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Sample records for monitor resin flow

  1. Multiplexed fibre optic sensors for monitoring resin infusion, flow, and cure in composite material processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chehura, Edmon; Jarzebinska, Renata; Da Costa, Elisabete F. R.; Skordos, Alexandros A.; James, Stephen W.; Partridge, Ivana K.; Tatam, Ralph P.

    2013-04-01

    The infusion, flow and cure of RTM6 resin in a carbon fibre reinforced composite preform have been monitored using a variety of multiplexed fibre optic sensors. Optical fibre Fresnel sensors and tilted fibre Bragg grating (TFBG) sensors were configured to monitor resin infusion/flow in-plane of the component. The results obtained from the different sensors were in good agreement with visual observations. The degree of cure was monitored by Fresnel sensors via a measurement of the refractive index of the resin which was converted to degree of cure using a calibration determined from Differential Scanning Calorimetry. Fibre Bragg grating sensors fabricated in highly linearly birefringent fibre were used to monitor the development of transverse strain during the cure process, revealing through-thickness material shrinkage of about 712 μɛ and residual strain of 223 μɛ. An alternative approach to infusion monitoring, based on an array of multiplexed tapered optical fibre sensors interrogated using optical frequency domain reflectometry, was also investigated in a separate carbon fibre preform that was infused with RTM6 resin.

  2. Assessment of flow and cure monitoring using direct current and alternating current sensing in vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Uday K.; Jadhav, Nitesh C.; Hosur, Mahesh V.; Gillespie, John W., Jr.; Fink, Bruce K.

    2000-12-01

    Vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) is an emerging manufacturing technique that holds promise as an affordable alternative to traditional autoclave molding and automated fiber placement for producing large-scale structural parts. In VARTM, the fibrous preform is laid on a single-sided tool, which is then bagged along with the infusion and vacuum lines. The resin is then infused through the preform, which causes simultaneous wetting in its in-plane and transverse directions. An effective sensing technique is essential so that comprehensive information pertaining to the wetting of the preform, arrival of resin at various locations, cure gradients associated with thickness and presence of dry spots may be monitored. In the current work, direct current (dc) and alternating current sensing/monitoring techniques were adopted for developing a systematic understanding of the resin position and cure on plain weave S2-glass preforms with Dow Derakane vinyl ester VE 411-350, Shell EPON RSL 2704/2705 and Si-AN epoxy as the matrix systems. A SMARTweave dc sensing system was utilized to conduct parametric studies: (a) to compare the flow and cure of resin through the stitched and non-stitched preforms; (b) to investigate the influence of sensor positioning, i.e. top, middle and bottom layers; and (c) to investigate the influence of positioning of the process accessories, i.e. resin infusion point and vacuum point on the composite panel. The SMARTweave system was found to be sensitive to all the parametric variations introduced in the study. Furthermore, the results obtained from the SMARTweave system were compared to the cure monitoring studies conducted by using embedded interdigitated (IDEX) dielectric sensors. The results indicate that SMARTweave sensing was a viable alternative to obtaining resin position and cure, and was more superior in terms of obtaining global information, in contrast to the localized dielectric sensing approach.

  3. The Feasibility of Electrical Monitoring of Resin Cure with the Charge-Flow Transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    inject charge into the resin. This may depend on resin properties , and it may be determined by oxide forma- tion on the electrode. C - An electrode-to...dependent on the resin properties . R - The bulk resin resistance, which represents the resistance through which the mid-channel region is coupled to the

  4. Dental resin cure monitoring by inherent fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qun; Zhou, Jack X.; Li, Qingxiong; Wang, Sean X.

    2008-02-01

    It is demonstrated that the inherent fluorescence of a dental composite resin can be utilized to monitor the curing status, i.e. degree of conversion of the resin. The method does not require any sample preparation and is potentially very fast for real time cure monitoring. The method is verified by Raman spectroscopy analysis.

  5. Use of rhodamine WT with XAD-7 resin for determining groundwater flow paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, Murray E.; Stanton, Greg J.; Pang, Liping

    2002-06-01

    A passive sampling system for use with rhodamine WT (RWT) in groundwater tracing experiments was developed to assist in the characterisation of groundwater flow paths. Amberlite XAD-7 resin was found to be suitable for adsorption of RWT, which can then be extracted using an ethanol/water mix and analysed fluorometrically. Batch and column experiments showed that XAD-7 resin has a high RWT capacity. The adsorption was slightly dependent on pH, but was always above 75% under batch conditions. The resin had a high percentage mass recovery at flow velocities around 1.5 m/day, but this decreased with increasing flow velocities. Desorption of RWT off the resin in water is dependent on the flow velocity of water and the time after the peak RWT has passed. The mass of RWT extracted from the resin bags correlated very well with both the RWT mass flux in the water and the peak concentrations observed in the monitoring wells in a field experiment. The results of resin bags were reproducible in the field with a mean coefficient of variation equal to 16%. This method has been successfully applied to two field situations with different flow velocities to indicate groundwater flow paths.

  6. In-situ cure monitoring of epoxy resin systems

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Graham

    1998-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. This thesis describes the work carried out at Brunel University to develop novel optical fibre sensors capable of monitoring the cure state of an epoxy/amine resin system. The sensors were of simple construction, consisting of an optical fibre from which the silicone cladding layer had been removed over a short length. This stripped length was embedded into the curing resin system. The sensor...

  7. Optical fibre grating refractometers for resin cure monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buggy, S. J.; Chehura, E.; James, S. W.; Tatam, R. P.

    2007-06-01

    The use of fibre grating refractometers as a means of monitoring the cure of a UV-cured epoxy resin is presented. The wavelength shift of the attenuation bands of a long period grating and the spectral response of a tilted fibre Bragg grating sensor were measured simultaneously during the cure of the resin and compared with measurements made using a fibre optic Fresnel-based refractometer. The results showed a good correlation (6 × 10-3 rius) and illustrate the potential of the techniques for non-invasive composite material cure monitoring.

  8. Resin flow and void formation in an autoclave cure cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lionetto, Francesca; Lucia, Massimo; Dell'Anna, Riccardo; Maffezzoli, Alfonso

    2016-05-01

    A finite element (FE) model able to evaluate both the evolution of resin flow, degree of reaction and void formation during autoclave cure cycles was developed. The model was implemented using a commercial epoxy matrix widely used in aeronautic field. The FE model also included a kinetic and rheological model whose input parameters were experimentally determined by Differential Scanning Calorimetry and rheological analysis. The FE model was able to predict the evolution of degree of reaction with very good agreement with the experimental data. Moreover, the predicted resin losses were lower than 3% of the overall composite resin content.

  9. Monitoring the Cure State of Thermosetting Resins by Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Maffezzoli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The propagation of low intensity ultrasound in a curing resin, acting as a high frequency oscillatory excitation, has been recently proposed as an ultrasonic dynamic mechanical analysis (UDMA for cure monitoring. The technique measures sound velocity and attenuation, which are very sensitive to changes in the viscoelastic characteristics of the curing resin, since the velocity is related to the resin storage modulus and density, while the attenuation is related to the energy dissipation and scattering in the curing resin. The paper reviews the results obtained by the authors’ research group in the last decade by means of in-house made ultrasonic set-ups for both contact and air-coupled ultrasonic experiments. The basics of the ultrasonic wave propagation in polymers and examples of measurements of the time-evolution of ultrasonic longitudinal modulus and chemical conversion of different thermosetting resins are presented. The effect of temperature on the cure kinetics, the comparison with rheological, low frequency dynamic mechanical and calorimetric results, and the correlation between ultrasonic modulus and crosslinking density will be also discussed. The paper highlights the reliability of ultrasonic wave propagation for monitoring the physical changes taking place during curing and the potential for online monitoring during polymer and polymer matrix composite processing.

  10. Structural health monitoring using fiber optic distributed sensors for vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eum, S. H.; Kageyama, K.; Murayama, H.; Uzawa, K.; Ohsawa, I.; Kanai, M.; Kobayashi, S.; Igawa, H.; Shirai, T.

    2007-12-01

    In this study we implemented manufacturing process and strain monitoring of a composite structure by optical fiber sensors for vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VaRTM). Optical fibers with fiber Bragg gratings were embedded into a glass fiber reinforced plastic specimen made by VaRTM and the applicability of structural health monitoring with fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors based on optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR) was investigated. In this study, long-gage FBGs which are 10 times longer than ordinary FBGs (which are about 10 mm long) were employed for distributed sensing. We can easily map the strain or temperature profile along gratings by OFDR and the spatial resolution of this sensing technique is about 1 mm. The resin flow process in VaRTM could be monitored by measuring the difference in temperature between the resin and preform. Then, the shrinkage of resin could be also monitored during the curing process. The specimen was then subjected to a bending load in a three-point bending test and the strain distributions along the FBGs were measured. From these results we could show the applicability of distributed sensors to quality assurance of a composite structure made by VaRTM and assessment of the structural integrity of in-service composite structures.

  11. Photothermal radiometry monitoring of light curing in resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zambrano-Arjona, M A [Applied Physics Department, Cinvestav-Unidad Merida, A.P. 73 Cordemex, Merida, 97310 (Mexico); Medina-Esquivel, R [Cinvestav-Unidad Queretaro, Libramiento Norponiente 2000 Fracc. Real de Juriquilla, CP 76230, Queretaro (Mexico); Alvarado-Gil, J J [Applied Physics Department, Cinvestav-Unidad Merida, A.P. 73 Cordemex, Merida, 97310 (Mexico)

    2007-10-07

    Real time measurement of thermal diffusivity during the evolution of the light curing process in dental resins is reported using photothermal radiometry. The curing is induced by a non-modulated blue light beam, and at the same time, a modulated red laser beam is sent onto the sample, generating a train of thermal waves that produce modulated infrared radiation. The monitoring of this radiation permits to follow the time evolution of the process. The methodology is applied to two different commercially available light curing resin-based composites. In all cases thermal diffusivity follows a first order kinetics with similar stabilization characteristic times. Analysis of this kinetics permits to exhibit the close relationship of increase in thermal diffusivity with the decrease in monomer concentration and extension of the polymerization in the resin, induced by the curing light. It is also shown that the configuration in which the resin is illuminated by the modulated laser can be the basis for the development of an in situ technique for the determination of the degree of curing.

  12. Simulation and analysis of resin flow in injection machine screw

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling-feng LI; Samir MEKID

    2008-01-01

    A method with simulation and analysis of the resin flow in a screw is presented to ease the control of some problems that may affect the efficiency and the quality of the product among existing screws in an injection machine. The physical model of a screw is established to represent the stress, the strain, the relationship between velocity and stress, and the temperature of the cells. In this paper, a working case is considered where the velocity and the temperature distributions at any section of the flow are obtained. The analysis of the computational results shows an ability to master various parameters depending on the specifications.

  13. Monitoring of resin transfer in CFRP molding using 3D-DIC technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dingding; Arakawa, Kazuo; Uchino, Masakazu

    2014-06-01

    Vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) is a manufacturing process that is used to make large and complex composite structures. While promising, VARTM still suffers from relatively low fiber volume fractions and high void content in the final products. The infusion step of VARTM is very important, because the quality of the final product is usually decided by this process. Consequently, a comprehensive understanding of the infusion process is essential. In this study, a three-dimensional digital image correlation (3D-DIC) testing system was set up to research the entire infusion process through the monitor of the thickness change of the laminates in this process. Two distinct VARTM processes, with and without a rigid cover mold, were designed to be studied. The 3D-DIC technique proved to be a valid method that not only can monitor the thickness evolution of isolated points but also can give a full-field distribution of the thickness change of the laminate. The results showed that, without the use of a rigid cover mold, the stack of reinforcements initially shrank and then expanded as the resin filled the cavities before closing the inlet, while when using a rigid cover mold there was an additional expansion period before the shrinkage occurred. Such an expansion stage could promote the flow of the resin, shortening the infusion time.

  14. Ethernet Flow Monitoring with IPFIX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, R.J.; Drago, Idilio; Sperotto, Anna; Pras, Aiko

    The increasing amount of network traffic and the huge bandwidth needed to carry it requires managers to use scalable solutions to monitor their networks. Nowadays, flow-based techniques, such as Cisco’s NetFlow, provide aggregated network data and an overview of network activity at the IP layer.

  15. Ethernet Flow Monitoring with IPFIX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, Rick; Drago, Idilio; Sperotto, Anna; Pras, Aiko

    2011-01-01

    The increasing amount of network traffic and the huge bandwidth needed to carry it requires managers to use scalable solutions to monitor their networks. Nowadays, flow-based techniques, such as Cisco’s NetFlow, provide aggregated network data and an overview of network activity at the IP layer. How

  16. Monitoring the resin infusion manufacturing process under industrial environment using distributed sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Peng; Drapier, Sylvain; Vautrin, Alain; Minni, Jean-Christophe; 10.1177/0021998311410479

    2012-01-01

    A novel direct approach to detect the resin flow front during the Liquid Resin Infusion process under industrial environment is proposed. To detect the resin front accurately and verify the results, which are deduced from indirect micro-thermocouples measurements, optical fiber sensors based on Fresnel reflection are utilized. It is expected that the results derived from both techniques will lead to an improvement of our understanding of the resin flow and in particular prove that micro-thermocouples can be used as sensors as routine technique under our experimental conditions. Moreover, comparisons with numerical simulations are carried out and experimental and simulated mold filling times are successfully compared.

  17. Cure monitoring of epoxy resin by using fiber bragg grating sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin Hyuk [KEPCO, Naju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dae Hyun [Dept. of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    In several industrial fields, epoxy resin is widely used as an adhesive for co-curing and manufacturing various structures. Controlling the manufacturing process is required for ensuring robust bonding performance and the stability of the structures. A fiber optic sensor is suitable for the cure monitoring of epoxy resin owing to the thready shape of the sensor. In this paper, a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor was applied for the cure monitoring of epoxy resin. Based on the experimental results, it was demonstrated that the FBG sensor can monitor the status of epoxy resin curing by measuring the strain caused by volume shrinkage and considering the compensation of temperature. In addition, two types of epoxy resin were used for the cure-monitoring; moreover, when compared to each other, it was found that the two types of epoxy had different cure-processes in terms of the change of strain during the curing. Therefore, the study proved that the FBG sensor is very profitable for the cure-monitoring of epoxy resin.

  18. A New Method to Track Resin Flow Fronts in Mold Filling Simulation of RTM Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fuhong DAI; Shanyi DU; Boming ZHANG; Dianfu WAN

    2004-01-01

    A new method to track resin flow fronts, referred to as the topological interpolated method (TIM), which is based on filling states and topological relations of adjacent nodes was proposed. An experiment on the mould filling process was conducted. It was compared with exact solutions and the experimental results, and good agreements were observed. Numerical and experimental comparisons with the conventional contour method were also carried out, and it showed that TIM could enhance the local accuracy of flow front solutions with respect to the contour method when merging flow fronts and resin approaching the mold wall were involved.

  19. Materials Characterisation and Analysis for Flow Simulation of Liquid Resin Infusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirtautas, J.; Pickett, A. K.; George, A.

    2015-06-01

    Liquid Resin Infusion (LRI) processes including VARI and VARTM have received increasing attention in recent years, particularly for infusion of large parts, or for low volume production. This method avoids the need for costly matched metal tooling as used in Resin Transfer Moulding (RTM) and can provide fast infusion if used in combination with flow media. Full material characterisation for LRI analysis requires models for three dimensional fabric permeability as a function of fibre volume content, fabric through-thickness compliance as a function of resin pressure, flow media permeability and resin viscosity. The characterisation of fabric relaxation during infusion is usually determined from cyclic compaction tests on saturated fabrics. This work presents an alternative method to determine the compressibility by using LRI flow simulation and fitting a model to experimental thickness measurements during LRI. The flow media is usually assumed to have isotropic permeability, but this work shows greater simulation accuracy from combining the flow media with separation plies as a combined orthotropic material. The permeability of this combined media can also be determined by fitting the model with simulation to LRI flow measurements. The constitutive models and the finite element solution were validated by simulation of the infusion of a complex aerospace demonstrator part.

  20. Measuring Vapors To Monitor the State of Cure of a Resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Elliott; Perey, Daniel F.; Yost, William T.

    2006-01-01

    A proposed noninvasive method of monitoring the cure path and the state of cure of an epoxy or other resin involves measurement of the concentration( s) of one or more compound(s) in the vaporous effluent emitted during the curing process. The method is based on the following general ideas: (1) The concentrations of the effluent compounds in the vicinity of the curing resin are approximately proportional to the instantaneous rate of curing. (2) As curing proceeds at a given temperature, subsequent decreases in the concentrations are indicative of approaching completion of cure; that is, the lower are the concentrations, the more nearly complete is the cure.

  1. Concentrating cesium-137 from seawater using resorcinol-formaldehyde resin for radioecological monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egorin, Andrei; Tokar, Eduard; Tutov, Mikhail; Avramenko, Valentin [Institute of Chemistry FEBRAS, Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Far Eastern Federal Univ., Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Palamarchuk, Marina; Marinin, Dmitry [Institute of Chemistry FEBRAS, Vladivostok (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-01

    A method of preconcentrating cesium-137 from seawater using a resorcinol-formaldehyde resin, which enables one to optimize the ecological monitoring procedure, has been suggested. Studies of sorption of cesium-137 from seawater by resorcinol-formaldehyde resin have been performed, and it has been demonstrated that the cation exchanger is characterized by high selectivity with respect to cesium-137. It was found that the selectivity depended on the temperature of resin solidification and the seawater pH value. The maximal value of the cesium-137 distribution coefficient is equal to 4.1-4.5 x 10{sup 3} cm{sup 3} g{sup -1}. Under dynamic conditions, the ion-exchange resin capacity is 310-910 bed volumes depending on the seawater pH, whereas the efficiency of cesium removal exceeds 95%. The removal of more than 95% of cesium-137 has been attained using 1-3 M solutions of nitric acid: here, the eluate volume was 8-8.4 bed volumes. Application of 3 M solution of nitric acid results in resin degradation with the release of gaseous products.

  2. Push-Out Bond Strength of Restorations with Bulk-Fill, Flow, and Conventional Resin Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Vieira Caixeta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the bond strengths of composite restorations made with different filler amounts and resin composites that were photoactivated using a light-emitting diode (LED. Thirty bovine incisors were selected, and a conical cavity was prepared in the facial surface of each tooth. All preparations were etched with Scotchbond Etching Gel, the Adper Scotchbond Multipurpose Plus adhesive system was applied followed by photoactivation, and the cavities were filled with a single increment of Filtek Z350 XT, Filtek Z350 XT Flow, or bulk-fill X-tra fil resin composite (n = 10 followed by photoactivation. A push-out test to determine bond strength was conducted using a universal testing machine. Data (MPa were submitted to Student’s t-test at a 5% significance level. After the test, the fractured specimens were examined using an optical microscope under magnification (10x. Although all three composites demonstrated a high prevalence of adhesive failures, the bond strength values of the different resin composites photoactivated by LED showed that the X-tra fil resin composite had a lower bond strength than the Filtek Z350 XT and Filtek Z350 XT Flow resin composites.

  3. Improving Ecological Response Monitoring of Environmental Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Alison J.; Gawne, Ben; Beesley, Leah; Koehn, John D.; Nielsen, Daryl L.; Price, Amina

    2015-05-01

    Environmental flows are now an important restoration technique in flow-degraded rivers, and with the increasing public scrutiny of their effectiveness and value, the importance of undertaking scientifically robust monitoring is now even more critical. Many existing environmental flow monitoring programs have poorly defined objectives, nonjustified indicator choices, weak experimental designs, poor statistical strength, and often focus on outcomes from a single event. These negative attributes make them difficult to learn from. We provide practical recommendations that aim to improve the performance, scientific robustness, and defensibility of environmental flow monitoring programs. We draw on the literature and knowledge gained from working with stakeholders and managers to design, implement, and monitor a range of environmental flow types. We recommend that (1) environmental flow monitoring programs should be implemented within an adaptive management framework; (2) objectives of environmental flow programs should be well defined, attainable, and based on an agreed conceptual understanding of the system; (3) program and intervention targets should be attainable, measurable, and inform program objectives; (4) intervention monitoring programs should improve our understanding of flow-ecological responses and related conceptual models; (5) indicator selection should be based on conceptual models, objectives, and prioritization approaches; (6) appropriate monitoring designs and statistical tools should be used to measure and determine ecological response; (7) responses should be measured within timeframes that are relevant to the indicator(s); (8) watering events should be treated as replicates of a larger experiment; (9) environmental flow outcomes should be reported using a standard suite of metadata. Incorporating these attributes into future monitoring programs should ensure their outcomes are transferable and measured with high scientific credibility.

  4. Fluid flow modeling of resin transfer molding for composite material wind turbine blade structures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, Douglas S. (Montana State University, Bozeman, MT); Rossel, Scott M. (Montana State University, Bozeman, MT)

    2004-06-01

    Resin transfer molding (RTM) is a closed mold process for making composite materials. It has the potential to produce parts more cost effectively than hand lay-up or other methods. However, fluid flow tends to be unpredictable and parts the size of a wind turbine blade are difficult to engineer without some predictive method for resin flow. There were five goals of this study. The first was to determine permeabilities for three fabrics commonly used for RTM over a useful range of fiber volume fractions. Next, relations to estimate permeabilities in mixed fabric lay-ups were evaluated. Flow in blade substructures was analyzed and compared to predictions. Flow in a full-scale blade was predicted and substructure results were used to validate the accuracy of a full-scale blade prediction.

  5. Thermo-chemical, mechanical and resin flow integrated analysis in pultrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlone, Pierpaolo; Rubino, Felice; Palazzo, Gaetano S.

    2016-10-01

    The present work discusses some numerical outcomes provided by an integrated analysis of impregnation, thermo-chemical and stress/strain aspects in a conventional pultrusion process. The impregnation models describes resin flow and pressure distribution in the initial portion of the die, solving a non-homogeneous non-isothermal/reactive multiphase problem, using a finite volume scheme. The thermochemical model describes the heat transfer and degree of cure evolution of the processing resin. Finally, the stress/strain model computes the part distortion and in process stresses due to thermal, chemical, mechanical strains. An applicative case study is presented, simulating the impregnation step of the pultrusion process of a fiberglass-epoxy resin composite rod.

  6. Monitoring And Controlling Hydroponic Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreschel, Thomas W.

    1992-01-01

    Pressure-monitoring and -controlling apparatus maintains slight suction required on nutrient solution in apparatus described in "Tubular Membrane Plant-Growth Unit" (KSC-11375), while overcoming gravity effects on operation of system on Earth. Suction helps to hold solution in tubular membrane.

  7. Acoustic Flow Monitor System - User Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaHusen, Richard

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The Acoustic Flow Monitor (AFM) is a portable system that was designed by the U.S. Geological Survey Cascades Volcano Observatory to detect and monitor debris flows associated with volcanoes. It has been successfully used internationally as part of real-time warning systems in valleys threatened by such flows (Brantley, 1990; Marcial and others, 1996; Lavigne and others, 2000). The AFM system has also been proven to be an effective tool for monitoring some non-volcanic debris flows. This manual is intended to serve as a basic guide for the installation, testing, and maintenance of AFM systems. An overview of how the system works, as well as instructions for installation and guidelines for testing, is included. Interpretation of data is not covered in this manual; rather, the user should refer to the references provided for published examples of AFM data.

  8. Resin Flow of an Advanced Grid-Stiffened Composite Structure in the Co-Curing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qizhong; Ren, Mingfa; Chen, Haoran

    2013-06-01

    The soft-mold aided co-curing process which cures the skin part and ribs part simultaneously was introduced for reducing the cost of advanced grid-stiffened composite structure (AGS). The co-curing process for a typical AGS, preformed by the prepreg AS4/3501-6, was simulated by a finite element program incorporated with the user-subroutines `thermo-chemical' module and the `chemical-flow' module. The variations of temperature, cure degree, resin pressure and fiber volume fraction of the AGS were predicted. It shows that the uniform distributions of temperature, cure degree and viscosity in the AGS would be disturbed by the unique geometrical pattern of AGS. There is an alternation in distribution of resin pressure at the interface between ribs and skin, and the duration time of resin flow is sensitive to the thickness of the AGS. To obtain a desired AGS, the process parameters of the co-curing process should be determined by the geometry of an AGS and the kinds of resin.

  9. On-line Monitoring of Epoxy Resin Exposed to Acid Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuyan LIU; M.Kubouchi; H.Sembokuya; K.Tsuda; T.Tomiyama

    2006-01-01

    In this study, a new on-line health monitoring technology for the determination of the penetration of environment solution into epoxy resin was pursued. A corrosion sensor including plastic optical fiber and pH indicator was fabricated. The color-change layer of this sensor appeared after immersion in sulfuric acid solution, which could be examined by using optical fiber and spectrophotometer. The results showed that the penetration of sulfuric acid was detected by adding bromophenol blue (BPB) in the corrosion sensor. This system could be applied to on-line health monitoring of chemical equipment structures.

  10. Monitoring of vacuum assisted resin transfer moulding (VARTM) process with superimposed Fiber-Bragg-gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triollet, S.; Robert, L.; Marin, E.; Ouerdane, Y.

    2011-05-01

    We report the instrumentation of a manufacturing composite process using an optical fiber sensor based on Bragg gratings. The sensor is made of superimposed Long Period (LPG) and short period (FBG) Bragg gratings written in the same fiber section. The monitoring of the process needs simultaneous measurements of temperature and strain. It has been shown that these two solicitations can be determined and discriminated with a superimposed FBG/LPG sensor [1]. In this paper we present the device based on the dual superimposed gratings. The sensor is embedded in a composite specimen manufactured by Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Moulding (VARTM) process for monitoring purpose.

  11. Simulation and experimental study of resin flow in fibre fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fei; Yan, Shilin; Li, Yongjing

    2017-06-01

    Liquid Composite Moulding (LCM) is gradually becoming the most competitive manufacturing technology for producing large composite parts with complex geometry with high quality and low cost. These parts include those for airplanes, wind turbine blades and automobile components. Fibre fabrics in liquid composite moulding can be considered as dual-scale porous media. In different gap scales, an unsaturated flow is produced during the mould filling process. This particular flow behaviour deviates from the traditional Darcy’s law, which is used to calculate the filling pressure and will cause errors. According to sink theory, the unsaturated flow characteristics of this dual-scale porous media were studied in this paper, and a FEM solution program was developed. The results showed that the pressure curves against the position which simulated by sink functions were departure from the position of traditional theory. In addition, the simulation results of partially-saturated region were consistent with the experimental data.

  12. Optical fiber sensor for an on-line monitoring of epoxy resin/amine reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouchal, F.; Knight, J. A. G.; Garrington, N.; Cope, B.

    2002-05-01

    An optical fiber sensor is described; it permits a rapid determination of the state of chemical reaction in epoxy resin diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA), and Triethylenetetramine stoichiometric reaction. Mid infrared Fourier transform technique was used to analyze the mixture via a pair of embedded optical fibers connected to an FTIR spectrometer, which operates in the region 4000-700 cm-1 of the electromagnetic waves. An accurate monitoring of the concentration changes over time of epoxy, amine and hydroxyl groups gave a good estimate of extent of reaction and description of physical state of the produced matrix. The chemical group peaks 1130 cm-1 and 3300-3400 cm-1 where used to follow the disappearance of the epoxy, and the amine respectively, while the peak 2970 cm-1 was used as reference peak. A review of a number of other techniques used to study the curing of epoxy resins together with on-line monitoring methods applied in processing thermoset resin is referred to.

  13. Cure kinetics characterization and monitoring of an epoxy resin for thick composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardis, Ricky

    The use of fiber-reinforced polymers (FRPs) is increasing for numerous industrial applications. In-situ cure monitoring is very important to directly observe the cure process of FRPs during the manufacturing process. In this work, the possible use for in-situ cure monitoring of an epoxy resin was investigated by means of Raman spectroscopy and dielectric analysis (DEA). The cure behavior was first characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as a baseline comparison, and the best-fit phenomenological reaction model was determined to describe the cure behavior of the epoxy resin as well as the kinetic parameters. The relationship between T g and degree of cure was also established. The degree of cure obtained from the Raman spectroscopy and DEA under isothermal conditions was compared to the one obtained from the DSC. A good agreement was observed among the three methods, supporting in-situ cure monitoring during manufacturing. An implementation plan for in-plant monitoring was also discussed.

  14. Effect of phenol formaldehyde resin as vulcanizing agent on flow behavior of HDPE/PB blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moayad N. Khalaf

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Thermoplastic elastomer (TPE based on High density polyethylene (HDPE/polybutadiene (HDPE/PB = 70/30 parts blends containing 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 wt.% of dimethylol phenolic resin as a vulcanizing agent in the presence of SnCl2 as catalyst was prepared. The dimethylol phenolic resin was prepared in our laboratory. The blends were compounded in mixer-60 attached to a Haake rheochord meter-90. The rheological properties were measured at temperatures 140, 160, 180 and 200 °C. The linearity of the flow curve appeared for 5% of the vulcanizing agent. The shear stress and shear viscosity have increased upon increasing the shear rate over a range of loading levels of vulcanizing agent of 1%, 3%, 5%, 7% and 10%. This may be attributed to the increased vulcanization between polyethylene and the rubber blend. The flow behavior index of the system shows a pseudo plastic nature behavior (since n < 1. The consistency index (K increased with the increase in the phenol formaldehyde resin content and the temperature. Hence, the increase in the value of the consistency index (K of the polymer melts refers to more viscous materials prepared. The activation energy for the TPE blends fluctuated indicating that there is phase separation; where each polymer behaved separately. This study showed that HDPE/PB blends are characterized with good rheological properties, which can be recommended to be processed with the injection molding technique.

  15. Storing Data Flow Monitoring in Hadoop

    CERN Document Server

    Georgiou, Anastasia

    2013-01-01

    The on-line data flow monitoring for the CMS data acquisition system produces a large amount of data. Only 5% of data is stored permanently in a relational database due to performance issues and the cost for using dedicated infrastructure (e.g. Oracle systems). In a commercial environment, companies and organizations need to find new innovative approaches to process such big volumes of data, known as “big data”. The Big Data approach is trying to address the problem of a large and complex collection of data sets that become difficult to handle using traditional data processing applications. Using these new technologies, it should be possible to store all the monitoring information for a time window of months or a year. This report contains an initial evaluation of Hadoop for storage of data flow monitoring and subsequent data mining.

  16. Film Thickness and Flow Properties of Resin-Based Cements at Different Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagheri R.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: For a luting agent to allow complete seating of prosthetic restorations, it must obtain an appropriate flow rate maintaining a minimum film thickness. The performance of recently introduced luting agents in this regard has not been evaluated. Purpose: To measure and compare the film thickness and flow properties of seven resin-containing luting cements at different temperatures (37°C, 25°C and10°C. Material and Methods: Specimens were prepared from five resin luting cements; seT (SDI, Panavia F (Kuraray, Varioloink II (Ivoclar, Maxcem (Kerr, Nexus2 (Kerr and two resin-modified glass-ionomer luting cements (RM-GICs; GC Fuji Plus (GC Corporation, and RelyX Luting 2 (3 M/ESPE. The film thickness and flow rate of each cement (n=15 was determined using the test described in ISO at three different temperatures. Results: There was a linear correlation between film thickness and flow rate for most of the materials. Cooling increased fluidity of almost all materials while the effect of temperature on film thickness was material dependent. At 37°C, all products revealed a film thickness of less than 25µm except for GC Fuji Plus. At 25°C, all cements pro-duced a film thickness of less than 27 µm except for seT. At 10°C, apart from seT and Rely X Luting 2, the remaining cements showed a film thickness smaller than 20 µm.Conclusion: Cooling increased fluidity of almost all materials, however. the film thickness did not exceed 35 µm in either condition, in spite of the lowest film thickness being demonstrated at the lowest temperature.

  17. Smoothness monitors for compressible flow computation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjogreen, B; Yee, H C

    2008-09-02

    In [SY04, YS07] and references cited therein, the authors introduced the concept of employing multiresolution wavelet decomposition of computed flow data as smoothness monitors (flow sensors) to indicate the amount and location of built-in numerical dissipation that can be eliminated or further reduced in shock-capturing schemes. Studies indicated that this approach is able to limit the use of numerical dissipation with improved accuracy compared with standard shock-capturing methods. The studies in [SY04, YS07] were limited to low order multiresolution redundant wavelets with low level supports and low order vanishing moments. The objective of this paper is to expand the previous investigation to include higher order redundant wavelets with larger support and higher order vanishing moments for a wider spectrum of flow type and flow speed applications.

  18. STIMULATING PASTES ON SYSTEM FOR RESIN FLOW OF Pinus elliottii var. elliottii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Marretto Fusatto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509810559The use of stimulating pastes aims to increase the rate of resin flow and its time of duration. In the Forest Experiment Station of Itatinga, São Paulo state, 159 trees of Pinuselliottiivar. elliottiiwere were submitted to the treatments with 5 stimulant pastes, (Red Alchem, Paste with EthephonPlanebrás, Black Resin Brazil, Red Eldorado and Test Paste (Paraquat + Ethephon that was compared to the Control (Black Planebrás. Biweekly chipping and collects every three months were accomplished (from the result of 5 grooves, being determined the resin weight during 2.5 years. The application of stimulating pastes with ethephon did not show significant advantage about application of pastes without ethephon. The stimulant pastes applied were different in the weightings performed. In the treatments applied, the percentage of pitch ranged from 71.33% to 76.56% and the turpentine ranged from 10.37% to 13.78%. The yield of alpha-pinene ranged from 37.70% to 53.31%, and of beta-pinene from 34.34% to 50.41%.

  19. Computerized flow monitors detect small kicks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCann, D.; White, D. (Sedco Forex, Paris (FR))

    1992-02-24

    This paper reports on a smart alarm system installed on a number of offshore rigs and one land rig which can detect kicks more quickly than conventional systems. This rapid kick detection improves rig safety because the smaller the detected influx, the easier it is to control the well. The extensive computerized monitoring system helps drilling personnel detect fluid influxes and fluid losses before the changes in flow would normally be apparent.

  20. Standard Test Method for Resin Flow of Carbon Fiber-Epoxy Prepreg

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the amount of resin flow that will take place from prepreg tape or sheet under given conditions of temperature and pressure. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values in parentheses are for reference only. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  1. Ultrasonic torsional guided wave sensor for flow front monitoring inside molds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visvanathan, Karthik; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan

    2007-01-01

    Measuring the extent of flow of viscous fluids inside opaque molds has been a very important parameter in determining the quality of products in the manufacturing process such as injection molding and resin transfer molding. Hence, in this article, an ultrasonic torsional guided wave sensor has been discussed for monitoring the movement of flow front during filling of resins in opaque molds. A pair of piezoelectric normal shear transducers were used for generating and receiving the fundamental ultrasonic torsional guided wave mode in thin copper wires. The torsional mode was excited at one end of the wire, while the flowing viscous fluid progressively wet the other free end of the wire. The time of flight of the transient reflections of this fundamental mode from the air-fluid interface, where the wire enters the resin, was used to measure the position of the fluid flow front. Experiments were conducted on four fluids with different viscosity values. Two postprocessing algorithms were developed for enhancing the transient reflected signal and for suppressing the unwanted stationary signals. The algorithms were tested for cases where the reflected signals showed a poor signal to noise ratio.

  2. Study on the laser irradiation effects on carbon fiber reinforced resin composite subjected to tangential gas flow loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Minsun; Jiang, Houman; Jiao, Luguang; Li, Junshen; Liu, Zejin

    2013-05-01

    The irradiation effects of 976nm continuous-wave laser on carbon fiber reinforced E-51 resin composite is studied experimentally, with a 0.4Ma tangential airflow or 0.4Ma tangential nitrogen gas flow on the target surface. In order to simulate the thermal response of fiber reinforced resin composite materials subjected to combined laser and tangential gas flow loading, a three-dimensional thermal response model of resin composite materials is developed. In the model, the thermal decomposition of resin is described by a multi-step model. The motion of the decomposition gas is assumed to be one-dimensional, for the case that the laser spot is significantly larger than the thickness of the sample. According the above assumption, the flow of the decomposition gas is considered in the three-dimensional model without introducing any mechanical quantities. The influences of the tangential gas flow, the outflow of the thermal decomposition gas and the ablation-including phase change ablation or oxidative ablation-of the surface material on the laser irradiation effects are included in the surface boundary conditions. The three-dimensional thermal response model is calculated numerically by use of the modified smooth particle hydrodynamics (MSPH) method which is coded with FORTRAN. The model is tested by experimentally measuring the temperature profiles during carbon fiber reinforced E-51 resin composite subjected to combined laser and tangential gas flow. The predicted temperature profiles are in good agreement with experimental temperatures obtained using thermocouples.

  3. Clinical evaluation of simple fixed space maintainers bonded with flow composite resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Sera; Yilmaz, Yucel; Gurbuz, Taskin

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical performance of simple fixed space maintainers bonded by using a flow composite resin (Tetric Flow) to prevent space resulting from early extracted primary teeth. For that reason, 64 fixed space maintainers (34 in the lower jaw and 30 in the upper jaw) were applied to 45 patients. The patients followed up for 12 to 18 months. Survival rate, prevention ability of that space, and whether damage to the abutment teeth occurred were evaluated. Five percent of space maintainers were determined to be unsuccessful at the end of the control period. During this period, loss of space among the abutment teeth was found to be statistically insignificant (P > .05). Finally, it was observed that the use of simple fixed space maintainers was successful due to operator experience and the choosing of favorable patient groups.

  4. Autoclave processing for composite material fabrication. 1: An analysis of resin flows and fiber compactions for thin laminate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, T. H.

    1985-01-01

    High quality long fiber reinforced composites, such as those used in aerospace and industrial applications, are commonly processed in autoclaves. An adequate resin flow model for the entire system (laminate/bleeder/breather), which provides a description of the time-dependent laminate consolidation process, is useful in predicting the loss of resin, heat transfer characteristics, fiber volume fraction and part dimension, etc., under a specified set of processing conditions. This could be accomplished by properly analyzing the flow patterns and pressure profiles inside the laminate during processing. A newly formulated resin flow model for composite prepreg lamination process is reported. This model considers viscous resin flows in both directions perpendicular and parallel to the composite plane. In the horizontal direction, a squeezing flow between two nonporous parallel plates is analyzed, while in the vertical direction, a poiseuille type pressure flow through porous media is assumed. Proper force and mass balances have been made and solved for the whole system. The effects of fiber-fiber interactions during lamination are included as well. The unique features of this analysis are: (1) the pressure gradient inside the laminate is assumed to be generated from squeezing action between two adjacent approaching fiber layers, and (2) the behavior of fiber bundles is simulated by a Finitely Extendable Nonlinear Elastic (FENE) spring.

  5. NMR reaction monitoring in flow synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Victoria Gomez

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in the use of flow chemistry with in-line and on-line analysis by NMR are presented. The use of macro- and microreactors, coupled with standard and custom made NMR probes involving microcoils, incorporated into high resolution and benchtop NMR instruments is reviewed. Some recent selected applications have been collected, including synthetic applications, the determination of the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters and reaction optimization, even in single experiments and on the μL scale. Finally, software that allows automatic reaction monitoring and optimization is discussed.

  6. Optical fiber sensors and their application in monitoring stress build-up in dental resin cements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottevaere, H.; Tabak, M.; Fernandez Fernandez, A.; Berghmans, F.; Thienpont, H.

    2005-09-01

    The field of optical fiber sensing is highly diverse and this diversity is perceived as a great advantage over more conventional sensors in that an optical sensor can be tailored to measure any of a myriad of physical parameters. In this paper we present a niche application for optical fiber sensors in the domain of biophotonics, namely the monitoring of stress build-up during the curing process of dental resin cements. We discuss the origin of this stress build-up and the problems it can cause when treating patients. Optical fiber sensors aim at excelling in two kind of applications: firstly to perform quality control on batch produced dental cements and measure their total material shrinkage, secondly to monitor the hardening of the cement during in-vivo measurements resulting in the dynamic measurement of the shrinkage and to control the stress in a facing based restoration. We therefore investigated two types of optical fiber sensors as alternatives to conventional measurement techniques; namely polarimetric optical fiber sensors and fiber Bragg gratings written in polarization maintaining fibers. After discussing the results obtained with both optical fiber sensors, we will conclude with a critical assessment of the suitability of the two proposed sensing configurations for multi-parameter stress monitoring.

  7. Custom 3D printer and resin for 18 μm × 20 μm microfluidic flow channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Hua; Bickham, Bryce P; Woolley, Adam T; Nordin, Gregory P

    2017-08-22

    While there is great interest in 3D printing for microfluidic device fabrication, to-date the achieved feature sizes have not been in the truly microfluidic regime (digital light processor stereolithographic (DLP-SLA) 3D printer and a specifically-designed, low cost, custom resin can readily achieve flow channel cross sections as small as 18 μm × 20 μm. Our 3D printer has a projected image plane resolution of 7.6 μm and uses a 385 nm LED, which dramatically increases the available selection of UV absorbers for resin formulation compared to 3D printers with 405 nm LEDs. Beginning with 20 candidate absorbers, we demonstrate the evaluation criteria and process flow required to develop a high-resolution resin. In doing so, we introduce a new mathematical model for characterizing the resin optical penetration depth based only on measurement of the absorber's molar absorptivity. Our final resin formulation uses 2-nitrophenyl phenyl sulfide (NPS) as the UV absorber. We also develop a novel channel narrowing technique that, together with the new resin and 3D printer resolution, enables small flow channel fabrication. We demonstrate the efficacy of our approach by fabricating 3D serpentine flow channels 41 mm long in a volume of only 0.12 mm(3), and by printing high aspect ratio flow channels <25 μm wide and 3 mm tall. These results indicate that 3D printing is finally positioned to challenge the pre-eminence of methods such as soft lithography for microfluidic device prototyping and fabrication.

  8. On-line coupling of macroporous resin column chromatography with direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry utilizing a surface flowing mode sample holder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Shanshan; Wang, Lu; Chen, Teng; Qu, Haibin

    2014-02-06

    A surface flowing mode sample holder was designed as an alternative sampling strategy for direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS). With the sample holder, the on-line coupling of macroporous resin column chromatography with DART-MS was explored and the new system was employed to monitor the column chromatography elution process of Panax notoginseng. The effluent from macroporous resin column was first diluted and mixed with a derivatization reagent on-line, and the mixture was then directly transferred into the ionization region of DART-MS by the sample holder. Notoginsenosides were methylated and ionized in a metastable helium gas stream, and was introduced into MS for detection. The on-line system showed reasonable repeatability with a relative standard deviation of 12.3% for the peak area. Three notoginsenosides, i.e. notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rb1 and ginsenoside Rg1, were simultaneously determined during the eluting process. The alteration of the chemical composition in the effluent was accurately identified in 9 min, agreeing well with the off-line analysis. The presented technique is more convenient compared to the traditional UPLC method. These results suggest that the surface flowing mode DART-MS has a good potential for the on-line process monitoring in the pharmaceutical industry.

  9. Initial Survey Instructions for Spring Water Monitoring : Flow

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Initial survey instructions for the Spring Water Monitoring - Flow 1.02 survey at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. This coop baseline monitoring survey has...

  10. Traumatic resin ducts in Larix decidua stems impacted by debris flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollschweiler, Michelle; Stoffel, Markus; Schneuwly, Dominique M; Bourqui, Karin

    2008-02-01

    Following mechanical injury, stems of many conifers produce tangential rows of traumatic resin ducts (TRDs), the distribution of which has been used to date geomorphic events. However, little is known about how far TRD formation extends tangentially and axially from the point of injury or what the time course of TRD appearance is. We analyzed 28 injuries in eight Larix decidua Mill. tree stems resulting from debris flows in October 2000 and November 2004. Injuries occurred outside the period of cambial activity, and TRD formation occurred in the first layers of the growth ring formed in the year following that of injury. The axial extent of TRD formation averaged 74 cm and was greater above the injury than below it. At the height of the wound center, TRDs extended horizontally to a mean of 18% of the stem circumference excluding that portion where the cambium had been destroyed. In subsequent growth rings, TRDs, if present, were confined mainly to the height of the center of injury. Both the vertical and horizontal extent of TRD formation was related to the injury size. Within growth rings, the position of TRD formation changed with increasing distance from the wound progressing from early earlywood to later portions of the growth ring.

  11. Monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the atmosphere of southern Luxembourg using XAD-2 resin-based passive samplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schummer, Claude; Appenzeller, Brice M; Millet, Maurice

    2014-02-01

    XAD-2 resin-based passive samplers (PAS) with dimensions adapted to 100 mL accelerated solvent extraction cells were used to study the temporal and spatial variations of 17 PAHs on five sites in the atmosphere of southern Luxembourg. This new design allowed extracting the PAS without emptying the resin from the shelter. PAH analyses were done with gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. PAS were deployed for 1 year with varying sampling periodicities, and 16 PAHs were detected with concentrations ranging from 1 ng/PAS for chrysene to 9,727 ng/PAS for naphthalene. The PAS were found adapted to the monitoring of temporal and spatial variations for lightweight PAHs (up to four aromatic rings) though not for heavy PAHs with five aromatic rings or more, as these compounds are preferably in the particle phase of the atmosphere and the amount of these PAHs trapped on the PAS will be too low.

  12. Cleaning-in-place of immunoaffinity resins monitored by in situ ATR-FTIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulet-Audet, Maxime; Byrne, Bernadette; Kazarian, Sergei G

    2015-09-01

    In the next 10 years, the pharmaceutical industry anticipates that revenue from biotherapeutics will overtake those generated from small drug molecules. Despite effectively treating a range of chronic and life-threatening diseases, the high cost of biotherapeutics limits their use. For biotherapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), an important production cost is the affinity resin used for protein capture. Cleaning-in-place (CIP) protocols aim to optimise the lifespan of the resin by slowing binding capacity decay. Binding assays can determine resin capacity from the mobile phase, but do not reveal the underlying causes of Protein A ligand degradation. The focus needs to be on the stationary phase to examine the effect of CIP on the resin. To directly determine both the local Protein A ligand concentration and conformation on two Protein A resins, we developed a method based on attenuated total reflection (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. ATR-FTIR spectroscopic imaging revealed that applying a carefully controlled load to agarose beads produces an even and reproducible contact with the internal reflection element. This allowed detection and quantification of the binding capacity of the stationary phase. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy also showed that Protein A proteolysis does not seem to occur under typical CIP conditions (below 1 M NaOH). However, our data revealed that concentrations of NaOH above 0.1 M cause significant changes in Protein A conformation. The addition of >0.4 M trehalose during CIP significantly reduced NaOH-induced ligand unfolding observed for one of the two Protein A resins tested. Such insights could help to optimise CIP protocols in order to extend resin lifetime and reduce mAb production costs.

  13. Effects of Technological Parameters on Resin Molding Flow Process in Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding%工艺参数对VARTM中树脂充模流动的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖家美; 王德盼; 陈显明; 王科; 何建涛

    2013-01-01

    With visual resin flow experiment,the effects of the process parameters such as high permeability medium,resin viscosity,the injection way of resin and vacuum pressure,on resin molding process in vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) were studied.The results show that the high permeability medium play a dominant role in the speed of resin filling in VARTM process;the filling time increases with the increase of resin viscosity;resin filling speed and resin flow pattern are greatly affected by the injection way of resin,when the filling time of resin point type is three times for line injection and nine times for surrounded injection;the filling time increases firstly and then decreases with the vacuum pressure gradually increases.%采用可视化树脂流动实验装置,研究了高渗透导流介质、树脂黏度、树脂注射方式和真空压力等工艺参数对真空辅助树脂传递模塑(VARTM)工艺中树脂充模流动过程的影响。结果表明,VARTM工艺中高渗透导流介质对树脂充模的速度起着主导作用;随着树脂黏度的增大,完成充模所需时间呈现指数增加趋势;树脂注射方式对充模速度和充模流动模式影响大,树脂采用边界点型注射时充模所需时间是边界线型注射的3倍,是四周注射的9倍;随着真空压力的增大,完成充模所需的时间呈现先变大后变小的趋势。

  14. Smart Sensing Strip Using Monolithically Integrated Flexible Flow Sensor for Noninvasively Monitoring Respiratory Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Peng; Zhao, Shuai; Zhu, Rong

    2015-12-15

    This paper presents a smart sensing strip for noninvasively monitoring respiratory flow in real time. The monitoring system comprises a monolithically-integrated flexible hot-film flow sensor adhered on a molded flexible silicone case, where a miniaturized conditioning circuit with a Bluetooth4.0 LE module are packaged, and a personal mobile device that wirelessly acquires respiratory data transmitted from the flow sensor, executes extraction of vital signs, and performs medical diagnosis. The system serves as a wearable device to monitor comprehensive respiratory flow while avoiding use of uncomfortable nasal cannula. The respiratory sensor is a flexible flow sensor monolithically integrating four elements of a Wheatstone bridge on single chip, including a hot-film resistor, a temperature-compensating resistor, and two balancing resistors. The monitor takes merits of small size, light weight, easy operation, and low power consumption. Experiments were conducted to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of monitoring and diagnosing respiratory diseases using the proposed system.

  15. Acoustic module of the Acquabona (Italy debris flow monitoring system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Galgaro

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of debris flows aimed to the assessment of their physical parameters is very important both for theoretical and practical purposes. Peak discharge and total volume of debris flows are crucial for designing effective countermeasures in many populated mountain areas where losses of lives and property damage could be avoided. This study quantifies the relationship between flow depth, acoustic amplitude of debris flow induced ground vibrations and front velocity in the experimental catchment of Acquabona, Eastern Dolomites, Italy. The analysis of data brought about the results described in the following. Debris flow depth and amplitude of the flow-induced ground vibrations show a good positive correlation. Estimation of both mean front velocity and peak discharge can be simply obtained monitoring the ground vibrations, through geophones installed close to the flow channel; the total volume of debris flow can be so directly estimated from the integral of the ground vibrations using a regression line. The application of acoustic technique to debris flow monitoring seems to be of the outmost relevance in risk reduction policies and in the correct management of the territory. Moreover this estimation is possible in other catchments producing debris flows of similar characteristics by means of their acoustic characterisation through quick and simple field tests (Standard Penetration Tests and seismic refraction surveys.

  16. Flow Monitoring Experiences at the Ethernet-Layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, Rick; Drago, Idilio; Sperotto, Anna; Pras, Aiko; Lehnert, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    Flow monitoring is a scalable technology for providing summaries of network activity. Being deployed at the IP-layer, it uses fixed flow definitions, based on fields of the IP-layer and higher layers. Since several backbone network operators are considering the deployment of (Carrier) Ethernet in th

  17. Do asthma patients prefer to monitor symptoms or peak flow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harver, Andrew; Humphries, C Thomas; Kotses, Harry

    2009-11-01

    We administered a 65-item survey to patients to assess preference of symptoms and peak flow to detect worsening asthma and to collect information about asthma triggers, asthma knowledge sources, and barriers to peak flow meter use. It was completed by 139 asthma patients. Survey responses were comparable for adult and pediatric patients and for those who owned peak flow meters and those who did not. But patients who owned a peak flow meter reported more severe asthma than others. On average, the patients preferred symptoms to peak flow for assessing worsening asthma. It is likely that the preference for symptom over peak flow monitoring was effort related: Patients preferred symptom monitoring because it was the easier of the two to conduct.

  18. Hot-wire amperometric monitoring of flowing streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Jasinski, M; Flechsig, G U; Grundler, P; Tian, B

    2000-01-10

    This paper describes the design of a hot-wire electrochemical flow detector, and the advantages accrued from the effects of locally increased temperature, mainly thermally induced convection, upon the amperometric monitoring of flowing streams. A new hydrodynamic modulation voltammetric approach is presented, in which the solution flow rate remains constant while the temperature of the working electrode is modulated. Factors influencing the response, including the flow rate, temperature pulse, or applied potential, have been investigated. The hot-wire operation results also in a significant enhancement of the flow injection amperometric response. The minimal flow rate dependence observed with the heated electrode should benefit the on-line monitoring of streams with fluctuated natural convection, as well as various in-situ remote sensing applications.

  19. Systems and Sensors for Debris-flow Monitoring and Warning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arattano, Massimo; Marchi, Lorenzo

    2008-04-04

    Debris flows are a type of mass movement that occurs in mountain torrents. They consist of a high concentration of solid material in water that flows as a wave with a steep front. Debris flows can be considered a phenomenon intermediate between landslides and water floods. They are amongst the most hazardous natural processes in mountainous regions and may occur under different climatic conditions. Their destructiveness is due to different factors: their capability of transporting and depositing huge amounts of solid materials, which may also reach large sizes (boulders of several cubic meters are commonly transported by debris flows), their steep fronts, which may reach several meters of height and also their high velocities. The implementation of both structural and nonstructural control measures is often required when debris flows endanger routes, urban areas and other infrastructures. Sensor networks for debris-flow monitoring and warning play an important role amongst non-structural measures intended to reduce debris-flow risk. In particular, debris flow warning systems can be subdivided into two main classes: advance warning and event warning systems. These two classes employ different types of sensors. Advance warning systems are based on monitoring causative hydrometeorological processes (typically rainfall) and aim to issue a warning before a possible debris flow is triggered. Event warning systems are based on detecting debris flows when these processes are in progress. They have a much smaller lead time than advance warning ones but are also less prone to false alarms. Advance warning for debris flows employs sensors and techniques typical of meteorology and hydrology, including measuring rainfall by means of rain gauges and weather radar and monitoring water discharge in headwater streams. Event warning systems use different types of sensors, encompassing ultrasonic or radar gauges, ground vibration sensors, videocameras, avalanche pendulums, photocells

  20. Systems and Sensors for Debris-flow Monitoring and Warning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Marchi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Debris flows are a type of mass movement that occurs in mountain torrents. They consist of a high concentration of solid material in water that flows as a wave with a steep front. Debris flows can be considered a phenomenon intermediate between landslides and water floods. They are amongst the most hazardous natural processes in mountainous regions and may occur under different climatic conditions. Their destructiveness is due to different factors: their capability of transporting and depositing huge amounts of solid materials, which may also reach large sizes (boulders of several cubic meters are commonly transported by debris flows, their steep fronts, which may reach several meters of height and also their high velocities. The implementation of both structural and nonstructural control measures is often required when debris flows endanger routes, urban areas and other infrastructures. Sensor networks for debris-flow monitoring and warning play an important role amongst non-structural measures intended to reduce debris-flow risk. In particular, debris flow warning systems can be subdivided into two main classes: advance warning and event warning systems. These two classes employ different types of sensors. Advance warning systems are based on monitoring causative hydrometeorological processes (typically rainfall and aim to issue a warning before a possible debris flow is triggered. Event warning systems are based on detecting debris flows when these processes are in progress. They have a much smaller lead time than advance warning ones but are also less prone to false alarms. Advance warning for debris flows employs sensors and techniques typical of meteorology and hydrology, including measuring rainfall by means of rain gauges and weather radar and monitoring water discharge in headwater streams. Event warning systems use different types of sensors, encompassing ultrasonic or radar gauges, ground vibration sensors, videocameras, avalanche

  1. Continuous-flow free acid monitoring method and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, J.E.; Ross, H.H.

    1980-01-11

    A free acid monitoring method and apparatus is provided for continuously measuring the excess acid present in a process stream. The disclosed monitoring system and method is based on the relationship of the partial pressure ratio of water and acid in equilibrium with an acid solution at constant temperature. A portion of the process stream is pumped into and flows through the monitor under the influence of gravity and back to the process stream. A continuous flowing sample is vaporized at a constant temperature and the vapor is subsequently condensed. Conductivity measurements of the condensate produces a nonlinear response function from which the free acid molarity of the sample process stream is determined.

  2. Long-period Gratings in-situ Sensing for Flow Monitoring in Liquid Composite Molding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingdan ZHU; Chang WANG; Jihui WANG; Wei HE; Guoqiang GAO

    2005-01-01

    Liquid composite moulding (LCM) processes are used to manufacture high quality and complex-shaped composite parts in the automotive, marine, aerospace and civil industries. On-line sensing plays an important role in controlling the quality of the final product in the LCM manufacturing environment. The long-period fiber grating (LPG)technology, a new real-time fiber optic sensor system, was developed to monitor the flow front progression. The sensor operation and characterization under various process conditions were discussed in detail. The experimental results showed that LPG sensors were robust and reliable to detect the arrival of resin at pre-selected locations in structures with low-medium fiber volume fraction; however were limited at different depths in structures with high fiber volume fraction.

  3. Calculating e-flow using UAV and ground monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, C. S.; Zhang, C. B.; Yang, S. T.; Liu, C. M.; Xiang, H.; Sun, Y.; Yang, Z. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Yu, X. Y.; Shao, N. F.; Yu, Q.

    2017-09-01

    Intense human activity has led to serious degradation of basin water ecosystems and severe reduction in the river flow available for aquatic biota. As an important water ecosystem index, environmental flows (e-flows) are crucial for maintaining sustainability. However, most e-flow measurement methods involve long cycles, low efficiency, and transdisciplinary expertise. This makes it impossible to rapidly assess river e-flows at basin or larger scales. This study presents a new method to rapidly assessing e-flows coupling UAV and ground monitorings. UAV was firstly used to calculate river-course cross-sections with high-resolution stereoscopic images. A dominance index was then used to identify key fish species. Afterwards a habitat suitability index, along with biodiversity and integrity indices, was used to determine an appropriate flow velocity with full consideration of the fish spawning period. The cross-sections and flow velocity values were then combined into AEHRA, an e-flow assessment method for studying e-flows and supplying-rate. To verify the results from this new method, the widely used Tennant method was employed. The root-mean-square errors of river cross-sections determined by UAV are less than 0.25 m, which constitutes 3-5% water-depth of the river cross-sections. In the study area of Jinan city, the ecological flow velocity (VE) is equal to or greater than 0.11 m/s, and the ecological water depth (HE) is greater than 0.8 m. The river ecosystem is healthy with the minimum e-flow requirements being always met when it is close to large rivers, which is beneficial for the sustainable development of the water ecosystem. In the south river channel of Jinan, the upstream flow mostly meets the minimum e-flow requirements, and the downstream flow always meets the minimum e-flow requirements. The north of Jinan consists predominantly of artificial river channels used for irrigation. Rainfall rarely meets the minimum e-flow and irrigation water requirements

  4. Flow injection online spectrophotometric determination of uranium after preconcentration on XAD-4 resin impregnated with nalidixic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahida, Shabnam; Ali, Akbar; Khan, Muhammad Haleem; Saeed, Muhammad Mufazzal

    2013-02-01

    In this work, spectrophotometer was used as a detector for the determination of uranium from water, biological, and ore samples with a flow injection system coupled with solid phase extraction. In order to promote the online preconcentration of uranium, a minicolumn packed with XAD-4 resin impregnated with nalidixic acid was utilized. The system operation was based on U(VI) ion retention at pH 6 in the minicolumn at flow rate of 15.2 mL min(-1). The uranium complex was removed from the resin by 0.1 mol dm(-3) HCl at flow rate of 3.2 mL min(-1) and was mixed with arsenazo III solution (0.05 % solution in 0.1 mol dm(-3) HCl, 3.2 mL min(-1)) and driven to flow through cell of spectrophotometer where its absorbance was measured at 651 nm. The influence of chemical (pH and HCl (as eluent and reagent medium) concentration) and flow (sample and eluent flow rate and preconcentration time) parameters that could affect the performance of the system as well as the possible interferents was investigated. At the optimum conditions for 60 s preconcentration time (15.2 mL of sample volume), the method presented a detection limit of 1.1 μg L(-1), a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 0.8 % at 100 μg L(-1), enrichment factor of 30, and a sample throughput of 42 h(-1), whereas for 300 s of the preconcentration time (76 mL of sample volume), a detection limit of 0.22 μg L(-1), a RSD of 1.32 % at 10 μg L(-1), enrichment factor of 150, and a sampling frequency of 11 h(-1) were reported.

  5. Increased resin flow in mature pine trees growing under elevated CO2 and moderate soil fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.A. Novick; G.G. Katul; H.R. McCarthy; R. Oren

    2012-01-01

    Warmer climates induced by elevated atmospheric CO2 (eCO2) are expected to increase damaging bark beetle activity in pine forests, yet the effect of eCO2 on resin production—the tree’s primary defense against beetle attack—remains largely unknown. Following growth-differentiation balance theory, if extra carbohydrates produced under eCO2 are not consumed by respiration...

  6. Network Traffic Anomalies Detection and Identification with Flow Monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Huy; Kim, Dong Il; Choi, Deokjai

    2010-01-01

    Network management and security is currently one of the most vibrant research areas, among which, research on detecting and identifying anomalies has attracted a lot of interest. Researchers are still struggling to find an effective and lightweight method for anomaly detection purpose. In this paper, we propose a simple, robust method that detects network anomalous traffic data based on flow monitoring. Our method works based on monitoring the four predefined metrics that capture the flow statistics of the network. In order to prove the power of the new method, we did build an application that detects network anomalies using our method. And the result of the experiments proves that by using the four simple metrics from the flow data, we do not only effectively detect but can also identify the network traffic anomalies.

  7. Solution for Monitoring the Flows through Web Dynpro ABAP Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Osaci

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a monitoring solution for flow measurement through Web Dynpro ABAP interface. The use of integrated software systems in companies currently represents an essential condition for providing higher and more reliable access to information resources. The SAP Netweaver, a multilingual & multitasking system based on the three-tier client-server technology, is one of the mostly used integrated platforms implemented in companies.

  8. Flow-accelerated corrosion monitoring through advanced sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung T.; Seong, Seung H.; Lee, Cheol K.; Hur, Sub; Lee, Na Y.; Lee, Sang J.

    2005-02-01

    In order to successfully implement the extended-life operation plan of the nuclear power plant (NPP), predictive maintenance based on on-line monitoring of deteriorated components becomes highly important. Pipe wall-thinning is usually caused by Flow-Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) under the undesirable combination of water chemistry, flow velocity and material composition. In order to increase the confidence of understanding on underlying process, a multi-disciplinary approach has been adopted in this work. Here, we apply a combination of several advanced sensors, ranging from chemical electrodes to mechanical vibration sensors to monitor the thickness change of the elbow, which can be still economical option. Electrochemical Corrosion Potential (ECP) and pH are chosen as electrochemical parameters, the change of vibration mode, displacement, and etc. are chosen as mechanical parameters to monitor the wall thinning phenomena. Electrodes are developed for the on-line monitoring of pH and ECP. Vibration is considered as a promising candidate as a mechanical parameter. Various sensors are surveyed and some are chosen based on FEM analysis result, which shows the approximate vibration range according to the thickness change. Mechanical sensors need to be sensitive enough to detect small thickness change with adequate safety margin to a pipe rupture. A few sensors are suggested to detect vibration or displacement quantitatively. Fiber optic sensors are chosen for their non-contacting property, which is appropriate for the high temperature application. Accelerometer and capacitance gage are suggested for their applicability fit to the test purpose.

  9. Monitoring blood flow and photobleaching during topical ALA PDT treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Theresa L.; Sunar, Ulas; Foster, Thomas H.; Oseroff, Allan R.

    2009-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using topical aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is currently used as a clinical treatment for nonmelanoma skin cancers. In order to optimize PDT treatment, vascular shutdown early in treatment must be identified and prevented. This is especially important for topical ALA PDT where vascular shutdown is only temporary and is not a primary method of cell death. Shutdown in vasculature would limit the delivery of oxygen which is necessary for effective PDT treatment. Diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) was used to monitor relative blood flow changes in Balb/C mice undergoing PDT at fluence rates of 10mW/cm2 and 75mW/cm2 for colon-26 tumors implanted intradermally. DCS is a preferable method to monitor the blood flow during PDT of lesions due to its ability to be used noninvasively throughout treatment, returning data from differing depths of tissue. Photobleaching of the photosensitizer was also monitored during treatment as an indirect manner of monitoring singlet oxygen production. In this paper, we show the conditions that cause vascular shutdown in our tumor model and its effects on the photobleaching rate.

  10. Monitoring of multiphase flows for superconducting accelerators and others applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, Yu. P.; Kakorin, I. D.; Kovrizhnykh, A. M.; Miklayev, V. M.

    2017-07-01

    This paper is a review on implementation of measuring systems for two-phase helium, hydrogen, liquefied natural gas (LNG), and oil-formation/salty water flows. Two types of such systems are presented. The first type is based on two-phase flow-meters combining void fraction radio-frequency (RF) sensors and narrowing devices. They can be applied for superconducting accelerators cooled with two-phase helium, refueling hydrogen system for space ships and some applications in oil production industry. The second one is based on combination of a gamma-densitometer and a narrowing device. These systems can be used to monitor large two-phase LNG and oil-formation water flows. An electronics system based on a modular industrial computer is described as well. The metrological characteristics for different flow-meters are presented and the obtained results are discussed. It is also shown that the experience gained allows separationless flow-meter for three-phase oil-gas-formation water flows to be produced.

  11. A flux monitoring method for easy and accurate flow rate measurement in pressure-driven flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siria, Alessandro; Biance, Anne-Laure; Ybert, Christophe; Bocquet, Lydéric

    2012-03-07

    We propose a low-cost and versatile method to measure flow rate in microfluidic channels under pressure-driven flows, thereby providing a simple characterization of the hydrodynamic permeability of the system. The technique is inspired by the current monitoring method usually employed to characterize electro-osmotic flows, and makes use of the measurement of the time-dependent electric resistance inside the channel associated with a moving salt front. We have successfully tested the method in a micrometer-size channel, as well as in a complex microfluidic channel with a varying cross-section, demonstrating its ability in detecting internal shape variations.

  12. Rapid determination of strontium-90 by solid phase extraction using DGA Resin® for seawater monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazoe, H.; Obata, H.; Yamagata, T.; Karube, Z.; Yamada, M.

    2015-12-01

    Strontium-90 concentrations in seawater exceeding the background level have been observed at the accidents of nuclear facilities, such as Chernobyl and Fukushima. However, analytical procedure for strontium-90 in seawater is still quite complicated and challenging. Here we show a simple and rapid analytical technique for the determination of strontium-90 in seawater samples without time-consuming separation of strontium from calcium. The separation with DGA Resin® is used to determine the abundance of strontium-90, which selectively collects yttrium-90, progeny of strontium-90. Naturally occurring radioactive nuclides (such as potassium, lead, bismuth, uranium, and thorium) and anthropogenic radionuclides (such as cesium, barium, lanthanum, and cerium) were separated from yttrium. Through a sample separation procedure, a high chemical yield of yttrium-90 was achieved at 93.9 % for seawater. The result of IAEA 443 certified seawater analysis was in good agreement with the certified value. At 20 hrs counting a lower detection limit of 1.5 mBq L-1 was obtained from 3 L of seawater. The proposed method can finish analyzing 8 samples per day, which is a reasonably fast throughput in actual seawater monitoring. Reproducibility was found to be 3.4 % according to 10 separate analyses of natural seawater samples from the vicinity of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in September 2013.

  13. Computer controlled-flow injection potentiometric system based on virtual instrumentation for the monitoring of metal-biosorption processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florido, A; Valderrama, C; Nualart, S; Velazco-Molina, L; Arias de Fuentes, O; del Valle, M

    2010-05-23

    A completely automated flow-injection system was developed for the monitoring of biosorption studies of Cu(II) ion on vegetable waste by-products. The system employed flow-through Cu(II)-selective electrodes, of epoxy-resin-CuS/Ag(2)S heterogeneous crystalline type, and computer controlled pumps and valves for the flow operation. Computer automation was done through a specially devised virtual instrument, which commanded and periodically calibrated the system, allowing for the monitoring of Cu(II) ions between 0.6 and 6530 mg L(-1) at a typical frequency of 15 h(-1). Grape stalk wastes were used as biosorbent to remove Cu(II) ions in a fixed-bed column with a sorption capacity of 5.46 mg g(-1), obtained by the developed flow system, while the reference determination performed by FAAS technique supplied a comparable value of 5.41 mg g(-1). Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Resin regeneration device for condensate desalter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segawa, Yoshihiro [Toshiba Engineering Co. Ltd., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan); Hirose, Yuki

    1998-07-28

    The present invention provides a resin regeneration device for a condensate desalter of a nuclear power plant. Namely, both anionic and cationic exchange resins are supplied in a mixed state from a forwarding water desalting tower to an anionic resin regeneration tower. In the anionic resin generation tower, the resin is once separated to an anionic exchange region layer, a mixed resin layer and an cationic exchange resin layer in this order from the upper portion by water injected from a stirring water injection tube disposed at the bottom. Then, water is injected from a developing water injection tube disposed at the lower portion of the mixed resin layer to develop the cationic exchange resin layer and the mixed resin layer to the upper portion of the cationic resin regeneration tower. Subsequently, the amount of the injection of the developing water is reduced to such a flow rate that only the anionic exchange resin is precipitated. Then, a cationic exchange resin layer is formed at the upper portion and an anion exchange resin layer is formed at the lower portion of the developing water injection tube of the cationic resin regeneration tower. The anionic exchange resin is transferred to the anionic exchange resin regeneration tower in this state. According to the present invention, the mixed resin layer can be separated to anionic and cationic exchange resins easily and reliably. (I.S.)

  15. Monitoring individual traffic flows within the ATLAS TDAQ network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoen, R; Batraneanu, S M; Leahu, L; Martin, B; Al-Shabibi, A [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Stancu, S; Ciobotaru, M, E-mail: rune.velle.sjoen@cern.c [' Politehnica' University of Bucharest (Romania)

    2010-04-01

    The ATLAS data acquisition system consists of four different networks interconnecting up to 2000 processors using up to 200 edge switches and five multi-blade chassis devices. The architecture of the system has been described in [1] and its operational model in [2]. Classical, SNMP-based, network monitoring provides statistics on aggregate traffic, but for performance monitoring and troubleshooting purposes there was an imperative need to identify and quantify single traffic flows. sFlow [3] is an industry standard based on statistical sampling which attempts to provide a solution to this. Due to the size of the ATLAS network, the collection and analysis of the sFlow data from all devices generates a data handling problem of its own. This paper describes how this problem is addressed by making it possible to collect and store data either centrally or distributed according to need. The methods used to present the results in a relevant fashion for system analysts are discussed and we explore the possibilities and limitations of this diagnostic tool, giving an example of its use in solving system problems that arise during the ATLAS data taking.

  16. Monitoring individual traffic flows within the ATLAS TDAQ network

    CERN Document Server

    Sjoen, R; Ciobotaru, M; Batraneanu, S M; Leahu, L; Martin, B; Al-Shabibi, A

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS data acquisition system consists of four different networks interconnecting up to 2000 processors using up to 200 edge switches and five multi-blade chassis devices. The architecture of the system has been described in [1] and its operational model in [2]. Classical, SNMP-based, network monitoring provides statistics on aggregate traffic, but for performance monitoring and troubleshooting purposes there was an imperative need to identify and quantify single traffic flows. sFlow [3] is an industry standard based on statistical sampling which attempts to provide a solution to this. Due to the size of the ATLAS network, the collection and analysis of the sFlow data from all devices generates a data handling problem of its own. This paper describes how this problem is addressed by making it possible to collect and store data either centrally or distributed according to need. The methods used to present the results in a relevant fashion for system analysts are discussed and we explore the possibilities a...

  17. A multichannel bioimpedance monitor for full-body blood flow monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondra, Vlastimil; Jurak, Pavel; Viscor, Ivo; Halamek, Josef; Leinveber, Pavel; Matejkova, Magdalena; Soukup, Ladislav

    2016-02-01

    The design, properties, and possible diagnostic contribution of a multichannel bioimpedance monitor (MBM) with three independent current sources are presented in this paper. The simultaneous measurement of bioimpedance at 18 locations (the main part of the body, legs, arms, and neck) provides completely new information, on the basis of which more precise haemodynamic parameters can be obtained. The application of the MBM during various haemodynamic stages, such as resting in a supine position, tilting, exercise stress, and various respiration manoeuvres, is demonstrated. Statistical analysis on a group of 34 healthy volunteers is presented for demonstration of blood flow monitoring by using the proposed method.

  18. Long-term flow monitoring of submarine gas emanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spickenbom, K.; Faber, E.; Poggenburg, J.; Seeger, C.

    2009-04-01

    One of the Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) strategies currently under study is the sequestration of CO2 in sub-seabed geological formations. Even after a thorough review of the geological setting, there is the possibility of leaks from the reservoirs. As part of the EU-financed project CO2ReMoVe (Research, Monitoring, Verification), which aims to develop innovative research and technologies for monitoring and verification of carbon dioxide geological storage, we are working on the development of submarine long-term gas flow monitoring systems. Technically, however, these systems are not limited to CO2 but can be used for monitoring of any free gas emission (bubbles) on the seafloor. The basic design of the gas flow sensor system was derived from former prototypes developed for monitoring CO2 and CH4 on mud volcanoes in Azerbaijan. This design was composed of a raft floating on the surface above the gas vent to collect the bubbles. Sensors for CO2 flux and concentration and electronics for data storage and transmission were mounted on the raft, together with battery-buffered solar panels for power supply. The system was modified for installation in open sea by using a buoy instead of a raft and a funnel on the seafloor to collect the gas, which is then guided above water level through a flexible tube. Besides some technical problems (condensed water in the tube, movement of the buoys due to waves leading to biased measurement of flow rates), this setup provides a cost-effective solution for shallow waters. However, a buoy interferes with ship traffic, and it is also difficult to adapt this design to greater water depths. These requirements can best be complied by a completely submersed system. To allow unattended long-term monitoring in a submarine environment, such a system has to be extremely durable. Therefore, we focussed on developing a mechanically and electrically as simple setup as possible, which has the additional advantage of low cost. The system

  19. A computational model for the flow of resin in self-healing composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J.; Qamar, I. P. S.; Rendall, T. C. S.; Trask, R. S.

    2015-03-01

    To explore the flow characteristics of healing agent leaving a vascular network and infusing a damage site within a fibre reinforced polymer composite, a numerical model of healing agent flow from an orifice has been developed using smoothed particle hydrodynamics. As an initial validation the discharge coefficient for low Reynolds number flow from a cylindrical tank is calculated numerically, using two different viscosity formulations, and compared to existing experimental data. Results of this comparison are very favourable; the model is able to reproduce experimental results for the discharge coefficient in the high Reynolds number limit, together with the power-law behaviour for low Reynolds numbers. Results are also presented for a representative delamination geometry showing healing fluid behaviour and fraction filled inside the delamination for a variety of fluid viscosities. This work provides the foundations for the vascular self-healing community in calculating not only the flow rate through the network, but also, by simulating a representative damage site, the final location of the healing fluid within the damage site in order to assess the improvement in local and global mechanical properties and thus healing efficiency.

  20. Flow injection preconcentration system using a new functionalized resin for determination of cadmium and nickel in tobacco samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos, Valfredo Azevedo [Laboratorio de Quimica Analitica (LQA), Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia, Campus de Jequie, Jequie-BA 45206-190 (Brazil)], E-mail: vlemos@uesb.br; Novaes, Cleber Galvao; Lima, Adriana da Silva; Vieira, Daniel Rodrigues [Laboratorio de Quimica Analitica (LQA), Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia, Campus de Jequie, Jequie-BA 45206-190 (Brazil)

    2008-06-30

    A solid-phase extraction method combined with flow injection (FI) on-line flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) for the determination of cadmium and nickel in tobacco samples is presented. The 2-aminothiophenol functionalized Amberlite XAD-4 (AT-XAD) resin was synthesized by covalent coupling of the ligand with the copolymer through a methylene group. A minicolumn packed with AT-XAD was connected into the automated on-line preconcentration system. Elution of metal ions from minicolumn can be made with 0.50 mol L{sup -1} hydrochloric acid solution. With a consumption of 21.0 mL of sample solution, detection limits (3 s) of 0.3 (Cd) and 0.8 {mu}g L{sup -1} (Ni) were achieved at a sample throughput of 18 h{sup -1}. Enrichment factors (EF) of 99 (cadmium) and 43 (nickel) were obtained compared with the slope of the linear portion of the calibration curves before and after preconcentration. The contents of Cd and Ni in a certified reference material (NIST 1570a, spinach leaves) determined by the present method was in good agreement with the certified value. The developed procedure was also successfully applied to the determination of Cd and Ni in local tobacco samples.

  1. Production of carbonaceous adsorbents from agricultural by-products and novolac resin under a continuous countercurrent flow type pyrolysis operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, Z; Simitzis, J

    2013-02-01

    Carbonaceous adsorbents based on novolac resin (N) and olive stone biomass (B) in a proportion of 20/80 and 40/60 w./w. N/O were produced. The specimens were cured (c) and pyrolyzed/carbonized (C) up to 1000 °C under a continuous countercurrent flow type pyrolysis operation (N20B-cC, N40B-cC). Commercial activated carbon (AC) was used for comparison reasons. Methylene blue adsorption from its aqueous solutions onto the adsorbents and kinetic analysis were investigated. The specific surface area of adsorbents and the gross calorific values (GCV) of cured materials were determined. The results show that N40B-cC presents lower weight loss and shrinkage but higher methylene blue adsorption than N20B-cC. Pseudo-second order mechanism describes better methylene blue adsorption onto all adsorbents. The specific surface area of carbonaceous and the gross calorific values of cured materials follow the order: AC>N20B-cC>N40B-cC and N100-c>N40B-c>N20B-c>B respectively. Olive stone biomass may constitute a suitable precursor for the production of carbonaceous materials.

  2. The effects of DDoS attacks on flow monitoring applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadre, Ramin; Sperotto, Anna; Pras, Aiko

    2012-01-01

    Flow-based monitoring has become a popular approach in many areas of network management. However, flow monitoring is, by design, susceptible to anomalies that generate a large number of flows, such as Distributed Denial-Of-Service attacks. This paper aims at getting a better understanding on how a f

  3. The effects of DDoS attacks on flow monitoring applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadre, R.; Sperotto, Anna; Pras, Aiko

    Flow-based monitoring has become a popular approach in many areas of network management. However, flow monitoring is, by design, susceptible to anomalies that generate a large number of flows, such as Distributed Denial-Of-Service attacks. This paper aims at getting a better understanding on how a

  4. Modeling flow cytometry data for cancer vaccine immune monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frelinger, Jacob; Ottinger, Janet; Gouttefangeas, Cécile; Chan, Cliburn

    2010-09-01

    Flow cytometry (FCM) is widely used in cancer research for diagnosis, detection of minimal residual disease, as well as immune monitoring and profiling following immunotherapy. In all these applications, the challenge is to detect extremely rare cell subsets while avoiding spurious positive events. To achieve this objective, it helps to be able to analyze FCM data using multiple markers simultaneously, since the additional information provided often helps to minimize the number of false positive and false negative events, hence increasing both sensitivity and specificity. However, with manual gating, at most two markers can be examined in a single dot plot, and a sequential strategy is often used. As the sequential strategy discards events that fall outside preceding gates at each stage, the effectiveness of the strategy is difficult to evaluate without laborious and painstaking back-gating. Model-based analysis is a promising computational technique that works using information from all marker dimensions simultaneously, and offers an alternative approach to flow analysis that can usefully complement manual gating in the design of optimal gating strategies. Results from model-based analysis will be illustrated with examples from FCM assays commonly used in cancer immunotherapy laboratories.

  5. Model-Assisted Control of Flow Front in Resin Transfer Molding Based on Real-Time Estimation of Permeability/Porosity Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai-Jian Wei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Resin transfer molding (RTM is a popular manufacturing technique that produces fiber reinforced polymer (FRP composites. In this paper, a model-assisted flow front control system is developed based on real-time estimation of permeability/porosity ratio using the information acquired by a visualization system. In the proposed control system, a radial basis function (RBF network meta-model is utilized to predict the position of the future flow front by inputting the injection pressure, the current position of flow front, and the estimated ratio. By conducting optimization based on the meta-model, the value of injection pressure to be implemented at each step is obtained. Moreover, a cascade control structure is established to further improve the control performance. Experiments show that the developed system successfully enhances the performance of flow front control in RTM. Especially, the cascade structure makes the control system robust to model mismatch.

  6. Tailoring the Spacer Arm for Covalent Immobilization of Candida antarctica Lipase B—Thermal Stabilization by Bisepoxide-Activated Aminoalkyl Resins in Continuous-Flow Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emese Abaházi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An efficient and easy-to-perform method was developed for immobilization of CaLB on mesoporous aminoalkyl polymer supports by bisepoxide activation. Polyacrylate resins (100–300 µm; ~50 nm pores with different aminoalkyl functional groups (ethylamine: EA and hexylamine: HA were modified with bisepoxides differing in the length, rigidity and hydrophobicity of the units linking the two epoxy functions. After immobilization, the different CaLB preparations were evaluated using the lipase-catalyzed kinetic resolution (KR of racemic 1-phenylethanol (rac-1 in batch mode and in a continuous-flow reactor as well. Catalytic activity, enantiomer selectivity, recyclability, and the mechanical and long-term stability of CaLB immobilized on the various supports were tested. The most active CaLB preparation (on HA-resin activated with 1,6-hexanediol diglycidyl ether—HDGE retained 90% of its initial activity after 13 consecutive reaction cycles or after 12 month of storage at 4 °C. The specific rate (rflow, enantiomer selectivity (E and enantiomeric excess (ee achievable with the best immobilized CaLB preparations were studied as a function of temperature in kinetic resolution of rac-1 performed in continuous-flow packed-bed bioreactors. The optimum temperature of the most active HA-HDGE CaLB in continuous-flow mode was 60 °C. Although CaLB immobilized on the glycerol diglycidyl ether (GDGE-activated EA-resin was less active and less selective, a much higher optimum temperature (80 °C was observed with this form in continuous-flow mode KR of rac-1.

  7. Methodology of traffic flows remote monitoring in the Ural Federal District largest cities using satellite monitoring data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testeshev, Alexander; Timohovetz, Vera

    2017-01-01

    The article considers the method of remote research of traffic flow characteristics in the largest cities based on satellite monitoring. The aim of the research is to develop mathematical conformities of traffic flow theory that allow interpreting the results of decoding the traffic situation static picture obtained from free online services into primary and derived traffic characteristics. Data on functional dependences of traffic density and traffic flow speed differentiated with respect to transport and road conditions is provided. The developed technique made it possible to minimize resource costs to conduct simultaneous monitoring of traffic flows on the road network in the largest cities of the Ural Federal District.

  8. Debris Flow Monitoring System and Observed Event in Taiwan: A Case Study at Aiyuzi River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HSIAO Taichung; LEE Bingjean; CHOU Tienyin; LIEN Huipain; CHANG Yinghuei

    2007-01-01

    Since 2002, the Soil and Water Conservation Bureau, which is responsible for the conservation and administrative management of hillside in Taiwan, has been cooperating with Feng Chia University. Together, they have successfully carried out the establishment and maintenance of 13 fixed debris flow monitoring stations over the island and 2 mobile debris flow monitoring stations. During July 2004, a powerful southwest air current brought by Mindulle Typhoon caused serious flood in central and southern Taiwan. This paper aims to describe the establishment of debris flow monitoring systems in Taiwan and the observation of the debris flow event during Mindulle Typhoon at Aiyuzi River in Shenmu Village, Nantou County by the monitoring station.

  9. Continuous monitoring of water flow and solute transport using vadose zone monitoring technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, O.

    2009-04-01

    Groundwater contamination is usually attributed to pollution events that initiate on land surface. These may be related to various sources such as industrial, urban or agricultural, and may appear as point or non point sources, through a single accidental event or a continuous pollution process. In all cases, groundwater pollution is a consequence of pollutant transport processes that take place in the vadose zone above the water table. Attempts to control pollution events and prevent groundwater contamination usually involve groundwater monitoring programs. This, however, can not provide any protection against contamination since pollution identification in groundwater is clear evidence that the groundwater is already polluted and contaminants have already traversed the entire vadose zone. Accordingly, an efficient monitoring program that aims at providing information that may prevent groundwater pollution has to include vadose-zone monitoring systems. Such system should provide real-time information on the hydrological and chemical properties of the percolating water and serve as an early warning system capable of detecting pollution events in their early stages before arrival of contaminants to groundwater. Recently, a vadose-zone monitoring system (VMS) was developed to allow continuous monitoring of the hydrological and chemical properties of percolating water in the deep vadose zone. The VMS includes flexible time-domain reflectometry (FTDR) probes for continuous tracking of water content profiles, and vadose-zone sampling ports (VSPs) for frequent sampling of the deep vadose pore water at multiple depths. The monitoring probes and sampling ports are installed through uncased slanted boreholes using a flexible sleeve that allows attachment of the monitoring devices to the borehole walls while achieving good contact between the sensors and the undisturbed sediment column. The system has been successfully implemented in several studies on water flow and

  10. Collecting and Storing Data Flow Monitoring in Elasticsearch

    CERN Document Server

    Hashim, Fatin Hazwani

    2014-01-01

    A very large amount of data is produced from the online data flow monitoring for the CMS data acquisition system. However, there are only a small portion of data is stored permanently in the relational database. This is because of the high cost needed while relying on the dedicated infrastructure as well as the issues in its performance itself. A new approach needs to be found in order to confront such a big volume of data known as “Big Data”. The Big Data [1] is the term given to the very large and complex data sets that cannot be handled by the traditional data processing application [2] in terms of capturing, storing, managing, and analyzing. The sheer size of the data [3] in CMS data acquisition system is one of the major challenges, and is the one of the most easily recognized. New technology need to be used as the alternative of the traditional databases initial evaluation to handle this problem as more data need to be stored permanently and can be easily retrieved. This report consists of the intro...

  11. Go with the flow: conservation of a floating sculpture from 1961 made from glass fibre-reinforced polyester resin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerkens, L.; Stigter, S.; van Oosten, T.; van Keulen, H.; Keneghan, B.; Egan, L.

    2008-01-01

    Marta Pan’s Sculpture flottante, Otterlo was commissioned by the Kröller-Müller Museum for a pond at the entrance of the new sculpture garden that opened in June 1961. The floating sculpture is made from glass fibre-reinforced polyester resin and is now coated with white paint layers. The top is c

  12. Go with the flow: conservation of a floating sculpture from 1961 made from glass fibre-reinforced polyester resin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerkens, L.; Stigter, S.; van Oosten, T.; van Keulen, H.; Keneghan, B.; Egan, L.

    2008-01-01

    Marta Pan’s Sculpture flottante, Otterlo was commissioned by the Kröller-Müller Museum for a pond at the entrance of the new sculpture garden that opened in June 1961. The floating sculpture is made from glass fibre-reinforced polyester resin and is now coated with white paint layers. The top is

  13. Integrated cantilever-based flow sensors with tunable sensitivity for in-line monitoring of flow fluctuations in microfluidic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noeth, Nadine-Nicole; Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Boisen, Anja

    2014-01-01

    For devices such as bio-/chemical sensors in microfluidic systems, flow fluctuations result in noise in the sensor output. Here, we demonstrate in-line monitoring of flow fluctuations with a cantilever-like sensor integrated in a microfluidic channel. The cantilevers are fabricated in different m...... pumps connected to the microfluidic system. © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland....

  14. Numerical and experimental analyses of resin infusion manufacturing processes of composite materials

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Peng; Molimard, Jérôme; Vautrin, Alain; Minni, Jean-Christophe; 10.1177/0021998311421990

    2012-01-01

    Liquid resin infusion (LRI) processes are promising manufacturing routes to produce large, thick, or complex structural parts. They are based on the resin flow induced, across its thickness, by a pressure applied onto a preform/resin stacking. However, both thickness and fiber volume fraction of the final piece are not well controlled since they result from complex mechanisms which drive the transient mechanical equilibrium leading to the final geometrical configuration. In order to optimize both design and manufacturing parameters, but also to monitor the LRI process, an isothermal numerical model has been developed which describes the mechanical interaction between the deformations of the porous medium and the resin flow during infusion.1, 2 With this numerical model, it is possible to investigate the LRI process of classical industrial part shapes. To validate the numerical model, first in 2D, and to improve the knowledge of the LRI process, this study details a comparison between numerical simulations and...

  15. Compaction and Cure of Resin Film Infusion Prepregs

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Joseph E.

    2004-01-01

    Gutowski et al.'s model has been employed to describe the cure and consolidation of prepregs used for resin film infusion. Resin kinetics, rheology, flow and fiber deformation are considered. Resin kinetics are simulated with an isothermal autocatalytic-1 type relation. The non-Newtonian viscosity of the Cytec™ 754 resin is represented with a gel type expression. The one dimensional flow of resin through a deformable, partially saturated porous medium is studied. A nonlinear partial...

  16. A new debris flow monitoring barrier to measure debris flow impact/structure/ground interaction in the Gadria torrent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagl, Georg; Hübl, Johannes

    2017-04-01

    Debris flow monitoring is a keystone in debris flow research. Based on the lack of investigations of the interaction of rapid mass movement and structural mitigation measures, a new monitoring system has been installed in the well monitored Gadria torrent in South Tyrol. For design of active structural measures, like check dams, the engineering task is to come to an amicable solution of all necessary subjects. Starting with the estimation of parameters of the rapid mass movement itself to the design load and finally to the foundation of the structure. At all stages big uncertainties are given. The basis for accurate design is a comprehensive approach. For this reason, a new monitoring station was built in autumn 2016, to investigate the interaction of a debris flow with the structures and the ground. Two structures unify the new monitoring system. The first, a transversal check dam, flush to channel bed, contain two weighing devices each equipped with a pore pressure sensor. One device is also able to measure the shear force additional in two directions. The second barrier similar to a debris flow breaker but only with one singe wall centered on a foundation plate, is located downstream to the first one. 14 load cells are installed on the upward front of the structure to analyze the spatial force distribution of debris flow impact pressure. Nine earth pressure sensors under the foundation of the structure deliver the earth pressure distribution. The acceleration of the construction can be measured by a 3D accelerometer installed on the top. In case of a movement, two extensometers detect any displacement. Mounted strain gauges give insights of stresses in concrete and reinforcement. Each sensor has a sampling frequency of 2400 Hz. Furthermore it is planned to measure the flow velocity distribution over flow depth too. The new monitoring station should help to acquire data for understanding the debris flow/structure/ground interaction to facilitate the improvement

  17. Integrated cantilever-based flow sensors with tunable sensitivity for in-line monitoring of flow fluctuations in microfluidic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noeth, Nadine; Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Boisen, Anja

    2013-12-23

    For devices such as bio-/chemical sensors in microfluidic systems, flow fluctuations result in noise in the sensor output. Here, we demonstrate in-line monitoring of flow fluctuations with a cantilever-like sensor integrated in a microfluidic channel. The cantilevers are fabricated in different materials (SU-8 and SiN) and with different thicknesses. The integration of arrays of holes with different hole size and number of holes allows the modification of device sensitivity, theoretical detection limit and measurement range. For an average flow in the microliter range, the cantilever deflection is directly proportional to the flow rate fluctuations in the microfluidic channel. The SiN cantilevers show a detection limit below 1 nL/min and the thinnest SU-8 cantilevers a detection limit below 5 nL/min. Finally, the sensor is applied for in-line monitoring of flow fluctuations generated by external pumps connected to the microfluidic system.

  18. Integrated Cantilever-Based Flow Sensors with Tunable Sensitivity for In-Line Monitoring of Flow Fluctuations in Microfluidic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Noeth

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available For devices such as bio-/chemical sensors in microfluidic systems, flow fluctuations result in noise in the sensor output. Here, we demonstrate in-line monitoring of flow fluctuations with a cantilever-like sensor integrated in a microfluidic channel. The cantilevers are fabricated in different materials (SU-8 and SiN and with different thicknesses. The integration of arrays of holes with different hole size and number of holes allows the modification of device sensitivity, theoretical detection limit and measurement range. For an average flow in the microliter range, the cantilever deflection is directly proportional to the flow rate fluctuations in the microfluidic channel. The SiN cantilevers show a detection limit below 1 nL/min and the thinnest SU-8 cantilevers a detection limit below 5 nL/min. Finally, the sensor is applied for in-line monitoring of flow fluctuations generated by external pumps connected to the microfluidic system.

  19. Note: Signal conditioning of a hot-film anemometer for a periodic flow rate monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, Federico; Tagliaferri, Cristian

    2011-12-01

    A flow monitoring system based on a constant temperature hot-film anemometer is presented. The device has been designed to monitor a dispensing process of extremely low quantities of adhesive material. The monitoring device presented in this paper is useful in industrial applications where exact flow speed tracking is not needed, but reliability and tolerance to parameters variability are essential. During the design of the device, problems related to the physical characteristic of the calorimetric sensor, in particular its thermal capacitance, and to the periodic nature of the monitored flow have been taken into account and suitable solutions have been implemented. The schematic representation of the monitoring device together with the experimental results obtained by monitoring fluids with different physical characteristics are presented.

  20. Photoacoustic analysis of dental resin polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coloiano, E. C. R.; Rocha, R.; Martin, A. A.; da Silva, M. D.; Acosta-Avalos, D.; Barja, P. R.

    2005-06-01

    In this work, we use the photoacoustic technique to monitor the curing process of diverse dental materials, as the resins chemically activated (RCA). The results obtained reveal that the composition of a determined RCA significantly alters its activation kinetics. Photoacoustic data also show that temperature is a significant parameter in the activation kinetics of resins. The photoacoustic technique was also applied to evaluate the polymerization kinetics of photoactivated resins. Such resins are photoactivated by incidence of continuous light from a photodiode. This leads to the polymerization of the resin, modifying its thermal properties and, consequently, the level of the photoacoustic signal. Measurements show that the polymerization of the resin changes the photoacoustic signal amplitude, indicating that photoacoustic measurements can be utilized to monitor the polymerization kinetic and the degree of polymerization of photoactivated dental resins.

  1. The effects of material loading and flow rate on the disinfection of pathogenic microorganisms using cation resin-silver nanoparticle filter system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpenyana-Monyatsi, L.; Mthombeni, N. H.; Onyango, M. S.; Momba, M. N. B.

    2017-08-01

    Waterborne diseases have a negative impact on public health in instances where the available drinking water is of a poor quality. Decentralised systems are needed to provide safe drinking water to rural communities. Therefore, the present study aimed to develop and investigate the point-of-use (POU) water treatment filter packed with resin-coated silver nanoparticles. The filter performance was evaluated by investigating the effects of various bed masses (10 g, 15 g, 20 g) and flow rates (2 mL/min, 5 mL/min, 10 mL/min) by means of breakthrough curves for the removal efficiency of presumptive Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, Salmonella typhimurium and Vibrio cholerae from spiked groundwater samples. The results revealed that, as the bed mass increases the breakthrough time also increases with regards to all targeted microorganisms. However, when the flow rate increases the breakthrough time decreased. These tests demonstrated that resin-coated silver nanoparticle can be an effective material in removing all targeted microorganisms at 100% removal efficiency before breakthrough points are achieved. Moreover the filter system demonstrated that it is capable of producing 15 L/day of treated water at an operating condition of 10 mL/min flow rate and 15 g bed mass, which is sufficient to provide for seven individuals in the household if they consume 2 L/person/day for drinking purpose. Therefore, the bed mass of the filter system should be increased in order for it to produce sufficient water that will conform to the daily needs of an individual.

  2. CEM ultrasonic flow monitoring design, installation and certification results at the Salt River Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rihs, P.W. [Salt River Project, Saint Johns, AZ (United States). Coronado Generating Station

    1995-12-31

    This presentation will include Salt River Project`s design, installation, experiences and results using ultrasonic flow monitoring equipment for certification of continuous emissions monitoring systems. Flow Monitoring is the newest and has been the most controversial component of CEM systems. Experience in measuring flue gas volumetric flow prior to CEMs was very limited. There are currently three basic techniques used to measure gas flow: (1) thermal sensing using hotwire anemometer or thermal dispersion; (2) differential pressure (pitot tube and annubar); (3) acoustic using ultrasonic transducers. The Salt River Project (SRP) operates a variety of affected generating stations: coal, gas and oil. Ultrasonic flow monitoring technology was chosen for all affected generating stations which the author operates. SRP`s approach and reasoning for choosing ultrasonic systems will be discussed. A review of each generating station`s flow monitoring system will be presented. The presentation will include, but may not be limited to, the following: general facilities, description and schematics; physical installations, plan and section drawings; design considerations; results of flow monitors certification testing; and CEMs Project Manager`s conclusions.

  3. Numerical modelling of the flow in the resin infusion process on the REV scale: A feasibility study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbaribehnam, Mirmasoud; Jambhekar, V. A.; Gersborg, A. R.

    2016-01-01

    The resin infusion process (RIP) has developed as a low cost method for manufacturing large fibre reinforced plastic parts. However, the process still presents some challenges to industry with regards to reliability and repeatability, resulting in expensive and inefficient trial and error......) scale. The model is described in detail and three different test cases - a constant and a tensorial permeability as well as a preform/Balsa domain - are investigated. The results show that the developed model is very applicable for the RIP for manufacturing of composite parts. The idea behind this study...

  4. Salinity and Flow Monitoring in the San Francisco Bay Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes the utility and approximate cost of expanding the salinity water quality monitoring network along the axis of the San Francisco Estuary from Suisun Bay to Rio Vista on the Sacramento River.

  5. Polymerization shrinkage of flowable resin-based restorative materials

    OpenAIRE

    Stavridakis, Minos M; Dietschi, Didier; Krejci, Ivo

    2005-01-01

    This study measured the linear polymerization displacement and polymerization forces induced by polymerization shrinkage of a series of flowable resin-based restorative materials. The materials tested were 22 flowable resin-based restorative materials (Admira Flow, Aelite Flow, Aeliteflow LV, Aria, Crystal Essence, Definite Flow, Dyract Flow, Filtek Flow, FloRestore, Flow-it, Flow-Line, Freedom, Glacier, OmegaFlo, PermaFlo, Photo SC, Revolution 2, Star Flow, Synergy Flow, Tetric Flow, Ultrase...

  6. Epoxy resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, P G

    1999-01-01

    Epoxy resins have an extraordinarily broad range of commercial applications, especially as protective surface coatings and adhesives. Epoxy resin systems include combinations of epoxy monomers, hardeners, reactive diluents, and/or a vast array of other additives. As a result, an epoxy resin system may have a number of chemical ingredients with the potential for attendant health hazards. Most, but not all, of these health hazards arise in the occupational setting. The most frequent adverse effects are irritation or allergic mechanisms involving the dermal and respiratory systems. Sensitization usually is caused by low molecular weight or short-chain compounds. This review discusses the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of epoxy resin-related adverse health effects.

  7. Flow-injection Chemiluminescence Sensor for the Determination of Gallic Acid by Immobilizing Luminol and Periodate on Anion-exchange Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG,Si-Chun(张四纯); ZHOU,Guo-Jun(周国俊); JU,Huang-Xian(鞠熀先)

    2002-01-01

    A novel chemihuminescence (CL) sensor for the determination of gallic acid combined with flow injection analysis was developed by electrostatically immobilizing luminol and periodate on anion-exchange resins respectively. Gallic acid was sensed by its enhancing effect on the weak CL reaction between luminol and periodate, which were eluted from the ion exchang ecolumn.The possible reaction mechanism of the CL system was suggested and discussed. The response of the sensor to gallic acid concentration was linear over the range of 8.0 × 10-9-1.0 × 10-6 mol/L with a detection limit of 6.5 × 10-9 mol/L (3σσ). The relative standard deviation (RSD) for 7 repetitive determinations of gallic acid (1.0 × 10-7 moL/L) was 1.8%. The sensor could be used for over 400 times determination with a good reproducibility.

  8. Numerical Simulation of Borehole Flow in Deep Monitor Wells, Pearl Harbor Aquifer, Oahu, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotzoll, K.; Oki, D. S.; El-Kadi, A. I.

    2010-12-01

    Salinity profiles collected from uncased deep monitor wells are commonly used to monitor freshwater-lens thickness in coastal aquifers. However, vertical flow in these wells can cause the measured salinity to differ from salinity in the adjacent aquifer. Substantial borehole flow has been observed in uncased wells in the Pearl Harbor aquifer, Oahu, Hawaii. A numerical modeling approach, incorporating aquifer hydraulic characteristics and recharge rates representative of the Pearl Harbor aquifer, was used to evaluate the effects of borehole flow on measured salinity profiles from deep monitor wells. Borehole flow caused by vertical hydraulic gradients associated with the natural regional groundwater-flow system and local groundwater withdrawals was simulated. Model results were used to estimate differences between vertical salinity profiles in deep monitor wells and the adjacent aquifer in areas of downward, horizontal, and upward flow within the regional flow system—for cases with and without nearby pumped wells. Aquifer heterogeneity, represented in the model as layers of contrasting permeability, was incorporated in model scenarios. Results from this study provide insight into the magnitude of the differences between vertical salinity profiles from deep monitor wells and the salinity distributions in the aquifers. These insights are relevant and are critically needed for management and predictive modeling purposes.

  9. Longitudinal Monitoring of Hepatic Blood Flow before and after TIPS by Using 4D-Flow MR Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannas, Peter; Roldán-Alzate, Alejandro; Johnson, Kevin M.; Woods, Michael A.; Ozkan, Orhan; Motosugi, Utaroh; Wieben, Oliver; Reeder, Scott B.; Kramer, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate the feasibility of four-dimensional (4D)– flow magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for noninvasive longitudinal hemodynamic monitoring of hepatic blood flow before and after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) placement. Materials and Methods The institutional review board approved this prospective Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliant study with written informed consent. Four-dimensional–flow MR imaging was performed in seven patients with portal hypertension and refractory ascites before and 2 and 12 weeks after TIPS placement by using a time-resolved three-dimensional radial phase-contrast acquisition. Flow and peak velocity measurements were obtained in the superior mesenteric vein (SMV), splenic vein (SV), portal vein (PV), and the TIPS. Flow volumes and peak velocities in each vessel, as well as the ratio of in-stent to PV flow, were compared before and after TIPS placement by using analysis of variance. Results Flow volumes significantly increased in the SMV (0.24 L/ min; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.07, 0.41), SV (0.31 L/min; 95% CI: 0.07, 0.54), and PV (0.88 L/min; 95% CI: 0.06, 1.70) after TIPS placement (all P .11). Ascites resolved in six of seven patients. In those with resolved ascites, the TIPS-to-PV flow ratio was 0.8 ± 6 0.2 and 0.9 ± 0.2 at the two post-TIPS time points, respectively, while the observed ratios were 4.6 and 4.3 in the patient with refractory ascites at the two post-TIPS time points, respectively. In this patient, 4D-flow MR imaging demonstrated arterio-portal-venous shunting, with draining into the TIPS. Conclusion Four-dimensional–flow MR imaging is feasible for noninvasive longitudinal hemodynamic monitoring of hepatic blood flow before and after TIPS placement. PMID:27171019

  10. 21 CFR 880.2420 - Electronic monitor for gravity flow infusion systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and equipment for signal amplification, conditioning, and display. (b) Classification. Class II... systems. 880.2420 Section 880.2420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... and Personal Use Monitoring Devices § 880.2420 Electronic monitor for gravity flow infusion...

  11. Monitoring Debris Flows Using Spatial Filtering and Entropy Determination Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Ming Kao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We developed an automatic debris flow warning system in this study. The system uses a fixed video camera mounted over mountainous streams with a high risk for debris flows. The focus of this study is to develop an automatic algorithm for detecting debris flows with a low computational effort which can facilitate real-time implementation. The algorithm is based on a moving object detection technique to detect debris flow by comparing among video frames. Background subtraction is the kernel of the algorithm to reduce the computational effort, but non-rigid properties and color similarity of the object and the background color introduces some difficulties. Therefore, we used several spatial filtering approaches to increase the performance of the background subtraction. To increase the accuracy entropy is used with histogram analysis to identify whether a debris flow occurred. The modified background subtraction approach using spatial filtering and entropy determination is adopted to overcome the error in moving detection caused by non-rigid and similarities in color properties. The results of this study show that the approach described here can improve performance and also reduce the computational effort.

  12. 78 FR 65306 - Best Practices for Continuous Monitoring of Temperature and Flow in Wadeable Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... AGENCY Best Practices for Continuous Monitoring of Temperature and Flow in Wadeable Streams AGENCY...: EPA is announcing a 30-day public comment period for the draft document titled, ``Best Practices for... Development. The report describes best practices for the deployment of continuous temperature and flow sensors...

  13. Quantitative Damage Detection and Sparse Sensor Array Optimization of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Resin Composite Laminates for Wind Turbine Blade Structural Health Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Yang, Zhibo; Chen, Xuefeng

    2014-01-01

    The active structural health monitoring (SHM) approach for the complex composite laminate structures of wind turbine blades (WTBs), addresses the important and complicated problem of signal noise. After illustrating the wind energy industry's development perspectives and its crucial requirement for SHM, an improved redundant second generation wavelet transform (IRSGWT) pre-processing algorithm based on neighboring coefficients is introduced for feeble signal denoising. The method can avoid the drawbacks of conventional wavelet methods that lose information in transforms and the shortcomings of redundant second generation wavelet (RSGWT) denoising that can lead to error propagation. For large scale WTB composites, how to minimize the number of sensors while ensuring accuracy is also a key issue. A sparse sensor array optimization of composites for WTB applications is proposed that can reduce the number of transducers that must be used. Compared to a full sixteen transducer array, the optimized eight transducer configuration displays better accuracy in identifying the correct position of simulated damage (mass of load) on composite laminates with anisotropic characteristics than a non-optimized array. It can help to guarantee more flexible and qualified monitoring of the areas that more frequently suffer damage. The proposed methods are verified experimentally on specimens of carbon fiber reinforced resin composite laminates. PMID:24763210

  14. Quantitative Damage Detection and Sparse Sensor Array Optimization of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Resin Composite Laminates for Wind Turbine Blade Structural Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Li

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The active structural health monitoring (SHM approach for the complex composite laminate structures of wind turbine blades (WTBs, addresses the important and complicated problem of signal noise. After illustrating the wind energy industry’s development perspectives and its crucial requirement for SHM, an improved redundant second generation wavelet transform (IRSGWT pre-processing algorithm based on neighboring coefficients is introduced for feeble signal denoising. The method can avoid the drawbacks of conventional wavelet methods that lose information in transforms and the shortcomings of redundant second generation wavelet (RSGWT denoising that can lead to error propagation. For large scale WTB composites, how to minimize the number of sensors while ensuring accuracy is also a key issue. A sparse sensor array optimization of composites for WTB applications is proposed that can reduce the number of transducers that must be used. Compared to a full sixteen transducer array, the optimized eight transducer configuration displays better accuracy in identifying the correct position of simulated damage (mass of load on composite laminates with anisotropic characteristics than a non-optimized array. It can help to guarantee more flexible and qualified monitoring of the areas that more frequently suffer damage. The proposed methods are verified experimentally on specimens of carbon fiber reinforced resin composite laminates.

  15. A multi-agent system for monitoring patient flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Samanta; Tralli, Augusta; Balestra, Gabriella

    2013-01-01

    Patient flow within a healthcare facility may follow different and, sometimes, complicated paths. Each path phase is associated with the documentation of the activities carried out during it and may require the consultation of clinical guidelines, medical literature and the use of specific software and decision aid systems. In this study we present the design of a Patient Flow Management System (PFMS) based on Multi Agent Systems (MAS) methodology. System requirements were identified by means of process modeling tools and a MAS consisting of six agents was designed and is under construction. Its main goal is to support both the medical staff during the health care process and the hospital managers in assuring that all the required documentation is completed and available. Moreover, such a tool can be used for the assessment and comparison of different clinical pathways, in order to identify possible improvementsand the optimum patient flow.

  16. Flow-injection spectrophotometric determination of captopril in pharmaceutical formulations using a new solid-phase reactor containing AgSCN immobilized in a polyurethane resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Campanhã Vicentini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A simple flow-injection analysis procedure was developed for determining captopril in pharmaceutical formulations employing a novel solid-phase reactor containing silver thiocyanate immobilized in a castor oil derivative polyurethane resin. The method was based on silver mercaptide formation between the captopril and Ag(I in the solid-phase reactor. During such a reaction, the SCN- anion was released and reacted with Fe3+, which generated the FeSCN2+ complex that was continuously monitored at 480 nm. The analytical curve was linear in the captopril concentration range from 3.0 × 10-4 mol L-1 to 1.1 × 10-3 mol L-1 with a detection limit of 8.0 × 10-5 mol L-1. Recoveries between 97.5% and 103% and a relative standard deviation of 2% for a solution containing 6.0 × 10-4 mol L-1 captopril (n = 12 were obtained. The sample throughput was 40 h-1 and the results obtained for captopril in pharmaceutical formulations using this procedure and those obtained using a pharmacopoeia procedure were in agreement at a 95% confidence level.Um procedimento simples de análise por injeção em fluxo foi desenvolvido para a determinação de captopril em formulações farmacêuticas empregando um novo reator em fase sólida contendo tiocianato de prata imobilizado em resina poliuretana obtida a partir de óleo de mamona. O método foi baseado na formação de um mercapto composto de prata, no reator em fase sólida, obtido entre o captopril e Ag (I imobilizada. Durante a reação, íons SCN- eram liberados e reagiam com Fe3+, gerando o complexo FeSCN2+, que foi continuamente monitorado em 480 nm. A curva analítica foi linear no intervalo de concentração de captopril entre 3,0 × 10-4 a 1,1 × 10-3 mol L-1 com um limite de detecção de 8,0 × 10-5 mol L-1. Recuperações entre 97,5-103% e desvio padrão relativo de 2% para uma solução contendo 6,0 × 10-4 mol L-1 de captopril (n = 12 foram obtidos. A frequência de amostragem foi de 40 h-1 e os resultados

  17. Refractometric monitoring of dissolution and fluid flow with distributed feedback dye laser sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vannahme, Christoph; Sørensen, Kristian Tølbøl; Gade, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring the dissolution of solid material in liquids and monitoring of fluid flow is of significant interest for applications in chemistry, food production, medicine, and especially in the fields of microfluidics and lab on a chip. Here, real-time refractometric monitoring of dissolution...... and fast fluid flow with DFB dye laser sensors with an optical imaging spectroscopy setup is presented. The dye laser sensors provide both low detection limits and high spatial resolution. It is demonstrated how the materials NaCl, sucrose, and bovine serum albumin show characteristic dissolution patterns...

  18. Remote Monitoring of Subsurface Flow Conditions in Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    measured by the ADV. The colored stars represent the run mean flow magnitudes obtained by the 3 methods: DPIV, OF and SAS. TKE Dissipation The...Mech., vol. 77, 531-560. Korchoka Y. M. (1968). Investigation of the dune movement of sediments on the Polomet’ River. Sov. Hydrol. 541-559. McKenna

  19. Refractometric monitoring of dissolution and fluid flow with distributed feedback dye laser sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vannahme, Christoph; Sørensen, Kristian Tølbøl; Gade, Carsten;

    2015-01-01

    and fast fluid flow with DFB dye laser sensors with an optical imaging spectroscopy setup is presented. The dye laser sensors provide both low detection limits and high spatial resolution. It is demonstrated how the materials NaCl, sucrose, and bovine serum albumin show characteristic dissolution patterns......Monitoring the dissolution of solid material in liquids and monitoring of fluid flow is of significant interest for applications in chemistry, food production, medicine, and especially in the fields of microfluidics and lab on a chip. Here, real-time refractometric monitoring of dissolution....... The unique feature of the presented method is a high frame rate of up to 20 Hz, which is proven to enable the monitoring of fast flow of a sucrose solution jet into pure water. (C) 2015 Optical Society of America...

  20. Methods for monitoring heat flow intensity in the blast furnace wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L'. Dorčák

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the main features of an online system for real-time monitoring of the bottom part of the blast furnace. Firstly, monitoring concerns the furnace walls and furnace bottom temperatures measurement and their visualization. Secondly, monitored are the heat flows of the furnace walls and furnace bottom. In the case of two measured temperatures, the heat flow is calculated using multi-layer implicit difference scheme and in the case of only one measured temperature, the heat flow is calculated using a method based on application of fractional-order derivatives. Thirdly, monitored is the theoretical temperature of the blast furnace combustion process in the area of tuyeres.

  1. Refractometric monitoring of dissolution and fluid flow with distributed feedback dye laser sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannahme, Christoph; Sørensen, Kristian Tølbøl; Gade, Carsten; Dufva, Martin; Kristensen, Anders

    2015-03-09

    Monitoring the dissolution of solid material in liquids and monitoring of fluid flow is of significant interest for applications in chemistry, food production, medicine, and especially in the fields of microfluidics and lab on a chip. Here, real-time refractometric monitoring of dissolution and fast fluid flow with DFB dye laser sensors with an optical imaging spectroscopy setup is presented. The dye laser sensors provide both low detection limits and high spatial resolution. It is demonstrated how the materials NaCl, sucrose, and bovine serum albumin show characteristic dissolution patterns. The unique feature of the presented method is a high frame rate of up to 20 Hz, which is proven to enable the monitoring of fast flow of a sucrose solution jet into pure water.

  2. Screen-printed sensor for batch and flow injection potentiometric chromium(VI) monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Moreno, Raul A.; Gismera, M.J.; Sevilla, M.T.; Procopio, Jesus R. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Analisis Instrumental, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    A disposable screen-printed electrode was designed and evaluated for direct detection of chromium(VI) in batch and flow analysis. The carbon screen-printed electrode was modified with a graphite-epoxy composite. The optimal graphite-epoxy matrix contains 37.5% graphite powder, 12.5% diphenylcarbohydrazide, a selective compound for chromium(VI), and 50% epoxy resin. The principal analytical parameters of the potentiometric response in batch and flow analysis were optimized and calculated. The screen-printed sensor exhibits a response time of 20 {+-} 1 s. In flow analysis, the analytical frequency of sampling is 70 injections per hour using 0.1 M NaNO{sub 3} solution at pH 3 as the carrier, a flow rate of 2.5 mL.min{sup -1}, and an injection sample volume of 0.50 mL. The sensor shows potentiometric responses that are very selective for chromium(VI) ions and optimal detection limits in both static mode (2.1 x 10{sup -7} M) and online analysis (9.4 x 10{sup -7} M). The disposable potentiometric sensor was employed to determine toxicity levels of chromium(VI) in mineral, tap, and river waters by flow-injection potentiometry and batch potentiometry. Chromium(VI) determination was also carried out with successful results in leachates from municipal solid waste landfills. (orig.)

  3. Nonintrusive fast response oxygen monitoring system for high temperature flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Daniel B.; Stanton, Alan C.

    1993-01-01

    A new technique has been developed for nonintrusive in situ measurement of oxygen concentration, gas temperature, and flow velocity of the test media in hypersonic wind tunnels. It is based on absorption of near-infrared radiation from inexpensive GaAlAs laser diodes used in optoelectronics industry. It is designed for simultaneous measurements along multiple lines of sight accessed by fiber optics. Molecular oxygen concentration is measured from the magnitude of absorption signals; rotational gas temperature is measured from the intensity ratio of two oxygen absorption lines; and the flow velocity is measured from the Doppler shift of the absorption line positions. This report describes the results of an extensive series of tests of the prototype instrument in laboratory flames emphasizing assessment of the instruments capabilities for quantitative measurement of O2 concentration (mole fraction) and gas temperature.

  4. Noninvasive tomographic and velocimetric monitoring of multiphase flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaouki, J. [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Larachi, F. [Laval Univ., Quebec (Canada); Dudukovic, M.P. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States). Chemical Reaction Engineering Lab.

    1997-11-01

    A condensed review of recent advances accomplished in the development and the applications of noninvasive tomographic and velocimetric measurement techniques to multiphase flows and systems is presented. In recent years utilization of such noninvasive techniques has become widespread in many engineering disciplines that deal with systems involving two immiscible phases or more. Tomography provides concentration, holdup, or 2D or 3D density distribution of at least one component of the multiphase system, whereas velocimetry provides the dynamic features of the phase of interest such as the flow pattern, the velocity field, the 2D or 3D instantaneous movements, etc. The following review is divided into two parts. The first part summarizes progress and developments in flow imaging techniques using {gamma}-ray and X-ray transmission tomography; X-ray radiography; neutron transmission tomography and radiography; positron emission tomography; X-ray diffraction tomography; nuclear magnetic resonance imaging; electrical capacitance tomography; optical tomography; microwave tomography; and ultrasonic tomography. The second part of the review summarizes progress and developments in the following velocimetry techniques: positron emission particle tracking; radioactive particle tracking; cinematography; laser-Doppler anemometry; particle image velocimetry; and fluorescence particle image velocimetry. The basic principles of tomography and velocimetry techniques are outlined, along with advantages and limitations inherent to each technique. The hydrodynamic and structural information yielded by these techniques is illustrated through a literature survey on their successful applications to the study of multiphase systems in such fields as particulate solids processes, fluidization engineering, porous media, pipe flows, transport within packed beds and sparged reactors, etc.

  5. Monitoring drilling mud composition using flowing liquid junction electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasinski, R.; Fletcher, P.; Vercaemer, C.

    1990-06-27

    The concentration of a chosen ionic component of a drilling mud is determined from the potential difference between an ion selective electrode, selective to the component and a reference electrode, the reference electrode being connected to the mud by a liquid junction through which reference electrolyte flows from the electrode to the mud. The system avoids errors due to undesirable interactions between the mud and the reference electrode materials. (author).

  6. Apparatus and method for acoustic monitoring of steam quality and flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, Dipen N.; Pantea, Cristian

    2016-09-13

    An apparatus and method for noninvasively monitoring steam quality and flow and in pipes or conduits bearing flowing steam, are described. By measuring the acoustic vibrations generated in steam-carrying conduits by the flowing steam either by direct contact with the pipe or remotely thereto, converting the measured acoustic vibrations into a frequency spectrum characteristic of the natural resonance vibrations of the pipe, and monitoring the amplitude and/or the frequency of one or more chosen resonance frequencies, changes in the steam quality in the pipe are determined. The steam flow rate and the steam quality are inversely related, and changes in the steam flow rate are calculated from changes in the steam quality once suitable calibration curves are obtained.

  7. Groundwater Flow Field Distortion by Monitoring Wells and Passive Flux Meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verreydt, G; Bronders, J; Van Keer, I; Diels, L; Vanderauwera, P

    2015-01-01

    Due to differences in hydraulic conductivity and effects of well construction geometry, groundwater lateral flow through a monitoring well typically differs from groundwater flow in the surrounding aquifer. These differences must be well understood in order to apply passive measuring techniques, such as passive flux meters (PFMs) used for the measurement of groundwater and contaminant mass fluxes. To understand these differences, lab flow tank experiments were performed to evaluate the influences of the well screen, the surrounding filter pack and the presence of a PFM on the natural groundwater flux through a monitoring well. The results were compared with analytical calculations of flow field distortion based on the potential theory of Drost et al. (1968). Measured well flow field distortion factors were found to be lower than calculated flow field distortion factors, while measured PFM flow field distortion factors were comparable to the calculated ones. However, this latter is not the case for all conditions. The slotted geometry of the well screen seems to make a correct analytical calculation challenging for conditions where flow field deviation occurs, because the potential theory assumes a uniform flow field. Finally, plots of the functional relationships of the distortion of the flow field with the hydraulic conductivities of the filter screen, surrounding filter pack and corresponding radii make it possible to design well construction to optimally function during PFM applications.

  8. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Hopanes in Plastic Resin Pellets as Markers of Oil Pollution via International Pellet Watch Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Bee Geok; Takada, Hideshige; Hosoda, Junki; Kondo, Atsuko; Yamashita, Rei; Saha, Mahua; Maes, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    Oil pollution in the marine environment is an unavoidable problem due to chronic input from local sources, particularly in urban areas and oil spills. Oil pollution not only causes immediate physical damages to surrounding wildlife but also some components, including higher molecular weight PAHs, can persist in the environment for many years and pose insidious threats to the ecosystem. Long-term and nontargeted monitoring of oil pollution is important. This paper examines the ability of International Pellet Watch (IPW) for initial identification and monitoring of oil pollution by analysing PAHs and hopanes in plastic pellet samples collected globally by volunteers. PAH concentrations with the sum of 28 parent and methyl PAHs vary geographically, ranging from 0.035 to 24.4 µg/g-pellet, in line with the presence or absence of local oil pollution sources, such as oil refineries or oil spill sites. This suggests that PAHs can be used to monitor petroleum pollution in IPW. A colour-coded categorization for PAH concentrations within IPW monitoring also is established to facilitate data presentation and understanding. PAH concentrations are generally higher in Western Europe, especially around the North Sea shorelines, moderate in East Asia and North America, and lower in South East Asia, Oceania, South America, and Africa. Hopane concentrations, with a smaller spatial variation (1.7-101 µg/g-pellet), showed no spatial pattern. This result and the poor correlation between hopanes and PAHs suggest that hopane concentrations alone are unsuited to identify petroleum pollution. However, hopane compositions can be used for fingerprinting sources of oil pollution. Thus, both PAHs and hopanes in IPW allow for low cost, remote monitoring of global oil pollution.

  9. Resin composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Peutzfeldt, Anne; Lussi, Adrian;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate how the modulus of elasticity of resin composites influences marginal quality in restorations submitted to thermocyclic and mechanical loading. METHODS: Charisma, Filtek Supreme XTE and Grandio were selected as they were found to possess different moduli of elasticity...... of resin composite (p=0.81) on the quality of dentine margins was observed, before or after loading. Deterioration of all margins was evident after loading (p....008). CONCLUSIONS: The resin composite with the highest modulus of elasticity resulted in the highest number of gap-free enamel margins but with an increased incidence of paramarginal enamel fractures. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The results from this study suggest that the marginal quality of restorations can...

  10. Ponderosa pine resin defenses and growth: metrics matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Sharon; Sala, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) cause widespread tree mortality in coniferous forests worldwide. Constitutive and induced host defenses are important factors in an individual tree's ability to survive an attack and in bottom-up regulation of bark beetle population dynamics, yet quantifying defense levels is often difficult. For example, in Pinus spp., resin flow is important for resistance to bark beetles but is extremely variable among individuals and within a season. While resin is produced and stored in resin ducts, the specific resin duct metrics that best correlate with resin flow remain unclear. The ability and timing of some pine species to produce induced resin is also not well understood. We investigated (i) the relationships between ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson & C. Lawson) resin flow and axial resin duct characteristics, tree growth and physiological variables, and (ii) if mechanical wounding induces ponderosa pine resin flow and resin ducts in the absence of bark beetles. Resin flow increased later in the growing season under moderate water stress and was highest in faster growing trees. The best predictors of resin flow were nonstandardized measures of resin ducts, resin duct size and total resin duct area, both of which increased with tree growth. However, while faster growing trees tended to produce more resin, models of resin flow using only tree growth were not statistically significant. Further, the standardized measures of resin ducts, density and duct area relative to xylem area, decreased with tree growth rate, indicating that slower growing trees invested more in resin duct defenses per unit area of radial growth, despite a tendency to produce less resin overall. We also found that mechanical wounding induced ponderosa pine defenses, but this response was slow. Resin flow increased after 28 days, and resin duct production did not increase until the following year. These slow induced responses may allow

  11. Numerical modelling of the flow in the resin infusion process on the REV scale: A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jabbari, M.; Spangenberg, J.; Hattel, J. H. [Process Modelling Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Nils Koppels Allé, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Jambhekar, V. A.; Helmig, R. [Department of Hydromechanics and Modelling of Hydrosystems, Institute for Modelling Hydraulic and Environmental Systems, Universität Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany); Gersborg, A. R. [SCION DTU, Diplomvej 373N, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark)

    2016-06-08

    The resin infusion process (RIP) has developed as a low cost method for manufacturing large fibre reinforced plastic parts. However, the process still presents some challenges to industry with regards to reliability and repeatability, resulting in expensive and inefficient trial and error development. In this paper, we show the implementation of 2D numerical models for the RIP using the open source simulator DuMu{sup X}. The idea of this study is to present a model which accounts for the interfacial forces coming from the capillary pressure on the so-called representative elementary volume (REV) scale. The model is described in detail and three different test cases — a constant and a tensorial permeability as well as a preform/Balsa domain — are investigated. The results show that the developed model is very applicable for the RIP for manufacturing of composite parts. The idea behind this study is to test the developed model for later use in a real application, in which the preform medium has numerous layers with different material properties.

  12. Numerical modelling of the flow in the resin infusion process on the REV scale: A feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbari, M.; Jambhekar, V. A.; Gersborg, A. R.; Spangenberg, J.; Hattel, J. H.; Helmig, R.

    2016-06-01

    The resin infusion process (RIP) has developed as a low cost method for manufacturing large fibre reinforced plastic parts. However, the process still presents some challenges to industry with regards to reliability and repeatability, resulting in expensive and inefficient trial and error development. In this paper, we show the implementation of 2D numerical models for the RIP using the open source simulator DuMuX. The idea of this study is to present a model which accounts for the interfacial forces coming from the capillary pressure on the so-called representative elementary volume (REV) scale. The model is described in detail and three different test cases — a constant and a tensorial permeability as well as a preform/Balsa domain — are investigated. The results show that the developed model is very applicable for the RIP for manufacturing of composite parts. The idea behind this study is to test the developed model for later use in a real application, in which the preform medium has numerous layers with different material properties.

  13. Continuous 'Passive' flow-proportional monitoring of drainage using a new modified Sutro weir (MSW) unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendelboe, Anders Lindblad; Rozemeijer, Joachim; de Jonge, Lis Wollesen; de Jonge, Hubert

    2016-03-01

    In view of their crucial role in water and solute transport, enhanced monitoring of agricultural subsurface drain tile systems is important for adequate water quality management. However, existing monitoring techniques for flow and contaminant loads from tile drains are expensive and labour intensive. The aim of this study was to develop a cost-effective and simple method for monitoring loads from tile drains. The Flowcap is a modified Sutro weir (MSW) unit that can be attached to the outlet of tile drains. It is capable of registering total flow, contaminant loads and flow-averaged concentrations. The MSW builds on a modern passive sampling technique that responds to hydraulic pressure and measures average concentrations over time (days to months) for various substances. Mounting the samplers in the MSW allowed a flow-proportional part of the drainage to be sampled. Laboratory testing yielded high linear correlation between the accumulated sampler flow, q total, and accumulated drainage flow, Q total (r (2) > 0.96). The slope of these correlations was used to calculate the total drainage discharge from the sampled volume, and therefore contaminant load. A calibration of the MSW under controlled laboratory condition was needed before interpretation of the monitoring results was possible. The MSW does not require a shed, electricity, or maintenance. This enables large-scale monitoring of contaminant loads via tile drains, which can improve contaminant transport models and yield valuable information for the selection and evaluation of mitigation options to improve water quality. Results from this type of monitoring can provide data for the evaluation and optimisation of best management practices in agriculture in order to produce the highest yield without water quality and recipient surface waters being compromised.

  14. Mucosal blood flow measurements using laser Doppler perfusion monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dag Arne Lihaug Hoff; Hans Gregersen; Jan Gunnar Hatlebakk

    2009-01-01

    Perfusion of individual tissues is a basic physiological process that is necessary to sustain oxygenation and nutrition at a cellular level. Ischemia, or the insufficiency of perfusion, is a common mechanism for tissue death or degeneration, and at a lower threshold, a mechanism for the generation of sensory signalling including pain. It is of considerable interest to study perfusion of peripheral abdominal tissues in a variety of circumstances. Microvascular disease of the abdominal organs has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of disorders, including peptic ulcer disease, inflammatory bowel disease and chest pain. The basic principle of laser Doppler perfusion monitoring (LDPM) is to analyze changes in the spectrum of light reflected from tissues as a response to a beam of monochromatic laser light emitted. It reflects the total local microcirculatory blood perfusion, including perfusion in capillaries, arterioles, venules and shunts. During the last 20-25 years, numerous studies have been performed in different parts of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract using LDPM. In recent years we have developed a multi-modal catheter device which includes a laser Doppler probe, with the intent primarily to investigate patients suffering from functional chest pain of presumed oesophageal origin. Preliminary studies show the feasibility of incorporating LDPM into such catheters for performing physiological studies in the GI tract. LDPM has emerged as a research and clinical tool in preference to other methods; but, it is important to be aware of its limitations and account for them when reporting results.

  15. PREPARATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL BEHAVIOR OF ALKYL SUBSTITUTED PHENOLIC EPOXY RESIN

    OpenAIRE

    Jyoti Chaudhary*, Supriya Dadhich, Giriraj Tailor

    2017-01-01

    The present article deals with the synthesis of phenolic epoxy resin by the reaction of phenolic resin and epichlorohydrin. The synthesis of phenolic resin was carried out by using p-ethylphenol, formaldehyde and naphthol. The structures of phenolic and epoxy resins were confirmed by spectroscopic analysis. The synthesized epoxy resin showed solubility in polar solvents like DMF, dioxane, acetone, DMSO, THF, ethyl acetate, and chloroform. Thermal characterization of epoxy resin was monitored ...

  16. Resin Viscosity Influence on Fiber Compaction in Tapered Resin Injection Pultrusion Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuram, N. B.; Roux, J. A.; Jeswani, A. L.

    2017-08-01

    Viscosity of the liquid resin effects the chemical and mechanical properties of the pultruded composite. In resin injection pultrusion manufacturing the liquid resin is injected into a specially designed tapered injection chamber through the injection slots present on top and bottom of the chamber. The resin is injected at a pressure so as to completely wetout the fiber reinforcements inside the tapered injection chamber. As the resin penetrates through the fibers, the resin also pushes the fibers away from the wall towards the center of chamber causing compaction of the fiber reinforcements. The fibers are squeezed together due to compaction, making resin penetration more difficult; thus higher resin injection pressures are required to efficaciously penetrate through the compacted fibers and achieve complete wetout. The impact of resin viscosity on resin flow, fiber compaction, wetout and on the final product is further discussed. Injection chamber design predominantly effects the resin flow inside the chamber and the minimum injection pressure required to completely wet the fibers. Therefore, a desirable injection chamber design is such that wetout occurs at lower injection pressures and at low internal pressures inside the injection chamber.

  17. Full-field speckle correlation technique as applied to blood flow monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilensky, M. A.; Agafonov, D. N.; Timoshina, P. A.; Shipovskaya, O. V.; Zimnyakov, D. A.; Tuchin, V. V.; Novikov, P. A.

    2011-03-01

    The results of experimental study of monitoring the microcirculation in tissue superficial layers of the internal organs at gastro-duodenal hemorrhage with the use of laser speckles contrast analysis technique are presented. The microcirculation monitoring was provided in the course of the laparotomy of rat abdominal cavity in the real time. Microscopic hemodynamics was analyzed for small intestine and stomach under different conditions (normal state, provoked ischemia, administration of vasodilative agents such as papaverine, lidocaine). The prospects and problems of internal monitoring of micro-vascular flow in clinical conditions are discussed.

  18. System-focused environmental flow regime prescription, monitoring and adaptive management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetherington, David; Lexartza Artza, Irantzu

    2016-04-01

    that more peripheral influencing factors should be given serious consideration when developing environmental flow regimes. These factors could include the development of ice, non-fluvial geomorphic processes such as landslides, connectivity with groundwater and provision for local cottage industries. Even with a thorough appreciation of the holistic system, the value of detailed environmental monitoring and adaptive management plans cannot be underestimated as a means of further managing risk and uncertainty in complex systems. It is suggested that by taking a more holistic and system-focused approach to environmental flow definition, that environmental flow regimes can be tailored to the specificity and complexity of any given location. By improving the way that environmental flow regimes and associated physical mitigation are prescribed, monitored and managed it should be possible to develop more sustainable forms of energy production whilst minimising environmental harm as far as possible.

  19. Debris flow monitoring in the Acquabona watershed on the Dolomites (Italian Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, M.; Genevois, R.; LaHusen, R.; Simoni, A.; Tecca, P.R.

    2000-01-01

    In 1997 a field monitoring system was installed in Acquabona Creek in the Dolomites (Eastern Italian Alps) to observe the hydrologic conditions for debris flow occurrence and some dynamic properties of debris flow. The monitoring system consists of three remote stations: an upper one located at the head of a deeply-incised channel and two others located downstream. The system is equipped with sensors for measuring rainfall, pore pressures in the mobile channel bottom, ground vibrations, debris flow depth, total normal stress and fluid pore-pressure at the base of the flow. Two video cameras record events at the upper channel station and one video is installed at the lowermost station. During summer 1998, three debris flows (volumes from less than 1000 m3 up to 9000 m3) occurred at Acquabona. The following results were obtained from a preliminary analysis of the data: 1) All of the flows were triggered by rainfalls of less than 1 hour duration, with peak rainfall intensities ranging from 4.8 to 14.7 mm / 10 minute. 2) Debris flows initiated in several reaches of the channel, including the head of the talus slope. 3) The initial surges of the mature flows had a higher solid concentration and a lower velocity (up to 4 m/s) than succeeding, more dilute surges (more than 7 m/s). 4) Total normal stress and pore fluid pressures measured at the base of the flow (mean depth about 1.1 m) were similar (about 15 kPa), indicating a completely liquefied flow. 5) Peak flows entrained debris at a rate of about 6 m3/m of channel length and channel bed scouring was proportional to the local slope gradient and was still evident in the lower channel where the slope was 7??. ?? 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Thirty-one years of debris-flow observation and monitoring near La Honda, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, G.F.; Wilson, R.C.; Ellen, S.D.; Reid, M.E.; Jayko, A.S.

    2007-01-01

    From 1975 until 2006,18 intense storms triggered at least 248 debris flows within 10 km2 northwest of the town of La Honda within the Santa Cruz Mountains, California. In addition to mapping debris flows and other types of landslides, studies included soil sampling and geologic mapping, piezometric and tensiometer monitoring, and rainfall measurement and recording. From 1985 until 1995, a system with radio telemetered rain gages and piezometers within the La Honda region was used for issuing six debris-flow warnings within the San Francisco Bay region through the NOAA ALERT system. Depending upon the relative intensity of rainfall during storms, debris flows were generated from deep slumps, shallow slumps, shallow slides in colluvium and shallow slides over bedrock. Analysis shows the storms with abundant antecedent rainfall followed by several days of steady heavy intense rainfall triggered the most abundant debris flows. ?? 2007 millpress.

  1. A New Submersible Imaging-in-flow Instrument to Monitor Nano- and Microplankton: Imaging FlowCytobot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, R. J.; Sosik, H. M.; Shalapyonok, A.

    2004-12-01

    Understanding of how coastal plankton communities are regulated has traditionally been limited by undersampling, but cabled observatories now provide opportunities to deploy submersible sensors that have high power and data transmission requirements. We have developed an in situ instrument to carry out high-resolution, long term monitoring of phytoplankton and microzooplankton in the size range 10 to100 micrometers, to be deployed at cabled research facilities such as the Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory (MVCO). The new instrument is designed to complement FlowCytobot, a submersible flow cytometer currently deployed at MVCO that uses fluorescence and light scattering signals from a laser beam to characterize the smallest phytoplankton cells (less than 10 micrometers). Imaging FlowCytobot uses a combination of flow cytometric and video technology to capture images of organisms for identification and to measure chlorophyll fluorescence associated with each image. Images will be classified using neural net software, while the measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence will allow us to discriminate heterotrophic from phototrophic cells. The new instrument, like the original FlowCytobot is autonomous but remotely programmable. It utilizes a computer controlled syringe pump and distribution valve that allows periodic anti-fouling treatment and analysis of standard beads. Samples are analyzed continuously (0.25 to 2.5 ml per min) and data is sent over a fiber optic link to a remote computer for analysis. Preliminary results indicate that we can detect cells as small as 5 micrometers and discriminate several taxa of diatoms and dinoflagellates.

  2. 树脂传递模塑成型的光纤光栅监测%Monitoring of the Resin Transfer Molding Process Using Fiber Bragg Gratings Sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢少微; 高禹; 张海军; 冷劲松

    2013-01-01

    复合材料固化过程对于生产高质量复合材料部件十分必要.文中利用光栅传感器监测树脂传递模塑(RTM)复合材料层板制造过程中内应变及温度,根据复合材料内应变/温度关系曲线的突交点,获得复合材料的材料转变点(凝胶点、玻璃化转变温度)信息.在复合材料降温阶段,利用光栅监测的应变/温度值计算RTM成型复合材料的内层和外层热膨胀系数.监测结果与传统检测方法相比十分一致.%Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors were used to measure the development of internal strain and temperature in composite laminate manufactured by resin transfer molding (RTM). The sensors are also used to capture the material transitions (gel point, glass transition temperature) of the composite from the abrupt point of the internal strain and temperature relationship curve. Coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) of internal composite layers and outer composite layers were calculated from the strain and temperature values of FBGS during the composites cooling process. The monitoring results are very consistent with that detected by the traditional method.

  3. Persistent organic pollutants monitoring in marine coastal environment using beached plastic resin pellets and effective risk communication via International Pellet Watch (IPW) as a tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, B. G. M.; Takada, H.; Hosoda, J.

    2014-12-01

    International Pellet Watch (IPW) is an ongoing global monitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) using preproduction plastic resin pellets. These pellets are easily collected and transported allowing the general public worldwide to get involved. Thus, risk communication toward the pellet collectors is a significant part of IPW to ensure continuous effort and interest. The pellet samples were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and degradation products (DDTs), and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs). Additional pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Hopanes were also analyzed for some samples. Analytical results showed distinct patterns with high concentrations (pollution where PCBs were used extensively before the ban in the late 1980's. Pesticide DDTs instead were found to be higher in developing countries such as Brazil and Vietnam (> 500ng/g-pellet). These countries may still be using DDTs as a vector control mostly to combat malaria. High concentrations of DDTs were also found in Greece, China and Australia (> 100ng/g-pellet) suggesting the possibility of illegal usage as pesticide or anti fouling paint. HCHs concentrations were mostly low due to its low retention in the environment. However, high HCHs concentrations were mostly found in the southern hemisphere. Very high concentration of PAHs in pellet samples can be utilized for early identification of recent oil pollution. High PAHs concentration in Tauranga, New Zealand was found to be caused by local oil spill. Hopanes in pellets can be used for source identification of oil pollution. Global mapping and comparison among IPW data can be used to provide better explanations to IPW volunteers by sorting concentrations into pollution categories. Communication reports are tailor written based on the volunteers familiarity to IPW's issues, educational background, occupation and their potential to further spread awareness. Based on feedbacks, the

  4. THE POLYMERIZATION OF ROOM TEMPERATURE CURING EPOXY RESINS

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPOXY RESINS , *PLASTICS, *POLYMERIZATION, AGING (PHYSIOLOGY), CHEMICAL BONDS, ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES, EMBEDDING SUBSTANCES, MONITORS, POLYMERS, RESISTANCE (ELECTRICAL), STORAGE, STRUCTURES, TEMPERATURE, TEST METHODS, VOLUME

  5. Note: Strain sensitivity comparison between fiber Bragg gratings inscribed on 125 and 80 micron cladding diameter fibers, case study on the solidification monitoring of a photo-curable resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maccioni, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) sez. di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Morganti, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) sez. di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Accademia Militare di Livorno, Viale Italia 72, 57100 Livorno (Italy); Brandi, F., E-mail: fernando.brandi@ino.it [Nanophysics Department, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Ottica (INO), Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy)

    2015-02-15

    The influence of fiber Bragg grating diameter when measuring strain is investigated and quantified. Two fiber Bragg gratings with bare cladding diameter of 125 μm and 80 μm are produced by excimer laser irradiation through a phase mask, and are used to simultaneously monitor the Bragg wavelength shift due to the strain produced by the solidification of a photo-curable resin during light exposure. It is found that the ratio of the measured strains in the two fiber Bragg gratings is close to the inverse ratio of the fiber’s cladding diameter. These results represent a direct simultaneous comparison between 125 μm and 80 μm diameter fiber Bragg grating strain sensors, and demonstrate the feasibility of strain measurements in photo-curable resins using bare 80 μm cladding diameter fiber Bragg gratings with an increased sensitivity and spatial resolution compared with standard 125 μm diameter fiber Bragg gratings.

  6. Note: strain sensitivity comparison between fiber Bragg gratings inscribed on 125 and 80 micron cladding diameter fibers, case study on the solidification monitoring of a photo-curable resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccioni, E; Morganti, M; Brandi, F

    2015-02-01

    The influence of fiber Bragg grating diameter when measuring strain is investigated and quantified. Two fiber Bragg gratings with bare cladding diameter of 125 μm and 80 μm are produced by excimer laser irradiation through a phase mask, and are used to simultaneously monitor the Bragg wavelength shift due to the strain produced by the solidification of a photo-curable resin during light exposure. It is found that the ratio of the measured strains in the two fiber Bragg gratings is close to the inverse ratio of the fiber's cladding diameter. These results represent a direct simultaneous comparison between 125 μm and 80 μm diameter fiber Bragg grating strain sensors, and demonstrate the feasibility of strain measurements in photo-curable resins using bare 80 μm cladding diameter fiber Bragg gratings with an increased sensitivity and spatial resolution compared with standard 125 μm diameter fiber Bragg gratings.

  7. Blend Down Monitoring System Fissile Mass Flow Monitor Implementation at the ElectroChemical Plant, Zelenogorsk, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uckan, T.

    2005-11-11

    The implementation plans and preparations for installation of the Fissile Mass Flow Monitor (FMFM) equipment at the ElectroChemical Plant (ECP), Zelenogorsk, Russia, are presented in this report. The FMFM, developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is part of the Blend Down Monitoring System (BDMS), developed for the U.S. Department of Energy Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Transparency Implementation Program. The BDMS provides confidence to the United States that the Russian nuclear facilities supplying the lower-assay ({approx}4%) product low enriched uranium (P-LEU) to the United States from down-blended weapons-grade HEU are meeting the nonproliferation goals of the government-to-government HEU Purchase Agreement, signed between the Russian Federation and the United States in 1993. The first BDMS has been operational at Ural Electrochemical Integrated Plant, Novouralsk, since February 1999 and is successfully providing HEU transparency data to the United States. The second BDMS was installed at ECP in February 2003. The FMFM makes use of a set of thermalized californium-252 ({sup 252}Cf) spontaneous neutron sources for a modulated fission activation of the UF{sub 6} gas stream for measuring the {sup 235}U fissile mass flow rate. To do this, the FMFM measures the transport time of the fission fragments created from the fission activation process under the modulated source to the downstream detectors by detecting the delayed gamma rays from the fission fragments. The FMFM provides unattended, nonintrusive measurements of the {sup 235}U mass flow in the HEU, LEU blend stock, and P-LEU process legs. The FMFM also provides the traceability of the HEU flow to the product process leg. This report documents the technical installation requirements and the expected operational characteristics of the ECP FMFM.

  8. The Monitoring of River Flows and the Management of Flood Hazards using UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verosub, K. L.

    2015-12-01

    The increasing occurrence of extreme precipitation events as well as severe droughts, coupled with greater and greater human occupation of flood plains, makes increased monitoring of flows in rivers an important component of assessing the potential for water-related natural disasters as well as responding to them when they do occur. Unfortunately, this increasing need comes at a time when funding for monitoring activities is generally decreasing. In the United States, for example, gauging stations with daily flow records going back several decades or even a hundred years have been abandoned, and new stations in critical areas have not even been established. A methodology based on periodic UAV-based imaging of an entire river offers the prospect of obtaining inexpensive, real-time, high-resolution data for the determination of the river flows. The method makes use of fact that as the flow in a river rises or falls, the areal extent covered by the river changes accordingly. Furthermore, barring anthropogenic changes, the area inundated by a flow of a particular magnitude is invariant in time. For a given stretch of a river, a sequence of images spanning the full range of flow conditions provides the basic template for determining river flows. The actual flow in the river can be calibrated using previously measured flow data corresponding the dates of old aerial or satellite imagery, or calculated from new imagery by using standard flow equations and the topography of the banks of the river, determined by field surveying or Lidar. Once the basic template has been established, determination of "the state-of-the-river" at any point in time can be obtained by comparing newly-acquired UAV images with those in the database. And because a given image encompasses many topographic features that are inundated to differing extents, the resolution of the flow determination is limited only by the completeness of the imagery in the basic template. Repeat flights at weekly

  9. Review: Resin Composite Filling

    OpenAIRE

    Desmond Ng; Jimmy C. M. Hsiao; Keith C. T. Tong; Harry Kim; Yanjie Mai; Keith H. S. Chan

    2010-01-01

    The leading cause of oral pain and tooth loss is from caries and their treatment include restoration using amalgam, resin, porcelain and gold, endodontic therapy and extraction. Resin composite restorations have grown popular over the last half a century because it can take shades more similar to enamel. Here, we discuss the history and use of resin, comparison between amalgam and resin, clinical procedures involved and finishing and polishing techniques for resin restoration. Although resin ...

  10. Longitudinal optical monitoring of blood flow in breast tumors during neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, J. M.; Chung, S. H.; Leproux, A.; Baker, W. B.; Busch, D. R.; DeMichele, A. M.; Tchou, J.; Tromberg, B. J.; Yodh, A. G.

    2017-06-01

    We measure tissue blood flow markers in breast tumors during neoadjuvant chemotherapy and investigate their correlation to pathologic complete response in a pilot longitudinal patient study (n  =  4). Tumor blood flow is quantified optically by diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS), and tissue optical properties, blood oxygen saturation, and total hemoglobin concentration are derived from concurrent diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging (DOSI). The study represents the first longitudinal DCS measurement of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in humans over the entire course of treatment; it therefore offers a first correlation between DCS flow indices and pathologic complete response. The use of absolute optical properties measured by DOSI facilitates significant improvement of DCS blood flow calculation, which typically assumes optical properties based on literature values. Additionally, the combination of the DCS blood flow index and the tissue oxygen saturation from DOSI permits investigation of tissue oxygen metabolism. Pilot results from four patients suggest that lower blood flow in the lesion-bearing breast is correlated with pathologic complete response. Both absolute lesion blood flow and lesion flow relative to the contralateral breast exhibit potential for characterization of pathological response. This initial demonstration of the combined optical approach for chemotherapy monitoring provides incentive for more comprehensive studies in the future and can help power those investigations.

  11. Developing an Integrated Monitoring and Evaluation Flow for Sustainable Investment Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin TACHE

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Under the circumstances of certain weaknesses in the monitoring and evaluation processes of sustainable investment projects, the paper aims to develop a general integrated flow, encompassing both a project monitoring system and also a project evaluation system for the investment projects involving economic objectives, as well as cross-cutting social and environmental targets. The whole approach is being presented as a flowchart, which highlights the intimate relationship between the monitoring and evaluation processes, and provides a formal framework for performing a logical monitoring and evaluation process, taking into account simultaneously the economic, social and environmental perspectives, within an investment project. Last, but not least, the article states both the estimated advantages and the disadvantages of such a managerial tool, opening new perspectives for developing further improved models and systems.

  12. A soil flowing characteristics monitoring method in planetary drilling and coring verification experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Junyue; Quan, Qiquan; Jiang, Shengyuan; Chen, Chongbin; Yuan, Fengpei; Deng, Zongquan

    2017-03-01

    Some type of piercing into the subsurface formation is required in future planetary explorations to enhance the understanding of early stars' geological evolution and the origin of life. Compared with other technical methods, drilling & coring, only utilizing the compound locomotion of rotation and penetration, can sample the subsurface soil relatively efficient and convenient. However, given the uncertain mechanical properties of planetary soil, drilling state signals should be monitored online to improve the robustness of drilling system and avoid potential drilling faults. Since the flowing characteristics of interacted soil, such as removal volume, coring height, removal velocity and accumulation angle, directly reveal the drilling conditions, they are enhancing resources to comprehend the sampling phenomenon and can be used to help control the drill tool. This paper proposed a novel soil flowing characteristics (SFC) monitoring method by applying an industrial camera to record the flowing characteristics of removed cuttings and by utilizing an ultrasonic sensor into the hollow auger to monitor the sampled core. Experiments in one typical lunar regolith simulant indicate that the monitored SFC accurately reflects the interaction between the drill tool and soil.

  13. Implementation of the Fissile Mass Flow Monitor Source Verification and Confirmation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uckan, Taner [ORNL; March-Leuba, Jose A [ORNL; Powell, Danny H [ORNL; Nelson, Dennis [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Radev, Radoslav [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)

    2007-12-01

    This report presents the verification procedure for neutron sources installed in U.S. Department of Energy equipment used to measure fissile material flow. The Fissile Mass Flow Monitor (FMFM) equipment determines the {sup 235}U fissile mass flow of UF{sub 6} gas streams by using {sup 252}Cf neutron sources for fission activation of the UF{sub 6} gas and by measuring the fission products in the flow. The {sup 252}Cf sources in each FMFM are typically replaced every 2 to 3 years due to their relatively short half-life ({approx} 2.65 years). During installation of the new FMFM sources, the source identity and neutronic characteristics provided by the manufacturer are verified with the following equipment: (1) a remote-control video television (RCTV) camera monitoring system is used to confirm the source identity, and (2) a neutron detection system (NDS) is used for source-strength confirmation. Use of the RCTV and NDS permits remote monitoring of the source replacement process and eliminates unnecessary radiation exposure. The RCTV, NDS, and the confirmation process are described in detail in this report.

  14. Low parameter model to monitor bottom hole pressure in vertical multiphase flow in oil production wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Ahmadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the flow patterns through petroleum production wells proved for upstream experts to provide robust production schemes based on the knowledge about flow behavior. To provide accurate flow pattern distribution through production wells, accurate prediction/representation of bottom hole pressure (BHP for determining pressure drop from bottom to surface play important and vital role. Nevertheless enormous efforts have been made to develop mechanistic approach, most of the mechanistic and conventional models or correlations unable to estimate or represent the BHP with high accuracy and low uncertainty. To defeat the mentioned hurdle and monitor BHP in vertical multiphase flow through petroleum production wells, inventive intelligent based solution like as least square support vector machine (LSSVM method was utilized. The evolved first-break approach is examined by applying precise real field data illustrated in open previous surveys. Thanks to the statistical criteria gained from the outcomes obtained from LSSVM approach, the proposed least support vector machine (LSSVM model has high integrity and performance. Moreover, very low relative deviation between the model estimations and the relevant actual BHP data is figured out to be less than 6%. The output gained from LSSVM model are closed the BHP while other mechanistic models fails to predict BHP through petroleum production wells. Provided solutions of this study explicated that implies of LSSVM in monitoring bottom-hole pressure can indicate more accurate monitoring of the referred target which can lead to robust design with high level of reliability for oil and gas production operation facilities.

  15. Flow dynamics in hyper-saline aquifers: hydro-geophysical monitoring and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaken, Klaus; Piero Deidda, Gian; Cassiani, Giorgio; Deiana, Rita; Putti, Mario; Paniconi, Claudio; Scudeler, Carlotta; Kemna, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    Saline-freshwater interaction in porous media is a phenomenon of practical interest particularly for the management of water resources in arid and semi-arid environments, where precious freshwater resources are threatened by seawater intrusion and where storage of freshwater in saline aquifers can be a viable option. Saline-freshwater interactions are controlled by physico-chemical processes that need to be accurately modeled. This in turn requires monitoring of these systems, a non-trivial task for which spatially extensive, high-resolution non-invasive techniques can provide key information. In this paper we present the field monitoring and numerical modeling components of an approach aimed at understanding complex saline-freshwater systems. The approach is applied to a freshwater injection experiment carried out in a hyper-saline aquifer near Cagliari (Sardinia, Italy). The experiment was monitored using time-lapse cross-hole electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). To investigate the flow dynamics, coupled numerical flow and transport modeling of the experiment was carried out using an advanced three-dimensional (3-D) density-driven flow-transport simulator. The simulation results were used to produce synthetic ERT inversion results to be compared against real field ERT results. This exercise demonstrates that the evolution of the freshwater bulb is strongly influenced by the system's (even mild) hydraulic heterogeneities. The example also highlights how the joint use of ERT imaging and gravity-dependent flow and transport modeling give fundamental information for this type of study.

  16. Doppler standard deviation imaging for clinical monitoring of in vivo human skin blood flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yonghua; Chen, Zhongping; Saxer, Christopher; Shen, Qimin; Xiang, Shaohua; Boer, Johannes F. de; Nelson, J. Stuart

    2000-09-15

    We used a novel phase-resolved optical Doppler tomographic (ODT) technique with very high flow-velocity sensitivity (10 {mu}m/s) and high spatial resolution (10 {mu}m) to image blood flow in port-wine stain (PWS) birthmarks in human skin. In addition to the regular ODT velocity and structural images, we use the variance of blood flow velocity to map the PWS vessels. Our device combines ODT and therapeutic systems such that PWS blood flow can be monitored in situ before and after laser treatment. To the authors' knowledge this is the first clinical application of ODT to provide a fast semiquantitative evaluation of the efficacy of PWS laser therapy in situ and in real time. (c) 2000 Optical Society of America.

  17. High frequency seismic monitoring of debris flows at Chalk Cliffs (CO), USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coviello, Velio; Kean, Jason; Smith, Joel; Coe, Jeffrey; Arattano, Massimo; McCoy, Scott

    2015-04-01

    A growing number of studies adopt passive seismic monitoring techniques to investigate slope instabilities and landslide processes. These techniques are attractive and convenient because large areas can be monitored from a safe distance. This is particularly true when the phenomena under investigation are rapid and infrequent mass movements like debris flows. Different types of devices are used to monitor debris flow processes, but among them ground vibration detectors (GVDs) present several, specific advantages that encourage their use. These advantages include: (i) the possibility to be installed outside the channel bed, (ii) the high adaptability to different and harsh field conditions, and (iii) the capability to detect the debris flow front arrival tens of seconds earlier than contact and stage sensors. Ground vibration data can provide relevant information on the dynamics of debris flows such as timing and velocity of the main surges. However, the processing of the raw seismic signal is usually needed, both to obtain a more effective representation of waveforms and to decrease the amount of data that need to be recorded and analyzed. With this objective, the methods of Amplitude and Impulses are commonly adopted to transform the raw signal to a 1-Hz signal that allows for a more useful representation of the phenomenon. In that way, peaks and other features become more visible and comparable with data obtained from other monitoring devices. In this work, we present the first debris flows seismic recordings gathered in the Chalk Cliffs instrumented basin, central Colorado, USA. In May 2014, two 4.5-Hz, three-axial geophones were installed in the upper part of the catchment. Seismic data are sampled at 333 Hz and then recorded by a standalone recording unit. One geophone is directly installed on bedrock, the other one mounted on a 1-m boulder partially buried in colluvium. This latter sensor integrates a heavily instrumented cross-section consisting of a 225 cm2

  18. Observing hydrological processes: recent advancements in surface flow monitoring through image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauro, Flavia; Grimaldi, Salvatore

    2017-04-01

    Recently, several efforts have been devoted to the design and development of innovative, and often unintended, approaches for the acquisition of hydrological data. Among such pioneering techniques, this presentation reports recent advancements towards the establishment of a novel noninvasive and potentially continuous methodology based on the acquisition and analysis of images for spatially distributed observations of the kinematics of surface waters. The approach aims at enabling rapid, affordable, and accurate surface flow monitoring of natural streams. Flow monitoring is an integral part of hydrological sciences and is essential for disaster risk reduction and the comprehension of natural phenomena. However, water processes are inherently complex to observe: they are characterized by multiscale and highly heterogeneous phenomena which have traditionally demanded sophisticated and costly measurement techniques. Challenges in the implementation of such techniques have also resulted in lack of hydrological data during extreme events, in difficult-to-access environments, and at high temporal resolution. By combining low-cost yet high-resolution images and several velocimetry algorithms, noninvasive flow monitoring has been successfully conducted at highly heterogeneous scales, spanning from rills to highly turbulent streams, and medium-scale rivers, with minimal supervision by external users. Noninvasive image data acquisition has also afforded observations in high flow conditions. Latest novelties towards continuous flow monitoring at the catchment scale have entailed the development of a remote gauge-cam station on the Tiber River and integration of flow monitoring through image analysis with unmanned aerial systems (UASs) technology. The gauge-cam station and the UAS platform both afford noninvasive image acquisition and calibration through an innovative laser-based setup. Compared to traditional point-based instrumentation, images allow for generating surface

  19. 非织造工艺对天然纤维增强体树脂流动性能的影响%EFFECT OF NON-WOVEN TECHNOLOGY ON RESIN FLOW CHARACTER FOR NATURAL FIBER REINFORCEMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛道顺; 周红涛; 胡红

    2011-01-01

    The resin flow character of fibrous reinforcement is an important factor to the design of resin flow process and the mechanical property of the final product. This paper investigated the effect of non-woven technology on resin flow character for flax fiber non-woven reinforcement. The results show that the flax non-woven reinforcement manufactured by parallel-laid technology has lower permeability but higher flow anisotropy than that of nonwoven reinforcement manufactured by cross-laid technology under the same vacuum pressure. With the increasing of reinforcement layers and vacuum pressures, the permeability decreases; the change of vacuum pressure has no obvious influence on flow anisotropy.%纤维增强体的树脂流动性能是影响树脂传递模塑工艺设计及其复合材料质量的一个重要因素.本文利用单向法测试真空辅助传递模塑工艺中非织造工艺对亚麻纤维增强体对树脂流动性能的影响.结果表明,相同压力条件下,由平行铺网工艺制作的纤维增强体比交叉铺网工艺增强体树脂渗透率低,流动各项异性大;随着层数的增加及压力的增大,两种铺网工艺增强体的树脂渗透率降低,压力的变化对流动各向异性影响不大.

  20. Blend Down Monitoring System Fissile Mass Flow Monitor and its Implementation at the Siberian Chemical Enterprise, Seversk, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uckan, T

    2005-07-28

    In this paper the implementation plans and preparations for installation of the Fissile Mass Flow Monitor (FMFM) equipment at the Siberian Chemical Enterprise (SChE), Seversk, Russia, are presented. The FMFM, developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is part of the Blend Down Monitoring System (BDMS) for the U.S. Department of Energy Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Transparency Implementation Program. The BDMS provides confidence to the United States that the Russian nuclear facilities supplying the lower assay ({approx}4%) product low enriched uranium (PLEU) to the United States from down-blended weapon-grade HEU are meeting the nonproliferation goals of the government-to-government HEU purchase agreement signed between the Russian Federation and the United States in 1993. The first BDMS has been operational at Ural Electrochemical Integrated Plant, Novouralsk, since February 1999. The second BDMS has been operational at Electro Chemical Plant, Zelenogorsk, since March 2003. These systems are successfully providing HEU transparency data to the United States. The third BDMS was successfully installed on the HEU down-blending tee in the SChE Enrichment Plant in October 2004. The FMFM makes use of a set of thermalized {sup 252}Cf spontaneous neutron sources for modulated fission activation of the UF{sub 6} gas stream for measuring the {sup 235}U fissile mass flow rate. To do this, the FMFM measures the transport time of the fission fragments created from the fission activation process under the modulated source to the downstream detectors by detecting the delayed gamma rays from the fission fragments retained in the flow. The FMFM provides unattended nonintrusive measurements of the {sup 235}U mass flow of the UF{sub 6} gas in the blending tee legs of HEU, the LEU blend stock, and the resulting P-LEU. The FMFM also confirms that highly enriched UF{sub 6} gas identified in the HEU leg flows through the blending tee into the P-LEU leg. This report contains details of

  1. Monitoring Temperature in High Enthalpy Arc-heated Plasma Flows using Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Marcel Nations; Chang, Leyen S.; Jeffries, Jay B.; Hanson, Ronald K.; Nawaz, Anuscheh; Taunk, Jaswinder S.; Driver, David M.; Raiche, George

    2013-01-01

    A tunable diode laser sensor was designed for in situ monitoring of temperature in the arc heater of the NASA Ames IHF arcjet facility (60 MW). An external cavity diode laser was used to generate light at 777.2 nm and laser absorption used to monitor the population of electronically excited oxygen atoms in an air plasma flow. Under the assumption of thermochemical equilibrium, time-resolved temperature measurements were obtained on four lines-of-sight, which enabled evaluation of the temperature uniformity in the plasma column for different arcjet operating conditions.

  2. Dielectrophoresis microsystem with integrated flow cytometers for on-line monitoring of sorting efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhenyu; Hansen, Ole; Petersen, Peter Kalsen

    2006-01-01

    Dielectrophoresis (DEP) and flow cytometry are powerful technologies and widely applied in microfluidic systems for handling and measuring cells and particles. Here, we present a novel microchip with a DEP selective filter integrated with two microchip flow cytometers (FCs) for on-line monitoring...... of cell sorting processes. On the microchip, the DEP filter is integrated in a microfluidic channel network to sort yeast cells by positive DER The two FCs detection windows are set upstream and downstream of the DEP filter. When a cell passes through the detection windows, the light scattered by the cell...

  3. New turbidity current model based on high-resolution monitoring of the longest flow ever measured

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azpiroz, Maria; Cartigny, Matthieu; Talling, Peter; Parsons, Daniel; Simmons, Steve; Clare, Michael; Sumner, Esther; Pope, Ed

    2016-04-01

    Turbidity currents transport large amounts of sediment from shallow waters towards deep ocean basins. Little is known about these flows, despite their potential hazard for damaging expensive and strategically important seafloor infrastructure. So far turbidity currents have been profiled in only 6 deep ocean locations worldwide. Our current knowledge of these flows is therefore mainly based on scaled-down experimental and computationally-limited numerical modelling. Here we present results from the monitoring of a one-week long turbidity current in the Congo Canyon that had a discharge close to that of the Mississippi River. Measurements taken every 5 seconds give the most detailed image yet of a turbidity current deep-water over an unprecedented duration. Our analysis reveals a different flow structure than that presented in previous models. Classical models display a thick front of the flow followed by a thinner and faster flow, which gives way to a short and quasi-steady body. Instead, we observe a thin frontal cell that outruns a thicker (~80 m), long and slower quasi-steady flow. In contrast to the previous model, where the thinner faster flow feeds sediment into the head, the Congo Canyon turbidity current shows a frontal cell that feeds sediment into, and at the same time outruns, the succeeding quasi-steady flow. As a result of the faster moving frontal cell, the flow should continuously stretch and grow in length while propagating down the system. Within the quasi-steady body, the flow switches between what appears to be two stable flow modes. One mode exhibits a fast and thin velocity profile whose maximum is a low distance from the seabed and resembles Froude-supercritical flow conditions, while the other mode is similar to Froude-subcritical flow conditions as the flow is thicker and slower. These first observations provide new insights into the behaviour of deep water long duration flows that differ from traditional models and provide an exciting

  4. Dithiocarbamate functionalized or surface sorbed Merrifield resin beads as column materials for on line flow injection-flame atomic absorption spectrometry determination of lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, R S; Naidu, G R K; Prasada Rao, T

    2007-09-26

    This article describes the preparation of dithiocarbamate immobilized/functionalized and diethylammonium dithiocarbamate (DDTC) sorbed Merrifield Chloromethylated Resin (MCR) beads and comparison of these materials for on-line flow injection (FI)-flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) determination of lead. The above two materials enrich lead quantitatively over an identical optimal pH range (8.0-9.0), a preconcentration/loading time (up to 4 min) and elution with acidified methanol (a minimum of 0.01 molL(-1) HNO(3) in methanol). However, the detection limit for lead using dithiocarbamate functionalized MCR beads is 1.3 microgL(-1) compared to 3 microgL(-1) for DDTC sorbed MCR beads. Again, the sensitivity enhancement over direct FAAS signal is 48- and 27-fold, respectively. In addition, dithiocarbamate functionalized MCR beads offers better precision compared to DDTC sorbed MCR beads as the corresponding relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) values for five successive determinations of 0.20 microgmL(-1) are 1.44 and 4.36%, respectively. The accuracy of the developed on-line FI-FAAS procedure employing dithiocarbamate functionalized MCR beads as column material was tested by analyzing Certified Reference Material (CRM) of soil (IAEA soil-7) and marine sediment reference material (MESS-3) supplied by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna and National Research Council (NRC), Canada, respectively. Furthermore, the developed procedure has been successfully tested for the analysis of surface, pond, ground and effluent water and soil samples collected from the vicinity of lead acid battery industry in India.

  5. Monitoring the Erosion of Hydrolytically-Degradable Nanogels via Multiangle Light Scattering Coupled to Asymmetrical Flow Field-Flow Fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael H.; South, Antoinette B.; Gaulding, Jeffrey C.; Lyon, L. Andrew

    2009-01-01

    We describe the synthesis and characterization of degradable nanogels that display bulk erosion under physiologic conditions (pH = 7.4, 37 °C). Erodible poly(N-isopropylmethacrylamide) nanogels were synthesized by copolymerization with N,O-(dimethacryloyl)hydroxylamine, a cross-linker previously used in the preparation of non-toxic and biodegradable bulk hydrogels. To monitor particle degradation, we employed multiangle light scattering and differential refractometry detection following asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation. This approach allowed the detection of changes in nanogel molar mass and topology as a function of both temperature and pH. Particle erosion was evident from both an increase in nanogel swelling and a decrease in scattering intensity as a function of time. Following these analyses, the samples were recovered for subsequent characterization by direct particle tracking, which yields hydrodynamic size measurements and enables number density determination. Additionally, we confirmed the conservation of nanogel stimuli-responsivity through turbidity measurements. Thus, we have demonstrated the synthesis of degradable nanogels that erode under conditions and on timescales that are relevant for many drug delivery applications. The combined separation and light scattering detection method is demonstrated to be a versatile means to monitor erosion and should also find applicability in the characterization of other degradable particle constructs. PMID:20000662

  6. Monitoring and Evaluation of Environmental Flow Prescriptions for Five Demonstration Sites of the Sustainable Rivers Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Christopher P.

    2010-01-01

    The Nature Conservancy has been working with U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) through the Sustainable Rivers Project (SRP) to modify operations of dams to achieve ecological objectives in addition to meeting the authorized purposes of the dams. Modifications to dam operations are specified in terms of environmental flow prescriptions that quantify the magnitude, duration, frequency, and seasonal timing of releases to achieve specific ecological outcomes. Outcomes of environmental flow prescriptions implemented from 2002 to 2008 have been monitored and evaluated at demonstration sites in five rivers: Green River, Kentucky; Savannah River, Georgia/South Carolina; Bill Williams River, Arizona; Big Cypress Creek, Texas; and Middle Fork Willamette River, Oregon. Monitoring and evaluation have been accomplished through collaborative partnerships of federal and state agencies, universities, and nongovernmental organizations.

  7. Analysis of novel geometry-independent method for dialysis access pressure-flow monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panduranga Harsha

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background End-stage renal disease (ESRD confers a large health-care burden for the United States, and the morbidity associated with vascular access failure has stimulated research into detection of vascular access stenosis and low flow prior to thrombosis. We present data investigating the possibility of using differential pressure (ΔP monitoring to estimate access flow (Q for dialysis access monitoring, with the goal of utilizing micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS pressure sensors integrated within the shaft of dialysis needles. Methods A model of the arteriovenous graft fluid circuit was used to study the relationship between Q and the ΔP between two dialysis needles placed 2.5–20.0 cm apart. Tubing was varied to simulate grafts with inner diameters of 4.76–7.95 mm. Data were compared with values from two steady-flow models. These results, and those from computational fluid dynamics (CFD modeling of ΔP as a function of needle position, were used to devise and test a method of estimating Q using ΔP and variable dialysis pump speeds (variable flow that diminishes dependence on geometric factors and fluid characteristics. Results In the fluid circuit model, ΔP increased with increasing volume flow rate and with increasing needle-separation distance. A nonlinear model closely predicts this ΔP-Q relationship (R2 > 0.98 for all graft diameters and needle-separation distances tested. CFD modeling suggested turbulent needle effects are greatest within 1 cm of the needle tip. Utilizing linear, quadratic and combined variable flow algorithms, dialysis access flow was estimated using geometry-independent models and an experimental dialysis system with the pressure sensors separated from the dialysis needle tip by distances ranging from 1 to 5 cm. Real-time ΔP waveform data were also observed during the mock dialysis treatment, which may be useful in detecting low or reversed flow within the access. Conclusion With further

  8. Immune Monitoring in Cancer Vaccine Clinical Trials: Critical Issues of Functional Flow Cytometry-Based Assays

    OpenAIRE

    Iole Macchia; Francesca Urbani; Enrico Proietti

    2013-01-01

    The development of immune monitoring assays is essential to determine the immune responses against tumor-specific antigens (TSAs) and tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) and their possible correlation with clinical outcome in cancer patients receiving immunotherapies. Despite the wide range of techniques used, to date these assays have not shown consistent results among clinical trials and failed to define surrogate markers of clinical efficacy to antitumor vaccines. Multiparameter flow cytometr...

  9. A lactose flow injection analysis biosensor system for monitoring and process control

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    In this work an enzymatic lactose biosensor composed of the immobilized enzymes E- galactosidase and glucose oxidase was developed. Oxygen consumption during the reaction catalyzed by these enzymes was detected. The biosensor was integrated into an FIA (flow injection analysis) system that allows measurement of lactose on-line in less than three minutes. This biosensor was used to monitor lactose concentration during the production of E-galactosidase by the yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus from ...

  10. Development of fuel flow monitoring system in prototype fast breeder reactor 'MONJU'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomura, Katsuji; Deshimaru; Takehide; Okuda, Yoshihisa; Ohba, Toshio (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tsuruga, Fukui (Japan). Monju Construction Office); Ishikawa, Kouichi

    1994-06-01

    A new safeguards approach of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor 'MONJU' has been studied by Japanese Government, IAEA and PNC to meet 1991-1995 safeguards criteria. As the result, a fuel flow monitoring system has been introduced in 'MONJU'. Development of the system has been conducted by PNC and IAEA with technical support of Los Alamos National Laboratory. Safeguards measures in unattended mode with the system can detect fuel loading and unloading into and from the reactor core and distinguish what kind of the fuel. The system are consisted of three monitors using neutron and gamma-ray measurements and video surveillance system. Installation of these monitors was finished by PNC and acceptance test by Japanese Government and IAEA was carried out March, 1992. (author).

  11. Monitoring And Analyzing Distributed Cluster Performance And Statistics Of Atlas Job Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Ramprakash, S

    2005-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is a High Energy Physics experiment that utilizes the services of Grid3 now migrating to the Open Science Grid (OSG). This thesis provides monitoring and analysis of performance and statistical data from individual distributed clusters that combine to form the ATLAS Grid and will ultimately be used to make scheduling decisions on this Grid. The system developed in this thesis uses a layered architecture such that predicted future developments or changes brought to the existing Grid infrastructure can easily utilize this work with minimum or no changes. The starting point of the system is based on the existing scheduling that is being done manually for ATLAS job flow. We have provided additional functionality based on the requirements of the High Energy Physics ATLAS team of physicists at UTA. The system developed in this thesis has successfully monitored and analyzed distributed cluster performance at three sites and is waiting for access to monitor data from three more sites. (Abstract s...

  12. Brief Communication: A low-cost Arduino®-based wire extensometer for earth flow monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Guerriero

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Continuous monitoring of earth flow displacement is essential for the understanding of the dynamic of the process, its ongoing evolution and designing mitigation measures. Despite its importance, it is not always applied due to its expense and the need for integration with additional sensors to monitor factors controlling movement. To overcome these problems, we developed and tested a low-cost Arduino-based wire-rail extensometer integrating a data logger, a power system and multiple digital and analog inputs. The system is equipped with a high-precision position transducer that in the test configuration offers a measuring range of 1023 mm and an associated accuracy of ±1 mm, and integrates an operating temperature sensor that should allow potential thermal drift that typically affects this kind of systems to be identified and corrected. A field test, conducted at the Pietrafitta earth flow where additional monitoring systems had been installed, indicates a high reliability of the measurement and a high monitoring stability without visible thermal drift.

  13. Brief Communication: A low-cost Arduino®-based wire extensometer for earth flow monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerriero, Luigi; Guerriero, Giovanni; Grelle, Gerardo; Guadagno, Francesco M.; Revellino, Paola

    2017-06-01

    Continuous monitoring of earth flow displacement is essential for the understanding of the dynamic of the process, its ongoing evolution and designing mitigation measures. Despite its importance, it is not always applied due to its expense and the need for integration with additional sensors to monitor factors controlling movement. To overcome these problems, we developed and tested a low-cost Arduino-based wire-rail extensometer integrating a data logger, a power system and multiple digital and analog inputs. The system is equipped with a high-precision position transducer that in the test configuration offers a measuring range of 1023 mm and an associated accuracy of ±1 mm, and integrates an operating temperature sensor that should allow potential thermal drift that typically affects this kind of systems to be identified and corrected. A field test, conducted at the Pietrafitta earth flow where additional monitoring systems had been installed, indicates a high reliability of the measurement and a high monitoring stability without visible thermal drift.

  14. Monitoring bacterial biofilms with a microfluidic flow chip designed for imaging with white-light interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brann, Michelle; Suter, Jonathan D.; Addleman, R. Shane; Larimer, Curtis

    2017-07-01

    There is a need for imaging and sensing instrumentation that can monitor transitions in biofilm structure in order to better understand biofilm development and emergent properties such as anti-microbial resistance. Herein, we expanded on our previously reported technique for measuring and monitoring the thickness and topology of live biofilms using white-light interferometry (WLI). A flow cell designed for WLI enabled the use of this non-disruptive imaging method for the capture of high resolution three-dimensional profile images of biofilm growth over time. The fine axial resolution (3 nm) and wide field of view (>1 mm by 1 mm) enabled detection of biofilm formation as early as three hours after inoculation of the flow cell with a live bacterial culture (Pseudomonas fluorescens). WLI imaging facilitated monitoring the early stages of biofilm development and subtle variations in the structure of mature biofilms. Minimally-invasive imaging enabled monitoring of biofilm structure with surface metrology metrics (e.g., surface roughness). The system was used to observe a transition in biofilm structure that occurred in response to expsoure to a common antiseptic. In the future, WLI and the biofilm imaging cell described herein may be used to test the effectiveness of biofilm-specific therapies to combat common diseases associated with biofilm formation such as cystic fibrosis and periodontitis.

  15. Blood flow changes after unilateral carotid artery ligation monitored by optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yushu; Liang, Chengbo; Suo, Yanyan; Zhao, Yuqian; Wang, Yi; Xu, Tao; Wang, Ruikang; Ma, Zhenhe

    2016-03-01

    Unilateral carotid artery ligation which could induce adaptive improvement is a classic model that has been widely used to study pathology of ischemic disease. In those studies, blood flow is an important parameter to characterize the ischemia. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a powerful imaging modality which can provide depth resolved images in biological tissue with high spatial and temporal resolution. SPF rats was anesthetized with isoflurane and divided into two groups. In first group, bilateral carotid artery was surgically exposed, and then left carotid artery was ligated. Blood flow changes of the contralateral carotid artery was monitored using high speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography, including the absolute flow velocity and the flow volume. In the other group, skull window was opened at the ipsilateral cerebral cortex of ligation and blood supply of small artery was measured before and after the ligation. The measured results demonstrate the blood supply compensation process after unilateral carotid artery ligation. With the superiority of high resolution, OCT is an effective technology in monitoring results of carotid artery after ligation.

  16. Risk Exposure and Net Flow in Investment Funds: Do Shareholders Monitor Asset Allocation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Felipe Schiozer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the impact of asset allocation on the net flow of fixed income funds in the Brazilian market, by exploiting the exogenous variation in the risk perception of bank liabilities (CDs caused by the financial turmoil that followed Lehman Brothers’ demise in September 2008. The central hypothesis is that the exposure to assets negatively affected by the crisis impacts negatively the fund’s net flow. We find that, for mutual funds, the larger proportion of assets negatively affected by the crisis the larger the net outflow of resources, indicating that shareholders monitor asset allocation and exert disciplining power on fund managers by withdrawing their resources. In exclusive (fundos exclusivos, i.e., funds with a single shareholder, for which the shareholder is presumed to exert more influence on asset reallocation, we find no significant relationship between the exposure to assets negatively affected by the crisis and net flows.

  17. A System for Simple Real-Time Anastomotic Failure Detection and Wireless Blood Flow Monitoring in the Lower Limbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothfuss, Michael A.; Franconi, Nicholas G.; Unadkat, Jignesh V.; Gimbel, Michael L.; STAR, Alexander; Mickle, Marlin H.

    2016-01-01

    Current totally implantable wireless blood flow monitors are large and cannot operate alongside nearby monitors. To alleviate the problems with the current monitors, we developed a system to monitor blood flow wirelessly, with a simple and easily interpretable real-time output. To the best of our knowledge, the implanted electronics are the smallest in reported literature, which reduces bio-burden. Calibration was performed across realistic physiological flow ranges using a syringe pump. The device’s sensors connected directly to the bilateral femoral veins of swine. For each 1 min, blood flow was monitored, then, an occlusion was introduced, and then, the occlusion was removed to resume flow. Each vein of four pigs was monitored four times, totaling 32 data collections. The implant measured 1.70 cm3 without battery/encapsulation. Across its calibrated range, including equipment tolerances, the relative error is less than ±5% above 8 mL/min and between −0.8% and +1.2% at its largest calibrated flow rate, which to the best of our knowledge is the lowest reported in the literature across the measured calibration range. The average standard deviation of the flow waveform amplitude was three times greater than that of no-flow. Establishing the relative amplitude for the flow and no-flow waveforms was found necessary, particularly for noise modulated Doppler signals. Its size and accuracy, compared with other microcontroller-equipped totally implantable monitors, make it a good candidate for future tether-free free flap monitoring studies. PMID:27730016

  18. Debris flow monitoring experience in the Cancia basin (Dolomites, Northeast Italian Alps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancanelli, Laura; Bernard, Martino; Gregoretti, Carlo; Berti, Matteo; Simoni, Alessandro; Lanzoni, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    The monitoring campaign presented here aims to understand the dynamics of sediment transport processes in small head-water catchments of the Italian Alps and to evaluate the rainfall thresholds for debris flow triggering. The monitored basin of Cancia is located on the Eastern Italian Dolomites, in the Belluno Province. In particular, it is situated on the left side on the Boite river valley, next to the Borca di Cadore village, and is delimited by the western slope of the Mt. Antelao. The drainage area is 1.8 km2 while the elevation ranges from 2451 m a.s.l. to 880 m a.s.l., with a slope varying from 30-40° in the upper part to 10-15° in the lower part (fan area). The basin is characterized by a lithology very common in the Italian Alps, which consist of high permeability, poorly sorted rock debris, containing boulders up to 3-4 m in diameter, and include heterogeneous scree, alluvium and old debris flow deposits. The spatial distribution of sediment is characterized by: an upper part where prevails the presence of rocks, a medium part characterized by poorly sorted rock debris and fine sediment material, and a downstream part plenty of sediment material The Cancia basin is prone to stony debris flows, owing to the plenty availability of loose and coarse sediments and frequent convective events. In particular, the smaller grain sized material is provided by the erosion of lateral slope, while gravel, pebbles and cobbles are provided by the upper part of the basin, characterized by rocky material. The precipitation regime is marked by rainfalls of short duration and high intensity, usually occurring in the summer period. The debris flow channel has began to be surveyed in August 2009 to identify the debris flow generation area. At the beginning of July 2013 topographical surveys of the channel downstream the triggering area began in order to investigate the morphological evolution of the debris flow channel from 2013 until 2015. Moreover, at the beginning of

  19. Debris-flow monitoring at the Rebaixader torrent, Central Pyrenees, Spain: results on initiation, volume and dynamic behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Hurlimann Ziegler, Marcel; Abancó, Clàudia; Moya Sánchez, José

    2014-01-01

    The sophisticated monitoring system installed in the Rebaixader catchment incorporates a total of 6 different stations: four stations recording information on the initiation mechanisms (two meteorological stations and two infiltration stations), and two stations focussing on the debris flow detection and the dynamic behaviour of the flows. Between August 2009 and August 2013, seven debris flows and seventeen debris floods were detected. The volumes of the debris flows ranged from 2,100 to 16,...

  20. Resin Catalyst Hybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Asaoka

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction: What are resin catalyst hybrids? There are typically two types of resin catalyst. One is acidic resin which representative is polystyrene sulfonic acid. The other is basic resin which is availed as metal complex support. The objective items of this study on resin catalyst are consisting of pellet hybrid, equilibrium hybrid and function hybrid of acid and base,as shown in Fig. 1[1-5].

  1. Opportunities and challenges for the application of SP measurements to monitor subsurface flow (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, M.; Vinogradov, J.; MacAllister, D.; Butler, A. P.; Leinov, E.; Zhang, J.

    2013-12-01

    Measurements of self-potential (SP) have been proposed or applied to monitor flow in the shallow subsurface in numerous settings, including volcanoes, earthquake zones, geothermal fields and hydrocarbon reservoirs, to detect leaks from dams, tanks and embankments, and to characterize groundwater flow and hydraulic properties. To interpret the measurements, it is generally assumed that the SP is dominated by the streaming potential, arising from the drag of excess electrical charge in the diffuse part of the electrical double layer at the mineral-fluid interfaces. The constitutive equation relating electrical current density j to the driving forces ▽V and ▽P is then j = -σ▽V -σC▽P=-σ▽V + Qv (1) where V is the streaming potential, P is the water pressure, σ is the saturated rock conductivity, v is the Darcy velocity, C is the streaming potential coupling coefficient, and Q is the excess charge transported by the flow. Equation (1) shows that there is a close relationship between flow properties of interest, such as the pressure gradient or Darcy velocity, and the streaming potential component of the SP. Hence SP measurements are an attractive method to monitor subsurface flow. However, the problem with interpreting the measurements is that both C and Q can vary over orders of magnitude, in response to variations in pore-water salinity, temperature, rock texture, and the presence of NAPLs in the pore-space. Moreover, additional current sources may be present if there are gradients in concentration or temperature, arising from differential rates of ion migration down gradient (diffusion potentials), and because of charge exclusion from the pore-space (exclusion potentials). In general, these additional current sources are neglected. This talk suggests a potential new opportunity for the application of SP measurements to monitor subsurface flow, in which the signal of interest arises from salinity rather than pressure gradients. Saline intrusion into

  2. Preparation of montmorillonite modified phenolic resin for shell process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong Jianmin; Li Yuancai; Wang Wenqing; Xia Chun

    2009-01-01

    The development of montmodllonite modified phenolic resin under microwave irradiation heating was investigated. The effect of montmorillonite content and stirring time on the structure and morphology of synthetic resin was analyzed. The optimum processing procedure was found to be 45 rain stirring time with 5.4% montmorillonite addition. Further, the platelet spacing increases with stirring time till montmorillonite exfoliated to nanoscales platelet. When montmorillonite is exfoliated, layered structure at nanoscale can be uniformly distributed in the resin. The overall performance of montmorillonite modified phenolic resin is improved remarkably, such as flow ability, tensile strength and toughness property of resin coated sand. However, the gelation speed decreased slightly by adding montmorillonite.

  3. Application of XAD-2 resin-based passive samplers and SPME-GC-MS/MS analysis for the monitoring of spatial and temporal variations of atmospheric pesticides in Luxembourg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schummer, Claude; Tuduri, Ludovic; Briand, Olivier; Appenzeller, Brice M; Millet, Maurice

    2012-11-01

    Passive air sampling has been shown to be a very interesting alternative to high-volume sampling by overcoming its disadvantages (size, weight, expensiveness). However, to date, only limited data is available about passive air sampling of current-use pesticides. In order to test if passive samplers allow monitoring of spatial and temporal variations of atmospheric pesticide concentrations, five XAD-2-resin based passive air samplers were deployed at five locations in Luxembourg. Samplers were analyzed using accelerated solvent extraction coupled to solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Collected data was used to study the spatial and temporal variations of the concentrations of the compounds. Twenty two pesticides were detected between March and October, while no pesticides were detected from November to February. Highest concentrations were measured on the rural sites, suggesting that the used XAD-2 resin-based passive samplers allow the simultaneous monitoring of multiple current-use pesticides and identifying spatial and temporal variations.

  4. RTM Production Monitoring of the A380 Hinge Arm Droop Nose Mechanism: A Multi-Sensor Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesura, Gabriele; Lamberti, Alfredo; Yang, Yang; Luyckx, Geert; Van Paepegem, Wim; Vanlanduit, Steve; Vanfleteren, Jan; Degrieck, Joris

    2016-06-14

    This research presents a case study of production monitoring on an aerospace composite component: the hinge arm of the droop nose mechanism on the Airbus A380 wing leading edge. A sensor network composed of Fibre Bragg Gratings, capacitive sensors for cure monitoring and thermocouples was embedded in its fibre reinforced lay-up and measurements were acquired throughout its Resin Transfer Moulding production process. Two main challenges had to be overcome: first, the integration of the sensor lines in the existing Resin Transfer Moulding mould without modifying it; second, the demoulding of the component without damaging the sensor lines. The proposed embedding solution has proved successful. The wavelength shifts of the Fibre Bragg Gratings were observed from the initial production stages, over the resin injection, the complete curing of the resin and the cooling-down prior to demoulding. The sensors proved to be sensitive to detecting the resin flow front, vacuum and pressure increase into the mould and the temperature increase caused by the resin curing. Measurements were also acquired during the post-curing cycle. Residual strains during all steps of the process were derived from the sensors' wavelength shift, showing values up to 0.2% in compression. Moreover, the capacitive sensors were able to follow-up the curing degree during the production process. The sensors proved able to detect the resin flow front, whereas thermocouples could not measure an appreciable increase of temperature due to the fact that the resin had the same temperature as the mould.

  5. RTM Production Monitoring of the A380 Hinge Arm Droop Nose Mechanism: A Multi-Sensor Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Chiesura

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research presents a case study of production monitoring on an aerospace composite component: the hinge arm of the droop nose mechanism on the Airbus A380 wing leading edge. A sensor network composed of Fibre Bragg Gratings, capacitive sensors for cure monitoring and thermocouples was embedded in its fibre reinforced lay-up and measurements were acquired throughout its Resin Transfer Moulding production process. Two main challenges had to be overcome: first, the integration of the sensor lines in the existing Resin Transfer Moulding mould without modifying it; second, the demoulding of the component without damaging the sensor lines. The proposed embedding solution has proved successful. The wavelength shifts of the Fibre Bragg Gratings were observed from the initial production stages, over the resin injection, the complete curing of the resin and the cooling-down prior to demoulding. The sensors proved to be sensitive to detecting the resin flow front, vacuum and pressure increase into the mould and the temperature increase caused by the resin curing. Measurements were also acquired during the post-curing cycle. Residual strains during all steps of the process were derived from the sensors’ wavelength shift, showing values up to 0.2% in compression. Moreover, the capacitive sensors were able to follow-up the curing degree during the production process. The sensors proved able to detect the resin flow front, whereas thermocouples could not measure an appreciable increase of temperature due to the fact that the resin had the same temperature as the mould.

  6. Calibration and deployment of a fiber-optic sensing system for monitoring debris flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ching-Jer; Chu, Chung-Ray; Tien, Tsung-Mo; Yin, Hsiao-Yuen; Chen, Ping-Sen

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a novel fiber-optic sensing system, capable of monitoring debris flows or other natural hazards that produce ground vibrations. The proposed sensing system comprises a demodulator (BraggSCOPE, FS5500), which includes a broadband light source and a data logger, a four-port coupler and four Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) accelerometers. Based on field tests, the performance of the proposed fiber-optic sensing system is compared with that of a conventional sensing system that includes a geophone or a microphone. Following confirmation of the reliability of the proposed sensing system, the fiber-optic sensing systems are deployed along the Ai-Yu-Zi and Chu-Shui Creeks in Nautou County of central Taiwan for monitoring debris flows. Sensitivity test of the deployed fiber-optic sensing system along the creek banks is also performed. Analysis results of the seismic data recorded by the systems reveal in detail the frequency characteristics of the artificially generated ground vibrations. Results of this study demonstrate that the proposed fiber-optic sensing system is highly promising for use in monitoring natural disasters that generate ground vibrations.

  7. Monitoring the data flow of LHCb’s data acquisition system

    CERN Document Server

    Svantesson, David; Rainer, S

    2010-01-01

    The data acquisition system of the Large Hadron Collider beauty (LHCb) experiment need to read out huge amount of data. Monitoring is done for each subsystem but there exist no system to monitor the overall data flow. The aim of this work has been to design a system where the data rates can be vied continuously and making it possible to do an exact consistency check after the run to ensure no data are lost. This involves collecting and processing all necessary data from each subsystem and integrate it into the experiment control system for displaying it to the operators. The challenges are to communicate and collect data from all stages of the data acquisitions system which uses different techniques and data formats. The size of the system also makes it a challenge to gather all statistics in real time. The system must also be able to support partitioning. The result was to build a data flow monitoring system, that acquire statistics from all stages of the data acquisition, process it and display it in the ex...

  8. Potentiometric electronic tongue-flow injection analysis system for the monitoring of heavy metal biosorption processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D; del Valle, M; Alegret, S; Valderrama, C; Florido, A

    2012-05-15

    An automated flow injection potentiometric (FIP) system with electronic tongue detection (ET) is used for the monitoring of biosorption processes of heavy metals on vegetable wastes. Grape stalk wastes are used as biosorbent to remove Cu(2+) ions in a fixed-bed column configuration. The ET is formed by a 5-sensor array with Cu(2+) and Ca(2+)-selective electrodes and electrodes with generic response to heavy-metals, plus an artificial neural network response model of the sensor's cross-response. The real-time monitoring of both the Cu(2+) and the cation exchanged and released (Ca(2+)) in the effluent solution is performed by using flow-injection potentiometric electronic tongue system. The coupling of the electronic tongue with automation features of the flow-injection system allows us to accurately characterize the Cu(2+) ion-biosorption process, through obtaining its breakthrough curves, and the profile of the Ca(2+) ion release. In parallel, fractions of the extract solution are analysed by spectroscopic techniques in order to validate the results obtained with the reported methodology. The sorption performance of grape stalks is also evaluated by means of well-established sorption models.

  9. Water Pipeline Monitoring and Leak Detection using Flow Liquid Meter Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmat, R. F.; Satria, I. S.; Siregar, B.; Budiarto, R.

    2017-04-01

    Water distribution is generally installed through underground pipes. Monitoring the underground water pipelines is more difficult than monitoring the water pipelines located on the ground in open space. This situation will cause a permanent loss if there is a disturbance in the pipeline such as leakage. Leaks in pipes can be caused by several factors, such as the pipe’s age, improper installation, and natural disasters. Therefore, a solution is required to detect and to determine the location of the damage when there is a leak. The detection of the leak location will use fluid mechanics and kinematics physics based on harness water flow rate data obtained using flow liquid meter sensor and Arduino UNO as a microcontroller. The results show that the proposed method is able to work stably to determine the location of the leak which has a maximum distance of 2 metres, and it’s able to determine the leak location as close as possible with flow rate about 10 litters per minute.

  10. Monitoring gene flow from transgenic sugar beet using cytoplasmic male-sterile bait plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeglitz, C; Pohl, M; Bartsch, D

    2000-12-01

    One of the most discussed environmental effects associated with the use of transgenic plants is the flow of genes to plants in the environment. The flow of genes may occur through pollen since it is the reproductive system that is designed for gene movement. Pollen-mediated gene escape is hard to control in mating plants. Pollen from a wind pollinator can move over distances of more than 1000 m. To investigate the efficiency of transgenic pollen movement under realistic environmental conditions, the use of bait plants might be an effective tool. In this study, cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) sugar beets were tested with regard to their potential for monitoring transgene flow. As the pollen source, transgenic sugar beets were used that express recombinant DNA encoding viral (beet necrotic yellow vein virus) resistance, and antibiotic (kanamycin) and herbicide (glufosinate) tolerance genes. In a field trial, the effectiveness of a hemp (Cannabis sativa) stripe containment strategy was tested by measuring the frequency of pollinated CMS bait plants placed at different distances and directions from a transgenic pollen source. The results demonstrated the ineffectiveness of the containment strategy. Physiological and molecular tests confirmed the escape and production of transgenic offspring more than 200 m behind the hemp containment. Since absolute containment is unlikely to be effective, the CMS-bait plant detection system is a useful tool for other monitoring purposes.

  11. Review: Resin Composite Filling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Keith H. S.; Mai, Yanjie; Kim, Harry; Tong, Keith C. T.; Ng, Desmond; Hsiao, Jimmy C. M.

    2010-01-01

    The leading cause of oral pain and tooth loss is from caries and their treatment include restoration using amalgam, resin, porcelain and gold, endodontic therapy and extraction. Resin composite restorations have grown popular over the last half a century because it can take shades more similar to enamel. Here, we discuss the history and use of resin, comparison between amalgam and resin, clinical procedures involved and finishing and polishing techniques for resin restoration. Although resin composite has aesthetic advantages over amalgam, one of the major disadvantage include polymerization shrinkage and future research is needed on reaction kinetics and viscoelastic behaviour to minimize shrinkage stress.

  12. Cardiac surgery during pregnancy: Continuous fetal monitoring using umbilical artery Doppler flow velocity indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Mishra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fetal death rate associated with cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB is as high as 9.5-29%. We report continuous monitoring of fetal heart rate and umbilical artery flow-velocity waveforms by transvaginal ultrasonography and their analyses in relation to events of the CPB in two cases in second trimester of pregnancy undergoing mitral valve replacement. Our findings suggest that the transition of circulation from corporeal to extracorporeal is the most important event during surgery; the associated decrease in mean arterial pressure (MAP at this stage potentially has deleterious effects on the fetus, which get aggravated with the use of vasopressors. We suggest careful management of CPB at this stage, which include partial controlled CPB at initiation and gradual transition to full CPB; this strategy maintains high MAP and avoids the use of vasopressors. Maternal and fetal monitoring can timely recognize the potential problems and provide window for the required treatment.

  13. The flexible resin transfer molding (FRTM) process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Michael F.

    1992-12-01

    An innovative composite manufacturing process, FRTM, which is based on detailed cost analysis intended to be 'cost effective by design', is described. FRTM is based on a combination of the technical characteristics and respective favorable economics of diaphragm forming, and resin transfer molding. The process control system determines the optimal time for compaction and forming using an empirical resin polymerization model, a fluid flow model, and dielectric sensing of in-situ resin properties. The modified FRTM process is capable of producing high-quality parts with low thickness variation, low void content, and high fiber volume.

  14. In Vivo Monitoring of Multiple Circulating Cell Populations Using Two-photon Flow Cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkaczyk, Eric R; Zhong, Cheng Frank; Ye, Jing Yong; Myc, Andrzej; Thomas, Thommey; Cao, Zhengyi; Duran-Struuck, Raimon; Luker, Kathryn E; Luker, Gary D; Norris, Theodore B; Baker, James R

    2008-02-15

    To detect and quantify multiple distinct populations of cells circulating simultaneously in the blood of living animals, we developed a novel optical system for two-channel, two-photon flow cytometry in vivo. We used this system to investigate the circulation dynamics in live animals of breast cancer cells with low (MCF-7) and high (MDA-MB-435) metastatic potential, showing for the first time that two different populations of circulating cells can be quantified simultaneously in the vasculature of a single live mouse. We also non-invasively monitored a population of labeled, circulating red blood cells for more than two weeks, demonstrating that this technique can also quantify the dynamics of abundant cells in the vascular system for prolonged periods of time. These data are the first in vivo application of multichannel flow cytometry utilizing two-photon excitation, which will greatly enhance our capability to study circulating cells in cancer and other disease processes.

  15. Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA Respiratory Monitoring System Using a Flow Microsensor and an Accelerometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mellal Idir

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a non-invasive system for respiratory monitoring using a Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS flow sensor and an IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit accelerometer. The designed system is intended to be wearable and used in a hospital or at home to assist people with respiratory disorders. To ensure the accuracy of our system, we proposed a calibration method based on ANN (Artificial Neural Network to compensate the temperature drift of the silicon flow sensor. The sigmoid activation functions used in the ANN model were computed with the CORDIC (COordinate Rotation DIgital Computer algorithm. This algorithm was also used to estimate the tilt angle in body position. The design was implemented on reconfigurable platform FPGA.

  16. Flow sensing by buckling monitoring of electrothermally actuated double-clamped micro beams

    CERN Document Server

    Kessler, Yoav; Liberzon, Alex

    2016-01-01

    We report on a flow sensing approach based on deflection monitoring of micro beams buckled by the compressive thermal stress due to electrothermal Joules heating. The air stream convectively cooling the device affects both the critical buckling values of the electric current and the postbuckling deflections of the structure. After calibration, the flow velocity was obtained from the deflections measurements. The quasi-static responses of 2000 microns long, 10 microns wide and 30 microns high single crystal silicon beam transduced using image processing were consistent with the prediction of the reduced order model, which couples thermoelectric, thermofluidic and structural domains. The deflection sensitivity of 1.5 microns/(m/s) and the critical current sensitivity of 0.4 mA/(m/s) were registered in the experiments. Our model and experimental results collectively demonstrate feasibility of the sensing approach and further suggest that simple, robust and potentially downscalable beam-type devices may have use ...

  17. Monitoring strategies of stream phosphorus under contrasting climate-driven flow regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goyenola, Guillermo; Meerhoff, Marianna; Teixeira-de Mello, Franco;

    2015-01-01

    and the performance of alternative monitoring strategies in streams under contrasting climate-driven flow regimes. We compared a set of paired streams draining lowland micro-catchments under temperate climate and stable discharge conditions (Denmark) and under sub-tropical climate and flashy conditions (Uruguay). We...... phosphorus export from diffuse sources in streams in Uruguay streams, mostly as a consequence of higher variability in flow regime (higher flashiness). Contrarily, we found a higher contribution of dissolved P in flashy streams. We did not find a notably poorer performance of the low-frequency sampling...... program to estimate P exports in flashy streams compared to the less variable streams. We also found signs of interaction between climate/hydrology and land use intensity, in particular in the presence of point sources of P, leading to a bias towards underestimation of P in hydrologically stable streams...

  18. Potentiometric electronic tongue-flow injection analysis system for the monitoring of heavy metal biosorption processes

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    An automated flow injection potentiometric (FIP) system with electronic tongue detection (ET) is used for the monitoring of biosorption processes of heavy metals on vegetable wastes. Grape stalk wastes are used as biosorbent to remove Cu2+ ions in a fixed-bed column configuration. The ET is formed by a 5-sensor array with Cu2+ and Ca2+-selective electrodes and electrodes with generic response to heavy-metals, plus an artificial neural network response model of the sensor's cross-response. The...

  19. The potentials of the third generation of flow injection analysis for nutrient monitoring and fractionation analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miró, Manuel; Hansen, Elo Harald; Buanuam, Janya

    2006-01-01

    In the present communication, the third generation of flow injection analysis, the so-called micro sequential-injection Laboratory-on-Valve (μSI-LOV), is presented as a miniaturized, automated approach for on-line monitoring of nutrients in different environmental compartments as effected under...... enclosed and strictly controlled conditions. Special emphasis is placed on coupling μSI-LOV on-line with a recently developed microcolumn to perform dynamic fractionation schemes for ascertaining the availability of phosphorous forms in solid substrates for biota uptake under simulated environmental...

  20. Use of Audible and Chart-recorded Ultrasonography to Monitor Fetal Heart Rate and Uterine Blood Flow Parameters in Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the use of audible chart-recorded doppler ultrasonography (DUS) to monitor both uterine blood flow and fetal heart rate (FHR) during pregnancy in dairy cattle. Possible applications of DUS include the monitoring of fetal distress when a pregnancy be...

  1. Transformation of Ground Vibration Signal for Debris-Flow Monitoring and Detection in Alarm Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Moya

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Debris flows are fast mass movements formed by a mix of water and solid materials, which occur in steep torrents, and are a source of high risks for human settlements. Geophones are widely used to detect the ground vibration induced by passing debris flows. However, the recording of geophone signals usually requires storing a huge amount of data, which leads to problems in storage capacity and power consumption. This paper presents a method to transform and simplify the signals measured by geophones. The key input parameter is the ground velocity threshold, which removes the seismic noise that is not related to debris flows. A signal conditioner was developed to implement the transformation and the ground velocity threshold was set by electrical resistors. The signal conditioner was installed at various European monitoring sites to test the method. Results show that data amount and power consumption can be greatly reduced without losing much information on the main features of the debris flows. However, the outcome stresses the importance of choosing a ground vibration threshold, which must be accurately calibrated. The transformation is also suitable to detect other rapid mass movements and to distinguish among different processes, which points to a possible implementation in alarm systems.

  2. Angiographic CT with intravenous contrast agent application for monitoring of intracranial flow diverting stents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saake, Marc; Struffert, Tobias; Goelitz, Philipp; Ott, Sabine; Doerfler, Arnd [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Neuroradiology, Erlangen (Germany); Seifert, Frank [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Neurology, Erlangen (Germany); Ganslandt, Oliver [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Neurosurgery, Erlangen (Germany)

    2012-07-15

    Intracranial flow diverting devices are increasingly used to treat cerebral aneurysms. A reliable, non-invasive follow-up modality would be desirable. Our aim was to compare intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography (ia DSA) to angiographic computed tomography with intravenous contrast agent application (iv ACT) in the visualisation of flow diverting devices and aneurysm lumina. Follow-up monitoring by iv ACT (n = 36) and ia DSA (n = 25) in 14 patients treated with flow diverting devices for intracranial aneurysms was evaluated retrospectively. Images were evaluated by two neuroradiologists in anonymous consensus reading regarding the device deployment, wall apposition, neck coverage of the aneurysm, opacification of the vessel and device lumen, as well as the degree of aneurysm occlusion. Corresponding ia DSA and iv ACT images were scored identically in all patients regarding the stent deployment, wall apposition and neck coverage, as well as the degree of aneurysm occlusion and patency status of the device and parent artery. Opacification of the parent vessel lumen and perfused parts of the aneurysm was considered slightly inferior for iv ACT in comparison with ia DSA (seven of 36 cases), without impact on diagnosis. We demonstrated the feasibility and diagnostic value of iv ACT in follow-up imaging of intracranial flow diverting devices. Due to its high spatial resolution and non-invasive character, this novel technique might become a valuable imaging modality in these patients. (orig.)

  3. Angiographic CT with intravenous contrast agent application for monitoring of intracranial flow diverting stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saake, Marc; Struffert, Tobias; Goelitz, Philipp; Ott, Sabine; Seifert, Frank; Ganslandt, Oliver; Doerfler, Arnd

    2012-07-01

    Intracranial flow diverting devices are increasingly used to treat cerebral aneurysms. A reliable, non-invasive follow-up modality would be desirable. Our aim was to compare intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography (ia DSA) to angiographic computed tomography with intravenous contrast agent application (iv ACT) in the visualisation of flow diverting devices and aneurysm lumina. Follow-up monitoring by iv ACT (n = 36) and ia DSA (n = 25) in 14 patients treated with flow diverting devices for intracranial aneurysms was evaluated retrospectively. Images were evaluated by two neuroradiologists in anonymous consensus reading regarding the device deployment, wall apposition, neck coverage of the aneurysm, opacification of the vessel and device lumen, as well as the degree of aneurysm occlusion. Corresponding ia DSA and iv ACT images were scored identically in all patients regarding the stent deployment, wall apposition and neck coverage, as well as the degree of aneurysm occlusion and patency status of the device and parent artery. Opacification of the parent vessel lumen and perfused parts of the aneurysm was considered slightly inferior for iv ACT in comparison with ia DSA (seven of 36 cases), without impact on diagnosis. We demonstrated the feasibility and diagnostic value of iv ACT in follow-up imaging of intracranial flow diverting devices. Due to its high spatial resolution and non-invasive character, this novel technique might become a valuable imaging modality in these patients.

  4. Transformation of ground vibration signal for debris-flow monitoring and detection in alarm systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abancó, Clàudia; Hürlimann, Marcel; Fritschi, Bruno; Graf, Christoph; Moya, José

    2012-01-01

    Debris flows are fast mass movements formed by a mix of water and solid materials, which occur in steep torrents, and are a source of high risks for human settlements. Geophones are widely used to detect the ground vibration induced by passing debris flows. However, the recording of geophone signals usually requires storing a huge amount of data, which leads to problems in storage capacity and power consumption. This paper presents a method to transform and simplify the signals measured by geophones. The key input parameter is the ground velocity threshold, which removes the seismic noise that is not related to debris flows. A signal conditioner was developed to implement the transformation and the ground velocity threshold was set by electrical resistors. The signal conditioner was installed at various European monitoring sites to test the method. Results show that data amount and power consumption can be greatly reduced without losing much information on the main features of the debris flows. However, the outcome stresses the importance of choosing a ground vibration threshold, which must be accurately calibrated. The transformation is also suitable to detect other rapid mass movements and to distinguish among different processes, which points to a possible implementation in alarm systems.

  5. An Early Warning System from debris flows based on ground vibration monitoring data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arattano, Massimo; Coviello, Velio

    2015-04-01

    Among the different countermeasures that can be adopted for the mitigation of landslide hazard, Early Warning Systems (EWSs) are receiving an increasing attention. EWSs are the set of capacities needed to generate and disseminate timely and meaningful warning information to enable individuals and communities threatened by a hazard to appropriately act, in sufficient time, to reduce the possibility of harm or loss (UNEP, 2012). An EWS from debris flows can be classified into two main categories: advance and event EWSs. Advance EWSs predict the occurrence of a debris flow by monitoring hydro-meteorological conditions that may lead to its initiation. Despite their widespread adoption, these latter systems are prone to false alarms because they are heavily affected by bias between regional rainfall threshold and local conditions. Event EWSs, on the contrary, detect the occurrence of a debris flow when the process is already in progress. They usually rely on the use of algorithms for processing in real time the monitoring data. Their effectiveness depends on the reliability of those algorithms, which require long development and testing phases. A specific testing field for event EWSs has been equipped in the Gadria instrumented basin, located in the Eastern Italian Alps. A specifically designed monitoring unit capable to record data from different type of sensors and to implement aboard warning algorithms has been installed along a straight reach of the torrent. A flashing light, installed on the bank of the torrent, has been wired to this unit. The flashing light is framed by a fixed video camera that also shoots the passage of debris flows in the torrent. This provides a visual verification of the efficacy of the algorithm under test, particularly useful to show to practitioners and administrators a clear demonstration of the warning outcome. In this work, we present the performance of a warning algorithm that has been experimented in the Gadria testing field in 2013

  6. A new model for turbidity current behavior based on integration of flow monitoring and precision coring in a submarine canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symons, William O.; Sumner, Esther J.; Paull, Charles K.; Cartigny, Matthieu J.B.; Xu, Jingping; Maier, Katherine L.; Lorenson, Thomas; Talling, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    Submarine turbidity currents create some of the largest sediment accumulations on Earth, yet there are few direct measurements of these flows. Instead, most of our understanding of turbidity currents results from analyzing their deposits in the sedimentary record. However, the lack of direct flow measurements means that there is considerable debate regarding how to interpret flow properties from ancient deposits. This novel study combines detailed flow monitoring with unusually precisely located cores at different heights, and multiple locations, within the Monterey submarine canyon, offshore California, USA. Dating demonstrates that the cores include the time interval that flows were monitored in the canyon, albeit individual layers cannot be tied to specific flows. There is good correlation between grain sizes collected by traps within the flow and grain sizes measured in cores from similar heights on the canyon walls. Synthesis of flow and deposit data suggests that turbidity currents sourced from the upper reaches of Monterey Canyon comprise three flow phases. Initially, a thin (38–50 m) powerful flow in the upper canyon can transport, tilt, and break the most proximal moorings and deposit chaotic sands and gravel on the canyon floor. The initially thin flow front then thickens and deposits interbedded sands and silty muds on the canyon walls as much as 62 m above the canyon floor. Finally, the flow thickens along its length, thus lofting silty mud and depositing it at greater altitudes than the previous deposits and in excess of 70 m altitude.

  7. Process/health monitoring for wind turbine blade by using FBG sensors with multiplexing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eum, S. H.; Kageyama, K.; Murayama, H.; Uzawa, K.; Ohsawa, I.; Kanai, M.; Igawa, H.

    2008-04-01

    In this study, we applied fiber Bragg grating sensors to conduct process/health monitoring of wind turbine blade manufactured by VaRTM. In this study, we used a long gauge FBG (about 100mm) based optical frequency domain reflectometory (OFDR) and 8 FBGs on a single fiber based wavelength division multiplexing (WDM). Resin flow front and resin cure were detected during VaRTM. After manufacturing, structural health monitoring was conducted with the blades. These sensors with multiplexing techniques were able to monitor VaRTM process and wind turbine blade successfully.

  8. Designing and Constructing Blood Flow Monitoring System to Predict Pressure Ulcers on Heel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbari H.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: A pressure ulcer is a complication related to the need for the care and treatment of primarily disabled and elderly people. With the decrease of the blood flow caused by the pressure loaded, ulcers are formed and the tissue will be wasted with the passage of time. Objective: The aim of this study was to construct blood flow monitoring system on the heel tissue which was under external pressure in order to evaluate the tissue treatment in the ulcer. Methods: To measure the blood flow changes, three infrared optical transmitters were used at the distances of 5, 10, and 15 mm to the receiver. Blood flow changes in heels were assessed in pressures 0, 30, and 60 mmHg. The time features were extracted for analysis from the recorded signal by MATLAB software. Changes of the time features under different pressures were evaluated at the three distances by ANOVA in SPSS software. The level of significance was considered at 0.05. Results: In this study, 15 subjects, including both male and female, with the mean age of 54±7 participated. The results showed that the signal amplitude, power and absolute signal decreased significantly when pressure on the tissue increased in different layers (p<0.05. Heart rate only decreased significantly in pressures more than 30 mmHg (p=0.02. In pressures more than 30 mmHg, in addition to a decrease in the time features, the pattern of blood flow signal changed and it wasn’t the same as noload signal. Conclusion: By detecting the time features, we can reach an early diagnosis to prognosticate the degeneration of the tissue under pressure and it can be recommended as a method to predict bedsores in the heel.

  9. New device for corrosion monitoring and flow effect evaluation in oil field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigual, Yobiris; Hernandez, Samuel; Biomorgi, Jose [PDVSA-INTEVEP. Departamento de Tecnologia de Infraestructura, Apartado 76343, Caracas 1070A (Venezuela)

    2004-07-01

    The monitoring and control of corrosion represent high interest in oil industry to keep the physical installations and prevent future corrosion-related failures. Efficiency and efficacy of the action assigned to reduce these problems are supported by an exhaustive evaluation of corrosion processes. In the Venezuelan oil industry, different techniques of corrosion monitoring have been used as for example weight loss coupons, electrochemical techniques, etc, with the purpose of estimate the useful lifetime of numerous components used in the industry. At the same time, laboratory techniques have been used at static or dynamic conditions, to evaluate the corrosiveness of the different fluids. Because of these techniques have shown certain limitations for field studies, where the flow patterns play an important role; it is necessary to develop new methodologies that allow to take into the account of the fluid dynamics. influence The objective of this work is to show a device, which permit to evaluate the internal corrosion under field operational conditions. This monitoring device consists in a spool placed between pipelines. The inner diameter of the spool is larger compare with the inner diameter of the line. Several teflon rings can be used to allowed the use of different kinds of corrosion specimens and keep the inner diameter of the pipe connected before and after the spool. The specimens (weight loss coupons that permit to carry out further pitting studies) are placed inside the teflon rings in order to evaluate the corrosion process and flow dynamics effect on the material of interest. The utilization of the Online Corrosion Evaluation System (SECLI by the spanish initials) allowed a deep evaluation of the fluid corrosiveness and the corrosion mechanism characterization. In fact, a comparison between two different inner diameter device (4 inches and 6 inches) permits to establish a flow effect on some Venezuelan crude oil corrosiveness, which form a pitting

  10. Flow cytometric bacterial cell counts challenge conventional heterotrophic plate counts for routine microbiological drinking water monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nevel, S; Koetzsch, S; Proctor, C R; Besmer, M D; Prest, E I; Vrouwenvelder, J S; Knezev, A; Boon, N; Hammes, F

    2017-04-15

    Drinking water utilities and researchers continue to rely on the century-old heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) method for routine assessment of general microbiological water quality. Bacterial cell counting with flow cytometry (FCM) is one of a number of alternative methods that challenge this status quo and provide an opportunity for improved water quality monitoring. After more than a decade of application in drinking water research, FCM methodology is optimised and established for routine application, supported by a considerable amount of data from multiple full-scale studies. Bacterial cell concentrations obtained by FCM enable quantification of the entire bacterial community instead of the minute fraction of cultivable bacteria detected with HPC (typically water samples per day, depending on the laboratory and selected staining procedure(s). Moreover, many studies have shown FCM total (TCC) and intact (ICC) cell concentrations to be reliable and robust process variables, responsive to changes in the bacterial abundance and relevant for characterising and monitoring drinking water treatment and distribution systems. The purpose of this critical review is to initiate a constructive discussion on whether FCM could replace HPC in routine water quality monitoring. We argue that FCM provides a faster, more descriptive and more representative quantification of bacterial abundance in drinking water.

  11. Combined SERS and flow linear dichroism approach to monitoring the interaction of pharmaceuticals with their target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianoul, Anatoli I.; Fleury, Fabrice; Duval, Olivier; Jardillier, Jean-Claude; Alix, Alain J.; Nabiev, Igor R.

    1999-04-01

    Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) spectroscopy and Flow Linear Dichroism (FLD) technique have been employed to study the anticancer agent fagaronine and its derivative ethoxidine - double inhibitors of DNA topoisomerases I and II. Cooperative use of two methods permitted (i) to determine the molecular determinants of the drug-DNA interactions; (ii) to monitor in real time the process of topo I inhibition by these anticancer agents. FLD technique allowed us to identify the mode of drug interactions with the DNA as a 'major groove intercalation' and to determine orientation of the drugs chromophores within the complexes. Using SERS spectroscopy we have determined the drugs molecular determinants interacting with the DNA. FLD was also used for real time monitoring of the process of sc DNA relaxation by topo I and of inhibition of relaxation with the pharmaceuticals. Ethoxidine was found to exhibit the same activity of inhibition of sc DNA relaxation as fagaronine at the 10-fold less concentration. The proposed SERS-FLD combined approach demonstrates the new perspectives for screening new pharmaceuticals due to its relative simplicity and low expense, high sensitivity and selectivity, and, finally, possibility of real-time monitoring of the structure-function correlation within the series of drug derivatives.

  12. Blood viscosity monitoring during cardiopulmonary bypass based on pressure-flow characteristics of a Newtonian fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okahara, Shigeyuki; Zu Soh; Takahashi, Shinya; Sueda, Taijiro; Tsuji, Toshio

    2016-08-01

    We proposed a blood viscosity estimation method based on pressure-flow characteristics of oxygenators used during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in a previous study that showed the estimated viscosity to correlate well with the measured viscosity. However, the determination of the parameters included in the method required the use of blood, thereby leading to high cost of calibration. Therefore, in this study we propose a new method to monitor blood viscosity, which approximates the pressure-flow characteristics of blood considered as a non-Newtonian fluid with characteristics of a Newtonian fluid by using the parameters derived from glycerin solution to enable ease of acquisition. Because parameters used in the estimation method are based on fluid types, bovine blood parameters were used to calculate estimated viscosity (ηe), and glycerin parameters were used to estimate deemed viscosity (ηdeem). Three samples of whole bovine blood with different hematocrit levels (21.8%, 31.0%, and 39.8%) were prepared and perfused into the oxygenator. As the temperature changed from 37 °C to 27 °C, the oxygenator mean inlet pressure and outlet pressure were recorded for flows of 2 L/min and 4 L/min, and the viscosity was estimated. The value of deemed viscosity calculated with the glycerin parameters was lower than estimated viscosity calculated with bovine blood parameters by 20-33% at 21.8% hematocrit, 12-27% at 31.0% hematocrit, and 10-15% at 39.8% hematocrit. Furthermore, deemed viscosity was lower than estimated viscosity by 10-30% at 2 L/min and 30-40% at 4 L/min. Nevertheless, estimated and deemed viscosities varied with a similar slope. Therefore, this shows that deemed viscosity achieved using glycerin parameters may be capable of successfully monitoring relative viscosity changes of blood in a perfusing oxygenator.

  13. Comparative study of optical fiber cure-monitoring methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Peter A.; Powell, Graham R.; Fernando, Gerard F.; Waters, David N.; France, Chris M.; Spooncer, Ronald C.

    1997-06-01

    This paper reports on a comparative study undertaken for different types of optical fiber sensor developed to monitor the cure of an epoxy resin system. The optical fiber sensors used to monitor the cure process were based on transmission spectroscopy, evanescent wave spectroscopy and refractive index monitoring. The transmission sensor was prepared by aligning two optical fibers within a specially prepared sleeve with a gap between the optical fiber end-faces. During cure, resin from the specimen flowed into the gap between the optical fibers allowing transmission spectra of the resin to be obtained. The evanescent wave sensor was prepared by stripping the cladding from a high refractive index core optical fiber. The prepared sensor was embedded in the sample and attenuated total reflectance spectra recorded from the resin/core boundary. Refractive index monitoring was undertaken using a high refractive index core optical fiber which had a small portion of its cladding removed. The prepared sensor was embedded in the resin specimen and light from a single wavelength source was launched into the fiber. Changes in the guiding characteristics of the sensor due to refractive index changes at the resin/core boundary were used to monitor the progress of the cure reaction. The transmission and evanescent wave spectroscopy sensors were used to follow changes in characteristic near-infrared absorption bands of the resin over the range 1450 - 1700 nm during the cure reaction. Consequently these techniques required tunable wavelength sources covering specific wavelength ranges. However, the refractive index based sensor used a single wavelength source. Therefore the equipment costs for this type of sensor were considerably less. Additionally, the refractive index sensor did not require a single wavelength source at any particular wavelength and could be applied to any spectral region in which the optical fiber would transmit light. The advantages and disadvantages of these

  14. Flow sensing by buckling monitoring of electrothermally actuated double-clamped micro beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Y.; Krylov, S.; Liberzon, A.

    2016-08-01

    We report on a flow sensing approach based on deflection monitoring of a micro beam buckled by the compressive thermal stress due to electrothermal Joule's heating. The air stream, convectively cooling the device, affects both the critical buckling values of the electric current and the postbuckling deflections of the structure. After calibration, the flow velocity can be obtained from the deflection measurements. The quasi-static responses of 1000 μm and 2000 μm long, 10 μm wide, and 30 μm high single crystal silicon beams were consistent with the prediction of the model, which couples thermoelectric, thermofluidic, and structural domains. The deflection sensitivity of up to 1.5 μm/(m/s) and the critical current sensitivity of up to 0.43 mA/(m/s) were registered in the experiments. Our model and experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the sensing approach and further suggest that simple, robust, and potentially downscalable beam-type devices may have use in flow velocity and wall shear stress sensors.

  15. Thermal cycling effects on adhesion of resin-bovine enamel junction among different composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Cheng; Ko, Chia-Ling; Wu, Hui-Yu; Lai, Pei-Ling; Shih, Chi-Jen

    2014-10-01

    Thermal cycling is used to mimic the changes in oral cavity temperature experienced by composite resins when used clinically. The purpose of this study is to assess the thermal cycling effects of in-house produced composite resin on bonding strength. The dicalcium phosphate anhydrous filler surfaces are modified using nanocrystals and silanization (w/NP/Si). The resin is compared with commercially available composite resins Filtek Z250, Z350, and glass ionomer restorative material GIC Fuji-II LC (control). Different composite resins were filled into the dental enamel of bovine teeth. The bond force and resin-enamel junction graphical structures of the samples were determined after thermal cycling between 5 and 55°C in deionized water for 600 cycles. After thermal cycling, the w/NP/Si 30wt%, 50wt% and Filtek Z250, Z350 groups showed higher shear forces than glass ionomer GIC, and w/NP/Si 50wt% had the highest shear force. Through SEM observations, more of the fillings with w/NP/Si 30wt% and w/NP/Si 50wt% groups flowed into the enamel tubule, forming closed tubules with the composite resins. The push-out force is proportional to the resin flow depth and uniformity. The push-out tubule pore and resin shear pattern is the most uniform and consistent in the w/NP/Si 50wt% group. Accordingly, this developed composite resin maintains great mechanical properties after thermal cycling. Thus, it has the potential to be used in a clinical setting when restoring non-carious cervical lesions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Development by flow cytometry of bioassays based on chlorella for environmental monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrescu C-M,

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In ecotoxicological assessments, bioassays (ecotoxicity tests or biotests are one of the main tools, defined as methods which use living cells, tissues, organism or communities to assess exposure-related effects of chemicals. The increasing complexity of environmental degradation requires an increase in the capacity of scientific approach in monitoring and notification as early as possible risks. Our own objective concerns the detection of aquatic environment pollution in Romania and particularly in the Danube basin. For assessing aquatic environment pollution degree or for assessing cytotoxicity or ecotoxicity of pollutants (heavy metals, nanoparticles, pesticides, etc. we developed news experimental bioassays based on the use of viability and apoptosis biomarkers of Chlorella cells by flow cytometry. Our proposed bioassays could be rapid and very sensitive tests for in laboratory aquatic risk assessment and biomonitoring.

  17. Monitoring of Legionella pneumophila viability after chlorine dioxide treatment using flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Pascale; Epalle, Thibaut; Allegra, Séverine; Girardot, Françoise; Garraud, Olivier; Riffard, Serge

    2015-04-01

    The viability of three Legionella pneumophila strains was monitored after chlorine dioxide (ClO2) treatment using a flow cytometric assay. Suspensions of L. pneumophila cells were submitted to increasing concentrations of ClO2. Culturable cells were still detected when using 4 mg/L, but could no longer be detected after exposure to 6 mg/L of ClO2, although viable but not culturable (VBNC) cells were found after exposure to 4-5 mg/L of ClO2. When testing whether these VBNC were infective, two of the strains were resuscitated after co-culture with Acanthamoeba polyphaga, but neither of them could infect macrophage-like cells. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Improved nonlinear fault detection strategy based on the Hellinger distance metric: Plug flow reactor monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi

    2017-03-18

    Fault detection has a vital role in the process industry to enhance productivity, efficiency, and safety, and to avoid expensive maintenance. This paper proposes an innovative multivariate fault detection method that can be used for monitoring nonlinear processes. The proposed method merges advantages of nonlinear projection to latent structures (NLPLS) modeling and those of Hellinger distance (HD) metric to identify abnormal changes in highly correlated multivariate data. Specifically, the HD is used to quantify the dissimilarity between current NLPLS-based residual and reference probability distributions obtained using fault-free data. Furthermore, to enhance further the robustness of these methods to measurement noise, and reduce the false alarms due to modeling errors, wavelet-based multiscale filtering of residuals is used before the application of the HD-based monitoring scheme. The performances of the developed NLPLS-HD fault detection technique is illustrated using simulated plug flow reactor data. The results show that the proposed method provides favorable performance for detection of faults compared to the conventional NLPLS method.

  19. Comparison among monitoring strategies to assess water flow dynamic and soil hydraulic properties in agricultural soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Valdes-Abellan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Irrigated agriculture is usually performed in semi-arid regions despite scarcity of water resources. Therefore, optimal irrigation management by monitoring the soil is essential, and assessing soil hydraulic properties and water flow dynamics is presented as a first measure. For this purpose, the control of volumetric water content, θ, and pressure head, h, is required. This study adopted two types of monitoring strategies in the same experimental plot to control θ and h in the vadose zone: i non-automatic and more time-consuming; ii automatic connected to a datalogger. Water flux was modelled with Hydrus-1D using the data collected from both acquisition strategies independently (3820 daily values for the automatic; less than 1000 for the non-automatic. Goodness-of-fit results reported a better adjustment in case of automatic sensors. Both model outputs adequately predicted the general trend of θ and h, but with slight differences in computed annual drainage (711 mm and 774 mm. Soil hydraulic properties were inversely estimated from both data acquisition systems. Major differences were obtained in the saturated volumetric water content, θs, and the n and α van Genuchten model shape parameters. Saturated hydraulic conductivity, Ks, shown lower variability with a coefficient of variation range from 0.13 to 0.24 for the soil layers defined. Soil hydraulic properties were better assessed through automatic data acquisition as data variability was lower and accuracy was higher.

  20. Immune Monitoring in Cancer Vaccine Clinical Trials: Critical Issues of Functional Flow Cytometry-Based Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iole Macchia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of immune monitoring assays is essential to determine the immune responses against tumor-specific antigens (TSAs and tumor-associated antigens (TAAs and their possible correlation with clinical outcome in cancer patients receiving immunotherapies. Despite the wide range of techniques used, to date these assays have not shown consistent results among clinical trials and failed to define surrogate markers of clinical efficacy to antitumor vaccines. Multiparameter flow cytometry- (FCM- based assays combining different phenotypic and functional markers have been developed in the past decade for informative and longitudinal analysis of polyfunctional T-cells. These technologies were designed to address the complexity and functional heterogeneity of cancer biology and cellular immunity and to define biomarkers predicting clinical response to anticancer treatment. So far, there is still a lack of standardization of some of these immunological tests. The aim of this review is to overview the latest technologies for immune monitoring and to highlight critical steps involved in some of the FCM-based cellular immune assays. In particular, our laboratory is focused on melanoma vaccine research and thus our main goal was the validation of a functional multiparameter test (FMT combining different functional and lineage markers to be applied in clinical trials involving patients with melanoma.

  1. Comparison among monitoring strategies to assess water flow dynamic and soil hydraulic properties in agricultural soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdes-Abellan, J.; Jiménez-Martínez, J.; Candela, L.; Tamoh, K.

    2015-07-01

    Irrigated agriculture is usually performed in semi-arid regions despite scarcity of water resources. Therefore, optimal irrigation management by monitoring the soil is essential, and assessing soil hydraulic properties and water flow dynamics is presented as a first measure. For this purpose, the control of volumetric water content, θ, and pressure head, h, is required. This study adopted two types of monitoring strategies in the same experimental plot to control θ and h in the vadose zone: i) non-automatic and more time-consuming; ii) automatic connected to a datalogger. Water flux was modelled with Hydrus-1D using the data collected from both acquisition strategies independently (3820 daily values for the automatic; less than 1000 for the non-automatic). Goodness-of-fit results reported a better adjustment in case of automatic sensors. Both model outputs adequately predicted the general trend of θ and h, but with slight differences in computed annual drainage (711 mm and 774 mm). Soil hydraulic properties were inversely estimated from both data acquisition systems. Major differences were obtained in the saturated volumetric water content, θs, and the n and α van Genuchten model shape parameters. Saturated hydraulic conductivity, Ks, shown lower variability with a coefficient of variation range from 0.13 to 0.24 for the soil layers defined. Soil hydraulic properties were better assessed through automatic data acquisition as data variability was lower and accuracy was higher. (Author)

  2. An integrated microfluidic chip enabling control and spatially resolved monitoring of temperature in micro flow reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoera, Christian; Ohla, Stefan; Shu, Zhe; Beckert, Erik; Nagl, Stefan; Belder, Detlev

    2015-01-01

    A strength of microfluidic chip laboratories is the rapid heat transfer that, in principle, enables a very homogeneous temperature distribution in chemical processes. In order to exploit this potential, we present an integrated chip system where the temperature is precisely controlled and monitored at the microfluidic channel level. This is realized by integration of a luminescent temperature sensor layer into the fluidic structure together with inkjet-printed micro heating elements. This allows steering of the temperature at the microchannel level and monitoring of the reaction progress simultaneously. A fabrication procedure is presented that allows for straightforward integration of thin polymer layers with optical sensing functionality in microchannels of glass-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) chips of only 150 μm width and 29 μm height. Sensor layers consisting of polyacrylonitrile and a temperature-sensitive ruthenium tris-phenanthroline probe with film thicknesses of about 0.5 to 6 μm were generated by combining blade coating and abrasion techniques. Optimal coating procedures were developed and evaluated. The chip-integrated sensor layers were calibrated and investigated with respect to stability, reproducibility, and response times. These microchips allowed observation of temperature in a wide range with a signal change of around 1.6 % per K and a maximum resolution of around 0.07 K. The device is employed to study temperature-controlled continuous micro flow reactions. This is demonstrated exemplarily for the tryptic cleavage of coumarin-modified peptides via fluorescence detection.

  3. [Intraoperative monitoring of cerebral blood-flow and condition of cerebral at open and endovascular interventions in carotid system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntsevich, G I; Tanashian, M M; Skrylev, S I; Krotenkova, M V; Shchipakin, V L; Koshcheev, A Iu; Lagoda, O V; Gemdzhian, E G; Medvedev, R B; Kulikova, S N

    2011-01-01

    The aim of our research is to study hemodynamic and embolic situation during the carotid endarterectomy (CEA), carotid angioplastic and stenting (CAS), and to reveal the prognostic significance of the data provided by intraoperative monitoring of the brain blood flow in exposing acute ischemic lesions in brain. Intraoperative monitoring of blood flow in artery ophthalmic vas carried out with 60% of patients, in the middle cerebral artery-with 40% during the main stages of CEA, and with 64 patients in the middle cerebral artery during CAS. The comparison of the data of intraoperative monitoring of blood flow in middle cerebral artery with the result of brain diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) 24 hours after the operation shows, that solid microembolic signals and vasospasm are prognostic signals (sensibility and specifics make up 95%) in the development of acute ischemic cerebral lesions. The monitoring of blood flow in artery ophthalmic is of the greatest diagnostic value in estimation of the hemodynamic situation, but it is of the lowest practical value in detecting microembolic signals. According to the data of the intraoperative blood flow monitoring in middle cerebral artery in group CEA the development of acute ischemic cerebral lesions were predicted with 11,1% of patients and the cause of postoperative stroke, developed by 2,9% of the patients, was specified. According to the result of DW-MRI, acute ischemic cerebral lesions were diagnosed with 21% of patients, that is, 18% of ischemic cerebral lesions were asymptomatic. In group CAS ischemic cerebral lesions were prognosed with 30% of patients, actually they were later detected with 40,6% of cases by means of DW-MRI. According to the data of intraoperative of blood flow monitoring the cause of the development of postoperative stroke was specified in 6,2% of cause; in 34,4% of cause the acute ischemic cerebral lesions were asymptomatic.

  4. Continuous ‘Passive’ flow-proportional monitoring of drainage using a new modified Sutro weir (MSW) unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendelboe, Anders Lindblad; Rozemeijer, Joachim; de Jonge, Lis Wollesen;

    2016-01-01

    In view of their crucial role in water and solute transport, enhanced monitoring of agricultural subsurface drain tile systems is important for adequate water quality management. However, existing monitoring techniques for flow and contaminant loads from tile drains are expensive and labour...... information for the selection and evaluation of mitigation options to improve water quality.Results from this type of monitoring can provide data for the evaluation and optimisation of best management practices in agriculture in order to produce the highest yield without water quality and recipient surface...... intensive. The aim of this study was to develop a cost-effective and simple method for monitoring loads from tile drains. The Flowcap is a modified Sutro weir (MSW) unit that canbe attached to the outlet of tile drains. It is capable of registering total flow, contaminant loads and flowaveraged...

  5. Flow cytometric bacterial cell counts challenge conventional heterotrophic plate counts for routine microbiological drinking water monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Van Nevel, S.

    2017-02-08

    Drinking water utilities and researchers continue to rely on the century-old heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) method for routine assessment of general microbiological water quality. Bacterial cell counting with flow cytometry (FCM) is one of a number of alternative methods that challenge this status quo and provide an opportunity for improved water quality monitoring. After more than a decade of application in drinking water research, FCM methodology is optimised and established for routine application, supported by a considerable amount of data from multiple full-scale studies. Bacterial cell concentrations obtained by FCM enable quantification of the entire bacterial community instead of the minute fraction of cultivable bacteria detected with HPC (typically < 1% of all bacteria). FCM measurements are reproducible with relative standard deviations below 3% and can be available within 15 min of samples arriving in the laboratory. High throughput sample processing and complete automation are feasible and FCM analysis is arguably less expensive than HPC when measuring more than 15 water samples per day, depending on the laboratory and selected staining procedure(s). Moreover, many studies have shown FCM total (TCC) and intact (ICC) cell concentrations to be reliable and robust process variables, responsive to changes in the bacterial abundance and relevant for characterising and monitoring drinking water treatment and distribution systems. The purpose of this critical review is to initiate a constructive discussion on whether FCM could replace HPC in routine water quality monitoring. We argue that FCM provides a faster, more descriptive and more representative quantification of bacterial abundance in drinking water.

  6. A rapid and reversible skull optical clearing method for monitoring cortical blood flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Zhao, Yanjie; Shi, Rui; Zhu, Dan

    2016-03-01

    In vivo cortex optical imaging is of great important for revealing both structural and functional architecture of brain with high temporal-spatial resolution. To reduce the limitation of turbid skull, researchers had to establish various skull windows or directly expose cortex through craniotomy. Here we developed a skull optical clearing method to make skull transparent. Laser speckle contrast imaging technique was used to monitor the cortical blood flow after topical treatment with the optical clearing agents. The results indicated that the image contrast increased gradually, and then maintained at a high level after 15 min for adult mice, which made the image quality and resolution of micro-vessels nearly approximate to those of exposed cortex. Both the cortical blood flow velocity almost kept constant after skull became transparent. Besides, the treatment of physiological saline on the skull could make skull return to the initial state again and the skull could become transparent again when SOCS retreated it. Thus, we could conclude that the skull optical clearing method was rapid, valid, reversible and safe, which provided us available approach for performing the cortical structural and functional imaging at high temporal-spatial resolution.

  7. The value of long-term monitoring in the development of ground-water-flow models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Daniel T.; Hart, David J.; Krohelski, James T.

    2004-01-01

    As environmental issues have come to the forefront of public concern, so has the awareness of the importance of ground water in the overall water cycle and as a source of the Nation’s drinking water. Heightened interest has spawned a host of scientific enterprises (Taylor and Alley, 2001). Some activities are directed toward collection of water-level data and related information to monitor the physical and chemical state of the resource. Other activities are directed at interpretive studies undertaken, for example, to optimize the location of new water-supply wells or to protect rivers and lakes fed by ground water. An important type of interpretive study is the computer ground-water-flow model that inte- grates field data in a mathematical framework. Long-term, systematic collection of hydro- logic data is crucial to the construction and testing of ground-water models so that they can reproduce the evolution of flow systems and forecast future conditions. 

  8. Interacting Blends of Novel Unsaturated Polyester Amide Resin with Styrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasmukh S. Patel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel unsaturated poly (ester-amide resins (UPEAs were prepared by the reaction between an epoxy resin, namely diglycidyl ether of bisphenol–A (DGEBA and unsaturated aliphatic bisamic acids using a base catalyst. These UPEAs were then blended with a vinyl monomer namely, Styrene (STY. to produce a homogeneous resin syrup. The curing of these UPEAs-STY. resin blends was carried out by using benzoyl peroxide (BPO as a catalyst and was monitored by using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC. The glass fibre reinforced composites (i.e. laminates of these UPEA-STY. resin blends were fabricated using the DSC data. The chemical, mechanical and electrical properties of the glass fibre composites have also been evaluated. The unreinforced cured samples of the UPEA-STY. resin blends were also analyzed by thermogravimetry (TGA.

  9. Red-cockaded woodpeckers vs rat snakes: the effectiveness of the resin barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Craig Rudolph; Howard Kyle; Richard N. Conner

    1990-01-01

    Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) excavate resin wells in the immediate vicinity of roost and nest cavity entrances. Resin wells are worked regularly, resulting in a copious and persistent resin flow that coats the tree trunk, especially below cavity entrances. Red-cockaded Woodpeckers also scale loose bark from cavity trees and closely adjacent trees....

  10. Composites with improved fiber-resin interfacial adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizmecioglu, Muzaffer (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    The adhesion of fiber reinforcement such as high modulus graphite to a matrix resin such as polycarbonate is greatly enhanced by applying a very thin layer, suitably from 50 Angstroms to below 1000 Angstroms, to the surface of the fiber such as by immersing the fiber in a dilute solution of the matrix resin in a volatile solvent followed by draining to remove excess solution and air drying to remove the solvent. The thin layer wets the fiber surface. The very dilute solution of matrix resin is able to impregnate multifilament fibers and the solution evenly flows onto the surface of the fibers. A thin uniform layer is formed on the surface of the fiber after removal of the solvent. The matrix resin coated fiber is completely wetted by the matrix resin during formation of the composite. Increased adhesion of the resin to the fibers is observed at fracture. At least 65 percent of the surface of the graphite fiber is covered with polycarbonate resin at fracture whereas uncoated fibers have very little matrix resin adhering to their surfaces at fracture and epoxy sized graphite fibers exhibit only slightly higher coverage with matrix resin at fracture. Flexural modulus of the composite containing matrix resin coated fibers is increased by 50 percent and flexural strength by 37 percent as compared to composites made with unsized fibers.

  11. [Radiopacity of composite resins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburús, J R

    1990-01-01

    The author studied the radiopacity of six composite resins, submitted to radiographic examination in standardized conditions, only with kilovoltage variations. Along with resins it was radiographed an aluminium penetrometer, to compare their optical densities. The results showed that kilovoltagem variations interfered in optical densities of the resins, being more pronounced in 50-55, 55-60 and 60-65 kilovoltages. Despite this, the relations of optical densities as compared with that of penetrometer steps kept unaltered most fo the kilovoltages used.

  12. Biocompatibility of composite resins

    OpenAIRE

    Sayed Mostafa Mousavinasab

    2011-01-01

    Dental materials that are used in dentistry should be harmless to oral tissues, so they should not contain any leachable toxic and diffusible substances that can cause some side effects. Reports about probable biologic hazards, in relation to dental resins, have increased interest to this topic in dentists. The present paper reviews the articles published about biocompatibility of resin-restorative materials specially resin composites and monomers which are mainly based on Bis-GMA and concern...

  13. Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin coating for capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Roopa S; Wang, Qinggang; Lee, Milton L

    2002-04-05

    Coating the interior surface of a fused-silica capillary with a polymeric material has long been used in capillary electrophoresis (CE) to reduce or eliminate electroosmotic flow and suppress adsorption. A cycloaliphatic epoxide-based resin was bonded to silane treated capillaries and crosslinked with a curing agent. The epoxy resin coating significantly reduced electroosmotic flow over a pH range of 3-10. This coating was sufficiently hydrophilic to suppress protein adsorption. The epoxy resin coated capillary was used to separate several acidic and basic proteins and peptides. Separation efficiencies greater than 400,000 theoretical plates were achieved. The relative standard deviations in migration times for proteins were methods.

  14. Innovative Coal Solids-Flow Monitoring and Measurement Using Phase-Doppler and Mie Scattering Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Seong Lee

    2010-01-19

    Fuel flow to individual burners is complicated and difficult to determine on coal fired boilers, since coal solids were transported in a gas suspension that is governed by the complex physics of two-phase flow. The objectives of the project were the measurements of suspended coal solids-flows in the simulated test conditions. Various extractive methods were performed manually and can give only a snapshot result of fuel distribution. In order to measure particle diameter & velocity, laser based phase-Doppler particle analyzer (PDPA) and particle image velocimetry (PIV) were carefully applied. Statistical methods were used to analyze particle characteristics to see which factors have significant effect. The transparent duct model was carefully designed and fabricated for the laser-based-instrumentation of solids-flow monitoring (LISM). The experiments were conducted with two different kinds of particles with four different particle diameters. The particle types were organic particles and saw dust particles with the diameter range of 75-150 micron, 150-250 micron, 250-355 micron and 355-425 micron. The densities of the particles were measured to see how the densities affected the test results. Also the experiment was conducted with humid particles and fog particles. To generate humid particles, the humidifier was used. A pipe was connected to the humidifier to lead the particle flow to the intersection of the laser beam. The test results of the particle diameter indicated that, the mean diameter of humid particles was between 6.1703 microns and 6.6947 microns when the humid particle flow was low. When the humid particle flow was high, the mean diameter was between 6.6728 microns and 7.1872 microns. The test results of the particle mean velocity indicated that the mean velocity was between 1.3394 m/sec and 1.4556 m/sec at low humid particle flow. When the humid particle flow was high, the mean velocity was between 1.5694 m/sec and 1.7856 m/sec. The Air Flow Module, TQ

  15. Innovative Coal Solids-Flow Monitoring and Measurement Using Phase-Doppler and Mie Scattering Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Seong Lee

    2010-01-19

    Fuel flow to individual burners is complicated and difficult to determine on coal fired boilers, since coal solids were transported in a gas suspension that is governed by the complex physics of two-phase flow. The objectives of the project were the measurements of suspended coal solids-flows in the simulated test conditions. Various extractive methods were performed manually and can give only a snapshot result of fuel distribution. In order to measure particle diameter & velocity, laser based phase-Doppler particle analyzer (PDPA) and particle image velocimetry (PIV) were carefully applied. Statistical methods were used to analyze particle characteristics to see which factors have significant effect. The transparent duct model was carefully designed and fabricated for the laser-based-instrumentation of solids-flow monitoring (LISM). The experiments were conducted with two different kinds of particles with four different particle diameters. The particle types were organic particles and saw dust particles with the diameter range of 75-150 micron, 150-250 micron, 250-355 micron and 355-425 micron. The densities of the particles were measured to see how the densities affected the test results. Also the experiment was conducted with humid particles and fog particles. To generate humid particles, the humidifier was used. A pipe was connected to the humidifier to lead the particle flow to the intersection of the laser beam. The test results of the particle diameter indicated that, the mean diameter of humid particles was between 6.1703 microns and 6.6947 microns when the humid particle flow was low. When the humid particle flow was high, the mean diameter was between 6.6728 microns and 7.1872 microns. The test results of the particle mean velocity indicated that the mean velocity was between 1.3394 m/sec and 1.4556 m/sec at low humid particle flow. When the humid particle flow was high, the mean velocity was between 1.5694 m/sec and 1.7856 m/sec. The Air Flow Module, TQ

  16. RESEARCH ON IMPROVED EPOXY RESINS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    another ’million-modulus’ epoxy resin. Cast resin properties from a series of epoxy resins hardened with several aromatic diamines are reported, but these data are sufficient to advance only speculative conclusions. (Author)

  17. Clinical evaluation of a flowable resin composite and flowable compomer for preventive resin restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Man; Liu, HongSheng

    2005-01-01

    This clinical study evaluated the retention and caries protection of a flowable resin composite (Flow Line) and a flowable compomer (Dyract Flow) used in preventive resin restorations as compared to the conventional preventive resin technique which uses a resin composite (Brilliant) and a sealant (Concise). This study observed 205 permanent molars with small carious cavities less than 1.5 mm in width, which were obtained from 165 children aged 7 to 15 years. Flowable resin composite was used to treat 75 teeth, and 71 teeth were treated with flowable compomer in both cavities and caries-free fissures. For the control group, 59 teeth were treated with resin composite in cavities and sealant in caries-free fissures. The teeth were evaluated at 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24-month intervals. After three months, all 205 treated teeth were completely intact. After six months, 66 of the 71 teeth treated with flowable resin composite and 65 of the 70 teeth treated with flowable compomer were complete, compared to 57 of the 58 teeth treated with the conventional preventive resin technique. After 12 months, 60 of the 67 teeth treated with flowable resin composite and 61 of the 67 teeth treated with flowable compomer were complete, compared to 51 of the 55 teeth treated with the conventional preventive resin technique. After 18 months, 53 of the 61 teeth treated with flowable resin composite and 54 of the 62 teeth treated with flowable compomer were complete, compared to 47 of the 53 teeth treated with the conventional preventive resin technique. After 24 months, 49 of the 58 teeth treated with flowable resin composite and 45 of the 57 teeth treated with flowable compomer were complete, compared to 42 of the 52 teeth treated with the conventional preventive resin technique. There were no statistically significant differences in retention rates among all groups after 3, 6, 12, 18 or 24-months (p>0.05). One tooth treated with flowable resin composite and one tooth treated with flowable

  18. Respiratory Sound Analysis for Flow Estimation During Wakefulness and Sleep, and its Applications for Sleep Apnea Detection and Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadollahi, Azadeh

    Tracheal respiratory sounds analysis has been investigated as a non--invasive method to estimate respiratory flow and upper airway obstruction. However, the flow--sound relationship is highly variable among subjects which makes it challenging to estimate flow in general applications. Therefore, a robust model for acoustical flow estimation in a large group of individuals did not exist before. On the other hand, a major application of acoustical flow estimation is to detect flow limitations in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) during sleep. However, previously the flow--sound relationship was only investigated during wakefulness among healthy individuals. Therefore, it was necessary to examine the flow--sound relationship during sleep in OSA patients. This thesis takes the above challenges and offers innovative solutions. First, a modified linear flow--sound model was proposed to estimate respiratory flow from tracheal sounds. To remove the individual based calibration process, the statistical correlation between the model parameters and anthropometric features of 93 healthy volunteers was investigated. The results show that gender, height and smoking are the most significant factors that affect the model parameters. Hence, a general acoustical flow estimation model was proposed for people with similar height and gender. Second, flow--sound relationship during sleep and wakefulness was studied among 13 OSA patients. The results show that during sleep and wakefulness, flow--sound relation- ship follows a power law, but with different parameters. Therefore, for acoustical flow estimation during sleep, the model parameters should be extracted from sleep data to have small errors. The results confirm reliability of the acoustical flow estimation for investigating flow variations during both sleep and wakefulness. Finally, a new method for sleep apnea detection and monitoring was developed, which only requires recording the tracheal sounds and the blood

  19. In-airway molecular flow sensing: A new technology for continuous, noninvasive monitoring of oxygen consumption in critical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciaffoni, Luca; O'Neill, David P; Couper, John H; Ritchie, Grant A D; Hancock, Gus; Robbins, Peter A

    2016-08-01

    There are no satisfactory methods for monitoring oxygen consumption in critical care. To address this, we adapted laser absorption spectroscopy to provide measurements of O2, CO2, and water vapor within the airway every 10 ms. The analyzer is integrated within a novel respiratory flow meter that is an order of magnitude more precise than other flow meters. Such precision, coupled with the accurate alignment of gas concentrations with respiratory flow, makes possible the determination of O2 consumption by direct integration over time of the product of O2 concentration and flow. The precision is illustrated by integrating the balance gas (N2 plus Ar) flow and showing that this exchange was near zero. Measured O2 consumption changed by <5% between air and O2 breathing. Clinical capability was illustrated by recording O2 consumption during an aortic aneurysm repair. This device now makes easy, accurate, and noninvasive measurement of O2 consumption for intubated patients in critical care possible.

  20. Method and apparatus for monitoring the flow of mercury in a system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, M.W.

    1987-12-15

    An apparatus and method for monitoring the flow of mercury in a system are disclosed. The equipment enables the entrainment of the mercury in a carrier gas e.g., an inert gas, which passes as mercury vapor between a pair of optically transparent windows. The attenuation of the emission is indicative of the quantity of mercury (and its isotopes) in the system. A 253.7 nm light is shone through one of the windows and the unabsorbed light is detected through the other window. The absorption of the 253.7 nm light is thereby measured whereby the quantity of mercury passing between the windows can be determined. The apparatus includes an in-line sensor for measuring the quantity of mercury. It includes a conduit together with a pair of apertures disposed in a face to face relationship and arranged on opposite sides of the conduit. A pair of optically transparent windows are disposed upon a pair of viewing tubes. A portion of each of the tubes is disposed inside of the conduit and within each of the apertures. The two windows are disposed in a face to face relationship on the ends of the viewing tubes and the entire assembly is hermetically sealed from the atmosphere whereby when 253.7 nm ultraviolet light is shone through one of the windows and detected through the other, the quantity of mercury which is passing by can be continuously monitored due to absorption which is indicated by attenuation of the amplitude of the observed emission. 4 figs.

  1. Monitoring of surface velocity of hyper-concentrated flow in a laboratory flume by means of fully-digital PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Termini, Donatella; Di Leonardo, Alice

    2016-04-01

    High flow conditions, which are generally characterized by high sediment concentrations, do not permit the use of traditional measurement equipment. Traditional techniques usually are based on the intrusive measure of the vertical profile of flow velocity and on the linking of water depth with the discharge through the rating curve. The major disadvantage of these measurement techniques is that they are difficult to use and not safe for operators especially in high flow conditions. The point is that, as literature shows (see as an example Moramarco and Termini, 2015), especially in such conditions, the measurement of surface velocity distribution is important to evaluate the mean flow velocity and, thus, the flow discharge. In the last decade, image-based techniques have been increasingly used for surface velocity measurements (among others Joeau et al., 2008). Experimental program has been recently conducted at the Hydraulic laboratory of the Department of Civil, Environmental, Aerospatial and of Materials Engineering (DICAM) - University of Palermo (Italy) in order to analyze the propagation phenomenon of hyper-concentrated flow in a defense channel. The experimental apparatus includes a high-precision camera and a system allowing the images recording. This paper investigates the utility and the efficiency of the digital image-technique for remote monitoring of surface velocity in hyper-concentrated flow by the aid of data collected during experiments conducted in the laboratory flume. In particular the present paper attention is focused on the estimation procedure of the velocity vectors and on their sensitivity with parameters (number of images, spatial resolution of interrogation area,) of the images processing procedure. References Jodeau M., A. Hauet, A. Paquier, Le Coz J., Dramais G., Application and evaluation of LS-PIV technique for the monitoring of river surface in high flow conditions, Flow Measurements and Instrumentation, Vol.19, No.2, 2008, pp.117

  2. A low cost strategy to monitor the expansion and contraction of the flowing stream network in mountainous headwater catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assendelft, Rick; van Meerveld, Ilja; Seibert, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Streams are dynamic features in the landscape. The flowing stream network expands and contracts, connects and disconnects in response to rainfall events and seasonal changes in catchment wetness. Sections of the river system that experience these wet and dry cycles are often referred to as temporary streams. Temporary streams are abundant and widely distributed freshwater ecosystems. They account for more than half of the total length of the global stream network, are unique habitats and form important hydrological and ecological links between the uplands and perennial streams. However, temporary streams have been largely unstudied, especially in mountainous headwater catchments. The dynamic character of these systems makes it difficult to monitor them. We describe a low-cost, do-it-yourself strategy to monitor the occurrence of water and flow in temporary streams. We evaluate this strategy in two headwater catchments in Switzerland. The low cost sensor network consists of electrical resistivity sensors, water level switches, temperature sensors and flow sensors. These sensors are connected to Arduino microcontrollers and data loggers, which log the data every 5 minutes. The data from the measurement network are compared with observations (mapping of the temporary stream network) as well as time lapse camera data to evaluate the performance of the sensors. We look at how frequently the output of the sensors (presence and absence of water from the ER and water level data, and flow or no-flow from the flow sensors) corresponds to the observed channel state. This is done for each sensor, per sub-catchment, per precipitation event and per sensor location to determine the best sensor combination to monitor temporary streams in mountainous catchments and in which situation which sensor combination works best. The preliminary results show that the sensors and monitoring network work well. The data from the sensors corresponds with the observations and provides information

  3. Tracer tests and uncertainty propagation to design monitoring setups in view of pharmaceutical mass flow analyses in sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepiszewski, Kai; Venditti, Silvia; Koehler, Christian

    2016-07-01

    The development of a strategic approach to manage pollution of surface waters with pharmaceutical residues is in centre of interest in Europe. In this context a lack of reliable standard procedures for sampling and subsequent assessment of pharmaceutical mass flows in the water cycle has been identified. Authoritative assessment of relevant substance concentrations and flows is essential for environmental risk assessments and reliable efficiency analysis of measures to reduce or avoid emissions of drugs to water systems. Accordingly, a detailed preparation of monitoring campaigns including an accuracy check for the sampling configuration provides important information on the reliability of the gathered data. It finally supports data analysis and interpretation for evaluations of the efficiency of measures as well as for cost benefit assessments. The precision of mass flow balances is expected to be particularly weak when substances with high short-term variations and rare upstream emissions are considered. This is especially true for substance flow analysis in sewers close to source because of expectable highly dynamic flow conditions and emission patterns of pollutants. The case study presented here focusses on the verification of a monitoring campaign in a hospital sewer in Luxembourg. The results highlight the importance for a priori accuracy checks and provide a blueprint for well-designed monitoring campaigns of pharmaceutical trace pollutants on the one hand. On the other hand, the study provides evidence that the defined and applied continuous flow proportional sampling procedure enables a representative monitoring of short-term peak loads of the x-ray contrast media iobitridol close to source. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Flow cytometry quality requirements for monitoring of minimal disease in plasma cell myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldaker, Teri A; Wallace, Paul K; Barnett, David

    2016-01-01

    Current therapeutic approaches for plasma cell myeloma (PCM) attain an overall survival of more than 6 years for the majority of newly diagnosed patients. However, PFS and OS are the only accepted FDA clinical endpoints for demonstrating drug efficacy before they can be become frontline therapeutic options. There is, however, recognition that the increasing gap between drug development and approval for mainstream therapeutic use needs to be shortened. As such regulatory bodies such as the FDA are now considering whether biomarker response evaluation, as in measurement of minimal residual disease (MRD) as assessed by flow cytometry (FC), can provide an early, robust prediction of survival and therefore improve the drug approval process. Recently, FC MRD using a standardized eight-color antibody methodology has been shown to have a minimum sensitivity of 0.01% and an upper sensitivity of 0.001%. To ensure that all laboratories using this approach achieve the same levels of sensitivity it is crucially important to have standardized quality management procedures in place. This manuscript accompanies those published in this special issue and describes the minimum that is required for validating and quality monitoring of this highly specific test to ensure any laboratory, irrespective of location, will achieve the expected quality standards required. © 2015 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  5. Flow monitoring with a camera: a case study on a flood event in the Tiber River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauro, F; Olivieri, G; Petroselli, A; Porfiri, M; Grimaldi, S

    2016-02-01

    Monitoring surface water velocity during flood events is a challenging task. Techniques based on deploying instruments in the flow are often unfeasible due to high velocity and abundant sediment transport. A low-cost and versatile technology that provides continuous and automatic observations is still not available. Among remote methods, large-scale particle image velocimetry (LSPIV) is an optical method that computes surface water velocity maps from videos recorded with a camera. Here, we implement and critically analyze findings obtained from a recently introduced LSPIV experimental configuration during a flood event in the Tiber River at a cross section located in the center of Rome, Italy. We discuss the potential of LSPIV observations in challenging environmental conditions by presenting results from three tests performed during the hydrograph flood peak and recession limb of the event for different illumination and weather conditions. The obtained surface velocity maps are compared to the rating curve velocity and to benchmark velocity values. Experimental findings show that optical methods should be preferred in extreme conditions. However, their practical implementation may be associated with further hurdles and uncertainties.

  6. Cerebral oximetry and cerebral blood flow monitoring in 2 pediatric survivors with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramo, Thomas; Aggarwal, Nitin; Kane, Ian; Crossman, Kristen; Meredith, Mark

    2014-04-01

    In pediatric out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (POHCA), cardiovascular monitoring tools have improved resuscitative endeavors and cardiovascular outcomes but with still poor neurologic outcomes. Regarding cardiac arrest in patients with congenital heart disease during surgery, the application of cerebral oximetry with blood volume index (BVI) during the resuscitation has shown significant results and prognostic significance. We present 2 POHCA patients who had cerebral oximetry with BVI monitoring during their arrest and postarrest phase in the emergency department and its potential prognostic aspect.Basic procedures include left and right cerebral oximetry with BVI monitoring at every 5-second interval during cardiac arrest, resuscitation, and postarrest in 2 POHCA patients in the pediatric emergency department.Regional cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (rSo2) with BVI readings in these 2 POHCA survivors demonstrated interesting cerebral physiology, blood flow, and potential prognostic outcome. In 1 patient, the reference range of cerebral rSo2 with positive blood flow during arrest and postarrest phases consistently occurred. This neurologic monitoring had its significance when the resuscitation effectiveness was used and end-tidal CO2 changes were lost. The other patient's cerebral rSo2 with simultaneous BVI readings and trending showed the effectiveness of the emergency medical services (EMS) resuscitation.Cerebral oximetry with cerebral blood flow index monitoring in these POHCA survivors demonstrates compelling periarrest and postarrest cerebral physiology information and prognostication. Cerebral oximetry with cerebral BVI monitoring during these arrest phases has potential as a neurologic monitor for the resuscitative intervention's effectiveness and its possible neurologic prognostic application in the pediatric OCHA patients.

  7. A multisyringe flow-through sequential extraction system for on-line monitoring of orthophosphate in soils and sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buanuam, Janya; Miró, Manuel; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2007-01-01

    A fully automated flow-through microcolumn fractionation system with on-line post-extraction derivatization is proposed for monitoring of orthophosphate in solid samples of environmental relevance. The system integrates dynamic sequential extraction using 1.0 mol l-1 NH4Cl, 0.1 mol l-1 NaOH and 0.......5 mol l-1 HCl as extractants according to the Hietjles-Lijklema (HL) scheme for fractionation of phosphorus associated with different geological phases, and on-line processing of the extracts via the Molybdenum Blue (MB) reaction by exploiting multisyringe flow injection as the interface between...... the solid containing microcolumn and the flow-through detector. The proposed flow assembly, capitalizing on the features of the multicommutation concept, implies several advantages as compared to fractionation analysis in the batch mode in terms of saving of extractants and MB reagents, shortening...

  8. Water quality monitoring system for determination of ionic nutrients by ion-exclusion chromatography with spectrophotometric detection on cation- and anion-exchange resin columns using water eluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozaki, Daisuke; Nakatani, Nobutake; Mori, Masanobu; Nakagoshi, Nobukazu; Tanaka, Kazuhiko

    2012-07-01

    A unified ion-exclusion chromatography (IEC) system for monitoring anionic and cationic nutrients like NH4+, NO2-, NO3-, phosphate ion, silicate ion and HCO3- was developed and applied to several environmental waters. The IEC system consisted of four IEC methodologies, including the IEC with ultraviolet (UV) form connected with detection at 210 nm for determining NH4+ on anion-exchange separation column in OH anion-exchange UV-conversion column in I- form in tandem, the IEC with UV-detection at 210 nm for determining simultaneously NO3- and NO3- on cation-exchange separation column in H+ form, the IEC with UV-detection at 210 nm for determining HCO3- on cation-exchange separation column in H+ form connected with anion-exchange UV-conversion column in I- form in tandem, and the IEC with visible-detection based on molybdenum-blue reaction for determining simultaneously silicate and phosphate ions on cation-exchange separation column in H+ form. These IEC systems were combined through three manually-driven 6-port column selection valves to select each separation column to determine selectively the ionic nutrients. Using this sequential water quality monitoring system, the analytical performances such as calibration linearity, reproducibility, detection limit and recovery were also tested under the optimized chromatographic conditions. This novel water quality monitoring system has been applied successfully for the determination of the ionic eutrophication components in sub-urban river waters.

  9. Flow field and dissolved oxygen distributions in the outer channel of the Orbal oxidation ditch by monitor and CFD simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuesong Guo; Xin Zhou; Qiuwen Chen; Junxin Liu

    2013-01-01

    In the Orbal oxidation ditch,denitrification is primarily accomplished in the outer channel.However,the detailed characteristics of the flow field and dissolved oxygen (DO) distribution in the outer channel are not well understood.Therefore,in this study,the flow velocity and DO concentration in the outer channel of an Orbal oxidation ditch system in a wastewater treatment plant in Beijing (China)were monitored under actual operation conditions.The flow field and DO concentration distributions were analyzed by computed fluid dynamic modeling.In situ monitoring and modeling both showed that the flow velocity was heterogeneous in the outer channel.As a result,the DO was also heterogeneously distributed in the outer channel,with concentration gradients occurring along the flow direction as well as in the cross-section.This heterogeneous DO distribution created many anoxic and aerobic zones,which may have facilitated simultaneous nitrification-denitrification in the channel.These findings may provide supporting information for rational optimization of the oerformance of the Orbal oxidation ditch.

  10. Fluid flow monitoring in oilfields using downhole measurements of electrokinetic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, M. D.; Saunders, J. H.; Pain, C. C.

    2006-12-01

    Permanently installed downhole sensors are increasingly being deployed to provide `real-time' reservoir data during hydrocarbon production, which helps to reduce uncertainty in the reservoir description and contributes to reservoir management decisions. Where wells are equipped with inflow control valves (so called `intelligent' wells), it is possible to develop a feedback loop between measurement and control to optimize production. We suggest that measurements of electrokinetic potential during production, using permanently installed downhole electrodes, could be used to detect water encroachment towards an intelligent oil well. Downhole electrodes mounted at the production well on the outside of insulated casing, have been successfully applied in subsurface resistivity surveys during oil production. Similar technology could be used to measure electrokinetic potential. Moreover, recent and ongoing work has changed our understanding of electrokinetic coupling under two-phase conditions. We present the results of numerical simulations of fluid movement during hydrocarbon production, using a new formulation which captures both the changing fluid distributions and the resulting electrical potentials. We suggest that encroaching water causes changes in electrokinetic potential at the production well which could be resolved above background electrical noise; indeed, changes in water saturation could be detected several 10's to 100's of metres away from the well. This contrasts with most other downhole monitoring techniques, which sample only the region immediately adjacent to the wellbore. Signal resolution is improved if the water has a relatively low salinity, and the pressure gradient into the well is large. However, significant uncertainties remain concerning the nature of electrokinetic coupling during the flow of oil and water, particularly in mixed and oil-wet reservoirs.

  11. Validation of the concentration profiles obtained from the near infrared/multivariate curve resolution monitoring of reactions of epoxy resins using high performance liquid chromatography as a reference method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, M; Larrechi, M S; Rius, F X

    2007-03-07

    This paper reports the validation of the results obtained by combining near infrared spectroscopy and multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) and using high performance liquid chromatography as a reference method, for the model reaction of phenylglycidylether (PGE) and aniline. The results are obtained as concentration profiles over the reaction time. The trueness of the proposed method has been evaluated in terms of lack of bias. The joint test for the intercept and the slope showed that there were no significant differences between the profiles calculated spectroscopically and the ones obtained experimentally by means of the chromatographic reference method at an overall level of confidence of 5%. The uncertainty of the results was estimated by using information derived from the process of assessment of trueness. Such operational aspects as the cost and availability of instrumentation and the length and cost of the analysis were evaluated. The method proposed is a good way of monitoring the reactions of epoxy resins, and it adequately shows how the species concentration varies over time.

  12. Biocidal quaternary ammonium resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janauer, G. E.

    1983-01-01

    Activated carbon (charcoal) and polymeric resin sorbents are widely used in the filtration and treatment of drinking water, mainly to remove dissolved organic and inorganic impurities and to improve the taste. Earlier hopes that activated carbon might "disinfect' water proved to be unfounded. The feasibility of protecting against microbial infestation in charcoal and resin beds such as those to be incorporated into total water reuse systems in spacecraft was investigated. The biocidal effect of IPCD (insoluable polymeric contact disinfectants) in combination with a representative charcoal was assessed. The ion exchange resins (IPCD) were shown to adequately protect charcoal and ion exchange beds.

  13. Biocompatibility of composite resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Mostafa Mousavinasab

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental materials that are used in dentistry should be harmless to oral tissues, so they should not contain any leachable toxic and diffusible substances that can cause some side effects. Reports about probable biologic hazards, in relation to dental resins, have increased interest to this topic in dentists. The present paper reviews the articles published about biocompatibility of resin-restorative materials specially resin composites and monomers which are mainly based on Bis-GMA and concerns about their degradation and substances which may be segregated into oral cavity.

  14. Using rainfall simulation to monitor the effect of fire on overland flow and erosion through time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Carla; Shakesby, Rick; Walsh, Rory; Ferreira, António; Urbanek, Emilia

    2010-05-01

    have been recorded if the plot had remained bounded between measurements These results show that this fire continued to have a significant impact on soil loss for a relatively long period. As regards the methodology adopted, the ability to keep the plots in fixed positions minimised soil disturbance due to plot installation and meant that results carried out at the same sites were directly comparable. Removing the upper and lower boundaries of the plots between measurements ensured that soil in the plots underwent processes similar to those experienced on the surrounding slope and avoided the ‘oasis' effect associated with bounded plots. It can be concluded that rainfall simulation experiments provide a good method for monitoring and assessing spatial and temporal differences in overland flow and erosion rates through time.

  15. A Two-layer Model for the Simulation of the VARTM Process with Resin Distribution Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Wen-Bin

    2013-12-01

    Vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) is one of the important processes to fabricate high performance composites. In this process, resin is drawn into the mold to impregnate the fiber reinforcement to a form composite. A resin distribution layer with high permeability was often introduced on top of the fiber reinforcement to accelerate the filling speed. Due to the difference of the flow resistance in the resin distribution layer and the reinforcement as well as the resulting through thickness transverse flow, the filling flow field is intrinsically three-dimensional. This study developed a two-layer model with two-dimensional formulation to simulate the filling flow of the VARTM process with a resin distribution layer. Two-dimensional flow was considered in each layer and a transverse flow in the thickness direction was estimated between the two layers. Thermal analysis including the transverse convection was also performed to better simulate the temperature distribution.

  16. Water quality monitoring system for determination of ionic nutrients by ion-exclusion chromatography with spectrophotometric detection on cationand anion-exchange resin columns using water eluent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daisuke KOZAKI; Nobutakc NAKATANI; Masanobu MORI; Nobukazu NAKAGOSHI; Kazuhiko TANAKA

    2012-01-01

    A unified ion-exclusion chromatography(IEC)system for monitoring anionic and cationic nutrients like NH+4,NO-2,NO-3,phosphate ion,silicate ion and HCO-3 was developed and applied to several environmental waters.The IEC system consisted of four IEC methodologies,including the IEC with ultraviolet(UV)detection at 210 nm for determining NH-4 on anion-exchange separation column in OH form connected with anion-exchange UV-conversion column in I-form in tandem,the IEC with UV-detection at 210 nm for determining simultaneously NO-2 and NO-3 on cation-exchange separation column in H+ form,the IEC with UV-detection at 210 nm for determining HCO-3 on cation-exchange separation column in H+ form connected with anionexchange UV-conversion column in I-form in tandem,and the IEC with visible-detection based on molybdenum-blue reaction for determining simultaneously silicate and phosphate ions on cation-exchange separation column in H + form.These IEC systems were combined through three manually-driven 6-port column selection valves to select each separation column to determine selectively the ionic nutrients.Using this sequential water quality monitoring system,the analytical performances such as calibration linearity,reproducibility,detection limit and recovery were also tested under the optimized chromatographic conditions.This novel water quality monitoring system has been applied successfully for the determination of the ionic eutrophication components in sub-urban river waters.

  17. Resin composite repair: Quantitative microleakage evaluation of resin-resin and resin-tooth interfaces with different surface treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Celik, Cigdem; Cehreli, Sevi Burcak; Arhun, Neslihan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to evaluate the effect of different adhesive systems and surface treatments on the integrity of resin-resin and resin-tooth interfaces after partial removal of preexisting resin composites using quantitative image analysis for microleakage testing protocol. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 human molar teeth were restored with either of the resin composites (Filtek Z250/GrandioSO) occlusally. The teeth were thermocycled (1000×). Mesial and distal 1/3 parts of the res...

  18. Monitoring the Dynamics of Water Flow at a High-Mountain Permafrost Site Using Electrical Self-Potential Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemna, A.; Weigand, M.; Wagner, F.; Hilbich, C.; Hauck, C.

    2016-12-01

    Flow of (liquid) water plays a crucial role in the dynamics of coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical processes in terrestrial permafrost systems. To better understand these processes in the active layer of permafrost regions, with the ultimate goal of adequately incorporating them in numerical models for improved scenario prediction, monitoring approaches offering high spatial and temporal resolution, areal coverage, and especially sensitivity to subsurface water flow, are highly desired. This particularly holds for high-mountain slopes, where strong variability in topography, precipitation, and snow cover, along with significant subsurface soil/rock heterogeneity, gives rise to complex spatio-temporal patterns of water flow during seasonal thawing and freezing periods. The electrical self-potential (SP) method is well known to, in theory, meeting the above monitoring demands by measuring the electrical streaming potential which is generated at the microscopic scale when water flows along electrically non-neutral interfaces. Despite its inherent sensitivity to subsurface water flow, the SP method has not yet been used for the monitoring of high-mountain permafrost sites. We here present first results from an SP monitoring survey conducted at the Schilthorn (2970 m asl) in the Bernese Alps, Switzerland, where SP data have been collected since September 2013 at a sampling rate of 10 min on a permanently installed array of 12 non-polarizing electrodes covering an area of 35 m by 15 m. While the SP time series exhibit systematic daily variations, with part of the signal clearly correlated with temperature, in particular in the snow-free periods, the largest temporal changes in the SP signal occur in spring, when the snow cover melts and thawing sets on in the active layer. The period of higher temporal SP variations continues until autumn, when the signal gradually returns to relatively low variations, coinciding with the freezing of the ground. Our results suggest that the

  19. Improved detection of incipient anomalies via multivariate memory monitoring charts: Application to an air flow heating system

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi

    2016-08-11

    Detecting anomalies is important for reliable operation of several engineering systems. Multivariate statistical monitoring charts are an efficient tool for checking the quality of a process by identifying abnormalities. Principal component analysis (PCA) was shown effective in monitoring processes with highly correlated data. Traditional PCA-based methods, nevertheless, often are relatively inefficient at detecting incipient anomalies. Here, we propose a statistical approach that exploits the advantages of PCA and those of multivariate memory monitoring schemes, like the multivariate cumulative sum (MCUSUM) and multivariate exponentially weighted moving average (MEWMA) monitoring schemes to better detect incipient anomalies. Memory monitoring charts are sensitive to incipient anomalies in process mean, which significantly improve the performance of PCA method and enlarge its profitability, and to utilize these improvements in various applications. The performance of PCA-based MEWMA and MCUSUM control techniques are demonstrated and compared with traditional PCA-based monitoring methods. Using practical data gathered from a heating air-flow system, we demonstrate the greater sensitivity and efficiency of the developed method over the traditional PCA-based methods. Results indicate that the proposed techniques have potential for detecting incipient anomalies in multivariate data. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  20. Vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM): Model development and verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaolan

    2003-06-01

    In this investigation, a comprehensive Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) process simulation model was developed and verified. The model incorporates resin flow through the preform, compaction and relaxation of the preform, and viscosity and cure kinetics of the resin. The computer model can be used to analyze the resin flow details, track the thickness change of the preform, predict the total infiltration time and final fiber volume fraction of the parts, and determine whether the resin could completely infiltrate and uniformly wet out the preform. Flow of resin through the preform is modeled as flow through porous media. Darcy's law combined with the continuity equation for an incompressible Newtonian fluid forms the basis of the flow model. During the infiltration process, it is well accepted that the total pressure is shared by the resin pressure and the pressure supported by the fiber network. With the progression of the resin, the net pressure applied to the preform decreases as a result of increasing local resin pressure. This leads to the springback of the preform, and is called the springback mechanism. On the other side, the lubrication effect of the resin causes the rearrangement of the fiber network and an increase in the preform compaction. This is called the wetting compaction mechanism. The thickness change of the preform is determined by the relative magnitude of the springback and wetting deformation mechanisms. In the compaction model, the transverse equilibrium equation is used to calculate the net compaction pressure applied to the preform, and the compaction test results are fitted to give the compressive constitutive law of the preform. The Finite Element/Control Volume (FE/CV) method is adopted to find the flow front location and the fluid pressure. The code features the ability of simultaneous integration of 1-D, 2-D and 3-D element types in a single simulation, and thus enables efficient modeling of the flow in complex mold

  1. Comparison of some newly synthesized chemically modified Amberlite XAD-4 resins for the preconcentration and determination of trace elements by flow injection inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Derya; Fisher, Andrew; Hill, Steve J

    2006-11-01

    XAD copolymer resins may be functionalized with heavy metal ion-selective ligands either by covalent linkage to the polymer backbone or by impregnation. These resins may be tailored to be specific for certain heavy metals by adjusting the retention and elution parameters. For the synthesis of immobilized Amberlite XAD-4 copolymer resins that are expected to preconcentrate a number of transition and heavy metals, the Schiff base method was chosen. For this purpose the copolymer was nitrated, reduced to the corresponding amine and converted to the imine compounds via a Schiff base reaction using different organic aldehyde compounds. The interactions of 8 elements (Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, U and Zn) with the resins were qualitatively investigated. Optimal pH for retention was typically 6-8 for most resins although one could be used at pH 5 and elution was achieved using 0.1 M HNO3. The resins were characterized by FTIR, SEM and elemental analysis. It was demonstrated that the resins could be used to preconcentrate ultra-trace analytes from natural waters, and analysis of environmental certified reference materials using FI-ICP-MS showed good agreement with the certified values. Metal retention capacities were also calculated using a batch system and were found to compare favorably with other resins reported in the literature.

  2. textbf{THE Debris-Flow Monitoring System of Acquabona Torrent (Cortina D'Ampezzo, BL, Italy).}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallavalle, D.; Scotton, P.; Genevois, R.

    2012-04-01

    A new debris flow monitoring system has been designed and developed at the Acquabona site (2010), on the left side of the Boite River Valley, near Cortina d'Ampezzo. The monitoring system is composed of two stations. The upstream station is located at the baseof the dolomitic rock cliff where the water feeding area is located, at an altitude of about 1715 m a.s.l., in order to measure the meteorological conditions of the site, at the feet of the dolomite rock massif. The installed weather station allows acquisition of rainfall, wind speed and direction, relative humidity, air temperature, barometric pressure and other secondary parameters. The downstream station, located at 1175 m a.s.l., is closed to the deposition area and is provided by a tipping bucket rain gauge, an ultrasonic and a laser distance meter and a digital video camera. The upstream station is connected via radio modem and directional antenna to the downstream station, allowing the data acquisition by a single board computer that collects and stores locally the data. The processor and the local mass storage are directly managed remotely, via 3G UMTS high speed Internet, from the Department of Geosciences of Padua. Four geophones are distributed along the flow channel, in order to measure travelling times, at a distance of about 100 meters each other: one at the downstream station, two upstream and one downstream. The equipment at the downstream station has been mounted on a reticular structure anchored to a big boulder at the left side of the torrent. The distance from the bottom of the channel is about 3.5 m. The support structure can be rotated around the anchorage vertical axis about 90° . The aim of the monitoring system is to describe the hydrologic conditions for debris-flows occurrence and their dynamic properties, giving continuity to field measurements initiated at the site more than ten years ago. The new monitoring system is active from spring 2011. The 2011 did not record debris-flow

  3. Morphology and River Monitoring - Topobathymetry as a new level of monitoring and managing the morphology at the river Isar, Munich after the flood flows 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbacher, Frank; Schaufuß, Daniela; Aufleger, Markus; Baran, Ramona; Dobler, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    Topobathymetry is a new approach for the very detailed bathymetric survey of water bodies (rivers, lakes, nearshore) as well as the topographic side in a same resolution. This technique was made possible within the scope of a research project between the University of Innsbruck and Riegl LMS (Horn, Lower Austria). This airborne-operated, water-penetrating laser system capturing both sides of water's edge is considered as a technical revolution for the comprehensive and simultaneous survey and research of our countryside. Monitoring our waters area-wide and with a point density lager 20 points/m² a new data level is reached for managing them and performing research on hydraulics and morphology. By now operating the system over three years and due to the flood flows in Austria and Germany in 2013 a dataset before and after the effects of the flood could be analyzed at the river Isar. The changes monitored at the river Isar due to the flood flow will be presented as well as the new possibilities in calibrating hydro- morphologic numerical models. The project offers the city of Munich new knowledge and ways in managing inner-city river structures and planning the future of the close-to-nature approaches at the river Isar.

  4. Coupling ground penetrating radar and fluid flow modeling for oilfield monitoring applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miorali, M.; Zhou, F.; Slob, E.C.; Arts, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    The recent introduction of smart well technology allows for new geophysical monitoring opportunities. Smart wells, which allow zonal production control, combined with monitoring techniques capable of capturing the arrival of undesired fluids, have the potential to significantly increase the oil reco

  5. Coupling ground penetrating radar and fluid flow modeling for oilfield monitoring applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miorali, M.; Zhou, F.; Slob, E.C.; Arts, R.

    2011-01-01

    The recent introduction of smart well technology allows for new geophysical monitoring opportunities. Smart wells, which allow zonal production control, combined with monitoring techniques capable of capturing the arrival of undesired fluids, have the potential to significantly increase the oil reco

  6. Landsat imagery and its treatment in a publicly available data portal to monitor flow velocity variations of Greenland outlet glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinert, M.; Rosenau, R.; Ebermann, B.; Horwath, M.

    2016-12-01

    Utilizing the freely available Landsat archive we have set up a monitoring system to process and provide flow-velocity fields for more than 300 outlet glaciers along the margin of the Greenland ice sheet. We will present major processing steps. These include, among others, an improved orthorectification that is based on the Global Digital Elevation Map V2 (GDEM-V2) of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER). For those Landsat 7 products which feature the scan line corrector (SLC) failure a destriping correction was applied. An adaptive, recursive filter approach was applied in order to remove outliers. Altogether, the enhanced processing leads to a higher accuracy of the flow-velocity fields. By mid-2016 we succeeded in incorporating more than 37,000 optical multi-sensoral scenes from Landsat 1 to 8. These scenes cover the period from 1972 to 2015. Until now, for almost 300 glaciers we processed more than 100,000 flow-velocity fields for the time span until 2012. For the time until 2015 velocity fields were inferred only for the fastest flowing glaciers. However, new recordings of Landsat 7 and Landsat 8 as well as the availability of further scenes through the Landsat Global Archive Consolidation (LGAC) effort will help to enlarge the database. With a further quality check, we can provide more than 40,000 flow-velocity for public accessibility. More products will be added continuously while the almost automated processing is ongoing. The long time span enables to determine trends of the flow velocity over different (long) periods. A major achievement can be seen in the fact that a high temporal resolution facilitates the analysis of seasonal flow-velocity variations. We will discuss prominent examples of the non-uniform pattern of ice flow velocity changes. For this, a powerful tool is provided by the monitoring system and its web-based data portal. It allows to study the flow-velocity changes in time and space, and to possibly

  7. Doppler Endoscopic Probe Monitoring of Blood Flow Improves Risk Stratification and Outcomes of Patients With Severe Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Dennis M; Kovacs, Thomas O G; Ohning, Gordon V; Ghassemi, Kevin; Machicado, Gustavo A; Dulai, Gareth S; Sedarat, Alireza; Jutabha, Rome; Gornbein, Jeffrey

    2017-05-01

    For 4 decades, stigmata of recent hemorrhage in patients with nonvariceal lesions have been used for risk stratification and endoscopic hemostasis. The arterial blood flow that underlies the stigmata rarely is monitored, but can be used to determine risk for rebleeding. We performed a randomized controlled trial to determine whether Doppler endoscopic probe monitoring of blood flow improves risk stratification and outcomes in patients with severe nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. In a single-blind study performed at 2 referral centers we assigned 148 patients with severe nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (125 with ulcers, 19 with Dieulafoy's lesions, and 4 with Mallory Weiss tears) to groups that underwent standard, visually guided endoscopic hemostasis (control, n = 76), or endoscopic hemostasis assisted by Doppler monitoring of blood flow under the stigmata (n = 72). The primary outcome was the rate of rebleeding after 30 days; secondary outcomes were complications, death, and need for transfusions, surgery, or angiography. There was a significant difference in the rates of lesion rebleeding within 30 days of endoscopic hemostasis in the control group (26.3%) vs the Doppler group (11.1%) (P = .0214). The odds ratio for rebleeding with Doppler monitoring was 0.35 (95% confidence interval, 0.143-0.8565) and the number needed to treat was 7. In a randomized controlled trial of patients with severe upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage from ulcers or other lesions, Doppler probe guided endoscopic hemostasis significantly reduced 30-day rates of rebleeding compared with standard, visually guided hemostasis. Guidelines for nonvariceal gastrointestinal bleeding should incorporate these results. ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT00732212 (CLIN-013-07F). Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Role of flow cytometry in the diagnosis and monitoring of primary immunodeficiency disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'gorman, Maurice R G

    2007-09-01

    This presentation is organized according to the recent classification of primary immunodeficiencies published by the International Union of Immunological Societies Primary Immunodeficiency meeting. The diseases have been classified into eight groups. After each list, individual diseases that are amenable to assessment by flow cytometry are reviewed with a brief clinical description and a discussion of the appropriate flow cytometry application.

  9. Bonding resin thixotropy and viscosity influence on dentine bond strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niem, Thomas; Schmidt, Alexander; Wöstmann, Bernd

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the influence of bonding resin thixotropy and viscosity on dentine tubule penetration, blister formation and consequently on dentine bond strength as a function of air-blowing pressure (air-bp) intensity. Two HEMA-free, acetone-based, one-bottle self-etch adhesives with similar composition except disparate silica filler contents and different bonding resin viscosities were investigated. The high-filler-containing adhesive (G-Bond) featured a lower viscous bonding resin with inherent thixotropic resin (TR) properties compared to the low-filler-containing adhesive (iBond) exhibiting a higher viscous bonding resin with non-thixotropic resin (NTR) properties. Shear bond strength tests for each adhesive with low (1.5bar; 0.15MPa; n=16) and high (3.0bar; 0.30MPa; n=16) air-bp application were performed after specimen storage in distilled water (24h; 37.0±1.0°C). Results were analysed using a Student's t-test to identify statistically significant differences (padhesive specimens were morphologically characterised by SEM. Statistically significant bond strength differences were obtained for the thixotropic resin adhesive (high-pressure: 24.6MPa, low-pressure: 9.6MPa). While high air-bp specimens provided SEM images revealing resin-plugged dentine tubules, resin tags and only marginally blister structures, low air-bp left copious droplets and open dentine tubules. In contrast, the non-thixotropic resin adhesive showed no significant bond strength differences (high-pressure: 9.3MPa, low-pressure: 7.6MPa). A pressure-dependent distinct influence of bonding resin thixotropy and viscosity on dentine bond strength has been demonstrated. Stronger adhesion with high air-bp application is explained by improved resin fluidity and facilitated resin penetration into dentine tubules. Filler particles used in adhesive systems may induce thixotropic effects in bonding resin layers, accounting for improved free-flowing resin properties. In combination with high air

  10. Online monitoring of particle mass flow rate in bottom spray fluid bed coating--development and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li Kun; Heng, Paul Wan Sia; Liew, Celine Valeria

    2010-08-16

    The primary purpose of this study is to develop a visiometric process analyzer for online monitoring of particle mass flow rate in the bottom spray fluid bed coating process. The secondary purpose is to investigate the influences of partition gap and air accelerator insert size on particle mass flow rate using the developed visiometric process analyzer. Particle movement in the region between the product chamber and partition column was captured using a high speed camera. Mean particle velocity and number of particles in the images were determined by particle image velocimetry and morphological image processing method respectively. Mass flow rate was calculated using particle velocity, number of particles in the images, particle density and size information. Particle velocity and number findings were validated using image tracking and manual particle counting techniques respectively. Validation experiments showed that the proposed method was accurate. Partition gap was found to influence particle mass flow rate by limiting the rate of solids flux into the partition column; the air accelerator insert was found to influence particle mass flow rate by a Venturi effect. Partition gap and air accelerator insert diameter needed to be adjusted accordingly in relation to the other variability sources and diameter of coating cores respectively. The potential, challenges and possible solutions of the proposed visiometric process analyzer were further discussed. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Strong cation exchange resin for improving physicochemical properties and sustaining release of ranitidine hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study strong cation exchange resin (Amberlite IRP69 was used to improve the physicochemical properties of ranitidine hydrochloride such as taste and bulk properties and to sustain dissolution rate. Drug-resin complexes were prepared using batch method. Drug loading was done under different processing conditions such as temperature, pH, drug-resin ratio, and drug concentration to get the optimum condition for resinate preparation. Resinate prepared under optimized condition was tested for taste, bulk properties and release rate. Degree of bitterness of ranitidine was found to reduce to zero after complexation with resin. Improvement in flow properties was also observed. Angle of repose for resinate was found to be 33.21 o as compared to 42.27 o for ranitidine HCl. Effect of dissolution medium and particle size on in vitro release of drug from resinate was also investigated. Resinate with drug to resin ratio of 2:3 and particle size> 90 µm showed about 90% of drug release within 12 h. The orodispersible tablet formulated from the resinate containing 10% croscarmellose sodium disintegrated within 35 sec in oral cavity and showed similar dissolution profile as the resinate. Tablets were found stable after stability studies with no change in dissolution profile.

  12. Exhaled flow monitoring can detect bronchial flap-valve obstruction in a mechanical lung model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, P H; Serina, E R; Barker, S J

    1995-08-01

    Flap-valve obstruction to expiratory flow (V) in a major bronchus can result from inspissated secretions, blood, or foreign body. During inhalation, increasing airway caliber preserves inspired V past the obstruction; during exhalation, decreasing airway diameter causes airflow obstruction and even frank gas trapping. We reasoned that the resultant sequential, biphasic exhalation of the lungs would be best detected by measuring exhaled V versus time. Accordingly, we designed an airway obstruction element in a mechanical lung model to examine flap-valve bronchial obstruction. A mechanical lung simulator was ventilated with a pressure-limited flow generator, where f = 10/min, tidal volume = 850 mL, and respiratory compliance = 40 mL/cm H2O. Airway V (pneumotachometer) and pressure (P) were digitally sampled for 1 min. Then, the circumference of the diaphragm in a respiratory one-way valve was trimmed to generate unidirectional resistance to expiratory V. Measurement sequences were repeated after this flap-valve was interposed in the right "main-stem bronchus." Integration of airway V versus time generated changes in lung volume. During flap-valve obstruction of the right bronchus, the V-time plot revealed preservation of peak expired flow from the normal lung, followed by retarded and decreased flow from the obstructed right lung. Gas trapping of the obstructed lung occurred during conditions of decreased expiratory time and increased expiratory resistance. Airway P could not differentiate between bronchial and tracheal flap-valve obstruction because P decreased abruptly in both conditions. The flow-volume loop displayed less distinctive changes than the flow-time plot, in part because the flow-volume loop was data (flow) plotted against its time integral (volume), with loss of temporal data. In this mechanical lung model, we conclude that bronchial flap-valve obstruction was best detected by the flow-time plot, which could measure the sequential emptying of the

  13. Robust, low-cost data loggers for stream temperature, flow intermittency, and relative conductivity monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, Thomas; Todd, Andrew S.; Zeigler, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Water temperature and streamflow intermittency are critical parameters influencing aquatic ecosystem health. Low-cost temperature loggers have made continuous water temperature monitoring relatively simple but determining streamflow timing and intermittency using temperature data alone requires significant and subjective data interpretation. Electrical resistance (ER) sensors have recently been developed to overcome the major limitations of temperature-based methods for the assessment of streamflow intermittency. This technical note introduces the STIC (Stream Temperature, Intermittency, and Conductivity logger); a robust, low-cost, simple to build instrument that provides long-duration, high-resolution monitoring of both relative conductivity (RC) and temperature. Simultaneously collected temperature and RC data provide unambiguous water temperature and streamflow intermittency information that is crucial for monitoring aquatic ecosystem health and assessing regulatory compliance. With proper calibration, the STIC relative conductivity data can be used to monitor specific conductivity.

  14. Continuous monitoring of absolute cerebral blood flow by combining diffuse correlation spectroscopy and time-resolved near-infrared technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diop, Mamadou; Lee, Ting-Yim; St. Lawrence, Keith

    2011-02-01

    Continuous bedside monitoring of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in patients recovering from brain injury could improve the detection of impaired substrate delivery, which can exacerbate injury and worsen outcome. Diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) provides the ability to monitor perfusion changes continuously, but it is difficult to quantify absolute blood flow - leading to uncertainties as to whether or not CBF has fallen to ischemic levels. To continuously measure CBF, we propose to calibrate DCS data using a single time-point, time-resolved near-infrared (TR-NIR) technique for measuring absolute CBF. Experiments were conducted on newborn piglets in which CBF was increased by raising the arterial tension of CO2 (40-62 mmHg) and decreased by carotid occlusion. For validation, values of CBF measured by TR-NIR were converted into blood flow changes and compared to CBF changes measured by DCS. A strong correlation between perfusion changes from the two techniques was revealed (slope = 0.98 and R2 = 0.96), suggesting that a single time-point CBF measurement by TR-NIR can be used to convert continuous DCS data into units of CBF (ml/100g/min).

  15. Note: Real-time monitoring via second-harmonic interferometry of a flow gas cell for laser wakefield acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandi, F., E-mail: fernando.brandi@ino.it [Intense Laser Irradiation Laboratory (ILIL), Istituto Nazionale di Ottica (INO-CNR), Via Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT), Via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy); Giammanco, F.; Conti, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Plasma Diagnostics and Technologies Ltd., via Matteucci n.38/D, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Sylla, F. [SourceLAB SAS, 86 Rue de Paris, 91400 Orsay (France); Lambert, G. [LOA, ENSTA ParisTech, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, Université Paris-Saclay, 828 bd des Maréchaux, 91762 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Gizzi, L. A. [Intense Laser Irradiation Laboratory (ILIL), Istituto Nazionale di Ottica (INO-CNR), Via Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy)

    2016-08-15

    The use of a gas cell as a target for laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) offers the possibility to obtain stable and manageable laser-plasma interaction process, a mandatory condition for practical applications of this emerging technique, especially in multi-stage accelerators. In order to obtain full control of the gas particle number density in the interaction region, thus allowing for a long term stable and manageable LWFA, real-time monitoring is necessary. In fact, the ideal gas law cannot be used to estimate the particle density inside the flow cell based on the preset backing pressure and the room temperature because the gas flow depends on several factors like tubing, regulators, and valves in the gas supply system, as well as vacuum chamber volume and vacuum pump speed/throughput. Here, second-harmonic interferometry is applied to measure the particle number density inside a flow gas cell designed for LWFA. The results demonstrate that real-time monitoring is achieved and that using low backing pressure gas (<1 bar) and different cell orifice diameters (<2 mm) it is possible to finely tune the number density up to the 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3} range well suited for LWFA.

  16. The eruption in Holuhraun, NE Iceland 2014-2015: Real-time monitoring and influence of landscape on lava flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg; Höskuldsson, Ármann; Thordarson, Thor; Bartolini, Stefania; Becerril, Laura; Marti Molist, Joan; Þorvaldsson, Skúli; Björnsson, Daði; Höskuldsson, Friðrik

    2016-04-01

    The largest eruption in Iceland since the Laki 1783-84 event began in Holuhraun, NE Iceland, on 31 August 2014, producing a lava flow field which, by the end of the eruption on February 27th 2015, covered 84,5 km2 with volume of 1,44 km3. Throughout the event, various satellite images (NOAA AVHRR, MODIS, SUOMI NPP VIIRS, ASTER, LANDSAT7&8, EO-1 ALI & HYPERION, RADARSAT-2, SENTINEL-1, COSMO SKYMED, TERRASAR X) were analysed to monitor the development of activity, identify active flow fronts and channels, and map the lava extent in close collaboration with the on-site field group. Aerial photographs and radar images from the Icelandic Coast Guard Dash 8 aircraft supported this effort. By the end of 2015, Loftmyndir ehf had produced a detailed 3D model of the lava using aerial photographs from 2013 and 2015. The importance of carrying out real-time monitoring of a volcanic eruption is: i) to locate sites of elevated temperature that may be registering new areas of activity within the lava or opening of vents or fissures. ii) To establish and verify timing of events at the vents and within the lava. iii) To identify potential volcanic hazard that can be caused by lava movements, eruption-induced flash flooding, tephra fallout or gas pollution. iv) to provide up-to-date regional information to field groups concerning safety as well as to locate sites for sampling lava, tephra and polluted water. v) to produce quantitative information on magma discharge and lava flow advance, map the lava extent, document the flow morphology and plume/tephra dispersal. During the eruption, these efforts supported mapping of the extent of the lava every 3-4 days on average underpinning the time series of magma discharge calculations. Digitial elevation models from before and after the event, combined with the real-time data series, supports detailed analysis of how landscape affects lava flow in a flat terrain (<0,4°), and provides important input to further developing lava flow models

  17. Fiber Optic Mass Flow Gauge for Liquid Cryogenic Fuel Facilities Monitoring and Control Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I proposal describes a fiber optic mass flow gauge that will aid in managing liquid hydrogen and oxygen fuel storage and transport. The increasing...

  18. Laser speckle contrast imaging for monitoring changes in microvascular blood flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambrus, Rikard; Strandby, Rune B.; Svendsen, Lars Bo;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Microvascular blood flow is essential for healing and predicts surgical outcome. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relation between fluxes measured with the laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) technique and changes in absolute blood flow. In addition, we studied...... the reproducibility of the LSCI technique when assessing the intra-abdominal microcirculation of the pig. METHODS: During trial 1, a fish gill arch was mechanically perfused with heparinized fish blood under controlled stepwise-altered flow rates alongside mechanically induced movement artefacts. The microcirculation...... = 6.0, 3.2, and 6.4%, respectively). CONCLUSION: Due to the non-contact and real-time assessment over large areas, LSCI is a promising technique for the intraoperative assessment of intra-abdominal microcirculation. A linear correlation between flux and volumetric flow was found, in accordance...

  19. Scalable Bayesian modeling, monitoring and analysis of dynamic network flow data

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Traffic flow count data in networks arise in many applications, such as automobile or aviation transportation, certain directed social network contexts, and Internet studies. Using an example of Internet browser traffic flow through site-segments of an international news website, we present Bayesian analyses of two linked classes of models which, in tandem, allow fast, scalable and interpretable Bayesian inference. We first develop flexible state-space models for streaming count data, able to...

  20. Monitoring sand particle concentration in multiphase flow using acoustic emission technology

    OpenAIRE

    El-Alej, Mohamed Essid

    2014-01-01

    Multiphase flow is the simultaneous flow of two or several phases through a system such as a pipe. This common phenomenon can be found in the petroleum and chemical engineering industrial fields. Transport of sand particles in multiphase production has attracted considerable attention given sand production is a common problem especially to the oil and gas industry. The sand production causes loss of pipe wall thickness which can lead to expensive failures and loss of product...

  1. ANALYSIS OF VENTING OF A RESIN SLURRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurinat, J.; Hensel, S.

    2012-03-27

    A resin slurry venting analysis was conducted to address safety issues associated with overpressurization of ion exchange columns used in the Purex process at the Savannah River Site (SRS). If flow to these columns were inadvertently interrupted, an exothermic runaway reaction could occur between the ion exchange resin and the nitric acid used in the feed stream. The nitric acid-resin reaction generates significant quantities of noncondensable gases, which would pressurize the column. To prevent the column from rupturing during such events, rupture disks are installed on the column vent lines. The venting analysis models accelerating rate calorimeter (ARC) tests and data from tests that were performed in a vented test vessel with a rupture disk. The tests showed that the pressure inside the test vessel continued to increase after the rupture disk opened, though at a slower rate than prior to the rupture. Calculated maximum discharge rates for the resin venting tests exceeded the measured rates of gas generation, so the vent size was sufficient to relieve the pressure in the test vessel if the vent flow rate was constant. The increase in the vessel pressure is modeled as a transient phenomenon associated with expansion of the resin slurry/gas mixture upon rupture of the disk. It is postulated that the maximum pressure at the end of this expansion is limited by energy minimization to approximately 1.5 times the rupture disk burst pressure. The magnitude of this pressure increase is consistent with the measured pressure transients. The results of this analysis demonstrate the need to allow for a margin between the design pressure and the rupture disk burst pressure in similar applications.

  2. ANALYSIS OF VENTING OF A RESIN SLURRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurinat, J.; Hensel, S.

    2012-03-27

    A resin slurry venting analysis was conducted to address safety issues associated with overpressurization of ion exchange columns used in the Purex process at the Savannah River Site (SRS). If flow to these columns were inadvertently interrupted, an exothermic runaway reaction could occur between the ion exchange resin and the nitric acid used in the feed stream. The nitric acid-resin reaction generates significant quantities of noncondensable gases, which would pressurize the column. To prevent the column from rupturing during such events, rupture disks are installed on the column vent lines. The venting analysis models accelerating rate calorimeter (ARC) tests and data from tests that were performed in a vented test vessel with a rupture disk. The tests showed that the pressure inside the test vessel continued to increase after the rupture disk opened, though at a slower rate than prior to the rupture. Calculated maximum discharge rates for the resin venting tests exceeded the measured rates of gas generation, so the vent size was sufficient to relieve the pressure in the test vessel if the vent flow rate was constant. The increase in the vessel pressure is modeled as a transient phenomenon associated with expansion of the resin slurry/gas mixture upon rupture of the disk. It is postulated that the maximum pressure at the end of this expansion is limited by energy minimization to approximately 1.5 times the rupture disk burst pressure. The magnitude of this pressure increase is consistent with the measured pressure transients. The results of this analysis demonstrate the need to allow for a margin between the design pressure and the rupture disk burst pressure in similar applications.

  3. The study of mechanism synthesis and optimization for the mechanism of fire-monitor with straight flow channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping'an; Wang, Xiaoliang

    2017-01-01

    Design of a new fire-monitor through the substitution of the traditional bend flow channel with a straight tube is presented in this paper, in order to deduce the pressure drop when hydraulic fluid goes through the channel, and the serial-parallel structure with a four-bar linkage plus a revolute pair is used so as to realize two rotating degrees of freedom. The type synthesis of mechanism, the dimensional optimization of the four-bar linkage, as well as the design of the oscillating mechanism is delivered in sequence, and the model has also been developed, finally. All the work has achieved the expected results, which has guidance to the redevelopment of fire-monitor with high efficiency and lower energy assumption.

  4. Raspberry Pi in-situ network monitoring system of groundwater flow and temperature integrated with OpenGeoSys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan-Hee; Lee, Cholwoo

    2016-04-01

    Raspberry Pi series is a low cost, smaller than credit-card sized computers that various operating systems such as linux and recently even Windows 10 are ported to run on. Thanks to massive production and rapid technology development, the price of various sensors that can be attached to Raspberry Pi has been dropping at an increasing speed. Therefore, the device can be an economic choice as a small portable computer to monitor temporal hydrogeological data in fields. In this study, we present a Raspberry Pi system that measures a flow rate, and temperature of groundwater at sites, stores them into mysql database, and produces interactive figures and tables such as google charts online or bokeh offline for further monitoring and analysis. Since all the data are to be monitored on internet, any computers or mobile devices can be good monitoring tools at convenience. The measured data are further integrated with OpenGeoSys, one of the hydrogeological models that is also ported to the Raspberry Pi series. This leads onsite hydrogeological modeling fed by temporal sensor data to meet various needs.

  5. Assessment of the application of acoustic emission technology for monitoring the presence of sand under multiphase flow condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Alej, M., E-mail: m.elalej@cranfield.ac.uk; Mba, D., E-mail: m.elalej@cranfield.ac.uk; Yeung, H., E-mail: m.elalej@cranfield.ac.uk [School of Engineering, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire, MK43 OAL (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-11

    The monitoring of multiphase flow is an established process that has spanned several decades. This paper demonstrates the use of acoustic emission (AE) technology to investigate sand transport characteristic in three-phase (air-water-sand) flow in a horizontal pipe where the superficial gas velocity (VSG) had a range of between 0.2 ms{sup −1} to 2.0 ms{sup −1} and superficial liquid velocity (VSL) had a range of between 0.2 ms{sup −1} to 1.0 ms{sup −1}. The experimental findings clearly show a correlation exists between AE energy levels, sand concentration, superficial gas velocity (VSG) and superficial liquid velocity (VSL)

  6. Preferential flows and soil moistures on a Benggang slope: Determined by the water and temperature co-monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yu; He, Yangbo; Duan, Xiaoqian; Zou, Ziqiang; Lin, Lirong; Chen, Jiazhou

    2017-10-01

    Soil preferential flow (PF) has important effects on rainfall infiltration, moisture distribution, and hydrological and ecological process; but it is very difficult to monitor and characterize on a slope. In this paper, soil water and soil temperature at 20, 40, 60, 80 cm depths in six positions were simultaneously monitored at high frequency to confirm the occurrence of PF at a typical Benggang slope underlain granite residual deposits, and to determine the interaction of soil moisture distribution and Benggang erosion. In the presence of PF, the soil temperature was first (half to one hour) governed by the rainwater temperature, then (more than one hour) governed by the upper soil temperature; in the absence of PF (only matrix flow, MF), the soil temperature was initially governed by the upper soil temperature, then by the rainwater temperature. The results confirmed the water replacement phenomenon in MF, thus it can be distinguished from PF by additional temperature monitoring. It indicates that high frequency moisture and temperature monitoring can determine the occurrence of PF and reveal the soil water movement. The distribution of soil water content and PF on the different positions of the slope showed that a higher frequency of PF resulted in a higher variation of average of water content. The frequency of PF at the lower position can be three times as that of the upper position, therefore, the variation coefficient of soil water content increased from 4.67% to 12.68% at the upper position to 8.18%-33.12% at the lower position, where the Benggang erosion (soil collapse) was more possible. The results suggest strong relationships between PF, soil water variation, and collapse activation near the Benggang wall.

  7. Improved flow measurement using microbubble contrast agents and disruption-replenishment: clinical application to tumour monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, John M; Williams, Ross; Lloyd, Brendan; Atri, Mostafa; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Bjarnason, Georg; Burns, Peter N

    2011-08-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (DCE-US) and the method of disruption replenishment has been used for the past 10 years to measure flow noninvasively in the microcirculation. However, the method's perceived poor reproducibility remains a major impediment to widespread clinical acceptance. Poor reproducibility can be attributed, in part, to the curve fitting model that is used to quantify microbubble enhancement. Flow measurement in tumours is further complicated by the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of tumour blood flow. In this work, we evaluate three models of microbubble disruption and replenishment (mono-exponential, a simplified multivessel model by Krix and the lognormal perfusion model) using clinical data (11 patients, 41 sessions) from an antiangiogenic drug trial for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and evaluate their contribution to the measurement's variability. Compared with the mono-exponential model, the lognormal perfusion model decreased the variability of intra-session velocity and blood volume measurements by 33% and 34%, respectively. Blood volume assessment using the lognormal perfusion model was comparable to Krix's mutlivessel model. Flow velocity measurement was 18% less variable for the lognormal perfusion model compared with the multivessel model. To further decrease flow measurement variability, we examine a method that exploits microbubble flow dynamics to discard the contribution of flow in large arteries and isolate the portion of the tumour microvasculature that is most sensitive to vessel targeting therapies. The method is validated with an in vitro phantom study prior to its application to the RCC clinical data set. Combined with the lognormal perfusion model, this method decreased the inter-plane variability of clinical measurements of relative tumour blood volume, in some cases by up to 20%.

  8. Real-Time Optical Monitoring of Flow Kinetics and Gas Phase Reactions Under High-Pressure OMCVD Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, N.; McCall, S.; Bachmann, K. J.

    2001-01-01

    This contribution addresses the real-time optical characterization of gas flow and gas phase reactions as they play a crucial role for chemical vapor phase depositions utilizing elevated and high pressure chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD) conditions. The objectives of these experiments are to validate on the basis of results on real-time optical diagnostics process models simulation codes, and provide input parameter sets needed for analysis and control of chemical vapor deposition at elevated pressures. Access to microgravity is required to retain high pressure conditions of laminar flow, which is essential for successful acquisition and interpretation of the optical data. In this contribution, we describe the design and construction of the HPCVD system, which include access ports for various optical methods of real-time process monitoring and to analyze the initial stages of heteroepitaxy and steady-state growth in the different pressure ranges. To analyze the onset of turbulence, provisions are made for implementation of experimental methods for in-situ characterization of the nature of flow. This knowledge will be the basis for the design definition of experiments under microgravity, where gas flow conditions, gas phase and surface chemistry, might be analyzed by remote controlled real-time diagnostics tools, developed in this research project.

  9. Star Formation Rates in Cooling Flow Clusters: A UV Pilot Study with Archival XMM-Newton Optical Monitor Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, A. K.; Mushotzky, R.

    2006-01-01

    We have analyzed XMM-Newton Optical Monitor (OM) UV (180-400 nm) data for a sample of 33 galaxies. 30 are cluster member galaxies, and nine of these are central cluster galaxies (CCGs) in cooling flow clusters having mass deposition rates which span a range of 8 - 525 Solar Mass/yr. By comparing the ratio of UV to 2MASS J band fluxes, we find a significant UV excess in many, but not all, cooling flow CCGs, a finding consistent with the outcome of previous studies based on optical imaging data (McNamara & O'Connell 1989; Cardiel, Gorgas, & Aragon-Salamanca 1998; Crawford et al. 1999). This UV excess is a direct indication of the presence of young massive stars, and therefore recent star formation, in these galaxies. Using the Starburst99 spectral energy distribution (SED) model of continuous star formation over a 900 Myr period, we derive star formation rates of 0.2 - 219 solar Mass/yr for the cooling flow sample. For 2/3 of this sample it is possible to equate Chandra/XMM cooling flow mass deposition rates with UV inferred star formation rates, for a combination of starburst lifetime and IMF slope. This is a pilot study of the well populated XMM UV cluster archive and a more extensive follow up study is currently underway.

  10. Flow zone characterisation in a fractured aquifer using spring and open-well T and EC monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbotui, Prodeo; West, Landis; Bottrell, Simon

    2017-04-01

    The Cretaceous Chalk is a very important aquifer in England, and its relatively high transmissivity derives essentially from a well-developed network of solutionally-enhanced fractures and conduits. Like other fractured aquifers, characterisation and delineation of flow pathways and hence catchment boundaries is important. Determination of flow pathways for source catchment delineation (e.g. identification of safeguarding zones around wells) is critical for the effective management and protection of the groundwater resource. It also determines the areal extent of contamination from known sources, and enables the targeted sampling of flow zones e.g. for monitored natural attenuation (MNA). A rather simplistic conceptualisation of the unconfined chalk aquifer of East Yorkshire is currently used as a basis for numerical simulations: linearly reducing hydraulic conductivity (K) with depth below the maximum groundwater elevation, reducing to a minimum value below the zone of groundwater table fluctuation. This study represents an attempt to improve this conceptualisation via improved characterisation of permeable zones within the aquifer. The methods used are: pumping test drawdown analyses for transmissivity, ambient open-well dilution testing; rainfall, groundwater head, and spring / open-well specific electrical conductance (SEC) and temperature monitoring. Pumping test analyses yield overall well transmissivity; the open-well dilution/monitoring approach identifies inflow, outflow, crossflow zones and direction and rate of flow in wells; seasonal changes in flows in wells and springs reflect the annual recharge and recession cycle and the impact of seasonal hydraulic head variation on the activation/deactivation of permeable pathways. Variations in spring and well-water electrical conductivity / temperature provide insight into groundwater residence times and the degree of isolation of groundwater from atmospheric and soil zone sources of CO2. The results of the

  11. Increasing the accuracy of radiotracer monitoring in one-dimensional flow using polynomial deconvolution correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholipour Peyvandi, Reza; Taheri, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Factors such as type of fluid movement and gamma-ray scattering may decrease the precision of the radiotracer monitoring as the response to a short tracer injection. Practical experiences using polynomial deconvolution techniques are presented. These techniques were successfully applied for correcting the obtained experimental results and increasing the time resolution of the method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. New Approach to Purging Monitoring Wells: Lower Flow Rates Reduce Required Purging Volumes and Sample Turbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is generally accepted that monitoring wells must be purged to access formation water to obtain “representative” ground water quality samples. Historically anywhere from 3 to 5 well casing volumes have been removed prior to sample collection to evacuate the standing well water...

  13. Novel instrumentation for real-time monitoring using miniaturized flow systems with integrated biosensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freaney, R.; McShane, A.; Keaveny, T.V.; McKenna, M.; Rabenstein, K.; Scheller, F.W.; Pfeiffer, D.; Urban, G.; Moser, I.; Jobst, G.; Manz, A.; Verpoorte, E.; Widmer, M.W.; Diamond, D.; Dempsey, E.; Saez De Viteri, F.J.; Smyth, M.

    1997-01-01

    A prototype miniaturized Total Chemical Analysis System (μTAS) has been developed and applied to on-line monitoring of glucose and lactate in the core blood of anaesthetized dogs. The system consists of a highly efficient microdialysis sampling interface sited in a small-scale extracorporeal shunt c

  14. Best practices for continuous monitoring of temperature and flow in wadeable streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen Stamp; Anna Hamilton; Michelle Craddock; Laila Parker; Allison H. Roy; Daniel J. Isaak; Zach Holden; Margaret Passmore; Britta G. Bierwagen

    2014-01-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) is working with its regional offices, states, tribes, river basin commissions and other entities to establish Regional Monitoring Networks (RMNs) for freshwater wadeable streams. To the extent possible, uninterrupted, biological, temperature and hydrologic data will be collected on an ongoing basis at RMN...

  15. Resin infusion of large composite structures modeling and manufacturing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loos, A.C. [Michigan State Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The resin infusion processes resin transfer molding (RTM), resin film infusion (RFI) and vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) are cost effective techniques for the fabrication of complex shaped composite structures. The dry fibrous preform is placed in the mold, consolidated, resin impregnated and cured in a single step process. The fibrous performs are often constructed near net shape using highly automated textile processes such as knitting, weaving and braiding. In this paper, the infusion processes RTM, RFI and VARTM are discussed along with the advantages of each technique compared with traditional composite fabrication methods such as prepreg tape lay up and autoclave cure. The large number of processing variables and the complex material behavior during infiltration and cure make experimental optimization of the infusion processes costly and inefficient. Numerical models have been developed which can be used to simulate the resin infusion processes. The model formulation and solution procedures for the VARTM process are presented. A VARTM process simulation of a carbon fiber preform was presented to demonstrate the type of information that can be generated by the model and to compare the model predictions with experimental measurements. Overall, the predicted flow front positions, resin pressures and preform thicknesses agree well with the measured values. The results of the simulation show the potential cost and performance benefits that can be realized by using a simulation model as part of the development process. (au)

  16. Processing of continuous fiber composites using thermoplastic polyimide matrix resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kranjc, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    Composites have been produced which contain a solvent resistant polyimide matrix with favorable physical properties. The polyimide matrix resin has been designated as P12. The prepegs used to produce the composite contain a low molecular weight resin which is the polyamic acid precursor to P12. Polymerization and imidization of the precursor resin occurs in-situ during processing. Similar commercial systems are often processed in an autoclave and pressure is used at high temperatures to obtain consolidation between prepreg laminates. Pressure is generally applied after polymerization and imidization are complete and at temperatures above the melting point of the polymer. In this research a significant decrease in composite void content was obtained by applying pressure earlier in the cure. Obtaining composites with low void content with these types of systems can be difficult. This is due in part to the generation of low molecular weight reaction by products, water and methanol. High void content results in a decrease in the physical properties of the composite structure. This is especially true for fracture properties. An empirical equation was used to describe the rate of resin removal from the composite to the bleeder cloth during processing. This equation is based on Springer-Loos resin flow model. The conditions in which this model does not apply were also determined. Determining resin removal rates is helpful in producing composites with consistent fiber/resin ratios. In addition, conditions which favor void growth can be prevented.

  17. Integrating hydrograph modeling with real-time flow monitoring to generate hydrograph-specific sampling schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Heather E.; Jafvert, Chad T.; Jenkinson, Byron

    2010-11-01

    Automated sample collection for water quality research and evaluation generally is performed by simple time-paced or flow-weighted sampling protocols. However, samples collected on strict time-paced or flow-weighted schemes may not adequately capture all elements of storm event hydrographs (i.e., rise, peak, and recession). This can result in inadequate information for calculating chemical mass flux over storm events. In this research, an algorithm was developed to guide automated sampling of hydrographs based on storm-specific information. A key element of the new "hydrograph-specific sampling scheme" is the use of a hydrograph recession model for predicting the hydrograph recession curve, during which flow-paced intervals are calculated for scheduling the remaining samples. The algorithm was tested at a tile drained Midwest agricultural site where real-time flow data were processed by a programmable datalogger that in turn activated an automated sampler at the appropriate sampling times to collect a total of twenty samples during each storm event independent of the number of sequential hydrographs generated. The utility of the algorithm was successfully tested with hydrograph data collected at both a tile drain and agricultural ditch, suggesting the potential for general applicability of the method. This sampling methodology is flexible in that the logic can be adapted for use with any hydrograph recession model; however, in this case a power law equation proved to be the most practical model.

  18. Monitoring nutrient flows and economic performance in African farming systems (NUTMON); II. tool development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, van den H.; Jager, de A.; Vlaming, J.

    1998-01-01

    Farm-NUTMON is a research tool that integrates the assessment of stocks and flows of the macro-nutrients nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium on the one hand and economic farm analysis on the other. The tool is applicable at both the farm and the activity level. It includes a structured questionnaire,

  19. Monitoring nutrient flows and economic performance in African farming systems (NUTMON); II. tool development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, van den H.; Jager, de A.; Vlaming, J.

    1998-01-01

    Farm-NUTMON is a research tool that integrates the assessment of stocks and flows of the macro-nutrients nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium on the one hand and economic farm analysis on the other. The tool is applicable at both the farm and the activity level. It includes a structured questionnaire,

  20. Development of micro-flow hydrothermal monitoring systems and their applications to the origin of life study on Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Kunio

    2011-01-01

    Continuous extensive studies on thermophilic organisms have suggested that life emerged on hydrothermal systems on primitive Earth. Thus, it is well known that hydrothermal reactions are, therefore, very important to study fields deeply related to the origin-of-life study. Furthermore, the importance of hydrothermal and solvothermal systems is now realized in both fundamental and practical areas. Here, our recent investigations are described for the development of real-time and in situ monitoring systems for hydrothermal reactions. The systems were primarily developed for the origin-of-life study, but it was also applicable to fundamental and practical areas. The present techniques are based on the concept that a sample solution is injected to a narrow tubing flow reactor at high temperatures, where the sample is rapidly heated up in a very short time by exposure at to a high-temperature narrow tubing flow reactor with a very short time scale. This enables millisecond to second time-scale monitoring in real time and/or in situ at temperatures of up to 400°C. By using these techniques, a series of studies on the hydrothermal origin-of-life have been successfully carried out.

  1. [The possibilities for the transcranial monitoring of the blood flow in the circle of Willis arteries during operations on the brachiocephalic arteries and in heart operations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntsevich, G I; Kaĭdash, A N; Ter-Khachaturova, I E; Kovalevskaia, O A

    1995-01-01

    The paper gives the results of arterial blood flow monitoring in the circle of Willis via transcranial Doppler during 81 reparative operations on brachiocephalic arteries (including carotid endarterectomy from the internal carotid artery in 32 patients). Transcranial monitoring of blood flow supports the fact that there is a collateral reflow along the cerebral arteries during removal of the common carotid artery and that there is a relationship between the status of great arteries and arteries of Willis' circle. The paper also summaries the results of a comprehensive ultrasound study of 9 patients who have undergone reparative and plastic operations on the cardiac valves during extracorporeal circulation and general hypothermia. Blood flow was intraoperatively monitored in the arteries of the basis cerebri by using transcranial duplex scanning with colour Doppler flow mapping to evaluate not only hemodynamics, but also the embolic situation, as well as to check up how air was removed from the cardiac cavities by transesophageal echocardiography.

  2. Time-Lapse Monitoring of Subsurface Fluid Flow using Parsimonious Seismic Interferometry

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif

    2017-04-21

    A typical small-scale seismic survey (such as 240 shot gathers) takes at least 16 working hours to be completed, which is a major obstacle in case of time-lapse monitoring experiments. This is especially true if the subject that needs to be monitored is rapidly changing. In this work, we will discuss how to decrease the recording time from 16 working hours to less than one hour of recording. Here, the virtual data has the same accuracy as the conventional data. We validate the efficacy of parsimonious seismic interferometry with the time-lapse mentoring idea with field examples, where we were able to record 30 different data sets within a 2-hour period. The recorded data are then processed to generate 30 snapshots that shows the spread of water from the ground surface down to a few meters.

  3. Development of a low pressure chromatographic flow system for monitoring the biodegradation of ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Inês C.; Mesquita, Raquel R. B.; Amorim, Catarina L.; Castro, Paula M. L.; Rangel,António O. S. S.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we propose a simple low pressure chromatography method with a high throughput for monitoring the biodegradation of fluoroquinolones. Fluoroquinolones are a class of antibiotics that have been accumulating in the environment as a consequence of their release from different sources, namely hospital waste. It has been found that wastewater treatment plants are not able to completely remove this type of micro-pollutants and so, alternative solutions are necessary. Some biodegradatio...

  4. Slurry wall containment performance: monitoring and modeling of unsaturated and saturated flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedretti, Daniele; Masetti, Marco; Marangoni, Tomaso; Beretta, Giovanni Pietro

    2012-01-01

    A specific 2-year program to monitor and test both the vadose zone and the saturated zone, coupled with a numerical analysis, was performed to evaluate the overall performance of slurry wall systems for containment of contaminated areas. Despite local physical confinement (slurry walls keyed into an average 2-m-thick aquitard), for at least two decades, high concentrations of chlorinated solvents (up to 110 mg l(-1)) have been observed in aquifers that supply drinking water close to the city of Milan (Italy). Results of monitoring and in situ tests have been used to perform an unsaturated-saturated numerical model. These results yielded the necessary quantitative information to be used both for the determination of the hydraulic properties of the different media in the area and for the calibration and validation of the numerical model. Backfill material in the shallower part of the investigated aquifer dramatically affects the natural recharge of the encapsulated area. A transient simulation from wet to drought periods highlights a change in the ratio between leakages from lateral barriers that support a specific scenario of water loss through the containment system. The combination of monitoring and modelling allows a reliable estimate of the overall performance of the physical confinement to be made without using any invasive techniques on slurry wall.

  5. The Ebb and Flow of Airborne Pathogens: Monitoring and Use in Disease Management Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffee, Walter F; Stoll, Rob

    2016-05-01

    Perhaps the earliest form of monitoring the regional spread of plant disease was a group of growers gathering together at the market and discussing what they see in their crops. This type of reporting continues to this day through regional extension blogs, by crop consultants and more formal scouting of sentential plots in the IPM PIPE network (http://www.ipmpipe.org/). As our knowledge of plant disease epidemiology has increased, we have also increased our ability to detect and monitor the presence of pathogens and use this information to make management decisions in commercial production systems. The advent of phylogenetics, next-generation sequencing, and nucleic acid amplification technologies has allowed for development of sensitive and accurate assays for pathogen inoculum detection and quantification. The application of these tools is beginning to change how we manage diseases with airborne inoculum by allowing for the detection of pathogen movement instead of assuming it and by targeting management strategies to the early phases of the epidemic development when there is the greatest opportunity to reduce the rate of disease development. While there are numerous advantages to using data on inoculum presence to aid management decisions, there are limitations in what the data represent that are often unrecognized. In addition, our understanding of where and how to effectively monitor airborne inoculum is limited. There is a strong need to improve our knowledge of the mechanisms that influence inoculum dispersion across scales as particles move from leaf to leaf, and everything in between.

  6. Ratiometric analysis of fura red by flow cytometry: a technique for monitoring intracellular calcium flux in primary cell subsets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily R Wendt

    Full Text Available Calcium flux is a rapid and sensitive measure of cell activation whose utility could be enhanced with better techniques for data extraction. We describe a technique to monitor calcium flux by flow cytometry, measuring Fura Red calcium dye by ratiometric analysis. This technique has several advantages: 1 using a single calcium dye provides an additional channel for surface marker characterization, 2 allows robust detection of calcium flux by minority cell populations within a heterogeneous population of primary T cells and monocytes 3 can measure total calcium flux and additionally, the proportion of responding cells, 4 can be applied to studying the effects of drug treatment, simultaneously stimulating and monitoring untreated and drug treated cells. Using chemokine receptor activation as an example, we highlight the utility of this assay, demonstrating that only cells expressing a specific chemokine receptor are activated by cognate chemokine ligand. Furthermore, we describe a technique for simultaneously stimulating and monitoring calcium flux in vehicle and drug treated cells, demonstrating the effects of the Gαi inhibitor, pertussis toxin (PTX, on chemokine stimulated calcium flux. The described real time calcium flux assay provides a robust platform for characterizing cell activation within primary cells, and offers a more accurate technique for studying the effect of drug treatment on receptor activation in a heterogeneous population of primary cells.

  7. A rapid and robust tri-color flow cytometry assay for monitoring malaria parasite development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malleret, Benoît; Claser, Carla; Ong, Alice Soh Meoy; Suwanarusk, Rossarin; Sriprawat, Kanlaya; Howland, Shanshan Wu; Russell, Bruce; Nosten, Francois; Rénia, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained thin blood smears remains the gold standard method used to quantify and stage malaria parasites. However, this technique is tedious, and requires trained microscopists. We have developed a fast and simple flow cytometry method to quantify and stage, various malaria parasites in red blood cells in whole blood or in vitro cultured Plasmodium falciparum. The parasites were stained with dihydroethidium and Hoechst 33342 or SYBR Green I and leukocytes were identified with an antibody against CD45. Depending on the DNA stains used, samples were analyzed using different models of flow cytometers. This protocol, which does not require any washing steps, allows infected red blood cells to be distinguished from leukocytes, as well as allowing non-infected reticulocytes and normocytes to be identified. It also allows assessing the proportion of parasites at different developmental stages. Lastly, we demonstrate how this technique can be applied to antimalarial drug testing.

  8. Plasma flow reactor for steady state monitoring of physical and chemical processes at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroglu, Batikan; Mehl, Marco; Armstrong, Michael R.; Crowhurst, Jonathan C.; Weisz, David G.; Zaug, Joseph M.; Dai, Zurong; Radousky, Harry B.; Chernov, Alex; Ramon, Erick; Stavrou, Elissaios; Knight, Kim; Fabris, Andrea L.; Cappelli, Mark A.; Rose, Timothy P.

    2017-09-01

    We present the development of a steady state plasma flow reactor to investigate gas phase physical and chemical processes that occur at high temperature (1000 reactor consists of a glass tube that is attached to an inductively coupled argon plasma generator via an adaptor (ring flow injector). We have modeled the system using computational fluid dynamics simulations that are bounded by measured temperatures. In situ line-of-sight optical emission and absorption spectroscopy have been used to determine the structures and concentrations of molecules formed during rapid cooling of reactants after they pass through the plasma. Emission spectroscopy also enables us to determine the temperatures at which these dynamic processes occur. A sample collection probe inserted from the open end of the reactor is used to collect condensed materials and analyze them ex situ using electron microscopy. The preliminary results of two separate investigations involving the condensation of metal oxides and chemical kinetics of high-temperature gas reactions are discussed.

  9. Rheoencephalography (REG) as a Non-Invasive Monitoring Alternative for the Assessment of Brain Blood Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    bioimpedance (rheoencephalography - REG) measurement as a non-invasive, continuous method for assessing the status of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in combat...Dunster KR, Colditz PB, Ward LC. Noninvasive measurement of cerebral bioimpedance for detection of cerebral edema in the neonatal piglet. Brain Res...REG measurements and DC impedance (Ro) were recorded simultaneously on a portable IBM compatible computer using CODAS (DATAQ, Inc., Akron, OH) data

  10. Manaus city Flow Warning system and extreme events monitoring in the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A. L. M. R.; Oliveira, D.; Oliveira, M. A.; Moreira, D.; Maciel, J. S. C.

    2012-04-01

    The Amazon basin is the biggest watershed in the world, in the center of this basin, there is a city called Manaus, with population next to 2 million habitants. Manaus city is bounded by Negro River; one of the main rivers in Amazon, this river has its level checked by Fluvial Station in the Manaus harbor, which has a range of 100 years of hydrological data records. The hydrological cycle in the region next to Manaus has certain regularity, its common variety is considered of 7 months of rising river, in other words, the fluvial quotes rising and 5 months of falling (ebb). Although, the water level variation in Manaus Harbor, from its draft to flow can achieve the variation up to 16 meters of water level height, this difference can affect all the Amazon region, happening impacts such as the interference of regional agriculture and fluvial transportation, besides the economic activities in the harbor and local population welfare, arising from extreme events. Considering the relevance of prediction and accompanying of flows and drafts, the Geologic Survey of Brazil implemented, since 1989, a warning system to these extreme events. This paper focused to demonstrate the a warning system implemented from equations based on the Manaus Harbor quotes, since Negro River has a regular hydrological cycle, thus, it is possible to predict the highest quotes in the hydrological year, in advance till 75 days with accurate prediction, in a gap of 45 to 15 days before the flow. This paper presents, also, the biggest events occurred in a hundred years of records collected by Manaus Harbor, as example, the draft happened in December 2010 and the flow in June 2009, as well demonstrating the values and impacts in the Amazon region.

  11. Monitoring international migration flows in Europe. Towards a statistical data base combining data from different sources

    OpenAIRE

    Willekens, F.J.

    1994-01-01

    The paper reviews techniques that have been developed in demography, geography and statistics, and that are useful for bridging the gap between available data on international migration flows and the information required for policy making and research. The basic idea of the paper is that, in order to establish a coherent and consistent data base that contains sufficiently detailed, up-to-date and accurate information, data from several sources should be combined. That raises issues of definit...

  12. Robust vehicle detection even in poor visibility conditions using infrared thermal images and its application to road traffic flow monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Yoichiro; Kawata, Shinya; Nakamiya, Toshiyuki

    2011-08-01

    We propose an algorithm for detecting vehicle positions and their movements by using thermal images obtained through an infrared thermography camera. The infrared thermography camera offers high contrast images even in poor visibility conditions like snow and thick fog. The proposed algorithm specifies the area of moving vehicles based on the standard deviations of pixel values along the time direction of spatio-temporal images. It also specifies vehicle positions by applying the pattern recognition algorithm which uses Haar-like features per frame of the images. Moreover, to increase the accuracy of vehicle detection, correction procedures for misrecognition of vehicles are employed. The results of our experiments at three different temperatures show that the information about both vehicle positions and their movements can be obtained by combining those two kinds of detection, and the vehicle detection accuracy is 96.2%. Moreover, the proposed algorithm detects the vehicles robustly in the 222 continuous frames taken in poor visibility conditions like snow and thick fog. As an application of the algorithm, we also propose a method for estimating traffic flow conditions based on the results obtained by the algorithm. By using the method for estimating traffic flow conditions, automatic traffic flow monitoring can be achieved.

  13. Landslide Displacement Monitoring Using 3D Range Flow on Airborne and Terrestrial LiDAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Pfeifer

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An active landslide in Doren, Austria, has been studied by multitemporal airborne and terrestrial laser scanning from 2003 to 2012. To evaluate the changes, we have determined the 3D motion using the range flow algorithm, an established method in computer vision, but not yet used for studying landslides. The generated digital terrain models are the input for motion estimation; the range flow algorithm has been combined with the coarse-to-fine resolution concept and robust adjustment to be able to determine the various motions over the landslide. The algorithm yields fully automatic dense 3D motion vectors for the whole time series of the available data. We present reliability measures for determining the accuracy of the estimated motion vectors, based on the standard deviation of components. The differential motion pattern is mapped by the algorithm: parts of the landslide show displacements up to 10 m, whereas some parts do not change for several years. The results have also been compared to pointwise reference data acquired by independent geodetic measurements; reference data are in good agreement in most of the cases with the results of range flow algorithm; only some special points (e.g., reflectors fixed on trees show considerably differing motions.

  14. High-throughput monitoring of plant nuclear DNA contents via flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, David W; Lambert, Georgina M

    2012-01-01

    Interest in measuring the nuclear holoploid genome sizes of higher plants reflects not just the status of the nucleus as a defining characteristic of eukaryotic organisms. Higher plants also attract interest in that they display an unusually large range of genome sizes, current measurements indicating an almost 2,500-fold difference between the smallest and the largest. Scientists would like to learn more about the significance of nuclear genome sizes, in terms of molecular and cytological mechanisms regulating the interaction of the nucleus with the cytoplasm and regulating the observed increases and decreases of genome sizes observed within and across families, genera, and species. We would like to understand their adaptive significance through charting their distribution within populations and ecosystems. Further, since genome size values are only available for a small minority of the ∼650,000 species of angiosperms (known and yet undiscovered), we would like to systematically survey plant genome sizes globally before their extinction as a consequence of anthropogenic change. Flow cytometry is accepted as the method of choice for genome size measurements, these measurements being based on fluorescent staining of the nuclear DNA. Flow cytometry offers exceptional ease of use, accompanied by high accuracy and reproducibility and low cost. This chapter provides a general discussion of flow cytometric methods for measuring plant genome sizes, and detailed methods for carrying out these analyses.

  15. Depth of cure of bulk-fill flowable composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedalino, Inaam; Hartup, Grant R; Vandewalle, Kraig S

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, manufacturers have introduced flowable composite resins that reportedly can be placed in increments of 4 mm or greater. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the depth of cure of bulk-fill flowable composite resins (SureFil SDR Flow, Grandio Flow, and Venus Bulk Fill) and a conventional flowable composite resin (Revolution Formula 2). Depth of cure was measured in terms of bottom-maximum Knoop hardness number (KHN) ratios and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 4049 scrape technique. Shades A2 and A3 of SureFil SDR Flow, Grandio Flow, and Revolution Formula 2 were tested. Venus Bulk Fill was tested in its only available shade (universal). Specimens in thicknesses of 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 mm were polymerized for 20 or 40 seconds, and a hardness tester was used to determine the hardness ratios for each shade at each thickness. For the scraping technique, after specimens were exposed to the curing light, unpolymerized composite resin was removed with a plastic instrument, the polymerized composite was measured, and the length was divided by 2 per ISO guidelines. According to the KHN ratios and the scrape test, Venus Bulk Fill predictably exceeded the manufacturer's claim of a 4-mm depth of cure at both 20 and 40 seconds of curing time. The overall results for depth of cure showed that Venus Bulk Fill ≥ SureFil SDR Flow ≥ Grandio Flow ≥ Revolution Formula 2.

  16. Continuous monitoring of fluid flow rate and contemporaneous biogeochemical fluxes in the sub-seafloor; the Mosquito flux meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culling, D. P.; Solomon, E. A.; Kastner, M.; Berg, R. D.

    2013-12-01

    Fluid flow through marine sediments and oceanic crust impacts seawater chemistry as well as diagenetic, thermal, seismic, and magmatic processes at plate boundaries, creates ore and gas hydrate deposits at and below seafloor, and establishes and maintains deep microbial ecosystems. However, steady-state fluid flow rates, as well as the temporal and spatial variability of fluid flow and composition are poorly constrained in many marine environments. A new, low-cost instrument deployable by ROV or submersible, named the Mosquito, was recently developed to provide continuous, long-term and campaign style monitoring of fluid flow rate and contemporaneous solute fluxes at multiple depths below the sea floor. The Mosquito consists of a frame that houses several osmotic pumps (Osmo-Samplers [OS]) connected to coils of tubing that terminate with an attachment to long thin titanium (Ti) needles, all of which are mounted to a release plate. The OS's consist of an acrylic housing which contains a brine chamber (BC) and a distilled water chamber (DWC) separated by semi permeable membranes. The osmotic gradient between the chambers drives the flow of distilled water into the BC. The DWC is connected to the Teflon tubing coil and a Ti needle, both of which are also filled with distilled water, thus the OS pulls fluid from the base of the needle through the tubing coil. One central Ti needle is attached to a custom-made tracer injection assembly, filled with a known volume of tracer, which is triggered, injecting a point source in the sediment. On a typical Mosquito, 4 needles are mounted vertically at varying depths with respect to the tracer injection needle, and 4 needles are mounted at equal depth but set at variable horizontal distances away from the tracer injection. Once the Mosquito has been placed on the seafloor, the release plate is manually triggered pushing the Ti needles into the sediment, then the tracer injection assembly is actuated. As the tracer is advected

  17. Effect of modulated photo-activation on polymerization shrinkage behavior of dental restorative resin composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.T. Tauböck; A.J. Feilzer; W. Buchalla; C.J. Kleverlaan; I. Krejci; T. Attin

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of modulated photo-activation on axial polymerization shrinkage, shrinkage force, and hardening of light- and dual-curing resin-based composites. Three light-curing resin composites (SDR bulk-fill, Esthet X flow, and Esthet X HD) and one dual-curing material (Re

  18. Resin composite repair: Quantitative microleakage evaluation of resin-resin and resin-tooth interfaces with different surface treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Cigdem; Cehreli, Sevi Burcak; Arhun, Neslihan

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate the effect of different adhesive systems and surface treatments on the integrity of resin-resin and resin-tooth interfaces after partial removal of preexisting resin composites using quantitative image analysis for microleakage testing protocol. A total of 80 human molar teeth were restored with either of the resin composites (Filtek Z250/GrandioSO) occlusally. The teeth were thermocycled (1000×). Mesial and distal 1/3 parts of the restorations were removed out leaving only middle part. One side of the cavity was finished with course diamond bur and the other was air-abraded with 50 μm Al2O3. They were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10) to receive: Group 1: Adper Single Bond 2; Group 2: All Bond 3; Group 3: ClearfilSE; Group 4: BeautiBond, before being repaired with the same resin composite (Filtek Z250). The specimens were re-thermocycled (1000×), sealed with nail varnish, stained with 0.5% basic fuchsin, sectioned mesiodistally and photographed digitally. The extent of dye penetration was measured by image analysis software (ImageJ) for both bur-finished and air-abraded surfaces at resin-tooth and resin-resin interfaces. The data were analyzed statistically. BeautiBond exhibited the most microleakage at every site. Irrespective of adhesive and initial composite type, air-abrasion showed less microleakage except for BeautiBond. The type of initial repaired restorative material did not affect the microleakage. BeautiBond adhesive may not be preferred in resin composite repair in terms of microleakage prevention. Surface treatment with air-abrasion produced the lowest microleakage scores, independent of the adhesive systems and the pre-existing resin composite type. Pre-existing composite type does not affect the microleakage issue. All-in-one adhesive resin (BeautiBond) may not be preferred in resin composite repair in terms of microleakage prevention.

  19. Application of x-ray sensors for in-line and non-invasive monitoring of mass flow rate in continuous tablet manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, Sudarshan; Troscinski, Rachel; Schmall, Nicholas; Lim, Jongmook; Nagy, Zoltan; Reklaitis, Gintaras

    2017-08-31

    The progress in continuous downstream manufacturing of oral solid doses demands effective real-time process management, with monitoring at its core. This study evaluates the feasibility of using a commercial sensor to measure the mass flow rate of the particulates, a critical process variable in continuous manufacturing. The sensor independently measures x-ray attenuation and cross-correlation velocimetry of particulate flow in real-time. Steady-state flow rates of blends comprised primarily of acetaminophen and microcrystalline-cellulose are monitored using the sensor, with simultaneous weighing scale measurements, in order to calibrate the sensor and investigate the measurement accuracy. The free-fall flow measurement of the powder and granule blends in a conduit is linearly proportional to the x-ray attenuation. Relative standard deviations (RSD) of ∼3-7% for 1 second monitoring are observed and a measurement error of approximately 5% suggest the usability of the sensor for real-time monitoring. The sensor measurement is robust for operational variations in composition, addition of lubricant or glidant and reuse of material for PAT tool calibration. The measurement RSD depends on particulate flow dynamics at the sensor location. This requires experimental evaluation for a given material at the sensor location, in order to capture the flow dynamics of the particulate stream through the sensor. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Investigating controls on debris-flow initiation and surge frequency at Chalk Cliffs, USA: initial results from monitoring and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kean, J. W.; McCoy, S. W.; Tucker, G. E.; Staley, D. M.; Coe, J. A.

    2012-04-01

    Recent monitoring of a small (0.3 km2) bedrock-dominated catchment in central Colorado, USA, has revealed distinct differences in debris-flow surge dynamics relative to rainfall intensity. Moderate bursts of rainfall (15-40 mm/hr) typically trigger a set of coarse-grained surges with depths that can exceed 1.0 m. High-intensity bursts of rainfall (40-150 mm/hr), in contrast, often generate only a single moderate-amplitude coarse-grained surge (> 0.5 m depth), followed by several minutes of water-rich flow having comparable or greater peak depth. In both cases, debris flows are observed within minutes of rain bursts due to the rapid concentration of runoff from bedrock cliffs to channels loaded with sediment from dry ravel and rockfall. Video observations have shown that the runoff can initiate debris flows both at a steep (~40 degree) bedrock-colluvium interface, and in a lower gradient (~15 degree) section of channel. This latter style of initiation, which has only been observed at moderate rainfall intensity, involves the formation and failure of a highly porous sediment dam created by bedload transport. We speculate that this process may be responsible for the creation of the consistent surge patterns we observe with moderate intensity rainfall, and may explain the relative lack of granular surges with high-intensity rainfall. To investigate this possibility, we have developed a simple one-dimensional morphodynamic model of the formation and failure of sediment dams in an undulating bedrock channel filled with loose bed sediment. The model consists of a coupled surface-subsurface water flow model, which is used to drive bed-sediment topographic adjustments based on the mathematical divergence of the sediment transport rate. Under certain topographic and water-flow conditions, the shear stress in a section of the channel can fall below the critical shear stress, resulting in local deposition of sediment. Consistent with field observations, the modeled deposit

  1. Expanding NevCAN capabilities: monitoring cold air drainage flow along a narrow wash within a Montane to PJ ecotone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, B. M.; Devitt, D.

    2012-12-01

    Cold air drainage flows are a naturally occurring physical process of mountain systems. Plant communities that exist in cold air drainage basins respond to these localized cold air trends, and have been shown to be decoupled from larger global climate weather systems. The assumption that air temperature decreases with altitude is violated within these systems and climate model results based on this assumption would ultimately be inaccurate. In arid regions, high radiation loads lead to significant long wave radiation being emitted from the ground later in the day. As incoming radiation ceases, the surface very quickly loses energy through radiative processes, leading to surface inversions and enhanced cold air drainage opportunities. This study is being conducted in the Mojave desert on Sheep Mountain located between sites 3 and 4 of the NSF EPSCoR network. Monitoring of cold air drainage was initiated in September of 2011within a narrow ravine located between the 2164 and 2350 meter elevation. We have installed 25 towers (5 towers per location situated at the central low point in a ravine and at equal distances up the sides of the ravine on both the N and S facing slopes) to assess air temperatures from 0.1 meters to a height of 3 meters at 25m intervals. Our goal is to better understand the connection between cold air movement and plant physiological response. The species monitored in this study include: Pinus ponderosa (common name: Ponderosa Pine), Pinus pinyon (Pinyon Pine), Juniperus osteosperma (Utah juniper), Cercocarpus intricatus (Mountain Mahogany) and Symphoricarpos (snowberry). Hourly air temperature measurements within the wash are being captured from 100 ibuttons placed within PVC solar radiation shields. We are also developing a modeling approach to assess the three dimensional movement of cold air over time by incorporating wind vectors captured from 5 2D sonic anemometers. Wind velocities will be paired with air temperatures to better understand

  2. System for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2010-11-23

    A resin recycling system that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material in an environmentally safe and economical manner. The system includes receiving the resin in container form. A grinder grinds the containers into resin particles. The particles are exposed to a solvent in one or more solvent wash vessels, the solvent contacting the resin particles and substantially removing contaminants on the resin particles. A separator is used to separate the resin particles and the solvent. The resin particles are then placed in solvent removing element where they are exposed to a solvent removing agent which removes any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation.

  3. Demonstration of New, Highly Perchlorate-Selective Ion Exchange Resin Coupled with Resin-Optimized, Single-Vessel Engineering Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    area), this flow rate is about 500 gpm. If the linear velocity is too low and fluidization of the ion exchange bed occurs, poor contact between the...mitigate the effects. This backwashing can fluidize the ion exchange bed and disturb the resin loading profile. In this manner, some of the resin...area. For an 8-ft-diameter vessel (50 ft2 cross-sectional area), this flow rate is about 500 gpm. If the linear velocity is too low and fluidization

  4. Novel elution strategy for monitoring DNA counter-migration in the presence of electroosmotic flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabzdyr, Jennifer L; Lillard, Sheri J

    2004-06-25

    The migration behavior of native (i.e., unlabelled) DNA in the presence of electroosmotic flow (EOF) was investigated in bare fused-silica capillaries. Employing a novel elution strategy, the influence of EOF on the net mobility of DNA was assessed by collecting the DNA that migrated anodically (i.e., against EOF) and out of the capillary inlet. Various conditions of pH and buffer-zone continuity were employed to characterize this phenomenon. Tris acid (TA, pH 5.14) and Tris base (TB, pH 9.36) were used as buffers in continuous systems, in which the capillary and the inlet reservoir contain the same buffer, and discontinuous systems, in which the capillary contains either TA or TB, and the inlet reservoir contains water. DNA that was ejected into the inlet vial was subsequently analyzed by capillary electrophoresis-laser-induced fluorescence. Both phiX174/HaeIII DNA and the beta-actin product of single-cell reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction were used as DNA samples in this study. The mechanism of elution was found to depend on bulk flow, in the case of continuous solutions. However, with the discontinuous system, a localized decrease in EOF generated in the capillary tip appeared to impact elution. These findings serve to introduce an alternative approach for characterizing the mobility of highly charged species.

  5. Flame Retardant Epoxy Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, C. M.; Smith, J. G., Jr.; Connell, J. W.; Hergenrother, P. M.; Lyon, R. E.

    2004-01-01

    As part of a program to develop fire resistant exterior composite structures for future subsonic commercial aircraft, flame retardant epoxy resins are under investigation. Epoxies and their curing agents (aromatic diamines) containing phosphorus were synthesized and used to prepare epoxy formulations. Phosphorus was incorporated within the backbone of the epoxy resin and not used as an additive. The resulting cured epoxies were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, propane torch test, elemental analysis and microscale combustion calorimetry. Several formulations showed excellent flame retardation with phosphorous contents as low as 1.5% by weight. The fracture toughness of plaques of several cured formulations was determined on single-edge notched bend specimens. The chemistry and properties of these new epoxy formulations are discussed.

  6. Effects of colloidal nanosilica on the rheological properties of epoxy resins filled with organoclay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dinh Huong; Song, Gwang Seok; Lee, Dai Soo

    2011-05-01

    The rheological properties of epoxy resins filled with organoclay and colloidal nanosilica were investigated by employing a parallel plate rheometer in flow mode at 25 degrees C. Shear thickening and shear thinning behaviors were observed in the epoxy resins filled with a mixture of organoclay and colloidal nanosilica. Minima were observed in the relaxation time of the systems consisting of epoxy resins filled with organoclay and colloidal silica as the content of colloidal nanosilica was increased. It seems that the colloidal nanosilica increased the mobility of the filled epoxy resins and reduced the interactions between the silicate layers in the systems.

  7. Interacting Blends of Novel Unsaturated Polyester Amide Resin with Vinyl Acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Patel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel unsaturated poly (ester- amide resins (UPEAs were prepared by the reaction between an epoxy resin, namely diglycidyl ether of bisphenol–A (DGEBA and unsaturated aliphatic bisamic acids using a base catalyst. These UPEAs were then blended with a vinyl monomer namely, Vinyl acetate (VA to produce a homogeneous resin syrup. The curing of these UPEAs-VA resin blends was carried out by using benzoyl peroxide (BPO as an initiator for the radical polymerization and was monitored by using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC. The glass fibre reinforced composites (i.e. laminates of these UPEA-VA resin blends were fabricated using the DSC data. The chemical, mechanical and electrical properties of the glass fibre composites have also been evaluated. The unreinforced cured samples of the UPEA-VA resin blends were also analyzed by thermogravimetry (TGA.

  8. Paramagnetic epoxy resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Vazquez Barreiro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work illustrates that macrocycles can be used as crosslinking agents for curing epoxy resins, provided that they have appropriate organic functionalities. As macrocycles can complex metal ions in their structure, this curing reaction allows for the introduction of that metal ion into the resin network. As a result, some characteristic physical properties of the metallomacrocycle could be transferred to the new material. The bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE, n = 0 and hemin (a protoporphyrin IX containing the Fe(III ion, and an additional chloride ligand have been chosen. The new material has been characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, and magnetic susceptibility measurements. Fe(III remains in the high-spin state during the curing process and, consequently, the final material exhibits the magnetic characteristics of hemin. The loss of the chlorine atom ligand during the cure of the resin allows that Fe(III can act as Lewis acid, catalyzing the crosslinking reactions. At high BADGE n = 0/hemin ratios, the formation of ether and ester bonds occurs simultaneously during the process.

  9. Epileptic Seizure Detection and Prediction Based on Continuous Cerebral Blood Flow Monitoring – a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senay Tewolde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is the third most common neurological illness, affecting 1% of the world’s population. Despite advances in medicine, about 25 to 30% of the patients do not respond to or cannot tolerate the severe side effects of medical treatment, and surgery is not an option for the majority of patients with epilepsy. The objective of this article is to review the current state of research on seizure detection based on cerebral blood flow (CBF data acquired by thermal diffusion flowmetry (TDF, and CBF-based seizure prediction. A discussion is provided on the applications, advantages, and disadvantages of TDF in detecting and localizing seizure foci, as well as its role in seizure prediction. Also presented are an overview of the present challenges and possible future research directions (along with methodological guidelines of the CBF-based seizure detection and prediction methods.

  10. The feasibility of automated online flow cytometry for in-situ monitoring of microbial dynamics in aquatic ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Domenic Besmer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescent staining coupled with flow cytometry (FCM is often used for the monitoring, quantification and characterization of bacteria in engineered and environmental aquatic ecosystems including seawater, freshwater, drinking water, wastewater, and industrial bioreactors. However, infrequent grab sampling hampers accurate characterization and subsequent understanding of microbial dynamics in all of these ecosystems. A logic technological progression is high throughput and full automation of the sampling, staining, measurement, and data analysis steps. Here we assess the feasibility and applicability of automated FCM by means of actual data sets produced with prototype instrumentation. As proof-of-concept we demonstrate examples of microbial dynamics in (i flowing tap water from a municipal drinking water supply network and (ii river water from a small creek subject to two rainfall events. In both cases, automated measurements were done at 15-min intervals during 12 to 14 consecutive days, yielding more than 1000 individual data points for each ecosystem. The extensive data sets derived from the automated measurements allowed for the establishment of baseline data for each ecosystem, as well as for the recognition of daily variations and specific events that would most likely be missed (or miss-characterized by infrequent sampling. In addition, the online FCM data from the river water was combined and correlated with online measurements of abiotic parameters, showing considerable potential for a better understanding of cause-and-effect relationships in aquatic ecosystems. Although several challenges remain, the successful operation of an automated online FCM system and the basic interpretation of the resulting data sets represent a breakthrough towards the eventual establishment of fully automated online microbiological monitoring technologies.

  11. Dry PMR-15 Resin Powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucci, Raymond D.; Roberts, Gary D.

    1988-01-01

    Shelf lives of PMR-15 polymides lengthened. Procedure involves quenching of monomer reactions by vacuum drying of PRM-15 resin solutions at 70 to 90 degree F immediately after preparation of solutions. Absence of solvent eliminates formation of higher esters and reduces formation of imides to negligible level. Provides fully-formulated dry PMR-15 resin powder readily dissolvable in solvent at room temperature immediately before use. Resins used in variety of aerospace, aeronautical, and commercial applications.

  12. Combining flow cytometry and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing: a promising approach for drinking water monitoring and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prest, E I; El-Chakhtoura, J; Hammes, F; Saikaly, P E; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Vrouwenvelder, J S

    2014-10-15

    The combination of flow cytometry (FCM) and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing data was investigated for the purpose of monitoring and characterizing microbial changes in drinking water distribution systems. High frequency sampling (5 min intervals for 1 h) was performed at the outlet of a treatment plant and at one location in the full-scale distribution network. In total, 52 bulk water samples were analysed with FCM, pyrosequencing and conventional methods (adenosine-triphosphate, ATP; heterotrophic plate count, HPC). FCM and pyrosequencing results individually showed that changes in the microbial community occurred in the water distribution system, which was not detected with conventional monitoring. FCM data showed an increase in the total bacterial cell concentrations (from 345 ± 15 × 10(3) to 425 ± 35 × 10(3) cells mL(-1)) and in the percentage of intact bacterial cells (from 39 ± 3.5% to 53 ± 4.4%) during water distribution. This shift was also observed in the FCM fluorescence fingerprints, which are characteristic of each water sample. A similar shift was detected in the microbial community composition as characterized with pyrosequencing, showing that FCM and genetic fingerprints are congruent. FCM and pyrosequencing data were subsequently combined for the calculation of cell concentration changes for each bacterial phylum. The results revealed an increase in cell concentrations of specific bacterial phyla (e.g., Proteobacteria), along with a decrease in other phyla (e.g., Actinobacteria), which could not be concluded from the two methods individually. The combination of FCM and pyrosequencing methods is a promising approach for future drinking water quality monitoring and for advanced studies on drinking water distribution pipeline ecology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Combining flow cytometry and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing: A promising approach for drinking water monitoring and characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Prest, Emmanuelle I E C

    2014-10-01

    The combination of flow cytometry (FCM) and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing data was investigated for the purpose of monitoring and characterizing microbial changes in drinking water distribution systems. High frequency sampling (5min intervals for 1h) was performed at the outlet of a treatment plant and at one location in the full-scale distribution network. In total, 52 bulk water samples were analysed with FCM, pyrosequencing and conventional methods (adenosine-triphosphate, ATP; heterotrophic plate count, HPC). FCM and pyrosequencing results individually showed that changes in the microbial community occurred in the water distribution system, which was not detected with conventional monitoring. FCM data showed an increase in the total bacterial cell concentrations (from 345±15×103 to 425±35×103cellsmL-1) and in the percentage of intact bacterial cells (from 39±3.5% to 53±4.4%) during water distribution. This shift was also observed in the FCM fluorescence fingerprints, which are characteristic of each water sample. A similar shift was detected in the microbial community composition as characterized with pyrosequencing, showing that FCM and genetic fingerprints are congruent. FCM and pyrosequencing data were subsequently combined for the calculation of cell concentration changes for each bacterial phylum. The results revealed an increase in cell concentrations of specific bacterial phyla (e.g., Proteobacteria), along with a decrease in other phyla (e.g., Actinobacteria), which could not be concluded from the two methods individually. The combination of FCM and pyrosequencing methods is a promising approach for future drinking water quality monitoring and for advanced studies on drinking water distribution pipeline ecology. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Simultaneous estimation of local-scale and flow path-scale dual-domain mass transfer parameters using geoelectrical monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Martin A.; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Ong, John B.; Curtis, Gary P.; Lane, Jr., John W.

    2013-01-01

    Anomalous solute transport, modeled as rate-limited mass transfer, has an observable geoelectrical signature that can be exploited to infer the controlling parameters. Previous experiments indicate the combination of time-lapse geoelectrical and fluid conductivity measurements collected during ionic tracer experiments provides valuable insight into the exchange of solute between mobile and immobile porosity. Here, we use geoelectrical measurements to monitor tracer experiments at a former uranium mill tailings site in Naturita, Colorado. We use nonlinear regression to calibrate dual-domain mass transfer solute-transport models to field data. This method differs from previous approaches by calibrating the model simultaneously to observed fluid conductivity and geoelectrical tracer signals using two parameter scales: effective parameters for the flow path upgradient of the monitoring point and the parameters local to the monitoring point. We use regression statistics to rigorously evaluate the information content and sensitivity of fluid conductivity and geophysical data, demonstrating multiple scales of mass transfer parameters can simultaneously be estimated. Our results show, for the first time, field-scale spatial variability of mass transfer parameters (i.e., exchange-rate coefficient, porosity) between local and upgradient effective parameters; hence our approach provides insight into spatial variability and scaling behavior. Additional synthetic modeling is used to evaluate the scope of applicability of our approach, indicating greater range than earlier work using temporal moments and a Lagrangian-based Damköhler number. The introduced Eulerian-based Damköhler is useful for estimating tracer injection duration needed to evaluate mass transfer exchange rates that range over several orders of magnitude.

  15. Curing mechanism of alkaline phenolic resin with organic ester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Renhe; Wang Yanmin; Zhang Baoping

    2014-01-01

    To study the curing mechanism of alkaline phenolic resin with organic ester, three esters were chosen to react with three systems - alkaline phenolic resin, potassium hydroxide aqueous solution containing phenol, and potassium hydroxide aqueous solution. The variations of pH, heat release and gel pH during the reactions were monitored and measured. Infrared spectroscopy (IR) and thermal gravity analysis (TG) techniques were used to characterize the curing reaction. It was found that organic ester is only partial y hydrolyzed and resin can be cured through organic ester hydrolysis process as wel as the reaction with redundant organic ester. The sequential curing mechanism of alkaline phenolic resin cured by organic ester was identified as fol ows: a portion of organic ester is firstly hydrolyzed owing to the effect of the strong alkaline; the gel is then formed after the pH decreases to about 10.8-10.88, meanwhile, the redundant organic ester (i.e. non-hydrolysis ester) starts the curing reaction with the resin. It has also been found that the curing rate depends on the hydrolysis velocity of organic ester. The faster the hydrolysis speed of the ester, the faster the curing rate of the resin.

  16. Resin-based composites and compomers in primary molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Godoy, F

    2000-07-01

    Resin-based composite resins and polyacid-modified resin-based composites (compomers) have become popular for the restoration of primary anterior and posterior teeth. In some European countries, resin-based composites or glass-ionomers are the materials of choice for primary teeth because of the controversy over dental amalgam and its alleged adverse health effects resulting from the release of mercury, although a clear correlation between amalgam restorations and health has not been determined. Another reason for the worldwide increased use of resin-based composites and glass-ionomers in pediatric dentistry could be attributed to the growing demand from parents to provide esthetic restorations to their children. More conservative preparations can be performed maintaining more tooth structure because of the adhesive properties of the composites and compomers. The most conservative treatment planning and meticulous care in the placement of the resin-based composites and compomers would produce long-term satisfactory results. These restorations should be placed in patients with low-to-moderate caries risk, and after placement the restorations should be monitored carefully to avoid complications mainly produced by recurrent caries and wear.

  17. Controlling and Monitoring the Data Flow of the LHCb Read-out and DAQ Network

    CERN Document Server

    Schwemmer, Rainer; Neufeld, N; Svantesson, D

    2011-01-01

    The LHCb read-out uses a set of 320 FPGA based boards as interface between the on-detector hardware and the GBE DAQ network. The boards are the logical Level 1 (L1) read-out electronics and aggregate the experiment’s raw data into event fragments that are sent to the DAQ network. To control the many parameters of the read-out boards, an embedded PC is included on each board, connecting to the boards ICs and FPGAs. The data from the L1 boards is sent through an aggregation network into the High Level Trigger farm. The farm comprises approximately 1500 PCs which at first assemble the fragments from the L1 boards and then do a partial reconstruction and selection of the events. In total there are approximately 3500 network connections. Data is pushed through the network and there is no mechanism for resending packets. Loss of data on a small scale is acceptable but care has to be taken to avoid data loss if possible. To monitor and debug losses, different probes are inserted throughout the entire read-out cha...

  18. Modelling and measurement of wear particle flow in a dual oil filter system for condition monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, Morten; Eriksen, René Lynge; Fich, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Wear debris is an indicator of the health of machinery, and the availability of accurate methods for characterising debris is important. In this work, a dual filter model for a gear oil system is used in conjunction with operational data to indicate three different system operating states. The qu...... particle generation is made possible by model parameter estimation and identification of an unintended lack of filter change. The model may also be used to optimise system and filtration performance, and to enable continuous condition monitoring.......Wear debris is an indicator of the health of machinery, and the availability of accurate methods for characterising debris is important. In this work, a dual filter model for a gear oil system is used in conjunction with operational data to indicate three different system operating states....... The quantity of wear particles in gear oil is analysed with respect to system running conditions. It is shown that the model fits the data in terms of startup “particle burst” phenomenon, quasi-stationary conditions during operation, and clean-up filtration when placed out of operation. In order to establish...

  19. Controlling and Monitoring the Data Flow of the LHCb Read-out and DAQ Network

    CERN Multimedia

    Schwemmer, R; Neufeld, N; Svantesson, D

    2011-01-01

    The LHCb readout uses a set of 320 FPGA based boards as interface between the on-detector hardware and the GBE DAQ network. The boards are the logical Level 1 (L1) read-out electronics and aggregate the experiment's raw data into event fragments that are sent to the DAQ network. To control the many parameters of the read-out boards, an embedded PC is included on each board, connecting to the boards ICs and FPGAs. The data from the L1 boards is sent through an aggregation network into the High Level Trigger farm. The farm comprises approximately 1500 PCs which at first assemble the fragments from the L1 boards and then do a partial reconstruction and selection of the events. In total there are approximately 3500 network connections. Data is pushed through the network and there is no mechanism for resending packets. Loss of data on a small scale is acceptable but care has to be taken to avoid data loss if possible. To monitor and debug losses, different probes are inserted throughout the entire read-out chain t...

  20. Fast correlation technique for glacier flow monitoring by digital camera and space-borne SAR images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreau Luc

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Most of the image processing techniques have been first proposed and developed on small size images and progressively applied to larger and larger data sets resulting from new sensors and application requirements. In geosciences, digital cameras and remote sensing images can be used to monitor glaciers and to measure their surface velocity by different techniques. However, the image size and the number of acquisitions to be processed to analyze time series become a critical issue to derive displacement fields by the conventional correlation technique. In this paper, a mathematical optimization of the classical normalized cross-correlation and its implementation are described to overcome the computation time and window size limitations. The proposed implementation is performed with a specific memory management to avoid most of the temporary result re-computations. The performances of the software resulting from this optimization are assessed by computing the correlation between optical images of a serac fall, and between Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images of Alpine glaciers. The optical images are acquired by a digital camera installed near the Argentière glacier (Chamonix, France and the SAR images are acquired by the high resolution TerraSAR-X satellite over the Mont-Blanc area. The results illustrate the potential of this implementation to derive dense displacement fields with a computational time compatible with the camera images acquired every 2 h and with the size of the TerraSAR-X scenes covering 30 × 50 km2.

  1. Doppler sonography to monitor flow in different cerebral arteries in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roatta, S; Roncari, S; Micieli, G; Bosone, D; Passatore, M

    2000-07-01

    Most of the transcranial Doppler (TCD) experimental studies on cerebral haemodynamics have been performed in the rabbit because of the similarity between its Willis circle and that of the human, but these studies have mainly been limited to the basilar artery. The present study was aimed at extending the use of TCD sonography to all other large cerebral arteries. In anaesthetised rabbits, these arteries were insonated from three different recording sites, i.e. top-cranial, suboccipital and orbital, using a two-channel pulsed Doppler device equipped with 4 and 8 MHz probes. First, discrimination between intra- and extracranial arteries was achieved through a standard 'rebreathing' test (hypercapnic-hypoxic stimulation). The distinctive blood velocity response patterns, reflecting the different extents of metabolic reactivity in intra- and extracranial territories, are described and discussed. Intracranial arteries were then identified on the basis of their response to ipsi- and contralateral common carotid artery occlusion. This procedure allowed recording from the following arteries: anterior common trunk, anterior cerebral, internal carotid, middle cerebral and basilar; the latter could be simultaneously monitored with any of the others. This study provides an experimental model allowing investigation of regional differences in the haemodynamic response to neurogenic and pharmacological stimuli.

  2. In-pipe water quality monitoring in water supply systems under steady and unsteady state flow conditions: a quantitative assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisopou, Angeliki; Stoianov, Ivan; Graham, Nigel J D

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring the quality of drinking water from the treatment plant to the consumers tap is critical to ensure compliance with national standards and/or WHO guideline levels. There are a number of processes and factors affecting the water quality during transmission and distribution which are little understood. A significant obstacle for gaining a detailed knowledge of various physical and chemical processes and the effect of the hydraulic conditions on the water quality deterioration within water supply systems is the lack of reliable and low-cost (both capital and O & M) water quality sensors for continuous monitoring. This paper has two objectives. The first one is to present a detailed evaluation of the performance of a novel in-pipe multi-parameter sensor probe for reagent- and membrane-free continuous water quality monitoring in water supply systems. The second objective is to describe the results from experimental research which was conducted to acquire continuous water quality and high-frequency hydraulic data for the quantitative assessment of the water quality changes occurring under steady and unsteady-state flow conditions. The laboratory and field evaluation of the multi-parameter sensor probe showed that the sensors have a rapid dynamic response, average repeatability and unreliable accuracy. The uncertainties in the sensor data present significant challenges for the analysis and interpretation of the acquired data and their use for water quality modelling, decision support and control in operational systems. Notwithstanding these uncertainties, the unique data sets acquired from transmission and distribution systems demonstrated the deleterious effect of unsteady state flow conditions on various water quality parameters. These studies demonstrate: (i) the significant impact of the unsteady-state hydraulic conditions on the disinfectant residual, turbidity and colour caused by the re-suspension of sediments, scouring of biofilms and tubercles from the

  3. Cytotoxicity evaluation of methacrylate- and silorane-based composite resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulsah Goktolga Akin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate and compare the cytotoxic effects of four composite resin materials with different content.

    Material and Methods: Two traditional methacrylate-based (Clearfil AP-X, RefleXions, as well as a self-adhering methacrylate-based (Vertise Flow and a silorane-based (Filtek Silorane composite resin were tested in the experiment. Ten cylindrical specimens were made of each material, using a mould (2mm. thick and 8 mm. in diameter. An agar diffusion method was employed, and cytotoxicity rankings were determined using lysis index scores. For statistical analysis, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests were used.

    Results: Amongst the composite resins, the silorane-based composite was found to be less cytotoxic than the methacrylate-based composite resins, which all had the same cytotoxicity ranking.

    Conclusions: The silorane-based composite resin was considered more biocompatible than the methacrylate-based composite resins.

  4. Resin transfer molding of textile preforms for aircraft structural applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasko, Gregory H.; Dexter, H. Benson; Weideman, Mark H.

    1992-01-01

    The NASA LaRC is conducting and supporting research to develop cost-effective fabrication methods that are applicable to primary composite aircraft structures. One of the most promising fabrication methods that has evolved is resin transfer molding (RTM) of dry textile material forms. RTM has been used for many years for secondary structures, but has received increased emphasis because it is an excellent method for applying resin to damage-tolerant textile preforms at low cost. Textile preforms based on processes such as weaving, braiding, knitting, stitching, and combinations of these have been shown to offer significant improvements in damage tolerance compared to laminated tape composites. The use of low-cost resins combined with textile preforms could provide a major breakthrough in achieving cost-effective composite aircraft structures. RTM uses resin in its lowest cost form, and storage and spoilage costs are minimal. Near net shape textile preforms are expected to be cost-effective because automated machines can be used to produce the preforms, post-cure operations such as machining and fastening are minimized, and material scrap rate may be reduced in comparison with traditional prepreg molding. The purpose of this paper is to discuss experimental and analytical techniques that are under development at NASA Langley to aid the engineer in developing RTM processes for airframe structural elements. Included are experimental techniques to characterize preform and resin behavior and analytical methods that were developed to predict resin flow and cure kinetics.

  5. HIGH ASPECT RATIO ION EXCHANGE RESIN BED - HYDRAULIC RESULTS FOR SPERICAL RESIN BEADS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M; Charles Nash, C; Timothy Punch, T

    2007-09-27

    A principal role of the DOE Savannah River Site is to safely dispose of a large volume of liquid nuclear waste held in many storage tanks. An in-tank ion exchange unit is being considered for cesium removal to accelerate waste processing. This unit is planned to have a relatively high bed height to diameter ratio (10:1). Complicating the design is the need to cool the ion exchange media; therefore, the ion exchange column will have a central cooling core making the flow path annular. To separate cesium from waste the media being considered is made of resorcinol formaldehyde resin deposited on spherical plastic beads and is a substitute for a previously tested resin made of crystalline silicotitanate. This spherical media not only has an advantage of being mechanically robust, but, unlike its predecessor, it is also reusable, that is, loaded cesium can be removed through elution and regeneration. Resin regeneration leads to more efficient operation and less spent resin waste, but its hydraulic performance in the planned ion exchange column was unknown. Moreover, the recycling process of this spherical resorcinol formaldehyde causes its volume to significantly shrink and swell. To determine the spherical media's hydraulic demand a linearly scaled column was designed and tested. The waste simulant used was prototypic of the wastes' viscosity and density. This paper discusses the hydraulic performance of the media that will be used to assist in the design of a full-scale unit.

  6. Batch and continuous flow preparation of Hantzsch 1,4-dihydropyridines under microwave heating and simultaneous real-time monitoring by Raman spectroscopy. An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiaens, Sylvain; Vantyghem, Xavier; Radoiu, Marilena; Vanden Eynde, Jean Jacques

    2014-07-09

    Dialkyl 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethylpyridine-3,5-dicarboxylates have been prepared in a batch mode under conventional heating as well as under continuous flow conditions in the Miniflow 200SS, Sairem's microwave-assisted batch and continuous flow equipment. Real-time monitoring of the reactions by Raman spectroscopy enabled to compare both heating modes and to determine (optimized) reaction times.

  7. Batch and Continuous Flow Preparation of Hantzsch 1,4-Dihydropyridines under Microwave Heating and Simultaneous Real-time Monitoring by Raman Spectroscopy. An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Christiaens

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Dialkyl 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethylpyridine-3,5-dicarboxylates have been prepared in a batch mode under conventional heating as well as under continuous flow conditions in the Miniflow 200SS, Sairem’s microwave-assisted batch and continuous flow equipment. Real-time monitoring of the reactions by Raman spectroscopy enabled to compare both heating modes and to determine (optimized reaction times.

  8. Effects of groundwater withdrawal on borehole flow and salinity measured in deep monitor wells in Hawai'i-implications for groundwater management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotzoll, Kolja

    2010-01-01

    Water-resource managers in Hawai`i rely heavily on salinity profiles from deep monitor wells to estimate the thickness of freshwater and the depth to the midpoint of the transition zone between freshwater and saltwater in freshwater-lens systems. The deep monitor wells are typically open boreholes below the water table and extend hundreds of feet below sea level. Because of possible borehole-flow effects, there is concern that salinity profiles measured in these wells may not accurately reflect the salinity distribution in the aquifer and consequently lead to misinterpretations that adversely affect water-resource management. Steplike changes in salinity or temperature with depth in measured profiles from nonpumped deep monitor wells may be indicative of water moving within the well, and such changes are evident to some extent in all available profiles. The maximum vertical step length, or displacement, in measured profiles ranges from 7 to 644 feet. Vertical steps longer than 70 feet exceed the typical thickness of massive lava flows; they therefore cannot be attributed entirely to geologic structure and may be indicative of borehole flow. The longest vertical steps occur in monitor wells located in southern O'ahu, coinciding with the most heavily developed part of the aquifer. Although regional groundwater withdrawals have caused a thinning of the freshwater lens over the past several decades, the measured midpoint of the transition zone in most deep monitor wells has shown only inconsequential depth displacement in direct response to short-term variations in withdrawals from nearby production wells. For profiles from some deep monitor wells, however, the depth of the measured top of the transition zone, indicated by a specific-conductance value of 1,000 microsiemens per centimeter, has risen several hundred feet in response to withdrawals from nearby production wells. For these deep monitor wells, monitoring the apparent top of the transition zone may not

  9. Monitoring microbiological changes in drinking water systems using a fast and reproducible flow cytometric method

    KAUST Repository

    Prest, Emmanuelle I E C

    2013-12-01

    Flow cytometry (FCM) is a rapid, cultivation-independent tool to assess and evaluate bacteriological quality and biological stability of water. Here we demonstrate that a stringent, reproducible staining protocol combined with fixed FCM operational and gating settings is essential for reliable quantification of bacteria and detection of changes in aquatic bacterial communities. Triplicate measurements of diverse water samples with this protocol typically showed relative standard deviation values and 95% confidence interval values below 2.5% on all the main FCM parameters. We propose a straightforward and instrument-independent method for the characterization of water samples based on the combination of bacterial cell concentration and fluorescence distribution. Analysis of the fluorescence distribution (or so-called fluorescence fingerprint) was accomplished firstly through a direct comparison of the raw FCM data and subsequently simplified by quantifying the percentage of large and brightly fluorescent high nucleic acid (HNA) content bacteria in each sample. Our approach enables fast differentiation of dissimilar bacterial communities (less than 15min from sampling to final result), and allows accurate detection of even small changes in aquatic environments (detection above 3% change). Demonstrative studies on (a) indigenous bacterial growth in water, (b) contamination of drinking water with wastewater, (c) household drinking water stagnation and (d) mixing of two drinking water types, univocally showed that this FCM approach enables detection and quantification of relevant bacterial water quality changes with high sensitivity. This approach has the potential to be used as a new tool for application in the drinking water field, e.g. for rapid screening of the microbial water quality and stability during water treatment and distribution in networks and premise plumbing. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Monitoring microbiological changes in drinking water systems using a fast and reproducible flow cytometric method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prest, E I; Hammes, F; Kötzsch, S; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Vrouwenvelder, J S

    2013-12-01

    Flow cytometry (FCM) is a rapid, cultivation-independent tool to assess and evaluate bacteriological quality and biological stability of water. Here we demonstrate that a stringent, reproducible staining protocol combined with fixed FCM operational and gating settings is essential for reliable quantification of bacteria and detection of changes in aquatic bacterial communities. Triplicate measurements of diverse water samples with this protocol typically showed relative standard deviation values and 95% confidence interval values below 2.5% on all the main FCM parameters. We propose a straightforward and instrument-independent method for the characterization of water samples based on the combination of bacterial cell concentration and fluorescence distribution. Analysis of the fluorescence distribution (or so-called fluorescence fingerprint) was accomplished firstly through a direct comparison of the raw FCM data and subsequently simplified by quantifying the percentage of large and brightly fluorescent high nucleic acid (HNA) content bacteria in each sample. Our approach enables fast differentiation of dissimilar bacterial communities (less than 15 min from sampling to final result), and allows accurate detection of even small changes in aquatic environments (detection above 3% change). Demonstrative studies on (a) indigenous bacterial growth in water, (b) contamination of drinking water with wastewater, (c) household drinking water stagnation and (d) mixing of two drinking water types, univocally showed that this FCM approach enables detection and quantification of relevant bacterial water quality changes with high sensitivity. This approach has the potential to be used as a new tool for application in the drinking water field, e.g. for rapid screening of the microbial water quality and stability during water treatment and distribution in networks and premise plumbing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Boron removal from aqueous solutions by ion-exchange resin: column sorption-elution studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köse, T Ennil; Oztürk, Neşe

    2008-04-01

    A column sorption-elution study was carried out by using a strong base anion-exchange resin (Dowex 2 x 8) for the removal of boron from aqueous solutions. The breakthrough curve was obtained as a function of feed flow rate and the total and breakthrough capacity values of the resin were calculated. The boron on the resin was quantitatively eluted with 0.5M HCl solution at different flow rates. Three consecutive sorption-elution-washing-regeneration-washing cycles were applied to the resin in order to investigate the reusability of the ion-exchange resin. Total capacity values remained almost the same after three sorption-elution-regeneration cycles. The Thomas and the Yoon-Nelson models were applied to experimental data to predict the breakthrough curves and to determine the characteristic column parameters required for process design. The results proved that the models would describe the breakthrough curves well.

  12. Composite fabrication via resin transfer molding technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamison, G.M.; Domeier, L.A.

    1996-04-01

    The IMPReS (Integrated Modeling and Processing of Resin-based Structures) Program was funded in FY95 to consolidate, evaluate and enhance Sandia`s capabilities in the design and fabrication of composite structures. A key driver of this and related programs was the need for more agile product development processes and for model based design and fabrication tools across all of Sandia`s material technologies. A team of polymer, composite and modeling personnel was assembled to benchmark Sandia`s existing expertise in this area relative to industrial and academic programs and to initiate the tasks required to meet Sandia`s future needs. RTM (Resin Transfer Molding) was selected as the focus composite fabrication technology due to its versatility and growing use in industry. Modeling efforts focused on the prediction of composite mechanical properties and failure/damage mechanisms and also on the uncured resin flow processes typical of RTM. Appropriate molds and test composites were fabricated and model validation studies begun. This report summarizes and archives the modeling and fabrication studies carried out under IMPReS and evaluates the status of composite technology within Sandia. It should provide a complete and convenient baseline for future composite technology efforts within Sandia.

  13. Fissure sealant materials: Wear resistance of flowable composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asefi, Sohrab; Eskandarion, Solmaz; Hamidiaval, Shadi

    2016-01-01

    Background. Wear resistance of pit and fissure sealant materials can influence their retention. Wear characteristics of sealant materials may determine scheduling of check-up visits. The aim of this study was to compare wear resistance of two flowable composite resins with that of posterior composite resin materials. Methods. Thirty-five disk-shaped specimens were prepared in 5 groups, including two flowable composite resins (Estelite Flow Quick and Estelite Flow Quick High Flow), Filtek P90 and Filtek P60 and Tetric N-Ceram. The disk-shaped samples were prepared in 25-mm diameter by packing them into a two-piece aluminum mold and then light-cured. All the specimens were polished for 1minute using 600-grit sand paper. The samples were stored in distilled water at room temperature for 1 week and then worn by two-body abrasion test using "pin-on-disk" method (with distilled water under a 15-Nload at 0.05 m/s, for a distance of 100 meter with Steatite ceramic balls antagonists). A Profilometer was used for evaluating the surface wear. Data were analyzed with the one-way ANOVA. Results. Estelite Flow Quick exhibited 2708.9 ± 578.1 μm(2) and Estelite Flow Quick High Flow exhibited 3206 ± 2445.1 μm(2)of wear but there were no significant differences between the groups. They demonstrated similar wear properties. Conclusion. Estelite flowable composite resins have wear resistance similar to nano- and micro-filled and micro-hybrid composite resins. Therefore, they can be recommended as pit and fissure sealant materials in the posterior region with appropriate mechanical characteristics.

  14. Fissure sealant materials: Wear resistance of flowable composite resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohrab Asefi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Wear resistance of pit and fissure sealant materials can influence their retention. Wear characteristics of sealant materials may determine scheduling of check-up visits. The aim of this study was to compare wear resistance of two flowable composite resins with that of posterior composite resin materials. Methods. Thirty-five disk-shaped specimens were prepared in 5 groups, including two flowable composite resins (Estelite Flow Quick and Estelite Flow Quick High Flow, Filtek P90 and Filtek P60 and Tetric N-Ceram. The disk-shaped samples were prepared in 25-mm diameter by packing them into a two-piece aluminum mold and then light-cured. All the specimens were polished for 1minute using 600-grit sand paper. The samples were stored in distilled water at room temperature for 1 week and then worn by two-body abrasion test using "pin-on-disk" method (with distilled water under a 15-Nload at 0.05 m/s, for a distance of 100 meter with Steatite ceramic balls antagonists. A Profilometer was used for evaluating the surface wear. Data were analyzed with the one-way ANOVA. Results. Estelite Flow Quick exhibited 2708.9 ± 578.1 μm2 and Estelite Flow Quick High Flow exhibited 3206 ± 2445.1 μm2of wear but there were no significant differences between the groups. They demonstrated similar wear properties. Conclusion. Estelite flowable composite resins have wear resistance similar to nano- and micro-filled and micro-hybrid composite resins. Therefore, they can be recommended as pit and fissure sealant materials in the posterior region with appropriate mechanical characteristics.

  15. Fissure sealant materials: Wear resistance of flowable composite resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asefi, Sohrab; Eskandarion, Solmaz; Hamidiaval, Shadi

    2016-01-01

    Background. Wear resistance of pit and fissure sealant materials can influence their retention. Wear characteristics of sealant materials may determine scheduling of check-up visits. The aim of this study was to compare wear resistance of two flowable composite resins with that of posterior composite resin materials. Methods. Thirty-five disk-shaped specimens were prepared in 5 groups, including two flowable composite resins (Estelite Flow Quick and Estelite Flow Quick High Flow), Filtek P90 and Filtek P60 and Tetric N-Ceram. The disk-shaped samples were prepared in 25-mm diameter by packing them into a two-piece aluminum mold and then light-cured. All the specimens were polished for 1minute using 600-grit sand paper. The samples were stored in distilled water at room temperature for 1 week and then worn by two-body abrasion test using "pin-on-disk" method (with distilled water under a 15-Nload at 0.05 m/s, for a distance of 100 meter with Steatite ceramic balls antagonists). A Profilometer was used for evaluating the surface wear. Data were analyzed with the one-way ANOVA. Results. Estelite Flow Quick exhibited 2708.9 ± 578.1 μm2 and Estelite Flow Quick High Flow exhibited 3206 ± 2445.1 μm2of wear but there were no significant differences between the groups. They demonstrated similar wear properties. Conclusion. Estelite flowable composite resins have wear resistance similar to nano- and micro-filled and micro-hybrid composite resins. Therefore, they can be recommended as pit and fissure sealant materials in the posterior region with appropriate mechanical characteristics. PMID:27651887

  16. Nonlinear time dependent behaviour of epoxy resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marotzke, C.; Feldmann, T.

    2016-07-01

    The nonlinear behaviour of epoxy resins is studied on standard tensile tests. A strain field measurement system is applied (Aramis) in order to monitor local strains. The residual strain is measured by recovering the specimens for up to 68 hours after unloading. The time span the specimen is exposed to load has a large influence on the creeping process and the residual strain after recovering. This is studied by comparison of instantaneous unloading with keeping the specimen under permanent load for thirty minutes. It is shown that moderate differences in the initial strain can lead to large differences in the creep behaviour as well as in the residual strain.

  17. Isothermal aging effects on PMR-15 resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.; Jayne, Douglas; Leonhardt, Todd A.

    1993-01-01

    Specimens of PMR-15 polyimide neat resin were aged in air at temperatures of 288, 316, and 343 C. Weight losses and dimensional changes were monitored during the course of the exposure time. Physical changes were also observed by optical and electron microscopy. It was found that polyimide polymer degradation occurred within a thin surface layer that developed and grew during thermal aging. The cores of the polymer specimens were protected from oxidative degradation, and they were relatively unchanged by the thermal treatment. Surface cracking was observed at 343 C and was probably due to an interaction between voids and stresses that developed in the surface layer.

  18. An Engineering Evaluation of Spherical Resorcinol Formaldehyde Resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birdwell Jr, Joseph F [ORNL; Lee, Denise L [ORNL; Taylor, Paul Allen [ORNL; Collins, Robert T [ORNL; Hunt, Rodney Dale [ORNL

    2010-09-01

    A small column ion exchange (SCIX) system has been proposed for removal of cesium from caustic, supernatant, and dissolved salt solutions stored or generated from high-level tank wastes at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site and Savannah River Sites. In both instances, deployment of SCIX systems, either in-tank or near-tank, is a means of expediting waste pretreatment and dispositioning with minimal or no new infrastructure requirements. Conceptually, the treatment approach can utilize a range of ion exchange media. Previously, both crystalline silicotitanate (CST), an inorganic, nonelutable sorbent, and resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF), an organic, elutable resin, have been considered for cesium removal from tank waste. More recently, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated use of SuperLig{reg_sign} 644, an elutable ion exchange medium, for the subject application. Results of testing indicate hydraulic limitations of the SuperLig{reg_sign} resin, specifically a high pressure drop through packed ion exchange columns. This limitation is likely the result of swelling and shrinkage of the irregularly shaped (granular) resin during repeated conversions between sodium and hydrogen forms as the resin is first loaded then eluted. It is anticipated that a similar flow limitation would exist in columns packed with conventional, granular RF resin. However, use of spherical RF resin is a likely means of mitigating processing limitations due to excessive pressure drop. Although size changes occur as the spherical resin is cycled through loading and elution operations, the geometry of the resin is expected to effectively mitigate the close packing that leads to high pressure drops across ion exchange columns. Multiple evaluations have been performed to determine the feasibility of using spherical RF resin and to obtain data necessary for design of an SCIX process. The work performed consisted of examination of radiation effects on resin performance

  19. [Acrylic resin removable partial dentures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baat, C. de; Witter, D.J.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    An acrylic resin removable partial denture is distinguished from other types of removable partial dentures by an all-acrylic resin base which is, in principle, solely supported by the edentulous regions of the tooth arch and in the maxilla also by the hard palate. When compared to the other types of

  20. Design, operation and validation of a new fluid-sealed direct shear apparatus capable of monitoring fault-related fluid flow to large displacements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giger, S.B.; Clennell, M.B.; Harbers, C.; Clark, P.; Ricchetti, M.; Heege, J.H. ter; Wassing, B.B.T.; Orlic, B.

    2011-01-01

    A new type of direct shear apparatus has been developed to allow for deformation of large and intact rock samples under fluid-sealed conditions. The sealed cell was specifically designed to monitor changes to fluid flow across the evolving rupture surface to large displacements (=120. mm), and effec

  1. Development of a low-cost wireless controller for flexible sampling strategies based on real-time flow monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queloz, Pierre; Besuchet, Jonathan; Rao, P. Suresh C.; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2013-04-01

    Even if models are able to predict more and more accurately pollutant discharge in streams, surface water sampling remains a very common practice to monitor substance concentrations and loads in streams and to calibrate models. However, as this method is temporally and spatially punctual, monitoring a whole catchment requires multiple sampling sites with time-distributed samples. Instruments are expensive, and sample collection, on-site interventions and maintenance are costly and time-consuming, in particular if the experimental site is remote. Another issue is the estimation of the discharge loads of a pollutant, especially for non-chemostatic compounds; their hydrograph-related chemical dynamics may be miss-evaluated when a rapid storm occurs using a time-paced sampling strategy with large sampling intervals. Many manufacturers provide discharge gauges (pressure probes or ultra-sonic sensors) or other instruments (rain gauge, chemical probes, etc.) that can be coupled with automatic water samplers in order to program an event-paced sampling. However, automatic samplers usually provide limited programming options that may not meet the needs of the experimenter of a specific catchment. The concept presented here proposes to use a simple microcontroller board in order to determine the timing of the samples by sending electrical pulses to a conventional automatic sampler with input capability. The flow level is measured by a low-cost ultrasonic sensor and sent to the microcontroller, which will process the signal according to user and site-custom parameters. For example, a simple power-law recession model can be apply to approximate the duration of the recession period given the maximal discharge rate measured for a storm. The sample intervals can thereafter be set in order to distribute all the bottles available over the total recession duration. The microcontroller sends a pulse (grab sample query) to the sampler at every sample time calculated by the program. A

  2. Five years use of Pulse Doppler RADAR-utechnology in debris-flows monitoring - experience at three test sites so far

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koschuch, Richard; Brauner, Michael; Hu, Kaiheng; Hübl, Johannes

    2016-04-01

    Automatic monitoring of alpine mass movement is a major challenge in dealing with natural hazards. The presented research project shows a new approach in measurment and alarming technology for water level changes an debris flow by using a high-frequency Pulse Doppler RADAR. The detection system was implemented on 3 places (2 in Tirol/Austria within the monitoring systems of the IAN/BOKU; 1 in Dongchuan/China within the monitoring systems of the IMHE/Chinese Academy of Science) in order to prove the applicability of the RADAR in monitoring torrential activities (e.g. debris-flows, mudflows, flash floods, etc.). The main objective is to illustrate the principles and the potential of an innovative RADAR system and its versatility as an automatic detection system for fast (> 1 km/h - 300 km/h) alpine mass movements of any kind. The high frequency RADAR device was already successfully tested for snow avalanches in Sedrun/Switzerland (Lussi et al., 2012), in Ischgl/Austria (Kogelnig et al., 2012). The experience and the data of the five year showed the enormous potential of the presented RADAR technology in use as an independent warning and monitoring system in the field of natural hazard. We have been able to measure water level changes, surface velocities and several debris flows and can compare this data with the other installed systems.

  3. Current International Flow Cytometric Practices for the Detection and Monitoring of Paroxysmal Nocturnal Haemoglobinuria (PNH) clones: A UK NEQAS Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Matthew; Whitby, Liam; Whitby, Alison; Barnett, David

    2016-03-02

    Background Paroxysmal Nocturnal Haemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare acquired genetic disorder, with an incidence of approximately 1.3 new cases per million population per year. Evidence from the UK National External Quality Assessment Service for Leucocyte Immunophenotyping (UK NEQAS LI) programme suggested major discrepancies on how PNH testing is undertaken. To investigate this we surveyed laboratories in the UK NEQAS LI PNH programme and report here the findings. Method A questionnaire was distributed to all centres registered in UK NEQAS LI flow cytometry programmes (n=1587). Comprising several subsections, it covered the majority of clinical flow cytometric practices. Participants completed a general section and then the subsections relevant to their laboratory repertoire. One subsection contained 34 questions regarding practices in PNH clone detection. Results A total of 105 laboratories returned results for the PNH section; the results demonstrated lack of consensus in all areas of PNH testing. Variation was seen in gating and testing strategies, sensitivity levels and final reporting of test results. Several incorrect practices were highlighted such as inappropriate antibody selection and failure to wash the red blood cells (RBCs) prior to analysis. Conclusion Despite the availability of consensus guidelines there appears to be no agreement in the detection and monitoring of PNH. We found only fourteen centres using methods compatible with the International Clinical Cytometry Society guidelines. Of specific note we found that no two laboratories used the same method. This technical variation could lead to incorrect diagnoses, highlighting the need for better adoption and understanding of consensus practices. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. A Dielectric Study of the Time-Temperature-Transformation (TTT) Diagram of DGEBA Epoxy Resins Cured with DDS (Diaminodiphenylsulfone).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-14

    TRANSFORMATION (TTT) tDIAGRAM OF DGEBA EPOXY RESINS CURED WITH DDS by Norman F. Sheppard, Jr., Michael C. W. Coln and Stephen D. Senturia Article prepared for...DIAGRAM OF DGEBA EPOXY 6/83 - 12/83 RESINS CURED WITH DDS -6. PERFORMING ON*. REPORT NiJMUER ___________________________________Technical Report No. 7 7...Nicrodielectrometry, dielectric cure monitoring, time-temperature-transforma- tion diagram, epoxy resins, DGEBA , DDS, condictivity, permittivity, loss factor

  5. ACCELERATED THERMAL AGEING OF ACRYLIC COPOLYMERS, CYCLOHEXANONE-BASED AND UREA-ALDEHYDE RESINS USED IN PAINTINGS CONSERVATION

    OpenAIRE

    Farmakalidis, Helen Velonika; Douvas, Antonios M.; Karatasios, Ioannis; Sotiropoulou, Sophia; Boyatzis, Stamatis; Argitis, Panagiotis; Chryssoulakis, Yannis; Kilikoglou, Vassilis

    2016-01-01

    The monitoring of performance characteristics of resins was always an issue for the conservation community, since the stability of the art objects depends on the service life of conservation materials used. Among the resins commonly applied in the field of paintings conservation, four of the most popular ones, Paraloid B72, Primal AC33 (acrylic polymers), Ketone Resin N (cyclohexanone) and Laropal A81 (ureaaldehyde) were selected to be comparatively studied under accelerated ageing conditions...

  6. KLB型供水流量监控装置的研制与应用%Development and Application of Model KLB Water Flow Monitoring Device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍春秀; 杜子健

    2001-01-01

    介绍了 KLB型供水流量监控装置的研制及应用情况,结果证明:使用该装置监控煤矿井下机电设备运行的供水流量不足时,能够迅速切断设备电源,保证设备的安全使用%The paper give a description of the development and application of Model KLB water supply flow monitoring device.The application results show that this device can be used to monitor the water supply flow of mechanical and electrical equipment under operation in coal mines, and when the water supply flow is insufficient, it can rapidly cut off power of the equipment and thus guarantee its safe operation.

  7. Simultaneous isolation of lactoferrin and lactoperoxidase from bovine colostrum by SPEC 70 SLS cation exchange resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yafei; Wang, Xuewan; Wu, Mianbin; Zhu, Wanping

    2011-09-01

    In this work, simultaneous isolation of lactoferrin (Lf) and lactoperoxidase (Lp) from defatted bovine colostrum by one-step cation exchange chromatography with SPEC 70 SLS ion-exchange resin was investigated. A RP-HPLC method for Lf and Lp determination was developed and optimized as the following conditions: detection wavelength of 220 nm, flow rate of 1 mL/min and acetonitrile concentration from 25% to 75% within 20 min. The adsorption process of Lf on SPEC 70 SLS resin was optimized using Lf standard as substrate. The maximum static binding capacity of SPEC 70 SLS resin was of 22.0 mg/g resin at 15 °C, pH 7.0 and adsorption time 3 h. The Lf adsorption process could be well described by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model, with a maximum adsorption capacity of 21.73 mg/g resin at 15 °C. In batch fractionation of defatted colostrum, the binding capacities of SPEC 70 SLS resin for adsorbing Lf and Lp simultaneously under the abovementioned conditions were 7.60 and 6.89 mg/g resin, respectively, both of which were superior to those of CM Sepharose F.F. or SP Sepharose F.F. resins under the same conditions. As a result, SPEC 70 SLS resin was considered as a successful candidate for direct and economic purification of Lf and Lp from defatted colostrum.

  8. Simultaneous Isolation of Lactoferrin and Lactoperoxidase from Bovine Colostrum by SPEC 70 SLS Cation Exchange Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mianbin Wu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, simultaneous isolation of lactoferrin (Lf and lactoperoxidase (Lp from defatted bovine colostrum by one-step cation exchange chromatography with SPEC 70 SLS ion-exchange resin was investigated. A RP-HPLC method for Lf and Lp determination was developed and optimized as the following conditions: detection wavelength of 220 nm, flow rate of 1 mL/min and acetonitrile concentration from 25% to 75% within 20 min. The adsorption process of Lf on SPEC 70 SLS resin was optimized using Lf standard as substrate. The maximum static binding capacity of SPEC 70 SLS resin was of 22.0 mg/g resin at 15 °С, pH 7.0 and adsorption time 3 h. The Lf adsorption process could be well described by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model, with a maximum adsorption capacity of 21.73 mg/g resin at 15 °С. In batch fractionation of defatted colostrum, the binding capacities of SPEC 70 SLS resin for adsorbing Lf and Lp simultaneously under the abovementioned conditions were 7.60 and 6.89 mg/g resin, respectively, both of which were superior to those of CM Sepharose F.F. or SP Sepharose F.F. resins under the same conditions. As a result, SPEC 70 SLS resin was considered as a successful candidate for direct and economic purification of Lf and Lp from defatted colostrum.

  9. MODELING AND SIMULATION OF SOLID FLUIDIZATION IN A RESIN COLUMN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.

    2014-06-24

    The objective of the present work is to model the resin particles within the column during fluidization and sedimentation processes using computation fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. The calculated results will help interpret experimental results, and they will assist in providing guidance on specific details of testing design and establishing a basic understanding of particle’s hydraulic characteristics within the column. The model is benchmarked against the literature data and the test data (2003) conducted at Savannah River Site (SRS). The paper presents the benchmarking results and the modeling predictions of the SRS resin column using the improved literature correlations applicable for liquid-solid granular flow.

  10. Robust Vehicle Detection under Various Environmental Conditions Using an Infrared Thermal Camera and Its Application to Road Traffic Flow Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Nakamiya

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We have already proposed a method for detecting vehicle positions and their movements (henceforth referred to as “our previous method” using thermal images taken with an infrared thermal camera. Our experiments have shown that our previous method detects vehicles robustly under four different environmental conditions which involve poor visibility conditions in snow and thick fog. Our previous method uses the windshield and its surroundings as the target of the Viola-Jones detector. Some experiments in winter show that the vehicle detection accuracy decreases because the temperatures of many windshields approximate those of the exterior of the windshields. In this paper, we propose a new vehicle detection method (henceforth referred to as “our new method”. Our new method detects vehicles based on tires’ thermal energy reflection. We have done experiments using three series of thermal images for which the vehicle detection accuracies of our previous method are low. Our new method detects 1,417 vehicles (92.8% out of 1,527 vehicles, and the number of false detection is 52 in total. Therefore, by combining our two methods, high vehicle detection accuracies are maintained under various environmental conditions. Finally, we apply the traffic information obtained by our two methods to traffic flow automatic monitoring, and show the effectiveness of our proposal.

  11. Characterization of recharge and flow behaviour of different water sources in Gunung Kidul and its impact on water quality based on hydrochemical and physico-chemical monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiche, Elisabeth; Hochschild, Maren; Haryono, Eko; Neumann, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Karst aquifers are important water resources but highly vulnerable due to their heterogeneous and complex characteristics. Various hydrological aspects (recharge, flow behaviour) have to be known in detail to develop a sustainable concept for water collection, distribution and treatment. In the karst area of Gunung Sewu (Java, Indonesia) such a concept was to be implemented within a German-Indonesian joint IWRM project. The basic hydrogeological conditions and water quality aspects were characterized on a regional scale through hydrochemical monitoring of springs, wells, subsurface and surface rivers. More detailed information about the recharge, flow and storage behaviour was obtained from high resolution monitoring of T, EC and discharge in one large underground river system. The water quality is well below any guideline values with regard to inorganic pollutants during dry season. During rainy season, dissolved Al concentrations are frequently above the Indonesian guideline value. Slow matrix flow is the most important recharge component during dry season, thus assuring the year-round water availability in the subsurface karst. During rainy season, quick infiltration of the surface water is a dominant recharge component. Rapid response of discharge, T and EC to heavy rain suggests the presence of point recharge that feeds a highly karstfied conduit system with fast conduit flow and short transit time of water. The strong variations in discharge and hydrochemistry are particularly challenging for technical water usage and treatment facilities. Piston flow is indicated to be the third important flow component and is induced by heavy rainfall.

  12. Water diffusion behavior in epoxy resins with various fluorine contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Chen, Yin; Li, Shanjun

    2006-04-01

    In this work, novolac resin with perfluorinated side chains was synthesized and cured with o-Cresol novolac epoxy resin to obtain epoxy resins with various fluorine contents. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR/FT-IR) was used to monitor the in situ water diffusion process in these systems. The diffusion coefficient of water first increased and then slightly decreased with increasing fluorine content, which could be attributed to two opposite effects induced by perfluorinated side chains: enhanced hydrophobicity and increased free volume. In addition, generalized two-dimensional (2D) correlation analysis was employed to investigate both the sorption and the desorption process of water diffusion, and two kinds of water molecules, named bound and free water, were found. It was interesting to find that in the sorption process, the change in the population of bound water molecules occurs earlier than the change in the population of free water molecules, while in the desorption process, the sequence was reversed.

  13. Glass Reinforcement of Various Epoxy Resins-Polyurea Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Medha; Jauhari, Smita

    2012-07-01

    Polyureas (PUs) were prepared by the polycondensation reaction of disperse dyes containing -NH2 group and toluene 2, 4-diisocyanate. The disperse dyes have been prepared by coupling of various 2-diazobenzothiazoles with 1,3-benzenediamine. All the PUs were characterized by elemental analysis, spectral studies, number average molecular weight ( {overline{{Mn}} } ), and thermogravimetry. Further reaction of PUs was carried out with an epoxy resin (i.e., DGEBA). The curing study of prepared resins was monitored by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Based on DSC, thermograms glass fiber-reinforced composites have been laminated and characterized by chemical, mechanical, and electrical properties. The unreinforced cured resins were subjected to thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The laminated composites showed excellent resistance properties against chemicals and good mechanical and electrical properties.

  14. 21 CFR 177.1500 - Nylon resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Nylon resins. 177.1500 Section 177.1500 Food and... Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1500 Nylon resins. The nylon resins listed in paragraph (a) of... packaging food, subject to the provisions of this section: (a) The nylon resins are manufactured...

  15. 21 CFR 177.2440 - Polyethersulfone resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyethersulfone resins. 177.2440 Section 177.2440... Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2440 Polyethersulfone resins. Polyethersulfone resins... the purpose of this section, polyethersulfone resins are: (1)...

  16. 21 CFR 177.1655 - Polysulfone resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polysulfone resins. 177.1655 Section 177.1655 Food... of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1655 Polysulfone resins. Polysulfone resins... purpose of this section, polysulfone resins are: (1)...

  17. 21 CFR 177.1585 - Polyestercarbonate resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Polyestercarbonate resins may be safely used as articles or components of articles intended for use in producing... chloride such that the finished resins are composed of 45 to 85 molepercent ester, of which up to 55 mole... the resins. (3) Residual methylene chloride levels in poly-ester-carbonate resins. Poly-ester...

  18. 21 CFR 178.3930 - Terpene resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Terpene resins. 178.3930 Section 178.3930 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3930 Terpene resins. The terpene resins identified in paragraph (a) of this... the terpene resins identified in paragraph (b) of this section may be safely used as components...

  19. Indirect resin composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandini Suresh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aesthetic dentistry continues to evolve through innovations in bonding agents, restorative materials, and conservative preparation techniques. The use of direct composite restoration in posterior teeth is limited to relatively small cavities due to polymerization stresses. Indirect composites offer an esthetic alternative to ceramics for posterior teeth. This review article focuses on the material aspect of the newer generation of composites. This review was based on a PubMed database search which we limited to peer-reviewed articles in English that were published between 1990 and 2010 in dental journals. The key words used were ′indirect resin composites,′ composite inlays,′ and ′fiber-reinforced composites.′

  20. Chromatography resin support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobos, James G.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method of using an improved chromatography resin support is disclosed. The chromatography support platform is provided by a stainless steel hollow cylinder adapted for being inserted into a chromatography column. An exterior wall of the stainless steel cylinder defines a groove for carrying therein an "O"-ring. The upper surface of the stainless steel column is covered by a fine stainless steel mesh welded to the edges of the stainless steel cylinder. When placed upon a receiving ledge defined within a chromatography column, the "O"-ring provides a fluid tight seal with the inner edge wall of the chromatography cylinder. The stainless steel mesh supports the chromatography matrix and provides a back flushable support which is economical and simple to construct.

  1. Contact allergy to epoxy resin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsgaard, Nannie; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Menné, Torkil

    2012-01-01

    . Objectives. To evaluate the prevalence of contact allergy to epoxy resin monomer (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A; MW 340) among patients with suspected contact dermatitis and relate this to occupation and work-related consequences. Patients/methods. The dataset comprised 20 808 consecutive dermatitis...... in an educational programme. Conclusion. The 1% prevalence of epoxy resin contact allergy is equivalent to reports from other countries. The high occurrence of epoxy resin exposure at work, and the limited use of protective measures, indicate that reinforcement of the law is required....

  2. A novel high-throughput multi-parameter flow cytometry based method for monitoring and rapid characterization of microbiome dynamics in anaerobic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhoble, Abhishek S; Bekal, Sadia; Dolatowski, William; Yanz, Connor; Lambert, Kris N; Bhalerao, Kaustubh D

    2016-11-01

    A novel multidimensional flow cytometry based method has been demonstrated to monitor and rapidly characterize the dynamics of the complex anaerobic microbiome associated with perturbations in external environmental factors. While community fingerprinting provides an estimate of the meta genomic structure, flow cytometry provides a fingerprint of the community morphology including its autofluorescence spectrum in a high-throughput manner. Using anaerobic microbial consortia perturbed with the controlled addition of various carbon sources, it is possible to quantitatively discriminate between divergent microbiome analogous to community fingerprinting techniques using automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA). The utility of flow cytometry based method has also been demonstrated in a fully functional industry scale anaerobic digester to distinguish between microbiome composition caused by varying hydraulic retention time (HRT). This approach exploits the rich multidimensional information from flow cytometry for rapid characterization of the dynamics of microbial communities.

  3. Sensor-property-NDE relationships of polymeric composites processed through resin infusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, U. K.; Mohamed, H.; Fotedar, K.; Haque, A.; Mahfuz, H.; Jeelani, S.

    1998-04-01

    Liquid molding manufacturing techniques including vacuum assisted resin infusion molding (VARIM) and resin transfer molding (RTM) offer low cost alternatives for producing composites. The cure characteristics of these composites are monitored by dielectric tool mount sensors in an RTM process, however embedded inter-digitated electrode sensors (IDEX) are becoming popular in the VARIM process. The IDEX sensors remain an integral part of the composite after cure. In this paper, first the response of the dielectric IDEX sensors to various resin systems in neat resin stage as well as in the resin matrix composite is presented. The paper then investigates the mechanical performance of the composites containing IDEX sensors for various loading situations involving interlaminar shear strength, low velocity impact and high strain rate testing. Ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation conducted is also presented.

  4. Preparation of codeine-resinate and chlorpheniramine-resinate sustained-release suspension and its pharmacokinetic evaluation in beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huan-Xiang; Cheng, Gang; Pan, Wei-San; Zhong, Guo-Ping; Huang, Min

    2007-06-01

    Using ion exchange resins (IERs) as carriers, a dual-drug sustained release suspension containing codeine, and chlorpheniramine had been prepared to elevate drug safety, effectiveness and conformance. The codeine resinate and chlorpheniramine resinate beads were prepared by a batch process and then impregnated with Polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG 4000), respectively. The PEG impregnated drug resinate beads were coated with ethylcellulose as the coating polymer and di-n-butyl-phthalate as plasticizer in ethanol and methylene chloride mixture by the Wurster process. The coated PEG impregnated drug resinate beads were dispersed in an aqueous suspending vehicle containing 0.5% w/w xanthan gum and 0.5% w/w of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose of nominal viscosity of 4000 cps, obtaining codeine resinate and chlorpheniramine resinate sustained-release suspension (CCSS). Codeine phosphate and chlorpheniramine maleate were respectively loaded onto AMBERLITE IRP 69, and PEG 4000 was used to impregnate drug resinate beads to maintain their geometry. Ethylcellulose with di-n-butyl-phthalate in ethanol and methylene chloride mixture for the coating of drug resinate beads was performed in Glatt fluidized bed coater, where the coating solution flow rate was 8-12 g/min, the inlet air temperature was 50-60 degrees C, the outlet air temperature was 32-38 degrees C, the atomizing air pressure was 2.0 bar and the fluidized air pressure was adjusted as required. Few significant agglomeration of circulating drug resinate beads was observed during the operation. The film weight gained 20% w/w and 15% w/w were suitable for the PEG impregnated codeine resinate and chlorpheniramine resinate beads, respectively. Residual solvent content increased with coating level, but inprocess drying could reduce residual solvent content. In the present study, the rates of drug release from both drug resinate beads were measured in 0.05 M and 0.5M KCl solutions. The increased ionic strength generally accelerated

  5. Influence of light intensity on contraction stress of flowable resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamizawa, Toshiki; Yamamoto, Akira; Inoue, Naoki; Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Oto, Tatsuki; Irokawa, Atsushi; Tsubota, Keishi; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of power density on contraction stress of resin composite restorative materials during photo-polymerization. Six flowable resin composites, and a hybrid resin composite for comparison, were used. The composites were polymerized with the power density adjusted to either 100 or 600 mW/cm(2). Stress development was determined with a custom-made tensilometer. The adhesive was placed in a thin layer on a steel rod and resin paste was packed into the mold. The contraction force (N) generated during polymerization was continuously recorded and the maximum contraction stress (MPa) was calculated. Data were analyzed statistically. When the power density was adjusted to 100 mW/cm(2), the average contraction stress ranged from 0.30 to 0.50 MPa for the flowable composites, compared with 0.35 MPa for the hybrid composite. When the power density was adjusted to 600 mW/cm(2), the average contraction stress ranged from 0.34 to 1.00 MPa for the flowable composites and 0.69 MPa for the hybrid composite comparison. For all materials tested except Estelite Flow Quick, contraction stress increased with higher power density. The present results indicate that contraction stress during polymerization is influenced by power density and resin composite type.

  6. A study of the kinetic, dielectric, and rheological properties of thermosetting resins used in pultruded polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanku, Reshma

    A comprehensive analysis has been conducted of the curing behavior of AOC VIBRINRTM E-606-6 (medium reactivity isophthalic), E-964 (high reactivity isophthalic), and P-341 (highest reactivity) polyester resins, and Shell EPON 9310 resin/EPON 9360 curing agent/EPON 537 accelerator resin system using calorimetric, dielectric, and rheological methods. The unsaturated polyester resins were cured with two different catalysts at three levels of concentration. Calorimetry and dielectrometry were employed to obtain polyester resin curing properties for the resin formulations studied. Rheological characterization of selected polyester resin formulations and the EPON 9310 resin system were also conducted. Kinetic parameters for all resin formulations were determined using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) by dynamic and isothermal methods. The dynamic and isothermal kinetic parameters obtained were used to generate heat flow values which were compared to the experimental DSC heat flow recorded; kinetic parameters that accurately modeled the pultrusion process were selected. The kinetic parameters were used in a numerical model to predict temperatures and degrees of cure under pultrusion processing conditions. The results obtained from the in-situ dielectric tests conducted on the pultruder in the Composites Material Laboratory at the University of Mississippi were compared to the degree of cure predictions from the numerical model and the experimental degree of cure from calorimetric analysis. Prior to the in-situ pultrusion studies, small quantities of resin formulations were tested for their dielectric cure properties when heated in an oven simulating pultrusion processing temperatures and rate of heating. This technique allowed small quantities of resins to be tested for degrees of cure. It was determined that such screening tests can be effectively conducted and can aid in pultrusion process planning. Complex viscosity profiles until gelation were generated for

  7. Use of electromagnetic induction tomography for monitoring liquid metal/gas flow regimes on a model of an industrial steel caster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzija, N.; Yin, W.; Gerbeth, G.; Stefani, F.; Timmel, K.; Wondrak, T.; Peyton, A. J.

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring of the steel flow through the submerged entry nozzle (SEN) during continuous casting presents a challenge for the instrumentation system because of the high temperature environment and the limited access to the nozzle in between the tundish and the mould. Electromagnetic inductance tomography (EMT) presents an attractive tool to visualize the steel flow profile within the SEN. In this paper, we investigate various flow regimes over a range of stopper positions and gas volume flow rates on a model of a submerged entry nozzle. A scaled (approximately 10:1) experimental rig consisting of a tundish, stopper rod, nozzle and mould was used. Argon gas was injected through the centre of the stopper rod and the behaviour of the two-phase GaInSn/argon flow was studied. The experiments were performed with GaInSn as an analogue for liquid steel, because it has similar conductive properties as molten steel and allows measurements at room temperature. The electromagnetic system used in our experiments to monitor the behaviour of the two-phase GaInSn/argon flow consisted of an array of eight equally spaced induction coils arranged around the object, a data acquisition system and a host computer. The present system operates with a sinusoidal excitation waveform with a frequency of 40 kHz and the system has a capture rate of 40 frames per second. The results show the ability of the system to distinguish the different flow regimes and to detect the individual bubbles. Sample tomographic images given in the paper clearly illustrate the different flow regimes.

  8. Static and dynamic flow analysis of PBDEs in plastics from used and end-of-life TVs and computer monitors by life cycle in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seunghun; Jang, Yong-Chul; Kim, Jong-Guk; Park, Jong-Eun; Kang, Young-Yeul; Kim, Woo-Il; Shin, Sun-Kyoung

    2015-02-15

    This study focused on a quantitative substance flow analysis (SFA) of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in plastics from obsolete TVs and computer monitors that often contain large amounts of the flame retardants. According to the results of the static SFA study, 1.87 tons and 0.28 tons of PBDEs from newly manufactured TVs and computer monitors were introduced into households in 2011 in Korea, respectively. There were approximately 924 tons and 90.3 tons of PBDEs present in TVs and computer monitors in households during product use, respectively. The results of the dynamic SFA study indicated that in 2017 the amount of PBDEs from TVs and computer monitors in the recycling stage is expected to be 2.63 tons and 0.1 tons, respectively. Large fractions of PBDEs from used TVs are present in recycled plastics, while PBDE-containing computer monitors are exported to Southeast Asian countries. This research indicates that PBDEs were emitted the most from recycled plastic pellet processes upon recycling. Further study may be warranted to focus the flow of PBDEs in recycled plastic products in order to determine the final destination and disposal of these chemicals in the environment.

  9. The effect of resin on the impact damage tolerance of graphite-epoxy laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. G.; Rhodes, M. D.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of the matrix resin on the impact damage tolerance of graphite-epoxy composite laminates was investigated. The materials were evaluated on the basis of the damage incurred due to local impact and on their ability to retain compression strength in the presence of impact damage. Twenty-four different resin systems were evaluated. Five of the systems demonstrated substantial improvements compared to the baseline system including retention of compression strength in the presence of impact damage. Examination of the neat resin mechanical properties indicates the resin tensile properties influence significantly the laminate damage tolerance and that improvements in laminate damage tolerance are not necessarily made at the expense of room temperature mechanical properties. Preliminary results indicate a resin volume fraction on the order of 40 percent or greater may be required to permit the plastic flow between fibers necessary for improved damage tolerance.

  10. Raman spectroscopy as a tool for monitoring mesoscale continuous-flow organic synthesis: Equipment interface and assessment in four medicinally-relevant reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor A. Hamlin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available An apparatus is reported for real-time Raman monitoring of reactions performed using continuous-flow processing. Its capability is assessed by studying four reactions, all involving formation of products bearing α,β-unsaturated carbonyl moieties; synthesis of 3-acetylcoumarin, Knoevenagel and Claisen–Schmidt condensations, and a Biginelli reaction. In each case it is possible to monitor the reactions and also in one case, by means of a calibration curve, determine product conversion from Raman spectral data as corroborated by data obtained using NMR spectroscopy.

  11. EPOXY RESIN TOUGHENED BY THERMOPLASTICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Zengli; SUN Yishi

    1989-01-01

    Two kinds of tough ductile heatresisting thermoplastic, namely bisphenol A polysulfone (PSF) and polyethersulfone (PES) were used to toughen thermoset epoxy resin. A systematic study on the relationship between the molecular weight and the terminal group of the thermoplastic modifier and the fracture toughness of the modified resin was carried out. The morphology of PSF modified epoxy resin was surveyed. With the same kind of PSF the structure of the epoxy resin and the toughening effect of PSF was also investigated. The fractography of PSF, particle modified epoxy was examined in detail with SEM. The contribution of every possible energy absorption process has been discussed. Crack pinning mechanism seems to be the most important toughening mechanism for tough ductile thermoplastic PSF particle modified epoxy system.

  12. Bending characteristics of resin concretes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro Maria Cristina Santos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research work the influence of composition and curing conditions in bending strength of polyester and epoxy concrete is analyzed. Various mixtures of resin and aggregates were considered in view of an optimal combination. The Taguchi methodology was applied in order to reduce the number of tests, and in order to evaluate the influence of various parameters in concrete properties. This methodology is very useful for the planning of experiments. Test results, analyzed by this methodology, shown that the most significant factors affecting bending strength properties of resin concretes are the type of resin, resin content and charge content. An optimal formulation leading to a maximum bending strength was achieved in terms of material parameters.

  13. Bulk-Fill Resin Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Havndrup-Pedersen, Cæcilie; Honoré, Daniel;

    2015-01-01

    the restorative procedure. The aim of this study, therefore, was to compare the depth of cure, polymerization contraction, and gap formation in bulk-fill resin composites with those of a conventional resin composite. To achieve this, the depth of cure was assessed in accordance with the International Organization...... for Standardization 4049 standard, and the polymerization contraction was determined using the bonded-disc method. The gap formation was measured at the dentin margin of Class II cavities. Five bulk-fill resin composites were investigated: two high-viscosity (Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, SonicFill) and three low......-viscosity (x-tra base, Venus Bulk Fill, SDR) materials. Compared with the conventional resin composite, the high-viscosity bulk-fill materials exhibited only a small increase (but significant for Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill) in depth of cure and polymerization contraction, whereas the low-viscosity bulk...

  14. Epoxy hydantoins as matrix resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, J.

    1983-01-01

    Tensile strength and fracture toughness of castings of the hydantoin resins cured with methylenedianiline are significantly higher than MY 720 control castings. Water absorption of an ethyl, amyl hydantoin formulation is 2.1 percent at equilibrium and Tg's are about 160 C, approximately 15 deg below the final cure temperature. Two series of urethane and ester-extended hydantoin epoxy resins were synthesized to determine the effect of crosslink density and functional groups on properties. Castings cured with methylenedianiline or with hexahydrophthalic anhydride were made from these compounds and evaluated. The glass transition temperatures, tensile strengths and moduli, and fracture toughness values were all much lower than that of the simple hydantoin epoxy resins. Using a methylene bishydantoin epoxy with a more rigid structure gave brittle, low-energy fractures, while a more flexible, ethoxy-extended hydantoin epoxy resin gave a very low Tg.

  15. Flow cytometry of nucleated red blood cells used as monitoring technique for aquatic risk assessment. A review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bratosin D.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades anthropogenic factors led to a significant enhancement of pollutants in aquatic environment and for several years, chemicals analysis has been commonly employed. These techniques cannot detect and quantify many environmental phenomena such as bioavailability, bioaccumulation and synergistic effects. For these reasons, many investigations for evaluating the effects of xenobiotic on organisms use in vitro or in vivo bioassays. The bioassays give a global response for all chemicals present in the environment and these represent one of the best ways to estimate the risk assessment of pollutants in environment for monitoring. For assessing cytotoxicity or ecotoxicity of pollutants (heavy metals, nanoparticles, etc. and to assess aquatic pollution degree and biomonitoring of Danube River and Danube Delta, we developed a new experimental cell system based on the apoptosis of nucleated erythrocytes from fishes and batrachians which are directly exposed to pollutants absorbed by different ways. Despite their structural simplicity, the erythrocytes of lower vertebrates preserve nucleus and mitochondria, both the sensors of the programmed cell death (PCD machinery to develop an apoptosis phenomenon. Our proposed bioassays which are based on the apoptosis phenomenon as induced biomarker by pollutants on fish or amphibians erythrocytes, evidenced by flow cytometry (apoptosis/necrosis discriminated by FITC-annexin-V labeling/PI and cellular viability measured with calcein-AM method could be rapid and very sensitive tests for in laboratory aquatic risk assessment and biomonitoring. Standardization and application of these tests will surely provide the opportunity of their use easily in ecotoxicological laboratories, biomonitoring of large river basins such as the Danube River Basin and will be also able deliver information on fish as a food product.

  16. Karakteristik Komposit Resin Berkemampuan Mengalir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Irawan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of resin composites as posterior restoratives has markedly increased over the past decade. The patients demand for better esthetics, concerns related to possible mercury toxicity from amalgam and improvements in resin composite materials have significantly contributed the popularity of these materials. Early problems related to composites included excessive wear, less of anatomic form, post operative sensitivity, secondary caries and marginal leakage. Marginal adaptation still remains an unavoidable problem for composite restoration, especially at the gingival wall of cervical or Class II restoration. In an attempt to improve marginal sealing, many techniques and lining materials have been designed. To reduce stress generated by polymerization shrinkage, applying and curing of resin composites in layers is often recommended. Using a thick adhesive layer or low-viscosity resin may, due to its elastic properties, serve as a flexible intermediate layer and compensate for the polymerization stress created in resin composite. Flowable composites were created by retaining the same small particle size of traditional hybrid composite but reducing the filler content and allowing the increased resin to reduce the viscosity of the mixture. Flowable composites were introduced in 1996 as liners, fissure sealants and also in tunnel preparations. They have been suggested for Class I, II, III and V cavity restorations, preventive resin restorations and composite, porcelain and amalgam repairing. Their usage as a liner under high filled resins in posterior restorations has been shown to improve the adaptation of composites and effectively achieve clinically acceptable results. This article attempts to give a broad characteristics of different types of flowable composites. 

  17. Karakteristik Komposit Resin Berkemampuan Mengalir

    OpenAIRE

    Bambang Irawan

    2015-01-01

    The use of resin composites as posterior restoratives has markedly increased over the past decade. The patients demand for better esthetics, concerns related to possible mercury toxicity from amalgam and improvements in resin composite materials have significantly contributed the popularity of these materials. Early problems related to composites included excessive wear, less of anatomic form, post operative sensitivity, secondary caries and marginal leakage. Marginal adaptation still remains...

  18. New Low Cost Resin Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-31

    DGEBA ). 30 % of the epoxy groups of RDGE were reacted with the dihydroxyl acid and resulted 3.2 wt% phosphorous and a new epoxide equivalent weight...of 207. Adducts were also made with DGEBA and the dihydroxyl phosphorous based acid but resulted in a substantial increased viscosity and therefore...70 wt% with a standard DGEBA resin, this material accelerated the epoxy reaction too much to make a VaRTM processable resin. Due to the processing

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF MOLECULAR MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES TO MEASURE TRANSGENE FLOW AND INTROGRESSION IN CROP AND NON-CROP PLANT SPECIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Gene Flow Project at the US Environmental Protection Agency, Western Ecology Division is developing methodologies for ecological risk assessments of transgene flow using Agrostis and Brassica engineered with CP4 EPSPS genes that confer resistance to glyphosate herbicide. In ...

  20. A minimally invasive monitoring system of cardiac output using aortic flow velocity and peripheral arterial pressure profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Kazunori; Kawada, Toru; Inagaki, Masashi; Sugimachi, Masaru

    2013-05-01

    In managing patients with unstable hemodynamics, monitoring cardiac output (CO) can provide critical diagnostic data. However, conventional CO measurements are invasive, intermittent, and/or inaccurate. The purpose of this study was to validate our newly developed CO monitoring system. This system automatically determines peak velocity of the ascending aortic flow using continuous-wave Doppler transthoracic echocardiography and estimates cardiac ejection time and aortic cross-sectional area using the pulse contour of the radial arterial pressure. These parameters are continuously processed to estimate CO (CO(est)). In 10 anesthetized closed-chest dogs instrumented with an aortic flowprobe to measure reference CO (CO(ref)), hemodynamic conditions were varied over wide ranges by infusing cardiovascular drugs or by random atrial pacing. Under each condition, CO(ref) and CO(est) were determined. Absolute changes of CO(ref) (ΔCOref) and CO(est) (ΔCO(est)), and relative changes of CO(ref) (%ΔCO(ref)) and CO(est) (%ΔCO(est)) from the corresponding baseline values were determined in each animal. We calibrated CO(est) against CO(ref) to obtain proportionally scaled CO(est) (CO(est)(N)). A total of 1335 datasets of CO(ref) and CO(est) were obtained, in which CO(ref) ranged from 0.17 to 5.34 L/min. Bland-Altman analysis between CO(ref) and CO(est) indicated that the limits of agreement (the bias ± 1.96 × SD of the difference) and the percentage error (1.96 × [SD of the difference]/[mean CO] × 100) were from -1.01 to 1.13 L/min (95% confidence interval, -1.76 to 1.88 L/min) and 43%, respectively. The agreement between CO(ref) and CO(est)(N) was improved, with limits of agreement from -0.53 to 0.49 L/min (95% confidence interval, -0.62 to 0.59 L/min) and the percentage error of 20%. Polar plot analysis between ΔCO(ref) and ΔCO(est) indicated that mean ± 1.96 × SD of polar angle was -2° ± 22°. Four quadrant plot analysis indicated that %ΔCO(est) correlated

  1. Vacuum infusion equipment design and the influence of reinforcement layers addition to the resin infusion time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputra, A. H.; Setyarso, G.

    2016-11-01

    The characteristic of composite material is greatly influenced by the manufacture method of composite. The conventional method that has been used such as hand lay-up and spray up are simple and easy to apply but the composite tend to have a void in it because of the air trapped during the manufacture process. Vacuum infusion is one of the modern composite manufacture process which can replace the conventional method. The problem of this method happens when the resin infusion time become longer due to the addition of reinforcement layers. When the resin infusion time is longer than the resin's gel time, the resin will become gel and not able to flow into the mold. In order to overcome this problem, a study that observe the influence of reinforcement layers addition to the resin infusion time is needed. In this study, vacuum infusion equipment for composite materials manufacturing process that are designed consists of: 1×1m glass as the mold, 1L PVC tube for the resin container, 1L glass tube for the resin trap, and ‘A HP vacuum pump with 7 CFM vacuum speed. The resin that is used in this study is unsaturated polyester resin (UPR) and the fiber used as reinforcement is fiber glass. It is observed that the more number of reinforcement layers the longer resin infusion time will be. The resin infusion time (in seconds) from two until six layers respectively for the area of 15×20cm are: 88, 115, 145, 174, 196; for the area of 15×25cm are: 119, 142, 168, 198, 235; and for the area of 15×35cm are: 181, 203, 235, 263, 303. The maximum reinforcement layers that can be accommodated for each 15×20cm, 15×25cm, and 15×35cm area are respectively 31 layers, 29 layers, and 25 layers.

  2. An Investigation on Thermal Recycling of Recycled Plastic Resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakita, Ryuji; Miura, Katsuya; Ishino, Yojiro; Ohiwa, Norio

    Thermal recycling of recycled plastic resin is focused in this investigation. Fine grinding of plastic resin and preparation of high temperature oxidizing atmosphere are indispensable for effective and successful burn-up of plastic resin. Polyethylene terephthalate resin powder is employed and high temperature oxidizing atmosphere is generated downstream an annular burner. Through a circular nozzle set coaxially in the closed bottom end of the annular burner, PET-powder and propane-air mixture are issued vertically upward into the high temperature oxidizing atmosphere. Temperature and O2 concentration fields downstream the annular burner are first examined by varying the circular jet equivalence ratio with the air flow rate kept constant and without PET-powder supply. PET-powder having a mass-median diameter of either 89.7µm or 145µm is then issued into the high temperature region along with propane-air mixture by varying the PET-powder mass flow rate. Appearances of the PET-powder flame are observed using a high-speed CCD video camera and unburnt PET particles are traced during their passages in the high temperature region. Variation of O2 concentration fields due to PET-powder combustion is also measured in the PET flame. According to the results, overall limit conditions for effective burn-up of PET-powder are finally discussed.

  3. Dynamic thermo-mechanical properties of various flowable resin composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balthazard, Rémy; Vincent, Marin; Dahoun, Abdessellam; Mortier, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Background This study compared the storage modulus (E’), the loss modulus (E’’) and the loss tangent (tan δ) of various flowable resin composites. Material and Methods Grandio Flow (GRF), GrandioSo Heavy Flow (GHF), Filtek Supreme XTE (XTE) and Filtek Bulk Fill (BUL) flowable resins and Clinpro Sealant (CLI) ultra-flowable pit and fissure sealant resin were used. 25 samples were tested using a dynamical mechanical thermal analysis system in bending mode. Measurements were taken within a temperature range of 10 to 55°C. The results were statistically analyzed using mixed-effect and repeated-measure analysis of variance followed by paired multiple comparisons. Results For all the materials, the E’ values decrease with temperature, whereas the tan δ values increase. Irrespective of the temperature, GHF and GRF present E’ and E’’ values significantly higher than all the other materials and CLI presents values significantly lower than all the other materials. Observation of the values for all the materials reveals a linear progression of the tan δ values with temperature. Conclusions A variation in temperature within a physiological range generates modifications in mechanical properties without damaging the material, however. Filler content in volume terms appears to be the crucial parameter in the mechanical behavior of tested materials. Key words:Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis, elastic modulus, filler content, flowable resin composites, loss modulus, loss tangent. PMID:27957266

  4. Composite manufacturing: Simulation of 3-D resin transfer molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Cheng Ping

    1998-10-01

    A technique was developed for simulating the resin transfer molding (RTM) process. The major feature of the technique is a computational steering system that enables the user to make changes during the simulation. Specifically, at any instance, the user can inspect the progress of the resin front. On the basis of the observed resin front position, the user can, as needed, change the port and vent locations, open and close ports and vents, adjust the inlet and exit pressures or flow rates, and reorient the mold with respect to the gravitational field. Additionally, the user can "rewind" the simulator to any previous time in the mold filling process, make any of the above changes and then continue the simulation. The technique is augmented by a computer code which has three main components, the Simulator, the Graphics User Interface (GUI), and the Global Data Storage. The Simulator is a finite element code that calculates the resin flow inside the fiber preform. The GUI serves as the interface between the user and the Simulator; it provides the commands to the Simulator and displays the results. The Global Data Storage is the module that manages the exchange of data between the GUI and the Simulator. The computer code (designated as SUPERTMsb-3D) is suitable for simulating the resin flow inside two-dimensional as well as three-dimensional fiber preforms of arbitrary shapes. The use of this computer code is illustrated through sample problems. These problems demonstrate how (with this code) the designer can establish the port and vent locations, opening and closing sequences of ports and vents such that the fiber preform is filled completely in the shortest time with the fewest number of vents.

  5. High elastic modulus nanopowder reinforced resin composites for dental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yijun

    2007-12-01

    Dental restorations account for more than $3 billion dollars a year on the market. Among them, all-ceramic dental crowns draw more and more attention and their popularity has risen because of their superior aesthetics and biocompatibility. However, their relatively high failure rate and labor-intensive fabrication procedure still limit their application. In this thesis, a new family of high elastic modulus nanopowder reinforced resin composites and their mechanical properties are studied. Materials with higher elastic modulus, such as alumina and diamond, are used to replace the routine filler material, silica, in dental resin composites to achieve the desired properties. This class of composites is developed to serve (1) as a high stiffness support to all-ceramic crowns and (2) as a means of joining independently fabricated crown core and veneer layers. Most of the work focuses on nano-sized Al2O3 (average particle size 47 nm) reinforcement in a polymeric matrix with 50:50 Bisphenol A glycidyl methacrylate (Bis-GMA): triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) monomers. Surfactants, silanizing agents and primers are examined to obtain higher filler levels and enhance the bonding between filler and matrix. Silane agents work best. The elastic modulus of a 57.5 vol% alumina/resin composite is 31.5 GPa compared to current commercial resin composites with elastic modulus alumina, diamond/resin composites are studied. An elastic modulus of about 45 GPa is obtained for a 57 vol% diamond/resin composite. Our results indicate that with a generally monodispersed nano-sized high modulus filler, relatively high elastic modulus resin-based composite cements are possible. Time-dependent behavior of our resin composites is also investigated. This is valuable for understanding the behavior of our material and possible fatigue testing in the future. Our results indicate that with effective coupling agents and higher filler loading, viscous flow can be greatly decreased due to the

  6. Analysis of vertical flow during ambient and pumped conditions in four monitoring wells at the Pantex Plant, Carson County, Texas, July-September 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Gregory P.; Thomas, Jonathan V.; Stoval, Jeffery

    2009-01-01

    The Pantex Plant is a U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (USDOE/NNSA)-owned, contractor-operated facility managed by Babcock & Wilcox Technical Services Pantex, LLC (B&W Pantex) in Carson County, Texas, approximately 17 miles northeast of Amarillo. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with B&W Pantex through the USDOE/NNSA, made a series of flowmeter measurements and collected other borehole geophysical logs during July–September 2008 to analyze vertical flow in screened intervals of four selected monitoring wells (PTX01–1012, PTX06–1044, PTX06–1056, and PTX06–1068) at the Pantex Plant. Hydraulic properties (transmissivity values) of the section of High Plains (Ogallala) aquifer penetrated by the wells also were computed. Geophysical data were collected under ambient and pumped flow conditions in the four monitoring wells. Unusually large drawdowns occurred at two monitoring wells (PTX06–1044 and PTX06–1056) while the wells were pumped at relatively low rates. A decision was made to redevelop those wells, and logs were run again after redevelopment in the two monitoring wells.

  7. Matrix Characterization and Development for the Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsley, B. W.; Hubert, P.; Hou, T. H.; Cano, R. J.; Loos, A. C.; Pipes, R. B.

    2001-01-01

    The curing kinetics and viscosity of an epoxy resin system, SI-ZG-5A, have been characterized for application in the vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) process. Impregnation of a typical carbon fiber perform provided the test bed for the characterization. Process simulations were carried out using the process model, COMPRO, to examine heat transfer and curing kinetics for a fully impregnated panel, neglecting resin flow. The predicted viscosity profile and final degree of cure were found to be in good agreement with experimental observations.

  8. Resin Matrix/Fiber Reinforced Composite Material, Ⅱ: Method of Solution and Computer Code

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Chensha(李辰砂); Jiao Caishan; Liu Ying; Wang Zhengping; Wang Hongjie; Cao Maosheng

    2003-01-01

    According to a mathematical model which describes the curing process of composites constructed from continuous fiber-reinforced, thermosetting resin matrix prepreg materials, and the consolidation of the composites, the solution method to the model is made and a computer code is developed, which for flat-plate composites cured by a specified cure cycle, provides the variation of temperature distribution, the cure reaction process in the resin, the resin flow and fibers stress inside the composite, the void variation and the residual stress distribution.

  9. Adsorption Characteristics of Macroporous Resin for Oil Removal from Desulphurization Wastewater on Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tie; Chen, Chen; Jin, Qi; Zhao, Jiao; Tang, Xiaojia; Zhu, Yimin

    2017-01-01

    According to our previous results on the magnesium-based exhaust gas cleaning system (Mg-EGCS), PAHs and total oil content were the main factors affecting the COD in the wastewater. In this work, three kinds of adsorption materials were investigated and macroporous resin was selected for oil removal. The effects of the dosage of macroporous resin, adsorption time and the flow rate were studied, and thermodynamics equation was used to characterize the adsorption process. The results showed that macroporous resin is a good candidate for oil removal from desulphurization wastewater on board, and the COD after treatment can meet the discharge criteria set by the International Maritime Organization (IMO).

  10. Migrants in transit: the importance of monitoring HIV risk among migrant flows at the Mexico-US border

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martinez-Donate, Ana P; Hovell, Melbourne F; Rangel, Maria Gudelia; Zhang, Xiao; Sipan, Carol L; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Gonzalez-Fagoaga, J Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    .... Monitoring HIV risk among this vulnerable transnational population is critical for better understanding patterns of risk at different points of the migration process and for informing the development...

  11. Hydrometry's classical and Innovative methods and tools comparison for Stara river flows at Agios Germanos monitoring station in north-west Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filintas, Agathos, , Dr; Hatzigiannakis, Evagellos, , Dr; Arampatzis, George, , Dr; Ilias, Andreas; Panagopoulos, Andreas, , Dr; Hatzispiroglou, Ioannis

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the present study is a thorough comparison of hydrometry's conventional and innovative methods-tools for river flow monitoring. A case study was conducted in Stara river at Agios Germanos monitoring station (northwest Greece), in order to investigate possible deviations between conventional and innovative methods-tools on river flow velocity and discharge. For this study, two flowmeters were used, which manufac-tured in 2013 (OTT Messtechnik Gmbh, 2013), as follows: a) A conventional propeller flow velocity meter (OTT-Model C2) which is a me-chanical current flow meter with a certification of calibration BARGO, operated with a rod and a relocating device, along with a digital measuring device including an elec-tronic flow calculator, data logger and real time control display unit. The flowmeter has a measurement velocity range 0.025-4.000 m/s. b) An innovative electromagnetic flowmeter (OTT-Model MF pro) which it is con-sisted of a compact and light-weight sensor and a robust handheld unit. Both system components are designed to be attached to conventional wading rods. The electromag-netic flowmeter uses Faraday's Law of electromagnetic induction to measure the process flow. When an electrically conductive fluid flows along the meter, an electrode voltage is induced between a pair of electrodes placed at right angles to the direction of mag-netic field. The electrode voltage is directly proportional to the average fluid velocity. The electromagnetic flowmeter was operated with a rod and relocating device, along with a digital measuring device with various logging and graphical capabilities and vari-ous methods of velocity measurement (ISO/USGS standards). The flowmeter has a measurement velocity range 0.000-6.000 m/s. The river flow data were averaged over a pair measurement of 60+60 seconds and the measured river water flow velocity, depths and widths of the segments were used for the estimation of cross-section's mean flow velocity in each measured

  12. An exploration of experimental parameters in the analysis of epoxy resin by reverse phase liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twichell, J E; Walker, J Q; Maynard, J B

    1979-05-01

    Reverse phase liquid chromatographic methods have been developed for the quality control of epoxy resin formulations. The results show that different formulations require different instrumental parameters for optimun separation and detection. Operating parameters required for the analysis of complex mixtures of epoxy resins, which include curing agents and diluents, are described in this paper. Parameters found to be critical are column temperature, solvent flow rate and gradient, and detector wavelength. Microprocessor parameters required to obtain reproducible data are also discussed.

  13. Design of monitoring system for distance education test paper flow%远程教育考试试卷流转监控系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艺萌; 王侃伟

    2014-01-01

    针对在远程教育考试中一直困扰的试卷流转安全问题,设计了远程教教育考试试卷流转监控系统,它是基于物联网三层体系结构,由无线传感器监控网络、数据传输网络、远程监控中心三个部分组成。在此基础上还结合了GPS、GPRS、Web GIS等技术,实现试卷流转过程中动态跟踪与可视化监控,包括试卷流转过程中的异常行为报警、快速追踪定位等功能。%A remote education test paper flow monitoring system was designed to solve the safety problem troubled in test paper flow of the distance education examination. It is based on the three-layer system structure of Internet of Things,and com-posed of wireless sensor monitoring network,data transmission network and remote monitoring center. In combination with GPS, GPRS and Web GIS technologies,the system realized the dynamic tracking and visual monitoring in the process of the test pa-per flow,including abnormal behavior alarm,fast tracking and positioning functions in the process of test paper transfer.

  14. Characterization of Composite Fan Case Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvoracek, Charlene M.

    2004-01-01

    The majority of commercial turbine engines that power today s aircraft use a large fan driven by the engine core to generate thrust which dramatically increases the engine s efficiency. However, if one of these fan blades fails during flight, it becomes high energy shrapnel, potentially impacting the engine or puncturing the aircraft itself and thus risking the lives of passengers. To solve this problem, the fan case must be capable of containing a fan blade should it break off during flight. Currently, all commercial fan cases are made of either just a thick metal barrier or a thinner metal wall surrounded by Kevlar-an ultra strong fiber that elastically catches the blade. My summer 2004 project was to characterize the resins for a composite fan case that will be lighter and more efficient than the current metal. The composite fan case is created by braiding carbon fibers and injecting a polymer resin into the braid. The resin holds the fibers together, so at first using the strongest polymer appears to logically lead to the strongest fan case. Unfortunately, the stronger polymers are too viscous when melted. This makes the manufacturing process more difficult because the polymer does not flow as freely through the braid, and the final product is less dense. With all of this in mind, it is important to remember that the strength of the polymer is still imperative; the case must still contain blades with high impact energy. The research identified which polymer had the right balance of properties, including ease of fabrication, toughness, and ability to transfer the load to the carbon fibers. Resin deformation was studied to better understand the composite response during high speed impact. My role in this research was the testing of polymers using dynamic mechanical analysis and tensile, compression, and torsion testing. Dynamic mechanical analysis examines the response of materials under cyclic loading. Two techniques were used for dynamic mechanical analysis

  15. Continuous stroke volume monitoring by modelling flow from non-invasive measurement of arterial pressure in humans under orthostatic stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harms, M.P.M.; Wesseling, K.H.; Pott, F.; Jenstrup, M.; Goudoever, J. van; Secher, N.H.; Lieshout, J.J. van

    1999-01-01

    The relationship between aortic flow and pressure is described by a three-element model of the arterial input impedance, including continuous correction for variations in the diameter and the compliance of the aorta (Modelflow). We computed the aortic flow from arterial pressure by this model, and

  16. Non-Invasive Monitoring of Temporal and Spatial Blood Flow during Bone Graft Healing Using Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songfeng Han

    Full Text Available Vascular infiltration and associated alterations in microvascular blood flow are critical for complete bone graft healing. Therefore, real-time, longitudinal measurement of blood flow has the potential to successfully predict graft healing outcomes. Herein, we non-invasively measure longitudinal blood flow changes in bone autografts and allografts using diffuse correlation spectroscopy in a murine femoral segmental defect model. Blood flow was measured at several positions proximal and distal to the graft site before implantation and every week post-implantation for a total of 9 weeks (autograft n = 7 and allograft n = 10. Measurements of the ipsilateral leg with the graft were compared with those of the intact contralateral control leg. Both autografts and allografts exhibited an initial increase in blood flow followed by a gradual return to baseline levels. Blood flow elevation lasted up to 2 weeks in autografts, but this duration varied from 2 to 6 weeks in allografts depending on the spatial location of the measurement. Intact contralateral control leg blood flow remained at baseline levels throughout the 9 weeks in the autograft group; however, in the allograft group, blood flow followed a similar trend to the graft leg. Blood flow difference between the graft and contralateral legs (ΔrBF, a parameter defined to estimate graft-specific changes, was elevated at 1-2 weeks for the autograft group, and at 2-4 weeks for the allograft group at the proximal and the central locations. However, distal to the graft, the allograft group exhibited significantly greater ΔrBF than the autograft group at 3 weeks post-surgery (p < 0.05. These spatial and temporal differences in blood flow supports established trends of delayed healing in allografts versus autografts.

  17. Effect of laser preparation on bond strength of a self-adhesive flowable resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici, A Rüya; Agarwal, Ishita; Campillo-Funollet, Marc; Munoz-Viveros, Carlos; Antonson, Sibel A; Antonson, Donald E; Mang, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of laser treatment on shear bond strength of a self-adhesive flowable resin composite to human dentin. Eighty extracted sound human molar teeth were used for the study. The teeth were sectioned mesiodistally and embedded in acrylic blocks. The dentin surfaces were ground wet with 600-grit silicon carbide (SiC) paper. They were randomly divided into two preparation groups: laser (Er:YAG laser, with 12 Hz, 350 mJ energy) and control (SiC). Each group was then divided into two subgroups according to the flowable resin composite type (n = 20). A self-adhesive flowable (Vertise Flow) and a conventional flowable resin (Premise Flow) were used. Flowable resin composites were applied according to the manufacturer's recommendations using the Ultradent shear bond Teflon mold system. The bonded specimens were stored in water at 37 °C for 24 h. Shear bond strength was tested at 1 mm/min. The data were logarithmically transformed and analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and Student-Newman-Keul's test at a significance level of 0.05. The self-adhesive flowable resin showed significantly higher bond strength values to laser-prepared surfaces than to SiC-prepared surfaces (p flowable resin did not show such differences (p = 0.224). While there was a significant difference between the two flowable resin composites in SiC-prepared surfaces (p flowable resin composite differs according to the type of dentin surface preparation. Laser treatment increased the dentin bonding values of the self-adhesive flowable resin.

  18. Use of polyurethane resins for sealing test boreholes at Cogema Vendee. [France]. Utilisation de resines polyurethane pour l'etanchement des sondages a Cogema-Vendee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tourscher, M.

    1989-11-01

    The mining division is briefly described. The main problem for mining development is an important flow rate of water at a pressure of 0 to 10 bars through exploratory boreholes. Use of polyurethane resin reacting with water was retained but taking account of flow rate and pressure a new method was developed using a polyamide sleeve, allowing reaction and expansion before dilution by flowing water. Cost is estimated at 4683 FF/borehole.

  19. THE SYNTHESIS OF MODIFIED DIPHENYL OXIDE RESIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAOMingfei; LIUZhifang; 等

    2002-01-01

    Modified diphenyl oxide resin was synthesized by co-polymerization of unsaturated acid and diphenyl oxide derivants.And then modified bismaleimide resin and expoxide linear phenolic resin were added into modified diphenyl oxide resin to co-polymerized and modify once more.The system was applied in composites.Their properties wrer investigated and found that they met the requirements as a heat-resisting adhesive.

  20. Selective Anion Exchange Resins for the Removal of Perchlorate [(CIO{sub 4}{sup -})] from Groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, B.

    1999-05-20

    The primary objective of this project was to evaluate a novel bifunctional anion exchange resin for the cost-effective, in situ treatment of groundwater contaminated with perchlorate (ClO{sub 4}{sup -}). Both laboratory and field studies were performed to determine the selectivity and capacity of the bifunctional synthetic resins to sorb ClO{sub 4}{sup -} from simulated or actual contaminated groundwater. A number of synthetic bifunctional resins, including two commercial versions made by Purolite International and three commercially available, mono-functional resins, were tested. Initial laboratory batch and column breakthrough studies determined the best synthetic resins and the optimal conditions for the field experiment. Laboratory results indicated that the bifunctional synthetic resins, D-3696 and RO-02-119 were highly selective toward ClO{sub 4}{sup -} and performed {approx}5 times better than the best commercial nitrate resin (Purolite{reg_sign} A-520E) and more than an order of magnitude better than some nonselective commercial resins (e.g. Amberlite{reg_sign} IRA-900). The bifunctional resins were particularly effective in removing trace quantities of ClO{sub 4}{sup -} in groundwater to below the detection limit ({approx} 3 {micro}g/L). A field trial demonstrated that the bifunctional resin (D-3696) was able to treat {approx} 110,000 bed volumes of groundwater before a 10% breakthrough of ClO{sub 4}{sup -} occurred under the column flow-through conditions (running at {approx} 2 bed volumes per minute). On the other hand, the Purolite{reg_sign} A-520E resin was able to treat {approx} 23,000 bed volumes of groundwater under the same experimental conditions. No pretreatment was needed to remove either dissolved organic matter or other competing anions (such as SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} or NO{sub 3}{sup -}) in the groundwater, and the treatment process did not alter the water quality by removing or adding secondary by-products because of the high selectivity of the

  1. Impacts of rainfall features and antecedent soil moisture on occurrence of preferential flow: A study at hillslopes using high-frequency monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhenyang; Tian, Fuqiang; Hu, Hongchang

    2016-04-01

    In order to evaluate influences of rainfall features and antecedent soil moisture on occurrence of preferential flow, a more than 2 years observation was conducted at 12 sites within a 7-km2 catchment, by applying the high-frequency monitoring approach. Totally 65 rainfall events were selected to compare among sites, and preferential flow was inferred when (i) responses of soil moisture did not follow a linear sequence with depth, and (ii) penetration velocity of wetting front in at least one horizon exceeded the threshold, which was set to be 5-10 times of the saturated hydraulic conductivity of soil matrix at different depths. Results showed that frequency of preferential flow was 40.7% in average, but varied from 17.9% to 74.3% among the sites. Correlations between the frequency and rainfall features, i.e. rainfall amount, duration, maximum and average intensity, were well fitted by logarithmic curves. Rainfall amount, which was most prominently correlated with frequency (R2=0.93), was regarded as the dominant driving factor of preferential flow, while average intensity was in second (R2=0.90). Antecedent soil moisture was also significantly correlated with the frequency. However, this should largely be attributed to the differences of soil moisture among sites, since varying range of soil moisture at a specific site was not wide enough to influence the frequency significantly. Further examination suggested that topography and surface cover (dead leaves and humus) were the controlling factors of both infiltration amount and occurrence of preferential flow, as water was more readily to infiltrate into soils and preferential flow was more readily to occur when slope gradient was small and surface cover was thick, while soil moisture was more likely to be a consequence of water storage capacity, rather than an inducer of preferential flow. This knowledge could be helpful in understanding the partitioning of surface runoff and infiltration, as well as runoff

  2. 21 CFR 872.3140 - Resin applicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3140 Resin applicator. (a) Identification. A resin applicator is a brushlike device intended for use in spreading dental resin on a tooth during application of tooth shade material. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from...

  3. Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert,George W.; Hand,Thomas E.; Delaurentiis,Gary M.

    2007-08-07

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  4. Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2008-12-30

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  5. 21 CFR 177.1595 - Polyetherimide resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyetherimide resin. 177.1595 Section 177.1595... Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1595 Polyetherimide resin. The polyetherimide resin identified in this section may be safely used as an article or component of an...

  6. 21 CFR 177.1556 - Polyaryletherketone resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyaryletherketone resins. 177.1556 Section 177... Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1556 Polyaryletherketone resins. The poly...) resins (CAS Reg. No. 55088-54-5 and CAS Reg. No. 60015-05-6 and commonly referred to...

  7. 21 CFR 177.1555 - Polyarylate resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyarylate resins. 177.1555 Section 177.1555 Food... of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1555 Polyarylate resins. Polyarylate resins... contact with food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Identity. Polyarylate...

  8. 21 CFR 177.1560 - Polyarylsulfone resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyarylsulfone resins. 177.1560 Section 177.1560... Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1560 Polyarylsulfone resins. Polyarylsulfone resins (CAS Reg. No. 79293-56-4) may be safely used as articles or components of articles...

  9. 40 CFR 721.9495 - Acrylosilane resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acrylosilane resins. 721.9495 Section... Substances § 721.9495 Acrylosilane resins. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified as acrylosilane resins (PMNs P-95-1024/1040) are...

  10. 21 CFR 172.280 - Terpene resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Terpene resin. 172.280 Section 172.280 Food and..., Films and Related Substances § 172.280 Terpene resin. The food additive terpene resin may be safely used... polymer obtained by polymerizing terpene hydrocarbons derived from wood. It has a softening point of...

  11. 21 CFR 177.1680 - Polyurethane resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyurethane resins. 177.1680 Section 177.1680 Food... of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1680 Polyurethane resins. The polyurethane...) For the purpose of this section, polyurethane resins are those produced when one or more of...

  12. Monitoring Inflation and Emplacement During the 2014-2015 Kilauea Lava Flow With an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perroy, R. L.; Turner, N.; Hon, K. A.; Rasgado, V.

    2015-12-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) provide a powerful new tool for collecting high resolution on-demand spatial data over volcanic eruptions and other active geomorphic processes. These data can be used to improve hazard forecasts and emergency response efforts, and also allow users to economically and safely observe and quantify lava flow inflation and emplacement on spatially and temporally useful scales. We used a small fixed-wing UAV with a modified point-and-shoot camera to repeatedly map the active front of the 2014-2015 Kīlauea lava flow over a one-month period in late 2014, at times with a two-hour repeat interval. An additional subsequent flight was added in July, 2015. We used the imagery from these flights to generate a time-series of 5-cm resolution RGB and near-infrared orthoimagery mosaics and associated digital surface models using structure from motion. Survey-grade positional control was provided by ground control points with differential GPS. Two topographic transects were repeatedly surveyed across the flow surface, contemporaneously with UAV flights, to independently confirm topographic changes observed in the UAV-derived surface models. Vertical errors were generally 10 cm. Inside our 50 hectare study site, the flow advanced at a rate of 0.47 hectares/day during the first three weeks of observations before abruptly stalling out inflation >4 m. New outbreak areas, both on the existing flow surface and along the flow margins, were readily mapped across the study area. We detected sinuous growing inflation ridges within the flow surface that correlated with subsequent outbreaks of new lava, suggesting that repeat UAV flights can provide a means of better predicting pahoehoe lava flow behavior over flat or uneven topography. Our results show that UAVs can generate accurate and digital surface models quickly and inexpensively over rapidly changing active pahoehoe lava flows.

  13. Analysis of the ground vibration produced by debris flows and other torrential processes at the Rebaixader monitoring site (Central Pyrenees, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Abancó

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of ground vibration sensors for debris-flow monitoring has increased in the last two decades. However, the correct interpretation of the seismic signals produced by debris flows still presents many uncertainties. In the Rebaixader monitoring site (Central Pyrenees, Spain two different ground vibration stations with different characteristics in terms of recording systems and site-specific factors have been compared. The shape of the time series has been recognised as one of the key parameters to identify events and to distinguish between different types of torrential processes. The results show that the site-specific factors strongly influence on the ground vibration registered at each geophone. The attenuation of the signal with the distance has been identified as linear to exponential. In addition, the assembly of the geophones to the terrain also has an important effect on the amplification of the signal. All these results highlight that the definition of ground vibration thresholds for debris-flow detection or warning purposes is a difficult task which is clearly influenced by site-specific conditions of the geophones.

  14. [A surgical case of angina pectoris with a severe stenosis of Lt. mid-cerebral artery: the usefulness of the monitoring of cerebral blood flow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayusawa, Y; Endo, M; Nishida, H; Tomizawa, Y; Uwabe, K; Maeda, T; Tei, I; Takiguchi, M; Ishida, T; Koyanagi, H

    1998-08-01

    A 64-year-old male patient had two episodes of transient ischemic attack and a cerebral infarction. Cerebral angiography showed 50% stenosis at the junction of left internal carotid artery and 90% stenosis at left mid-cerebral artery (MCA). Coronary angiography showed two vessel disease with arteriosclerotic change and underwent coronary artery bypass grafting. To prevent intraoperative cerebral infarction, we used brain protect solution just before starting ECC, set perfusion flow around 3 l/min/m2, monitored the flow of left MCA using Transcranial Doppler (TCD) and the saturation of left internal jugular vein (SjO2) continuously. PaCO2 was controlled around 45 mmHg. TCD showed good pulsatile flow, and SjO2 was kept over 60%. The patient recovered consciousness 2 hours after operation in the intensive care unit without paresthesia. We thought the number of open-heart cases with cerebrovascular disease increased, and pulsatile low of ECC by intraaortic balloon pumping and the monitoring of SjO2 are useful for the cases.

  15. Report on the 4th International Conference on monitoring, simulation, prevention and remediation of dense and debris flows - Debris Flow 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele de Wrachien

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Debris and hyper-concentrated flows are amongst the most destructive of all water-related disasters. These hazards are likely to become more frequent and more important in the future due to the effects of the increase in population, urbanization, land subsidence and the impact of climate change. They affect both rural and urban environments, particularly in river basins and in mountain areas. In recent years, they have attracted more and more attention from the scientific and professional communities due to the number of lives lost, and there is growing public concern for the future. New methods and measures are required to cope with debris flow changes and to achieve a harmonious balance between the environment and economic forces.

  16. Synthesis and application of monodisperse oligo(oxyethylene)-grafted polystyrene resins for solid-phase organic synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpi, Daniel; Braunshier, Christian; Horkel, Ernst; Hametner, Christian; Fröhlich, Johannes

    2014-07-14

    In a preliminary investigation by our group, we found that poly(styrene-oxyethylene) graft copolymers (PS-PEG), for example, TentaGel resins, are advantageous for gel-phase (13)C NMR spectroscopy. Because of the solution-like environment provided by the PS-PEG resins, good spectral quality of the attached moiety can be achieved, which is useful for nondestructive on-resin analysis. The general drawbacks of such resins are low loading capacities and the intense signal in the spectra resulting from the PEG linker (>50 units). Here, we describe the characterization of solvent-dependent swelling and reaction kinetics on a new type of resin for solid-phase organic synthesis (SPOS) that allows an accurate monitoring by gel-phase NMR without the above disadvantages. A series of polystyrene-oligo(oxyethylene) graft copolymers containing monodisperse PEG units (n = 2-12) was synthesized. A strong correlation between the linker (PEG) length and the line widths in the (13)C gel-phase spectra was observed, with a grafted PEG chain of 8 units giving similar results in terms of reactivity and gel-phase NMR monitoring to TentaGel resin. Multistep on-resin reaction sequences were performed to prove the applicability of the resins in solid-phase organic synthesis.

  17. Removal of aqueous cyanide with strongly basic ion-exchange resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Halis; Kobya, Mehmet; Khan, Eakalak; Bezbaruah, Achintya N

    2015-01-01

    The removal of cyanide (CN-) from aqueous solutions using a strongly basic ion-exchange resin, Purolite A-250, was investigated. The effects of contact time, initial CN- concentration, pH, temperature, resin dosage, agitation speed, and particle size distribution on the removal of CN- were examined. The adsorption equilibrium data fitted the Langmuir isotherm very well. The maximum CN- adsorption capacity of Purolite A-250 was found to be 44 mg CN- g(-1) resin. More than 90% CN- adsorption was achieved for most CN- solutions (50, 100, and 200 mg CN- L(-1)) with a resin dose of 2 g L(-1). The equilibrium time was ∼20 min, optimum pH was 10.0-10.5, and optimum agitation speed was 150 rpm. An increase in adsorption of CN- with increasing resin dosage was observed. Adsorption of CN- by the resin was marginally affected (maximum 4% variation) within an environmentally relevant temperature range of 20-50 °C. Fixed-bed column (20.5 mm internal diameters) experiments were performed to investigate the effects of resin bed depth and influent flow rate on breakthrough behaviour. Breakthrough occurred in 5 min for 0.60 cm bed depth while it was 340 min for 5.40 cm bed depth. Adsorption capacity was 25.5 mg CN- g(-1) for 5 mL min(-1) flow rate and 3.9 mg CN- g(-1) for 20 mL min(-1) flow rate. The research has established that the resin can be effectively used for CN- removal from aqueous solutions.

  18. Seismic analysis of the 13 October 2012 Te Maari, New Zealand, lake breakout lahar: Insights into flow dynamics and the implications on mass flow monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, B.; Jolly, A. D.; Procter, J. N.

    2016-09-01

    On 6 August 2012 an eruption of the upper Te Maari vent Tongariro volcano and subsequent debris flow in the Mangatetipua channel created a debris dam and ephemeral lake. The lake reached its maximum volume of 50,000 m3 by 13 October, initiating dam breaching at 22:30 NZDT (11:30 UTC) after a period of intense rainfall. The breach eventually grew to 29 × 12 m, causing eroded debris flow sediment and water to remobilize as a lahar. The event, comprising multiple surges, lasted ~ 30 min, and displaced 57,000 m3 of remobilized sediment up to 4.5 km downstream. To determine the dynamics of the event, the seismic signals generated by the lahar were compared with active seismic source data collected in February 2013. The comparison used a common frequency band range of 3-10 Hz to compute amplitude for four near-field seismic stations. For periods with signal-to-noise ratios above 2.0, we obtained lahar amplitude distributions that match best the equivalent active source amplitudes within ~ 0.5 km of the dam breakout. The accumulated seismic energy of the lahar was estimated at 1.93 × 109 Nm, whereas the peak energy was 6.88 × 107 Nm. Results of this work may improve the characterization of future mass flow events in the Te Maari/Mangatetipua area through the calibration of seismic stations used in this study.

  19. A Compact Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectrometer to Monitor CO2 at 2.7 µm Wavelength in Hypersonic Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphäel Vallon

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the Mars planet exploration, the characterization of carbon dioxide hypersonic flows to simulate a spaceship’s Mars atmosphere entry conditions has been an important issue. We have developed a Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectrometer with a new room-temperature operating antimony-based distributed feedback laser (DFB diode laser to characterize the velocity, the temperature and the density of such flows. This instrument has been tested during two measurement campaigns in a free piston tunnel cold hypersonic facility and in a high enthalpy arc jet wind tunnel. These tests also demonstrate the feasibility of mid-infrared fiber optics coupling of the spectrometer to a wind tunnel for integrated or local flow characterization with an optical probe placed in the flow.

  20. The effect of flowable and dual-cure resin composite liners on gingival microleakage of posterior resin composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirani F.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: Microleakage has been always a major concern in restorative dentistry. The curing contraction of composites still presents a problem with controlling microleakage and postoperative sensitivity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of flowable and dual-cure resin composite liners on gingival microleakage of packable resin composite restorations. "nMaterials and Methods: Sixty Class II cavities with cervical margins 1 mm below the CEJ were prepared in 30 extracted human molars. The teeth were randomly divided into five groups of 12 each. In control group, each tooth was restored incrementally with Tetric Ceram composite without applying any liner. In the second and forth groups, flowable materials- Tetric Flow and dual-cure composite resin cement Relay X ARC were placed respectively as a 1-mm thick gingival increment and cured before the resin composite restoration, whereas, in the third and fifth groups liners were cured with the first increment of packable composite.The restored teeth were stored for one week in distilled water at 370C, and thermocycled between 50C and 550C, sealed with nail varnish except the tooth - composite interface in cervical restoration margins and immersed in 2% basic fuchsin for 24 hours. Dye penetration was evaluated using a stereomicroscope with 28x magnification. The data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests with p<0.05 as the level of significance. "nResults: The results of this study indicated that there were significant statistical differences between control - cured flowable liner, control-flowable liner without separately curing, control-cured dual cure composite resin cement groups.However there were no significant differences between dual-cure composite resin cement without separately curing-control,cured flowable liner-cured dual cure composite resin cement, flowable liner without separately curing-dual cure composite resin cement without separately

  1. Investigation on the wound healing activity of oleo-resin from Copaifera langsdorffi in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, L A F; de Alencar Cunha, K M; Santos, F A; Gramosa, N V; Silveira, E R; Rao, V S N

    2002-12-01

    The wound healing activity of oleo-resin from Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. (Leguminaceae) bark was evaluated in rats on experimental wounds. The oleo-resin was tested by monitoring wound contraction in excised wounds and by measuring tensile strength in healing incision wounds. The topical application of oleo-resin at a concentration of 4% accelerated wound contraction in open wounds. The mean values of wound contraction in oleo-resin treated rats on day 9 was 84.05% +/- 2.37% as against 51.29% +/- 9.54% seen in controls and the difference was statistically significant (p contraction were observed on days 12, 15, 18 and 21. Also, the tensile strength in healing incised wounds was found to be significantly higher in the group of animals treated with 4% oleo-resin on day 5 but not on days 7 and 12 (controls: 35.95 +/- 7.44 g/cm; oleo-resin: 71.48 +/- 5.77 g/cm; p resin on wound healing and justify its traditional use for the treatment of wounds.

  2. Preparation and degradation study of photocurable oligolactide-HA composite: a potential resin for stereolithography application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanodekaew, Siriporn; Channasanon, Somruethai; Uppanan, Paweena

    2014-04-01

    The merging of stereolithography (SLA) technology to the medical field certainly benefits the manufacturing of parts, especially those patient-specific for the clinical use. This technique, however, has hardly been exploited medically due to a limited number of biodegradable resins for SLA processing. To extend application of SLA in the biomedical field, photocurable oligolactide resins were developed and examined for biodegradation and biocompatibility. The degradation was studied by monitoring the changes in weight loss, and thermal and mechanical properties of the photocured specimens in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) at 37°C. The results demonstrated that a resin composition played an important role in degradation, and the retarded degradation rate was observed for the highly crosslinked resin containing hydroxyapatite (HA). The less cytotoxic sample was also obtained from the resin with higher content of HA. These findings suggest the possible use of the developed photocurable oligolactide resins in SLA manufacturing of biodegradable implants, where their degradation behaviors can be designed by varying the resin composition.

  3. A study on the radiopacity of cavity lining materials for posterior composite resin restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Joo Hoon [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eui Hwan [Dept. of Conservative Dentistry, College of Dentistry, Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the relative radiopacities of cavity lining materials (Resin-modified Glass Ionomer cement, Compomer and Flowable resin) for posterior composite resin restoration. Resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Fuji II LC, Vitrebond (TM)), Compomers (Dyract , Compoglass, F2000, Dyract(R) flow Compoglass Flow) and Flowable resins (Tetric (R) flow, Aeliteflo (TM) Revolution (TM)) were used. Five specimens of 5 mm in diameter and 2 mm thick were fabricated with each material. Human molars were horizontally sectioned 2 mm thick to include both enamel and dentin. The radiopacities of enamel, dentin, cavity lining materials, aluminum step wedge were obtained from conventional radiograph and NIH image program. All the tested lining materials showed levels of radiopacity the same as or greater than that of dentin. All compomer tested (Dyract (R), Compoglass, F2000, Dyract (R) flow, Compoglass Flow) and Vitrebond (TM), Tetric (R) flow were more radiopaque than enamel. The radiopacities of Fuji II LC and Revolution (TM) were between enamel and dentin and resin-modified glass ionomer cement, Compomer and Tetric (R) flow were greater than those of Revolution (TM), Aeliteflo (TM) or dentin. The level of radiopacity of the tested materials was variable; those with low radiopacity should be avoided in class II restorations, where a clear determination of recurrent caries by the examining clinician could be compromised. Clinician should be able to distinguish these cavity lining materials radiographically from recurrent decay, voids, gaps, or other defects that lead to clinical failure. Utilization of materials ranked more radiopaque than enamel would enable clinicians to distinguish the lining material from tooth structure.

  4. Evaluation and application of anion exchange resins to measure groundwater uranium flux at a former uranium mill site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucker, Valerie; Ranville, James; Newman, Mark; Peacock, Aaron; Cho, Jaehyun; Hatfield, Kirk

    2011-10-15

    Laboratory tests and a field validation experiment were performed to evaluate anion exchange resins for uranium sorption and desorption in order to develop a uranium passive flux meter (PFM). The mass of uranium sorbed to the resin and corresponding masses of alcohol tracers eluted over the duration of groundwater installation are then used to determine the groundwater and uranium contaminant fluxes. Laboratory based batch experiments were performed using Purolite A500, Dowex 21K and 21K XLT, Lewatit S6328 A resins and silver impregnated activated carbon to examine uranium sorption and extraction for each material. The Dowex resins had the highest uranium sorption, followed by Lewatit, Purolite and the activated carbon. Recoveries from all ion exchange resins were in the range of 94-99% for aqueous uranium in the environmentally relevant concentration range studied (0.01-200 ppb). Due to the lower price and well-characterized tracer capacity, Lewatit S6328 A was used for field-testing of PFMs at the DOE UMTRA site in Rifle, CO. The effect on the flux measurements of extractant (nitric acid)/resin ratio, and uranium loading were investigated. Higher cumulative uranium fluxes (as seen with concentrations>1 ug U/gram resin) yielded more homogeneous resin samples versus lower cumulative fluxes (uranium. Resin homogenization and larger volume extractions yield reproducible results for all levels of uranium fluxes. Although PFM design can be improved to measure flux and groundwater flow direction, the current methodology can be applied to uranium transport studies.

  5. Online monitoring of gas-solid two-phase flow using projected CG method in ECT image reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi wang; Chengyi Yang; Huaxiang Wang; Ziqiang Cui; Zhentao Gao

    2013-01-01

    Electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) is a promising technique for multi-phase flow measurement due to its high speed,low cost and non-intrusive sensing.Image reconstruction for ECT is an inverse problem of finding the permittivity distribution of an object by measuring the electrical capacitances between sets of electrodes placed around its periphery.The conjugate gradient (CG) method is a popular image reconstruction method for ECT,in spite of its low convergence rate.In this paper,an advanced version of the CG method,the projected CG method,is used for image reconstruction of an ECT system.The solution space is projected into the Krylov subspace and the inverse problem is solved by the CG method in a low-dimensional specific subspace.Both static and dynamic experiments were carried out for gas-solid two-phase flows.The flow regimes are identified using the reconstructed images obtained with the projected CG method.The results obtained indicate that the projected CG method improves the quality of reconstructed images and dramatically reduces computation time,as compared to the traditional sensitivity,Landweber,and CG methods.Furthermore,the projected CG method was also used to estimate the important parameters of the pneumatic conveying process,such as the volume concentration,flow velocity and mass flow rate of the solid phase.Therefore,the projected CG method is considered suitable for online gas-solid two-phase flow measurement.

  6. Occupational exposure to epoxy resins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terwoert, J.; Kersting, K.

    2014-01-01

    Products based on epoxy resins as a binder have become popular in various settings, among which the construction industry and in windmill blade production, as a result of their excellent technical properties. However, due to the same properties epoxy products are a notorious cause of allergic skin d

  7. Stochastic resin transfer molding process

    CERN Document Server

    Park, M

    2016-01-01

    We consider one-dimensional and two-dimensional models of stochastic resin transfer molding process, which are formulated as random moving boundary problems. We study their properties, analytically in the one-dimensional case and numerically in the two-dimensional case. We show how variability of time to fill depends on correlation lengths and smoothness of a random permeability field.

  8. Occupational exposure to epoxy resins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terwoert, J.; Kersting, K.

    2014-01-01

    Products based on epoxy resins as a binder have become popular in various settings, among which the construction industry and in windmill blade production, as a result of their excellent technical properties. However, due to the same properties epoxy products are a notorious cause of allergic skin

  9. [Epoxy resin systems and contact dermatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietranek, Jolanta Eliza

    2007-01-01

    Contact dermatitis is the major chronic skin disease that represents a global health problem. Its prevalence has been significant increasing in the latest decades. Contact dermatitis substantially alters the social life of patients and affects their work productivity. Epoxy resin systems are a frequent cause of occupational allergic contact dermatitis. Epoxy resins have an extremely wide range of commercial applications. Epoxy resin systems include combinations of epoxy monomers, hardeners, reactive diluents, and/or a vast array of other additives. In occupational settings, sensitization occurs not only to resins, but also to hardeners and reactive diluents. In this article adverse effects of epoxy resin systems are discussed.

  10. Chemosensitivity assay in mice prostate tumor: Preliminary report of flow cytometry, DNA fragmentation, ion ratiometric methods of anti-neoplastic drug monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kline Richard

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Flow cytometry, DNA fragmentation, ion ratiomateric analysis and NMR peaks characterized drug chemosensitivity of antineoplastic drugs. Hypotheses were: 1. The chemosensitive effect of different cancer cell lines is characteristic; 2. DNA fragmentation, ion ratiometric analysis suggest apoptosis status of tumor cells. Methods PC-3 cell lines were compared with DU-145, LNCaP cell lines in culture for the [Na]i and [Ca]i ion sensing dyes, cell death, NMR peaks and apoptosis staining for chemotherapeutic action of different drugs. Results DNA fragmentation, ratiometric ions and fluorescence endlabelling plots were characteristic for cell lines and drug response. 31P-23Na NMR spectra showed characteristic high phospho-choline and sodium peaks. Conclusion Flow cytometry, DNA fragmentation, ion ratiometric methods and NMR peaks indicated apoptosis and offered in vivo drug monitoring method.

  11. In-situ monitoring of UF5 nanoparticle growth in a plug-flow reactor by a low-pressure differential mobility analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirasawa, M.; Kuga, Y.; Seto, T.; Okuyama, K.; Takeuchi, K.

    The dependence of UF5 nanoparticle size distribution on growth time was investigated for various initial concentrations of UF5 monomers. UF5 nanoparticles prepared by photodissociation of UF6 in a mixed-flow reactor were allowed to pass through a plug-flow reactor (PFR), and their size distribution was measured by an in-situ size-monitoring system, namely a low-pressure differential mobility analyzer. By changing the length of the PFR, the growth time in the PFR was controlled from 0 to 30 s. An analysis using Lee's coagulation model revealed that the growth mechanism of the UF5 nanoparticles involved a Brownian coagulation process and that the sticking probability of the nanoparticles was approximately unity.

  12. Minimal residual disease monitoring by 8-color flow cytometry in mantle cell lymphoma: an EU-MCL and LYSA study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheminant, Morgane; Derrieux, Coralie; Touzart, Aurore; Schmit, Stéphanie; Grenier, Adrien; Trinquand, Amélie; Delfau-Larue, Marie-Hélène; Lhermitte, Ludovic; Thieblemont, Catherine; Ribrag, Vincent; Cheze, Stéphane; Sanhes, Laurence; Jardin, Fabrice; Lefrère, François; Delarue, Richard; Hoster, Eva; Dreyling, Martin; Asnafi, Vahid; Hermine, Olivier; Macintyre, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Quantification of minimal residual disease may guide therapeutic strategies in mantle cell lymphoma. While multiparameter flow cytometry is used for diagnosis, the gold standard method for minimal residual disease analysis is real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR). In this European Mantle Cell Lymphoma network (EU-MCL) pilot study, we compared flow cytometry with RQ-PCR for minimal residual disease detection. Of 113 patients with at least one minimal residual disease sample, RQ-PCR was applicable in 97 (86%). A total of 284 minimal residual disease samples from 61 patients were analyzed in parallel by flow cytometry and RQ-PCR. A single, 8-color, 10-antibody flow cytometry tube allowed specific minimal residual disease assessment in all patients, with a robust sensitivity of 0.01%. Using this cut-off level, the true-positive-rate of flow cytometry with respect to RQ-PCR was 80%, whereas the true-negative-rate was 92%. As expected, RQ-PCR frequently detected positivity below this 0.01% threshold, which is insufficiently sensitive for prognostic evaluation and would ideally be replaced with robust quantification down to a 0.001% (10-5) threshold. In 10 relapsing patients, the transition from negative to positive by RQ-PCR (median 22.5 months before relapse) nearly always preceded transition by flow cytometry (4.5 months), but transition to RQ-PCR positivity above 0.01% (5 months) was simultaneous. Pre-emptive rituximab treatment of 2 patients at minimal residual disease relapse allowed re-establishment of molecular and phenotypic complete remission. Flow cytometry minimal residual disease is a complementary approach to RQ-PCR and a promising tool in individual mantle cell lymphoma therapeutic management. PMID:26703963

  13. Application of Walk navigation type ADCP in tidal flow monitoring%走航式ADCP在感潮河段流量监测中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林卫文

    2012-01-01

      Influenced by upstream runoff and tidal in the tidal reach, water level and flow rate changed fasterly, hydrological phenomena is extremely complex. represent line used the traditional routine test methods is validated, and the intensity of labor is bigger, the efficiency is lower. But walk navigation type ADCP (acoustic doppler velocity profile instrument) not only can quickly measure section flow, also can obtain the vertical ( on behalf of the line) flow rate and flow direction through the commands of the WinRiver software which controled ADCP, using the above methods,flow continuous test has been completed in the tidal reach,ShiJiao stations,beijiang river, good effect has achieved, and a new means was provided for the continuous monitoring of tidal flow section.%  在感潮河段受上游径流、潮汐的影响,水位、流速变化较快,水文现象极为复杂。采用传统的常规测验方法验证代表线,劳动强度较大,效率低下。而走航式ADCP(声学多普勒流速剖面仪)除可以快速测量断面流量外,也可以定点(固定垂线位置)通过WinRiver软件中的命令控制ADCP定时按时长获取垂线(代表线)流速、流向,应用上述方法在北江石角站完成感潮河段的流量连续测验,取得良好的效果,从而为感潮河段流量连续监测提供了一种新的手段。

  14. Serial color Doppler flow of uterine vasculature combined with serum beta-hCG measurements for improved monitoring of patients with gestational trophoblastic disease. A preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maymon, R; Schneider, D; Shulman, A; Bukowsky, I; Weinraub, Z

    1996-01-01

    Weekly serum beta-hCG measurements and transvaginal ultrasound scans coupled with color Doppler flow were performed on 8 patients with hydatidiform mole. Two patients later developed persistent trophoblastic disease, necessitating chemotherapy. The correlation coefficients between Doppler flow indices, systolic-diastolic (S/D) ratio and pulsatility index (PI) with log beta-hCG were -0.96 and -0.97, respectively. The weekly S/D and PI indices were plotted on an individual curve. Only the 2 patients who developed persistent gestational trophoblastic disease had PI index levels of < or = 1.5 as early as 2 weeks after molar evacuation. At that stage their serum beta-hCG levels were not different from some of the other patients. In this preliminary report, the regression of the disease could be reliably assessed by observing the changes in low resistance flow which paralleled the gradual decrements in serial beta-hCG levels. Thus, the contribution of this noninvasive imaging technique encourages the authors to further investigate Doppler flow monitoring among a larger sample of patients suffering from various gestational trophoblastic diseases.

  15. High-flow bypass and wrap-clipping for ruptured blood blister-like aneurysm of the internal carotid artery using intraoperative monitoring of cerebral hemodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubo Y

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Yoshitaka Kubo, Takahiro Koji, Kenji Yoshida, Hideo Saito, Akira Ogawa, Kuniaki Ogasawara Department of Neurosurgery, Iwate Medical University, Morioka, Japan Abstract: Aneurysms at non-branching sites in the supraclinoid internal carotid artery (ICA can be classified as “blood blister-like aneurysms” (BBAs, which have blood blister-like configurations and fragile walls. While surgical treatment for the BBA in the acute stage is recommended, the optimal surgical procedure remains controversial. In the study reported here, we describe the case of a 37-year-old woman with a ruptured BBA in the ophthalmic segment of the right ICA who underwent wrap-clipping with external carotid artery–internal carotid artery bypass by intraoperative estimation of the measurement of cortical cerebral blood flow (CoBF using a thermal diffusion flow probe. Trapping of the ICA in the acute stage of subarachnoid hemorrhage may result in ischemic complications secondary to hemodynamic hypoperfusion or occlusion of the perforating artery, and/or delayed vasospasm, even with concomitant bypass surgery. We believe that it is important to perform scheduled external carotid artery–internal carotid artery bypass before trapping of the ICA in patients with a ruptured BBA in the acute stage of subarachnoid hemorrhage and to perform wrap-clipping rather than trapping. This would provide much more CoBF if a reduction of CoBF occurs after trapping occlusion of the ICA including a ruptured BBA according to intraoperative CoBF monitoring. As far as we are aware, the case reported here is the first report on high-flow bypass and wrap-clipping for a ruptured BBA of the ICA using intraoperative monitoring of cerebral hemodynamics. Keywords: surgery, cortical blood flow, external carotid artery–internal carotid artery bypass, subarachnoid hemorrhage

  16. Auto-monitoring System of Drilling Fuel Flow%远程燃油流量自动监控系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关学忠; 史慧; 吕秉铎; 于艳晖

    2012-01-01

    The difficulty points in the diesel oil consumption management of drilling well site are that,drilling well site is a flammable and combustible place and the job nature of it is mobile,and (he instalment working conditions are poor. The monitoring system used STC MCU as the. Main controller,got instantaneous flow rate and accumulated flow via ultrasonic flow-mtter. With the temperature transmitter,it can achieve the real-time temperature measurement in each bos,as long as there is exceptional situation, warning immediately. All data are transmitted by GPRS communication module to the control center,thus it can realize the function of drilling fuel flow monitoring.%目前钻井井场柴油油耗管理难点主要表现在:井场属于易燃易爆场所;井队工作流动性强;不同井柴油用量不固定;仪表工作环境恶劣.监控系统以STC单片机为主控制器,通过超声波流量计读取输油管道内柴油瞬时流量和累计流量等相关参数;利用DS18B20温度传感器实时监测系统中各箱体内的温度,出现异常情况时,及时报警;最后由GPRS通讯模块将采集到的数据传输到控制中心管理系统,由此实现燃油流量自动监控功能.

  17. Dental composite resins: measuring the polymerization shrinkage using optical fiber Bragg grating sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottevaere, H.; Tabak, M.; Chah, K.; Mégret, P.; Thienpont, H.

    2012-04-01

    Polymerization shrinkage of dental composite materials is recognized as one of the main reasons for the development of marginal leakage between a tooth and filling material. As an alternative to conventional measurement methods, we propose optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) based sensors to perform real-time strain and shrinkage measurements during the curing process of dental resin cements. We introduce a fully automated set-up to measure the Bragg wavelength shift of the FBG strain sensors and to accurately monitor the linear strain and shrinkage of dental resins during curing. Three different dental resin materials were studied in this work: matrix-filled BisGMA-based resins, glass ionomers and organic modified ceramics.

  18. Effects of Hygrothermal Cycling on the Chemical, Thermal, and Mechanical Properties of 862/W Epoxy Resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sandi G.; Roberts, Gary D.; Copa, Christine C.; Bail, Justin L.; Kohlman, Lee W.; Binienda, Wieslaw K.

    2011-01-01

    The hygrothermal aging characteristics of an epoxy resin were characterized over 1 year, which included 908 temperature and humidity cycles. The epoxy resin quickly showed evidence of aging through color change and increased brittleness. The influence of aging on the material s glass transition temperature (Tg) was evaluated by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA). The Tg remained relatively constant throughout the year long cyclic aging profile. The chemical composition was monitored by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) where evidence of chemical aging and advancement of cure was noted. The tensile strength of the resin was tested as it aged. This property was severely affected by the aging process in the form of reduced ductility and embrittlement. Detailed chemical evaluation suggests many aging mechanisms are taking place during exposure to hygrothermal conditions. This paper details the influence of processes such as: advancement of cure, chemical degradation, and physical aging on the chemical and physical properties of the epoxy resin.

  19. Synthesis, Characterization and Glass - Reinforced Composites of Thiourea - Formaldehyde - Phenol Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanuprasad Dahyalal Patel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available N,N'-Dimethylol thiourea-formaldehyde (DMTUF resin having the methylol group (CH2OH has been prepared and characterized. The condensation of DMTUF resin with Phenol (P was carried out in the presence of alcoholic alkali catalyst at varying ratios of DMTUF: P, namely 1:1, 1:1.5 and 1:2. The resultant DMTUFP resin was characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectral studies, number average molecular weight ( M¯n estimated by non-aqueous conductometric titration, and thermo gravimetry. The curing study of DMTUFP resin with hexamethylene tetramine (HMTA was monitored by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and kinetic parameters were evaluated. Glass-reinforced composites based on the DMTUFP-HMTA system have also been prepared and characterized.

  20. Synthesis, Characterization and Glass - Reinforced Composites of N,N'-Dimethylolthiourea – m-Aminophenol Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. D. Patel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available N,N’-Dimethylolthiourea (DMTU resin having the methylol group ( –CH2 OH has been prepared and characterized. The condensation of DMTU resin with m-aminophenol was carried out in the presence of alcoholic alkali catalyst at varying ratios of DMTU: mAP, namely 1:1, 1:1.5 and 1:2. The resultant DMTUmAP resin was characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectral studies, number average molecular weight (M¯n estimated by non-aqueous conductometric titration, and thermogravimetry. The curing study of DMTUmAP resin with hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA was monitored by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and kinetic parameters were evaluated. Glass-reinforced composites based on the DMTUmAP-HMTA system have also been prepared and characterized.

  1. [Dimensional accuracy of microwave-cured denture base resin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, K; Okamoto, F; Ogata, K; Sato, T

    1989-02-01

    Recently, microwave-cured denture base resin was developed, and the resin solved the problem of internal porosity which had been generated by curing the conventional denture base resins with microwave irradiation. In this study, the dimensional accuracy of microwave-cured denture base resin was compared with that of other denture base resins, such as pour-type resin, heat-cured resin and heat-shock resin. From the experiment, the following results were obtained. 1. Dimensional accuracy of microwave-cured denture base resin was better than that of heat-cured resin and heat-shock resin, and was similar to that of pour-type resin. 2. Dimensional accuracy of microwave-cured denture base resin by slow cooling method and rapid cooling method was almost the same. Those findings suggest that microwave-cured denture base resin is valuable in clinic.

  2. Correlation of cure monitoring techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S. S.; Mopsik, F. I.; Hunston, D. L.

    Six different composite matrix or neat resin cure-monitoring methods are presently used to follow the cure process in a model epoxy system, and the results obtained are compared. Differential scanning calorimetry, viscosity monitoring, the ultrasonic shear wave propagation technique, dielectric spectrometry, and two different fluorescence intensity techniques are compared with a view to common traits and differences. Dielectric fluorescence and ultrasonic measurement techniques are noted to be applicable to on-line process monitoring.

  3. MWCNTs/Resin Nanocomposites: Structural, Thermal, Mechanical and Dielectric Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Alexopoulos

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs were manufactured, characterized and added to a typical aeronautical resin matrix at different concentrations as nano-reinforcement. The carbon content of produced MWCNTs was determined to be around 98.5% while they consisted of 13-20 wall-layers and their external diameter had an average size in between 20 and 50 nm. MWCNTs were dispersed in an epoxy resin system and tensile specimens for different MWCNTs concentrations were prepared in an open mould. Electrical wiring was attached to the specimens’ surface and surface electrical resistance change was in-situ monitored during monotonic tension till fracture. Performed tensile tests showed that the MWCNTs addition increased both modulus of elasticity and ultimate tensile strength on the nano-composites with a simultaneously dramatic ductility decrease. The MWCNTs addition enhanced the investigated resin matrix with monitoring ability; electrical resistance change of the investigated tensile tests was correlated in the elastic regime with axial nominal strain and the gauge factor of the different MWCNTs concentration specimens were calculated. It was found that lowest MWCNTs concentration gave the best results in terms of piezo-resistivity and simultaneously the least enhancement in the mechanical properties.

  4. REMOVAL OF GLUCORAPHENIN FROM THE EXTRACT OF RADISH PIGMENT BY ANION EXCHANGE RESIN 201×7

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhouXiaohua; ChenQi

    1998-01-01

    A method for removimg glucoraphenin from the extract of Radish pigment by anion exchange resin 201×7 was studied.The adsorption capacity of 201×7 resin for glucoraphenin was 72.8mg/ml resin,the equilibrium time 55 minutes,and the optinum pH5.5.All glucoraphenin that had been adsorbed on 201×7 resin was eluted by 1.5BV.hr-1, eluent in whinc concentration of NaOH was 0.05mol·L-1 at the flow rate of 1.5BV/h.Extracting solution of deglucoraphenin was enriched by vacuum and spray drying.A powder product of Radish pigment was obtained and E1cm1%=4.30.

  5. Processing of Spent Ion Exchange Resins in a Rotary Calciner - 12212

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kascheev, Vladimir; Musatov, Nikolay [Joint Stock Company ' A.A. Bochvar High-Technology Scientific Research Institute of Inorganic Materials' (VNIINM), Rogova st., 5A (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    Processing Russian nuclear ion exchange resin KU-2 using a 'Rotary' calciner was conducted. The resulting product is a dry free flowing powder (moisture content 3 wt.%, Angle of repose of ≅ 20 deg.). Compared with the original exchange resin the volume of the final product is about 3 times less.. Rotary calciner product can be stored in metal drums or in special reinforced concrete cubicles. After thermal treatment in a rotary calciner, the spent resin product can be solidified in cement yielding the following attributes: - The cemented waste is only a 35% increase over the volume of powder product; - The volume of cement calciner product is almost 9 times less (8.7) than the volume of cement solidified resin; - The mechanical strength of cemented calciner product meets the radioactive waste regulations in Russia. (authors)

  6. Fabrication and evaluation of Bis-GMA/TEGDMA dental resins/composites containing nano fibrillar silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ming; Gao, Yi; Liu, Yi; Liao, Yiliang; Hedin, Nyle E; Fong, Hao

    2008-02-01

    To investigate the reinforcement of Bis-GMA/TEGDMA dental resins (without conventional glass filler) and composites (with conventional glass filler) with various mass fractions of nano fibrillar silicate (FS). Three dispersion methods were studied to separate the silanized FS as nano-scaled single crystals and uniformly distribute them into dental matrices. The photo-curing behaviors of the Bis-GMA/TEGDMA/FS resins were monitored in situ by RT-NIR to study the photopolymerization rate and the vinyl double bond conversion. Mechanical properties (flexural strength, elastic modulus and work-of-fracture) of the nano FS reinforced resins/composites were tested, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for the statistical analysis of the acquired data. The morphology of nano FS and the representative fracture surfaces of its reinforced resins/composites were examined by SEM/TEM. Impregnation of small mass fractions (1% and 2.5%) of nano FS into Bis-GMA/TEGDMA (50/50 mass ratio) dental resins/composites improved the mechanical properties substantially. Larger mass fraction of impregnation (7.5%), however, did not further improve the mechanical properties (one way ANOVA, P>0.05) and may even reduce the mechanical properties. The high degree of separation and uniform distribution of nano FS into dental resins/composites was a challenge. Impregnation of nano FS into dental resins/composites could result in two opposite effects: a reinforcing effect due to the highly separated and uniformly distributed nano FS single crystals, or a weakening effect due to the formation of FS agglomerates/particles. Uniform distribution of highly separated nano FS single crystals into dental resins/composites could significantly improve the mechanical properties of the resins/composites.

  7. In vitro wear of flowable resin composite for posterior restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinkai, Koichi; Taira, Yoshihisa; Suzuki, Shiro; Suzuki, Masaya

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine three- and two-body wear values of flowable resin composites for posterior restorations, using a mechanical loading device. The cavities prepared on flattened extracted molars were restored with flowable resin composites (Clearfil Majesty LV: MLV, Estelite Flow Quick: EFQ, Beautifil Flow Plus F00: BFP, and MI Fill: MIF) using accompanying adhesive systems. A universal resin composite (Clearfil Majesty) was used as a control. The specimens were subjected to in vitro three- and two-body wear testing. MLV showed high wear value (three-body: 14.69 µm, two-body: 0.268 mm(3)) compared with other materials tested in both three- and two-body wear tests. BFP showed high three-body wear value (5.78 µm), whereas low two-body wear value (0.008 mm(3)). MIF and EFQ showed equivalent wear values (MIF, three-body: 0.42 µm, two-body: 0.026 mm(3); EFQ, three-body: 1.15 µm, two-body: 0.14 mm(3)) to that of the control in both wear tests.

  8. Cytotoxicity of dental resin composites: an in vitro evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausiello, Pietro; Cassese, Angela; Miele, Claudia; Beguinot, Francesco; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Di Jeso, Bruno; Ulianich, Luca

    2013-06-01

    Resin-based dental restorative materials release residual monomers that may affect the vitality of pulp cells. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of two light-cured restorative materials with and without bis-GMA resin, respectively (Clearfil Majesty Posterior and Clearfil Majesty Flow) and a self-curing one (Clearfil DC Core Automix) when applied to the fibroblast cell line NIH-3T3. Samples of the materials were light-cured and placed directly in contact to cells for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by measuring cell death by flow cytometry, cell proliferation by proliferation curves analysis and morphological changes by optical microscopy analysis. All the composite materials tested caused a decrease in cell proliferation, albeit at different degrees. However, only Clearfil DC Core Automix induced cell death, very likely by increasing apoptosis. Morphological alteration of treated cells was also evident, particularly in the Clearfil DC Core Automix-treated cells. The different cytotoxic effects of dental composites should be considered when selecting an appropriate resin-based dental restorative material for operative restorations.

  9. MONITORING INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION FLOWS IN EUROPE - TOWARDS A STATISTICAL-DATA BASE COMBINING DATA FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WILLEKENS, F

    1994-01-01

    The paper reviews techniques developed in demography, geography and statistics that are useful for bridging the gap between available data on international migration flows and the information required for policy making and research. The basic idea of the paper is as follows: to establish a coherent

  10. MONITORING INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION FLOWS IN EUROPE - TOWARDS A STATISTICAL-DATA BASE COMBINING DATA FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WILLEKENS, F

    1994-01-01

    The paper reviews techniques developed in demography, geography and statistics that are useful for bridging the gap between available data on international migration flows and the information required for policy making and research. The basic idea of the paper is as follows: to establish a coherent

  11. Modified Castor Oil as an Epoxy Resin Curing Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. P. Patel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A castor oil, an agricultural product, is an unsaturated material. Hence the castor oil is brominated by bromine liquid. The brominated castor oil (BCO was then reacted with excess of aliphatic diamines viz; ethylene diamine, 1,3-propane diamine and 1,6-hexane diamine. The resultant amino functionalized castor oil (ACO samples were then characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectral study and number of amino groups. All the three ACO samples were then employed for the curing of commercial Brominated epoxy resin. The curing of epoxy resin by ACO was monitored on differential scanning calorimeter (DSC and based on the DSC study their glass fibre reinforced composites (GRC were fabricated. The cured samples (i.e. unreinforced were also subjected to thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA. The chemical, mechanical and electrical properties of the glass fibre reinforced composites (GRC were also evaluated.

  12. Summary of environmental flow monitoring for the Sustainable Rivers Project on the Middle Fork Willamette and McKenzie Rivers, western Oregon, 2014–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Krista L.; Mangano, Joseph F.; Wallick, J. Rose; Bervid, Heather D.; Olson, Melissa; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Bach, Leslie

    2016-11-07

    This report presents the results of an ongoing environmental flow monitoring study by The Nature Conservancy (TNC), U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), and U.S. Geological Survey in support of the Sustainable Rivers Project (SRP) of TNC and USACE. The overarching goal of this study is to evaluate and characterize relations between streamflow, geomorphic processes, and black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) recruitment on the Middle Fork Willamette and McKenzie Rivers, western Oregon, that were hypothesized in earlier investigations. The SRP can use this information to plan future monitoring and scientific investigations, and to help mitigate the effects of dam operations on streamflow regimes, geomorphic processes, and biological communities, such as black cottonwood forests, in consultation with regional experts. The four tasks of this study were to:Compare the hydrograph from Water Year (WY) 2015 with hydrographs from WYs 2000–14 and the SRP flow recommendations,Assess short-term and system-wide changes in channel features and vegetation throughout the alluvial valley section of the Middle Fork Willamette River (2005–12),Examine changes in channel features and vegetation over two decades (1994–2014) for two short mapping zones on the Middle Fork Willamette and McKenzie Rivers, andComplete a field investigation of summer stage and the growth of black cottonwood and other vegetation on the Middle Fork Willamette and McKenzie Rivers in summer 2015.

  13. AN APPLICATION OF FLOW INJECTION ANALYSIS WITH GAS DIFFUSION AND SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETECTION FOR THE MONITORING OF DISSOLVED SULPHIDE CONCENTRATION IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malwina Cykowska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of the concentration of sulphide is very important from the environment point of view because of high toxicity of hydrogen sulphide. What is more hydrogen sulphide is an important pollution indicator. In many cases the determination of sulphide is very difficult due to complicated matrix of some environmental samples, which causes that most analytical methods cannot be used. Flow injection analysis allows to avoid matrix problem what makes it suitable for a wide range of applications in analytical laboratories. In this paper determination of dissolved sulphide in environmental samples by gas-diffusion flow injection analysis with spectrophotometric detection was presented. Used gas-diffusion separation ensures the elimination of interferences caused by sample matrix and gives the ability of determination of sulphides in coloured and turbid samples. Studies to optimize the measurement conditions and to determine the value of the validation parameters (e.g. limit of detection, limit of quantification, precision, accuracy were carried out. Obtained results confirm the usefulness of the method for monitoring the concentration of dissolved sulphides in water and waste water. Full automation and work in a closed system greatly reduces time of analysis, minimizes consumption of sample and reagents and increases safety of analyst’s work.

  14. When Are Mobile Phones Useful for Water Quality Data Collection? An Analysis of Data Flows and ICT Applications among Regulated Monitoring Institutions in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpel, Emily; Peletz, Rachel; Bonham, Mateyo; Fay, Annette; Cock-Esteb, Alicea; Khush, Ranjiv

    2015-09-02

    Water quality monitoring is important for identifying public health risks and ensuring water safety. However, even when water sources are tested, many institutions struggle to access data for immediate action or long-term decision-making. We analyzed water testing structures among 26 regulated water suppliers and public health surveillance agencies across six African countries and identified four water quality data management typologies. Within each typology, we then analyzed the potential for information and communication technology (ICT) tools to facilitate water quality information flows. A consistent feature of all four typologies was that testing activities occurred in laboratories or offices, not at water sources; therefore, mobile phone-based data management may be most beneficial for institutions that collect data from multiple remote laboratories. We implemented a mobile phone application to facilitate water quality data collection within the national public health agency in Senegal, Service National de l'Hygiène. Our results indicate that using the phones to transmit more than just water quality data will likely improve the effectiveness and sustainability of this type of intervention. We conclude that an assessment of program structure, particularly its data flows, provides a sound starting point for understanding the extent to which ICTs might strengthen water quality monitoring efforts.

  15. When Are Mobile Phones Useful for Water Quality Data Collection? An Analysis of Data Flows and ICT Applications among Regulated Monitoring Institutions in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Kumpel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Water quality monitoring is important for identifying public health risks and ensuring water safety. However, even when water sources are tested, many institutions struggle to access data for immediate action or long-term decision-making. We analyzed water testing structures among 26 regulated water suppliers and public health surveillance agencies across six African countries and identified four water quality data management typologies. Within each typology, we then analyzed the potential for information and communication technology (ICT tools to facilitate water quality information flows. A consistent feature of all four typologies was that testing activities occurred in laboratories or offices, not at water sources; therefore, mobile phone-based data management may be most beneficial for institutions that collect data from multiple remote laboratories. We implemented a mobile phone application to facilitate water quality data collection within the national public health agency in Senegal, Service National de l’Hygiène. Our results indicate that using the phones to transmit more than just water quality data will likely improve the effectiveness and sustainability of this type of intervention. We conclude that an assessment of program structure, particularly its data flows, provides a sound starting point for understanding the extent to which ICTs might strengthen water quality monitoring efforts.

  16. Design of the Control System for Large-flow Fire Fighting Monitor%一种大流量消防炮控制系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴昊; 邓成中

    2012-01-01

    In accordance with the feature of small-flow fire fighting monitor, I.e. , smaller motor drive torque, the control system for large flow fire fighting monitor is designed. In the system, the intelligent integrated power drive chip BIN79785B is adopted to design the drive circuit for large power DC motors both in horizontal and vertical directions of the fire fighting monitor, and to output required torque for driving the rotation of the fire monitor; the limit position of the rotation is detected by using Holzer switch. The main controller LPC1114 is used to detect present operating current of the motor in real time; to judge whether the motor is overload or not, and carry on corresponding action. Through wireless transceiver module nRF905, the fire fighting monitor can be controlled remotely. The tests show that the system works stably and responds quickly, the application is reliable.%针对大多数小流量消防炮电机驱动力矩较小的特点,设计了一种大流量消防炮控制系统.系统采用智能集成功率驱动芯片BTN7975B,设计了消防炮水平和垂直方向上大功率直流电机的驱动电路,以输出满足要求的驱动力矩驱动消防炮转动,同时利用霍尔开关检测消防炮转动极限位置;采用主控制器LPC1114实时检测电机当前工作电流,判断电机是否发生过载,并作出相应的控制动作;通过无线收发模块nRF905实现消防炮的无线遥控.试验表明,系统工作稳定、应用可靠,且响应速度快.

  17. Monitoring Lipase/Esterase Activity by Stopped Flow in a Sequential Injection Analysis System Using p-Nitrophenyl Butyrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Pliego

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipases and esterases are biocatalysts used at the laboratory and industrial level. To obtain the maximum yield in a bioprocess, it is important to measure key variables, such as enzymatic activity. The conventional method for monitoring hydrolytic activity is to take out a sample from the bioreactor to be analyzed off-line at the laboratory. The disadvantage of this approach is the long time required to recover the information from the process, hindering the possibility to develop control systems. New strategies to monitor lipase/esterase activity are necessary. In this context and in the first approach, we proposed a lab-made sequential injection analysis system to analyze off-line samples from shake flasks. Lipase/esterase activity was determined using p-nitrophenyl butyrate as the substrate. The sequential injection analysis allowed us to measure the hydrolytic activity from a sample without dilution in a linear range from 0.05–1.60 U/mL, with the capability to reach sample dilutions up to 1000 times, a sampling frequency of five samples/h, with a kinetic reaction of 5 min and a relative standard deviation of 8.75%. The results are promising to monitor lipase/esterase activity in real time, in which optimization and control strategies can be designed.

  18. Color difference of composite resins after cementation with different shades of resin luting cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Esra; Kurtulmus-Yilmaz, Sevcan; Karakaya, Izgen; Aktore, Huseyin

    2017-07-26

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the color difference of nanohybrid and ormocer-based composite resins with different thicknesses when 4 different shades of resin luting cement were used. 56 disc specimens of each composite resin (Aelite aesthetic enamel, Ceram-X mono) with 0.5 and 1 mm thicknesses were fabricated. Baseline color measurements were performed using a clinical spectrophotometer. The specimens of each thicknesses of each resin were randomly divided into 4 groups according to the shades of resin luting cement (white/A1, yellow/universal/A3, transparent and white opaque) (n = 7). Mixed resin cement was applied onto the resin specimens using a Teflon mold in 0.1 mm thickness. Color measurements of cemented composite resin specimens were repeated and color difference (∆E) between baseline and after cementation measurements was calculated. ANOVA and Tukey's test were used for statistical analysis. The opaque shade had significantly increased ∆E values as compared to the other shades (p resins in terms of ∆E values. The shade of resin cement and the type of the resin affected the final color; however, the thickness of composite resin had no influence on the final color of restoration. Selecting the shade of resin luting cement before cementation of indirect composite laminate restoration is important to achieve final color match.

  19. Quantitative real-time monitoring of chemical reactions by autosampling flow injection analysis coupled with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhenqian; Bartmess, John E; McNally, Mary Ellen; Hoffman, Ron M; Cook, Kelsey D; Song, Liguo

    2012-09-04

    Although qualitative and/or semiquantitative real-time monitoring of chemical reactions have been reported with a few mass spectrometric approaches, to our knowledge, no quantitative mass spectrometric approach has been reported so far to have a calibration valid up to molar concentrations as required by process control. This is mostly due to the absence of a practical solution that could well address the sample overloading issue. In this study, a novel autosampling flow injection analysis coupled with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (FIA/APCI-MS) system, consisting of a 1 μL automatic internal sample injector, a postinjection splitter with 1:10 splitting ratio, and a detached APCI source connected to the mass spectrometer using a 4.5 in. long, 0.042 in. inner diameter (ID) stainless-steel capillary, was thus introduced. Using this system together with an optional FIA solvent modifier, e.g., 0.05% (v/v) isopropylamine, a linear quantitative calibration up to molar concentration has been achieved with 3.4-7.2% relative standard deviations (RSDs) for 4 replicates. As a result, quantitative real-time monitoring of a model reaction was successfully performed at the 1.63 M level. It is expected that this novel autosampling FIA/APCI-MS system can be used in quantitative real-time monitoring of a wide range of reactions under diverse reaction conditions.

  20. In-situ Condition Monitoring of Components in Small Modular Reactors Using Process and Electrical Signature Analysis. Final report, volume 1. Development of experimental flow control loop, data analysis and plant monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyaya, Belle [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Hines, J. Wesley [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Damiano, Brian [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mehta, Chaitanya [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Collins, Price [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Lish, Matthew [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Cady, Brian [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Lollar, Victor [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); de Wet, Dane [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Bayram, Duygu [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2015-12-15

    The research and development under this project was focused on the following three major objectives: Objective 1: Identification of critical in-vessel SMR components for remote monitoring and development of their low-order dynamic models, along with a simulation model of an integral pressurized water reactor (iPWR). Objective 2: Development of an experimental flow control loop with motor-driven valves and pumps, incorporating data acquisition and on-line monitoring interface. Objective 3: Development of stationary and transient signal processing methods for electrical signatures, machinery vibration, and for characterizing process variables for equipment monitoring. This objective includes the development of a data analysis toolbox. The following is a summary of the technical accomplishments under this project: - A detailed literature review of various SMR types and electrical signature analysis of motor-driven systems was completed. A bibliography of literature is provided at the end of this report. Assistance was provided by ORNL in identifying some key references. - A review of literature on pump-motor modeling and digital signal processing methods was performed. - An existing flow control loop was upgraded with new instrumentation, data acquisition hardware and software. The upgrading of the experimental loop included the installation of a new submersible pump driven by a three-phase induction motor. All the sensors were calibrated before full-scale experimental runs were performed. - MATLAB-Simulink model of a three-phase induction motor and pump system was completed. The model was used to simulate normal operation and fault conditions in the motor-pump system, and to identify changes in the electrical signatures. - A simulation model of an integral PWR (iPWR) was updated and the MATLAB-Simulink model was validated for known transients. The pump-motor model was interfaced with the iPWR model for testing the impact of primary flow perturbations (upsets) on

  1. Innovation in monitoring: The U.S. Geological Survey Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta, California, flow-station network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burau, Jon; Ruhl, Cathy; Work, Paul

    2016-01-29

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) installed the first gage to measure the flow of water into California’s Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta from the Sacramento River in the late 1800s. Today, a network of 35 hydro-acoustic meters measure flow throughout the delta. This region is a critical part of California’s freshwater supply and conveyance system. With the data provided by this flow-station network—sampled every 15 minutes and updated to the web every hour—state and federal water managers make daily decisions about how much freshwater can be pumped for human use, at which locations, and when. Fish and wildlife scientists, working with water managers, also use this information to protect fish species affected by pumping and loss of habitat. The data are also used to help determine the success or failure of efforts to restore ecosystem processes in what has been called the “most managed and highly altered” watershed in the country.

  2. Resin Diterpenes from Austrocedrus chilensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Rachel Olate

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Seventeen diterpenes belonging to the labdane, abietane and isopimarane skeleton classes were isolated from the resin of the Chilean gymnosperm Austrocedrus chilensis and identified by spectroscopic and spectrometric methods. The diterpene 12-oxo-labda-8(17,13E-dien-19 oic acid is reported for the first time as a natural product and 14 diterpenes are reported for the first time for the species.

  3. Flow monitoring along the western Tamiami Trail between County Road 92 and State Road 29 in support of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan, 2007-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Amanda C.; Soderqvist, Lars E.; Berry, Marcia C.

    2014-01-01

    The construction of U.S. Highway 41 (Tamiami Trail), the Southern Golden Gate Estates development, and the Barron River Canal has altered the flow of freshwater to the Ten Thousand Islands estuary of Southwest Florida. Two restoration projects, the Picayune Strand Restoration Project and the Tamiami Trail Culverts Project, both associated with the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan, were initiated to address this issue. Quantifying the flow of freshwater to the estuary is essential to assessing the effectiveness of these projects. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study between March 2006 and September 2010 to quantify the freshwater flowing under theTamiami Trail between County Road 92 and State Road 29 in southwest Florida, excluding the Faka Union Canal (which is monitored by South Florida Water Management District). The study period was after the completion of the Tamiami Trail Culverts Project and prior to most of the construction related to the Picayune Restoration Project. The section of the Tamiami Trail that was studied contains too many structures (35 bridges and 16 culverts) to cost-effectively measure each structure on a continuous basis, so the area was divided into seven subbasins. One bridge within each of the subbasins was instrumented with an acoustic Doppler velocity meter. The index velocity method was used to compute discharge at the seven instrumented bridges. Periodic discharge measurements were made at all structures, using acoustic Doppler current profilers at bridges and acoustic Doppler velocity meters at culverts. Continuous daily mean values of discharge for the uninstrumented structures were calculated on the basis of relations between the measured discharge at the uninstrumented stations and the discharge and stage at the instrumented bridge. Estimates of daily mean discharge are available beginning in 2006 or 2007 through September 2010 for all structures. Subbasin comparison is limited to water years 2008–2010. The Faka

  4. ULTRAMINE: a high-capacity polyethylene-imine-based polymer and its application as a scavenger resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roice, Michael; Christensen, Søren F; Meldal, Morten

    2004-09-20

    The synthesis of a novel high-loading polyethylene-imine resin (ULTRAMINE) is described, and its application as a scavenger resin in various acylation reactions is demonstrated. The inverse suspension polymerization technique was used for the synthesis of well-defined spherical polymer beads. Polymer beads with different cross-linking densities were synthesized according to the degree of acryloylation of the polyethylene-imine polymer. The resin was characterized by various spectroscopic techniques. The size, shape, and morphological features of the resin were demonstrated by microscopy. The resin showed excellent swelling properties in both polar and nonpolar solvents. The chemical stability of the resin in various reagents and solvents was investigated and monitored by IR spectroscopy. The mechanical stability of the beads was determined by a single-bead compressive experiment. The ULTRAMINE beads can be used as an excellent scavenger for excess acylating reagent, as demonstrated for a variety of reactions. ULTRAMINE-red resin was derived from ULTRAMINE through exhaustive reduction of the amide carbonyl groups to yield an all-amine resin.

  5. Adhesion Analysis of Resin/Resin Interface by Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    MIYAZAKI, Mariko; KANEGAE, Yoshiharu; IWASAKI, Tomio

    2012-01-01

    .... In this paper, a technique for using a molecular dynamics simulation to analyze the adhesion of the interface between adhesive and polyimide, that is the resin/resin interface, has been proposed...

  6. Scintillating 99Tc Selective Ion Exchange Resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell Greenhalgh; Richard D. Tillotson

    2012-07-01

    Scintillating technetium (99Tc) selective ion exchange resins have been developed and evaluated for equilibrium capacities and detection efficiencies. These resins can be utilized for the in-situ concentration and detection of low levels of pertechnetate anions (99TcO4-) in natural waters. Three different polystyrene type resin support materials were impregnated with varying amounts of tricaprylmethylammonium chloride (Aliquat 336) extractant, several different scintillating fluors and wavelength shifters. The prepared resins were contacted batch-wise to equilibrium over a wide range of 99TcO4- concentrations in natural water. The measured capacities were used to develop Langmuir adsorption isotherms for each resin. 99Tc detection efficiencies were determined and up to 71.4 ± 2.6% was achieved with some resins. The results demonstrate that a low level detection limit for 99TcO4- in natural waters can be realized.

  7. Post silanization improves bond strength of translucent posts to flowable composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaladejo, Alberto; Osorio, Raquel; Papacchini, Federica; Goracci, Cecilia; Toledano, Manuel; Ferrari, Marco

    2007-08-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of post silanization on the microtensile bond strength (MTBS) of translucent fiber posts to seven flowable composite resins used as core material. Seventy fiber posts were employed. In half of the posts, silanization was performed with Monobond-S. A cylindrical plastic matrix was placed around the post and filled with different resins: UniFil Flow Experimental, UniFil Low Flow Plus Experimental, Venus Flow, Revolution Formula 2, Point 4 Flowable, X-Flow, and Wave mv. Five posts were bonded per group. After polymerization, two longitudinal cuts were made on two opposite sides of the post at its outermost periphery. Then, each specimen was serially sectioned, obtaining 30-35 beams with 1-mm(2) cross-sectional area. Each beam was tested in tension in an Instron machine at 0.5 mm/min. ANOVA and Student Newman Keuls tests were performed. The different resin composite materials and the post silanization procedure had a significant effect on MTBS. The application of a silane coupling agent increased MTBS of flowable composite resins to translucent posts. X-flow and Point 4 attained the highest MTBS regardless of the silane treatment.

  8. Monitoring the efficacy of specific treatment in chronic Chagas disease by polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometry analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez G.; Coronado X.; Zulantay I.; Apt W.; Gajardo M.; Solari S.; Venegas J.

    2005-01-01

    PCR and FC-ALTA were used to monitor parasite clearance in 54 chronic chagasic patients who had completed therapy with allopurinol (ALLO, n = 31) or itraconazole (ITRA, n = 23) ten years earlier. All patients maintained positive conventional serology. 25 of them showed positive XD (ALLO, n = 11 and ITRA, n = 14) and 29 negative XD (ALLO, n = 20 and ITRA, n = 9). 43 patients were positive by both techniques (ALLO, n = 23 and ITRA, n = 20). Seven of 54 patients were negative by PCR and positive...

  9. Gold Loading on Ion Exchange Resins in Non-Ammoniacal Resin-Solution Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Abrar Muslim

    2010-01-01

    The loading of gold using strong base anion exchange resin in non-ammoniac resin-solution (NARS) systems has been studied. The loading of gold onto ion exchange resins is affected by polythionate concentration, and trithionate can be used as the baseline in the system. The results also show that resin capacity on gold loading increases due to the increase in the equilibrium thiosulfate concentration in the NARS system. Gold loading performances show the need of optimization the equilibrium co...

  10. Release and toxicity of dental resin composite

    OpenAIRE

    Saurabh K Gupta; Saxena, Payal; Pant, Vandana A.; Pant, Aditya B.

    2012-01-01

    Dental resin composite that are tooth-colored materials have been considered as possible substitutes to mercury-containing silver amalgam filling. Despite the fact that dental resin composites have improved their physico-chemical properties, the concern for its intrinsic toxicity remains high. Some components of restorative composite resins are released in the oral environment initially during polymerization reaction and later due to degradation of the material. In vitro and in vivo studies h...

  11. Color stability of different composite resin materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkensammer, Frank; Arnetzl, Gerwin Vincent; Wildburger, Angelika; Freudenthaler, Josef

    2013-06-01

    Data are needed to better predict the color stability of current composite resin materials. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of different storage solutions on the color stability of different composite resin materials. Different restorative and adhesive composite resin specimens (dual-polymerizing self-adhesive resin cement, autopolymerizing resin-based composite resin, dual-polymerizing resin-based composite resin, nanohybrid composite resin, and microhybrid composite resin) were fabricated and stored in red wine, black tea, chlorhexidine, sodium fluoride, tea tree oil, or distilled water for 4 weeks at 37°C. Color parameters were measured with a colorimeter before and after storage. Total color differences and specific coordinate differences were expressed as ΔE, ΔL, Δa, and Δb. A 2-way and 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons were applied for statistical calculations (α=.05). Red wine caused the most severe discoloration (ΔE >10), followed by black tea with perceptible (ΔE >2.6) to clinically unacceptable discoloration (ΔE >5.5). Colored mouth rinses discolored the materials to a lesser extent with clinically acceptable values. Dual-polymerizing resin adhesives showed a higher amount of discoloration. Current restorative and adhesive composite resin materials discolor over time under the influence of different storage solutions. The composition related to the polymerizing mode seemed to be a causative factor. Copyright © 2013 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Relative Molecular Mass Distribution of BG Resins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Benzoguanamine-formaldehyde (BG-F) resins are a class of amino resins, which are important cross-linking agents for epoxy, alkyol and acrylic resins, etc. The cross-linking performance is the best one when the polymerization degree is 2-4. This paper discusses the effects of the pH value for polycondensation and the formaldehyde to benzoguanamine mole ratio in a methanol system, and compares the relative molecular mass distribution using the Flory statistics method.

  13. Epoxy Resins Modified with Vegetable Oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.Czub

    2007-01-01

    1 Results The application of modified natural oils, nontoxic, biodegradable and renewable materials, for the modification and the synthesis of epoxy resins were presented. Firstly, the application of epoxidized vegetable oils (soybean, rapeseed, linseed and sunflower):as reactive diluents for epoxy resins was proposed and studied[1-2]. Viscosity reducing ability of epoxidized oils was tested in the compositions with Bisphenol A based low-molecular-weight epoxy resins. The rheological behaviour of the mi...

  14. Estimation of lava flow field volumes and volumetric effusion rates from airborne radar profiling and other data: Monitoring of the Nornahraun (Holuhraun) 2014/15 eruption in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dürig, Tobias; Gudmundsson, Magnús; Högnadóttir, Thordís; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg; Gudbjörnsson, Snaebjörn; Lárusson, Örnólfur; Höskuldsson, Ármann; Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Riishuus, Morten; Magnússon, Eyjólfur

    2015-04-01

    Monitoring of lava-producing eruptions involves systematic measurement of flow field volumes, which in turn can be used to obtain average magma discharge over the period of observation. However, given inaccessibility to the interior parts of active lava fields, remote sensing techniques must be applied. Several satellite platforms provide data that can be geo-referenced, allowing area estimation. However, unless sterographic or tandem satellite data are available, the determination of thicknesses is non-trivial. The ongoing eruption ('Nornaeldar')at Dyngjusandurin the Icelandic highlands offers an opportunity to monitor the temporal and spatial evolution of a typical Icelandic lava flow field. The mode of emplacementis complex and includesboth horizontal and vertical stacking, inflation of lobes and topographic inversions. Due to the large extent of the flow field (>83 km2 on 5 Jan 2015, and still growing) and its considerable local variation in thickness (30 m) and surface roughness, obtaining robust quantification of lava thicknesses is very challenging,despite the lava is being emplaced onto a low-relief sandur plain. Creative methods have been implemented to obtain as reliable observation as possible into the third dimension: Next to areal extent measurements from satellites and maps generated with airborne synthetic-aperture radar (SAR), lava thickness profiles are regularly obtained by low-level flights with a fixed-wing aircraft that is equipped with a ground clearance radar coupled witha submeter DGPS,a system originally designed for monitoring surface changes of glaciers above geothermally active areas.The resulting radar profile data are supplemented by analyses of aerial photos and complemented by results from an array of ground based thickness measurement methods. The initial results indicate that average effusion ratewas ~200 m3/s in the first weeks of the eruption (end August, early September) but declined to 50-100 m3/s in November to December period

  15. Apoptotic and necrotic influence of dental resin polymerization initiators in human gingival fibroblast cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuki, Kouhei; Nomura, Yuji; Bhawal, Ujjal Kumar; Sawajiri, Masahiko; Hirata, Isao; Nahara, Yukinori; Okazaki, Masayuki

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the apoptotic and necrotic influence of four dental resin polymerization initiators--namely benzoyl peroxide (BPO), camphorquinone (CQ), dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA), and dimethyl-para-toluidine (DMPT)--on human gingival fibroblast (HGF) cells. To this end, the growth inhibition of HGF cells with 1 mM BPO, CQ, and DMAEMA, and 500 microM DMPT was evaluated using Cell Counting Kit-8. Then, cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry was used to assess propidium iodide-stained cells (distribution of cells in G0/G1, S, G2/M phases). All four dental resin polymerization initiators induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. As for the patterns of cell death (necrosis and/or apoptosis), they were analyzed using Annexin V-FITC/PI staining with flow cytometry. All four dental resin polymerization initiators most likely induced necrosis.

  16. Cuspal Displacement Induced by Bulk Fill Resin Composite Polymerization: Biomechanical Evaluation Using Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinagre, Alexandra; Ramos, João; Alves, Sofia; Messias, Ana; Alberto, Nélia; Nogueira, Rogério

    2016-01-01

    Polymerization shrinkage is a major concern to the clinical success of direct composite resin restorations. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of polymerization shrinkage strain of two resin composites on cuspal movement based on the use of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors. Twenty standardized Class II cavities prepared in upper third molars were allocated into two groups (n = 10). Restorations involved the bulk fill placement of conventional microhybrid resin composite (Esthet•X® HD, Dentsply DeTrey) (Group 1) or flowable "low-shrinkage" resin composite (SDR™, Dentsply DeTrey) (Group 2). Two FBG sensors were used per restoration for real-time measurement of cuspal linear deformation and temperature variation. Group comparisons were determined using ANCOVA (α = 0.05) considering temperature as the covariate. A statistically significant correlation between cuspal deflection, time, and material was observed (p < 0.01). Cuspal deflection reached 8.8 μm (0.23%) and 7.8 μm (0.20%) in Groups 1 and 2, respectively. When used with bulk fill technique, flowable resin composite SDR™ induced significantly less cuspal deflection than the conventional resin composite Esthet•X® HD (p = 0.015) and presented a smoother curve slope during the polymerization. FBG sensors appear to be a valid tool for accurate real-time monitoring of cuspal deformation.

  17. Adsorption of Chromium(VI from Aqueous Solutions by Coffee Polyphenol-Formaldehyde/Acetaldehyde Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khudbudin Mulani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Removal of chromium(VI from wastewater is essential as it is toxic. Thus, removal of chromium(VI was performed using coffee polyphenol-formaldehyde/acetaldehyde resins as adsorbents. Adsorbent resins were prepared by condensation of decaffeinated coffee powder with formaldehyde/acetaldehyde and used for the removal of Cr(VI ions from aqueous solutions. A simple and sensitive solid phase extraction procedure was applied for the determination of chromium at trace levels by spectroscopic method using 1,5-diphenylcarbazide reagent. The adsorption of Cr(VI on the coffee polyphenol-formaldehyde/acetaldehyde resins was monitored by FTIR and EDX analysis. The metal adsorption parameters such as contact time, pH, Cr(VI ion concentration, and adsorbent dose were investigated. For Cr(VI, the maximum adsorption capacity of coffee polyphenol-formaldehyde resins was 98% at pH 2. The experimental results showed that Cr(VI bound strongly with coffee polyphenol-formaldehyde/acetaldehyde resins and utilization of resins could be improved greatly by reuse.

  18. Cuspal Displacement Induced by Bulk Fill Resin Composite Polymerization: Biomechanical Evaluation Using Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, João; Alves, Sofia; Nogueira, Rogério

    2016-01-01

    Polymerization shrinkage is a major concern to the clinical success of direct composite resin restorations. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of polymerization shrinkage strain of two resin composites on cuspal movement based on the use of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors. Twenty standardized Class II cavities prepared in upper third molars were allocated into two groups (n = 10). Restorations involved the bulk fill placement of conventional microhybrid resin composite (Esthet•X® HD, Dentsply DeTrey) (Group 1) or flowable “low-shrinkage” resin composite (SDR™, Dentsply DeTrey) (Group 2). Two FBG sensors were used per restoration for real-time measurement of cuspal linear deformation and temperature variation. Group comparisons were determined using ANCOVA (α = 0.05) considering temperature as the covariate. A statistically significant correlation between cuspal deflection, time, and material was observed (p flowable resin composite SDR™ induced significantly less cuspal deflection than the conventional resin composite Esthet•X® HD (p = 0.015) and presented a smoother curve slope during the polymerization. FBG sensors appear to be a valid tool for accurate real-time monitoring of cuspal deformation. PMID:27190517

  19. Cuspal Displacement Induced by Bulk Fill Resin Composite Polymerization: Biomechanical Evaluation Using Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Vinagre

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymerization shrinkage is a major concern to the clinical success of direct composite resin restorations. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of polymerization shrinkage strain of two resin composites on cuspal movement based on the use of fiber Bragg grating (FBG sensors. Twenty standardized Class II cavities prepared in upper third molars were allocated into two groups (n=10. Restorations involved the bulk fill placement of conventional microhybrid resin composite (Esthet•X® HD, Dentsply DeTrey (Group 1 or flowable “low-shrinkage” resin composite (SDR™, Dentsply DeTrey (Group 2. Two FBG sensors were used per restoration for real-time measurement of cuspal linear deformation and temperature variation. Group comparisons were determined using ANCOVA (α=0.05 considering temperature as the covariate. A statistically significant correlation between cuspal deflection, time, and material was observed (p<0.01. Cuspal deflection reached 8.8 μm (0.23% and 7.8 μm (0.20% in Groups 1 and 2, respectively. When used with bulk fill technique, flowable resin composite SDR™ induced significantly less cuspal deflection than the conventional resin composite Esthet•X® HD (p=0.015 and presented a smoother curve slope during the polymerization. FBG sensors appear to be a valid tool for accurate real-time monitoring of cuspal deformation.

  20. The Design for Zhouqu Sanyanyu Debris Flow Monitoring and Early Warning System%舟曲三眼峪泥石流监测预警方案设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐亚明; 张茂省; 魏新平; 毕远宏; 丛凯

    2011-01-01

    The mitigation for debris flow not only needs engineering measurements, but also needs monitoring and early warning system, to obtain the goal of risk-reducing effectively. This paper took Zhouqu Sanyanyu debris flow as a studying case, proposed a comprehensive monitoring and early warning system, designed the rainfall monitoring sub-system for the debris flow triggering factors; the infrasound, mud level, ultra red-ray interruption, and video monitoring sub-system for the debris flow occurring and moving; the landslide monitoring sub-system for the debris flow resources; and the dam strain and stress monitoring sub-system for the debris flow engineering count measurements- Finally build up the early warning information system for the whole debris flow.%对泥石流的防治不仅要有工程治理措施,而且应配合相应的监测预警措施,以达到有效减缓地质灾害风险的目的.笔者以舟曲三眼峪泥石流为例,设计了针对泥石流触发因素的降雨监测方案;针对泥石流发生和变化过程的次声、泥位、红外线遮断、视频监测方案;针对泥石流物源的滑坡崩塌监测方案;以及针对泥石流防治工程拦挡坝的应力应变监测方案;在此基础上形成了三眼峪泥石流沟的综合监测系统,并建立监测预警信息系统.