WorldWideScience

Sample records for monitor skeletal integrity

  1. Monitoring of progressive collapse of skeletal structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiercz, A.; Kolakowski, P.; Holnicki-Szulc, J.

    2011-07-01

    The authors propose an idea of monitoring the state of skeletal structures of high importance (e.g. roof structures over large area buildings) with the aim of identification of slowly-developing plastic zones. This is formulated as an inverse problem within the framework of the Virtual Distortion Method, which was used previously to identify stiffness/mass modifications in similar manner. Permanent plastic strains developed in a truss element can be modeled by an initial strain (virtual distortion) introduced to the structure. The formation of subsequent plastic zones in the structure is assumed to be slow. Consequently, the design variable (plastic strain) is time-independent, which makes the inverse analysis efficient. This article presents problem formulation and numerical algorithm for identification of the plastic strains int russ structures. The identification relies on gradient-based optimization. A numerical example is included to demonstrate the efficiency of th ealgorithm.

  2. The skeletal subsystem as an integrative physiology paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Aaron J; Iqbal, Jameel; Zaidi, Neeha; Mechanick, Jeffrey I

    2010-12-01

    Homeostatic bone remodeling depends on precise regulation of osteoblast-osteoclast coupling through intricate endocrine, immune, neuronal, and mechanical factors. The osteoblast-osteoclast model of bone physiology with layers of regulatory complexity can be investigated as a component of a local skeletal subsystem or as a part of a complete whole-body system. In this review, we flip the traditional investigative paradigm of scientific experimentation ("bottom-top research") to a "top-bottom" approach using systems biology. We first establish the intricacies of the two-cell model at the molecular signaling level. We then provide, on a systems level, an integrative physiologic approach involving many recognized organ-level subsystems having direct and/or indirect effects on bone remodeling. Lastly, a hypothetical model of bone remodeling based on frequency and amplitude regulatory mechanisms is presented. It is hoped that by providing a thorough model of skeletal homeostasis, future progress can be made in researching and treating skeletal morbidities.

  3. ASEAN Integration Monitoring Report

    OpenAIRE

    ASEAN Secretariat; World Bank

    2013-01-01

    The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is a community of more than 600 million people living in ten countries in one of the most dynamic regions of the world. Consistent with this, ASEAN's share of world GDP and world trade has sharply increased over the past decades. In 2003, ASEAN's regional integration agenda was significantly deepened when ASEAN Member States adopted the ambitious goal of forming an ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) by 2015. These goals were crystallized in the h...

  4. The INTEGRAL LMXRB Monitoring Programme

    CERN Document Server

    Paizis, A; Vilhu, O; Chernyakova, M; Tikkanen, T; Bazzano, A; Beckmann, V; Chenevez, J; Cocchi, M; Ebisawa, K; Farinelli, R; Frontera, F; Giménez, A; Goldoni, P; Hannikainen, D C; Kuulkers, E; Lund, N; Oosterbroek, T; Piraino, S; Rodríguez, J; Santangelo, A; Walter, R; Zdziarski, A A; Heras, J A Z

    2004-01-01

    Our collaboration is responsible for the study of a sample of 72 low mass X-ray binaries (LMXRB) using the INTEGRAL Core Programme data. In this paper we describe the monitoring programme we have started and the current variability and spectral results on a sample of 8 persistently bright LMXRBs hosting a neutron star (Z and Atoll sources). Current results show that among our sample of sources there seems to be no important difference in the variability of Z sources with respect to Atolls and the first colour-colour and hardness intensity diagrams built in the "traditional" energy bands display the expected patterns. Z sources seem to be harder than the bright Atolls of our sample (above 20 keV) and present no evident cut-off until about 50 keV. A hint of a non-thermal hard tail is seen in Sco X-1 with ISGRI and SPI, similarly to what was previously detected by D'Amico et al. (2001) with RXTE. These results, even if preliminary, show the importance of such a programme and the potential underlying it to unders...

  5. Integrating structural health and condition monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Allan; Thöns, Sebastian; McMillan, David

    2015-01-01

    There is a large financial incentive to minimise operations and maintenance (O&M) costs for offshore wind power by optimising the maintenance plan. The integration of condition monitoring (CM) and structural health monitoring (SHM) may help realise this. There is limited work on the integration...

  6. Monitoring temporal microstructural variations of skeletal muscle tissues by multispectral Mueller matrix polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yang; He, Honghui; He, Chao; Ma, Hui

    2017-02-01

    Mueller matrix polarimetry is a powerful tool for detecting microscopic structures, therefore can be used to monitor physiological changes of tissue samples. Meanwhile, spectral features of scattered light can also provide abundant microstructural information of tissues. In this paper, we take the 2D multispectral backscattering Mueller matrix images of bovine skeletal muscle tissues, and analyze their temporal variation behavior using multispectral Mueller matrix parameters. The 2D images of the Mueller matrix elements are reduced to the multispectral frequency distribution histograms (mFDHs) to reveal the dominant structural features of the muscle samples more clearly. For quantitative analysis, the multispectral Mueller matrix transformation (MMT) parameters are calculated to characterize the microstructural variations during the rigor mortis and proteolysis processes of the skeletal muscle tissue samples. The experimental results indicate that the multispectral MMT parameters can be used to judge different physiological stages for bovine skeletal muscle tissues in 24 hours, and combining with the multispectral technique, the Mueller matrix polarimetry and FDH analysis can monitor the microstructural variation features of skeletal muscle samples. The techniques may be used for quick assessment and quantitative monitoring of meat qualities in food industry.

  7. Integrated monitoring plan for the Hanford groundwater monitoring project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, M.J.; Dresel, P.E.; McDonald, J.P.; Mercer, R.B.; Newcomer, D.R.; Thornton, E.C.

    1998-09-01

    Groundwater is monitored in hundreds of wells at the Hanford Site to fulfill a variety of requirements. Separate monitoring plans are prepared for various requirements, but sampling is coordinated and data are shared among users to avoid duplication of effort. The US Department of Energy (DOE) manages these activities through the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project (groundwater project), which is the responsibility of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The groundwater project does not include all of the monitoring to assess performance of groundwater remediation or all monitoring associated with active facilities. This document is the first integrated monitoring plan for the groundwater project and contains: well and constituent lists for monitoring required by the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 and its implementing orders; other, established monitoring plans by reference; and a master well/constituent/frequency matrix for the entire Hanford Site.

  8. Integrated Monitoring System of Production Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oborski Przemysław

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Integrated monitoring system for discrete manufacturing processes is presented in the paper. The multilayer hardware and software reference model was developed. Original research are an answer for industry needs of the integration of information flow in production process. Reference model corresponds with proposed data model based on multilayer data tree allowing to describe orders, products, processes and save monitoring data. Elaborated models were implemented in the integrated monitoring system demonstrator developed in the project. It was built on the base of multiagent technology to assure high flexibility and openness on applying intelligent algorithms for data processing. Currently on the base of achieved experience an application integrated monitoring system for real production system is developed. In the article the main problems of monitoring integration are presented, including specificity of discrete production, data processing and future application of Cyber-Physical-Systems. Development of manufacturing systems is based more and more on taking an advantage of applying intelligent solutions into machine and production process control and monitoring. Connection of technical systems, machine tools and manufacturing processes monitoring with advanced information processing seems to be one of the most important areas of near future development. It will play important role in efficient operation and competitiveness of the whole production system. It is also important area of applying in the future Cyber-Physical-Systems that can radically improve functionally of monitoring systems and reduce the cost of its implementation.

  9. Recommended Methods for Monitoring Skeletal Health in Astronauts to Distinguish Specific Effects of Prolonged Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasadi, Lukas J.; Spector, Elizabeth R.; Smith, Scott A.; Yardley, Gregory L.; Evans, Harlan J.; Sibonga, Jean D.

    2016-01-01

    NASA uses areal bone mineral density (aBMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to monitor skeletal health in astronauts after typical 180-day spaceflights. The osteoporosis field and NASA, however, recognize the insufficiency of DXA aBMD as a sole surrogate for fracture risk. This is an even greater concern for NASA as it attempts to expand fracture risk assessment in astronauts, given the complicated nature of spaceflight-induced bone changes and the fact that multiple 1-year missions are planned. In the past decade, emerging analyses for additional surrogates have been tested in clinical trials; the potential use of these technologies to monitor the biomechanical integrity of the astronaut skeleton will be presented. OVERVIEW: An advisory panel of osteoporosis policy-makers provided NASA with an evidence-based assessment of astronaut biomedical and research data. The panel concluded that spaceflight and terrestrial bone loss have significant differences and certain factors may predispose astronauts to premature fractures. Based on these concerns, a proposed surveillance program is presented which a) uses Quantitative Computed Tomography (QCT) scans of the hip to monitor the recovery of spaceflight-induced deficits in trabecular BMD by 2 years after return, b) develops Finite Element Models [FEM] of QCT data to evaluate spaceflight effect on calculated hip bone strength and c) generates Trabecular Bone Score [TBS] from serial DXA scans of the lumbar spine to evaluate the effect of age, spaceflight and countermeasures on this novel index of bone microarchitecture. SIGNIFICANCE: DXA aBMD is a widely-applied, evidence-based predictor for fractures but not applicable as a fracture surrogate for premenopausal females and males parameters is a limitation for assessing changes in bone integrity with and without countermeasures. Collective use of aBMD, TBS, QCT, and FEM analysis for astronaut surveillance could accommodate NASA's aggressive schedule for risk

  10. The Bone Dysplasia Ontology: integrating genotype and phenotype information in the skeletal dysplasia domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groza, Tudor; Hunter, Jane; Zankl, Andreas

    2012-03-26

    Skeletal dysplasias are a rare and heterogeneous group of genetic disorders affecting skeletal development. Patients with skeletal dysplasias suffer from many complex medical issues including degenerative joint disease and neurological complications. Because the data and expertise associated with this field is both sparse and disparate, significant benefits will potentially accrue from the availability of an ontology that provides a shared conceptualisation of the domain knowledge and enables data integration, cross-referencing and advanced reasoning across the relevant but distributed data sources. We introduce the design considerations and implementation details of the Bone Dysplasia Ontology. We also describe the different components of the ontology, including a comprehensive and formal representation of the skeletal dysplasia domain as well as the related genotypes and phenotypes. We then briefly describe SKELETOME, a community-driven knowledge curation platform that is underpinned by the Bone Dysplasia Ontology. SKELETOME enables domain experts to use, refine and extend and apply the ontology without any prior ontology engineering experience--to advance the body of knowledge in the skeletal dysplasia field. The Bone Dysplasia Ontology represents the most comprehensive structured knowledge source for the skeletal dysplasias domain. It provides the means for integrating and annotating clinical and research data, not only at the generic domain knowledge level, but also at the level of individual patient case studies. It enables links between individual cases and publicly available genotype and phenotype resources based on a community-driven curation process that ensures a shared conceptualisation of the domain knowledge and its continuous incremental evolution.

  11. Coral skeletal geochemistry as a monitor of inshore water quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Narottam, E-mail: n.saha@uq.edu.au; Webb, Gregory E.; Zhao, Jian-Xin

    2016-10-01

    Coral reefs maintain extraordinary biodiversity and provide protection from tsunamis and storm surge, but inshore coral reef health is degrading in many regions due to deteriorating water quality. Deconvolving natural and anthropogenic changes to water quality is hampered by the lack of long term, dated water quality data but such records are required for forward modelling of reef health to aid their management. Reef corals provide an excellent archive of high resolution geochemical (trace element) proxies that can span hundreds of years and potentially provide records used through the Holocene. Hence, geochemical proxies in corals hold great promise for understanding changes in ancient water quality that can inform broader oceanographic and climatic changes in a given region. This article reviews and highlights the use of coral-based trace metal archives, including metal transported from rivers to the ocean, incorporation of trace metals into coral skeletons and the current ‘state of the art’ in utilizing coral trace metal proxies as tools for monitoring various types of local and regional source-specific pollution (river discharge, land use changes, dredging and dumping, mining, oil spills, antifouling paints, atmospheric sources, sewage). The three most commonly used coral trace element proxies (i.e., Ba/Ca, Mn/Ca, and Y/Ca) are closely associated with river runoff in the Great Barrier Reef, but considerable uncertainty remains regarding their complex biogeochemical cycling and controlling mechanisms. However, coral-based water quality reconstructions have suffered from a lack of understanding of so-called vital effects and early marine diagenesis. The main challenge is to identify and eliminate the influence of extraneous local factors in order to allow accurate water quality reconstructions and to develop alternate proxies to monitor water pollution. Rare earth elements have great potential as they are self-referencing and reflect basic terrestrial input

  12. Beyond biological monitoring: an integrated approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonschot, P.F.M.

    2006-01-01

    Concluding discussion ‘Beyond Biological Monitoring: An Integrated Approach’ of the section New tools and strategies for river ecology evaluation – presents decision making on what constitutes a significant environmental change; predictive modelling approaches; evaluating fluvial functioning (FFI),

  13. Measuring and monitoring immigrant integration in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rob Bijl & Arjen Verweij

    2012-01-01

    In this book we investigate the prevailing views on integration in 17 European countries, how those views are translated into national policy, and what efforts countries are making to monitor the integration processes of migrants and track them over time. The book describes the degree to which migra

  14. Testing integrated sensors for cooperative remote monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filby, E.E.; Smith, T.E.; Albano, R.K.; Andersen, M.K. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lucero, R.L.; Tolk, K.M.; Andrews, N.S. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Modular Integrated Monitoring System (MIMS) program, with Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) as the lead lab, was devised to furnish sensors and integrated multi-sensor systems for cooperative remote monitoring. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), via the Center for Integrated Monitoring and Control (CIMC), provides realistic field tests of the sensors and sensor-integration approach for the MIMS, and for other similar programs. This has two important goals: it helps insure that these systems are truly read for use, and provides a platform so they can be demonstrated for potential users. A remote monitoring test/demonstration has been initiated at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) to track the movement of spent nuclear fuel from one storage location to another, using a straddle carrier and shielded cask combination. Radiation monitors, motion sensors, videocameras, and other devices from several US Department of Energy (DOE) labs and commercial vendors were linked on the network. Currently, project personnel are collecting raw data from this large array of sensors, without trying to program any special network activities or other responses. These data will be used to determine which devices can actually provide useful information for a cooperative monitoring situation, versus those that may be redundant.

  15. Concept for integrated environmental monitoring. Scientific approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haber, W. [comp.; Schoenthaler, K.; Kerner, H.F.; Koeppel, J.; Spandau, L.

    1998-09-01

    Despite considerable expenditures for environmental protection and intensified efforts in the areas of environmental research and monitoring, environmental damage increasingly occurs, sometimes with global effects, largely due to the lack of early diagnosis. In the past few years various institutions have therefore demanded improvements in environmental monitoring. The Council of Experts on Environmental Issues (`Rat von Sachverstaendigen fuer Umweltfragen`, SRU), in particular, in its `Environmental Report` of 1987 and in its Special Report on `General Ecological Environmental Monitoring` (1990) presented far-reaching demands for a nationwide ecological early warning system which should integrate the various local, regional, national, and even global monitoring levels, and which should encompass an environmental monitoring of entire ecosystems at representative locations. This is aimed at creating the prerequisites for - detection of long-term gradual environmental change, - confirmation of refutation of initial assumptions regarding the causes of these environmental changes, - permitting decisions on preventive actions to stabilize or improve environmental conditions and - making it possible to assess the success of environmental protection policies. This report includes an abbreviated version and documentation of the conference on the `Concept for Integrated Environmental Monitoring` and the final report `Specification of the Concept for Integrated Environmental Monitoring from the Perspective of Nature Conservation`. (orig.)

  16. Raman spectroscopy and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging: prospective tools for monitoring skeletal cells and skeletal regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Catarina Costa; Tare, Rahul S.; Oreffo, Richard O. C.; Mahajan, Sumeet

    2016-01-01

    The use of skeletal stem cells (SSCs) for cell-based therapies is currently one of the most promising areas for skeletal disease treatment and skeletal tissue repair. The ability for controlled modification of SSCs could provide significant therapeutic potential in regenerative medicine, with the prospect to permanently repopulate a host with stem cells and their progeny. Currently, SSC differentiation into the stromal lineages of bone, fat and cartilage is assessed using different approaches that typically require cell fixation or lysis, which are invasive or even destructive. Raman spectroscopy and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy present an exciting alternative for studying biological systems in their natural state, without any perturbation. Here we review the applications of Raman spectroscopy and CARS imaging in stem-cell research, and discuss the potential of these two techniques for evaluating SSCs, skeletal tissues and skeletal regeneration as an exemplar. PMID:27170652

  17. Characterization, Monitoring and Sensor Technology Integrated Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    This booklet contains summary sheets that describe FY 1993 characterization, monitoring, and sensor technology (CMST) development projects. Currently, 32 projects are funded, 22 through the OTD Characterization, Monitoring, and Sensor Technology Integrated Program (CMST-IP), 8 through the OTD Program Research and Development Announcement (PRDA) activity managed by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), and 2 through Interagency Agreements (IAGs). This booklet is not inclusive of those CMST projects which are funded through Integrated Demonstrations (IDs) and other Integrated Programs (IPs). The projects are in six areas: Expedited Site Characterization; Contaminants in Soils and Groundwater; Geophysical and Hydrogeological Measurements; Mixed Wastes in Drums, Burial Grounds, and USTs; Remediation, D&D, and Waste Process Monitoring; and Performance Specifications and Program Support. A task description, technology needs, accomplishments and technology transfer information is given for each project.

  18. Integrated condition monitoring of space information network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhilin; Li, Xinming; Li, Yachen; Yu, Shaolin

    2015-11-01

    In order to solve the integrated condition monitoring problem in space information network, there are three works finished including analyzing the characteristics of tasks process and system health monitoring, adopting the automata modeling method, and respectively establishing the models for state inference and state determination. The state inference model is a logic automaton and is gotten by concluding engineering experiences. The state determination model is a double-layer automaton, the lower automaton is responsible for parameter judge and the upper automaton is responsible for state diagnosis. At last, the system state monitoring algorithm has been proposed, which realizes the integrated condition monitoring for task process and system health, and can avoid the false alarm.

  19. AMPK controls exercise endurance, mitochondrial oxidative capacity, and skeletal muscle integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantier, Louise; Fentz, Joachim; Mounier, Rémi; Leclerc, Jocelyne; Treebak, Jonas T; Pehmøller, Christian; Sanz, Nieves; Sakakibara, Iori; Saint-Amand, Emmanuelle; Rimbaud, Stéphanie; Maire, Pascal; Marette, André; Ventura-Clapier, Renée; Ferry, Arnaud; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P; Foretz, Marc; Viollet, Benoit

    2014-07-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a sensor of cellular energy status that plays a central role in skeletal muscle metabolism. We used skeletal muscle-specific AMPKα1α2 double-knockout (mdKO) mice to provide direct genetic evidence of the physiological importance of AMPK in regulating muscle exercise capacity, mitochondrial function, and contraction-stimulated glucose uptake. Exercise performance was significantly reduced in the mdKO mice, with a reduction in maximal force production and fatigue resistance. An increase in the proportion of myofibers with centralized nuclei was noted, as well as an elevated expression of interleukin 6 (IL-6) mRNA, possibly consistent with mild skeletal muscle injury. Notably, we found that AMPKα1 and AMPKα2 isoforms are dispensable for contraction-induced skeletal muscle glucose transport, except for male soleus muscle. However, the lack of skeletal muscle AMPK diminished maximal ADP-stimulated mitochondrial respiration, showing an impairment at complex I. This effect was not accompanied by changes in mitochondrial number, indicating that AMPK regulates muscle metabolic adaptation through the regulation of muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity and mitochondrial substrate utilization but not baseline mitochondrial muscle content. Together, these results demonstrate that skeletal muscle AMPK has an unexpected role in the regulation of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation that contributes to the energy demands of the exercising muscle.-Lantier, L., Fentz, J., Mounier, R., Leclerc, J., Treebak, J. T., Pehmøller, C., Sanz, N., Sakakibara, I., Saint-Amand, E., Rimbaud, S., Maire, P., Marette, A., Ventura-Clapier, R., Ferry, A., Wojtaszewski, J. F. P., Foretz, M., Viollet, B. AMPK controls exercise endurance, mitochondrial oxidative capacity, and skeletal muscle integrity. © FASEB.

  20. The Bone Dysplasia Ontology: integrating genotype and phenotype information in the skeletal dysplasia domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groza Tudor

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skeletal dysplasias are a rare and heterogeneous group of genetic disorders affecting skeletal development. Patients with skeletal dysplasias suffer from many complex medical issues including degenerative joint disease and neurological complications. Because the data and expertise associated with this field is both sparse and disparate, significant benefits will potentially accrue from the availability of an ontology that provides a shared conceptualisation of the domain knowledge and enables data integration, cross-referencing and advanced reasoning across the relevant but distributed data sources. Results We introduce the design considerations and implementation details of the Bone Dysplasia Ontology. We also describe the different components of the ontology, including a comprehensive and formal representation of the skeletal dysplasia domain as well as the related genotypes and phenotypes. We then briefly describe SKELETOME, a community-driven knowledge curation platform that is underpinned by the Bone Dysplasia Ontology. SKELETOME enables domain experts to use, refine and extend and apply the ontology without any prior ontology engineering experience--to advance the body of knowledge in the skeletal dysplasia field. Conclusions The Bone Dysplasia Ontology represents the most comprehensive structured knowledge source for the skeletal dysplasias domain. It provides the means for integrating and annotating clinical and research data, not only at the generic domain knowledge level, but also at the level of individual patient case studies. It enables links between individual cases and publicly available genotype and phenotype resources based on a community-driven curation process that ensures a shared conceptualisation of the domain knowledge and its continuous incremental evolution.

  1. Integrated real-time roof monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Bao-tang; GUO Hua; KING Andrew

    2009-01-01

    CSIRO has recently developed a real-time roof monitoring system for under-ground coal mines and successfully tried the system in gate roads at Ulan Mine. The sys-tem integrated displacement monitoring, stress monitoring and seismic monitoring in one package. It included GEL multianchor extensometers, vibrating wire uniaxial stress meters, ESG seismic monitoring system with microseismic sensors and high-frequency AE sen-sors. The monitoring system automated and the data can be automatically collected by a central computer located in an underground nonhazardous area. The data are then trans-ferred to the surface via an optical fiber cable. The real-time data were accessed at any location with an Internet connection. The trials of the system in two tailgates at Ulan Mine demonstrate that the system is effective for monitoring the behavior and stability of read-ways during Iongwall mining. The continuous roof displacement/stress data show clear precursors of roof falls. The seismic data (event count and locations) provide insights into the roof failure process during roof fall.

  2. Integrated monitoring and assessment of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertel, O.

    2009-09-15

    Improved quality, better understanding of processes and optimisation of allocated resources, these are the main advantages of applying Integrated Monitoring and Assessment (IMA) in air quality management. The IMA is defined as the combined use of measurements and model calculations. The use of IMA is demonstrated with examples with different aims: to obtain data for air pollution in urban streets, to assess human exposure to traffic air pollution, and to assess atmospheric deposition of nitrogen compounds to marine and terrestrial ecosystems. (author)

  3. Integrated monitoring and surveillance system demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aumeier, S.E.; Walters, G. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kotter, D.; Walrath, W.M.; Zamecnik, R.J. [Lockheed-Martin Idaho Technologies Company, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-07-01

    We present a summary of efforts associated with the installation of an integrated system for the surveillance and monitoring of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides in long-term storage. The product of this effort will include a Pu storage requirements document, baseline integrated monitoring and surveillance system (IMSS) prototype and test bed that will be installed in the Fuel Manufacturing Facility (FMF) nuclear material vault at Argonne National Laboratory - West (ANL-W), and a Pu tracking database including data analysis capabilities. The prototype will be based on a minimal set of vault and package monitoring requirements as derived from applicable DOE documentation and guidelines, detailed in the requirements document, including DOE-STD-3013-96. The use of standardized requirements will aid individual sites in the selection of sensors that best suit their needs while the prototype IMSS, located at ANL-W, will be used as a test bed to compare and contrast sensor performance against a baseline integrated system (the IMSS), demonstrate system capabilities, evaluate potential technology gaps, and test new hardware and software designs using various storage configurations. With efforts currently underway to repackage and store a substantial quantity of plutonium and plutonium-bearing material within the DOE complex, this is an opportune time to undertake such a project. 4 refs.

  4. An integrated system for pipeline condition monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strong, Andrew P.; Lees, Gareth; Hartog, Arthur; Twohig, Richard; Kader, Kamal; Hilton, Graeme; Mullens, Stephen; Khlybov, Artem [Schlumberger, Southampton (United Kingdom); Sanderson, Norman [BP Exploration, Sunbury (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    In this paper we present the unique and innovative 'Integriti' pipeline and flow line integrity monitoring system developed by Schlumberger in collaboration with BP. The system uses optical fiber distributed sensors to provide simultaneous distributed measurements of temperature, strain and vibration for the detection, monitoring, and location of events including: Third Party Interference (TPI), including multiple simultaneous disturbances; geo-hazards and landslides; gas and oil leaks; permafrost protection. The Integriti technology also provides a unique means for tracking the progress of cleaning and instrumented pigs using existing optical telecom and data communications cables buried close to pipelines. The Integriti solution provides a unique and proactive approach to pipeline integrity management. It performs analysis of a combination of measurands to provide the pipeline operator with an event recognition and location capability, in effect providing a hazard warning system, and offering the operator the potential to take early action to prevent loss. Through the use of remote, optically powered amplification, an unprecedented detection range of 100 km is possible without the need for any electronics and therefore remote power in the field. A system can thus monitor 200 km of pipeline when configured to monitor 100 km upstream and downstream from a single location. As well as detecting conditions and events leading to leaks, this fully integrated system provides a means of detecting and locating small leaks in gas pipelines below the threshold of present online leak detection systems based on monitoring flow parameters. Other significant benefits include: potential reductions in construction costs; enhancement of the operator's existing integrity management program; potential reductions in surveillance costs and HSE risks. In addition to onshore pipeline systems this combination of functionality and range is available for practicable

  5. Integrity monitoring in WLAN positioning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerubandi, Sri Phani; Kalgikar, Bhargav; Gunturu, Maheedhar; Akopian, David; Chen, Philip

    2009-05-01

    Indoor Positioning Systems using WLANs have become very popular in recent years. These systems are spawning a new class of applications like activity recognition, surveillance, context aware computing and location based services. While Global Positioning System (GPS) is the natural choice for providing navigation in outdoor environment, the urban environment places a significant challenge for positioning using GPS. The GPS signals can be significantly attenuated, and often completely blocked, inside buildings or in urban canyons. As the performance of GPS in indoor environments is not satisfactory, indoor positioning systems based on location fingerprinting of WLANs is being suggested as a viable alternative. The Indoor WLAN Positioning Systems suffer from several phenomena. One of the problems is the continual availability of access points, which directly affects the positioning accuracy. Integrity monitoring of WLAN localization, which computes WLAN positioning with different sets of access points is proposed as a solution for this problem. The positioning accuracy will be adequate for the sets which do not contain faulty or the access points which are offline, while the sets with such access points will fail and they will report random and inaccurate results. The proposed method identifies proper sets and identifies the rogue access points using prediction trajectories. The combination of prediction and correct access point set selection provides a more accurate result. This paper discusses about integrity monitoring method for WLAN devices and followed by how it monitors and developing the application on mobile platforms.

  6. Integrated High Resolution Monitoring of Mediterranean vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaraccio, Carla; Piga, Alessandra; Ventura, Andrea; Arca, Angelo; Duce, Pierpaolo; Mereu, Simone

    2017-04-01

    The study of the vegetation features in a complex and highly vulnerable ecosystems, such as Mediterranean maquis, leads to the need of using continuous monitoring systems at high spatial and temporal resolution, for a better interpretation of the mechanisms of phenological and eco-physiological processes. Near-surface remote sensing techniques are used to quantify, at high temporal resolution, and with a certain degree of spatial integration, the seasonal variations of the surface optical and radiometric properties. In recent decades, the design and implementation of global monitoring networks involved the use of non-destructive and/or cheaper approaches such as (i) continuous surface fluxes measurement stations, (ii) phenological observation networks, and (iii) measurement of temporal and spatial variations of the vegetation spectral properties. In this work preliminary results from the ECO-SCALE (Integrated High Resolution Monitoring of Mediterranean vegetation) project are reported. The project was manly aimed to develop an integrated system for environmental monitoring based on digital photography, hyperspectral radiometry , and micrometeorological techniques during three years of experimentation (2013-2016) in a Mediterranean site of Italy (Capo Caccia, Alghero). The main results concerned the analysis of chromatic coordinates indices from digital images, to characterized the phenological patterns for typical shrubland species, determining start and duration of the growing season, and the physiological status in relation to different environmental drought conditions; then the seasonal patterns of canopy phenology, was compared to NEE (Net Ecosystem Exchange) patterns, showing similarities. However, maximum values of NEE and ER (Ecosystem respiration), and short term variation, seemed mainly tuned by inter annual pattern of meteorological variables, in particular of temperature recorded in the months preceding the vegetation green-up. Finally, green signals

  7. Indicators to Monitor Deeper Regional Trade Integration in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2015-01-01

    Stronger regional integration has been a policy priority in Africa for several decades. Countries in Africa have committed to a process of deeper integration, but have made little progress in implementing commitments and removing barriers. This report looks at the monitoring of regional integration in Africa and argues that more effective monitoring processes for existing integration arran...

  8. The Origin and Early Radiation of Archosauriforms: Integrating the Skeletal and Footprint Record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Massimo; Klein, Hendrik; Petti, Fabio Massimo; Ezcurra, Martín D

    2015-01-01

    We present a holistic approach to the study of early archosauriform evolution by integrating body and track records. The ichnological record supports a Late Permian-Early Triassic radiation of archosauriforms not well documented by skeletal material, and new footprints from the Upper Permian of the southern Alps (Italy) provide evidence for a diversity not yet sampled by body fossils. The integrative study of body fossil and footprint data supports the hypothesis that archosauriforms had already undergone substantial taxonomic diversification by the Late Permian and that by the Early Triassic archosauromorphs attained a broad geographical distribution over most parts of Pangea. Analysis of body size, as deduced from track size, suggests that archosauriform average body size did not change significantly from the Late Permian to the Early Triassic. A survey of facies yielding both skeletal and track record indicate an ecological preference for inland fluvial (lacustrine) environments for early archosauromorphs. Finally, although more data is needed, Late Permian chirotheriid imprints suggest a shift from sprawling to erect posture in archosauriforms before the end-Permian mass extinction event. We highlight the importance of approaching palaeobiological questions by using all available sources of data, specifically through integrating the body and track fossil record.

  9. The Origin and Early Radiation of Archosauriforms: Integrating the Skeletal and Footprint Record.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Bernardi

    Full Text Available We present a holistic approach to the study of early archosauriform evolution by integrating body and track records. The ichnological record supports a Late Permian-Early Triassic radiation of archosauriforms not well documented by skeletal material, and new footprints from the Upper Permian of the southern Alps (Italy provide evidence for a diversity not yet sampled by body fossils. The integrative study of body fossil and footprint data supports the hypothesis that archosauriforms had already undergone substantial taxonomic diversification by the Late Permian and that by the Early Triassic archosauromorphs attained a broad geographical distribution over most parts of Pangea. Analysis of body size, as deduced from track size, suggests that archosauriform average body size did not change significantly from the Late Permian to the Early Triassic. A survey of facies yielding both skeletal and track record indicate an ecological preference for inland fluvial (lacustrine environments for early archosauromorphs. Finally, although more data is needed, Late Permian chirotheriid imprints suggest a shift from sprawling to erect posture in archosauriforms before the end-Permian mass extinction event. We highlight the importance of approaching palaeobiological questions by using all available sources of data, specifically through integrating the body and track fossil record.

  10. Global integrated drought monitoring and prediction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zengchao; AghaKouchak, Amir; Nakhjiri, Navid; Farahmand, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Drought is by far the most costly natural disaster that can lead to widespread impacts, including water and food crises. Here we present data sets available from the Global Integrated Drought Monitoring and Prediction System (GIDMaPS), which provides drought information based on multiple drought indicators. The system provides meteorological and agricultural drought information based on multiple satellite-, and model-based precipitation and soil moisture data sets. GIDMaPS includes a near real-time monitoring component and a seasonal probabilistic prediction module. The data sets include historical drought severity data from the monitoring component, and probabilistic seasonal forecasts from the prediction module. The probabilistic forecasts provide essential information for early warning, taking preventive measures, and planning mitigation strategies. GIDMaPS data sets are a significant extension to current capabilities and data sets for global drought assessment and early warning. The presented data sets would be instrumental in reducing drought impacts especially in developing countries. Our results indicate that GIDMaPS data sets reliably captured several major droughts from across the globe.

  11. Fibre-Optic Strain Measurement For Structural Integrity Monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinsma, A.J.A.; Zuylen, P. van; Lamberts, C.W.; Krijger, A.J.T. de

    1984-01-01

    A method is demonstrated for monitoring the structural integrity of large structures, using an optical fibre. The strain distribution along the structure is monitored by measuring the attentuation of light along the length of the fibre.

  12. The integration of process monitoring for safeguards.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Zinaman, Owen R.

    2010-09-01

    The Separations and Safeguards Performance Model is a reprocessing plant model that has been developed for safeguards analyses of future plant designs. The model has been modified to integrate bulk process monitoring data with traditional plutonium inventory balances to evaluate potential advanced safeguards systems. Taking advantage of the wealth of operator data such as flow rates and mass balances of bulk material, the timeliness of detection of material loss was shown to improve considerably. Four diversion cases were tested including both abrupt and protracted diversions at early and late times in the run. The first three cases indicated alarms before half of a significant quantity of material was removed. The buildup of error over time prevented detection in the case of a protracted diversion late in the run. Some issues related to the alarm conditions and bias correction will need to be addressed in future work. This work both demonstrates the use of the model for performing diversion scenario analyses and for testing advanced safeguards system designs.

  13. FY 2002 Integrated Monitoring Plan for the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, Mary J.; Dresel, P Evan; Lindberg, Jonathan W.; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Thornton, Edward C.

    2001-10-31

    This document is an integrated monitoring plan for the groundwater project and contains: well and constituent lists for monitoring required by the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 and its implementing orders ("surveillance monitoring"); other, established monitoring plans by reference; and a master well/ constituent/frequency matrix for the entire Hanford Site.

  14. Integrity Monitoring of Mercury Discharge Lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjoelker, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Mercury discharge lamps are critical in many trapped ion frequency standard applications. An integrity monitoring system can be implemented using end-of-life signatures observed in operational mercury discharge lamps, making it possible to forecast imminent failure and to take action to mitigate the consequences (such as switching to a redundant system). Mercury lamps are used as a source of 194-nm ultraviolet radiation for optical pumping and state selection of mercury trapped ion frequency standards. Lamps are typically fabricated using 202Hg distilled into high-purity quartz, or other 194-nm transmitting material (e.g., sapphire). A buffer gas is also placed into the bulb, typically a noble gas such as argon, neon, or krypton. The bulbs are driven by strong RF fields oscillating at .200 MHz. The lamp output may age over time by two internal mechanisms: (1) the darkening of the bulb that attenuates light transmission and (2) the loss of mercury due to migration or chemical interactions with the bulb surface. During fabrication, excess mercury is placed into a bulb, so that the loss rate is compensated with new mercury emanating from a cool tip or adjacent reservoir. The light output is nearly constant or varies slightly at a constant rate for many months/years until the mercury source is depleted. At this point, the vapor pressure abruptly falls and the total light output and atomic clock SNR (signal-to-noise ratio) decrease. After several days to weeks, the light levels decrease to a point where the atomic clock SNR is no longer sufficient to stay in lock, or the lamp self-extinguishes. This signature has been observed in four separate end-of-life lamp failures while operating in the Deep Space Network (DSN). A simple integrator circuit can observe and document steady-state lamp behavior. When the light levels drop over a predetermined time interval by a specified amount (e.g., 20 percent), an alarm is set. For critical operational applications, such as the DSN

  15. Modular Subsea Monitoring Network (MSM) - Realizing Integrated Environmental Monitoring Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosch, Thomas; Fietzek, Peer

    2016-04-01

    In a variety of scientific and industrial application areas, ranging i.e. from the supervision of hydrate fields over the detection and localization of fugitive emissions from subsea oil and gas production to fish farming, fixed point observatories are useful and applied means. They monitor the water column and/or are placed at the sea floor over long periods of time. They are essential oceanographic platforms for providing valuable long-term time series data and multi-parameter measurements. Various mooring and observatory endeavors world-wide contribute valuable data needed for understanding our planet's ocean systems and biogeochemical processes. Continuously powered cabled observatories enable real-time data transmission from spots of interest close to the shore or to ocean infrastructures. Independent of the design of the observatories they all rely on sensors which demands for regular maintenance. This work is in most cases associated with cost-intensive maintenance on a regular time basis for the entire sensor carrying fixed platform. It is mandatory to encounter this asset for long-term monitoring by enhancing hardware efficiency. On the basis of two examples of use from the area of hydrate monitoring (off Norway and Japan) we will present the concept of the Modular Subsea Monitoring Network (MSM). The modular, scalable and networking capabilities of the MSM allow for an easy adaptation to different monitoring tasks. Providing intelligent power management, combining chemical and acoustical sensors, adaptation of the payload according to the monitoring tasks, autonomous powering, modular design for easy transportation, storage and mobilization, Vessel of Opportunity-borne launching and recovery capability with a video-guided launcher system and a rope recovery system are key facts addressed during the development of the MSM. Step by step the MSM concept applied to the observatory hardware will also be extended towards the gathered data to maximize the

  16. An integrative systematic framework helps to reconstruct skeletal evolution of glass sponges (Porifera, Hexactinellida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohrmann, Martin; Kelley, Christopher; Kelly, Michelle; Pisera, Andrzej; Hooper, John N A; Reiswig, Henry M

    2017-01-01

    Glass sponges (Class Hexactinellida) are important components of deep-sea ecosystems and are of interest from geological and materials science perspectives. The reconstruction of their phylogeny with molecular data has only recently begun and shows a better agreement with morphology-based systematics than is typical for other sponge groups, likely because of a greater number of informative morphological characters. However, inconsistencies remain that have far-reaching implications for hypotheses about the evolution of their major skeletal construction types (body plans). Furthermore, less than half of all described extant genera have been sampled for molecular systematics, and several taxa important for understanding skeletal evolution are still missing. Increased taxon sampling for molecular phylogenetics of this group is therefore urgently needed. However, due to their remote habitat and often poorly preserved museum material, sequencing all 126 currently recognized extant genera will be difficult to achieve. Utilizing morphological data to incorporate unsequenced taxa into an integrative systematics framework therefore holds great promise, but it is unclear which methodological approach best suits this task. Here, we increase the taxon sampling of four previously established molecular markers (18S, 28S, and 16S ribosomal DNA, as well as cytochrome oxidase subunit I) by 12 genera, for the first time including representatives of the order Aulocalycoida and the type genus of Dactylocalycidae, taxa that are key to understanding hexactinellid body plan evolution. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that Aulocalycoida is diphyletic and provide further support for the paraphyly of order Hexactinosida; hence these orders are abolished from the Linnean classification. We further assembled morphological character matrices to integrate so far unsequenced genera into phylogenetic analyses in maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML), Bayesian, and morphology-based binning

  17. The Spindle Assembly Checkpoint Safeguards Genomic Integrity of Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapna Kollu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To ensure accurate genomic segregation, cells evolved the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC, whose role in adult stem cells remains unknown. Inducible perturbation of a SAC kinase, Mps1, and its downstream effector, Mad2, in skeletal muscle stem cells shows the SAC to be critical for normal muscle growth, repair, and self-renewal of the stem cell pool. SAC-deficient muscle stem cells arrest in G1 phase of the cell cycle with elevated aneuploidy, resisting differentiation even under inductive conditions. p21CIP1 is responsible for these SAC-deficient phenotypes. Despite aneuploidy’s correlation with aging, we find that aged proliferating muscle stem cells display robust SAC activity without elevated aneuploidy. Thus, muscle stem cells have a two-step mechanism to safeguard their genomic integrity. The SAC prevents chromosome missegregation and, if it fails, p21CIP1-dependent G1 arrest limits cellular propagation and tissue integration. These mechanisms ensure that muscle stem cells with compromised genomes do not contribute to tissue homeostasis.

  18. Integrated Resistance and Aerobic Training Maintains Cardiovascular and Skeletal Muscle Fitness During 14 Days of Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Goetchius, Elizabeth; Crowell, Brent; Hackney, Kyle; Wickwire, Jason; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Snyder, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Background: Known incompatibilities exist between resistance and aerobic training. Of particular importance are findings that concurrent resistance and aerobic training reduces the effectiveness of the resistance training and limits skeletal muscle adaptations (example: Dudley & Djamil, 1985). Numerous unloading studies have documented the effectiveness of resistance training alone for the maintenance of skeletal muscle size and strength. However the practical applications of those studies are limited because long ]duration crew members perform both aerobic and resistance exercise throughout missions/spaceflight. To date, such integrated training on the International Space Station (ISS) has not been fully effective in the maintenance of skeletal muscle function. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of high intensity concurrent resistance and aerobic training for the maintenance of cardiovascular fitness and skeletal muscle strength, power and endurance over 14 days of strict bed rest. Methods: 9 subjects (8 male and 1 female; 34.5 +/- 8.2 years) underwent 14 days of bed rest with concurrent training. Resistance and aerobic training were integrated as shown in table 1. Days that included 2 exercise sessions had a 4-8 hour rest between exercise bouts. The resistance training consisted of 3 sets of 12 repetitions of squat, heel raise, leg press and hamstring curl exercise. Aerobic exercise consisted of periodized interval training that included 30 sec, 2 min and 4 min intervals alternating by day with continuous aerobic exercise.

  19. Near-infrared monitoring of perfusion and oxygen availability in abdominal organs and skeletal muscle during hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maarek, Jean-Michel I.; Vari, Sandor G.; Marcu, Laura; Papaioannou, Thanassis; Pergadia, Vani R.; Snyder, Wendy J.; Grundfest, Warren S.

    1994-05-01

    Near-IR spectroscopy was used to quantify blood content and oxygenation dynamics in abdominal organs and skeletal muscle of 18 anesthetized rabbits during hypoxic hypoxia. Liver, kidney, and hindlimb muscle were exposed surgically. Laser diode pulses transmitted across the tissues were detected by means of a photomultiplier. The amount and redox level of tissue hemoglobin were estimated from the near-IR signals and monitored during 5- min-long hypoxic challenges and subsequent recovery periods. In the kidney, exposure to 10% FiO2 resulted in rapid and symmetrical changes in oxygenated and reduced hemoglobin with 50% of the variations occurring within 1 min and a plateau after 3 min. Total hemoglobin did not change and hemoglobin oxygenation returned to baseline within 1 min of hypoxia cessation. Exposure to 6% FiO2 doubled the decrease in oxygenated hemoglobin and induced a sustained vasoconstriction which decreased total hemoglobin content 2 min after initiation of hypoxia. Comparable patterns were observed in the liver and skeletal muscle with the following exceptions: local vasoconstriction was generally not observed at 6% FiO2, return to baseline oxygen availability was much slower in skeletal muscle than in the other organs.

  20. AMPK controls exercise endurance, mitochondrial oxidative capacity, and skeletal muscle integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lantier, Louise; Fentz, Joachim; Mounier, Rémi

    2014-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a sensor of cellular energy status that plays a central role in skeletal muscle metabolism. We used skeletal muscle-specific AMPKα1α2 double-knockout (mdKO) mice to provide direct genetic evidence of the physiological importance of AMPK in regulating muscle ...

  1. [FY 2014 progress report]: Integrated Waterbird Management and Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This progress report for Integrated Waterbird Management and Monitoring covers activities during FY2014. Working with partners across the regions, this landscape...

  2. INTEGRAL monitoring of unusually long X-ray bursts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of the known X-ray bursters are frequently observed by INTEGRAL, in particular in the frame of the Key Programmes. Taking advantage of the INTEGRAL instrumentation, an international collaboration led by the JEM-X team at the Danish National Space Institute has been monitoring the occurrence of uncommon burst...

  3. Fabric-based integrated energy devices for wearable activity monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sungmook; Lee, Jongsu; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Lee, Minbaek; Kim, Dae-Hyeong

    2014-09-01

    A wearable fabric-based integrated power-supply system that generates energy triboelectrically using human activity and stores the generated energy in an integrated supercapacitor is developed. This system can be utilized as either a self-powered activity monitor or as a power supply for external wearable sensors. These demonstrations give new insights for the research of wearable electronics.

  4. A MALDI-chip integrated system with a monitoring window

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brivio, Monica; Tas, Niels R.; Goedbloed, Martijn H.; Gardeniers, Han J.G.E.; Verboom, Willem; Berg, van den Albert; Reinhoudt, David N.

    2005-01-01

    The integration of a monitoring port along the microfluidic path of a MALDI-chip integrated device is described. Optimization of the microreactor design allows longer reaction and measuring times. The Schiff base reaction between 4-tert-butylaniline ( 1) and 4-tert-butylbenzaldehyde ( 2) in ethanol

  5. Danish Integrated Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Ole E.; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Bagger-Skjøt, Line; Jensen, Vibeke F.; Rogues, Anne-Marie; Skov, Robert L.; Agersø, Yvonne; Brandt, Christian T.; Seyfarth, Anne Mette; Muller, Arno; Hovgaard, Karin; Ajufo, Justin; Bager, Flemming; Aarestrup, Frank M.; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Wegener, Henrik C.; Monnet, Dominique L.

    2007-01-01

    Resistance to antimicrobial agents is an emerging problem worldwide. Awareness of the undesirable consequences of its widespread occurrence has led to the initiation of antimicrobial agent resistance monitoring programs in several countries. In 1995, Denmark was the first country to establish a systematic and continuous monitoring program of antimicrobial drug consumption and antimicrobial agent resistance in animals, food, and humans, the Danish Integrated Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Research Program (DANMAP). Monitoring of antimicrobial drug resistance and a range of research activities related to DANMAP have contributed to restrictions or bans of use of several antimicrobial agents in food animals in Denmark and other European Union countries. PMID:18217544

  6. Monitoring DNAPL pumping using integrated geophysical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newmark, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    The removal of DNAPL during pumping was monitored. At Hill AFB in Utah, a free-product DNAPL plume (predominantly TCE, with some TCA, PCE, methylene chloride) is pooled in water-wet soil on a thick clay aquitard. Groundwater pumping at Operable Unit 2 began in 1994; to date, nearly 30,000 gal DNAPL have been recovered. From Sept. 1994 through Sept. 1995, changes in the basin during DNAPL pumping were monitored using fiber optic chemical sensors, neutron logs, and electrical resistance tomography (ERT). The first two sensor types verify the presence of DNAPL in vicinity of 3 boreholes which form a cross section from the perimeter of the basin to its center. Cross borehole ERT images the changes in formation electrical properties due to removal of DNAPL, extending the understanding of DNAPL removal between the boreholes. During pumping, electrical resistivities decreased; we suggest these decreases are directly caused by the reduction in DNAPL. During ground water pumping, water with relatively low resistivity replaces some of the DNAPL pockets as the highly insulating DNAPL is removed. Results suggest that, as DNAPL is pumped from a nearby well, product slowly drains along the top of an aquitard and into the pump well, where it collects.

  7. Great Basin Integrated Landscape Monitoring Pilot Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Sean P.; Kitchell, Kate; Baer, Lori Anne; Bedford, David R.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Flint, Alan L.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Matchett, J.R.; Mathie, Amy; Miller, David M.; Pilliod, David S.; Torregrosa, Alicia; Woodward, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    The Great Basin Integrated Landscape Monitoring Pilot project (GBILM) was one of four regional pilots to implement the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Science Thrust on Integrated Landscape Monitoring (ILM) whose goal was to observe, understand, and predict landscape change and its implications on natural resources at multiple spatial and temporal scales and address priority natural resource management and policy issues. The Great Basin is undergoing rapid environmental change stemming from interactions among global climate trends, increasing human populations, expanding and accelerating land and water uses, invasive species, and altered fire regimes. GBLIM tested concepts and developed tools to store and analyze monitoring data, understand change at multiple scales, and forecast landscape change. The GBILM endeavored to develop and test a landscape-level monitoring approach in the Great Basin that integrates USGS disciplines, addresses priority management questions, catalogs and uses existing monitoring data, evaluates change at multiple scales, and contributes to development of regional monitoring strategies. GBILM functioned as an integrative team from 2005 to 2010, producing more than 35 science and data management products that addressed pressing ecosystem drivers and resource management agency needs in the region. This report summarizes the approaches and methods of this interdisciplinary effort, identifies and describes the products generated, and provides lessons learned during the project.

  8. Monitor alarm fatigue: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvach, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Alarm fatigue is a national problem and the number one medical device technology hazard in 2012. The problem of alarm desensitization is multifaceted and related to a high false alarm rate, poor positive predictive value, lack of alarm standardization, and the number of alarming medical devices in hospitals today. This integrative review synthesizes research and non-research findings published between 1/1/2000 and 10/1/2011 using The Johns Hopkins Nursing Evidence-Based Practice model. Seventy-two articles were included. Research evidence was organized into five main themes: excessive alarms and effects on staff; nurse's response to alarms; alarm sounds and audibility; technology to reduce false alarms; and alarm notification systems. Non-research evidence was divided into two main themes: strategies to reduce alarm desensitization, and alarm priority and notification systems. Evidence-based practice recommendations and gaps in research are summarized.

  9. Optimizing Groundwater Monitoring Networks Using Integrated Statistical and Geostatistical Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Krishna Thakur

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to investigate new approaches using methods based on statistics and geo-statistics for spatio-temporal optimization of groundwater monitoring networks. The formulated and integrated methods were tested with the groundwater quality data set of Bitterfeld/Wolfen, Germany. Spatially, the monitoring network was optimized using geo-statistical methods. Temporal optimization of the monitoring network was carried out using Sen’s method (1968. For geostatistical network optimization, a geostatistical spatio-temporal algorithm was used to identify redundant wells in 2- and 2.5-D Quaternary and Tertiary aquifers. Influences of interpolation block width, dimension, contaminant association, groundwater flow direction and aquifer homogeneity on statistical and geostatistical methods for monitoring network optimization were analysed. The integrated approach shows 37% and 28% redundancies in the monitoring network in Quaternary aquifer and Tertiary aquifer respectively. The geostatistical method also recommends 41 and 22 new monitoring wells in the Quaternary and Tertiary aquifers respectively. In temporal optimization, an overall optimized sampling interval was recommended in terms of lower quartile (238 days, median quartile (317 days and upper quartile (401 days in the research area of Bitterfeld/Wolfen. Demonstrated methods for improving groundwater monitoring network can be used in real monitoring network optimization with due consideration given to influencing factors.

  10. Towards an integrated approach to marine benthic monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrio Froján, Christopher R S; Cooper, Keith M; Bolam, Stefan G

    2016-03-15

    In the UK, most marine benthic monitoring is carried out in a piecemeal fashion, funded by different sectors of industry that utilise the marine environment under licence. Monitoring requirements are imposed by licence conditions, which can vary considerably between licences. The UK Government also conducts marine environmental surveys in support of its legislative commitments. The present investigation reviews these different monitoring approaches to highlight whether synergies between them could be developed into an integrated approach to marine benthic monitoring. An integrated approach would have ecological benefits, as greater consistency in sampling and analytical protocols would reduce uncertainty in the predictions of impact, and facilitate the assessment of Good Environmental Status under the Marine Strategy Framework Directive. The same approach would also be of financial benefit, as spatio-temporal duplication in sampling would be reduced, and the value of acquired data would be maximised, resulting in a more efficient and cost-effective approach.

  11. Scientific Opportunities for Monitoring at Environmental Remediation Sites (SOMERS): Integrated Systems-Based Approaches to Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunn, Amoret L.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Deeb, Rula A.; Hawley, Elizabeth L.; Truex, Michael J.; Peterson, Mark; Freshley, Mark D.; Pierce, Eric M.; McCord, John; Young, Michael H.; Gilmore, Tyler J.; Miller, Rick; Miracle, Ann L.; Kaback, Dawn; Eddy-Dilek, Carol; Rossabi, Joe; Lee, Michelle H.; Bush, Richard P.; Beam , Paul; Chamberlain, G. M.; Marble, Justin; Whitehurst, Latrincy; Gerdes, Kurt D.; Collazo, Yvette

    2012-05-15

    Through an inter-disciplinary effort, DOE is addressing a need to advance monitoring approaches from sole reliance on cost- and labor-intensive point-source monitoring to integrated systems-based approaches such as flux-based approaches and the use of early indicator parameters. Key objectives include identifying current scientific, technical and implementation opportunities and challenges, prioritizing science and technology strategies to meet current needs within the DOE complex for the most challenging environments, and developing an integrated and risk-informed monitoring framework.

  12. Integrated electronic system for ultrasonic structural health monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz González, Mariano; Monje, Pedro María; Casado, Luciano; Aranguren, Gerardo; Cokonaj, Valerijan; Barrera Lopez de Turiso, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    A fully integrated on-board electronic system that can perform in-situ structural health monitoring (SHM) of aircraft?s structures using specifically designed equipment for SHM based on guided wave ultrasonic method or Lamb waves? method is introduced. This equipment is called Phased Array Monitoring for Enhanced Life Assessment (PAMELA III) and is an essential part of overall PAMELA SHM? system. PAMELA III can generate any kind of excitation signals, acquire the response signals that propaga...

  13. JEM-X: The X-ray monitor on INTEGRAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl; Lund, Niels; Westergaard, Niels Jørgen Stenfeldt

    2004-01-01

    The INTEGRAL X-ray monitor, JEM-X, (together with the two gamma ray instruments, SPI and IBIS) provides simultaneous imaging with arcminute angular resolution in the 3-35 keV band. The good angular resolution and low energy response of JEM-X plays an important role in the detection and identifica......The INTEGRAL X-ray monitor, JEM-X, (together with the two gamma ray instruments, SPI and IBIS) provides simultaneous imaging with arcminute angular resolution in the 3-35 keV band. The good angular resolution and low energy response of JEM-X plays an important role in the detection...

  14. Fully integrated safeguards and security for reprocessing plant monitoring.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, Felicia Angelica; Ward, Rebecca; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Middleton, Bobby D.

    2011-10-01

    Nuclear fuel reprocessing plants contain a wealth of plant monitoring data including material measurements, process monitoring, administrative procedures, and physical protection elements. Future facilities are moving in the direction of highly-integrated plant monitoring systems that make efficient use of the plant data to improve monitoring and reduce costs. The Separations and Safeguards Performance Model (SSPM) is an analysis tool that is used for modeling advanced monitoring systems and to determine system response under diversion scenarios. This report both describes the architecture for such a future monitoring system and present results under various diversion scenarios. Improvements made in the past year include the development of statistical tests for detecting material loss, the integration of material balance alarms to improve physical protection, and the integration of administrative procedures. The SSPM has been used to demonstrate how advanced instrumentation (as developed in the Material Protection, Accounting, and Control Technologies campaign) can benefit the overall safeguards system as well as how all instrumentation is tied into the physical protection system. This concept has the potential to greatly improve the probability of detection for both abrupt and protracted diversion of nuclear material.

  15. Danish integrated antimicrobial in resistance monitoring and research program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammerum, Anette Marie; Heuer, Ole Eske; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe

    2007-01-01

    Resistance to antimicrobial agents is an emerging problem worldwide. Awareness of the undesirable consequences of its widespread occurrence has led to the initiation of antimicrobial agent resistance monitoring programs in several countries. In 1995, Denmark was the first country to establish a s...... activities related to DANMAP have contributed to restrictions or bans of use of several antimicrobial agents in food animals in Denmark and other European Union countries....... a systematic and continuous monitoring program of antimicrobial drug consumption and antimicrobial agent resistance in animals, food, and humans, the Danish Integrated Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Research Program (DANMAP). Monitoring of antimicrobial drug resistance and a range of research......Resistance to antimicrobial agents is an emerging problem worldwide. Awareness of the undesirable consequences of its widespread occurrence has led to the initiation of antimicrobial agent resistance monitoring programs in several countries. In 1995, Denmark was the first country to establish...

  16. Changes in Skeletal Integrity and Marrow Adiposity during High-Fat Diet and after Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheller, Erica L.; Khoury, Basma; Moller, Kayla L.; Wee, Natalie K. Y.; Khandaker, Shaima; Kozloff, Kenneth M.; Abrishami, Simin H.; Zamarron, Brian F.; Singer, Kanakadurga

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has continued to rise over the past three decades leading to significant increases in obesity-related medical care costs from metabolic and non-metabolic sequelae. It is now clear that expansion of body fat leads to an increase in inflammation with systemic effects on metabolism. In mouse models of diet-induced obesity, there is also an expansion of bone marrow adipocytes. However, the persistence of these changes after weight loss has not been well described. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of high-fat diet (HFD) and subsequent weight loss on skeletal parameters in C57Bl6/J mice. Male mice were given a normal chow diet (ND) or 60% HFD at 6 weeks of age for 12, 16, or 20 weeks. A third group of mice was put on HFD for 12 weeks and then on ND for 8 weeks to mimic weight loss. After these dietary challenges, the tibia and femur were removed and analyzed by micro computed-tomography for bone morphology. Decalcification followed by osmium staining was used to assess bone marrow adiposity, and mechanical testing was performed to assess bone strength. After 12, 16, or 20 weeks of HFD, mice had significant weight gain relative to controls. Body mass returned to normal after weight loss. Marrow adipose tissue (MAT) volume in the tibia increased after 16 weeks of HFD and persisted in the 20-week HFD group. Weight loss prevented HFD-induced MAT expansion. Trabecular bone volume fraction, mineral content, and number were decreased after 12, 16, or 20 weeks of HFD, relative to ND controls, with only partial recovery after weight loss. Mechanical testing demonstrated decreased fracture resistance after 20 weeks of HFD. Loss of mechanical integrity did not recover after weight loss. Our study demonstrates that HFD causes long-term, persistent changes in bone quality, despite prevention of marrow adipose tissue accumulation, as demonstrated through changes in bone morphology and mechanical strength in a mouse

  17. Changes in Skeletal Integrity and Marrow Adiposity during High-Fat Diet and after Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheller, Erica L; Khoury, Basma; Moller, Kayla L; Wee, Natalie K Y; Khandaker, Shaima; Kozloff, Kenneth M; Abrishami, Simin H; Zamarron, Brian F; Singer, Kanakadurga

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has continued to rise over the past three decades leading to significant increases in obesity-related medical care costs from metabolic and non-metabolic sequelae. It is now clear that expansion of body fat leads to an increase in inflammation with systemic effects on metabolism. In mouse models of diet-induced obesity, there is also an expansion of bone marrow adipocytes. However, the persistence of these changes after weight loss has not been well described. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of high-fat diet (HFD) and subsequent weight loss on skeletal parameters in C57Bl6/J mice. Male mice were given a normal chow diet (ND) or 60% HFD at 6 weeks of age for 12, 16, or 20 weeks. A third group of mice was put on HFD for 12 weeks and then on ND for 8 weeks to mimic weight loss. After these dietary challenges, the tibia and femur were removed and analyzed by micro computed-tomography for bone morphology. Decalcification followed by osmium staining was used to assess bone marrow adiposity, and mechanical testing was performed to assess bone strength. After 12, 16, or 20 weeks of HFD, mice had significant weight gain relative to controls. Body mass returned to normal after weight loss. Marrow adipose tissue (MAT) volume in the tibia increased after 16 weeks of HFD and persisted in the 20-week HFD group. Weight loss prevented HFD-induced MAT expansion. Trabecular bone volume fraction, mineral content, and number were decreased after 12, 16, or 20 weeks of HFD, relative to ND controls, with only partial recovery after weight loss. Mechanical testing demonstrated decreased fracture resistance after 20 weeks of HFD. Loss of mechanical integrity did not recover after weight loss. Our study demonstrates that HFD causes long-term, persistent changes in bone quality, despite prevention of marrow adipose tissue accumulation, as demonstrated through changes in bone morphology and mechanical strength in a mouse

  18. An integrated structural and biogeochemical model of skeletal growth of deep-sea scleractinian coral Desmophyllum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolarski, J.; Meibom, A.; Marrocchi, Y.; Domart-Coulon, I.; Mazur, M.; Kret, S.; Dluzewski, P.; Chalmin, E.

    2009-04-01

    The last several years have seen unprecedented progress in analytical techniques (e.g., NanoSIMS, X-ray microscopy, AFM, HRTEM) which allow nano- and atomic scale characterization of biominerals. These techniques exhibit improvements in spatial resolution, detection limit along with precision and accuracy in the determination of trace element concentrations, isotopic ratios and distribution of organic components. Here we present an example of integrated analyses and observations of skeletons of the deep-sea scleractinian coral Desmophyllum. This coral is a geographically and bathymetrically broadly distributed azooxanthellate genus, whose large skeleton, with a relatively simply morphology, is an excellent choice for (palaeo)climatic reconstructions. Two main structural regions can be distinguished within main skeletal structures (wall, septa) of Desmophyllum corallum: (1) Centers of Rapid Accretion (CRA) whose successive layers of fibers are highly enriched in organic components characterized by their high S content (assumed to be mostly sulfated polysaccharides, SPS) and (2) Thickening Deposits (TD) with layers of fibers divided every several hundreds of nanometers with thin SPS-enriched regions. The spatially heterogeneous S distribution delimitates successive layers of fibers in both regions. Layers of fibers continue between CRA and TD. Fibers in CRA are composed of distinct aggregates of nanograins, whereas TD fibers show polycrystalline nature with nanograins occurring only in places. Trace elements (Mg, Sr) and carbon stable isotopes show highly heterogenous distribution of these species in vertical and horizontal directions of the skeleton. Our data suggest that cells in the calicoblastic ectoderm operate in two main modes corresponding to vertical alternations of organic-enriched and organic-depleted layers. The coral tissue seems to exhibit a spatially controlled sulfate transport activity: (1) A zone of high activity covering growing tips of the

  19. INTEGRAL monitoring of unusually long X-ray bursts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of the known X-ray bursters are frequently observed by INTEGRAL, in particular in the frame of the Key Programmes. Taking advantage of the INTEGRAL instrumentation, an international collaboration led by the JEM-X team at the Danish National Space Institute has been monitoring the occurrence of uncommon burst...... be triggered by the helium flash. Half of the 15 intermediate long bursts known to date have been observed by INTEGRAL, and the mechanisms up to high energies of these unusual events have been investigated. Observation results will be presented that lead to an advanced description of the relationship between...

  20. INTEGRAL monitoring of unusually long X-ray bursts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chenevez, Jérôme; Falanga, M.; Kuulkers, E.;

    2008-01-01

    X-ray bursts are thermonuclear explosions on the surface of accreting neutron stars in X-ray binaries. As most of the known X-ray bursters are frequently observed by INTEGRAL, an international collaboration have been taking advantage of its instrumentation to specifically monitor the occurrence...

  1. JEM-X: The X-ray monitor on INTEGRAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Niels; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl; Westergaard, Niels Jørgen Stenfeldt

    1999-01-01

    The INTEGRAL X-ray monitor, JEM-X, (together with the two gamma ray instruments, SPI and IBIS) will provide simultaneous imaging with arcminute angular resolution in the 3-60 keV band. The unique angular resolution and low energy response of JEM-X will play a crucial role in the detection...

  2. Integrating scales of seagrass monitoring to meet conservation needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neckles, Hilary A.; Kopp, Blaine S.; Peterson, Bradley J.; Pooler, Penelope S.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated a hierarchical framework for seagrass monitoring in two estuaries in the northeastern USA: Little Pleasant Bay, Massachusetts, and Great South Bay/Moriches Bay, New York. This approach includes three tiers of monitoring that are integrated across spatial scales and sampling intensities. We identified monitoring attributes for determining attainment of conservation objectives to protect seagrass ecosystems from estuarine nutrient enrichment. Existing mapping programs provided large-scale information on seagrass distribution and bed sizes (tier 1 monitoring). We supplemented this with bay-wide, quadrat-based assessments of seagrass percent cover and canopy height at permanent sampling stations following a spatially distributed random design (tier 2 monitoring). Resampling simulations showed that four observations per station were sufficient to minimize bias in estimating mean percent cover on a bay-wide scale, and sample sizes of 55 stations in a 624-ha system and 198 stations in a 9,220-ha system were sufficient to detect absolute temporal increases in seagrass abundance from 25% to 49% cover and from 4% to 12% cover, respectively. We made high-resolution measurements of seagrass condition (percent cover, canopy height, total and reproductive shoot density, biomass, and seagrass depth limit) at a representative index site in each system (tier 3 monitoring). Tier 3 data helped explain system-wide changes. Our results suggest tiered monitoring as an efficient and feasible way to detect and predict changes in seagrass systems relative to multi-scale conservation objectives.

  3. Integrated online condition monitoring system for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashemian, Hashem M. [Analysis and Measurement Services Corporation, Knoxville, TN (United States). AMS Technology Center

    2010-09-15

    Online condition monitoring or online monitoring (OLM) uses data acquired while a nuclear power is operating to continuously assess the health of the plant's sensors, processes, and equipment; to measure the dynamic performance of the plant's process instrumentation; to verify in-situ the calibration of the process instrumentation; to detect blockages, voids, and leaks in the pressure sensing lines; to identify core flow anomalies; to extend the life of neutron detectors and other sensors; and to measure the vibration of reactor internals. Both the steady-state or DC output of plant sensors and their AC signal or noise output can be used to assess sensor health, depending on whether the application is monitoring a rapidly changing (e.g., core barrel motion) or a slowly changing (e.g., sensor calibration) process. The author has designed, developed, installed, and tested OLM systems (comprised of software/hardware-based data acquisition and data processing modules) that integrate low-frequency (1 mHz to 1 Hz) techniques such as RTD cross-calibration, pressure transmitter calibration monitoring, and equipment condition monitoring and high-frequency (1 Hz to 1 kHz) techniques such as the noise analysis technique. The author has demonstrated the noise analysis technique's effectiveness for measuring the dynamic response-time of pressure transmitters and their sensing lines; for performing predictive maintenance on reactor internals; for detecting core flow anomalies; and for extending neutron detector life. Integrated online condition monitoring systems can combine AC and DC data acquisition and signal processing techniques, can use data from existing process sensors during all modes of plant operation, including startup, normal operation, and shutdown; can be retrofitted into existing PWRs, BWRs, and other reactor types and will be integrated into next-generation plants. (orig.)

  4. Cardiac power integral: a new method for monitoring cardiovascular performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimehaug, Audun E; Lyng, Oddveig; Nordhaug, Dag O; Løvstakken, Lasse; Aadahl, Petter; Kirkeby-Garstad, Idar

    2013-11-01

    Cardiac power (PWR) is the continuous product of flow and pressure in the proximal aorta. Our aim was to validate the PWR integral as a marker of left ventricular energy transfer to the aorta, by comparing it to stroke work (SW) under multiple different loading and contractility conditions in subjects without obstructions in the left ventricular outflow tract. Six pigs were under general anesthesia equipped with transit time flow probes on their proximal aortas and Millar micromanometer catheters in their descending aortas to measure PWR, and Leycom conductance catheters in their left ventricles to measure SW. The PWR integral was calculated as the time integral of PWR per cardiac cycle. SW was calculated as the area encompassed by the pressure-volume loop (PV loop). The relationship between the PWR integral and SW was tested during extensive mechanical and pharmacological interventions that affected the loading conditions and myocardial contractility. The PWR integral displayed a strong correlation with SW in all pigs (R (2) > 0.95, P integral relationship was similar among all six animals, whereas loading and contractility conditions tended to affect the slope. The PWR integral followed SW and appeared to be a promising parameter for monitoring the energy transferred from the left ventricle to the aorta. This conclusion motivates further studies to determine whether the PWR integral can be evaluated using less invasive methods, such as echocardiography combined with a radial artery catheter.

  5. Long X-ray burst monitoring with INTEGRAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    X-ray bursts are thermonuclear explosions on the surface of accreting neutron stars in low mass X-ray binary systems. In the frame of the INTEGRAL observational Key Programme over the Galactic Center a good number of the known X-ray bursters are frequently being monitored. An international...... collaboration lead by the JEM-X team at the Danish National Space Center has proposed to exploit the improved sensitivity of the INTEGRAL instruments to investigate the observational properties and physics up to high energies of exceptional burst events lasting between a few tens of minutes and several hours...

  6. INTEGRAL monitoring of unusually long X-ray bursts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chenevez, Jérôme; Falanga, M.; Kuulkers, E.

    2008-01-01

    X-ray bursts are thermonuclear explosions on the surface of accreting neutron stars in X-ray binaries. As most of the known X-ray bursters are frequently observed by INTEGRAL, an international collaboration have been taking advantage of its instrumentation to specifically monitor the occurrence...... of exceptional burst events lasting more than ~10 minutes. Half of the dozen so-called intermediate long bursts registered so far have been observed by INTEGRAL. The goal is to derive a comprehensive picture of the relationship between the nuclear ignition processes and the accretion states of the system leading...

  7. Sinabro: A Smartphone-Integrated Opportunistic Electrocardiogram Monitoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sungjun; Lee, Dongseok; Kim, Jeehoon; Lee, Youngki; Kang, Seungwoo; Seo, Sangwon; Park, Kwangsuk

    2016-03-11

    In our preliminary study, we proposed a smartphone-integrated, unobtrusive electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring system, Sinabro, which monitors a user's ECG opportunistically during daily smartphone use without explicit user intervention. The proposed system also monitors ECG-derived features, such as heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV), to support the pervasive healthcare apps for smartphones based on the user's high-level contexts, such as stress and affective state levels. In this study, we have extended the Sinabro system by: (1) upgrading the sensor device; (2) improving the feature extraction process; and (3) evaluating extensions of the system. We evaluated these extensions with a good set of algorithm parameters that were suggested based on empirical analyses. The results showed that the system could capture ECG reliably and extract highly accurate ECG-derived features with a reasonable rate of data drop during the user's daily smartphone use.

  8. Sinabro: A Smartphone-Integrated Opportunistic Electrocardiogram Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungjun Kwon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In our preliminary study, we proposed a smartphone-integrated, unobtrusive electrocardiogram (ECG monitoring system, Sinabro, which monitors a user’s ECG opportunistically during daily smartphone use without explicit user intervention. The proposed system also monitors ECG-derived features, such as heart rate (HR and heart rate variability (HRV, to support the pervasive healthcare apps for smartphones based on the user’s high-level contexts, such as stress and affective state levels. In this study, we have extended the Sinabro system by: (1 upgrading the sensor device; (2 improving the feature extraction process; and (3 evaluating extensions of the system. We evaluated these extensions with a good set of algorithm parameters that were suggested based on empirical analyses. The results showed that the system could capture ECG reliably and extract highly accurate ECG-derived features with a reasonable rate of data drop during the user’s daily smartphone use.

  9. Design of an integrating type neutron dose monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanishi, Hirokuni

    2011-07-01

    It is intended that deuterium-deuterium reaction experiments will be performed for the next phase of the large helical device (LHD) at National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS), Toki, Japan. To protect workers against radiation, the characteristics of the radiation field at the LHD workplace should be evaluated. The neutron fluence at the workplace was calculated by means of the radiation transportation code. Since the neutron energy distribution at the workplace has a wide energy range, from thermal to fast neutrons, a neutron dose monitor had to be especially designed. The author designed an integrating type neutron dose monitor for this purpose. Since this monitor has good responses for dose evaluation in every energy range, it should be able to evaluate the dose at the LHD workplace accurately.

  10. Integrating wireless sensor network for monitoring subsidence phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marturià, Jordi; Lopez, Ferran; Gigli, Giovanni; Intrieri, Emanuele; Mucchi, Lorenzo; Fornaciai, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    An innovative wireless sensor network (WSN) for the 3D superficial monitoring of deformations (such as landslides and subsidence) is being developed in the frame of the Wi-GIM project (Wireless sensor network for Ground Instability Monitoring - LIFE12 ENV/IT/001033). The surface movement is detected acquiring the position (x, y and z) by integrating large bandwidth technology able to detect the 3D coordinates of the sensor with a sub-meter error, with continuous wave radar, which allows decreasing the error down to sub-cm. The Estació neighborhood in Sallent is located over the old potassium mine Enrique. This zone has been affected by a subsidence process over more than twenty years. The implementation of a wide network for ground auscultation has allowed monitoring the process of subsidence since 1997. This network consists of: i) a high-precision topographic leveling network to control the subsidence in surface; ii) a rod extensometers network to monitor subsurface deformation; iii) an automatic Leica TCA Total Station to monitor building movements; iv) an inclinometers network to measure the horizontal displacements on subsurface and v) a piezometer to measure the water level. Those networks were implemented within an alert system for an organized an efficient response of the civil protection authorities in case of an emergency. On 23rd December 2008, an acceleration of subsoil movements (of approx. 12-18 cm/year) provoked the activation of the emergency plan by the Catalan Civil Protection. This implied the preventive and scheduled evacuation of the neighbours (January 2009) located in the area with a higher risk of collapse: around 120 residents of 43 homes. As a consequence, the administration implemented a compensation plan for the evacuation of the whole neighbourhood residents and the demolition of 405 properties. In this work, the adaptation and integration process of Wi-GIM system with those conventional monitoring network are presented for its testing

  11. An Integrated Health Monitoring System for Fission Surface Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemian, H. M.; Shumaker, B. D.; McCulley, J. R.; Morton, G. W.

    Based on such criteria as safety and mission success, programmatic risk, affordability, and extensibility/flexibility, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has chosen fission surface power (FSP) as the primary energy source for building a sustained human presence on the Moon, exploring Mars, and extremely long-duration space missions. The current benchmark FSP system has a mission life of at least 8 years during which time there is no opportunity for repair, sensor calibrations, or periodic maintenance tasks that are normally performed on terrestrial-based nuclear power plants during scheduled outages. Current technology relies heavily on real-time human interaction, monitoring and control. However; due to the long communication times between the Earth and Moon, or Mars, real-time human control is not possible, resulting in a critical need to develop autonomous health monitoring technology for FSP systems.This paper describes the design and development of an autonomous health monitoring system that will (1) provide on-line calibration monitoring, (2) reduce uncertainties in sensor measurements, and (3) provide sensor validation and fault detection capabilities for the control systems of various FSP subsystems. The health monitoring system design integrates a number of signal processing algorithms and techniques such as cross-calibration, empirical modeling using neural networks, and physical modeling under a modular signal processing platform that will enable robust sensor and system monitoring without the need for human interaction. Prototypes of the health monitoring system have been tested and validated on data acquired from preliminary subsystem testing of NASA's FSP Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) as well as simulated laboratory data. Results from this testing have demonstrated the utility and benefits that such autonomous health monitoring systems can provide to FSP subsystems and other potential applications within NASA such as launch

  12. Integrated neutron/gamma-ray portal monitors for nuclear safeguards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehlau, Paul E.

    1994-08-01

    Radiation monitoring is one nuclear-safeguards measure used to protect against the theft of special nuclear materials (SNM) by pedestrians departing from SNM access areas. The integrated neutron/gamma-ray portal monitor is an ideal radiation monitor for the task when the SNM is plutonium. It achieves high sensitivity for detecting both bare and shielded plutonium by combining two types of radiation detector. One type is a neutron-chamber detector, comprising a large, hollow, neutron moderator that contains a single thermal-neutron proportional counter. The entrance wall of each chamber is thin to admit slow neutrons from plutonium contained in a moderating shield, while the other walls are thick to moderate fast neutrons from bare or lead-shielded plutonium so that they can be detected. The other type of detector is a plastic scintillator that is primarily for detecting gamma rays from small amounts of unshielded plutonium. The two types of detector are easily integrated by making scintillators part of the thick back wall of each neutron chamber or by inserting them into each chamber void. We compared the influence of the two methods of integration on detecting neutrons and gamma rays, and we examined the effectiveness of other design factors and the methods for signal detection as well.

  13. Approaches to integrated monitoring for environmental health impact assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Hai-Ying

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although Integrated Environmental Health Monitoring (IEHM is considered an essential tool to better understand complex environmental health issues, there is no consensus on how to develop such a programme. We reviewed four existing frameworks and eight monitoring programmes in the area of environmental health. We identified the DPSEEA (Driving Force-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action framework as most suitable for developing an IEHM programme for environmental health impact assessment. Our review showed that most of the existing monitoring programmes have been designed for specific purposes, resulting in narrow scope and limited number of parameters. This therefore limits their relevance for studying complex environmental health topics. Other challenges include limited spatial and temporal data availability, limited development of data sharing mechanisms, heterogeneous data quality, a lack of adequate methodologies to link disparate data sources, and low level of interdisciplinary cooperation. To overcome some of these challenges, we propose a DPSEEA-based conceptual framework for an IEHM programme that would enable monitoring and measuring the impact of environmental changes on human health. We define IEHM as ‘a systemic process to measure, analyse and interpret the state and changes of natural-eco-anthropogenic systems and its related health impact over time at the same location with causative explanations across the various compartments of the cause-effect chain’. We develop a structural work process to integrate information that is based on existing environmental health monitoring programmes. Such a framework allows the development of combined monitoring systems that exhibit a large degree of compatibility between countries and regions.

  14. Preliminary background prediction for the INTEGRAL x-ray monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feroci, M.; Costa, E.; Budtz-Joergensen, C.

    1996-01-01

    The JEM-X (joint European x-ray monitor) experiment will be flown onboard the ESA's INTEGRAL satellite. The instrumental background level of the two JEM-X twin detectors will depend on several parameters, among which the satellite orbit and mass distribution, and the detectors materials play...... rays with the spacecraft structures. This calculation has been carried out by means of a Monte Carlo simulation using the code MCNP. The background due to on- orbit material activation and to the primary cosmic rays direct interactions with the detecting medium has not been considered. The INTEGRAL...... satellite structure is only now being completely defined and the details of the instrument design are still under evolution. The present background estimation can therefore be only preliminary and based on some reasonable approximations on the radiation environment in which the INTEGRAL experiments...

  15. Long X-ray burst monitoring with INTEGRAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    X-ray bursts are thermonuclear explosions on the surface of accreting neutron stars in low mass X-ray binary systems. In the frame of the INTEGRAL observational Key Programme over the Galactic Center a good number of the known X-ray bursters are frequently being monitored. An international...... collaboration lead by the JEM-X team at the Danish National Space Center has proposed to exploit the improved sensitivity of the INTEGRAL instruments to investigate the observational properties and physics up to high energies of exceptional burst events lasting between a few tens of minutes and several hours....... Of special interest are low luminosity bursting sources that exhibit X-ray bursts of very different durations allowing to study the transition from a hydrogen-rich bursting regime to a pure helium regime and from helium burning to carbon burning. I will present results obtained from INTEGRAL archive data...

  16. Inter-satellite links for satellite autonomous integrity monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Irma; García-Serrano, Cristina; Catalán Catalán, Carlos; García, Alvaro Mozo; Tavella, Patrizia; Galleani, Lorenzo; Amarillo, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    A new integrity monitoring mechanisms to be implemented on-board on a GNSS taking advantage of inter-satellite links has been introduced. This is based on accurate range and Doppler measurements not affected neither by atmospheric delays nor ground local degradation (multipath and interference). By a linear combination of the Inter-Satellite Links Observables, appropriate observables for both satellite orbits and clock monitoring are obtained and by the proposed algorithms it is possible to reduce the time-to-alarm and the probability of undetected satellite anomalies.Several test cases have been run to assess the performances of the new orbit and clock monitoring algorithms in front of a complete scenario (satellite-to-satellite and satellite-to-ground links) and in a satellite-only scenario. The results of this experimentation campaign demonstrate that the Orbit Monitoring Algorithm is able to detect orbital feared events when the position error at the worst user location is still under acceptable limits. For instance, an unplanned manoeuvre in the along-track direction is detected (with a probability of false alarm equals to 5 × 10-9) when the position error at the worst user location is 18 cm. The experimentation also reveals that the clock monitoring algorithm is able to detect phase jumps, frequency jumps and instability degradation on the clocks but the latency of detection as well as the detection performances strongly depends on the noise added by the clock measurement system.

  17. Thoughts on Integrated Monitoring of Ecological Environment at Provincial Level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Hong; Jack E. Coster; SONG Xiao-qiang

    2004-01-01

    The Law of Soil and Water Conservation entitles the administrations of water resources at various level to monitor ecological environment and to proclaim status of soil erosion periodically.Monitoring units of soil and water conservation approved by local governments are obliged to undertake this work.How to develop a monitoring program needs an overall and long-term concept.Particularity and objectives of ecological environment monitoring was discussed. Monitoring at provincial level may be divided into two levels:province-wide and at project level. Those indicators meaningful,sensitive to any disturbances,and simple to measure may be selected to test status of ecosystem stability and health.It makes sense to have an integrated sampling design,to set up permanent observation plots and to collect data, so that to have a relative timely,accurate understanding of ecosystems in the province.A program regarding sampling design,field methods, data analysis,documentation and implementation was detailed.

  18. The integrated monitoring area Lheebroekerzand, Netherlands. Data of 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathijssen-Spiekman, E.A.M.; De Zwart, D.

    1995-09-01

    The results of the title monitoring programme are presented. The main objective of this paper is to compile and present the 1994 monitoring data which are obliged to be forwarded to the international database in Helsinki, Finland, by the end of September 1995. Additional non-obligatory data are also reported. It is explicitly not within the scope of this report to give a detailed analysis of causes and effects as may be concluded from correlation studies comprising longer time-series and spatial gradient. In 1994, the biological part of the integrated monitoring programme consisted of a regular inventory of birds, leafminers and butterflies in the monitoring area, as well as inventories of the aquatic macrofauna present in the moorland pool Kliplo and observations on the performance of pine trees. The chemical-physical part included meteorological variables like temperature, humidity, the amount of precipitation and irradiation, together with chemical analysis of air, precipitation, mosses, leaves, needles and pool water. Where possible, the series of data are described, interpreted and compared. The obligatory monitoring activities described in the ICP/IM-manual which are possible to be performed in the Dutch area, are carried out with exception of the programmes on trunk epiphytes, aerial green algae and soil water chemistry. Concerning progress and conclusiveness of the Netherlands contribution to the UN/ECE-IMP it can be stated that: more manpower is needed to continue the program; the development of the monitoring area is not yet completed and additions to the monitoring programme have to be performed; more sampling and analysis is needed to draw firm conclusions on the applicability of the data on leafminers and butterflies and other recent additions; more capacity is needed to pay adequate attention to the interpretation and evaluation of collected data. 7 figs., 5 tabs., 18 refs., 3 appendices

  19. Assessment of skeletal muscle fatigue of road maintenance workers based on heart rate monitoring and myotonometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalkis Henrijs

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective This research work is dedicated to occupational health problems caused by ergonomic risks. The research object was road building industry, where workers have to work very intensively, have long work hours, are working in forced/constrained work postures and overstrain during the work specific parts of their bodies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the work heaviness degree and to estimate the muscle fatigue of workers after one week work cycle. The study group consisted of 10 road construction and maintenance workers and 10 pavers aged between 20 and 60 years. Methods Physical load were analyzed by measuring heart rate (HR, work postures (OWAS and perceived exertion (RPE. Assessments of the muscles strain and functional state (tone were carried out using myotonometric (MYO measurements. The reliability of the statistical processing of heart rate monitoring and myotonometry data was determined using correlating analysis. Results This study showed that that road construction and repairing works should be considered as a hard work according to average metabolic energy consumption 8.1 ± 1.5 kcal/min; paving, in its turn, was a moderately hard work according to 7.2 ± 1.1 kcal/min. Several muscle tone levels were identified allowing subdivision of workers into three conditional categories basing on muscle tone and fatigue: I – absolute muscle relaxation and ability to relax; II – a state of equilibrium, when muscles are able to adapt to the work load and are partly able to relax; and III – muscle fatigue and increased tone. It was also found out that the increase of muscle tone and fatigue mainly depend on workers physical preparedness and length of service, and less – on their age. Conclusion We have concluded that a complex ergonomic analysis consisting of heart rate monitoring, assessment of compulsive working postures and myotonometry is appropriate to assess the work heaviness degree and can provide prognosis of

  20. Macroporous mesh of nanoporous gold in electrochemical monitoring of superoxide release from skeletal muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banan Sadeghian, Ramin; Han, Jiuhui; Ostrovidov, Serge; Salehi, Sahar; Bahraminejad, Behzad; Ahadian, Samad; Chen, Mingwei; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2017-02-15

    Real-time monitoring of metabolically relevant biochemicals released in minuscule amounts is of utmost diagnostic importance. Superoxide anion as a primary member of reactive oxygen species, has physiological and pathological effects that depend on its concentration and release rate. Here we present fabrication and successfully testing of a highly sensitive electrochemical biosensor featuring a three-dimensional macroporous mesh of nanoporous gold tailored to measure the dynamics of extracellular superoxide concentration. Wide and accessible surface of the mesh combined with high porosity of the thin nanoporous gold coating enables capturing the analyte in pico- to nano-molar ranges. The mesh is functionalized with cytochrome-c (cyt-c) and incorporated as a working electrode to measure the release rate of drug-induced superoxides from C2C12 cells through a porous membrane. The device displays a considerably improved superoxide sensitivity of 7.29nAnM(-)(1)cm(-)(2) and a low level of detection of 70pM. Such sensitivity is orders of magnitude higher than any similar enzyme-based electrochemical superoxide sensor and is attributed to the facile diffusion of the analyte through the well-spread nanofeatured gold skin. Superoxide generation rates captured from monolayer myoblast cultures containing about 4×10(4) cells, varied from 1.0 to 9.0nMmin(-)(1) in a quasi-linear fashion as a function of drug concentration. This work provides a platform for the development of highly sensitive molecular electrochemical biosensors.

  1. Integrating Social Media Monitoring Into Public Health Emergency Response Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Tamer A; Fleshler, Keren

    2016-10-01

    Social media monitoring for public health emergency response and recovery is an essential response capability for any health department. The value of social media for emergency response lies not only in the capacity to rapidly communicate official and critical incident information, but as a rich source of incoming data that can be gathered to inform leadership decision-making. Social media monitoring is a function that can be formally integrated into the Incident Command System of any response agency. The approach to planning and required resources, such as staffing, logistics, and technology, is flexible and adaptable based on the needs of the agency and size and scope of the emergency. The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene has successfully used its Social Media Monitoring Team during public health emergency responses and planned events including major Ebola and Legionnaires' disease responses. The concepts and implementations described can be applied by any agency, large or small, interested in building a social media monitoring capacity. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;page 1 of 6).

  2. Integrated System for Performance Monitoring of ATLAS TDAQ Network

    CERN Document Server

    Savu, D; The ATLAS collaboration; Martin, B; Sjoen, R; Batraneanu, S; Stancu, S

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS TDAQ Network consists of three separate networks spanning four levels of the experimental building. Over 200 edge switches and 5 multi-blade chassis routers are used to interconnect 2000 processors, adding up to more than 7000 high speed interfaces. In order to substantially speed-up ad-hoc and post mortem analysis, a scalable, yet flexible, integrated system for monitoring both network statistics and environmental conditions, processor parameters and data taking characteristics was required. For successful up-to-the-minute monitoring, information from many SNMP compliant devices, independent databases and custom APIs was gathered, stored and displayed in an optimal way. Easy navigation and compact aggregation of multiple data sources were the main requirements; characteristics not found in any of the tested products, either open-source or commercial. This paper describes how performance, scalability and display issues were addressed and what challenges the project faced during development and deplo...

  3. Airborne Transducer Integrity under Operational Environment for Structural Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saleh Salmanpour

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the robustness of permanently mounted transducers used in airborne structural health monitoring systems, when exposed to the operational environment. Typical airliners operate in a range of conditions, hence, structural health monitoring (SHM transducer robustness and integrity must be demonstrated for these environments. A set of extreme temperature, altitude and vibration environment test profiles are developed using the existing Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA/DO-160 test methods. Commercially available transducers and manufactured versions bonded to carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP composite materials are tested. It was found that the DuraAct transducer is robust to environmental conditions tested, while the other transducer types degrade under the same conditions.

  4. Preliminary background prediction for the INTEGRAL x-ray monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feroci, M.; Costa, E.; Budtz-Joergensen, C.;

    1996-01-01

    The JEM-X (joint European x-ray monitor) experiment will be flown onboard the ESA's INTEGRAL satellite. The instrumental background level of the two JEM-X twin detectors will depend on several parameters, among which the satellite orbit and mass distribution, and the detectors materials play...... a major role. Based on the information available at the present stage of the emission design, we have computed the instrumental background to be expected because of two main background components: direct diffuse x-ray background and secondary photons originated by the interactions of the primary cosmic...... rays with the spacecraft structures. This calculation has been carried out by means of a Monte Carlo simulation using the code MCNP. The background due to on- orbit material activation and to the primary cosmic rays direct interactions with the detecting medium has not been considered. The INTEGRAL...

  5. An integrated suspended sediment transport monitoring and analysis concept

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marlene HAIMANN; Marcel LIEDERMANN; Petra LALK; Helmut HABERSACK

    2014-01-01

    A new integrated suspended sediment monitoring strategy applying direct and indirect technologies is presented. Optical sensors continuously record the turbidity at one point in the channel cross section close to the river bank and are calibrated by water samples taken close to the sensor. Additionally measurements are performed to establish the distribution of suspended sediment in a cross section (bottle samples combined with acoustic devices). Using correction factors (probe and cross-sectional factor) these monitoring methods are combined and it is, thus, possible to fully document the temporal and spatial variability of the suspended sediment transport and to estimate the suspended sediment load for certain time periods. This monitoring strategy was implemented at various measurement sites in Austria as well as at the Hainburg Road Bridge site on the Danube River. It has already been successfully applied for three years at this measurement site and suspended sediment loads during high discharges up to a 15 year flood event have been monitored. To evaluate the new monitoring methods the results were compared with load estimation methods found in the literature including averaging and ratio estimators as well as rating curves. The results prove that with the new methodology, the temporal variability of the suspended sediment transport can be detected more accurately compared with the other methods. They also demonstrate that the additional consideration of the spatial distribution of the suspended sediment concentration in the cross section is crucial as the mean concentration in the cross section can significantly exceed the concentration near the banks, especially at large rivers like the Danube River.

  6. The integrated monitoring area Lheebroekerzand the Netherlands. Data of 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathijssen-Spiekman, E.A.M.

    1996-09-01

    The results of the title monitoring programme are presented. The main objective of this paper is to compile and present the 1995 monitoring data which are obliged to be forwarded to the international database in Helsinki, Finland, by the end of September 1996. Additional non-obligatory data are also reported. It is explicitly not within the scope of this report to give a detailed analysis of causes and effects as may be concluded from correlation studies comprising longer time-series and spatial gradient. In 1995, the biological part of the integrated monitoring programme consisted of a regular inventory of birds, leafminers and butterflies in the monitoring area, as well as inventories of the aquatic macrofauna present in the moorland pool Kliplo and observations on the performance of pine trees. The chemical-physical part included meteorological variables like temperature, humidity, the amount of precipitation and irradiation, together with chemical analysis of air, precipitation, leaves, needles and pool water. Where possible, the series of data are described and compared with data of previous years. The obligatory monitoring activities described in the ICP/IM-manual which are possible to be performed in the Dutch area, are carried out with exception of the programmes on trunk epiphytes, aerial green algae and soil water chemistry. Also in 1995, the capacity was lacking to develop these programmes. The improvement which has been carried out in 1995 is increasing the number of rainwater-collectors for bulk- and throughfall deposition from 4 to 5. Due to lack of manpower the running programmes were barely continued. 7 figs., 17 tabs., 23 refs., 3 appendices

  7. Market appeal intelligently evaluation basing on integral monitoring functions using

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Kosenko

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to create guidelines for establising a mechanism for monitoring the commercial potential of intellectual property in industry. The author develops recommendations for its effective using. The results of the analysis. Objective assessment of the commercial potential of innovative technology depends largely on the level of potential economic benefit that can be obtained by: developer of innovative technologies for commercialization; consumer innovative technology while using it. It is proposed to use the ratio of these effects for the ongoing assessment of changes in the level of commercial potential of innovative technology. To do this, the author suggests using the tangent function, which allows you to carry out the monitoring procedure effectively. Determining a plurality of values of the trigonometric functions tangent, which characterizes the ratio of economic benefit to the consumer and developer of innovative technology, allows to find four specific areas. The article describes the economic characteristics of each of these zones, which allow the researcher to obtain important characteristics, which are used for the process of intellectual property commercialization. The proposed additional monitoring mechanism puts another function monitoring to the intellectual activity of the enterprise, which reflects the quality of the complex characteristics (consumer properties and commercial risk (the possibility of successful commercialization of technological product. We recommend using an arc tangent function. Evaluation of integral quality index technology is carried out using the following guidelines. Intellectual property, with close on consumer qualities and spheres of use at the appropriate analogues technology market, has base for comparison. In this case it is proposed to assess the values of the complex index of the quality of recommendations by using the desirability function Harrington

  8. Leveraged fault identification method for receiver autonomous integrity monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Yuan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM provides integrity monitoring of global positioning system (GPS for safety-of-life applications. In the process of RAIM, fault identification (FI enables navigation to continue in the presence of fault measurement. Affected by satellite geometry, the leverage of each measurement in position solution may differ greatly. However, the conventional RAIM FI methods are generally based on maximum likelihood of ranging error for different measurements, thereby causing a major decrease in the probability of correct identification for the fault measurement with high leverage. In this paper, the impact of leverage on the fault identification is analyzed. The leveraged RAIM fault identification (L-RAIM FI method is proposed with consideration of the difference in leverage for each satellite in view. Furthermore, the theoretical probability of correct identification is derived to evaluate the performance of L-RAIM FI method. The experiments in various typical scenarios demonstrate the effectiveness of L-RAIM FI method over conventional FI methods in the probability of correct identification for the fault with high leverage.

  9. A comprehensive drought monitoring method integrating MODIS and TRMM data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lingtong; Tian, Qingjiu; Yu, Tao; Meng, Qingyan; Jancso, Tamas; Udvardy, Peter; Huang, Yan

    2013-08-01

    Drought is a complex hazard caused by the breaking of water balance and it has always an impact on agricultural, ecological and socio-economic spheres. Although the drought indices deriving from remote sensing data have been used to monitor meteorological or agricultural drought, there are no indices that can suitably reflect the comprehensive information of drought from meteorological to agricultural aspects. In this paper, the synthesized drought index (SDI) is defined as a principal component of vegetation condition index (VCI), temperature condition index (TCI) and precipitation condition index (PCI). SDI integrates multi-source remote sensing data from moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) and tropical rainfall measuring mission (TRMM) and it synthesizes precipitation deficits, soil thermal stress and vegetation growth status in drought process. Therefore, this method is favorable to monitor the comprehensive drought. In our research, a heavy drought process was accurately explored using SDI in Shandong province, China from 2010 to 2011. Finally, a validation was implemented and its results show that SDI is not only strongly correlated with 3-month scales standardized precipitation index (SPI3), but also with variation of crop yield and drought-affected crop areas. It was proved that this index is a comprehensive drought monitoring indicator and it can contain not only the meteorological drought information but also it can reflect the drought influence on agriculture.

  10. Reconfigurable microfluidics with integrated aptasensors for monitoring intercellular communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwa, Timothy; Zhou, Qing; Gao, Yandong; Rahimian, Ali; Kwon, Lydia; Liu, Ying; Revzin, Alexander

    2014-05-21

    We report the development of a microsystem integrating anti-TNF-α aptasensors with vacuum-actuatable microfluidic devices that may be used to monitor intercellular communications. Actuatable chambers were used to expose to mitogen a group of ~600 cells while not stimulating another group of monocytes only 600 μm away. Co-localizing groups of cells with miniature 300 μm diameter aptamer-modified electrodes enabled monitoring of TNF-α release from each group independently. The microsystem allowed observation of the sequence of events that included 1) mitogenic activation of the first group of monocytes to produce TNF-α, 2) diffusion of TNF-α to the location of the second group of cells and 3) activation of the second group of cells resulting in the production of TNF-α by these cells. Thus, we were able to experimentally verify reciprocal paracrine crosstalk between the two groups of cells secreting the same signalling molecule. Given the prevalence of such cellular communications during injury, cancer or immune response and the dearth of available monitoring techniques, the microsystem described here is envisioned to have significant impact on cell biology.

  11. Integrated circuits and electrode interfaces for noninvasive physiological monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Sohmyung; Kim, Chul; Chi, Yu M; Akinin, Abraham; Maier, Christoph; Ueno, Akinori; Cauwenberghs, Gert

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents an overview of the fundamentals and state of the-art in noninvasive physiological monitoring instrumentation with a focus on electrode and optrode interfaces to the body, and micropower-integrated circuit design for unobtrusive wearable applications. Since the electrode/optrode-body interface is a performance limiting factor in noninvasive monitoring systems, practical interface configurations are offered for biopotential acquisition, electrode-tissue impedance measurement, and optical biosignal sensing. A systematic approach to instrumentation amplifier (IA) design using CMOS transistors operating in weak inversion is shown to offer high energy and noise efficiency. Practical methodologies to obviate 1/f noise, counteract electrode offset drift, improve common-mode rejection ratio, and obtain subhertz high-pass cutoff are illustrated with a survey of the state-of-the-art IAs. Furthermore, fundamental principles and state-of-the-art technologies for electrode-tissue impedance measurement, photoplethysmography, functional near-infrared spectroscopy, and signal coding and quantization are reviewed, with additional guidelines for overall power management including wireless transmission. Examples are presented of practical dry-contact and noncontact cardiac, respiratory, muscle and brain monitoring systems, and their clinical applications.

  12. Integrated approach to monitor water dynamics with drones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymaekers, Dries; De Keukelaere, Liesbeth; Knaeps, Els; Strackx, Gert; Decrop, Boudewijn; Bollen, Mark

    2017-04-01

    Remote sensing has been used for more than 20 years to estimate water quality in the open ocean and study the evolution of vegetation on land. More recently big improvements have been made to extend these practices to coastal and inland waters, opening new monitoring opportunities, eg. monitoring the impact of dredging activities on the aquatic environment. While satellite sensors can provide complete coverage and historical information of the study area, they are limited in their temporal revisit time and spatial resolution. Therefore, deployment of drones can create an added value and in combination with satellite information increase insights in the dynamics and actors of coastal and aquatic systems. Drones have the advantages of monitoring at high spatial detail (cm scale), with high frequency and are flexible. One of the important water quality parameters is the suspended sediment concentration. However, retrieving sediment concentrations from unmanned systems is a challenging task. The sediment dynamics in the port of Breskens, the Netherlands, were investigated by combining information retrieved from different data sources: satellite, drone and in-situ data were collected, analysed and inserted in sediment models. As such, historical (satellite), near-real time (drone) and predictive (sediment models) information, integrated in a spatial data infrastructure, allow to perform data analysis and can support decision makers.

  13. An integrated sensing technique for smart monitoring of water pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernini, Romeo; Catapano, Ilaria; Soldovieri, Francesco; Crocco, Lorenzo

    2014-05-01

    Lowering the rate of water leakage from the network of underground pipes is one of the requirements that "smart" cities have to comply with. In fact, losses in the water supply infrastructure have a remarkable social, environmental and economic impact, which obviously conflicts with the expected efficiency and sustainability of a smart city. As a consequence, there is a huge interest in developing prevention policies based on state-of-art sensing techniques and possibly their integration, as well as in envisaging ad hoc technical solutions designed for the application at hand. As a contribution to this framework, in this communication we present an approach aimed to pursue a thorough non-invasive monitoring of water pipelines, with both high spatial and temporal resolution. This goal is necessary to guarantee that maintenance operations are performed timely, so to reduce the extent of the leakage and its possible side effects, and precisely, so to minimize the cost and the discomfort resulting from operating on the water supply network. The proposed approach integrates two sensing techniques that work at different spatial and temporal scales. The first one is meant to provide a continuous (in both space and time) monitoring of the pipeline and exploits a distributed optic fiber sensor based on the Brillouin scattering phenomenon. This technique provides the "low" spatial resolution information (at meter scale) needed to reveal the presence of a leak and call for interventions [1]. The second technique is based on the use of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and is meant to provide detailed images of area where the damage has been detected. GPR systems equipped with suitable data processing strategies [2,3] are indeed capable of providing images of the shallow underground, where the pipes would be buried, characterized by a spatial resolution in the order of a few centimeters. This capability is crucial to address in the most proper way maintenance operations, by for

  14. JEM-X: The X-ray monitor on INTEGRAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Niels; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl; Westergaard, Niels Jørgen Stenfeldt;

    1999-01-01

    and identification of gamma ray sources as well as in the analysis and scientific interpretation of the combined X-ray and gamma ray data. JEM-X is a coded aperture X-ray telescope consisting of two identical detectors. Each detector has a sensitive area of 500 cm(2), and views the sky (6.6 deg FOV, FWHM) through...... its own coded aperature mask. The coded cm masks are located 3.4 m above the detector windows. The detector field of view is constrained by X-ray collimators.......The INTEGRAL X-ray monitor, JEM-X, (together with the two gamma ray instruments, SPI and IBIS) will provide simultaneous imaging with arcminute angular resolution in the 3-60 keV band. The unique angular resolution and low energy response of JEM-X will play a crucial role in the detection...

  15. Integrated monitoring and surveillance system demonstration project: Phase I accomplishments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aumeier, S.E.; Walters, B.G.; Crawford, D.C. [and others

    1997-01-15

    The authors present the results of the Integrated Monitoring and Surveillance System (IMSS) demonstration project Phase I efforts. The rationale behind IMSS development is reviewed and progress in each of the 5 basic tasks is detailed. Significant results include decisions to use Echelon LonWorks networking protocol and Microsoft Access for the data system needs, a preliminary design for the plutonium canning system glovebox, identification of facilities and materials available for the demonstration, determination of possibly affected facility documentation, and a preliminary list of available sensor technologies. Recently imposed changes in the overall project schedule and scope are also discussed and budgetary requirements for competition of Phase II presented. The results show that the IMSS demonstration project team has met and in many cases exceeded the commitments made for Phase I deliverables.

  16. Integration of Field and Remote Sensing Techniques For Landslides Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allievi, J.; Ambrosi, C.; Ceriani, M.; Colesanti, C.; Crosta, G. B.; Ferretti, A.; Fossati, D.; Menegaz, A.

    The definition of the state of activity of slope movements is of major interest both at local and at regional scale. The Geological Survey of the Regione Lombardia has re- cently started a series of projects aimed to the identification of areas subjected to slope instability and to the assessment of their state of activity. Field survey, aerial photo interpretation and advanced remote sensing techniques have been applied. Some ex- amples of large rock slope instabilities have been investigated in the Valtellina area (Lombardia, Northern Italy). In particular, we demonstrate the degree of integration of the adopted techniques for one of the largest rock slope movements actually recog- nised in the area. The remote sensing approach that has been adopted is the Perma- nent Scatterers (PS) Technique. This technique has been recently developed as a new methodology for surface deformation monitoring, using ESA ERS-SAR data. Its ap- plication to large slope movements in alpine and prealpine areas, with a relatively low urban development, has been tried for the first time in order to evaluate its potential in supporting studies for landslide hazard assessment. Previous results show that this ap- proach allows to reach an accuracy very close to the theoretical limit. This study shows the very good agreement reached for displacement velocities between historical trends and recent PS measurements. Scatterers have been identified by field surveying and some of them are located close to historically monitored benchmark for topographic measurements. Furthermore, the integration of these data with field observations al- lowed us to perform a preliminary reconstrucion of the landslide mechanism and to assess the activity of different landslide structures (scarps, etc.).

  17. Development of a Personal Integrated Environmental Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Sing Wong

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution in the urban areas of Hong Kong has become a serious public issue but most urban inhabitants have no means of judging their own living environment in terms of dangerous threshold and overall livability. Currently there exist many low-cost sensors such as ultra-violet, temperature and air quality sensors that provide reasonably accurate data quality. In this paper, the development and evaluation of Integrated Environmental Monitoring System (IEMS are illustrated. This system consists of three components: (i position determination and sensor data collection for real-time geospatial-based environmental monitoring; (ii on-site data communication and visualization with the aid of an Android-based application; and (iii data analysis on a web server. This system has shown to be working well during field tests in a bus journey and a construction site. It provides an effective service platform for collecting environmental data in near real-time, and raises the public awareness of environmental quality in micro-environments.

  18. Integrated System for Monitoring and Prevention in Obstetrics-Gynaecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robu, Andreea; Gauca, Bianca; Crisan-Vida, Mihaela; Stoicu-Tivadar, Lăcrămioara

    2016-01-01

    A better monitoring of pregnant women, mainly during the third trimester of pregnancy and an easy communication between physician and patients are very important for the prevention and good health of baby and mother. The paper presents an integrated system as support for the Obstetrics - Gynaecology domain consisting in two modules: a mobile application, ObGynCare, dedicated to the pregnant women and a new component of the Obstetrics-Gynaecology Department Information System dedicated to the physicians for a better monitoring of the pregnant women. The mobile application informs the pregnant women about their status, permits them to introduce glycaemia and weight values and has as option pulse and blood pressure acquisition from a smart sensor and provides results in a graphic format. It also provides support for easy patient-doctor communication related to any health problems. ObGyn Care offers nutrition recommendations and gives the pregnant women the possibility to enter a social space of common interests using social networks (Facebook) to exchange useful and practical information. Data collected from patients and from sensor are stored on the cloud and the physician may access the information and analyse it. The extended module of the Obstetrics-Gynaecology Department Information System already developed supports the physicians to visualize weekly, monthly, or on a trimester, the patient data and to discuss with her through the chat module. The mobile application is in test by pregnant women and medical personnel.

  19. SIG-VISA: Signal-based Vertically Integrated Seismic Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D.; Mayeda, K. M.; Myers, S. C.; Russell, S.

    2013-12-01

    Traditional seismic monitoring systems rely on discrete detections produced by station processing software; however, while such detections may constitute a useful summary of station activity, they discard large amounts of information present in the original recorded signal. We present SIG-VISA (Signal-based Vertically Integrated Seismic Analysis), a system for seismic monitoring through Bayesian inference on seismic signals. By directly modeling the recorded signal, our approach incorporates additional information unavailable to detection-based methods, enabling higher sensitivity and more accurate localization using techniques such as waveform matching. SIG-VISA's Bayesian forward model of seismic signal envelopes includes physically-derived models of travel times and source characteristics as well as Gaussian process (kriging) statistical models of signal properties that combine interpolation of historical data with extrapolation of learned physical trends. Applying Bayesian inference, we evaluate the model on earthquakes as well as the 2009 DPRK test event, demonstrating a waveform matching effect as part of the probabilistic inference, along with results on event localization and sensitivity. In particular, we demonstrate increased sensitivity from signal-based modeling, in which the SIGVISA signal model finds statistical evidence for arrivals even at stations for which the IMS station processing failed to register any detection.

  20. Engine Oil Condition Monitoring Using High Temperature Integrated Ultrasonic Transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Bird

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work contains two parts. In the first part, high temperature integrated ultrasonic transducers (IUTs made of thick piezoelectric composite films, were coated directly onto lubricant oil supply and sump lines of a modified CF700 turbojet engine. These piezoelectric films were fabricated using a sol-gel spray technology. By operating these IUTs in transmission mode, the amplitude and velocity of transmitted ultrasonic waves across the flow channel of the lubricant oil in supply and sump lines were measured during engine operation. Results have shown that the amplitude of the ultrasonic waves is sensitive to the presence of air bubbles in the oil and that the ultrasound velocity is linearly dependent on oil temperature. In the second part of the work, the sensitivity of ultrasound to engine lubricant oil degradation was investigated by using an ultrasonically equipped and thermally-controlled laboratory testing cell and lubricant oils of different grades. The results have shown that at a given temperature, ultrasound velocity decreases with a decrease in oil viscosity. Based on the results obtained in both parts of the study, ultrasound velocity measurement is proposed for monitoring oil degradation and transient oil temperature variation, whereas ultrasound amplitude measurement is proposed for monitoring air bubble content.

  1. Modular Integrated Monitoring System (MIMS) field test installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, R.L.; Waymire, D.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fuess, D.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-07-01

    The MIMS program is funded by the Department of Energy under the Office of Nonproliferation and National Security. The program objective is to develop cost effective, modular, multi-sensor monitoring systems. Both in-plant and ground based sensors are envisioned. It is also desirable to develop sensors/systems that can be fielded/deployed in a rapid fashion. A MIMS architecture was selected to allow modular integration of sensors and systems and is based on LonWorks technology, commercially developed by Echelon Corporation. The first MIMS fieldable hardware was demonstrated at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The field test, known within the DOE as the Item Tracking and Transparency (IT&I) demonstration, involved the collaboration and cooperation of five DOE laboratories (Sandia (SNL), Lawrence Livermore (LLNL), Pacific Northwest (PNL), Los Alamos (LANL), and Oak Ridge (ORNL)). The IT&T demonstration involved the monitoring of special nuclear material as it was transported around the facility utilizing sensors from the participating labs. The scenario was programmed to ignore normal activity in the facility until entry into the room where the material was stored. A second demonstration, which involved three separate scenarios, was conducted at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The participants included representatives from SNL, LLNL, PNL, and INEL. DOE has selected INEL as the long term testbed for MIMS developed sensors, systems, and scenarios. This paper will describe the installation, intended purpose, and results of the field demonstrations at LLNL and INEL under the MIMS program.

  2. High temperature integrated ultrasonic transducers for engine condition monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, M.; Jen, C.K. [National Research Council of Canada, Boucherville, PQ (Canada). Industrial Materials Inst.; Wu, K.T. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Bird, J.; Galeote, B. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Inst. for Aerospace Research; Mrad, N. [Department of National Defence, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Air Vehicles Research Station

    2009-07-01

    Piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers (UTs) are used for real-time, in-situ or off-line nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of large metallic structures such as airplanes, automobiles, ships, pressure vessels and pipelines because of their subsurface inspection capability, fast inspection speed, simplicity and cost-effectiveness. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate effective integrated ultrasonic transducers (IUT) technology to perform non-intrusive engine NDE and structural health monitoring (SHM). High temperature IUTs made of bismuth titanate piezoelectric film greater than 50 {mu}m in thickness were coated directly onto a modified CF700 turbojet engine outer casing, oil sump and supply lines and gaskets using sol-gel spray technology. The assessment was limited to temperatures up to 500 degrees C. The center frequencies of the IUTs were approximately 10 to 17 MHz. Ultrasonic signals obtained in pulse/echo measurements were excellent. High temperature ultrasonic performance will likely be obtained in the transmission mode as well. The potential applications of the developed IUTs include non-intrusive real-time temperature, lubricant oil quality and metal debris monitoring within a turbojet engine environment. 9 refs., 13 figs.

  3. Integrated system for remotely monitoring critical physiological parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexakis, S.; Karalis, S.; Asvestas, P.

    2015-09-01

    Monitoring several human parameters (temperature, heart rate, blood pressure etc.) is an essential task in health care in hospitals as well as in home care. This paper presents the design and implementation of an integrated, embedded system that includes an electrocardiograph of nine leads and two channels, a digital thermometer for measuring the body temperature and a power supply. The system provides networking capabilities (wired or wireless) and is accessible by means of a web interface that allows the user to select the leads, as well as to review the values of heart rate (beats per minute) and body temperature. Furthermore, there is the option of saving all the data in a Micro SD memory card or in a Google Spreadsheet. The necessary analog circuits for signal conditioning (amplification and filtering) were manufactured on printed circuit boards (PCB). The system was built around Arduino Yun, which is a platform that contains a microcontroller and a microprocessor running a special LINUX distribution. Furthermore, the Arduino Yun provides the necessary network connectivity capabilities by means of the integrated Wi-Fi and Ethernet interfaces. The web interface was developed using HTML pages with JavaScript support. The system was tested on simulated data as well as real data, providing satisfactory accuracy regarding the measurement of the heart rate (±3 bpm error) and the temperature (±0.3°C error).

  4. Monitoring the degree of implementation of an integrated delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Réjean Hébert

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the study was to develop a method to measure the implementation of specific components of an Integrated Service Delivery system for the frail elderly. The system includes six mechanisms and tools: (1 coordination of all organizations involved in delivering health and social services, (2 a single entry point, (3 case management, (4 a single assessment tool with a case-mix classification system, (5 an individualized service plan, and (6 a computerized clinical chart. Method: Focus groups of researchers, clinicians, managers and policy-makers identified quantitative indicators for each component. The six components were weighted according to their relative importance in order to generate a total score. Data were collected every six months over 30 months to establish the implementation degree in the three experimental areas: Sherbrooke, Granit and Coaticook in the Province of Quebec, Canada. Results: After 30 months, coordination is the most developed component in the three experimental areas. Overall, in July 2003, the Integrated Service Delivery system was implemented at the rate of 73%, 71% and 70% in Sherbrooke, Granit and Coaticook, respectively. Discussion: This type of quantitative assessment provides data for managers and researchers to monitor the implementation. Moreover, when there is an outcome study, the results of the outcome study can be correlated with the degree of implementation, thus allowing for dose-response analyzes and helping to decrease the “black box” effect.

  5. Integrating volcanic gas monitoring with other geophysical networks in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, Melissa A.

    2017-04-01

    The Icelandic Meteorological Office/Icelandic Volcano Observatory is rapidly developing and improving the use of gas measurements as a tool for pre- and syn-eruptive monitoring within Iceland. Observations of deformation, seismicity, hydrological properties, and gas emissions, united within an integrated approach, can provide improved understanding of subsurface magma movements. This is critical to evaluate signals prior to and during volcanic eruptions, issue timely eruption warnings, forecast eruption behavior, and assess volcanic hazards. Gas measurements in Iceland need to be processed to account for the high degree of gas composition alteration due to interaction with external water and rocks. Deeply-sourced magmatic gases undergo reactions and modifications as they move to the surface that exercise a strong control on the composition of surface emissions. These modifications are particularly strong at ice-capped volcanoes where most surface gases are dissolved in glacial meltwater. Models are used to project backwards from surface gas measurements to what the magmatic gas composition was prior to upward migration. After the pristine magma gas composition has been determined, it is used together with fluid compositions measured in mineral hosted melt inclusions to calculate magmatic properties to understand magma storage and migration and to discern if there have been changes in the volcanic system. The properties derived from surface gas measurements can be used as input to models interpreting deformation and seismic observations, and can be used as an additional, independent observation when interpreting hydrological and seismic changes. An integrated approach aids with determining whether observed hydro/geological changes can be due to the presence of shallow magma. Constraints on parameters such as magma gas content, viscosity and compressibility can be provided by the approach described above, which can be utilized syn-eruptively to help explain

  6. Test of GBAS Integrity Monitoring System Using GPS Simulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Young-sun; Park Sung-min; Kee Chang-don

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, many countries are developing aircraft navigation systems using GNSS(Global Navigation Satellite System),because GNSS has many technical and economic benefits. International organizations as ICAO(International Civil Aviation Organization) and RTCA(Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics) set up international standards of GBAS(Ground Based Augmentation System)using GNSS and recommend countries to develop GBAS that is based on the standards. To go with the international stream, Korea Airport Cooperation has also developed GBAS. For evaluating the system,KAC and Seoul National University have performed flight tests of the developed GBAS several times and have concluded that the system has good accuracy enough to be used in aircrafts. At that time, the purpose of tests was focused on accuracy of GBAS. But integrity of the system which is important for safety of aircrafts was not tested sufficiently,because it is impossible to make erroneous situations of real GPS signals. So, at this time, we used GPS simulator which can generate GPS signals with satellite failure scenarios. The GPS simulator used in this test generates GPS signals by the scenarios organized in advance.The scenarios can include pseudorange and carrier phase error, parity error and etc. So we organized several scenarios which can includes potential errors of GPS signals and many possible cases for testing the system effectively and accurately. And we tested integrity function of the GBAS system by using GPS signals generated by the simulator.This paper introduces the implemented integrity monitoring system and algorithms used in the tests. And it describes the scenarios of satellite failure. Finally, this paper shows the results of tests.

  7. A new data logger for integrated geophysical monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orazi, Massimo; Peluso, Rosario; Caputo, Antonio; Giudicepietro, Flora; Martini, Marcello

    2015-04-01

    GILDA digital recorder is a data logger developed at Osservatorio Vesuviano (INGV). It provides excellent data quality with low power consumption and low production cost. It is widely used in the multi-parametric monitoring networks of Neapolitan volcanoes and Stromboli volcano. We have improved the characteristics of GILDA recorder to realize a robust user-oriented acquisition system for integrated geophysical monitoring. We have designed and implemented new capabilities concerning the use of the low rate channels to get data of environmental parameters of the station. We also improved the stand-alone version of the data logger. This version can be particularly useful for scientific experiments and to rapidly upgrade permanent monitoring networks. Furthermore, the local storage can be used as back-up for the monitoring systems in continuous transmission, in case of failure of the transmission system. Some firmware changes have been made in order to improve the performance of the instrument. In particular, the low rate acquisition channels were conditioned to acquire internal parameters of the recorder such as the temperature and voltage. A prototype of the new version of the logger is currently installed at Campi Flegrei for a experimental application. Our experiment is aimed at testing the new version of GILDA data logger in multi-board configuration for multiparametric acquisitions. A second objective of the experiment is the comparison of the recorded data with geochemical data acquired by a multiparametric geochemical station to investigate possible correlations between seismic and geochemical parameters. The target site of the experiment is "Bocca Grande" fumarole in Solfatara volcano. By exploiting the modularity of GILDA, for the experiment has been realized an acquisition system based on three dataloggers for a total of 12 available channels. One of GILDA recorders is the Master and the other two are Slaves. The Master is responsible for the initial

  8. Guidelines for integrated catchments monitoring: ICM mind map development and demonstration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jovanovic, Nebojsa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Advances have been made in recent years in developing networks and databases for monitoring water systems in South Africa. However, these monitoring systems need to be consolidated and integrated amongst various components of catchment systems...

  9. Adaptive Contingency Control: Wind Turbine Operation Integrated with Blade Condition Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We report here on first steps towards integrating systems health monitoring with adaptive contingency controls. In the scenario considered, the adaptive controller...

  10. The development of NSSS digital integrity monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, Chang Shik; Kim, Jung Soo; Jung, Chul Hwan; Hwang, In Koo; Kim, Tak Hwane; Kim, Tae Hwane; Park, Jin Ho; Kyung, Sung Yoon; Hyeon, Ryu Kye; Seong, Joo Hyun; Kim, Georn Myung; Eun, Sung Hun; Kwack, Jin Gu; Park, Joon Hee

    1999-11-01

    The primary function of loose part monitoring system (LPMS) is to detect the occurrence of any loose part in the primary coolant system caused by being parted or loosened from the mechanical structure during normal operation and refueling times. The existing LPMSs generates an alarm when the detected signal from the accelerometer sensors attached to the surface of the primary pressure boundary was bigger than the alarm threshold value. The internal vibration monitoring system (IVMS) senses a change of vibration of the reactor vessel internal structure using the ex-core neutron signals. The vibrations of internal mechanical structure are caused by the high velocity flow of the pressurized primary coolant. If the flow-induced vibration forces to loosen the internal components supporting the fuel assembly, the safety of nuclear reactor will be affected. The IVMS provides the information of abnormality in the vibration pattern and amplitude for plant operators to take proper actions against the abnormal condition for nuclear power plants (NPPs). An advanced LPMS should be capable to identify the physical characteristics of the potential loose part from the detected signal. Those improved diagnostic function will be the capabilities to analyze the detected signal and to estimate the expected impact position and mass automatically. The technologies and methods of estimation for impact mass and position as well as a new modeling method of reactor internal vibration modes were developed and provided to Woojin Co. from Korea Energy Research Institute (KAERI). Based on the transferred technologies, Woojin Co. has designed the hardware system of LPMS and IVMS. Some of the hardware components were integrated and the hardware-oriented software modules were also developed and designed. (author)

  11. Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary: Sanctuary Integrated Monitoring Network (SIMoN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Sanctuary Integrated Monitoring Network (SIMoN) is an integrated, long-term program that takes an ecosystem approach to identify and understand changes to the...

  12. Selective upregulation of lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle of foraging juvenile king penguins: an integrative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teulier, Loic; Dégletagne, Cyril; Rey, Benjamin; Tornos, Jérémy; Keime, Céline; de Dinechin, Marc; Raccurt, Mireille; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Roussel, Damien; Duchamp, Claude

    2012-06-22

    The passage from shore to marine life of juvenile penguins represents a major energetic challenge to fuel intense and prolonged demands for thermoregulation and locomotion. Some functional changes developed at this crucial step were investigated by comparing pre-fledging king penguins with sea-acclimatized (SA) juveniles (Aptenodytes patagonicus). Transcriptomic analysis of pectoralis muscle biopsies revealed that most genes encoding proteins involved in lipid transport or catabolism were upregulated, while genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism were mostly downregulated in SA birds. Determination of muscle enzymatic activities showed no changes in enzymes involved in the glycolytic pathway, but increased 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, an enzyme of the β-oxidation pathway. The respiratory rates of isolated muscle mitochondria were much higher with a substrate arising from lipid metabolism (palmitoyl-L-carnitine) in SA juveniles than in terrestrial controls, while no difference emerged with a substrate arising from carbohydrate metabolism (pyruvate). In vivo, perfusion of a lipid emulsion induced a fourfold larger thermogenic effect in SA than in control juveniles. The present integrative study shows that fuel selection towards lipid oxidation characterizes penguin acclimatization to marine life. Such acclimatization may involve thyroid hormones through their nuclear beta receptor and nuclear coactivators.

  13. Wireless Amperometric Neurochemical Monitoring Using an Integrated Telemetry Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roham, Masoud; Halpern, Jeffrey M.; Martin, Heidi B.; Chiel, Hillel J.

    2015-01-01

    An integrated circuit for wireless real-time monitoring of neurochemical activity in the nervous system is described. The chip is capable of conducting high-resolution amperometric measurements in four settings of the input current. The chip architecture includes a first-order ΔΣ modulator (ΔΣM) and a frequency-shift-keyed (FSK) voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) operating near 433 MHz. It is fabricated using the AMI 0.5 μm double-poly triple-metal n-well CMOS process, and requires only one off-chip component for operation. Measured dc current resolutions of ~250 fA, ~1.5 pA, ~4.5 pA, and ~17 pA were achieved for input currents in the range of ±5, ±37, ±150, and ±600 nA, respectively. The chip has been interfaced with a diamond-coated, quartz-insulated, microneedle, tungsten electrode, and successfully recorded dopamine concentration levels as low as 0.5 μM wirelessly over a transmission distance of ~0.5 m in flow injection analysis experiments. PMID:18990633

  14. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - Integrated List Non-Attaining

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This layer shows only non-attaining segments of the Integrated List. The Streams Integrated List represents stream assessments in an integrated format for the Clean...

  15. Integrated landslide monitoring: rainfalls, pore water pressures and surface movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, M.; Casula, G.; Elmi, C.; Fabris, M.; Ghirotti, M.; Loddo, F.; Mora, P.; Pesci, A.; Simoni, A.

    2003-04-01

    complex factors involved in the problem: stratigraphy, soil properties and presence of heterogeneities are among the most important. All of them are difficult or impossible to determine at slope scale on a deterministic basis. The herein presented monitoring system addresses the problem by means of a measuring array of pore pressure sensors located at various depth (0.3 to 10 m) along a section of the main landslide headscarp. Negative pore pressures are also measured though, at this stage, much attention is still focused on the choice of sensors which better suit the specific case. At the moment of writing we are using traditional tensiometers and indirect soil moisture sensors and comparing the results. All sensors are directly buried into the ground in order to get fast and reliable responses. In addition to continuous measurements, GPS, digital photogrammetry and terrestrial laser scanning are applied leading to an integrated system for DEMs production. GPS (so-called kinematic mode) gives the possibility of determining the relative position of points at centimetric and/or millimetric accuracy. The terrain surface is described by means of points distributed on a high density irregular grid. Moreover static and fast static GPS modes allow to determine the position of distributed marker points (millimetric precision). Digital photogrammetry can also be combined with the surveying of control points to generate DEMs. In this case, aerial and terrestrial stereo images are automatically processed by means of correlation algorithms that work at sub-pixel level. Last but not least, the Laser Scanning technique has been used to generate successive terrain models, which can be differenced to determine displacements in active parts of the landslide.

  16. Heat management in integrated circuits on-chip and system-level monitoring and cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Ogrenci-Memik, Seda

    2016-01-01

    This essential overview covers the subject of thermal monitoring and management in integrated circuits. Specifically, it focuses on devices and materials that are intimately integrated on-chip (as opposed to in-package or on-board) for the purposes of thermal monitoring and thermal management.

  17. The Integrated Monitoring Area Lheebroekerzand - The Netherlands Data of 1997-1998-1999

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathijssen-Spiekman EAM; Wolters-Balk MAH; ECO

    2002-01-01

    The International Cooperative Programme on Integrated Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Ecosystems (ICP-IM) is an extensive monitoring programme with a large number of chemical, physical and biological variables. In this report the results of the last three years of monitoring in the Lheebroeke

  18. Metabolic effects of the iodothyronine functional analogue TRC150094 on the liver and skeletal muscle of high-fat diet fed overweight rats: an integrated proteomic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Elena; Glinni, Daniela; Cioffi, Federica; Moreno, Maria; Lombardi, Assunta; de Lange, Pieter; Senese, Rosalba; Ceccarelli, Michele; Salzano, Anna Maria; Scaloni, Andrea; Lanni, Antonia; Goglia, Fernando

    2012-07-06

    A novel functional iodothyronine analogue, TRC150094, which has a much lower potency toward thyroid hormone receptor (α1/β1) activation than triiodothyronine, has been shown to be effective at reducing adiposity in rats simultaneously receiving a high-fat diet (HFD). Here, by combining metabolic, functional and proteomic analysis, we studied how the hepatic and skeletal muscle phenotypes might respond to TRC150094 treatment in HFD-fed overweight rats. Drug treatment increased both the liver and skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacities without altering mitochondrial efficiency. Coherently, in terms of individual respiratory in-gel activity, blue-native analysis revealed an increased activity of complex V in the liver and of complexes II and V in tibialis muscle in TCR150094-treated animals. Subsequently, the identification of differentially expressed proteins and the analysis of their interrelations gave an integrated view of the phenotypic/metabolic adaptations occurring in the liver and muscle proteomes during drug treatment. TRC150094 significantly altered the expression of several proteins involved in key liver metabolic pathways, including amino acid and nitrogen metabolism, and fructose and mannose metabolism. The canonical pathways most strongly influenced by TRC150094 in tibialis muscle included glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, amino acid, fructose and mannose metabolism, and cell signaling. The phenotypic/metabolic influence of TRC150094 on the liver and skeletal muscle of HFD-fed overweight rats suggests the potential clinical application of this iodothyronine analogue in ameliorating metabolic risk parameters altered by diet regimens.

  19. Changes in skeletal integrity and marrow adiposity during high-fat diet and after weight-loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Lynn Scheller

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity has continued to rise over the past three decades leading to significant increases in obesity-related medical care costs from metabolic and non-metabolic sequelae. It is now clear that expansion of body fat leads to an increase in inflammation with systemic effects on metabolism. In mouse models of diet-induced obesity there is also an expansion of bone marrow adipocytes. However, the persistence of these changes after weight-loss has not been well described. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of high-fat diet (HFD and subsequent weight-loss on skeletal parameters in C57Bl6/J mice. Male mice were given a normal chow diet (ND or 60% HFD at 6-weeks of age for 12-, 16-, or 20-weeks. A third group of mice was put on HFD for 12-weeks and then on ND for 8-weeks to mimic weight-loss. After these dietary challenges the tibia and femur were removed and analyzed by microCT for bone morphology. Decalcification followed by osmium staining was used to assess bone marrow adiposity and mechanical testing was performed to assess bone strength. After 12-, 16-, or 20-weeks of HFD, mice had significant weight gain relative to controls. Body mass returned to normal after weight-loss. Marrow adipose tissue (MAT volume in the tibia increased after 16-weeks of HFD and persisted in the 20-week HFD group. Weight loss prevented HFD-induced MAT expansion. Trabecular bone volume fraction, mineral content, and number were decreased after 12-, 16-, or 20-weeks of HFD, relative to ND controls, with only partial recovery after weight-loss. Mechanical testing demonstrated decreased fracture resistance after 20-weeks of HFD. Loss of mechanical integrity did not recover after weight-loss. Our study demonstrates that HFD causes long-term, persistent changes in bone quality, despite prevention of marrow adipose tissue accumulation, as demonstrated through changes in bone morphology and mechanical strength in a mouse model of diet

  20. Study of an integrated electronic monitor for neutron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barelaud, B.; Nexon-Mokhtari, F.; Barrau, C.; Decossac, J.L.; Vareille, J.C. [Limoges Univ., 87 (France); Sarrabayrouse, G. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 31 - Toulouse (France). Lab. d`Automatique et d`Analyse des Systemes

    1994-12-31

    Many neutron beams monitors in 10 keV - 50 keV range are perturbed by gamma radiation impact. This new monitor uses two silicon (junction) diodes operating coincidence detection, combined with an electronic threshold to eliminate gamma background noise. The results and analyses presented here only concern feasibility studies. (D.L.). 11 refs.

  1. Androgen receptor (AR) in osteocytes is important for the maintenance of male skeletal integrity: evidence from targeted AR disruption in mouse osteocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnesael, Mieke; Claessens, Frank; Laurent, Michaël; Dubois, Vanessa; Boonen, Steven; Deboel, Ludo; Vanderschueren, Dirk

    2012-12-01

    Androgens play a key role in the maintenance of male skeletal integrity. The regulation of this integrity by androgen receptor (AR) signaling has been mainly attributed to osteoblasts. Although osteocytes have emerged as key regulators of bone remodeling, the influence of sex steroids on these cells has been poorly studied. We aimed to investigate the role of AR signaling, specifically in osteocytes using the Cre/LoxP system in male mice (driven by dentin matrix protein 1 [ocy-ARKOs]). Osteocyte fractions of control (AR(ex2)/Y) and ocy-ARKO (ARflox(ex2)/Y; DMP1-cre) mice isolated through sequential collagenase digestion showed increasing AR expression toward the mature osteocyte fraction of control males compared with the more immature fractions, whereas this was reduced by >80% in ocy-ARKO osteocytes. The skeletal phenotype of mutant mice was further assessed by histomorphometry and quantitative micro-computed tomography at 12 and 32 weeks of age. Ocy-ARKOs had significantly lower trabecular bone volume and number in femora and tibias at 32 weeks as well as decreased trabecular number in the L(5) vertebra at 12 weeks. Biomechanical testing showed that ocy-ARKO femora were also stiffer and required a lower ultimate force to induce failure at 32 weeks. However, femoral cortical structure was not significantly different at any time point. The absence of AR in osteocyte also did not appear to affect trabecular bone formation nor its response to mechanical loading. In conclusion, selective inactivation of the AR in osteocytes of male mice accelerates age-related deterioration of skeletal integrity. These findings provide evidence for a direct role of androgens in the maintenance of trabecular bone through actions of the AR in osteocytes.

  2. Integrated Information System of Monitoring and Management for Heart Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian Brezulianu; Monica Fira

    2012-01-01

    The integrated information system presented in this paper is focused on increasing the quality of the medical services offered to the patients by rendering the activities more efficient and by corroborating the family doctors and the cardiologists’ efforts. In order to accomplish the mentioned objectives we propose implementing an integrated information system by means of which the integrated management of the medical data will be done. In addition, it has been offered a collaborative instrum...

  3. Permanent LMN denervation of human skeletal muscle and recovery by h-b FES: management and monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Kern

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Denervation of a defined skeletal muscle is due to lower motor neuron (LMN or peripheral nerve lesions that have major consequences on the muscle tissue. After early atrophy, the mid- and late-phases presents two very contrasting myofibers populations: beside those severely atrophic with internalized groups of myonuclei, large fast-type muscle fibers continue to be present 4 to 6 years after Spinal Cord Injury (SCI. Recent results of rat experiments provides the rational basis for understanding the residual functional characteristics of the long-term denervated muscle and the molecular explanation of its ability to respond to home-base functional electrical stimulation (h-b FES using custom-designed electrodes and stimulators. Further outcomes of the Vienna-Padova ten-year collaboration are: 1. a world-unique Myo- Bank of muscle biopsies and 2. improved imaging procedures (Color Computer Tomography (CT scan and Functional Echomyography, all demonstrating that h-b FES induces improvements in muscle contractility, tissue composition and mass, despite permanent LMN denervation. The benefits of h-b FES could be extended from patents suffering with complete Conus-Cauda Syndrome to the numerous patients with incomplete LMN denervation of skeletal muscles to determine whether h-b FES reduces secondary complications related to disuse and impaired blood perfusion (reduction in bone density, risk of bone fracture, decubitus ulcers, and pulmonary thromboembolism. We are confident that translation of the results of a clinical experiment, the EU Project RISE, to the larger cohort of incomplete LMN denervated muscles will provide the wanted results.

  4. 2014 Annual Report: Integrated Waterbird Management and Monitoring Initiative

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual report provides information on the IWMM initiative including monitoring efforts and observations, ongoing protocol revisions, development of the National...

  5. Monitoring industrial facilities using principles of integration of fiber classifier and local sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotaev, Valery V.; Denisov, Victor M.; Rodrigues, Joel J. P. C.; Serikova, Mariya G.; Timofeev, Andrey V.

    2015-05-01

    The paper deals with the creation of integrated monitoring systems. They combine fiber-optic classifiers and local sensor networks. These systems allow for the monitoring of complex industrial objects. Together with adjacent natural objects, they form the so-called geotechnical systems. An integrated monitoring system may include one or more spatially continuous fiber-optic classifiers based on optic fiber and one or more arrays of discrete measurement sensors, which are usually combined in sensor networks. Fiber-optic classifiers are already widely used for the control of hazardous extended objects (oil and gas pipelines, railways, high-rise buildings, etc.). To monitor local objects, discrete measurement sensors are generally used (temperature, pressure, inclinometers, strain gauges, accelerometers, sensors measuring the composition of impurities in the air, and many others). However, monitoring complex geotechnical systems require a simultaneous use of continuous spatially distributed sensors based on fiber-optic cable and connected local discrete sensors networks. In fact, we are talking about integration of the two monitoring methods. This combination provides an additional way to create intelligent monitoring systems. Modes of operation of intelligent systems can automatically adapt to changing environmental conditions. For this purpose, context data received from one sensor (e.g., optical channel) may be used to change modes of work of other sensors within the same monitoring system. This work also presents experimental results of the prototype of the integrated monitoring system.

  6. An Integrated Environment Monitoring System for Underground Coal Mines—Wireless Sensor Network Subsystem with Multi-Parameter Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Environment monitoring is important for the safety of underground coal mine production, and it is also an important application of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs. We put forward an integrated environment monitoring system for underground coal mine, which uses the existing Cable Monitoring System (CMS as the main body and the WSN with multi-parameter monitoring as the supplementary technique. As CMS techniques are mature, this paper mainly focuses on the WSN and the interconnection between the WSN and the CMS. In order to implement the WSN for underground coal mines, two work modes are designed: periodic inspection and interrupt service; the relevant supporting technologies, such as routing mechanism, collision avoidance, data aggregation, interconnection with the CMS, etc., are proposed and analyzed. As WSN nodes are limited in energy supply, calculation and processing power, an integrated network management scheme is designed in four aspects, i.e., topology management, location management, energy management and fault management. Experiments were carried out both in a laboratory and in a real underground coal mine. The test results indicate that the proposed integrated environment monitoring system for underground coal mines is feasible and all designs performed well as expected.

  7. Integrated Information System of Monitoring and Management for Heart Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Brezulianu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The integrated information system presented in this paper is focused on increasing the quality of the medical services offered to the patients by rendering the activities more efficient and by corroborating the family doctors and the cardiologists’ efforts. In order to accomplish the mentioned objectives we propose implementing an integrated information system by means of which the integrated management of the medical data will be done. In addition, it has been offered a collaborative instrument, patient oriented, that it will be used both by the family doctor and by the specialist doctor.

  8. Research on Network-based Integrated Condition Monitoring Unit for Rotating Machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XI Xiao-peng; ZHANG Wen-rui; XI Shuan-min; JING Min-qing; YU Lie

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a network-based monitoring unit for condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of rotating machinery is designed and implemented. With the technology of DSP( Digital signal processing), TCP/IP, and simultaneous acquisition, a mechanism of multi-process and inter-process communication, the integrating problem of signal acquisition, the data dynamic management and network-based configuration in the embedded condition monitoring system is solved. It offers the input function of monitoring information for network-based condition monitoring and a fault diagnosis system.

  9. Montana Integrated Monitoring in Bird Conservation Regions: 2014 Field Implementation Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 2014 the Avian Science Center (ASC) at the University of Montana (UM) participated in the Integrated Monitoring in Bird Conservation Regions (IMBCR) program for a...

  10. Possibilities of making use of integrated emission monitoring system for inspection of electroprecipitators operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knitter, J.; Matys, T. [Gdansk Thermal-Electric Power Station Complex S.A., Gdansk (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    Microprocessor and computer control devices for ESP operation and integrated emission monitoring systems are discussed. An operating ESP inspection system for the Gdansk power station complex is determined. 8 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Material on the background integrated monitoring of natural environmental pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovinsky, F.Y.; Koloskov, I.A.; Cherkhanov, Y.P.; Vorontsov, A.I.; Rusina, E.N.

    1980-01-01

    Stations for monitoring background pollution levels within the Global Environmental Monitoring System in the USSR have been established in seven biosphere reserves. The location of station Borovoe, established in 1976, is shown. Data are given from samples of air, soil and vegetation taken in both adjacent and nearby areas. The impact of regional and local sources on the station is assessed. Sulfur dioxide, dust, mercury vapor, aerosol components of lead and cadmium, arsenic and 3,4-benzo (A) pyrene are presented as time variations of mean monthly concentrations in surface air. Actinometric observations (AT-50 instrument) show the low turbidity of the atmosphere. Some comparisons are shown with field background observations.

  12. Hardware Specific Integration Strategy for Impedance-Based Structural Health Monitoring of Aerospace Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Robert B.; Gyekenyesi, Andrew L.; Inman, Daniel J.; Ha, Dong S.

    2011-01-01

    The Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) Project, sponsored by NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate, is conducting research to advance the state of highly integrated and complex flight-critical health management technologies and systems. An effective IVHM system requires Structural Health Monitoring (SHM). The impedance method is one such SHM technique for detection and monitoring complex structures for damage. This position paper on the impedance method presents the current state of the art, future directions, applications and possible flight test demonstrations.

  13. Monitoring the structural behavior of troponin and myoplasmic free Ca2+ concentration during twitch of frog skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Tatsuhito; Iwamoto, Hiroyuki; Yagi, Naoto

    2010-07-07

    The interaction of troponin molecules on the thin filament with Ca(2+) plays a key role in regulating muscle contraction. To characterize the structural changes of troponin caused by Ca(2+) and crossbridge formation, we recorded the small-angle x-ray intensity and the myoplasmic free Ca(2+) concentration using fluo-3 AM in the same frog skeletal muscle during twitch elicited by a single electrical pulse at 16 degrees C. In an overstretched muscle, the intensity of the meridional reflection from troponin at 1/38.5 nm(-1) began to change at 4 ms after the stimulus, reached a peak at 10 ms, and returned to the resting level with a halftime of 25 ms. The concentration of troponin-bound Ca(2+) began to increase at 1-2 ms after the stimulus, reached a peak at 5 ms, and returned to the resting level with a halftime of 40 ms, indicating that troponin begins to change conformation only after a sizable amount of Ca(2+) has bound to it, and returns to the resting structure even when there is still some bound Ca(2+). In a muscle with a filament overlap, crossbridge formation appears to slow down Ca(2+) release from troponin and have a large effect on its conformation.

  14. Danish integrated antimicrobial in resistance monitoring and research program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammerum, Anette Marie; Heuer, Ole Eske; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe

    2007-01-01

    Resistance to antimicrobial agents is an emerging problem worldwide. Awareness of the undesirable consequences of its widespread occurrence has led to the initiation of antimicrobial agent resistance monitoring programs in several countries. In 1995, Denmark was the first country to establish a s...

  15. JEM-X: The X-ray monitor aboard INTEGRAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Niels; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl; Westergaard, Niels Jørgen Stenfeldt

    2003-01-01

    The JEM-X monitor provides X-ray spectra and imaging with arcminute angular resolution in the 3 to 35 keV band. The good angular resolution and the low energy response of JEM-X plays an important role in the identification of gamma ray sources and in the analysis and scientific interpretation of ...

  16. Integrating population and genetic monitoring to understand changes in the abundance of a threatened seabird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalina Vásquez-Carrillo; R. William Henry; Laird Henkel; M. Zachariah. Peery

    2013-01-01

    Population monitoring programs for threatened species are rarely designed to disentangle the effects of movements from changes in birth and death rates on estimated trends in abundance. Here, we illustrate how population and genetic monitoring can be integrated to understand the cause of large changes in the abundance of a threatened species of seabird, the Marbled...

  17. Towards an integrated soil moisture drought monitor for East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. B. Anderson

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Drought in East Africa is a recurring phenomenon with significant humanitarian impacts. Given the steep climatic gradients, topographic contrasts, general data scarcity, and, in places, political instability that characterize the region, there is a need for spatially distributed, remotely derived monitoring systems to inform national and international drought response. At the same time, the very diversity and data scarcity that necessitate remote monitoring also make it difficult to evaluate the reliability of these systems. Here we apply a suite of remote monitoring techniques to characterize the temporal and spatial evolution of the 2010–2011 Horn of Africa drought. Diverse satellite observations allow for evaluation of meteorological, agricultural, and hydrological aspects of drought, each of which is of interest to different stakeholders. Focusing on soil moisture, we apply triple collocation analysis (TCA to three independent methods for estimating soil moisture anomalies to characterize relative error between products and to provide a basis for objective data merging. The three soil moisture methods evaluated include microwave remote sensing using the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer – Earth Observing System (AMSR-E sensor, thermal remote sensing using the Atmosphere-Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI surface energy balance algorithm, and physically-based land surface modeling using the Noah land surface model. It was found that the three soil moisture monitoring methods yield similar drought anomaly estimates in areas characterized by extremely low or by moderate vegetation cover, particularly during the below-average 2011 long rainy season. Systematic discrepancies were found, however, in regions of moderately low vegetation cover and high vegetation cover, especially during the failed 2010 short rains. The merged, TCA-weighted soil moisture composite product takes advantage of the relative strengths of each method, as judged by the

  18. Towards an integrated soil moisture drought monitor for East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. B. Anderson

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Drought in East Africa is a recurring phenomenon with significant humanitarian impacts. Given the steep climatic gradients, topographic contrasts, general data scarcity, and, in places, political instability that characterize the region, there is a need for spatially distributed, remotely derived monitoring systems to inform national and international drought response. At the same time, the very diversity and data scarcity that necessitate remote monitoring also make it difficult to evaluate the reliability of these systems. Here we apply a suite of remote monitoring techniques to characterize the temporal and spatial evolution of the 2010–2011 Horn of Africa drought. Diverse satellite observations allow for evaluation of meteorological, agricultural, and hydrological aspects of drought, each of which is of interest to different stakeholders. Focusing on soil moisture, we apply triple collocation analysis (TCA to three independent methods for estimating soil moisture anomalies to characterize relative error between products and to provide a basis for objective data merging. The three soil moisture methods evaluated include microwave remote sensing using the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer – Earth Observing System (AMSR-E sensor, thermal remote sensing using the Atmosphere-Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI surface energy balance algorithm, and physically based land surface modeling using the Noah land surface model. It was found that the three soil moisture monitoring methods yield similar drought anomaly estimates in areas characterized by extremely low or by moderate vegetation cover, particularly during the below-average 2011 long rainy season. Systematic discrepancies were found, however, in regions of moderately low vegetation cover and high vegetation cover, especially during the failed 2010 short rains. The merged, TCA-weighted soil moisture composite product takes advantage of the relative strengths of each method, as judged by the

  19. An integral monitoring of GRS1915+105: simultaneous observations with INTEGRAL, RXTE, the Ryle and Nancay radio telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Rodríguez, J; Hannikainen, D C; Lehto, H J

    2006-01-01

    Since the launch of INTEGRAL in late 2002 we have monitored the Galactic microquasar GRS 1915+105 with long exposures (~100 ks) pointings. All the observations have been conducted simultaneously with other instruments, in particular RXTE and the Ryle Telescope, and in some cases with others (Spitzer, Nancay, GMRT, Suzaku,...). We report here the results of 3 observations performed simultaneously with INTEGRAL, RXTE, the Ryle and Nancay radio telescopes. These observations show the so-called $\

  20. Monitoring of integrated photovoltaic facade for Sandwell Metropolitan Borough Council

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, B. [Energy Equipment Testing Service Limited (United Kingdom)

    2002-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a project monitoring the output of a photovoltaic system installed in a residential tower block which was undergoing refurbishment using best practice energy efficiency methods. The incorporation of the information obtained in the borough's schools programme is discussed. Details are given of the technical problems experienced in relation to the string cables and the inverters, and also contractual issues. The direct and indirect benefits of the photovoltaic system are highlighted.

  1. An in-situ monitoring technique for optimizing antireflection coatings using a monolithic integrated photodetector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saini, Vikram; Yvind, Kresten; Larsson, David

    2006-01-01

    A very low reflectivity of the order of 10-4 is demonstrated for dual-layer anti-reflection coatings on normal facet semiconductor lasers, by integrated in situ monitoring. The method has been tested on three and eight quantum-well InGaAsP ridge lasers that consist of a gain section and an integr...

  2. Integrated optoelectronic probe including a vertical cavity surface emitting laser for laser Doppler perfusion monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serov, Alexander N.; Nieland, Janharm; Oosterbaan, Sjoerd; Mul, de Frits F.M.; Kranenburg, van Herma; Bekman, Herman H.P.Th.; Steenbergen, Wiendelt

    2006-01-01

    An integrated optoelectronic probe with small dimensions, for direct-contact laser Doppler blood flow monitoring has been realized. A vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL), and a chip with photodetectors and all necessary electronics are integrated in a miniature probe head connected to a l

  3. Integrated Optoelectronic Probe Including a Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser for Laser Doppler Perfusion Monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serov, A.N.; Nieland, J.; Oosterbaan, S.; Steenbergen, W.; Bekman, H.H.P.T.; Mul, F.F.M. de; Kranenburg, H. van

    2006-01-01

    An integrated optoelectronic probe with small dimensions, for direct-contact laser Doppler blood flow monitoring has been realized. A vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL), and a chip with photodetectors and all necessary electronics are integrated in a miniature probe head connected to a l

  4. Integrating forest inventory and analysis data into a LIDAR-based carbon monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristofer D. Johnson; Richard Birdsey; Andrew O Finley; Anu Swantaran; Ralph Dubayah; Craig Wayson; Rachel. Riemann

    2014-01-01

    Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data may be a valuable component of a LIDAR-based carbon monitoring system, but integration of the two observation systems is not without challenges. To explore integration methods, two wall-to-wall LIDAR-derived biomass maps were compared to FIA data at both the plot and county levels in Anne Arundel and Howard Counties in Maryland...

  5. Integrated monitoring of the ATLAS online computing farm

    CERN Document Server

    Ballestrero, Sergio; The ATLAS collaboration; Fazio, Daniel; Gament, Costin-Eugen; Lee, Christopher; Scannicchio, Diana; Twomey, Matthew Shaun

    2016-01-01

    The online farm of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, consisting of nearly 4000 PCs with various characteristics, provides configuration and control of the detector and performs the collection, processing, selection and conveyance of event data from the front-end electronics to mass storage. The status and health of every host must be constantly monitored to ensure the correct and reliable operation of the whole online system. This is the first line of defense, which should not only promptly provide alerts in case of failure but, whenever possible, warn of impending issues. The monitoring system should be able to check up to 100000 health parameters and provide alerts on a selected subset. In this paper we present the implementation and validation of our new monitoring and alerting system based on Icinga 2 and Ganglia. We describe how the load distribution and high availability features of Icinga 2 allowed us to have a centralised but scalable system, with a configuration model that allows full flexibility whil...

  6. Potential for Integrating Community-Based Monitoring into REDD+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Balderas Torres

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Countries at the United Nations Framework on the Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC have decided to engage local communities and indigenous groups into the activities for the monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV of the program to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and increase carbon removals (REDD+. Previous research and projects have shown that communities can produce reliable data on forest area and carbon estimates through field measurements. The objective of this article is to describe the framework that is being created for REDD+ under the UNFCCC to identify the potential inclusion of local information produced through community-based monitoring (CBM into monitoring systems for REDD+. National systems could use different sources of information from CBM: first, local information can be produced as part of public programs by increasing sample size of national or regional inventories; second, government can collect information to produce carbon estimates from on-going management practices implemented at local level driven by access to local direct benefits (e.g., forest management plans, watershed conservation; third, national data systems could include information from projects participating in carbon markets and other certification schemes; and finally information will be produced as part of the activities associated to the implementation of social and environmental safeguards. Locally generated data on carbon and areas under different forms of management can be dovetailed into national systems and be used to describe management practices, complement existing information or replace Tier 1/2 values with more detailed local data produced by CBM.

  7. Integrated monitoring of the ATLAS online computing farm

    CERN Document Server

    Ballestrero, Sergio; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The online farm of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, consisting of nearly 4000 PCs with various characteristics, provides configuration and control of the detector and performs the collection, processing, selection and conveyance of event data from the front-end electronics to mass storage. The status and health of every host must be constantly monitored to ensure the correct and reliable operation of the whole online system. This is the first line of defense, which should not only promptly provide alerts in case of failure but, whenever possible, warn of impending issues. The monitoring system should be able to check up to 100000 health parameters and provide alerts on a selected subset. In this paper we present the implementation and validation of our new monitoring and alerting system based on Icinga 2 and Ganglia. We describe how the load distribution and high availability features of Icinga 2 allowed us to have a centralised but scalable system, with a configuration model that allows full flexibility whil...

  8. Integrated active sensor system for real time vibration monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qijie; Yan, Xiaoqin; Liao, Xinqin; Cao, Shiyao; Lu, Shengnan; Zheng, Xin; Zhang, Yue

    2015-11-05

    We report a self-powered, lightweight and cost-effective active sensor system for vibration monitoring with multiplexed operation based on contact electrification between sensor and detected objects. The as-fabricated sensor matrix is capable of monitoring and mapping the vibration state of large amounts of units. The monitoring contents include: on-off state, vibration frequency and vibration amplitude of each unit. The active sensor system delivers a detection range of 0-60 Hz, high accuracy (relative error below 0.42%), long-term stability (10000 cycles). On the time dimension, the sensor can provide the vibration process memory by recording the outputs of the sensor system in an extend period of time. Besides, the developed sensor system can realize detection under contact mode and non-contact mode. Its high performance is not sensitive to the shape or the conductivity of the detected object. With these features, the active sensor system has great potential in automatic control, remote operation, surveillance and security systems.

  9. Multi-omic integrated networks connect DNA methylation and miRNA with skeletal muscle plasticity to chronic exercise in Type 2 diabetic obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Rachel A.; Sukala, William R.; Giri, Mamta; Ghimbovschi, Svetlana D.; Hayat, Irum; Cheema, Birinder S.; Lys, Isabelle; Leikis, Murray; Sheard, Phillip W.; Wakefield, St. John; Breier, Bernhard; Hathout, Yetrib; Brown, Kristy; Marathi, Ramya; Orkunoglu-Suer, Funda E.; Devaney, Joseph M.; Leiken, Benjamin; Many, Gina; Krebs, Jeremy; Hopkins, Will G.; Hoffman, Eric P.

    2014-01-01

    Epigenomic regulation of the transcriptome by DNA methylation and posttranscriptional gene silencing by miRNAs are potential environmental modulators of skeletal muscle plasticity to chronic exercise in healthy and diseased populations. We utilized transcriptome networks to connect exercise-induced differential methylation and miRNA with functional skeletal muscle plasticity. Biopsies of the vastus lateralis were collected from middle-aged Polynesian men and women with morbid obesity (44 kg/m2 ± 10) and Type 2 diabetes before and following 16 wk of resistance (n = 9) or endurance training (n = 8). Longitudinal transcriptome, methylome, and microRNA (miRNA) responses were obtained via microarray, filtered by novel effect-size based false discovery rate probe selection preceding bioinformatic interrogation. Metabolic and microvascular transcriptome topology dominated the network landscape following endurance exercise. Lipid and glucose metabolism modules were connected to: microRNA (miR)-29a; promoter region hypomethylation of nuclear receptor factor (NRF1) and fatty acid transporter (SLC27A4), and hypermethylation of fatty acid synthase, and to exon hypomethylation of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase and Ser/Thr protein kinase. Directional change in the endurance networks was validated by lower intramyocellular lipid, increased capillarity, GLUT4, hexokinase, and mitochondrial enzyme activity and proteome. Resistance training also lowered lipid and increased enzyme activity and caused GLUT4 promoter hypomethylation; however, training was inconsequential to GLUT4, capillarity, and metabolic transcriptome. miR-195 connected to negative regulation of vascular development. To conclude, integrated molecular network modelling revealed differential DNA methylation and miRNA expression changes occur in skeletal muscle in response to chronic exercise training that are most pronounced with endurance training and topographically associated with functional metabolic and microvascular

  10. Multi-omic integrated networks connect DNA methylation and miRNA with skeletal muscle plasticity to chronic exercise in Type 2 diabetic obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, David S; Page, Rachel A; Sukala, William R; Giri, Mamta; Ghimbovschi, Svetlana D; Hayat, Irum; Cheema, Birinder S; Lys, Isabelle; Leikis, Murray; Sheard, Phillip W; Wakefield, St John; Breier, Bernhard; Hathout, Yetrib; Brown, Kristy; Marathi, Ramya; Orkunoglu-Suer, Funda E; Devaney, Joseph M; Leiken, Benjamin; Many, Gina; Krebs, Jeremy; Hopkins, Will G; Hoffman, Eric P

    2014-10-15

    Epigenomic regulation of the transcriptome by DNA methylation and posttranscriptional gene silencing by miRNAs are potential environmental modulators of skeletal muscle plasticity to chronic exercise in healthy and diseased populations. We utilized transcriptome networks to connect exercise-induced differential methylation and miRNA with functional skeletal muscle plasticity. Biopsies of the vastus lateralis were collected from middle-aged Polynesian men and women with morbid obesity (44 kg/m(2) ± 10) and Type 2 diabetes before and following 16 wk of resistance (n = 9) or endurance training (n = 8). Longitudinal transcriptome, methylome, and microRNA (miRNA) responses were obtained via microarray, filtered by novel effect-size based false discovery rate probe selection preceding bioinformatic interrogation. Metabolic and microvascular transcriptome topology dominated the network landscape following endurance exercise. Lipid and glucose metabolism modules were connected to: microRNA (miR)-29a; promoter region hypomethylation of nuclear receptor factor (NRF1) and fatty acid transporter (SLC27A4), and hypermethylation of fatty acid synthase, and to exon hypomethylation of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase and Ser/Thr protein kinase. Directional change in the endurance networks was validated by lower intramyocellular lipid, increased capillarity, GLUT4, hexokinase, and mitochondrial enzyme activity and proteome. Resistance training also lowered lipid and increased enzyme activity and caused GLUT4 promoter hypomethylation; however, training was inconsequential to GLUT4, capillarity, and metabolic transcriptome. miR-195 connected to negative regulation of vascular development. To conclude, integrated molecular network modelling revealed differential DNA methylation and miRNA expression changes occur in skeletal muscle in response to chronic exercise training that are most pronounced with endurance training and topographically associated with functional metabolic and

  11. On-Board GPS Clock Monitoring for Signal Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Dyke, K. Kovach , J. Kraemer, J. Lavrakas, J. P. Fernow, J. Reese, and N. Attallah, 2003, “GPS Integrity Failure Modes and Effects Analysis,” in...California, USA (Institute of Navigation, Alexandria, Virginia), pp. 689-703. [9] K. Van Dyke, K. Kovach , J. Lavrakas, and B. Carroll, 2004

  12. Integrating policy-based management and SLA performance monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tzong-Jye; Lin, Chin-Yi; Chang, Shu-Hsin; Yen, Meng-Tzu

    2001-10-01

    Policy-based management system provides the configuration capability for the system administrators to focus on the requirements of customers. The service level agreement performance monitoring mechanism helps system administrators to verify the correctness of policies. However, it is difficult for a device to process the policies directly because the policies are the management concept. This paper proposes a mechanism to decompose a policy into rules that can be efficiently processed by a device. Thus, the device may process the rule and collect the performance statistics information efficiently; and the policy-based management system may collect these performance statistics information and report the service-level agreement performance monitoring information to the system administrator. The proposed policy-based management system achieves both the policy configuration and service-level agreement performance monitoring requirements. A policy consists of a condition part and an action part. The condition part is a Boolean expression of a source host IP group, a destination host IP group, etc. The action part is the parameters of services. We say that an address group is compact if it only consists of a range of IP address that can be denoted by a pair of IP address and corresponding IP mask. If the condition part of a policy only consists of the compact address group, we say that the policy is a rule. Since a device can efficiently process a compact address and a system administrator prefers to define a range of IP address, the policy-based management system has to translate policy into rules and supplements the gaps between policy and rules. The proposed policy-based management system builds the relationships between VPN and policies, policy and rules. Since the system administrator wants to monitor the system performance information of VPNs and policies, the proposed policy-based management system downloads the relationships among VPNs, policies and rules to the

  13. Research on Integrated Monitoring and Prevention System for Stray Current in Metro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李威; 严旭

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of analyzing the influencing factors and harmfulness of stray current, and discussing the existing problems of monitoring and prevention system for stray current, the integrated monitoring and prevention system for stray current in metro was developed. A net system of distributed computers for monitoring was set up. It can monitor the distribution of stray current in metro and the corrosion of the metal structure in the whole line. According to the situation of monitoring it can also control the drainage of its tank to reach the best effect and eliminate the negative effect of polarity drainage. By using the new type unilateral electric device, the problem of burning the rail by electric arc can be avoided. The unilateral electric device can be connected with the monitoring net system directly to realize the monitor in line and improve the reliability of the device.

  14. Wmo's activities on background atmospheric pollution and integrated monitoring and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, A

    1988-01-01

    As early as 1968, WMO decided to start a programme on atmospheric pollution. Consequently, a Panel of Experts on Meteorological Aspects of Atmospheric Pollution was established. It was also decided to operate a network of background air pollution monitoring stations. With increasing public concern on environmental pollution impacts, a growing number of WMO Members joined the programme. The Environmental Pollution Monitoring and Research Programme, as well as the World Climate Programme launched in the late seventies, will provide information on a possible influence of pollution on climate.When the network of background ait pollution monitoring started, some Members had already proposed to carry out multimedia monitoring at suitable stations. Later on, it became obvious that more information is required on levels and trends of pollutants in media interacting with the atmosphere and a project on integrated monitoring was established, the purpose of which is to define the objectives and uses of integrated monitoring and to establish procedures for routine standardized integrated monitoring of the of the environment.Pilot projects presently being carried out in a few Member countries are meant to provide most of the information required for the implementation of global background integrated environmental monitorting.

  15. Theoretical research on construction quality real-time monitoring and system integration of core rockfill dam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    With the enlargement of core rockfill dam construction scale and the improvement of construction mechanization level, the traditional manual construction quality control method is now difficult to meet the quality and safety demands of modern dam construction, so automatic and real-time dam construction quality monitoring with high-techs is urgently needed. The paper makes theoretical research on construction quality real-time monitoring and system integration of core rockfill dam, proposes implementation method and integrated solution of construction quality real-time monitoring of core rockfill dam construction process, realizes refining, all-whether, entire-process and real-time control and analysis on key links of dam construction, and introduces the application of the construction quality real-time monitoring and system integration technology to a practical core rockfill dam project.

  16. Theoretical research on construction quality real-time monitoring and system integration of core rockfill dam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG DengHua; CUI Bo; LIU DongHai; TONG DaWei

    2009-01-01

    With the enlargement of core rockfill dam construction scale and the Improvement of construction mechanization level, the traditional manual construction quality control method is now difficult to meet the quality and safety demands of modern dam construction, so automatic and real-time dam con-struction quality monitoring with high-techs is urgently needed.The paper makes theoretical research on construction quality real-time monitoring and system integration of core rock/ill dam, proposes im-plementation method and integrated solution of construction quality real-time monitoring of core rock-fill dam construction process, realizes refining, all-whether, entire-process and real-time control and analysis on key links of dam construction, and introduces the application of the construction quality real-time monitoring and system integration technology to a practical core rockfill dam project.

  17. Smart Sensing Strip Using Monolithically Integrated Flexible Flow Sensor for Noninvasively Monitoring Respiratory Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Peng; Zhao, Shuai; Zhu, Rong

    2015-12-15

    This paper presents a smart sensing strip for noninvasively monitoring respiratory flow in real time. The monitoring system comprises a monolithically-integrated flexible hot-film flow sensor adhered on a molded flexible silicone case, where a miniaturized conditioning circuit with a Bluetooth4.0 LE module are packaged, and a personal mobile device that wirelessly acquires respiratory data transmitted from the flow sensor, executes extraction of vital signs, and performs medical diagnosis. The system serves as a wearable device to monitor comprehensive respiratory flow while avoiding use of uncomfortable nasal cannula. The respiratory sensor is a flexible flow sensor monolithically integrating four elements of a Wheatstone bridge on single chip, including a hot-film resistor, a temperature-compensating resistor, and two balancing resistors. The monitor takes merits of small size, light weight, easy operation, and low power consumption. Experiments were conducted to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of monitoring and diagnosing respiratory diseases using the proposed system.

  18. Optimal on-airport monitoring of the integrity of GPS-based landing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Gang

    2004-11-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a satellite-based radio navigation system. The Local Area Augmentation System (LAAS) is a version of Differential GPS (DGPS) designed to reliably support aircraft precision approaches. The Integrity Monitor Testbed (IMT) is a prototype of the LAAS Ground Facility (LGF) that is used to evaluate whether the LGF can meet system integrity requirements. To insure high integrity, the IMT has a variety of monitors to detect all possible failures. It also contains a failure-handling logic, known as Executive Monitoring (EXM), to exclude faulty measurements and recover once the failure disappears. Spatial ionospheric gradients are major threats to the LAAS. One focus of this thesis is exploring methods to quickly detect ionospheric gradients given the required low probability of false alarms. The first part of the thesis introduces GPS, LAAS, and the IMT and explains the algorithms and functionalities of IMT integrity monitors in detail. It then analyzes the failure responses of the integrity monitors under the most general measurement failure model. This analysis not only qualitatively maps the integrity monitors into the entire failure space, but also provides a tool to quantitatively compare the performance of different integrity monitors. In addition, the analysis examines the limitations of the existing monitors in detecting small but hazardous ionospheric gradients. The divergence Cumulative Sum (CUSUM) method is then derived and assessed. It can reduce the time required to detect marginal ionospheric gradients by about 30%. With the divergence CUSUM method implemented in the IMT, system integrity and performance are greatly improved. Different monitors can respond to the same failures. The last part of this thesis shows that the combination of these different monitors can detect certain failures more quickly than any individual monitor. This idea leads to a new method, called failure-specific testing, which can significantly

  19. Non-invasive monitoring and control in silicon photonics by CMOS integrated electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Grillanda, Stefano; Morichetti, Francesco; Ciccarella, Pietro; Annoni, Andrea; Ferrari, Giorgio; Strain, Michael; Sorel, Marc; Sampietro, Marco; Melloni, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    As photonics breaks away from today's device level toward large scale of integration and complex systems-on-a-chip, concepts like monitoring, control and stabilization of photonic integrated circuits emerge as new paradigms. Here, we show non-invasive monitoring and feedback control of high quality factor silicon photonics resonators assisted by a transparent light detector directly integrated inside the cavity. Control operations are entirely managed by a CMOS microelectronic circuit, hosting many parallel electronic read-out channels, that is bridged to the silicon photonics chip. Advanced functionalities, such as wavelength tuning, locking, labeling and swapping are demonstrated. The non-invasive nature of the transparent monitor and the scalability of the CMOS read-out system offer a viable solution for the control of arbitrarily reconfigurable photonic integrated circuits aggregating many components on a single chip.

  20. Integral Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Facility conceptual design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1985-09-01

    In April 1985, the Department of Energy (DOE) selected the Clinch River site as its preferred site for the construction and operation of the monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility (USDOE, 1985). In support of the DOE MRS conceptual design activity, available data describing the site have been gathered and analyzed. A composite geotechnical description of the Clinch River site has been developed and is presented herein. This report presents Clinch River site description data in the following sections: general site description, surface hydrologic characteristics, groundwater characteristics, geologic characteristics, vibratory ground motion, surface faulting, stability of subsurface materials, slope stability, and references. 48 refs., 35 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Engine Oil Condition Monitoring Using High Temperature Integrated Ultrasonic Transducers

    OpenAIRE

    Jeff Bird; Cheng-Kuei Jen; Zhigang Sun; Pierre Sammut; Brian Galeote; Makiko Kobayashi; Kuo-Ting Wu; Nezih Mrad

    2011-01-01

    The present work contains two parts. In the first part, high temperature integrated ultrasonic transducers (IUTs) made of thick piezoelectric composite films, were coated directly onto lubricant oil supply and sump lines of a modified CF700 turbojet engine. These piezoelectric films were fabricated using a sol-gel spray technology. By operating these IUTs in transmission mode, the amplitude and velocity of transmitted ultrasonic waves across the flow channel of the lubricant oil in supply and...

  2. Multimodality monitoring: informatics, integration data display and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, J Michael; De Georgia, Michael

    2014-12-01

    The goal of multimodality neuromonitoring is to provide continuous, real-time assessment of brain physiology to prevent, detect, and attenuate secondary brain injury. Clinical informatics deals with biomedical data, information, and knowledge including their acquisition, storage, retrieval, and optimal use for clinical decision-making. An electronic literature search was conducted for English language articles describing the use of informatics in the intensive care unit setting from January 1990 to August 2013. A total of 64 studies were included in this review. Clinical informatics infrastructure should be adopted that enables a wide range of linear and nonlinear analytical methods be applied to patient data. Specific time epochs of clinical interest should be reviewable. Analysis strategies of monitor alarms may help address alarm fatigue. Ergonomic data display that present results from analyses with clinical information in a sensible uncomplicated manner improve clinical decision-making. Collecting and archiving the highest resolution physiologic and phenotypic data in a comprehensive open format data warehouse is a crucial first step toward information management and two-way translational research for multimodality monitoring. The infrastructure required is largely the same as that needed for telemedicine intensive care applications, which under the right circumstances improves care quality while reducing cost.

  3. Integrated sensor network for monitoring steel corrosion in concrete structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Enrique Ramón

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion is one of the main triggering factors affecting the service life and durability of structures. Several methods are used for corrosion studies but electrochemical techniques are the most commonly applied. Corrosion processes monitoring and control by means of non-destructive techniques, such as the implementation of embedded sensors, has been the target of many works.  It is possible to obtain relevant information of structural corrosion processes in real time. This document describes a system including specific equipment and which allows obtaining relevant information about these corrosion processes. This system is formed by a sensor network. There are several types of electrodes, which are distributed throughout the structure under study and a specific equipment developed by the research group, which is used to determine pertinent parameters such as the corrosion potential (Ecorr and the corrosion density (icorr by applying sequences of potentiostatic pulses. The system allows to reliably determine the corrosion rate in different areas of the structure. The sensor, due to its configuration, provides information of a specific area of the structure, but on the other hand it is involved in the galvanic events that can occur along the structure by differential aeration, galvanic cells, etc. because the sensor is not isolated from the structure.  This system also procures information of buried and submerged elements. Besides, it is possible to obtain information related to temperature, concrete resistance. The system includes specific potentiometric sensors to monitor chloride access and carbonatation processes.

  4. Integrated sensor array for on-line monitoring micro bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krommenhoek, Erik Eduard

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis the development of a microbioreactor array with integrated sensoss suitable for on-line screening of micro organisms is described. Therefore, an array of 2 micro bioreactors compatible with the 96-well microtiterplate format has been made and tested. The developed system was shown to 

  5. JEM-X: The X-ray monitor aboard INTEGRAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Niels; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl; Westergaard, Niels Jørgen Stenfeldt;

    2003-01-01

    of the combined X-ray and gamma ray data. JEM-X is a coded aperture instrument consisting of two identical, coaligned telescopes. Each of the detectors has a sensitive area of 500 cm(2), and views the sky through its own coded aperture mask. The two coded masks are inverted with respect to each other and provides......The JEM-X monitor provides X-ray spectra and imaging with arcminute angular resolution in the 3 to 35 keV band. The good angular resolution and the low energy response of JEM-X plays an important role in the identification of gamma ray sources and in the analysis and scientific interpretation...

  6. Integrated Monitoring of Mola mola Behaviour in Space and Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Lara L; López-Castejón, Francisco; Gilabert, Javier; Relvas, Paulo; Couto, Ana; Queiroz, Nuno; Caldas, Renato; Dias, Paulo Sousa; Dias, Hugo; Faria, Margarida; Ferreira, Filipe; Ferreira, António Sérgio; Fortuna, João; Gomes, Ricardo Joel; Loureiro, Bruno; Martins, Ricardo; Madureira, Luis; Neiva, Jorge; Oliveira, Marina; Pereira, João; Pinto, José; Py, Frederic; Queirós, Hugo; Silva, Daniel; Sujit, P B; Zolich, Artur; Johansen, Tor Arne; de Sousa, João Borges; Rajan, Kanna

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, ocean sunfish movements have been monitored worldwide using various satellite tracking methods. This study reports the near-real time monitoring of fine-scale (< 10 m) behaviour of sunfish. The study was conducted in southern Portugal in May 2014 and involved satellite tags and underwater and surface robotic vehicles to measure both the movements and the contextual environment of the fish. A total of four individuals were tracked using custom-made GPS satellite tags providing geolocation estimates of fine-scale resolution. These accurate positions further informed sunfish areas of restricted search (ARS), which were directly correlated to steep thermal frontal zones. Simultaneously, and for two different occasions, an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) video-recorded the path of the tracked fish and detected buoyant particles in the water column. Importantly, the densities of these particles were also directly correlated to steep thermal gradients. Thus, both sunfish foraging behaviour (ARS) and possibly prey densities, were found to be influenced by analogous environmental conditions. In addition, the dynamic structure of the water transited by the tracked individuals was described by a Lagrangian modelling approach. The model informed the distribution of zooplankton in the region, both horizontally and in the water column, and the resultant simulated densities positively correlated with sunfish ARS behaviour estimator (rs = 0.184, p<0.001). The model also revealed that tracked fish opportunistically displace with respect to subsurface current flow. Thus, we show how physical forcing and current structure provide a rationale for a predator's fine-scale behaviour observed over a two weeks in May 2014.

  7. Integrated Monitoring of Mola mola Behaviour in Space and Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Lara L.; López-Castejón, Francisco; Gilabert, Javier; Relvas, Paulo; Couto, Ana; Queiroz, Nuno; Caldas, Renato; Dias, Paulo Sousa; Dias, Hugo; Faria, Margarida; Ferreira, Filipe; Ferreira, António Sérgio; Fortuna, João; Gomes, Ricardo Joel; Loureiro, Bruno; Martins, Ricardo; Madureira, Luis; Neiva, Jorge; Oliveira, Marina; Pereira, João; Pinto, José; Py, Frederic; Queirós, Hugo; Silva, Daniel; Sujit, P. B.; Zolich, Artur; Johansen, Tor Arne; de Sousa, João Borges; Rajan, Kanna

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, ocean sunfish movements have been monitored worldwide using various satellite tracking methods. This study reports the near-real time monitoring of fine-scale (< 10 m) behaviour of sunfish. The study was conducted in southern Portugal in May 2014 and involved satellite tags and underwater and surface robotic vehicles to measure both the movements and the contextual environment of the fish. A total of four individuals were tracked using custom-made GPS satellite tags providing geolocation estimates of fine-scale resolution. These accurate positions further informed sunfish areas of restricted search (ARS), which were directly correlated to steep thermal frontal zones. Simultaneously, and for two different occasions, an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) video-recorded the path of the tracked fish and detected buoyant particles in the water column. Importantly, the densities of these particles were also directly correlated to steep thermal gradients. Thus, both sunfish foraging behaviour (ARS) and possibly prey densities, were found to be influenced by analogous environmental conditions. In addition, the dynamic structure of the water transited by the tracked individuals was described by a Lagrangian modelling approach. The model informed the distribution of zooplankton in the region, both horizontally and in the water column, and the resultant simulated densities positively correlated with sunfish ARS behaviour estimator (rs = 0.184, p<0.001). The model also revealed that tracked fish opportunistically displace with respect to subsurface current flow. Thus, we show how physical forcing and current structure provide a rationale for a predator’s fine-scale behaviour observed over a two weeks in May 2014. PMID:27494028

  8. Skeletal muscle is sensitive to the tension-time integral but not to the rate of change of tension, as assessed by mechanically induced signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martineau, Louis C; Gardiner, Phillip F

    2002-05-01

    Mechanical forces regulate many cellular processes. Mechanotransduction, however, is poorly understood. In skeletal muscle, mechanical forces have a major impact on the regulation of cellular volume, yet the nature of the mechanical stimulation to which muscle is most sensitive is unknown. It was recently demonstrated that activation of the mechanically-sensitive kinase p54 jun-N-terminal-kinase (JNK), is a quantitative marker of mechanical stimulation in skeletal muscle. This marker was shown to be more sensitive to peak tension than to other tension-related parameters such as the tension-time integral (TTI) and the rate of change of tension (dT/dt). The purpose of the present study was to parcel out the contribution of TTI and dT/dt to mechanical stimulation of muscle under conditions of constant peak tension. The rat medial gastrocnemius in situ was subjected to one of four 5-min passive stretch protocols consisting of equal length excursions, but differing in displacement-time integral (4%, 40%, or 100%) and/or rate of stretch (0, 3, or 30 mm/s), and the resulting p54-JNK phosphorylation was assessed. A linear relationship between TTI and p54-JNK signaling was observed. However, no effect of dT/dt was observed. It is concluded that peak tension and TTI are necessary parameters for modeling the mechanical stimulus-response of muscle. Additionally, the mechanism of mechanotransduction is sensitive to peak tension and TTI, but not to dT/dt, and thus exhibits spring-like behavior. These findings may contribute to the refinement of disuse atrophy countermeasures.

  9. Monitoring diseases across borders: African regional integrative information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simbini, Tungamirirai; Foster, Rosemary; Nesara, Paul; Hullin Lucay Cossio, Carola

    2010-01-01

    In African countries, communicable diseases remain the chief cause of a heavy disease burden. Regional economic, political and social integration bring new challenges in the management of these diseases, many of which are treatable. Information Communication Technology (ICT) applied through electronic health systems has the potential to strengthen healthcare service delivery and disease surveillance within these countries. This paper discusses the importance of well-defined e-Health strategies within countries and, in addition, proposes that countries within regions collaborate in planning for health information exchange across borders. It is suggested that particular attention be paid to technical and data standards enabling interoperability, and also to issues of security, patient privacy and governance.

  10. Repair integrity monitoring of composite aerostructures using thermographic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammatikos, S.; Kordatos, E.; Barkoula, N.-M.; Matikas, T.; Paipetis, A.

    2010-04-01

    Bonded repair offers significant advantages over mechanically fastened repair schemes as it eliminates local stress concentrations and seals the interface between the mother structure and the patch. However, it is particularly difficult to assess the efficiency of the bonded repair as well as its performance during service loads. Thermography is a particularly attractive technique for the particular application as it is a non-contact, wide field non destructive method. Phase thermography is also offering the advantage of depth discrimination in layered structures such as in typical patch repairs particularly in the case where composites are used. Lock-in thermography offers the additional advantage of on line monitoring of the loaded structure and subsequently the real time evolution of any progressive debonding which may lead to critical failure of the patched repair. In this study composite systems (CFRP plates) with artificially introduced defects (PTFE) were manufactured. The aforementioned methods were employed in order to assess the efficiency of the thermographic technique. The obtained results were compared with typical C-scans.

  11. Integrity mechanism for eHealth tele-monitoring system in smart home environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantas, Georgios; Lymberopoulos, Dimitrios; Komninos, Nikos

    2009-01-01

    During the past few years, a lot of effort has been invested in research and development of eHealth tele-monitoring systems that will provide many benefits for healthcare delivery from the healthcare provider to the patient's home. However, there is a plethora of security requirements in eHealth tele-monitoring systems. Data integrity of the transferred medical data is one of the most important security requirements that should be satisfied in these systems, since medical information is extremely sensitive information, and even sometimes life threatening information. In this paper, we present a data integrity mechanism for eHealth tele-monitoring system that operates in a smart home environment. Agent technology is applied to achieve data integrity with the use of cryptographic smart cards. Furthermore, the overall security infrastructure and its various components are described.

  12. Integrated ultrasonic transducers made by the sol gel spray technique for structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, M.; Jen, C.-K.; Moisan, J.-F.; Mrad, N.; Nguyen, S. B.

    2007-04-01

    Integrated piezoelectric-based ultrasonic transducers (UTs) have been developed for potential structural health monitoring. Fabrication techniques and performance evaluation of these transducers at selected monitoring sites are presented. Our novel transducer fabrication approach focuses on the use of handheld and readily accessible equipment to perform sol-gel spray coating, including the use of a heat gun or a torch, to carry out drying and firing, poling and electrode fabrication. The application of these integrated UTs for thickness measurement of graphite/epoxy composites, thickness monitoring of ice build up on aluminum plates at low temperatures, viscosity measurement of a cooling oil flow at temperatures up to 160 °C and monitoring metal debris in cooling oil engines is demonstrated.

  13. Developing an effective adaptive monitoring network to support integrated coastal management in a multiuser nature reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pim Vugteveen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We elaborate the necessary conceptual and strategic elements for developing an effective adaptive monitoring network to support Integrated Coastal Management (ICM in a multiuser nature reserve in the Dutch Wadden Sea Region. We discuss quality criteria and enabling actions essential to accomplish and sustain monitoring excellence to support ICM. The Wadden Sea Long-Term Ecosystem Research project (WaLTER was initiated to develop an adaptive monitoring network and online data portal to better understand and support ICM in the Dutch Wadden Sea Region. Our comprehensive approach integrates ecological and socioeconomic data and links research-driven and policy-driven monitoring for system analysis using indicators of pressures, state, benefits, and responses. The approach and concepts we elaborated are transferable to other coastal regions to accomplish ICM in complex social-ecological systems in which scientists, multisectoral stakeholders, resource managers, and governmental representatives seek to balance long-term ecological, economic, and social objectives within natural limits.

  14. The Integrated Design for Micro - environment Monitoring System of Showcase in Museum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Chan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the current environment quality of cultural relics in museum and make them preserved for a long time, the paper proposes the integrated design for micro - environment monitoring system of showcase in museum, the system mainly monitors the micro-environment of heritage, such as ultraviolet, light, formaldehyde, CO2, TVOC, PM 2.5, choosing cotex-M3 ARM microcontroller STM32F103ZET6 as the control core. Based on the concept of integration, the system integrates the single air monitoring instruments. The design of circuit mainly includes the process of digital power supply and analog power supply, the acquisition and processing of 5 analog signals from sensors, and the design of reserved interface. In the aspect of interaction, the serial port lcd module was uesd for the display and control, which can get rid of the control of PC and achieve the functions of environmental monitoring, environmental warning, environmental assessment, historical data query. The integrated design for Micro-environment of Showcase in Museum achieves a monitoring platform successfully which is easy for users’ operation and access to display information conveniently. The advantages of the system are strong portability, low cost and short development cycle.

  15. In-flight calibration system for the INTEGRAL x-ray monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, E.; Feroci, M.; Barbanera, L.

    1996-01-01

    of Amptek Cool-X15 X-ray generators. The latter is a novel product, based on a pyroelectric crystal used to generate energetic electrons that produce fluorescence lines by hitting a metallic target. We plan to use the four low intensity radioactive sources for monitoring the four independent anode chains......JEM-X is the x-ray monitor serving the two gamma-ray experiments imager and spectrometer onboard the ESA's INTEGRAL satellite. Due to the intrinsic weakness of the celestial sources in the gamma energy range they will need very long integration times. During these long pointings JEM-X will be able...

  16. Smart integrated energy monitoring and management system for standalone photovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Elnour, Ali; Murad, Fahd S.; Al-Tayasna, Ibrahim S.; Abo-Elnor, Ossama

    2013-04-01

    In the present work, a computer based smart integrated energy monitoring and management system for standalone photovoltaic systems is designed and implemented. Monitoring, controlling, and recording features are fully obtained in the present system using an efficient programming environment. All required data are monitored as real-time data therefore the system status is continuously evaluated and decisions are made to take immediate actions. The energy consumption of different appliances are automatically controlled and optimized using a hierarchical self adaptive algorithm based on input data and real-time information provided by the system sensors. The proposed system is successfully implemented for photovoltaic modules under realistic operating conditions.

  17. Integration Between Enterprise Process Monitoring and Controlling System and Enterprise Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Bi-long; ZHANG Li; WANG Xiao-hua

    2005-01-01

    The relationships and the features of integration between Enterprise Process Monitoring and Controlling System (EPMCS) and Enterprise Process Related Applications (EPRA) were analyzed. An integration architecture centered on EPMCS was presented, in which there were four layers to connect from EPMCS to EPRA:EPMCS, application integration layer, transport layer and EPRA, and there were four layers used to etstablish integration: presentation layer, function layer, data layer and system layer. The frameworks to connect EPMCS and EPRA were designed, that Enterprise-Independent Model (EIM), Enterprise-Specific Model (ESM) and meta-model to describe these two models were defined. The method to integrate data based on XML was designed to exchange data from EPMCS to EPRA according to the mapping between EIM and ESM. The approches are suitable for integrating EPMCS and systems in Product Data Management (PDM), project management and enterprise business management.

  18. Integrated system of structural health monitoring and intelligent management for a cable-stayed bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Wang, Xu; Sun, Dezhang; Xie, Xu

    2014-01-01

    It is essential to construct structural health monitoring systems for large important bridges. Zhijiang Bridge is a cable-stayed bridge that was built recently over the Hangzhou Qiantang River (the largest river in Zhejiang Province). The length of Zhijiang Bridge is 478 m, which comprises an arched twin-tower space and a twin-cable plane structure. As an example, the present study describes the integrated system of structural health monitoring and intelligent management for Zhijiang Bridge, which comprises an information acquisition system, data management system, evaluation and decision-making system, and application service system. The monitoring components include the working environment of the bridge and various factors that affect bridge safety, such as the stress and strain of the main bridge structure, vibration, cable force, temperature, and wind speed. In addition, the integrated system includes a forecasting and decision-making module for real-time online evaluation, which provides warnings and makes decisions based on the monitoring information. From this, the monitoring information, evaluation results, maintenance decisions, and warning information can be input simultaneously into the bridge monitoring center and traffic emergency center to share the monitoring data, thereby facilitating evaluations and decision making using the system.

  19. Integrated Wireless Monitoring and Control System in Reverse Osmosis Membrane Desalination Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Haji Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The operational processes of the Reverse Osmosis (RO membrane desalination plants require continuous monitoring through the constant attendance of operators to ensure proper productivity and minimize downtime and prevent membrane failure. Therefore, the plant must be equipped with a control system that monitors and controls the operational variables. Monitoring and controlling the affecting parameters are critical to the evaluation of the performance of the desalination plant, which will help the operator find and resolve problems immediately. Therefore, this paper was aimed at developing an RO unit by utilizing a wireless sensor network (WSN system. Hence, an RO pilot plant with a feed capacity of 1.2 m3/h was utilized, commissioned, and tested in Kuwait to assess and verify the performance of the integrated WSN in RO membrane desalination system. The investigated system allowed the operators to remotely monitor the operational process of the RO system. The operational data were smoothly recorded and monitored. Furthermore, the technical problems were immediately determined, which reduced the time and effort in rectifying the technical problems relevant to the RO performance. The manpower requirements of such treatment system were dramatically reduced by about 50%. Based on a comparison between manual and wireless monitoring operational processes, the availability of the integrated RO unit with a wireless monitoring was increased by 10%

  20. Remote and terrestrial ground monitoring techniques integration for hazard assessment in mountain areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinellato, Giulia; Kenner, Robert; Iasio, Christian; Mair, Volkmar; Mosna, David; Mulas, Marco; Phillips, Marcia; Strada, Claudia; Zischg, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    In high mountain regions the choice of appropriate sites for infrastructure such as roads, railways, cable cars or hydropower dams is often very limited. In parallel, the increasing demand for supply infrastructure in the Alps induces a continuous transformation of the territory. The new role played by the precautionary monitoring in the risk governance becomes fundamental and may overcome the modeling of future events, which represented so far the predominant approach to these sort of issues. Furthermore the consequence of considering methodologies alternative to those more exclusive allow to reduce costs and increasing the frequency of measurements, updating continuously the cognitive framework of existing hazard condition in most susceptible territories. The scale factor of the observed area and the multiple purpose of such regional ordinary surveys make it convenient to adopt Radar Satellite-based systems, but they need to be integrated with terrestrial systems for validation and eventual early warning purposes. Significant progress over the past decade in Remote Sensing (RS), Proximal Sensing and integration-based sensor networks systems now provide technologies, that allow to implement monitoring systems for ordinary surveys of extensive areas or regions, which are affected by active natural processes and slope instability. The Interreg project SloMove aims to provide solutions for such challenges and focuses on using remote sensing monitoring techniques for the monitoring of mass movements in two test sites, in South Tyrol (Italy) and in Grisons Canton (Switzerland). The topics faced in this project concern mass movements and slope deformation monitoring techniques, focusing mainly on the integration of multi-temporal interferometry, new generation of terrestrial technologies for differential digital terrain model elaboration provided by laser scanner (TLS), and GNSS-based topographic surveys, which are used not only for validation purpose, but also for

  1. Skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are approximately 650-850 muscles in the human body these include skeletal (striated), smooth and cardiac muscle. The approximation is based on what some anatomists consider separate muscle or muscle systems. Muscles are classified based on their anatomy (striated vs. smooth) and if they are v...

  2. The INTEGRAL Galactic bulge monitoring program: the first 1.5 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuulkers, E.; Shaw, S.E.; Paizis, A.; Chenevez, J.; Brandt, S.; Courvoisier, T.J.L.; Domingo, A.; Ebisawa, K.; Kretschmar, P.; Markwardt, C.B.; Mowlavi, N.; Oosterbroek, T.; Orr, A.; Rísquez, D.; Sanchez-Fernandez, C.; Wijnands, R.

    2007-01-01

    Aims.The Galactic bulge region is a rich host of variable high-energy point sources. Since 2005, February 17 we are monitoring the source activity in the Galactic bulge region regularly and frequently, i.e., about every three days, with the instruments onboard INTEGRAL. Thanks to the large field of

  3. Implementation of an Integrated, Portable Transformer Condition Monitoring Instrument in the Classroom and On-Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, B.; Dey, D.; Chakravorti, S.

    2010-01-01

    The development of integrated, portable, transformer condition monitoring (TCM) equipment for classroom demonstrations as well as for student exercises conducted in the field is discussed. Demonstrations include experimentation with real-world transformers to illustrate concepts such as polarization and depolarization current through oil-paper…

  4. Data Processing Concepts for the Integration of SAR Into Operational Volcano Monitoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, F. J.; McAlpin, D. B.; Gong, W.; Arko, S.; Webley, P. W.; Dehn, J.

    2013-05-01

    Remote Sensing plays a critical role in operational volcano monitoring due to the often remote locations of volcanic systems and the large spatial extent of potential eruption pre-cursor signals. Despite the all-weather capabilities of radar remote sensing and despite its high performance in monitoring change, the contribution of radar data to operational monitoring activities has been limited in the past. This is largely due to (1) the high data costs associated with radar data, (2) the slow data processing and delivery procedures, and (3) the limited temporal sampling provided by spaceborne radars. With this paper, we present new data processing and data integration techniques that mitigate some of the above mentioned limitations and allow for a meaningful integration of radar remote sensing data into operational volcano monitoring systems. The data integration concept presented here combines advanced data processing techniques with fast data access procedures in order to provide high quality radar-based volcano hazard information at improved temporal sampling rates. First performance analyses show that the integration of SAR can significantly improve the ability of operational systems to detect eruptive precursors. Therefore, the developed technology is expected to improve operational hazard detection, alerting, and management capabilities.

  5. Implementation of an Integrated, Portable Transformer Condition Monitoring Instrument in the Classroom and On-Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, B.; Dey, D.; Chakravorti, S.

    2010-01-01

    The development of integrated, portable, transformer condition monitoring (TCM) equipment for classroom demonstrations as well as for student exercises conducted in the field is discussed. Demonstrations include experimentation with real-world transformers to illustrate concepts such as polarization and depolarization current through oil-paper…

  6. Monitoring of persistent accreting pulsating neutron stars observed during the INTEGRAL Core Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidoli, L.; Wilms, J.; Paizis, A.;

    2004-01-01

    The INTEGRAL satellite is performing regular scans of the Galactic plane (CPS) every 12 days together with a deep exposure of the Galactic Center region (GCDE). Our collaboration is processing the data from this survey on a regular basis in order to monitor the evolution of the spectral and timin...

  7. Towards the development of integrated monitoring system for retreat mining operations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAMID Maleki

    2008-01-01

    Through cooperative research between the government, the private sector,mining companies and equipment manufacturers, considerable progress had been madeduring the last decade in studying the mechanics of strata failure and acquiring the know-ledge needed to develop an integrated monitoring system for assessing local roof stability.Because of higher geotechnical risks in retreat mining operations, it was both important todevelop panel layout designs that control convergence and stress and to monitor groundresponse during operations to verify designs and provide warning of impending stabilityproblems. For detecting both localized roof stability problems and global overburden col-lapse mechanisms, the proposes an integrated panel-wide monitoring system which com-bines the capabilities of load rate monitoring of mobile roof supports (MRSs) with deforma-tion measurements using an extensive array of sensors located near the mining face andthroughout the panel. Two monitoring methods for the detection of localized roof stabilityproblems have been evaluated on the basis of mine measurements and numerical model-ing considerations. These are load rate monitoring of the hydraulic cylinders of mobile roofsupport (MRS) and re mote monitoring of roof movements. Analyses of field data in retreatsections show that roof instabilities are influenced by: (1) pillar failure, (2) pillar yielding, (3)mine seismicity (bumps), (4) geologic structures, and (5) panel layout designs and practice.Pillar yielding and unloading can be conveniently monitored by the load rate monitoringdevice, but to detect impending localized roof falls, additional ground deformation meas-urements are needed near the mining face. By increasing the number of deformationmeasurements in the entire panel, additional safeguards can be achieved for detectingoverburden collapse mechanisms while continuously monitoring local roof stability close tothe retreat line.

  8. Demonstration of innovative monitoring technologies at the Savannah River Integrated Demonstration Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossabi, J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Jenkins, R.A.; Wise, M.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1993-12-31

    The Department of Energy`s Office of Technology Development initiated an Integrated Demonstration Program at the Savannah River Site in 1989. The objective of this program is to develop, demonstrate, and evaluate innovative technologies that can improve present-day environmental restoration methods. The Integrated Demonstration Program at SRS is entitled ``Cleanup of Organics in Soils and Groundwater at Non-Arid Sites.`` New technologies in the areas of drilling, characterization, monitoring, and remediation are being demonstrated and evaluated for their technical performance and cost effectiveness in comparison with baseline technologies. Present site characterization and monitoring methods are costly, time-consuming, overly invasive, and often imprecise. Better technologies are required to accurately describe the subsurface geophysical and geochemical features of a site and the nature and extent of contamination. More efficient, nonintrusive characterization and monitoring techniques are necessary for understanding and predicting subsurface transport. More reliable procedures are also needed for interpreting monitoring and characterization data. Site characterization and monitoring are key elements in preventing, identifying, and restoring contaminated sites. The remediation of a site cannot be determined without characterization data, and monitoring may be required for 30 years after site closure.

  9. Integration of a Finite Element Model with the DAP Bone Remodeling Model to Characterize Bone Response to Skeletal Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Christopher R.; Mulugeta, Lealem; Myers, J. G.; Pennline, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) has developed a bone remodeling model that has been validated for predicting volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) changes of trabecular and cortical bone in the absence of mechanical loading. The model was recently updated to include skeletal loading from exercise and free living activities to maintain healthy bone using a new daily load stimulus (DLS). This new formula was developed based on an extensive review of existing DLS formulas, as discussed in the abstract by Pennline et al. The DLS formula incorporated into the bone remodeling model utilizes strains and stress calculated from finite element model (FEM) of the bone region of interest. The proximal femur was selected for the initial application of the DLS formula, with a specific focus on the femoral neck. METHODS: The FEM was generated from CAD geometry of a femur using de-identified CT data. The femur was meshed using linear tetrahedral elements Figure (1) with higher mesh densities in the femoral neck region, which is the primary region of interest for the initial application of the DLS formula in concert with the DAP bone remodeling model. Nodal loads were applied to the femoral head and the greater trochanter and the base of the femur was held fixed. An L2 norm study was conducted to reduce the length of the femoral shaft without significantly impacting the stresses in the femoral neck. The material properties of the FEM of the proximal femur were separated between cortical and trabecular regions to work with the bone remodeling model. Determining the elements with cortical material properties in the FEM was based off of publicly available CT hip scans [4] that were segmented, cleaned, and overlaid onto the FEM.

  10. Designing of a Si-MEMS device with an integrated skeletal muscle cell-based bio-actuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Hideaki; Van Dau, Thanh; Shimizu, Kazunori; Hatsuda, Ranko; Sugiyama, Susumu; Nagamori, Eiji

    2011-02-01

    With the aim of designing a mechanical drug delivery system involving a bio-actuator, we fabricated a Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) device that can be driven through contraction of skeletal muscle cells. The device is composed of a Si-MEMS with springs and ratchets, UV-crosslinked collagen film for cell attachment, and C2C12 muscle cells. The Si-MEMS device is 600 μm x 1000 μm in size and the width of the collagen film is 250 ~ 350 μm, which may allow the device to go through small blood vessels. To position the collagen film on the MEMS device, a thermo-sensitive polymer was used as the sacrifice-layer which was selectively removed with O₂ plasma at the positions where the collagen film was glued. The C2C12 myoblasts were seeded on the collagen film, where they proliferated and formed myotubes after induction of differentiation. When C2C12 myotubes were stimulated with electric pulses, contraction of the collagen film-C2C12 myotube complex was observed. When the edge of the Si-MEMS device was observed, displacement of ~8 μm was observed, demonstrating the possibility of locomotive movement when the device is placed on a track of adequate width. Here, we propose that the C2C12-collagen film complex is a new generation actuator for MEMS devices that utilize glucose as fuel, which will be useful in environments in which glucose is abundant such as inside a blood vessel.

  11. Integrity monitoring of vehicle positioning in urban environment using RTK-GNSS, IMU and speedometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mowafy, Ahmed; Kubo, Nobuaki

    2017-05-01

    Continuous and trustworthy positioning is a critical capability for advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS). To achieve continuous positioning, methods such as global navigation satellite systems real-time kinematic (RTK), Doppler-based positioning, and positioning using low-cost inertial measurement unit (IMU) with car speedometer data are combined in this study. To ensure reliable positioning, the system should have integrity monitoring above a certain level, such as 99%. Achieving this level when combining different types of measurements that have different characteristics and different types of errors is a challenge. In this study, a novel integrity monitoring approach is presented for the proposed integrated system. A threat model of the measurements of the system components is discussed, which includes both the nominal performance and possible fault modes. A new protection level is presented to bound the maximum directional position error. The proposed approach was evaluated through a kinematic test in an urban area in Japan with a focus on horizontal positioning. Test results show that by integrating RTK, Doppler with IMU/speedometer, 100% positioning availability was achieved. The integrity monitoring availability was assessed and found to meet the target value where the position errors were bounded by the protection level, which was also less than an alert level, indicating the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  12. Structural Health Monitoring of Tall Buildings with Numerical Integrator and Convex-Concave Hull Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Thenozhi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An important objective of health monitoring systems for tall buildings is to diagnose the state of the building and to evaluate its possible damage. In this paper, we use our prototype to evaluate our data-mining approach for the fault monitoring. The offset cancellation and high-pass filtering techniques are combined effectively to solve common problems in numerical integration of acceleration signals in real-time applications. The integration accuracy is improved compared with other numerical integrators. Then we introduce a novel method for support vector machine (SVM classification, called convex-concave hull. We use the Jarvis march method to decide the concave (nonconvex hull for the inseparable points. Finally the vertices of the convex-concave hull are applied for SVM training.

  13. Research on Integration of Coal Mine Monitoring and Control System with Field Bus Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    According to the construction of current coal mine monitoring and control systems in China, the paper proposes three kinds of applicable schemes of integrating PLC and DCS systems with field bus technology to digitize the system and to improve the flexibility and extent of the system. Essentially, the paper introduces the integration of FCS on I/O layers. Based on a real coal mine safety-monitoring and control system applied with a CAN field bus, the major technology of system relays and extensions is discussed. We believe that one of the most applicable methods is currently replacing the connection between function-stations and field-sensors with a CAN bus on I/O layers for system integration.

  14. Site-specific landslide assessment in Alpine area using a reliable integrated monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Saverio; Di Matteo, Lucio; Kieffer, Daniel Scott

    2016-04-01

    Rockfalls are one of major cause of landslide fatalities around the world. The present work discusses the reliability of integrated monitoring of displacements in a rockfall within the Alpine region (Salzburg Land - Austria), taking into account also the effect of the ongoing climate change. Due to the unpredictability of the frequency and magnitude, that threatens human lives and infrastructure, frequently it is necessary to implement an efficient monitoring system. For this reason, during the last decades, integrated monitoring systems of unstable slopes were widely developed and used (e.g., extensometers, cameras, remote sensing, etc.). In this framework, Remote Sensing techniques, such as GBInSAR technique (Groung-Based Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar), have emerged as efficient and powerful tools for deformation monitoring. GBInSAR measurements can be useful to achieve an early warning system using surface deformation parameters as ground displacement or inverse velocity (for semi-empirical forecasting methods). In order to check the reliability of GBInSAR and to monitor the evolution of landslide, it is very important to integrate different techniques. Indeed, a multi-instrumental approach is essential to investigate movements both in surface and in depth and the use of different monitoring techniques allows to perform a cross analysis of the data and to minimize errors, to check the data quality and to improve the monitoring system. During 2013, an intense and complete monitoring campaign has been conducted on the Ingelsberg landslide. By analyzing both historical temperature series (HISTALP) recorded during the last century and those from local weather stations, temperature values (Autumn-Winter, Winter and Spring) are clearly increased in Bad Hofgastein area as well as in Alpine region. As consequence, in the last decades the rockfall events have been shifted from spring to summer due to warmer winters. It is interesting to point out that

  15. Characterization, Monitoring, and Sensor Technology Integrated Program (CMST-IP). Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The Characterization, Monitoring, and Sensor Technology Integrated Program seeks to deliver needed technologies, timely and cost-effectively, to the Office of Waste Management (EM-30), the Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40), and the Office of Facility Transition and Management (EM-60). The scope of characterizations monitoring, and sensor technology needs that are required by those organizations encompass: (1) initial location and characterization of wastes and waste environments - prior to treatment; (2) monitoring of waste retrieval, remediation and treatment processes; (3) characterization of the co-position of final waste treatment forms to evaluate the performance of waste treatments processes; and (4) site closure and compliance monitoring. Wherever possible, the CMST-IP fosters technology transfer and commercialization of technologies that it sponsors.

  16. Developing an Integrated Monitoring and Evaluation Flow for Sustainable Investment Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin TACHE

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Under the circumstances of certain weaknesses in the monitoring and evaluation processes of sustainable investment projects, the paper aims to develop a general integrated flow, encompassing both a project monitoring system and also a project evaluation system for the investment projects involving economic objectives, as well as cross-cutting social and environmental targets. The whole approach is being presented as a flowchart, which highlights the intimate relationship between the monitoring and evaluation processes, and provides a formal framework for performing a logical monitoring and evaluation process, taking into account simultaneously the economic, social and environmental perspectives, within an investment project. Last, but not least, the article states both the estimated advantages and the disadvantages of such a managerial tool, opening new perspectives for developing further improved models and systems.

  17. Switchable in-line monitor for multi-dimensional multiplexed photonic integrated circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guanyu; Yu, Yu; Ye, Mengyuan; Zhang, Xinliang

    2016-06-27

    A flexible monitor suitable for the discrimination of on-chip transmitted mode division multiplexed (MDM) and wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) signals is proposed and fabricated. By selectively extracting part of the incoming signals through the tunable wavelength and mode dependent drop filter, the in-line and switchable monitor can discriminate the wavelength, mode and power information of the transmitted signals. Being different from a conventional mode and wavelength demultiplexer, the monitor is specifically designed to ensure a flexible in-line monitoring. For demonstration, three mode and three wavelength multiplexed signals are successfully processed. Assisted by the integrated photodetectors (PDs), both the measured photo currents and eye diagrams validate the performance of the proposed device. The bit error ratio (BER) measurement results show less than 0.4 dB power penalty between different modes and ~2 dB power penalty for single wavelength and WDM cases under 10-9 BER level.

  18. A Wireless Physiological Signal Monitoring System with Integrated Bluetooth and WiFi Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sung-Nien; Cheng, Jen-Chieh

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a wireless patient monitoring system which integrates Bluetooth and WiFi wireless technologies. A wireless portable multi-parameter device was designated to acquire physiological signals and transmit them to a local server via Bluetooth wireless technology. Four kinds of monitor units were designed to communicate via the WiFi wireless technology, including a local monitor unit, a control center, mobile devices (personal digital assistant; PDA), and a web page. The use of various monitor units is intending to meet different medical requirements for different medical personnel. This system was demonstrated to promote the mobility and flexibility for both the patients and the medical personnel, which further improves the quality of health care.

  19. Monitoring of Chicken RNA Integrity as a Function of Prolonged Postmortem Duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuwares Malila

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression profiling has offered new insights into postmortem molecular changes associated with meat quality. To acquire reliable transcript quantification, high quality RNA is required. The objective of this study was to analyze integrity of RNA isolated from chicken skeletal muscle (pectoralis major and its capability of serving as the template in quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR as a function of postmortem intervals representing the end-points of evisceration, carcass chilling and aging stages in chicken abattoirs. Chicken breast muscle was dissected from the carcasses (n = 6 immediately after evisceration, and one-third of each sample was instantly snap-frozen and labeled as 20 min postmortem. The remaining muscle was stored on ice until the next rounds of sample collection (1.5 h and 6 h postmortem. The delayed postmortem duration did not significantly affect A260/A280 and A260/A230 (p≥0.05, suggesting no altered purity of total RNA. Apart from a slight decrease in the 28s:18s ribosomal RNA ratio in 1.5 h samples (p<0.05, the value was not statistically different between 20 min and 6 h samples (p≥0.05, indicating intact total RNA up to 6 h. Abundance of reference genes encoding beta-actin (ACTB, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT, peptidylprolylisomerase A (PPIA and TATA box-binding protein (TBP as well as meat-quality associated genes (insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isozyme 4 (PDK4, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARD were investigated using qPCR. Transcript abundances of ACTB, GAPDH, HPRT, and PPIA were significantly different among all postmortem time points (p<0.05. Transcript levels of PDK4 and PPARD were significantly reduced in the 6 h samples (p<0.05. The findings suggest an adverse effect of a prolonged postmortem duration on reliability of transcript quantification in chicken

  20. LANDMON a new integrated system for the management of landslide monitoring networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrzesniak, Aleksandra; Giordan, Daniele; Allasia, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Over the last decades, technological development has strongly increased the number of instruments that can be used to monitor landslide phenomena. Robotized Total Stations, GB-InSAR and GPS are only few examples of the devices that can be adapted to monitor the topographic changes due to mass movements. They are often organized in a complex network, aimed at controlling physical parameters related to the evolution of landslide activity. The level of complexity of these monitoring networks increases with the number of new available monitoring devices and this could generate a paradox: the source of data is so numerous and difficult to interpret that a full understanding of the phenomenon could be hampered. The Geohazard Monitoring Group (GMG) of Italian National Research Council (CNR) has a long experience in landslide monitoring. Over the years, GMG has developed a multidisciplinary approach for landslide management strategy called LANDMON (LANDslide MOnitoring Network). It is an automatic hybrid system focused not only on capturing and elaborating data from monitored site but also on web applications and on publishing bulletins aimed to disseminate monitoring results and to support decision makers. LANDMON is currently active in many landslide sites distributed in several areas in Italy and in Europe. LANDMON is derived from the previously developed systems like ADVICE (ADVanced dIsplaCement monitoring system for Early warning) and 3DA (three-dimensional Displacement Analysis). These systems are aimed to collect and to process monitoring dataset, to manage early warning application based on pre-defined thresholds, and to publish three-dimensional displacement maps in near real time. In addition, LANDMON integrates several new features, such as WebGIS application, modelling using inverse velocity method, and management of webcam monitoring system, meteorological parameters and borehole inclinometric data. Moreover, LANDMON is a communication strategy that focuses

  1. Integrating SAR with Optical and Thermal Remote Sensing for Operational Near Real-Time Volcano Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, F. J.; Webley, P.; Dehn, J.; Arko, S. A.; McAlpin, D. B.

    2013-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions are among the most significant hazards to human society, capable of triggering natural disasters on regional to global scales. In the last decade, remote sensing techniques have become established in operational forecasting, monitoring, and managing of volcanic hazards. Monitoring organizations, like the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), are nowadays heavily relying on remote sensing data from a variety of optical and thermal sensors to provide time-critical hazard information. Despite the high utilization of these remote sensing data to detect and monitor volcanic eruptions, the presence of clouds and a dependence on solar illumination often limit their impact on decision making processes. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems are widely believed to be superior to optical sensors in operational monitoring situations, due to the weather and illumination independence of their observations and the sensitivity of SAR to surface changes and deformation. Despite these benefits, the contributions of SAR to operational volcano monitoring have been limited in the past due to (1) high SAR data costs, (2) traditionally long data processing times, and (3) the low temporal sampling frequencies inherent to most SAR systems. In this study, we present improved data access, data processing, and data integration techniques that mitigate some of the above mentioned limitations and allow, for the first time, a meaningful integration of SAR into operational volcano monitoring systems. We will introduce a new database interface that was developed in cooperation with the Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) and allows for rapid and seamless data access to all of ASF's SAR data holdings. We will also present processing techniques that improve the temporal frequency with which hazard-related products can be produced. These techniques take advantage of modern signal processing technology as well as new radiometric normalization schemes, both enabling the combination of

  2. Integrating SAR and derived products into operational volcano monitoring and decision support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, F. J.; McAlpin, D. B.; Gong, W.; Ajadi, O.; Arko, S.; Webley, P. W.; Dehn, J.

    2015-02-01

    Remote sensing plays a critical role in operational volcano monitoring due to the often remote locations of volcanic systems and the large spatial extent of potential eruption pre-cursor signals. Despite the all-weather capabilities of radar remote sensing and its high performance in monitoring of change, the contribution of radar data to operational monitoring activities has been limited in the past. This is largely due to: (1) the high costs associated with radar data; (2) traditionally slow data processing and delivery procedures; and (3) the limited temporal sampling provided by spaceborne radars. With this paper, we present new data processing and data integration techniques that mitigate some of these limitations and allow for a meaningful integration of radar data into operational volcano monitoring decision support systems. Specifically, we present fast data access procedures as well as new approaches to multi-track processing that improve near real-time data access and temporal sampling of volcanic systems with SAR data. We introduce phase-based (coherent) and amplitude-based (incoherent) change detection procedures that are able to extract dense time series of hazard information from these data. For a demonstration, we present an integration of our processing system with an operational volcano monitoring system that was developed for use by the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO). Through an application to a historic eruption, we show that the integration of SAR into systems such as AVO can significantly improve the ability of operational systems to detect eruptive precursors. Therefore, the developed technology is expected to improve operational hazard detection, alerting, and management capabilities.

  3. An integrated approach to monitoring the calibration stability of operational dual-polarization radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccarono, Mattia; Bechini, Renzo; Chandrasekar, Chandra V.; Cremonini, Roberto; Cassardo, Claudio

    2016-11-01

    The stability of weather radar calibration is a mandatory aspect for quantitative applications, such as rainfall estimation, short-term weather prediction and initialization of numerical atmospheric and hydrological models. Over the years, calibration monitoring techniques based on external sources have been developed, specifically calibration using the Sun and calibration based on ground clutter returns. In this paper, these two techniques are integrated and complemented with a self-consistency procedure and an intercalibration technique. The aim of the integrated approach is to implement a robust method for online monitoring, able to detect significant changes in the radar calibration. The physical consistency of polarimetric radar observables is exploited using the self-consistency approach, based on the expected correspondence between dual-polarization power and phase measurements in rain. This technique allows a reference absolute value to be provided for the radar calibration, from which eventual deviations may be detected using the other procedures. In particular, the ground clutter calibration is implemented on both polarization channels (horizontal and vertical) for each radar scan, allowing the polarimetric variables to be monitored and hardware failures to promptly be recognized. The Sun calibration allows monitoring the calibration and sensitivity of the radar receiver, in addition to the antenna pointing accuracy. It is applied using observations collected during the standard operational scans but requires long integration times (several days) in order to accumulate a sufficient amount of useful data. Finally, an intercalibration technique is developed and performed to compare colocated measurements collected in rain by two radars in overlapping regions. The integrated approach is performed on the C-band weather radar network in northwestern Italy, during July-October 2014. The set of methods considered appears suitable to establish an online tool to

  4. Integrated monitoring and assessment of soil restoration treatments in the Lake Tahoe Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grismer, M E; Schnurrenberger, C; Arst, R; Hogan, M P

    2009-03-01

    Revegetation and soil restoration efforts, often associated with erosion control measures on disturbed soils, are rarely monitored or otherwise evaluated in terms of improved hydrologic, much less, ecologic function and longer term sustainability. As in many watersheds, sediment is a key parameter of concern in the Tahoe Basin, particularly fine sediments less than about ten microns. Numerous erosion control measures deployed in the Basin during the past several decades have under-performed, or simply failed after a few years and new soil restoration methods of erosion control are under investigation. We outline a comprehensive, integrated field-based evaluation and assessment of the hydrologic function associated with these soil restoration methods with the hypothesis that restoration of sustainable function will result in longer term erosion control benefits than that currently achieved with more commonly used surface treatment methods (e.g. straw/mulch covers and hydroseeding). The monitoring includes cover-point and ocular assessments of plant cover, species type and diversity; soil sampling for nutrient status; rainfall simulation measurement of infiltration and runoff rates; cone penetrometer measurements of soil compaction and thickness of mulch layer depths. Through multi-year hydrologic and vegetation monitoring at ten sites and 120 plots, we illustrate the results obtained from the integrated monitoring program and describe how it might guide future restoration efforts and monitoring assessments.

  5. Groundwater monitoring in the context of EU legislation: reality and integration needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevauviller, Ph

    2005-02-01

    A wide range of environmental policies are based on the monitoring of chemical and/or biological parameters which are used to evaluate the environmental status of relevant compartments (e.g. water, soil, air) with the ultimate aim of making appropriate management decisions. The soundness of policy decisions is therefore directly related to the reliability of the environmental monitoring programmes. Monitoring reliability in turn is predominantly linked to scientific and technological progress. Hence a correct design, development and implementation process of environmental policies is, at least in part, dependent upon a proper integration of scientific and technological advances (in monitoring, but also for all kinds of permit procedures, remediation strategies etc.). This paper examines science-policy integration needs in support of groundwater environmental monitoring, with focus on on-going policy developments. The article aims to summarise key information on groundwater policy and EU scientific developments to raise awareness of the scientific community involved in this issue and to enhance communication among scientists and policy-makers.

  6. A method to determine the input-output balances for nitrogen applied to the Lheebroekerzand integrated monitoring area (The Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, H.M.C.

    1997-01-01

    The International Cooperative Programme on Integrated Monitoring on Air Pollution Effects (ICP/IM) monitors chemical and biological indicators at the level of catchment areas. The Dutch monitoring area is located at Lheebroekerzand (Province of Drenthe). Since this area is not a catchment, an altern

  7. Progress Monitoring in an Integrated Health Care System: Tracking Behavioral Health Vital Signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfeld, Bradley; Franklin, Allie; Mercer, Brian; Fraynt, Rebecca; Simon, Greg

    2016-05-01

    Progress monitoring implementation in an integrated health care system is a complex process that must address factors such as measurement, technology, delivery system care processes, patient needs and provider requirements. This article will describe how one organization faced these challenges by identifying the key decision points (choice of measure, process for completing rating scale, interface with electronic medical record and clinician engagement) critical to implementation. Qualitative and quantitative data will be presented describing customer and stakeholder satisfaction with the mental health progress monitoring tool (MHPMT) as well as organizational performance with key measurement targets.

  8. Monitoring of persistent accreting pulsating neutron stars observed during the INTEGRAL Core Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidoli, L.; Wilms, J.; Paizis, A.; Larsson, S.; Burki, G.; Bourban, G.; Chernyakova, M.; Courvoisier, T.; Di Cocco, G.; Kretschmar, P.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Mereghetti, S.; Pottschmidt, K.; Santangelo, A.; Segreto, A.; Staubert, R.; Westergaard, N.J

    2004-06-01

    The INTEGRAL satellite is performing regular scans of the Galactic plane (GPS) every 12 days together with a deep exposure of the Galactic Center region (GCDE). Our collaboration is processing the data from this survey on a regular basis in order to monitor the evolution of the spectral and timing properties of the pulsating persistent neutron star sources observed. We present here an overview over the whole monitoring program and the status of the project and we report on the preliminary results of the analysis of the few scans already performed.

  9. Towards the integration of research and monitoring at forest ecosystems in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Danielewska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The main aim of the work was to summarize availability, quality and comparability of on-going European Research and Monitoring Networks (ERMN, based on the results of a COST FP0903 Action questionnaire carried out in September 2010 and May 2012.Area of study: The COST Action FP0903 involves 29 European countries and 4 non-COST institutions from USA, Morocco and Tunisia. In this study, the total of 22 replies to the questionnaire from 18 countries were included.Materials and methods: Based on the feedback from the Action FP0903 countries, the most popular European Networks were identified. Thereafter, the access to the network database, available quality assurance/quality control procedures and publication were described. Finally, the so-called “Supersites” concept, defined as a “highly instrumented research infrastructure, for both research and monitoring of soil-plant-atmosphere interactions” was discussed.Main results: The result of the survey indicate that the vast majority of the Action FP0903 countries participate in the International Cooperative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forest (ICP Forest. The multi-disciplinary International Cooperative Programme on Integrated Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Ecosystems (ICPIM is the second most widespread forest programme. Research highlights: To fully understand biochemical cycles in forest ecosystems, long-term monitoring is needed. Hence, a network of “Supersites”, is proposed. The application of the above infrastructure can be an effective way to attain a better integration of research and monitoring networks at forest sites in Europe.Keywords: Supersites; European Research Monitoring Networks; Harmonization; Forest.

  10. Integrated monitoring technologies for the management of a Soil-Aquifer-Treatment (SAT) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallioras, Andreas; Kofakis, Petros; Bumberger, Jan; Athanasiou, Georgios; Schimdt, Felix; Apostolopoulos, Georgios; Uzunoglou, Nikolaos; Dietrich, Peter; Schuth, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    Artificial recharge of groundwater has an important role to play in water reuse as treated wastewater effluent can be infiltrated into the ground for aquifer recharge. As the effluent moves through the soil and the aquifer, it undergoes significant quality improvements through physical, chemical, and biological processes in the underground environment. Collectively, these processes and the water quality improvement obtained are called soil-aquifer-treatment (SAT) or geopurification. The pilot site of Lavrion Technological & Cultural Park (LTCP) of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), involves the employment of plot infiltration basins at experimental scale, which will be using waters of impaired quality as a recharge source, and hence acting as a Soil-Aquifer-Treatment, SAT, system. Τhe LTCP site will be employed as a pilot SAT system complemented by new technological developments, which will be providing continuous monitoring of the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of infiltrating groundwater through all hydrologic zones (i.e. surface, unsaturated and saturated zone). This will be achieved by the development and installation of an integrated system of prototype sensing technologies, installed on-site, and offering a continuous evaluation of the performance of the SAT system. An integrated approach of the performance evaluation of any operating SAT system should aim at parallel monitoring of all hydrologic zones, proving the sustainability of all involved water quality treatment processes within unsaturated and saturated zone. Hence a prototype system of Time and Frequency Domain Reflectometry (TDR & FDR) sensors is developed and will be installed, in order to achieve continuous quantitative monitoring of the unsaturated zone through the entire soil column down to significant depths below the SAT basin. Additionally, the system contains two different radar-based sensing systems that will be offering (i) identification of preferential

  11. Dielectrophoresis microsystem with integrated flow cytometers for on-line monitoring of sorting efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhenyu; Hansen, Ole; Petersen, Peter Kalsen

    2006-01-01

    Dielectrophoresis (DEP) and flow cytometry are powerful technologies and widely applied in microfluidic systems for handling and measuring cells and particles. Here, we present a novel microchip with a DEP selective filter integrated with two microchip flow cytometers (FCs) for on-line monitoring...... of cell sorting processes. On the microchip, the DEP filter is integrated in a microfluidic channel network to sort yeast cells by positive DER The two FCs detection windows are set upstream and downstream of the DEP filter. When a cell passes through the detection windows, the light scattered by the cell...

  12. Detecting Specific Health-Related Events Using an Integrated Sensor System for Vital Sign Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourad Adnane

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new method for the detection of apnea/hypopnea periods in physiological data is presented. The method is based on the intelligent combination of an integrated sensor system for long-time cardiorespiratory signal monitoring and dedicated signal-processing packages. Integrated sensors are a PVDF film and conductive fabric sheets. The signal processing package includes dedicated respiratory cycle (RC and QRS complex detection algorithms and a new method using the respiratory cycle variability (RCV for detecting apnea/hypopnea periods in physiological data. Results show that our method is suitable for online analysis of long time series data.

  13. Activation of AMPKα2 is not crucial for mitochondrial uncoupling-induced metabolic effects but required to maintain skeletal muscle integrity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Ost

    Full Text Available Transgenic (UCP1-TG mice with ectopic expression of UCP1 in skeletal muscle (SM show a phenotype of increased energy expenditure, improved glucose tolerance and increase substrate metabolism in SM. To investigate the potential role of skeletal muscle AMPKα2 activation in the metabolic phenotype of UCP1-TG mice we generated double transgenic (DTG mice, by crossing of UCP1-TG mice with DN-AMPKα2 mice overexpressing a dominant negative α2 subunit of AMPK in SM which resulted in an impaired AMPKα2 activity by 90±9% in SM of DTG mice. Biometric analysis of young male mice showed decreased body weight, lean and fat mass for both UCP1-TG and DTG compared to WT and DN-AMPKα2 mice. Energy intake and weight-specific total energy expenditure were increased, both in UCP1-TG and DTG mice. Moreover, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and fatty acid oxidation were not altered in DTG compared to UCP1-TG. Also uncoupling induced induction and secretion of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 from SM was preserved in DTG mice. However, voluntary physical cage activity as well as ad libitum running wheel access during night uncovered a severe activity intolerance of DTG mice. Histological analysis showed a progressive degenerative morphology in SM of DTG mice which was not observed in SM of UCP1-TG mice. Moreover, ATP-depletion related cellular stress response via heat shock protein 70 was highly induced, whereas capillarization regulator VEGF was suppressed in DTG muscle. In addition, AMPKα2-mediated induction of mitophagy regulator ULK1 was suppressed in DTG mice, as well as mitochondrial respiratory capacity and content. In conclusion, we demonstrate that AMPKα2 is dispensable for SM mitochondrial uncoupling induced metabolic effects on whole body energy balance, glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. But strikingly, activation of AMPKα2 seems crucial for maintaining SM function, integrity and the ability to compensate chronic metabolic stress

  14. 11 years observing with OMC, the Optical Monitoring Camera on board the INTEGRAL satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso-Garzón, J.; Domingo, A.; Mas-Hesse, J. M.

    2015-05-01

    The Optical Monitoring Camera (OMC) on board the INTEGRAL observatory provides photometry in the Johnson V band, complementing the high-energy instruments which take images and spectra in hard X-rays and soft gamma--rays. After 11 years of mission operations, it has been possible to compile optical photometric light curves for a very large number of objects, with observational time spans of more than a decade and with a stable and consistent photometric calibration. In this contribution, we present a summary of some of the most interesting scientific results reached with INTEGRAL/OMC data, including the compilation of a catalogue of optically variable sources, some results on the analysis of temporal correlations between different energy ranges and the OMC monitoring of the supernova SN 2014J.

  15. Development of a synchrotron radiation beam monitor for the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarpelli, Andrea [Univ. of Ferrara (Italy)

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear integrable optics applied to beam dynamics may mitigate multi-particle instabilities, but proof of principle experiments have never been carried out. The Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) is an electron and proton storage ring currently being built at Fermilab, which addresses tests of nonlinear lattice elements in a real machine in addition to experiments on optical stochastic cooling and on the single-electron wave function. These experiments require an outstanding control over the lattice parameters, achievable with fast and precise beam monitoring systems. This work describes the steps for designing and building a beam monitor for IOTA based on synchrotron radiation, able to measure intensity, position and transverse cross-section beam.

  16. 3D-Printed Disposable Wireless Sensors with Integrated Microelectronics for Large Area Environmental Monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Farooqui, Muhammad Fahad

    2017-05-19

    Large area environmental monitoring can play a crucial role in dealing with crisis situations. However, it is challenging as implementing a fixed sensor network infrastructure over large remote area is economically unfeasible. This work proposes disposable, compact, dispersible 3D-printed wireless sensor nodes with integrated microelectronics which can be dispersed in the environment and work in conjunction with few fixed nodes for large area monitoring applications. As a proof of concept, the wireless sensing of temperature, humidity, and H2S levels are shown which are important for two critical environmental conditions namely forest fires and industrial leaks. These inkjet-printed sensors and an antenna are realized on the walls of a 3D-printed cubic package which encloses the microelectronics developed on a 3D-printed circuit board. Hence, 3D printing and inkjet printing are uniquely combined in order to realize a low-cost, fully integrated wireless sensor node.

  17. Analyses of integrated aircraft cabin contaminant monitoring network based on Kalman consensus filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Li, Yanxiao; Sun, Hui; Chen, Zengqiang

    2017-07-11

    The modern civil aircrafts use air ventilation pressurized cabins subject to the limited space. In order to monitor multiple contaminants and overcome the hypersensitivity of the single sensor, the paper constructs an output correction integrated sensor configuration using sensors with different measurement theories after comparing to other two different configurations. This proposed configuration works as a node in the contaminant distributed wireless sensor monitoring network. The corresponding measurement error models of integrated sensors are also proposed by using the Kalman consensus filter to estimate states and conduct data fusion in order to regulate the single sensor measurement results. The paper develops the sufficient proof of the Kalman consensus filter stability when considering the system and the observation noises and compares the mean estimation and the mean consensus errors between Kalman consensus filter and local Kalman filter. The numerical example analyses show the effectiveness of the algorithm. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Integrating monitor alarms with laboratory test results to enhance patient deterioration prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yong; Do, Duc H; Harris, Patricia Rae Eileen; Schindler, Daniel; Boyle, Noel G; Drew, Barbara J; Hu, Xiao

    2015-02-01

    Patient monitors in modern hospitals have become ubiquitous but they generate an excessive number of false alarms causing alarm fatigue. Our previous work showed that combinations of frequently co-occurring monitor alarms, called SuperAlarm patterns, were capable of predicting in-hospital code blue events at a lower alarm frequency. In the present study, we extend the conceptual domain of a SuperAlarm to incorporate laboratory test results along with monitor alarms so as to build an integrated data set to mine SuperAlarm patterns. We propose two approaches to integrate monitor alarms with laboratory test results and use a maximal frequent itemsets mining algorithm to find SuperAlarm patterns. Under an acceptable false positive rate FPRmax, optimal parameters including the minimum support threshold and the length of time window for the algorithm to find the combinations of monitor alarms and laboratory test results are determined based on a 10-fold cross-validation set. SuperAlarm candidates are generated under these optimal parameters. The final SuperAlarm patterns are obtained by further removing the candidates with false positive rate>FPRmax. The performance of SuperAlarm patterns are assessed using an independent test data set. First, we calculate the sensitivity with respect to prediction window and the sensitivity with respect to lead time. Second, we calculate the false SuperAlarm ratio (ratio of the hourly number of SuperAlarm triggers for control patients to that of the monitor alarms, or that of regular monitor alarms plus laboratory test results if the SuperAlarm patterns contain laboratory test results) and the work-up to detection ratio, WDR (ratio of the number of patients triggering any SuperAlarm patterns to that of code blue patients triggering any SuperAlarm patterns). The experiment results demonstrate that when varying FPRmax between 0.02 and 0.15, the SuperAlarm patterns composed of monitor alarms along with the last two laboratory test results

  19. Analysis of decision fusion algorithms in handling uncertainties for integrated health monitoring systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zein-Sabatto, Saleh; Mikhail, Maged; Bodruzzaman, Mohammad; DeSimio, Martin; Derriso, Mark; Behbahani, Alireza

    2012-06-01

    It has been widely accepted that data fusion and information fusion methods can improve the accuracy and robustness of decision-making in structural health monitoring systems. It is arguably true nonetheless, that decision-level is equally beneficial when applied to integrated health monitoring systems. Several decisions at low-levels of abstraction may be produced by different decision-makers; however, decision-level fusion is required at the final stage of the process to provide accurate assessment about the health of the monitored system as a whole. An example of such integrated systems with complex decision-making scenarios is the integrated health monitoring of aircraft. Thorough understanding of the characteristics of the decision-fusion methodologies is a crucial step for successful implementation of such decision-fusion systems. In this paper, we have presented the major information fusion methodologies reported in the literature, i.e., probabilistic, evidential, and artificial intelligent based methods. The theoretical basis and characteristics of these methodologies are explained and their performances are analyzed. Second, candidate methods from the above fusion methodologies, i.e., Bayesian, Dempster-Shafer, and fuzzy logic algorithms are selected and their applications are extended to decisions fusion. Finally, fusion algorithms are developed based on the selected fusion methods and their performance are tested on decisions generated from synthetic data and from experimental data. Also in this paper, a modeling methodology, i.e. cloud model, for generating synthetic decisions is presented and used. Using the cloud model, both types of uncertainties; randomness and fuzziness, involved in real decision-making are modeled. Synthetic decisions are generated with an unbiased process and varying interaction complexities among decisions to provide for fair performance comparison of the selected decision-fusion algorithms. For verification purposes

  20. Technical Report on Preliminary Methodology for Enhancing Risk Monitors with Integrated Equipment Condition Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Coles, Garill A.; Coble, Jamie B.; Hirt, Evelyn H.

    2013-09-17

    Small modular reactors (SMRs) generally include reactors with electric output of ~350 MWe or less (this cutoff varies somewhat but is substantially less than full-size plant output of 700 MWe or more). Advanced SMRs (AdvSMRs) refer to a specific class of SMRs and are based on modularization of advanced reactor concepts. AdvSMRs may provide a longer-term alternative to traditional light-water reactors (LWRs) and SMRs based on integral pressurized water reactor concepts currently being considered. Enhancing affordability of AdvSMRs will be critical to ensuring wider deployment. AdvSMRs suffer from loss of economies of scale inherent in small reactors when compared to large (~greater than 600 MWe output) reactors. Some of this loss can be recovered through reduced capital costs through smaller size, fewer components, modular fabrication processes, and the opportunity for modular construction. However, the controllable day-to-day costs of AdvSMRs will be dominated by operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. Technologies that help characterize real-time risk are important for controlling O&M costs. Risk monitors are used in current nuclear power plants to provide a point-in-time estimate of the system risk given the current plant configuration (e.g., equipment availability, operational regime, and environmental conditions). However, current risk monitors are unable to support the capability requirements listed above as they do not take into account plant-specific normal, abnormal, and deteriorating states of active components and systems. This report documents technology developments that are a step towards enhancing risk monitors that, if integrated with supervisory plant control systems, can provide the capability requirements listed and meet the goals of controlling O&M costs. The report describes research results from an initial methodology for enhanced risk monitors by integrating real-time information about equipment condition and POF into risk monitors.

  1. On the development and testing of a guided ultrasonic wave array for structural integrity monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Fromme, P.; Wilcox, P. D.; Lowe, M. J. S.; Canvley, P.

    2006-01-01

    The prototype of a guided ultrasonic wave array for the structural integrity monitoring of large, plate-like structures has been designed, built, and tested. The development of suitably small transducers for the excitation and measurement of the first antisymmetric Lamb wave mode A(0) is described. The array design consists of a ring of 32 transducers, permanently bonded to the structure with a protective membrane, in a compact housing with the necessary multiplexing electronics. Using a phas...

  2. Monitoring of the Structural Integrity of Wheelset Axles Using Guided Waves

    OpenAIRE

    Grzeszkowski, Mateusz; Prager, Jens

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The structural integrity of wheelset axles of high speed trains as well as freight wagons is of major importance for safety of rail transport. Up to now the inspection of wheelset axles is part of a periodic maintenance which is expensive due to long inspection times and highly influenced by the human factor, especially if those inspections are carried out during night time. Permanently installed SHM-systems at each axle would be able to monitor the structural integrit...

  3. Monitoring the Lavina di Roncovetro (RE, Italy) landslide by integrating traditional monitoring systems and multiple high-resolution topographic datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaciai, Alessandro; Favalli, Massimiliano; Gigli, Giovanni; Nannipieri, Luca; Mucchi, Lorenzo; Intieri, Emanuele; Agostini, Andrea; Pizziolo, Marco; Bertolini, Giovanni; Trippi, Federico; Casagli, Nicola; Schina, Rosa; Carnevale, Ennio

    2016-04-01

    Tha Lavina di Roncovetro landslide is located in the Enza Valley (Reggio Emilia, Italy). It extends from the top of Mount Staffola down to the Tassobbio River. Since the clay fraction is dominant, it follows that the landslide can be considered as a fluid-viscous mudflow, which can reach a down flow maximum rate of 10 m/day. The landslide started between the middle and the end of the XIX century and since then it has had a rapid evolution mainly characterized by the rapid retrogression of the crown to the extent that now reaches the top of Mount Staffola. In the last 20 years, about 100,000 m3 of bedrock descended from the main scarp into the landslide body. The total volume of the landslide is inferred to be of ~ 3×106 m3. In the frame of EU Wireless Sensor Network for Ground Instability Monitoring - Wi-GIM project (LIFE12 ENV/IT/001033), the Roncovetro landslide is periodically monitored by traditional monitoring systems and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) survey. In addition, an airborne LIDAR survey and a photographic acquisition from a small aircraft were carried out on April 2014 and October 2014, respectively. The traditional monitoring system consists of a terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) survey and a robotized total station (RTS). TLS acquisitions have focused on the upper and more active sector of the earthflow and were carried out since May 2014. By comparing TLS data taken at different times, the general deformational field of the landslide can be reconstructed and the displacements affecting the retaining structures built on the landslide crown quantified. The time resolution of both TLS and RTS acquisition is about 6 per year. . Three high-resolution photogrammetric surveys performed using an UAV were carried out on November 2014, July 2015 and January 2016. Starting from the acquired photos and applying photogrammetry and Structure From Motion (SFM) algorithms integrated in the Photoscan Agisoft software, the high-resolution 3D models of the

  4. Development of integrated marine monitoring network on southern coastline of Caspian sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Najafi-Jilani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of water surfaces through permanent measurement of hydrodynamic and meteorological data is one of the main requirements in safe and sustainable water management. The Caspian Sea, the major surface water body in Iran, significantly affects more than 600 km of urban and industrial coastline. In the present work, an integrated marine monitoring network for the entire southern coastline of the Caspian Sea was developed. The main design concerns centered on the network measuring components and data recording, checking, filtering, gap recognition, and transferring systems. Four coastal monitoring stations were assigned, along with two regional collecting stations and one central data station for gathering, checking and delivering recorded data at different access levels. Applicable guidelines on selection of measuring devices for both shallow and deep water zones are presented herein.

  5. Monitoring of pipelines and containers with integrated sensors; Ueberwachung von Rohrleitungen und Behaeltern mit integrierten Sensornetzwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hufenbach, Werner A.; Boehm, Robert; Thieme, Mike; Tyczynski, Thomas [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Leichtbau und Kunststofftechnik

    2011-06-15

    Scientists of Dresden Technical University are working on a sensor-based monitoring systems for chemical equipment manufacturing. The method is particularly suited for components of fibre-reinforced composite materials; it is based on sensors integrated in the materials, and it is modular and adaptable to many different applications. So-called 'sleeping sensors' activate the monitoring grid when a certain limiting value is exceeded and shut it off again; this way, critical states of the components can be identified quickly, and the measuring time and cost will be reduced considerably. Operators of pipelines, boilers, storage containers and pressure vessels will then have a largely automatic monitoring system that may, in the future, also be used for process control in chemical plants.

  6. The CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-ATF response elements-luciferase mouse model, an innovative tool to monitor the integrated stress response pathway in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhat, Alain; Fafournoux, Pierre

    2017-05-01

    The article highlights the recent development of an ATF4 (activating transcription factor) inducible luciferase (LUC) mouse model to monitor the integrated stress response pathway (ISR) in vivo. The ISR pathway plays a key role in cellular adaptation to stress and is dysregulated in numerous diseases. The core event in this pathway is the phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 α, which leads to the recruitment of the transcription factor ATF4 to specific CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-ATF response elements (CAREs) located in the promoters of target genes. To monitor the modulation of this pathway in the whole animal and at tissue and cellular levels, we generated a CARE-driven LUC mouse model. We validated the relevance of this model to study stress-related pathologies and recently observed the correlation between the ISR pathway induction in muscle and the occurrence of stress-induced skeletal muscle atrophy. The CARE-LUC mouse model represents an innovative tool for investigating the role of the ISR pathway in physiology and disease and opens new avenues for the development of drugs that could modify this important pathway in stress-related human diseases.

  7. Navigation integrity monitoring and obstacle detection for enhanced-vision systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, Bernd; Doehler, Hans-Ullrich; Hecker, Peter

    2001-08-01

    Typically, Enhanced Vision (EV) systems consist of two main parts, sensor vision and synthetic vision. Synthetic vision usually generates a virtual out-the-window view using databases and accurate navigation data, e. g. provided by differential GPS (DGPS). The reliability of the synthetic vision highly depends on both, the accuracy of the used database and the integrity of the navigation data. But especially in GPS based systems, the integrity of the navigation can't be guaranteed. Furthermore, only objects that are stored in the database can be displayed to the pilot. Consequently, unexpected obstacles are invisible and this might cause severe problems. Therefore, additional information has to be extracted from sensor data to overcome these problems. In particular, the sensor data analysis has to identify obstacles and has to monitor the integrity of databases and navigation. Furthermore, if a lack of integrity arises, navigation data, e.g. the relative position of runway and aircraft, has to be extracted directly from the sensor data. The main contribution of this paper is about the realization of these three sensor data analysis tasks within our EV system, which uses the HiVision 35 GHz MMW radar of EADS, Ulm as the primary EV sensor. For the integrity monitoring, objects extracted from radar images are registered with both database objects and objects (e. g. other aircrafts) transmitted via data link. This results in a classification into known and unknown radar image objects and consequently, in a validation of the integrity of database and navigation. Furthermore, special runway structures are searched for in the radar image where they should appear. The outcome of this runway check contributes to the integrity analysis, too. Concurrent to this investigation a radar image based navigation is performed without using neither precision navigation nor detailed database information to determine the aircraft's position relative to the runway. The performance of our

  8. Reverse osmosis integrity monitoring in water reuse: The challenge to verify virus removal - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pype, Marie-Laure; Lawrence, Michael G; Keller, Jurg; Gernjak, Wolfgang

    2016-07-01

    A reverse osmosis (RO) process is often included in the treatment train to produce high quality reuse water from treated effluent for potable purposes because of its high removal efficiency for salinity and many inorganic and organic contaminants, and importantly, it also provides an excellent barrier for pathogens. In order to ensure the continued protection of public health from pathogen contamination, monitoring RO process integrity is necessary. Due to their small sizes, viruses are the most difficult class of pathogens to be removed in physical separation processes and therefore often considered the most challenging pathogen to monitor. To-date, there is a gap between the current log credit assigned to this process (determined by integrity testing approved by regulators) and its actual log removal capability as proven in a variety of laboratory and pilot studies. Hence, there is a challenge to establish a methodology that more closely links to the theoretical performance. In this review, after introducing the notion of risk management in water reuse, we provide an overview of existing and potentially new RO integrity monitoring techniques, highlight their strengths and drawbacks, and debate their applicability to full-scale treatment plants, which open to future research opportunities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Research on GPS Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring Algorithm In the Occurrence of Two-satellite Faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Er Shen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliability is an essential factor for GPS navigation system. Therefore, an integrity monitoring is considered as one of the most important parts for a navigation system. GPS receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM technique can detect and isolate fault satellite. Based on particle filter, a novel RAIM method was proposed to detect two-satellite faults of the GPS signal by using hierarchical particle filter. It can deal with any system nonlinear and any noise distributions. Because GNSS measurement noise does not follow the Gaussian distribution perfectly, the particle filter can estimate the posterior distribution more accurately. In order to detect fault, the consistency test statistics is established through cumulative log-likelihood ratio (LLR between the main and auxiliary particle filters (PFs.Specifically, an approach combining PF with the hierarchical filter is used in the process of two-satellite faults. Through GPS real measurement, the performance of the proposed GPS two-satellite faults detection algorithm was illustrated. Some simulation results are given to evaluate integrity monitoring performance of the algorithm. Validated by the real measurement data, the results show that the proposed algorithm can successfully detect and isolate the faulty satellite in the case of non-Gaussian measurement noise.

  10. Integrating Statistical Machine Learning in a Semantic Sensor Web for Proactive Monitoring and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeleke, Jude Adekunle; Moodley, Deshendran; Rens, Gavin; Adewumi, Aderemi Oluyinka

    2017-04-09

    Proactive monitoring and control of our natural and built environments is important in various application scenarios. Semantic Sensor Web technologies have been well researched and used for environmental monitoring applications to expose sensor data for analysis in order to provide responsive actions in situations of interest. While these applications provide quick response to situations, to minimize their unwanted effects, research efforts are still necessary to provide techniques that can anticipate the future to support proactive control, such that unwanted situations can be averted altogether. This study integrates a statistical machine learning based predictive model in a Semantic Sensor Web using stream reasoning. The approach is evaluated in an indoor air quality monitoring case study. A sliding window approach that employs the Multilayer Perceptron model to predict short term PM 2 . 5 pollution situations is integrated into the proactive monitoring and control framework. Results show that the proposed approach can effectively predict short term PM 2 . 5 pollution situations: precision of up to 0.86 and sensitivity of up to 0.85 is achieved over half hour prediction horizons, making it possible for the system to warn occupants or even to autonomously avert the predicted pollution situations within the context of Semantic Sensor Web.

  11. Integrating Statistical Machine Learning in a Semantic Sensor Web for Proactive Monitoring and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude Adekunle Adeleke

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Proactive monitoring and control of our natural and built environments is important in various application scenarios. Semantic Sensor Web technologies have been well researched and used for environmental monitoring applications to expose sensor data for analysis in order to provide responsive actions in situations of interest. While these applications provide quick response to situations, to minimize their unwanted effects, research efforts are still necessary to provide techniques that can anticipate the future to support proactive control, such that unwanted situations can be averted altogether. This study integrates a statistical machine learning based predictive model in a Semantic Sensor Web using stream reasoning. The approach is evaluated in an indoor air quality monitoring case study. A sliding window approach that employs the Multilayer Perceptron model to predict short term PM 2 . 5 pollution situations is integrated into the proactive monitoring and control framework. Results show that the proposed approach can effectively predict short term PM 2 . 5 pollution situations: precision of up to 0.86 and sensitivity of up to 0.85 is achieved over half hour prediction horizons, making it possible for the system to warn occupants or even to autonomously avert the predicted pollution situations within the context of Semantic Sensor Web.

  12. An Updated Methodology for Enhancing Risk Monitors with Integrated Equipment Condition Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hirt, Evelyn H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Coles, Garill A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bonebrake, Christopher A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ivans, William J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wootan, David W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mitchell, Mark R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-07-18

    Small modular reactors (SMRs) generally include reactors with electric output of ~350 MWe or less (this cutoff varies somewhat but is substantially less than full-size plant output of 700 MWe or more). Advanced SMRs (AdvSMRs) refer to a specific class of SMRs and are based on modularization of advanced reactor concepts. Enhancing affordability of AdvSMRs will be critical to ensuring wider deployment, as AdvSMRs suffer from loss of economies of scale inherent in small reactors when compared to large (~greater than 600 MWe output) reactors and the controllable day-to-day costs of AdvSMRs will be dominated by operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. Technologies that help characterize real-time risk are important for controlling O&M costs. Risk monitors are used in current nuclear power plants to provide a point-in-time estimate of the system risk given the current plant configuration (e.g., equipment availability, operational regime, and environmental conditions). However, current risk monitors are unable to support the capability requirements listed above as they do not take into account plant-specific normal, abnormal, and deteriorating states of active components and systems. This report documents technology developments towards enhancing risk monitors that, if integrated with supervisory plant control systems, can provide the capability requirements listed and meet the goals of controlling O&M costs. The report describes research results on augmenting an initial methodology for enhanced risk monitors that integrate real-time information about equipment condition and POF into risk monitors. Methods to propagate uncertainty through the enhanced risk monitor are evaluated. Available data to quantify the level of uncertainty and the POF of key components are examined for their relevance, and a status update of this data evaluation is described. Finally, we describe potential targets for developing new risk metrics that may be useful for studying trade-offs for economic

  13. Military Personnel: DOD Is Expanding Combat Service Opportunities for Women, but Should Monitor Long-Term Integration Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    10. Study of historical U.S. Marine Corps integration efforts Review the integration of women into Marine Corps aviation occupations and past...integration of women into the logistics and aviation communities 13. Expand Unit Assignments Survey Determine participants’ experiences regarding...MILITARY PERSONNEL DOD Is Expanding Combat Service Opportunities for Women , but Should Monitor Long-Term

  14. Integrated environmental control and monitoring in the intelligent workplace. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This project involved the design and engineering of the control and monitoring of environmental quality - visual, thermal, air - in the Intelligent Workplace. The research objectives were to study the performance of the individual systems, to study the integration issues related to each system, to develop a control plan, and to implement and test the integrated systems in a real setting. In this project, a control strategy with related algorithms for distributed sensors, actuators, and controllers for negotiating central and individual control of HVAC, lighting, and enclosure was developed in order to maximize user comfort, and energy and environmental effectiveness. The goal of the control system design in the Intelligent Workplace is the integration of building systems for optimization of occupant satisfaction, organizational flexibility, energy efficiency and environmental effectiveness. The task of designing this control system involves not only the research, development and demonstration of state-of-the-art mechanical and electrical systems, but also their integration. The ABSIC research team developed functional requirements for the environmental systems considering the needs of both facility manager and the user. There are three levels of control for the environmental systems: scheduled control, sensor control, and user control. The challenges are to achieve the highest possible levels of energy effectiveness simultaneously with the highest levels of user satisfaction. The report describes the components of each system, their implementation in the Intelligent Workplace and related control and monitoring issues.

  15. An integrated climate service strategy for African drought monitoring and prediction: linking information to action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, C.; Verdin, J. P.; Rowland, J.; Budde, M.

    2008-12-01

    For 23 years, the US Agency for International Development's Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) has applied climate data analysis in support of timely food insecurity mitigation and adaptation in Africa. FEWS NET, therefore, provides a compelling example of a sector-specific climate service. We briefly review the phases, successes and shortcomings of the FEWS NET climate service, describe an improved long term climate service strategy, and present new research supporting an improved, integrated drought monitoring approach. Our new monitoring system emphasizes seamless links between historical precipitation archives, near real-time rainfall estimates, and 1-to-4 month statistical predictions. Assessment of forecast skill shows useful levels of accuracy for many regions during key periods of the growing season. Integrating these forecasts with near real time blended satellite-gauge precipitation observations facilitates early identification of mid-season agricultural drought. Integrated historical climate archives (1979-present) permit analysis of observed and forecast climate conditions in terms of historical probabilities and analogs. Tools specific to staple crops and pastoralist settings are then used to assess the likely impacts of hydrometeorological anomalies. These are geographically integrated with livelihoods information and interpreted in terms of current food security conditions and timelines to determine human consequences. A client-server web-mapping data portal will allow users to dynamically access the climate anomaly information, and visualize the results in conjunction with livelihood information.

  16. An integrated microfluidic chip enabling control and spatially resolved monitoring of temperature in micro flow reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoera, Christian; Ohla, Stefan; Shu, Zhe; Beckert, Erik; Nagl, Stefan; Belder, Detlev

    2015-01-01

    A strength of microfluidic chip laboratories is the rapid heat transfer that, in principle, enables a very homogeneous temperature distribution in chemical processes. In order to exploit this potential, we present an integrated chip system where the temperature is precisely controlled and monitored at the microfluidic channel level. This is realized by integration of a luminescent temperature sensor layer into the fluidic structure together with inkjet-printed micro heating elements. This allows steering of the temperature at the microchannel level and monitoring of the reaction progress simultaneously. A fabrication procedure is presented that allows for straightforward integration of thin polymer layers with optical sensing functionality in microchannels of glass-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) chips of only 150 μm width and 29 μm height. Sensor layers consisting of polyacrylonitrile and a temperature-sensitive ruthenium tris-phenanthroline probe with film thicknesses of about 0.5 to 6 μm were generated by combining blade coating and abrasion techniques. Optimal coating procedures were developed and evaluated. The chip-integrated sensor layers were calibrated and investigated with respect to stability, reproducibility, and response times. These microchips allowed observation of temperature in a wide range with a signal change of around 1.6 % per K and a maximum resolution of around 0.07 K. The device is employed to study temperature-controlled continuous micro flow reactions. This is demonstrated exemplarily for the tryptic cleavage of coumarin-modified peptides via fluorescence detection.

  17. Integration of Networks of Sensors and Electronics for Structural Health Monitoring of Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizia Ghezzo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The low-cost, widespread availability and robust nature of current electronic devices suggest the feasibility of creating a composite structure with integrated networked sensors to monitor in real time the life of civil and aerospace structures while in service conditions. For structures that need to survive to high number of life cycles under varying load-environmental conditions, it is of crucial importance that the strength, stiffness, endurance, and general load-bearing capabilities of the composite not to be severely degraded by the integrated networked components. Therefore, design tools must be developed to achieve optimized, safe, and reliable structures. High values of stress concentrations due to the presence of a rigid device within a highly anisotropic material can trigger the initiation of microcracks in the resin matrix. To quantify these effects, the acoustic emission technique is used to characterize the initiation of microfailures within laminated composites with integrated electronics.

  18. Integrated monitoring technologies for the management of a Soil-Aquifer-Treatment (SAT) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Alexandros; Kallioras, Andreas; Kofakis, Petros; Bumberger, Jan; Schmidt, Felix; Athanasiou, Georgios; Uzunoglou, Nikolaos; Amditis, Angelos; Dietrich, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Artificial recharge of groundwater has an important role to play in water reuse as treated wastewater effluent can be infiltrated into the ground for aquifer recharge. As the effluent moves through the soil and the aquifer, it undergoes significant quality improvements through physical, chemical, and biological processes in the underground environment. Collectively, these processes and the water quality improvement obtained are called soil-aquifer-treatment (SAT) or geopurification. The pilot site of Lavrion Technological & Cultural Park (LTCP) of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), involves the employment of plot infiltration basins at experimental scale, which will be using waters of impaired quality as a recharge source, and hence acting as a Soil-Aquifer-Treatment, SAT, system. Τhe LTCP site will be employed as a pilot SAT system complemented by new technological developments, which will be providing continuous monitoring of the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of infiltrating groundwater through all hydrologic zones (i.e. surface, unsaturated and saturated zone). This will be achieved by the development and installation of an integrated system of prototype sensing technologies, installed on-site, and offering a continuous evaluation of the performance of the SAT system. An integrated approach of the performance evaluation of any operating SAT system should aim at parallel monitoring of all hydrologic zones, proving the sustainability of all involved water quality treatment processes within unsaturated and saturated zone. Hence a prototype system of Time and Frequency Domain Reflectometry (TDR & FDR) sensors is developed and will be installed, in order to achieve continuous quantitative monitoring of the unsaturated zone through the entire soil column down to significant depths below the SAT basin. Additionally, the system contains two different radar-based sensing systems that will be offering (i) identification of preferential

  19. Integrating a project monitoring system into a public health network: experiences from Alive & Thrive Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Nguyen Thanh; Alayon, Silvia; Do, Tran Thanh; Ngan, Tran Thi; Hajeebhoy, Nemat

    2015-01-01

    Little information is available about how to build a monitoring system to measure the output of preventive nutrition interventions, such as counselling on infant and young child feeding. This paper describes the Alive & Thrive Vietnam (A&T) project experience in nesting a large-scale project monitoring system into the existing public health information system (e.g. using the system and resources), and in using monitoring data to strengthen service delivery in 15 provinces with A&T franchises. From January 2012 to April 2014, the 780 A&T franchises provided 1,700,000 counselling contacts (~3/4 by commune franchises). In commune franchises in April 2014, 80% of mothers who were pregnant or with children under two years old had been to the counselling service at least one time, and 87% of clients had been to the service earlier. Monitoring data are used to track the progress of the project, make decisions, provide background for a costing study and advocate for the integration of nutrition counselling indicators into the health information system nationwide. With careful attention to the needs of stakeholders at multiple levels, clear data quality assurance measures and strategic feedback mechanisms, it is feasible to monitor the scale-up of nutrition programmes through the existing routine health information system.

  20. Integrated sensor-based monitoring system for pest and disease control in greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suciu, Laura; Sumălan, R; Moga, D

    2012-01-01

    Diseases and pests are a problem even in greenhouse crops, problem which has to be solved without threatening the plant. Crop protection requires frequent updates in information and therefore sensor networks that are real time monitoring systems are the ones that can deliver such information. The purpose of this paper is to present a way of preventing the appearance of diseases and pests in a greenhouse by using a monitoring system composed of an integrated sensor network. Our sensor system is doing a real time monitoring of the following parameters in the greenhouse: light intensity, soil moisture and temperature, air temperature and humidity and air temperature at canopy level; all of the data being stored using a software made by "Tedelco". A real time monitoring camera is also used for pest and disease detection. A pot experiment, using beans, was established inside the greenhouse to test the applicability of the system. In order to assure the optimal conditions for the inhibition of pests, the greenhouse is also equipped with an artificial lighting system specially designed for greenhouses, an irrigation system and an artificial fog system. Sensor systems are the ideal support for preventive monitoring and at the same time it offers all the support data necessary for decision making regarding crops development.

  1. Parental monitoring, parental warmth, and minority youths' academic outcomes: exploring the integrative model of parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Katie; Dotterer, Aryn M

    2013-09-01

    Guided by the integrative model of parenting, the present study investigated the relationship between parental monitoring and racial/ethnic minority adolescents' school engagement and academic motivation as a function of parental warmth, and explored whether these associations varied for boys and girls. Participants (60 % female) were 208 sixth through eighth grade students (63 % African American, 19 % Latino, 18 % Multiracial) from an urban middle school in the Midwestern United States. Youth completed an in-school survey with items on parenting (parental monitoring, mothers'/fathers' warmth), cognitive engagement (school self-esteem), behavioral engagement (school trouble), and academic motivation (intrinsic motivation). As hypothesized, mothers' warmth enhanced the association between parental monitoring and youths' engagement and motivation. No gender differences in these associations emerged. Fathers' warmth strengthened the negative association between parental monitoring and school trouble, and this association was stronger for boys. Implications regarding the importance of sustaining a high level of monitoring within the context of warm parent-adolescent relationships to best support academic outcomes among minority youth are discussed.

  2. Monitoring of Leuconostoc mesenteroides DRC starter in fermented vegetable by random integration of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Hyun-Ju; Park, Joong Min; Seo, Min Jae; Kim, Myoung-Dong; Han, Nam Soo

    2008-09-01

    In 2004, Leuconostoc mesenteroides DRC was first used as a starter culture for achieving higher organoleptic effects in Korean kimchi manufacture. For a better understanding of starter growth in a mixed culture system, and for predicting starter predominance in kimchi, a monitoring system for the starter was established. The chloramphenicol resistance marker gene (cat) was randomly integrated into chromosomal DNA of L. mesenteroides DRC using a viral transposon and transposase. The DRC mutant, tDRC2, had a similar growth pattern to the host strain, with no major alteration in phenotypic characteristics. The mutant strain was inoculated into real kimchi, and monitoring of the starter population was successfully achieved. The overall predominance of Leuconostoc in kimchi inoculated with DRC followed the general growth pattern of this genus during kimchi fermentation. Our results also demonstrate the competitive ability of the DRC starter against Leuconostoc from natural flora, maintaining its predominance above 88% during the whole fermentation period. Based on this experiment, the random gene integration method using a transposon was shown to be of utility in transferring any commercial starter into a selectable and monitorable strain for simulation purposes.

  3. A CMOS Integrated CC-ISFET Device for Water Quality Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan Whig

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a performance analysis of low power CMOS Integrated Current Conveyor Ion Sensitive Field Effect transistor (CC-ISFET. The studys main focus is on simulation of power and performance analysis of ISFET device, which is used for water quality monitoring. This approach can improve calibration of device to a fairly wide range without the use of a high speed digital processor. The conventional devices generally used, consume high power and are not stable with temperature and frequency variations for long term monitoring. The conventional device [1] has a drawback of low value of slew rate, high power consumption, and non linear characteristics but in this novel design, the device exhibits a better slew rate, piece-wise linear characteristics, and seen consuming low power of the order of 5.7W. The functionality of the circuit is tested using Tanner simulator version 15 for a 70nm CMOS process model. Very high speed integrated circuit Hardware description language (VHDL code for the same scheme is simulated on Xilinx ISE 10.1 and various simulation results are obtained. The proposed circuit reduces total power consumption per cycle, increases speed of operation, fairly linear and is simple to implement.This device has a simple architecture, and hence is very suitable for water quality monitoring applications.

  4. The environment, international standards, asset health management and condition monitoring: An integrated strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roe, S. [CSD, British Institute of Non-Destructive Testing (BINDT) (United Kingdom); Mba, D. [School of Engineering, Cranfield University, MK43 0AL, Bedfordshire (United Kingdom)], E-mail: d.mba@cranfield.ac.uk

    2009-02-15

    Asset Health Management (AHM), supported by condition monitoring (CM) and performance measuring technologies, together with trending, modelling and diagnostic frameworks, is not only critical to the reliability of high-value machines, but also to a companies Overall Equipment Efficiency (OEE), system safety and profitability. In addition these protocols are also critical to the global concern of the environment. Industries involved with monitoring key performances indicators (KPI) to improve OEE would benefit from a standardised qualification and certification scheme for their personnel, particularly if it is based on internationally accepted procedures for the various CM technologies that also share the same objectives as AH and CM. Furthermore, the development of 'models' for implementation of a Carbon tax is intrinsically dependent on the integrity and accuracy of measurements contributing to these indicators. This paper reviews the global picture of condition monitoring, the environment and related international standards and then considers their relationship and equivalent global objectives. In addition, it presents the methods behind the development of such standards for certification of competence in personnel involved with data collection, modelling and measurements of KPIs. Two case studies are presented that highlight the integrated strategy in practise.

  5. Preliminary survey of integrated monitoring system for transmission liens. Sodensen sogo kanshi system no yobi kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasano, Takao; Nishiyama, Fumihiko

    1988-04-01

    The integrated monitoring system of transmission lines utilizing ground wire with built-in optical fibres(OPGW) which was put to practical use was surveyed. The overhead transmission lines have potential to be impeded supply owing to the line exposure to severe natural envioronment or by the change of surrounding environment such as trees, buildings under lines and ground or by deterioration of equipments. This report describes the system to monitor integrally the transmission lines by using OPGW or sensor technology to maintain and operate with higher reliability and lower cost and to reflect in the design, except the conventional maintenance and checking. The effect to foresee and prevent accidents is expected from this system, but the regional difference must be considered. This system can provide continously reliable monitoring, collection of maintenance informations and operation support and further can provide accident informations to be used in the design through the evaluation. It is necessary to use highly reliable repeaters for optical informations, protect instruments under intense field, prevent malfunction and develop the auto-movable robot for taking picture and local weather prediction system in order to realize this system. (5 figs, 6 tabs, 8 refs)

  6. Integrated sUAS Greenhouse Gas Measurements and Imagery for Land Use Emissions Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, L.; Wyngaard, J.; Galford, G. L.; Adair, C.

    2016-12-01

    Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Uses (AFOLU) constitute the second largest anthropogenic source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions globally. Agriculture is the dominant source of emissions within that sector. There are a variety of agricultural land management strategies that can be implemented to reduce GHG emissions, but determining the best strategies is challenging. Emissions estimates are currently derived from GHG monitoring methods (e.g., static chambers, eddy flux towers) that are time and labor intensive, expensive, and use in-situ equipment. These methods lack the flexible, spatio-temporal monitoring necessary to reduce the high uncertainty in regional GHG emissions estimates. Small Unmanned Aerial Systems (sUAS) provide the rapid response data collection needed to monitor important field management events (e.g., manure spreading). Further, the ease of deployment of sUAS makes monitoring large regional extents over full-seasons more viable. To our knowledge, we present the first integration of sUAS remotely sensed imagery and GHG concentrations in agriculture and land use monitoring. We have developed and tested open-source hardware and software utilizing low-cost equipment (e.g., NDIR gas sensors and Canon cameras). Initial results show agreement with more traditional, proprietary equipment but at a fraction of the costs. Here we present data from test flights over agricultural areas under various management practices. The suite of data includes sUAS overpasses for imagery and CO2 concentration measurements, paired with field-based GHG measurements (static chambers). We have developed a set of best practices for sUAS data collection (e.g., time of day effects variability in localized atmospheric GHG concentrations) and discuss currently known challenges (e.g., accounting for external environmental factors such as wind speed). We present results on all sUAS GHG sampling methods paired with imagery and simultaneous static chamber monitoring for a

  7. Integrated Health Monitoring and Fast on-Line Actuator Reconfiguration Enhancement (IHM-FLARE) System for Air Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SSCI proposes to develop innovative algorithms for the integration of Health Monitoring (HM) subsystem with the existing FLARE (Fast on-Line Actuator Reconfiguration...

  8. Identification of Metrics to Monitor Salt Marsh Integrity on National Wildlife Refuges In Relation to Conservation and Management Objectives

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We used SDM to guide selection of variables for monitoring the ecological integrity of salt marshes within the National Wildlife Refuge System (NWRS). Our objectives...

  9. Miniaturized Integrated Platform for Electrical and Optical Monitoring of Cell Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costin Brasoveanu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The following paper describes the design and functions of a miniaturized integrated platform for optical and electrical monitoring of cell cultures and the necessary steps in the fabrication and testing of a silicon microchip Micro ElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS-based technology for cell data recording, monitoring and stimulation. The silicon microchip consists of a MEMS machined device containing a shank of 240 μm width, 3 mm long and 50 μm thick and an enlarged area of 5 mm × 5 mm hosting the pads for electrical connections. Ten platinum electrodes and five sensors are placed on the shank and are connected with the external electronics through the pads. The sensors aim to monitor the pH, the temperature and the impedance of the cell culture. The electrodes are bidirectional and can be used both for electrical potential recording and stimulation of cells. The fabrication steps are presented, along with the electrical and optical characterization of the system. The target of the research is to develop a new and reconfigurable platform according to the particular applications needs, as a tool for the biologist, chemists and medical doctors working is the field of cell culture monitoring in terms of growth, maintenance conditions, reaction to electrical or chemical stimulation (drugs, toxicants, etc.. HaCaT (Immortalised Human Keratinocyte cell culture has been used for demonstration purposes in order to provide information on the platform electrical and optical functions.

  10. Monitoring Strategies for REDD+: Integrating Field, Airborne, and Satellite Observations of Amazon Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Douglas; Souza, Carlos, Jr.; Souza, Carlos, Jr.; Keller, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale tropical forest monitoring efforts in support of REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation plus enhancing forest carbon stocks) confront a range of challenges. REDD+ activities typically have short reporting time scales, diverse data needs, and low tolerance for uncertainties. Meeting these challenges will require innovative use of remote sensing data, including integrating data at different spatial and temporal resolutions. The global scientific community is engaged in developing, evaluating, and applying new methods for regional to global scale forest monitoring. Pilot REDD+ activities are underway across the tropics with support from a range of national and international groups, including SilvaCarbon, an interagency effort to coordinate US expertise on forest monitoring and resource management. Early actions on REDD+ have exposed some of the inherent tradeoffs that arise from the use of incomplete or inaccurate data to quantify forest area changes and related carbon emissions. Here, we summarize recent advances in forest monitoring to identify and target the main sources of uncertainty in estimates of forest area changes, aboveground carbon stocks, and Amazon forest carbon emissions.

  11. An integrated approach to monitoring ecosystem services and agriculture: implications for sustainable agricultural intensification in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Melissa F; Bonham, Curan A; Dempewolf, Jan; Arakwiye, Bernadette

    2017-01-01

    Maintaining the long-term sustainability of human and natural systems across agricultural landscapes requires an integrated, systematic monitoring system that can track crop productivity and the impacts of agricultural intensification on natural resources. This study presents the design and practical implementation of a monitoring framework that combines satellite observations with ground-based biophysical measurements and household surveys to provide metrics on ecosystem services and agricultural production at multiple spatial scales, reaching from individual households and plots owned by smallholder farmers to 100-km(2) landscapes. We developed a set of protocols for monitoring and analyzing ecological and agricultural household parameters within two 10 × 10-km landscapes in Rwanda, including soil fertility, crop yield, water availability, and fuelwood sustainability. Initial results suggest providing households that rely on rainfall for crop irrigation with timely climate information and improved technical inputs pre-harvest could help increase crop productivity in the short term. The value of the monitoring system is discussed as an effective tool for establishing a baseline of ecosystem services and agriculture before further change in land use and climate, identifying limitations in crop production and soil fertility, and evaluating food security, economic development, and environmental sustainability goals set forth by the Rwandan government.

  12. The background simulations for the integral X-ray monitor JEM-X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feroci, M.; Rapisarda, M.; Costa, E.;

    1999-01-01

    The JEM-X experiment (Joint European X-ray Monitor, Lund et al. (1998) and Westergaard and Lund (1998)) is the X-ray monitor of the INTEGRAL satellite. It is a coded aperture, high pressure microstrip proportional counter. It will operate in the primary energy range from 3 to 35 keV (with...... and transported through a very detailed model of the JEM-X detector....... extensions up to 100 keV), covering the central 6.6 degrees (FWHM) of the fields of view of the Imager and Spectrometer experiments. In this paper we show the latest background prediction for JEM-X, obtained by a Monte Carlo simulation based on the codes MCNP and GEANT. The local radiation environment used...

  13. On the relevance of efficient, integrated computer and network monitoring in HEP distributed online environment

    CERN Document Server

    Carvalho, D F; Delgado, V; Albert, J N; Bellas, N; Javello, J; Miere, Y; Ruffinoni, D; Smith, G

    1996-01-01

    Large Scientific Equipments are controlled by Computer System whose complexity is growing driven, on the one hand by the volume and variety of the information, its distributed nature, thhe sophistication of its trearment and, on the over hand by the fast evolution of the computer and network market. Some people call them generically Large-Scale Distributed Data Intensive Information Systems or Distributed Computer Control Systems (DCCS) for those systems dealing more with real time control. Taking advantage of (or forced by) the distributed architecture, the tasks are more and more often implemented as Client-Server applications. In this frame- work the monitoring of the computer nodes, the communications network and the applications becomes of primary importance for ensuring the safe running and guaranteed performance of the system. With the future generation of HEP experiments, such as those at the LHC in view, it is to integrate the various functions of DCCS monitoring into one general purpose Multi-layer ...

  14. On the Relevancy of Efficient, Integrated Computer and Network Monitoring in HEP Distributed Online Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, D.; Gavillet, Ph.; Delgado, V.; Albert, J. N.; Bellas, N.; Javello, J.; Miere, Y.; Ruffinoni, D.; Smith, G.

    Large Scientific Equipments are controlled by Computer Systems whose complexity is growing driven, on the one hand by the volume and variety of the information, its distributed nature, the sophistication of its treatment and, on the other hand by the fast evolution of the computer and network market. Some people call them genetically Large-Scale Distributed Data Intensive Information Systems or Distributed Computer Control Systems (DCCS) for those systems dealing more with real time control. Taking advantage of (or forced by) the distributed architecture, the tasks are more and more often implemented as Client-Server applications. In this framework the monitoring of the computer nodes, the communications network and the applications becomes of primary importance for ensuring the safe running and guaranteed performance of the system. With the future generation of HEP experiments, such as those at the LHC in view, it is proposed to integrate the various functions of DCCS monitoring into one general purpose Multi-layer System.

  15. Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program - Entiat River Snorkel Surveys and Rotary Screw Trap, 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelle, R.D.

    2008-01-01

    The USFWS Mid-Columbia River Fishery Resource Office conducted snorkel surveys at 24 sites during the summer and fall periods of 2006 survey periods as part of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program in the Entiat River. A total of 37,938 fish from 15 species/genera and an unknown category were enumerated. Chinook salmon were the overall most common fish observed and comprised 15% of fish enumerated followed by rainbow trout (10%) and mountain whitefish (7%). Day surveys were conducted during the summer period 2007 (August), while night surveys were conducted during the fall 2007 (October) surveys. The USFWS Mid-Columbia River Fishery Resource Office (MCFRO) operated two rotary screw traps on the Entiat River as part of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program (ISEMP) program from August through November of 2007. Along with the smolt traps, juvenile emigrants were also captured at remote locations throughout the Entiat watershed and its major tributary, the Mad River. A total of 999 wild Oncorhynchus mykiss and 5,107 wild run O. tshawytscha were PIT tagged during the study period. Rotary screw trap efficiencies averaged 22.3% for juvenile O. tshawytscha and 9.0% for juvenile O. mykiss. Rotary screw traps operated 7 days a week and remote capture operations were conducted when flow and temperature regimes permitted. This is third annual progress report to Bonneville Power Administration for the snorkel surveys conducted in the Entiat River as related to long-term effectiveness monitoring of restoration programs in this watershed. The objective of this study is to monitor the fish habitat utilization of planned in-stream restoration efforts in the Entiat River by conducting pre- and post-construction snorkel surveys at selected treatment and control sites.

  16. Annual Report of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program: Fiscal Year 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terraqua, Inc. (Wauconda, WA)

    2009-07-20

    This document was created as an annual report detailing the accomplishments of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program (ISEMP) in the Upper Columbia Basin in fiscal year 2008. The report consists of sub-chapters that reflect the various components of the program. Chapter 1 presents a report on programmatic coordination and accomplishments, and Chapters 2 through 4 provide a review of how ISEMP has progressed during the 2008 fiscal year in each of the pilot project subbasins: the John Day (Chapter 2), Wenatchee/Entiat (Chapter 3) and Salmon River (Chapter 4). Chapter 5 presents a report on the data management accomplishments in 2008.

  17. Applicability of polar organic compound integrative samplers for monitoring pesticides in groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berho, Catherine; Togola, Anne; Coureau, Charlotte; Ghestem, Jean-Philippe; Amalric, Laurence

    2013-08-01

    Polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCISs) for the monitoring of polar pesticides in groundwater were tested on two sites in order to evaluate their applicability by comparison with the spot-sampling approach. This preliminary study shows that, as in surface water, POCIS is a useful tool, especially for the screening of substances at low concentration levels that are not detected by laboratory analysis of spot samples. For quantitative results, a rough estimation is obtained. The challenge is now to define the required water-flow conditions for a relevant quantification of pesticides in groundwater and to establish more representative sampling rates for groundwater.

  18. Conformally integrated stent cell resonators for wireless monitoring of peripheral artery disease

    KAUST Repository

    Viswanath, Anupam

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the design and in vitro evaluation of magnetoelastic sensors intended for wireless monitoring of tissue accumulation in peripheral artery stents. The sensors, shaped like stent cells, are fabricated from 28-μm thick foils of magnetoelastic Ni-Fe alloy and are conformally integrated with the stent. The typical sensitivity to viscosity is 427 ppm/cP over a 1.1-8.6 cP range. The sensitivity to mass loading is typically 63,000-65000 ppm/mg with resonant frequency showing an 8.1% reduction for an applied mass that is 15% of the unloaded mass of the sensor. © 2013 IEEE.

  19. Integrated procedures and monitoring methodologies for thermographic investigations of architectural heritage: two applicative cases in Sicily, Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianco, A., E-mail: alessia.bianco@unirc.it [Mediterranea Univ., PAU Dept., Reggio Calabria (Italy); A and M Univ., Center for Heritage Conservation, Texas (United States)

    2013-03-15

    The paper explains some opportunities and limitations of thermographic investigations in terms of their capability to define the conservative conditions of architectural heritage and in terms of the historical recollection for a technical diagnosis. Different approaches are demonstrated in two case studies: the first integrates thermography with other investigative methods; the second combines thermographic monitoring with hygrothermal monitoring. (author)

  20. Self-contained GPS integrity monitoring using a censored Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBurney, Paul W.; Brown, R. Grover

    AT least two approaches to GPS integrity monitoring have been presented which are based on the statistics of the measurement residuals from redundant satellites. However, the parameter of interest in the civil aviation community is the horizontal protection and not the measurement residuals. Thus, most tests suffer from providing only a weak inference about the horizontal protection. This work attempts to firm up this connection by placing the final integrity check in the horizontal plane. An algorithm is presented which censors the measurement residuals from one measurement source and determines the effect on the horizontal position estimate. The final test is a two-confidence-region overlap test about the horizontal position estimates. Analytic expressions are developed for the alarm and miss rate as well as the horizontal protection level. Simulation results are also presented which show the effectiveness of the scheme in detecting incipient satellite clock failures in the presence of selective availability.

  1. Monitoring solute fluxes: Integrating electrical resistivity with multi-compartment sampler techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloem, Esther; Fernandez, Perrine; French, Helen K.

    2016-04-01

    The impact of agriculture, industry, airport activities on soil and water quality is strongly influenced by soil heterogeneity. To improve risk assessment, monitoring, and treatment strategies, we require a better understanding of the effect of soil heterogeneity on contaminant movement and better methods for monitoring heterogeneous contaminated transport. Sufficient characterization of spatial and temporal distribution of contaminant transport requires measurements of water and solute fluxes at multiple locations with a high temporal resolution. During this presentation, we will show a newly developed instrument, which combines multi-compartment sampling with electrical resistivity measurements, to observe spatial and temporal fluxes of contaminants. Solute monitoring is often limited to observations of resident concentrations, while flux concentrations govern the movement of solutes in soils. Bloem et al. (2010) developed a multi-compartment sampler (MCS) which is capable of measuring fluxes at a high spatial resolution under natural conditions. The sampler is divided into 100 separate compartments of 31 by 31 mm. Flux data can be recorded at a high time resolution (every 5 minutes). Tracer leaching can be monitored by frequently sampling the collected leachate while leaving the sampler buried in situ. To optimize the monitoring of tracer leaching and measure real solute fluxes the multi-compartment sampler has been extended with 121 electrodes. The electrodes are mounted at each corner of each compartment to measure the electrical conductivity above each compartment while water percolates through the compartments. By using different electrode couples, the setup can also be used to image above the multi-compartment sampler. The instrument can be used for detailed studies both in the laboratory and in the field. For laboratory experiments a transparent column is used which fits perfect on top of the MCS. We present a selection of the integrated electrical

  2. Reviews and synthesis: Carbon capture and storage monitoring - an integrated biological, biophysical and chemical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, N.; Vik, U.; Taylor, P.; Ladoukakis, E.; Park, J.; Kolisis, F.; Stahl, H.; Jakobsen, K. S.

    2015-06-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a developing technology that seeks to mitigate against the impact of increasing anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) production by capturing CO2 from large point source emitters. After capture the CO2 is compressed and transported to a reservoir where it is stored for geological time scales. Potential leakages from CCS projects, where stored CO2 migrates through the overlaying sediments, are likely to have severe implications on benthic and marine ecosystems. Nonetheless, prokaryotic response to elevated CO2 concentrations has been suggested as one of the first detectable warnings if a CO2 leakage should occur. Applying properties of prokaryotic communities (i.e. community composition and metabolic status) as a novel CO2 monitoring application is highly reliable within a multidisciplinary framework, where deviations from the baseline can easily be identified. In this paper we review current knowledge about the impact of CO2 leakages on marine sediments from a multidisciplinary-based monitoring perspective. We focus on aspects from the fields of biology, geophysics, and chemistry, and discuss a case study example. We argue the importance of an integrative multidisciplinary approach, incorporating biogeochemistry, geophysics, microbial ecology and modelling, with a particular emphasis on metagenomic techniques and novel bioinformatics, for future CCS monitoring. Within this framework, we consider that an effective CCS monitoring programme will ensure that large-scale leakages with potentially devastating effects for the overlaying ecosystem are avoided. Furthermore, the multidisciplinary approach suggested here for CCS monitoring is generic, and can be adapted to other systems of interest.

  3. The INTEGRAL long monitoring of persistent Ultra Compact X-ray Bursters

    CERN Document Server

    Fiocchi, M; Ubertini, P; Bird, A J; Natalucci, L; Sguera, V

    2008-01-01

    The combination of compact objects, short period variability and peculiar chemical composition of the Ultra Compact X-ray Binaries make up a very interesting laboratory to study accretion processes and thermonuclear burning on the neutron star surface. The improved large optical telescopes and more sensitive X-ray satellites have increased the number of known Ultra Compact X-ray Binaries allowing their study with unprecedented detail. We analyze the average properties common to all ultra compact Bursters observed by INTEGRAL from ~0.2keV to ~150keV. We have performed a systematic analysis of the INTEGRAL public data and Key-Program proprietary observations of a sample of the Ultra Compact X-ray Binaries. In order to study their average properties in a very broad energy band, we combined INTEGRAL with BeppoSAX and SWIFT data whenever possible. For sources not showing any significant flux variations along the INTEGRAL monitoring, we build the average spectrum by combining all available data; in the case of vari...

  4. Integrated knowledge-based tools for documenting and monitoring damages to built heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciotti, R.

    2015-08-01

    The advancements of information technologies as applied to the most diverse fields of science define a breakthrough in the accessibility and processing of data for both expert and non-expert users. Nowadays it is possible to evidence an increasingly relevant research effort in the context of those domains, such as that of cultural heritage protection, in which knowledge mapping and sharing constitute critical prerequisites for accomplishing complex professional tasks. The aim of this paper is to outline the main results and outputs of the MONDIS research project. This project focusses on the development of integrated knowledge-based tools grounded on an ontological representation of the field of heritage conservation. The scope is to overcome the limitations of earlier databases by the application of modern semantic technologies able to integrate, organize and process useful information concerning damages to built heritage objects. In particular MONDIS addresses the need for supporting a diverse range of stakeholders (e.g. administrators, owners and professionals) in the documentation and monitoring of damages to historical constructions and in finding related remedies. The paper concentrates on the presentation of the following integrated knowledgebased components developed within the project: (I) MONDIS mobile application (plus desktop version), (II) MONDIS record explorer, (III) Ontomind profiles, (IV) knowledge matrix and (V) terminology editor. An example of practical application of the MONDIS integrated system is also provided and finally discussed.

  5. Integrating ALOS-2 and Sentinel-1 InSAR data for systematic volcano deformation monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, James; Biggs, Juliet; Ebmeier, Susanna; Parker, Amy

    2016-04-01

    The recent launches of the Sentinel-1 and ALOS-2 satellites provide a wealth of new Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data for Earth observation purposes. We exploit these data for volcano deformation monitoring with a particular focus on Latin America, which is nominated as a priority target area under the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites volcano pilot program. By conducting an integrated survey that employs both Sentinel-1 and ALOS-2 we are able to achieve previously unprecedented levels of spatial and temporal resolution and combat decorrelation arising from vegetation cover. Latin America is an ideal target region as it has a diversity of geographic volcano locations (e.g., dense rainforest to high-altitude deserts), as well as abundant and varied volcanic activity. The numerous local volcano observatories can also directly benefit from this additional InSAR data when integrating it alongside ground-based observations. To further facilitate this impact we are directing our data outputs to a global volcano deformation database in near-real-time to provide a first-order access point for observatory staff and research scientists in need of satellite-derived ground-deformation results. We will draw upon a selection of case studies within Latin America to demonstrate our approach and how it can enhance volcano monitoring and eruption forecasting efforts.

  6. Methodological approach for an integrated environmental monitoring system relative to heavy metals from an incineration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morselli, L.; Passarini, F.; Zamagni, E.; Brusori, B. [Bologna Univ., Bologna (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica Industriale e dei Materiali, Facolta' di Chimica Industriale

    2000-12-01

    The use of an integrated environmental monitoring system is an innovative and very important approach for the determination of environmental impacts due to a contamination source. In the present work, the methodological approach is described and applied to the case study of a MSW incineration plant. Heavy metals were chosen as Environmental Indicators. Gaseous emissions were measured and correlated to wet and dry depositions, soil and vegetation samples. Results show a good correlation between stack emissions and atmospheric deposition; less with soil and vegetation, but these results are important in order to design a standard procedure for an Integrated Monitoring System. [Italian] L'uso di un Sistema Integrato di Monitoraggio Ambientale rappresenta un approccio innovativo ed estremamente importante per la determinazione degli impatti ambientali derivanti da una fonte di contaminazione. Nel presente lavoro questo approccio metodologico viene descritto e applicato al caso studio di un impianto di incenerimento di Rifiuti Solidi Urbani. I metalli pesanti sono stati scelti come Indicatori Ambientali. Le emissioni gassose dal camino sono state misurate e correlate con le deposizioni secche ed umide e con alcuni campioni di suolo e di vegetazione. I risultati mettono in rilievo una buona correlazione tra emissioni al camino e deposizioni atmosferiche; meno con suolo e vegetali, ma i risultati rimangono importanti ai fini della definizione di una procedura generale di riferimento per un Sistema Integrato di Monitoraggio.

  7. An integrated system for the online monitoring of particle therapy treatment accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorina, E.

    2016-07-01

    Quality assurance in hadrontherapy remains an open issue that can be addressed with reliable monitoring of treatment accuracy. The INSIDE (INnovative SolutIons for DosimEtry in hadrontherapy) project aims to develop an integrated online monitoring system based on two dedicated PET panels and a tracking system, called Dose Profiler. The proposed solution is designed to operate in-beam and provide an immediate feedback on the particle range acquiring both photons produced by β+ decays and prompt secondary particle signals. Monte Carlo simulations cover an important role both in the system development, by confirming the design feasibility, and in the system operation, by understanding data. A FLUKA-based integrated simulation was developed taking into account the hadron beam structure, the phantom/patient features and the PET detector and Dose Profiler specifications. In addition, to reduce simulation time in signal generation on PET detectors, a two-step technique has been implemented and validated. The first PET modules were tested in May 2015 at the Centro Nazionale Adroterapia Oncologica (CNAO) in Pavia (Italy) with very satisfactory results: in-spill, inter-spill and post-treatment PET images were reconstructed and a quantitative agreement between data and simulation was found.

  8. An integrated system for the online monitoring of particle therapy treatment accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorina, E., E-mail: fiorina@to.infn.it [Università degli Studi di Torino, Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) (Italy)

    2016-07-11

    Quality assurance in hadrontherapy remains an open issue that can be addressed with reliable monitoring of treatment accuracy. The INSIDE (INnovative SolutIons for DosimEtry in hadrontherapy) project aims to develop an integrated online monitoring system based on two dedicated PET panels and a tracking system, called Dose Profiler. The proposed solution is designed to operate in-beam and provide an immediate feedback on the particle range acquiring both photons produced by β{sup +} decays and prompt secondary particle signals. Monte Carlo simulations cover an important role both in the system development, by confirming the design feasibility, and in the system operation, by understanding data. A FLUKA-based integrated simulation was developed taking into account the hadron beam structure, the phantom/patient features and the PET detector and Dose Profiler specifications. In addition, to reduce simulation time in signal generation on PET detectors, a two-step technique has been implemented and validated. The first PET modules were tested in May 2015 at the Centro Nazionale Adroterapia Oncologica (CNAO) in Pavia (Italy) with very satisfactory results: in-spill, inter-spill and post-treatment PET images were reconstructed and a quantitative agreement between data and simulation was found.

  9. Monitoring of Structural Integrity of Composite Structures by Embedded Optical Fiber Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osei, Albert J.

    2002-01-01

    Real time monitoring of the mechanical integrity and stresses on key aerospace composite structures like aircraft wings, walls of pressure vessels and fuel tanks or any other structurally extended components and panels as in space telescopes is very important to NASA. Future military and commercial aircraft as well as NASA space systems such as Space Based Radar and International Space Station will incorporate a monitoring system to sense any degradation to the structure. In the extreme flight conditions of an aerospace vehicle it might be desirable to measure the strain every ten centimeters and thus fully map out the strain field of a composite component. A series of missions and vehicle health management requirements call for these measurements. At the moment thousands of people support a few vehicle launches per year. This number can be significantly reduced by implementing intelligent vehicles with integral nervous systems (smart structures). This would require maintenance to be performed only as needed. Military and commercial aircrafts have an equally compelling case. Maintenance yearly costs are currently reaching astronomical heights. Monitoring techniques are therefore required that allow for maintenance to be performed only when needed. This would allow improved safety by insuring that necessary tasks are performed while reducing costs by eliminating procedures that are costly and not needed. The advantages fiber optical sensors have over conventional electro-mechanical systems like strain gauges have been widely extolled in the research literature. These advantages include their small size, low weight, immunity to electrical resistance, corrosion resistance, compatibility with composite materials and process conditions, and multiplexing capabilities. One fiber optic device which is suitable for distributed sensing is the fiber Bragg grating (FBG). Researchers at NASA MSFC are currently developing techniques for using FBGs for monitoring the integrity of

  10. Critical aspects of integrated monitoring systems for landslides risk management: strategies for a reliable approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagnetti, C.; Bertacchini, E.; Capra, A.; Corsini, A.

    2012-04-01

    The use of advanced technologies for remotely monitor surface processes is a successful way for improving the knowledge of phenomena evolution. In addition, the integration of various techniques is becoming more and more common in order to implement early warning systems that can monitor the evolution of landslides in time and prevent emergencies. The reliability of those systems plays a key role when Public Administrations have to plan actions in case of disasters or for preventing an incoming emergency. To have confidence in the information given by the system is an essential condition for a successful policy aiming to protect the population. The research deals with the major critical aspects to be taken into account when implementing a reliable monitoring system for unstable slopes. The importance of those aspects is often neglected, unlike the effects of a not careful implementation and management of the system can lead to erroneous interpretations of the phenomenon itself. The case study which ruled the research and highlighted the actual need of guidelines for setting up a reliable monitoring system is the Valoria landslide, located in the Northern Italy. The system is based on the integration of an automatic Total Station (TS) measuring 45 reflectors and a master GPS, acting as the reference station for three rovers placed within the landslide. In order to monitor local disturbing effects, a bi-dimensional clinometer has been applied on the TS pillar. Topographic measurements have been also integrated with geotechnical sensors (inclinometers and piezometers) in a GIS for landslide risk management. At the very beginning, periodic measurements were carried out, while the system is now performing continuously since 2008. The system permitted to evaluate movements from few millimeter till some meters per day in most dangerous areas. A more spatially continuous description has been also provided by LiDAR and terrestrial SAR interferometry. Some of the most

  11. Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program - Entiat River Snorkel Surveys, 2006-2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelle, R.D.

    2007-10-01

    The USFWS Mid-Columbia River Fishery Resource Office conducted snorkel surveys at 11 sites during the summer 2006 survey period and at 15 sites during fall 2006 and winter 2007 survey periods as part of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program in the Entiat River. A total of 39,898 fish from 14 species/genera and an unknown category were enumerated. Chinook salmon were the overall most common fish observed and comprised 19% of fish enumerated followed by mountain whitefish (18%) and rainbow trout (14%). Day and night surveys were conducted during the summer 2006 period (August), while night surveys were conducted during the fall 2006 (October) and winter 2007 (February/March) surveys. This is second annual progress report to Bonneville Power Administration for the snorkel surveys conducted in the Entiat River as related to long-term effectiveness monitoring of restoration programs in this watershed. The objective of this study is to monitor the fish habitat utilization of planned in-stream restoration efforts in the Entiat River by conducting pre- and post-construction snorkel surveys at selected treatment and control sites.

  12. Assessing airborne pollution effects on bryophytes - lessons learned through long-term integrated monitoring in Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zechmeister, H.G. [Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, 1090 Vienna (Austria) and ecotox-Austria, Fleschgasse 22, Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: harald.zechmeister@univie.ac.at; Dirnboeck, T. [Umweltbundesamt, Spittelauer Laende 5, 1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: thomas.dirnboeck@umweltbundesamt.at; Huelber, K. [VINCA, Giessergasse 6/7, 1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: karl.huelber@vinca.at; Mirtl, M. [Umweltbundesamt, Spittelauer Laende 5, 1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: michael.mirtl@umweltbundesamt.at

    2007-06-15

    The study uses measured and calculated data on airborne pollutants, particularly nitrogen (ranges between 28 to 43 kg N*ha{sup -1}*yr{sup -1}) and sulphur (10 to 18 kg SO{sub 4}-S*ha{sup -1}*yr{sup -1}), in order to assess their long-term (1992 to 2005) effects on bryophytes at the UN-ECE Integrated Monitoring site 'Zoebelboden' in Austria. Bryophytes were used as reaction indicators on 20 epiphytic plots using the IM monitoring method and on 14 terrestrial plots using standardised photography. The plots were recorded in the years 1992, 1993, 1998, and 2004/2005. Most species remained stable in terms of their overall population size during the observed period, even though there were rapid turnover rates of a large percentage of species on all investigated plots. Only a few bryophytes (Hypnum cupressiforme, Leucodon sciuroides) responded unambiguously to N and S deposition. Nitrogen deposition had a weak but significant effect on the distribution of bryophyte communities. However, the time shifts in bryophyte communities did not depend on total deposition of N and S. - Bryophytes show ambiguous response to airborne pollutants during 14 years of monitoring in a forest ecosystem.

  13. Eight years of integrated monitoring in Alpine forest ecosystems of Trentino and South Tyrol, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruggero VALENTINOTTI

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available After the acute emergency of decline in European woodland at the beginning of 1980’s, forest health was the subject of several studies in Trentino and South-Tyrol. Since 1992 investigations focused on an integrated monitoring under the UN-ECE-ICP programme in 4 selected areas, 2 in subalpine Norway spruce woodland (Lavazè Pass and Renon, and 2 in thermophilous Pubescent oak woodland (Pomarolo and Monticolo. The interdisciplinary programme of integrated monitoring aimed to investigate the state of alpine semi-natural forests in relation to air pollution, anthropogenic stresses, climate changes and trophic-energetic balances. Assessment of forest health by means of crown conditions showed very low levels of defoliation and discoloration in the subalpine areas, while in the other ones the same parameters had slightly higher values. Every year and in all the sites the mean percentages values were always in class 0 and class 1, hence indicating no danger. Weather patterns showed the presence of occasional water deficit, albeit general trends were not observed. High level of pollution were never detected while the level of acidity in rainfall has been slightly decreasing in all the investigated plots. Only ozone showed higher values than normal but there was no correlation with any damage. Foliar mineral nutrient contents ranged quite always within the threshold level. Because of the few years of observation and the absence of relevant stress, it is not possible to get any indication about the relationship between the forest health status and the fungi community composition. The presence of some anomalous data and the growing concern on climate change give reason to the importance of a continuous monitoring action acquiring of comparable set of data, in order to get a better understanding of forest ecosystems response to stress and make progress in general ecological knowledge.

  14. Integrated environmental monitoring and multivariate data analysis-A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eide, Ingvar; Westad, Frank; Nilssen, Ingunn; de Freitas, Felipe Sales; Dos Santos, Natalia Gomes; Dos Santos, Francisco; Cabral, Marcelo Montenegro; Bicego, Marcia Caruso; Figueira, Rubens; Johnsen, Ståle

    2017-03-01

    The present article describes integration of environmental monitoring and discharge data and interpretation using multivariate statistics, principal component analysis (PCA), and partial least squares (PLS) regression. The monitoring was carried out at the Peregrino oil field off the coast of Brazil. One sensor platform and 3 sediment traps were placed on the seabed. The sensors measured current speed and direction, turbidity, temperature, and conductivity. The sediment trap samples were used to determine suspended particulate matter that was characterized with respect to a number of chemical parameters (26 alkanes, 16 PAHs, N, C, calcium carbonate, and Ba). Data on discharges of drill cuttings and water-based drilling fluid were provided on a daily basis. The monitoring was carried out during 7 campaigns from June 2010 to October 2012, each lasting 2 to 3 months due to the capacity of the sediment traps. The data from the campaigns were preprocessed, combined, and interpreted using multivariate statistics. No systematic difference could be observed between campaigns or traps despite the fact that the first campaign was carried out before drilling, and 1 of 3 sediment traps was located in an area not expected to be influenced by the discharges. There was a strong covariation between suspended particulate matter and total N and organic C suggesting that the majority of the sediment samples had a natural and biogenic origin. Furthermore, the multivariate regression showed no correlation between discharges of drill cuttings and sediment trap or turbidity data taking current speed and direction into consideration. Because of this lack of correlation with discharges from the drilling location, a more detailed evaluation of chemical indicators providing information about origin was carried out in addition to numerical modeling of dispersion and deposition. The chemical indicators and the modeling of dispersion and deposition support the conclusions from the multivariate

  15. Smart patch integration development of compression connector structural health monitoring in overhead transmission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Wang, Jy-An J.; Ren, Fei; Chan, John

    2016-04-01

    Integration of smart patches into full-tension splice connectors in overhead power transmission lines was investigated. Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) -5A was used as a smart material and an aluminum beam was used as a host structure. Negative electrode termination was examined by using copper adhesive tape and direct bonding methods. Various commercial adhesives were studied for PZT integration onto the host structure. Aluminum beam specimens with integrated PZT smart patches were tested under thermal cycling at a temperature of 125°C, which is the higher-end temperature experienced by in-service aluminum conductor steel-reinforced cables. Electromechanical impedance (EMI) measurements were conducted at room temperature, and the root mean square deviation (RMSD) of the conductance signals was used to analyze the EMI data. It has been shown that the negative electrode method has an important effect on the performance of the integrated PZT. The PZT displayed more susceptibility to cracking when copper tape was used than when direct bonding was used. The reliability of PZT in direct bonding depended on the adhesives used in bonding layers. Although a hard alumina-based adhesive can lead to cracking of the PZT, a high-temperature epoxy with adequate flexibility, such as Duralco 4538D, can provide the desired performance under target thermal cycling conditions. The RMSD parameter can characterize conductance signatures effectively. It also was demonstrated that RMSD can be used to quantify the fatigue of the PZT integration system, although RMSD is used primarily as a damage index in monitoring structural health.

  16. Fully integrated carbon nanotube composite thin film strain sensors on flexible substrates for structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, A. R.; Lynch, J. P.; Kurata, M.; Law, K. H.

    2017-09-01

    Multifunctional thin film materials have opened many opportunities for novel sensing strategies for structural health monitoring. While past work has established methods of optimizing multifunctional materials to exhibit sensing properties, comparatively less work has focused on their integration into fully functional sensing systems capable of being deployed in the field. This study focuses on the advancement of a scalable fabrication process for the integration of multifunctional thin films into a fully integrated sensing system. This is achieved through the development of an optimized fabrication process that can create a broad range of sensing systems using multifunctional materials. A layer-by-layer deposited multifunctional composite consisting of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) in a polyvinyl alcohol and polysodium-4-styrene sulfonate matrix are incorporated with a lithography process to produce a fully integrated sensing system deposited on a flexible substrate. To illustrate the process, a strain sensing platform consisting of a patterned SWNT-composite thin film as a strain-sensitive element within an amplified Wheatstone bridge sensing circuit is presented. Strain sensing is selected because it presents many of the design and processing challenges that are core to patterning multifunctional thin film materials into sensing systems. Strain sensors fabricated on a flexible polyimide substrate are experimentally tested under cyclic loading using standard four-point bending coupons and a partial-scale steel frame assembly under lateral loading. The study reveals the material process is highly repeatable to produce fully integrated strain sensors with linearity and sensitivity exceeding 0.99 and 5 {{V}}/{ε }, respectively. The thin film strain sensors are robust and are capable of high strain measurements beyond 3000 μ {ε }.

  17. Smart patch integration development of compression connector structural health monitoring in overhead transmission lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hong [ORNL; Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL; Ren, Fei [ORNL; Chan, John [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)

    2016-01-01

    Integration of smart patches into full-tension splice connectors in overhead power transmission lines was investigated. Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) -5A was used as a smart material and an aluminum beam was used as a host structure. Negative electrode termination was examined by using copper adhesive tape and direct bonding methods. Various commercial adhesives were studied for PZT integration onto the host structure. Aluminum beam specimens with integrated PZT smart patches were tested under thermal cycling at a temperature of 125 C, which is the higher-end temperature experienced by in-service aluminum conductor steel-reinforced cables. Electromechanical impedance (EMI) measurements were conducted at room temperature, and the root mean square deviation (RMSD) of the conductance signals was used to analyze the EMI data. It has been shown that the negative electrode method has an important effect on the performance of the integrated PZT. The PZT displayed more susceptibility to cracking when copper tape was used than when direct bonding was used. The reliability of PZT in direct bonding depended on the adhesives used in bonding layers. Although a hard alumina based adhesive can lead to cracking of the PZT, a high-temperature epoxy with adequate flexibility, such as Duralco 4538D, can provide the desired performance under target thermal cycling conditions. The RMSD parameter can characterize conductance signatures effectively. It also was demonstrated that RMSD can be used to quantify the fatigue of the PZT integration system, although RMSD is used primarily as a damage index in monitoring structural health.

  18. Integrated monitoring and information systems for managing aquatic invasive species in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Henry; Reusser, Deborah A.; Olden, Julian D.; Smith, Scott S.; Graham, Jim; Burkett, Virginia; Dukes, Jeffrey S.; Piorkowski, Robert J.; Mcphedran, John

    2008-01-01

    Changes in temperature, precipitation, and other climatic drivers and sea-level rise will affect populations of existing native and non-native aquatic species and the vulnerability of aquatic environments to new invasions. Monitoring surveys provide the foundation for assessing the combined effects of climate change and invasions by providing baseline biotic and environmental conditions, although the utility of a survey depends on whether the results are quantitative or qualitative, and other design considerations. The results from a variety of monitoring programs in the United States are available in integrated biological information systems, although many include only non-native species, not native species. Besides including natives, we suggest these systems could be improved through the development of standardized methods that capture habitat and physiological requirements and link regional and national biological databases into distributed Web portals that allow drawing information from multiple sources. Combining the outputs from these biological information systems with environmental data would allow the development of ecological-niche models that predict the potential distribution or abundance of native and non-native species on the basis of current environmental conditions. Environmental projections from climate models can be used in these niche models to project changes in species distributions or abundances under altered climatic conditions and to identify potential high-risk invaders. There are, however, a number of challenges, such as uncertainties associated with projections from climate and niche models and difficulty in integrating data with different temporal and spatial granularity. Even with these uncertainties, integration of biological and environmental information systems, niche models, and climate projections would improve management of aquatic ecosystems under the dual threats of biotic invasions and climate change

  19. Integrated hybrid polystyrene-polydimethylsiloxane device for monitoring cellular release with microchip electrophoresis and electrochemical detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Alicia S.; Mehl, Benjamin T.; Martin, R. Scott

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a polystyrene (PS)-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) hybrid device was developed to enable the integration of cell culture with analysis by microchip electrophoresis and electrochemical detection. It is shown that this approach combines the fundamental advantages of PDMS devices (the ability to integrate pumps and valves) and PS devices (the ability to permanently embed fluidic tubing and electrodes). The embedded fused-silica capillary enables high temporal resolution measurements from off-chip cell culture dishes and the embedded electrodes provide close to real-time analysis of small molecule neurotransmitters. A novel surface treatment for improved (reversible) adhesion between PS and PDMS is described using a chlorotrimethylsilane stamping method. It is demonstrated that a Pd decoupler is efficient at handling the high current (and cathodic hydrogen production) resulting from use of high ionic strength buffers needed for cellular analysis; thus allowing an electrophoretic separation and in-channel detection. The separation of norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) in highly conductive biological buffers was optimized using a mixed surfactant system. This PS-PDMS hybrid device integrates multiple processes including continuous sampling from a cell culture dish, on-chip pump and valving technologies, microchip electrophoresis, and electrochemical detection to monitor neurotransmitter release from PC 12 cells. PMID:25663849

  20. High-power fiber optic cable with integrated active sensors for live process monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomster, Ola; Blomqvist, Mats; Bergstrand, Hans; Pålsson, Magnus

    2012-03-01

    In industrial applications using high-brilliance lasers at power levels up to and exceeding 20 kW and similarly direct diode lasers of 10 kW, there is an increasing demand to continuously monitor component status even in passive components such as fiber-optic cables. With fiber-optic cables designed according to the European Automotive Industry fiber standard interface there is room for integrating active sensors inside the connectors. In this paper we present the integrated active sensors in the new Optoskand QD fiber-optic cable designed to handle extreme levels of power losses, and how these sensors can be employed in industrial manufacturing. The sensors include photo diodes for detection of scattered light inside the fiber connector, absolute temperature of the fiber connector, difference in temperature of incoming and outgoing cooling water, and humidity measurement inside the fiber connector. All these sensors are connected to the fiber interlock system, where interlock break enable functions can be activated when measured signals are higher than threshold levels. It is a very fast interlock break system as the control of the signals is integrated in the electronics inside the fiber connector. Also, since all signals can be logged it is possible to evaluate what happened inside the connector before the interlock break instance. The communication to the fiber-optic connectors is via a CAN interface. Thus it is straightforward to develop the existing laser host control to also control the CAN-messages from the QD sensors.

  1. GNSS receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM) algorithm based on robust estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanxi Yang; Junyi Xu

    2016-01-01

    Integrity is significant for safety-of-life applications. Receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM) has been developed to provide integrity service for civil aviation. At first, the conventional RAIM algorithm is only suitable for single fault detection, single GNSS constellation. However, multiple satellite failure should be considered when more than one satellite navigation system are adopted. To detect and exclude multi-fault, most cur-rent algorithms perform an iteration procedure considering all possible fault model which lead to heavy computation burden. An alternative RAIM is presented in this paper based on multiple satellite constellations (for example, GPS and BeiDou (BDS) etc.) and robust esti-mation for multi-fault detection and exclusion, which can not only detect multi-failures, but also control the influences of near failure observation. Besides, the RAIM algorithm based on robust estimation is more efficient than the current RAIM algorithm for multiple constellation and multiple faults. Finally, the algorithm is tested by GPS/BeiDou data.

  2. A better resolution for integrating methods for monitoring Plasmodium falciparum resistance to antimalarial drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Ghani, Rashad; Al-Maktari, Mohamed T; Al-Shibani, Latifa A; Allam, Amal F

    2014-09-01

    Effective chemotherapy is the mainstay of malaria control. However, resistance of falciparum malaria to antimalarial drugs compromised the efforts to eliminate the disease and led to the resurgence of malaria epidemics. Three main approaches are used to monitor antimalarial drug efficacy and drug resistance; namely, in vivo trials, in vitro/ex vivo assays and molecular markers of drug resistance. Each approach has its implications of use as well as its advantages and drawbacks. Therefore, there is a need to use an integrated approach that would give the utmost effect to detect resistance as early as its emergence and to track it once spread. Such integration becomes increasingly needed in the era of artemisinin-based combination therapy as a forward action to deter resistance. The existence of regional and global networks for the standardization of methodology, provision of high quality reagents for the assessment of antimalarial drug resistance and dissemination of open-access data would help in approaching an integrated resistance surveillance system on a global scale.

  3. The ISTIMES project: a new integrated system for monitoring critical transport infrastructures interested by natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proto, Monica; Massimo, Bavusi; Francesco, Soldovieri

    2010-05-01

    The research project "Integrated System for Transport Infrastructure surveillance and Monitoring by Electromagnetic Sensing" (ISTIMES), was approved in the 7th Framework Programme, in the Joint Call ICT and Security and started on 1st July 2009. The purpose of ISTIMES project is to design, assess and promote an ICT-based system, exploiting distributed and local sensors, for non-destructive electromagnetic monitoring in order to achieve the critical transport infrastructures more reliable and safe. The transportation sector's components are susceptible to the consequences of natural disasters and can also be attractive as terrorist targets. The sector's size, its physically dispersed and decentralized nature, the many public and private entities involved in its operations, the critical importance of cost considerations, and the inherent requirement of convenient accessibility to its services by all users - make the transportation particularly vulnerable to security and safety threats. As well known, the surface transportation system consists of interconnected infrastructures including highways, transit systems, railroads, airports, waterways, pipelines and ports, and the vehicles, aircraft, and vessels that operate along these networks. Thus, interdependencies exist between transportation and nearly every other sector of the economy and the effective operation of this system is essential to the European economic productivity; therefore, transportation sector protection is of paramount importance since threats to it may impact other industries that rely on it. The system exploits an open network architecture that can accommodate a wide range of sensors, static and mobile, and can be easily scaled up to allow the integration of additional sensors and interfacing with other networks. It relies on heterogeneous state-of-the-art electromagnetic sensors, enabling a self-organizing, self-healing, ad-hoc networking of terrestrial sensors, supported by specific satellite

  4. Monitoring of well integrity by magnetic imaging defectoscopy (MID) at the Ketzin pilot site, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemke, Kornelia; Liebscher, Axel; Möller, Fabian

    2017-04-01

    One of the key requirements for safe CO2 storage operation is to ensure wellbore integrity. The CO2 triggered acid in-well environment may lead to pitting and/or surface corrosion and eventually to fatigue of well casings and cementation by this giving raise to wellbore leakage. Corrosion effects are conventionally monitored by measurement of inner casing surface, internal diameter and wall thickness. Caliper logging provides inner surface and internal diameter data while ultrasonic tools measure both the internal diameter and casing thickness as well as the bonding between casing and cement. However, both tools can only monitor and characterize the most inner casing and ultrasonic tools in addition can only be applied in fluid filled wells. At the Ketzin CO2 storage test site, Germany, about 67 kt of CO2 were injected between June 2008 and August 2013 and an interdisciplinary monitoring concept was developed with focus on the storage complex, the overburden, the surface and the wellbores. Four deep wells penetrate the reservoir and their integrity has been monitored by a combination of video inspection, pulsed neutron gamma logging PNG and magnetic imaging defectoscopy MID. MID is an advanced logging method for non-destructive testing and has the great advantages that it can be operated in gas filled boreholes and that it provides information also for outer casings. The MID tool generates electromagnetic pulsed transient eddy currents and records the response of the surrounding media. The distribution and strength of the eddy-currents is then converted into averaged, depth-resolved thicknesses of the individual casings. Run in time-lapse mode, MID provides a measure to detect changes in casing thickness and therefore hints to corrosion. At Ketzin, the four deep wells haven been monitored by repeat MID logging on a roughly annual basis in cooperation with VNG Gasspeicher GmbH (VGS) and GAZPROMENERGODIAGNOSTIKA, applying their in-house MID tool. The MID based depth

  5. Description of Existing Data for Integrated Landscape Monitoring in the Puget Sound Basin, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Danielle P.; Torregrosa, Alicia; Jason, Allyson L.; Fuentes, Tracy L.; Josberger, Edward G.

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes existing geospatial data and monitoring programs for the Puget Sound Basin in northwestern Washington. This information was assembled as a preliminary data-development task for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Puget Sound Integrated Landscape Monitoring (PSILM) pilot project. The PSILM project seeks to support natural resource decision-making by developing a 'whole system' approach that links ecological processes at the landscape level to the local level (Benjamin and others, 2008). Part of this effort will include building the capacity to provide cumulative information about impacts that cross jurisdictional and regulatory boundaries, such as cumulative effects of land-cover change and shoreline modification, or region-wide responses to climate change. The PSILM project study area is defined as the 23 HUC-8 (hydrologic unit code) catchments that comprise the watersheds that drain into Puget Sound and their near-shore environments. The study area includes 13 counties and more than four million people. One goal of the PSILM geospatial database is to integrate spatial data collected at multiple scales across the Puget Sound Basin marine and terrestrial landscape. The PSILM work plan specifies an iterative process that alternates between tasks associated with data development and tasks associated with research or strategy development. For example, an initial work-plan goal was to delineate the study area boundary. Geospatial data required to address this task included data from ecological regions, watersheds, jurisdictions, and other boundaries. This assemblage of data provided the basis for identifying larger research issues and delineating the study-area boundary based on these research needs. Once the study-area boundary was agreed upon, the next iteration between data development and research activities was guided by questions about data availability, data extent, data abundance, and data types. This report is not intended as an exhaustive

  6. Integrated monitoring system for ground deformation hazard assessment in Telese Terme (Benevento province, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessitore, S.; Castiello, G.; Fedi, M.; Florio, G.; Fuschini, V.; Ramondini, M.; Calcaterra, D.

    2012-04-01

    TeleseTerme plain is characterized by a very articulated stratigraphy (levels of travertine, fluvial-marshy and pyroclastic deposits), that allows the occurrence of underground water circulation with overlapping aquifers. These aquifers are locally in pressure and, because of chemical characteristics and physical properties of the water, they may activate processes of accelerated travertine's corrosion; the consequence is the formation of cavity along the ground water's preferential flow paths, and the activation of subsidence and sinkholes phenomena. In particular test area includes two zones, where in 2002 and 2006 occurred two sinkholes events, classified as "piping sinkholes". The hazard evaluation was carried out trhought an integrated monitoring system, based on "traditional" techniques conduced "in situ", as geological-geomorphological and geophysical (microgravity) surveys, integrated by the most innovative techniques of Remote sensing interferometry(Advanced DInSAR Interferometry Techniques). The last allow to evaluate the ground deformation, characterized by a predominantvertical component (typical deformation of sinkholes and subsidence phenomena), and are well suited to operate a continuous and long monitoring ofvery extended areas. Through an initial analysis of the Permanent Scatterers available in the Telese municipality, we found the envelopes of the areal that contain PS with negative and positive mean velocities; these velocities showed the presence of a possible phenomenon of subsidence detected by ERS and ENVISAT satellites. Through interferometric processing of ENVISAT images, the soil deformations of 2002-2010 year sare evaluated and compared with the data obtainedby survey took "in situ" during the same period. The knowledge of the deformation's evolution of the area made it possible to organize a more focused future monitoring through traditional techniques of relief (with the help of geophysical methodologies). Since the zone affected by

  7. Integrating and Visualizing Tropical Cyclone Data Using the Real Time Mission Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, H. Michael; Blakeslee, Richard; Conover, Helen; Hall, John; He, Yubin; Regner, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    The Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) is a visualization and information system that fuses multiple Earth science data sources, to enable real time decision-making for airborne and ground validation experiments. Developed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, RTMM is a situational awareness, decision-support system that integrates satellite imagery, radar, surface and airborne instrument data sets, model output parameters, lightning location observations, aircraft navigation data, soundings, and other applicable Earth science data sets. The integration and delivery of this information is made possible using data acquisition systems, network communication links, network server resources, and visualizations through the Google Earth virtual globe application. RTMM is extremely valuable for optimizing individual Earth science airborne field experiments. Flight planners, scientists, and managers appreciate the contributions that RTMM makes to their flight projects. A broad spectrum of interdisciplinary scientists used RTMM during field campaigns including the hurricane-focused 2006 NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (NAMMA), 2007 NOAA-NASA Aerosonde Hurricane Noel flight, 2007 Tropical Composition, Cloud, and Climate Coupling (TC4), plus a soil moisture (SMAP-VEX) and two arctic research experiments (ARCTAS) in 2008. Improving and evolving RTMM is a continuous process. RTMM recently integrated the Waypoint Planning Tool, a Java-based application that enables aircraft mission scientists to easily develop a pre-mission flight plan through an interactive point-and-click interface. Individual flight legs are automatically calculated "on the fly". The resultant flight plan is then immediately posted to the Google Earth-based RTMM for interested scientists to view the planned flight track and subsequently compare it to the actual real time flight progress. We are planning additional capabilities to RTMM including collaborations with the Jet Propulsion

  8. Monitoring System for Storm Readiness and Recovery of Test Facilities: Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Fernando; Morris, Jon; Turowski, Mark; Franzl, Richard; Walker, Mark; Kapadia, Ravi; Venkatesh, Meera; Schmalzel, John

    2010-01-01

    Severe weather events are likely occurrences on the Mississippi Gulf Coast. It is important to rapidly diagnose and mitigate the effects of storms on Stennis Space Center's rocket engine test complex to avoid delays to critical test article programs, reduce costs, and maintain safety. An Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) approach and technologies are employed to integrate environmental (weather) monitoring, structural modeling, and the suite of available facility instrumentation to provide information for readiness before storms, rapid initial damage assessment to guide mitigation planning, and then support on-going assurance as repairs are effected and finally support recertification. The system is denominated Katrina Storm Monitoring System (KStorMS). Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) describes a comprehensive set of capabilities that provide insight into the behavior the health of a system. Knowing the status of a system allows decision makers to effectively plan and execute their mission. For example, early insight into component degradation and impending failures provides more time to develop work around strategies and more effectively plan for maintenance. Failures of system elements generally occur over time. Information extracted from sensor data, combined with system-wide knowledge bases and methods for information extraction and fusion, inference, and decision making, can be used to detect incipient failures. If failures do occur, it is critical to detect and isolate them, and suggest an appropriate course of action. ISHM enables determining the condition (health) of every element in a complex system-of-systems or SoS (detect anomalies, diagnose causes, predict future anomalies), and provide data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) to control systems for safe and effective operation. ISHM capability is achieved by using a wide range of technologies that enable anomaly detection, diagnostics, prognostics, and advise for control: (1

  9. Field Assessment and Specification Review for Roller-Integrated Compaction Monitoring Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. White

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Roller-integrated compaction monitoring (RICM technologies provide virtually 100-percent coverage of compacted areas with real-time display of the compaction measurement values. Although a few countries have developed quality control (QC and quality assurance (QA specifications, broader implementation of these technologies into earthwork construction operations still requires a thorough understanding of relationships between RICM values and traditional in situ point test measurements. The purpose of this paper is to provide: (a an overview of two technologies, namely, compaction meter value (CMV and machine drive power (MDP; (b a comprehensive review of field assessment studies, (c an overview of factors influencing statistical correlations, (d modeling for visualization and characterization of spatial nonuniformity; and (e a brief review of the current specifications.

  10. Three years monitoring survey of pesticide residues in Sardinia wines following integrated pest management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angioni, Alberto; Dedola, Fabrizio

    2013-05-01

    This paper reports the results of a pesticide monitoring survey on wine grapes from the 2008-2010 vintage from vineyards grown according to integrated pest management strategies. A multi-residue gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method in electron ionization and chemical ionization mode has been used for the determination of 30 pesticides in wine samples. The analytical method showed good recoveries and allowed a good separation of the selected pesticides. Repeatability and intermediate precision showed good results with CV < 20 %. The instrumental method limits of determination (LOD) and of quantification (LOQ) were below the maximum residue levels set in wine. The analysis of the wines showed that pesticide residues were below the instrumental LOQ, and most of them were undetectable (

  11. Integrating the Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor into the 3rd Interplanetary Network

    CERN Document Server

    Hurley, K; Connaughton, V; Meegan, C; Cline, T; Mitrofanov, I; Golovin, D; Litvak, M L; Sanin, A B; Boynton, W; Fellows, C; Harshman, K; Starr, R; Golenetskii, S; Aptekar, R; Mazets, E; Pal'shin, V; Frederiks, D; Smith, D M; Wigger, C; Rau, A; von Kienlin, A; Yamaoka, K; Ohno, M; Fukazawa, Y; Takahashi, T; Tashiro, M; Terada, Y; Murakami, T; Makishima, K; Barthelmy, S; Cummings, J; Gehrels, N; Krimm, H; Goldsten, J; Del Monte, E; Feroci, M; Marisaldi, M

    2009-01-01

    We are integrating the Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) into the Interplanetary Network (IPN) of Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) detectors. With the GBM, the IPN will comprise 9 experiments. This will 1) assist the Fermi team in understanding and reducing their systematic localization uncertainties, 2) reduce the sizes of the GBM and Large Area Telescope (LAT) error circles by 1 to 4 orders of magnitude, 3) facilitate the identification of GRB sources with objects found by ground- and space-based observatories at other wavelengths, from the radio to very high energy gamma-rays, 4) reduce the uncertainties in associating some LAT detections of high energy photons with GBM bursts, and 5) facilitate searches for non-electromagnetic GRB counterparts, particularly neutrinos and gravitational radiation. We present examples and demonstrate the synergy between Fermi and the IPN. This is a Fermi Cycle 2 Guest Investigator project.

  12. A High Input Impedance Low Noise Integrated Front-End Amplifier for Neural Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhijun; Warr, Paul A

    2016-12-01

    Within neural monitoring systems, the front-end amplifier forms the critical element for signal detection and pre-processing, which determines not only the fidelity of the biosignal, but also impacts power consumption and detector size. In this paper, a novel combined feedback loop-controlled approach is proposed to compensate for input leakage currents generated by low noise amplifiers when in integrated circuit form alongside signal leakage into the input bias network. This loop topology ensures the Front-End Amplifier (FEA) maintains a high input impedance across all manufacturing and operational variations. Measured results from a prototype manufactured on the AMS 0.35 [Formula: see text] CMOS technology is provided. This FEA consumes 3.1 [Formula: see text] in 0.042 [Formula: see text], achieves input impedance of 42 [Formula: see text], and 18.2 [Formula: see text] input-referred noise.

  13. Automatic monitoring of ecosystem structure and functions using integrated low-cost near surface sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; Ryu, Y.; Jiang, C.; Hwang, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Near surface sensors are able to acquire more reliable and detailed information with higher temporal resolution than satellite observations. Conventional near surface sensors usually work individually, and thus they require considerable manpower from data collection through information extraction and sharing. Recent advances of Internet of Things (IoT) provides unprecedented opportunities to integrate various low-cost sensors as an intelligent near surface observation system for monitoring ecosystem structure and functions. In this study, we developed a Smart Surface Sensing System (4S), which can automatically collect, transfer, process and analyze data, and then publish time series results on public-available website. The system is composed of micro-computer Raspberry pi, micro-controller Arduino, multi-spectral spectrometers made from Light Emitting Diode (LED), visible and near infrared cameras, and Internet module. All components are connected with each other and Raspberry pi intelligently controls the automatic data production chain. We did intensive tests and calibrations in-lab. Then, we conducted in-situ observations at a rice paddy field and a deciduous broadleaf forest. During the whole growth season, 4S obtained landscape images, spectral reflectance in red, green, blue, and near infrared, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), fraction of photosynthetically active radiation (fPAR), and leaf area index (LAI) continuously. Also We compared 4S data with other independent measurements. NDVI obtained from 4S agreed well with Jaz hyperspectrometer at both diurnal and seasonal scales (R2 = 0.92, RMSE = 0.059), and 4S derived fPAR and LAI were comparable to LAI-2200 and destructive measurements in both magnitude and seasonal trajectory. We believe that the integrated low-cost near surface sensor could help research community monitoring ecosystem structure and functions closer and easier through a network system.

  14. SOI built-in heat spreader with temperature and pressure integrated sensors for cooling optimization and in situ monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bercu, Bogdan, E-mail: bogdan_bercu@yahoo.com [Institute of Microelectronics, Electromagnetism and Photonics (IMEP-LAHC) 3, parvis Louis Neel - BP 257, 38016 Grenoble Cedex 01 (France); Montes, Laurent; Morfouli, Panagiota [Institute of Microelectronics, Electromagnetism and Photonics (IMEP-LAHC) 3, parvis Louis Neel - BP 257, 38016 Grenoble Cedex 01 (France)

    2011-03-15

    This contribution presents an original solution for sensor integration into a heat spreader which is directly micromachined into the silicon substrate of the device to be cooled. Having both a high thermal conductivity coefficient and a high level of miniaturization, the vapor chamber heat spreader provides a high robustness due to the absence of any moving pumping parts. Simulation results as well as experimental results obtained with a prototype of the heat spreader with integrated temperature and pressure microsensors are presented. The results concerning device cooling optimization using the integrated sensors are highlighting the interest of this approach for accurate in situ monitoring and cooling optimization of silicon-integrated heat spreaders.

  15. MONITORING TECHNOLOGY FOR EARLY DETECTION OF INTERNAL CORROSION FOR PIPELINE INTEGRITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn M. Light; Sang Y. Kim; Robert L. Spinks; Hegeon Kwun; Patrick C. Porter

    2003-09-01

    Transmission gas pipelines are an important part of energy-transportation infrastructure vital to the national economy. The prevention of failures and continued safe operation of these pipelines are therefore of national interest. These lines, mostly buried, are protected and maintained by protective coating and cathodic protection systems, supplemented by periodic inspection equipped with sensors for inspection. The primary method for inspection is ''smart pigging'' with an internal inspection device that traverses the pipeline. However, some transmission lines are however not suitable for ''pigging'' operation. Because inspection of these ''unpiggable'' lines requires excavation, it is cost-prohibitive, and the development of a methodology for cost-effectively assessing the structural integrity of ''unpiggable'' lines is needed. This report describes the laboratory and field evaluation of a technology called ''magnetostrictive sensor (MsS)'' for monitoring and early detection of internal corrosion in known susceptible sections of transmission pipelines. With the MsS technology, developed by Southwest Research Institute{reg_sign} (SwRI{reg_sign}), a pulse of a relatively low frequency (typically under 100-kHz) mechanical wave (called guided wave) is launched along the pipeline and signals reflected from defects or welds are detected at the launch location in the pulse-echo mode. This technology can quickly examine a long length of piping for defects, such as corrosion wastage and cracking in circumferential direction, from a single test location, and has been in commercial use for inspection of above-ground piping in refineries and chemical plants. The MsS technology is operated primarily in torsional guided waves using a probe consisting of a thin ferromagnetic strip (typically nickel) bonded to a pipe and a number of coil-turns (typically twenty or so turns) wound

  16. MONITORING TECHNOLOGY FOR EARLY DETECTION OF INTERNAL CORROSION FOR PIPELINE INTEGRITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn M. Light; Sang Y. Kim; Robert L. Spinks; Hegeon Kwun; Patrick C. Porter

    2003-09-01

    Transmission gas pipelines are an important part of energy-transportation infrastructure vital to the national economy. The prevention of failures and continued safe operation of these pipelines are therefore of national interest. These lines, mostly buried, are protected and maintained by protective coating and cathodic protection systems, supplemented by periodic inspection equipped with sensors for inspection. The primary method for inspection is ''smart pigging'' with an internal inspection device that traverses the pipeline. However, some transmission lines are however not suitable for ''pigging'' operation. Because inspection of these ''unpiggable'' lines requires excavation, it is cost-prohibitive, and the development of a methodology for cost-effectively assessing the structural integrity of ''unpiggable'' lines is needed. This report describes the laboratory and field evaluation of a technology called ''magnetostrictive sensor (MsS)'' for monitoring and early detection of internal corrosion in known susceptible sections of transmission pipelines. With the MsS technology, developed by Southwest Research Institute{reg_sign} (SwRI{reg_sign}), a pulse of a relatively low frequency (typically under 100-kHz) mechanical wave (called guided wave) is launched along the pipeline and signals reflected from defects or welds are detected at the launch location in the pulse-echo mode. This technology can quickly examine a long length of piping for defects, such as corrosion wastage and cracking in circumferential direction, from a single test location, and has been in commercial use for inspection of above-ground piping in refineries and chemical plants. The MsS technology is operated primarily in torsional guided waves using a probe consisting of a thin ferromagnetic strip (typically nickel) bonded to a pipe and a number of coil-turns (typically twenty or so turns) wound

  17. A methodological framework for hydromorphological assessment, analysis and monitoring (IDRAIM) aimed at promoting integrated river management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, M.; Surian, N.; Comiti, F.; Bussettini, M.

    2015-12-01

    A methodological framework for hydromorphological assessment, analysis and monitoring (named IDRAIM) has been developed with the specific aim of supporting the management of river processes by integrating the objectives of ecological quality and flood risk mitigation. The framework builds on existing and up-to-date geomorphological concepts and approaches and has been tested on several Italian streams. The framework includes the following four phases: (1) catchment-wide characterization of the fluvial system; (2) evolutionary trajectory reconstruction and assessment of current river conditions; (3) description of future trends of channel evolution; and (4) identification of management options. The framework provides specific consideration of the temporal context, in terms of reconstructing the trajectory of past channel evolution as a basis for interpreting present river conditions and future trends. A series of specific tools has been developed for the assessment of river conditions, in terms of morphological quality and channel dynamics. These include: the Morphological Quality Index (MQI), the Morphological Dynamics Index (MDI), the Event Dynamics Classification (EDC), and the river morphodynamic corridors (MC and EMC). The monitoring of morphological parameters and indicators, alongside the assessment of future scenarios of channel evolution provides knowledge for the identification, planning and prioritization of actions for enhancing morphological quality and risk mitigation.

  18. An Integrated GIS-Expert System Framework for Live Hazard Monitoring and Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Rozic

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In the context of hazard monitoring, using sensor web technology to monitor anddetect hazardous conditions in near-real-time can result in large amounts of spatial data thatcan be used to drive analysis at an instrumented site. These data can be used for decisionmaking and problem solving, however as with any analysis problem the success ofanalyzing hazard potential is governed by many factors such as: the quality of the sensordata used as input; the meaning that can be derived from those data; the reliability of themodel used to describe the problem; the strength of the analysis methods; and the ability toeffectively communicate the end results of the analysis. For decision makers to make use ofsensor web data these issues must be dealt with to some degree. The work described in thispaper addresses all of these areas by showing how raw sensor data can be automaticallytransformed into a representation which matches a predefined model of the problem context.This model can be understood by analysis software that leverages rule-based logic andinference techniques to reason with, and draw conclusions about, spatial data. These toolsare integrated with a well known Geographic Information System (GIS and existinggeospatial and sensor web infrastructure standards, providing expert users with the toolsneeded to thoroughly explore a problem site and investigate hazards in any domain.

  19. Ecosystem performance monitoring of rangelands by integrating modeling and remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Bruce K.; Boyte, Stephen P.; Major, Donald J.

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring rangeland ecosystem dynamics, production, and performance is valuable for researchers and land managers. However, ecosystem monitoring studies can be difficult to interpret and apply appropriately if management decisions and disturbances are inseparable from the ecosystem's climate signal. This study separates seasonal weather influences from influences caused by disturbances and management decisions, making interannual time-series analysis more consistent and interpretable. We compared the actual ecosystem performance (AEP) of five rangeland vegetation types in the Owyhee Uplands for 9 yr to their expected ecosystem performance (EEP). Integrated growing season Normalized Difference Vegetation Index data for each of the nine growing seasons served as a proxy for annual AEP. Regression-tree models used long-term site potential, seasonal weather, and land cover data sets to generate annual EEP, an estimate of ecosystem performance incorporating annual weather variations. The difference between AEP and EEP provided a performance measure for each pixel in the study area. Ecosystem performance anomalies occurred when the ecosystem performed significantly better or worse than the model predicted. About 14% of the Owyhee Uplands showed a trend of significant underperformance or overperformance (P<0.10). Land managers can use results from weather-based rangeland ecosystem performance models to help support adaptive management strategies.

  20. Integrated Atmosphere Resource Recovery and Environmental Monitoring Technology Demonstration for Deep Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jay L.; Abney, Morgan B.; Knox, James C.; Parrish, Keith J.; Roman, Monserrate C.; Jan, Darrell L.

    2012-01-01

    Exploring the frontiers of deep space continues to be defined by the technological challenges presented by safely transporting a crew to and from destinations of scientific interest. Living and working on that frontier requires highly reliable and efficient life support systems that employ robust, proven process technologies. The International Space Station (ISS), including its environmental control and life support (ECLS) system, is the platform from which humanity's deep space exploration missions begin. The ISS ECLS system Atmosphere Revitalization (AR) subsystem and environmental monitoring (EM) technical architecture aboard the ISS is evaluated as the starting basis for a developmental effort being conducted by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) via the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Atmosphere Resource Recovery and Environmental Monitoring (ARREM) Project.. An evolutionary approach is employed by the ARREM project to address the strengths and weaknesses of the ISS AR subsystem and EM equipment, core technologies, and operational approaches to reduce developmental risk, improve functional reliability, and lower lifecycle costs of an ISS-derived subsystem architecture suitable for use for crewed deep space exploration missions. The most promising technical approaches to an ISS-derived subsystem design architecture that incorporates promising core process technology upgrades will be matured through a series of integrated tests and architectural trade studies encompassing expected exploration mission requirements and constraints.

  1. Proceedings of the 24th Seismic Research Review: Nuclear Explosion Monitoring: Innovation and Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, N. Jill [Editor

    2002-09-17

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 24th Seismic Research Review: Nuclear Explosion Monitoring: Innovation and Integration, held 17-19 September, 2002 in Ponte Vedra Beach, Florida. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  2. Formulation of a strategy for monitoring control integrity in critical digital control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, Celeste M.; Fischl, Robert; Kam, Moshe

    1991-01-01

    Advanced aircraft will require flight critical computer systems for stability augmentation as well as guidance and control that must perform reliably in adverse, as well as nominal, operating environments. Digital system upset is a functional error mode that can occur in electromagnetically harsh environments, involves no component damage, can occur simultaneously in all channels of a redundant control computer, and is software dependent. A strategy is presented for dynamic upset detection to be used in the evaluation of critical digital controllers during the design and/or validation phases of development. Critical controllers must be able to be used in adverse environments that result from disturbances caused by an electromagnetic source such as lightning, high intensity radiated field (HIRF), and nuclear electromagnetic pulses (NEMP). The upset detection strategy presented provides dynamic monitoring of a given control computer for degraded functional integrity that can result from redundancy management errors and control command calculation error that could occur in an electromagnetically harsh operating environment. The use is discussed of Kalman filtering, data fusion, and decision theory in monitoring a given digital controller for control calculation errors, redundancy management errors, and control effectiveness.

  3. The INTEGRAL Galactic bulge monitoring program: the first 1.5 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuulkers, E.; Shaw, S.E.; Paizis, A.;

    2007-01-01

    Aims. The Galactic bulge region is a rich host of variable high-energy point sources. Since 2005, February 17 we are monitoring the source activity in the Galactic bulge region regularly and frequently, i.e., about every three days, with the instruments onboard INTEGRAL. Thanks to the large field...... of view, the imaging capabilities and the sensitivity at hard X-rays, we are able to present for the first time a detailed homogeneous (hard) X-ray view of a sample of 76 sources in the Galactic bulge region. Methods. We describe the successful monitoring program and show the first results from the start......-2901b, IGR J17536-2339, and IGR J17541-2252. We report here on some of the high-energy properties of these sources. Conclusions. The high-energy light curves of all the sources in the field of view, and the high-energy images of the region, are made available through the WWW, as soon as possible after...

  4. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system for real-time monitoring of integrated-constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzakpasu, Mawuli; Scholz, Miklas; McCarthy, Valerie; Jordan, Siobhán; Sani, Abdulkadir

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring large-scale treatment wetlands is costly and time-consuming, but required by regulators. Some analytical results are available only after 5 days or even longer. Thus, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) models were developed to predict the effluent concentrations of 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and NH4-N from a full-scale integrated constructed wetland (ICW) treating domestic wastewater. The ANFIS models were developed and validated with a 4-year data set from the ICW system. Cost-effective, quicker and easier to measure variables were selected as the possible predictors based on their goodness of correlation with the outputs. A self-organizing neural network was applied to extract the most relevant input variables from all the possible input variables. Fuzzy subtractive clustering was used to identify the architecture of the ANFIS models and to optimize fuzzy rules, overall, improving the network performance. According to the findings, ANFIS could predict the effluent quality variation quite strongly. Effluent BOD5 and NH4-N concentrations were predicted relatively accurately by other effluent water quality parameters, which can be measured within a few hours. The simulated effluent BOD5 and NH4-N concentrations well fitted the measured concentrations, which was also supported by relatively low mean squared error. Thus, ANFIS can be useful for real-time monitoring and control of ICW systems.

  5. A tiered, integrated biological and chemical monitoring framework for contaminants of emerging concern in aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruya, Keith A; Dodder, Nathan G; Mehinto, Alvine C; Denslow, Nancy D; Schlenk, Daniel; Snyder, Shane A; Weisberg, Stephen B

    2016-07-01

    The chemical-specific risk-based paradigm that informs monitoring and assessment of environmental contaminants does not apply well to the many thousands of new chemicals that are being introduced into ambient receiving waters. We propose a tiered framework that incorporates bioanalytical screening tools and diagnostic nontargeted chemical analysis to more effectively monitor for contaminants of emerging concern (CECs). The framework is based on a comprehensive battery of in vitro bioassays to first screen for a broad spectrum of CECs and nontargeted analytical methods to identify bioactive contaminants missed by the currently favored targeted analyses. Water quality managers in California have embraced this strategy with plans to further develop and test this framework in regional and statewide pilot studies on waterbodies that receive discharge from municipal wastewater treatment plants and stormwater runoff. In addition to directly informing decisions, the data obtained using this framework can be used to construct and validate models that better predict CEC occurrence and toxicity. The adaptive interplay among screening results, diagnostic assessment and predictive modeling will allow managers to make decisions based on the most current and relevant information, instead of extrapolating from parameters with questionable linkage to CEC impacts. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:540-547. © 2015 SETAC.

  6. Assessing airborne pollution effects on bryophytes: lessons learned through long-term integrated monitoring in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zechmeister, H G; Dirnböck, T; Hülber, K; Mirtl, M

    2007-06-01

    The study uses measured and calculated data on airborne pollutants, particularly nitrogen (ranges between 28 to 43kgN*ha(-1)*yr(-1)) and sulphur (10 to 18kgSO(4)-S*ha(-1)*yr(-1)), in order to assess their long-term (1992 to 2005) effects on bryophytes at the UN-ECE Integrated Monitoring site 'Zöbelboden' in Austria. Bryophytes were used as reaction indicators on 20 epiphytic plots using the IM monitoring method and on 14 terrestrial plots using standardised photography. The plots were recorded in the years 1992, 1993, 1998, and 2004/2005. Most species remained stable in terms of their overall population size during the observed period, even though there were rapid turnover rates of a large percentage of species on all investigated plots. Only a few bryophytes (Hypnum cupressiforme, Leucodon sciuroides) responded unambiguously to N and S deposition. Nitrogen deposition had a weak but significant effect on the distribution of bryophyte communities. However, the time shifts in bryophyte communities did not depend on total deposition of N and S.

  7. Monitoring the Black Hole Binary GRS 1758-258 with INTEGRAL and RXTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottschmidt, Katja; Chernyakova, Masha; Lubinski, Piotr; Migliari, Simone; Smith, David M.; Zdziarski, Andrzej A.; Tomsick, John A.; Bezayiff, N.; Kreykenbohm, Ingo; Kretschmar, Peter; hide

    2008-01-01

    The microquasar GRS 1758-258 is one of only three persistent black hole binaries that spend most of their time in the hard spectral state, the other two being Cyg X-l and 1E 1741.7-2942. It therefore provides the rare opportunity for an extensive long term study of this important black hole state which is associated with strong variability and radio jet emission. INTEGRAL has been monitoring the source since the first Galactic Center Deep Exposure season in spring 2003 during two 2-3 months long Galactic Center viewing epochs each year, amounting to 11 epochs including spring of 2008. With the exception of the last epoch quasi-simultaneous RXTE monitoring observations are available as well. Here we present an analysis of the epoch averaged broad band spectra which display considerable long term variability, most notably the occurrence of two soft/off states, extreme examples for the hysteretic behavior of black hole binaries. The hard source spectrum and long exposures allow us to extend the analysis for several epochs to approximately 800 keV using PICsIT data and address the question of the presence of a non-thermal Comptonization component.

  8. Invited Article: Radon and thoron intercomparison experiments for integrated monitors at NIRS, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janik, M.; Ishikawa, T.; Omori, Y.; Kavasi, N.

    2014-02-01

    Inhalation of radon (222Rn) and its short-lived decay products and of products of the thoron (220Rn) series accounts for more than half of the effective dose from natural radiation sources. At this time, many countries have begun large-scale radon and thoron surveys and many different measurement methods and instruments are used in these studies. Consequently, it is necessary to improve and standardize technical methods of measurements and to verify quality assurance by intercomparisons between laboratories. Four international intercomparisons for passive integrating radon and thoron monitors were conducted at the NIRS (National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Japan). Radon exercises were carried out in the 24.4 m3 inner volume walk-in radon chamber that has systems to control radon concentration, temperature, and humidity. Moreover, the NIRS thoron chamber with a 150 dm3 inner volume was utilized to provide three thoron intercomparisons. At present, the NIRS is the only laboratory world-wide that has carried out periodic thoron intercomparison of passive monitors. Fifty laboratories from 26 countries participated in the radon intercomparison, using six types of detectors (charcoal, CR-39, LR 115, polycarbonate film, electret plate, and silicon photodiode). Eighteen laboratories from 12 countries participated in the thoron intercomparisons, using two etch-track types (CR-39 and polycarbonate) detectors. The tests were made under one to three different exposures to radon and thoron. The data presented in this paper indicated that the performance quality of laboratories for radon measurement has been gradually increasing. Results of thoron exercises showed that the quality for thoron measurements still needs further development and additional studies are needed to improve its measuring methods. The present paper provides a summary of all radon and thoron international intercomparisons done at NIRS from 2007 to date and it describes the present status on radon and

  9. Invited Article: Radon and thoron intercomparison experiments for integrated monitors at NIRS, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janik, M., E-mail: mirek@fml.nirs.go.jp; Ishikawa, T.; Omori, Y.; Kavasi, N. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, 263-8555 Chiba (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    Inhalation of radon ({sup 222}Rn) and its short-lived decay products and of products of the thoron ({sup 220}Rn) series accounts for more than half of the effective dose from natural radiation sources. At this time, many countries have begun large-scale radon and thoron surveys and many different measurement methods and instruments are used in these studies. Consequently, it is necessary to improve and standardize technical methods of measurements and to verify quality assurance by intercomparisons between laboratories. Four international intercomparisons for passive integrating radon and thoron monitors were conducted at the NIRS (National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Japan). Radon exercises were carried out in the 24.4 m{sup 3} inner volume walk-in radon chamber that has systems to control radon concentration, temperature, and humidity. Moreover, the NIRS thoron chamber with a 150 dm{sup 3} inner volume was utilized to provide three thoron intercomparisons. At present, the NIRS is the only laboratory world-wide that has carried out periodic thoron intercomparison of passive monitors. Fifty laboratories from 26 countries participated in the radon intercomparison, using six types of detectors (charcoal, CR-39, LR 115, polycarbonate film, electret plate, and silicon photodiode). Eighteen laboratories from 12 countries participated in the thoron intercomparisons, using two etch-track types (CR-39 and polycarbonate) detectors. The tests were made under one to three different exposures to radon and thoron. The data presented in this paper indicated that the performance quality of laboratories for radon measurement has been gradually increasing. Results of thoron exercises showed that the quality for thoron measurements still needs further development and additional studies are needed to improve its measuring methods. The present paper provides a summary of all radon and thoron international intercomparisons done at NIRS from 2007 to date and it describes the

  10. A plunger lift and monitoring system for gas wells based on deployment-retrievement integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Tong

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available As a necessary step, removing liquid in the wellbore plays an important role during the production of gas wells. Plunger lift is a widely-used intermittent deliquification process for gas wells. However, the manual control way and wire logging are still utilized as a downhole monitoring way for plunger lift, which is not efficient in terms of interrupting the production. This paper presents an improved solution that logging instruments canister are deployed and retrieved by means of a new assembly. With the reciprocating plunger, logging instruments canister can be carried and deployed to the bottom of a gas well to carry out logging and sampling tasks on the production demand of a field. After the deployment and logging tasks are performed, logging instruments canister is carried back to the surface by the plunger and then data is transferred to the wellhead device near field wireless communication technology. This newly developed plunger lift system comprises plunger body, deployment sub-assembly, retrieve sub-assembly and logging instruments canister. The surface device comprises RF antenna, reader and writer. Based upon the method of deployment-retrieve integration, the new deliquification process is introduced and on-line monitoring of production dynamics can be performed including P/T measurement, downhole fluid sampling, pressure build-up, etc. without interrupting production. The general solution and engineering design parameters have been confirmed by research teams, while system prototype manufacture and workbench tests are being performed. The cost-effective way combining deliquification with dynamic monitoring is developed and contributes to increasing production and the stable productivity of gas wells. It is very significant for low-pressure and low-production gas fields to achieve automation production and management.

  11. Real-time Performance Verification of Core Protection and Monitoring System with Integrated Model for SMART Simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Bon-Seung; Kim, Sung-Jin; Hwang, Dae-Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In keeping with these purposes, a real-time model of the digital core protection and monitoring systems for simulator implementation was developed on the basis of SCOPS and SCOMS algorithms. In addition, important features of the software models were explained for the application to SMART simulator, and the real-time performance of the models linked with DLL was examined for various simulation scenarios. In this paper, performance verification of core protection and monitoring software is performed with integrated simulator model. A real-time performance verification of core protection and monitoring software for SMART simulator was performed with integrated simulator model. Various DLL connection tests were done for software algorithm change. In addition, typical accident scenarios of SMART were simulated with 3KEYMASTER and simulated results were compared with those of DLL linked core protection and monitoring software. Each calculational result showed good agreements.

  12. Infrared Thermography-based Biophotonics: Integrated Diagnostic Technique for Systemic Reaction Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainer, Boris G.; Morozov, Vitaly V.

    A peculiar branch of biophotonics is a measurement, visualisation and quantitative analysis of infrared (IR) radiation emitted from living object surfaces. Focal plane array (FPA)-based IR cameras make it possible to realize in medicine the so called interventional infrared thermal diagnostics. An integrated technique aimed at the advancement of this new approach in biomedical science and practice is described in the paper. The assembled system includes a high-performance short-wave (2.45-3.05 μm) or long-wave (8-14 μm) IR camera, two laser Doppler flowmeters (LDF) and additional equipment and complementary facilities implementing the monitoring of human cardiovascular status. All these means operate synchronously. It is first ascertained the relationship between infrared thermography (IRT) and LDF data in humans in regard to their systemic cardiovascular reactivity. Blood supply real-time dynamics in a narcotized patient is first visualized and quantitatively represented during surgery in order to observe how the general hyperoxia influences thermoregulatory mechanisms; an abrupt increase in temperature of the upper limb is observed using IRT. It is outlined that the IRT-based integrated technique may act as a take-off runway leading to elaboration of informative new methods directly applicable to medicine and biomedical sciences.

  13. A versatile integrating sphere based photoacoustic sensor for trace gas monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Lassen, Mikael; Brusch, Anders; Petersen, Jan C

    2014-01-01

    A compact versatile photoacoustic (PA) sensor for trace gas detection is reported. The sensor is based on an integrating sphere as the PA absorption cell with an organ pipe tube attached to increase the sensitivity of the PA sensor. The versatility and enhancement of the sensitivity of the PA signal is investigated by monitoring specific ro-vibrational lines of CO2 in the 2 mm wavelength region and of NO2 in the 405 nm region. The measured enhancement factor of the PA signal exceeds 1200, which is due to the acoustic resonance of the tube and the absorption enhancement of the integrating sphere relatively to a non-resonant single pass cell. It is observed that the background absorption signals are highly attenuated due to the thermal conduction and diffusion effects in the polytetrafluoroethylene cell walls. This demonstrates that careful choice of cell wall materials can be highly beneficial to the sensitivity of the PA sensor. These properties makes the sensor suitable for various practical sensor applicati...

  14. An Integrated Model Based on a Hierarchical Indices System for Monitoring and Evaluating Urban Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xulin Guo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Over 50% of world’s population presently resides in cities, and this number is expected to rise to ~70% by 2050. Increasing urbanization problems including population growth, urban sprawl, land use change, unemployment, and environmental degradation, have markedly impacted urban residents’ Quality of Life (QOL. Therefore, urban sustainability and its measurement have gained increasing attention from administrators, urban planners, and scientific communities throughout the world with respect to improving urban development and human well-being. The widely accepted definition of urban sustainability emphasizes the balancing development of three primary domains (urban economy, society, and environment. This article attempts to improve the aforementioned definition of urban sustainability by incorporating a human well-being dimension. Major problems identified in existing urban sustainability indicator (USI models include a weak integration of potential indicators, poor measurement and quantification, and insufficient spatial-temporal analysis. To tackle these challenges an integrated USI model based on a hierarchical indices system was established for monitoring and evaluating urban sustainability. This model can be performed by quantifying indicators using both traditional statistical approaches and advanced geomatic techniques based on satellite imagery and census data, which aims to provide a theoretical basis for a comprehensive assessment of urban sustainability from a spatial-temporal perspective.

  15. INTEGRAL high energy monitoring of the X-ray burster KS 1741-293

    CERN Document Server

    De Cesare, G; Nunez, S Martinez; Stratta, G; Tarana, A; De Santo, M; Ubertini, P

    2007-01-01

    KS 1741-293, discovered in 1989 by the X-ray camera TTM in the Kvant module of the Mir space station and identified as an X-ray burster, has not been detected in the hard X band until the advent of the INTEGRAL observatory. Moreover this source has been recently object of scientific discussion, being also associated to a nearby extended radio source that in principle could be the supernova remnant produced by the accretion induced collapse in the binary system. Our long term monitoring with INTEGRAL, covering the period from February 2003 to May 2005, confirms that KS 1741-293 is transient in soft and hard X band. When the source is active, from a simultaneous JEM-X and IBIS data analysis, we provide a wide band spectrum from 5 to 100 keV, that can be fit by a two component model, a multiple blackbody for the soft emission and a Comptonized or a cut-off power law model for the hard component. Finally, by the detection of two X-ray bursters with JEM-X, we confirm the bursting nature of KS 1741-293, including t...

  16. Integrated Performance Monitoring of a Cosmology Application onLeading HEC Platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrill, Julian; Carter, Jonathan; Oliker, Leonid; Skinner,David; Biswas, Rupak

    2005-04-01

    The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) is an exquisitely sensitive probe of the fundamental parameters of cosmology. Extracting this information is computationally intensive, requiring massively parallel computing and sophisticated numerical algorithms. In this work we present MAD bench, a lightweight version of the MADCAP CMB power spectrum estimation code that retains the operational complexity and integrated system requirements. In addition, to quantify communication behavior across a variety of architectural platforms, we introduce the Integrated Performance Monitoring (IPM) package: a portable, lightweight,and scalable tool for effectively extracting MPI message-passing overheads. A performance characterization study is conducted on some of the world's most powerful supercomputers, including the superscalar Seaborg(IBMPower3+) and CC-NUMA Columbia (SGI Altix), as well as the vector-based Earth Simulator (NEC SX-6 enhanced) and Phoenix (Cray X1)systems. In-depth analysis shows that in order to bridge the gap between theoretical and sustained system performance, it is critical to gain a clear understanding of how the distinct parts of large-scale parallel applications interact with the individual subcomponents of HEC platforms.

  17. Participatory Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation of Multi-Stakeholder Platforms in Integrated Landscape Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusters, Koen; Buck, Louise; de Graaf, Maartje; Minang, Peter; van Oosten, Cora; Zagt, Roderick

    2017-03-21

    Integrated landscape initiatives typically aim to strengthen landscape governance by developing and facilitating multi-stakeholder platforms. These are institutional coordination mechanisms that enable discussions, negotiations, and joint planning between stakeholders from various sectors in a given landscape. Multi-stakeholder platforms tend to involve complex processes with diverse actors, whose objectives and focus may be subjected to periodic re-evaluation, revision or reform. In this article we propose a participatory method to aid planning, monitoring, and evaluation of such platforms, and we report on experiences from piloting the method in Ghana and Indonesia. The method is comprised of three components. The first can be used to look ahead, identifying priorities for future multi-stakeholder collaboration in the landscape. It is based on the identification of four aspirations that are common across multi-stakeholder platforms in integrated landscape initiatives. The second can be used to look inward. It focuses on the processes within an existing multi-stakeholder platform in order to identify areas for possible improvement. The third can be used to look back, identifying the main outcomes of an existing platform and comparing them to the original objectives. The three components can be implemented together or separately. They can be used to inform planning and adaptive management of the platform, as well as to demonstrate performance and inform the design of new interventions.

  18. Probing the Nature of Short Swift Bursts via Deep INTEGRAL Monitoring of GRB 050925

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, T.; Barbier, L.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Cummings, J. R.; Fenimore, E. E.; Gehrels, N.; Krimm, H. A.; Markwardt, C. B.; Palmer, D. M.; Parsons, A. M.; hide

    2010-01-01

    We present results from Swift, XMM-Newton, and deep INTEGRAL monitoring in the region of GRB 050925. This short Swift burst is a candidate for a newly discovered soft gamma-ray repeater (SGR) with the following observational burst properties: 1) galactic plane (b=-0.1 deg) localization, 2) 150 msec duration, and 3) a blackbody rather than a simple power-law spectral shape (with a significance level of 97%). We found two possible X-ray counterparts of GRB 050925 by comparing the X-ray images from Swift XRT and XMM-Newton. Both X-ray sources show the transient behavior with a power-law decay index shallower than -1. We found no hard X-ray emission nor any additional burst from the location of GRB 050925 in approximately 5 Ms of INTEGRAL data. We discuss about the three BATSE short bursts which might be associated with GRB 050925, based on their location and the duration. Assuming GRB 050925 is associated with the H(sub II), regions (W 58) at the galactic longitude of 1=70 deg, we also discuss the source frame properties of GRB 050925.

  19. Hydromentor: An integrated water resources monitoring and management system at modified semi-arid watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliades, Lampros; Sidiropoulos, Pantelis; Tzabiras, John; Kokkinos, Konstantinos; Spiliotopoulos, Marios; Papaioannou, George; Fafoutis, Chrysostomos; Michailidou, Kalliopi; Tziatzios, George; Loukas, Athanasios; Mylopoulos, Nikitas

    2015-04-01

    Natural and engineered water systems interact throughout watersheds and while there is clearly a link between watershed activities and the quantity and quality of water entering the engineered environment, these systems are considered distinct operational systems. As a result, the strategic approach to data management and modeling within the two systems is very different, leading to significant difficulties in integrating the two systems in order to make comprehensive watershed decisions. In this paper, we describe the "HYDROMENTOR" research project, a highly-structured data storage and exchange system that integrates multiple tools and models describing both natural and modified environments, to provide an integrated tool for management of water resources. Our underlying objective in presenting our conceptual design for this water information system is to develop an integrated and automated system that will achieve monitoring and management of the water quantity and quality at watershed level for both surface water (rivers and lakes) and ground water resources (aquifers). The uniqueness of the system is the integrated treatment of the water resources management issue in terms of water quantity and quality in current climate conditions and in future conditions of climatic change. On an operational level, the system provides automated warnings when the availability, use and pollution levels exceed allowable limits pre-set by the management authorities. Decision making with respect to the apportionment of water use by surface and ground water resources are aided through this system, while the relationship between the polluting activity of a source to total incoming pollution by sources are determined; this way, the best management practices for dealing with a crisis are proposed. The computational system allows the development and application of actions, interventions and policies (alternative management scenarios) so that the impacts of climate change in quantity

  20. Integrated Geophysical Measurements for Bioremediation Monitoring: Combining Spectral Induced Polarization, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Magnetic Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keating, Kristina [Rutgers Univ., Newark, NJ (United States). Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences; Slater, Lee [Rutgers Univ., Newark, NJ (United States). Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences; Ntarlagiannis, Dimitris [Rutgers Univ., Newark, NJ (United States). Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences; Williams, Kenneth H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Division

    2015-02-24

    This documents contains the final report for the project "Integrated Geophysical Measurements for Bioremediation Monitoring: Combining Spectral Induced Polarization, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Magnetic Methods" (DE-SC0007049) Executive Summary: Our research aimed to develop borehole measurement techniques capable of monitoring subsurface processes, such as changes in pore geometry and iron/sulfur geochemistry, associated with remediation of heavy metals and radionuclides. Previous work has demonstrated that geophysical method spectral induced polarization (SIP) can be used to assess subsurface contaminant remediation; however, SIP signals can be generated from multiple sources limiting their interpretation value. Integrating multiple geophysical methods, such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic susceptibility (MS), with SIP, could reduce the ambiguity of interpretation that might result from a single method. Our research efforts entails combining measurements from these methods, each sensitive to different mineral forms and/or mineral-fluid interfaces, providing better constraints on changes in subsurface biogeochemical processes and pore geometries significantly improving our understanding of processes impacting contaminant remediation. The Rifle Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site was used as a test location for our measurements. The Rifle IFRC site is located at a former uranium ore-processing facility in Rifle, Colorado. Leachate from spent mill tailings has resulted in residual uranium contamination of both groundwater and sediments within the local aquifer. Studies at the site include an ongoing acetate amendment strategy, native microbial populations are stimulated by introduction of carbon intended to alter redox conditions and immobilize uranium. To test the geophysical methods in the field, NMR and MS logging measurements were collected before, during, and after acetate amendment. Next, laboratory NMR, MS, and SIP measurements

  1. Evaluation of seismic characteristics and structural integrity for the cabinet of HANARO seismic monitoring analysis system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jeong Soo; Yoon, Doo Byung

    2003-06-01

    The HANARO SMAS(Seismic Monitoring Analysis System) is classified as Non-Nuclear Safety(NNS), seismic category I, and quality class T. It is required that this system can perform required functions, which are to preserve its structural integrity during and after an OBE or SSE. In this work, the structural integrity and seismic characteristics of the cabinet of the newly developed SMAS have been estimated. The most parts of the cabinet are identically designed with those of Yonggwhang and Gori Nuclear Power Plants(NPPs), unit 1 that successfully completed the required seismic qualification tests. The structure of the cabinet of the SMAS is manufactured by the manufacturer of the cabinet of Yonggwhang and Gori NPPs. To evaluate the seismic characteristics of the SMAS, the RRS(Required Response Spectra) of the newly developed cabinet are compared with those of Yonggwhang and Gori NPPs, unit 1. In addition, natural frequencies of the cabinet of HANARO, Yonggwhang, and Gori NPPs were measured for the comparison of the seismic characteristics of the installed cabinets. In case of HANARO, the bottom of the cabinet is welded to the base plate. The base plate is fixed to the concrete foundation by using anchor bolts. For the evaluation of the structural integrity of the welding parts and the anchor bolts, the maximum stresses and forces of the welding parts and the anchor bolts due to seismic loading are estimated. The analysis results show that maximum stresses and forces are less than the allowable limits. This new SMAS is operating at HANARO instrument room to acquire and analyze the signal of earthquake.

  2. INTEGRAL high-energy monitoring of the X-ray burster KS 1741-293

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cesare, G.; Bazzano, A.; Martínez Núñez, S.; Stratta, G.; Tarana, A.; Del Santo, M.; Ubertini, P.

    2007-09-01

    KS 1741-293, discovered in 1989 by the X-ray camera TTM on the Kvant module of the Mir space station and identified as an X-ray burster, had not been detected in the hard X-ray band until the advent of the INTEGRAL observatory. Moreover, this source has recently been the object of scientific discussion, being also associated with a nearby extended radio source that in principle could be the supernova remnant produced by the accretion-induced collapse in the binary system. Our long-term monitoring with INTEGRAL, covering the period from 2003 February to 2005 May, confirms that KS 1741-293 is transient in the soft and hard X-ray bands. When the source is active, from a simultaneous JEM-X and IBIS data analysis, we provide a wide-band spectrum from 5 to 100 keV, which can be fitted by a two-component model: a multiple blackbody for the soft emission and a Comptonized or a cut-off power-law model for the hard component. Finally, by the detection of two X-ray bursters with JEM-X, we confirm the bursting nature of KS 1741-293, including this source in the class of hard-tailed X-ray bursters. Based on observations with INTEGRAL, an ESA project with instruments and science data centre funded by ESA member states (especially the PI countries: Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, Spain), the Czech Republic and Poland, and with the participation of Russia and the USA. E-mail: giovanni.decesare@iasf-roma.inaf.it ‡ INAF personnel resident at ASDC.

  3. Wildfire monitoring via the integration of remote sensing with innovative information technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontoes, C.; Papoutsis, I.; Michail, D.; Herekakis, Th.; Koubarakis, M.; Kyzirakos, K.; Karpathiotakis, M.; Nikolaou, C.; Sioutis, M.; Garbis, G.; Vassos, S.; Keramitsoglou, I.; Kersten, M.; Manegold, S.; Pirk, H.

    2012-04-01

    In the Institute for Space Applications and Remote Sensing of the National Observatory of Athens (ISARS/NOA) volumes of Earth Observation images of different spectral and spatial resolutions are being processed on a systematic basis to derive thematic products that cover a wide spectrum of applications during and after wildfire crisis, from fire detection and fire-front propagation monitoring, to damage assessment in the inflicted areas. The processed satellite imagery is combined with auxiliary geo-information layers, including land use/land cover, administrative boundaries, road and rail network, points of interest, and meteorological data to generate and validate added-value fire-related products. The service portfolio has become available to institutional End Users with a mandate to act on natural disasters and that have activated Emergency Support Services at a European level in the framework of the operational GMES projects SAFER and LinkER. Towards the goal of delivering integrated services for fire monitoring and management, ISARS/NOA employs observational capacities which include the operation of MSG/SEVIRI and NOAA/AVHRR receiving stations, NOA's in-situ monitoring networks for capturing meteorological parameters to generate weather forecasts, and datasets originating from the European Space Agency and third party satellite operators. The qualified operational activity of ISARS/NOA in the domain of wildfires management is highly enhanced by the integration of state-of-the-art Information Technologies that have become available in the framework of the TELEIOS (EC/ICT) project. TELEIOS aims at the development of fully automatic processing chains reliant on a) the effective storing and management of the large amount of EO and GIS data, b) the post-processing refinement of the fire products using semantics, and c) the creation of thematic maps and added-value services. The first objective is achieved with the use of advanced Array Database technologies, such

  4. Integrated Interpretation of Geophysical, Geotechnical, and Environmental Monitoring Data to Define Precursors for Landslide Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlemann, S.; Chambers, J.; Merritt, A.; Wilkinson, P.; Meldrum, P.; Gunn, D.; Maurer, H.; Dixon, N.

    2014-12-01

    To develop a better understanding of the failure mechanisms leading to first time failure or reactivation of landslides, the British Geological Survey is operating an observatory on an active, shallow landslide in North Yorkshire, UK, which is a typical example of slope failure in Lias Group mudrocks. This group and the Whitby Mudstone Formation in particular, show one of the highest landslide densities in the UK. The observatory comprises geophysical (i.e., ERT and self-potential monitoring, P- and S-wave tomography), geotechnical (i.e. acoustic emission and inclinometer), and hydrological and environmental monitoring (i.e. weather station, water level, soil moisture, soil temperature), in addition to movement monitoring using real-time kinematic GPS. In this study we focus on the reactivation of the landslide at the end of 2012, after an exceptionally wet summer. We present an integrated interpretation of the different data streams. Results show that the two lobes (east and west), which form the main focus of the observatory, behave differently. While water levels, and hence pore pressures, in the eastern lobe are characterised by a continuous increase towards activation resulting in significant movement (i.e. metres), water levels in the western lobe are showing frequent drainage events and thus lower pore pressures and a lower level of movement (i.e. tens of centimetres). This is in agreement with data from the geoelectrical monitoring array. During the summer season, resistivities generally increase due to decreasing moisture levels. However, during the summer of 2012 this seasonal pattern was interrupted, with the reactivated lobe displaying strongly decreasing resistivities (i.e. increasing moisture levels). The self-potential and soil moisture data show clear indications of moisture accumulation prior to the reactivation, followed by continuous discharge towards the base of the slope. Using the different data streams, we present 3D volumetric images of

  5. Integrative Analysis of MicroRNA and mRNA Data Reveals an Orchestrated Function of MicroRNAs in Skeletal Myocyte Differentiation in Response to TNF-α or IGF1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Swanhild U.; Sass, Steffen; Mueller, Nikola S.; Krebs, Stefan; Bauersachs, Stefan; Kaiser, Sebastian; Blum, Helmut; Thirion, Christian; Krause, Sabine; Theis, Fabian J.; Pfaffl, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Skeletal muscle cell differentiation is impaired by elevated levels of the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) with pathological significance in chronic diseases or inherited muscle disorders. Insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF1) positively regulates muscle cell differentiation. Both, TNF-α and IGF1 affect gene and microRNA (miRNA) expression in this process. However, computational prediction of miRNA-mRNA relations is challenged by false positives and targets which might be irrelevant in the respective cellular transcriptome context. Thus, this study is focused on functional information about miRNA affected target transcripts by integrating miRNA and mRNA expression profiling data. Methodology/Principal Findings Murine skeletal myocytes PMI28 were differentiated for 24 hours with concomitant TNF-α or IGF1 treatment. Both, mRNA and miRNA expression profiling was performed. The data-driven integration of target prediction and paired mRNA/miRNA expression profiling data revealed that i) the quantity of predicted miRNA-mRNA relations was reduced, ii) miRNA targets with a function in cell cycle and axon guidance were enriched, iii) differential regulation of anti-differentiation miR-155-5p and miR-29b-3p as well as pro-differentiation miR-335-3p, miR-335-5p, miR-322-3p, and miR-322-5p seemed to be of primary importance during skeletal myoblast differentiation compared to the other miRNAs, iv) the abundance of targets and affected biological processes was miRNA specific, and v) subsets of miRNAs may collectively regulate gene expression. Conclusions Joint analysis of mRNA and miRNA profiling data increased the process-specificity and quality of predicted relations by statistically selecting miRNA-target interactions. Moreover, this study revealed miRNA-specific predominant biological implications in skeletal muscle cell differentiation and in response to TNF-α or IGF1 treatment. Furthermore, myoblast differentiation-associated mi

  6. Integrative Analysis of MicroRNA and mRNA Data Reveals an Orchestrated Function of MicroRNAs in Skeletal Myocyte Differentiation in Response to TNF-α or IGF1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swanhild U Meyer

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle cell differentiation is impaired by elevated levels of the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α with pathological significance in chronic diseases or inherited muscle disorders. Insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF1 positively regulates muscle cell differentiation. Both, TNF-α and IGF1 affect gene and microRNA (miRNA expression in this process. However, computational prediction of miRNA-mRNA relations is challenged by false positives and targets which might be irrelevant in the respective cellular transcriptome context. Thus, this study is focused on functional information about miRNA affected target transcripts by integrating miRNA and mRNA expression profiling data.Murine skeletal myocytes PMI28 were differentiated for 24 hours with concomitant TNF-α or IGF1 treatment. Both, mRNA and miRNA expression profiling was performed. The data-driven integration of target prediction and paired mRNA/miRNA expression profiling data revealed that i the quantity of predicted miRNA-mRNA relations was reduced, ii miRNA targets with a function in cell cycle and axon guidance were enriched, iii differential regulation of anti-differentiation miR-155-5p and miR-29b-3p as well as pro-differentiation miR-335-3p, miR-335-5p, miR-322-3p, and miR-322-5p seemed to be of primary importance during skeletal myoblast differentiation compared to the other miRNAs, iv the abundance of targets and affected biological processes was miRNA specific, and v subsets of miRNAs may collectively regulate gene expression.Joint analysis of mRNA and miRNA profiling data increased the process-specificity and quality of predicted relations by statistically selecting miRNA-target interactions. Moreover, this study revealed miRNA-specific predominant biological implications in skeletal muscle cell differentiation and in response to TNF-α or IGF1 treatment. Furthermore, myoblast differentiation-associated miRNAs are suggested to collectively regulate gene

  7. A reliable low cost integrated wireless sensor network for water quality monitoring and level control system in UAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Elnour, Ali; Khaleeq, Hyder; Abou-Elnour, Ahmad

    2016-04-01

    In the present work, wireless sensor network and real-time controlling and monitoring system are integrated for efficient water quality monitoring for environmental and domestic applications. The proposed system has three main components (i) the sensor circuits, (ii) the wireless communication system, and (iii) the monitoring and controlling unit. LabView software has been used in the implementation of the monitoring and controlling system. On the other hand, ZigBee and myRIO wireless modules have been used to implement the wireless system. The water quality parameters are accurately measured by the present computer based monitoring system and the measurement results are instantaneously transmitted and published with minimum infrastructure costs and maximum flexibility in term of distance or location. The mobility and durability of the proposed system are further enhanced by fully powering via a photovoltaic system. The reliability and effectiveness of the system are evaluated under realistic operating conditions.

  8. Continuous monitoring methods for assessment of structural integrity in nuclear power plants; Jatkuvan monitoroinnin menetelmaet rakenteiden eheyden varmistamiseen ydinvoimaloissa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkimo, M.

    1998-01-01

    This report is a review of the frequently used continuous monitoring methods that are applied or can possibly be applied in nuclear power plants. The methods covered include condition monitoring and non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques that can be used to detect flaws in components and the malfunction of machinery. The specific techniques for water chemistry monitoring are not covered by this report. The systems based on acoustic emission are considered to be suitable for continuous monitoring applications and these are discussed in greater detail compared to other methods. The loose parts monitoring and leak detection systems based on acoustic emission have practical applications in several nuclear power plants. The real-time monitoring of crack-tip movement using the ultrasonic method is also discussed. Some results are also referred to from the research and development work to monitor crack initiation and growth on the surface of high-speed rotating components using the electromagnetic method. Vibration measurements and analysis are mentioned as a usual tool for monitoring the condition of rotating machinery but also some special aspects of nuclear power plants are included. Finally the on-line fatigue and integrity monitoring systems are briefly discussed and given some considerations regarding the material property measurements using continuous non-destructive methods. (orig.). 34 refs.

  9. Continuous monitoring methods for assessment of structural integrity in nuclear power plants; Jatkuvan monitoroinnin menetelmaet rakenteiden eheyden varmistamiseen ydinvoimaloissa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkimo, M.

    1998-01-01

    This report is a review of the frequently used continuous monitoring methods that are applied or can possibly be applied in nuclear power plants. The methods covered include condition monitoring and non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques that can be used to detect flaws in components and the malfunction of machinery. The specific techniques for water chemistry monitoring are not covered by this report. The systems based on acoustic emission are considered to be suitable for continuous monitoring applications and these are discussed in greater detail compared to other methods. The loose parts monitoring and leak detection systems based on acoustic emission have practical applications in several nuclear power plants. The real-time monitoring of crack-tip movement using the ultrasonic method is also discussed. Some results are also referred to from the research and development work to monitor crack initiation and growth on the surface of high-speed rotating components using the electromagnetic method. Vibration measurements and analysis are mentioned as a usual tool for monitoring the condition of rotating machinery but also some special aspects of nuclear power plants are included. Finally the on-line fatigue and integrity monitoring systems are briefly discussed and given some considerations regarding the material property measurements using continuous non-destructive methods. (orig.). 34 refs.

  10. Integration of thermal and hyperspectral VNIR imagery for architectural and artistic heritage analysis and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalli, Rosa Maria; Masini, Nicola; Pascucci, Simone; Palombo, Angelo; Pignatti, Stefano

    2010-05-01

    The application of integrated hyperspectral VNIR and thermal data for analyzing and monitoring the architectural and artistic heritage status is becoming a remarkable tool to be combined with other non-destructive techniques (e.g. GPR), and prior to destructive checking, in order to extract appropriate information and make useful decisions [1]. As the analysis of some kind of damages (e.g. water infiltrations) or alterations is not always fulfilled with visible and thermographic imagery, the proposed study aims at integrating hyperspectral reflectances and temperature and apparent thermal inertia behaviours. Hyperspectral data is able to discriminate materials on the basis of their different patterns of wavelength-specific absorption; in fact, they are successfully used for identifying minerals and rocks, as well as detecting soil properties including moisture, organic content and salinity [2]. Moreover, the potential to find out alterations or damages and monitoring them through non-destructive sensors is particularly appreciated in structural analysis for restoration works such as water infiltrations in outdoor cultural assets and moisture penetration in a wall that is a major source of paint alteration [3, 4]. The jointly use of the reflective and infrared (emitted, absorbed, reflected and transmitted) radiation for this research study is encouraged by the technical and operative characteristics of the observation systems at disposal that can provide high spectral resolution and high-frequency images with low Ne?R e Ne?T values and able to observe the variables and physical and optical parameters in quasi real-time and connected to the cultural heritage status. The following portable field instruments are used for this study: (a) HYSPEX hyperspectral scanner working in the VNIR (0.4-1.0μm) spectral region, which is an imaging spectrometer with a very high spectral and spatial resolution, (b) 2 FLIR SC7000 Thermal cams working in the MWIR (3-5 micron) and LWIR

  11. Integration of structural health monitoring solutions onto commercial aircraft via the Federal Aviation Administration structural health monitoring research program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindell, Paul; Doyle, Jon; Roach, Dennis

    2017-02-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) started a research program in structural health monitoring (SHM) in 2011. The program's goal was to understand the technical gaps of implementing SHM on commercial aircraft and the potential effects on FAA regulations and guidance. The program evolved into a demonstration program consisting of a team from Sandia National Labs Airworthiness Assurance NDI Center (AANC), the Boeing Corporation, Delta Air Lines, Structural Monitoring Systems (SMS), Anodyne Electronics Manufacturing Corp (AEM) and the FAA. This paper will discuss the program from the selection of the inspection problem, the SHM system (Comparative Vacuum Monitoring-CVM) that was selected as the inspection solution and the testing completed to provide sufficient data to gain the first approved use of an SHM system for routine maintenance on commercial US aircraft.

  12. Development and Integration of Hardware and Software for Active-Sensors in Structural Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overly, Timothy G.S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) promises to deliver great benefits to many industries. Primarily among them is a potential for large cost savings in maintenance of complex structures such as aircraft and civil infrastructure. However, several large obstacles remain before widespread use on structures can be accomplished. The development of three components would address many of these obstacles: a robust sensor validation procedure, a low-cost active-sensing hardware and an integrated software package for transition to field deployment. The research performed in this thesis directly addresses these three needs and facilitates the adoption of SHM on a larger scale, particularly in the realm of SHM based on piezoelectric (PZT) materials. The first obstacle addressed in this thesis is the validation of the SHM sensor network. PZT materials are used for sensor/actuators because of their unique properties, but their functionality also needs to be validated for meaningful measurements to be recorded. To allow for a robust sensor validation algorithm, the effect of temperature change on sensor diagnostics and the effect of sensor failure on SHM measurements were classified. This classification allowed for the development of a sensor diagnostic algorithm that is temperature invariant and can indicate the amount and type of sensor failure. Secondly, the absence of a suitable commercially-available active-sensing measurement node is addressed in this thesis. A node is a small compact measurement device used in a complete system. Many measurement nodes exist for conventional passive sensing, which does not actively excite the structure, but there are no measurement nodes available that both meet the active-sensing requirements and are useable outside the laboratory. This thesis develops hardware that is low-power, active-sensing and field-deployable. This node uses the impedance method for SHM measurements, and can run the sensor diagnostic algorithm also developed here

  13. Skeletal dysplasia in ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma, Chahira

    2008-12-01

    The ancient Egyptian civilization lasted for over 3000 years and ended in 30 BCE. Many aspects of ancient Egyptian culture, including the existence of skeletal dysplasias, and in particular achondroplasia, are well known through the monuments and records that survived until modern times. The hot and dry climate in Egypt allowed for the preservation of bodies and skeletal anomalies. The oldest dwarf skeleton, the Badarian skeleton (4500 BCE), possibly represents an epiphyseal disorder. Among the remains of dwarfs with achondroplasia from ancient Egypt (2686-2190 BCE), exists a skeleton of a pregnant female, believed to have died during delivery with a baby's remains in situ. British museums have partial skeletons of dwarfs with achondroplasia, humeri probably affected with mucopolysaccharidoses, and a skeleton of a child with osteogenesis imperfecta. Skeletal dysplasia is also found among royal remains. The mummy of the pharaoh Siptah (1342-1197 BCE) shows a deformity of the left leg and foot. A mummified fetus, believed to be the daughter of king Tutankhamun, has scoliosis, spina bifida, and Sprengel deformity. In 2006 I reviewed the previously existing knowledge of dwarfism in ancient Egypt. The purpose of this second historical review is to add to that knowledge with an expanded contribution. The artistic documentation of people with skeletal dysplasia from ancient Egypt is plentiful including hundreds of amulets, statues, and drawing on tomb and temple walls. Examination of artistic reliefs provides a glance of the role of people with skeletal dysplasia and the societal attitudes toward them. Both artistic evidence and moral teachings in ancient Egypt reveal wide integration of individuals with disabilities into the society.

  14. Recorded earthquake responses from the integrated seismic monitoring network of the Atwood Building, Anchorage, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, M.

    2006-01-01

    An integrated seismic monitoring system with a total of 53 channels of accelerometers is now operating in and at the nearby free-field site of the 20-story steel-framed Atwood Building in highly seismic Anchorage, Alaska. The building has a single-story basement and a reinforced concrete foundation without piles. The monitoring system comprises a 32-channel structural array and a 21-channel site array. Accelerometers are deployed on 10 levels of the building to assess translational, torsional, and rocking motions, interstory drift (displacement) between selected pairs of adjacent floors, and average drift between floors. The site array, located approximately a city block from the building, comprises seven triaxial accelerometers, one at the surface and six in boreholes ranging in depths from 15 to 200 feet (???5-60 meters). The arrays have already recorded low-amplitude shaking responses of the building and the site caused by numerous earthquakes at distances ranging from tens to a couple of hundred kilometers. Data from an earthquake that occurred 186 km away traces the propagation of waves from the deepest borehole to the roof of the building in approximately 0.5 seconds. Fundamental structural frequencies [0.58 Hz (NS) and 0.47 Hz (EW)], low damping percentages (2-4%), mode coupling, and beating effects are identified. The fundamental site frequency at approximately 1.5 Hz is close to the second modal frequencies (1.83 Hz NS and 1.43 EW) of the building, which may cause resonance of the building. Additional earthquakes prove repeatability of these characteristics; however, stronger shaking may alter these conclusions. ?? 2006, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  15. Integrated monitoring system of the San Vito Romano rockslide (Central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Gabriele; Fubelli, Giandomenico; Pezzo, Giuseppe; Iasio, Christian

    2017-04-01

    San Vito Romano is a small town 40km east of Rome (Central Italy). Since the village began to grow, during the 70s, the new buildings started showing evidences of landslide activity, included ground settlement and cracking. In response, several boreholes have been realised along the following years in the entire municipality area and many geotechnical data became available. By the way, after the recent landslides event occurred in July 2011, the need to deploy devices to monitor deformations became of paramount importance. As consequence, rainfall and temperatures started to be daily monitored, 6 extensimeters in real time connection were placed on the most damaged buildings and periodical inclinometric and piezometric measurements started to be conducted. Moreover, a geomorphological field survey has been realised and PSInSAR data from ERS, Envisat and Cosmo SkyMed satellites have been investigated. This work aims to integrate the information provided by the all in-situ and remote sensing techniques in order to reconstruct dimension, typology, state of activity and triggering factors of the phenomena that affect San Vito Romano. The study area is about 2km2 wide. Here, siliciclastic formation with a high percent of clayey minerals outcrops and a significant thickness of landslide deposits have been recognized in many borehole stratigraphies. The preliminary results show that the study area is affected by shallow rapid landslides as like by deep seated phenomena. The first mainly involve clayey layers and colluvium/eluvium coverture while the second is rockslide that affects the bedrock for >20m in depth. In both cases, ground displacements seem to be directly connected with rainfall intensity and underground water level variation. Data have been elaborated trough geostatistical, GIS and time series analysis and the overall results will be presented and discussed in the full work.

  16. First results of an integrated monitoring concept to detect brine migration processes in freshwater aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, M.; Schmidt-Hattenberger, C.; Wagner, F.; Schröder, S.

    2012-04-01

    The reduction of new carbon dioxide emissions is an important contribution to realise climate change mitigation solutions. One possibility consists in the long-term storage of industrial produced greenhouse gas in deep saline aquifers. The most important research focus of the multidisciplinary integrated project BRINE is to ensure the safe storage operation. This research work refers to an area in eastern Brandenburg (Germany). However, the analysis can be applied to regions with comparable geological characteristics. The relevant reservoir horizon is located within a classic anticlinal structure, generated by salt tectonic processes. Due to the local geological site specifics, the CO2 injection could cause a pressure build-up and thus a brine migration in the reservoir layer. For this reason, an adequate monitoring system for the observation of possible brine displacement into upper freshwater aquifers is essential. For both the qualitatively and quantitatively investigation a combination of several geophysical methods is needed. The electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is a measurement method with a comparatively high spatial resolution on small scales. Therefore it will be generally used for borehole and near subsurface investigations. The presented monitoring concept focusses on three potential pathways. Beside regional fault-zones, also formation defects in the upper aquitards and leakages around the wellbore could promote a saltwater migration. The main objective is to find an optimal combination of several electrode arrays like surface, surface-downhole and cross-borehole configurations to detect time-lapse effects of the resistivity distribution in the subsurface. By means of numerical modelling studies of different salinisation scenarios, we have tested several standard and several adapted electrode arrays. In order to further improve the results, an inversion code based on the measured resistance ratios is used. Parallel to the large-scale modelling

  17. Clinical utility of early amplitude integrated EEG in monitoring term newborns at risk of neurological injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina A. Toso

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to test the clinical utility of an early amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG to predict short-term neurological outcome in term newborns at risk of neurology injury. METHODS: this was a prospective, descriptive study. The inclusion criteria were neonatal encephalopathy, neurologic disturbances, and severe respiratory distress syndrome. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and likelihood ratio (LR were calculated. Clinical and demographic data were analyzed. Neurological outcome was defined as the sum of clinical, electroimaging, and neuroimaging findings. RESULTS: ten of the 21 monitored infants (48% presented altered short-term neurologic outcome. The aEEG had 90% sensitivity, 82% specificity, 82% positive predictive value, and 90% negative predictive value. The positive LR was 4.95, and the negative LR was 0.12. In three of 12 (25% encephalopathic infants, the aEEG allowed for a better definition of the severity of their condition. Seizures were detected in eight infants (38%, all subclinical at baseline, and none had a normal aEEG background pattern. The status of three infants (43% evolved and required two or more drugs for treatment. CONCLUSIONS: in infants with encephalopathy or other severe illness, aEEG disturbances occur frequently. aEEG provided a better classification of the severity of encephalopathy, detected early subclinical seizures, and allowed for monitoring of the response to treatment. aEEG was a useful tool at the neonatal intensive care unit for predicting poor short-term neurological outcomes for all sick newborn.

  18. Pyrroloquinoline Quinone Resists Denervation-Induced Skeletal Muscle Atrophy by Activating PGC-1α and Integrating Mitochondrial Electron Transport Chain Complexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Ting Kuo

    Full Text Available Denervation-mediated skeletal muscle atrophy results from the loss of electric stimulation and leads to protein degradation, which is critically regulated by the well-confirmed transcriptional co-activator peroxisome proliferator co-activator 1 alpha (PGC-1α. No adequate treatments of muscle wasting are available. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ, a naturally occurring antioxidant component with multiple functions including mitochondrial modulation, demonstrates the ability to protect against muscle dysfunction. However, it remains unclear whether PQQ enhances PGC-1α activation and resists skeletal muscle atrophy in mice subjected to a denervation operation. This work investigates the expression of PGC-1α and mitochondrial function in the skeletal muscle of denervated mice administered PQQ. The C57BL6/J mouse was subjected to a hindlimb sciatic axotomy. A PQQ-containing ALZET® osmotic pump (equivalent to 4.5 mg/day/kg b.w. was implanted subcutaneously into the right lower abdomen of the mouse. In the time course study, the mouse was sacrificed and the gastrocnemius muscle was prepared for further myopathological staining, energy metabolism analysis, western blotting, and real-time quantitative PCR studies. We observed that PQQ administration abolished the denervation-induced decrease in muscle mass and reduced mitochondrial activities, as evidenced by the reduced fiber size and the decreased expression of cytochrome c oxidase and NADH-tetrazolium reductase. Bioenergetic analysis demonstrated that PQQ reprogrammed the denervation-induced increase in the mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate (OCR and led to an increase in the extracellular acidification rate (ECAR, a measurement of the glycolytic metabolism. The protein levels of PGC-1α and the electron transport chain (ETC complexes were also increased by treatment with PQQ. Furthermore, PQQ administration highly enhanced the expression of oxidative fibers and maintained the type II glycolytic

  19. 2 years of integral monitoring of GRS 1915+105. II. X-ray spectro-temporal analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, J.; Shaw, S.E.; Hannikainen, D.C.;

    2008-01-01

    This is the second paper presenting the results of 2 yr of monitoring of GRS 1915+105 with INTEGRAL, RXTE, and the Ryle Telescope. We present the X-ray spectral and temporal analysis of four observations showing strong radio to X-ray correlations. During one observation GRS 1915+105 was in a steady...

  20. X-ray facility for the ground calibration of the X-ray monitor JEM-X on board INTEGRAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loffredo, G.; Pelliciari, C.; Frontera, F.;

    2003-01-01

    We describe the X-ray facility developed for the calibration of the X-ray monitor JEM-X on board the INTEGRAL satellite. The apparatus allowed the scanning of the detector geometric area with a pencil beam of desired energy over the major part of the passband of the instrument. The monochromatic...

  1. Integrated cantilever-based flow sensors with tunable sensitivity for in-line monitoring of flow fluctuations in microfluidic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noeth, Nadine-Nicole; Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Boisen, Anja

    2014-01-01

    For devices such as bio-/chemical sensors in microfluidic systems, flow fluctuations result in noise in the sensor output. Here, we demonstrate in-line monitoring of flow fluctuations with a cantilever-like sensor integrated in a microfluidic channel. The cantilevers are fabricated in different m...... pumps connected to the microfluidic system. © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland....

  2. Advanced receiver autonomous integrity monitoring using triple frequency data with a focus on treatment of biases

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mowafy, Ahmed

    2017-04-01

    Most current Advanced Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (ARAIM) methods are designed to use dual-frequency ionosphere-free observations. These methods assume that receiver bias is absorbed in the common receiver clock offset and bound satellite biases by nominal values. However, most multi-constellation Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) can offer triple frequency data that can be used for civilian applications in the future, which can improve observation redundancy, solution precision and detection of faults. In this contribution, we explore the use of this type of observations from GPS, Galileo and BeiDou in ARAIM. Nevertheless, the use of triple frequency data introduces receiver differential biases that have to be taken into consideration. To demonstrate the significance of these additional biases we first present a method to quantify them at stations of known coordinates and using available products from the International GNSS service (IGS). To deal with the additional receiver biases, we use a between-satellite single difference (BSSD) observation model that eliminates their effect. A pilot test was performed to evaluate ARAIM availability for Localizer Performance with Vertical guidance down to 200 feet (LPV-200) when using the triple-frequency observations. Real data were collected for one month at stations of known coordinates located in regions of different satellite coverage characteristics. The BSSD triple-frequency model was evaluated to give early indication about its feasibility, where the implementation phase still requires further comprehensive studies. The vertical position error was always found to be bounded by the protection level proven initial validity of the proposed integrity model.

  3. ISTIMES Integrated System for Transport Infrastructures Surveillance and Monitoring by Electromagnetic Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argenti, M.; Giannini, V.; Averty, R.; Bigagli, L.; Dumoulin, J.

    2012-04-01

    The EC FP7 ISTIMES project has the goal of realizing an ICT-based system exploiting distributed and local sensors for non destructive electromagnetic monitoring in order to make critical transport infrastructures more reliable and safe. Higher situation awareness thanks to real time and detailed information and images of the controlled infrastructure status allows improving decision capabilities for emergency management stakeholders. Web-enabled sensors and a service-oriented approach are used as core of the architecture providing a sys-tem that adopts open standards (e.g. OGC SWE, OGC CSW etc.) and makes efforts to achieve full interoperability with other GMES and European Spatial Data Infrastructure initiatives as well as compliance with INSPIRE. The system exploits an open easily scalable network architecture to accommodate a wide range of sensors integrated with a set of tools for handling, analyzing and processing large data volumes from different organizations with different data models. Situation Awareness tools are also integrated in the system. Definition of sensor observations and services follows a metadata model based on the ISO 19115 Core set of metadata elements and the O&M model of OGC SWE. The ISTIMES infrastructure is based on an e-Infrastructure for geospatial data sharing, with a Data Cata-log that implements the discovery services for sensor data retrieval, acting as a broker through static connections based on standard SOS and WNS interfaces; a Decision Support component which helps decision makers providing support for data fusion and inference and generation of situation indexes; a Presentation component which implements system-users interaction services for information publication and rendering, by means of a WEB Portal using SOA design principles; A security framework using Shibboleth open source middleware based on the Security Assertion Markup Language supporting Single Sign On (SSO). ACKNOWLEDGEMENT - The research leading to these

  4. A wireless sensor network compatible wearable u-healthcare monitoring system using integrated ECG, accelerometer and SpO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Wan-Young; Lee, Young-Dong; Jung, Sang-Joong

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the design and development of a wearable ubiquitous healthcare monitoring system using integrated electrocardiogram (ECG), accelerometer and oxygen saturation (SpO(2)) sensors. In this design, non-intrusive healthcare system was designed based on wireless sensor network (WSN) for wide area coverage with minimum battery power to support RF transmission. We have developed various devices such as wearable ubiquitous sensor network (USN) node, wearable chest sensor belt and wrist pulse oximeter for this system. Low power ECG, accelerometer and SpO(2) sensors board was integrated to the wearable USN node for user's health monitoring. The wearable ubiquitous healthcare monitoring system allows physiological data to be transmitted in wireless sensor network using IEEE 802.15.4 from on-body wearable sensor devices to a base-station which is connected to a server PC. Physiological data can be displayed and stored in the server PC continuously.

  5. An interation of lifetime monitoring of steam generators in power control systems; Integration der Lebensdauerueberwachung von Dampferzeugern in die Kraftwerksleittechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunze, Ulrich; Pels Leusden, Christoph; Spinner, Ralf [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany). Energy Sector; Hackstein, Holger [Siemens AG, Offenbach am Main (Germany). Energy Sector; Walz, Horst [Siemens AG, Karlsruhe (Germany). Energy Sector

    2008-07-01

    The substantial cost-relevant requirements of the operation of power stations are a highly flexible operation, efficient maintenance, a high efficiency and a high availability. Computer-assisted procedures are indispensable for the continuous monitoring of lifetime consumption and for the condition-dependent maintenance of the boiler. The fatigue monitoring system (FMS) offers all possibilities of the control system. The authors of the contribution under consideration report on an integration of life time monitoring of steam generators into the power station control technology. The technical fundamentals for the computation of the boiler lifetime as well as the fundamentals of integration philosophy and their conversion are presented. Subsequently, a configuration exemplarily is presented, and its results are described.

  6. Controller integrated condition monitoring systems. Higher data quality assures better analysis results; Steuerungsintegrierte Condition Monitoring Systeme. Hoehere Datenqualitaet garantiert bessere Analyseergebnisse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoering, Bernd [8.2 Monitoring GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    The market of CMS suppliers is in a radical change. The control manufacturers have recognized that they could tap into new market shares by combining of CMS with controller technology. As controller integrated CMS have direct access to all information from the control system, they would be able to filter out disturbing noises from the very first moment. This ensures a higher data quality, fewer false alarms and improves analysis results. Since the control suppliers generally do not have the specialized knowledge to develop and to take care for a wind-specific CMS application software, 8.2 Monitoring has developed a wind-specific CMS application software, named VibraLyze trademark PRO, for the controller Integrated CMS hardware. Thus operators with different CMS in use or wind turbine manufacturer, who uses different control systems with integrated CMS, can serve their different CMS hardware with a uniform software. (orig.)

  7. Relative receiver autonomous integrity monitoring for future GNSS-based aircraft navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratton, Livio Rafael

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) has enabled reliable, safe, and practical aircraft positioning for en-route and non-precision phases of flight for more than a decade. Intense research is currently devoted to extending the use of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), including GPS, to precision approach and landing operations. In this context, this work is focused on the development, analysis, and verification of the concept of Relative Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RRAIM) and its potential applications to precision approach navigation. RRAIM fault detection algorithms are developed, and associated mathematical bounds on position error are derived. These are investigated as possible solutions to some current key challenges in precision approach navigation, discussed below. Augmentation systems serving continent-size areas (like the Wide Area Augmentation System or WAAS) allow certain precision approach operations within the covered region. More and better satellites, with dual frequency capabilities, are expected to be in orbit in the mid-term future, which will potentially allow WAAS-like capabilities worldwide with a sparse ground station network. Two main challenges in achieving this goal are (1) ensuring that navigation fault detection functions are fast enough to alert worldwide users of hazardously misleading information, and (2) minimizing situations in which navigation is unavailable because the user's local satellite geometry is insufficient for safe position estimation. Local augmentation systems (implemented at individual airports, like the Local Area Augmentation System or LAAS) have the potential to allow precision approach and landing operations by providing precise corrections to user-satellite range measurements. An exception to these capabilities arises during ionospheric storms (caused by solar activity), when hazardous situations can exist with residual range errors several orders of magnitudes higher than nominal. Until dual

  8. An Integrated Approach for Monitoring and Information Management of the Guanling Landslide (China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hou

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Landslide triggered by earthquake or rainstorm often results in serious property damage and human casualties. It is, therefore, necessary to establish an emergency management system to facilitate the processes of damage assessment and decision-making. This paper has presented an integrated approach for mapping and analyzing spatial features of a landslide from remote sensing images and Digital Elevation Models (DEMs. Several image interpretation tools have been provided for analyzing the spatial distribution and characteristics of the landslide on different dimensions: (1D terrain variation analysis along the mass movement direction and (3D morphological analysis. In addition, the results of image interpretation can be further discussed and adjusted on an online cooperating platform, which was built to improve the coordination of all players involved in different phases of emergency management, e.g., hazard experts, emergency managers, and first response organizations. A mobile-based application has also been developed to enhance the data exchange and on-site investigation. Our pilot study of Guanling landslide shows that the presented approach has the potential to facilitate the phases of landslide monitoring and information management, e.g., hazard assessment, emergency preparedness, planning mitigation, and response.

  9. Integrative Monitoring of Marine and Freshwater Harmful Algae in Washington State for Public Health Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera L. Trainer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The more frequent occurrence of both marine and freshwater toxic algal blooms and recent problems with new toxic events have increased the risk for illness and negatively impacted sustainable public access to safe shellfish and recreational waters in Washington State. Marine toxins that affect safe shellfish harvest in the state are the saxitoxins that cause paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP, domoic acid that causes amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP and the first ever US closure in 2011 due to diarrhetic shellfish toxins that cause diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP. Likewise, the freshwater toxins microcystins, anatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsins, and saxitoxins have been measured in state lakes, although cylindrospermopsins have not yet been measured above state regulatory guidance levels. This increased incidence of harmful algal blooms (HABs has necessitated the partnering of state regulatory programs with citizen and user-fee sponsored monitoring efforts such as SoundToxins, the Olympic Region Harmful Algal Bloom (ORHAB partnership and the state’s freshwater harmful algal bloom passive (opportunistic surveillance program that allow citizens to share their observations with scientists. Through such integrated programs that provide an effective interface between formalized state and federal programs and observations by the general public, county staff and trained citizen volunteers, the best possible early warning systems can be instituted for surveillance of known HABs, as well as for the reporting and diagnosis of unusual events that may impact the future health of oceans, lakes, wildlife, and humans.

  10. Integrated Wearable System for Monitoring Heart Rate and Step during Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Adi Prasetyo Joko Prawiro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper integrates a heart rate (HR monitoring system with step counter for use during physical activities. Novel step counter algorithm has been developed to enable the highly accurate detection of step. The proposed system comprises a wireless wearable device, a smartphone, and a remote server. Data transmission between a wearable device and a smartphone is conducted via Bluetooth low energy (BLE. An indirect contact measurement method has also been devised to eliminate the need for direct contact electrodes and likelihood of skin irritation. The proposed system is compact, lightweight, and comfortable to wear. A smartphone application provides the interface for the display of data related to HR, step count (SC, exercise intensity, speed, distance, and calories burned, as well as waveforms related to ECG and step cycle. ECG peak detection algorithm achieved accuracy of 99.7% using the MIT-BIH ST Change Database. Accuracy of 98.89% was achieved for HR and 98.96% for SC at treadmill speeds of 1.8 to 9.0 km/h.

  11. Allometric equations for integrating remote sensing imagery into forest monitoring programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jucker, Tommaso; Caspersen, John; Chave, Jérôme; Antin, Cécile; Barbier, Nicolas; Bongers, Frans; Dalponte, Michele; van Ewijk, Karin Y; Forrester, David I; Haeni, Matthias; Higgins, Steven I; Holdaway, Robert J; Iida, Yoshiko; Lorimer, Craig; Marshall, Peter L; Momo, Stéphane; Moncrieff, Glenn R; Ploton, Pierre; Poorter, Lourens; Rahman, Kassim Abd; Schlund, Michael; Sonké, Bonaventure; Sterck, Frank J; Trugman, Anna T; Usoltsev, Vladimir A; Vanderwel, Mark C; Waldner, Peter; Wedeux, Beatrice M M; Wirth, Christian; Wöll, Hannsjörg; Woods, Murray; Xiang, Wenhua; Zimmermann, Niklaus E; Coomes, David A

    2017-01-01

    Remote sensing is revolutionizing the way we study forests, and recent technological advances mean we are now able - for the first time - to identify and measure the crown dimensions of individual trees from airborne imagery. Yet to make full use of these data for quantifying forest carbon stocks and dynamics, a new generation of allometric tools which have tree height and crown size at their centre are needed. Here, we compile a global database of 108753 trees for which stem diameter, height and crown diameter have all been measured, including 2395 trees harvested to measure aboveground biomass. Using this database, we develop general allometric models for estimating both the diameter and aboveground biomass of trees from attributes which can be remotely sensed - specifically height and crown diameter. We show that tree height and crown diameter jointly quantify the aboveground biomass of individual trees and find that a single equation predicts stem diameter from these two variables across the world's forests. These new allometric models provide an intuitive way of integrating remote sensing imagery into large-scale forest monitoring programmes and will be of key importance for parameterizing the next generation of dynamic vegetation models. © 2016 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. On the development and testing of a guided ultrasonic wave array for structural integrity monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromme, Paul; Wilcox, Paul D; Lowe, Michael J S; Cawley, Peter

    2006-04-01

    The prototype of a guided ultrasonic wave array for the structural integrity monitoring of large, plate-like structures has been designed, built, and tested. The development of suitably small transducers for the excitation and measurement of the first antisymmetric Lamb wave mode Ao is described. The array design consists of a ring of 32 transducers, permanently bonded to the structure with a protective membrane, in a compact housing with the necessary multiplexing electronics. Using a phased addition algorithm with dispersion compensation and deconvolution in the wavenumber domain, a good dynamic range can be achieved with a limited number of transducers. Limitations in the transducer design and manufacture restricted the overall dynamic range achieved to 27 dB. Laboratory measurements for a steel plate containing various defects have been performed. The results for standard defects are compared to theoretical predictions and the sensitivity of the array device for defect detection has been established. Simulated corrosion pitting and a defect cut with an angle grinder simulating general corrosion were detected.

  13. A case for using Plethodontid salamanders for monitoring biodiversity and ecosystem integrity of North American forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, H.H.; Droege, S.

    2001-01-01

    Terrestrial salamanders of the family P!ethodontidae have unique attributes that make them excellent indicators of biodiversity and ecosystem integrity in forested habitats. Their longevity, small territory size, site fidelity, sensitivity to natural and anthropogenic perturbations, tendency to occur in high densities, and low sampling costs mean that counts of plethodontid salamanders provide numerous advantages over counts of other North American forest organisms for indicating environmental change. Furthermore, they are tightly linked physiologically to microclimatic and successional processes that influence the distribution and abundance of numerous other hydrophilic but difficult-to-study forest-dwelling plants and animals. Ecosystem processes such as moisture cycling, food-web dynamics, and succession, with their related structural and microclimatic variability, all affect forest biodiversity and have been shown to affect salamander populations as well. We determined the variability associated with sampling for plethodontid salamanders by estimating the coefficient of variation (CV) from available time-series data. The median coefficient of variation indicated that variation in counts of individuals among studies was much lower in plethodonticis (27%) than in lepidoptera (93%), passerine birds (57%), small mammals (69%), or other amphibians (37-46%), which means plethodontid salamanders provide an important statistical advantage over other species for monitoring long-term forest health.

  14. Skeletally Dugundji spaces

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    We introduce and investigate the class of skeletally Dugundji spaces as a skeletal analogue of Dugundji space. The main result states that the following conditions are equivalent for a given space $X$: (i) $X$ is skeletally Dugundji; (ii) Every compactification of $X$ is co-absolute to a Dugundji space; (iii) Every $C^*$-embedding of the absolute $p(X)$ in another space is strongly $\\pi$-regular; (iv) $X$ has a multiplicative lattice in the sense of Shchepin \\cite{s76} consisting of skeletal ...

  15. A comparison of NH{sub 3} point monitoring and diode laser based path integrated measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, N.; Richtsmeier, S.C.; Lee, J.; Bien, F. [Spectral Sciences, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Fetzer, G.J.; Groff, K.W. [Monitor Labs., Inc., Englewood, CO (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Measurements made using two different types of ammonia monitors during a two-month field study in the summer of 1994 are discussed. The first was a diode-laser based open path monitor designed for automated operation in an industrial environment. The second is a monitoring analyzer based on thermal decomposition of ammonia to NO and subsequent analysis by O{sub 3}-NO chemiluminescence. The two monitors provided consistent measurements of ammonia concentration during weeks of continuous unattended operation.

  16. Birding for and with People: Integrating Local Participation in Avian Monitoring Programs within High Biodiversity Areas in Southern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Berlanga

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Biological monitoring is a powerful tool for understanding ecological patterns and processes, implementing sound management practices, and determining wildlife conservation strategies. In Mexico, regional long-term bird monitoring has been undertaken only over the last decade. Two comprehensive programs have incorporated bird monitoring as the main tool for assessing the impact of human productive activities on birds and habitats at local and regional levels: the Integrated Ecosystem Management (IEM and the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor Mexico (CBMM. These programs are implemented in supremely important biodiverse regions in the southern and southeastern states of Mexico. Bird monitoring activities are based on the recruitment and participation of local people linked to sustainable productive projects promoted by the CBMM or IEM. Through a series of training workshops delivered by specialists, local monitors receive equipment and coordinate to become part of a large monitoring network that facilitates regional covertures. This data currently being obtained by local people will enable the mid- and long-term assessment of the impacts of sustainable human productive activities on birds and biodiversity. Community-based bird monitoring programs are a promising opportunity for enhancing scientific knowledge, improving sustainable practices, and supporting wildlife conservation in areas of high biodiversity.

  17. Microprocessor-based integration of microfluidic control for the implementation of automated sensor monitoring and multithreaded optimization algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezra, Elishai; Maor, Idan; Bavli, Danny; Shalom, Itai; Levy, Gahl; Prill, Sebastian; Jaeger, Magnus S; Nahmias, Yaakov

    2015-08-01

    Microfluidic applications range from combinatorial synthesis to high throughput screening, with platforms integrating analog perfusion components, digitally controlled micro-valves and a range of sensors that demand a variety of communication protocols. Currently, discrete control units are used to regulate and monitor each component, resulting in scattered control interfaces that limit data integration and synchronization. Here, we present a microprocessor-based control unit, utilizing the MS Gadgeteer open framework that integrates all aspects of microfluidics through a high-current electronic circuit that supports and synchronizes digital and analog signals for perfusion components, pressure elements, and arbitrary sensor communication protocols using a plug-and-play interface. The control unit supports an integrated touch screen and TCP/IP interface that provides local and remote control of flow and data acquisition. To establish the ability of our control unit to integrate and synchronize complex microfluidic circuits we developed an equi-pressure combinatorial mixer. We demonstrate the generation of complex perfusion sequences, allowing the automated sampling, washing, and calibrating of an electrochemical lactate sensor continuously monitoring hepatocyte viability following exposure to the pesticide rotenone. Importantly, integration of an optical sensor allowed us to implement automated optimization protocols that require different computational challenges including: prioritized data structures in a genetic algorithm, distributed computational efforts in multiple-hill climbing searches and real-time realization of probabilistic models in simulated annealing. Our system offers a comprehensive solution for establishing optimization protocols and perfusion sequences in complex microfluidic circuits.

  18. An integrated, open-source set of tools for urban vulnerability monitoring from Earth observation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vecchi, Daniele; Harb, Mostapha; Dell'Acqua, Fabio; Aurelio Galeazzo, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Aim: The paper introduces an integrated set of open-source tools designed to process medium and high-resolution imagery with the aim to extract vulnerability indicators [1]. Problem: In the context of risk monitoring [2], a series of vulnerability proxies can be defined, such as the extension of a built-up area or buildings regularity [3]. Different open-source C and Python libraries are already available for image processing and geospatial information (e.g. OrfeoToolbox, OpenCV and GDAL). They include basic processing tools but not vulnerability-oriented workflows. Therefore, it is of significant importance to provide end-users with a set of tools capable to return information at a higher level. Solution: The proposed set of python algorithms is a combination of low-level image processing and geospatial information handling tools along with high-level workflows. In particular, two main products are released under the GPL license: source code, developers-oriented, and a QGIS plugin. These tools were produced within the SENSUM project framework (ended December 2014) where the main focus was on earthquake and landslide risk. Further development and maintenance is guaranteed by the decision to include them in the platform designed within the FP 7 RASOR project . Conclusion: With the lack of a unified software suite for vulnerability indicators extraction, the proposed solution can provide inputs for already available models like the Global Earthquake Model. The inclusion of the proposed set of algorithms within the RASOR platforms can guarantee support and enlarge the community of end-users. Keywords: Vulnerability monitoring, remote sensing, optical imagery, open-source software tools References [1] M. Harb, D. De Vecchi, F. Dell'Acqua, "Remote sensing-based vulnerability proxies in the EU FP7 project SENSUM", Symposium on earthquake and landslide risk in Central Asia and Caucasus: exploiting remote sensing and geo-spatial information management, 29-30th January 2014

  19. Integrated Process Monitoring based on Systems of Sensors for Enhanced Nuclear Safeguards Sensitivity and Robustness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humberto E. Garcia

    2014-07-01

    This paper illustrates safeguards benefits that process monitoring (PM) can have as a diversion deterrent and as a complementary safeguards measure to nuclear material accountancy (NMA). In order to infer the possible existence of proliferation-driven activities, the objective of NMA-based methods is often to statistically evaluate materials unaccounted for (MUF) computed by solving a given mass balance equation related to a material balance area (MBA) at every material balance period (MBP), a particular objective for a PM-based approach may be to statistically infer and evaluate anomalies unaccounted for (AUF) that may have occurred within a MBP. Although possibly being indicative of proliferation-driven activities, the detection and tracking of anomaly patterns is not trivial because some executed events may be unobservable or unreliably observed as others. The proposed similarity between NMA- and PM-based approaches is important as performance metrics utilized for evaluating NMA-based methods, such as detection probability (DP) and false alarm probability (FAP), can also be applied for assessing PM-based safeguards solutions. To this end, AUF count estimates can be translated into significant quantity (SQ) equivalents that may have been diverted within a given MBP. A diversion alarm is reported if this mass estimate is greater than or equal to the selected value for alarm level (AL), appropriately chosen to optimize DP and FAP based on the particular characteristics of the monitored MBA, the sensors utilized, and the data processing method employed for integrating and analyzing collected measurements. To illustrate the application of the proposed PM approach, a protracted diversion of Pu in a waste stream was selected based on incomplete fuel dissolution in a dissolver unit operation, as this diversion scenario is considered to be problematic for detection using NMA-based methods alone. Results demonstrate benefits of conducting PM under a system

  20. Developing an open source-based spatial data infrastructure for integrated monitoring of mining areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahn, Florian; Knoth, Christian; Prinz, Torsten; Pebesma, Edzer

    2014-05-01

    In all phases of mining campaigns, comprehensive spatial information is an essential requirement in order to ensure economically efficient but also safe mining activities as well as to reduce environmental impacts. Earth observation data acquired from various sources like remote sensing or ground measurements is important e.g. for the exploration of mineral deposits, the monitoring of mining induced impacts on vegetation or the detection of ground subsidence. The GMES4Mining project aims at exploring new remote sensing techniques and developing analysis methods on various types of sensor data to provide comprehensive spatial information during mining campaigns (BENECKE et al. 2013). One important task in this project is the integration of the data gathered (e.g. hyperspectral images, spaceborne radar data and ground measurements) as well as results of the developed analysis methods within a web-accessible data source based on open source software. The main challenges here are to provide various types and formats of data from different sensors and to enable access to analysis and processing techniques without particular software or licensing requirements for users. Furthermore the high volume of the involved data (especially hyperspectral remote sensing images) makes data transfer a major issue in this use case. To engage these problems a spatial data infrastructure (SDI) including a web portal as user frontend is being developed which allows users to access not only the data but also several analysis methods. The Geoserver software is used for publishing the data, which is then accessed and visualized in a JavaScript-based web portal. In order to perform descriptive statistics and some straightforward image processing techniques on the raster data (e.g. band arithmetic or principal component analysis) the statistics software R is implemented on a server and connected via Rserve. The analysis is controlled and executed directly by the user through the web portal and

  1. Monitoring the integration of hospital information systems: How it may ensure and improve the quality of data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Correia, Ricardo; Vieira-Marques, Pedro; Ferreira, Ana; Oliveira-Palhares, Ernesto; Costa, Pedro; Costa-Pereira, Altamiro

    2006-01-01

    Integration of hospital departmental information systems (HDIS) has become a common but difficult issue. In May 2003, the Department of Biostatistics and Medical Informatics implemented a Virtual Electronic Patient Record (VEPR) for the Hospital S. João (HSJ), a university hospital with over 1350 beds. The system integrates clinical data from 10 legacy HDIS plus the Hospital Administrative Database (HAD), aiming to deliver all patient information to health professionals. Currently, around 500 medical doctors use the system on a regular basis and the HSJ-VEPR retrieves an average of 3,000 new reports per day, in PDF or HTML formats. This paper describes and discusses the role of monitoring in the assurance and improvement of data quality. Three approaches were put in place: (a) monitoring the HSJ-VEPR concerning the frequency of clinical records retrieved from the DIS by checking if the daily number of reports sent by the HDIS fell in the normal range from similar week days; (b) monitoring inconsistencies in the patient's identification by cross-checking between HDIS and HAD; and (c) monitoring the integrity of clinical records delivered to medical doctors through the HSJ-VEPR by checking their digital signature. During 2005, the monitoring system detected 53 unusual frequency patterns of which 44 corresponded to real problems. Over a 6 months period, more than 400 alerts were generated concerning inconsistencies in the patient's identification found in laboratory reports. Nevertheless, a significant reduction in the number of these inconsistencies occurred - from 116 in July to 10 in December 2005--due to implementation of preventive measures by the DIS. Finally, report's integrity was checked each time the report was asked to be visualized i.e. in more than one hundred thousand times during a one year period. In conclusion, all information available in hospital information systems can and should be used to trigger alerts of malfunctions and inconsistencies, in

  2. A Wearable Context-Aware ECG Monitoring System Integrated with Built-in Kinematic Sensors of the Smartphone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen Miao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Continuously monitoring the ECG signals over hours combined with activity status is very important for preventing cardiovascular diseases. A traditional ECG holter is often inconvenient to carry because it has many electrodes attached to the chest and because it is heavy. This work proposes a wearable, low power context-aware ECG monitoring system integrated built-in kinetic sensors of the smartphone with a self-designed ECG sensor. The wearable ECG sensor is comprised of a fully integrated analog front-end (AFE, a commercial micro control unit (MCU, a secure digital (SD card, and a Bluetooth module. The whole sensor is very small with a size of only 58 × 50 × 10 mm for wearable monitoring application due to the AFE design, and the total power dissipation in a full round of ECG acquisition is only 12.5 mW. With the help of built-in kinetic sensors of the smartphone, the proposed system can compute and recognize user’s physical activity, and thus provide context-aware information for the continuous ECG monitoring. The experimental results demonstrated the performance of proposed system in improving diagnosis accuracy for arrhythmias and identifying the most common abnormal ECG patterns in different activities. In conclusion, we provide a wearable, accurate and energy-efficient system for long-term and context-aware ECG monitoring without any extra cost on kinetic sensor design but with the help of the widespread smartphone.

  3. Development of a GIS-based integrated framework for coastal seiches monitoring and forecasting: A North Jiangsu shoal case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Rufu; Lin, Liangzhao

    2017-06-01

    Coastal seiches have become an increasingly important issue in coastal science and present many challenges, particularly when attempting to provide warning services. This paper presents the methodologies, techniques and integrated services adopted for the design and implementation of a Seiches Monitoring and Forecasting Integration Framework (SMAF-IF). The SMAF-IF is an integrated system with different types of sensors and numerical models and incorporates the Geographic Information System (GIS) and web techniques, which focuses on coastal seiche events detection and early warning in the North Jiangsu shoal, China. The in situ sensors perform automatic and continuous monitoring of the marine environment status and the numerical models provide the meteorological and physical oceanographic parameter estimates. A model outputs processing software was developed in C# language using ArcGIS Engine functions, which provides the capabilities of automatically generating visualization maps and warning information. Leveraging the ArcGIS Flex API and ASP.NET web services, a web based GIS framework was designed to facilitate quasi real-time data access, interactive visualization and analysis, and provision of early warning services for end users. The integrated framework proposed in this study enables decision-makers and the publics to quickly response to emergency coastal seiche events and allows an easy adaptation to other regional and scientific domains related to real-time monitoring and forecasting.

  4. Integrated Approach Using Condition Monitoring and Modeling to Investigate Wind Turbine Gearbox Design: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, S.; Guo, Y.

    2015-03-01

    Vibration-based condition monitoring (CM) of geared utility-scale turbine drivetrains has been used by the wind industry to help improve operation and maintenance (O&M) practices, increase turbine availability, and reduce O&M cost. This study is a new endeavor that integrates the vibration-based CM technique with wind turbine gearbox modeling to investigate various gearbox design options. A teamof researchers performed vibration-based CM measurements on a damaged wind turbine gearbox with a classic configuration, (i.e., one planetary stage and two parallel stages). We observed that the acceleration amplitudes around the first-order sidebands of the intermediate stage gear set meshing frequency were much lower than that measured at the high-speed gear set, and similar difference wasalso observed in a healthy gearbox. One factor for a reduction at the intermediate stage gear set is hypothesized to be the soft sun-spline configuration in the test gearbox. To evaluate this hypothesis, a multibody dynamic model of the healthy test gearbox was first developed and validated. Relative percent difference of the first-order sidebands--of the high-speed and intermediate stagegear-meshing frequencies--in the soft and the rigid sun spline configurations were compared. The results verified that the soft sun-spline configuration can reduce the sidebands of the intermediate stage gear set and also the locating bearing loads. The study demonstrates that combining vibration-based CM with appropriate modeling can provide insights for evaluating different wind turbinegearbox design options.

  5. Performance Evaluation and Labeling Comprehension of a New Blood Glucose Monitoring System with Integrated Information Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, Susan M; Starks, Nykole; Baum, John; Greene, Carmine; Pardo, Scott; Parkes, Joan L; Schachner, Holly C; Cuddihy, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Background This study evaluated performance and product labeling of CONTOUR® USB, a new blood glucose monitoring system (BGMS) with integrated diabetes management software and a universal serial bus (USB) port, in the hands of untrained lay users and health care professionals (HCPs). Method Subjects and HCPs tested subject's finger stick capillary blood in parallel using CONTOUR USB meters; deep finger stick blood was tested on a Yellow Springs Instruments (YSI) glucose analyzer for reference. Duplicate results by both subjects and HCPs were obtained to assess system precision. System accuracy was assessed according to International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 15197:2003 guidelines [within ±15 mg/dl of mean YSI results (samples <75 mg/dl) and ±20% (samples ≥75 mg/dl)]. Clinical accuracy was determined by Parkes error grid analysis. Subject labeling comprehension was assessed by HCP ratings of subject proficiency. Key system features and ease-of-use were evaluated by subject questionnaires. Results All subjects who completed the study (N = 74) successfully performed blood glucose measurements, connected the meter to a laptop computer, and used key features of the system. The system was accurate; 98.6% (146/148) of subject results and 96.6% (143/148) of HCP results exceeded ISO 15197:2003 criteria. All subject and HCP results were clinically accurate (97.3%; zone A) or associated with benign errors (2.7%; zone B). The majority of subjects rated features of the BGMS as “very good” or “excellent.” Conclusions CONTOUR USB exceeded ISO 15197:2003 system performance criteria in the hands of untrained lay users. Subjects understood the product labeling, found the system easy to use, and successfully performed blood glucose testing. PMID:22027308

  6. Monitoring the integrity of massive aluminum structures using PZT transducers and the technique of impedance

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Rosalba; Maia, Joaquim M.; Assef, Amauri A.; Pichorim, Sergio F.; Costa, Eduardo T.; L. S. N. Button, Vera

    2015-04-01

    Safety, performance, economy and durability are essential items to qualify materials for the manufacturing of structures used in different areas. Generally, the materials used for this purpose are formed by composites and sometimes they can present failure during the manufacturing process. Such failures can also occur during use due to fatigue and wear, causing damage often difficult to be visually detected. In these cases, the use of non destructive testing (NDT) has proven to be a good choice for assessing the materials quality. The objective of this work was the electromechanical impedance evaluation of massive aluminum structures using ultrasonic transducers to detect discontinuities in the material. The tests have been done using an impedance analyzer (Agilent 4294A), an ultrasound transducer (1.6 MHz of central frequency), two types of PZT ceramics (0.267 mm and 1 mm thickness) and four aluminum samples (250 x 50 x 50 mm) with the transducer placed at three different regions. One sample was kept intact (reference) and the others were drilled in three positions with different sizes of holes (5 mm. 8 mm and 11 mm). The electromechanical impedance was recorded for each sample. The root mean square deviation index (RMSD) between the impedance magnitude of the reference and damaged samples was calculated and it was observed an increase in the RMSD due to the increase of the diameter of the holes (failures) in the samples completely drilled. The results show that the proposed methodology is suitable for monitoring the integrity of aluminum samples. The technique may be evaluated in characterizing other materials to be used in the construction of prostheses and orthoses.

  7. Integration of numerical modeling and observations for the Gulf of Naples monitoring network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iermano, I.; Uttieri, M.; Zambianchi, E.; Buonocore, B.; Cianelli, D.; Falco, P.; Zambardino, G.

    2012-04-01

    Lethal effects of mineral oils on fragile marine and coastal ecosystems are now well known. Risks and damages caused by a maritime accident can be reduced with the help of better forecasts and efficient monitoring systems. The MED project TOSCA (Tracking Oil Spills and Coastal Awareness Network), which gathers 13 partners from 4 Mediterranean countries, has been designed to help create a better response system to maritime accidents. Through the construction of an observational network, based on state of the art technology (HF radars and drifters), TOSCA provides real-time observations and forecasts of the Mediterranean coastal marine environmental conditions. The system is installed and assessed in five test sites on the coastal areas of oil spill outlets (Eastern Mediterranean) and on high traffic areas (Western Mediterranean). The Gulf of Naples, a small semi-closed basin opening to the Tyrrhenian Sea is one of the five test-sites. It is of particular interest from both the environmental point of view, due to peculiar ecosystem properties in the area, and because it sustains important touristic and commercial activities. Currently the Gulf of Naples monitoring network is represented by five automatic weather stations distributed along the coasts of the Gulf, one weather radar, two tide gauges, one waverider buoy, and moored physical, chemical and bio-optical instrumentation. In addition, a CODAR-SeaSonde HF coastal radar system composed of three antennas is located in Portici, Massa Lubrense and Castellammare. The system provides hourly data of surface currents over the entire Gulf with a 1km spatial resolution. A numerical modeling implementation based on Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) is actually integrated in the Gulf of Naples monitoring network. ROMS is a 3-D, free-surface, hydrostatic, primitive equation, finite difference ocean model. In our configuration, the model has high horizontal resolution (250m), and 30 sigma levels in the vertical. Thanks

  8. Skeletal limb abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JA. Skeletal dysplasias. In: Herring JA, ed. Tachdjian's Pediatric Orthopaedics . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 40. Moore KL, Persaud V, Torchia MG. Skeletal system. In: Moore KL, Persaud V, Torchia MG, eds. ... Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA. ...

  9. Comprehensive resource: Skeletal gene database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, L; Ho, N C; Park, S S; Powell, J; Francomano, C A

    2001-01-01

    The Skeletal Gene Database (SGD) is an integrated resource that provides comprehensive information about bone-related genes, mRNA, and proteins expressed in human and mouse, with rich links to numerous other electronic tools. SGD contains expressed sequence tag (EST) data from all the skeletal-related cDNA libraries that are available to the public. It supplies the query/data access analytic tools for users to search and compare each gene expressed in skeletal tissue(s). The results derived from EST tissue expression profiling will allow users to get the data on the mRNA copy numbers of each gene expressed in each tissue and its normalized value. From the SGD, researchers can obtain information regarding the name, symbol, size, exon/intron number, chromosomal location, LocusLink, and related disease (if any is known) of each gene. This electronic compendium also furnishes information on the protein of the corresponding gene including the protein size (amino acid number and molecular weight). It provides swift and ready access to other useful databases including OMIM, UniGene and PUBMED. The data will be updated regularly in step with current and future research, thereby providing what we hope will serve as a highly useful source of information and a powerful analytic tool to the scientific community.

  10. Controller integrated condition monitoring systems (CMS) for wind energy converters in on- and offshore environment; Steuerungsintegrierte Condition Monitoring Systeme (CMS) fuer Windenergieanlagen im On- und Offshoreumfeld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoering, Bernd [8.2 Monitoring GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    Twelve years of application experience with vibration-based Condition Monitoring System (CMS) on wind energy show success. However, CMS is not considered a core competence. Currently the market of CMS suppliers is radically changing. In future, operators with different CMS in use or wind turbine manufacturers, who use different control systems with integrated CMS, can serve their different CMS hardware with a uniform software. The software was specially designed for the Chinese market and is already in operation in the on- and offshore environment. (orig.)

  11. Proteomics of Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deshmukh, Atul

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is the largest tissue in the human body and plays an important role in locomotion and whole body metabolism. It accounts for ~80% of insulin stimulated glucose disposal. Skeletal muscle insulin resistance, a primary feature of Type 2 diabetes, is caused by a decreased ability...... of muscle to respond to circulating insulin. Physical exercise improves insulin sensitivity and whole body metabolism and remains one of the most promising interventions for the prevention of Type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance and exercise adaptations in skeletal muscle might be a cause, or consequence......, of altered protein expressions profiles and/or their posttranslational modifications (PTMs). Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics offer enormous promise for investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle insulin resistance and exercise-induced adaptation; however, skeletal muscle...

  12. Development of a Medication Monitoring System for an Integrated Multidisciplinary Program of Assertive Community Treatment (IMPACT Team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole B. Washington, DO, Assistant Professor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The primary goal was to improve medication management oversight for a severely mentally ill (SMI community-based population by developing a medication monitoring system based on current guidelines to optimize pharmacotherapy and minimize potential medication-related adverse effects. The secondary goal was improvement in coordination of care between healthcare providers. Methods: Guidelines for medication used for psychiatric indications were reviewed. A database of medication for psychiatric indications with monitoring recommendation was developed. Results: Medication regimens for 68 members of the Integrated Multidisciplinary Program of Assertive Community Treatment (IMPACT program qualified for review. Fourteen medications, carbamazepine, chlorpromazine, clozapine, fluphenazine and fluphenazine long-acting injections (LAI, haloperidol and haloperidol LAI, lithium, lurasidone, olanzapine, paliperidone and paliperidone LAI, perphenazine, quetiapine, risperidone and risperidone LAI, valproic acid/divalproex, and ziprasidone, were identified. In total, 111 medications are used on a monthly basis. Each member receives more than one medication qualifying for review. Additional monitoring parameters that were evaluated included changes in laboratory orders for members with insulin-dependent diabetes. Annual lipid panels were changed to every 6 months, if applicable. Conclusions and Future Directions: This medication monitoring program was developed to help ensure IMPACT members receive the most effective care and minimize potential medication-related adverse effects. The secondary goal was to improve coordination of care. Medication monitoring will be added as a continuous quality assurance measure. Lab results will be reviewed at least monthly. The medication monitoring program will be evaluated annually.

  13. Integrated cantilever-based flow sensors with tunable sensitivity for in-line monitoring of flow fluctuations in microfluidic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noeth, Nadine; Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Boisen, Anja

    2013-12-23

    For devices such as bio-/chemical sensors in microfluidic systems, flow fluctuations result in noise in the sensor output. Here, we demonstrate in-line monitoring of flow fluctuations with a cantilever-like sensor integrated in a microfluidic channel. The cantilevers are fabricated in different materials (SU-8 and SiN) and with different thicknesses. The integration of arrays of holes with different hole size and number of holes allows the modification of device sensitivity, theoretical detection limit and measurement range. For an average flow in the microliter range, the cantilever deflection is directly proportional to the flow rate fluctuations in the microfluidic channel. The SiN cantilevers show a detection limit below 1 nL/min and the thinnest SU-8 cantilevers a detection limit below 5 nL/min. Finally, the sensor is applied for in-line monitoring of flow fluctuations generated by external pumps connected to the microfluidic system.

  14. The study of key issues about integration of GNSS and strong-motion records for real-time earthquake monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Rui; Zhang, Pengfei; Zhang, Rui; Liu, Jinhai

    2016-08-01

    This paper has studied the key issues about integration of GNSS and strong-motion records for real-time earthquake monitoring. The validations show that the consistence of the coordinate system must be considered firstly to exclude the system bias between GNSS and strong-motion. The GNSS sampling rate is suggested about 1-5 Hz, and we should give the strong-motion's baseline shift with a larger dynamic noise as its variation is very swift. The initialization time of solving the baseline shift is less than one minute, and ambiguity resolution strategy is not greatly improved the solution. The data quality is very important for the solution, we advised to use multi-frequency and multi-system observations. These ideas give an important guide for real-time earthquake monitoring and early warning by the tight integration of GNSS and strong-motion records.

  15. Integrated Cantilever-Based Flow Sensors with Tunable Sensitivity for In-Line Monitoring of Flow Fluctuations in Microfluidic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Noeth

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available For devices such as bio-/chemical sensors in microfluidic systems, flow fluctuations result in noise in the sensor output. Here, we demonstrate in-line monitoring of flow fluctuations with a cantilever-like sensor integrated in a microfluidic channel. The cantilevers are fabricated in different materials (SU-8 and SiN and with different thicknesses. The integration of arrays of holes with different hole size and number of holes allows the modification of device sensitivity, theoretical detection limit and measurement range. For an average flow in the microliter range, the cantilever deflection is directly proportional to the flow rate fluctuations in the microfluidic channel. The SiN cantilevers show a detection limit below 1 nL/min and the thinnest SU-8 cantilevers a detection limit below 5 nL/min. Finally, the sensor is applied for in-line monitoring of flow fluctuations generated by external pumps connected to the microfluidic system.

  16. Computational radiology in skeletal radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peloschek, Ph.; Nemec, S. [Computational Image Analysis and Radiology Lab (CIR), Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Widhalm, P. [Computational Image Analysis and Radiology Lab (CIR), Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Pattern Recognition and Image Processing Group, Department of Computer Aided Automation, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10/020, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Donner, R. [Computational Image Analysis and Radiology Lab (CIR), Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Pattern Recognition and Image Processing Group, Department of Computer Aided Automation, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10/020, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Institute for Computer Graphics and Vision, Graz University of Technology, Inffeldgasse 16, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Birngruber, E. [Computational Image Analysis and Radiology Lab (CIR), Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Thodberg, H.H. [Visiana Aps, Sollerodvej 57C, DK-2840 Holte (Denmark); Kainberger, F. [Computational Image Analysis and Radiology Lab (CIR), Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Langs, G. [Computational Image Analysis and Radiology Lab (CIR), Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: georg.langs@meduniwien.ac.at

    2009-11-15

    Recent years have brought rapid developments in computational image analysis in musculo-skeletal radiology. Meanwhile the algorithms have reached a maturity that makes initial clinical use feasible. Applications range from joint space measurement to erosion quantification, and from fracture detection to the assessment of alignment angles. Current results of computational image analysis in radiography are very promising, but some fundamental issues remain to be clarified, among which the definition of the optimal trade off between automatization and operator-dependency, the integration of these tools into clinical work flow and last not least the proof of incremental clinical benefit of these methods.

  17. Prescription drug monitoring program data tracking of opioid addiction treatment outcomes in integrated dual diagnosis care involving injectable naltrexone

    OpenAIRE

    Sajid, Ayesha; Whiteman, Aaron; Bell, Richard L.; Greene, Marion S.; Engleman, Eric A; Chambers, R. Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Fourfold increases in opioid prescribing and dispensations over 2 decades in the U.S. has paralleled increases in opioid addictions and overdoses, requiring new preventative, diagnostic, and treatment strategies. This study examines Prescription Drug Monitoring Program (PDMP) tracking as a novel measure of opioid addiction treatment outcomes in a university‐affiliated integrated mental health‐addiction treatment clinic. Methods Repeated measure parametrics examined P...

  18. INTEGRATED WATER MONITORING TO SUPPORT THE MANAGEMENT OF HEALTHY SEGARA ANAKAN ESTUARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Noegrahati

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Estuaries provide vital nesting and feeding habitats for many aquatic plants and animals, therefore suitable methods are needed for monitoring the changes in estuarine waters to keep the health of coastal habitats. Limitations in understanding the relationship between discrete physicochemical measurements and cause of the alteration in the quality and functioning of an ecosystem, has lead to the integration of physicochemical and biological monitoring. In this work, spatial time series integrated monitoring of Southern part of Segara Anakan Estuary, Central Java, Indonesia, was carried out from August 2003 to May 2004. The parameters were measured at the lowest water depth. Dramatic changes in physicochemical parameters of salinity, total suspended solids, turbidity and biological parameters of phytoplankton diversity, density was observed during dry season (August-September 2003 and wet season (December 2003-March 2004, while the changes in parameters of organics (DO, BOD and COD and nutrients (N-NH3 N-NO and P were not significant. The difference of freshwater influx into the estuary caused higher salinity in dry season (25 to 2 ppt and faster water velocity in wet season (0,4 to 0,2 m/detik. The higher rainfall and faster water velocity in wet season caused more re-aeration via the water surface, therefore, photosynthetic production, measured as increase rate of DO in day time, could be assessed only in dry season. Limitation of phytoplankton ability to carry out photosynthesis in wet season, as observed by the decrease of the daytime CO consumption rate, were due to the drastic increase of turbidity (0,8 to 14,1 NTU caused by total suspended solids transported with the freshwater influx. In other turn, this limitation caused the decrease of phytoplankton diversity and density. Considering that healthy estuaries are critical for the continued survival of many species of fish and other aquatic life, and phytoplankton forms the base of

  19. Development and integration of a solar powered unmanned aerial vehicle and a wireless sensor network to monitor greenhouse gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaver, Alexander; Motta, Nunzio; Corke, Peter; Gonzalez, Felipe

    2015-02-11

    Measuring gases for environmental monitoring is a demanding task that requires long periods of observation and large numbers of sensors. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) currently represent the best alternative to monitor large, remote, and difficult access areas, as these technologies have the possibility of carrying specialized gas sensing systems. This paper presents the development and integration of a WSN and an UAV powered by solar energy in order to enhance their functionality and broader their applications. A gas sensing system implementing nanostructured metal oxide (MOX) and non-dispersive infrared sensors was developed to measure concentrations of CH4 and CO2. Laboratory, bench and field testing results demonstrate the capability of UAV to capture, analyze and geo-locate a gas sample during flight operations. The field testing integrated ground sensor nodes and the UAV to measure CO2 concentration at ground and low aerial altitudes, simultaneously. Data collected during the mission was transmitted in real time to a central node for analysis and 3D mapping of the target gas. The results highlights the accomplishment of the first flight mission of a solar powered UAV equipped with a CO2 sensing system integrated with a WSN. The system provides an effective 3D monitoring and can be used in a wide range of environmental applications such as agriculture, bushfires, mining studies, zoology and botanical studies using a ubiquitous low cost technology.

  20. Automated microfluidic platform of bead-based electrochemical immunosensor integrated with bioreactor for continual monitoring of cell secreted biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riahi, Reza; Shaegh, Seyed Ali Mousavi; Ghaderi, Masoumeh; Zhang, Yu Shrike; Shin, Su Ryon; Aleman, Julio; Massa, Solange; Kim, Duckjin; Dokmeci, Mehmet Remzi; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2016-04-21

    There is an increasing interest in developing microfluidic bioreactors and organs-on-a-chip platforms combined with sensing capabilities for continual monitoring of cell-secreted biomarkers. Conventional approaches such as ELISA and mass spectroscopy cannot satisfy the needs of continual monitoring as they are labor-intensive and not easily integrable with low-volume bioreactors. This paper reports on the development of an automated microfluidic bead-based electrochemical immunosensor for in-line measurement of cell-secreted biomarkers. For the operation of the multi-use immunosensor, disposable magnetic microbeads were used to immobilize biomarker-recognition molecules. Microvalves were further integrated in the microfluidic immunosensor chip to achieve programmable operations of the immunoassay including bead loading and unloading, binding, washing, and electrochemical sensing. The platform allowed convenient integration of the immunosensor with liver-on-chips to carry out continual quantification of biomarkers secreted from hepatocytes. Transferrin and albumin productions were monitored during a 5-day hepatotoxicity assessment in which human primary hepatocytes cultured in the bioreactor were treated with acetaminophen. Taken together, our unique microfluidic immunosensor provides a new platform for in-line detection of biomarkers in low volumes and long-term in vitro assessments of cellular functions in microfluidic bioreactors and organs-on-chips.

  1. Development and Integration of a Solar Powered Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and a Wireless Sensor Network to Monitor Greenhouse Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Malaver

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Measuring gases for environmental monitoring is a demanding task that requires long periods of observation and large numbers of sensors. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs currently represent the best alternative to monitor large, remote, and difficult access areas, as these technologies have the possibility of carrying specialized gas sensing systems. This paper presents the development and integration of a WSN and an UAV powered by solar energy in order to enhance their functionality and broader their applications. A gas sensing system implementing nanostructured metal oxide (MOX and non-dispersive infrared sensors was developed to measure concentrations of CH4 and CO2. Laboratory, bench and field testing results demonstrate the capability of UAV to capture, analyze and geo-locate a gas sample during flight operations. The field testing integrated ground sensor nodes and the UAV to measure CO2 concentration at ground and low aerial altitudes, simultaneously. Data collected during the mission was transmitted in real time to a central node for analysis and 3D mapping of the target gas. The results highlights the accomplishment of the first flight mission of a solar powered UAV equipped with a CO2 sensing system integrated with a WSN. The system provides an effective 3D monitoring and can be used in a wide range of environmental applications such as agriculture, bushfires, mining studies, zoology and botanical studies using a ubiquitous low cost technology.

  2. Development and Integration of a Solar Powered Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and a Wireless Sensor Network to Monitor Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaver, Alexander; Motta, Nunzio; Corke, Peter; Gonzalez, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Measuring gases for environmental monitoring is a demanding task that requires long periods of observation and large numbers of sensors. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) currently represent the best alternative to monitor large, remote, and difficult access areas, as these technologies have the possibility of carrying specialized gas sensing systems. This paper presents the development and integration of a WSN and an UAV powered by solar energy in order to enhance their functionality and broader their applications. A gas sensing system implementing nanostructured metal oxide (MOX) and non-dispersive infrared sensors was developed to measure concentrations of CH4 and CO2. Laboratory, bench and field testing results demonstrate the capability of UAV to capture, analyze and geo-locate a gas sample during flight operations. The field testing integrated ground sensor nodes and the UAV to measure CO2 concentration at ground and low aerial altitudes, simultaneously. Data collected during the mission was transmitted in real time to a central node for analysis and 3D mapping of the target gas. The results highlights the accomplishment of the first flight mission of a solar powered UAV equipped with a CO2 sensing system integrated with a WSN. The system provides an effective 3D monitoring and can be used in a wide range of environmental applications such as agriculture, bushfires, mining studies, zoology and botanical studies using a ubiquitous low cost technology. PMID:25679312

  3. The need for integration of drought monitoring tools for proactive food security management in sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, T.; Haile, M.; Senay, G.; Wardlow, B.D.; Knutson, C.L.

    2008-01-01

    Reducing the impact of drought and famine remains a challenge in sub-Saharan Africa despite ongoing drought relief assistance in recent decades. This is because drought and famine are primarily addressed through a crisis management approach when a disaster occurs, rather than stressing preparedness and risk management. Moreover, drought planning and food security efforts have been hampered by a lack of integrated drought monitoring tools, inadequate early warning systems (EWS), and insufficient information flow within and between levels of government in many sub-Saharan countries. The integration of existing drought monitoring tools for sub-Saharan Africa is essential for improving food security systems to reduce the impacts of drought and famine on society in this region. A proactive approach emphasizing integration requires the collective use of multiple tools, which can be used to detect trends in food availability and provide early indicators at local, national, and regional scales on the likely occurrence of food crises. In addition, improving the ability to monitor and disseminate critical drought-related information using available modern technologies (e.g., satellites, computers, and modern communication techniques) may help trigger timely and appropriate preventive responses and, ultimately, contribute to food security and sustainable development in sub-Saharan Africa. ?? 2008 United Nations.

  4. Automated microfluidic platform of bead-based electrochemical immunosensor integrated with bioreactor for continual monitoring of cell secreted biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riahi, Reza; Shaegh, Seyed Ali Mousavi; Ghaderi, Masoumeh; Zhang, Yu Shrike; Shin, Su Ryon; Aleman, Julio; Massa, Solange; Kim, Duckjin; Dokmeci, Mehmet Remzi; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2016-04-01

    There is an increasing interest in developing microfluidic bioreactors and organs-on-a-chip platforms combined with sensing capabilities for continual monitoring of cell-secreted biomarkers. Conventional approaches such as ELISA and mass spectroscopy cannot satisfy the needs of continual monitoring as they are labor-intensive and not easily integrable with low-volume bioreactors. This paper reports on the development of an automated microfluidic bead-based electrochemical immunosensor for in-line measurement of cell-secreted biomarkers. For the operation of the multi-use immunosensor, disposable magnetic microbeads were used to immobilize biomarker-recognition molecules. Microvalves were further integrated in the microfluidic immunosensor chip to achieve programmable operations of the immunoassay including bead loading and unloading, binding, washing, and electrochemical sensing. The platform allowed convenient integration of the immunosensor with liver-on-chips to carry out continual quantification of biomarkers secreted from hepatocytes. Transferrin and albumin productions were monitored during a 5-day hepatotoxicity assessment in which human primary hepatocytes cultured in the bioreactor were treated with acetaminophen. Taken together, our unique microfluidic immunosensor provides a new platform for in-line detection of biomarkers in low volumes and long-term in vitro assessments of cellular functions in microfluidic bioreactors and organs-on-chips.

  5. A monitor for the laboratory evaluation of control integrity in digital control systems operating in harsh electromagnetic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, Celeste M.; Fischl, Robert; Kam, Moshe

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a strategy for dynamically monitoring digital controllers in the laboratory for susceptibility to electromagnetic disturbances that compromise control integrity. The integrity of digital control systems operating in harsh electromagnetic environments can be compromised by upsets caused by induced transient electrical signals. Digital system upset is a functional error mode that involves no component damage, can occur simultaneously in all channels of a redundant control computer, and is software dependent. The motivation for this work is the need to develop tools and techniques that can be used in the laboratory to validate and/or certify critical aircraft controllers operating in electromagnetically adverse environments that result from lightning, high-intensity radiated fields (HIRF), and nuclear electromagnetic pulses (NEMP). The detection strategy presented in this paper provides dynamic monitoring of a given control computer for degraded functional integrity resulting from redundancy management errors, control calculation errors, and control correctness/effectiveness errors. In particular, this paper discusses the use of Kalman filtering, data fusion, and statistical decision theory in monitoring a given digital controller for control calculation errors.

  6. A head-mounted display-based personal integrated-image monitoring system for transurethral resection of the prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Soichiro; Kihara, Kazunori; Takeshita, Hideki; Fujii, Yasuhisa

    2014-12-01

    The head-mounted display (HMD) is a new image monitoring system. We developed the Personal Integrated-image Monitoring System (PIM System) using the HMD (HMZ-T2, Sony Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) in combination with video splitters and multiplexers as a surgical guide system for transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). The imaging information obtained from the cystoscope, the transurethral ultrasonography (TRUS), the video camera attached to the HMD, and the patient's vital signs monitor were split and integrated by the PIM System and a composite image was displayed by the HMD using a four-split screen technique. Wearing the HMD, the lead surgeon and the assistant could simultaneously and continuously monitor the same information displayed by the HMD in an ergonomically efficient posture. Each participant could independently rearrange the images comprising the composite image depending on the engaging step. Two benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients underwent TURP performed by surgeons guided with this system. In both cases, the TURP procedure was successfully performed, and their postoperative clinical courses had no remarkable unfavorable events. During the procedure, none of the participants experienced any HMD-wear related adverse effects or reported any discomfort.

  7. Integrated Reflection Seismic Monitoring and Reservoir Modeling for Geologic CO2 Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Rogers

    2011-12-31

    The US DOE/NETL CCS MVA program funded a project with Fusion Petroleum Technologies Inc. (now SIGMA) to model the proof of concept of using sparse seismic data in the monitoring of CO{sub 2} injected into saline aquifers. The goal of the project was to develop and demonstrate an active source reflection seismic imaging strategy based on deployment of spatially sparse surface seismic arrays. The primary objective was to test the feasibility of sparse seismic array systems to monitor the CO{sub 2} plume migration injected into deep saline aquifers. The USDOE/RMOTC Teapot Dome (Wyoming) 3D seismic and reservoir data targeting the Crow Mountain formation was used as a realistic proxy to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed methodology. Though the RMOTC field has been well studied, the Crow Mountain as a saline aquifer has not been studied previously as a CO{sub 2} sequestration (storage) candidate reservoir. A full reprocessing of the seismic data from field tapes that included prestack time migration (PSTM) followed by prestack depth migration (PSDM) was performed. A baseline reservoir model was generated from the new imaging results that characterized the faults and horizon surfaces of the Crow Mountain reservoir. The 3D interpretation was integrated with the petrophysical data from available wells and incorporated into a geocellular model. The reservoir structure used in the geocellular model was developed using advanced inversion technologies including Fusion's ThinMAN{trademark} broadband spectral inversion. Seal failure risk was assessed using Fusion's proprietary GEOPRESS{trademark} pore pressure and fracture pressure prediction technology. CO{sub 2} injection was simulated into the Crow Mountain with a commercial reservoir simulator. Approximately 1.2MM tons of CO{sub 2} was simulated to be injected into the Crow Mountain reservoir over 30 years and subsequently let 'soak' in the reservoir for 970 years. The relatively small plume

  8. Integrated monitoring approach to investigate the contamination, mobilization and risks of sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bölscher, Jens; Schulte, Achim; Terytze, Konstantin

    2017-04-01

    The use of surface water bodies for manufacturing purposes has been common not only in Germany since the beginning of industrialization, and this has led to a high accumulation of different chemical contaminants in the sediments of aquatic ecosystems. In particular, water bodies with very low flow conditions like the "Rummelsburger See", an anabranch of the Spree River located in the centre of Berlin, have been highly affected. Given that, it has become necessary to obtain improved knowledge concerning the current sediment dynamics, the rate of sedimentation and the current level of contamination and toxicity compared to earlier conditions. Against this background, a survey was set up, consisting of an integrated monitoring approach that focuses on hydraulics, sediment dynamics and contamination, including boundary conditions, such as weather and motor-boat activities to find information, which would help design appropriate treatment in the future. To detect the spatial distribution of pollutants in the sediment, over 200 sediment samples were collected via drill cores at 16 locations. The upper 15 cm of each drill core was systematically divided into 5 layers (each of 3 cm) for separate examination. The investigation of sediment deposition and remobilisation rates was accomplished by installing 18 sediment traps. The presence of selected heavy metals and organic pollutants in the sediments was determined for every sampling location and layer of the drill cores, as well as for all sediment traps. Changes in boundary conditions which influence the spatial and temporal distribution of deposition and resuspension were monitored by placing devices within the water body and taking different mobile measurements (3-D flow conditions, oxygen, turbidity, chlorophyll-a, temperature). The analysis of sediment and suspended matter included the determination of the total content of inorganic (Hg, Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni, Cu, Zn) and organic compounds (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

  9. Integration and comparison of different acquisition techniques for landslide monitoring: Cancia landslide case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiero, Andrea; Fissore, Francesca; Degetto, Massimo; Piermattei, Livia; Guarnieri, Alberto; Mezzomo, Rizieri; Gregoretti, Carlo; Piragnolo, Marco; Pirotti, Francesco; Vettore, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    Terrain instability, landslides and other phenomena mostly caused by hydrogeological risk, often cause damages to human infrastructures, roads and other transport lines: given the recent developments in surveying, electronics and mobile instrumentation, the quest for automated or semi-automated early warning systems is continuously increasing in order to provide reliable technological solutions to reduce risks for both human lives and human building and infrastructures. This work deals with the monitoring a specific area of interest, a landslide located in Cancia (Belluno, Italy). This case study is characterized by the presence of several roads close to the landslide area: in particular, one of them intersects with the landslide. The closeness between landslide and human used areas (e.g. roads) motivate the interest of public authorities in order to reduce risks related to the landslide. To this aim, "Provincia di Belluno, Servizio Difesa del Suolo" actively contributed to this work by providing aerial imagery data of the region of interest. Accessing a reliable reconstruction of certain landslides can be complex due to the difficulty for humans to reach certain areas: often only part of the area of interest can be acquired with highly accurate ground surveying (e.g. terrestrial laser scanning (TLS)), whereas other methods should be considered in order to obtain estimates of the remaining parts of the landslide. Recently, the spread of low cost drones is leading to a growing interest in the choice of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to acquire aerial imagery, hence enabling low cost photogrammetric reconstruction of the area. Despite being an attractive solution because of the clear convenience in terms of cost and acquisition time, its accuracy has typically not reached that of TLS surveying so far. This paper considers the possibility of comparing and integrating different acquisition techniques (TLS, aerial and close-range photogrammetry) in order to reach the

  10. Soil Contamination, Advanced integrated characterisation and time-lapse Monitoring, SoilCAM project highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, H. K.; Van Der Zee, S. E.; Wehrer, M.; Godio, A.; Pedersen, L. B.; Tsocano, G.

    2013-12-01

    The SoilCAM project (2008- 2012, EU-FP7-212663) aimed at improving methods for monitoring subsurace contaminant distribution and biodegradation. Two test sites were chosen, Oslo airport Gardermoen, Norway where de-icing agents infiltrate the soil during snowmelt and the Trecate site in Italy where an inland crude oil spill occurred in 1994. A number of geophysical investigation techniques were combined with soil and water sampling techniques. Data obtained from time-lapse measurements were further analysed by numerical modelling of flow and transport at different scales in order to characterise transport processes in the unsaturated and saturated zones. Laboratory experiments provided physical and biogeochemical data for model parameterisation and to select remediation methods. The geophysical techniques were used to map geological heterogeneities and to conduct time-lapse measurements of processes in the unsaturated zone. Both cross borehole and surface electrodes were used for electrical resistivity and induced polarisation surveys. Results showed clear indications of areas highly affected by de-icing chemicals along the runway at Oslo airport. The time lapse measurements along the runway at the airport showed infiltration patterns during snowmelt and were used to validate 2D unsaturated flow and transport simulations using SUTRA. The simulations illustrate the effect of layering geological structures and membranes, buried parallel to the runway, on the flow pattern. Complex interaction between bio-geo-chemical processes in a 1D vertical profile along the runway were described with the ORCHESTRA model. Smaller scale field site measurements revealed increase of iron and manganese during degradation of de-icing chemicals. At the Trecate site a combination of georadar, electrical resistivity and radio magneto telluric provided a broad outline of the geology down to 50 m. Anomalies in the Induced polarisation and electrical resistivity data from the cross borehole

  11. Improving Rangeland Monitoring and Assessment: Integrating Remote Sensing, GIS, and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Paul Breckenridge

    2007-05-01

    Creeping environmental changes are impacting some of the largest remaining intact parcels of sagebrush steppe ecosystems in the western United States, creating major problems for land managers. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL), located in southeastern Idaho, is part of the sagebrush steppe ecosystem, one of the largest ecosystems on the continent. Scientists at the INL and the University of Idaho have integrated existing field and remotely sensed data with geographic information systems technology to analyze how recent fires on the INL have influenced the current distribution of terrestrial vegetation. Three vegetation mapping and classification systems were used to evaluate the changes in vegetation caused by fires between 1994 and 2003. Approximately 24% of the sagebrush steppe community on the INL was altered by fire, mostly over a 5-year period. There were notable differences between methods, especially for juniper woodland and grasslands. The Anderson system (Anderson et al. 1996) was superior for representing the landscape because it includes playa/bare ground/disturbed area and sagebrush steppe on lava as vegetation categories. This study found that assessing existing data sets is useful for quantifying fire impacts and should be helpful in future fire and land use planning. The evaluation identified that data from remote sensing technologies is not currently of sufficient quality to assess the percentage of cover. To fill this need, an approach was designed using both helicopter and fixed wing unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and image processing software to evaluate six cover types on field plots located on the INL. The helicopter UAV provided the best system compared against field sampling, but is more dangerous and has spatial coverage limitations. It was reasonably accurate for dead shrubs and was very good in assessing percentage of bare ground, litter and grasses; accuracy for litter and shrubs is questionable. The fixed wing system proved to be

  12. MONITORING TREE POPULATION DYNAMICS IN ARID ZONE THROUGH MULTIPLE TEMPORAL SCALES: INTEGRATION OF SPATIAL ANALYSIS, CHANGE DETECTION AND FIELD LONG TERM MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Isaacson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available High mortality rates and lack of recruitment in the acacia populations throughout the Negev Desert and the Arava rift valley of Israel have been reported in previous studies. However, it is difficult to determine whether these reports can be evidence to a significant decline trend of the trees populations. This is because of the slow dynamic processes of acaia tree populations and the lack of long term continuous monitoring data. We suggest a new data analysis technique that expands the time scope of the field long term monitoring of trees in arid environments. This will enables us to improve our understanding of the spatial and temporal changes of these populations. We implemented two different approaches in order to expand the time scope of the acacia population field survey: (1 individual based tree change detection using Corona satellite images and (2 spatial analysis of trees population, converting spatial data into temporal data. The next step was to integrate the results of the two analysis techniques (change detection and spatial analysis with field monitoring. This technique can be implemented to other tree populations in arid environments to help assess the vegetation conditions and dynamics of those ecosystems.

  13. Proteomics of Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deshmukh, Atul

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is the largest tissue in the human body and plays an important role in locomotion and whole body metabolism. It accounts for ~80% of insulin stimulated glucose disposal. Skeletal muscle insulin resistance, a primary feature of Type 2 diabetes, is caused by a decreased ability...... of muscle to respond to circulating insulin. Physical exercise improves insulin sensitivity and whole body metabolism and remains one of the most promising interventions for the prevention of Type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance and exercise adaptations in skeletal muscle might be a cause, or consequence...

  14. An Integrated Patient Information and In-Home Health Monitoring System Using Smartphones and Web Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorwar, Golam; Ali, Mortuza; Islam, Md Kamrul; Miah, Mohammad Selim

    2016-01-01

    Modern healthcare systems are undergoing a paradigm shift from in-hospital care to in-home monitoring, leveraging the emerging technologies in the area of bio-sensing, wireless communication, mobile computing, and artificial intelligence. In-home monitoring promises to significantly reduce healthcare spending by preventing unnecessary hospital admissions and visits to healthcare professionals. Most of the in-home monitoring systems, proposed in the literature, focus on monitoring a set of specific vital signs. However, from the perspective of caregivers it is infeasible to maintain a collection of specialized monitoring systems. In this paper, we view the problem of in-home monitoring from the perspective of caregivers and present a framework that supports various monitoring capabilities while making the complexity transparent to the end users. The essential idea of the framework is to define a 'general purpose architecture' where the system specifies a particular protocol for communication and makes it public. Then any bio-sensing system can communicate with the system as long as it conforms to the protocol. We then argue that as the system grows in terms of number of patients and bio-sensing systems, artificial intelligence technologies need to be employed for patients' risk assessment, prioritization, and recommendation. Finally, we present an initial prototype of the system designed according to the proposed framework.

  15. Monitoring Eastern Spadefoot (Scaphiopus holbrookii) response to weather with the use of a passive integrated transponder (PIT) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Kevin J.; Calhoun, Aram J. K.; Timm, Brad C.; Zydlewski, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Eastern Spadefoots (Scaphiopus holbrookii) are probably one of the least-understood amphibian species in the United States. In New England, populations are localized and it is likely that some populations go undocumented because of the species' cryptic habits. We used passive integrated transponders (PIT tags) to monitor burrow emergence with the aid of continuously running, stationary (but portable) PIT tag readers. We monitored the activity of individual Eastern Spadefoots by placing circular antennae directly over burrows of PIT tag-implanted individuals. We monitored 18 Eastern Spadefoots from 1 to 84 nights in the spring, summer, and fall of 2009–2011. Our results indicate that, on average, Eastern Spadefoots emerged on 43% of the nights that they were monitored. Nights when Eastern Spadefoots emerged were warmer and more humid than nonemergence nights. Eastern Spadefoots were also much more likely to emerge on a given night if they had emerged the night before. Our results have improved the understanding of Eastern Spadefoot burrow-emergence patterns in the northeast region. Our findings may considerably enhance the prospect of employing nocturnal visual encounter surveys as a method for monitoring known, and detecting previously undocumented, populations of this species.

  16. Web Based GIS System For Monitoring the Implementation of County Integrated Development Plan a Case Study of Nandi County, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurui, P. K.; Mutua, F.

    2016-12-01

    The paper seek to propose a conceptual framework of a way of monitoring and evaluating the implementation of the projects listed in the county integrated development plan by applying the use of the geospatial technologies with the focus being developing a web based GIS system in which the public can be able to track and monitor the progress of implementation of the projects in various parts of the county , although the guidelines developed by the ministry of devolution provides for the inclusion of the implementation monitoring and evaluation framework specifying projects to be implemented during the plan period and specification of veriable indicators it does not provide mechanisms for public participation during implementation and monitoring stage. This calls for a system that the public can interact with. The web based GIS system has been developed using the free open source softwares. Development projects have been categorized into; ongoing, completed and planned It can also be shown that a web based GIS system can be used as an important tool for monitoring the implementation of the CIDP due to its easy to use nature and supported by the fact that internet is easily accessed by the majority of the public making it a powerful tool for public participation.

  17. A web-based three-tier control and monitoring application for integrated facility management of photovoltaic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos Meliones

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The architecture of a control system can be designed vertically with the distinction between functional levels. We adopt this layered approach for the design and implementation of a network-based control and monitoring application. In this paper we present the design and implementation of a network-based management application for controlling and monitoring the input and output data of remote equipment aiming at performance macro-observation, alarm detection, handling operation failures, installation security, access control, collection and recording of statistical data and provisioning of reports. The main services provided to the user and operating over the public internet and/or mobile network include control, monitoring, notification, reporting and data export. Our proposed system consists of a front-end for field (site-level control and monitoring as well as a service back-end which undertakes to collect, store and manage data from all remote installations. Hierarchical data acquisition methodology and performance macro-observation are according to the IEC 61724 standard. We have successfully used our control and monitoring application for integrated facility management of photovoltaic plant installations; nevertheless it can be easily migrated to other renewable energy generation installations and remote automation applications in general.

  18. A unified anatomy ontology of the vertebrate skeletal system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasila M Dahdul

    Full Text Available The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO, to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the species-specific (mouse, the frog Xenopus, zebrafish and multispecies (teleost, amphibian vertebrate anatomy ontologies. Previous differences between these terminologies prevented even simple queries across databases pertaining to vertebrate morphology. This module of upper-level and specific skeletal terms currently includes 223 defined terms and 179 synonyms that integrate skeletal cells, tissues, biological processes, organs (skeletal elements such as bones and cartilages, and subdivisions of the skeletal system. The VSAO is designed to integrate with other ontologies, including the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO, Gene Ontology (GO, Uberon, and Cell Ontology (CL, and it is freely available to the community to be updated with additional terms required for research. Its structure accommodates anatomical variation among vertebrate species in development, structure, and composition. Annotation of diverse vertebrate phenotypes with this ontology will enable novel inquiries across the full spectrum of phenotypic diversity.

  19. A unified anatomy ontology of the vertebrate skeletal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahdul, Wasila M; Balhoff, James P; Blackburn, David C; Diehl, Alexander D; Haendel, Melissa A; Hall, Brian K; Lapp, Hilmar; Lundberg, John G; Mungall, Christopher J; Ringwald, Martin; Segerdell, Erik; Van Slyke, Ceri E; Vickaryous, Matthew K; Westerfield, Monte; Mabee, Paula M

    2012-01-01

    The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO), to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the species-specific (mouse, the frog Xenopus, zebrafish) and multispecies (teleost, amphibian) vertebrate anatomy ontologies. Previous differences between these terminologies prevented even simple queries across databases pertaining to vertebrate morphology. This module of upper-level and specific skeletal terms currently includes 223 defined terms and 179 synonyms that integrate skeletal cells, tissues, biological processes, organs (skeletal elements such as bones and cartilages), and subdivisions of the skeletal system. The VSAO is designed to integrate with other ontologies, including the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), Gene Ontology (GO), Uberon, and Cell Ontology (CL), and it is freely available to the community to be updated with additional terms required for research. Its structure accommodates anatomical variation among vertebrate species in development, structure, and composition. Annotation of diverse vertebrate phenotypes with this ontology will enable novel inquiries across the full spectrum of phenotypic diversity.

  20. A Unified Anatomy Ontology of the Vertebrate Skeletal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahdul, Wasila M.; Balhoff, James P.; Blackburn, David C.; Diehl, Alexander D.; Haendel, Melissa A.; Hall, Brian K.; Lapp, Hilmar; Lundberg, John G.; Mungall, Christopher J.; Ringwald, Martin; Segerdell, Erik; Van Slyke, Ceri E.; Vickaryous, Matthew K.; Westerfield, Monte; Mabee, Paula M.

    2012-01-01

    The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO), to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the species-specific (mouse, the frog Xenopus, zebrafish) and multispecies (teleost, amphibian) vertebrate anatomy ontologies. Previous differences between these terminologies prevented even simple queries across databases pertaining to vertebrate morphology. This module of upper-level and specific skeletal terms currently includes 223 defined terms and 179 synonyms that integrate skeletal cells, tissues, biological processes, organs (skeletal elements such as bones and cartilages), and subdivisions of the skeletal system. The VSAO is designed to integrate with other ontologies, including the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), Gene Ontology (GO), Uberon, and Cell Ontology (CL), and it is freely available to the community to be updated with additional terms required for research. Its structure accommodates anatomical variation among vertebrate species in development, structure, and composition. Annotation of diverse vertebrate phenotypes with this ontology will enable novel inquiries across the full spectrum of phenotypic diversity. PMID:23251424

  1. Integrated electrochemical sensor array for on-line monitoring of yeast fermentations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krommenhoek, E.E.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Bomer, Johan G.; Li, X.; Ottens, M.; van Dedem, G.W.K.; van Leeuwen, M.; van Gulik, W.M.; van der Wielen, L.A.M.; Heijnen, J.J.; van den Berg, Albert

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the design, modeling, and experimental characterization of an electrochemical sensor array for on-line monitoring of fermentor conditions in both miniaturized cell assays and in industrial scale fertnentations. The viable biomass concentration is determined from impedance

  2. Skeletal muscle tissue engineering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bach, A. D; Beier, J. P; Stern‐Staeter, J; Horch, R. E

    2004-01-01

    The reconstruction of skeletal muscle tissue either lost by traumatic injury or tumor ablation or functional damage due to myopathies is hampered by the lack of availability of functional substitution...

  3. Satellite cells in human skeletal muscle plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snijders, Tim; Nederveen, Joshua P; McKay, Bryon R; Joanisse, Sophie; Verdijk, Lex B; van Loon, Luc J C; Parise, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle satellite cells are considered to play a crucial role in muscle fiber maintenance, repair and remodeling. Our knowledge of the role of satellite cells in muscle fiber adaptation has traditionally relied on in vitro cell and in vivo animal models. Over the past decade, a genuine effort has been made to translate these results to humans under physiological conditions. Findings from in vivo human studies suggest that satellite cells play a key role in skeletal muscle fiber repair/remodeling in response to exercise. Mounting evidence indicates that aging has a profound impact on the regulation of satellite cells in human skeletal muscle. Yet, the precise role of satellite cells in the development of muscle fiber atrophy with age remains unresolved. This review seeks to integrate recent results from in vivo human studies on satellite cell function in muscle fiber repair/remodeling in the wider context of satellite cell biology whose literature is largely based on animal and cell models.

  4. [Study on the axial strain sensor of birefringence photonic crystal fiber loop mirror based on the absolute integral of the monitoring peak].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ying; Zeng, Jie; Liang, Da-Kai; Wang, Xue-Liang; Ni, Xiao-Yu; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Li, Ji-Feng; Luo, Wen-Yong

    2013-12-01

    In the present paper, the theoretical expression of the wavelength change and the axial strain of birefringence fiber loop mirror is developed. The theoretical result shows that the axial strain sensitivity of birefringence photonic crystal fiber loop mirror is much lower than conventional birefringence fiber loop mirror. It is difficult to measure the axial strain by monitoring the wavelength change of birefringence photonic crystal fiber loop mirror, and it is easy to cause the measurement error because the output spectrum is not perfectly smooth. The different strain spectrum of birefringence photonic crystal fiber loop mirror was measured experimentally by an optical spectrum analyzer. The measured spectrum was analysed. The results show that the absolute integral of the monitoring peak decreases with increasing strain and the absolute integral is linear versus strain. Based on the above results, it is proposed that the axial strain can be measured by monitoring the absolute integral of the monitoring peak in this paper. The absolute integral of the monitoring peak is a comprehensive index which can indicate the light intensity of different wavelength. This method of monitoring the absolute integral of the monitoring peak to measure the axial strain can not only overcome the difficulty of monitoring the wavelength change of birefringence photonic crystal fiber loop mirror, but also reduce the measurement error caused by the unsmooth output spectrum.

  5. Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program - Entiat River Rotary Screw Traps, Snorkel Surveys, and Steelhead Redd Surveys, 2008-2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelle, R.D.; Desgroseillier, Tom; Cotter, Michael [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

    2009-04-14

    The USFWS Mid-Columbia River Fishery Resource Office (MCRFRO) operated two rotary screw traps on the Entiat River as part of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program from March through November of 2008. Along with the smolt traps, juvenile emigrants were also captured at remote locations throughout the Entiat watershed and its major tributary, the Mad River. A total of 16,782 wild salmonids were PIT tagged during the study period. Of this, 3,961(23.6%) were wild Oncorhynchus mykiss, 6,987 (41.6%) were wild spring run O. tshawytscha, and 5,591 (33.3%) were identified as wild O. tshawytscha of unknown run. Rotary screw trap efficiencies averaged 40.3% at the upper (Rkm 11.0) trap and 7.8% for the lower (Rkm 2.0) trap. These efficiencies were pooled for emigrant O. tshawytscha and O. mykiss. The MCRFRO conducted effectiveness monitoring snorkel surveys at 24 sites during the winter period and 30 sites during the summer and fall periods of 2008 as part of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program in the Entiat River. The 2008 steelhead spawning grounds surveys were conducted weekly in the main Entiat River from rkm 1.1 to 44.2. A total of 222 steelhead redds were identified over the period from February 28 to June 16 2008 with April being the peak spawning month. Approximately 80% of the steelhead redds were located downstream of the rkm 26.

  6. Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program - Entiat River Rotary Screw Traps,Snorkel Surveys, and Steelhead Redd Surveys, 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelle, R.D.; Desgroseiller, Tom; Cotter, Michael (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service)

    2009-02-17

    The USFWS Mid-Columbia River Fishery Resource Office (MCRFRO) operated two rotary screw traps on the Entiat River as part of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program from March through November of 2008. Along with the smolt traps, juvenile emigrants were also captured at remote locations throughout the Entiat watershed and its major tributary, the Mad River. A total of 16,782 wild salmonids were PIT tagged during the study period. Of this, 3,961(23.6%) were wild Oncorhynchus mykiss, 6,987 (41.6%) were wild spring run O. tshawytscha, and 5,591 (33.3%) were identified as wild O. tshawytscha of unknown run. Rotary screw trap efficiencies averaged 40.3% at the upper (Rkm 11.0) trap and 7.8% for the lower (Rkm 2.0) trap. These efficiencies were pooled for emigrant O. tshawytscha and O. mykiss. The MCRFRO conducted effectiveness monitoring snorkel surveys at 24 sites during the winter period and 30 sites during the summer and fall periods of 2008 as part of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program in the Entiat River. The 2008 steelhead spawning grounds surveys were conducted weekly in the main Entiat River from rkm 1.1 to 44.2. A total of 222 steelhead redds were identified over the period from February 28 to June 16 2008 with April being the peak spawning month. Approximately 80% of the steelhead redds were located downstream of the rkm 26.

  7. Integration of a prototype wireless communication system with micro-electromechanical temperature and humidity sensor for concrete pavement health monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, structural health monitoring and management (SHMM has become a popular approach and is considered essential for achieving well-performing, long-lasting, sustainable transportation infrastructure systems. Key requirements in ideal SHMM of road infrastructure include long-term, continuous, and real-time monitoring of pavement response and performance under various pavement geometry-materials-loading configurations and environmental conditions. With advancements in wireless technologies, integration of wireless communications into sensing device is considered an alternate and superior solution to existing time- and labor-intensive wired sensing systems in meeting the requirements of an ideal SHMM. This study explored the development and integration of a wireless communications sub-system into a commercial off-the-shelf micro-electromechanical sensor-based concrete pavement monitoring system. A success-rate test was performed after the wireless transmission system was buried in the concrete slab, and the test results indicated that the system was able to provide reliable communications at a distance of more than 46 m (150 feet. This will be a useful feature for highway engineers performing routine pavement scans from the pavement shoulder without the need for traffic control or road closure.

  8. Integrated risk and recovery monitoring of ecosystem restorations on contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Michael J; Glomb, Stephen J; Harper, David D; Hoelzle, Timothy B; McIntosh, Lisa M; Mulligan, David R

    2016-04-01

    Ecological restorations of contaminated sites balance the human and ecological risks of residual contamination with the benefits of ecological recovery and the return of lost ecological function and ecosystem services. Risk and recovery are interrelated dynamic conditions, changing as remediation and restoration activities progress through implementation into long-term management and ecosystem maturation. Monitoring restoration progress provides data critical to minimizing residual contaminant risk and uncertainty, while measuring ecological advancement toward recovery goals. Effective monitoring plans are designed concurrently with restoration plan development and implementation and are focused on assessing the effectiveness of activities performed in support of restoration goals for the site. Physical, chemical, and biotic measures characterize progress toward desired structural and functional ecosystem components of the goals. Structural metrics, linked to ecosystem functions and services, inform restoration practitioners of work plan modifications or more substantial adaptive management actions necessary to maintain desired recovery. Monitoring frequency, duration, and scale depend on specific attributes and goals of the restoration project. Often tied to restoration milestones, critical assessment of monitoring metrics ensures attainment of risk minimization and ecosystem recovery. Finally, interpretation and communication of monitoring findings inform and engage regulators, other stakeholders, the scientific community, and the public. Because restoration activities will likely cease before full ecosystem recovery, monitoring endpoints should demonstrate risk reduction and a successional trajectory toward the condition established in the restoration goals. A detailed assessment of the completed project's achievements, as well as unrealized objectives, attained through project monitoring, will determine if contaminant risk has been minimized, if injured

  9. Integrated risk and recovery monitoring of ecosystem restorations on contaminated sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Michael J.; Glomb, Stephen J.; Harper, David; Hoelzle, Timothy B.; McIntosh, Lisa M.; Mulligan, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Ecological restorations of contaminated sites balance the human and ecological risks of residual contamination with the benefits of ecological recovery and the return of lost ecological function and ecosystem services. Risk and recovery are interrelated dynamic conditions, changing as remediation and restoration activities progress through implementation into long-term management and ecosystem maturation. Monitoring restoration progress provides data critical to minimizing residual contaminant risk and uncertainty, while measuring ecological advancement toward recovery goals. Effective monitoring plans are designed concurrently with restoration plan development and implementation and are focused on assessing the effectiveness of activities performed in support of restoration goals for the site. Physical, chemical, and biotic measures characterize progress toward desired structural and functional ecosystem components of the goals. Structural metrics, linked to ecosystem functions and services, inform restoration practitioners of work plan modifications or more substantial adaptive management actions necessary to maintain desired recovery. Monitoring frequency, duration, and scale depend on specific attributes and goals of the restoration project. Often tied to restoration milestones, critical assessment of monitoring metrics ensures attainment of risk minimization and ecosystem recovery. Finally, interpretation and communication of monitoring findings inform and engage regulators, other stakeholders, the scientific community, and the public. Because restoration activities will likely cease before full ecosystem recovery, monitoring endpoints should demonstrate risk reduction and a successional trajectory toward the condition established in the restoration goals. A detailed assessment of the completed project's achievements, as well as unrealized objectives, attained through project monitoring, will determine if contaminant risk has been minimized, if injured

  10. Manufacturing technology of integrated textile-based sensor networks for in situ monitoring applications of composite wind turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haentzsche, Eric; Mueller, Ralf; Huebner, Matthias; Ruder, Tristan; Unger, Reimar; Nocke, Andreas; Cherif, Chokri

    2016-10-01

    Based on in situ strain sensors consisting of piezo-resistive carbon filament yarns (CFYs), which have been successfully integrated into textile reinforcement structures during their textile-technological manufacturing process, a continuous load of fibre-reinforced plastic (FRP) components has been realised. These sensors are also suitable for structural health monitoring (SHM) applications. The two-dimensional sensor layout is made feasible by the usage of a modular warp yarn path manipulation unit. Using a functional model of a small wind turbine blade in thermoset composite design, the sensor function for basic SHM applications (e.g. static load monitoring) are demonstrated. Any mechanical loads along the pressure or suction side of the wind turbine blade can be measured and calculated via a correlative change in resistance of the CFYs within the textile reinforcement plies. Performing quasi-static load tests on both tensile specimen and full-scale wind turbine blade, elementary results have been obtained concerning electro-mechanical behaviour and spatial resolution of global and even local static stresses according to the CFY sensor integration length. This paper demonstrates the great potential of textile-based and textile-technological integrated sensors in reinforcement structures for future SHM applications of FRPs.

  11. Multisensor-integrated organs-on-chips platform for automated and continual in situ monitoring of organoid behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu Shrike; Aleman, Julio; Shin, Su Ryon; Kilic, Tugba; Kim, Duckjin; Mousavi Shaegh, Seyed Ali; Massa, Solange; Riahi, Reza; Chae, Sukyoung; Hu, Ning; Avci, Huseyin; Zhang, Weijia; Silvestri, Antonia; Sanati Nezhad, Amir; Manbohi, Ahmad; De Ferrari, Fabio; Polini, Alessandro; Calzone, Giovanni; Shaikh, Noor; Alerasool, Parissa; Budina, Erica; Kang, Jian; Bhise, Nupura; Ribas, João; Pourmand, Adel; Skardal, Aleksander; Shupe, Thomas; Bishop, Colin E; Dokmeci, Mehmet Remzi; Atala, Anthony; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2017-03-21

    Organ-on-a-chip systems are miniaturized microfluidic 3D human tissue and organ models designed to recapitulate the important biological and physiological parameters of their in vivo counterparts. They have recently emerged as a viable platform for personalized medicine and drug screening. These in vitro models, featuring biomimetic compositions, architectures, and functions, are expected to replace the conventional planar, static cell cultures and bridge the gap between the currently used preclinical animal models and the human body. Multiple organoid models may be further connected together through the microfluidics in a similar manner in which they are arranged in vivo, providing the capability to analyze multiorgan interactions. Although a wide variety of human organ-on-a-chip models have been created, there are limited efforts on the integration of multisensor systems. However, in situ continual measuring is critical in precise assessment of the microenvironment parameters and the dynamic responses of the organs to pharmaceutical compounds over extended periods of time. In addition, automated and noninvasive capability is strongly desired for long-term monitoring. Here, we report a fully integrated modular physical, biochemical, and optical sensing platform through a fluidics-routing breadboard, which operates organ-on-a-chip units in a continual, dynamic, and automated manner. We believe that this platform technology has paved a potential avenue to promote the performance of current organ-on-a-chip models in drug screening by integrating a multitude of real-time sensors to achieve automated in situ monitoring of biophysical and biochemical parameters.

  12. Micro flow reactor chips with integrated luminescent chemosensors for spatially resolved on-line chemical reaction monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitlin, Leonid; Hoera, Christian; Meier, Robert J; Nagl, Stefan; Belder, Detlev

    2013-10-21

    Real-time chemical reaction monitoring in microfluidic environments is demonstrated using luminescent chemical sensors integrated in PDMS/glass-based microscale reactors. A fabrication procedure is presented that allows for straightforward integration of thin polymer layers with optical sensing functionality in microchannels of glass-PDMS chips of only 150 μm width and of 10 to 35 μm height. Sensor layers consisting of polystyrene and an oxygen-sensitive platinum porphyrin probe with film thicknesses of about 0.5 to 4 μm were generated by combining spin coating and abrasion techniques. Optimal coating procedures were developed and evaluated. The chip-integrated sensor layers were calibrated and investigated with respect to stability, reproducibility and response times. These microchips allowed observation of dissolved oxygen concentration in the range of 0 to over 40 mg L(-1) with a detection limit of 368 μg L(-1). The sensor layers were then used for observation of a model reaction, the oxidation of sulphite to sulphate in a microfluidic chemical reactor and could observe sulphite concentrations of less than 200 μM. Real-time on-line monitoring of this chemical reaction was realized at a fluorescence microscope setup with 405 nm LED excitation and CCD camera detection.

  13. FEASIBLE STUDY ON THE INTEGRATION SYSTEM FOR THE SPACE MONITORING OF MAJOR EARTHQUAKES AND VOLCANOES IN TERRESTRIAL LAND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    With the rapid development of space technology, earth observation technology and sky observatory technolo-gy, they have played a more and more important part in monitoring and predicting of earthquakes and volcanoes in the terres-trial land. In recent years, the related agencies have done the experiments and researches on monitoring and predicting ofearthquakes and volcanoes in the forewarning period by means of many approaches, such as satellite thermal infrared re-mote sensing(TIRS), Global Positioning System(GPS), differential interferometric synthesis aperture radar (D-INSAR),astronomical time-latitude residual anomaly, and Geographic Information Systems(GIS), etc. A quite large number of re-search foundation has been built in the fundamental theories and application methods. The experiments and researcheshave shown that these technology is efficient methods for high frequency crust movement. If the existed separate scientificforces and results are possibly assembled together to form a more complete integration monitoring system with the combina-tion of space, sky observation, ground, deep geology and macro anomaly, it will come into a new stage of monitoring andpredicting of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.

  14. Raspberry Pi in-situ network monitoring system of groundwater flow and temperature integrated with OpenGeoSys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan-Hee; Lee, Cholwoo

    2016-04-01

    Raspberry Pi series is a low cost, smaller than credit-card sized computers that various operating systems such as linux and recently even Windows 10 are ported to run on. Thanks to massive production and rapid technology development, the price of various sensors that can be attached to Raspberry Pi has been dropping at an increasing speed. Therefore, the device can be an economic choice as a small portable computer to monitor temporal hydrogeological data in fields. In this study, we present a Raspberry Pi system that measures a flow rate, and temperature of groundwater at sites, stores them into mysql database, and produces interactive figures and tables such as google charts online or bokeh offline for further monitoring and analysis. Since all the data are to be monitored on internet, any computers or mobile devices can be good monitoring tools at convenience. The measured data are further integrated with OpenGeoSys, one of the hydrogeological models that is also ported to the Raspberry Pi series. This leads onsite hydrogeological modeling fed by temporal sensor data to meet various needs.

  15. Thick-film acoustic emission sensors for use in structurally integrated condition-monitoring applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickwell, Andrew J; Dorey, Robert A; Mba, David

    2011-09-01

    Monitoring the condition of complex engineering structures is an important aspect of modern engineering, eliminating unnecessary work and enabling planned maintenance, preventing failure. Acoustic emissions (AE) testing is one method of implementing continuous nondestructive structural health monitoring. A novel thick-film (17.6 μm) AE sensor is presented. Lead zirconate titanate thick films were fabricated using a powder/sol composite ink deposition technique and mechanically patterned to form a discrete thick-film piezoelectric AE sensor. The thick-film sensor was benchmarked against a commercial AE device and was found to exhibit comparable responses to simulated acoustic emissions.

  16. Integrating radar and laser-based remote sensing techniques for monitoring structural deformation of archaeological monuments

    OpenAIRE

    Tapete D.; Casagli N.; Luzi G.; Fanti R.; Gigli G.; Leva D.

    2013-01-01

    Ground-Based Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (GBInSAR) and Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) were purposely integrated to obtain 3D interferometric radar point clouds to facilitate the spatial interpretation of displacements affecting archaeological monuments. The paper describes the procedure to implement this integrated approach in the real-world situations of surveillance of archaeological and built heritage. Targeted tests were carried out on the case study of the Domus Tiberiana s...

  17. An integrated spatial snap-shot monitoring method for identifying seasonal changes and spatial changes in surface water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittoor Viswanathan, Vidhya; Jiang, Yongjun; Berg, Michael; Hunkeler, Daniel; Schirmer, Mario

    2016-08-01

    Integrated catchment-scale management approaches in large catchments are often hindered due to the poor understanding of the spatially and seasonally variable pathways of pollutants. High-frequency monitoring of water quality at random locations in a catchment is resource intensive and challenging. A simplified catchment-scale monitoring approach is developed in this study, for the preliminary identification of water quality changes - Integrated spatial snap-shot monitoring (ISSM). This multi-parameter monitoring approach is applied using the isotopes of water (δ18O-H2O and δD) and nitrate (δ15N-NO3- and δ18O-NO3-) together with the fluxes of nitrate and other solutes, which are used as chemical markers. This method involves selection of few sampling stations, which are identified as the hotspots of water quality changes within the catchment. The study was conducted in the peri-alpine Thur catchment in Switzerland, with two snap-shot campaigns (representative of two widely varying hydrological conditions), in summer 2012 (low flow) and spring 2013 (high flow). Significant spatial (varying with elevation) and seasonal changes in the sources of water were observed between the two seasons. A spatial variation of the sources of nitrate and the solute loads was observed, in tandem with the land use changes in the Thur catchment. There is a seasonal shift in the sources of nitrate, it varies from a strong treated waste water signature during the low flow season to a mixture of other sources (like soil nitrogen derived from agriculture), in the high flow season. This demonstrates the influence of other sources that override the influence of waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) during high flow in the Thur River and its tributaries. This method is expected to be a cost-effective alternative, providing snap-shots, that can help in the preliminary identification of the pathways of solutes and their seasonal/spatial changes in catchments.

  18. Polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS): application for monitoring organic micropollutants in wastewater effluent and surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miège, Cécile; Budzinski, Hélène; Jacquet, Romain; Soulier, Coralie; Pelte, Thomas; Coquery, Marina

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, we discuss the advantages and drawbacks of POCIS (Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler) for the evaluation of river water quality downstream of wastewater treatment plants. POCIS proved well adapted to sampling alkylphenols and several pharmaceuticals. Concentration factors and the decrease in limits of quantification, compared to grab water sample analyses, were significant except for hormones, β-blockers and bronchodilators. Promising preliminary results obtained in situ on deuterated atenolol used as a performance reference compound need to be confirmed in-lab. This work confirms that POCIS is a valuable tool for monitoring hydrophilic organic molecules in river and wastewaters.

  19. Integrated monitoring environmental system applied to waste management; Sistema integrato di monitoraggio ambientale applicato alla gestione dei rifiuti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morselli, L. [Bologna Univ., Bologna (Italy)

    2000-11-01

    For every antropic process is important the knowledge of entity of processes and the interaction with surrounding environment. This paper defines the environmental monitoring and proposes a possible application of an integrated system of waste management. [Italian] Per ogni processo antropico, soprattutto per quelle attivita' a forte impatto ambientale, uno degli obiettivi e' la conoscenza affidabile della loro entita' e della loro interazione con l'ambiente circostante. Questa nota definisce il monitoraggio ambientale e propone un approccio ad una possible applicazione ad un sistema integrato di gestione dei rifiuti.

  20. In-flight calibration system for the INTEGRAL x-ray monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, E.; Feroci, M.; Barbanera, L.;

    1996-01-01

    of Amptek Cool-X15 X-ray generators. The latter is a novel product, based on a pyroelectric crystal used to generate energetic electrons that produce fluorescence lines by hitting a metallic target. We plan to use the four low intensity radioactive sources for monitoring the four independent anode chains...

  1. Towards the integration of research and monitoring at forest ecosystems in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danielewska, A.; Paoletti, E.; Clarke, N.; Olejnik, J.; Urbaniak, M.; Baran, M.; Siedlecki, P.; Hansen, K.; Lundin, L.; Vries, de W.

    2013-01-01

    Aim of study: The main aim of the work was to summarize availability, quality and comparability of on-going European Research and Monitoring Networks (ERMN), based on the results of a COST FP0903 Action questionnaire carried out in September 2010 and May 2012. Area of study: The COST Action FP0903 i

  2. Construction of Expert Knowledge Monitoring and Assessment System Based on Integral Method of Knowledge Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovachyova, Viktoriya N.; Menlibekova, Gulbakhyt Zh.; Abayeva, Nella F.; Ten, Tatyana L.; Kogaya, Galina D.

    2016-01-01

    Using computer-based monitoring systems that rely on tests could be the most effective way of knowledge evaluation. The problem of objective knowledge assessment by means of testing takes on a new dimension in the context of new paradigms in education. The analysis of the existing test methods enabled us to conclude that tests with selected…

  3. Integrating remote sensing data from multiple optical sensors for ecological and crop condition monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological and crop condition monitoring requires high temporal and spatial resolution remote sensing data. Due to technical limitations and budget constraints, remote sensing instruments trade spatial resolution for swath width. As a result, it is difficult to acquire remotely sensed data with both...

  4. Novel instrumentation for real-time monitoring using miniaturized flow systems with integrated biosensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freaney, R.; McShane, A.; Keaveny, T.V.; McKenna, M.; Rabenstein, K.; Scheller, F.W.; Pfeiffer, D.; Urban, G.; Moser, I.; Jobst, G.; Manz, A.; Verpoorte, E.; Widmer, M.W.; Diamond, D.; Dempsey, E.; Saez De Viteri, F.J.; Smyth, M.

    1997-01-01

    A prototype miniaturized Total Chemical Analysis System (μTAS) has been developed and applied to on-line monitoring of glucose and lactate in the core blood of anaesthetized dogs. The system consists of a highly efficient microdialysis sampling interface sited in a small-scale extracorporeal shunt c

  5. Fundamental aspects of the integration of seismic monitoring with numerical modelling.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mendecki, AJ

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerical modelling of rock-mass response to underground excavations is of vital importance for the decision-making process in designing and running a mine. Likewise, seismic monitoring with state-of-the-art local seismic systems is indispensable...

  6. Integrating a hand held computer and stethoscope into a fetal monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Mitra Ahmad

    2009-02-07

    This article presents procedures for modifying a hand held computer or personal digital assistant (PDA) into a versatile device functioning as an electronic stethoscope for fetal monitoring. Along with functioning as an electronic stethoscope, a PDA can provide a useful information source for a medical trainee. Feedback from medical students, residents and interns suggests the device is well accepted by medical trainees.

  7. Integrating remote sensing in Natura 2000 habitat monitoring: prospects on the way forward

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanden Borre, J.; Paelinckx, D.; Mücher, C.A.; Kooistra, L.; Haest, B.; Blust, De G.; Schmidt, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring and reporting on the state of nature gained increasing importance in the European Union with the implementation of the Habitats Directive and the Natura 2000 network. Reporting habitat conservation status requires detailed knowledge on many aspects of habitats at different spatial levels.

  8. Integration of Neutron Monitor Data with Spacecraft Observations: a Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Frank B.

    2000-07-01

    Beginning in the early 1950s, data from neutron monitors placed the taxonomy of cosmic ray temporal variations on a firm footing, extended the observations of the Sun as a transient source of high energy particles and laid the foundation of our early concepts of a heliosphere. The first major impact of the arrival of the Space Age in 1957 on our understanding of cosmic rays came from spacecraft operating beyond the confines of our magnetosphere. These new observations showed that Forbush decreases were caused by interplanetary disturbances and not by changes in the geomagnetic field; the existence of both the predicted solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field was confirmed; the Sun was revealed as a frequent source of energetic ions and electrons in the 10 100 MeV range; and a number of new, low-energy particle populations was discovered. Neutron monitor data were of great value in interpreting many of these new results. With the launch of IMP 6 in 1971, followed by a number of other spacecraft, long-term monitoring of low and medium energy galactic and anomalous cosmic rays and solar and interplanetary energetic particles, and the interplanetary medium were available on a continuous basis. Many synoptic studies have been carried out using both neutron monitor and space observations. The data from the Pioneer 10/11 and Voyagers 1/2 deep space missions and the journey of Ulysses over the region of the solar poles have significantly extended our knowledge of the heliosphere and have provided enhanced understanding of many effects that were first identified in the neutron monitor data. Solar observations are a special area of space studies that has had great impact on interpreting results from neutron monitors, in particular the identification of coronal holes as the source of high-speed solar wind streams and the recognition of the importance of coronal mass ejections in producing interplanetary disturbances and accelerating solar energetic particles. In the

  9. Enantioselective reaction monitoring utilizing two-dimensional heart-cut liquid chromatography on an integrated microfluidic chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotter, Carsten; Poehler, Elisabeth; Heiland, Josef J; Mauritz, Laura; Belder, Detlev

    2016-11-29

    Chip-integrated, two-dimensional high performance liquid chromatography is introduced to monitor enantioselective continuous micro-flow synthesis. The herein described development of the first two-dimensional HPLC-chip was realized by the integration of two different columns packed with reversed-phase and chiral stationary phase material on a microfluidic glass chip, coupled to mass spectrometry. Directed steering of the micro-flows at the joining transfer cross enabled a heart-cut operation mode to transfer the chiral compound of interest from the first to the second chromatographic dimension. This allows for an interference-free determination of the enantiomeric excess by seamless hyphenation to electrospray mass spectrometry. The application for rapid reaction optimization at micro-flow conditions is exemplarily shown for the asymmetric organocatalytic continuous micro-flow synthesis of warfarin.

  10. Geodiametris: an integrated geoinformatic approach for monitoring land pollution from the disposal of olive oil mill wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexakis, Dimitrios D.; Sarris, Apostolos; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Soupios, Pantelis; Doula, Maria; Cavvadias, Victor

    2014-08-01

    The olive-oil industry is one of the most important sectors of agricultural production in Greece, which is the third in olive-oil production country worldwide. Olive oil mill wastes (OOMW) constitute a major factor in pollution in olivegrowing regions and an important problem to be solved for the agricultural industry. The olive-oil mill wastes are normally deposited at tanks, or directly in the soil or even on adjacent torrents, rivers and lakes posing a high risk to the environmental pollution and the community health. GEODIAMETRIS project aspires to develop integrated geoinformatic methodologies for performing monitoring of land pollution from the disposal of OOMW in the island of Crete -Greece. These methodologies integrate GPS surveys, satellite remote sensing and risk assessment analysis in GIS environment, application of in situ and laboratory geophysical methodologies as well as soil and water physicochemical analysis. Concerning project's preliminary results, all the operating OOMW areas located in Crete have been already registered through extensive GPS field campaigns. Their spatial and attribute information has been stored in an integrated GIS database and an overall OOMW spectral signature database has been constructed through the analysis of multi-temporal Landsat-8 OLI satellite images. In addition, a specific OOMW area located in Alikianos village (Chania-Crete) has been selected as one of the main case study areas. Various geophysical methodologies, such as Electrical Resistivity Tomography, Induced Polarization, multifrequency electromagnetic, Self Potential measurements and Ground Penetrating Radar have been already implemented. Soil as well as liquid samples have been collected for performing physico-chemical analysis. The preliminary results have already contributed to the gradual development of an integrated environmental monitoring tool for studying and understanding environmental degradation from the disposal of OOMW.

  11. An integrated approach for monitoring efficiency and investments of activated sludge-based wastewater treatment plants at large spatial scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gisi, Sabino; Sabia, Gianpaolo; Casella, Patrizia; Farina, Roberto

    2015-08-01

    WISE, the Water Information System for Europe, is the web-portal of the European Commission (EU) that disseminates the quality state of the receiving water bodies and the efficiency of the municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in order to monitor advances in the application of both the Water Framework Directive (WFD) as well as the Urban Wastewater Treatment Directive (UWWTD). With the intention to develop WISE applications, the aim of the work was to define and apply an integrated approach capable of monitoring the efficiency and investments of activated sludge-based WWTPs located in a large spatial area, providing the following outcomes useful to the decision-makers: (i) the identification of critical facilities and their critical processes by means of a Performance Assessment System (PAS), (ii) the choice of the most suitable upgrading actions, through a scenario analysis. (iii) the assessment of the investment costs to upgrade the critical WWTPs and (iv) the prioritization of the critical facilities by means of a multi-criteria approach which includes the stakeholders involvement, along with the integration of some technical, environmental, economic and health aspects. The implementation of the proposed approach to a high number of municipal WWTPs highlighted how the PAS developed was able to identify critical processes with a particular effectiveness in identifying the critical nutrient removal ones. In addition, a simplified approach that considers the cost related to a basic-configuration and those for the WWTP integration, allowed to link the critical processes identified and the investment costs. Finally, the questionnaire for the acquisition of data such as that provided by the Italian Institute of Statistics, the PAS defined and the database on the costs, if properly adapted, may allow for the extension of the integrated approach on an EU-scale by providing useful information to water utilities as well as institutions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  12. Optimal Methods of RTK-GPS/Accelerometer Integration to Monitor the Displacement of Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungnam Hong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The accurate measurement of diverse displacements of structures is an important index for the evaluation of a structure’s safety. In this study, a comparative analysis was conducted to determine the integrated RTK-GPS/accelerometer method that can provide the most precise structure displacement measurements. For this purpose, three methods of calculating the dynamic displacements from the acceleration data were comparatively analyzed. In addition, two methods of determining dynamic, static, and quasi-static displacements by integrating the displacements measured from the RTK-GPS system and the accelerometer were also comparatively analyzed. To ensure precise comparison results, a cantilever beam was manufactured onto which diverse types of displacements were generated to evaluate the measurement accuracy by method. Linear variable differential transformer (LVDT measurements were used as references for the evaluation to ensure accuracy. The study results showed that the most suitable method of measuring the dynamic displacement with the accelerometer was to calculate the displacement by filtering and double-integrating the acceleration data using the FIR band-pass filter. The integration method that uses frequency-based displacement extraction was most appropriate for the integrated RTK-GPS/accelerometer method of comprehensively measuring the dynamic, static, and quasi-static displacements.

  13. Optimal methods of RTK-GPS/accelerometer integration to monitor the displacement of structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jinsang; Yun, Hongsik; Park, Sun-Kyu; Lee, Dongha; Hong, Sungnam

    2012-01-01

    The accurate measurement of diverse displacements of structures is an important index for the evaluation of a structure's safety. In this study, a comparative analysis was conducted to determine the integrated RTK-GPS/accelerometer method that can provide the most precise structure displacement measurements. For this purpose, three methods of calculating the dynamic displacements from the acceleration data were comparatively analyzed. In addition, two methods of determining dynamic, static, and quasi-static displacements by integrating the displacements measured from the RTK-GPS system and the accelerometer were also comparatively analyzed. To ensure precise comparison results, a cantilever beam was manufactured onto which diverse types of displacements were generated to evaluate the measurement accuracy by method. Linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) measurements were used as references for the evaluation to ensure accuracy. The study results showed that the most suitable method of measuring the dynamic displacement with the accelerometer was to calculate the displacement by filtering and double-integrating the acceleration data using the FIR band-pass filter. The integration method that uses frequency-based displacement extraction was most appropriate for the integrated RTK-GPS/accelerometer method of comprehensively measuring the dynamic, static, and quasi-static displacements.

  14. Towards integration of research and monitoring at forest ecosystems in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielewska, A; Paoletti, E.; Clarke, N.

    2013-01-01

    involves 29 European countries and 4 non-COST institutions from USA, Morocco and Tunisia. In this study, the total of 22 replies to the questionnaire from 18 countries were included. Materials and methods: Based on the feedback from the Action FP0903 countries, the most popular European Networks were......Aim of study: The main aim of the work was to summarize availability, quality and comparability of on-going European Research and Monitoring Networks (ERMN), based on the results of a COST FP0903 Action questionnaire carried out in September 2010 and May 2012. Area of study: The COST Action FP0903...... identified. Thereafter, the access to the network database, available quality assurance/quality control procedures and publication were described. Finally, the so-called “Supersites” concept, defined as a “highly instrumented research infrastructure, for both research and monitoring of soil...

  15. An experience on integrating monitoring and simulation tools in the design of energy-saving buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, S. Flores; Lesino, G. [INENCO, Universidad Nacional de Salta, CONICET, Buenos Aires 177 (4400) Salta (Argentina); Filippin, C.; Beascochea, A. [Universidad Nacional de La Pampa, CONICET, Spinetto 785 (6300) Santa Rosa, La Pampa (Argentina)

    2008-07-01

    In this paper we describe the design and thermal behaviour of a bioclimatic Auditorium at the National University of La Pampa, used for teaching activities in Santa Rosa, La Pampa (Argentina). The building was monitored in winter and simulated with SIMEDIF for Windows, a code developed at the Non Conventional Energy Research Institute (INENCO, Argentina). Then, a new project of a similar building was proposed for General Pico city, and the obtained physical model was used to simulate the building under the summer temperatures of the new city. The building was redesigned and passive solar strategies were applied to reduce heating and cooling loads. The final layout and the monitored thermal behaviour of the new building in winter and summer are described. Without additional cost, the new building savings were 50% in heating requirements respect to the conventional layout, and 70% in the requirements of conventional energy for cooling. (author)

  16. Integrating Condition Indicators and Usage Parameters for Improved Spiral Bevel Gear Health Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Delgado, Irebert, R.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to illustrate the importance of combining Health Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS) data with usage monitoring system data when detecting rotorcraft transmission health. Three gear sets were tested in the NASA Glenn Spiral Bevel Gear Fatigue Rig. Damage was initiated and progressed on the gear and pinion teeth. Damage progression was measured by debris generation and documented with inspection photos at varying torque values. A contact fatigue analysis was applied to the gear design indicating the effect temperature, load and reliability had on gear life. Results of this study illustrated the benefits of combining HUMS data and actual usage data to indicate progression of damage for spiral bevel gears.

  17. FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) spectrophotometry for thin film monitors: Computer and equipment integration for enhanced capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, J. N.; Sedayao, J.; Shergill, G.; Villasol, R.; Haaland, D. M.

    Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR) is a valuable technique for monitoring thin films used in semiconductor device manufacture. Determinations of the constituent contents in borophosphosilicate (BPSG), phosphosilicate (PSG), silicon oxynitride (SiON:H,OH), and spin-on-glass (SOG) thin films are a few applications. Due to the nature of the technique, FTIR instrumentation is one of the most extensively computer-dependent pieces of equipment that is likely to be found in a microelectronics plant. In the role of fab monitor or reactor characterization tool, FTIR instruments can rapidly generate large amounts of data. By linking a local FTIR data station to a remote minicomputer its capabilities are greatly improved. We discuss three caused of enhancement. First, the FTIR in the fab area communicates and interacts in real time with the minicomputer: transferring data segments to it, instructing it to perform sophisticated processing, and returning the result to the operator in the fab. Characterizations of PSG thin films by this approach are discussed. Second, the spectra of large numbers of samples are processed locally. The large database is then transmitted to the minicomputer for study by statistical/graphics software. Results of CVD-reactor spatial profiling experiments for plasma SiON are presented. Third, processing of calibration spectra is performed on the minicomputer to optimize the accuracy and precision of a Partial Least Squares analysis mode. This model is then transferred to the data station in the fab. The analysis of BPSG thin films is discussed in this regard. The prospects for fully automated at-line monitoring and for real-time, in-situ monitoring will be discussed.

  18. FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectrophotometry for thin film monitors: Computer and equipment integration for enhanced capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, J.N.; Sedayao, J.; Shergill, G.; Villasol, R. (Intel Corp., Santa Clara, CA (USA)); Haaland, D.M. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR) is a valuable technique for monitoring thin films used in semiconductor device manufacture. Determinations of the constituent contents in borophosphosilicate (BPSG), phosphosilicate (PSG), silicon oxynitride (SiON:H,OH), and spin-on-glass (SOG) thin films are a few applications. Due to the nature of the technique, FTIR instrumentation is one of the most extensively computer-dependent pieces of equipment that is likely to be found in a microelectronics plant. In the role of fab monitor or reactor characterization tool, FTIR instruments can rapidly generate large amounts of data. By linking a local FTIR data station to a remote minicomputer its capabilities are greatly improved. We discuss three caused of enhancement. First, the FTIR in the fab area communicates and interacts in real time with the minicomputer: transferring data segments to it, instructing it to perform sophisticated processing, and returning the result to the operator in the fab. Characterizations of PSG thin films by this approach are discussed. Second, the spectra of large numbers of samples are processed locally. The large database is then transmitted to the minicomputer for study by statistical/graphics software. Results of CVD-reactor spatial profiling experiments for plasma SiON are presented. Third, processing of calibration spectra is performed on the minicomputer to optimize the accuracy and precision of a Partial Least Squares'' analysis mode. This model is then transferred to the data station in the fab. The analysis of BPSG thin films is discussed in this regard. The prospects for fully automated at-line monitoring and for real-time, in-situ monitoring will be discussed. 10 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Integration of QoS Metrics, Rules and Semantic Uplift for Advanced IPTV Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Increasing and variable traffic demands due to triple play services pose significant Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) resource management challenges for service providers. Managing subscriber expectations via consolidated IPTV quality reporting will play a crucial role in guaranteeing return-on-investment for players in the increasingly competitive IPTV delivery ecosystem. We propose a fault diagnosis and problem isolation solution that addresses the IPTV monitoring challenge and recommend...

  20. More than just consumers: Integrating local observations into drought monitoring to better support decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, D. B.; Masayesva, A.; Meadow, A. M.; Crimmins, M.

    2016-12-01

    Drought monitoring and drought planning are complex endeavors. Measures of precipitation or streamflow provide little context for understanding how social and environmental systems impacted by drought are responding. In arid and semi-arid regions of the world, this challenge is particularly acute since social-ecological systems are already well-adapted to dry conditions. Understanding what drought means in these regions is an important first step in developing a decision-relevant monitoring system. Traditional drought indices may be of some use, but local observations may ultimately be more relevant for informing difficult decisions in response to unusually dry conditions. This presentation will focus on insights gained from a collaborative project between the University of Arizona and the Hopi Tribe-a Native American community in the U.S. Southwest-to develop a drought information system that is responsive to local needs. The primary goal of the project was to develop a system that: is based on how drought is experienced by Hopi citizens and resource managers, can incorporate local observations of drought impacts as well as conventional indicators, and brings together local expertise with conventional science-based observations. This kind of drought monitoring system can harnesses as much available information as possible to inform resource managers, political leaders, and citizens about drought conditions, but such a system can also engage these local drought stakeholders in observing, thinking about, and helping guide planning for drought.

  1. Advances in utilization of structurally integrated sensor networks for health monitoring in commercial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mark; Kumar, Amrita; Qing, Xinlin; Beard, Shawn J.

    2002-07-01

    Structural health monitoring is a new technology that has been increasingly evaluated by the industry as a potential approach to improve the cost and ease of structural inspection. By improving structural inspection, structures can be made safer and more reliable, thus reducing the cost of structure ownership. Acellent Technologies is developing tools for structural health monitoring. The tools Acellent is offering are the SMART Layer and the SMART Suitcase. The SMART Layer is a flexible layer with a distributed array of piezoelectric transducers made using the printed circuit process that allows easy installation onto structures for in-situ sensing. The SMART Suitcase is an instrument that can interact with the SMART Layer and process the information collected from the structures. Acellent has been providing the system to researchers and companies to try out this new technique. Currently, this system is being evaluated by aircraft manufacturers for monitoring fatigue cracks from rivet holes, by an automotive company for inspecting flaws in composite/foam components, and by aerospace companies for detecting damages in composite/honeycomb sandwich structures. Other recent developments include the addition of fiber-optic sensors onto the SMART Layer and proving the SMART Layer for composite RTM process.

  2. Corrosion monitoring as an integral component of an effective corrosion management program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bich, N.N. [FORCE Technology Canada Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presented 6 case studies of oil and sour gas transmission pipelines where the use of corrosion monitoring devices led to the early identification of ineffective mitigation measures. The field signature method inspection tool (FSM-IT) was used in all 6 cases. FSM-IT is a non-intrusive corrosion monitoring tool that consists of a geometric matrix of sensing pins that are permanently attached to an outer pipe wall. The sensing matrix wiring is coupled to a sensing matrix interface (SMI) to form an interface. With the occurrence of internal corrosion or erosion, the electrical field is changed and compared against the signature. Computer software is used to compare the new measurements against the original signature to produce metal loss values. The software is capable of trending the metal loss over time, calculating corrosion rates and creating 3D plots to illustrate accumulated wall loss over the whole matrix. The orientation of the corrosion can be determined from an evaluation of the plots. Case studies included details of pipeline length, corrosion mechanisms, and repair activities. Mitigation measures in the case studies included batching; continuous injection; and pigging. It was concluded that the FSM-IT corrosion mitigation tool is effective in monitoring mitigation effectiveness. 7 refs., 1 tab., 12 figs.

  3. Lipolysis in Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serup, Annette Karen Lundbeck

    and especially the energy sensor 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is activated during exercise, has received increased attention. However, whether AMPK is an activator or inhibitor of lipolysis in skeletal muscle is not clear. Therefore, we in study I aimed to identify the role...... contraction. Accordingly, AMPK is suggested to be an important regulator of basal IMTG and lipid handling in skeletal muscle as well as an important activator of lipolysis by phosphorylation of ATGL and HSL during muscle contractions. Oversupply of energy and dietary fat leads to obesity and accumulation...... chemical structure of DAG. We took advantage of the fact that insulin sensitivity is increased after exercise, and that mice knocked out (KO) of HSL accumulate DAG after exercise, and measured insulin stimulated glucose uptake after treadmill running in skeletal muscle from HSL KO mice and wildtype control...

  4. Integrated indicator framework and methodology for monitoring and assessment of hazardous substances and their effects in the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vethaak, A Dick; Davies, Ian M; Thain, John E; Gubbins, Matthew J; Martínez-Gómez, Concepción; Robinson, Craig D; Moffat, Colin F; Burgeot, Thierry; Maes, Thomas; Wosniok, Werner; Giltrap, Michelle; Lang, Thomas; Hylland, Ketil

    2017-03-01

    Many maritime countries in Europe have implemented marine environmental monitoring programmes which include the measurement of chemical contaminants and related biological effects. How best to integrate data obtained in these two types of monitoring into meaningful assessments has been the subject of recent efforts by the International Council for Exploration of the Sea (ICES) Expert Groups. Work within these groups has concentrated on defining a core set of chemical and biological endpoints that can be used across maritime areas, defining confounding factors, supporting parameters and protocols for measurement. The framework comprised markers for concentrations of, exposure to and effects from, contaminants. Most importantly, assessment criteria for biological effect measurements have been set and the framework suggests how these measurements can be used in an integrated manner alongside contaminant measurements in biota, sediments and potentially water. Output from this process resulted in OSPAR Commission (www.ospar.org) guidelines that were adopted in 2012 on a trial basis for a period of 3 years. The developed assessment framework can furthermore provide a suitable approach for the assessment of Good Environmental Status (GES) for Descriptor 8 of the European Union (EU) Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Integration of microfluidic chip with biomimetic hydrogel for 3D controlling and monitoring of cell alignment and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang Ho; Lee, Ki Hwa; Lee, Jeonghoon; Choi, Hyuk; Lee, Donghee; Park, Yongdoo; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2014-04-01

    A biomimetic hydrogel was integrated into microfluidic chips to monitor glioma cell alignment and migration. The extracellular matrix-based biomimetic hydrogel was remodeled by matrix metalloprotease (MMP) secreted by glioma cells and the hydrogel could thus be used to assess cellular behavior. Both static and dynamic cell growth conditions (flow rate of 0.1 mL/h) were used. Cell culture medium with and without vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), insensitive VEGF and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP) were employed to monitor cell behavior. A concentration gradient formed in the hydrogel resulted in differences in cell behavior. Glioma cell viability in the microchannel was 75-85%. Cells in the VEGF-loaded microchannels spread extensively, degrading the MMP-sensitive hydrogel, and achieved cell sizes almost fivefold larger than seen in the control medium. Our integrated system can be used as a model for the study of cellular behavior in a controlled microenvironment generated by fluidic conditions in a biomimetic matrix.

  6. A Patient Monitoring Tool For An HIV/AIDS Integral Care Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    AIDS INTEGRAL CARE MODEL C. Cáceres, E.J. Gómez, F. Del Pozo Grupo de Bioingeniería y Telemedicina , Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid...Performing Organization Name(s) and Address(es) Grupo de Bioingenieria y Telemedicina Universidad Politecnica de Madrid Madrid, Spain Performing

  7. INTEGRAL monitoring of the X-ray burster XTE J1739-285

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez-Fernández, C.; Kuulkers, E.; Chenevez, Jérôme;

    2008-01-01

    XTE J1739-285 is a recurrent X-ray transient first discovered by INTEGRAL as an X-ray burster. We have carried out a systematic search for X-ray bursts at various levels of accretion rate onto the Neutron Star surface during the source outbursts in 2005 and 2006. A total of 25 X-ray bursts were f...

  8. Fully integrated patterned carbon nanotube strain sensors on flexible sensing skin substrates for structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Andrew R.; Kurata, Masahiro; Nishino, Hiromichi; Lynch, Jerome P.

    2016-04-01

    New advances in nanotechnology and material processing is creating opportunities for the design and fabrication of a new generation of thin film sensors that can used to assess structural health. In particular, thin film sensors attached to large areas of the structure surface has the potential to provide spatially rich data on the performance and health of a structure. This study focuses on the development of a fully integrated strain sensor that is fabricated on a flexible substrate for potentially use in sensing skins. This is completed using a carbon nanotube-polymer composite material that is patterned on a flexible polyimide substrate using optical lithography. The piezoresistive carbon nanotube elements are integrated into a complete sensing system by patterning copper electrodes and integrating off-the-shelf electrical components on the flexible film for expanded functionality. This diverse material utilization is realized in a versatile process flow to illustrate a powerful toolbox for sensing severity, location, and failure mode of damage on structural components. The fully integrated patterned carbon nanotube strain sensor is tested on a quarter-scale, composite beam column connection. The results and implications for future structural damage detection are discussed.

  9. Integrated on-chip mass spectrometry reaction monitoring in microfluidic devices containing porous polymer monolithic columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietze, C; Schulze, S; Ohla, S; Gilmore, K; Seeberger, P H; Belder, D

    2016-09-21

    Chip-based microfluidics enable the seamless integration of different functions into single devices. Here, we present microfluidic chips containing porous polymer monolithic columns as a means to facilitate chemical transformations as well as both downstream chromatographic separation and mass spectrometric analysis. Rapid liquid phase lithography prototyping creates the multifunctional device economically.

  10. Modelling and monitoring of integrated urban wastewater systems: review on status and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benedetti, L.; Langeveld, J.; Comeau, A.;

    2013-01-01

    While the general principles and modelling approaches for integrated management/modelling of urban water systems already present a decade ago still hold, in recent years aspects like model interfacing and wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) influent generation as complements to sewer modelling have...

  11. 2 years of INTEGRAL monitoring of GRS 1915+105. I. Multiwavelength coverage with INTEGRAL, RXTE, and the Ryle radio telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, J.; Hannikainen, D.C.; Shaw, S.E.;

    2008-01-01

    We report the results of simultaneous monitoring observations of the Galactic microquasar GRS 1915+105 with INTEGRAL and RXTE from 3 up to similar to 300 keV, and the Ryle Telescope at 15 GHz. We first identify the classes of variability in which GRS 1915+105 is found, and report some direct...... generalize the fact that a (nonmajor) discrete ejection always occurs, in GRS 1915+105, as a response to an X-ray sequence composed of a spectrally hard X-ray dip terminated by an X-ray spike marking the disappearance of the emission above 18 keV. We identify the trigger of the ejection as the X-ray spike...

  12. Software for Manipulating and Embedding Data Interrogation Algorithms into Integrated Systems: Special Application to Structural Health Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, David W. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2004-12-01

    In this study a software package for easily creating and embedding structural health monitoring (SHM) data interrogation processes in remote hardware is presented. The software described herein is comprised of two pieces. The first is a client to allow graphical construction of data interrogation processes. The second is node software for remote execution of processes on remote sensing and monitoring hardware. The client software is created around a catalog of data interrogation algorithms compiled over several years of research at Los Alamos National Laboratory known as DIAMOND II. This study also includes encapsulating the DIAMOND II algorithms into independent interchangeable functions and expanding the catalog with work in feature extraction and statistical discrimination. The client software also includes methods for interfacing with the node software over an Internet connection. Once connected, the client software can upload a developed process to the integrated sensing and processing node. The node software has the ability to run the processes and return results. This software creates a distributed SHM network without individual nodes relying on each other or a centralized server to monitor a structure.

  13. Design of an Integrated Sensor Platform for Vital Sign Monitoring of Newborn Infants at Neonatal Intensive Care Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous health status monitoring and advances in medical treatments have resulted in a significant increase of survival rate in critically ill infants admitted into Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs. The quality of life and long-term health prospects of the neonates depend increasingly on the reliability and comfort of the monitoring systems. In this paper, we present the design work of a smart jacket for vital sign monitoring of neonates at a NICU. The design represents a unique integration of sensor technology, user focus and design aspects. Textile sensors, a reflectance pulse oximeter and a wearable temperature sensor were proposed to be embedded into the smart jacket. Location of the sensor, materials and appearance were designed to optimize the functionality, patient comfort and the possibilities for aesthetic features. Prototypes were built for demonstrating the design concept and experimental results were obtained from tests on premature babies at the NICU of M�xima Medical Centre (MMC in Veldhoven, the Netherlands.

  14. Challenges of agricultural monitoring: integration of the Open Farm Management Information System into GEOSS and Digital Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Řezník, T.; Kepka, M.; Charvát, K.; Charvát, K., Jr.; Horáková, S.; Lukas, V.

    2016-04-01

    From a global perspective, agriculture is the single largest user of freshwater resources, each country using an average of 70% of all its surface water supplies. An essential proportion of agricultural water is recycled back to surface water and/or groundwater. Agriculture and water pollution is therefore the subject of (inter)national legislation, such as the Clean Water Act in the United States of America, the European Water Framework Directive, and the Law of the People's Republic of China on the Prevention and Control of Water Pollution. Regular monitoring by means of sensor networks is needed in order to provide evidence of water pollution in agriculture. This paper describes the benefits of, and open issues stemming from, regular sensor monitoring provided by an Open Farm Management Information System. Emphasis is placed on descriptions of the processes and functionalities available to users, the underlying open data model, and definitions of open and lightweight application programming interfaces for the efficient management of collected (spatial) data. The presented Open Farm Management Information System has already been successfully registered under Phase 8 of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) Architecture Implementation Pilot in order to support the wide variety of demands that are primarily aimed at agriculture pollution monitoring. The final part of the paper deals with the integration of the Open Farm Management Information System into the Digital Earth framework.

  15. Community monitoring of integrated pest management versus conventional pesticide use in a World Bank project in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii-Eiteman, Marcia J; Ardhianie, Nila

    2002-01-01

    Pesticide Action Network North America (PANNA) collaborated with a local Indonesian nongovernmental organization (NGO), Yayasan Duta Awam (YDA), in monitoring impacts of the World Bank-financed Integrated Swamps Development Project (ISDP). This paper reports the results of the community-based investigation, which found wide disparities between the World Bank's policy on pest management and its implementation. Instead of reducing farmers' reliance on pesticides as required, the ISDP led to increased intensity and frequency of pesticide use and adverse health and environmental effects from pesticide exposures. YDA and PANNA presented the findings to the Indonesian government and World Bank officials, and farmers requested training in IPM among other recommendations. After NGOs undertook joint advocacy efforts to reduce pesticide dependence in the project, the World Bank withdrew hazardous pesticides from input packages, IPM training was initiated, and community monitors became local leaders in their villages. The study demonstrates the importance and efficacy of independent community-based monitoring in documenting pesticide problems and replacing pesticides with IPM in World Bank development projects.

  16. Development of hardware system using temperature and vibration maintenance models integration concepts for conventional machines monitoring: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyeri, Michael Kanisuru; Mpofu, Khumbulani; Kareem, Buliaminu

    2016-12-01

    This article describes the integration of temperature and vibration models for maintenance monitoring of conventional machinery parts in which their optimal and best functionalities are affected by abnormal changes in temperature and vibration values thereby resulting in machine failures, machines breakdown, poor quality of products, inability to meeting customers' demand, poor inventory control and just to mention a few. The work entails the use of temperature and vibration sensors as monitoring probes programmed in microcontroller using C language. The developed hardware consists of vibration sensor of ADXL345, temperature sensor of AD594/595 of type K thermocouple, microcontroller, graphic liquid crystal display, real time clock, etc. The hardware is divided into two: one is based at the workstation (majorly meant to monitor machines behaviour) and the other at the base station (meant to receive transmission of machines information sent from the workstation), working cooperatively for effective functionalities. The resulting hardware built was calibrated, tested using model verification and validated through principles pivoted on least square and regression analysis approach using data read from the gear boxes of extruding and cutting machines used for polyethylene bag production. The results got therein confirmed related correlation existing between time, vibration and temperature, which are reflections of effective formulation of the developed concept.

  17. At-line bioprocess monitoring by immunoassay with rotationally controlled serial siphoning and integrated supercritical angle fluorescence optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nwankire, Charles E., E-mail: charles.nwankire@dcu.ie [Biomedical Diagnostics Institute, National Centre for Sensor Research, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Donohoe, Gerard G.; Zhang, Xin [Biomedical Diagnostics Institute, National Centre for Sensor Research, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); School of Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Siegrist, Jonathan [Biomedical Diagnostics Institute, National Centre for Sensor Research, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Somers, Martin [Biomedical Diagnostics Institute, National Centre for Sensor Research, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Kurzbuch, Dirk [Biomedical Diagnostics Institute, National Centre for Sensor Research, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Monaghan, Ruairi [Biomedical Diagnostics Institute, National Centre for Sensor Research, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Kitsara, Maria [School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Burger, Robert [Biomedical Diagnostics Institute, National Centre for Sensor Research, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Hearty, Stephen [Biomedical Diagnostics Institute, National Centre for Sensor Research, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); School of Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Murrell, Julie; Martin, Christopher; Rook, Martha [EMD Millipore Corporation, 80 Ashby Road, Bedford, MA (United States); and others

    2013-06-05

    Graphical abstract: A serial siphon based centrifugal microfluidic platform for the quantitative at-line monitoring of human immunoglobulin G (hIgG) in typical industrial bioprocess samples using a prototype optical SAF detection system. -- Highlights: •Sample-to-answer microfluidic lab-on-a-disc device for at-line bioprocess monitoring. •Centrifugally integrated and automated reagent delivery by serial-siphon valves. •Supercritical angle fluorescence optics embedded on centrifugal platform. •Development of fluorescence-linked-immunosorbent assay on human immunoglobulin G. •Bioprocess samples from industrial reactor determined on the prototype system. -- Abstract: In this paper we report a centrifugal microfluidic “lab-on-a-disc” system for at-line monitoring of human immunoglobulin G (hIgG) in a typical bioprocess environment. The novelty of this device is the combination of a heterogeneous sandwich immunoassay on a serial siphon-enabled microfluidic disc with automated sequential reagent delivery and surface-confined supercritical angle fluorescence (SAF)-based detection. The device, which is compact, easy-to-use and inexpensive, enables rapid detection of hIgG from a bioprocess sample. This was achieved with, an injection moulded SAF lens that was functionalized with aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) using plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) for the immobilization of protein A, and a hybrid integration with a microfluidic disc substrate. Advanced flow control, including the time-sequenced release of on-board liquid reagents, was implemented by serial siphoning with ancillary capillary stops. The concentration of surfactant in each assay reagent was optimized to ensure proper functioning of the siphon-based flow control. The entire automated microfluidic assay process is completed in less than 30 min. The developed prototype system was used to accurately measure industrial bioprocess samples that contained 10 mg mL{sup −1} of hIgG.

  18. Integrating Multi-Sensor Remote Sensing and In-situ Measurements for Africa Drought Monitoring and Food Security Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, X.; Qu, J. J.; Motha, R. P.; Stefanski, R.; Malherbe, J.

    2015-12-01

    Drought is one of the most complicated natural hazards, and causes serious environmental, economic and social consequences. Agricultural production systems, which are highly susceptible to weather and climate extremes, are often the first and most vulnerable sector to be affected by drought events. In Africa, crop yield potential and grazing quality are already nearing their limit of temperature sensitivity, and, rapid population growth and frequent drought episodes pose serious complications for food security. It is critical to promote sustainable agriculture development in Africa under conditions of climate extremes. Soil moisture is one of the most important indicators for agriculture drought, and is a fundamentally critical parameter for decision support in crop management, including planting, water use efficiency and irrigation. While very significant technological advances have been introduced for remote sensing of surface soil moisture from space, in-situ measurements are still critical for calibration and validation of soil moisture estimation algorithms. For operational applications, synergistic collaboration is needed to integrate measurements from different sensors at different spatial and temporal scales. In this presentation, a collaborative effort is demonstrated for drought monitoring in Africa, supported and coordinated by WMO, including surface soil moisture and crop status monitoring. In-situ measurements of soil moisture, precipitation and temperature at selected sites are provided by local partners in Africa. Measurements from the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are integrated with in-situ observations to derive surface soil moisture at high spatial resolution. Crop status is estimated through temporal analysis of current and historical MODIS measurements. Integrated analysis of soil moisture data and crop status provides both in-depth understanding of drought conditions and

  19. The support of multidimensional approaches in integrate monitoring for SEA: a case of study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, C. M.; Selicato, M.

    2013-01-01

    During the centuries, the seaside has represented a crucial pole for future human development and civilization. The use of the sea for transport and trade and the overwhelming availability of food derived from coastal waters have encouraged and strengthened the growth of urban settlements. In the same time, the human pressure menaces to destroy coastal habitats and consequently their carrying capacity that allows for many essential functions. Low-impact activities are often replaced, on the surface, by new intensive ones that are attractive in the short term, but that in the long term undermine by reducing the resilience of the coast. It is clear that, in a perspective of sustainable development, economically efficient and socially equitable use of coastal areas need to be supported inside strategies to correct these weaknesses. The definition of such strategies and their implementation in the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is an essential tool for supporting decisions and of monitoring. The issues of monitoring, more in particular, have been the subject of study and modelling by the use of Dynamic Spatial Data Analysis (DSDA), in the case of the SEA of the Coastal Plan of the Italian Apulia Region, as an information instrument for regulating the anthropogenic changes; a possibility to implement the analysis of environmental sensitivity and propensity to Coastal erosion has been explored, in order to control the level of human pressure on land. The monitoring system should provide an automatic "alert" when the dimension and the velocity of the change of land use overpass some threshold of environmental pressure.

  20. The support of multidimensional approaches in integrate monitoring for SEA: a case of study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Torre

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available During centuries, seaside has represented a crucial pole for future human development and civilization. The use of the sea for transport and trade and the overwhelming availability of food derived from coastal waters have encouraged and strengthened the growth of urban settlements. In the same time, the human pressure menaces to destroy coastal habitats, and consequently their carrying capacity that permits to guest many essential functions.

    Low-impact activities are often replaced on the surface by new intensive others that are attractive in the short term, but that in the long term undermine of reducing the resilience of the coast. It is clear that, in a perspective of sustainable development, economically efficient and socially equitable use of coastal areas need to be supported inside strategies to correct these weaknesses. The definition of such strategies and their implementation in the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA is an essential tool of decision support and of monitoring.

    The issues of monitoring, more in particular, have been subject of study and modeling by the use of Dynamic Spatial Data Analisys (DSDA, in the case of the SEA of the Coastal Plan of the Italian Apulia Region, as an information instrument for regulating the anthropogenic changes; a possibility to implement the analysis of environmental sensitivity and propensity to Coastal erosion has been explored, in order to control the level of human pressure on land. The monitoring system should provide an automatic "alert" when the dimension and the velocity of change of land use overpass some threshold of environmental pressure.

  1. The support of multidimensional approaches in integrate monitoring for SEA: a case of study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Torre

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During the centuries, the seaside has represented a crucial pole for future human development and civilization. The use of the sea for transport and trade and the overwhelming availability of food derived from coastal waters have encouraged and strengthened the growth of urban settlements. In the same time, the human pressure menaces to destroy coastal habitats and consequently their carrying capacity that allows for many essential functions. Low-impact activities are often replaced, on the surface, by new intensive ones that are attractive in the short term, but that in the long term undermine by reducing the resilience of the coast. It is clear that, in a perspective of sustainable development, economically efficient and socially equitable use of coastal areas need to be supported inside strategies to correct these weaknesses. The definition of such strategies and their implementation in the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA is an essential tool for supporting decisions and of monitoring. The issues of monitoring, more in particular, have been the subject of study and modelling by the use of Dynamic Spatial Data Analysis (DSDA, in the case of the SEA of the Coastal Plan of the Italian Apulia Region, as an information instrument for regulating the anthropogenic changes; a possibility to implement the analysis of environmental sensitivity and propensity to Coastal erosion has been explored, in order to control the level of human pressure on land. The monitoring system should provide an automatic "alert" when the dimension and the velocity of the change of land use overpass some threshold of environmental pressure.

  2. Sample to answer: a fully integrated nucleic acid identification system for bacteria monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungkyu; Elsnab, John; Johnson, Michael; Gale, Bruce K.

    2010-02-01

    A fully integrated microfluidic system was developed and incorporates an EC-MWCNT (electrochemical multiwalled carbon nanotube) sensor for the detection of bacteria. Sample metering, reagent metering and delivery was implemented with microvalves and pumps embedded inside the microfluidic system. The nucleic acid extraction was performed using microchannels controlled using automated platforms and a disposable microfluidic silica cartridge. The target samples were flowed and hybridized with probe ssDNA (single strand DNA) across the MWCNT-EC sensor (built on a silicon chip), which was embedded in a microfluidic cell. The 9-pad sensor was scanned before and after hybridization to measure the quantity of RNA (Ribonucleic acid) bound to the array surface. A rapid and accurate sample-in answer-out nucleic acid system was realized with automated volume metering, microfluidic sample preparation, and integrated nano-biosensors.

  3. Integrated FBG sensors interrogator in silicon photonic platform using active interferometer monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Y. E.; Nannipieri, T.; Di Pasquale, F.; Oton, C. J.

    2016-05-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of Fiber Bragg Grating sensors interrogation using integrated unbalanced Mach-Zehnder Interferometers (MZI) and phase sensitive detection in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform. The Phase- Generated Carrier (PGC) demodulation technique is used to detect phase changes, avoiding signal fading. Signal processing allows us to extract the wavelength shift from the signal patterns, allowing accurate dynamic FBG interrogation. High resolution and low cost chips with multiple interrogators and photodetectors on board can be realized by exploiting the advantages of large scale fabrication capabilities of well-established silicon based industrial infrastructures. Simultaneous dynamic reading of a large number of FBG sensors can lead to large volume market applications of the technology in several strategic industrial fields. The performance of the proposed integrated FBG interrogator is validated by comparing with a commercial FBG readout based on a spectrometer and used as a reference.

  4. Cross-scale phenological data integration to benefit resource management and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Andrew D.; Weltzin, Jake F.; Morisette, Jeffrey T.

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is presenting new challenges for natural resource managers charged with maintaining sustainable ecosystems and landscapes. Phenology, a branch of science dealing with seasonal natural phenomena (bird migration or plant flowering in response to weather changes, for example), bridges the gap between the biosphere and the climate system. Phenological processes operate across scales that span orders of magnitude—from leaf to globe and from days to seasons—making phenology ideally suited to multiscale, multiplatform data integration and delivery of information at spatial and temporal scales suitable to inform resource management decisions.A workshop report: Workshop held June 2016 to investigate opportunities and challenges facing multi-scale, multi-platform integration of phenological data to support natural resource management decision-making.

  5. Integrated coastal monitoring of a gas processing plant using native and caged mussels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, Steven, E-mail: sbr@niva.no [Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Gaustadalleen 21, NO-0349 Oslo (Norway); Harman, Christopher [Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Gaustadalleen 21, NO-0349 Oslo (Norway); Soto, Manu; Cancio, Ibon [CBET Res Grp, R and D Centre for Experimental Marine Biology and Biotechnology (PIE), Univ Basque Country, Areatza Z/G, Plentzia-Bizkaia, E-48620 Basque Country (Spain); Glette, Tormod [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Veritasveien 1, 1363 Hovik (Norway); Marigomez, Ionan [CBET Res Grp, R and D Centre for Experimental Marine Biology and Biotechnology (PIE), Univ Basque Country, Areatza Z/G, Plentzia-Bizkaia, E-48620 Basque Country (Spain)

    2012-06-01

    The biological effects of a coastal process water (PW) discharge on native and caged mussels (Mytilus edulis) were assessed. Chemical analyses of mussel tissues and semi permeable membrane devices, along with a suite of biomarkers of different levels of biological complexity were measured. These were lysosomal membrane stability in haemocytes and digestive cells; micronuclei formation in haemocytes; changes in cell-type composition in the digestive gland epithelium; integrity of digestive gland tissue; peroxisome proliferation; and oxidative stress. Additionally the Integrative Biological Response (IBR/n) index was calculated. This integrative biomarker approach distinguished mussels, both native and caged, exhibiting different stress conditions not identified from the contaminant exposure. Mussels exhibiting higher stress responses were found with increased proximity to the PW discharge outlet. However, the biological effects reported could not be entirely attributed to the PW discharge based on the chemicals measured, but were likely due to either other chemicals in the discharge that were not measured, the general impact of the processing plant and or other activities in the local vicinity. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Good agreement between biomarkers for the different mussel groups. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IBR/n was able to differentiate between exposed and reference mussels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mussels closest to the PW outlet were in poorest health. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemical concentrations were low or undetected in all SPMD and mussel samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biomarker responses could not be entirely attributed to the PW discharge.

  6. The use of aquatic macrophytes in monitoring and in assessment of biological integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, P.M.; Scribailo, R.W.; Simon, T.P.; Gerhardt, A.

    1999-01-01

    Aquatic plant species, populations, and communities should be used as indicators of the aquatic environment, allowing detection of ecosystem response to different stressors. Plant tissues bioaccumulate and concentrate toxin levels higher than what is present in the sediments; and this appears to be related to organic matter content, acidification, and buffering capacity. The majority of toxicity studies, most of these with heavy metals, have been done with several Lemna species and Vallisneria americana. Organic chemicals reviewed include pesticides and herbicides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and other industrial contaminants. The use of aquatic plant communities as bioindicators of environmental quality was evaluated for specific characteristics and indices that may assess biological integrity. Indices such as the floristic quality index (FQI) and coefficient of conservatism (C) are pioneering efforts to describe the quality of natural areas and protect native biodiversity. Our case study in the Grand Calumet Lagoons found that 'least-impacted' sites had the greatest aquatic plant species richness, highest FQI and C values, and highest relative abundance. Lastly, we introduce the concepts necessary for the development of a plant index of biotic integrity. Development of reference conditions is essential to understanding aquatic plant community structure, function, individual health, condition, and abundance. Information on guild development and tolerance definition are also integral to the development of a multi-metric index.

  7. Integrating smart-phone based momentary location tracking with fixed site air quality monitoring for personal exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jason G; Jerrett, Michael; Meng, Ying-Ying; Pickett, Melissa; Ritz, Beate

    2015-02-15

    Epidemiological studies investigating relationships between environmental exposures from air pollution and health typically use residential addresses as a single point for exposure, while environmental exposures in transit, at work, school or other locations are largely ignored. Personal exposure monitors measure individuals' exposures over time; however, current personal monitors are intrusive and cannot be operated at a large scale over an extended period of time (e.g., for a continuous three months) and can be very costly. In addition, spatial locations typically cannot be identified when only personal monitors are used. In this paper, we piloted a study that applied momentary location tracking services supplied by smart phones to identify an individual's location in space-time for three consecutive months (April 28 to July 28, 2013) using available Wi-Fi networks. Individual exposures in space-time to the traffic-related pollutants Nitrogen Oxides (NOX) were estimated by superimposing an annual mean NOX concentration surface modeled using the Land Use Regression (LUR) modeling technique. Individual's exposures were assigned to stationary (including home, work and other stationary locations) and in-transit (including commute and other travel) locations. For the individual, whose home/work addresses were known and the commute route was fixed, it was found that 95.3% of the time, the individual could be accurately identified in space-time. The ambient concentration estimated at the home location was 21.01 ppb. When indoor/outdoor infiltration, indoor sources of air pollution and time spent outdoors were taken into consideration, the individual's cumulative exposures were 28.59 ppb and 96.49 ppb, assuming a respective indoor/outdoor ratio of 1.33 and 5.00. Integrating momentary location tracking services with fixed-site field monitoring, plus indoor-outdoor air exchange calibration, makes exposure assessment of a very large population over an extended time period

  8. Simulating dissolved organic carbon dynamics at the swedish integrated monitoring sites with the integrated catchments model for carbon, INCA-C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futter, M N; Löfgren, S; Köhler, S J; Lundin, L; Moldan, F; Bringmark, L

    2011-12-01

    Surface water concentrations of dissolved organic carbon ([DOC]) are changing throughout the northern hemisphere due to changes in climate, land use and acid deposition. However, the relative importance of these drivers is unclear. Here, we use the Integrated Catchments model for Carbon (INCA-C) to simulate long-term (1996-2008) streamwater [DOC] at the four Swedish integrated monitoring (IM) sites. These are unmanaged headwater catchments with old-growth forests and no major changes in land use. Daily, seasonal and long-term variations in streamwater [DOC] driven by runoff, seasonal temperature and atmospheric sulfate (SO₄(2-)) deposition were observed at all sites. Using INCA-C, it was possible to reproduce observed patterns of variability in streamwater [DOC] at the four IM sites. Runoff was found to be the main short-term control on [DOC]. Seasonal patterns in [DOC] were controlled primarily by soil temperature. Measured SO₄(2-) deposition explained some of the long-term [DOC] variability at all sites.

  9. An Integrated Approach for Pollution Monitoring: Smart Acquirement and Smart Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arco, E.; Boccardo, P.; Gandino, F.; Lingua, A.; Noardo, F.; Rebaudengo, M.

    2016-09-01

    Air quality is a factor of primary importance for the quality of life. The increase of the pollutants percentage in the air can cause serious problems to the human and environmental health. For this reason it is essential to monitor its values to prevent the consequences of an excessive concentration, to reduce the pollution production or to avoid the contact with major pollutant concentration through the available tools. Some recently developed tools for the monitoring and sharing of the data in an effective system permit to manage the information in a smart way, in order to improve the knowledge of the problem and, consequently, to take preventing measures in favour of the urban air quality and human health. In this paper, the authors describe an innovative solution that implements geomatics sensors (GNSS) and pollutant measurement sensors to develop a low cost sensor for the acquisition of pollutants dynamic data using a mobile platform based on bicycles. The acquired data can be analysed to evaluate the local distribution of pollutant density and shared through web platforms that use standard protocols for an effective smart use.

  10. Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry for thin film monitors: computer and equipment integration for enhanced capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, J. Neal; Sedayao, J.; Shergill, Gurmeet S.; Villasol, R.; Haaland, David M.

    1991-03-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR) is a valuable technique for monitoring thin films used in semiconductor device manufacture. Determinations of the constituent contents in borophosphosilicate (BPSG) phosphosilicate (PSG) silicon oxynitride (SiON:H and spin-on-glass (SOG) thin films are a few applications. Due to the nature of the technique FTIR instrumentation is one of the most extensively computer-dependent pieces of equipment that is likely to be found in a microelectronics plant. In the role of fab monitor or reactor characterization tool FTIR instruments can rapidly generate large amounts of data. Also the drive for greater accuracy and tighter precision is leading to the development of increasingly sophisticated data processing software that tax the computing abilities of most instrument local data stations. By linking a local FTIR data station to a remote minicomputer its capabilities are greatly improved. We discuss three classes of enhancement. First the FTIR in the fab area communicates and interacts in real time with the minicomputer: transferring data segments to it instructing it to perform sophisticated processing and returning the results to the operator in the fab. Characterizations of PSG thin films by this approach are discussed. Second the spectra of large numbers of samples are processed locally. The large database is then transmitted to the minicomputer for study by statistical/graphics software. Results of CVD-reactor spatial profiling experiments for plasma SiON are presented. Third processing of calibration spectra is performed

  11. AN INTEGRATED APPROACH FOR POLLUTION MONITORING: SMART ACQUIREMENT AND SMART INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Arco

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Air quality is a factor of primary importance for the quality of life. The increase of the pollutants percentage in the air can cause serious problems to the human and environmental health. For this reason it is essential to monitor its values to prevent the consequences of an excessive concentration, to reduce the pollution production or to avoid the contact with major pollutant concentration through the available tools. Some recently developed tools for the monitoring and sharing of the data in an effective system permit to manage the information in a smart way, in order to improve the knowledge of the problem and, consequently, to take preventing measures in favour of the urban air quality and human health. In this paper, the authors describe an innovative solution that implements geomatics sensors (GNSS and pollutant measurement sensors to develop a low cost sensor for the acquisition of pollutants dynamic data using a mobile platform based on bicycles. The acquired data can be analysed to evaluate the local distribution of pollutant density and shared through web platforms that use standard protocols for an effective smart use.

  12. Real-time seismic monitoring of the integrated cape girardeau bridge array and recorded earthquake response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the state of the art, real-time and broad-band seismic monitoring network implemented for the 1206 m [3956 ft] long, cable-stayed Bill Emerson Memorial Bridge in Cape Girardeau (MO), a new Mississippi River crossing, approximately 80 km from the epicentral region of the 1811-1812 New Madrid earthquakes. The bridge was designed for a strong earthquake (magnitude 7.5 or greater) during the design life of the bridge. The monitoring network comprises a total of 84 channels of accelerometers deployed on the superstructure, pier foundations and at surface and downhole free-field arrays of the bridge. The paper also presents the high quality response data obtained from the network. Such data is aimed to be used by the owner, researchers and engineers to assess the performance of the bridge, to check design parameters, including the comparison of dynamic characteristics with actual response, and to better design future similar bridges. Preliminary analyses of ambient and low amplitude small earthquake data reveal specific response characteristics of the bridge and the free-field. There is evidence of coherent tower, cable, deck interaction that sometimes results in amplified ambient motions. Motions at the lowest tri-axial downhole accelerometers on both MO and IL sides are practically free from any feedback from the bridge. Motions at the mid-level and surface downhole accelerometers are influenced significantly by feedback due to amplified ambient motions of the bridge. Copyright ASCE 2006.

  13. Integrated Sensor Networks for Monitoring the Health and Well-Being of Vulnerable Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heatley, D. J. T.; Kalawsky, R. S.; Neild, I.; Bowman, P. A.

    The inescapable fact that people are living longer today than ever before means that the number of elderly people needing care or medical treatment has never been higher. In response to this there is a growing trend to place the elderly and infirm in residential homes or in sheltered accommodation, where they live in a protective environment while retaining some independence. Current healthcare systems in residential, sheltered, and community settings generally operate on a reactive basis rather than a pre-emptive basis [1]. This means that the people being cared for (the 'clients') are often already clinically ill and in need of medical attention, sometimes urgently, by the time the healthcare system engages, whereupon the treatment and recovery regime can be protracted and costly [2]. Unfortunately, a significant majority of our ageing population do not have the benefit of this level of healthcare [3], despite the evidence that our ageing population are regarded to be at an increased risk of falls [4], malnutrition [5], and failure to take prescribed medication [6]. It is this self-neglect that is of great concern. A far better scheme for all parties is one that continuously monitors clients who, although in fine health at that time, are considered to be at risk and likely to need attention at a time in the future, particularly if they are elderly and live alone. By continually monitoring certain behavioural characteristics of an individual, it is feasible to ascertain their well-being or detect when things deviate from the norm.

  14. Integrating geomatics and structural investigation in post-earthquake monitoring of ancient monumental Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominici, Donatella; Galeota, Dante; Gregori, Amedeo; Rosciano, Elisa; Alicandro, Maria; Elaiopoulos, Michail

    2014-06-01

    The old city center of L’Aquila is rich in historical buildings of considerable merit. On April 6th 2009 a devastating earthquake caused significant structural damages, affecting especially historical and monumental masonry buildings. The results of a study carried out on a monumental building, former headquarters of the University of L’Aquila (The Camponeschi building, XVI century) are presented in this paper. The building is situated in the heart of the old city center and was seriously damaged by the earthquake. Preliminary visual damage analysis carried out immediately after the quake, clearly evidenced the building’s complexity, raising the need for direct and indirect investigation on the structure. Several non-destructive test methods were then performed in situ to better characterize the masonry typology and the damage distribution, as well. Subsequently, a number of representative control points were identified on the building’s facades to represent, by their motion over time, the evolution of the structural displacements and deformations. In particular, a surveying network consisting of 27 different points was established. A robotic total station mounted on top of a concrete pillar was used for periodically monitoring the surveying control network. Stability of the pillar was checked through a GNSS static survey repeated before any set of measurements. The present study evidences the interesting possibilities of combining geomatics with structural investigation during post-earthquake monitoring of ancient monumental buildings.

  15. Structural Health Monitoring Using Textile Reinforcement Structures with Integrated Optical Fiber Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kort Bremer

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Optical fiber-based sensors “embedded” in functionalized carbon structures (FCSs and textile net structures (TNSs based on alkaline-resistant glass are introduced for the purpose of structural health monitoring (SHM of concrete-based structures. The design aims to monitor common SHM parameters such as strain and cracks while at the same time acting as a structural strengthening mechanism. The sensor performances of the two systems are characterized in situ using Mach-Zehnder interferometric (MZI and optical attenuation measurement techniques, respectively. For this purpose, different FCS samples were subjected to varying elongation using a tensile testing machine by carefully incrementing the applied force, and good correlation between the applied force and measured length change was observed. For crack detection, the functionalized TNSs were embedded into a concrete block which was then exposed to varying load using the three-point flexural test until destruction. Promising results were observed, identifying that the location of the crack can be determined using the conventional optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR technique. The embedded sensors thus evaluated show the value of the dual achievement of the schemes proposed in obtaining strain/crack measurement while being utilized as strengthening agents as well.

  16. The virtual approach to the assessment of skeletal injuries in human skeletal remains of forensic importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanová, Petra; Ross, Ann H; Jurda, Mikoláš; Šplíchalová, Ivana

    2017-07-01

    While assessing skeletal injuries in human skeletal remains, forensic anthropologists