes; Prabhat Gupta; W.W. Hardgrove; M. Howard; C.S. Jha; S. Lal; W.K. Michener; A.P. Mitra; J.T. Morris; R.R. Myneni; M. Naja; R. Nemani; R. Purvaja; S. Raha; S.K. Santhana Vanan; M. Sharma; A. Subramaniam; R. Sukumar; R.R. Twilley; P.R. Zimmerman

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the consequences of global environmental change and its mitigation will require an integrated global effort of comprehensive long-term data collection, synthesis, and action (1). The last decade has seen a dramatic global increase in the number of networked monitoring sites. For example, FLUXNET is a global collection of >300 micrometeorological...

  1. DMA Reference Base Station Network Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data (15,904 records documenting 9,090 worldwide gravity base stations) were gathered by various governmental organizations (and academia) using a variety of...

  2. Environmental monitoring networks in Spain; Redes de vigilancia radiologica ambiental en Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luque Heredia, S.; Martin Matarranz, J. L.; Marugan Tovar, I.; Rey del Castillo, C.; Salas Collantes, R.; Sterling Carmona, A.; Ramos Salvador, L. M.

    2011-07-01

    Environmental monitoring in Spain is carried out by several networks with different objectives and scope, a monitoring network in the vicinity of nuclear facilities and radioactive nuclear fuel cycle and various monitoring networks nationally funded and managed by agencies public. The aim of this paper is to present a summary of all monitoring networks, including a series of figures with the stations that are, their geographical distribution and the programs in them.

  3. Entropy Applications to Water Monitoring Network Design: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongho Keum

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Having reliable water monitoring networks is an essential component of water resources and environmental management. A standardized process for the design of water monitoring networks does not exist with the exception of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO general guidelines about the minimum network density. While one of the major challenges in the design of optimal hydrometric networks has been establishing design objectives, information theory has been successfully adopted to network design problems by providing measures of the information content that can be deliverable from a station or a network. This review firstly summarizes the common entropy terms that have been used in water monitoring network designs. Then, this paper deals with the recent applications of the entropy concept for water monitoring network designs, which are categorized into (1 precipitation; (2 streamflow and water level; (3 water quality; and (4 soil moisture and groundwater networks. The integrated design method for multivariate monitoring networks is also covered. Despite several issues, entropy theory has been well suited to water monitoring network design. However, further work is still required to provide design standards and guidelines for operational use.

  4. The seismic monitoring network of Mt. Vesuvius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Orazi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mt. Vesuvius (southern Italy is one of the most hazardous volcanoes in the world. Its activity is currently characterized by moderate seismicity, with hypocenters located beneath the crater zone with depth rarely exceeding 5 km and magnitudes generally less than 3. The current configuration of the seismic monitoring network of Mt. Vesuvius consists of 18 seismic stations and 7 infrasound microphones. During the period 2006-2010 a seismic array with 48 channels was also operative. The station distribution provides appropriate coverage of the area around the volcanic edifice. The current development of the network and its geometry, under conditions of low seismic noise, allows locating seismic events with M<1. Remote instruments continuously transmit data to the main acquisition center in Naples. Data transmission is realized using different technological solutions based on UHF, Wi-Fi radio links, and TCP/IP client-server applications. Data are collected in the monitoring center of the Osservatorio Vesuviano (Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology, Naples section, which is equipped with systems for displaying and analyzing signals, using both real-time automatic and manual procedures. 24-hour surveillance allows to immediately communicate any significant anomaly to the Civil Protection authorities.

  5. R2 Water Quality Portal Monitoring Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Quality Data Portal (WQP) provides an easy way to access data stored in various large water quality databases. The WQP provides various input parameters on the form including location, site, sampling, and date parameters to filter and customize the returned results. The The Water Quality Portal (WQP) is a cooperative service sponsored by the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Water Quality Monitoring Council (NWQMC) that integrates publicly available water quality data from the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) the EPA STOrage and RETrieval (STORET) Data Warehouse, and the USDA ARS Sustaining The Earth??s Watersheds - Agricultural Research Database System (STEWARDS).

  6. Impact of Electric Vehicle Charging Station Load on Distribution Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchari Deb

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent concerns about environmental pollution and escalating energy consumption accompanied by the advancements in battery technology have initiated the electrification of the transportation sector. With the universal resurgence of Electric Vehicles (EVs the adverse impact of the EV charging loads on the operating parameters of the power system has been noticed. The detrimental impact of EV charging station loads on the electricity distribution network cannot be neglected. The high charging loads of the fast charging stations results in increased peak load demand, reduced reserve margins, voltage instability, and reliability problems. Further, the penalty paid by the utility for the degrading performance of the power system cannot be neglected. This work aims to investigate the impact of the EV charging station loads on the voltage stability, power losses, reliability indices, as well as economic losses of the distribution network. The entire analysis is performed on the IEEE 33 bus test system representing a standard radial distribution network for six different cases of EV charging station placement. It is observed that the system can withstand placement of fast charging stations at the strong buses up to a certain level, but the placement of fast charging stations at the weak buses of the system hampers the smooth operation of the power system. Further, a strategy for the placement of the EV charging stations on the distribution network is proposed based on a novel Voltage stability, Reliability, and Power loss (VRP index. The results obtained indicate the efficacy of the VRP index.

  7. Atmosphere and water quality monitoring on Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, William

    1990-01-01

    In Space Station Freedom air and water will be supplied in closed loop systems. The monitoring of air and water qualities will ensure the crew health for the long mission duration. The Atmosphere Composition Monitor consists of the following major instruments: (1) a single focusing mass spectrometer to monitor major air constituents and control the oxygen/nitrogen addition for the Space Station; (2) a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer to detect trace contaminants; (3) a non-dispersive infrared spectrometer to determine carbon monoxide concentration; and (4) a laser particle counter for measuring particulates in the air. An overview of the design and development concepts for the air and water quality monitors is presented.

  8. Monitoring of stability of ASG-EUPOS network coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figurski, M.; Szafranek, K.; Wrona, M.

    2009-04-01

    ASG-EUPOS (Active Geodetic Network - European Position Determination System) is the national system of precise satellite positioning in Poland, which increases a density of regional and global GNSS networks and is widely used by public administration, national institutions, entrepreneurs and citizens (especially surveyors). In near future ASG-EUPOS is to take role of main national network. Control of proper activity of stations and realization of ETRS'89 is a necessity. User of the system needs to be sure that observations quality and coordinates accuracy are high enough. Coordinates of IGS (International GNSS Service) and EPN (European Permanent Network) stations are precisely determined and any changes are monitored all the time. Observations are verified before they are archived in regional and global databases. The same applies to ASG-EUPOS. This paper concerns standardization of GNSS observations from different stations (uniform adjustment), examination of solutions correctness according to IGS and EPN standards and stability of solutions and sites activity

  9. Resilient design of recharging station networks for electric transportation vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kris Villez; Akshya Gupta; Venkat Venkatasubramanian

    2011-08-01

    As societies shift to 'greener' means of transportation using electricity-driven vehicles one critical challenge we face is the creation of a robust and resilient infrastructure of recharging stations. A particular issue here is the optimal location of service stations. In this work, we consider the placement of battery replacing service station in a city network for which the normal traffic flow is known. For such known traffic flow, the service stations are placed such that the expected performance is maximized without changing the traffic flow. This is done for different scenarios in which roads, road junctions and service stations can fail with a given probability. To account for such failure probabilities, the previously developed facility interception model is extended. Results show that service station failures have a minimal impact on the performance following robust placement while road and road junction failures have larger impacts which are not mitigated easily by robust placement.

  10. Propagation Characteristics of International Space Station Wireless Local Area Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sham, Catherine C.; Hwn, Shian U.; Loh, Yin-Chung

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the application of the Uniform Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (UTD) for Space Station Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) indoor propagation characteristics analysis. The verification results indicate good correlation between UTD computed and measured signal strength. It is observed that the propagation characteristics are quite different in the Space Station modules as compared with those in the typical indoor WLANs environment, such as an office building. The existing indoor propagation models are not readily applicable to the Space Station module environment. The Space Station modules can be regarded as oversized imperfect waveguides. Two distinct propagation regions separated by a breakpoint exist. The propagation exhibits the guided wave characteristics. The propagation loss in the Space Station, thus, is much smaller than that in the typical office building. The path loss model developed in this paper is applicable for Space Station WLAN RF coverage and link performance analysis.

  11. Current Status of Groundwater Monitoring Networks in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Jin-Yong Lee; Kideok D. Kwon

    2016-01-01

    Korea has been operating groundwater monitoring systems since 1996 as the Groundwater Act enacted in 1994 enforces nationwide monitoring. Currently, there are six main groundwater monitoring networks operated by different government ministries with different purposes: National Groundwater Monitoring Network (NGMN), Groundwater Quality Monitoring Network (GQMN), Seawater Intrusion Monitoring Network (SIMN), Rural Groundwater Monitoring Network (RGMN), Subsidiary Groundwater Monitoring Network ...

  12. Type of equipment in an air monitoring station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, F.

    1999-01-01

    This poster communication presents a general view of the station, the different materials used for the air and precipitations monitoring. The methods for gas measurements (tritium, krypton, iodine) are given. The collecting of dusts, dust and tritium mixed together, or rainwater and pluviometry are reviewed and the measurement of ambient radioactivity is made by beacon. (N.C.)

  13. An analysis of spatial representativeness of air temperature monitoring stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Suhua; Su, Hongbo; Tian, Jing; Wang, Weizhen

    2018-05-01

    Surface air temperature is an essential variable for monitoring the atmosphere, and it is generally acquired at meteorological stations that can provide information about only a small area within an r m radius ( r-neighborhood) of the station, which is called the representable radius. In studies on a local scale, ground-based observations of surface air temperatures obtained from scattered stations are usually interpolated using a variety of methods without ascertaining their effectiveness. Thus, it is necessary to evaluate the spatial representativeness of ground-based observations of surface air temperature before conducting studies on a local scale. The present study used remote sensing data to estimate the spatial distribution of surface air temperature using the advection-energy balance for air temperature (ADEBAT) model. Two target stations in the study area were selected to conduct an analysis of spatial representativeness. The results showed that one station (AWS 7) had a representable radius of about 400 m with a possible error of less than 1 K, while the other station (AWS 16) had the radius of about 250 m. The representable radius was large when the heterogeneity of land cover around the station was small.

  14. Pilot Water Quality Monitoring Station in Dublin Bay : North Bank Station (NBMS), MATSIS Project Part I

    OpenAIRE

    O'Donnell, Garvan; Joyce, Eileen; Silke, Joe; O'Boyle, Shane; McGovern, Evin

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the pilot development of an autonomous monitoring station in Dublin Bay and validation of the system. It presents results from initial deployments. Sensors were deployed for testing, including an optical sensor for measuring nitrate and sensors for measurement of salinity, temperature, fluorescence and dissolved oxygen. Automated water samplers enabled periodic, remote triggered and event triggered sampling for nutrient and phytoplankton samples.

  15. Calibration and study of the measurement capabilities of real-time gamma spectrometry equipment developed for the renewal of the network of stations automatic monitoring environmental radiation of the Generalitat of Catalunya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casanovas, R.; Prieto, E.; Salvado, M.

    2014-01-01

    The renewal of the automatic environmental radiation surveillance network of the Generalitat of Catalunya has been carried out through the development and implementation of gamma-spectrometry-based equipment. the monitors use scintillation crystals, either Na(TI) or LaBr 3 (Ce) and currently, there are 3 types of equipment water radioactivity monitors, aerosols on a particulate filter monitors and direct measurement monitors. In this paper, we expose the basic features of its operation, the details of their calibration and the minimum detectable activity concentration for some isotopes. (Author)

  16. Host Event Based Network Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonathan Chugg

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of INL’s research on this project is to demonstrate the feasibility of a host event based network monitoring tool and the effects on host performance. Current host based network monitoring tools work on polling which can miss activity if it occurs between polls. Instead of polling, a tool could be developed that makes use of event APIs in the operating system to receive asynchronous notifications of network activity. Analysis and logging of these events will allow the tool to construct the complete real-time and historical network configuration of the host while the tool is running. This research focused on three major operating systems commonly used by SCADA systems: Linux, WindowsXP, and Windows7. Windows 7 offers two paths that have minimal impact on the system and should be seriously considered. First is the new Windows Event Logging API, and, second, Windows 7 offers the ALE API within WFP. Any future work should focus on these methods.

  17. FLAME MONITORING IN POWER STATION BOILERS USING IMAGE PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sujatha

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Combustion quality in power station boilers plays an important role in minimizing the flue gas emissions. In the present work various intelligent schemes to infer the flue gas emissions by monitoring the flame colour at the furnace of the boiler are proposed here. Flame image monitoring involves capturing the flame video over a period of time with the measurement of various parameters like Carbon dioxide (CO2, excess oxygen (O2, Nitrogen dioxide (NOx, Sulphur dioxide (SOx and Carbon monoxide (CO emissions plus the flame temperature at the core of the fire ball, air/fuel ratio and the combustion quality. Higher the quality of combustion less will be the flue gases at the exhaust. The flame video was captured using an infrared camera. The flame video is then split up into the frames for further analysis. The video splitter is used for progressive extraction of the flame images from the video. The images of the flame are then pre-processed to reduce noise. The conventional classification and clustering techniques include the Euclidean distance classifier (L2 norm classifier. The intelligent classifier includes the Radial Basis Function Network (RBF, Back Propagation Algorithm (BPA and parallel architecture with RBF and BPA (PRBFBPA. The results of the validation are supported with the above mentioned performance measures whose values are in the optimal range. The values of the temperatures, combustion quality, SOx, NOx, CO, CO2 concentrations, air and fuel supplied corresponding to the images were obtained thereby indicating the necessary control action taken to increase or decrease the air supply so as to ensure complete combustion. In this work, by continuously monitoring the flame images, combustion quality was inferred (complete/partial/incomplete combustion and the air/fuel ratio can be automatically varied. Moreover in the existing set-up, measurements like NOx, CO and CO2 are inferred from the samples that are collected periodically or by

  18. REDISTRIBUTION OF BASE STATIONS LOAD IN MOBILE COMMUNICATION NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Ruban

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of the article is the processes of load distribution in mobile communication networks. The object of research is the handover. The goal is to develop a method for redistributing the load between neighboring areas for mobile nodes. The considered base stations are supposed to have the signal-to-noise ratios that are equal or close. The methods that are used: methods of system analysis, methods of digital signal processing. The following results are obtained. The method that allows mobile nodes, whose signal-to-noise ratios are equal or close, to switch to a less loaded base station. This method allows the base station to launch the handover process enabling more even distribution of the load from mobile nodes among neighboring base stations in wireless and mobile networks. In the suggested modification of the method, the function assessing the bandwidth of the uplink channel is added to the base stations, as well a threshold value for using its bandwidth. Thus, when the current value of bandwidth reaches the threshold, the base station starts sending out a message to all mobile nodes and verifies free neighboring areas for switching over mobile nodes. If there are adjacent areas with a lower load, the base station notifies all potential candidates about the necessity of their switching over. The handover process is launched when the available bandwidth of the base station decreases below a certain threshold. Therefore, it is possible to optimize the operation of the WiMAX network with respect to the criterion of the total bandwidth capacity of the base stations. Besides, the results of the comparative analysis of the handover process in networks based on the WiMAX technology that are obtained using the OpNet simulation environment are presented. Conclusions.The suggested approach can be used to improve the basic software of mobile communication networks. When moving a node from one area to another one in access servers, the

  19. Implementation of Biogas Stations into Smart Heating and Cooling Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milčák, P.; Konvička, J.; Jasenská, M.

    2016-10-01

    The paper is aimed at the description of implementation of a biogas station into software environment for the "Smart Heating and Cooling Networks". The aim of this project is creation of a software tool for preparation of operation and optimization of treatment of heat/cool in small regions. In this case, the biogas station represents a kind of renewable energy source, which, however, has its own operational specifics which need to be taken into account at the creation of an implementation project. For a specific biogas station, a detailed computational model was elaborated, which is parameterized in particular for an optimization of the total computational time.

  20. Optimum Layout for Water Quality Monitoring Stations through Ant Colony Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Afshar

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high cost of monitoring systems, budget limitations, and high priority given to water quality control in municipal networks, especially for unexpected events, optimum location of monitoring stations has received considerable attention during the last decade. An optimization model needs to be developed for the desirable location of monitoring stations. This research attempts to develop such a model using Ant Colony Optimization (ACO algorithm and tires to verify it through a bench-mark classical example used in previous researches. Selection of ACO as optimizer was fully justified due to discrete decision space and extensive number of binary variables in modeling system. Diversity of the policies derived from ACO may facilitate the process of decision making considering the social, physical, and economical conditions.

  1. Hydrometeorological network for flood monitoring and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efstratiadis, Andreas; Koussis, Antonis D.; Lykoudis, Spyros; Koukouvinos, Antonis; Christofides, Antonis; Karavokiros, George; Kappos, Nikos; Mamassis, Nikos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2013-08-01

    Due to its highly fragmented geomorphology, Greece comprises hundreds of small- to medium-size hydrological basins, in which often the terrain is fairly steep and the streamflow regime ephemeral. These are typically affected by flash floods, occasionally causing severe damages. Yet, the vast majority of them lack flow-gauging infrastructure providing systematic hydrometric data at fine time scales. This has obvious impacts on the quality and reliability of flood studies, which typically use simplistic approaches for ungauged basins that do not consider local peculiarities in sufficient detail. In order to provide a consistent framework for flood design and to ensure realistic predictions of the flood risk -a key issue of the 2007/60/EC Directive- it is essential to improve the monitoring infrastructures by taking advantage of modern technologies for remote control and data management. In this context and in the research project DEUCALION, we have recently installed and are operating, in four pilot river basins, a telemetry-based hydro-meteorological network that comprises automatic stations and is linked to and supported by relevant software. The hydrometric stations measure stage, using 50-kHz ultrasonic pulses or piezometric sensors, or both stage (piezometric) and velocity via acoustic Doppler radar; all measurements are being temperature-corrected. The meteorological stations record air temperature, pressure, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, and precipitation. Data transfer is made via GPRS or mobile telephony modems. The monitoring network is supported by a web-based application for storage, visualization and management of geographical and hydro-meteorological data (ENHYDRIS), a software tool for data analysis and processing (HYDROGNOMON), as well as an advanced model for flood simulation (HYDROGEIOS). The recorded hydro-meteorological observations are accessible over the Internet through the www-application. The system is operational and its

  2. Greening radio access networks using distributed base station architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kardaras, Georgios; Soler, José; Dittmann, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Several actions for developing environmentally friendly technologies have been taken in most industrial fields. Significant resources have also been devoted in mobile communications industry. Moving towards eco-friendly alternatives is primarily a social responsibility for network operators....... However besides this, increasing energy efficiency represents a key factor for reducing operating expenses and deploying cost effective mobile networks. This paper presents how distributed base station architectures can contribute in greening radio access networks. More specifically, the advantages...... energy saving. Different subsystems have to be coordinated real-time and intelligent network nodes supporting complicated functionalities are necessary. Distributed base station architectures are ideal for this purpose mainly because of their high degree of configurability and self...

  3. Atmosphere composition monitor for space station and advanced missions application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wynveen, R.A.; Powell, F.T.

    1987-01-01

    Long-term human occupation of extraterrestrial locations may soon become a reality. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has recently completed the definition and preliminary design of the low earth orbit (LEO) space station. They are now currently moving into the detailed design and fabrication phase of this space station and are also beginning to analyze the requirements of several future missions that have been identified. These missions include, for example, Lunar and Mars sorties, outposts, bases, and settlements. A requirement of both the LEO space station and future missions are environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS), which provide a comfortable environment for humans to live and work. The ECLSS consists of several major systems, including atmosphere revitalization system (ARS), atmosphere pressure and composition control system, temperature and humidity control system, water reclamation system, and waste management system. Each of these major systems is broken down into subsystems, assemblies, units, and instruments. Many requirements and design drivers are different for the ECLSS of the LEO space station and the identified advanced missions (e.g., longer mission duration). This paper discusses one of the ARS assemblies, the atmosphere composition monitor assembly (ACMA), being developed for the LEO space station and addresses differences that will exist for the ACMA of future missions

  4. Real-time trend monitoring of gas compressor stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hardeveld, T. (Nova, an Alberta Corp., AB (Canada))

    1991-02-01

    The authors' company has developed a machinery health monitoring system (MHealth) for short-term and long-term historical trending and analysis of data from its 40 gas compressor stations. The author discusses the benefits of real-time trending in troubleshooting operations, in preventative maintenance scheduling and cites specific applications in the startup operations of several new gas compressor/centrifugal compressor units.

  5. Deploying temporary networks for upscaling of sparse network stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coopersmith, Evan J.; Cosh, Michael H.; Bell, Jesse E.; Kelly, Victoria; Hall, Mark; Palecki, Michael A.; Temimi, Marouane

    2016-10-01

    Soil observations networks at the national scale play an integral role in hydrologic modeling, drought assessment, agricultural decision support, and our ability to understand climate change. Understanding soil moisture variability is necessary to apply these measurements to model calibration, business and consumer applications, or even human health issues. The installation of soil moisture sensors as sparse, national networks is necessitated by limited financial resources. However, this results in the incomplete sampling of the local heterogeneity of soil type, vegetation cover, topography, and the fine spatial distribution of precipitation events. To this end, temporary networks can be installed in the areas surrounding a permanent installation within a sparse network. The temporary networks deployed in this study provide a more representative average at the 3 km and 9 km scales, localized about the permanent gauge. The value of such temporary networks is demonstrated at test sites in Millbrook, New York and Crossville, Tennessee. The capacity of a single U.S. Climate Reference Network (USCRN) sensor set to approximate the average of a temporary network at the 3 km and 9 km scales using a simple linear scaling function is tested. The capacity of a temporary network to provide reliable estimates with diminishing numbers of sensors, the temporal stability of those networks, and ultimately, the relationship of the variability of those networks to soil moisture conditions at the permanent sensor are investigated. In this manner, this work demonstrates the single-season installation of a temporary network as a mechanism to characterize the soil moisture variability at a permanent gauge within a sparse network.

  6. Mobile and modular. BGR develops seismological monitoring stations for universal applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinz, Erwin; Hanneken, Mark

    2016-01-01

    BGR seismologists often set up monitoring stations for testing purposes. The engineers from the Central Seismological Observatory have now developed a new type of mobile monitoring station which can be remotely controlled.

  7. Radiation monitoring network of the Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melicherova, T.

    2005-01-01

    In 2000 Centre of Partial monitoring system 'Radioactivity of environment' was established on Slovak Hydrometeorology Institute (SHMI). Radiation monitoring network is one part of Radiation monitoring network of the Slovak Republic. At present SHMI operates in its monitoring network 23 detectors GammaTracer fy Genitron, one mobile detector and one stan by detector. All active detectors are placed in the professional meteorological stations in the selected parts of Slovakia. First one of these detectors was installed in 1999 and they replaced former type of detector (FAG). Last two detectors were installed in 2002. Detector GammaTracer has range of measurement from 20 nSv/h to 10 Sv/h. The detectors are calibrated every 2 years in the Slovak Institute of Metrology in compliance with the calibration plan. SHMI operates 4 aerosol monitors in Hurbanovo, Lucenec, Stropkov and Liesek. Filter 8 from these monitors are analysed in the Institute of Public Health (Cs-137, Be-7). On the base of bilateral agreement between the Austrian Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water-Management and the Slovak Ministry of Environment Austrian side gave into the ownership of the Slovak side an automatic aerosol monitor AMS-02 including container and weather station. This monitor was installed in meteorological station Jaslovske Bohunice on 4-th October 2001. The Slovak Ministry of Environment provides the Austrian Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water-Management with the readings of this monitor, free of charge, for at least 3 years and vice versa, the Austrian side gives the readings of the Austrian aerosol monitors to the Slovak Ministry of Environment free of charge. At present national monitoring center in Bratislava-Koliba is connected via ISDN line with Jaslovske Bohunice and Austrian center providing the data exchange. Radiation data (dose rate in the unit nSv/h) are collected via the Institute network to the MSS (message switch system) in the

  8. Monitoring of Electromagnetic Radiation from Cellular Base Stations in Kuwait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Otaibi, A.H.; Al-Ajmi, D.; Williams, T.; McGee, D.; Dennis, J.A.; Beg, M.U.

    1998-01-01

    A survey of the radio frequency electromagnetic environment in Kuwait was carried out. The primary purpose of this survey was to monitor electromagnetic radiation (EMR) field strength levels emitted by cellular base stations installed and operated by the Kuwait Mobile Telecommunications Company (MTC). Measurements were made at 26 cellular-phone base stations, chosen as a representative sample to include 14 school sites, 2 residential sites, 2 hospital sites, 3 ministerial building sites, 3 commercial sites and 1 typical stand-alone site. On all the selected sites measurements were made with a spectrum analyser to determine the emission level in the frequency bands used by the base station transmitters (917-960 MHz). The results indicated that total field strength, specifically due to the MTC base stations, found in public access areas, varied generally between 0.05 and 1.13 V.m -1 . These values are in the order of between 40 and 800 times lower than the new pan-European CENELEC pre-standard ENV 50166-2 'Human Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields'. In terms of power density the highest observed value (0.34 μW.m -2 ) was more than a thousand times below the prescribed standards. (author)

  9. Variability of road traffic noise recorded by stationary monitoring stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bąkowski, Andrzej; Radziszewski, Leszek

    2017-11-01

    The paper presents the analysis results of equivalent sound level recorded by two road traffic noise monitoring stations. The stations were located in Kielce (an example of a medium-size town in Poland) at the roads out of the town in the direction of Kraków and Warszawa. The measurements were carried out through stationary stations monitoring the noise and traffic of motor vehicles. The RMS values based on A-weighted sound level were recorded every 1 s in the buffer and the results were registered every 1 min over the period of investigations. The registered data were the basis for calculating the equivalent sound level for three time intervals: from 6:00 to 18:00, from 18:00 to 22:00 and from 22:00 to 6:00. Analysis included the values of the equivalent sound level recorded for different days of the week split into 24h periods, nights, days and evenings. The data analysed included recordings from 2013. The coefficient of variation and positional variation were proposed for performing comparative analysis of the obtained data scattering. The investigations indicated that the recorded data varied depending on the traffic routes. The differences concerned the values of coefficients of variation of the equivalent sound levels.

  10. Radio-location of mobile stations in third generation networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Manojle Šunjevarić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile station localization in mobile networks started with simple methods (e.g. Cell-ID method which required only slight modifications of network infrastructures. Principally, it was about network localization by which a localization service became available to all types of mobile phones. Due to low precision, the initiated development of more sophisticated methods has not been finished yet. Among the advanced location-based methods are those based on the measurement of location parameters in the time domain. In this paper the general consideration of radio location methods in 3G (UMTS radio networks is presented. The use of time based measurement methods was analysed in detail. Due to the limited article length, the use of other locating methods in 3G networks (based on power measurements, on radio direction measurement, and on cells identification – Cell ID and global positioning system - GPS are not described. Introduction Mobile station localization within modern cellular networks increases the level of user security and opens wide opportunities for commercial operators who provide this service. The major obstacle for the implementation of this service, which also prevents its practical usage, is the modification of the existing network infrastructure. In general, depending on the infrastructure used, positioning methods can be divided into two groups: integrated and independent. Integrated methods are primarily created for communication networks. A possibility to locate users represents just an additional service within a radio network. Independent methods are totally detached from the communication network in which the user whose location is being determined is. Radio location methods Determining the location of a mobile radio station is performed by determining the intersection of two or more lines of position. These lines represent the position of the set of points at which the mobile station may be located. These lines can be: (a

  11. Ocean breeze monitoring network at the Oyster Creek Nuclear Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heck, W.

    1987-01-01

    The Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station (OCNGS) is located in New Jersey 10 km west of the Atlantic Ocean. Routine meteorological monitoring at the station has consisted of a single meteorological tower 120 m high and instrumented at the 10-m, 46-m, and 116-m levels. An analysis of 5 yr of data from this tower showed the OCNGS is affected by an ocean breeze ∼ 1 day out of 4 during May through August. This suggested the need for meteorological monitoring in addition to the single met tower at OCNGS. As a result of the 1985 OCNGS meteorological monitoring study, GPU Nuclear established an ocean breeze monitoring network in the fall of 1986. It is a permanent part of OCNGS meteorological monitoring and consists of the same sites as used in the 1985 field study. Meteorological towers are located at the ocean site, the inland site, and at OCNGS. The ocean tower is 13 m (43 ft) high, the inland tower 10 m (33 ft), and the OCNGS tower 116 m (380 ft). Wind speed, wind direction, and temperature are measured on each tower; delta-temperature is also measured on the main tower. The instruments are calibrated in the spring, summer, and fall. The network is operated and maintained by GPU Nuclear Environmental Controls. The ocean breeze monitoring network and meteorological information system forms the basis for including the effects of the ocean breeze in OCNGS emergency off-site dose assessment

  12. Energy Management for Automatic Monitoring Stations in Arctic Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Demian

    Automatic weather monitoring stations deployed in arctic regions are usually installed in hard to reach locations. Most of the time they run unsupervised and they face severe environmental conditions: very low temperatures, ice riming, etc. It is usual practice to use a local energy source to power the equipment. There are three main ways to achieve this: (1) a generator whose fuel has to be transported to the location at regular intervals (2) a battery and (3) an energy harvesting generator that exploits a local energy source. Hybrid systems are very common. Polar nights and long winters are typical of arctic regions. Solar radiation reaching the ground during this season is very low or non-existent, depending on the geographical location. Therefore, solar power generation is not very effective. One straightforward, but expensive and inefficient solution is the use of a large bank of batteries that is recharged during sunny months and discharged during the winter. The main purpose of the monitoring stations is to collect meteorological data at regular intervals; interruptions due to a lack of electrical energy can be prevented with the use of an energy management subsystem. Keeping a balance between incoming and outgoing energy flows, while assuring the continuous operation of the station, is the delicate task of energy management strategies. This doctoral thesis explores alternate power generation solutions and intelligent energy management techniques for equipment deployed in the arctic. For instance, harvesting energy from the wind to complement solar generation is studied. Nevertheless, harvested energy is a scarce resource and needs to be used efficiently. Genetic algorithms, fuzzy logic, and common sense are used to efficiently manage energy flows within a simulated arctic weather station.

  13. Welding station condition monitoring using bluetooth enabled sensors and intelligent data management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyers, D R; Grosvenor, R I; Prickett, P W [Intelligent Process Monitoring and Management (IPMM) Group, Cardiff School of Engineering, Cardiff University, Wales (United Kingdom)

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on the first phase deployment of bluetooth enabled condition monitoring systems at a large multinational engineering company. The radio networking of sensor signals is a fast developing area and the facilities afforded by the Wisnet device were used in the monitoring of a welding station. This and any of the planned further monitoring systems had to comply to a carefully managed IT information plan at the company. For the example application, the development and testing of microcontoller-based pre-processing of data is reported. This includes further development of the Petri Net approach to provide event-based monitoring as a sensible alternative to the continuous transmission of the sensory data.

  14. A collaborative network middleware project by Lambda Station, TeraPaths, and Phoebus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobyshev, A.; Bradley, S.; Crawford, M.; DeMar, P.; Katramatos, D.; Shroff, K.; Swany, M.; Yu, D.

    2010-01-01

    The TeraPaths, Lambda Station, and Phoebus projects, funded by the US Department of Energy, have successfully developed network middleware services that establish on-demand and manage true end-to-end, Quality-of-Service (QoS) aware, virtual network paths across multiple administrative network domains, select network paths and gracefully reroute traffic over these dynamic paths, and streamline traffic between packet and circuit networks using transparent gateways. These services improve network QoS and performance for applications, playing a critical role in the effective use of emerging dynamic circuit network services. They provide interfaces to applications, such as dCache SRM, translate network service requests into network device configurations, and coordinate with each other to setup up end-to-end network paths. The End Site Control Plane Subsystem (ESCPS) builds upon the success of the three projects by combining their individual capabilities into the next generation of network middleware. ESCPS addresses challenges such as cross-domain control plane signalling and interoperability, authentication and authorization in a Grid environment, topology discovery, and dynamic status tracking. The new network middleware will take full advantage of the perfSONAR monitoring infrastructure and the Inter-Domain Control plane efforts and will be deployed and fully vetted in the Large Hadron Collider data movement environment.

  15. Enhanced Multi-Objective Optimization of Groundwater Monitoring Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bode, Felix; Binning, Philip John; Nowak, Wolfgang

    Drinking-water well catchments include many sources for potential contaminations like gas stations or agriculture. Finding optimal positions of monitoring wells for such purposes is challenging because there are various parameters (and their uncertainties) that influence the reliability...... and optimality of any suggested monitoring location or monitoring network. The goal of this project is to develop and establish a concept to assess, design, and optimize early-warning systems within well catchments. Such optimal monitoring networks need to optimize three competing objectives: (1) a high...... be reduced to a minimum. The method is based on numerical simulation of flow and transport in heterogeneous porous media coupled with geostatistics and Monte-Carlo, wrapped up within the framework of formal multi-objective optimization. In order to gain insight into the flow and transport physics...

  16. Federated Ground Station Network Model and Interface Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    of-sight of a small portion of the ground at any moment due to the geometry of a satellite in LEO above a planet of Earth’s size. The portion of the...Subnetwork 3 started out as a lone network in which there was a single CA and a number of ground stations. Then Subnetwork 3 joined with SA 1 and its

  17. Space station common module network topology and hardware development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, P.; Braunagel, L.; Chwirka, S.; Fishman, M.; Freeman, K.; Eason, D.; Landis, D.; Lech, L.; Martin, J.; Mccorkle, J.

    1990-01-01

    Conceptual space station common module power management and distribution (SSM/PMAD) network layouts and detailed network evaluations were developed. Individual pieces of hardware to be developed for the SSM/PMAD test bed were identified. A technology assessment was developed to identify pieces of equipment requiring development effort. Equipment lists were developed from the previously selected network schematics. Additionally, functional requirements for the network equipment as well as other requirements which affected the suitability of specific items for use on the Space Station Program were identified. Assembly requirements were derived based on the SSM/PMAD developed requirements and on the selected SSM/PMAD network concepts. Basic requirements and simplified design block diagrams are included. DC remote power controllers were successfully integrated into the DC Marshall Space Flight Center breadboard. Two DC remote power controller (RPC) boards experienced mechanical failure of UES 706 stud-mounted diodes during mechanical installation of the boards into the system. These broken diodes caused input to output shorting of the RPC's. The UES 706 diodes were replaced on these RPC's which eliminated the problem. The DC RPC's as existing in the present breadboard configuration do not provide ground fault protection because the RPC was designed to only switch the hot side current. If ground fault protection were to be implemented, it would be necessary to design the system so the RPC switched both the hot and the return sides of power.

  18. Monitoring Malware Activity on the LAN Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzewski, Mirosław

    Many security related organizations periodically publish current network and systems security information, with the lists of top malware programs. These lists raises the question how these threats spreads out, if the worms (the only threat with own communication abilities) are low or missing on these lists. The paper discuss the research on malware network activity, aimed to deliver the answer to the question, what is the main infection channel of modern malware, done with the usage of virtual honeypot systems on dedicated, unprotected network. Systems setup, network and systems monitoring solutions, results of over three months of network traffic and malware monitoring are presented, along with the proposed answer to our research question.

  19. Single-frequency receivers as master permanent stations in GNSS networks: precision and accuracy of the positioning in mixed networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabove, Paolo; Manzino, Ambrogio Maria

    2015-04-01

    The use of GPS/GNSS instruments is a common practice in the world at both a commercial and academic research level. Since last ten years, Continuous Operating Reference Stations (CORSs) networks were born in order to achieve the possibility to extend a precise positioning more than 15 km far from the master station. In this context, the Geomatics Research Group of DIATI at the Politecnico di Torino has carried out several experiments in order to evaluate the achievable precision obtainable with different GNSS receivers (geodetic and mass-market) and antennas if a CORSs network is considered. This work starts from the research above described, in particular focusing the attention on the usefulness of single frequency permanent stations in order to thicken the existing CORSs, especially for monitoring purposes. Two different types of CORSs network are available today in Italy: the first one is the so called "regional network" and the second one is the "national network", where the mean inter-station distances are about 25/30 and 50/70 km respectively. These distances are useful for many applications (e.g. mobile mapping) if geodetic instruments are considered but become less useful if mass-market instruments are used or if the inter-station distance between master and rover increases. In this context, some innovative GNSS networks were developed and tested, analyzing the performance of rover's positioning in terms of quality, accuracy and reliability both in real-time and post-processing approach. The use of single frequency GNSS receivers leads to have some limits, especially due to a limited baseline length, the possibility to obtain a correct fixing of the phase ambiguity for the network and to fix the phase ambiguity correctly also for the rover. These factors play a crucial role in order to reach a positioning with a good level of accuracy (as centimetric o better) in a short time and with an high reliability. The goal of this work is to investigate about the

  20. An acoustical model based monitoring network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessels, P.W.; Basten, T.G.H.; Eerden, F.J.M. van der

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the approach for an acoustical model based monitoring network is demonstrated. This network is capable of reconstructing a noise map, based on the combination of measured sound levels and an acoustic model of the area. By pre-calculating the sound attenuation within the network the

  1. Promoting Social Network Awareness: A Social Network Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadima, Rita; Ferreira, Carlos; Monguet, Josep; Ojeda, Jordi; Fernandez, Joaquin

    2010-01-01

    To increase communication and collaboration opportunities, members of a community must be aware of the social networks that exist within that community. This paper describes a social network monitoring system--the KIWI system--that enables users to register their interactions and visualize their social networks. The system was implemented in a…

  2. A design proposal of real-time monitoring stations: implementation and performance in contrasting environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose González

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of creating a real-time monitoring network for both oceanographic and meteorological data, a monitoring station conceptual design was developed. A common framework for software and electronics was adapted to different environmental conditions using two buoy approaches: one intended for oceanic waters, to be moored up to 30-40 m depth, where waves are the critical design factor, and one for continental waters (rivers, lakes and the inner part of estuaries, where currents are the critical design factor. When structures such as bridges are present in the area, the monitoring station can be installed on these structures, thus reducing its impact and increasing safety. In this paper, the design, implementation, operation and performance of these stations are described. A reliability index is calculated for the longest time series of the three related deployment options on the Galician coast: Cíes (oceanic buoy in front of the Ría de Vigo, Catoira (continental buoy in the Ulla river and Cortegada (installation in a bed in the Ría de Arousa.

  3. 40 CFR 52.1080 - Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Stations (PAMS) Program. 52.1080 Section 52.1080 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.1080 Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program. On March 24, 1994 Maryland's... Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program as a state implementation plan (SIP) revision, as required by...

  4. 40 CFR 52.2426 - Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Stations (PAMS) Program. 52.2426 Section 52.2426 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.2426 Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program. On November 23, 1994 Virginia's... Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program as a state implementation plan (SIP) revision, as...

  5. Design and implementation of data acquisition, communication and monitoring system for photovoltaic power station in microgrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Wei; Pei, Wei; Qi, Zhiping; Kong, Li [Institute of Electrical Engineering, CAS, Beijing (China)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents the design and realization of data acquisition, communication and monitoring system for photovoltaic power station. The data acquisition module including filter algorithm and signal modulation circuit uses the digital signal processor (DSP) as the main processor, it can realize accurate real-time data acquisition; The data communication module uses Ethernet as communication network between PV system and MicroGrid. The gateway using ARM microprocessor can realize protocol conversion and bidirectional communication between CAN Bus and Ethernet; The monitoring unit with friendly human-machine interface keeps real-time performance monitoring of PV system to realize automation control. The results of experiment show that the system is practicable and effective. (orig.)

  6. Monitoring Churn in Wireless Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Stephan; Pignolet, Yvonne Anne; Smula, Jasmin; Wattenhofer, Roger

    Wireless networks often experience a significant amount of churn, the arrival and departure of nodes. In this paper we propose a distributed algorithm for single-hop networks that detects churn and is resilient to a worst-case adversary. The nodes of the network are notified about changes quickly, in asymptotically optimal time up to an additive logarithmic overhead. We establish a trade-off between saving energy and minimizing the delay until notification for single- and multi-channel networks.

  7. WiMAX network performance monitoring & optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Qi; Dam, H

    2008-01-01

    frequency reuse, capacity planning, proper network dimensioning, multi-class data services and so on. Furthermore, as a small operator we also want to reduce the demand for sophisticated technicians and man labour hours. To meet these critical demands, we design a generic integrated network performance......In this paper we present our WiMAX (worldwide interoperability for microwave access) network performance monitoring and optimization solution. As a new and small WiMAX network operator, there are many demanding issues that we have to deal with, such as limited available frequency resource, tight...... this integrated network performance monitoring and optimization system in our WiMAX networks. This integrated monitoring and optimization system has such good flexibility and scalability that individual function component can be used by other operators with special needs and more advanced function components can...

  8. Patient Health Monitoring Using Wireless Body Area Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Myat Thwe

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nowadays remote patient health monitoring using wireless technology plays very vigorous role in a society. Wireless technology helps monitoring of physiological parameters like body temperature heart rate respiration blood pressure and ECG. The main aim of this paper is to propose a wireless sensor network system in which both heart rate and body temperature ofmultiplepatients can monitor on PC at the same time via RF network. The proposed prototype system includes two sensor nodes and receiver node base station. The sensor nodes are able to transmit data to receiver using wireless nRF transceiver module.The nRF transceiver module is used to transfer the data from microcontroller to PC and a graphical user interface GUI is developed to display the measured data and save to database. This system can provide very cheaper easier and quick respondent history of patient.

  9. Analysis of the thermal monitoring data collected at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witten, A.J.; Gray, D.D.

    1977-01-01

    A comprehensive study of the data collected as part of the environmental technical specifications program for Units 2 and 3 of the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station was conducted for the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The study included an analysis of both the hydrothermal and ecological data collected from 1967 through 1976. This paper presents the details of the hydrothermal analysis performed under this program. The two primary methods used for temperature monitoring, during both the preoperational and operational periods of the program, are a fixed thermograph network and boat survey measurements. Analysis of the boat survey data provides a fine resolution demonstrating variations in ambient temperature in Conowingo Pond, as well as providing a qualitative picture of the thermal plume produced by the Peach Bottom thermal discharge. The data from 18 thermograph stations was used for a quantitative probability analysis

  10. Neural network monitoring of resistive welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quero, J.M.; Millan, R.L.; Franquelo, L.G.; Canas, J.

    1994-01-01

    Supervision of welding processes is one of the most important and complicated tasks in production lines. Artificial Neural Networks have been applied for modeling and control of ph physical processes. In our paper we propose the use of a neural network classifier for on-line non-destructive testing. This system has been developed and installed in a resistive welding station. Results confirm the validity of this novel approach. (Author) 6 refs

  11. Dynamic safety assessment of natural gas stations using Bayesian network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarei, Esmaeil; Azadeh, Ali; Khakzad, Nima; Aliabadi, Mostafa Mirzaei; Mohammadfam, Iraj

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Dynamic cause-consequence analysis of the regulator system failure using BN. - Highlights: • A dynamic and comprehensive QRA (DCQRA) framework is proposed for safety assessment of CGSs. • Bow-tie diagram and Bayesian network are employed for accident scenario modeling. • Critical basic events and minimal cut sets are identified using probability updating. - Abstract: Pipelines are one of the most popular and effective ways of transporting hazardous materials, especially natural gas. However, the rapid development of gas pipelines and stations in urban areas has introduced a serious threat to public safety and assets. Although different methods have been developed for risk analysis of gas transportation systems, a comprehensive methodology for risk analysis is still lacking, especially in natural gas stations. The present work is aimed at developing a dynamic and comprehensive quantitative risk analysis (DCQRA) approach for accident scenario and risk modeling of natural gas stations. In this approach, a FMEA is used for hazard analysis while a Bow-tie diagram and Bayesian network are employed to model the worst-case accident scenario and to assess the risks. The results have indicated that the failure of the regulator system was the worst-case accident scenario with the human error as the most contributing factor. Thus, in risk management plan of natural gas stations, priority should be given to the most probable root events and main contribution factors, which have identified in the present study, in order to reduce the occurrence probability of the accident scenarios and thus alleviate the risks.

  12. Dynamic safety assessment of natural gas stations using Bayesian network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarei, Esmaeil, E-mail: smlzarei65@gmail.com [Center of Excellence for Occupational Health Engineering, Research Center for Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Azadeh, Ali [School of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Center of Excellence for Intelligent-Based Experimental Mechanic, College of Engineering, University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khakzad, Nima [Safety and Security Science Section, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Aliabadi, Mostafa Mirzaei [Center of Excellence for Occupational Health Engineering, Research Center for Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadfam, Iraj, E-mail: mohammadfam@umsha.ac.ir [Center of Excellence for Occupational Health Engineering, Research Center for Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-01-05

    Graphical abstract: Dynamic cause-consequence analysis of the regulator system failure using BN. - Highlights: • A dynamic and comprehensive QRA (DCQRA) framework is proposed for safety assessment of CGSs. • Bow-tie diagram and Bayesian network are employed for accident scenario modeling. • Critical basic events and minimal cut sets are identified using probability updating. - Abstract: Pipelines are one of the most popular and effective ways of transporting hazardous materials, especially natural gas. However, the rapid development of gas pipelines and stations in urban areas has introduced a serious threat to public safety and assets. Although different methods have been developed for risk analysis of gas transportation systems, a comprehensive methodology for risk analysis is still lacking, especially in natural gas stations. The present work is aimed at developing a dynamic and comprehensive quantitative risk analysis (DCQRA) approach for accident scenario and risk modeling of natural gas stations. In this approach, a FMEA is used for hazard analysis while a Bow-tie diagram and Bayesian network are employed to model the worst-case accident scenario and to assess the risks. The results have indicated that the failure of the regulator system was the worst-case accident scenario with the human error as the most contributing factor. Thus, in risk management plan of natural gas stations, priority should be given to the most probable root events and main contribution factors, which have identified in the present study, in order to reduce the occurrence probability of the accident scenarios and thus alleviate the risks.

  13. BAKNET - Communication network for radiation monitoring devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Y.; Wengrowicz, U.; Tirosh, D.; Barak, D.

    1997-01-01

    A system, based on a new concept of controlling and monitoring distributed radiation monitors, has been developed and approved at the NRCN. The system, named B AKNET Network , consists of a series of communication adapters connected to a main PC via an RS-485 communication network (see Fig. 1). The network's maximal length is 1200 meters and it enables connection of up to 128 adapters. The BAKNET adapters are designed to interface output signals of different types of stationary radiation monitors to a main PC. The BAKNET adapters' interface type includes: digital, analog, RS-232, and mixed output signals. This allows versatile interfacing of different stationary radiation monitors to the main computer. The connection to the main computer is via an RS-485 network, utilizing an identical communication protocol. The PC software, written in C ++ under MS-Windows, consists of two main programs. The first is the data collection program and the second is the Human Machine Interface (HMI). (authors)

  14. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struckmeyer, R.; McNamara, N.

    1991-12-01

    This report provides the status and results of the NRC Thermoluminescent Dosimeter (TLD) Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. It presents the radiation levels measured in the vicinity of NRC licensed facilities throughout the country for the third quarter of 1991

  15. Integrating wireless sensor network for monitoring subsidence phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marturià, Jordi; Lopez, Ferran; Gigli, Giovanni; Intrieri, Emanuele; Mucchi, Lorenzo; Fornaciai, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    An innovative wireless sensor network (WSN) for the 3D superficial monitoring of deformations (such as landslides and subsidence) is being developed in the frame of the Wi-GIM project (Wireless sensor network for Ground Instability Monitoring - LIFE12 ENV/IT/001033). The surface movement is detected acquiring the position (x, y and z) by integrating large bandwidth technology able to detect the 3D coordinates of the sensor with a sub-meter error, with continuous wave radar, which allows decreasing the error down to sub-cm. The Estació neighborhood in Sallent is located over the old potassium mine Enrique. This zone has been affected by a subsidence process over more than twenty years. The implementation of a wide network for ground auscultation has allowed monitoring the process of subsidence since 1997. This network consists of: i) a high-precision topographic leveling network to control the subsidence in surface; ii) a rod extensometers network to monitor subsurface deformation; iii) an automatic Leica TCA Total Station to monitor building movements; iv) an inclinometers network to measure the horizontal displacements on subsurface and v) a piezometer to measure the water level. Those networks were implemented within an alert system for an organized an efficient response of the civil protection authorities in case of an emergency. On 23rd December 2008, an acceleration of subsoil movements (of approx. 12-18 cm/year) provoked the activation of the emergency plan by the Catalan Civil Protection. This implied the preventive and scheduled evacuation of the neighbours (January 2009) located in the area with a higher risk of collapse: around 120 residents of 43 homes. As a consequence, the administration implemented a compensation plan for the evacuation of the whole neighbourhood residents and the demolition of 405 properties. In this work, the adaptation and integration process of Wi-GIM system with those conventional monitoring network are presented for its testing

  16. Geophysical monitoring of a complex geologic framework: the multi-disciplinary sensor networks in Sicily (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarero, M.; Di Prima, S.; Mattia, M.; Patanè, D.; Rossi, M.

    2012-04-01

    Since 2004 the Osservatorio Etneo INGV has begun a new approach to the geophysical monitoring of volcanic and seismic areas of Sicily (Italy) where the core is a new type of remote infrastructure able to efficiently accommodate different kinds of sensor. In particular our multi-parametric network is mainly focused on the monitoring of different geophysical parameters (seismic ground velocity and acceleration, infrasound and ground deformation GPS).The whole seismic network consists of 66 broad band digital stations, 19 analog stations, 13 accelerometric stations and 12 infrasonic stations, for a total of 110 stations while the Continuous GPS network consist of 80 stations. Every station is equipped with solar panels in order to satisfy the power requirements of the instruments and with satellite-based communication systems. In this work we show both the technical solutions of this integrated network and its main advantages, if compared with older kinds of remote stations. Moreover we show some examples of the more interesting scientific results achieved thank to this technologically advanced network.

  17. New Network of Automatic Stations integrated in the CSNs Environmental Radiological Surveillance Network; Nueva Red de Estaciones Automaticas integrada en la Red de Vigilancia Radiologica Ambiental del CSN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parages Perez del Yerro, C.; Garcia Cadierno, J. P.; Calvin Cuartero, M.

    2016-05-01

    In 1992, the Council put into operation a network comprising 25 automatic stations for continuous monitoring of the radiological quality of the air and the detection of anomalous situations. It has now decided to undertake the renewal and modernisation of these installations, incorporating sensors and automatic connection and communication systems based on the best technology currently available. (Author)

  18. Network Monitoring as a Streaming Analytics Problem

    KAUST Repository

    Gupta, Arpit

    2016-11-02

    Programmable switches make it easier to perform flexible network monitoring queries at line rate, and scalable stream processors make it possible to fuse data streams to answer more sophisticated queries about the network in real-time. Unfortunately, processing such network monitoring queries at high traffic rates requires both the switches and the stream processors to filter the traffic iteratively and adaptively so as to extract only that traffic that is of interest to the query at hand. Others have network monitoring in the context of streaming; yet, previous work has not closed the loop in a way that allows network operators to perform streaming analytics for network monitoring applications at scale. To achieve this objective, Sonata allows operators to express a network monitoring query by considering each packet as a tuple and efficiently partitioning each query between the switches and the stream processor through iterative refinement. Sonata extracts only the traffic that pertains to each query, ensuring that the stream processor can scale traffic rates of several terabits per second. We show with a simple example query involving DNS reflection attacks and traffic traces from one of the world\\'s largest IXPs that Sonata can capture 95% of all traffic pertaining to the query, while reducing the overall data rate by a factor of about 400 and the number of required counters by four orders of magnitude. Copyright 2016 ACM.

  19. Measurement of anthropogenic radionuclides in the atmosphere with a radionuclide monitoring network for nuclear tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonezawa, Chushiro; Yamamoto, Yoichi

    2011-01-01

    A worldwide radionuclide monitoring network for nuclear tests has detected the anthropogenic radioactive materials released in the atmosphere due to the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant impacted by the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011. After four months have passed since the accident occurred, most overseas stations do not detect the radionuclides of Fukushima origin any more. The Takasaki station in Japan, however, is still detecting them every day. This paper describes radionuclide monitoring stations and the network of them as part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) in the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), as well as the measurement results of radionuclide particulates and radioactive isotopes of xenon released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant with the monitoring network. (J.P.N.)

  20. From the shadows into the limelight: Intelligent local network stations; Vom Schattendasein ins Rampenlicht. Intelligente Ortsnetzstationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opitsch, Bruno [Siemens AG, Energy Sektor, Nuernberg (Germany)

    2011-03-21

    Local network stations ought to receive greater attention in view of increasing consumption, increasing supply from decentral power stations, load management and new functions relating to increasing electromobility in individual traffic. Higher efficiency should be the central goal in making local network stations fit for the 21st century.

  1. Dynamic characteristics of background seismic noise according to records of nuclear monitoring seismic stations in Kazakstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyashova, N.N.; Sinyova, Z.I.; Komarov, I.I.; Mikhailova, N.N.

    1998-01-01

    The seismic stations of Kazakstan, included into nuclear monitoring network (see fig.1) are equipped with broad hand seismometers; seismic data are recorded in digital format. All this allows to investigate spectral and time characteristics of seismic background noise in very large frequency diapason (more than 3-5 orders), for all three components of oscillation vector. The spectral density of background seismic noise for vertical and both horizontal components (fig.2) was calculated for all of the observation points. The regular features of structure of noise spectra, inherent for all of the studied observation points, as well as some features, specific for studied places were found. The curves of spectral noise density were compared with global noise model, determined by the data of Global Seismological Network (GSN)

  2. Improving evaluation criteria for monitoring networks of weak radioactive plumes after nuclear emergencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urso, L.; Astrup, Poul; Helle, K.B.

    2012-01-01

    Networks of monitoring stations have been set up in many European countries to detect the passage of a radioactive cloud in the event of a large-scale nuclear emergency. The layout and spatial density of these networks differs according to the needs and criteria defined by national authorities...

  3. Radiation monitoring network of the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drabova, D.; Prouza, Z.; Malatova, I.; Bucina, I.

    1996-01-01

    Radiation Monitoring Network of the Czech Republic (RMN) was established after the Chernobyl accident. It consists of technical centers, laboratories and monitoring groups of State Office for Nuclear Safety, National Radiation Protection Institute, nuclear power plants, hydrometeorological service, army and Civil Defense, research institutes and other institutions. The structure of RMN, its basic components and responsible institutions are described. (author)

  4. Modification of GNPS environment radiation monitoring network system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Lili; Cao Chunsheng

    1999-01-01

    GNPS Environment Radiation Continuous Monitoring System (KRS), the only real time on-line system of site radiation monitoring, was put into service in 1993 prior to the first loading the the plant. It is revealed through several years of operation that this system has some deficiencies such as inadequate real time monitoring means, no figure and diagram display function on the central computer, high failures, frequent failure warning signals, thus making the availability of the system at a low level. In recent years, with the rapid development of computer network technology and increasingly strict requirements on the NPP environment protection raised by the government and public, KRS modification had become necessary and urgent. In 1996, GNPS carried out modification work on the measuring geometry condition of γ radiation monitoring sub-station and lightening protection. To enhance the functions of real time monitoring and data auto-processing, further modification of the system was made in 1998, including the update of the software and hardware of KRS central processor, set-up of system computer local network and database. In this way, the system availability and monitoring quality are greatly improved and effective monitoring and analysis means are provided for gaseous release during normal operation and under accident condition

  5. FY 1994 ambient air monitoring report for McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugar, R.M.

    1994-12-01

    This report presents the results of ambient air monitoring performed during the 1994 fiscal year (FY 1994) in the vicinity of McMurdo Station, Antarctica. Routine monitoring was performed during the 1993-1994 austral summer at three locations for airborne particulate matter less than 10 micrometers (PM-10) and at two locations for carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), and nitrogen oxides (NO, NO 2 , and NO x ). Selected PM-10 filters were analyzed for arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, and nickel. Additional air samples were collected at three McMurdo area locations and at Black Island for determination of the airborne concentration of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Sampling site selection, sampling procedures, and quality assurance procedures used were consistent with US Environmental Protection Agency guidance for local ambient air quality networks

  6. Monitoring the Dead Sea Region by Multi-Parameter Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsen, A.; Weber, M. H.; Kottmeier, C.; Asch, G.

    2015-12-01

    The Dead Sea Region is an exceptional ecosystem whose seismic activity has influenced all facets of the development, from ground water availability to human evolution. Israelis, Palestinians and Jordanians living in the Dead Sea region are exposed to severe earthquake hazard. Repeatedly large earthquakes (e.g. 1927, magnitude 6.0; (Ambraseys, 2009)) shook the whole Dead Sea region proving that earthquake hazard knows no borders and damaging seismic events can strike anytime. Combined with the high vulnerability of cities in the region and with the enormous concentration of historical values this natural hazard results in an extreme earthquake risk. Thus, an integration of earthquake parameters at all scales (size and time) and their combination with data of infrastructure are needed with the specific aim of providing a state-of-the-art seismic hazard assessment for the Dead Sea region as well as a first quantitative estimate of vulnerability and risk. A strong motivation for our research is the lack of reliable multi-parameter ground-based geophysical information on earthquakes in the Dead Sea region. The proposed set up of a number of observatories with on-line data access will enable to derive the present-day seismicity and deformation pattern in the Dead Sea region. The first multi-parameter stations were installed in Jordan, Israel and Palestine for long-time monitoring. All partners will jointly use these locations. All stations will have an open data policy, with the Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ, Potsdam, Germany) providing the hard and software for real-time data transmission via satellite to Germany, where all partners can access the data via standard data protocols.

  7. The Community Environmental Monitoring Program in the 21st Century: The Evolution of a Monitoring Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartwell, W.T.; Tappen, J.; Karr, L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on the evolution of the various operational aspects of the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) network following the transfer of program administration from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to the Desert Research Institute (DRI) of the Nevada System of Higher Education in 1999-2000. The CEMP consists of a network of 29 fixed radiation and weather monitoring stations located in Nevada, Utah, and California. Its mission is to involve stakeholders directly in monitoring for airborne radiological releases to the off site environment as a result of past or ongoing activities on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and to make data as transparent and accessible to the general public as feasible. At its inception in 1981, the CEMP was a cooperative project of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), DRI, and EPA. In 1999-2000, technical administration of the CEMP transitioned from EPA to DRI. Concurrent with and subsequent to this transition, station and program operations underwent significant enhancements that furthered the mission of the program. These enhancements included the addition of a full suite of meteorological instrumentation, state-of-the-art electronic data collectors, on-site displays, and communications hardware. A public website was developed. Finally, the DRI developed a mobile monitoring station that can be operated entirely on solar power in conjunction with a deep-cell battery, and includes all meteorological sensors and a pressurized ion chamber for detecting background gamma radiation. Final station configurations have resulted in the creation of a platform that is well suited for use as an in-field multi-environment test-bed for prototype environmental sensors and in interfacing with other scientific and educational programs. Recent and near-future collaborators have included federal, state, and local agencies in both the government and private sectors. The CEMP also serves as a model for other programs wishing to

  8. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. Progress report, October-December 1985. Volume 5, No. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, J.; Rabatin, K.; Cohen, L.

    1986-05-01

    This report presents the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1985. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 74 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program

  9. NRC TLD [thermoluminescent dosimeter] Direct Radiation Monitoring Network: Progress report, October--December 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struckmeyer, R.; NcNamara, N.

    1989-04-01

    This report presents the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1988. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 75 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program. 4 tabs

  10. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network progress report, October--December 1994. Volume 14, No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struckmeyer, R.

    1995-03-01

    This report presents the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1994. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 75 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program.

  11. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. Progress report, October--December 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struckmeyer, R.

    1997-03-01

    This report presents the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1996. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 74 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program. 3 figs., 4 tabs

  12. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network progress report, October--December 1994. Volume 14, No. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struckmeyer, R.

    1995-03-01

    This report presents the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1994. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 75 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program

  13. NRC TLD [Nuclear Regulatory Commission thermoluminescent dosimeter] direct radiation monitoring network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struckmeyer, R.; McNamara, N.

    1990-03-01

    This report presents the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1989. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 75 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program

  14. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. Progress report, October--December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struckmeyer, R.

    1997-03-01

    This report presents the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1996. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 74 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. WMO background air pollution monitoring network (BAPMON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, A

    1980-01-01

    The objectives of the network include the establishment of baseline measurements of the global troposphere against which subsequent changes can be measured. The minimum program includes analysis of wet precipitation, observation of the aerosol optical depth, and sampling of suspended particulates. Standardization efforts have resulted in accuracies in rainwater samples to within 10%. Pollutant levels are shown for regional, urban and continental stations. The possibility of establishing median values for different modes of operation at a station (background and nonbackground mode) is examined. The interference of water vapor with CO/sub 2/ measurements is discussed.

  16. EMMNet: Sensor Networking for Electricity Meter Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Ting Lin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Smart sensors are emerging as a promising technology for a large number of application domains. This paper presents a collection of requirements and guidelines that serve as a basis for a general smart sensor architecture to monitor electricity meters. It also presents an electricity meter monitoring network, named EMMNet, comprised of data collectors, data concentrators, hand-held devices, a centralized server, and clients. EMMNet provides long-distance communication capabilities, which make it suitable suitable for complex urban environments. In addition, the operational cost of EMMNet is low, compared with other existing remote meter monitoring systems based on GPRS. A new dynamic tree protocol based on the application requirements which can significantly improve the reliability of the network is also proposed. We are currently conducting tests on five networks and investigating network problems for further improvements. Evaluation results indicate that EMMNet enhances the efficiency and accuracy in the reading, recording, and calibration of electricity meters.

  17. EMMNet: sensor networking for electricity meter monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhi-Ting; Zheng, Jie; Ji, Yu-Sheng; Zhao, Bao-Hua; Qu, Yu-Gui; Huang, Xu-Dong; Jiang, Xiu-Fang

    2010-01-01

    Smart sensors are emerging as a promising technology for a large number of application domains. This paper presents a collection of requirements and guidelines that serve as a basis for a general smart sensor architecture to monitor electricity meters. It also presents an electricity meter monitoring network, named EMMNet, comprised of data collectors, data concentrators, hand-held devices, a centralized server, and clients. EMMNet provides long-distance communication capabilities, which make it suitable suitable for complex urban environments. In addition, the operational cost of EMMNet is low, compared with other existing remote meter monitoring systems based on GPRS. A new dynamic tree protocol based on the application requirements which can significantly improve the reliability of the network is also proposed. We are currently conducting tests on five networks and investigating network problems for further improvements. Evaluation results indicate that EMMNet enhances the efficiency and accuracy in the reading, recording, and calibration of electricity meters.

  18. Project of a Near-Real-Time Sismo-acoustic Submarine Station for offshore monitoring (NRTSSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Anna, G.; Calore, D.; Mangano, G.; D'Alessandro, A.; Favali, P.

    2011-12-01

    The INGV seismic network ensures reliable and continuous monitoring of the Italian territory. However, the peculiarity of the Italian peninsula, characterised by an intense offshore geodynamic and seismic activity, requires the extension of the seismic monitoring to the sea. The aim of this project is: - to identify bottleneck is related to the construction, installation and use of underwater seismic station; - to define the most appropriate and low-cost architecture to guarantee the minimum functionality required for a seismic station. In order to obtain reliable seafloor seismic signals integrated to land-based network, the requirements to be fulfill are: - an acceptable coupling with the seabed; - the orientation of the components with respect to the magnetic North and to the verticality; - the correct time stamp of the data; - the data transfer to the land for the integration. Currently, the optimal solution for offshore seismic station is a cable connection to power and real-time data transfer, like the case of Western Ionian Sea cabled observatory, one of the operative node of the EMSO research infrastructure (European Multidisciplinary Seafloor and water column Observatory, http://emso-eu.org). But in the Mediterranean many seismic areas are located a few tens-hundreds of miles from the coast and cabled solutions are not feasible essentially for economic reasons. For this kind of installations EMSO research infrastructure foresees no-cabled solution, that requires a surface buoy deployed in the vicinity seafloor modules.This project plans to develop a surface buoy equipped with autonomous power supply system to power also the seafloor platforms and two-way communication system enabling the data transfer through latest generation of broadband radio communication or satellite link (Fig. 1). All the components of the prototype system are described.

  19. Monitoring network for doserate-measurements with wireless datatransmitting in Baden-Wuerttemberg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aures, R.; Wenzel, H.

    2003-01-01

    In the environment of the nuclear power plants Philippsburg, Obrigheim and Neckarwestheim in Baden-Wuerttemberg there is a monitoring network with 90 stations. They are measuring the gamma-dose rate. In the meantime these monitoring stations are nearly 20 years old and now it is time to substitute old technology by a new one. The aim is a mix of monitoring stations with phone wire- and wireless data transmission (Skylink). Thinkable is a part of 50 % of Skylink-tubes in the monitoring network and some for mobile performance. The main aspect of the planned substitution is a second independent way of data transmission. Normally there are no problems for data transmission. But in case of emergency the data transmissions which depends from phone wires could be delayed if there are too much dates. So the second way, the way of wireless data transmissions becomes important. The Landesanstalt fuer Umweltschutz in Karlsruhe has bought a complete system from the company Genitron in Frankfurt/Main. The system (Skylink) consists of the receiver and the does rate-monitoring stations. Such a system was tested successfully in a region with many mountains and deep valleys. Since July 2000 the Skylink-system is performed in the ''Nuclear power monitoring system'' (KFUe) in Baden-Wuerttemberg. The receiver is on the Koenigstuhl (630 m) near Heidelberg. This is a very good position to receive the wireless transmitted dates from every monitoring station (Skylink Gammatracer) of the monitoring network. Now there are 27 Skylink Gammatracer spread in the monitoring network. At time they are placed near the dose rate tubes of the old monitoring stations for comparing the dose rates and they are working with best results. (orig.)

  20. Hogthrob: Towards a Sensor Network Infrastructure for Sow Monitoring (wireless sensor network special day)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnet, Philippe; Leopold, Martin; Madsen, K

    2006-01-01

    We aim at developing a next-generation system for sow monitoring. Today, farmers use RFID based solutions with an ear tag on the sows and a reader located inside the feeding station. This does not allow the farmers to locate a sow in a large pen, or to monitor the life cycle of the sow (detect he...... period, detect injury...). Our goal is to explore the design of a sensor network that supports such functionalities and meets the constraints of this industry in terms of price, energy consumption and availability....

  1. Analysis of time series exposure rates obtained at a monitoring station around nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urabe, I.; Ogawa, Y.; Kimura, Y.; Honda, Y.; Nakashima, Y.; Yoshimoto, T.; Tsujimoto, T.

    1991-01-01

    From the investigation on the variation of AAD rates monitored in the natural environment around nuclear power station, it may be concluded; (1) Differences between monthly averaged air absorbed dose rates (AAD rates) given by all data obtained and those obtained in fine weather become larger in winter (from Dec. to Feb.) (2) Cummulative frequency distributions of AAD rates are very different among four seasons. Remarkably high AAD rates are observed by heavy rains in summer and snow falls or rains in winter. (3) Though the hypothesis that the frequency distribution of AAD rates fit to the lognormal distribution can not be accepted by chi-square test, higher part of the frequency distribution of AAD rates agree approximately with the lognormal one. (4) Identification of AAD rates due to plume exposure may be possible by statistical analysis assuming lognormal distribution of AAD rates as well as the discrimination method based on the reference standard using mean values and standard deviations of the data obtained in fine weather. (author)

  2. The communications in early warning network for radiation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyoun, M.B.; Al-Hussin, Mohamad; Fares, Adnan; Al-Oulabi, Yasser; Othman, Ibrahim

    1992-07-01

    The objectives of early warning network are: The determination of gamma radiation (background) levels in air which depend on location and time, evaluation of any situation resulting from radiation or nuclear accident out of boarder, and after that reporting the emergency situation to relevant authorities on the national and international levels. Monitoring stations were installed using Gm tubes to cover boarder lines from south to north and east to west as follows: Damascus, Darra, Latakia, Tartous, Aleppo, Kamishly, Ragaa, and Qunitra. The following modes of communication: Telephone line, leased line, direct connection, and Syrian data network were used in the Syrian early network. This project was carried out in cooperation with IAEA under project no. RER/9/003. (author). 22 figs., 1 tab

  3. International Remote Monitoring Project Embalse Nuclear Power Station, Argentina Embalse Remote Monitoring System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Sigfried L.; Glidewell, Donnie D.; Bonino, Anibal; Bosler, Gene; Mercer, David; Maxey, Curt; Vones, Jaromir; Martelle, Guy; Busse, James; Kadner, Steve; White, Mike; Rovere, Luis

    1999-01-01

    The Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear of Argentina (ARN), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), ABACC, the US Department of Energy, and the US Support Program POTAS, cooperated in the development of a Remote Monitoring System for nuclear nonproliferation efforts. This system was installed at the Embalse Nuclear Power Station last year to evaluate the feasibility of using radiation sensors in monitoring the transfer of spent fuel from the spent fuel pond to dry storage. The key element in this process is to maintain continuity of knowledge throughout the entire transfer process. This project evaluated the fundamental design and implementation of the Remote Monitoring System in its application to regional and international safeguard efficiency. New technology has been developed to enhance the design of the system to include storage capability on board sensor platforms. This evaluation has led to design enhancements that will assure that no data loss will occur during loss of RF transmission of the sensors

  4. Radiation monitoring network of the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuca, P.; Novak, L.; Rulik, P.; Tecl, J.

    2003-01-01

    The Radiation Monitoring Network (RMN) of the Czech Republic was established after the Chernobyl accident in 1986 and it is developed all the time. It is co-ordinated by the State Office for Nuclear Safety in co-operation with the National Radiation Protection Institute. Czech RMN consists of the several sub-networks, which include selected or all permanent parts of RMN. The sub-networks are following: the Early Warning Network (EWN), the TLD Territorial Network, the Network of the Measuring Sites of Air Contamination, the Network of Laboratories Equipped with Gamma-spectrometric and Radiochemical Analytical Instrumentation, the Ground and Airborne Mobile Groups. The Laboratory of Monitoring of Internal Contamination and the information system (IS) are a significant part of RMN, too. The data of RMN resulting from monitoring are transferred to the central database of CRMN, processed by the information system (IS). They are used in normal and emergency situations for an evaluation of radiation situation and for preparation of recommendations for protection of the public and the environment. In 2002 any extraordinary radioactivity in the environment was not detected and also none of the measuring points recorded any exceeding of established investigation levels. In components of environment and also in human beings a very low activity of 137 Cs was still measurable, that had been released into environment after the Chernobyl accident and by the nuclear weapon tests in sixties of the last century. (authors)

  5. An Efficient Wireless Sensor Network for Industrial Monitoring and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aponte-Luis, Juan; Gómez-Galán, Juan Antonio; Gómez-Bravo, Fernando; Sánchez-Raya, Manuel; Alcina-Espigado, Javier; Teixido-Rovira, Pedro Miguel

    2018-01-10

    This paper presents the design of a wireless sensor network particularly designed for remote monitoring and control of industrial parameters. The article describes the network components, protocol and sensor deployment, aimed to accomplish industrial constraint and to assure reliability and low power consumption. A particular case of study is presented. The system consists of a base station, gas sensing nodes, a tree-based routing scheme for the wireless sensor nodes and a real-time monitoring application that operates from a remote computer and a mobile phone. The system assures that the industrial safety quality and the measurement and monitoring system achieves an efficient industrial monitoring operations. The robustness of the developed system and the security in the communications have been guaranteed both in hardware and software level. The system is flexible and can be adapted to different environments. The testing of the system confirms the feasibility of the proposed implementation and validates the functional requirements of the developed devices, the networking solution and the power consumption management.

  6. An Efficient Wireless Sensor Network for Industrial Monitoring and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aponte-Luis, Juan; Gómez-Bravo, Fernando; Sánchez-Raya, Manuel; Alcina-Espigado, Javier; Teixido-Rovira, Pedro Miguel

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a wireless sensor network particularly designed for remote monitoring and control of industrial parameters. The article describes the network components, protocol and sensor deployment, aimed to accomplish industrial constraint and to assure reliability and low power consumption. A particular case of study is presented. The system consists of a base station, gas sensing nodes, a tree-based routing scheme for the wireless sensor nodes and a real-time monitoring application that operates from a remote computer and a mobile phone. The system assures that the industrial safety quality and the measurement and monitoring system achieves an efficient industrial monitoring operations. The robustness of the developed system and the security in the communications have been guaranteed both in hardware and software level. The system is flexible and can be adapted to different environments. The testing of the system confirms the feasibility of the proposed implementation and validates the functional requirements of the developed devices, the networking solution and the power consumption management. PMID:29320466

  7. An Efficient Wireless Sensor Network for Industrial Monitoring and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Aponte-Luis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a wireless sensor network particularly designed for remote monitoring and control of industrial parameters. The article describes the network components, protocol and sensor deployment, aimed to accomplish industrial constraint and to assure reliability and low power consumption. A particular case of study is presented. The system consists of a base station, gas sensing nodes, a tree-based routing scheme for the wireless sensor nodes and a real-time monitoring application that operates from a remote computer and a mobile phone. The system assures that the industrial safety quality and the measurement and monitoring system achieves an efficient industrial monitoring operations. The robustness of the developed system and the security in the communications have been guaranteed both in hardware and software level. The system is flexible and can be adapted to different environments. The testing of the system confirms the feasibility of the proposed implementation and validates the functional requirements of the developed devices, the networking solution and the power consumption management.

  8. Base Station Placement Algorithm for Large-Scale LTE Heterogeneous Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungseob; Lee, SuKyoung; Kim, Kyungsoo; Kim, Yoon Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    Data traffic demands in cellular networks today are increasing at an exponential rate, giving rise to the development of heterogeneous networks (HetNets), in which small cells complement traditional macro cells by extending coverage to indoor areas. However, the deployment of small cells as parts of HetNets creates a key challenge for operators' careful network planning. In particular, massive and unplanned deployment of base stations can cause high interference, resulting in highly degrading network performance. Although different mathematical modeling and optimization methods have been used to approach various problems related to this issue, most traditional network planning models are ill-equipped to deal with HetNet-specific characteristics due to their focus on classical cellular network designs. Furthermore, increased wireless data demands have driven mobile operators to roll out large-scale networks of small long term evolution (LTE) cells. Therefore, in this paper, we aim to derive an optimum network planning algorithm for large-scale LTE HetNets. Recently, attempts have been made to apply evolutionary algorithms (EAs) to the field of radio network planning, since they are characterized as global optimization methods. Yet, EA performance often deteriorates rapidly with the growth of search space dimensionality. To overcome this limitation when designing optimum network deployments for large-scale LTE HetNets, we attempt to decompose the problem and tackle its subcomponents individually. Particularly noting that some HetNet cells have strong correlations due to inter-cell interference, we propose a correlation grouping approach in which cells are grouped together according to their mutual interference. Both the simulation and analytical results indicate that the proposed solution outperforms the random-grouping based EA as well as an EA that detects interacting variables by monitoring the changes in the objective function algorithm in terms of system

  9. Predicting PM10 concentration in Seoul metropolitan subway stations using artificial neural network (ANN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sechan; Kim, Minjeong; Kim, Minhae; Namgung, Hyeong-Gyu; Kim, Ki-Tae; Cho, Kyung Hwa; Kwon, Soon-Bark

    2018-01-05

    The indoor air quality of subway systems can significantly affect the health of passengers since these systems are widely used for short-distance transit in metropolitan urban areas in many countries. The particles generated by abrasion during subway operations and the vehicle-emitted pollutants flowing in from the street in particular affect the air quality in underground subway stations. Thus the continuous monitoring of particulate matter (PM) in underground station is important to evaluate the exposure level of PM to passengers. However, it is difficult to obtain indoor PM data because the measurement systems are expensive and difficult to install and operate for significant periods of time in spaces crowded with people. In this study, we predicted the indoor PM concentration using the information of outdoor PM, the number of subway trains running, and information on ventilation operation by the artificial neural network (ANN) model. As well, we investigated the relationship between ANN's performance and the depth of underground subway station. ANN model showed a high correlation between the predicted and actual measured values and it was able to predict 67∼80% of PM at 6 subway station. In addition, we found that platform shape and depth influenced the model performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Wireless sensor network and monitoring for environment

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Liang

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, wireless sensor network technology is developing at a surprisingly high speed. More and more fields have started to use the wireless sensor network technology and find the advantages of WSN, such as military applications, environmental observing and forecasting system, medical care, smart home, structure monitoring. The world Environmental Summit in Copenhagen on 2010 has just concluded that environment has become the world’s main concern. But regrettably the summit did no...

  11. Optimizing Seismic Monitoring Networks for EGS and Conventional Geothermal Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Toni; Herrmann, Marcus; Bethmann, Falko; Stefan, Wiemer

    2013-04-01

    location problem. Optimization for additional criteria (e.g., focal mechanism determination or installation costs) can be included. We consider a 3D seismic velocity model, an European ambient seismic noise model derived from high-resolution land-use data, and existing seismic stations in the vicinity of the geotechnical site. Additionally, we account for the attenuation of the seismic signal with travel time and ambient seismic noise with depth to be able to correctly deal with borehole station networks. Using this algorithm we are able to find the optimal geometry and size of the seismic monitoring network that meets the predefined application-oriented performance criteria. This talk will focus on optimal network geometries for deep geothermal projects of the EGS and hydrothermal type, and discuss the requirements for basic seismic surveillance and high-resolution reservoir monitoring and characterization.

  12. Wireless sensor networks and ecological monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Joe-Air

    2013-01-01

    This book presents the state of the art technologies and solutions to tackle the critical challenges faced by the building and development of the WSN and ecological monitoring system but also potential impact on society at social, medical and technological level. This book is dedicated to Sensing systems for Sensors, Wireless Sensor Networks and Ecological Monitoring. The book aims at Master and PhD degree students, researchers, practitioners, especially WSN engineers involved with ecological monitoring. The book will provide an opportunity of a dedicated and a deep approach in order to improve their knowledge in this specific field.  

  13. BABY MONITORING SYSTEM USING WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rajesh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS is marked by the sudden death of an infant during sleep that is not predicted by the medical history and remains unexplained even after thorough forensic autopsy and detailed death investigation. In this we developed a system that provides solutions for the above problems by making the crib smart using the wireless sensor networks (WSN and smart phones. The system provides visual monitoring service through live video, alert services by crib fencing and awakens alert, monitoring services by temperature reading and light intensity reading, vaccine reminder and weight monitoring.

  14. Local seismic activity monitored at King Sejong Station, Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    Lee,Duk Kee; Kim,Yea Dong; Nam,Sang Heon; Jin,Young Keun

    1998-01-01

    Source location estimation from single station earthquake data collected at King Sejong Station (62°13'3l"N, 58°47'07"W) from 1995 to 1996 provides seismic activity around King Sejong Station. Analysis of local events, less than 1.5°in angular epicentral distance, finds epicenters located near the Shackleton Fracture Zone, the South Shetland Platform, Deception Island, and North Bransfield Basin. Estimated magnitudes range from 2.2 to 4.5 on the Richter scale, averaging 4.0 in North Bransfiel...

  15. Network Monitoring as a Streaming Analytics Problem

    KAUST Repository

    Gupta, Arpit; Birkner, Rü diger; Canini, Marco; Feamster, Nick; Mac-Stoker, Chris; Willinger, Walter

    2016-01-01

    , processing such network monitoring queries at high traffic rates requires both the switches and the stream processors to filter the traffic iteratively and adaptively so as to extract only that traffic that is of interest to the query at hand. Others have

  16. Value of monitoring in road network management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zouch, M.; Courage, W.; Napoles-Morales, O.

    2014-01-01

    We present a framework for road network management to assist road authorities in maintenance budget estimations and long-term maintenance strategies definition. Information about road conditions is obtained from monitoring. Available data are used to estimate and update prediction of degradation

  17. Directory of Solar-Terrestrial Physics Monitoring Stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-06

    5/-- ---- I sources Toc ated.ADDRE SO , ip j NFUAkTION A0/IT STATIO N . Space Environment Services Center EATA ROU TINIL P/BLISHED N............. O N...SENT TO ARC-C---- ------ DAA oEN TOC _a-A- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -DATA ARILARLE ON REQUEST--------- YES DATA -EN To-W...FOR INFORMATIOM ABOUT STATION --- N UOSI Dept of Con e Direction d Control de Oeratio Wal Field Station de Sistemas Redioelectritcos P.O. Box S8

  18. LambdaStation: Exploiting Advance Networks In Data Intensive High Energy Physics Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey B. Newman

    2009-09-11

    Lambda Station software implements selective, dynamic, secure path control between local storage & analysis facilities, and high bandwidth, wide-area networks (WANs). It is intended to facilitate use of desirable, alternate wide area network paths which may only be intermittently available, or subject to policies that restrict usage to specified traffic. Lambda Station clients gain awareness of potential alternate network paths via Clarens-based web services, including path characteristics such as bandwidth and availability. If alternate path setup is requested and granted, Lambda Station will configure the local network infrastructure to properly forward designated data flows via the alternate path. A fully functional implementation of Lambda Station, capable of dynamic alternate WAN path setup and teardown, has been successfully developed. A limited Lambda Station-awareness capability within the Storage Resource Manager (SRM) product has been developed. Lambda Station has been successfully tested in a number of venues, including Super Computing 2008. LambdaStation software, developed by the Fermilab team, enables dynamic allocation of alternate network paths for high impact traffic and to forward designated flows across LAN. It negotiates with reservation and provisioning systems of WAN control planes, be it based on SONET channels, demand tunnels, or dynamic circuit networks. It creates End-To-End circuit between single hosts, computer farms or networks with predictable performance characteristics, preserving QoS if supported in LAN and WAN and tied security policy allowing only specific traffic to be forwarded or received through created path. Lambda Station project also explores Network Awareness capabilities.

  19. The Canarian Seismic Monitoring Network: design, development and first result

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Auria, Luca; Barrancos, José; Padilla, Germán D.; García-Hernández, Rubén; Pérez, Aaron; Pérez, Nemesio M.

    2017-04-01

    Tenerife is an active volcanic island which experienced several eruptions of moderate intensity in historical times, and few explosive eruptions in the Holocene. The increasing population density and the consistent number of tourists are constantly raising the volcanic risk. In June 2016 Instituto Volcanologico de Canarias started the deployment of a seismological volcano monitoring network consisting of 15 broadband seismic stations. The network began its full operativity in November 2016. The aim of the network are both volcano monitoring and scientific research. Currently data are continuously recorded and processed in real-time. Seismograms, hypocentral parameters, statistical informations about the seismicity and other data are published on a web page. We show the technical characteristics of the network and an estimate of its detection threshold and earthquake location performances. Furthermore we present other near-real time procedures on the data: analysis of the ambient noise for determining the shallow velocity model and temporal velocity variations, detection of earthquake multiplets through massive data mining of the seismograms and automatic relocation of events through double-difference location.

  20. Mobile and modular. BGR develops seismological monitoring stations for universal applications; Mobil und modular. BGR entwickelt universell einsetzbare seismologische Messstationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinz, Erwin; Hanneken, Mark [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany). Fachbereich ' ' Seismologisches Zentralobservatorium, Kernwaffenteststopp' '

    2016-05-15

    BGR seismologists often set up monitoring stations for testing purposes. The engineers from the Central Seismological Observatory have now developed a new type of mobile monitoring station which can be remotely controlled.

  1. Preliminary Design of Monitoring and Control Subsystem for GNSS Ground Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongkyun Jeong

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System Ground Station monitors navigation satellite signal, analyzes navigation result, and uploads correction information to satellite. GNSS Ground Station is considered as a main object for constructing GNSS infra-structure and applied in various fields. ETRI (Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute is developing Monitoring and Control subsystem, which is subsystem of GNSS Ground Station. Monitoring and Control subsystem acquires GPS and Galileo satellite signal and provides signal monitoring data to GNSS control center. In this paper, the configurations of GNSS Ground Station and Monitoring and Control subsystem are introduced and the preliminary design of Monitoring and Control subsystem is performed. Monitoring and Control subsystem consists of data acquisition module, data formatting and archiving module, data error correction module, navigation solution determination module, independent quality monitoring module, and system operation and maintenance module. The design process uses UML (Unified Modeling Language method which is a standard for developing software and consists of use-case modeling, domain design, software structure design, and user interface structure design. The preliminary design of Monitoring and Control subsystem enhances operation capability of GNSS Ground Station and is used as basic material for detail design of Monitoring and Control subsystem.

  2. Microcomputer network for technological equipment monitoring and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segec, O.

    1990-01-01

    The properties and purpose are characterized of a microcomputer network developed for monitoring and controlling the nuclear power plant chemistry. In the development, emphasis was put on simplicity of the components, reliability, ease of operation and availability of the components on the domestic market. So far, these criteria are only met by the DIAMO L(S) system equipped with an MH 8080 (Z80) processor. Its assets include simplicity and ruggedness, owing to which it is well suited to heavy-duty performance, whereas its drawbacks comprise a narrow extent of addressable memory and absence of any supporting software. Until now, 5 types of automated stations have been developed and submitted for test operation at the Bohunice V-2 nuclear power plant. Virtually any personal computer can be attached to the network. The system can also be installed in conventional power plants as well as beyond the power generation field. (Z.M.)

  3. Current Status of Groundwater Monitoring Networks in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Yong Lee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Korea has been operating groundwater monitoring systems since 1996 as the Groundwater Act enacted in 1994 enforces nationwide monitoring. Currently, there are six main groundwater monitoring networks operated by different government ministries with different purposes: National Groundwater Monitoring Network (NGMN, Groundwater Quality Monitoring Network (GQMN, Seawater Intrusion Monitoring Network (SIMN, Rural Groundwater Monitoring Network (RGMN, Subsidiary Groundwater Monitoring Network (SGMN, and Drinking Water Monitoring Network (DWMN. The Networks have a total of over 3500 monitoring wells and the majority of them are now equipped with automatic data loggers and remote terminal units. Most of the monitoring data are available to the public through internet websites. These Networks have provided scientific data for designing groundwater management plans and contributed to securing the groundwater resource particularly for recent prolonged drought seasons. Each Network, however, utilizes its own well-specifications, probes, and telecommunication protocols with minimal communication with other Networks, and thus duplicate installations of monitoring wells are not uncommon among different Networks. This mini-review introduces the current regulations and the Groundwater Monitoring Networks operated in Korea and provides some suggestions to improve the sustainability of the current groundwater monitoring system in Korea.

  4. The International Monitoring System's Noble Gas Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auer, M.

    2015-01-01

    The International Monitoring System (IMS) is a unique global network for surveillance of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. A major component of the IMS is the radionuclide monitoring network since, among all IMS technologies, it can provide the most unequivocal evidence for a nuclear explosion. The radionuclide monitoring component is unprecedented in its combination of global coverage, sensitivity, network density and temporal resolution. In particular for the detection of underground or underwater nuclear tests, forty of the eighty radionuclide stations will eventually be equipped with sensors to measure the Xenon isotopes Xe-131m (τ 1/2 = 11:8 d), Xe-133 (τ 1/2 = 5:25 d), Xe-133m (τ 1/2 = 2:2 d) and Xe-135 (τ 1/2 = 9:14 h). These are among the isotopes with the highest yields in fission of uranium or plutonium with half-lives long enough to be detected at large distances from the point of emission. As of today, 31 noble gas systems have been installed and are sending data to the International Data Centre. The noble gas systems installed at the stations are automated and sample Xenon continuously from atmospheric air for 12 or 24 hours at an air flow of 0.5 to several m 3 /h by absorption of Xenon on activated charcoal. Detection of the Xenon isotopes is either by high resolution gamma spectrometry or by beta-gamma coincidence spectrometry. With the currently available equipment, detection limits of 0.2 mBq/m 3 can be achieved. An overview on the existing technology and future developments as well as on the interpretation of measurement results is given. (author)

  5. Modular Subsea Monitoring Network (MSM) - Realizing Integrated Environmental Monitoring Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosch, Thomas; Fietzek, Peer

    2016-04-01

    In a variety of scientific and industrial application areas, ranging i.e. from the supervision of hydrate fields over the detection and localization of fugitive emissions from subsea oil and gas production to fish farming, fixed point observatories are useful and applied means. They monitor the water column and/or are placed at the sea floor over long periods of time. They are essential oceanographic platforms for providing valuable long-term time series data and multi-parameter measurements. Various mooring and observatory endeavors world-wide contribute valuable data needed for understanding our planet's ocean systems and biogeochemical processes. Continuously powered cabled observatories enable real-time data transmission from spots of interest close to the shore or to ocean infrastructures. Independent of the design of the observatories they all rely on sensors which demands for regular maintenance. This work is in most cases associated with cost-intensive maintenance on a regular time basis for the entire sensor carrying fixed platform. It is mandatory to encounter this asset for long-term monitoring by enhancing hardware efficiency. On the basis of two examples of use from the area of hydrate monitoring (off Norway and Japan) we will present the concept of the Modular Subsea Monitoring Network (MSM). The modular, scalable and networking capabilities of the MSM allow for an easy adaptation to different monitoring tasks. Providing intelligent power management, combining chemical and acoustical sensors, adaptation of the payload according to the monitoring tasks, autonomous powering, modular design for easy transportation, storage and mobilization, Vessel of Opportunity-borne launching and recovery capability with a video-guided launcher system and a rope recovery system are key facts addressed during the development of the MSM. Step by step the MSM concept applied to the observatory hardware will also be extended towards the gathered data to maximize the

  6. Monitoring the Microgravity Environment Quality On-Board the International Space Station Using Soft Computing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules, Kenol; Lin, Paul P.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents an artificial intelligence monitoring system developed by the NASA Glenn Principal Investigator Microgravity Services project to help the principal investigator teams identify the primary vibratory disturbance sources that are active, at any moment in time, on-board the International Space Station, which might impact the microgravity environment their experiments are exposed to. From the Principal Investigator Microgravity Services' web site, the principal investigator teams can monitor via a graphical display, in near real time, which event(s) is/are on, such as crew activities, pumps, fans, centrifuges, compressor, crew exercise, platform structural modes, etc., and decide whether or not to run their experiments based on the acceleration environment associated with a specific event. This monitoring system is focused primarily on detecting the vibratory disturbance sources, but could be used as well to detect some of the transient disturbance sources, depending on the events duration. The system has built-in capability to detect both known and unknown vibratory disturbance sources. Several soft computing techniques such as Kohonen's Self-Organizing Feature Map, Learning Vector Quantization, Back-Propagation Neural Networks, and Fuzzy Logic were used to design the system.

  7. Performance Monitoring Techniques Supporting Cognitive Optical Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caballero Jambrina, Antonio; Borkowski, Robert; Zibar, Darko

    2013-01-01

    High degree of heterogeneity of future optical networks, such as services with different quality-of-transmission requirements, modulation formats and switching techniques, will pose a challenge for the control and optimization of different parameters. Incorporation of cognitive techniques can help...... to solve this issue by realizing a network that can observe, act, learn and optimize its performance, taking into account end-to-end goals. In this letter we present the approach of cognition applied to heterogeneous optical networks developed in the framework of the EU project CHRON: Cognitive...... Heterogeneous Reconfigurable Optical Network. We focus on the approaches developed in the project for optical performance monitoring, which enable the feedback from the physical layer to the cognitive decision system by providing accurate description of the performance of the established lightpaths....

  8. COMBINED AND STORM SEWER NETWORK MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Synowiecka

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of the drainage networks is an extremely important tool used to understand the phenomena occurring in them. In an era of urbanization and increased run-off, at the expense of natural retention in the catchment, it helps to minimize the risk of local flooding and pollution. In its scope includes measurement of the amount of rainfall, with the use of rain gauges, and their measure in the sewer network, in matter of flows and channel filling, with the help of flow meters. An indispensable part in this step is their proper calibration calibration. In addition to ongoing monitoring of the sewer system, periodic inspections by the qualified employees of Water and Sewage Company should be done. The following article reviews measurement devices, their calibration methods, as well as the phenomena that occur during operation in the sewer network. It provides a solution for monitoring and control based on the experience of the Municipal Water and Sewage Company in Wroclaw, describing common operational problems, their causes, prevention methods and a network operation walkthrough with the improve of performance indicators KPI (Key Performance Indicators according the ECB (European Benchmarking Co-operation.

  9. Vibration monitoring with artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alguindigue, I.

    1991-01-01

    Vibration monitoring of components in nuclear power plants has been used for a number of years. This technique involves the analysis of vibration data coming from vital components of the plant to detect features which reflect the operational state of machinery. The analysis leads to the identification of potential failures and their causes, and makes it possible to perform efficient preventive maintenance. Earlydetection is important because it can decrease the probability of catastrophic failures, reduce forced outgage, maximize utilization of available assets, increase the life of the plant, and reduce maintenance costs. This paper documents our work on the design of a vibration monitoring methodology based on neural network technology. This technology provides an attractive complement to traditional vibration analysis because of the potential of neural network to operate in real-time mode and to handle data which may be distorted or noisy. Our efforts have been concentrated on the analysis and classification of vibration signatures collected from operating machinery. Two neural networks algorithms were used in our project: the Recirculation algorithm for data compression and the Backpropagation algorithm to perform the actual classification of the patterns. Although this project is in the early stages of development it indicates that neural networks may provide a viable methodology for monitoring and diagnostics of vibrating components. Our results to date are very encouraging

  10. Proposed Construction of Boulder Seismic Station Monitoring Sites, Boulder, Wyoming. Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    boreholes at the Boulder Seismic Station for research, development, test, and evaluation (RDT&E) as part of the U.S. Nuclear Treaty monitoring...14 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Location of the proposed Boulder Seismic Station, borehole locations and associated buffers...juncture of Spring Creek and Scab Creek Road (Figure 1). Currently, the Boulder Seismic Station has a 13-element array of seismometers on the property

  11. 2. All-Polish Seminar: Monitoring of Radioactive Environment Contamination Using ASS-500 and PMS Stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    During last 10 years the modern system of radiological pollution monitoring has been developed in Poland. At the beginning it was composed of ASS-500 stations. At the end of 1995 five automatic PMS stations have been installed as the result of the collaboration between Polish and Danish governments. Several stations of both types were include later. The system is coordinated by Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection. The report reviews the meeting dedicated to problems and future developments of the system

  12. Performance assessment of air quality monitoring networks using principal component analysis and cluster analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Wei-Zhen; He, Hong-Di; Dong, Li-yun

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the performance of two statistical methods, principal component analysis and cluster analysis, for the management of air quality monitoring network of Hong Kong and the reduction of associated expenses. The specific objectives include: (i) to identify city areas with similar air pollution behavior; and (ii) to locate emission sources. The statistical methods were applied to the mass concentrations of sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), respirable suspended particulates (RSP) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), collected in monitoring network of Hong Kong from January 2001 to December 2007. The results demonstrate that, for each pollutant, the monitoring stations are grouped into different classes based on their air pollution behaviors. The monitoring stations located in nearby area are characterized by the same specific air pollution characteristics and suggested with an effective management of air quality monitoring system. The redundant equipments should be transferred to other monitoring stations for allowing further enlargement of the monitored area. Additionally, the existence of different air pollution behaviors in the monitoring network is explained by the variability of wind directions across the region. The results imply that the air quality problem in Hong Kong is not only a local problem mainly from street-level pollutions, but also a region problem from the Pearl River Delta region. (author)

  13. Development of ICT for Leaching Monitoring in Taiwan Agricultural LTER Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yankuang Chan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the groundwater subsidy from different cropping systems, leaching monitoring in Taiwan started in 2008 and implemented agricultural long-term ecological research (LTER stations. Initially, leaching data was received by lysimeters, and then collected manually by laborers in the field twice per month. The cost of data collection and transmission is high, real-time monitoring is not possible, and maintenance of instruments is inefficient. In this study, the goal is to develop a data transmission path. ICT (Information and Communication Technology with different data transmission schemes was applied to improve the efficiency and immediacy of data transfer from the field to the databases in labs. Between 2010 and 2017, four versions of ICT have been developed and applied in LTER stations. WiFi, 2.5G (General Packet Radio Service, GPRS, 3G/4G network transmission, and Arduino cores are applied in different ICT versions. The first version of data transmission used data loggers, developed by the original factory, with a lower cost of renovation of instruments. However, complicated transmission paths, diverse instruments, poor weather resistance, and lack of wireless functionality are the limitations of the first version. Those limitations had been overcome by the second and third versions by using 2.5G (GPRS and 3G/4G network transmission, respectively. Nevertheless, these versions are limited to the processes of data compression and encryption transmission which were developed by the system vendors. In addition, data can only be collected through the webpage provided by the vendors, instead of being received directly from the database using SQL (Structured Query Language. This is inappropriate for advanced data treatment, organization, and analysis. Finally, the fourth version of data transmission has been developed using Arduino. This system allows redesigning of the data loggers and transmission instrument with more feasibility and

  14. The Global Environment Radiation Monitoring Network (GERMON)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakheim, B.J.; Goellner, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident in 1986, a group of experts from the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) met in France to discuss and develop the basic principles of a global environmental radiation monitoring network (GERMON). The basic functions of this network were to provide regular reports on environmental radiation levels and to be in a position to provide reliable and accurate radiation measurements on a quick and accurate radiation measurements on a quick turnaround basis in the event of a major radiation release. By 1992, although 58 countries had indicated an interest in becoming a part of the GERMON system, only 16 were providing data on a regular basis. This paper traces the history of GERMON from its inception in 1987 through its activities during 1993-4. It details the objectives of the network, describes functions, lists its participants, and presents obstacles in the current network. The paper examines the data requirements for radiological emergency preparedness and offers suggestions for the current system. The paper also describes the growing need for such a network. To add a domestic perspective, the authors present a summary of the environmental monitoring information system that was used by the NRC in 1986 in its analyses of the Chernobyl incident. Then we will use this 1986 experience to propose a method for the use of GERMON should a similar occasion arise in the future

  15. Monitoring the Performance of the Pedestrian Transfer Function of Train Stations Using Automatic Fare Collection Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Heuvel, J.P.A.; Hoogenraad, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last years all train stations in The Netherlands have been equipped with automatic fare collection gates and/or validators. All public transport passengers use a smart card to pay their fare. In this paper we present a monitor for the performance of the pedestrian function of train stations

  16. 40 CFR 52.2035 - Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Stations (PAMS) Program. 52.2035 Section 52.2035 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...) Pennsylvania § 52.2035 Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program. On September 23, 1994... (PAMS) Program as a state implementation plan (SIP) revision, as required by section 182(c)(1) of the...

  17. COMBINED AND STORM SEWER NETWORK MONITORING

    OpenAIRE

    Justyna Synowiecka; Ewa Burszta-Adamiak; Tomasz Konieczny; Paweł Malinowski

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring of the drainage networks is an extremely important tool used to understand the phenomena occurring in them. In an era of urbanization and increased run-off, at the expense of natural retention in the catchment, it helps to minimize the risk of local flooding and pollution. In its scope includes measurement of the amount of rainfall, with the use of rain gauges, and their measure in the sewer network, in matter of flows and channel filling, with the help of flow meters. An indispens...

  18. Analysis and monitoring design for networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorov, V.; Flanagan, D.; Rowan, T.; Batsell, S.

    1998-06-01

    The idea of applying experimental design methodologies to develop monitoring systems for computer networks is relatively novel even though it was applied in other areas such as meteorology, seismology, and transportation. One objective of a monitoring system should always be to collect as little data as necessary to be able to monitor specific parameters of the system with respect to assigned targets and objectives. This implies a purposeful monitoring where each piece of data has a reason to be collected and stored for future use. When a computer network system as large and complex as the Internet is the monitoring subject, providing an optimal and parsimonious observing system becomes even more important. Many data collection decisions must be made by the developers of a monitoring system. These decisions include but are not limited to the following: (1) The type data collection hardware and software instruments to be used; (2) How to minimize interruption of regular network activities during data collection; (3) Quantification of the objectives and the formulation of optimality criteria; (4) The placement of data collection hardware and software devices; (5) The amount of data to be collected in a given time period, how large a subset of the available data to collect during the period, the length of the period, and the frequency of data collection; (6) The determination of the data to be collected (for instance, selection of response and explanatory variables); (7) Which data will be retained and how long (i.e., data storage and retention issues); and (8) The cost analysis of experiments. Mathematical statistics, and, in particular, optimal experimental design methods, may be used to address the majority of problems generated by 3--7. In this study, the authors focus their efforts on topics 3--5.

  19. Continuous atmospheric monitoring of the injected CO2 behavior over geological storage sites using flux stations: latest technologies and resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burba, George; Madsen, Rodney; Feese, Kristin

    2014-05-01

    Flux stations have been widely used to monitor emission rates of CO2 from various ecosystems for climate research for over 30 years [1]. The stations provide accurate and continuous measurements of CO2 emissions with high temporal resolution. Time scales range from 20 times per second for gas concentrations, to 15-minute, hourly, daily, and multi-year periods. The emissions are measured from the upwind area ranging from thousands of square meters to multiple square kilometers, depending on the measurement height. The stations can nearly instantaneously detect rapid changes in emissions due to weather events, as well as changes caused by variations in human-triggered events (pressure leaks, control releases, etc.). Stations can also detect any slow changes related to seasonal dynamics and human-triggered low-frequency processes (leakage diffusion, etc.). In the past, station configuration, data collection and processing were highly-customized, site-specific and greatly dependent on "school-of-thought" practiced by a particular research group. In the last 3-5 years, due to significant efforts of global and regional CO2 monitoring networks (e.g., FluxNet, Ameriflux, Carbo-Europe, ICOS, etc.) and technological developments, the flux station methodology became fairly standardized and processing protocols became quite uniform [1]. A majority of current stations compute CO2 emission rates using the eddy covariance method, one of the most direct and defensible micrometeorological techniques [1]. Presently, over 600 such flux stations are in operation in over 120 countries, using permanent and mobile towers or moving platforms (e.g., automobiles, helicopters, and airplanes). Atmospheric monitoring of emission rates using such stations is now recognized as an effective method in regulatory and industrial applications, including carbon storage [2-8]. Emerging projects utilize flux stations to continuously monitor large areas before and after the injections, to locate and

  20. Environmental radiation monitoring data for Point Lepreau Generating Station, 1988. Annual publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, J K

    1989-01-01

    Annual report presenting a compilation of the 1988 environmental radiation monitoring program data from samples collected around the Point Lepreau Nuclear Generating Station (PLNGS) and at reference stations remote from PLNGS. About 1,700 analyses were made on 1,200 samples to monitor environmental radiation, including air filters, airborne water vapour, sea water, well water, milk, beach sediments, clams, fish, lobster, dulse, crabs, scallops and lichen. Background radiation is measured by thermoluminescence dosimetry.

  1. Environmental radiation monitoring data for Point Lepreau Generating Station, 1987. Annual publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, J K

    1988-01-01

    Annual report presenting a compilation of the 1987 environmental radiation monitoring program data from samples collected around the Point Lepreau Nuclear Generating Station (PLNGS) and at reference stations remote from PLNGS. About 1,800 analyses were made on 1,300 samples to monitor environmental radiation, including air filters, airborne water vapour, sea water, well water, milk, beach sediments, clams, fish, lobster, dulse, crabs, scallops and periwinkles. Background radiation is measured by thermoluminescence dosimetry.

  2. The Earthscope USArray Array Network Facility (ANF): Metadata, Network and Data Monitoring, Quality Assurance During the Second Year of Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakins, J. A.; Vernon, F. L.; Martynov, V.; Newman, R. L.; Cox, T. A.; Lindquist, K. L.; Hindley, A.; Foley, S.

    2005-12-01

    The Array Network Facility (ANF) for the Earthscope USArray Transportable Array seismic network is responsible for: the delivery of all Transportable Array stations (400 at full deployment) and telemetered Flexible Array stations (up to 200) to the IRIS Data Management Center; station command and control; verification and distribution of metadata; providing useful remotely accessible world wide web interfaces for personnel at the Array Operations Facility (AOF) to access state of health information; and quality control for all data. To meet these goals, we use the Antelope software package to facilitate data collection and transfer, generation and merging of the metadata, real-time monitoring of dataloggers, generation of station noise spectra, and analyst review of individual events. Recently, an Antelope extension to the PHP scripting language has been implemented which facilitates the dynamic presentation of the real-time data to local web pages. Metadata transfers have been simplified by the use of orb transfer technologies at the ANF and receiver end points. Web services are being investigated as a means to make a potentially complicated set of operations easy to follow and reproduce for each newly installed or decommissioned station. As part of the quality control process, daily analyst review has highlighted areas where neither the regional network bulletins nor the USGS global bulletin have published solutions. Currently four regional networks (Anza, BDSN, SCSN, and UNR) contribute data to the Transportable Array with additional contributors expected. The first 100 stations (42 new Earthscope stations) were operational by September 2005 with all but one of the California stations installed. By year's end, weather permitting, the total number of stations deployed is expected to be around 145. Visit http://anf.ucsd.edu for more information on the project and current status.

  3. Structural health monitoring using wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreevallabhan, K.; Nikhil Chand, B.; Ramasamy, Sudha

    2017-11-01

    Monitoring and analysing health of large structures like bridges, dams, buildings and heavy machinery is important for safety, economical, operational, making prior protective measures, and repair and maintenance point of view. In recent years there is growing demand for such larger structures which in turn make people focus more on safety. By using Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) Accelerometer we can perform Structural Health Monitoring by studying the dynamic response through measure of ambient vibrations and strong motion of such structures. By using Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) we can embed these sensors in wireless networks which helps us to transmit data wirelessly thus we can measure the data wirelessly at any remote location. This in turn reduces heavy wiring which is a cost effective as well as time consuming process to lay those wires. In this paper we developed WSN based MEMS-accelerometer for Structural to test the results in the railway bridge near VIT University, Vellore campus.

  4. Design of a monitoring network over France in case of a radiological accidental release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abida, Rachid; Bocquet, Marc; Vercauteren, Nikki; Isnard, Olivier

    The Institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (France) is planning the set-up of an automatic nuclear aerosol monitoring network over the French territory. Each of the stations will be able to automatically sample the air aerosol content and provide activity concentration measurements on several radionuclides. This should help monitor the French and neighbouring countries nuclear power plants set. It would help evaluate the impact of a radiological incident occurring at one of these nuclear facilities. This paper is devoted to the spatial design of such a network. Here, any potential network is judged on its ability to extrapolate activity concentrations measured on the network stations over the whole domain. The performance of a network is quantitatively assessed through a cost function that measures the discrepancy between the extrapolation and the true concentration fields. These true fields are obtained through the computation of a database of dispersion accidents over one year of meteorology and originating from 20 French nuclear sites. A close to optimal network is then looked for using a simulated annealing optimisation. The results emphasise the importance of the cost function in the design of a network aimed at monitoring an accidental dispersion. Several choices of norm used in the cost function are studied and give way to different designs. The influence of the number of stations is discussed. A comparison with a purely geometric approach which does not involve simulations with a chemistry-transport model is performed.

  5. Large scale network management. Condition indicators for network stations, high voltage power conductions and cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggen, Arnt Ove; Rolfseng, Lars; Langdal, Bjoern Inge

    2006-02-01

    In the Strategic Institute Programme (SIP) 'Electricity Business enters e-business (eBee)' SINTEF Energy research has developed competency that can help the energy business employ ICT systems and computer technology in an improved way. Large scale network management is now a reality, and it is characterized by large entities with increasing demands on efficiency and quality. These are goals that can only be reached by using ICT systems and computer technology in a more clever way than what is the case today. At the same time it is important that knowledge held by experienced co-workers is consulted when formal rules for evaluations and decisions in ICT systems are developed. In this project an analytical concept for evaluation of networks based information in different ICT systems has been developed. The method estimating the indicators to describe different conditions in a network is general, and indicators can be made to fit different levels of decision and network levels, for example network station, transformer circuit, distribution network and regional network. Moreover, the indicators can contain information about technical aspects, economy and HSE. An indicator consists of an indicator name, an indicator value, and an indicator colour based on a traffic-light analogy to indicate a condition or a quality for the indicator. Values on one or more indicators give an impression of important conditions in the network, and make up the basis for knowing where more detailed evaluations have to be conducted before a final decision on for example maintenance or renewal is made. A prototype has been developed for testing the new method. The prototype has been developed in Excel, and especially designed for analysing transformer circuits in a distribution network. However, the method is a general one, and well suited for implementation in a commercial computer system (ml)

  6. The Raam regional soil moisture monitoring network in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-J. F. Benninga

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We have established a soil moisture profile monitoring network in the Raam region in the Netherlands. This region faces water shortages during summers and excess of water during winters and after extreme precipitation events. Water management can benefit from reliable information on the soil water availability and water storing capacity in the unsaturated zone. In situ measurements provide a direct source of information on which water managers can base their decisions. Moreover, these measurements are commonly used as a reference for the calibration and validation of soil moisture content products derived from earth observations or obtained by model simulations. Distributed over the Raam region, we have equipped 14 agricultural fields and 1 natural grass field with soil moisture and soil temperature monitoring instrumentation, consisting of Decagon 5TM sensors installed at depths of 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 cm. In total, 12 stations are located within the Raam catchment (catchment area of 223 km2, and 5 of these stations are located within the closed sub-catchment Hooge Raam (catchment area of 41 km2. Soil-specific calibration functions that have been developed for the 5TM sensors under laboratory conditions lead to an accuracy of 0.02 m3 m−3. The first set of measurements has been retrieved for the period 5 April 2016–4 April 2017. In this paper, we describe the Raam monitoring network and instrumentation, the soil-specific calibration of the sensors, the first year of measurements, and additional measurements (soil temperature, phreatic groundwater levels and meteorological data and information (elevation, soil physical characteristics, land cover and a geohydrological model available for performing scientific research. The data are available at https://doi.org/10.4121/uuid:dc364e97-d44a-403f-82a7-121902deeb56.

  7. The Raam regional soil moisture monitoring network in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benninga, Harm-Jan F.; Carranza, Coleen D. U.; Pezij, Michiel; van Santen, Pim; van der Ploeg, Martine J.; Augustijn, Denie C. M.; van der Velde, Rogier

    2018-01-01

    We have established a soil moisture profile monitoring network in the Raam region in the Netherlands. This region faces water shortages during summers and excess of water during winters and after extreme precipitation events. Water management can benefit from reliable information on the soil water availability and water storing capacity in the unsaturated zone. In situ measurements provide a direct source of information on which water managers can base their decisions. Moreover, these measurements are commonly used as a reference for the calibration and validation of soil moisture content products derived from earth observations or obtained by model simulations. Distributed over the Raam region, we have equipped 14 agricultural fields and 1 natural grass field with soil moisture and soil temperature monitoring instrumentation, consisting of Decagon 5TM sensors installed at depths of 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 cm. In total, 12 stations are located within the Raam catchment (catchment area of 223 km2), and 5 of these stations are located within the closed sub-catchment Hooge Raam (catchment area of 41 km2). Soil-specific calibration functions that have been developed for the 5TM sensors under laboratory conditions lead to an accuracy of 0.02 m3 m-3. The first set of measurements has been retrieved for the period 5 April 2016-4 April 2017. In this paper, we describe the Raam monitoring network and instrumentation, the soil-specific calibration of the sensors, the first year of measurements, and additional measurements (soil temperature, phreatic groundwater levels and meteorological data) and information (elevation, soil physical characteristics, land cover and a geohydrological model) available for performing scientific research. The data are available at https://doi.org/10.4121/uuid:dc364e97-d44a-403f-82a7-121902deeb56.

  8. Intrusion detection and monitoring for wireless networks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Eric D.; Van Randwyk, Jamie A.; Lee, Erik J.; Stephano, Amanda (Indiana University); Tabriz, Parisa (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign); Pelon, Kristen (Cedarville University); McCoy, Damon (University of Colorado, Boulder); Lodato, Mark (Lafayette College); Hemingway, Franklin (University of New Mexico); Custer, Ryan P.; Averin, Dimitry (Polytechnic University); Franklin, Jason (Carnegie Mellon University); Kilman, Dominique Marie

    2005-11-01

    complete network coverage for use by emergency responders and other municipal agencies. In short, these Wi-Fi networks are being deployed everywhere. Much thought has been and is being put into evaluating cost-benefit analyses of wired vs. wireless networks and issues such as how to effectively cover an office building or municipality, how to efficiently manage a large network of wireless access points (APs), and how to save money by replacing an Internet service provider (ISP) with 802.11 technology. In comparison, very little thought and money are being focused on wireless security and monitoring for security purposes.

  9. OGS improvements in 2012 in running the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network: the Ferrara VBB borehole seismic station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesaresi, Damiano; Romanelli, Marco; Barnaba, Carla; Bragato, Pier Luigi; Durì, Giorgio

    2013-04-01

    The Centro di Ricerche Sismologiche (CRS, Seismological Research Center) of the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS, Italian National Institute for Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics) in Udine (Italy) after the strong earthquake of magnitude M=6.4 occurred in 1976 in the Italian Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, started to operate the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network: it currently consists of 17 very sensitive broad band and 18 simpler short period seismic stations, all telemetered to and acquired in real time at the OGS-CRS data center in Udine. Real time data exchange agreements in place with other Italian, Slovenian, Austrian and Swiss seismological institutes lead to a total number of about 100 seismic stations acquired in real time, which makes the OGS the reference institute for seismic monitoring of Northeastern Italy. The southwestern edge of the OGS seismic network stands on the Po alluvial basin: earthquake localization and characterization in this area is affected by the presence of soft alluvial deposits. OGS ha already experience in running a local seismic network in high noise conditions making use of borehole installations in the case of the micro-seismicity monitoring of a local gas storage site for a private company. Following the ML=5.9 earthquake that struck the Emilia region around Ferrara in Northern Italy on May 20, 2012 at 02:03:53 UTC, a cooperation of Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, OGS, the Comune di Ferrara and the University of Ferrara lead to the reinstallation of a previously existing very broad band (VBB) borehole seismic station in Ferrara. The aim of the OGS intervention was on one hand to extend its real time seismic monitoring capabilities toward South-West, including Ferrara and its surroundings, and on the other hand to evaluate the seismic response at the site. We will describe improvements in running the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network, including details of the Ferrara VBB

  10. Assessment and rationalization of water quality monitoring network: a multivariate statistical approach to the Kabbini River (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavukkandy, Musthafa Odayooth; Karmakar, Subhankar; Harikumar, P S

    2014-09-01

    The establishment of an efficient surface water quality monitoring (WQM) network is a critical component in the assessment, restoration and protection of river water quality. A periodic evaluation of monitoring network is mandatory to ensure effective data collection and possible redesigning of existing network in a river catchment. In this study, the efficacy and appropriateness of existing water quality monitoring network in the Kabbini River basin of Kerala, India is presented. Significant multivariate statistical techniques like principal component analysis (PCA) and principal factor analysis (PFA) have been employed to evaluate the efficiency of the surface water quality monitoring network with monitoring stations as the evaluated variables for the interpretation of complex data matrix of the river basin. The main objective is to identify significant monitoring stations that must essentially be included in assessing annual and seasonal variations of river water quality. Moreover, the significance of seasonal redesign of the monitoring network was also investigated to capture valuable information on water quality from the network. Results identified few monitoring stations as insignificant in explaining the annual variance of the dataset. Moreover, the seasonal redesign of the monitoring network through a multivariate statistical framework was found to capture valuable information from the system, thus making the network more efficient. Cluster analysis (CA) classified the sampling sites into different groups based on similarity in water quality characteristics. The PCA/PFA identified significant latent factors standing for different pollution sources such as organic pollution, industrial pollution, diffuse pollution and faecal contamination. Thus, the present study illustrates that various multivariate statistical techniques can be effectively employed in sustainable management of water resources. The effectiveness of existing river water quality monitoring

  11. Design and implementation of an integrated safety management system for compressed natural gas stations using ubiquitous sensor network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jae Mo; Ko, Byung Seok; Park, Chulhwan; Ko, Jae Wook; Yoo, Byungtae; Shin, Dongil

    2014-01-01

    To increase awareness of safety in facilities where hazards may exist, operators, managers, and executive officers on the site should be able to monitor such facilities. However, most compressed natural gas (CNG) service stations in Korea use only local-mode monitoring, with only on-site operators to monitor the facility. To complement this local-mode monitoring, an online safety management system called Ubiquitous-gas safety management system (U-GSMS) was developed. The U-GSMS consists largely of software and hardware. The software consists of systems that can manage safety and operations, while the hardware consists of sensors installed in the gas facility and wireless communication systems using a ubiquitous sensor network (USN) technology that facilitates communication between sensors as well as between sensors and other devices. As these systems are web-based, on-site operators as well as managers and executive officers at the headquarters can more effectively and efficiently perform monitoring and safety management

  12. Design and implementation of an integrated safety management system for compressed natural gas stations using ubiquitous sensor network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jae Mo; Ko, Byung Seok; Park, Chulhwan; Ko, Jae Wook [Kwangwoon University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Byungtae [National Disaster Management Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Dongil [Myongji University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    To increase awareness of safety in facilities where hazards may exist, operators, managers, and executive officers on the site should be able to monitor such facilities. However, most compressed natural gas (CNG) service stations in Korea use only local-mode monitoring, with only on-site operators to monitor the facility. To complement this local-mode monitoring, an online safety management system called Ubiquitous-gas safety management system (U-GSMS) was developed. The U-GSMS consists largely of software and hardware. The software consists of systems that can manage safety and operations, while the hardware consists of sensors installed in the gas facility and wireless communication systems using a ubiquitous sensor network (USN) technology that facilitates communication between sensors as well as between sensors and other devices. As these systems are web-based, on-site operators as well as managers and executive officers at the headquarters can more effectively and efficiently perform monitoring and safety management.

  13. The RING and Seismic Network: Data Acquisition of Co-located Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falco, L.; Avallone, A.; Cattaneo, M.; Cecere, G.; Cogliano, R.; D'Agostino, N.; D'Ambrosio, C.; D'Anastasio, E.; Selvaggi, G.

    2007-12-01

    The plate boundary between Africa and Eurasia represents an interesting geodynamical region characterized by a complex pattern of deformation. First-order scientific problems regarding the existence of rigid blocks within the plate boundary, the present-day activity of the Calabrian subduction zone and the modes of release of seismic deformation are still awaiting for a better understanding. To address these issues, the INGV (Istituto Nazionale Geofisica e Vulcanlogia) deployed a permanent, integrated and real-time monitoring GPS network (RING) all over Italy. RING is now constituted by about 120 stations. The CGPS sites, acquiring at 1Hz and 30s sampling rate, are integrated either with broad band or very broad band seismometers and accelerometers for an improved definition of the seismically active regions. Most of the sites are connected to the acquisition centre (located in Rome and duplicated in Grottaminarda) through a satellite system (VSAT), while the remaining sites transmit data by Internet and classical phone connections. The satellite data transmission and the integration with seismic instruments makes this network one of the most innovative CGPS networks in Europe. The heterogeneity of the installed instrumentation, the transmission types and the increasing number of stations needed a central monitoring and acquisition system. A central acquisition system has been developed in Grottaminarda in southern Italy. Regarding the seismic monitoring we chose to use the open source system Earthworm, developed by USGS, with which we store waveforms and implement automatic localization of the seismic events occurring in the area. As most of the GPS sites are acquired by means of Nanometrics satellite technology, we developed a specific software (GpsView), written in Java, to monitor the state of health of those CGPS. This software receives GPS data from NaqsServer (Nanometrics acquisition system) and outputs information about the sites (i.e. approx position

  14. A Bayesian maximum entropy-based methodology for optimal spatiotemporal design of groundwater monitoring networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Marjan; Kerachian, Reza

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for analyzing the spatiotemporal variability of water table levels and redesigning a groundwater level monitoring network (GLMN) using the Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) technique and a multi-criteria decision-making approach based on ordered weighted averaging (OWA). The spatial sampling is determined using a hexagonal gridding pattern and a new method, which is proposed to assign a removal priority number to each pre-existing station. To design temporal sampling, a new approach is also applied to consider uncertainty caused by lack of information. In this approach, different time lag values are tested by regarding another source of information, which is simulation result of a numerical groundwater flow model. Furthermore, to incorporate the existing uncertainties in available monitoring data, the flexibility of the BME interpolation technique is taken into account in applying soft data and improving the accuracy of the calculations. To examine the methodology, it is applied to the Dehgolan plain in northwestern Iran. Based on the results, a configuration of 33 monitoring stations for a regular hexagonal grid of side length 3600 m is proposed, in which the time lag between samples is equal to 5 weeks. Since the variance estimation errors of the BME method are almost identical for redesigned and existing networks, the redesigned monitoring network is more cost-effective and efficient than the existing monitoring network with 52 stations and monthly sampling frequency.

  15. Application of network technology to Remote Monitoring System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.S.; Sorokowski, D.L.; Veevers, K.

    1994-01-01

    The Australian Safeguards Office (ASO) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) have sponsored work under a bilateral agreement to implement a Remote Monitoring System (RMS) at an Australian nuclear site operated by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO). The RMS, designed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), was installed in February 1994 at the Dry Spent Fuel Storage Facility (DSFSF) located at Lucas Heights, Australia. The RMS was designed to test a number of different concepts that would be useful for unattended remote monitoring activities. The DSFSF located in Building 27 is a very suitable test site for a RMS. The RMS uses a network of low cost nodes to collect data from a number of different sensors and security devices. Different sensors and detection devices have been installed to study how they can be used to complement each other for C/S applications. The data collected from the network will allow a comparison of how the various types of sensors perform under the same set of conditions. A video system using digital compression collects digital images and stores them on a hard drive and a digital optical disk. Data and images from the storage area are remotely monitored via telephone from Canberra, Australia and Albuquerque, NM, USA. These remote monitoring stations operated by ASO and SNL respectively, can retrieve data and images from the RMS computer at the DSFSF. The data and images are encrypted before transmission. The Remote Monitoring System field tests have been operational for six months with good test results. Sensors have performed well and the digital images have excellent resolution. The hardware and software have performed reliably without any major difficulties. This paper summarizes the highlights of the prototype system and the ongoing field tests

  16. Establishment of a Background Environmental Monitoring Station for the PNNL Campus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, Brad G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Snyder, Sandra F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Barnett, J. Matthew [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bisping, Lynn E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rishel, Jeremy P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The environmental surveillance of background levels of radionuclides and, in particular, the siting of a background environmental surveillance (monitoring) station are examined. Many published works identify and stress the need for background monitoring; however, little definitive and comprehensive information for siting a station exists. A definition of an ideal background monitoring location and the generic criteria recommended for use in establishing such a background monitoring location are proposed. There are seven primary (mandatory) criteria described with two additional, optional criteria. The criteria are applied to the Richland, Washington (WA), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Campus, which currently uses background monitoring data from the nearby Hanford Site. Eleven potential background monitoring sites were identified, with one location in Benton City, WA found to meet all of the mandatory and optional criteria. It is expected that the new sampler will be installed and operating by the end of June, 2015.

  17. RadNet Air Quality (Fixed Station) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — RadNet is a national network of monitoring stations that regularly collect air for analysis of radioactivity. The RadNet network, which has stations in each State,...

  18. Operability test procedure for the TK-900 effluent monitoring station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissenfels, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    This procedure will verify that the 221-B liquid effluent monitoring system, installed near the east end of the 6-in. chemical sewer header, functions as intended by design. TK-900B was installed near stairwell 3 in the 221-B electrical gallery by Project W-007H. The system is part of BAT/AKART for the BCE liquid effluent system

  19. Pilot Water Quality Monitoring Station in Dublin Bay North Bank Monitoring Station (NBMS): MATSIS Project Part I

    OpenAIRE

    O Donnell, G.; Joyce, E.; O Boyle, S.; McGovern, E.

    2008-01-01

    The lack of short-term temporal resolution associated with traditional spot sampling for monitoring water quality of dynamic coastal and estuarine waters has meant that many organisations are interesting in autonomous monitoring technologies to provide near real-time semi-continuous data. Such approaches enable capturing short term episodic events (which may be missed or alternatively skew datasets when using spot samples) and provide early warning of water quality problems. New policy driver...

  20. VFM Discrimination Results from a Ten Station Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    Chiang Mai , Thailand (CHTO) from a presumed explosion in eastern Kazakhstan .................... 24 5. Seismogram written at Tatalina, Alaska, for the same...results for the station located at Chiang Mai , Thailand (CHTO) ... .......... . 55 15c. VFM results for the station located at Zongo Valley, Bolivia...seismogram written at the Seismic Research Observatory (SRO) in Chiang Mai , Thailand (CHTO) from a presumed explosion in eastern Kazakhstan. The top is the

  1. Managing Recurrent Congestion of Subway Network in Peak Hours with Station Inflow Control

    OpenAIRE

    Qingru Zou; Xiangming Yao; Peng Zhao; Fei Dou; Taoyuan Yang

    2018-01-01

    Station inflow control (SIC) is an important and effective method for reducing recurrent congestion during peak hours in the Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou subway systems. This work proposes a practical and efficient method for establishing a static SIC scheme in normal weekdays for large-scale subway networks. First, a traffic assignment model without capacity constraint is utilized to determine passenger flow distributions on the network. An internal relationship between station inflows a...

  2. IPTV based on IP network and streaming media service station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jifeng; Gao, Songbo

    2007-11-01

    IPTV can be a new service performed on the Internet in that network transmission and streaming media technologies are getting mature. In this paper, IPTV system infrastructure of UTStarcom, key technologies deployed, and applications will be discussed and evaluated. The key technologies to achieve IPTV services include 1) codec and compression; 2) streaming media; and 3) broadband networks and access to such networks. The implementation of Media Switch IPTV system in Harbin CNC city network is also discussed.

  3. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. Volume 15, No. 4: Quarterly progress report, October--December 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struckmeyer, R.

    1996-03-01

    This report presents the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1995. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 75 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program

  4. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. Volume 15, No. 4: Quarterly progress report, October--December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struckmeyer, R.

    1996-03-01

    This report presents the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1995. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 75 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program.

  5. Radioactive aerosol detection station for near real-time atmospheric monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, L.R.; Bohner, John D.

    1997-01-01

    A radionuclide aerosol detection station has been developed to measure radioactivity in the environment. The objective is to monitor the atmosphere for anthropogenic radioactivity that could be indicative of nuclear weapons tests to verify the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Eighty stations will form the backbone of the International Monitoring System in which stations are linked to a central analysis facility called the International Data Centre. Data are transmitted to this centre in near real-time to facilitate rapid detection. Principal process of the field measurement are collection, separation, and assay. Collection of airborne radioactivity is achieved through high-volume air sampling. Aerosols separation is accomplished by high-efficiency particulate filtration. Radionuclides assay is achieved by in-situ high resolution gamma spectrometry. These modules are integrated into a unit that provides power, control, and communication support subsystems. Station operation is semi-automatic requiring only minimal human interaction. (author). 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Monitoring of radioactivity in the environs of Finnish nuclear power stations in 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilus, E.; Sjoeblom, K.L.; Aaltonen, H.; Klemola, S.; Arvela, H.

    1987-06-01

    Results of the environmental programmes monitoring radioactivity around the Finnish nuclear power stations in 1986 are reported. After the end of April the fallout nuclides from the Chernobyl accident predominated in all samples taken from the environs of the two power stations Loviisa and Olkiluoto. Radionuclides originating from the Finnish power stations were detected mainly in samples taken from the aquatic environment. The concentrations of the locally discharged nuclides were very low in comparison with the fallout nuclides and their impact on the radiation doses of the population was insignificant. Both nuclear power stations are situated in the main fallout area in Finland. The results of these large monitoring programmes give a good picture of the behaviour of the Chernobyl fallout in the specific areas in Finland

  7. Support and Maintenance of the International Monitoring System network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Jose; Bazarragchaa, Sergelen; Kilgour, Owen; Pretorius, Jacques; Werzi, Robert; Beziat, Guillaume; Hamani, Wacel; Mohammad, Walid; Brely, Natalie

    2014-05-01

    The Monitoring Facilities Support Section of the Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) has as its main task to ensure optimal support and maintenance of an array of 321 monitoring stations and 16 radionuclide laboratories distributed worldwide. Raw seismic, infrasonic, hydroacoustic and radionuclide data from these facilities constitutes the basic product delivered by the International Monitoring System (IMS). In the process of maintaining such a wide array of stations of different technologies, the Support Section contributes to ensuring station mission capability. Mission capable data availability according to the IMS requirements should be at least 98% annually (no more than 7 days down time per year per waveform stations - 14 continuous for radionuclide stations) for continuous data sending stations. In this presentation, we will present our case regarding our intervention at stations to address equipment supportability and maintainability, as these are particularly large activities requiring the removal of a substantial part of the station equipment and installation of new equipment. The objective is always to plan these activities while minimizing downtime and continuing to meet all IMS requirements, including those of data availability mentioned above. We postulate that these objectives are better achieved by planning and making use of preventive maintenance, as opposed to "run-to-failure" with associated corrective maintenance. We use two recently upgraded Infrasound Stations (IS39 Palau and IS52 BIOT) as a case study and establish a comparison between these results and several other stations where corrective maintenance was performed, to demonstrate our hypothesis.

  8. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic Complexity and Urchin Abundance at Climate Stations of the Mariana Archipelago since 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The benthic complexity and urchin abundance monitoring effort provides baselines for tracking these variables at NCRMP climate stations. Climate stations are 3-4...

  9. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic Complexity and Urchin Abundance at Climate Stations of the Hawaiian Archipelago since 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The benthic complexity and urchin abundance monitoring effort provides baselines for tracking these variables at NCRMP climate stations. Climate stations are 3-4...

  10. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic Complexity and Urchin Abundance at Climate Stations of American Samoa in 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The benthic complexity and urchin abundance monitoring effort provides baselines for tracking these variables at NCRMP climate stations. Climate stations are 3-4...

  11. Service offerings and interfaces for the ACTS network of earth stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coney, T. A.; Dobyns, T. R.; Chitre, D. M.; Lindstrom, R.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) will use a network of about 20 earth stations to operate as a Mode 1 network. This network will support two ACTS program objectives: to verify the technical performance of ACTS Mode 1 operation in GEO and to demonstrate the types and quality of services that can be provided by an ACTS Mode 1 communications system. The terrestrial interface design is a critical element in assuring that these network earth stations will meet the objectives. In this paper, the applicable terrestrial interface design requirements, the resulting interface specifications, and the associated terrestrial input/output hardware are discussed. A functional block diagram of a network earth station is shown.

  12. Monitoring Method and Apparatus Using Asynchronous, One-Way Transmission from Sensor to Base Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Scott L. (Inventor); Drouant, George J. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A monitoring system is disclosed, which includes a base station and at least one sensor unit that is separate from the base station. The at least one sensor unit resides in a dormant state until it is awakened by the triggering of a vibration-sensitive switch. Once awakened, the sensor may take a measurement, and then transmit to the base station the measurement. Once data is transmitted from the sensor to the base station, the sensor may return to its dormant state. There may be various sensors for each base station and the various sensors may optionally measure different quantities, such as current, voltage, single-axis and/or three-axis magnetic fields.

  13. Monitoring of atmospheric 3H around Narora Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautam, Y.P.; Sharma, A.K.; Sharma, S.; Rao, K.S.; Kumar, J.; Kumar, V.; Singh, B.; Kumar, A.; Hedge, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric tritium activity is measured regularly around Narora Atomic Power Station (NAPS) since gaseous waste, which contains tritium, is being released through a 145 m high stack at NAPS site. Atmospheric data collected during 2004-2008 shows a large variation of 3 H concentration in air, fluctuating in the range of ≤0.2-91.6 Bq m -3 . Significantly, higher tritium levels were measured in samples near the site boundary (1.6 km) of NAPS compared to off-site locations. The atmospheric dilution factor was found to be in the range of 1.1 x 10 -7 -7.3 x 10 -7 s m -3 . The scavenging ratio of NAPS site was found to be varying from 0.2 x 10 4 to 14.1 x 10 4 (Bq m -3 rain water per Bq m -3 air). The inhalation dose to a member of general public at different distances (1.6-30 km) from NAPS site was found to be ranged from 0.08-0.21 μSv year -1 . (author)

  14. Spectral characteristics of seismic noise using data of Kazakhstan monitoring stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhajlova, N.N.; Komarov, I.I.

    2006-01-01

    Spectral specifications of seismic noise research for PS23-Makanchi, Karatau, Akbulak, AS057-Borovoye and new three-component station AS059-Aktyubinsk was done. Spectral noise density models were obtained for day and night time and spectral density values variation. Noise close to low-level universal noise model is peculiar for all stations, which provides their high efficiency while seismic monitoring. Noise parameters dependence on seismic receivers installation conditions was investigated separately. Based on three stations (Makanchi, Borovoye, and Aktyubinsk), spectral density change features are shown after borehole equipment installation. (author)

  15. Optimal Base Station Density of Dense Network: From the Viewpoint of Interference and Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jianyuan; Feng, Zhiyong

    2017-09-11

    Network densification is attracting increasing attention recently due to its ability to improve network capacity by spatial reuse and relieve congestion by offloading. However, excessive densification and aggressive offloading can also cause the degradation of network performance due to problems of interference and load. In this paper, with consideration of load issues, we study the optimal base station density that maximizes the throughput of the network. The expected link rate and the utilization ratio of the contention-based channel are derived as the functions of base station density using the Poisson Point Process (PPP) and Markov Chain. They reveal the rules of deployment. Based on these results, we obtain the throughput of the network and indicate the optimal deployment density under different network conditions. Extensive simulations are conducted to validate our analysis and show the substantial performance gain obtained by the proposed deployment scheme. These results can provide guidance for the network densification.

  16. Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring station operating regime influence on radionuclide detection sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    International Monitoring System (IMS) stations are being deployed worldwide in support of the Comprehensive [Nuclear] Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). The highly sensitive radionuclide monitoring stations regularly sample airborne radionuclide particulates to determine whether fission products are present in the atmosphere that may be indicative of a nuclear weapons test. Standards have been set for these stations regarding their operation regime and the minimum detectable concentrations (MDCs) for specific radionuclides likely to be present after a nuclear weapons test. This study uses actual CTBT monitoring data to relate a subset of the specified operational standards with the listed MDC limits. It is determined that a relationship exists between the specified operational regime and the MDC values. Since the background radioactivity is largely a function of the radon and thoron progeny, longer decay operational regimes allow for a reduction in the background. For longer lived radionuclides, this corresponds to a reduction in MDC. (author)

  17. Role of monitoring network in the control management of air quality. An industrial case history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerbo, G. [Catania Univ. (Italy). Inst. of Merceology; Fabiano, B.; Ferraiolo, A.; Solisio, C.; Ruaro, R.

    1995-12-31

    Air quality control by a system of monitoring station is indispensable for the environmental protection. Moreover, a monitoring network have not to be only a mere data collection a good air quality control is possible only if the network management allows to prevent unacceptable pollutants level. In other terms, elaboration and interpretation data are fundamental in order to make monitoring system really able for regulations of corrective measures as, for example, the reduction of local emissions. The case of monitoring network run from the Industrial Society CIPA of Siracusa (Italy) is discussed. The management of the data obtained from a continuous survey allows to keep pollutants level below the current limits set down by the Italian law. Furthermore, elaboration of the data allows useful evaluations about atmospheric dispersion phenomena. (author)

  18. Role of monitoring network in the control management of air quality. An industrial case history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerbo, G [Catania Univ. (Italy). Inst. of Merceology; Fabiano, B; Ferraiolo, A; Solisio, C; Ruaro, R

    1996-12-31

    Air quality control by a system of monitoring station is indispensable for the environmental protection. Moreover, a monitoring network have not to be only a mere data collection a good air quality control is possible only if the network management allows to prevent unacceptable pollutants level. In other terms, elaboration and interpretation data are fundamental in order to make monitoring system really able for regulations of corrective measures as, for example, the reduction of local emissions. The case of monitoring network run from the Industrial Society CIPA of Siracusa (Italy) is discussed. The management of the data obtained from a continuous survey allows to keep pollutants level below the current limits set down by the Italian law. Furthermore, elaboration of the data allows useful evaluations about atmospheric dispersion phenomena. (author)

  19. On the effectiveness of single and multiple base station sleep modes in cellular networks

    OpenAIRE

    Marsan, Marco Ajmone; Chiaraviglio, Luca; Ciullo, Delia; Meo, Michela

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study base station sleep modes that, by reducing power consumption in periods of low traffic, improve the energy efficiency of cellular access networks. We assume that when some base stations enter sleep mode, radio coverage and service provisioning are provided by the base stations that remain active, so as to guarantee that service is available over the whole area at all times. This may be an optimistic assumption in the case of the sparse base station layouts typical of ru...

  20. Low Cost Wireless Sensor Network for Continuous Bridge monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Bo; Kalis, A; Tragas, P

    2012-01-01

    Continuous monitoring wireless sensor networks (WSN) are considered as one of the most promising means to harvest information from large structures in order to assist in structural health monitoring and management. At the same time, continuous monitoring WSNs suffer from limited network lifetimes...

  1. Optimal base station placement for wireless sensor networks with successive interference cancellation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Zhang, Jianjun; Shi, Yi; Ding, Xu; Wei, Zhenchun

    2015-01-14

    We consider the base station placement problem for wireless sensor networks with successive interference cancellation (SIC) to improve throughput. We build a mathematical model for SIC. Although this model cannot be solved directly, it enables us to identify a necessary condition for SIC on distances from sensor nodes to the base station. Based on this relationship, we propose to divide the feasible region of the base station into small pieces and choose a point within each piece for base station placement. The point with the largest throughput is identified as the solution. The complexity of this algorithm is polynomial. Simulation results show that this algorithm can achieve about 25% improvement compared with the case that the base station is placed at the center of the network coverage area when using SIC.

  2. A super base station based centralized network architecture for 5G mobile communication systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manli Qian

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To meet the ever increasing mobile data traffic demand, the mobile operators are deploying a heterogeneous network with multiple access technologies and more and more base stations to increase the network coverage and capacity. However, the base stations are isolated from each other, so different types of radio resources and hardware resources cannot be shared and allocated within the overall network in a cooperative way. The mobile operators are thus facing increasing network operational expenses and a high system power consumption. In this paper, a centralized radio access network architecture, referred to as the super base station (super BS, is proposed, as a possible solution for an energy-efficient fifth-generation (5G mobile system. The super base station decouples the logical functions and physical entities of traditional base stations, so different types of system resources can be horizontally shared and statistically multiplexed among all the virtual base stations throughout the entire system. The system framework and main functionalities of the super BS are described. Some key technologies for system implementation, i.e., the resource pooling, real-time virtualization, adaptive hardware resource allocation are also highlighted.

  3. The capacity of radar, crowdsourced personal weather stations and commercial microwave links to monitor small scale urban rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uijlenhoet, R.; de Vos, L. W.; Leijnse, H.; Overeem, A.; Raupach, T. H.; Berne, A.

    2017-12-01

    For the purpose of urban rainfall monitoring high resolution rainfall measurements are desirable. Typically C-band radar can provide rainfall intensities at km grid cells every 5 minutes. Opportunistic sensing with commercial microwave links yields rainfall intensities over link paths within cities. Additionally, recent developments have made it possible to obtain large amounts of urban in situ measurements from weather amateurs in near real-time. With a known high resolution simulated rainfall event the accuracy of these three techniques is evaluated, taking into account their respective existing layouts and sampling methods. Under ideal measurement conditions, the weather station networks proves to be most promising. For accurate estimation with radar, an appropriate choice for Z-R relationship is vital. Though both the microwave links and the weather station networks are quite dense, both techniques will underestimate rainfall if not at least one link path / station captures the high intensity rainfall peak. The accuracy of each technique improves when considering rainfall at larger scales, especially by increasing time intervals, with the steepest improvements found in microwave links.

  4. Environmental radiation monitoring data for Point Lepreau Generating Station, 1990. Annual publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, J K

    1991-01-01

    Annual report presenting a compilation of the 1990 environmental radiation monitoring program data from samples collected around the Point Lepreau Nuclear Generating Station (PLNGS) and at reference stations remote from PLNGS. About 1,500 analyses were made on 1,100 samples to monitor environmental radiation, including air particulates, airborne water vapour, carbon dioxide in air, sea water, well water, milk, beach sediments, clams, fish, lobster, dulse, crabs, scallops, periwinkles, sea plants and lichen. Background radiation is measured by thermoluminescence dosimetry. Radon is not assessed.

  5. Application of SNODAS and hydrologic models to enhance entropy-based snow monitoring network design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keum, Jongho; Coulibaly, Paulin; Razavi, Tara; Tapsoba, Dominique; Gobena, Adam; Weber, Frank; Pietroniro, Alain

    2018-06-01

    Snow has a unique characteristic in the water cycle, that is, snow falls during the entire winter season, but the discharge from snowmelt is typically delayed until the melting period and occurs in a relatively short period. Therefore, reliable observations from an optimal snow monitoring network are necessary for an efficient management of snowmelt water for flood prevention and hydropower generation. The Dual Entropy and Multiobjective Optimization is applied to design snow monitoring networks in La Grande River Basin in Québec and Columbia River Basin in British Columbia. While the networks are optimized to have the maximum amount of information with minimum redundancy based on entropy concepts, this study extends the traditional entropy applications to the hydrometric network design by introducing several improvements. First, several data quantization cases and their effects on the snow network design problems were explored. Second, the applicability the Snow Data Assimilation System (SNODAS) products as synthetic datasets of potential stations was demonstrated in the design of the snow monitoring network of the Columbia River Basin. Third, beyond finding the Pareto-optimal networks from the entropy with multi-objective optimization, the networks obtained for La Grande River Basin were further evaluated by applying three hydrologic models. The calibrated hydrologic models simulated discharges using the updated snow water equivalent data from the Pareto-optimal networks. Then, the model performances for high flows were compared to determine the best optimal network for enhanced spring runoff forecasting.

  6. Dynamic safety assessment of natural gas stations using Bayesian network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zarei, Esmaeil; Azadeh, Ali; Khakzad Rostami, N.; Mirzaei Aliabadi, Mostafa; Mohammadfam, Iraj

    2017-01-01

    Pipelines are one of the most popular and effective ways of transporting hazardous materials, especially natural gas. However, the rapid development of gas pipelines and stations in urban areas has introduced a serious threat to public safety and assets. Although different methods have been

  7. The status and prospective of environmental radiation monitoring stations in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kheliewi, Abdullah S.; Holzheimer, Clous

    2014-09-01

    The use of nuclear technology requires an environmental monitoring program to ensure the safety of the environment, and to protect people from the hazards of radioactive materials, and nuclear accidents. Nuclear accidents are unique, for they incur effects that surpass international frontiers, and can even have a long lasting impact on Earth. Such was the case of the Chernobyl accident in the Ukraine on April 6, 1986. For that purpose, international and national efforts come together to observe for any nuclear or radioactive accident. Many states, including Saudi Arabia which oversees the operation of the National Radiation, Environmental and Early Monitoring Stations, The Radiation Monitoring Stations(RMS's) are currently scattered across 35 cities in the country,. These locations are evaluated based on various technological criteria such as border cities, cities of high population density, wind direction, etc. For new nuclear power plants hovering around, it is strongly recommended to increase the number of radiation monitoring stations to warn against any threat that may arise from a nuclear leak or accident and to improve the performance of the existing RMS's. SARA (Spectroscopic Monitoring Station for air) should be implemented due to the high sensitivity to artificial radiation, automatic isotope identification, free of maintenance, and fully independent due to solar power supply (incl. battery backup) and wireless communication (GPRS).

  8. The status and prospective of environmental radiation monitoring stations in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kheliewi, Abdullah S.; Holzheimer, Clous

    2014-01-01

    The use of nuclear technology requires an environmental monitoring program to ensure the safety of the environment, and to protect people from the hazards of radioactive materials, and nuclear accidents. Nuclear accidents are unique, for they incur effects that surpass international frontiers, and can even have a long lasting impact on Earth. Such was the case of the Chernobyl accident in the Ukraine on April 6, 1986. For that purpose, international and national efforts come together to observe for any nuclear or radioactive accident. Many states, including Saudi Arabia which oversees the operation of the National Radiation, Environmental and Early Monitoring Stations, The Radiation Monitoring Stations(RMS’s) are currently scattered across 35 cities in the country,. These locations are evaluated based on various technological criteria such as border cities, cities of high population density, wind direction, etc. For new nuclear power plants hovering around, it is strongly recommended to increase the number of radiation monitoring stations to warn against any threat that may arise from a nuclear leak or accident and to improve the performance of the existing RMS’s. SARA (Spectroscopic Monitoring Station for air) should be implemented due to the high sensitivity to artificial radiation, automatic isotope identification, free of maintenance, and fully independent due to solar power supply (incl. battery backup) and wireless communication (GPRS)

  9. The status and prospective of environmental radiation monitoring stations in Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Kheliewi, Abdullah S. [National Center for Radiation Protection, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, 11442 Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Holzheimer, Clous [ENVINET GmbH, Environmental Radiation Detection, Hans-Pinsel-Straße 4, 85540 Haar (Munich) (Germany)

    2014-09-30

    The use of nuclear technology requires an environmental monitoring program to ensure the safety of the environment, and to protect people from the hazards of radioactive materials, and nuclear accidents. Nuclear accidents are unique, for they incur effects that surpass international frontiers, and can even have a long lasting impact on Earth. Such was the case of the Chernobyl accident in the Ukraine on April 6, 1986. For that purpose, international and national efforts come together to observe for any nuclear or radioactive accident. Many states, including Saudi Arabia which oversees the operation of the National Radiation, Environmental and Early Monitoring Stations, The Radiation Monitoring Stations(RMS’s) are currently scattered across 35 cities in the country,. These locations are evaluated based on various technological criteria such as border cities, cities of high population density, wind direction, etc. For new nuclear power plants hovering around, it is strongly recommended to increase the number of radiation monitoring stations to warn against any threat that may arise from a nuclear leak or accident and to improve the performance of the existing RMS’s. SARA (Spectroscopic Monitoring Station for air) should be implemented due to the high sensitivity to artificial radiation, automatic isotope identification, free of maintenance, and fully independent due to solar power supply (incl. battery backup) and wireless communication (GPRS)

  10. Monitoring and managing component fatigue at Point Lepreau Generating Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, G.L.; Yetisir, M.; Scovil, A.; Slade, J.

    2008-01-01

    Many CANDU plants are now approaching the end of their design lives and are being considered for extended operation beyond their design life. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) has asked utilities to address component fatigue issues in plant life extension (PLEX) applications. In particular, environmental effects on fatigue was identified as an issue that needs to be addressed, similar to being addressed for license renewal for U.S. nuclear power plants. To address CNSC concerns, the CANDU Owners Group (COG) has initiated a program to help utilities develop component fatigue management programs for PLEX operation. A summary of a pilot study that was conducted at the Point Lepreau Generating Station (PLGS) is provided below: A plant-specific Recommendation Study provided a comprehensive review of the existing plant-specific systems, cycle counting procedures, and other fatigue-related requirements, and made some general recommendations on how best to implement a fatigue management system for PLEX. The plant-specific study determined that only 10 to 15% of the design transients have been used after 25 effective full power years (EFPY) of operation. Hence, a significant amount of original design margin for fatigue usage margin remains available for PLEX operation. Environmental fatigue considerations in heavy water (D 2 O) were included in the plant-specific assessment. Only warm-up transients were assessed to have dissolved oxygen concentrations that can result in a significant environmental effect for the ferritic steels used in the CANDU primary systems. Due to the low accumulation of transients and the absence of known thermal stratification mechanisms, thermal fatigue is not as significant an issue in CANDU plants as in pressurized water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) plants. The needs for implementing a comprehensive Fatigue Management Program for PLGS to satisfy PLEX requirements were defined, and specific direction and strategy for

  11. GuMNet - Guadarrama Monitoring Network initiative (Madrid,Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santolaria-Canales, Edmundo

    2017-04-01

    The Guadarrama Monitoring Network initiative (GuMNet) is an observational infrastructure focused on monitoring the state of the atmosphere, surface and subsurface in the Sierra de Guadarrama, 50 km NW of the city of Madrid. The network is composed of 10 automatic real time weather stations ranging from low altitude (ca. 900 m.a.s.l) to high mountain areas (ca. 2400 m.a.s.l). The GuMNet infrastructure consists in 10 real time automatic weather stations with instrumentation for observing the state of the atmosphere, surface and the subsurface at the Sierra de Guadarrama, just 50 km north-northwest of the city of Madrid. GuMNet lays the foundations of a research network on weather, soil thermodynamics, boundary layer physics, climate and ecosystem oriented impacts, air pollutions, etc. in the Sierra de Guadarrama. GuMNet represents a first step to provide a unique observational network in an environment of high protection to be used as a laboratory serving a wide range of scientific and educational interests. High altitude sites are focused on periglacial areas and lower altitude sites have emphasis on pastures. One of the low altitude sites is equipped with a 10 m high anemometric tower with a 3D sonic anemometer at the top jointly with a CO2/H2O analyzer that will allow sampling of wind profiles and H2O and CO2 eddy covariance fluxes, important for soil respiration and CO2 and water vapor exchange. A portable station has also a 3D sonic anemometer with CO2/H2O analyzer, this 4 meters-high portable tower is designed for comparison with other soil terrain fluxes. The network is connected via general packet radio service (GPRS) to the central lab in the Campus of Excellence of Moncloa and a management software has been developed to handle the operation of the infrastructure. The deployment of instrumentation and connection of sites to the network was finished in 2016. GuMNet is currently in the process of becoming operational. Conceptually, GuMNet intends to convert a

  12. Optimization of municipal pressure pumping station layout and sewage pipe network design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jiandong; Cheng, Jilin; Gong, Yi

    2018-03-01

    Accelerated urbanization places extraordinary demands on sewer networks; thus optimization research to improve the design of these systems has practical significance. In this article, a subsystem nonlinear programming model is developed to optimize pumping station layout and sewage pipe network design. The subsystem model is expanded into a large-scale complex nonlinear programming system model to find the minimum total annual cost of the pumping station and network of all pipe segments. A comparative analysis is conducted using the sewage network in Taizhou City, China, as an example. The proposed method demonstrated that significant cost savings could have been realized if the studied system had been optimized using the techniques described in this article. Therefore, the method has practical value for optimizing urban sewage projects and provides a reference for theoretical research on optimization of urban drainage pumping station layouts.

  13. Event localization in underwater wireless sensor networks using Monitoring Courses

    KAUST Repository

    Debont, Matthew John Robert; Jamshaid, Kamran; Shihada, Basem; Ho, Pin-Han

    2012-01-01

    We propose m-courses (Monitoring Courses), a novel solution to localize events in an underwater wireless sensor network. These networks consists of surface gateways and relay nodes. GPS can localize the position of surface gateways which can

  14. A High-Resolution Sensor Network for Monitoring Glacier Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, S.; Murray, T.; O'Farrell, T.; Rutt, I. C.; Loskot, P.; Martin, I.; Selmes, N.; Aspey, R.; James, T.; Bevan, S. L.; Baugé, T.

    2013-12-01

    Changes in Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets due to ice flow/ice-berg calving are a major uncertainty affecting sea-level rise forecasts. Latterly GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) have been employed extensively to monitor such glacier dynamics. Until recently however, the favoured methodology has been to deploy sensors onto the glacier surface, collect data for a period of time, then retrieve and download the sensors. This approach works well in less dynamic environments where the risk of sensor loss is low. In more extreme environments e.g. approaching the glacial calving front, the risk of sensor loss and hence data loss increases dramatically. In order to provide glaciologists with new insights into flow dynamics and calving processes we have developed a novel sensor network to increase the robustness of data capture. We present details of the technological requirements for an in-situ Zigbee wireless streaming network infrastructure supporting instantaneous data acquisition from high resolution GNSS sensors thereby increasing data capture robustness. The data obtained offers new opportunities to investigate the interdependence of mass flow, uplift, velocity and geometry and the network architecture has been specifically designed for deployment by helicopter close to the calving front to yield unprecedented detailed information. Following successful field trials of a pilot three node network during 2012, a larger 20 node network was deployed on the fast-flowing Helheim glacier, south-east Greenland over the summer months of 2013. The utilisation of dual wireless transceivers in each glacier node, multiple frequencies and four ';collector' stations located on the valley sides creates overlapping networks providing enhanced capacity, diversity and redundancy of data 'back-haul', even close to ';floor' RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indication) levels around -100 dBm. Data loss through radio packet collisions within sub-networks are avoided through the

  15. Probabilistic Harmonic Calculation in Distribution Networks with Electric Vehicle Charging Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxue Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Integrating EV charging station into power grid will bring impacts on power system, among which the most significant one is the harmonic pollution on distribution networks. Due to the uncertainty of the EV charging process, the harmonic currents brought by EV charging stations have a random nature. This paper proposed a mathematical simulation method for studying the working status of charging stations, which considers influencing factors including random leaving factor, electricity price, and waiting time. Based on the proposed simulation method, the probability distribution of the harmonic currents of EV charging stations is obtained and used in the calculation of the probability harmonic power flow. Then the impacts of EVs and EV charging stations on distribution networks can be analyzed. In the case study, the proposed simulation and analysis method is implemented on the IEEE-34 distribution network. The influences of EV arrival rates, the penetration rate, and the accessing location of EV charging station are also investigated. Results show that this research has good potential in guiding the planning and construction of charging station.

  16. Helicopter Rotor Blade Monitoring using Autonomous Wireless Sensor Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez Ramirez, Andrea; Loendersloot, Richard; Tinga, Tiedo; Basu, B.

    2013-01-01

    The advancement on Wireless Sensor Networks for vibration monitoring presents important possibilities for helicopter rotor health and usage monitoring. While main rotor blades account for the main source of lift for helicopters, rotor induced vibration establishes an important source for

  17. Air Quality System (AQS) Monitoring Network, EPA OAR OAQPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains points which depict air quality monitors within EPA's Air Quality System (AQS) monitoring network. This dataset is updated weekly to...

  18. Designing optimal greenhouse gas monitoring networks for Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziehn, T.; Law, R. M.; Rayner, P. J.; Roff, G.

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric transport inversion is commonly used to infer greenhouse gas (GHG) flux estimates from concentration measurements. The optimal location of ground-based observing stations that supply these measurements can be determined by network design. Here, we use a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (LPDM) in reverse mode together with a Bayesian inverse modelling framework to derive optimal GHG observing networks for Australia. This extends the network design for carbon dioxide (CO2) performed by Ziehn et al. (2014) to also minimise the uncertainty on the flux estimates for methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), both individually and in a combined network using multiple objectives. Optimal networks are generated by adding up to five new stations to the base network, which is defined as two existing stations, Cape Grim and Gunn Point, in southern and northern Australia respectively. The individual networks for CO2, CH4 and N2O and the combined observing network show large similarities because the flux uncertainties for each GHG are dominated by regions of biologically productive land. There is little penalty, in terms of flux uncertainty reduction, for the combined network compared to individually designed networks. The location of the stations in the combined network is sensitive to variations in the assumed data uncertainty across locations. A simple assessment of economic costs has been included in our network design approach, considering both establishment and maintenance costs. Our results suggest that, while site logistics change the optimal network, there is only a small impact on the flux uncertainty reductions achieved with increasing network size.

  19. Technological and operational structure of the National Automatic Network for Environmental Radiological Monitoring (RENAMORA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez G, E.; Lopez G, M.; Aguirre G, J.; Fabian O, R.; Hernandez A, Y.

    2015-09-01

    The Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (CNSNS) in Mexico is a decentralized body, under the Secretaria de Energia whose main mission is to ensure that activities involving nuclear and radioactive materials as well as ionizing radiation sources are carried out with maximum security, considering the current technological developments. In order to monitor the levels of environmental radiation to which the population is exposed, the CNSNS has established a series of radiological monitoring programs that allow characterize the environmental radiation levels in each zone or region in the country; to identify the occurrence of natural or artificial radiological events, such as nuclear tests and accidents in radioactive or nuclear facilities. The National Automatic Network for Environmental Radiological Monitoring (RENAMORA) project was initiated with the support of the IAEA through MEX9/049 project and its purpose is to have a network of instruments that automatically and in real time, transmit information of the gamma radiological environmental status of the national territory and changes occurring in it. This network provides data such as the speed of ambient dose equivalent, temperature and humidity in different regions of the country. The network is composed of 92 stations that are distributed throughout the national territory. The structure of the stations has evolved since its inception, now allowing detection tasks, data transmission and managing them remotely from the main server, which is located in the CNSNS, which is performed a statistical dose for each monitoring station. Each monitoring station is formed in its current structure by a probe detection of gamma radiation, a communication module and associated electronics, a mini Web server DataGATE, a cellular modem and an interface converter. (Author)

  20. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN OF MONITORING AND CONTROL SUBSYSTEM FOR GNSS GROUND STATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongkyun Jeong

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS becomes more important and is applied to various systems. Recently, the Galileo navigation system is being developed in Europe. Also, other countries like China, Japan and India are developing the global/regional navigation satellite system. As various global/regional navigation satellite systems are used, the navigation ground system gets more important for using the navigation system reasonably and efficiently. According to this trend, the technology of GNSS Ground Station (GGS is developing in many fields. The one of purposes for this study is to develop the high precision receiver for GNSS sensor station and to provide ground infrastructure for better performance services on navigation system. In this study, we consider the configuration of GNSS Ground Station and analyze function of Monitoring and Control subsystem which is a part of GNSS Ground Station. We propose Monitoring and Control subsystem which contains the navigation software for GNSS Ground System to monitor and control equipments in GNSS Ground Station, to spread the applied field of navigation system, and to provide improved navigation information to user.

  1. Establishment of a hydrological monitoring network in a tropical African catchment: An integrated participatory approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomani, M. C.; Dietrich, O.; Lischeid, G.; Mahoo, H.; Mahay, F.; Mbilinyi, B.; Sarmett, J.

    Sound decision making for water resources management has to be based on good knowledge of the dominant hydrological processes of a catchment. This information can only be obtained through establishing suitable hydrological monitoring networks. Research catchments are typically established without involving the key stakeholders, which results in instruments being installed at inappropriate places as well as at high risk of theft and vandalism. This paper presents an integrated participatory approach for establishing a hydrological monitoring network. We propose a framework with six steps beginning with (i) inception of idea; (ii) stakeholder identification; (iii) defining the scope of the network; (iv) installation; (v) monitoring; and (vi) feedback mechanism integrated within the participatory framework. The approach is illustrated using an example of the Ngerengere catchment in Tanzania. In applying the approach, the concept of establishing the Ngerengere catchment monitoring network was initiated in 2008 within the Resilient Agro-landscapes to Climate Change in Tanzania (ReACCT) research program. The main stakeholders included: local communities; Sokoine University of Agriculture; Wami Ruvu Basin Water Office and the ReACCT Research team. The scope of the network was based on expert experience in similar projects and lessons learnt from literature review of similar projects from elsewhere integrated with local expert knowledge. The installations involved reconnaissance surveys, detailed surveys, and expert consultations to identify best sites. First, a Digital Elevation Model, land use, and soil maps were used to identify potential monitoring sites. Local and expert knowledge was collected on flow regimes, indicators of shallow groundwater plant species, precipitation pattern, vegetation, and soil types. This information was integrated and used to select sites for installation of an automatic weather station, automatic rain gauges, river flow gauging stations

  2. The computerized management for individual monitoring data in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Shumou; Yang Xiaochen

    1995-01-01

    The authors report the individual monitoring data management system (IDOSE) at Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station. The components of the individual monitoring system, the design requirements of IDOSE, the characteristics and application of this computerized management system are mainly presented. Its application shows that IDOSE meets the requirements of the concerning occupational standards of the state and matches with the requirements of IAEA/ISOE

  3. Operational monitoring of acoustic sensor networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boltenkov V.A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic sensor networks (ASN are widely used to monitor water leaks in the power generating systems. Since the ASN are used in harsh climatic conditions the failures of microphone elements of ASN are inevitable. That's why the failure detection of ASN elements is a problem of current interest. Two techniques of operational monitoring ASN are developed. Both of them are based on the placement of the test sound source within a network. The signal processing for ASN sensors had to detect the failed element. Techniques are based time difference of arrival (TDOA estimating at the each pair of ASN elements. TDOA estimates as argmaximum of cross-correlation function (CCF for signals on each microphone sensors pair. The M-sequence phase-shift keyed signal is applied as a test acoustic signal to ensure high accuracy of the CCF maximum estimation at low signal/noise ratio (SNR. The first technique is based on the isolation principle for TDOA sum at three points. It require to locate the test sound source in the far field. This is not always possible due to technological reasons. For the second proposed technique test sound source can be located near the ASN. It is based on a system of hyperbolic equations solving for each of the four elements of the ASN. Both techniques has been tested in the computer imitation experiment. It was found that for the SNR to –5 dB both techniques show unmistakable indicators of control quality. The second method requires significantly more time control.

  4. Technical memorandum - Aamjiwnaang First Nation community air monitoring station - results for September 2008 to August 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-01-15

    In 2008, the provincial and federal governments, working with the Aamjiwnaang First Nation, established the Aamjiwnaang First Nation community air monitoring station. The station's purpose was to monitor a series of contaminants produced by local industry. In addition, through the collection and analysis of air quality information, the station provided useful input to air quality studies and community health assessments. This report presents the results from analysis of air quality information between September 1, 2008 and August 31, 2009. Overall the report finds that the local air quality is similar to that in surrounding communities during this period and there were no exceedances of any ministry standard or guideline recorded concerning the expectations for particulate matter and ozone. It will be possible in the future to use this air quality information for comparison and correlation with known point sources or modeled results.

  5. GERMON. Global Environmental Radiation Monitoring Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Between 15-18 December 1987, a meeting of experts of WHO/UNEP met at Le Vesinet, France, to develop the basic principles of a global environmental radiation monitoring network (GERMON) which would have the function of reporting on a regular basis environmental radiation levels, and be positioned to provide rapid and reliable radiation measurements in the event of a major radiation release. To date, some 58 countries have indicated their willingness to become part of GERMON. About 40 of these have technical staff and equipment to meet the minimum requirements for joining the network, and about 30 have designated appropriate organizations within their country to serve as national Liaison Institutions for GERMON. Sixteen countries are now providing data on a regular basis to the CCC at SCPRI in Le Vesinet, France. Thirty-two countries responded to the request of WHO for readiness to take part in a IAEA radiation emergency exercise. The present meeting has been held in Montgomery, Alabama, USA at the National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory between 27 April 1992 and 30 April 1992, with the purpose of reviewing GERMON. One important topic considered was the implementation of GERMON in the Americas. Particular attention was given to the need for better coordination with IAEA in responding to the Convention on Early Notification, to the role of the CCC, to forms of data transmission, etc

  6. Lambda Station: Alternate network path forwarding for production SciDAC applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoriev, Maxim; Bobyshev, Andrey; Crawford, Matt; DeMar, Phil; Grigaliunas, Vyto; Moibenko, Alexander; Petravick, Don; Newman, Harvey; Steenberg, Conrad; Thomas, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The LHC era will start very soon, creating immense data volumes capable of demanding allocation of an entire network circuit for task-driven applications. Circuit-based alternate network paths are one solution to meeting the LHC high bandwidth network requirements. The Lambda Station project is aimed at addressing growing requirements for dynamic allocation of alternate network paths. Lambda Station facilitates the rerouting of designated traffic through site LAN infrastructure onto so-called 'high-impact' wide-area networks. The prototype Lambda Station developed with Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) approach in mind will be presented. Lambda Station has been successfully integrated into the production version of the Storage Resource Manager (SRM), and deployed at US CMS Tier1 center at Fermilab, as well as at US-CMS Tier-2 site at Caltech. This paper will discuss experiences using the prototype system with production SciDAC applications for data movement between Fermilab and Caltech. The architecture and design principles of the production version Lambda Station software, currently being implemented as Java based web services, will also be presented in this paper

  7. 40 CFR 52.430 - Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program. 52.430 Section 52.430 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Natural Resources & Environmental Control submitted a plan for the establishment and implementation of a...

  8. Radioactivity in the vicinity of Sizewell nuclear power station: marine environmental monitoring, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, G.J.

    1984-01-01

    Regular monitoring of radioactivity in the aquatic environment of the British Isles has continued. A report presents the results of this program in relation to the Sizewell nuclear power station for 1983, so as to supplement the most recently available full report which is for 1982. (author)

  9. 40 CFR 52.480 - Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of Columbia's Department of Consumer and Regulatory Affairs submitted a plan for the establishment... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program. 52.480 Section 52.480 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...

  10. Design and Implementation of the National Seismic Monitoring Network in the Kingdom of Bhutan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmi, S.; Inoue, H.; Chophel, J.; Pelgay, P.; Drukpa, D.

    2017-12-01

    Bhutan-Himalayan district is located along the plate collision zone between Indian and Eurasian plates, which is one of the most seismically active region in the world. Recent earthquakes such as M7.8 Gorkha Nepal earthquake in April 25, 2015 and M6.7 Imphal, India earthquake in January 3, 2016 are examples of felt earthquakes in Bhutan. However, there is no permanent seismic monitoring system ever established in Bhutan, whose territory is in the center of the Bhutan-Himalayan region. We started establishing permanent seismic monitoring network of minimum requirements and intensity meter network over the nation. The former is composed of six (6) observation stations in Bhutan with short period weak motion and strong motion seismometers as well as three (3) broad-band seismometers, and the latter is composed of twenty intensity meters located in every provincial government office. Obtained data are transmitted to the central processing system in the DGM office in Thimphu in real time. In this project, DGM will construct seismic vault with their own budget which is approved as the World Bank project, and Japan team assists the DGM for site survey of observation site, designing the observation vault, and designing the data telemetry system as well as providing instruments for the observation such as seismometers and digitizers. We already started the operation of the six (6) weak motion stations as well as twenty (20) intensity meter stations. Additionally, the RIMES (Regional Integrated Multi-hazard Early Warning System for Africa and Asia) is also providing eight (8) weak motion stations and we are keeping close communication to operate them as one single seismic monitoring network composed of fourteen (14) stations. This network will be definitely utilized for not only for seismic disaster mitigation of the country but also for studying the seismotectonics in the Bhutan-Himalayan region which is not yet precisely revealed due to the lack of observation data in the

  11. Automated high-volume aerosol sampling station for environmental radiation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toivonen, H.; Honkamaa, T.; Ilander, T.; Leppaenen, A.; Nikkinen, M.; Poellaenen, R.; Ylaetalo, S.

    1998-07-01

    An automated high-volume aerosol sampling station, known as CINDERELLA.STUK, for environmental radiation monitoring has been developed by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), Finland. The sample is collected on a glass fibre filter (attached into a cassette), the airflow through the filter is 800 m 3 /h at maximum. During the sampling, the filter is continuously monitored with Na(I) scintillation detectors. After the sampling, the large filter is automatically cut into 15 pieces that form a small sample and after ageing, the pile of filter pieces is moved onto an HPGe detector. These actions are performed automatically by a robot. The system is operated at a duty cycle of 1 d sampling, 1 d decay and 1 d counting. Minimum detectable concentrations of radionuclides in air are typically 1Ae10 x 10 -6 Bq/m 3 . The station is equipped with various sensors to reveal unauthorized admittance. These sensors can be monitored remotely in real time via Internet or telephone lines. The processes and operation of the station are monitored and partly controlled by computer. The present approach fulfils the requirements of CTBTO for aerosol monitoring. The concept suits well for nuclear material safeguards, too

  12. Retrofitting of an improved stack monitoring system in Rajasthan atomic power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natarajan, K.

    1985-01-01

    The problems encountered in the measurement of inert gas activities, iodine activity and tritium activity released through the stack in RAPS are described and the considerations for the development of improved instruments outlined. The new approach provides for better accuracy of measurement of all the relevant radioactive parameters in the stack at one centralised place. The construction work in the station for the newly conceived stack activity monitoring system is completed and the earlier equipment used is installed in the room temporarily. Development prototypes of stack inert gas monitoring system and iodine monitoring system as described in Section 5 are made and evaluated. Fabrication of new equipment for retrofitting in RAPS is in progress and these will replace the equipment temporarily installed in the station

  13. Optimizing Groundwater Monitoring Networks Using Integrated Statistical and Geostatistical Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Krishna Thakur

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to investigate new approaches using methods based on statistics and geo-statistics for spatio-temporal optimization of groundwater monitoring networks. The formulated and integrated methods were tested with the groundwater quality data set of Bitterfeld/Wolfen, Germany. Spatially, the monitoring network was optimized using geo-statistical methods. Temporal optimization of the monitoring network was carried out using Sen’s method (1968. For geostatistical network optimization, a geostatistical spatio-temporal algorithm was used to identify redundant wells in 2- and 2.5-D Quaternary and Tertiary aquifers. Influences of interpolation block width, dimension, contaminant association, groundwater flow direction and aquifer homogeneity on statistical and geostatistical methods for monitoring network optimization were analysed. The integrated approach shows 37% and 28% redundancies in the monitoring network in Quaternary aquifer and Tertiary aquifer respectively. The geostatistical method also recommends 41 and 22 new monitoring wells in the Quaternary and Tertiary aquifers respectively. In temporal optimization, an overall optimized sampling interval was recommended in terms of lower quartile (238 days, median quartile (317 days and upper quartile (401 days in the research area of Bitterfeld/Wolfen. Demonstrated methods for improving groundwater monitoring network can be used in real monitoring network optimization with due consideration given to influencing factors.

  14. Initial Results of a New Mobile Spectrum Occupancy Monitoring Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bloem, J.W.H.; Schiphorst, Roelof; Slump, Cornelis H.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present results of the new monitoring network for spectrum governance. The network is based on the RFeye system of CRFS where the data is collected employing mobile monitoring vehicles. The measurement data, obtained from a frequency sweep between 10 MHz and 6 GHz, is further

  15. OGS improvements in 2012 in running the North-eastern Italy Seismic Network: the Ferrara VBB borehole seismic station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesaresi, D.; Romanelli, M.; Barnaba, C.; Bragato, P. L.; Durì, G.

    2014-07-01

    The Centro di Ricerche Sismologiche (CRS, Seismological Research Centre) of the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS, Italian National Institute for Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics) in Udine (Italy) after the strong earthquake of magnitude M=6.4 occurred in 1976 in the Italian Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, started to operate the North-eastern Italy Seismic Network: it currently consists of 17 very sensitive broad band and 18 simpler short period seismic stations, all telemetered to and acquired in real time at the OGS-CRS data centre in Udine. Real time data exchange agreements in place with other Italian, Slovenian, Austrian and Swiss seismological institutes lead to a total number of about 100 seismic stations acquired in real time, which makes the OGS the reference institute for seismic monitoring of North-eastern Italy. The south-western edge of the OGS seismic network (Fig. 1) stands on the Po alluvial basin: earthquake localization and characterization in this area is affected by the presence of soft alluvial deposits. OGS ha already experience in running a local seismic network in high noise conditions making use of borehole installations in the case of the micro-seismicity monitoring of a local gas storage site for a private company. Following the ML = 5.9 earthquake that struck the Emilia region around Ferrara in Northern Italy on 20 May 2012 at 02:03:53 UTC, a cooperation of Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, OGS, the Comune di Ferrara and the University of Ferrara lead to the reinstallation of a previously existing very broad band (VBB) borehole seismic station in Ferrara. The aim of the OGS intervention was on one hand to extend its real time seismic monitoring capabilities toward South-West, including Ferrara and its surroundings, and on the other hand to evaluate the seismic response at the site. We will describe improvements in running the North-eastern Italy Seismic Network, including details of

  16. Network monitoring module of BES III system environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Liwen; Zhao Jingwei; Zhang Bingyun

    2002-01-01

    In order to meet the needs of the complicated network architecture of BES III (Beijing Spectrometer III) and make sure normal online running in the future, it is necessary to develop a multi-platforms Network Monitoring Tool which can help system administrator monitor and manage BES III network. The author provides a module that can monitor not only the traffic of switch-router's ports but also the performance status of key devices in the network environment, meanwhile it can also give warning to manager and submit the related reports. the great sense, the theory basis, the implementing method and the graph in formation of this tool will be discussed

  17. Channel coding in the space station data system network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, T.

    1982-01-01

    A detailed discussion of the use of channel coding for error correction, privacy/secrecy, channel separation, and synchronization is presented. Channel coding, in one form or another, is an established and common element in data systems. No analysis and design of a major new system would fail to consider ways in which channel coding could make the system more effective. The presence of channel coding on TDRS, Shuttle, the Advanced Communication Technology Satellite Program system, the JSC-proposed Space Operations Center, and the proposed 30/20 GHz Satellite Communication System strongly support the requirement for the utilization of coding for the communications channel. The designers of the space station data system have to consider the use of channel coding.

  18. Operational radio interferometry observation network (ORION) mobile VLBI station. [for NASA Crustal Dynamics Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renzetti, N. A.; Vegos, C. J.; Parks, G. S.; Sniffin, R. W.; Gannon, D. L.; Nishimura, H. G.; Clements, P. A.; Mckinney, R. P.; Menninger, F. J.; Vandenberg, N. R.

    1983-01-01

    The design and current status of the ORION mobile VLBI station is described. The station consists of a five-meter antenna, a receiving and recording system installed in a mobile antenna transporter, and an electronics transporter. The station is designed for field operation by a two-person crew at the rate of two sites per week. The various subsystems are described in detail, including the antenna, housing facilities for electronics and crew, microwave equipment, receiver, data acquisition subsystem, frequency and timing subsystem, phase calibration, monitoring and control, water vapor radiometer, and communications.

  19. Lunar Atmosphere Probe Station: A Proof-of-Concept Instrument Package for Monitoring the Lunar Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazio, J.; Jones, D. L.; MacDowall, R. J.; Stewart, K. P.; Burns, J. O.; Farrell, W. M.; Giersch, L.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Hicks, B. C.; Polisensky, E. J.; Hartman, J. M.; Nesnas, I.; Weiler, K.; Kasper, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    The lunar exosphere is the exemplar of a plasma near the surface of an airless body. Exposed to both the solar and interstellar radiation fields, the lunar exosphere is mostly ionized, and enduring questions regarding its properties include its density and vertical extent, the extent of contributions from volatile outgassing from the Moon, and its behavior over time, including response to the solar wind and modification by landers. Relative ionospheric measurements (riometry) are based on the simple physical principle that electromagnetic waves cannot propagate through a partially or fully ionized medium below the plasma frequency, and riometers have been deployed on the Earth in numerous remote and hostile environments. A multi-frequency riometer on the lunar surface would be able to monitor, *in situ*, the vertical extent of the lunar exosphere over time. We provide an update on a concept for a riometer implemented as a secondary science payload on future lunar landers, such as those recommended in the recent Planetary Sciences Decadal Survey report or commercial ventures. The instrument concept is simple, consisting of an antenna implemented as a metal deposited on polyimide film and receiver. We illustrate various deployment mechanisms and performance of a prototype in increasing lunar analog conditions. While the prime mission of such a riometer would be probing the lunar exosphere, our concept would also be capable to measuring the properties of dust impactors. The Lunar University Network for Astrophysical Research consortium is funded by the NASA Lunar Science Institute to investigate concepts for astrophysical observatories on the Moon. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA. Artist's impression of the Lunar Atmosphere Probe Station.

  20. Modeling and Simulating Passenger Behavior for a Station Closure in a Rail Transit Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Haodong; Han, Baoming; Li, Dewei; Wu, Jianjun; Sun, Huijun

    2016-01-01

    A station closure is an abnormal operational situation in which the entrances or exits of a rail transit station have to be closed for some time due to an unexpected incident. A novel approach is developed to estimate the impacts of the alternative station closure scenarios on both passenger behavioral choices at the individual level and passenger demand at the disaggregate level in a rail transit network. Therefore, the contributions of this study are two-fold: (1) A basic passenger behavior optimization model is mathematically constructed based on 0–1 integer programming to describe passengers’ responses to alternative origin station closure scenarios and destination station closure scenarios; this model also considers the availability of multi-mode transportation and the uncertain duration of the station closure; (2) An integrated solution algorithm based on the passenger simulation is developed to solve the proposed model and to estimate the effects of a station closure on passenger demand in a rail transit network. Furthermore, 13 groups of numerical experiments based on the Beijing rail transit network are performed as case studies with 2,074,267 records of smart card data. The comparisons of the model outputs and the manual survey show that the accuracy of our proposed behavior optimization model is approximately 80%. The results also show that our model can be used to capture the passenger behavior and to quantitatively estimate the effects of alternative closure scenarios on passenger flow demand for the rail transit network. Moreover, the closure duration and its overestimation greatly influence the individual behavioral choices of the affected passengers and the passenger demand. Furthermore, if the rail transit operator can more accurately estimate the closure duration (namely, as g approaches 1), the impact of the closure can be somewhat mitigated. PMID:27935963

  1. Modeling and Simulating Passenger Behavior for a Station Closure in a Rail Transit Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haodong Yin

    Full Text Available A station closure is an abnormal operational situation in which the entrances or exits of a rail transit station have to be closed for some time due to an unexpected incident. A novel approach is developed to estimate the impacts of the alternative station closure scenarios on both passenger behavioral choices at the individual level and passenger demand at the disaggregate level in a rail transit network. Therefore, the contributions of this study are two-fold: (1 A basic passenger behavior optimization model is mathematically constructed based on 0-1 integer programming to describe passengers' responses to alternative origin station closure scenarios and destination station closure scenarios; this model also considers the availability of multi-mode transportation and the uncertain duration of the station closure; (2 An integrated solution algorithm based on the passenger simulation is developed to solve the proposed model and to estimate the effects of a station closure on passenger demand in a rail transit network. Furthermore, 13 groups of numerical experiments based on the Beijing rail transit network are performed as case studies with 2,074,267 records of smart card data. The comparisons of the model outputs and the manual survey show that the accuracy of our proposed behavior optimization model is approximately 80%. The results also show that our model can be used to capture the passenger behavior and to quantitatively estimate the effects of alternative closure scenarios on passenger flow demand for the rail transit network. Moreover, the closure duration and its overestimation greatly influence the individual behavioral choices of the affected passengers and the passenger demand. Furthermore, if the rail transit operator can more accurately estimate the closure duration (namely, as g approaches 1, the impact of the closure can be somewhat mitigated.

  2. Modeling and Simulating Passenger Behavior for a Station Closure in a Rail Transit Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Haodong; Han, Baoming; Li, Dewei; Wu, Jianjun; Sun, Huijun

    2016-01-01

    A station closure is an abnormal operational situation in which the entrances or exits of a rail transit station have to be closed for some time due to an unexpected incident. A novel approach is developed to estimate the impacts of the alternative station closure scenarios on both passenger behavioral choices at the individual level and passenger demand at the disaggregate level in a rail transit network. Therefore, the contributions of this study are two-fold: (1) A basic passenger behavior optimization model is mathematically constructed based on 0-1 integer programming to describe passengers' responses to alternative origin station closure scenarios and destination station closure scenarios; this model also considers the availability of multi-mode transportation and the uncertain duration of the station closure; (2) An integrated solution algorithm based on the passenger simulation is developed to solve the proposed model and to estimate the effects of a station closure on passenger demand in a rail transit network. Furthermore, 13 groups of numerical experiments based on the Beijing rail transit network are performed as case studies with 2,074,267 records of smart card data. The comparisons of the model outputs and the manual survey show that the accuracy of our proposed behavior optimization model is approximately 80%. The results also show that our model can be used to capture the passenger behavior and to quantitatively estimate the effects of alternative closure scenarios on passenger flow demand for the rail transit network. Moreover, the closure duration and its overestimation greatly influence the individual behavioral choices of the affected passengers and the passenger demand. Furthermore, if the rail transit operator can more accurately estimate the closure duration (namely, as g approaches 1), the impact of the closure can be somewhat mitigated.

  3. Using stochastic activity networks to study the energy feasibility of automatic weather stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassano, Luca [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informatica e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano (Italy); Cesarini, Daniel [Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Pisa (Italy); Avvenuti, Marco [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell’Informazione, University of Pisa (Italy)

    2015-03-10

    Automatic Weather Stations (AWSs) are systems equipped with a number of environmental sensors and communication interfaces used to monitor harsh environments, such as glaciers and deserts. Designing such systems is challenging, since designers have to maximize the amount of sampled and transmitted data while considering the energy needs of the system that, in most cases, is powered by rechargeable batteries and exploits energy harvesting, e.g., solar cells and wind turbines. To support designers of AWSs in the definition of the software tasks and of the hardware configuration of the AWS we designed and implemented an energy-aware simulator of such systems. The simulator relies on the Stochastic Activity Networks (SANs) formalism and has been developed using the Möbius tool. In this paper we first show how we used the SAN formalism to model the various components of an AWS, we then report results from an experiment carried out to validate the simulator against a real-world AWS and we finally show some examples of usage of the proposed simulator.

  4. Wireless Sensor Networks for Long Distance Pipeline Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Augustine C. Azubogu; Victor E. Idigo; Schola U. Nnebe; Obinna S. Oguejiofor; Simon E.

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this seminal paper is to introduce the application of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) in long distance infrastructure monitoring (in particular in pipeline infrastructure monitoring) – one of the on-going research projects by the Wireless Communication Research Group at the department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka. The current sensor network architectures for monitoring long distance pipeline infrastructures are pr...

  5. Ensemble Entropy for Monitoring Network Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Alfonso

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Information-theory provides, among others, conceptual methods to quantify the amount of information contained in single random variables and methods to quantify the amount of information contained and shared among two or more variables. Although these concepts have been successfully applied in hydrology and other fields, the evaluation of these quantities is sensitive to different assumptions in the estimation of probabilities. An example is the histogram bin size used to estimate probabilities to calculate Information Theory quantities via frequency methods. The present research aims at introducing a method to take into consideration the uncertainty coming from these parameters in the evaluation of the North Sea’s water level network. The main idea is that the entropy of a random variable can be represented as a probability distribution of possible values, instead of entropy being a deterministic value. The method consists of solving multiple scenarios of Multi-Objective Optimization Problem in which information content is maximized and redundancy is minimized. Results include probabilistic analysis of the chosen parameters on the resulting family of Pareto fronts, providing additional criteria on the selection of the final set of monitoring points.

  6. Wireless sensor networks for structural health monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Jiannong

    2016-01-01

    This brief covers the emerging area of wireless sensor network (WSN)-based structural health monitoring (SHM) systems, and introduces the authors’ WSN-based platform called SenetSHM. It helps the reader differentiate specific requirements of SHM applications from other traditional WSN applications, and demonstrates how these requirements are addressed by using a series of systematic approaches. The brief serves as a practical guide, explaining both the state-of-the-art technologies in domain-specific applications of WSNs, as well as the methodologies used to address the specific requirements for a WSN application. In particular, the brief offers instruction for problem formulation and problem solving based on the authors’ own experiences implementing SenetSHM. Seven concise chapters cover the development of hardware and software design of SenetSHM, as well as in-field experiments conducted while testing the platform. The brief’s exploration of the SenetSHM platform is a valuable feature for civil engine...

  7. Progress and lessons learned from water-quality monitoring networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Donna N.; Ludtke, Amy S.

    2017-01-01

    Stream-quality monitoring networks in the United States were initiated and expanded after passage of successive federal water-pollution control laws from 1948 to 1972. The first networks addressed information gaps on the extent and severity of stream pollution and served as early warning systems for spills. From 1965 to 1972, monitoring networks expanded to evaluate compliance with stream standards, track emerging issues, and assess water-quality status and trends. After 1972, concerns arose regarding the ability of monitoring networks to determine if water quality was getting better or worse and why. As a result, monitoring networks adopted a hydrologic systems approach targeted to key water-quality issues, accounted for human and natural factors affecting water quality, innovated new statistical methods, and introduced geographic information systems and models that predict water quality at unmeasured locations. Despite improvements, national-scale monitoring networks have declined over time. Only about 1%, or 217, of more than 36,000 US Geological Survey monitoring sites sampled from 1975 to 2014 have been operated throughout the four decades since passage of the 1972 Clean Water Act. Efforts to sustain monitoring networks are important because these networks have collected information crucial to the description of water-quality trends over time and are providing information against which to evaluate future trends.

  8. Landslide Monitoring Network Establishment within Unified Datum and Stability Analysis in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengxiang Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A landslide monitoring network construction within unified datum which combined fiducial points, working reference points, and monitoring points was intensively studied in the Three Gorges Reservoir area. With special long and narrow geographical location in the area, designing and building monitoring network was vital to the realization of landslide monitoring. To build such a network with high precision, this paper mainly focused on the following four aspects: (1 method of using multiple GPS reference stations to build a unified datum network and subnet adjustment, (2 GPS data processing algorithm with millimeter level, (3 analysis of influence on the adjustment resulting from systematic error of time evolution datum from different GPS observations, and (4 establishment and stability analysis of unified datum. Then, using global test and trial-and-error method to analyze the datum based on the GPS observations (2008~2011 of landslide monitoring network in the area, we concluded that there were moved reference points during the three years of high water impoundment, and the horizontal displacement of moved reference points was more than 4 cm, even up to 79.4 cm. The displacement direction of unstable reference points was inspected with geographical environment at sites, which revealed congruency between them.

  9. Monitoring and studies of environmental cumulative dose of Guangdong Da Ya Bay nuclear-power station by thermoluminescent dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Yusong; Li Shili; Yang Lin; Feng Zhanglin; Kong Lingfeng; Yu Jinglan

    1999-01-01

    The author presents the environmental γ radiation routine monitoring by TLD in Guangdong Da Ya Bay Nuclear Power Station and its peripheral 50 km area, which has been put into commercial operation since 1994. The year's monitoring result indicates that there is no obvious change of the total environmental γ radiation in Da Ya Bay Nuclear Power Station and its peripheral 50 km area. But the influence of gas release γ radiation was monitored in 1995 at the monitoring points in the area of 0∼1 km from the nuclear power station

  10. Clustering and Flow Conservation Monitoring Tool for Software Defined Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Antonio Puente Fernández

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Prediction systems present some challenges on two fronts: the relation between video quality and observed session features and on the other hand, dynamics changes on the video quality. Software Defined Networks (SDN is a new concept of network architecture that provides the separation of control plane (controller and data plane (switches in network devices. Due to the existence of the southbound interface, it is possible to deploy monitoring tools to obtain the network status and retrieve a statistics collection. Therefore, achieving the most accurate statistics depends on a strategy of monitoring and information requests of network devices. In this paper, we propose an enhanced algorithm for requesting statistics to measure the traffic flow in SDN networks. Such an algorithm is based on grouping network switches in clusters focusing on their number of ports to apply different monitoring techniques. Such grouping occurs by avoiding monitoring queries in network switches with common characteristics and then, by omitting redundant information. In this way, the present proposal decreases the number of monitoring queries to switches, improving the network traffic and preventing the switching overload. We have tested our optimization in a video streaming simulation using different types of videos. The experiments and comparison with traditional monitoring techniques demonstrate the feasibility of our proposal maintaining similar values decreasing the number of queries to the switches.

  11. Clustering and Flow Conservation Monitoring Tool for Software Defined Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente Fernández, Jesús Antonio; García Villalba, Luis Javier; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    2018-04-03

    Prediction systems present some challenges on two fronts: the relation between video quality and observed session features and on the other hand, dynamics changes on the video quality. Software Defined Networks (SDN) is a new concept of network architecture that provides the separation of control plane (controller) and data plane (switches) in network devices. Due to the existence of the southbound interface, it is possible to deploy monitoring tools to obtain the network status and retrieve a statistics collection. Therefore, achieving the most accurate statistics depends on a strategy of monitoring and information requests of network devices. In this paper, we propose an enhanced algorithm for requesting statistics to measure the traffic flow in SDN networks. Such an algorithm is based on grouping network switches in clusters focusing on their number of ports to apply different monitoring techniques. Such grouping occurs by avoiding monitoring queries in network switches with common characteristics and then, by omitting redundant information. In this way, the present proposal decreases the number of monitoring queries to switches, improving the network traffic and preventing the switching overload. We have tested our optimization in a video streaming simulation using different types of videos. The experiments and comparison with traditional monitoring techniques demonstrate the feasibility of our proposal maintaining similar values decreasing the number of queries to the switches.

  12. Assessing and optimizing infra-sound networks to monitor volcanic eruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tailpied, Dorianne

    2016-01-01

    Understanding infra-sound signals is essential to monitor compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test ban Treaty, and also to demonstrate the potential of the global monitoring infra-sound network for civil and scientific applications. The main objective of this thesis is to develop a robust tool to estimate and optimize the performance of any infra-sound network to monitor explosive sources such as volcanic eruptions. Unlike previous studies, the developed method has the advantage to consider realistic atmospheric specifications along the propagation path, source frequency and noise levels at the stations. It allows to predict the attenuation and the minimum detectable source amplitude. By simulating the performances of any infra-sound networks, it is then possible to define the optimal configuration of the network to monitor a specific region, during a given period. When carefully adding a station to the existing network, performance can be improved by a factor of 2. However, it is not always possible to complete the network. A good knowledge of detection capabilities at large distances is thus essential. To provide a more realistic picture of the performance, we integrate the atmospheric longitudinal variability along the infra-sound propagation path in our simulations. This thesis also contributes in providing a confidence index taking into account the uncertainties related to propagation and atmospheric models. At high frequencies, the error can reach 40 dB. Volcanic eruptions are natural, powerful and valuable calibrating sources of infra-sound, worldwide detected. In this study, the well instrumented volcanoes Yasur, in Vanuatu, and Etna, in Italy, offer a unique opportunity to validate our attenuation model. In particular, accurate comparisons between near-field recordings and far-field detections of these volcanoes have helped to highlight the potential of our simulation tool to remotely monitor volcanoes. Such work could significantly help to prevent

  13. Towards a network of Urban Forest Eddy Covariance stations: a unique case study in Naples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidolotti, Gabriele; Pallozzi, Emanuele; Esposito, Raffaela; Mattioni, Michele; Calfapietra, Carlo

    2015-04-01

    Urban forests are by definition integrated in highly human-made areas, and interact with different components of our cities. Thanks to those interactions, urban forests provide to people and to the urban environment a number of ecosystem services, including the absorption of CO2 and air pollutants thus influencing the local air quality. Moreover, in urban areas a relevant role is played by the photochemical pollution which is strongly influenced by the interactions between volatile organic compounds (VOC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). In several cities, a high percentage of VOC is of biogenic origin mainly emitted from the urban trees. Despite their importance, experimental sites monitoring fluxes of trace gases fluxes in urban forest ecosystems are still scarce. Here we show the preliminary results of an innovative experimental site located in the Royal Park of Capodimonte within the city of Naples (40°51'N-14°15'E, 130 m above sea level). The site is mainly characterised by Quercus ilex with some patches of Pinus pinea and equipped with an eddy-covariance tower measuring the exchange of CO2, H2O, N2O, CH4, O3, PM, VOCs and NOx using state-of-the art instrumentations; it is running since the end of 2014 and it is part of the large infrastructural I-AMICA project. We suggest that the experience gained with research networks such as Fluxnet and ICOS should be duplicated for urban forests. This is crucial for carbon as there is now the ambition to include urban forests in the carbon stocks accounting system. This is even more important to understand the difficult interactions between anthropogenic and biogenic sources that often have negative implications for urban air quality. Urban environment can thus become an extraordinary case study and a network of such kind of stations might represent an important strategy both from the scientific and the applicative point of view.

  14. Detecting earthquakes over a seismic network using single-station similarity measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Karianne J.; Beroza, Gregory C.

    2018-06-01

    New blind waveform-similarity-based detection methods, such as Fingerprint and Similarity Thresholding (FAST), have shown promise for detecting weak signals in long-duration, continuous waveform data. While blind detectors are capable of identifying similar or repeating waveforms without templates, they can also be susceptible to false detections due to local correlated noise. In this work, we present a set of three new methods that allow us to extend single-station similarity-based detection over a seismic network; event-pair extraction, pairwise pseudo-association, and event resolution complete a post-processing pipeline that combines single-station similarity measures (e.g. FAST sparse similarity matrix) from each station in a network into a list of candidate events. The core technique, pairwise pseudo-association, leverages the pairwise structure of event detections in its network detection model, which allows it to identify events observed at multiple stations in the network without modeling the expected moveout. Though our approach is general, we apply it to extend FAST over a sparse seismic network. We demonstrate that our network-based extension of FAST is both sensitive and maintains a low false detection rate. As a test case, we apply our approach to 2 weeks of continuous waveform data from five stations during the foreshock sequence prior to the 2014 Mw 8.2 Iquique earthquake. Our method identifies nearly five times as many events as the local seismicity catalogue (including 95 per cent of the catalogue events), and less than 1 per cent of these candidate events are false detections.

  15. Study on the three-station typical network deployments of workspace Measurement and Positioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zhi; Zhu, J. G.; Xue, B.; Ye, Sh. H.; Xiong, Y.

    2013-10-01

    As a novel network coordinate measurement system based on multi-directional positioning, workspace Measurement and Positioning System (wMPS) has outstanding advantages of good parallelism, wide measurement range and high measurement accuracy, which makes it to be the research hotspots and important development direction in the field of large-scale measurement. Since station deployment has a significant impact on the measurement range and accuracy, and also restricts the use-cost, the optimization method of station deployment was researched in this paper. Firstly, positioning error model was established. Then focusing on the small network consisted of three stations, the typical deployments and error distribution characteristics were studied. Finally, through measuring the simulated fuselage using typical deployments at the industrial spot and comparing the results with Laser Tracker, some conclusions are obtained. The comparison results show that under existing prototype conditions, I_3 typical deployment of which three stations are distributed in a straight line has an average error of 0.30 mm and the maximum error is 0.50 mm in the range of 12 m. Meanwhile, C_3 typical deployment of which three stations are uniformly distributed in the half-circumference of an circle has an average error of 0.17 mm and the maximum error is 0.28 mm. Obviously, C_3 typical deployment has a higher control effect on precision than I_3 type. The research work provides effective theoretical support for global measurement network optimization in the future work.

  16. Report on radioactive discharges and environmental monitoring at nuclear power stations during 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, M.J.; Thomas, D.W.

    1992-09-01

    This report presents the details for 1991 of radioactive discharges and environmental monitoring at Nuclear Electric sites. In addition to the main section which summarises the discharges and monitoring at the Company's nuclear sites as a whole, appendices are presented covering the data in detail for individual sites. In each case the radiological impact on the general public has been estimated. Discharges generally were not substantially different from those of recent years. All radioactive effluent discharges from power stations were within authorised limits. Radiation doses to members of the public resulting from these discharges, and from direct radiation from the Stations, were in all cases less than the limit of 1 mSv per year which has been recommended by ICRP since 1985. (Author)

  17. Building Capacity for Earthquake Monitoring: Linking Regional Networks with the Global Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemann, R. J.; Lerner-Lam, A.

    2006-12-01

    Installing or upgrading a seismic monitoring network is often among the mitigation efforts after earthquake disasters, and this is happening in response to the events both in Sumatra during December 2004 and in Pakistan during October 2005. These networks can yield improved hazard assessment, more resilient buildings where they are most needed, and emergency relief directed more quickly to the worst hit areas after the next large earthquake. Several commercial organizations are well prepared for the fleeting opportunity to provide the instruments that comprise a seismic network, including sensors, data loggers, telemetry stations, and the computers and software required for the network center. But seismic monitoring requires more than hardware and software, no matter how advanced. A well-trained staff is required to select appropriate and mutually compatible components, install and maintain telemetered stations, manage and archive data, and perform the analyses that actually yield the intended benefits. Monitoring is more effective when network operators cooperate with a larger community through free and open exchange of data, sharing information about working practices, and international collaboration in research. As an academic consortium, a facility operator and a founding member of the International Federation of Digital Seismographic Networks, IRIS has access to a broad range of expertise with the skills that are required to help design, install, and operate a seismic network and earthquake analysis center, and stimulate the core training for the professional teams required to establish and maintain these facilities. But delivering expertise quickly when and where it is unexpectedly in demand requires advance planning and coordination in order to respond to the needs of organizations that are building a seismic network, either with tight time constraints imposed by the budget cycles of aid agencies following a disastrous earthquake, or as part of more informed

  18. Indicators for monitoring of safety operation and condition of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manova, D.

    2001-01-01

    A common goal of all employees in the nuclear power field is safety operation of nuclear power stations. The evaluation and control of NPP safety operation are a part of the elements of safety management. The present report is related only to a part of the total assessment and control of the plant safety operation, namely - the indicator system for monitoring of Kozloduy NPP operation and condition. (author)

  19. Position monitor of SR beam on XAFS experimental station in BSRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xianneng; Xie Yaning; Hu Tiandou; Jin Yalan; Huang Daxian

    1995-01-01

    A monitor of density and position of SR (Synchrotron Radiation) beam is built on XAFS (X-ray Absorption Fine Structure) experimental station in BSRF (Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility). It is composed of the beam slit and its drivers, weak current amplifiers, computing amplifier for coordinate of the beam position and display with RS-232 interface. The equipment can be used for other measurement fields related with current and voltage

  20. Smart Sensor Network for Aircraft Corrosion Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Network Elements – Hub, Network capable application processor ( NCAP ) – Node, Smart transducer interface module (STIM)  Corrosion Sensing and...software Transducer software Network Protocol 1451.2 1451.3 1451.5 1451.6 1451.7 I/O Node -processor Power TEDS Smart Sensor Hub ( NCAP ) IEEE 1451.0 and

  1. Citizen-based environmental radiation monitoring network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alemayehu, B.; Mckinzie, M.; Cochran, T.; Sythe, D.; Randrup, R.; Lafargue, E.

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses a Citizen Radiation Monitoring project designed and implemented by the Natural Resources Defense Council . The goal of the project was to implement a radiation monitoring system that provides radiation data accessible to the public. The monitoring system consisted of usage of a radiation detector integrated with near real-time data collection and visualization. The monitoring systems were installed at five different locations and background radiation measurements were taken. The developed monitoring system demonstrated that citizen-based monitoring system could provide accessible radiation data to the general public and relevant to the area where they live. (author)

  2. Network monitoring in the Tier2 site in Prague

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliáš, Marek; Fiala, Lukáš; Horký, Jirí; Chudoba, Jirí; Kouba, Tomáš; Kundrát, Jan; Švec, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Network monitoring provides different types of view on the network traffic. It's output enables computing centre staff to make qualified decisions about changes in the organization of computing centre network and to spot possible problems. In this paper we present network monitoring framework used at Tier-2 in Prague in Institute of Physics (FZU). The framework consists of standard software and custom tools. We discuss our system for hardware failures detection using syslog logging and Nagios active checks, bandwidth monitoring of physical links and analysis of NetFlow exports from Cisco routers. We present tool for automatic detection of network layout based on SNMP. This tool also records topology changes into SVN repository. Adapted weathermap4rrd is used to visualize recorded data to get fast overview showing current bandwidth usage of links in network.

  3. High-Speed Monitoring of Multiple Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Array Configurations and Supplementary Weather Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Matthew T

    2017-06-01

    Three grid-connected monocrystalline silicon photovoltaic arrays have been instrumented with research-grade sensors on the Gaithersburg, MD campus of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). These arrays range from 73 kW to 271 kW and have different tilts, orientations, and configurations. Irradiance, temperature, wind, and electrical measurements at the arrays are recorded, and images are taken of the arrays to monitor shading and capture any anomalies. A weather station has also been constructed that includes research-grade instrumentation to measure all standard meteorological quantities plus additional solar irradiance spectral bands, full spectrum curves, and directional components using multiple irradiance sensor technologies. Reference photovoltaic (PV) modules are also monitored to provide comprehensive baseline measurements for the PV arrays. Images of the whole sky are captured, along with images of the instrumentation and reference modules to document any obstructions or anomalies. Nearly, all measurements at the arrays and weather station are sampled and saved every 1s, with monitoring having started on Aug. 1, 2014. This report describes the instrumentation approach used to monitor the performance of these photovoltaic systems, measure the meteorological quantities, and acquire the images for use in PV performance and weather monitoring and computer model validation.

  4. National automatic network of environmental radiological monitoring (RENAMORA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez M, J.L.; Sanchez H, L.

    2003-01-01

    Inside the programs of Environmental Radiological Surveillance that it carries out the National Commission of Nuclear Security and Safeguards (CNSNS), it develops an National Automatic Network of Environmental Radiological Monitoring (RENAMORA), where it is carried out a registration of speed of environmental dose in continuous and simultaneous forms with the same moment of the measurement. This net allows to account with the meticulous and opportune information that will help to characterize, in dynamics form, the radiological conditions of diverse geographical zones of the country, including the sites that by normative require bigger surveillance, like its are the Laguna Verde Nuclear power station (CNLV), the Nuclear Center of Mexico (ININ) and the Radioactive waste storage center (CADER). This net is in its first development stage; three points inside the state of Veracruz, in the surroundings of the CNLV, already its are operating; the obtained data of rapidity of environmental dose are being stored in a database inside a primary data center located in the facilities of the CNSNS in Mexico city and its will be analyzed according to the project advances. At the moment, its are installing the first ten teams corresponding to the first phase of the RENAMORA (three stages); its are carried out operation tests, transmission, reception and administration of data. The obtained data will be interpreted, analyzed and inter compared to evaluate the risk levels to that it would be hold the population and to determine thresholds that allow to integrate the alarm systems that its had considered for emergency situations. (Author)

  5. The monitoring network for radioactivity in air in Norway. Annual report 2000; Nettverket for overvaaking av radioaktivitet i luft i Norge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Thor Chr.

    2002-06-01

    On the instruction of the Radiation Monitoring Authority (SSV), NILU has assumed responsibility for the operation of a monitoring network for radioactivity. This report describes this network. None of the 29 stations of the network detected radiation in 2000 that cannot be attributed to the natural variation of the radiation levels or to normal technical irregularities. However, much of the equipment was acquired in the years following the Chernobyl accident of 1986 and is in need of replacement.

  6. REDUCING THE BOOSTER STATIONS ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY WAY OF ELIMINATING OVERPRESSURE IN THE WATER SUPPLY NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Zdor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy efficiency improvement of the city housing-and-utilities infrastructure and watersupply and water-disposal systems poses an occurrent problem. The water-supply systems energy consumption sizable share falls on the pump plants. The article deals with the issues of the operating regime management of the existing booster stations equipped with a group of pumping units regulated with frequency converters. One of the optimization directions of their energy consumption is the reduction of over-pressure in the water-distribution network and its sustentation within the regulatory values. The authors offer the structure and methodology of the data collection-and-analysis automated system utilization for revealing and eliminating the overpressure in the water-supply network. This system is designed for the group management of booster-stations operating regimes on the ground of data obtained from the pressure controlling devices at the consumers. The data exchange in the system is realized via GSM.The paper presents results of the tests carried out at the booster stations in some major cities of the Republic of Belarus. The authors analyze dependence of overpressure in the network on the methods of the plant output pressure sustentation (daily graph or constant pressure. The authors study the elimination effect of over-pressure in the water distribution network on changing the booster station pumping units operation regimes. The study shows that eliminating over pressure in the water distributing network leads to lowering the booster station pressure. This in its turn decreases its energy consumption by 15–20 % depending on the over pressure fixed level.

  7. Network protection and insulation monitoring. Schutztechnik mit Isolationsueberwachung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofheinz, W

    1983-01-01

    With the increasing use of unearthed power supply networks, the selection of suitable monitoring systems has become increasingly important. By combining the unearthed power supply networks with insulation monitoring, one arrives at a protective technique with high reliability, fireproofness and accident protection. The book describes this type of network and its applications, e.g. for medical purposes. Technologies in West Germany and the USA are compared, and a historical outline is given of protective wire systems and their applications. Methods of measurement employed in insulation monitoring systems are described, and the relevant VDE regulations are cited.

  8. Static and mobile networks design for atmospheric accidental releases monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abida, R.

    2010-01-01

    The global context of my PhD thesis work is the optimization of air pollution monitoring networks, but more specifically it concerns the monitoring of accidental releases of radionuclides in air. The optimization problem of air quality measuring networks has been addresses in the literature. However, it has not been addresses in the context of surveillance of accidental atmospheric releases. The first part of my thesis addresses the optimization of a permanent network of monitoring of radioactive aerosols in the air, covering France. The second part concerns the problem of targeting of observations in case of an accidental release of radionuclides from a nuclear plant. (author)

  9. Application of Terrestrial Ecosystem Monitoring under the CAFF Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program: Designing and Implementing Terrestrial Monitoring to Establish the Canadian High Arctic Research Station as a Flagship Arctic Environmental Monitoring Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, D.; Kehler, D.

    2016-12-01

    The Canadian High Arctic Research Station (CHARS) is scheduled for completion in July 2017 and is the northern science component of Polar Knowledge Canada (POLAR). A mandated goal for POLAR is to establish the adjacent Experimental and Reference Area (ERA) as an Arctic Flagship monitoring site that will track change in Arctic terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems. Situated in the community of Cambridge Bay, CHARS provides the opportunity to draw on the Indigenous Knowledge of local residents to help design and conduct the monitoring, and to operate 12 months a year. Monitoring at CHARS will be linked to networks nationally and internationally, and is being designed so that change in key indicators can be understood in terms of drivers and processes, modeled and scaled up regionally, and used to predict important changes in critical indicators. As a partner in the Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program (CBMP), the monitoring design for terrestrial ecosystems follows approaches outlined by the CBMP Terrestrial Expert Monitoring Group, who have listed key monitoring questions and identified a list of important Focal Ecosystem Components (FECs). To link drivers to FECs we are proposing a multi-scaled approach: 1) an Intensive Monitoring Area to establish replicated monitoring plots that track change in snow depth and condition, active layer depth, soil temperature, soil moisture, and soil solution chemistry that are spatially and temporally linked to changes in microbiological activity, CO2/CH4 net ecosystem flux, vegetation relative frequency, species composition, growth and foliar nutrient concentration, arthropod abundance, lemming abundance and health, and shorebird/songbird abundance and productivity. 2) These intensive observations are supported by watershed scale measures that will monitor, during the growing season, lemming winter nest abundance, songbird, shorebird and waterfowl staging and nesting, and other observations; in the winter we will

  10. Network performance of a wireless sensor network for temperature monitoring in vineyards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liscano, Ramiro; Jacoub, John Khalil; Dersingh, Anand

    2011-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are an emerging technology which can be used for outdoor environmental monitoring. This paper presents challenges that arose from the development and deployment of a WSN for environmental monitoring as well as network performance analysis of this network. Different...... components in our sensor network architecture are presented like the physical nodes, the sensor node code, and two messaging protocols; one for collecting sensor and network values and the other for sensor node commands. An information model for sensor nodes to support plug-and-play capabilities in sensor...... networks is also presented....

  11. Modeling Wireless Sensor Networks for Monitoring in Biological Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadimi, Esmaeil

    parameters, as the use of wired sensors is impractical. In this thesis, a ZigBee based wireless sensor network was employed and only a part of the herd was monitored, as monitoring each individual animal in a large herd under practical conditions is inefficient. Investigations to show that the monitored...... (MMAE) approach to the data resulted in the highest classification success rate, due to the use of precise forth-order mathematical models which relate the feed offer to the pitch angle of the neck. This thesis shows that wireless sensor networks can be successfully employed to monitor the behavior...

  12. A Wildlife Monitoring System Based on Wireless Image Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junguo Zhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Survival and development of wildlife sustains the balance and stability of the entire ecosystem. Wildlife monitoring can provide lots of information such as wildlife species, quantity, habits, quality of life and habitat conditions, to help researchers grasp the status and dynamics of wildlife resources, and to provide basis for the effective protection, sustainable use, and scientific management of wildlife resources. Wildlife monitoring is the foundation of wildlife protection and management. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN technology has become the most popular technology in the field of information. With advance of the CMOS image sensor technology, wireless sensor networks combined with image sensors, namely Wireless Image Sensor Networks (WISN technology, has emerged as an alternative in monitoring applications. Monitoring wildlife is one of its most promising applications. In this paper, system architecture of the wildlife monitoring system based on the wireless image sensor networks was presented to overcome the shortcomings of the traditional monitoring methods. Specifically, some key issues including design of wireless image sensor nodes and software process design have been studied and presented. A self-powered rotatable wireless infrared image sensor node based on ARM and an aggregation node designed for large amounts of data were developed. In addition, their corresponding software was designed. The proposed system is able to monitor wildlife accurately, automatically, and remotely in all-weather condition, which lays foundations for applications of wireless image sensor networks in wildlife monitoring.

  13. The use of hierarchical clustering for the design of optimized monitoring networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Joana; Makar, Paul Andrew; Aklilu, Yayne; Akingunola, Ayodeji

    2018-05-01

    Associativity analysis is a powerful tool to deal with large-scale datasets by clustering the data on the basis of (dis)similarity and can be used to assess the efficacy and design of air quality monitoring networks. We describe here our use of Kolmogorov-Zurbenko filtering and hierarchical clustering of NO2 and SO2 passive and continuous monitoring data to analyse and optimize air quality networks for these species in the province of Alberta, Canada. The methodology applied in this study assesses dissimilarity between monitoring station time series based on two metrics: 1 - R, R being the Pearson correlation coefficient, and the Euclidean distance; we find that both should be used in evaluating monitoring site similarity. We have combined the analytic power of hierarchical clustering with the spatial information provided by deterministic air quality model results, using the gridded time series of model output as potential station locations, as a proxy for assessing monitoring network design and for network optimization. We demonstrate that clustering results depend on the air contaminant analysed, reflecting the difference in the respective emission sources of SO2 and NO2 in the region under study. Our work shows that much of the signal identifying the sources of NO2 and SO2 emissions resides in shorter timescales (hourly to daily) due to short-term variation of concentrations and that longer-term averages in data collection may lose the information needed to identify local sources. However, the methodology identifies stations mainly influenced by seasonality, if larger timescales (weekly to monthly) are considered. We have performed the first dissimilarity analysis based on gridded air quality model output and have shown that the methodology is capable of generating maps of subregions within which a single station will represent the entire subregion, to a given level of dissimilarity. We have also shown that our approach is capable of identifying different

  14. Wide Area Network Monitoring System for HEP Experiments at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, M.

    2004-11-23

    Large, distributed High Energy Physics (HEP) collaborations, such as D0, CDF and US-CMS, depend on stable and robust network paths between major world research centres. The evolving emphasis on data and compute Grids increases the reliance on network performance. Fermilab's experimental groups and network support personnel identified a critical need for WAN monitoring to ensure the quality and efficient utilization of such network paths. This has led to the development of the Network Monitoring system we will present in this paper. The system evolved from the IEPM-BW project, started at SLAC three years ago. At Fermilab this system has developed into a fully functional infrastructure with bi-directional active network probes and path characterizations. It is based on the Iperf achievable throughput tool, Ping and Synack to test ICMP/TCP connectivity. It uses Pipechar and Traceroute to test, compare and report hop-by-hop network path characterization. It also measures real file transfer performance by BBFTP and GridFTP. The Monitoring system has an extensive web-interface and all the data is available through standalone SOAP web services or by a MonaLISA client. Also in this paper we will present a case study of network path asymmetry and abnormal performance between FNAL and SDSC, which was discovered and resolved by utilizing the Network Monitoring system.

  15. Wide area network monitoring system for HEP experiments at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoriev, Maxim; Fermilab; Cottrell, Les; Logg, Connie; SLAC

    2004-01-01

    Large, distributed High Energy Physics (HEP) collaborations, such as D0, CDF and US-CMS, depend on stable and robust network paths between major world research centres. The evolving emphasis on data and compute Grids increases the reliance on network performance. Fermilab's experimental groups and network support personnel identified a critical need for WAN monitoring to ensure the quality and efficient utilization of such network paths. This has led to the development of the Network Monitoring system we will present in this paper. The system evolved from the IEPM-BW project, started at SLAC three years ago. At Fermilab this system has developed into a fully functional infrastructure with bi-directional active network probes and path characterizations. It is based on the Iperf achievable throughput tool, Ping and Synack to test ICMP/TCP connectivity. It uses Pipechar and Traceroute to test, compare and report hop-by-hop network path characterization. It also measures real file transfer performance by BBFTP and GridFTP. The Monitoring system has an extensive web-interface and all the data is available through standalone SOAP web services or by a MonaLISA client. Also in this paper we will present a case study of network path asymmetry and abnormal performance between FNAL and SDSC, which was discovered and resolved by utilizing the Network Monitoring system

  16. Wide Area Network Monitoring System for HEP Experiments at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoriev, M.

    2004-01-01

    Large, distributed High Energy Physics (HEP) collaborations, such as D0, CDF and US-CMS, depend on stable and robust network paths between major world research centres. The evolving emphasis on data and compute Grids increases the reliance on network performance. Fermilab's experimental groups and network support personnel identified a critical need for WAN monitoring to ensure the quality and efficient utilization of such network paths. This has led to the development of the Network Monitoring system we will present in this paper. The system evolved from the IEPM-BW project, started at SLAC three years ago. At Fermilab this system has developed into a fully functional infrastructure with bi-directional active network probes and path characterizations. It is based on the Iperf achievable throughput tool, Ping and Synack to test ICMP/TCP connectivity. It uses Pipechar and Traceroute to test, compare and report hop-by-hop network path characterization. It also measures real file transfer performance by BBFTP and GridFTP. The Monitoring system has an extensive web-interface and all the data is available through standalone SOAP web services or by a MonaLISA client. Also in this paper we will present a case study of network path asymmetry and abnormal performance between FNAL and SDSC, which was discovered and resolved by utilizing the Network Monitoring system

  17. APPLICATION OF ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS FOR PREDICTION OF AIR POLLUTION LEVELS IN ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Pawul

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a lot of attention was paid to the improvement of methods which are used to air quality forecasting. Artificial neural networks can be applied to model these problems. Their advantage is that they can solve the problem in the conditions of incomplete information, without the knowledge of the analytical relationship between the input and output data. In this paper we applied artificial neural networks to predict the PM 10 concentrations as factors determining the occurrence of smog phenomena. To create these networks we used meteorological data and concentrations of PM 10. The data were recorded in 2014 and 2015 at three measuring stations operating in Krakow under the State Environmental Monitoring. The best results were obtained by three-layer perceptron with back-propagation algorithm. The neural networks received a good fit in all cases.

  18. Identifying uncertainty of the mean of some water quality variables along water quality monitoring network of Bahr El Baqar drain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein G. Karaman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Assigning objectives to the environmental monitoring network is the pillar of the design to these kinds of networks. Conflicting network objectives may affect the adequacy of the design in terms of sampling frequency and the spatial distribution of the monitoring stations which in turn affect the accuracy of the data and the information extracted. The first step in resolving this problem is to identify the uncertainty inherent in the network as the result of the vagueness of the design objective. Entropy has been utilized and adopted over the past decades to identify uncertainty in similar water data sets. Therefore it is used to identify the uncertainties inherent in the water quality monitoring network of Bahr El-Baqar drain located in the Eastern Delta. Toward investigating the applicability of the Entropy methodology, comprehensive analysis at the selected drain as well as their data sets is carried out. Furthermore, the uncertainty calculated by the entropy function will be presented by the means of the geographical information system to give the decision maker a global view to these uncertainties and to open the door to other researchers to find out innovative approaches to lower these uncertainties reaching optimal monitoring network in terms of the spatial distribution of the monitoring stations.

  19. Sonification of network traffic flow for monitoring and situational awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Maintaining situational awareness of what is happening within a computer network is challenging, not only because the behaviour happens within machines, but also because data traffic speeds and volumes are beyond human ability to process. Visualisation techniques are widely used to present information about network traffic dynamics. Although they provide operators with an overall view and specific information about particular traffic or attacks on the network, they often still fail to represent the events in an understandable way. Also, because they require visual attention they are not well suited to continuous monitoring scenarios in which network administrators must carry out other tasks. Here we present SoNSTAR (Sonification of Networks for SiTuational AwaReness), a real-time sonification system for monitoring computer networks to support network administrators’ situational awareness. SoNSTAR provides an auditory representation of all the TCP/IP traffic within a network based on the different traffic flows between between network hosts. A user study showed that SoNSTAR raises situational awareness levels by enabling operators to understand network behaviour and with the benefit of lower workload demands (as measured by the NASA TLX method) than visual techniques. SoNSTAR identifies network traffic features by inspecting the status flags of TCP/IP packet headers. Combinations of these features define particular traffic events which are mapped to recorded sounds to generate a soundscape that represents the real-time status of the network traffic environment. The sequence, timing, and loudness of the different sounds allow the network to be monitored and anomalous behaviour to be detected without the need to continuously watch a monitor screen. PMID:29672543

  20. Sonification of network traffic flow for monitoring and situational awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debashi, Mohamed; Vickers, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Maintaining situational awareness of what is happening within a computer network is challenging, not only because the behaviour happens within machines, but also because data traffic speeds and volumes are beyond human ability to process. Visualisation techniques are widely used to present information about network traffic dynamics. Although they provide operators with an overall view and specific information about particular traffic or attacks on the network, they often still fail to represent the events in an understandable way. Also, because they require visual attention they are not well suited to continuous monitoring scenarios in which network administrators must carry out other tasks. Here we present SoNSTAR (Sonification of Networks for SiTuational AwaReness), a real-time sonification system for monitoring computer networks to support network administrators' situational awareness. SoNSTAR provides an auditory representation of all the TCP/IP traffic within a network based on the different traffic flows between between network hosts. A user study showed that SoNSTAR raises situational awareness levels by enabling operators to understand network behaviour and with the benefit of lower workload demands (as measured by the NASA TLX method) than visual techniques. SoNSTAR identifies network traffic features by inspecting the status flags of TCP/IP packet headers. Combinations of these features define particular traffic events which are mapped to recorded sounds to generate a soundscape that represents the real-time status of the network traffic environment. The sequence, timing, and loudness of the different sounds allow the network to be monitored and anomalous behaviour to be detected without the need to continuously watch a monitor screen.

  1. Improving the monitoring of quantitative conditions of peacetime fuel stocks at pumping stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slaviša M. Ilić

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper has solved the problem of optimizing the existing inefficient and irrational system of the quantitative monitoring of the situation in peacetime fuel supplies at the pumping stations in the Army of Serbia. A study of existing organizational forms, military pumping stations as well as civilian ones, was carried out. Based on the completion of the survey by competent persons in the military, the methods of expert evaluation and the obtained quantitative indicator of the tested models, a multicriteria optimization was performed in order to select the optimal model. The optimization of the existing models, in terms of efficiency and economy, would be the rationalization and modernization - automation of military capacity and greater reliance on automated civilian pumping stations. Introduction Within the framework of the undergoing reform of the Serbian Army and in order to reduce the total costs, it is necessary to optimize the existing supply system that is technologically outdated, inefficient and uneconomic. The problem of research in this paper is reduced to the selection of an optimal model of the quantitative monitoring of the state of peacetime stocks of fuel at the pumping stations in the Serbian Army, in order to ensure economical operation and efficient monitoring of available and issued quantities, aiming at better decision making and management in the supply system as well as at achieving faster system response, with greater reliance on government logistics. Organization of work and monitoring the fuel quantitative status at pumping stations The existing system of monitoring the quantitative state of fuel pumping stations in the Army of Serbia has the following disadvantages: getting unreliable data, due to outdated equipment for fuel handling and measuring equipment, and manual collection of data; creation of unauthorized shortages (due to subjective human error or deception; inadequate engagement of respective material and

  2. ANITA Air Monitoring on the International Space Station: Results Compared to Other Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honne, A.; Schumann-Olsen, H.; Kaspersen, K.; Limero, T.; Macatangay, A.; Mosebach, H.; Kampf, D.; Mudgett, P. D.; James, J. T.; Tan, G.; hide

    2009-01-01

    ANITA (Analysing Interferometer for Ambient Air) is a flight experiment precursor for a permanent continuous air quality monitoring system on the ISS (International Space Station). For the safety of the crew, ANITA can detect and quantify quasi-online and simultaneously 33 gas compounds in the air with ppm or sub-ppm detection limits. The autonomous measurement system is based on FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy). The system represents a versatile air quality monitor, allowing for the first time the detection and monitoring of trace gas dynamics in a spacecraft atmosphere. ANITA operated on the ISS from September 2007 to August 2008. This paper summarizes the results of ANITA s air analyses with emphasis on comparisons to other measurements. The main basis of comparison is NASA s set of grab samples taken onboard the ISS and analysed on ground applying various GC-based (Gas Chromatography) systems.

  3. Recent developments in water quality monitoring for Space Station reclaimed wastewaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, John W.; Verostko, Charles E.; Linton, Arthur T.; Burchett, Ray

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the recent developments in water quality monitoring for Space Station reclaimed wastewaters. A preprototype unit that contains an ultraviolet absorbance organic carbon monitor integrated with pH and conductivity sensors is presented. The preprototype has provisions for automated operation and is a reagentless flow-through system without any gas/liquid interfaces. The organic carbon monitor detects by utraviolet absorbance the organic impurities in reclaimed wastewater which may be correlated to the organic carbon content of the water. A comparison of the preprototype organic carbon detection values with actual total organic carbon measurements is presented. The electrolyte double junction concept for the pH sensor and fixed electrodes for both the pH and conductivity sensors are discussed. In addition, the development of a reagentless organic carbon analyzer that incorporates ultraviolet oxidation and infrared detection is presented. Detection sensitivities, hardware development, and operation are included.

  4. Mini neutron monitor measurements at the Neumayer III station and on the German research vessel Polarstern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heber, B.; Galsdorf, D.; Herbst, K.; Gieseler, J.; Labrenz, J.; Schwerdt, C.; Walter, M.; Benadé, G.; Fuchs, R.; Krüger, H.; Moraal, H.

    2015-08-01

    Neutron monitors (NMs) are ground-based devices to measure the variation of cosmic ray intensities, and although being reliable they have two disadvantages: their size as well as their weight. As consequence, [1] suggested the development of a portable, and thus much smaller and lighter, calibration neutron monitor that can be carried to any existing station around the world [see 2; 3]. But this mini neutron monitor, moreover, can also be installed as an autonomous station at any location that provides ’’office” conditions such as a) temperatures within the range of around 0 to less than 40 degree C as well as b) internet and c) power supply. However, the best location is when the material above the NM is minimized. In 2011 a mini Neutron Monitor was installed at the Neumayer III station in Antarctica as well as the German research vessel Polarstern, providing scientific data since January 2014 and October 2012, respectively. The Polarstern, which is in the possession of the Federal Republic of Germany represented by the Ministry of Education and Research and operated by the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research and managed by the shipping company Laeisz, was specially designed for working in the polar seas and is currently one of the most sophisticated polar research vessels worldwide. It spends almost 310 days a year at sea usually being located in the waters of Antarctica between November and March while spending the northern summer months in Arctic waters. Therefore, the vessel scans the rigidity range below the atmospheric threshold and above 10 GV twice a year. In contrast to spacecraft measurements NM data are influenced by variations of the geomagnetic field as well as the atmospheric conditions. Thus, in order to interpret the data a detailed knowledge of the instrument sensitivity with geomagnetic latitude (rigidity) and atmospheric pressure is essential. In order to determine the atmospheric response data from the

  5. Mini neutron monitor measurements at the Neumayer III station and on the German research vessel Polarstern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heber, B; Galsdorf, D; Herbst, K; Gieseler, J; Labrenz, J; Schwerdt, C; Walter, M; Benadé, G; Fuchs, R; Krüger, H; Moraal, H

    2015-01-01

    Neutron monitors (NMs) are ground-based devices to measure the variation of cosmic ray intensities, and although being reliable they have two disadvantages: their size as well as their weight. As consequence, [1] suggested the development of a portable, and thus much smaller and lighter, calibration neutron monitor that can be carried to any existing station around the world [see 2; 3]. But this mini neutron monitor, moreover, can also be installed as an autonomous station at any location that provides ’’office” conditions such as a) temperatures within the range of around 0 to less than 40 degree C as well as b) internet and c) power supply. However, the best location is when the material above the NM is minimized. In 2011 a mini Neutron Monitor was installed at the Neumayer III station in Antarctica as well as the German research vessel Polarstern, providing scientific data since January 2014 and October 2012, respectively. The Polarstern, which is in the possession of the Federal Republic of Germany represented by the Ministry of Education and Research and operated by the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research and managed by the shipping company Laeisz, was specially designed for working in the polar seas and is currently one of the most sophisticated polar research vessels worldwide. It spends almost 310 days a year at sea usually being located in the waters of Antarctica between November and March while spending the northern summer months in Arctic waters. Therefore, the vessel scans the rigidity range below the atmospheric threshold and above 10 GV twice a year. In contrast to spacecraft measurements NM data are influenced by variations of the geomagnetic field as well as the atmospheric conditions. Thus, in order to interpret the data a detailed knowledge of the instrument sensitivity with geomagnetic latitude (rigidity) and atmospheric pressure is essential. In order to determine the atmospheric response data from the

  6. Supervision monitoring for radiation environment around Daya Bay and Lingao nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Naiming; Chen Zhidong; Song Haiqing; Deng Fei; Lin Qing; Huang Nairong; Zhou Ruidong; Mo Guanghua; Li Lingjuan; Liu Ying; Li Qiaoqin; Lai Liming; Zhou Xue

    2004-01-01

    This paper systematically introduces the supervision monitoring for radiation environment around the Guangdong Daya Bay and Ling Ao nuclear power station by the Guangdong Environmental Radiation Research and Monitoring Center. It includes the monitoring plan, methods, quality assurance, main results and conclusions. The results show that: (1) The gas discharge have not caused any detectable impacts to the terrestrial and atmospheric environment since their operation; (2) 110m Ag could only be detected in seawater in the West Daya Bay in 1995 and 1997 and in sediments in 1997. The maximum annual average in seawater was 3.1 Bq/m 3 , annual average of 110m Ag in sediments was 1.0 Bq/kg(dry). But it was always detectable in pearl oyster, gulfweed and cuttlefish in the West Daya Bay. The 110m Ag concentrations in halobios were relatively higher in 1994, 1996 and 1997. The maximum concentrations in pearl oyster, gulfweed and cuttlefish were 2.2, 1.7 and 5.8 Bq/kg (fresh) respectively. It has significantly decreased with decreasing discharge from the stations since 1997. (3) 137 Cs could be detected in almost all seawater samples in the West Daya Bay and the concentration were relatively higher from 1994-1998. The maximum annual average was laid in 1995 and it was 4.6 Bq/m 3 . After 1999, its concentration ranged in the background level. The concentrations in other marine samples were extremely low and changed in the range of the background. (4) 3 H in seawater in the West Daya Bay would go up as a pulse soon after 3 H discharge from the station and would go down to the background after 3-5 days. The annual average of monitoring results were between 0.8-3.4 Bq/L

  7. Microseismic monitoring of columnar jointed basalt fracture activity: a trial at the Baihetan Hydropower Station, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bing-Rui; Li, Qing-Peng; Feng, Xia-Ting; Xiao, Ya-Xun; Feng, Guang-Liang; Hu, Lian-Xing

    2014-10-01

    Severe stress release has occurred to the surrounding rocks of the typically columnar jointed basalt after excavation at the Baihetan Hydropower Station, Jinsha River, China, where cracking, collapse, and other types of failure may take place occasionally due to relaxation fracture. In order to understand the relaxation fracture characteristics of the columnar jointed basalt in the entire excavation process at the diversion tunnel of the Baihetan Hydropower Station, real-time microseismic monitoring tests were performed. First, the applicability of a geophone and accelerometer was analyzed in the columnar jointed basalt tunnel, and the results show that the accelerometer was more applicable to the cracking monitoring of the columnar jointed basalt. Next, the waveform characteristics of the microseismic signals were analyzed, and the microseismic signals were identified as follows: rock fracture signal, drilling signal, electrical signal, heavy vehicle passing signal, and blast signal. Then, the attenuation characteristics of the microseismic signals in the columnar jointed basalt tunnel were studied, as well as the types and characteristics of the columnar jointed basalt fracture. Finally, location analysis was conducted on the strong rock fracture events, in which four or more sensors were triggered, to obtain the temporal and spatial evolution characteristics and laws of the columnar jointed basalt relaxation fracture after excavation. The test results are not only of important reference value to the excavation and support of diversion tunnel at the Baihetan Hydropower Station, but also of great referential significance and value to the conduction of similar tests.

  8. Monitoring Instrument Performance in Regional Broadband Seismic Network Using Ambient Seismic Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, F.; Lyu, S.; Lin, J.

    2017-12-01

    In the past ten years, the number of seismic stations has increased significantly, and regional seismic networks with advanced technology have been gradually developed all over the world. The resulting broadband data help to improve the seismological research. It is important to monitor the performance of broadband instruments in a new network in a long period of time to ensure the accuracy of seismic records. Here, we propose a method that uses ambient noise data in the period range 5-25 s to monitor instrument performance and check data quality in situ. The method is based on an analysis of amplitude and phase index parameters calculated from pairwise cross-correlations of three stations, which provides multiple references for reliable error estimates. Index parameters calculated daily during a two-year observation period are evaluated to identify stations with instrument response errors in near real time. During data processing, initial instrument responses are used in place of available instrument responses to simulate instrument response errors, which are then used to verify our results. We also examine feasibility of the tailing noise using data from stations selected from USArray in different locations and analyze the possible instrumental errors resulting in time-shifts used to verify the method. Additionally, we show an application that effects of instrument response errors that experience pole-zeros variations on monitoring temporal variations in crustal properties appear statistically significant velocity perturbation larger than the standard deviation. The results indicate that monitoring seismic instrument performance helps eliminate data pollution before analysis begins.

  9. Efficient network monitoring for large data acquisition systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savu, D.O.; Martin, B.; Al-Shabibi, A.; Sjoen, R.; Batraneanu, S.M.; Stancu, S.N.

    2012-01-01

    Though constantly evolving and improving, the available network monitoring solutions have limitations when applied to the infrastructure of a high speed realtime data acquisition (DAQ) system. DAQ networks are particular computer networks where experts have to pay attention to both individual subsections as well as system wide traffic flows while monitoring the network. The ATLAS Network at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has more than 200 switches interconnecting 3500 hosts and totaling 8500 high speed links. The use of heterogeneous tools for monitoring various infrastructure parameters, in order to assure optimal DAQ system performance, proved to be a tedious and time consuming task for experts. To alleviate this problem we used our networking and DAQ expertise to build a flexible and scalable monitoring system providing an intuitive user interface with the same look and feel irrespective of the data provider that is used. Our system uses custom developed components for critical performance monitoring and seamlessly integrates complementary data from auxiliary tools, such as NAGIOS, information services or custom databases. A number of techniques (e.g. normalization, aggregation and data caching) were used in order to improve the user interface response time. The end result is a unified monitoring interface, for fast and uniform access to system statistics, which significantly reduced the time spent by experts for ad-hoc and post-mortem analysis. (authors)

  10. Mesh Network Design for Smart Charging Infrastructure and Electric Vehicle Remote Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepelev, Aleksey; Chung, Ching-Yen; Chu, Chi-Cheng; Gadh, Rajit

    2013-10-14

    Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) charging today happens with little knowledge of the state of the vehicle being charged. In order to implement smart charging algorithms and other capabilities of the future smart grid, provisions for remote PEV monitoring will have to be developed and tested. The UCLA Smart-grid Energy Research Center (SMERC) is working on a smart charging research platform that includes data acquired in real time from PEVs being charged in order to investigate smart charging algorithms and demand response (DR) strategies for PEVs in large parking garage settings. The system outlined in this work allows PEVs to be remotely monitored throughout the charging process by a smart-charging controller communicating through a mesh network of charging stations and in-vehicle monitoring devices. The approach may be used for Vehicle to Grid (V2G) communication as well as PEV monitoring.

  11. Optimization of hydrometric monitoring network in urban drainage systems using information theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdi, J

    2017-10-01

    Regular and continuous monitoring of urban runoff in both quality and quantity aspects is of great importance for controlling and managing surface runoff. Due to the considerable costs of establishing new gauges, optimization of the monitoring network is essential. This research proposes an approach for site selection of new discharge stations in urban areas, based on entropy theory in conjunction with multi-objective optimization tools and numerical models. The modeling framework provides an optimal trade-off between the maximum possible information content and the minimum shared information among stations. This approach was applied to the main surface-water collection system in Tehran to determine new optimal monitoring points under the cost considerations. Experimental results on this drainage network show that the obtained cost-effective designs noticeably outperform the consulting engineers' proposal in terms of both information contents and shared information. The research also determined the highly frequent sites at the Pareto front which might be important for decision makers to give a priority for gauge installation on those locations of the network.

  12. Network and Service Monitoring in Heterogeneous Home Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delphinanto, A.

    2012-01-01

    Home networks are becoming dynamic and technologically heterogeneous. They consist of an increasing number of devices which offer several functionalities and can be used for many different services. In the home, these devices are interconnected using a mixture of networking technologies (for

  13. A dense microseismic monitoring network in Korea for uncovering relationship between seismic activity and neotectonic features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, T.; Lee, J. M.; Kim, W.; Jo, B. G.; Chung, T.; Choi, S.

    2012-12-01

    A few tens of surface traces indicating movements in Quaternary were found in the southeastern part of the Korean Peninsula. Following both the geological and engineering definitions, those features are classified into "active", in geology, or "capable", in engineering, faults. On the other hand, the present-day seismicity of the region over a couple of thousand years is indistinguishable on the whole with the rest of the Korean Peninsula. It is therefore of great interest whether the present seismic activity is related to the neotectonic features or not. Either of conclusions is not intuitive in terms of the present state of seismic monitoring network in the region. Thus much interest in monitoring seismicity to provide an improved observation resolution and to lower the event-detection threshold has increased with many observations of the Quaternary faults. We installed a remote, wireless seismograph network which is composed of 20 stations with an average spacing of 10 km. Each station is equipped with a three-component Trillium Compact seismometer and Taurus digitizer. Instrumentation and analysis advancements are now offering better tools for this monitoring. This network is scheduled to be in operation over about one and a half year. In spite of the relatively short observation period, we expect that the high density of the network enables us to monitor seismic events with much lower magnitude threshold compared to the preexisting seismic network in the region. Following the Gutenberg-Richter relationship, the number of events with low magnitude is logarithmically larger than that with high magnitude. Following this rule, we can expect that many of microseismic events may reveal behavior of their causative faults, if any. We report the results of observation which has been performed over a year up to now.

  14. ZigBee wireless sensor network for environmental monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Shun-qi; Ji, Lei; Wu, Hong

    2009-11-01

    ZigBee is a new close-up, low-complexity, low-power, low data rate, low-cost wireless networking technology, mainly used for short distance wireless transmission. It is based on IEEE802.15.4 standards, thousands of tiny sensors form a network through mutual coordination to communications. This paper introduces the ZigBee wireless sensor networks in environmental monitoring applications. The hardware design, including microprocessor, data acquisition, antenna and peripheral circuits of the chips, and through software design composed ZigBee mesh network that can make data acquisition and communication. This network has low power consumption, low cost, the effective area is big, and information transfers reliable merits. And have confirmed the network's communication applicability by the Serial Com Assistant, also testified the network have very good pragmatism by the NS2 emulation the network's operation.

  15. Wave Monitoring with Wireless Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marin Perianu, Mihai; Chatterjea, Supriyo; Marin Perianu, Raluca; Bosch, S.; Dulman, S.O.; Kininmonth, Stuart; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Real-time collection of wave information is required for short and long term investigations of natural coastal processes. Current wave monitoring techniques use only point-measurements, which are practical where the bathymetry is relatively uniform. We propose a wave monitoring method that is

  16. Wireless Sensor Network Based Subsurface Contaminant Plume Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    Sensor Network (WSN) to monitor contaminant plume movement in naturally heterogeneous subsurface formations to advance the sensor networking based...time to assess the source and predict future plume behavior. This proof-of-concept research aimed at demonstrating the use of an intelligent Wireless

  17. Sleep Scheduling in Critical Event Monitoring with Wireless Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, Peng; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Kui

    In this paper, we focus on the applications of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) for critical event monitoring, where normally there are only small number of packets need to be transmitted, while when urgent event occurs, the alarm should be broadcast to the entire network as soon as possible. During

  18. 13th Workshop on Radiation Monitoring for the International Space Station - Final Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The Workshop on Radiation Monitoring for the International Space Station (WRMISS) has been held annually since 1996. The major purpose of WRMISS is to provide a forum for discussion of technical issues concerning radiation dosimetry aboard the International Space Station. This includes discussion of new results, improved instrumentation, detector calibration, and radiation environment and transport models. The goal of WRMISS is to enhance international efforts to provide the best information on the space radiation environment in low-Earth orbit and on the exposure of astronauts and cosmonauts in order to optimize the radiation safety of the ISS crew. During the 13 th Annual WRMISS, held in the Institute of Nuclear Physics (Krakow, Poland) on 8-10 September 2008, participants presented 47 lectures

  19. Geo-enviromental monitoring system of the oil storages on petrol stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimenkova Anastasiya Anatol'evna

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In large cities, fuel consumption is growing rapidly, and therefore the number of filling stations. And they are a source of anthropogenic impact on the environment and represent current scientific and practical task, because recently no research was conducted into the optimization of monitoring systems in the construction of gas station storage tanks, and no activity on replacing the obsolete design with new storage tanks. In this regard, much attention should be paid to the creation of geo-environmental systems integrated assessment of the environment, as well as modeling and forecasting various negative situations. In the modern world, the creation of such systems is possible with the help of modern computer tools such as geographic information systems.

  20. Wearable and Implantable Wireless Sensor Network Solutions for Healthcare Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Darwish, Ashraf; Hassanien, Aboul Ella

    2011-01-01

    Wireless sensor network (WSN) technologies are considered one of the key research areas in computer science and the healthcare application industries for improving the quality of life. The purpose of this paper is to provide a snapshot of current developments and future direction of research on wearable and implantable body area network systems for continuous monitoring of patients. This paper explains the important role of body sensor networks in medicine to minimize the need for caregivers ...

  1. Evaluation of Integration Degree of the ASG-EUPOS Polish Reference Networks With Ukrainian GeoTerrace Network Stations in the Border Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siejka, Zbigniew

    2017-09-01

    GNSS systems are currently the basic tools for determination of the highest precision station coordinates (e.g. basic control network stations or stations used in the networks for geodynamic studies) as well as for land, maritime and air navigation. All of these tasks are carried out using active, large scale, satellite geodetic networks which are complex, intelligent teleinformatic systems offering post processing services along with corrections delivered in real-time for kinematic measurements. Many countries in the world, also in Europe, have built their own multifunctional networks and enhance them with their own GNSS augmentation systems. Nowadays however, in the era of international integration, there is a necessity to consider collective actions in order to build a unified system, covering e.g. the whole Europe or at least some of its regions. Such actions have already been undertaken in many regions of the world. In Europe such an example is the development for EUPOS which consists of active national networks built in central eastern European countries. So far experience and research show, that the critical areas for connecting these networks are border areas, in which the positioning accuracy decreases (Krzeszowski and Bosy, 2011). This study attempts to evaluate the border area compatibility of Polish ASG-EUPOS (European Position Determination System) reference stations and Ukrainian GeoTerrace system reference stations in the context of their future incorporation into the EUPOS. The two networks analyzed in work feature similar hardware parameters. In the ASG-EUPOS reference stations network, during the analyzed period, 2 stations (WLDW and CHEL) used only one system (GPS), while, in the GeoTerrace network, all the stations were equipped with both GPS and GLONASS receivers. The ASG EUPOS reference station network (95.6%) has its average completeness greater by about 6% when compared to the GeoTerrace network (89.8%).

  2. Development of a Ground-Based Atmospheric Monitoring Network for the Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sprovieri F.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Consistent, high-quality measurements of atmospheric mercury (Hg are necessary in order to better understand Hg emissions, transport, and deposition on a global scale. Although the number of atmospheric Hg monitoring stations has increased in recent years, the available measurement database is limited and there are many regions of the world where measurements have not been extensively performed. Long-term atmospheric Hg monitoring and additional ground-based monitoring sites are needed in order to generate datasets that will offer new insight and information about the global scale trends of atmospheric Hg emissions and deposition. In the framework of the Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS project, a coordinated global observational network for atmospheric Hg is being established. The overall research strategy of GMOS is to develop a state-of-the-art observation system able to provide information on the concentration of Hg species in ambient air and precipitation on the global scale. This network is being developed by integrating previously established ground-based atmospheric Hg monitoring stations with newly established GMOS sites that are located both at high altitude and sea level locations, as well as in climatically diverse regions. Through the collection of consistent, high-quality atmospheric Hg measurement data, we seek to create a comprehensive assessment of atmospheric Hg concentrations and their dependence on meteorology, long-range atmospheric transport and atmospheric emissions.

  3. Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs for flood forecasting at Dongola Station in the River Nile, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulafa Hag Elsafi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Heavy seasonal rains cause the River Nile in Sudan to overflow and flood the surroundings areas. The floods destroy houses, crops, roads, and basic infrastructure, resulting in the displacement of people. This study aimed to forecast the River Nile flow at Dongola Station in Sudan using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN as a modeling tool and validated the accuracy of the model against actual flow. The ANN model was formulated to simulate flows at a certain location in the river reach, based on flow at upstream locations. Different procedures were applied to predict flooding by the ANN. Readings from stations along the Blue Nile, White Nile, Main Nile, and River Atbara between 1965 and 2003 were used to predict the likelihood of flooding at Dongola Station. The analysis indicated that the ANN provides a reliable means of detecting the flood hazard in the River Nile.

  4. Linking cluster analysis with synoptic meteorology to characterise chemical climates at six north-west European monitoring stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorling, S.R.; Davies, T.D. [Univ. of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    Synoptic scale atmospheric circulation patterns are often good surrogates for the transport pathway to an individual monitoring station. Davies et al. (1990) supported this idea by showing that the chemistry of precipitation samples collected at United Kingdom monitoring stations were strongly related to the Lamb weather type index, a daily classification of the synoptic circulation influencing United Kingdom weather. Such a classification does not, however, optimise the distinction between airflow from different directions and thus over different pollution source regions.

  5. Using a noise monitoring station in a small quarry located in an urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichers, Michiel; Iramina, Wilson Siguemasa; de Eston, Sérgio Médici; Ayres da Silva, Anna Luiza Marques

    2017-12-22

    Mining plays an important role in Brazilian exports. On the other hand, large urban centers like São Paulo, with approximately 21 million inhabitants, also demand an increasing domestic consumption of natural resources, such as construction aggregate. There are many quarries located in the surroundings of urban centers in Brazil, competing with the growth of urbanized areas. Such proximity leads to a series of conflicts involving quarries and surrounding communities, where the increase in noise levels is highlighted. Operations in quarries, in general, are intermittent. Noisier equipment, such as drilling rigs and primary crushers, operates only a few hours during the day, while other operations, such as screening and secondary and tertiary crushing, are more constant. This paper presents a study carried out in a quarry located near São Paulo, where in addition to conventional short term noise measurements at surrounding receptors, one noise monitoring station was installed, allowing to identify the noisiest moments during the quarry operating time. Through data transmitted by wireless technology, it was possible to follow the noise variations emitted from mining activities in real time and observe the noisiest events that were recorded for events that exceeded the established standards. A mobile application associated to this monitoring station facilitated the quarry's manager and employees to access immediately the monitoring information. Therefore, by using this system, it was possible to evaluate the effectiveness of noise reduction measures already taken and indicate what steps still need to be held.

  6. Efficient Network Monitoring for Attack Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Limmer, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Techniques for network-based intrusion detection have been evolving for years, and the focus of most research is on detection algorithms, although networks are distributed and dynamically managed nowadays. A data processing framework is required that allows to embed multiple detection techniques and to provide data with the needed aggregation levels. Within that framework, this work concentrates on methods that improve the interoperability of intrusion detection techniques and focuses on data...

  7. Research on a Banknote Printing Wastewater Monitoring System based on Wireless Sensor Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, B B; Yuan, Z F

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a banknote printing wastewater monitoring system based on WSN is presented in line with the system demands and actual condition of the worksite for a banknote printing factory. In Physical Layer, the network node is a nRF9e5-centric embedded instrument, which can realize the multi-function such as data collecting, status monitoring, wireless data transmission and so on. Limited by the computing capability, memory capability, communicating energy and others factors, it is impossible for the node to get every detail information of the network, so the communication protocol on WSN couldn't be very complicated. The competitive-based MACA (Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance) Protocol is introduced in MAC, which can decide the communication process and working mode of the nodes, avoid the collision of data transmission, hidden and exposed station problem of nodes. On networks layer, the routing protocol in charge of the transmitting path of the data, the networks topology structure is arranged based on address assignation. Accompanied with some redundant nodes, the network performances stabile and expandable. The wastewater monitoring system is a tentative practice of WSN theory in engineering. Now, the system has passed test and proved efficiently

  8. Applied network security monitoring collection, detection, and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Applied Network Security Monitoring is the essential guide to becoming an NSM analyst from the ground up. This book takes a fundamental approach to NSM, complete with dozens of real-world examples that teach you the key concepts of NSM. Network security monitoring is based on the principle that prevention eventually fails. In the current threat landscape, no matter how much you try, motivated attackers will eventually find their way into your network. At that point, it is your ability to detect and respond to that intrusion that can be the difference between a small incident and a major di

  9. Magnetic Repeat Station Network on the Baltic Sea — Why So Needed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welker Elżbieta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of navigation systems requires more and more accurate base data. Currently, attention is paid to utilization of geophysical fields — gravitational and magnetic ones — for navigation purposes. The Earth’s magnetic field distribution — both onshore and offshore — is complicated and variable in time. Hence, it is essential to precisely know the secular variations in the area of interest. In the case of Baltic Sea, this involves establishing (re-establishing of a marine network of secular points (repeat stations and regular magnetic measurements of the three independent components of the Earth’s magnetic field. Such measurements require equipment that ensures not only high stability, but also information about sensors’ orientation in relation to geographic north and to the level. This article presents a new project of the Baltic network of repeat stations and gives a solution for the instruments usable for quasi-absolute magnetic measurements.

  10. 25 years of monitoring the Waste Management Center of the Almirante Alvaro Alberto Nuclear Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, O.C; Barboza, E.; Cardoso, S.N.M., E-mail: landocf@eletronuclear.gov.br, E-mail: barboza@eletronuclear.gov.br, E-mail: sergion@eletronuclear.gov.br [Eletrobras Eletronuclear S.A (ELETONUCLEAR), Paraty, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Monitoracao Ambiental

    2013-07-01

    The goal of this paper is to present an assessment of 25 years of monitoring of the environment around the Waste Management Center (WMC) of the Almirante Alvaro Alberto Nuclear Power Station (AAANPS) since 1986 until 2011. The Environmental Monitoring Laboratory (EML) has, for purposes, to monitor the environment around the station to verify if there's a potential impact caused by the operation of the two units and to verify the dose rate levels around the waste deposits. The WMC is located in an area belonging to the AAANPS and receive solid waste of low and medium activities from Angra 1 NPP. The waste generated from Angra 2 NPP is stored inside the unit. The EML monitors the environment around the WMC to determine the environmental dose rate. The monitoring is made by direct measurement of the radiation using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). Nowadays, the TLD are installed, at this time, in 6 points at the boundaries of WMC and are changed monthly. The locations of these points were already changed several times to allow the construction of new buildings. The constitution of the TLD are 4 crystals, being 3 crystals of Calcium Sulphate doped with Thulium (CaSO{sub 4}:Tm) with 3 shields and 1 crystal of Lithium Borate doped with Copper (Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}:Cu) without shield. The results of the TLD measurements are normalized to a period of 30 days to compensate accidental statistical variations of the dose rates. The results, in these 25 years, show that the external area of the WMC is a supervised area, following the Norm CNEN-NN-3.01 - 'Diretrizes Basicas de Protecao Radiologica' - with access permitted only for authorized people. (author)

  11. 25 years of monitoring the Waste Management Center of the Almirante Alvaro Alberto Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, O.C; Barboza, E.; Cardoso, S.N.M.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present an assessment of 25 years of monitoring of the environment around the Waste Management Center (WMC) of the Almirante Alvaro Alberto Nuclear Power Station (AAANPS) since 1986 until 2011. The Environmental Monitoring Laboratory (EML) has, for purposes, to monitor the environment around the station to verify if there's a potential impact caused by the operation of the two units and to verify the dose rate levels around the waste deposits. The WMC is located in an area belonging to the AAANPS and receive solid waste of low and medium activities from Angra 1 NPP. The waste generated from Angra 2 NPP is stored inside the unit. The EML monitors the environment around the WMC to determine the environmental dose rate. The monitoring is made by direct measurement of the radiation using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). Nowadays, the TLD are installed, at this time, in 6 points at the boundaries of WMC and are changed monthly. The locations of these points were already changed several times to allow the construction of new buildings. The constitution of the TLD are 4 crystals, being 3 crystals of Calcium Sulphate doped with Thulium (CaSO 4 :Tm) with 3 shields and 1 crystal of Lithium Borate doped with Copper (Li 2 B 4 O 7 :Cu) without shield. The results of the TLD measurements are normalized to a period of 30 days to compensate accidental statistical variations of the dose rates. The results, in these 25 years, show that the external area of the WMC is a supervised area, following the Norm CNEN-NN-3.01 - 'Diretrizes Basicas de Protecao Radiologica' - with access permitted only for authorized people. (author)

  12. Output power distributions of mobile radio base stations based on network measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombi, D; Thors, B; Persson, T; Törnevik, C; Wirén, N; Larsson, L-E

    2013-01-01

    In this work output power distributions of mobile radio base stations have been analyzed for 2G and 3G telecommunication systems. The approach is based on measurements in selected networks using performance surveillance tools part of the network Operational Support System (OSS). For the 3G network considered, direct measurements of output power levels were possible, while for the 2G networks, output power levels were estimated from measurements of traffic volumes. Both voice and data services were included in the investigation. Measurements were conducted for large geographical areas, to ensure good overall statistics, as well as for smaller areas to investigate the impact of different environments. For high traffic hours, the 90th percentile of the averaged output power was found to be below 65% and 45% of the available output power for the 2G and 3G systems, respectively.

  13. Output power distributions of mobile radio base stations based on network measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombi, D.; Thors, B.; Persson, T.; Wirén, N.; Larsson, L.-E.; Törnevik, C.

    2013-04-01

    In this work output power distributions of mobile radio base stations have been analyzed for 2G and 3G telecommunication systems. The approach is based on measurements in selected networks using performance surveillance tools part of the network Operational Support System (OSS). For the 3G network considered, direct measurements of output power levels were possible, while for the 2G networks, output power levels were estimated from measurements of traffic volumes. Both voice and data services were included in the investigation. Measurements were conducted for large geographical areas, to ensure good overall statistics, as well as for smaller areas to investigate the impact of different environments. For high traffic hours, the 90th percentile of the averaged output power was found to be below 65% and 45% of the available output power for the 2G and 3G systems, respectively.

  14. DESIGN AND ENGINEERING BACKGROUND FOR STATION NETWORKS OF VERTICAL IONOSPHERE SOUNDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Y. Grishentsev

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with analysis of the network stations structure for ionosphere vertical sounding. Design features and creation principle of the program complexes for automated processing, analysis and storage of ionosphere sounding are considered. Conceptual model of complex database control system is created. The results of work are used in research practice of leading national organizations to study the ionosphere. Obtained application results of suggested algorithms and programs for automated processing and analysis of ionosphere vertical sounding are shown.

  15. Optical Performance Monitoring and Signal Optimization in Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Martin Nordal

    2006-01-01

    The thesis studies performance monitoring for the next generation optical networks. The focus is on all-optical networks with bit-rates of 10 Gb/s or above. Next generation all-optical networks offer large challenges as the optical transmitted distance increases and the occurrence of electrical-optical......-electrical regeneration points decreases. This thesis evaluates the impact of signal degrading effects that are becoming of increasing concern in all-optical high-speed networks due to all-optical switching and higher bit-rates. Especially group-velocity-dispersion (GVD) and a number of nonlinear effects will require...... enhanced attention to avoid signal degradations. The requirements for optical performance monitoring features are discussed, and the thesis evaluates the advantages and necessity of increasing the level of performance monitoring parameters in the physical layer. In particular, methods for optical...

  16. On-line gamma spectroscopy measuring station for cover gas monitoring at KNK II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, G.; Letz, K.D.

    1980-02-01

    An automated Ge-γ-spectrometer was developed for cover gas monitoring at KNK II which, by the gamma spectra measured, is to allow the following statements to be made on fuel cladding failure: Type, size, variation with time and subsequent development of the failure. In this report the hardware and software will be explained. Besides, an instruction manual was written for the measuring station, which allows to operate it without detailed knowledge of the manuals for the individual hardware components. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 MKO [de

  17. A portable meteorological station plus nuclear radiation monitoring system using a basic-8052 micro-controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mohamad, A.; Aghabi, S.; Weiss, C.

    2002-01-01

    a portable meteorology station capable of measuring various atmospheric parameters (mainly ambient temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind speed and direction) was designed and built. The physical quantities were converted to electrical signals using suitable sensors. These signals were then processed and transferred to digital values to be stored in suitable memories. A nuclear radiation alarm system was also built, on the main board, to monitor the nuclear radiation releases levels. The system consists of three main parts: control board, data acquisition board and signals conditioning board. the overall system is controlled by a BASIC-8052 micro-controller. (authors)

  18. The replacement gag vibration monitoring system for Hinkley Point 'B' power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagwell, T.; Morrish, M.F.G.

    1985-01-01

    The original computerised system for monitoring the vibration of gags in each reactor channel of the Hinkley Point 'B' AGR Power Station did not meet the specification for a more stringent safety requirement. This paper describes the replacement of that original single processor system with an enhanced dual processor/multiple scanner computer system used to satisfy this new safety and reliability need. The specification and installation of the new hardware and software are discussed, and some of the problems encountered and their solutions are highlighted. (author)

  19. A low cost micro-station to monitor soil water potential for irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannutelli, Edoardo; Masseroni, Daniele; Facchi, Arianna; Gandolfi, Claudio; Renga, Filippo

    2014-05-01

    The RISPArMiA project (which stands for "reduction of water wastage through the continuous monitoring of agri-environmental parameters") won in 2013 the contest called "LINFAS - The New Ideas Make Sustainable Agriculture" and sponsored by two Italian Foundations (Fondazione Italiana Accenture and Fondazione Collegio Università Milanesi). The objective of the RISPArMiA project is to improve the irrigation efficiency at the farm scale, by providing the farmer with a valuable decision support system for the management of irrigation through the use of low-cost sensors and technologies that can easily be interfaced with Mobile devices. Through the installation of tensiometric sensors within the cropped field, the soil water potential can be continuously monitored. Using open hardware electronic platforms, a data-logger for storing the measured data will be built. Data will be then processed through a software that will allow the conversion of the monitored information into an irrigation advice. This will be notified to the farmer if the measured soil water potential exceed literature crop-specific tensiometric thresholds. Through an extrapolation conducted on the most recent monitored data, it will be also possible to obtain a simple soil water potential prevision in absence of rain events. All the information will be sent directly to a virtual server and successively on the farmer Mobile devices. Each micro-station is completely autonomous from the energy point of view, since it is powered by batteries recharged by a solar panel. The transmission modulus consists of a GSM apparatus with a SIM card. The use of free platforms (Arduino) and low cost sensors (Watermark 200SS tensiometers and soil thermocouples) will significantly reduce the costs of construction of the micro-station which are expected to be considerably lower than those required for similar instruments on the market today . Six prototype micro-stations are actually under construction. Their field testing

  20. The network architecture and site test of DCIS in Lungmen nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C. K.

    2006-01-01

    The Lungmen Nuclear Power Station (LMNPS) is located in North-Eastern Seashore of Taiwan. LMNPP has two units. Each unit generates 1350 Megawatts. It is the first ABWR Plant in Taiwan and is under-construction now. Due to contractual arrangement, there are seven large I and C suppliers/designers, which are GE NUMAC, DRS, Invensys, GEIS, Hitachi, MHI, and Stone and Webster company. The Distributed Control and Information System (DCIS) in Lungmen are fully integrated with the state-of-the-art computer and network technology. General Electric is the leading designer for integration of DCIS. This paper presents Network Architecture and the Site Test of DCIS. The network architectures are follows. GE NUMAC System adopts the point to point architecture, DRS System adopts Ring type architecture with SCRAMNET protocol, Inevnsys system adopts IGiga Byte Backbone mesh network with Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol, GEIS adopts Ethernet network with EGD protocol, Hitachi adopts ring type network with proprietary protocol. MHI adopt Ethernet network with UDP. The data-links are used for connection between different suppliers. The DCIS architecture supports the plant automation, the alarm prioritization and alarm suppression, and uniform MMI screen for entire plant. The Test Program regarding the integration of different network architectures and Initial DCIS architecture Setup for 161KV Energization will be discussed. Test tool for improving site test schedule, and lessons learned from FAT will be discussed too. And conclusions are at the end of this paper. (authors)

  1. The network architecture and site test of DCIS in Lungmen nuclear power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C. K. [Instrument and Control Section, Lungmen Nuclear Power Station, Taiwan Power Company, Taipei County Taiwan (China)

    2006-07-01

    The Lungmen Nuclear Power Station (LMNPS) is located in North-Eastern Seashore of Taiwan. LMNPP has two units. Each unit generates 1350 Megawatts. It is the first ABWR Plant in Taiwan and is under-construction now. Due to contractual arrangement, there are seven large I and C suppliers/designers, which are GE NUMAC, DRS, Invensys, GEIS, Hitachi, MHI, and Stone and Webster company. The Distributed Control and Information System (DCIS) in Lungmen are fully integrated with the state-of-the-art computer and network technology. General Electric is the leading designer for integration of DCIS. This paper presents Network Architecture and the Site Test of DCIS. The network architectures are follows. GE NUMAC System adopts the point to point architecture, DRS System adopts Ring type architecture with SCRAMNET protocol, Inevnsys system adopts IGiga Byte Backbone mesh network with Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol, GEIS adopts Ethernet network with EGD protocol, Hitachi adopts ring type network with proprietary protocol. MHI adopt Ethernet network with UDP. The data-links are used for connection between different suppliers. The DCIS architecture supports the plant automation, the alarm prioritization and alarm suppression, and uniform MMI screen for entire plant. The Test Program regarding the integration of different network architectures and Initial DCIS architecture Setup for 161KV Energization will be discussed. Test tool for improving site test schedule, and lessons learned from FAT will be discussed too. And conclusions are at the end of this paper. (authors)

  2. Intercomparisons in the radiation monitoring network of the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuckova, S; Malatova, I [National Radiation Protection Inst., Prague (Czech Republic); Drabova, D [State Office for Nuclear Safety, Prague (Czech Republic)

    1996-12-31

    In Czech Republic, altogether 11 laboratories, equipped by semiconductor gamma spectrometry supply regularly to the Centre of Radiation Monitoring Network the measured data about the radionuclide activity concentration in different environmental samples, participating thus in monitoring of radiation situation in the country. The Center of Radiation Monitoring Network of Czech Republic periodically organizes through its reference laboratories interlaboratory comparison tests ensuring thus quality of the measurements within the radiation monitoring network. A ring intercomparison test was organized in 1994. The piece of steel rather highly contaminated by {sup 60}Co was used. In the intercomparison test 1994-1995 of pulverized concrete breeze-block containing fly ash with natural radionuclides were used. Results of this measurement is given as an example (authors).

  3. Network hydraulics inclusion in water quality event detection using multiple sensor stations data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliker, Nurit; Ostfeld, Avi

    2015-09-01

    Event detection is one of the current most challenging topics in water distribution systems analysis: how regular on-line hydraulic (e.g., pressure, flow) and water quality (e.g., pH, residual chlorine, turbidity) measurements at different network locations can be efficiently utilized to detect water quality contamination events. This study describes an integrated event detection model which combines multiple sensor stations data with network hydraulics. To date event detection modelling is likely limited to single sensor station location and dataset. Single sensor station models are detached from network hydraulics insights and as a result might be significantly exposed to false positive alarms. This work is aimed at decreasing this limitation through integrating local and spatial hydraulic data understanding into an event detection model. The spatial analysis complements the local event detection effort through discovering events with lower signatures by exploring the sensors mutual hydraulic influences. The unique contribution of this study is in incorporating hydraulic simulation information into the overall event detection process of spatially distributed sensors. The methodology is demonstrated on two example applications using base runs and sensitivity analyses. Results show a clear advantage of the suggested model over single-sensor event detection schemes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of Fast Charging Station Network for Electrified Ride-Hailing Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Eric W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rames, Clement L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kontou, Eleftheria [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Motoaki, Yutaka [Idaho National Laboratory; Smart, John [Idaho National Laboratory; Zhou, Zhi [Argonne National Laboratory

    2018-04-03

    Today's electric vehicle (EV) owners charge their vehicles mostly at home and seldom use public direct current fast charger (DCFCs), reducing the need for a large deployment of DCFCs for private EV owners. However, due to the emerging interest among transportation network companies to operate EVs in their fleet, there is great potential for DCFCs to be highly utilized and become economically feasible in the future. This paper describes a heuristic algorithm to emulate operation of EVs within a hypothetical transportation network company fleet using a large global positioning system data set from Columbus, Ohio. DCFC requirements supporting operation of EVs are estimated using the Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Projection tool. Operation and installation costs were estimated using real-world data to assess the economic feasibility of the recommended fast charging stations. Results suggest that the hypothetical transportation network company fleet increases daily vehicle miles traveled per EV with less overall down time, resulting in increased demand for DCFC. Sites with overhead service lines are recommended for hosting DCFC stations to minimize the need for trenching underground service lines. A negative relationship was found between cost per unit of energy and fast charging utilization, underscoring the importance of prioritizing utilization over installation costs when siting DCFC stations. Although this preliminary analysis of the impacts of new mobility paradigms on alternative fueling infrastructure requirements has produced several key results, the complexity of the problem warrants further investigation.

  5. Implementation of medical monitor system based on networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui; Cao, Yuzhen; Zhang, Lixin; Ding, Mingshi

    2006-11-01

    In this paper, the development trend of medical monitor system is analyzed and portable trend and network function become more and more popular among all kinds of medical monitor devices. The architecture of medical network monitor system solution is provided and design and implementation details of medical monitor terminal, monitor center software, distributed medical database and two kind of medical information terminal are especially discussed. Rabbit3000 system is used in medical monitor terminal to implement security administration of data transfer on network, human-machine interface, power management and DSP interface while DSP chip TMS5402 is used in signal analysis and data compression. Distributed medical database is designed for hospital center according to DICOM information model and HL7 standard. Pocket medical information terminal based on ARM9 embedded platform is also developed to interactive with center database on networks. Two kernels based on WINCE are customized and corresponding terminal software are developed for nurse's routine care and doctor's auxiliary diagnosis. Now invention patent of the monitor terminal is approved and manufacture and clinic test plans are scheduled. Applications for invention patent are also arranged for two medical information terminals.

  6. Subsidence monitoring network: an Italian example aimed at a sustainable hydrocarbon E&P activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Dacome

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available According to the Italian law in order to start-up any new hydrocarbon exploitation activity, an Environmental Impact Assessment study has to be presented, including a monitoring plan, addressed to foresee, measure and analyze in real time any possible impact of the project on the coastal areas and on those ones in the close inland located. The occurrence of subsidence, that could partly be related to hydrocarbon production, both on-shore and off-shore, can generate great concern in those areas where its occurrence may have impacts on the local environment. ENI, following the international scientific community recommendations on the matter, since the beginning of 90's years, implemented a cutting-edge monitoring network, with the aim to prevent, mitigate and control geodynamics phenomena generated in the activity areas, with a particular attention to conservation and protection of environmental and territorial equilibrium, taking care of what is known as "sustainable development". The current ENI implemented monitoring surveys can be divided as: – Shallow monitoring: spirit levelling surveys, continuous GPS surveys in permanent stations, SAR surveys, assestimeter subsurface compaction monitoring, ground water level monitoring, LiDAR surveys, bathymetrical surveys. – Deep monitoring: reservoir deep compaction trough radioactive markers, reservoir static (bottom hole pressure monitoring. All the information, gathered through the monitoring network, allow: 1. to verify if the produced subsidence is evolving accordingly with the simulated forecast. 2. to provide data to revise and adjust the prediction compaction models 3. to put in place the remedial actions if the impact exceeds the threshold magnitude originally agreed among the involved parties. ENI monitoring plan to measure and monitor the subsidence process, during field production and also after the field closure, is therefore intended to support a sustainable field development and an

  7. Subsidence monitoring network: an Italian example aimed at a sustainable hydrocarbon E&P activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacome, M. C.; Miandro, R.; Vettorel, M.; Roncari, G.

    2015-11-01

    According to the Italian law in order to start-up any new hydrocarbon exploitation activity, an Environmental Impact Assessment study has to be presented, including a monitoring plan, addressed to foresee, measure and analyze in real time any possible impact of the project on the coastal areas and on those ones in the close inland located. The occurrence of subsidence, that could partly be related to hydrocarbon production, both on-shore and off-shore, can generate great concern in those areas where its occurrence may have impacts on the local environment. ENI, following the international scientific community recommendations on the matter, since the beginning of 90's years, implemented a cutting-edge monitoring network, with the aim to prevent, mitigate and control geodynamics phenomena generated in the activity areas, with a particular attention to conservation and protection of environmental and territorial equilibrium, taking care of what is known as "sustainable development". The current ENI implemented monitoring surveys can be divided as: - Shallow monitoring: spirit levelling surveys, continuous GPS surveys in permanent stations, SAR surveys, assestimeter subsurface compaction monitoring, ground water level monitoring, LiDAR surveys, bathymetrical surveys. - Deep monitoring: reservoir deep compaction trough radioactive markers, reservoir static (bottom hole) pressure monitoring. All the information, gathered through the monitoring network, allow: 1. to verify if the produced subsidence is evolving accordingly with the simulated forecast. 2. to provide data to revise and adjust the prediction compaction models 3. to put in place the remedial actions if the impact exceeds the threshold magnitude originally agreed among the involved parties. ENI monitoring plan to measure and monitor the subsidence process, during field production and also after the field closure, is therefore intended to support a sustainable field development and an acceptable exploitation

  8. Stabilizing Health Monitoring for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-01

    tation on a heterogenous WSN testbed, Kansei, comprising hundreds of Motes (of multiple types, specifically XSMs and TMoteSkys), Stargates , and PCs...0s; serial link between Stargates and XSMs, 0s; XSM radio, 5s, where higher delay corresponds to higher link cost. From the base station to a given...XSM X0 there can be many potential paths, including B-E-SG0-S-X0 and B-E-SG1-S-X1-R-X0, where B is base, SG is a Stargate , X is an XSM, E is Ethernet, S

  9. Construct mine environment monitoring system based on wireless mesh network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Ge, Gengyu; Liu, Yinmei; Cheng, Aimin; Wu, Jun; Fu, Jun

    2018-04-01

    The system uses wireless Mesh network as a network transmission medium, and strive to establish an effective and reliable underground environment monitoring system. The system combines wireless network technology and embedded technology to monitor the internal data collected in the mine and send it to the processing center for analysis and environmental assessment. The system can be divided into two parts: the main control network module and the data acquisition terminal, and the SPI bus technology is used for mutual communication between them. Multi-channel acquisition and control interface design Data acquisition and control terminal in the analog signal acquisition module, digital signal acquisition module, and digital signal output module. The main control network module running Linux operating system, in which the transplant SPI driver, USB card driver and AODV routing protocol. As a result, the internal data collection and reporting of the mine are realized.

  10. Neural network training by Kalman filtering in process system monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciftcioglu, Oe.

    1996-03-01

    Kalman filtering approach for neural network training is described. Its extended form is used as an adaptive filter in a nonlinear environment of the form a feedforward neural network. Kalman filtering approach generally provides fast training as well as avoiding excessive learning which results in enhanced generalization capability. The network is used in a process monitoring application where the inputs are measurement signals. Since the measurement errors are also modelled in Kalman filter the approach yields accurate training with the implication of accurate neural network model representing the input and output relationships in the application. As the process of concern is a dynamic system, the input source of information to neural network is time dependent so that the training algorithm presents an adaptive form for real-time operation for the monitoring task. (orig.)

  11. New automatic radiation monitoring network in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cindro, M.; Vokal Nemec, B.

    2006-01-01

    The Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration gathers all on-line dose rate data measured by the various automatic networks operating throughout the territory of Slovenia. With the help of the PHARE financing program and in close cooperation with the Environmental agency of RS the upgrade of the existing network begun in 2005 and was finished in March 2006. The upgrade provided new measuring sites with all relevant data needed in case of a radiological accident. Even bigger improvement was made in the area of data presentation and analysis, which was the main shortcoming of the old system. (author)

  12. A study of reactor monitoring method with neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabeshima, Kunihiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the methodology of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) monitoring with neural networks, which create the plant models by the learning of the past normal operation patterns. The concept of this method is to detect the symptom of small anomalies by monitoring the deviations between the process signals measured from an actual plant and corresponding output signals from the neural network model, which might not be equal if the abnormal operational patterns are presented to the input of the neural network. Auto-associative network, which has same output as inputs, can detect an kind of anomaly condition by using normal operation data only. The monitoring tests of the feedforward neural network with adaptive learning were performed using the PWR plant simulator by which many kinds of anomaly conditions can be easily simulated. The adaptively trained feedforward network could follow the actual plant dynamics and the changes of plant condition, and then find most of the anomalies much earlier than the conventional alarm system during steady state and transient operations. Then the off-line and on-line test results during one year operation at the actual NPP (PWR) showed that the neural network could detect several small anomalies which the operators or the conventional alarm system didn't noticed. Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis suggests that the plant models by neural networks are appropriate. Finally, the simulation results show that the recurrent neural network with feedback connections could successfully model the slow behavior of the reactor dynamics without adaptive learning. Therefore, the recurrent neural network with adaptive learning will be the best choice for the actual reactor monitoring system. (author)

  13. Neural networks for sensor validation and plant monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyaya, B.R.; Eryurek, E.; Mathai, G.

    1990-01-01

    Sensor and process monitoring in power plants require the estimation of one or more process variables. Neural network paradigms are suitable for establishing general nonlinear relationships among a set of plant variables. Multiple-input multiple-output autoassociative networks can follow changes in plant-wide behavior. The backpropagation algorithm has been applied for training feedforward networks. A new and enhanced algorithm for training neural networks (BPN) has been developed and implemented in a VAX workstation. Operational data from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) have been used to study the performance of BPN. Several results of application to the EBR-II are presented

  14. Wireless Sensing Node Network Management for Monitoring Landslide Disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayama, S; Akiyama, J; Fujiki, T; Mokhtar, N A B

    2013-01-01

    This paper shows the network management and operation to monitor landslide disaster at slop of mountain and hill. Natural disasters damage a measuring system easily. It is necessary for the measuring system to be flexible and robust. The measuring network proposed in this paper is the telemetry system consisted of host system (HS) and local sensing nodes network system (LSNNS). LSNNS operates autonomously and sometimes is controlled by commands from HS. HS collects data/information of landslide disaster from LSNNS, and controls LSNNS remotely. HS and LSNNS are communicated by using 'cloud' system. The dual communication is very effective and convenient to manage a network system operation

  15. Networked Biomedical System for Ubiquitous Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjan Durresi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a distributed system that enables global and ubiquitous health monitoring of patients. The biomedical data will be collected by wearable health diagnostic devices, which will include various types of sensors and will be transmitted towards the corresponding Health Monitoring Centers. The permanent medical data of patients will be kept in the corresponding Home Data Bases, while the measured biomedical data will be sent to the Visitor Health Monitor Center and Visitor Data Base that serves the area of present location of the patient. By combining the measured biomedical data and the permanent medical data, Health Medical Centers will be able to coordinate the needed actions and help the local medical teams to make quickly the best decisions that could be crucial for the patient health, and that can reduce the cost of health service.

  16. Representativeness of air quality monitoring networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duyzer, J.; Hout, D. van den; Zandveld, P.; Ratingen, S. van

    2015-01-01

    The suitability of European networks to check compliance with air quality standards and to assess exposure of the population was investigated. An air quality model (URBIS) was applied to estimate and compare the spatial distribution of the concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in ambient air in

  17. Environmental pollutants monitoring network using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, D.D.

    1994-01-01

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) in collaboration with the NSW Environment Protection Authority (EPA), Pacific Power and the Universities of NSW and Macquarie has established a large area fine aerosol sampling network covering nearly 60,000 square kilometres of NSW with 25 fine particle samplers. This network known as ASP commenced sampling on 1 July 1991. The cyclone sampler at each site has a 2.5 μm particle diameter cut off and samples for 24 hours using a stretched Teflon filter for each day. Accelerator-based Ion Beam Analysis(IBA) techniques are well suited to analyse the thousands of filter papers a year that originate from such a large scale aerosol sampling network. These techniques are fast multi-elemental and, for the most part, non-destructive so other analytical methods such as neutron activation and ion chromatography can be performed afterwards. Currently ANSTO receives 300 filters per month from this network for analysis using its accelerator based ion beam techniques on a 3 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. One week a month of accelerator time is dedicated to this analysis. This paper described the four simultaneous accelerator based IBA techniques used at ANSTO, to analyse for the following 24 elements H, C, N, O, F, Na, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Ni, Co, Zn, Br and Pb. Each analysis requires only a few minutes of accelerator running time to complete. 15 refs., 9 figs

  18. The monitoring of the terrestrial environment around Almirante Alvaro Alberto nuclear power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, P.G.; Souza, R.F.; Cardoso, S.N.M., E-mail: pgtares@eletronuclear.gov.b, E-mail: rfsouza@eletronuclear.gov.b, E-mail: sergion@eletronuclear.gov.b [ELETROBRAS Eletronuclear S.A., Paraty, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Monitoracao Ambiental

    2011-07-01

    The goal of this paper is to evaluate the environmental monitoring around Almirante Alvaro Alberto Nuclear Power Station after the beginning the operation of Unit II, in July 2000. The Environmental Monitoring Laboratory (EML) has, for purpose, to monitor the environment around the station to verify if there is a potential impact caused by the operation of the units. The EML collects several environmental samples and analyses radiometrically to determine the presence of artificial radionuclides. The types of the samples are marine samples (sea water, fish, algae, beach sand and sediments), terrestrial (milk, banana, soil, grass, superficial and underground water and river water and sediment) and aerial samples (rain water, airborne for iodine and particulate). This paper only describes the monitoring of terrestrial samples. At the EML, the samples are prepared and analysed following international procedures. The samples of milk, banana, soil, grass, surface and underground water, river water and river sediment are analysed by gamma spectrometry in a multi-channel analyser GENIE-2000 System with High-purity Germanium (HpGe) detectors to determine the activities of the detectable radionuclides. The EML also analyses tritium in surface water by liquid scintillation counting. In addition, analysis of {sup 89}Sr/{sup 90}Sr, by beta counting and {sup 131}I by gamma spectrometry are performed in the processed milk. The results are, then, compared with those obtained in pre-operational time of Angra 1 (1978 - 1982) and those obtained in operational time of the units until 2010. The results show us that, from 1982 until now, there is no impact in terrestrial environment caused by the operation neither of Angra 1 nor both Angra 1 and Angra 2. (author)

  19. The monitoring of the terrestrial environment around Almirante Alvaro Alberto nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, P.G.; Souza, R.F.; Cardoso, S.N.M.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to evaluate the environmental monitoring around Almirante Alvaro Alberto Nuclear Power Station after the beginning the operation of Unit II, in July 2000. The Environmental Monitoring Laboratory (EML) has, for purpose, to monitor the environment around the station to verify if there is a potential impact caused by the operation of the units. The EML collects several environmental samples and analyses radiometrically to determine the presence of artificial radionuclides. The types of the samples are marine samples (sea water, fish, algae, beach sand and sediments), terrestrial (milk, banana, soil, grass, superficial and underground water and river water and sediment) and aerial samples (rain water, airborne for iodine and particulate). This paper only describes the monitoring of terrestrial samples. At the EML, the samples are prepared and analysed following international procedures. The samples of milk, banana, soil, grass, surface and underground water, river water and river sediment are analysed by gamma spectrometry in a multi-channel analyser GENIE-2000 System with High-purity Germanium (HpGe) detectors to determine the activities of the detectable radionuclides. The EML also analyses tritium in surface water by liquid scintillation counting. In addition, analysis of 89 Sr/ 9 0 Sr, by beta counting and 131 I by gamma spectrometry are performed in the processed milk. The results are, then, compared with those obtained in pre-operational time of Angra 1 (1978 - 1982) and those obtained in operational time of the units until 2010. The results show us that, from 1982 until now, there is no impact in terrestrial environment caused by the operation neither of Angra 1 nor both Angra 1 and Angra 2. (author)

  20. Quality assurance of gamma spectrometry in monitoring network of CSFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malatova, I.; Drabova, D.; Bucina, I.

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of the Chernobyl experience the Czechoslovak government decided in July 1986 to set up Czechoslovak Monitoring Network and to assign the Centre of Radiation Hygiene of the Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology to be its headquarters (Centre of Czechoslovak Monitoring Network). The requirements for emergency monitoring are stated in the document The principles of Monitoring for Protection of Public Health in case of a Radiation Accident approved by the Czechoslovak government in April 1987. Assignments of components of the Network, equipment and technical support required, aims of their activities and chronological order of their activation are stated in the document Requirements on Monitoring, Setting up and Equipment of the Czechoslovak Monitoring Network drawn up by the Centre and approved by the Czechoslovak Governmental Commission for Coordination of the Measures in Case of a Radiation Accident in April 1988. It should be noted, however, that basic principles of environmental monitoring aimed at obtaining the complete information of radiation situation, discharges and releases of radionuclides both during the normal operation and in case of an accident were worked on since putting the first PWR-type NPP in Czechoslovakia into operation in 1979. In March 1986 the Instruction for emergency monitoring was approved by the commission. The existence of this instruction and corresponding professional, technical and organizational preparedness of organizations departments responsible for monitoring manifested its positive impact especially in the situation after the Chernobyl accident. This fact refers especially to institutions of hygienic service and nuclear power engineering. National and international experience gained after the Chernobyl accident led to some elaboration in the organization of monitoring and to more precise definition of its conception

  1. Maintenance and Logistics Support for the International Monitoring System Network of the CTBTO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslinger, F.; Brely, N.; Akrawy, M.

    2007-05-01

    The global network of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), once completed, will consist of 321 monitoring facilities of four different technologies: hydroacoustic, seismic, infrasonic, and radionuclide. As of today, about 65% of the installations are completed and contribute data to the products issued by the International Data Centre (IDC) of the CTBTO. In order to accomplish the task to reliably collect evidence for any potential nuclear test explosion anywhere on the planet, all stations are required to perform to very high data availability requirements (at least 98% data availability over a 12-month period). To enable reaching this requirement, a three-layer concept has been developed to allow efficient support of the IMS stations: Operations, Maintenance and Logistics, and Engineering. Within this concept Maintenance and Logistics provide second level support of the stations, whereby problems arising at the station are assigned through the IMS ticket system to Maintenance if they cannot be resolved on the Operations level. Maintenance will then activate the required resources to appropriately address and ultimately resolve the problem. These resources may be equipment support contracts, other third party contracts, or the dispatch of a maintenance team. Engineering Support will be activated if the problem requires redesign of the station or after catastrophic failures when a total rebuild of a station may be necessary. In this model, Logistics Support is responsible for parts replenishment and support contract management. Logistics Support also collects and analyzes relevant failure mode and effect information, develops supportability models, and has the responsibility for document management, obsolescence, risk & quality, and configuration management, which are key elements for efficient station support. Maintenance Support in addition is responsible for maintenance strategies, for

  2. Earthquake Monitoring: SeisComp3 at the Swiss National Seismic Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, J. F.; Diehl, T.; Cauzzi, C.; Kaestli, P.

    2011-12-01

    The Swiss Seismological Service (SED) has an ongoing responsibility to improve the seismicity monitoring capability for Switzerland. This is a crucial issue for a country with low background seismicity but where a large M6+ earthquake is expected in the next decades. With over 30 stations with spacing of ~25km, the SED operates one of the densest broadband networks in the world, which is complimented by ~ 50 realtime strong motion stations. The strong motion network is expected to grow with an additional ~80 stations over the next few years. Furthermore, the backbone of the network is complemented by broadband data from surrounding countries and temporary sub-networks for local monitoring of microseismicity (e.g. at geothermal sites). The variety of seismic monitoring responsibilities as well as the anticipated densifications of our network demands highly flexible processing software. We are transitioning all software to the SeisComP3 (SC3) framework. SC3 is a fully featured automated real-time earthquake monitoring software developed by GeoForschungZentrum Potsdam in collaboration with commercial partner, gempa GmbH. It is in its core open source, and becoming a community standard software for earthquake detection and waveform processing for regional and global networks across the globe. SC3 was originally developed for regional and global rapid monitoring of potentially tsunamagenic earthquakes. In order to fulfill the requirements of a local network recording moderate seismicity, SED has tuned configurations and added several modules. In this contribution, we present our SC3 implementation strategy, focusing on the detection and identification of seismicity on different scales. We operate several parallel processing "pipelines" to detect and locate local, regional and global seismicity. Additional pipelines with lower detection thresholds can be defined to monitor seismicity within dense subnets of the network. To be consistent with existing processing

  3. Construction of research wind-solar monitoring station 'North-East Bulgaria'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateeva, Z.; Filipov, A.; Filipov, V.

    2008-01-01

    The rising energy prices, the lack of conventional energy sources, as well as the growing ecological problems, imposing the development of a new energy strategy of Bulgaria, are the prerequisites for the thorough researches in the field of wind-solar resources and the construction of experimental bases with modern equipment for the detailed investigations on the specificities of these resources with the view of their optimal utilization. The lack of homogenous covering of the territory of the country with meteorological stations, as well as the rather specific microclimatic conditions in the diverse physical-geographic localities in the country make the necessity of building experimental stations for meteo-monitoring under specific local conditions still more indispensable. This work presents the monitoring parameters of wind-solar resources in a real physical-geographic environment, for carrying out scientific-research, applied-practical and educational-training activity. A broad spectrum of scientific methods and approaches - instrumental, topographic, terrain, mathematical-statistical, numerical modeling, cartographic, educational and team-working, are envisaged for attaining the set objective. (author)

  4. Microseismic Monitoring of Strainburst Activities in Deep Tunnels at the Jinping II Hydropower Station, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, N. W.; Li, T. B.; Dai, F.; Zhang, R.; Tang, C. A.; Tang, L. X.

    2016-03-01

    Rockbursts were frequently encountered during the construction of deep tunnels at the Jinping II hydropower station, Southwest China. Investigations of the possibility of rockbursts during tunnel boring machine (TBM) and drilling and blasting (D&B) advancement are necessary to guide the construction of tunnels and to protect personnel and TBM equipment from strainburst-related accidents. A real-time, movable microseismic monitoring system was installed to forecast strainburst locations ahead of the tunnel faces. The spatiotemporal distribution evolution of microseismic events prior to and during strainbursts was recorded and analysed. The concentration of microseismic events prior to the occurrence of strainbursts was found to be a significant precursor to strainbursts in deep rock tunnelling. During a 2-year microseismic investigation of strainbursts in the deep tunnels at the Jinping II hydropower station, a total of 2240 strainburst location forecasts were issued, with 63 % correctly forecasting the locations of strainbursts. The successful forecasting of strainburst locations proved that microseismic monitoring is essential for the assessment and mitigation of strainburst hazards, and can be used to minimise damage to equipment and personnel. The results of the current study may be valuable for the construction management and safety assessment of similar underground rock structures under high in situ stress.

  5. Metropolitan garbage dumps: possible winter migratory raptor monitoring stations in peninsular India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pande

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Winter raptor migration and movement is poorly documented for peninsular India, mainly due to the lack of geographical bottlenecks. We describe, for the first time, the use of a garbage dump in a metropolitan city as an alternative visual winter raptor monitoring station. The daily count, adult to juvenile ratios and species composition of three migratory raptor species, Steppe Eagle Aquila nipalensis, Black-eared Kite Milvus migrans lineatus and Tawny Eagle Aquila rapax are presented. Ground temperatures at the garbage dump site and surrounding area, and the wing beat rate of migratory raptors before and after arrival in the early morning were measured. A total of 355 raptors migrating over a period of six observation days with 250 adults and 105 juveniles were recorded. The temperature of the garbage dump was significantly higher than the surrounding area, while the wing flapping rate was significantly lower over the garbage dump area. It is possible that migrating raptors use garbage dump thermals in the early morning to save energy with soaring and gliding flight (versus flapping flight. We propose that such sites may be used as visual winter migration monitoring stations in metropolitan cities in peninsular India.

  6. Locomotive monitoring system using wireless sensor networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Croucamp, PL

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Theft of cables used for powering a locomotive not only stops the train from functioning but also paralyzes the signalling and monitoring system. This means that information on certain locomotive's cannot be passed onto other locomotives which may...

  7. LANDMON a new integrated system for the management of landslide monitoring networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrzesniak, Aleksandra; Giordan, Daniele; Allasia, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Over the last decades, technological development has strongly increased the number of instruments that can be used to monitor landslide phenomena. Robotized Total Stations, GB-InSAR and GPS are only few examples of the devices that can be adapted to monitor the topographic changes due to mass movements. They are often organized in a complex network, aimed at controlling physical parameters related to the evolution of landslide activity. The level of complexity of these monitoring networks increases with the number of new available monitoring devices and this could generate a paradox: the source of data is so numerous and difficult to interpret that a full understanding of the phenomenon could be hampered. The Geohazard Monitoring Group (GMG) of Italian National Research Council (CNR) has a long experience in landslide monitoring. Over the years, GMG has developed a multidisciplinary approach for landslide management strategy called LANDMON (LANDslide MOnitoring Network). It is an automatic hybrid system focused not only on capturing and elaborating data from monitored site but also on web applications and on publishing bulletins aimed to disseminate monitoring results and to support decision makers. LANDMON is currently active in many landslide sites distributed in several areas in Italy and in Europe. LANDMON is derived from the previously developed systems like ADVICE (ADVanced dIsplaCement monitoring system for Early warning) and 3DA (three-dimensional Displacement Analysis). These systems are aimed to collect and to process monitoring dataset, to manage early warning application based on pre-defined thresholds, and to publish three-dimensional displacement maps in near real time. In addition, LANDMON integrates several new features, such as WebGIS application, modelling using inverse velocity method, and management of webcam monitoring system, meteorological parameters and borehole inclinometric data. Moreover, LANDMON is a communication strategy that focuses

  8. Development of an advanced radioactive airborne particle monitoring system for use in early warning networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, A; Corbacho, J A; Caballero, J M; Ontalba, M A; Vasco, J; Valencia, D

    2017-09-25

    Automatic real-time warning networks are essential for the almost immediate detection of anomalous levels of radioactivity in the environment. In the case of Extremadura region (SW Spain), a radiological network (RARE) has been operational in the vicinity of the Almaraz nuclear power plant and in other areas farther away since 1992. There are ten air monitoring stations equipped with Geiger-Müller counters in order to evaluate the external ambient gamma dose rate. Four of these stations have a commercial system that provides estimates of the total artificial alpha and beta activity concentrations in aerosols, and of the 131 I activity (gaseous fraction). Despite experience having demonstrated the benefits and robustness of these commercial systems, important improvements have been made to one of these air monitoring systems. In this paper, the analytical and maintenance shortcomings of the original commercial air monitoring system are described first; the new custom-designed advanced air monitoring system is then presented. This system is based mainly on the incorporation of gamma spectrometry using two scintillation detectors, one of NaI:Tl and the other of LaBr 3 :Ce, and compact multichannel analysers. Next, a comparison made of the results provided by the two systems operating simultaneously at the same location for three months shows the advantages of the new advanced air monitoring system. As a result, the gamma spectrometry analysis allows passing from global alpha and beta activity determinations due to artificial radionuclides in aerosols, and the inaccurate measurement of the gaseous 131 I activity concentration, to the possibility of identifying a large number of radionuclides and quantifying each of their activity concentrations. Moreover, the new station's dual capacity is designed to work in early warning monitoring mode and surveillance monitoring mode. This is based on custom developed software that includes an intelligent system to issue the

  9. Recent development of infrasound monitoring network in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghica, Daniela; Popa, Mihaela; Ionescu, Constantin

    2017-04-01

    The second half of 2016 was marked at National Institute for Earth Physics (NIEP) by a significant development of infrasound monitoring infrastructure in Romania. In addition to IPLOR, the 6-element acoustic array installed at Plostina, in the central part of Romania, since 2009, two other four-element arrays were deployed. The first one, BURARI infrasound research array, was deployed in late July 2016, under a joint effort of AFTAC, USA and NIEP, in the northern part of Romania, in Bucovina region. The sites, placed in vicinity of the central elements of BURAR seismic array (over 1.2 km aperture), are equipped with Chaparral Physics Model 21 microbarometers and Reftek RT 130 data loggers. The data, used mainly for research purposes within the scientific collaboration project between NIEP and AFTAC, are available to scientific community. The second one is a PTS portable infrasound array (I67RO) deployed for one year, starting with the end of September 2016, within a collaboration project between NIEP and PTS of the Preparatory Commission for CTBTO. This array is located in the western part of Romania, at Marisel, Cluj County, covering a 0.9 km aperture and being equipped with CEA/DAM MB2005 microbarometers and Reftek RT 130 data loggers. This joint experiment aims to contribute both to advanced understanding of infrasound sources in Central-Europe and to ARISE design study project, as an expansion of the spatial coverage of the European infrasound network. The data recorded by the three infrasound arrays deployed in Romania, during a same time interval (October - December 2016) were processed into detection arrival bulletins applying CEA/DASE PMCC algorithm embedded in DTK-GPMCC (extended CTBTO NDC-in-a-box) and WinPMCC software applications. The results were plotted and analyzed using DTK-DIVA software (extended CTBTO NDC-in-a-box), in order to assess detectability of each station, as well as the capacity of fusing detections into support of infrasound monitoring

  10. Ozone and atmospheric pollution at synoptic scale: the monitoring network Paes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gheusi, F.; Chevalier, A.; Delmas, R.; Athier, G.; Bouchou, P.; Cousin, J.M.; Meyerfeld, Y.; Laj, P.; Sellegri, K.; Ancellet, G.

    2007-01-01

    Ozone as an environmental concern extends beyond the questions usually covered by media - stratospheric ozone depletion and urban pollution peaks. Strong expositions to this pollutant are frequent even far from pollution sources, and the background tropospheric content of ozone has been growing fivefold over the last century. In response to this concern at the French national scale, formerly independent monitoring stations have been coordinated since 2004 in a structured network: Paes (French acronym for atmospheric pollution at synoptic scale). The data are put in free access online. (authors)

  11. Technical note: The US Dobson station network data record prior to 2015, re-evaluation of NDACC and WOUDC archived records with WinDobson processing software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Robert D.; Petropavlovskikh, Irina; McClure-Begley, Audra; McConville, Glen; Quincy, Dorothy; Miyagawa, Koji

    2017-10-01

    The United States government has operated Dobson ozone spectrophotometers at various sites, starting during the International Geophysical Year (1 July 1957 to 31 December 1958). A network of stations for long-term monitoring of the total column content (thickness of the ozone layer) of the atmosphere was established in the early 1960s and eventually grew to 16 stations, 14 of which are still operational and submit data to the United States of America's National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Seven of these sites are also part of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC), an organization that maintains its own data archive. Due to recent changes in data processing software the entire dataset was re-evaluated for possible changes. To evaluate and minimize potential changes caused by the new processing software, the reprocessed data record was compared to the original data record archived in the World Ozone and UV Data Center (WOUDC) in Toronto, Canada. The history of the observations at the individual stations, the instruments used for the NOAA network monitoring at the station, the method for reducing zenith-sky observations to total ozone, and calibration procedures were re-evaluated using data quality control tools built into the new software. At the completion of the evaluation, the new datasets are to be published as an update to the WOUDC and NDACC archives, and the entire dataset is to be made available to the scientific community. The procedure for reprocessing Dobson data and the results of the reanalysis on the archived record are presented in this paper. A summary of historical changes to 14 station records is also provided.

  12. Technical note: The US Dobson station network data record prior to 2015, re-evaluation of NDACC and WOUDC archived records with WinDobson processing software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Evans

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The United States government has operated Dobson ozone spectrophotometers at various sites, starting during the International Geophysical Year (1 July 1957 to 31 December 1958. A network of stations for long-term monitoring of the total column content (thickness of the ozone layer of the atmosphere was established in the early 1960s and eventually grew to 16 stations, 14 of which are still operational and submit data to the United States of America's National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA. Seven of these sites are also part of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC, an organization that maintains its own data archive. Due to recent changes in data processing software the entire dataset was re-evaluated for possible changes. To evaluate and minimize potential changes caused by the new processing software, the reprocessed data record was compared to the original data record archived in the World Ozone and UV Data Center (WOUDC in Toronto, Canada. The history of the observations at the individual stations, the instruments used for the NOAA network monitoring at the station, the method for reducing zenith-sky observations to total ozone, and calibration procedures were re-evaluated using data quality control tools built into the new software. At the completion of the evaluation, the new datasets are to be published as an update to the WOUDC and NDACC archives, and the entire dataset is to be made available to the scientific community. The procedure for reprocessing Dobson data and the results of the reanalysis on the archived record are presented in this paper. A summary of historical changes to 14 station records is also provided.

  13. Radiation monitoring using manned helicopter around the nuclear power station in the fiscal year 2015 (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanada, Yukihisa; Munakata, Masahiro; Mori, Airi; Ishizaki, Azusa; Shimada, Kazumasa; Hirouchi, Jun; Urabe, Yoshimi; Nakanishi, Chika; Yamada, Tsutomu; Iwai, Takeyuki; Matsunaga, Yuki; Toyoda, Masayuki; Tobita, Shinichiro; Nishizawa, Yukiyasu; Ishida, Mutsushi; Sato, Yoshiharu; Sasaki, Miyuki; Hirayama, Hirokatsu; Takamura, Yoshihide; Nishihara, Katsuya; Imura, Mitsuo; Miyamoto, Kenji; Kudo, Tamotsu; Nakayama, Shinichi

    2016-10-01

    By the nuclear disaster of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS), Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO), caused by the East Japan earthquake and the following tsunami occurred on March 11, 2011, a large amount of radioactive materials was released from the NPS. After the nuclear disaster, airborne radiation monitoring using manned helicopter was conducted around FDNPS. In addition, background dose rate monitoring was conducted around the Sendai Nuclear Power Station. These results of the aerial radiation monitoring using the manned helicopter in the fiscal 2015 were summarized in the report. In addition, we developed the discrimination technique of the Rn-progenies and the evaluation of radiation attenuation by snow. (author)

  14. Monitoring equipment environment during nuclear plant operation at Salem and Hope Creek generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, A.; Smith, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    Monitoring of environmental parameters has become a significant issue for operating nuclear power plants. While the long-term benefits of plant life extension programs are being pursued with comprehensive environmental monitoring programs, the potential effect of local hot spots at various plant locations needs to be evaluated for its effect on equipment degradation and shortening of equipment qualified life. A significant benefit can be experienced from temperature monitoring when a margin exists between the design versus actual operating temperature. This margin can be translated into longer equipment qualified life and significant reduction in maintenance activities. At PSE and G, the immediate need for monitoring environmental parameters is being accomplished via the use of a Logic Beach Bitlogger. The Bitlogger is a portable data loggings system consisting of a system base, input modules and a communication software package. Thermocouples are installed on selected electrical equipment and cables are run from the thermocouples to the input module of the Bitlogger. Temperature readings are taken at selected intervals, stored in memory, and downloaded periodically to a PC software program, i.e., Lotus. The data is formatted into tabular or graphical documents. Because of their versatility, Bitloggers are being used differently at the authors Nuclear facility. At the Salem Station (2 Units-4 loop Westinghouse PWR), a battery powered, fully portable, calibrated Bitlogger is located in an accessible area inside Containment where it monitors the temperature of various electrical equipment within the Pressurizer Enclosure. It is planned that close monitoring of the local hot spot temperatures in this area will allow them to adjust and reconcile the environmental qualification of the equipment

  15. Respiration Symptoms Monitoring in Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a framework that monitors particular symptoms such as respiratory conditions (abnormal breathing pattern experienced by hyperthyreosis, sleep apnea, and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS patients. The proposed framework detects and monitors respiratory condition using S-Band sensing technique that leverages the wireless devices such as antenna, card, omni-directional antenna operating in 2 GHz to 4 GHz frequency range, and wireless channel information extraction tool. The rhythmic patterns extracted using S-Band sensing present the periodic and non-periodic waveforms that correspond to normal and abnormal respiratory conditions, respectively. The fine-grained amplitude information obtained using aforementioned devices is used to examine the breathing pattern over a period of time and accurately identifies the particular condition.

  16. Setup and Calibration of SLAC's Peripheral Monitoring Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, C.

    2004-09-03

    The goals of this project were to troubleshoot, repair, calibrate, and establish documentation regarding SLAC's (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center's) PMS (Peripheral Monitoring Station) system. The PMS system consists of seven PMSs that continuously monitor skyshine (neutron and photon) radiation levels in SLAC's environment. Each PMS consists of a boron trifluoride (BF{sub 3}) neutron detector (model RS-P1-0802-104 or NW-G-20-12) and a Geiger Moeller (GM) gamma ray detector (model TGM N107 or LND 719) together with their respective electronics. Electronics for each detector are housed in Nuclear Instrument Modules (NIMs) and are plugged into a NIM bin in the station. All communication lines from the stations to the Main Control Center (MCC) were tested prior to troubleshooting. To test communication with MCC, a pulse generator (Systron Donner model 100C) was connected to each channel in the PMS and data at MCC was checked for consistency. If MCC displayed no data, the communication cables to MCC or the CAMAC (Computer Automated Measurement and Control) crates were in need of repair. If MCC did display data, then it was known that the communication lines were intact. All electronics from each station were brought into the lab for troubleshooting. Troubleshooting usually consisted of connecting an oscilloscope or scaler (Ortec model 871 or 775) at different points in the circuit of each detector to record simulated pulses produced by a pulse generator; the input and output pulses were compared to establish the location of any problems in the circuit. Once any problems were isolated, repairs were done accordingly. The detectors and electronics were then calibrated in the field using radioactive sources. Calibration is a process that determines the response of the detector. Detector response is defined as the ratio of the number of counts per minute interpreted by the detector to the amount of dose equivalent rate (in mrem per hour, either calculated

  17. Managing Recurrent Congestion of Subway Network in Peak Hours with Station Inflow Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingru Zou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Station inflow control (SIC is an important and effective method for reducing recurrent congestion during peak hours in the Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou subway systems. This work proposes a practical and efficient method for establishing a static SIC scheme in normal weekdays for large-scale subway networks. First, a traffic assignment model without capacity constraint is utilized to determine passenger flow distributions on the network. An internal relationship between station inflows and section flows is then constructed. Second, capacity bottlenecks are identified by considering the transport capacity of each section. Then, a feedback-based bottleneck elimination strategy is established to search target control stations and determine their control time and control strength. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, a decision support system coded in the C# programming language was developed, and the Beijing subway was used as a case study. The results indicate that the proposed method and tool are capable of practical applications, and the generated SIC plan has better performance over the existing SIC plan. This study provides a practical and useful method for operation agencies to construct SIC schemes in the subway system.

  18. SURFmap: A Network Monitoring Tool Based on the Google Maps API

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, R.J.; Hofstede, R. J.; Fioreze, Tiago

    2009-01-01

    Network monitoring allows network managers to get a better insight in the network traffic transiting in a managed network. In order to make the tasks of a network manager easier, many network monitoring tools are made available for a wide range of purposes (e.g., traffic accounting, performance

  19. Optimization of deformation monitoring networks using finite element strain analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh-Khameneh, M. Amin; Eshagh, Mehdi; Jensen, Anna B. O.

    2018-04-01

    An optimal design of a geodetic network can fulfill the requested precision and reliability of the network, and decrease the expenses of its execution by removing unnecessary observations. The role of an optimal design is highlighted in deformation monitoring network due to the repeatability of these networks. The core design problem is how to define precision and reliability criteria. This paper proposes a solution, where the precision criterion is defined based on the precision of deformation parameters, i. e. precision of strain and differential rotations. A strain analysis can be performed to obtain some information about the possible deformation of a deformable object. In this study, we split an area into a number of three-dimensional finite elements with the help of the Delaunay triangulation and performed the strain analysis on each element. According to the obtained precision of deformation parameters in each element, the precision criterion of displacement detection at each network point is then determined. The developed criterion is implemented to optimize the observations from the Global Positioning System (GPS) in Skåne monitoring network in Sweden. The network was established in 1989 and straddled the Tornquist zone, which is one of the most active faults in southern Sweden. The numerical results show that 17 out of all 21 possible GPS baseline observations are sufficient to detect minimum 3 mm displacement at each network point.

  20. On-line plant-wide monitoring using neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkcan, E.; Ciftcioglu, O.; Eryurek, E.; Upadhyaya, B.R.

    1992-06-01

    The on-line signal analysis system designed for a multi-level mode operation using neural networks is described. The system is capable of monitoring the plant states by tracking different number of signals up to 32 simultaneously. The data used for this study were acquired from the Borssele Nuclear Power Plant (PWR type), and using the on-line monitoring system. An on-line plant-wide monitoring study using a multilayer neural network model is discussed in this paper. The back-propagation neural network algorithm is used for training the network. The technique assumes that each physical state of the power plant can be represented by a unique pattern of instrument readings which can be related to the condition of the plant. When disturbance occurs, the sensor readings undergo a transient, and form a different set of patterns which represent the new operational status. Diagnosing these patterns can be helpful in identifying this new state of the power plant. To this end, plant-wide monitoring with neutral networks is one of the new techniques in real-time applications. (author). 9 refs.; 5 figs

  1. Monitoring the Microgravity Environment Quality On-board the International Space Station Using Soft Computing Techniques. Part 2; Preliminary System Performance Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules, Kenol; Lin, Paul P.; Weiss, Daniel S.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary performance results of the artificial intelligence monitoring system in full operational mode using near real time acceleration data downlinked from the International Space Station. Preliminary microgravity environment characterization analysis result for the International Space Station (Increment-2), using the monitoring system is presented. Also, comparison between the system predicted performance based on ground test data for the US laboratory "Destiny" module and actual on-orbit performance, using measured acceleration data from the U.S. laboratory module of the International Space Station is presented. Finally, preliminary on-orbit disturbance magnitude levels are presented for the Experiment of Physics of Colloids in Space, which are compared with on ground test data. The ground test data for the Experiment of Physics of Colloids in Space were acquired from the Microgravity Emission Laboratory, located at the NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio. The artificial intelligence was developed by the NASA Glenn Principal Investigator Microgravity Services Project to help the principal investigator teams identify the primary vibratory disturbance sources that are active, at any moment of time, on-board the International Space Station, which might impact the microgravity environment their experiments are exposed to. From the Principal Investigator Microgravity Services' web site, the principal investigator teams can monitor via a dynamic graphical display, implemented in Java, in near real time, which event(s) is/are on, such as crew activities, pumps, fans, centrifuges, compressor, crew exercise, structural modes, etc., and decide whether or not to run their experiments, whenever that is an option, based on the acceleration magnitude and frequency sensitivity associated with that experiment. This monitoring system detects primarily the vibratory disturbance sources. The system has built-in capability to detect both known

  2. Breadth of Scientific Activities and Network Station Specifications in the International GPS Service (IGS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, A. W.; Neilan, R. E.; Springer, T. A.; Reigber, Ch.

    2000-01-01

    A strong multipurpose aspect of the International GPS Service (IGS) is revealed by a glance at the titles of current projects and working groups within the IGS: IGS/BIPM Time Transfer Project; Ionosphere Working Group; Troposphere Working Group; International GLONASS Experiment; Working Group on Low-Earth Orbiter Missions; and Tide Gauges, CGPS, and the IGS. The IGS network infrastructure, in large part originally commissioned for geodynamical investigations, has proved to be a valuable asset in developing application-oriented subnetworks whose requirements overlap the characteristics of existing IGS stations and future station upgrades. Issues encountered thus far in the development of multipurpose or multitechnique IGS projects as well as future possibilities will be reviewed.

  3. GULF OF MEXICO SEAFLOOR STABILITY AND GAS HYDRATE MONITORING STATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Robert Woolsey; Thomas M. McGee; Robin C. Buchannon

    2004-11-01

    The gas hydrates research Consortium (HRC), established and administered at the University if Mississippi's Center for Marine Research and Environmental Technology (CMRET) has been active on many fronts in FY 03. Extension of the original contract through March 2004, has allowed completion of many projects that were incomplete at the end of the original project period due, primarily, to severe weather and difficulties in rescheduling test cruises. The primary objective of the Consortium, to design and emplace a remote sea floor station for the monitoring of gas hydrates in the Gulf of Mexico by the year 2005 remains intact. However, the possibility of levering HRC research off of the Joint Industries Program (JIP) became a possibility that has demanded reevaluation of some of the fundamental assumptions of the station format. These provisions are discussed in Appendix A. Landmark achievements of FY03 include: (1) Continuation of Consortium development with new researchers and additional areas of research contribution being incorporated into the project. During this period, NOAA's National Undersea Research Program's (NURP) National Institute for Undersea Science and Technology (NIUST) became a Consortium funding partner, joining DOE and Minerals Management Service (MMS); (2) Very successful annual and semiannual meetings in Oxford Mississippi in February and September, 2003; (3) Collection of piston cores from MC798 in support of the effort to evaluate the site for possible monitoring station installation; (4) Completion of the site evaluation effort including reports of all localities in the northern Gulf of Mexico where hydrates have been documented or are strongly suspected to exist on the sea floor or in the shallow subsurface; (5) Collection and preliminary evaluation of vent gases and core samples of hydrate from sites in Green Canyon and Mississippi Canyon, northern Gulf of Mexico; (6) Monitoring of gas activity on the sea floor, acoustically

  4. Greenland Ice Sheet Monitoring Network (GLISN): Contributions to Science and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, K. R.; Bonaime, S.; Clinton, J. F.; Dahl-Jensen, T.; Debski, W. M.; Giardini, D.; Govoni, A.; Kanao, M.; Larsen, T. B.; Lasocki, S.; Lee, W. S.; McCormack, D. A.; Mykkeltveit, S.; Nettles, M.; Stutzmann, E.; Strollo, A.; Sweet, J. R.; Tsuboi, S.; Vallee, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Greenland Ice Sheet Monitoring Network (GLISN) is a broadband, multi-use seismological network, enhanced by selected geodetic observations, designed with the capability to allow researchers to understand the changes currently occurring in the Arctic, and with the operational characteristics necessary to enable response to those changes as understanding improves. GLISN was established through an international collaboration, with 10 nations coordinating their efforts to develop the current 34-station observing network during the last eight years. All of the data collected are freely and openly available in near-real time. The network was designed to transform the community capability for recording, analysis, and interpretation of seismic signals generated by discrete events in Greenland and the Arctic, as well as those traversing the region. Data from the network support a wide range of uses, including estimation of the properties of the solid Earth that control isostatic adjustment rates and set key boundary conditions for ice-sheet evolution; analysis of tectonic earthquakes throughout Greenland and the Arctic; study of the seismic signals associated with large calving events and changing glacier dynamics; and variations in ice and snow properties within the Greenland Ice Sheet. Recordings from the network have also provided invaluable data for rapid evaluation and understanding of the devastating landslide and tsunami that occurred near Nuugaatsiaq, Greenland, in June, 2017. The GLISN strategy of maximizing data quality from a network of approximately evenly distributed stations, delivering data in near-real time, and archiving a continuous data stream easily accessible to researchers, allows continuous discovery of new uses while also facilitating the generation of data products, such as catalogs of tectonic and glacial earthquakes and GPS-based estimates of snow height, that allow for assessment of change over time.

  5. Environmental monitoring report for the Point Lepreau, New Brunswick nuclear generating station 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.W.P.; Ellis, K.M.; Smith, J.N.

    1986-07-01

    The Point Lepreau Environmental Monitoring Program (PLEMP) has been established within the Department of Fisheries and Oceans to assess the environmental impact of radioactive, thermal, and chemical releases from the Point Lepreau, N.B. Nuclear Generating Station (NGS) located on the Bay of Fundy. This report contains the results for the second year of the operational phase of the monitoring program. Emphasis has been placed on those areas where effects from the NGS operation were expected to be observed. Further studies were carried out on the characterization of the thermal plume during several pre-arranged tritium releases. Attention was given to tritium levels at the outfall, in the atmosphere and in biological samples. An initial attempt was made to relate the distribution of tritium in the Point Lepreau area in various phases to local meteorological conditions. Radionuclide levels in lichen, including, for the first time, aerial lichen on a regular basis, an efficient accumulator of atmospheric particulates were monitored. In addition, radionuclide measurements were made on samples collected during the pre-operational phase from the major environmental reservoirs and these radioactivity levels were compared to previous measurements to assess the impact of the operation of the NGS. The purpose of this program is to provide government with a comprehensive scientific basis upon which to assess the environmental implications of the operation of nuclear reactors in coastal regions

  6. Experience with the TUeV pipe monitoring system at the Grohnde nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmar, H.; Hofstoetter, P.

    1995-01-01

    A special pipe monitoring system has been developed by TUeV Rheinland during the construction, commissioning and operation of the Grohnde nuclear power station. On the basis of measurements during construction and commissioning a basic monitoring system has been developed, using not only a system of sophisticated sensors that had been permanently installed from the beginning but also a large number of quite simple additional sensors. Measurements were taken before, during and after inspections and led to the discovery of unexpected and high stresses during service as well as to long-term changes over a period of years.Special measurements were taken with high temperature strain gauges and thermocouples to identify problems such as temperature layering. A special on-line measuring device was developed and used for the continuous monitoring of temperatures during operation.All these measurements help to identify out areas with high stresses or service conditions giving rise to high loads, in order on the one hand to prevent damage and on the other hand to prove that the pipes are functioning within their design parameters without problems. ((orig.))

  7. The JPL Electronic Nose: Monitoring Air in the US Lab on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, M. A.; Manatt, K. S.; Gluck, S.; Shevade, A. V.; Kisor, A. K.; Zhou, H.; Lara, L. M.; Homer, M. L.

    2010-01-01

    An electronic nose with a sensor array of 32 conductometric sensors has been developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to monitor breathing air in spacecraft habitat. The Third Generation ENose is designed to operate in the environment of the US Lab on the International Space Station (ISS). It detects a selected group of analytes at target concentrations in the ppm regime at an environmental temperature range of 18 - 30 oC, relative humidity from 25 - 75% and pressure from 530 to 760 torr. The monitoring targets are anomalous events such as leaks and spills of solvents, coolants or other fluids. The JPL ENose operated as a technology demonstration for seven months in the U.S. Laboratory Destiny during 2008-2009. Analysis of ENose monitoring data shows that there was regular, periodic rise and fall of humidity and occasional releases of Freon 218 (perfluoropropane), formaldehyde, methanol and ethanol. There were also several events of unknown origin, half of them from the same source. Each event lasted from 20 to 100 minutes, consistent with the air replacement time in the US Lab.

  8. The development of on-line thermal performance monitors in Nuclear Electric Company's stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    The paper examines the economic benefits of using on-line monitoring techniques in assisting Station Staff with the task of optimising the efficient use of reactor fuel. The role of thermal performance monitoring for detecting changes in plant condition is also examined and the way in which the data can be used by engineers to assist with the preparation of operating and maintenance programmes. To enable genuine gradual changes in plant performance to be detected when operating against a background of changing plant signal accuracy conditions, plant transducers have to be calibrated on a regular basis. This can be both costly and labour intensive. To reduce this requirement for regular calibrations, an automatic software signal verification program has been developed for use in on-line monitoring schemes. It forms part of the total unit performance calculation package and uses a whole plant model to verify plant signals. All plant signals used to calculate unit heat rate are verified typically every 15 minutes with signals going outside predetermined limits being automatically reported to the user. The program is interactive allowing the user to interrogate the condition of the signal, with respect to both its error magnitude and rate of drift outside signal limits. The program runs in real time mode on a Workstation connected directly to the plant

  9. A global network for monitoring ocean acidification

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Celliers, Louis

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available BASICally – It works! 15 Ma-Re Students Network – get involved! 15 A different kind of Carnival - Rio +20 dialogues 16 Science education—getting the message across 17 MCEN National Conference 2012 18 Mandela Day Celebrations 19 Kudos to Larry Hutchings 20...Ɵon:  How applicable is the ‘knowledge negoƟaƟon’ model for producing appropriate knowledge for coastal govern-ance in the context of a neo-liberal, develop-ing society in the process of transformaƟon?   The  main  objecƟve  of  the  research  is  the...

  10. Base Station Ordering for Emergency Call Localization in Ultra-dense Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Elsawy, Hesham

    2017-10-04

    This paper proposes the base station ordering localization technique (BoLT) for emergency call localization in cellular networks. Exploiting the foreseen ultra-densification of the next-generation (5G and beyond) cellular networks, we utilize higher-order Voronoi tessellations to provide ubiquitous localization services that are in compliance to the public safety standards in cellular networks. The proposed localization algorithm runs at the base stations (BSs) and requires minimal operation from agents (i.e., mobile users). Particularly, BoLT requires each agent to feedback a neighbor cell list (NCL) that contains the order of neighboring BSs based on the received signal power in the pilots sent from these BSs. Moreover, this paper utilizes stochastic geometry to develop a tractable mathematical model to assess the performance of BoLT in a general network setting. The goal of this paper is to answer the following two fundamental questions: i) how many BSs should be ordered and reported by the agent to achieve a desirable localization accuracy? and ii) what is the localization error probability given that the pilot signals are subject to shadowing? Assuming that the BSs are deployed according to a Poisson point process (PPP), we answer these two questions via characterizing the tradeoff between the area of location region (ALR) and the localization error probability in terms of the number of BSs ordered by the agent. The results show that reporting the order of six neighboring BSs is sufficient to localize the agent within 10% of the cell area. Increasing the number of reported BSs to ten confines the location region to 1% of the cell area. This would translate to the range of a few meters to decimeters in the foreseen ultra-dense 5G networks.

  11. Base Station Ordering for Emergency Call Localization in Ultra-dense Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Elsawy, Hesham; Dai, Wenhan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Win, Moe Z.

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes the base station ordering localization technique (BoLT) for emergency call localization in cellular networks. Exploiting the foreseen ultra-densification of the next-generation (5G and beyond) cellular networks, we utilize higher-order Voronoi tessellations to provide ubiquitous localization services that are in compliance to the public safety standards in cellular networks. The proposed localization algorithm runs at the base stations (BSs) and requires minimal operation from agents (i.e., mobile users). Particularly, BoLT requires each agent to feedback a neighbor cell list (NCL) that contains the order of neighboring BSs based on the received signal power in the pilots sent from these BSs. Moreover, this paper utilizes stochastic geometry to develop a tractable mathematical model to assess the performance of BoLT in a general network setting. The goal of this paper is to answer the following two fundamental questions: i) how many BSs should be ordered and reported by the agent to achieve a desirable localization accuracy? and ii) what is the localization error probability given that the pilot signals are subject to shadowing? Assuming that the BSs are deployed according to a Poisson point process (PPP), we answer these two questions via characterizing the tradeoff between the area of location region (ALR) and the localization error probability in terms of the number of BSs ordered by the agent. The results show that reporting the order of six neighboring BSs is sufficient to localize the agent within 10% of the cell area. Increasing the number of reported BSs to ten confines the location region to 1% of the cell area. This would translate to the range of a few meters to decimeters in the foreseen ultra-dense 5G networks.

  12. Toward Continental-scale Rainfall Monitoring Using Commercial Microwave Links From Cellular Communication Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uijlenhoet, R.; Leijnse, H.; Overeem, A.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate and timely surface precipitation measurements are crucial for water resources management, agriculture, weather prediction, climate research, as well as ground validation of satellite-based precipitation estimates. However, the majority of the land surface of the earth lacks such data, and in many parts of the world the density of surface precipitation gauging networks is even rapidly declining. This development can potentially be counteracted by using received signal level data from the enormous number of microwave links used worldwide in commercial cellular communication networks. Along such links, radio signals propagate from a transmitting antenna at one base station to a receiving antenna at another base station. Rain-induced attenuation and, subsequently, path-averaged rainfall intensity can be retrieved from the signal's attenuation between transmitter and receiver. We have previously shown how one such a network can be used to retrieve the space-time dynamics of rainfall for an entire country (The Netherlands, ˜35,500 km2), based on an unprecedented number of links (˜2,400) and a rainfall retrieval algorithm that can be applied in real time. This demonstrated the potential of such networks for real-time rainfall monitoring, in particular in those parts of the world where networks of dedicated ground-based rainfall sensors are often virtually absent. The presentation will focus on the potential for upscaling this technique to continental-scale rainfall monitoring in Europe. In addition, several examples of recent applications of this technique on other continents (South America, Africa, Asia and Australia) will be given.

  13. Concept of Complex Environmental Monitoring Network - Vardzia Rock Cut City Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elashvili, Mikheil; Vacheishvili, Nikoloz; Margottini, Claudio; Basilaia, Giorgi; Chkhaidze, Davit; Kvavadze, Davit; Spizzichino, Daniele; Boscagli, Franceso; Kirkitadze, Giorgi; Adikashvili, Luka; Navrozashvili, Levan

    2016-04-01

    Vardzia represents an unique cultural heritage monument - rock cut city, which unites architectural monument and Natural-Geological complex. Such monuments are particularly vulnerable and their restoration and conservation requires complex approach. It is curved in various layers of volcanic tuffs and covers several hectares of area, with chronologically different segments of construction. This monument, as many similar monuments worldwide, is subjected to slow but permanent process of destruction, expressed in following factors: surface weathering of rock, active tectonics (aseismic displacement along the active faults and earthquakes), interaction between lithologically different rock layers, existence of major cracks and associated complex block structure, surface rainwater runoff and infiltrated ground water, temperature variations, etc. During its lifetime, Vardzia was heavily damaged by Historical Earthquake of 1283 and only partly restored afterwards. The technological progress together with the increased knowledge about ongoing environmental processes, established the common understanding that the complex monitoring of the environment represents the essential component for resolving such a principal issues, as: Proper management and prevention of natural disasters; Modeling of environmental processes, their short and long term prognosis; Monitoring of macro and micro climate; Safe functioning and preservation of important constructions. Research Center of Cultural Heritage and Environment of Ilia State University in cooperation with Experts from ISPRA, with the funding from the State agency of Cultural Heritage, has developed a concept of Vardzia complex monitoring network. Concept of the network includes: monitoring local meteorological conditions (meteorological station), monitoring microclimate in caves (temperature and humidity in the air and rock), monitoring microtremors and ambient seismic noise in Vardzia (local strong motion network), monitoring

  14. Wireless air monitoring network with new AMIZ-2004G dust monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakowiuk, A.; Machaj, B.; Pienkos, P.; Swistowski, E.

    2006-01-01

    The principle of operation of the dust monitors is based on determination of dust mass deposited on air filters from known volumes of air samples. The dust mass is determined from radiation attenuation of a Pm-147 beta source. MIZA and AMIZ monitors produced in the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland) additionally measure relative humidity, atmospheric pressure and temperature of the air. In case the measurements are made in a few different places, direct collection of the results requires that personnel of the environment protection units has to go frequently to the monitors and collect the data. To improve the data transmission, a new version of the AMIZ-2004G monitor was developed which is equipped with a GSM modem enabling communication with a central computer. Thanks to the new construction not only a remote wireless communication with AMIZ is possible, but also a monitoring network containing a higher number of dust monitors can be made. The measuring data from all the monitors in the network can now be collected in one central computer equipped with the GSM modem and a proper acquisition program. In 2005, two such monitoring networks were put into operation

  15. Realization of hiberarchy wireless sensor network for mine laneway monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Wei; Wang Bin [Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing (China). Key Laboratory of All Optical Network and Advanced Telecommunications Network

    2008-01-15

    According to the requirement of monitoring the environment of coal mine laneways and the characteristics of laneway land form, a kind of hiberarchy wireless sensor network was proposed for laneway monitoring. The topology control mechanism and routing mechanism were designed, corresponding hardware of the sensor node and the protocol stack were developed and two work modes for the system were designed. Simulation experiment in the laboratory proved to operate well; the data exceeding the threshold could be timely delivered in interrupt mode and data could be periodically gathered steadily and reliably in period monitor mode. 6 refs., 7 figs.

  16. Monitoring biofouling in the seawater tunnel of a coastal power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasikumar, N.

    1994-01-01

    Water level difference (head loss) between the seawater intake and the forebay was used to determine the biofouling growth in the cooling-water tunnel of Madras atomic power station, India. During 1986-87, due to biofouling growth in the tunnel, the head loss dropped beyond the permissible limits required for operation of the power plant. The head loss showed an improvement during 1988 and 1989, after exomotive chlorination was adopted instead of shock chlorination. Fouling biomass estimated from the head loss showed a heavy biomass build-up of 535.52 ± 102 tonnes in the tunnel during 1992. The head loss showed a seasonal pattern, very similar to the settlement pattern of foulants in the coastal waters, with maximum values during summer months. On the basis of head-loss data, a suitable chlorination practice has been recommended to the power station. The experience suggested that a continuous monitoring of head loss is a simple and reliable method of estimating and controlling biofouling in power-plant cooling-water tunnels. (author)

  17. A Low-Cost, Real-Time Network for Radiological Monitoring Around Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertoldo, N A

    2004-01-01

    A low-cost, real-time radiological sensor network for emergency response has been developed and deployed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Real-Time Radiological Area Monitoring (RTRAM) network is comprised of 16 Geiger-Mueller (GM) sensors positioned on the site perimeter to continuously monitor radiological conditions as part of LLNL's comprehensive environment/safety/health protection program. The RTRAM network sensor locations coincide with wind sector directions to provide thorough coverage of the one square mile site. These low-power sensors transmit measurement data back to a central command center (CCC) computer through the LLNL telecommunications infrastructure. Alarm conditions are identified by comparing current data to predetermined threshold parameters and are validated by comparison with plausible dispersion modeling scenarios and prevailing meteorological conditions. Emergency response personnel are notified of alarm conditions by automatic radio- and computer- based notifications. A secure intranet provides emergency response personnel with current condition assessment data that enable them to direct field response efforts remotely. This system provides a low-cost real-time radiation monitoring solution that is easily converted to incorporate both a hard-wired interior perimeter with strategically positioned wireless secondary and tertiary concentric remote locations. These wireless stations would be configured with solar voltaic panels that provide current to recharge batteries and power the sensors and radio transceivers. These platforms would supply data transmission at a range of up to 95 km from a single transceiver location. As necessary, using radio transceivers in repeater mode can extend the transmission range. The RTRAM network as it is presently configured at LLNL has proven to be a reliable system since initial deployment in August 2001 and maintains stability during inclement weather conditions. With the proposed

  18. [Space-time water monitoring system at the Iriklinsk hydroelectric power station].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deriabin, D G; Poliakov, E G; Priakhina, A A; Karimov, I F

    2002-01-01

    The Microbiosensor B 17677 F test system was applied to make a space-time monitoring of the biotoxicity of water used for production and everyday purposes at the Iriklinsk hydroelectric power station (IHEPS) and to identify the leading causes determining the biotoxicity of tested samples. There were seasonal variations in the biotoxicity with the maximum in spring and with minimum in winter and spring and a relationship of the spring rise in the biotoxicity to water pH changes. There was also an association of the certain values of the biotoxicity of industrial water with the concentration of petroleum products that are major pollutants at the IHEPS. The datum points that characterize the maximum level of technogenic exposure were identified.

  19. Summarization of radioactive effluent monitoring in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station 1994-2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang Junjie; Chen Yue

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces the radioactive effluent monitoring systems, measurement and quality control methods used in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station from its commercial operation in 1994. The main work and experiences for the management of effluent release are discussed and analyzed. The radwaste data appear declining trend and are far blow the annual limit approved by the national Environmental Protection Bureau since 1995. The normalized release (unit GBq/GWa) of 9 years is as follows: liquid nuclides (except tritium) 11.1, liquid tritium 1.91 x 10 4 , noble gas 2.03 x 10 4 , halogen 0.13, aerosol 7.57 x 10 -3 . For 110m Ag, the average release from 1998 to 2002 has been reduced to 1/7 of the quantity in 1997

  20. Development and Characterization of Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter for Radiation Monitoring in International Space Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uk-Won Nam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC can measure the Linear Energy Transfer (LET spectrum and calculate the equivalent dose for the complicated radiation field in space. In this paper, we developed and characterized a TEPC for radiation monitoring in International Space Station (ISS. The prototype TEPC which can simulate a 2 μm of the site diameter for micro-dosimetry has been tested with a standard alpha source (241Am, 5.5 MeV. Also, the calibration of the TEPC was performed by the 252Cf neutron standard source in Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS. The determined calibration factor was kf = 3.59×10-7 mSv/R.

  1. Association between air pollution and hospital admission: Case study at three monitoring stations in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahari, Marina; Zin@Ibrahim, Wan Zawiah Wan; Ismail, Noriszura; Ni, Tan Hui

    2014-06-01

    The relationships between the exposure of pollutants towards hospitalized admission and mortality have been identified in several studies on Asian cities such as Taipei, Bangkok and Tokyo. In Malaysia, evidence on the health risks associated with exposure to pollutants is limited. In this study, daily time-series data were analysed to estimate risks of cardiovascular and respiratory hospitalized admissions associated with particulate matter ≤ 10 μm (PM10), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, and ozone concentrations in Klang Valley during 2004-2009. Daily counts of hospital admissions for cardiovascular and respiratory outcomes were obtained from eleven hospitals while pollutants data were taken from several air quality monitoring stations located nearest to the hospitals. These data were fitted with Generalised Additive Poisson regression models. Additionally, temperature, humidity, and time data were also included to allow for potential effect of weather and time-varying influences on hospital admissions. CO showed the most significant (P Malaysia.

  2. The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station Ground Temperature Sensor: A Pyrometer for Measuring Ground Temperature on Mars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ramos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe the parameters that drive the design and modeling of the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS Ground Temperature Sensor (GTS, an instrument aboard NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory, and report preliminary test results. REMS GTS is a lightweight, low-power, and low cost pyrometer for measuring the Martian surface kinematic temperature. The sensor’s main feature is its innovative design, based on a simple mechanical structure with no moving parts. It includes an in-flight calibration system that permits sensor recalibration when sensor sensitivity has been degraded by deposition of dust over the optics. This paper provides the first results of a GTS engineering model working in a Martian-like, extreme environment.

  3. Simplified conversions between specific conductance and salinity units for use with data from monitoring stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schemel, Laurence E.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, Bureau of Reclamation, and the California Department of Water Resources maintain a large number of monitoring stations that record specific conductance, often referred to as “electrical conductivity,” in San Francisco Bay Estuary and the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Specific conductance units that have been normalized to a standard temperature are useful in fresh waters, but conversion to salinity units has some considerable advantages in brackish waters of the estuary and Delta. For example, salinity is linearly related to the mixing ratio of freshwater and seawater, which is not the case for specific conductance, even when values are normalized to a standard temperature. The Practical Salinity Scale 1978 is based on specific conductance, temperature, and pressure measurements of seawater and freshwater mixtures (Lewis 1980 and references therein). Equations and data that define the scale make possible conversions between specific conductance and salinity values.

  4. Wireless Sensor Network for Electric Transmission Line Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alphenaar, Bruce

    2009-06-30

    Generally, federal agencies tasked to oversee power grid reliability are dependent on data from grid infrastructure owners and operators in order to obtain a basic level of situational awareness. Since there are many owners and operators involved in the day-to-day functioning of the power grid, the task of accessing, aggregating and analyzing grid information from these sources is not a trivial one. Seemingly basic tasks such as synchronizing data timestamps between many different data providers and sources can be difficult as evidenced during the post-event analysis of the August 2003 blackout. In this project we investigate the efficacy and cost effectiveness of deploying a network of wireless power line monitoring devices as a method of independently monitoring key parts of the power grid as a complement to the data which is currently available to federal agencies from grid system operators. Such a network is modeled on proprietary power line monitoring technologies and networks invented, developed and deployed by Genscape, a Louisville, Kentucky based real-time energy information provider. Genscape measures transmission line power flow using measurements of electromagnetic fields under overhead high voltage transmission power lines in the United States and Europe. Opportunities for optimization of the commercial power line monitoring technology were investigated in this project to enable lower power consumption, lower cost and improvements to measurement methodologies. These optimizations were performed in order to better enable the use of wireless transmission line monitors in large network deployments (perhaps covering several thousand power lines) for federal situational awareness needs. Power consumption and cost reduction were addressed by developing a power line monitor using a low power, low cost wireless telemetry platform known as the ''Mote''. Motes were first developed as smart sensor nodes in wireless mesh networking applications

  5. Developing A National Groundwater-Monitoring Network In Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, N. J.; Cho, M. J.; Woo, N. C.

    1995-04-01

    Since the 1960's, the groundwater resources of Korea have been developed without a proper regulatory system for monitoring and preservation, resulting in significant source depletion, land subsidence, water contamination, and sea-water intrusion. With the activation of the "Groundwater Law" in June 1994, the government initiated a project to develop a groundwater-monitoring network to describe general groundwater quality, to define its long-term changes, and to identify major factors affecting changes in groundwater quality and yield. In selecting monitoring locations nationwide, criteria considered are 1) spatial distribution, 2) aquifer characteristics of hydrogeologic units, 3) local groundwater flow regime, 4) linkage with surface hydrology observations, 5) site accessibility, and 6) financial situations. A total of 310 sites in 78 small hydrologic basins were selected to compose the monitoring network. Installation of monitoring wells is scheduled to start in 1995 for 15 sites; the remainder are scheduled to be completed by 2001. At each site, a nest of monitoring wells was designed; shallow and deep groundwater will be monitored for water temperature, pH, EC, DO and TDS every month. Water-level fluctuations will also be measured by automatic recorders equipped with pressure transducers. As a next step, the government plans to develop a groundwater-database management system, which could be linked with surface hydrologic data.

  6. An Overview of Sensor networks for Environmental Noise Monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basten, T.G.H.; Wessels, P.W.

    2014-01-01

    The last decade has shown a growing number and wide variety of systems for monitoring environmental noise. This ongoing development is made possible by the availability of cheaper and smaller hardware and innovations in communication networks. The developments are fed by a growing interest in

  7. Wireless sensor network for monitoring soil moisture and weather conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    A wireless sensor network (WSN) was developed and deployed in three fields to monitor soil water status and collect weather data for irrigation scheduling. The WSN consists of soil-water sensors, weather sensors, wireless data loggers, and a wireless modem. Soil-water sensors were installed at three...

  8. Combine harvester monitor system based on wireless sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    A measurement method based on Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) was developed to monitor the working condition of combine harvester for remote application. Three JN5139 modules were chosen for sensor data acquisition and another two as a router and a coordinator, which could create a tree topology netwo...

  9. A Flexible Acoustic Sensor Network for Various Monitoring Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basten, T.G.H.; Wessels, P.W.

    2013-01-01

    Acoustic monitoring using a sensor network is a powerful instrument to assess and manage complex noise situations. It can provide a basis to identify appropriate and cost effective measures, and to assess their effect by comparing before and after implementation. It can also be an instrument for

  10. Method and device for monitoring distortion in an optical network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    A method and a device for monitoring of distortion in an optical network are provided, wherein at least one reference signal and at least one data signal are conveyed via an optical link and wherein a distortion of the at least one data signal is determined based on the at least one reference

  11. Monitoring of the operation of a nuclear power station with design problems in an importing country: The Almaraz power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reig, J.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the regulatory activities carried out in Spain as a result of the design problem occurring in the steam generators during operation of Unit I of the Almaraz nuclear power station. First, a brief introduction is given to the operating history and characteristics of Unit I of Almaraz. Particular attention is paid to the specific licences issued subsequent to commercial operation which place limitations on the operation of the station and to the operational incidents of which the Nuclear Safety Council (CSN) has been notified. Next, a description is provided of the safety evaluation carried out by the CSN. Three aspects merit particular attention: methodology, evaluation and conclusions. The methodology applied by an importing country is normally based on that of the country of origin of the design, so that the overall evaluation by the NRC has been considered sufficiently representative of aspects specific to the Almaraz power station. In this regard the importance of international collaboration is clearly seen as a principal instrument for performing the evaluation. In the evaluation a distinction is made between general and specific aspects and between inspection programmes and quality assurance requirements. In addition, the conclusions leading to the requirement of the imposition of additional limitations on the operating licence are stated. Apart from the safety evaluation carried out by the CSN, other regulatory activities have been performed over this two-year period. These activities, which include site inspections, audits of the principal supplier company, other independent calculations and so on, are described. Lastly, the paper refers to the lessons learned from the operation of the above-mentioned unit, which are immediately applicable to other Spanish nuclear power stations. (author)

  12. Integrated System for Performance Monitoring of ATLAS TDAQ Network

    CERN Document Server

    Savu, D; The ATLAS collaboration; Martin, B; Sjoen, R; Batraneanu, S; Stancu, S

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS TDAQ Network consists of three separate networks spanning four levels of the experimental building. Over 200 edge switches and 5 multi-blade chassis routers are used to interconnect 2000 processors, adding up to more than 7000 high speed interfaces. In order to substantially speed-up ad-hoc and post mortem analysis, a scalable, yet flexible, integrated system for monitoring both network statistics and environmental conditions, processor parameters and data taking characteristics was required. For successful up-to-the-minute monitoring, information from many SNMP compliant devices, independent databases and custom APIs was gathered, stored and displayed in an optimal way. Easy navigation and compact aggregation of multiple data sources were the main requirements; characteristics not found in any of the tested products, either open-source or commercial. This paper describes how performance, scalability and display issues were addressed and what challenges the project faced during development and deplo...

  13. A Unified Monitoring Framework for Energy Consumption and Network Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentin Clouet

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Providing experimenters with deep insight about the effects of their experiments is a central feature of testbeds. In this paper, we describe Kwapi, a framework designed in the context of the Grid'5000 testbed, that unifies measurements for both energy consumption and network traffic. Because all measurements are taken at the infrastructure level (using sensors in power and network equipment, using this framework has no dependencies on the experiments themselves. Initially designed for OpenStack infrastructures, the Kwapi framework allows monitoring and reporting of energy consumption of distributed platforms. In this article, we present the extension of Kwapi to network monitoring, and outline how we overcame several challenges: scaling to a testbed the size of Grid'5000 while still providing high-frequency measurements; providing long-term loss-less storage of measurements; handling operational issues when deploying such a tool on a real infrastructure.

  14. IPv6-Based Smart Metering Network for Monitoring Building Electricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A smart electricity monitoring system of building is presented using ZigBee and internet to establish the network. This system consists of three hardware layers: the host PC, the router, and the sensor nodes. A hierarchical ant colony algorithm is developed for data transmission among the wireless sensor nodes. The wireless communication protocol is also designed based on IPv6 protocol on IEEE 802.15.4 wireless network. All-IP approach and peer-to-peer mode are integrated to optimize the network building. Each node measures the power, current, and voltage and transmits them to the host PC through the router. The host software is designed for building test characteristics, having a tree hierarchy and a friendly interface for the user. The reliability and accuracy of this monitoring system are verified in the experiment and application.

  15. Active Low Intrusion Hybrid Monitor for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navia, Marlon; Campelo, Jose C; Bonastre, Alberto; Ors, Rafael; Capella, Juan V; Serrano, Juan J

    2015-09-18

    Several systems have been proposed to monitor wireless sensor networks (WSN). These systems may be active (causing a high degree of intrusion) or passive (low observability inside the nodes). This paper presents the implementation of an active hybrid (hardware and software) monitor with low intrusion. It is based on the addition to the sensor node of a monitor node (hardware part) which, through a standard interface, is able to receive the monitoring information sent by a piece of software executed in the sensor node. The intrusion on time, code, and energy caused in the sensor nodes by the monitor is evaluated as a function of data size and the interface used. Then different interfaces, commonly available in sensor nodes, are evaluated: serial transmission (USART), serial peripheral interface (SPI), and parallel. The proposed hybrid monitor provides highly detailed information, barely disturbed by the measurement tool (interference), about the behavior of the WSN that may be used to evaluate many properties such as performance, dependability, security, etc. Monitor nodes are self-powered and may be removed after the monitoring campaign to be reused in other campaigns and/or WSNs. No other hardware-independent monitoring platforms with such low interference have been found in the literature.

  16. Optimization of Cognitive Radio Secondary Information Gathering Station Positioning and Operating Channel Selection for IoT Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyi Wen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT is the interconnection of different objects through the internet using different communication technologies. The objects are equipped with sensors and communications modules. The cognitive radio network is a key technique for the IoT and can effectively address spectrum-related issues for IoT applications. In our paper, a novel method for IoT sensor networks is proposed to obtain the optimal positions of secondary information gathering stations (SIGSs and to select the optimal operating channel. Our objective is to maximize secondary system capacity while protecting the primary system. In addition, we propose an appearance probability matrix for secondary IoT devices (SIDs to maximize the supportable number of SIDs that can be installed in a car, in wearable devices, or for other monitoring devices, based on optimal deployment and probability. We derive fitness functions based on the above objectives and also consider signal to interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR and position constraints. The particle swarm optimization (PSO technique is used to find the best position and operating channel for the SIGSs. In a simulation study, the performance of the proposed method is evaluated and compared with a random resources allocation algorithm (parts of this paper were presented at the ICTC2017 conference (Wen et al., 2017.

  17. Novel method for fog monitoring using cellular networks infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, N.; Alpert, P.; Messer, H.

    2012-08-01

    A major detrimental effect of fog is visibility limitation which can result in serious transportation accidents, traffic delays and therefore economic damage. Existing monitoring techniques including satellites, transmissometers and human observers - suffer from low spatial resolution, high cost or lack of precision when measuring near ground level. Here we show a novel technique for fog monitoring using wireless communication systems. Communication networks widely deploy commercial microwave links across the terrain at ground level. Operating at frequencies of tens of GHz they are affected by fog and are, effectively, an existing, spatially world-wide distributed sensor network that can provide crucial information about fog concentration and visibility. Fog monitoring potential is demonstrated for a heavy fog event that took place in Israel. The correlation between transmissomters and human eye observations to the visibility estimates from the nearby microwave links was found to be 0.53 and 0.61, respectively. These values indicate the high potential of the proposed method.

  18. Unobstructive Body Area Networks (BAN) for efficient movement monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felisberto, Filipe; Costa, Nuno; Fdez-Riverola, Florentino; Pereira, António

    2012-01-01

    The technological advances in medical sensors, low-power microelectronics and miniaturization, wireless communications and networks have enabled the appearance of a new generation of wireless sensor networks: the so-called wireless body area networks (WBAN). These networks can be used for continuous monitoring of vital parameters, movement, and the surrounding environment. The data gathered by these networks contributes to improve users' quality of life and allows the creation of a knowledge database by using learning techniques, useful to infer abnormal behaviour. In this paper we present a wireless body area network architecture to recognize human movement, identify human postures and detect harmful activities in order to prevent risk situations. The WBAN was created using tiny, cheap and low-power nodes with inertial and physiological sensors, strategically placed on the human body. Doing so, in an as ubiquitous as possible way, ensures that its impact on the users' daily actions is minimum. The information collected by these sensors is transmitted to a central server capable of analysing and processing their data. The proposed system creates movement profiles based on the data sent by the WBAN's nodes, and is able to detect in real time any abnormal movement and allows for a monitored rehabilitation of the user.

  19. Event localization in underwater wireless sensor networks using Monitoring Courses

    KAUST Repository

    Debont, Matthew John Robert

    2012-08-01

    We propose m-courses (Monitoring Courses), a novel solution to localize events in an underwater wireless sensor network. These networks consists of surface gateways and relay nodes. GPS can localize the position of surface gateways which can then distribute their locations through the network using acoustic modems. Relay nodes are deployed to remain static, but these untethered nodes may drift due to water currents, resulting in disruption of communication links. We develop a novel underwater alarm system using a cyclic graph model. In the event of link failure, a series of alarm packets are broadcast in the network. These alarms are then captured by the underwater m-courses, which can also be used to assure network connectivity and identify node failures. M-courses also allow the network to localize events and identify network issues locally before forwarding results upwards to a Surface Gateway node. This reduces communication overhead and allows for efficient management of nodes in a mobile network. Our results show that m-course routing reduces the number of sends required to report an event to a Surface Gateway by up to 80% when compared to a naïve routing implementation.

  20. A more realistic simulation of the performance of the infra-sound monitoring network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Pichon, A.; Vergoz, J.; Blanc, E.

    2008-01-01

    The first global maps showing the performance of the infra-sound network of the international monitoring system were set in the nineties. Recent measurement of the background noise by the 36 operating stations combined with advanced models of wind give now a more realistic mapping. It has become possible to validate simulations by measuring real events. For instance the explosion that happened in March 2008 in an ammunition storehouse in Albania was detected till Zalesovo (Russia) 4920 km away. These new simulations confirm the detection capability of the network to detect and localize atmospheric explosions whose energy is over 1 kt. It is also shown that the detection performance are very sensitive to both time and places. (A.C.)

  1. Air quality monitoring at Seoul, Korea as a part of East-Asian air surveillance network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Y.; Sekine, Y.; Kim, H.K.; Otoshi, T.

    1989-01-01

    Global scale air pollution study is a recent trend due to a perception that air pollution is changing climate and other essential earth's conditions that could seriously affect our lives. One of the important tasks which can contribute to protect our natural environment must be to know about the present and changing air quality. For this purpose, a regional air monitoring plan was designed by a research group and has proceeded to set up stations in the eastern Asia including Japan, Korea and China to get continuous data which can contribute to world wide data base of air quality. This project was initiated at Seoul, Korea in April, 1986 by the method of National Air Surveillance Network, Japan. Airborne particles were collected by so-called Hi-vol and Lo-vol, and their components were analyzed by neutron activation analysis and others. The results of Seoul sampling as a first step of this network plan are presented

  2. Optical Multi-Gas Monitor Technology Demonstration on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.; Wood, William R.; Casias, Miguel E.; Vakhtin, Andrei B,; Johnson, Michael D.; Mudgett, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    There are a variety of both portable and fixed gas monitors onboard the International Space Station (ISS). Devices range from rack-mounted mass spectrometers to hand-held electrochemical sensors. An optical Multi-Gas Monitor has been developed as an ISS Technology Demonstration to evaluate long-term continuous measurement of 4 gases. Based on tunable diode laser spectroscopy, this technology offers unprecedented selectivity, concentration range, precision, and calibration stability. The monitor utilizes the combination of high performance laser absorption spectroscopy with a rugged optical path length enhancement cell that is nearly impossible to misalign. The enhancement cell serves simultaneously as the measurement sampling cell for multiple laser channels operating within a common measurement volume. Four laser diode based detection channels allow quantitative determination of ISS cabin concentrations of water vapor (humidity), carbon dioxide, ammonia and oxygen. Each channel utilizes a separate vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) at a different wavelength. In addition to measuring major air constituents in their relevant ranges, the multiple gas monitor provides real time quantitative gaseous ammonia measurements between 5 and 20,000 parts-per-million (ppm). A small ventilation fan draws air with no pumps or valves into the enclosure in which analysis occurs. Power draw is only about 3 W from USB sources when installed in Nanoracks or when connected to 28V source from any EXPRESS rack interface. Internal battery power can run the sensor for over 20 hours during portable operation. The sensor is controlled digitally with an FPGA/microcontroller architecture that stores data internally while displaying running average measurements on an LCD screen and interfacing with the rack or laptop via USB. Design, construction and certification of the Multi-Gas Monitor were a joint effort between Vista Photonics, Nanoracks and NASA-Johnson Space Center (JSC

  3. The World Radiation Monitoring Center of the Baseline Surface Radiation Network: Status 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driemel, Amelie; König-Langlo, Gert; Sieger, Rainer; Long, Charles N.

    2017-04-01

    The World Radiation Monitoring Center (WRMC) is the central archive of the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN). The BSRN was initiated by the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) Working Group on Radiative Fluxes and began operations in 1992. One of its aims is to provide short and long-wave surface radiation fluxes of the best possible quality to support the research projects of the WCRP and other scientific projects. The high quality, uniform and consistent measurements of the BSRN network can be used to monitor the short- and long-wave radiative components and their changes with the best methods currently available, to validate and evaluate satellite-based estimates of the surface radiative fluxes, and to verify the results of global climate models. In 1992 the BSRN/WRMC started at ETH Zurich, Switzerland with 9 stations. Since 2007 the archive is hosted by the Alfred-Wegener-Institut (AWI) in Bremerhaven, Germany (http://www.bsrn.awi.de/) and comprises a network of currently 59 stations in contrasting climatic zones, covering a latitude range from 80°N to 90°S. Of the 59 stations, 23 offer the complete radiation budget (down- and upwelling short- and long-wave data). In addition to the ftp-service access instituted at ETH Zurich, the archive at AWI offers data access via PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science (https://www.pangaea.de). PANGAEA guarantees the long-term availability of its content through a commitment of the operating institutions. Within PANGAEA, the metadata of the stations are freely available. To access the data itself an account is required. If the scientist accepts to follow the data release guidelines of the archive (http://bsrn.awi.de/data/conditions-of-data-release/) he or she can get an account from amelie.driemel@awi.de. Currently, more than 9,400 station months (>780 years) are available for interested scientists (see also https://dataportals.pangaea.de/bsrn/?q=LR0100 for an overview on available data

  4. The national environmental radiation monitoring network in egypt. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morsy, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    Post accident environmental pollution with radionuclides occurs at accident site, and also cross borders to affect distant localities. The situation in egypt present special importance regarding its position near asian near asian and european nuclear sites, israel in east, and libya in the west. Also, the present and future nuclear installations in egypt. Environmental base line monitoring data is essential knowledge in nuclear practices. For these reasons, the egyptian government took steps to set up a national response plan for dealing with inside and outside accidents. The key elements of the plan is the establishment of a national environmental monitoring network (NERMN) and a nuclear emergency response system (NERS). The NERMN will detect radioactivity resulting from any accident affecting the egyptian territory even if it is not formally reported under international agreements, or if there are delays in notification. Therefore, the system provides the means of assembling and analyzing the radiological monitoring data related to the accident, and allowing information for the authorities. This is met with through a fully automatic system for gamma radiation monitoring and a semiautomatic system for air activity monitoring (aerosol), and network of liquid monitors. 4 figs., 1 tab

  5. The national environmental radiation monitoring network in egypt. Vol. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morsy, M S [National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    Post accident environmental pollution with radionuclides occurs at accident site, and also cross borders to affect distant localities. The situation in egypt present special importance regarding its position near asian near asian and european nuclear sites, israel in east, and libya in the west. Also, the present and future nuclear installations in egypt. Environmental base line monitoring data is essential knowledge in nuclear practices. For these reasons, the egyptian government took steps to set up a national response plan for dealing with inside and outside accidents. The key elements of the plan is the establishment of a national environmental monitoring network (NERMN) and a nuclear emergency response system (NERS). The NERMN will detect radioactivity resulting from any accident affecting the egyptian territory even if it is not formally reported under international agreements, or if there are delays in notification. Therefore, the system provides the means of assembling and analyzing the radiological monitoring data related to the accident, and allowing information for the authorities. This is met with through a fully automatic system for gamma radiation monitoring and a semiautomatic system for air activity monitoring (aerosol), and network of liquid monitors. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Improving Energy Efficiency of Cooperative Femtocell Networks via Base Station Switching Off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woongsup Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, energy efficiency (EE of cellular networks has become an important performance metric, and several techniques have been proposed to increase the EE. Among them, turning off base stations (BSs when not needed is considered as one of the most powerful techniques due to its simple operation and effectiveness. Herein, we propose a novel BS switching-off technique for cooperative femtocell networks where multiple femtocell BSs (FBSs simultaneously send packets to the same mobile station (MS. Unlike conventional schemes, cooperative operation of FBSs, also known as coordinated multipoint (CoMP transmission, is considered to determine which BSs are turned off in the proposed technique. We first formulate the optimization problem to find the optimal set of FBSs to be turned off. Then, we propose a suboptimal scheme operating in a distributed manner in order to reduce the computational complexity of the optimal scheme. The suboptimal scheme is based on throughput ratio (TR which specifies the importance of a particular FBS for the cooperative transmission. Through simulations, we show that the energy consumption can be greatly reduced with the proposed technique, compared with conventional schemes. Moreover, we show that the suboptimal scheme also achieves the near-optimal performance even without the excessive computations.

  7. Plan for a groundwater monitoring network in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Shiang-Kueen

    In Taiwan, rapid economic growth, rising standards of living, and an altered societal structure have in recent years put severe demands on water supplies. Because of its stable quantity and quality, groundwater has long been a reliable source of water for domestic, agricultural, and industrial users, but the establishment of a management program that integrates groundwater and surface-water use has been hampered by the lack of groundwater data. In 1992, the Department of Water Resources (DWR) initiated a program entitled "Groundwater Monitoring Network Plan in Taiwan." Under this program, basic groundwater data, including water-level and water-quality data, are being collected, and a reliable database is being established for the purpose of managing total water resources. This paper introduces the goals, implementation stages, and scope of that plan. The plan calls for constructing 517 hydrogeologic survey stations and 990 groundwater monitoring wells within 17 years. Under this program, water-level fluctuations are continuously monitored, whereas water-quality samples are taken for analysis only at the initial drilling stage and, subsequently, at the time when a monitoring well is being serviced. In 1996, the DWR and the Water Resources Planning Commission were merged to form today's Water Resources Bureau. Résumé A Taïwan, l'expansion économique rapide, l'amélioration des conditions de vie et la transformation de la structure sociale ont provoqué, ces dernières années, une très forte demande en eau. Du fait de sa constance en qualité et en quantité, l'eau souterraine a longtemps été considérée comme une ressource en eau sûre pour les usages domestiques, agricoles et industriels. Mais la mise en place d'un programme de gestion intégrant les utilisations d'eaux souterraines et de surface a été gênée par l'absence de données sur les eaux souterraines. En 1992, le Département des Ressources en Eau a lancé le programme "Plan pour un réseau de

  8. Design of FPGA Based Neural Network Controller for Earth Station Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen T. Dorrah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Automation of generating hardware description language code from neural networks models can highly decrease time of implementation those networks into a digital devices, thus significant money savings. To implement the neural network into hardware designer, it is required to translate generated model into device structure. VHDL language is used to describe those networks into hardware. VHDL code has been proposed to implement ANNs as well as to present simulation results with floating point arithmetic of the earth station and the satellite power systems using ModelSim PE 6.6 simulator tool. Integration between MATLAB and VHDL is used to save execution time of computation. The results shows that a good agreement between MATLAB and VHDL and a fast/flexible feed forward NN which is capable of dealing with floating point arithmetic operations; minimum number of CLB slices; and good speed of performance. FPGA synthesis results are obtained with view RTL schematic and technology schematic from Xilinix tool. Minimum number of utilized resources is obtained by using Xilinix VERTIX5.

  9. Assessing the weather monitoring capabilities of cellular microwave link networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fencl, Martin; Vrzba, Miroslav; Rieckermann, Jörg; Bareš, Vojtěch

    2016-04-01

    Using of microwave links for rainfall monitoring was suggested already by (Atlas and Ulbrich, 1977). However, this technique attracted broader attention of scientific community only in the recent decade, with the extensive growth of cellular microwave link (CML) networks, which form the backbone of today's cellular telecommunication infrastructure. Several studies have already shown that CMLs can be conveniently used as weather sensors and have potential to provide near-ground path-integrated observations of rainfall but also humidity or fog. However, although research is still focusing on algorithms to improve the weather sensing capabilities (Fencl et al., 2015), it is not clear how to convince cellular operators to provide the power levels of their network. One step in this direction is to show in which regions or municipalities the networks are sufficiently dense to provide/develop good services. In this contribution we suggest a standardized approach to evaluate CML networks in terms of rainfall observation and to identify suitable regions for CML rainfall monitoring. We estimate precision of single CML based on its sensitivity to rainfall, i.e. as a function of frequency, polarization and path length. Capability of a network to capture rainfall spatial patterns is estimated from the CML coverage and path lengths considering that single CML provides path-integrated rain rates. We also search for suitable predictors for regions where no network topologies are available. We test our approach on several European networks and discuss the results. Our results show that CMLs are very dense in urban areas (> 1 CML/km2), but less in rural areas (online tool. In summary, our results demonstrate that CML represent promising environmental observation network, suitable especially for urban rainfall monitoring. The developed approach integrated into an open source online tool can be conveniently used e.g. by local operators or authorities to evaluate the suitability of

  10. Ambient Air Pollution Monitoring Network Over Alexandria City And The Nile DELTA, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Raey, M.; Shalaby, E.; Guirguis, S.; Ghatass, Z.; Said, H.H.; Zahran, A.; Rashad, M.; Sivertsen, B.

    2007-01-01

    The Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA) has established a National Air Pollution Network for Egypt. A part of this network covers Alexandria and the Nile delta region and is being operated by the Institute of Graduate Studies and Research (IGSR), University of Alexandria. This paper presents a description of the network, the QA/QC program as well as results from automatic monitors and manually operated instruments . . Preliminary interpretations and implications of air pollution levels have also been discussed. The network monitors ambient air quality indicators including SO 2 , NO 2 , CO, O 3 and PM 10 . The sites for measurements were selected to represent industrial, traffic and domestic sources. Eight stations are established over Alexandria City and seven stations are distributed over Nile delta major cities Damanhur, Kafr EI-Dawwar, Kafr EI-Zayat, Mahala, Tanta, Damietta and Mansoura. The results represent the first long term air quality data for the southern Mediterranean region, which have been properly quality assured and quality controlled. The main results indicate that measured NO 2 concentrations have not exceeded the national air quality limit (AQL) values given for Egypt. The same occurred for SO 2 except at one site located in Kafr Elzayat in the Delta, where large emissions from brick factories impact the site. The 8-hour average CO concentrations were exceeded at a few occasions. PM 10 concentrations have been identified as the major air pollution problem. Concentrations exceeding 70 μm 3 (AQL) have been observed over many sites most of the time. It is suggested that a strong program for tree cultivation on the western desert may be essential for protection

  11. Technical Note: Novel method for water vapour monitoring using wireless communication networks measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, N.; Alpert, P.; Messer, H.

    2009-04-01

    We propose a new technique that overcomes the obstacles of the existing methods for monitoring near-surface water vapour, by estimating humidity from data collected through existing wireless communication networks. Weather conditions and atmospheric phenomena affect the electromagnetic channel, causing attenuations to the radio signals. Thus, wireless communication networks are in effect built-in environmental monitoring facilities. The wireless microwave links, used in these networks, are widely deployed by cellular providers for backhaul communication between base stations, a few tens of meters above ground level. As a result, if all available measurements are used, the proposed method can provide moisture observations with high spatial resolution and potentially high temporal resolution. Further, the implementation cost is minimal, since the data used are already collected and saved by the cellular operators. In addition - many of these links are installed in areas where access is difficult such as orographic terrain and complex topography. As such, our method enables measurements in places that have been hard to measure in the past, or have never been measured before. The technique is restricted to weather conditions which exclude rain, fog or clouds along the propagation path. Strong winds that may cause movement of the link transmitter or receiver (or both) may also interfere with the ability to conduct accurate measurements. We present results from real-data measurements taken from two microwave links used in a backhaul cellular network that show convincing correlation to surface station humidity measurements. The measurements were taken daily in two sites, one in northern Israel (28 measurements), the other in central Israel (29 measurements). The correlation between the microwave link measurements and the humidity gauges were 0.9 and 0.82 for the north and central sites, respectively. The Root Mean Square Differences (RMSD) were 1.8 g/m3 and 3.4 g/m3 for

  12. Novel method for water vapour monitoring using wireless communication networks measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, N.; Alpert, P.; Messer, H.

    2010-09-01

    We propose a new technique for monitoring near-surface water vapour, by estimating humidity from data collected through existing wireless communication networks. Weather conditions and atmospheric phenomena affect the electromagnetic channel, causing attenuations to the radio signals. Thus, wireless communication networks are in effect built-in environmental monitoring facilities. The wireless microwave links, used in these networks, are widely deployed by cellular providers for backhaul communication between base stations, a few tens of meters above ground level. As a result, if all available measurements are used, the proposed method can provide moisture observations with high spatial resolution and potentially high temporal resolution. Further, the implementation cost is minimal, since the data used are already collected and saved by the cellular operators. In addition - many of these links are installed in areas where access is difficult such as orographic terrain and complex topography. As such, our method enables measurements in places that have been hard to measure in the past, or have never been measured before. The technique is restricted to weather conditions which exclude rain, fog or clouds along the propagation path. Strong winds that may cause movement of the link transmitter or receiver (or both) may also interfere with the ability to conduct accurate measurements. We present results from real-data measurements taken from microwave links used in a backhaul cellular network that show very good correlation with surface station humidity measurements (comparisons were performed for several links, found at different locations, during different time periods, showing correlations in the range of 0.5-0.9).

  13. Delay/Disruption Tolerance Networking (DTN) Implementation and Utilization Options on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Mark; Pitts, Robert Lee; Gifford, Kevin K.; Jenkins, Andrew; Kuzminsky, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is in an operational configuration and nearing final assembly. With its maturity and diverse payloads onboard, the opportunity exists to extend the orbital lab into a facility to exercise and demonstrate Delay/Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN). DTN is an end-to-end network service providing communications through environments characterized by intermittent connectivity, variable delays, high bit error rates, asymmetric links and simplex links. The DTN protocols, also known as bundle protocols, provide a store-and-forward capability to accommodate end-to-end network services. Key capabilities of the bundling protocols include: the Ability to cope with intermittent connectivity, the Ability to take advantage of scheduled and opportunistic connectivity (in addition to always up connectivity), Custody Transfer, and end-to-end security. Colorado University at Boulder and the Huntsville Operational Support Center (HOSC) have been developing a DTN capability utilizing the Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA) payload resources onboard the ISS, at the Boulder Payload Operations Center (POC) and at the HOSC. The DTN capability is in parallel with and is designed to augment current capabilities. The architecture consists of DTN endpoint nodes on the ISS and at the Boulder POC, and a DTN node at the HOSC. The DTN network is composed of two implementations; the Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) and the open source DTN2 implementation. This paper presents the architecture, implementation, and lessons learned. By being able to handle the types of environments described above, the DTN technology will be instrumental in extending networks into deep space to support future missions to other planets and other solar system points of interest. Thus, this paper also discusses how this technology will be applicable to these types of deep space exploration missions.

  14. An enhanced ionising radiation monitoring and detecting technique in radiotherapy units of hospitals using wireless sensor networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Peter

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a solution of ionising radiation monitoring based on the concept of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), is presented. Radiation dose rate measured by the sensor node is sent to the monitoring station through ZigBee wireless network operated on 2.4 GHz unlicensed Industrial Scientific Medical (ISM) band. The system is calibrated for use for ionizing radiation dose rate range of between amount of ionising radiation observed in radiotherapy unit of a hospital and 1.02 mSv/h. Power consumption of the sensor node is kept low by operating the node ZigBee radio with low duty cycle: i.e. by keeping the radio awake only during data transmission/reception. Two ATmega8 microcontrollers, one each for sensor node and the monitoring station, are programmed to perform interfacing, data processing, and control functions. The system range of coverage is 124m for outdoor (line of site) deployment and 56.8m for indoor application where 5 brick walls separated the sensor node and the monitoring station. Range of coverage of the system is extendable via the use of ZigBee router (s)

  15. Transformation of Air Quality Monitor Data from the International Space Station into Toxicological Effect Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.; Zalesak, Selina M.

    2011-01-01

    The primary reason for monitoring air quality aboard the International Space Station (ISS) is to determine whether air pollutants have collectively reached a concentration where the crew could experience adverse health effects. These effects could be near-real-time (e.g. headache, respiratory irritation) or occur late in the mission or even years later (e.g. cancer, liver toxicity). Secondary purposes for monitoring include discovery that a potentially harmful compound has leaked into the atmosphere or that air revitalization system performance has diminished. Typical ISS atmospheric trace pollutants consist of alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic compounds, halo-carbons, siloxanes, and silanols. Rarely, sulfur-containing compounds and alkanes are found at trace levels. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) have been set in cooperation with a subcommittee of the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology. For each compound and time of exposure, the limiting adverse effect(s) has been identified. By factoring the analytical data from the Air Quality Monitor (AQM), which is in use as a prototype instrument aboard the ISS, through the array of compounds and SMACs, the risk of 16 specific adverse effects can be estimated. Within each adverse-effect group, we have used an additive model proportioned to each applicable 180-day SMAC to estimate risk. In the recent past this conversion has been performed using archival data, which can be delayed for months after an air sample is taken because it must be returned to earth for analysis. But with the AQM gathering in situ data each week, NASA is in a position to follow toxic-effect groups and correlate these with any reported crew symptoms. The AQM data are supplemented with data from real-time CO2 instruments aboard the ISS and from archival measurements of formaldehyde, which the AQM cannot detect.

  16. Vibration monitoring of EDF rotating machinery using artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alguindigue, I.E.; Loskiewicz-Buczak, A.; Uhrig, R.E.; Hamon, L.; Lefevre, F.

    1991-01-01

    Vibration monitoring of components in nuclear power plants has been used for a number of years. This technique involves the analysis of vibration data coming from vital components of the plant to detect features which reflect the operational state of machinery. The analysis leads to the identification of potential failures and their causes, and makes it possible to perform efficient preventive maintenance. Earlydetection is important because it can decrease the probability of catastrophic failures, reduce forced outgage, maximize utilization of available assets, increase the life of the plant, and reduce maintenance costs. This paper documents our work on the design of a vibration monitoring methodology based on neural network technology. This technology provides an attractive complement to traditional vibration analysis because of the potential of neural networks to operate in real-time mode and to handle data which may be distorted or noisy. Our efforts have been concentrated on the analysis and classification of vibration signatures collected by Electricite de France (EDF). Two neural networks algorithms were used in our project: the Recirculation algorithm and the Backpropagation algorithm. Although this project is in the early stages of development it indicates that neural networks may provide a viable methodology for monitoring and diagnostics of vibrating components. Our results are very encouraging

  17. A Statewide Private Microwave Wide Area Network for Real-time Natural Hazard Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M. C.; Kent, G.; Smith, K. D.; Plank, G.; Slater, D.; Torrisi, J.; Presser, R.; Straley, K.

    2013-12-01

    datalogger in our seismic network not only for data collection, but also for maintenance and quality control. This has resulted in several partnerships with other agencies. In addition to our seismic station network for earthquake monitoring, we currently manage ~400 more channels of data (many running at 500 Hz) for the National Center for Nuclear Security (NCNS) Source Physics Experiments, a series of chemical explosions at the Nevada National Security Site. Some of our mountaintop stations have been experimentally equipped with near-infrared high-definition fire cameras for wildfire monitoring, and have recently recorded the Bison and Pedlar fires in northwest Nevada. Data for the Nevada EPSCor climate program also utilizes the NSL WAN. Real-time access to data for these experiments greatly reduces the effort required for data archival, quality control, and monitoring equipment failures. Future plans include increasing density of stations in urban areas such as Reno and Las Vegas, and expanding coverage to Tahoe and eastern Nevada.

  18. Development and radiation evaluation of mobile station for personnel monitoring system based on indigenous plastic scintillator sensor rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhary, H.S.; Parihar, A.; Senwar, K.R.; Prakash, V.; Rathore, A.S.

    2018-01-01

    The Mobile Station for Personnel Monitoring (MSPM) system has been designed and developed for rapid screening of personnel with respect to radiation contamination during nuclear or radiological emergency; it can also be used for prevention of illicit movement of radioactive sources. The objective was to develop a modular, transportable and easily deployable gamma portal monitoring system based on indigenous DLJ developed plastic scintillator sensors. The Gamma radiation response of the system is presented here

  19. Significant breakthroughs in monitoring networks of the volcanological and seismological French observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    lemarchand, A.; Francois, B.; Bouin, M.; Brenguier, F.; Clouard, V.; Di Muro, A.; Ferrazzini, V.; Shapiro, N.; Staudacher, T.; Kowalski, P.; Agrinier, P.

    2013-12-01

    Others authors: S. Tait (1), D. Amorese (4,1), JB de Chabalier (1), A. Anglade (4,1), P. Kowalski (5,1),the teams in the IPGP Volcanological and Seismological observatories In the last few years, French West Indies observatories, in collaboration with the Seismic Research Center (University of West Indies-Trinidad), have modernized the Lesser Antilles Arc seismic and deformation monitoring network. 16 new permanent stations have been installed to strengthen and expand its detection capabilities. The global network of the IPGP-SRC consortium is now composed of 21 modernized stations, all equipped with broadband seismometers, strong motion sensors, GNSS sensors and satellite communication for real-time data transfer to the observatories of Trinidad (SRC), Guadeloupe (OVSG), Martinique (OVSM). To improve the sensitivity and reduce ambient noise, special efforts were made to enhance the design of the seismic vault and the original Stuttgart shielding (D. Kurrle R. Widmer-Schnidrig, 2005) of the broadband seismometers (240 and 120 sec). This renewed network feeds the Caribbean Tsunami Warning System supported by UNESCO and establishes a monitoring tool that produces high quality data for studying subduction and volcanism interactions in the Lesser Antilles arc. Since 2010, the UnderVolc research program has been an opportunity to reinforce the existing volcanic seismic network of Piton de la Fournaise on La Réunion Island (Indian Ocean). 20 broadband seismometers, 20 short-period sensors, and 26 GNSS receivers now cover the volcano. The program successfully developed many new data treatment tools. They have proven to be well-adapted for monitoring volcanic activity such as the tracking of seismic velocity changes inferred from seismic noise, or the injection of dike and the resulting deformations. This upgrade has now established the monitoring network of La Réunion hot spot to high quality standards which will foster the scientific attractiveness of OVPF-IPGP. During

  20. Performance of monitoring networks estimated from a Gaussian plume model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seebregts, A.J.; Hienen, J.F.A.

    1990-10-01

    In support of the ECN study on monitoring strategies after nuclear accidents, the present report describes the analysis of the performance of a monitoring network in a square grid. This network is used to estimate the distribution of the deposition pattern after a release of radioactivity into the atmosphere. The analysis is based upon a single release, a constant wind direction and an atmospheric dispersion according to a simplified Gaussian plume model. A technique is introduced to estimate the parameters in this Gaussian model based upon measurements at specific monitoring locations and linear regression, although this model is intrinsically non-linear. With these estimated parameters and the Gaussian model the distribution of the contamination due to deposition can be estimated. To investigate the relation between the network and the accuracy of the estimates for the deposition, deposition data have been generated by the Gaussian model, including a measurement error by a Monte Carlo simulation and this procedure has been repeated for several grid sizes, dispersion conditions, number of measurements per location, and errors per single measurement. The present technique has also been applied for the mesh sizes of two networks in the Netherlands, viz. the Landelijk Meetnet Radioaciviteit (National Measurement Network on Radioactivity, mesh size approx. 35 km) and the proposed Landelijk Meetnet Nucleaire Incidenten (National Measurement Network on Nuclear Incidents, mesh size approx. 15 km). The results show accuracies of 11 and 7 percent, respectively, if monitoring locations are used more than 10 km away from the postulated accident site. These figures are based upon 3 measurements per location and a dispersion during neutral weather with a wind velocity of 4 m/s. For stable weather conditions and low wind velocities, i.e. a small plume, the calculated accuracies are at least a factor 1.5 worse.The present type of analysis makes a cost-benefit approach to the

  1. Network Traffic Monitoring Using Poisson Dynamic Linear Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merl, D. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-05-09

    In this article, we discuss an approach for network forensics using a class of nonstationary Poisson processes with embedded dynamic linear models. As a modeling strategy, the Poisson DLM (PoDLM) provides a very flexible framework for specifying structured effects that may influence the evolution of the underlying Poisson rate parameter, including diurnal and weekly usage patterns. We develop a novel particle learning algorithm for online smoothing and prediction for the PoDLM, and demonstrate the suitability of the approach to real-time deployment settings via a new application to computer network traffic monitoring.

  2. Air Monitoring Network at Tonopah Test Range: Network Description, Capabilities, and Analytical Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartwell, William T.; Daniels, Jeffrey; Nikolich, George; Shadel, Craig; Giles, Ken; Karr, Lynn; Kluesner, Tammy

    2012-01-01

    During the period April to June 2008, at the behest of the Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO); the Desert Research Institute (DRI) constructed and deployed two portable environmental monitoring stations at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) as part of the Environmental Restoration Project Soils Activity. DRI has operated these stations since that time. A third station was deployed in the period May to September 2011. The TTR is located within the northwest corner of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR), and covers an area of approximately 725.20 km2 (280 mi2). The primary objective of the monitoring stations is to evaluate whether and under what conditions there is wind transport of radiological contaminants from Soils Corrective Action Units (CAUs) associated with Operation Roller Coaster on TTR. Operation Roller Coaster was a series of tests, conducted in 1963, designed to examine the stability and dispersal of plutonium in storage and transportation accidents. These tests did not result in any nuclear explosive yield. However, the tests did result in the dispersal of plutonium and contamination of surface soils in the surrounding area.

  3. Event Localization in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks using Monitoring Courses

    KAUST Repository

    Debont, Matthew

    2011-11-01

    In this thesis we consider different methods to localize events in a multi-hop wireless sensor network operating underwater using acoustic modems. The network consists of surface gateway nodes and relay nodes. Localization of surface gateways can be achieved through GPS, but we cannot rely on this technology for localizing underwater nodes. Surface Gateway nodes can distribute their locations through the network using the incoming signals by the acoustic modems from the relay nodes. Relay nodes are deployed to remain static but due to water currents, floating, and the untethered nature of the nodes, they often suffer from frequent drifting which can result in a deployed network suffering link failures. In this work, we developed a novel concept of an underwater alarming system, which adapts a cyclic graph model. In the event of link failure, a series of alarm packets are broadcasted in the network. These alarms are then captured through a novel concept of underwater Monitoring Courses (M-Courses), which can also be used to assure network connectivity and identify node faults. M-Courses also allow the network to localize events and identify network issues at a local level before forwarding any results upwards to a Surface Gateway nodes. This reduces the amount of communication overhead needed and allowing for distributed management of nodes in a network which may be constantly moving. We show that the proposed algorithms can reduce the number of send operations needed for an event to be localized in a network. We have found that M-Course routing reduces the number of sends required to report an event to a Surface Gateway by up to 80% in some cases when compared to a naive routing implementation. But this is achieved by increasing the time for an event to reach a Surface Gateway. These effects are both due to the buffering effect of M-Course routing, which allows us to efficiently deal with multiple events in an local area and we find that the performance of M

  4. Research on the optimization of air quality monitoring station layout based on spatial grid statistical analysis method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianxin; Zhou, Xing Chen; Ikhumhen, Harrison Odion; Difei, An

    2018-05-01

    In recent years, with the significant increase in urban development, it has become necessary to optimize the current air monitoring stations to reflect the quality of air in the environment. Highlighting the spatial representation of some air monitoring stations using Beijing's regional air monitoring station data from 2012 to 2014, the monthly mean particulate matter concentration (PM10) in the region was calculated and through the IDW interpolation method and spatial grid statistical method using GIS, the spatial distribution of PM10 concentration in the whole region was deduced. The spatial distribution variation of districts in Beijing using the gridding model was performed, and through the 3-year spatial analysis, PM10 concentration data including the variation and spatial overlay (1.5 km × 1.5 km cell resolution grid), the spatial distribution result obtained showed that the total PM10 concentration frequency variation exceeded the standard. It is very important to optimize the layout of the existing air monitoring stations by combining the concentration distribution of air pollutants with the spatial region using GIS.

  5. Displacement back analysis for a high slope of the Dagangshan Hydroelectric Power Station based on BP neural network and particle swarm optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhengzhao; Gong, Bin; Tang, Chunan; Zhang, Yongbin; Ma, Tianhui

    2014-01-01

    The right bank high slope of the Dagangshan Hydroelectric Power Station is located in complicated geological conditions with deep fractures and unloading cracks. How to obtain the mechanical parameters and then evaluate the safety of the slope are the key problems. This paper presented a displacement back analysis for the slope using an artificial neural network model (ANN) and particle swarm optimization model (PSO). A numerical model was established to simulate the displacement increment results, acquiring training data for the artificial neural network model. The backpropagation ANN model was used to establish a mapping function between the mechanical parameters and the monitoring displacements. The PSO model was applied to initialize the weights and thresholds of the backpropagation (BP) network model and determine suitable values of the mechanical parameters. Then the elastic moduli of the rock masses were obtained according to the monitoring displacement data at different excavation stages, and the BP neural network model was proved to be valid by comparing the measured displacements, the displacements predicted by the BP neural network model, and the numerical simulation using the back-analyzed parameters. The proposed model is useful for rock mechanical parameters determination and instability investigation of rock slopes.

  6. Displacement Back Analysis for a High Slope of the Dagangshan Hydroelectric Power Station Based on BP Neural Network and Particle Swarm Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhengzhao; Gong, Bin; Tang, Chunan; Zhang, Yongbin; Ma, Tianhui

    2014-01-01

    The right bank high slope of the Dagangshan Hydroelectric Power Station is located in complicated geological conditions with deep fractures and unloading cracks. How to obtain the mechanical parameters and then evaluate the safety of the slope are the key problems. This paper presented a displacement back analysis for the slope using an artificial neural network model (ANN) and particle swarm optimization model (PSO). A numerical model was established to simulate the displacement increment results, acquiring training data for the artificial neural network model. The backpropagation ANN model was used to establish a mapping function between the mechanical parameters and the monitoring displacements. The PSO model was applied to initialize the weights and thresholds of the backpropagation (BP) network model and determine suitable values of the mechanical parameters. Then the elastic moduli of the rock masses were obtained according to the monitoring displacement data at different excavation stages, and the BP neural network model was proved to be valid by comparing the measured displacements, the displacements predicted by the BP neural network model, and the numerical simulation using the back-analyzed parameters. The proposed model is useful for rock mechanical parameters determination and instability investigation of rock slopes. PMID:25140345

  7. Impacts on particles and ozone by transport processes recorded at urban and high-altitude monitoring stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolás, J.F., E-mail: j.nicolas@umh.es [Laboratory of Atmospheric Pollution (LCA), Miguel Hernández University, Av. de la Universidad s/n, Edif. Alcudia, 03202 Elche (Spain); Crespo, J.; Yubero, E.; Soler, R. [Laboratory of Atmospheric Pollution (LCA), Miguel Hernández University, Av. de la Universidad s/n, Edif. Alcudia, 03202 Elche (Spain); Carratalá, A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Alicante, P.O. Box 99, 03080 Alicante (Spain); Mantilla, E. [Instituto Universitario CEAM-UMH, Parque Tecnológico, C/Charles R. Darwin 14, E-46980 Paterna (Spain)

    2014-01-01

    In order to evaluate the influence of particle transport episodes on particle number concentration temporal trends at both urban and high-altitude (Aitana peak-1558 m a.s.l.) stations, a simultaneous sampling campaign from October 2011 to September 2012 was performed. The monitoring stations are located in southeastern Spain, close to the Mediterranean coast. The annual average value of particle concentration obtained in the larger accumulation mode (size range 0.25–1 μm) at the mountain site, 55.0 ± 3.0 cm{sup − 3}, was practically half that of the value obtained at the urban station (112.0 ± 4.0 cm{sup − 3}). The largest difference between both stations was recorded during December 2011 and January 2012, when particles at the mountain station registered the lowest values. It was observed that during urban stagnant episodes, particle transport from urban sites to the mountain station could take place under specific atmospheric conditions. During these transports, the major particle transfer is produced in the 0.5–2 μm size range. The minimum difference between stations was recorded in summer, particularly in July 2012, which is most likely due to several particle transport events that affected only the mountain station. The particle concentration in the coarse mode was very similar at both monitoring sites, with the biggest difference being recorded during the summer months, 0.4 ± 0.1 cm{sup − 3} at the urban site and 0.9 ± 0.1 cm{sup − 3} at the Aitana peak in August 2012. Saharan dust outbreaks were the main factor responsible for these values during summer time. The regional station was affected more by these outbreaks, recording values of > 4.0 cm{sup − 3}, than the urban site. This long-range particle transport from the Sahara desert also had an effect upon O{sub 3} levels measured at the mountain station. During periods affected by Saharan dust outbreaks, ozone levels underwent a significant decrease (3–17%) with respect to its mean

  8. Impacts on particles and ozone by transport processes recorded at urban and high-altitude monitoring stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolás, J.F.; Crespo, J.; Yubero, E.; Soler, R.; Carratalá, A.; Mantilla, E.

    2014-01-01

    In order to evaluate the influence of particle transport episodes on particle number concentration temporal trends at both urban and high-altitude (Aitana peak-1558 m a.s.l.) stations, a simultaneous sampling campaign from October 2011 to September 2012 was performed. The monitoring stations are located in southeastern Spain, close to the Mediterranean coast. The annual average value of particle concentration obtained in the larger accumulation mode (size range 0.25–1 μm) at the mountain site, 55.0 ± 3.0 cm − 3 , was practically half that of the value obtained at the urban station (112.0 ± 4.0 cm − 3 ). The largest difference between both stations was recorded during December 2011 and January 2012, when particles at the mountain station registered the lowest values. It was observed that during urban stagnant episodes, particle transport from urban sites to the mountain station could take place under specific atmospheric conditions. During these transports, the major particle transfer is produced in the 0.5–2 μm size range. The minimum difference between stations was recorded in summer, particularly in July 2012, which is most likely due to several particle transport events that affected only the mountain station. The particle concentration in the coarse mode was very similar at both monitoring sites, with the biggest difference being recorded during the summer months, 0.4 ± 0.1 cm − 3 at the urban site and 0.9 ± 0.1 cm − 3 at the Aitana peak in August 2012. Saharan dust outbreaks were the main factor responsible for these values during summer time. The regional station was affected more by these outbreaks, recording values of > 4.0 cm − 3 , than the urban site. This long-range particle transport from the Sahara desert also had an effect upon O 3 levels measured at the mountain station. During periods affected by Saharan dust outbreaks, ozone levels underwent a significant decrease (3–17%) with respect to its mean value. - Highlights:

  9. Performance Evaluation of wastewater treatment plant of Noosh Azar company by online monitoring station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    leila haddadi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background& Objective: One of the reuses of wastewater in industries is irrigation of green space. Therefore, with proper treatment and reduction of environmental pollution of wastewater and in compliance with environmental standards, it can be used for irrigation purposes. The present study was aimed to evaluate the performance of Noosh Azar Wastewater Treatment Plant by the online monitoring station in 2016.   Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was performed at Noosh Azar Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP in Tehran. The effluent outlet parameters include COD, BOD, TSS, TOC, Turbidity, pH and temperature which were measured 12 times/day by the online monitoring station of the refinery according to the standard methods (the Examinations of Water and Wastewater, and reported at the end of each month. Data were entered into SPSS software and analyzed using statistical indices including mean and standard deviation. Results: The average total of BOD/COD ratio in the wastewater was 0.8. The results of the study showed that the average concentration of COD, BOD and TSS of the wastewater was 1624.91 ±134.85, 1310±75.38 and 283.58± 39.76 mg/L, respectively. The average of total outlet parameters of turbidity, COD, BOD, TSS and TOC were 12.78±2.21, 83.73±12.90, 41.26±6.65, 6.70±2.14, 46.03±7.08 mg/L, and pH=7.80±0.35. The total average of removal efficiencies of COD, BOD and TSS were 93.92±3.62, 96.57±1.002 and 97.57±0.936, respectively. Conclusion: Regarding the proper performance of the activated sludge system of Noosh Azar Company, the effluent  parameters such as COD, BOD, TSS, TOC, turbidity and pH, were in accordance with the standard of the Iranian Environmental Protection Agency for irrigation use. However in order to ensure the quality of the wastewater for reuse, the microbial parameters should also be considered.

  10. The new Mediterranean background monitoring station of Ersa, Cape Corsica: A long term Observatory component of the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment (ChArMEx)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulac, Francois

    2013-04-01

    performed. A Kipp and Zonen system for monitoring direct and diffuse broadband radiative fluxes will also be in operation soon, as well as an ICOS/RAMCES CO2 and CH4 monitoring instrument. Through this unprecedented effort and with the support from ChArMEx, ADEME, and CORSiCA programs (http://www.obs-mip.fr/corsica), this observatory represents so far the most achieved French atmospheric station having the best set of instruments for measuring in-situ reactive gases and aerosols. It stands out as the station of not one laboratory but of a large number (see list of co-authors). It provides "real time" information useful to the local air quality network (Qualitair Corse, http://www.qualitaircorse.org/) concerning EU regulated parameters (O3, PMx). This station aims providing quality controlled climatically relevant gas/aerosol database following the recommendations of the EU-FP7 ACTRIS infrastructure, EMEP and WMO-GAW programs. Atmospheric datasets are currently available at the MISTRALS database (http://mistrals.sedoo.fr/ChArMEx/) and soon at the ACTRIS & GAW databases. After a brief presentation of the Cape Corsica Station (location, climatology, instrumental settings ...), we present here the first months of aerosols properties (optical / chemical / particle size) obtained at this station. Acknowledgements: the station is mainly supported by ADEME, CNRS-INSU, CEA, CTC, EMD, FEDER, and Météo-France.

  11. Trends in surface-water quality at selected National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) stations, in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Atiq U.; Fogarty, Lisa R.

    2005-01-01

    To demonstrate the value of long-term, water-quality monitoring, the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ), in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), initiated a study to evaluate potential trends in water-quality constituents for selected National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) stations in Michigan. The goal of this study is to assist the MDEQ in evaluating the effectiveness of water-pollution control efforts and the identification of water-quality concerns. The study included a total of nine NASQAN stations in Michigan. Approximately 28 constituents were analyzed for trend tests. Station selection was based on data availability, land-use characteristics, and station priority for the MDEQ Water Chemistry Monitoring Project. Trend analyses were completed using the uncensored Seasonal Kendall Test in the computer program Estimate Trend (ESTREND), a software program for the detection of trends in water-quality data. The parameters chosen for the trend test had (1) at least a 5-year period of record (2) about 5 percent of the observations censored at a single reporting limit, and (3) 40 percent of the values within the beginning one-fifth and ending one-fifth of the selected period. In this study, a negative trend indicates a decrease in concentration of a particular constituent, which generally means an improvement in water quality; whereas a positive trend means an increase in concentration and possible degradation of water quality. The results of the study show an overall improvement in water quality at the Clinton River at Mount Clemens, Manistee River at Manistee, and Pigeon River near Caseville. The detected trend for these stations show decreases in concentrations of various constituents such as nitrogen compounds, conductance, sulfate, fecal coliform bacteria, and fecal streptococci bacteria. The negative trend may indicate an overall improvement in agricultural practices, municipal and industrial wastewater

  12. A versatile and interoperable network sensors for water resources monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortolani, Alberto; Brandini, Carlo; Costantini, Roberto; Costanza, Letizia; Innocenti, Lucia; Sabatini, Francesco; Gozzini, Bernardo

    2010-05-01

    Monitoring systems to assess water resources quantity and quality require extensive use of in-situ measurements, that have great limitations like difficulties to access and share data, and to customise and easy reconfigure sensors network to fulfil end-users needs during monitoring or crisis phases. In order to address such limitations Sensor Web Enablement technologies for sensors management have been developed and applied to different environmental context under the EU-funded OSIRIS project (Open architecture for Smart and Interoperable networks in Risk management based on In-situ Sensors, www.osiris-fp6.eu). The main objective of OSIRIS was to create a monitoring system to manage different environmental crisis situations, through an efficient data processing chain where in-situ sensors are connected via an intelligent and versatile network infrastructure (based on web technologies) that enables end-users to remotely access multi-domain sensors information. Among the project application, one was focused on underground fresh-water monitoring and management. With this aim a monitoring system to continuously and automatically check water quality and quantity has been designed and built in a pilot test, identified as a portion of the Amiata aquifer feeding the Santa Fiora springs (Grosseto, Italy). This aquifer present some characteristics that make it greatly vulnerable under some conditions. It is a volcanic aquifer with a fractured structure. The volcanic nature in Santa Fiora causes levels of arsenic concentrations that normally are very close to the threshold stated by law, but that sometimes overpass such threshold for reasons still not fully understood. The presence of fractures makes the infiltration rate very inhomogeneous from place to place and very high in correspondence of big fractures. In case of liquid-pollutant spills (typically hydrocarbons spills from tanker accidents or leakage from house tanks containing fuel for heating), these fractures can act

  13. Wireless body sensor networks for health-monitoring applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Yang; Foster, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Current wireless technologies, such as wireless body area networks and wireless personal area networks, provide promising applications in medical monitoring systems to measure specified physiological data and also provide location-based information, if required. With the increasing sophistication of wearable and implantable medical devices and their integration with wireless sensors, an ever-expanding range of therapeutic and diagnostic applications is being pursued by research and commercial organizations. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive review of recent developments in wireless sensor technology for monitoring behaviour related to human physiological responses. It presents background information on the use of wireless technology and sensors to develop a wireless physiological measurement system. A generic miniature platform and other available technologies for wireless sensors have been studied in terms of hardware and software structural requirements for a low-cost, low-power, non-invasive and unobtrusive system. (topical review)

  14. Investigation of Wireless Sensor Networks for Structural Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs are one of the most able technologies in the structural health monitoring (SHM field. Through intelligent, self-organising means, the contents of this paper will test a variety of different objects and different working principles of sensor nodes connected into a network and integrated with data processing functions. In this paper the key issues of WSN applied in SHM are discussed, including the integration of different types of sensors with different operational modalities, sampling frequencies, issues of transmission bandwidth, real-time ability, and wireless transmitter frequency. Furthermore, the topology, data fusion, integration, energy saving, and self-powering nature of different systems will be investigated. In the FP7 project “Health Monitoring of Offshore Wind Farms,” the above issues are explored.

  15. Toward implementation of a national ground water monitoring network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Robert P.; Cunningham, William L.; Copeland, Rick; Frederick, Kevin D.

    2008-01-01

    The Federal Advisory Committee on Water Information's (ACWI) Subcommittee on Ground Water (SOGW) has been working steadily to develop and encourage implementation of a nationwide, long-term ground-water quantity and quality monitoring framework. Significant progress includes the planned submission this fall of a draft framework document to the full committee. The document will include recommendations for implementation of the network and continued acknowledgment at the federal and state level of ACWI's potential role in national monitoring toward an improved assessment of the nation's water reserves. The SOGW mission includes addressing several issues regarding network design, as well as developing plans for concept testing, evaluation of costs and benefits, and encouraging the movement from pilot-test results to full-scale implementation within a reasonable time period. With the recent attention to water resource sustainability driven by severe droughts, concerns over global warming effects, and persistent water supply problems, the SOGW mission is now even more critical.

  16. Big Data Reduction and Optimization in Sensor Monitoring Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs are increasingly being utilized to monitor the structural health of the underground subway tunnels, showing many promising advantages over traditional monitoring schemes. Meanwhile, with the increase of the network size, the system is incapable of dealing with big data to ensure efficient data communication, transmission, and storage. Being considered as a feasible solution to these issues, data compression can reduce the volume of data travelling between sensor nodes. In this paper, an optimization algorithm based on the spatial and temporal data compression is proposed to cope with these issues appearing in WSNs in the underground tunnel environment. The spatial and temporal correlation functions are introduced for the data compression and data recovery. It is verified that the proposed algorithm is applicable to WSNs in the underground tunnel.

  17. Software Defined Network Monitoring Scheme Using Spectral Graph Theory and Phantom Nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    networks is the emergence of software - defined networking ( SDN ) [1]. SDN has existed for the...Chapter III for network monitoring. A. SOFTWARE DEFINED NETWORKS SDNs provide a new and innovative method to simplify network hardware by logically...and R. Giladi, “Performance analysis of software - defined networking ( SDN ),” in Proc. of IEEE 21st International Symposium on Modeling, Analysis

  18. European Marine Biodiversity Monitoring Networks: strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Patrício

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available By 2020, European Union Member States should achieve Good Environmental Status (GES for eleven environmental quality descriptors for their marine waters to fulfill the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD. By the end of 2015, in coordination with the Regional Seas Conventions, each EU Member States was required to develop a marine strategy for their waters, together with other countries within the same marine region or sub-region. Coherent monitoring programs, submitted in 2014, form a key component of this strategy, which then aimed to lead to a Program of Measures (submitted in 2015. The European DEVOTES FP7 project has produced and interrogated a catalogue of EU marine monitoring related to MSFD descriptors 1 (biological diversity, 2 (non-indigenous species, 4 (food webs and 6 (seafloor integrity. Here we detail the monitoring activity at the regional and sub-regional level for these descriptors, as well as for 11 biodiversity components, 22 habitats and the 37 anthropogenic pressures addressed. The metadata collated for existing European monitoring networks were subject to a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats analysis. This interrogation has indicated case studies to address the following questions: a what are the types of monitoring currently in place?; b who does what and how?; c is the monitoring fit-for-purpose for addressing the MSFD requirements?, and d what are the impediments to better monitoring (e.g. costs, shared responsibilities between countries, overlaps, co-ordination? We recommend the future means, to overcome the identified impediments and develop more robust monitoring strategies and as such the results are especially relevant to implementing coordinated monitoring networks throughout Europe, for marine policy makers, government agencies and regulatory bodies. It is emphasized that while many of the recommendations given here require better, more extensive and perhaps more costly monitoring, this is

  19. Bayesian Computational Sensor Networks for Aircraft Structural Health Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-02

    Virginia 22203 Air Force Research Laboratory Air Force Materiel Command 1 Final Performance Report: AFOSR T.C. Henderson , V.J. Mathews, and D...AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0094 Bayesian Computational Sensor Networks for Aircraft Structural Health Monitoring. Thomas Henderson UNIVERSITY OF UTAH SALT...The people who worked on this project include: Thomas C. Henderson , John Mathews, Jingru Zhou, Daimei Zhij, Ahmad Zoubi, Sabita Nahata, Dan Adams

  20. Establishing a Multi-spatial Wireless Sensor Network to Monitor Nitrate Concentrations in Soil Moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haux, E.; Busek, N.; Park, Y.; Estrin, D.; Harmon, T. C.

    2004-12-01

    The use of reclaimed wastewater for irrigation in agriculture can be a significant source of nutrients, in particular nitrogen species, but its use raises concern for groundwater, riparian, and water quality. A 'smart' technology would have the ability to measure wastewater nutrients as they enter the irrigation system, monitor their transport in situ and optimally control inputs with little human intervention, all in real-time. Soil heterogeneity and economic issues require, however, a balance between cost and the spatial and temporal scales of the monitoring effort. Therefore, a wireless and embedded sensor network, deployed in the soil vertically across the horizon, is capable of collecting, processing, and transmitting sensor data. The network consists of several networked nodes or 'pylons', each outfitted with an array of sensors measuring humidity, temperature, precipitation, soil moisture, and aqueous nitrate concentrations. Individual sensor arrays are controlled by a MICA2 mote (Crossbow Technology Inc., San Jose, CA) programmed with TinyOS (University of California, Berkeley, CA) and a Stargate (Crossbow Technology Inc., San Jose, CA) base-station capable of GPRS for data transmission. Results are reported for the construction and testing of a prototypical pylon at the benchtop and in the field.

  1. Automatic monitoring of isolation state in low-voltage distribution network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Людмила Олександрівна Добровольська

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the possibility of using the proposed functional isolation monitoring circuit with an additional high-frequency signal of 3500 Hz, introduced into the power network, which allows real-time detection of isolation leakage current not exceeding 8,5 mA. To check the isolation state it was decided to control leakage currents. To do this it is proposed to use the current control device developed by the authors that provides measurement of the currents in the lines and used by consumers. The device makes it possible to determine the magnitude and locations of the unauthorized taking away the power and to transmit the data to the control station wirelessly. It is proposed to extend the functionality of the device by automatically measuring leakage currents when monitoring the isolation state if current exceeds the permissible limits. This can be achieved by introducing a current control device of frequency-dependent selective amplifier of sinusoidal leakage currents that solves the problem of frequency separation and allows the isolation state control without disconnecting users from the network. Early detection and removal of defects of isolation before they become interfacial short circuits and dead ground short circuits will prevent the occurrence of dangerous situations, increase the reliability and service life of electrical networks and ensure uninterrupted power supply of consumers with electricity

  2. Networked simulation for team training of Space Station astronauts, ground controllers, and scientists - A training and development environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajare, Ankur R.; Wick, Daniel T.; Bovenzi, James J.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe plans for the Space Station Training Facility (SSTF) which has been designed to meet the envisioned training needs for Space Station Freedom. To meet these needs, the SSTF will integrate networked simulators with real-world systems in five training modes: Stand-Alone, Combined, Joint-Combined, Integrated, and Joint-Integrated. This paper describes the five training modes within the context of three training scenaries. In addition, this paper describes an authoring system which will support the rapid integration of new real-world system changes in the Space Station Freedom Program.

  3. Rapid Monitoring of Bacteria and Fungi aboard the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, D.; Flores, G.; Effinger, M.; Maule, J.; Wainwright, N.; Steele, A.; Damon, M.; Wells, M.; Williams, S.; Morris, H.; hide

    2009-01-01

    Microorganisms within spacecraft have traditionally been monitored with culture-based techniques. These techniques involve growth of environmental samples (cabin water, air or surfaces) on agar-type media for several days, followed by visualization of resulting colonies or return of samples to Earth for ground-based analysis. Data obtained over the past 4 decades have enhanced our understanding of the microbial ecology within space stations. However, the approach has been limited by the following factors: i) Many microorganisms (estimated > 95%) in the environment cannot grow on conventional growth media; ii) Significant time lags (3-5 days for incubation and up to several months to return samples to ground); iii) Condensation in contact slides hinders colony counting by crew; and iv) Growth of potentially harmful microorganisms, which must then be disposed of safely. This report describes the operation of a new culture-independent technique onboard the ISS for rapid analysis (within minutes) of endotoxin and beta-1, 3-glucan, found in the cell walls of gramnegative bacteria and fungi, respectively. The technique involves analysis of environmental samples with the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay in a handheld device, known as the Lab-On-a-Chip Application Development Portable Test System (LOCAD-PTS). LOCADPTS was launched to the ISS in December 2006, and here we present data obtained from Mach 2007 until the present day. These data include a comparative study between LOCADPTS analysis and existing culture-based methods; and an exploratory survey of surface endotoxin and beta-1, 3-glucan throughout the ISS. While a general correlation between LOCAD-PTS and traditional culture-based methods should not be expected, we will suggest new requirements for microbial monitoring based upon culture-independent parameters measured by LOCAD-PTS.

  4. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Based Wireless Sensor Network for Marine-Coastal Environment Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trasviña-Moreno, Carlos A; Blasco, Rubén; Marco, Álvaro; Casas, Roberto; Trasviña-Castro, Armando

    2017-02-24

    Marine environments are delicate ecosystems which directly influence local climates, flora, fauna, and human activities. Their monitorization plays a key role in their preservation, which is most commonly done through the use of environmental sensing buoy networks. These devices transmit data by means of satellite communications or close-range base stations, which present several limitations and elevated infrastructure costs. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) are another alternative for remote environmental monitoring which provide new types of data and ease of use. These aircraft are mainly used in video capture related applications, in its various light spectrums, and do not provide the same data as sensing buoys, nor can they be used for such extended periods of time. The aim of this research is to provide a flexible, easy to deploy and cost-effective Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) for monitoring marine environments. This proposal uses a UAV as a mobile data collector, low-power long-range communications and sensing buoys as part of a single WSN. A complete description of the design, development, and implementation of the various parts of this system is presented, as well as its validation in a real-world scenario.

  5. The Antarctic permafrost as a testbed for REMS (Rover Environmental Monitoring Station-Mars Science Laboratory)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, B.; Ramos, M.; Sebastián, E.; Armiens, C.; Gómez-Elvira, J.; Cabos, W.; de Pablo, M. A.

    2009-04-01

    The present climatic characteristics of Mars favor the presence of extense permafrost areas in this lonely planet. Therefore environmental parameters that are included in Martian Rover missions are also used for monitoring thermal soil surface evolution in order to study the permafrost active layer thickness and the energy balance in the soil-atmosphere boundary limit layer. The REMS (Rover Environmental Monitoring Station) is an environmental station designed by the Centro de Astrobiología (CAB- Spain) with the collaboration of national and international partners (CRISA/EADS, UPC and FMI), which is part of the payload of the MSL (Mars Science Laboratory) NASA mission to Mars (http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/msl/overview/). This mission is expected to be launched in the final months of 2009, and mainly consists of a Rover, with a complete set of scientific instruments; the Rover will carry the biggest, most advanced suite of instruments for scientific studies ever sent to the Martian surface. Five sensors compose the REMS instrument: ground (GT-REMS) and air temperatures, wind speed and direction, pressure, humidity and ultraviolet radiation (UV-REMS). A simplified setup of the REMS was deployed on Antarctica in the surroundings of the Spanish Antarctic Stations on Livingston and Deception Islands (Maritime Antarctica), where the permafrost distribution is well-known. The aim of the experiment was to check REMS's sensors response against hard environmental conditions and calibrates their measures with standard Antarctic devices. The experimental apparatuses included some standard meteorological and thermopiles sensors corresponding to the REMS. All the sensors are mounted in a 1.8 m mast and include a Pt100 air temperature sensor with shield solar protection on the mast top, a Kipp and Zonnen CNR1 net radiometer for measuring infrared (5-50 μm) and short wave solar (305-2800 nm) radiation at 1.5 m high, GT-REMS sensor and its amplification box at 0.7 m high and finally

  6. Airborne Wireless Sensor Networks for Airplane Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang Gao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In traditional airplane monitoring system (AMS, data sensed from strain, vibration, ultrasound of structures or temperature, and humidity in cabin environment are transmitted to central data repository via wires. However, drawbacks still exist in wired AMS such as expensive installation and maintenance, and complicated wired connections. In recent years, accumulating interest has been drawn to performing AMS via airborne wireless sensor network (AWSN system with the advantages of flexibility, low cost, and easy deployment. In this review, we present an overview of AMS and AWSN and demonstrate the requirements of AWSN for AMS particularly. Furthermore, existing wireless hardware prototypes and network communication schemes of AWSN are investigated according to these requirements. This paper will improve the understanding of how the AWSN design under AMS acquires sensor data accurately and carries out network communication efficiently, providing insights into prognostics and health management (PHM for AMS in future.

  7. Calibration and study of the measurement capabilities of real-time gamma spectrometry equipment developed for the renewal of the network of stations automatic monitoring environmental radiation of the Generalitat of Catalunya; Calibracion y estudio de las capacidades de medida de los equipos de espectrometria gamma en tiempo real desarrollados para la renovacion de la Red de Estaciones Automaticas de vigilancia radiologia ambiental de la Generalitat de Catalunya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casanovas, R.; Prieto, E.; Salvado, M.

    2014-10-01

    The renewal of the automatic environmental radiation surveillance network of the Generalitat of Catalunya has been carried out through the development and implementation of gamma-spectrometry-based equipment. the monitors use scintillation crystals, either Na(TI) or LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) and currently, there are 3 types of equipment water radioactivity monitors, aerosols on a particulate filter monitors and direct measurement monitors. In this paper, we expose the basic features of its operation, the details of their calibration and the minimum detectable activity concentration for some isotopes. (Author)

  8. Evaluation of the Air Quality Monitor's Performance on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limero, Thomas; Reese, Eric; Ballard, Ken; Durham, Tamara

    2010-01-01

    The Air Quality Monitor (AQM) was flown to the International Space Station (ISS) as an experiment to evaluate its potential to replace the aging Volatile Organic Analyzer (VOA), which ceased operations in August 2009. The AQM (Figure 1) is a small gas chromatography/differential mobility spectrometer (GC/DMS) manufactured by Sionex. Data was presented at last year s ISIMS conference that detailed the preparation of the AQM for flight, including instrument calibration. Furthermore, initial AQM data was compared to VOA results from simultaneous runs of the two instruments. Although comparison with VOA data provided a measure of confidence in the AQM performance, it is the comparison with results from simultaneously acquired air samples (grab sample containers-GSCs) that will define the success (or failure) of the AQM performance. This paper will update the progress in the AQM investigation by comparing AQM data to results from the analyses of GSC samples, returned from ISS. Additionally, a couple of example will illustrate the AQM s ability to detect disruptions in the spacecraft s air quality. Discussion will also focus upon a few unexpected issues that have arisen and how these will be a addressed in the final operational unit now being built.

  9. Base Station Activation and Linear Transceiver Design for Optimal Resource Management in Heterogeneous Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wei-Cheng; Hong, Mingyi; Liu, Ya-Feng; Luo, Zhi-Quan

    2014-08-01

    In a densely deployed heterogeneous network (HetNet), the number of pico/micro base stations (BS) can be comparable with the number of the users. To reduce the operational overhead of the HetNet, proper identification of the set of serving BSs becomes an important design issue. In this work, we show that by jointly optimizing the transceivers and determining the active set of BSs, high system resource utilization can be achieved with only a small number of BSs. In particular, we provide formulations and efficient algorithms for such joint optimization problem, under the following two common design criteria: i) minimization of the total power consumption at the BSs, and ii) maximization of the system spectrum efficiency. In both cases, we introduce a nonsmooth regularizer to facilitate the activation of the most appropriate BSs. We illustrate the efficiency and the efficacy of the proposed algorithms via extensive numerical simulations.

  10. Establishing an air pollution monitoring network for intra-urban population exposure assessment : a location-allocation approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanaroglou, P.S. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). School of Geography and Geology; Jerrett, M.; Beckerman, B.; Arain, M.A. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). School of Geography and Geology]|[McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). McMaster Inst. of Environment and Health; Morrison, J. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). School of Computer Science; Gilbert, N.L. [Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Air Health Effects Div; Brook, J.R. [Meteorological Service of Canada, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2004-10-01

    A study was conducted to assess the relation between traffic-generated air pollution and health reactions ranging from childhood asthma to mortality from lung cancer. In particular, it developed a formal method of optimally locating a dense network of air pollution monitoring stations in order to derive an exposure assessment model based on the data obtained from the monitoring stations and related land use, population and biophysical information. The method for determining the locations of 100 nitrogen dioxide monitors in Toronto, Ontario focused on land use, transportation infrastructure and the distribution of at-risk populations. The exposure assessment produced reasonable estimates at the intra-urban scale. This method for locating air pollution monitors effectively maximizes sampling coverage in relation to important socio-demographic characteristics and likely pollution variability. The location-allocation approach integrates many variables into the demand surface to reconfigure a monitoring network and is especially useful for measuring traffic pollutants with fine-scale spatial variability. The method also shows great promise for improving the assessment of exposure to ambient air pollution in epidemiologic studies. 19 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  11. Optimal location of emergency stations in underground mine networks using a multiobjective mathematical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfian, Reza; Najafi, Mehdi

    2018-02-26

    Background Every year, many mining accidents occur in underground mines all over the world resulting in the death and maiming of many miners and heavy financial losses to mining companies. Underground mining accounts for an increasing share of these events due to their special circumstances and the risks of working therein. Thus, the optimal location of emergency stations within the network of an underground mine in order to provide medical first aid and transport injured people at the right time, plays an essential role in reducing deaths and disabilities caused by accidents Objective The main objective of this study is to determine the location of emergency stations (ES) within the network of an underground coal mine in order to minimize the outreach time for the injured. Methods A three-objective mathematical model is presented for placement of ES facility location selection and allocation of facilities to the injured in various stopes. Results Taking into account the radius of influence for each ES, the proposed model is capable to reduce the maximum time for provision of emergency services in the event of accident for each stope. In addition, the coverage or lack of coverage of each stope by any of the emergency facility is determined by means of Floyd-Warshall algorithm and graph. To solve the problem, a global criterion method using GAMS software is used to evaluate the accuracy and efficiency of the model. Conclusions 7 locations were selected from among 46 candidates for the establishment of emergency facilities in Tabas underground coal mine. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Water quality monitoring for high-priority water bodies in the Sonoran Desert network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry W. Sprouse; Robert M. Emanuel; Sara A. Strorrer

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a network monitoring program for “high priority” water bodies in the Sonoran Desert Network of the National Park Service. Protocols were developed for monitoring selected waters for ten of the eleven parks in the Network. Park and network staff assisted in identifying potential locations of testing sites, local priorities, and how water quality...

  13. Optimal spatio-temporal design of water quality monitoring networks for reservoirs: Application of the concept of value of information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maymandi, Nahal; Kerachian, Reza; Nikoo, Mohammad Reza

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for optimizing Water Quality Monitoring (WQM) networks of reservoirs and lakes using the concept of the value of information (VOI) and utilizing results of a calibrated numerical water quality simulation model. With reference to the value of information theory, water quality of every checkpoint with a specific prior probability differs in time. After analyzing water quality samples taken from potential monitoring points, the posterior probabilities are updated using the Baye's theorem, and VOI of the samples is calculated. In the next step, the stations with maximum VOI is selected as optimal stations. This process is repeated for each sampling interval to obtain optimal monitoring network locations for each interval. The results of the proposed VOI-based methodology is compared with those obtained using an entropy theoretic approach. As the results of the two methodologies would be partially different, in the next step, the results are combined using a weighting method. Finally, the optimal sampling interval and location of WQM stations are chosen using the Evidential Reasoning (ER) decision making method. The efficiency and applicability of the methodology are evaluated using available water quantity and quality data of the Karkheh Reservoir in the southwestern part of Iran.

  14. Evaluation of water resources monitoring networks: study applied to surface waters in the Macaé River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Cloris Lopes Benassuly

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of hydrological phenomena is required in water resources monitoring, in order to structure the water management, focusing on ensuring its multiple uses while allowing that resource´s control and conservation. The effectiveness of monitoring depends on adequate information systems design and proper operation conditions. Data acquisition, treatment and analysis are vital for establishing management strategies, thus monitoring systems and networks shall be conceived according to their main objectives, and be optimized in terms of location of data stations. The generated data shall also model hydrological behavior of the studied basin, so that data interpolation can be applied to the whole basin. The present work aimed to join concepts and methods that guide the structuring of hydrologic monitoring networks of surface waters. For evaluating historical series characteristics as well as work stations redundancy, the entropy method was used. The Macaé River Basin’s importance is related to the public and industrial uses of water in the region that is responsible for more than 80% of Brazilian oil and gas production, what justifies the relevance of the research made. This study concluded that despite of its relatively short extension, the Macaé River Basin should have higher monitoring network density, in order to provide more reliable management data. It also depicted the high relevancy of stations located in its upper course.

  15. An efficient routing algorithm for event based monitoring in a plant using virtual sink nodes in a wireless sensor network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Sanjay Kumar; Vietla, Srinivas; Roy, D.A.; Biswas, B.B.; Pithawa, C.K.

    2010-01-01

    A Wireless Sensor Network is a collection of wireless sensor nodes arranged in a self-forming network without aid of any infrastructure or administration. The individual nodes have limited resources and hence efficient communication mechanisms between the nodes have to be devised for continued operation of the network in a plant environment. In wireless sensor networks a sink node or base station at one end acts as the recipient of information gathered by all other sensor nodes in the network and the information arrives at the sink through multiple hops across the nodes of the network. A routing algorithm has been developed in which a virtual sink node is generated whenever hop count of an ordinary node crosses a certain specified value. The virtual sink node acts as a recipient node for data of all neighboring nodes. This virtual sink helps in reducing routing overhead, especially when the sensor network is scaled to a larger network. The advantages with this scheme are less energy consumption, reduced congestion in the network and longevity of the network. The above algorithm is suitable for event based or interval based monitoring systems in nuclear plants. This paper describes the working of the proposed algorithm and provides its implementation details. (author)

  16. A wireless sensor network design and evaluation for large structural strain field monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Zixue; Wu, Jian; Yuan, Shenfang

    2011-01-01

    Structural strain changes under external environmental or mechanical loads are the main monitoring parameters in structural health monitoring or mechanical property tests. This paper presents a wireless sensor network designed for monitoring large structural strain field variation. First of all, a precision strain sensor node is designed for multi-channel strain gauge signal conditioning and wireless monitoring. In order to establish a synchronous strain data acquisition network, the cluster-star network synchronization method is designed in detail. To verify the functionality of the designed wireless network for strain field monitoring capability, a multi-point network evaluation system is developed for an experimental aluminum plate structure for load variation monitoring. Based on the precision wireless strain nodes, the wireless data acquisition network is deployed to synchronously gather, process and transmit strain gauge signals and monitor results under concentrated loads. This paper shows the efficiency of the wireless sensor network for large structural strain field monitoring

  17. Detection and localization capability of an urban seismic sinkhole monitoring network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Dirk; Dahm, Torsten; Schneider, Fabian

    2017-04-01

    Microseismic events linked to underground processes in sinkhole areas might serve as precursors to larger mass dislocation or rupture events which can cause felt ground shaking or even structural damage. To identify these weak and shallow events, a sensitive local seismic monitoring network is needed. In case of an urban environment the performance of local monitoring networks is severely compromised by the high anthropogenic noise level. We study the detection and localization capability of such a network, which is already partly installed in the urban area of the city of Hamburg, Germany, within the joint project SIMULTAN (http://www.gfz-potsdam.de/en/section/near-surface-geophysics/projects/simultan/). SIMULTAN aims to monitor a known sinkhole structure and gain a better understanding of the underlying processes. The current network consists of six surface stations installed in the basement of private houses and underground structures of a research facility (DESY - Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron). During the started monitoring campaign since 2015, no microseismic events could be unambiguously attributed to the sinkholes. To estimate the detection and location capability of the network, we calculate synthetic waveforms based on the location and mechanism of former events in the area. These waveforms are combined with the recorded urban seismic noise at the station sites. As detection algorithms a simple STA/LTA trigger and a more sophisticated phase detector are used. While the STA/LTA detector delivers stable results and is able to detect events with a moment magnitude as low as 0.35 at a distance of 1.3km from the source even under the present high noise conditions the phase detector is more sensitive but also less stable. It should be stressed that due to the local near surface conditions of the wave propagation the detections are generally performed on S- or surface waves and not on P-waves, which have a significantly lower amplitude. Due to the often

  18. Three neural network based sensor systems for environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, P.E.; Kouzes, R.T.; Kangas, L.J.

    1994-05-01

    Compact, portable systems capable of quickly identifying contaminants in the field are of great importance when monitoring the environment. One of the missions of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory is to examine and develop new technologies for environmental restoration and waste management at the Hanford Site. In this paper, three prototype sensing systems are discussed. These prototypes are composed of sensing elements, data acquisition system, computer, and neural network implemented in software, and are capable of automatically identifying contaminants. The first system employs an array of tin-oxide gas sensors and is used to identify chemical vapors. The second system employs an array of optical sensors and is used to identify the composition of chemical dyes in liquids. The third system contains a portable gamma-ray spectrometer and is used to identify radioactive isotopes. In these systems, the neural network is used to identify the composition of the sensed contaminant. With a neural network, the intense computation takes place during the training process. Once the network is trained, operation consists of propagating the data through the network. Since the computation involved during operation consists of vector-matrix multiplication and application of look-up tables unknown samples can be rapidly identified in the field

  19. Real-time clock and orbit calculation of the GPS satellite constellation based on observation data of RTIGS-station network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thaler, G.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the development of faster communication networks and improving computer technology beside postprocessing techniques real-time applications and services are more and more created and used in the eld of precise positioning and navigation using global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) like GPS. Data formats like RTCM (NTRIP) or RTIGS serve in this manner as basic tool to transmit real-time GNSS observation data to a eld of users. To handle this trend to real-time, the International GNSS Service (IGS) or more precisely the Real-Time Working Group (RTWG) of the IGS started to establish a global GNSS station network several years ago. These reference stations (RTIGS stations) transmit their observation data in real-time via the open internet to registerd users to support the development of potential new real-time products and services. One example for such a new real-time application based on the observations of the RTIGS network is the software RTIGU-Control developed within this PHD thesis. RTIGU-Control fulls 2 main tasks. The rst task is the monitoring (integrity) of the predicted IGS orbit and clock products (IGU products) using real-time observations from the station network. The second task deals with calculating more precise satellite and station clock corrections compared to the predicted values of the IGU solutions based on the already very precise IGU orbit solutions. In a rst step RTIGU-Control calculates based on the IGU orbit predictions together with code-smoothed station observations precise values for the satellite and station clock corrections.The code-smoothed observations are additionally corrected for several corrections eecting the GNSS observations (for example the delay of the signal propagation time due to the atmosphere, relativistic eects, etc.). The second calculation step deals with monitoring the IGU predicted orbits using the calculated clock solution in the calculation step before and again the corrected real-time observations

  20. Deformation offshore Northern Chile monitored by a seafloor geodetic network (GeoSEA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannemann, Katrin; Lange, Dietrich; Kopp, Heidrun; Petersen, Florian; Contreras-Reyes, Eduardo

    2017-04-01

    The Nazca-South American plate boundary around 21°S has last ruptured in an earthquake in 1877 and was identified as a seismic gap prior to the 2014 Iquique earthquake (Mw=8.1). The southern portion of this segment is still unbroken. The geodetic monitoring of the Chilean subduction zone is crucial to understand the deformation processes in this area. Most geodetic measurements rely on GPS and are therefore limited to onshore campaigns. In December 2015, we installed the GeoSEA (Geodetic Earthquake Observatory on the SEAfloor) array around 21°S of the Nazca-South American plate boundary with RV SONNE to extend the geodetic observations to the offshore areas. The GeoSEA array consists of autonomous acoustic seafloor transponders mounted on 4 m high tripods. These transponders are able to continuously measure the two-way travel time of acoustic signals between station pairs (baselines) and the properties of the sea water (sound speed, temperature and pressure) at each transponder. These measurements are used to retrieve the distances between the transponders and give insights into the deformation of the seafloor. At the Chilean subduction zone, we installed in total 23 transponders in 3 subarrays with interstation distances of up to 2500 m. On the middle continental slope in 2300 m water depth, an array consisting of 8 transponders measures across crustal faults seen in AUV mapping. A second array of 5 stations located on the outer rise monitors extension across normal plate-bending faults. The deepest deployment in 5000 m water depth located on the lower continental slope with 10 stations is designed to measure diffuse strain build-up. The transponders are intended to monitor the seafloor deformation for 3.5 years. In November 2016 during a cruise of RV Langseth, the first 11 months of data were successfully uploaded via an acoustic modem. Furthermore, an additional component of the network, GeoSURF, a self-steering autonomous vehicle (wave glider), was

  1. Passive and Active Monitoring on a High Performance Research Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, Warren

    2001-01-01

    The bold network challenges described in ''Internet End-to-end Performance Monitoring for the High Energy and Nuclear Physics Community'' presented at PAM 2000 have been tackled by the intrepid administrators and engineers providing the network services. After less than a year, the BaBar collaboration has collected almost 100 million particle collision events in a database approaching 165TB (Tera=10 12 ). Around 20TB has been exported via the Internet to the BaBar regional center at IN2P3 in Lyon, France, for processing and around 40 TB of simulated events have been imported to SLAC from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). An unforseen challenge has arisen due to recent events and highlighted security concerns at DoE funded labs. New rules and regulations suggest it is only a matter of time before many active performance measurements may not be possible between many sites. Yet, at the same time, the importance of understanding every aspect of the network and eradicating packet loss for high throughput data transfers has become apparent. Work at SLAC to employ passive monitoring using netflow and OC3MON is underway and techniques to supplement and possibly replace the active measurements are being considered. This paper will detail the special needs and traffic characterization of a remarkable research project, and how the networking hurdles have been resolved (or not) to achieve the required high data throughput. Results from active and passive measurements will be compared, and methods for achieving high throughput and the effect on the network will be assessed along with tools that directly measure throughput and applications used to actually transfer data

  2. Passive and Active Monitoring on a High Performance Research Network.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Warren

    2001-05-01

    The bold network challenges described in ''Internet End-to-end Performance Monitoring for the High Energy and Nuclear Physics Community'' presented at PAM 2000 have been tackled by the intrepid administrators and engineers providing the network services. After less than a year, the BaBar collaboration has collected almost 100 million particle collision events in a database approaching 165TB (Tera=10{sup 12}). Around 20TB has been exported via the Internet to the BaBar regional center at IN2P3 in Lyon, France, for processing and around 40 TB of simulated events have been imported to SLAC from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). An unforseen challenge has arisen due to recent events and highlighted security concerns at DoE funded labs. New rules and regulations suggest it is only a matter of time before many active performance measurements may not be possible between many sites. Yet, at the same time, the importance of understanding every aspect of the network and eradicating packet loss for high throughput data transfers has become apparent. Work at SLAC to employ passive monitoring using netflow and OC3MON is underway and techniques to supplement and possibly replace the active measurements are being considered. This paper will detail the special needs and traffic characterization of a remarkable research project, and how the networking hurdles have been resolved (or not!) to achieve the required high data throughput. Results from active and passive measurements will be compared, and methods for achieving high throughput and the effect on the network will be assessed along with tools that directly measure throughput and applications used to actually transfer data.

  3. Distributed Interplanetary Delay/Disruption Tolerant Network (DTN) Monitor and Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shin-Ywan

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of Distributed interplanetary Delay Tolerant Network Monitor and Control System as a DTN system network management implementation in JPL is defined to provide methods and tools that can monitor the DTN operation status, detect and resolve DTN operation failures in some automated style while either space network or some heterogeneous network is infused with DTN capability. In this paper, "DTN Monitor and Control system in Deep Space Network (DSN)" exemplifies a case how DTN Monitor and Control system can be adapted into a space network as it is DTN enabled.

  4. Coupling of ground biosensor networks for water monitoring with satellite observations in assessing Leptospirosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouloudis, A. N.; Rickerby, D. G.

    2012-12-01

    Leptospirosis became recently a major public-health problem that is closely related with the environment (Nature review Oct 2009, Vol 7, pp 736-747). This disease originates from zoonotic pathogens associated with asymptomatic rodent carriers. Unfortunately, it effects human populations via various direct and indirect routes. This disease can claim many victims with large outbreaks during natural disasters or floods occurring during seasonal conditions. The severity of the illness ranges from subclinical infection to a fulminating fatal disease. Improved water quality monitoring techniques based on biosensor, optical, micro-fluidic and information technologies are leading to radical changes in our ability to perceive and monitor the aquatic environment. Biosensors are capable of providing specific, high spatial resolution information and allow unattended operation that will be particularly useful for water borne related diseases. Current research on biosensors is leading to solutions to problems for several contaminants that were previously irresolvable due to their high degree of complexity. Networking of the sensors enables sensitive monitoring systems allowing real-time monitoring of pollutants and facilitates data transmission between the measurement points and central control stations for continuous surveillance and to provide an early warning capability. The application of intelligent biosensor networks for water quality monitoring and detection of localized sources of pollution are discussed together with the setting up of a methodology that utilizes images from satellite coupled with in-situ sensors for anticipating the zones of potential evolution of this disease and assessing the population at risk. Environmental and climatic conditions that are associated the outbreaks are described and the rational of combining earth observations coupled with advanced in-situ biosensors is explained. The implementation of sensor networks for data collection and exposure

  5. Prairie Monitoring Protocol Development: North Coast and Cascades Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Allen; Dalby, Craig

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to conduct research that will guide development of a standard approach to monitoring several components of prairies within the North Coast and Cascades Network (NCCN) parks. Prairies are an important element of the natural environment at many parks, including San Juan Island National Historical Park (NHP) and Ebey's Landing National Historical Reserve (NHR). Forests have been encroaching on these prairies for many years, and so monitoring of the prairies is an important resource issue. This project specifically focused on San Juan Island NHP. Prairies at Ebey's Landing NHR will be monitored in the future, but that park was not mapped as part of this prototype project. In the interest of efficiency, the Network decided to investigate two main issues before launching a full protocol development effort: (1) the imagery requirements for monitoring prairie components, and (2) the effectiveness of software to assist in extracting features from the imagery. Several components of prairie monitoring were initially identified as being easily tracked using aerial imagery. These components included prairie/forest edge, broad prairie composition (for example, shrubs, scattered trees), and internal exclusions (for example, shrubs, bare ground). In addition, we believed that it might be possible to distinguish different grasses in the prairies if the imagery were of high enough resolution. Although the areas in question at San Juan Island NHP are small enough that mapping on the ground with GPS (Global Positioning System) would be feasible, other applications could benefit from aerial image acquisition on a regular, recurring basis and thereby make the investment in aerial imagery worthwhile. The additional expense of orthorectifying the imagery also was determined to be cost-effective.

  6. Sources of high frequency seismic noise: insights from a dense network of ~250 stations in northern Alsace (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergne, Jerome; Blachet, Antoine; Lehujeur, Maximilien

    2015-04-01

    Monitoring local or regional seismic activity requires stations having a low level of background seismic noise at frequencies higher than few tenths of Hertz. Network operators are well aware that the seismic quality of a site depends on several aspects, among them its geological setting and the proximity of roads, railways, industries or trees. Often, the impact of each noise source is only qualitatively known which precludes estimating the quality of potential future sites before they are tested or installed. Here, we want to take advantage of a very dense temporary network deployed in Northern Alsace (France) to assess the effect of various kinds of potential sources on the level of seismic noise observed in the frequency range 0.2-50 Hz. In September 2014, more than 250 seismic stations (FairfieldNodal@ Zland nodes with 10Hz vertical geophone) have been installed every 1.5 km over a ~25km diameter disc centred on the deep geothermal sites of Soultz-sous-Forêts and Rittershoffen. This region exhibits variable degrees of human imprints from quite remote areas to sectors with high traffic roads and big villages. It also encompasses both the deep sedimentary basin of the Rhine graben and the piedmont of the Vosges massif with exposed bedrock. For each site we processed the continuous data to estimate probability density functions of the power spectral densities. At frequencies higher than 1 Hz most sites show a clear temporal modulation of seismic noise related to human activity with the well-known variations between day and night and between weekdays and weekends. Moreover we observe a clear evolution of the spatial distribution of seismic noise levels with frequency. Basically, between 0.5 and 4 Hz the geological setting modulates the level of seismic noise. At higher frequencies, the amplitude of seismic noise appears mostly related to the distance to nearby roads. Based on road maps and traffic estimation, a forward approach is performed to model the induced

  7. Monitoring individual traffic flows within the ATLAS TDAQ network

    CERN Document Server

    Sjoen, R; Ciobotaru, M; Batraneanu, S M; Leahu, L; Martin, B; Al-Shabibi, A

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS data acquisition system consists of four different networks interconnecting up to 2000 processors using up to 200 edge switches and five multi-blade chassis devices. The architecture of the system has been described in [1] and its operational model in [2]. Classical, SNMP-based, network monitoring provides statistics on aggregate traffic, but for performance monitoring and troubleshooting purposes there was an imperative need to identify and quantify single traffic flows. sFlow [3] is an industry standard based on statistical sampling which attempts to provide a solution to this. Due to the size of the ATLAS network, the collection and analysis of the sFlow data from all devices generates a data handling problem of its own. This paper describes how this problem is addressed by making it possible to collect and store data either centrally or distributed according to need. The methods used to present the results in a relevant fashion for system analysts are discussed and we explore the possibilities a...

  8. Monitoring individual traffic flows within the ATLAS TDAQ network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoen, R; Batraneanu, S M; Leahu, L; Martin, B; Al-Shabibi, A; Stancu, S; Ciobotaru, M

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS data acquisition system consists of four different networks interconnecting up to 2000 processors using up to 200 edge switches and five multi-blade chassis devices. The architecture of the system has been described in [1] and its operational model in [2]. Classical, SNMP-based, network monitoring provides statistics on aggregate traffic, but for performance monitoring and troubleshooting purposes there was an imperative need to identify and quantify single traffic flows. sFlow [3] is an industry standard based on statistical sampling which attempts to provide a solution to this. Due to the size of the ATLAS network, the collection and analysis of the sFlow data from all devices generates a data handling problem of its own. This paper describes how this problem is addressed by making it possible to collect and store data either centrally or distributed according to need. The methods used to present the results in a relevant fashion for system analysts are discussed and we explore the possibilities and limitations of this diagnostic tool, giving an example of its use in solving system problems that arise during the ATLAS data taking.

  9. Long-term monitoring of blazars - the DWARF network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Michael; Biland, Adrian; Boller, Andrea; Braun, Isabel; Bretz, Thomas; Commichau, Sebastian; Commichau, Volker; Dorner, Daniela; von Gunten, Hanspeter; Gendotti, Adamo; Grimm, Oliver; Hildebrand, Dorothée; Horisberger, Urs; Krähenbühl, Thomas; Kranich, Daniel; Lustermann, Werner; Mannheim, Karl; Neise, Dominik; Pauss, Felicitas; Renker, Dieter; Rhode, Wolfgang; Rissi, Michael; Rollke, Sebastian; Röser, Ulf; Stark, Luisa Sabrina; Stucki, Jean-Pierre; Viertel, Gert; Vogler, Patrick; Weitzel, Quirin

    The variability of the very high energy (VHE) emission from blazars seems to be connected with the feeding and propagation of relativistic jets and with their origin in supermassive black hole binaries. The key to understanding their properties is measuring well-sampled gamma-ray lightcurves, revealing the typical source behavior unbiased by prior knowledge from other wavebands. Using ground-based gamma-ray observatories with exposures limited by dark-time, a global network of several telescopes is needed to carry out fulltime measurements. Obviously, such observations are time-consuming and, therefore, cannot be carried out with the present state of the art instruments. The DWARF telescope on the Canary Island of La Palma is dedicated to monitoring observations. It is currently being set up, employing a costefficient and robotic design. Part of this project is the future construction of a distributed network of small telescopes. The physical motivation of VHE long-term monitoring will be outlined in detail and the perspective for a network for 24/7 observations will be presented.

  10. A System to Produce Precise Global GPS Network Solutions for all Geodetic GPS Stations in the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blewitt, G.; Kreemer, C. W.

    2010-12-01

    We have developed an end-to-end system that automatically seeks and routinely retrieves geodetic GPS data from ~5000 stations (currently) around the globe, reduces the data into unique, daily global network solutions, and produces high precision time series for station coordinates ready for time-series analysis, geophysical modeling and interpretation. Moreover, “carrier range” data are produced for all stations, enabling epoch-by-epoch tracking