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Sample records for monitor olfax instrument

  1. The ozone monitoring instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levelt, P.F.; Oord, G.H.J. van den; Dobber, M.R.; Mälkki, A.; Visser, H.; Vries, J. de; Stammes, P.; Lundell, J.O.V.; Saari, H.

    2006-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) flies on the National Aeronautics and Space Adminsitration's Earth Observing System Aura satellite launched in July 2004. OMI is a ultraviolet/visible (UV/VIS) nadir solar backscatter spectrometer, which provides nearly global coverage in one day with a spatial

  2. The tropospheric monitoring instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voert, M.J. te; Brakel, R. van; Witvoet, G.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal and opto-mechanical design and analysis work has been done on the Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI), a spectrometer on the Copernicus Sentinel 5 Precursor satellite. To verify compliance with the stringent opto-mechanical stability requirements, detailed thermal and thermo-mechani

  3. The ozone monitoring instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levelt, P.F.; Oord, G.H.J. van den; Dobber, M.R.; Mälkki, A.; Visser, H.; Vries, J. de; Stammes, P.; Lundell, J.O.V.; Saari, H.

    2006-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) flies on the National Aeronautics and Space Adminsitration's Earth Observing System Aura satellite launched in July 2004. OMI is a ultraviolet/visible (UV/VIS) nadir solar backscatter spectrometer, which provides nearly global coverage in one day with a spatial

  4. Miniaturized Environmental Monitoring Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. B. Freidhoff

    1997-09-01

    The objective of the Mass Spectrograph on a Chip (MSOC) program is the development of a miniature, multi-species gas sensor fabricated using silicon micromachining technology which will be orders of magnitude smaller and lower power consumption than a conventional mass spectrometer. The sensing and discrimination of this gas sensor are based on an ionic mass spectrograph, using magnetic and/or electrostatic fields. The fields cause a spatial separation of the ions according to their respective mass-to-charge ratio. The fabrication of this device involves the combination of microelectronics with micromechanically built sensors and, ultimately, vacuum pumps. The prototype of a chemical sensor would revolutionize the method of performing environmental monitoring for both commercial and government applications. The portable unit decided upon was the miniaturized gas chromatograph with a mass spectrometer detector, referred to as a GC/MS in the analytical marketplace.

  5. Personal Computer Monitors Instrumentation Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Bruce L.

    1994-01-01

    IBM-compatible personal computer used instead of logic analyzer or other special instrument to monitor IEEE-488 interface data bus that interconnects various pieces of laboratory equipment. Needed is short program for computer, commercial general-purpose interface bus circuit card, and adapter cable to link card to bus. Software available in Ada or Quick Basic language.

  6. Instruments for subsurface monitoring of geothermal subsidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Rourke, J.E.; Ranson, B.B.

    1979-07-01

    The requirements for a subsurface geothermal subsidence instrument were reviewed. Available instruments for monitoring subsurface displacements, both vertical and horizontal, were studied and the most capable instruments identified. Techniques and materials for improving existing or developing new instruments were evaluated. Elements of sensor and signal technology with potential for high temperature monitoring of subsidence were identified. Drawing from these studies, methods to adapt production wells for monitoring were proposed and several new instrumentation systems were conceptually designed. Finally, four instrumentation systems were selected for future development. These systems are: triple sensor induction sensor probe (with casing collar markers); triple sensor gamma ray detector probe (with radioactive markers); triple sensor reed switch probe (with magnet markers); and triple sensor oscillator-type magnet detector probe (with magnet markers). All are designed for use in well casing incorporating slip couplings or bellows sections, although the gamma ray detector probe may also be used in unlined holes. These systems all measure vertical moement. Instruments to measure horizontal displacement due to geothermal subsidence were studied and the required instrument performance was judged to be beyond the state-of-the-art. Thus, no conceptual designs for instruments to monitor horizontal movement are included.

  7. Instrumentation for Environmental Monitoring: Water, Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Univ., Berkeley. Lawrence Berkeley Lab.

    This volume is one of a series discussing instrumentation for environmental monitoring. Each volume contains an overview of the basic problems, comparisons among the basic methods of sensing and detection, and notes that summarize the characteristics of presently available instruments and techniques. The text of this survey discusses the…

  8. Monitoring Instrument for X-Ray Box

    CERN Document Server

    Cifuentes Ospina, Alberto; Kuehn, Susanne; Schaepe, Steffen; CERN. Geneva. EP Department

    2017-01-01

    A humidity and temperature readout instrument has been designed and implemented in order to monitor the X-Ray Box used for testing the silicon detectors prototypes of the ITk. The sensors are connected to an Arduino Mega board equipped with 16 analog inputs and a serial port to a computer. A user-friendly software has been also designed in order to give an easy access to all measurements.

  9. Instrument Performance Monitoring at Gemini North

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emig, Kimberly; Pohlen, M.; Chene, A.

    2014-01-01

    An instrument performance monitoring (IPM) project at the Gemini North Observatory evaluates the delivered throughput and sensitivity of, among other instruments, the Near-Infrared Integral Field Spectrometer (NIFS), the Gemini Near-Infrared Spectrograph (GNIRS), and the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS-N). Systematic observations of standard stars allow the quality of the instruments and mirror to be assessed periodically. An automated pipeline has been implemented to process and analyze data obtained with NIFS, GNIRS cross-dispersed (XD) and long slit (LS) modes, and GMOS (photometry and spectroscopy). We focus the discussion of this poster on NIFS and GNIRS. We present the spectroscopic throughput determined for ZJHK bands on NIFS, the XJHKLM band for GNIRS XD mode and the K band for GNIRS LS. Additionally, the sensitivity is available for the JHK bands in NIFS and GNIRS XD, and for the K band in GNIRS LS. We consider data taken as early as March 2011. Furthermore, the pipeline setup and the methods used to determine throughput and sensitivity are described.

  10. Valve Health Monitoring System Utilizing Smart Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Scott L.; Drouant, George J.

    2006-01-01

    The valve monitoring system is a stand alone unit with network capabilities for integration into a higher level health management system. The system is designed for aiding in failure predictions of high-geared ball valves and linearly actuated valves. It performs data tracking and archiving for identifying degraded performance. The data collection types are cryogenic cycles, total cycles, inlet temperature, body temperature torsional strain, linear bonnet strain, preload position, total travel and total directional changes. Events are recorded and time stamped in accordance with the IRIG B True Time. The monitoring system is designed for use in a Class 1 Division II explosive environment. The basic configuration consists of several instrumentation sensor units and a base station. The sensor units are self contained microprocessor controlled and remotely mountable in three by three by two inches. Each unit is potted in a fire retardant substance without any cavities and limited to low operating power for maintaining safe operation in a hydrogen environment. The units are temperature monitored to safeguard against operation outside temperature limitations. Each contains 902-928 MHz band digital transmitters which meet Federal Communication Commission's requirements and are limited to a 35 foot transmission radius for preserving data security. The base-station controller correlates data from the sensor units and generates data event logs on a compact flash memory module for database uploading. The entries are also broadcast over an Ethernet network. Nitrogen purged National Electrical Manufactures Association (NEMA) Class 4 enclosures are used to house the base-station

  11. Radioactive standards and calibration methods for contamination monitoring instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Makoto [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-06-01

    Contamination monitoring in the facilities for handling unsealed radioactive materials is one of the most important procedures for radiation protection as well as radiation dose monitoring. For implementation of the proper contamination monitoring, radiation measuring instruments should not only be suitable to the purpose of monitoring, but also be well calibrated for the objective qualities of measurement. In the calibration of contamination monitoring instruments, quality reference activities need to be used. They are supplied in different such as extended sources, radioactive solutions or radioactive gases. These reference activities must be traceable to the national standards or equivalent standards. On the other hand, the appropriate calibration methods must be applied for each type of contamination monitoring instruments. In this paper, the concepts of calibration for contamination monitoring instruments, reference sources, determination methods of reference quantities and practical calibration methods of contamination monitoring instruments, including the procedures carried out in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and some relevant experimental data. (G.K.)

  12. Instrumentation development for real time brainwave monitoring.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Lawrence Frederick; Clough, Benjamin W.

    2005-12-01

    The human brain functions through a chemically-induced biological process which operates in a manner similar to electrical systems. The signal resulting from this biochemical process can actually be monitored and read using tools and having patterns similar to those found in electrical and electronics engineering. The primary signature of this electrical activity is the ''brain wave'', which looks remarkably similar to the output of many electrical systems. Likewise, the device currently used in medical arenas to read brain electrical activity is the electroencephalogram (EEG) which is synonymous with a multi-channel oscilloscope reading. Brain wave readings and recordings for medical purposes are traditionally taken in clinical settings such as hospitals, laboratories or diagnostic clinics. The signal is captured via externally applied scalp electrodes using semi-viscous gel to reduce impedance. The signal will be in the 10 to 100 microvolt range. In other instances, where surgeons are attempting to isolate particular types of minute brain signals, the electrodes may actually be temporarily implanted in the brain during a preliminary procedure. The current configurations of equipment required for EEGs involve large recording instruments, many electrodes, wires, and large amounts of hard disk space devoted to storing large files of brain wave data which are then eventually analyzed for patterns of concern. Advances in sensors, signal processing, data storage and microelectronics over the last decade would seem to have paved the way for the realization of devices capable of ''real time'' external monitoring, and possible assessment, of brain activity. A myriad of applications for such a capability are likewise presenting themselves, including the ability to assess brain functioning, level of functioning and malfunctioning. Our plan is to develop the sensors, signal processing, and portable instrumentation package which could

  13. VOLTAGE MONITORING INSTRUMENT WITH FAST-TRANSIENTS CAPTURE CAPABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gracida-Aguirre

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available A monitoring instrument aimed at recording the voltage levels at residential installations is described. Its main feature is the capability ot recording short transients, lasting less than one cycle, while requiring a rather modest amount of memory for long monitoring periods. The instrument uses synchronous sampling of the voltage waveform, and its response to outages has been optimized.

  14. Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Thomas B [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-08-15

    The Aerodyne Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) measures particle mass loading and chemical composition in real time for non-refractory sub-micron aerosol particles. The ACSM is designed for long-term unattended deployment and routine monitoring applications.

  15. INSTRUMENTATION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING--Radiation--Vol3Pt1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Authors, Various

    1972-01-02

    A comprehensive survey of instrumentation for environmental monitoring is being carried out by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory originally under a grant from the National Science Foundation and now by the Office of Health and Environmental Research of the Department of Energy. Instruments being investigated are those useful for measurements in Air Quality, Water Quality, Radiation, and Biomedicine related to environmental research and monitoring. Consideration is given to instruments and techniques presently in use and to those developed for other purposes but having possible applications to this work. The results of the survey are given as (a) descriptions of the physical and operating characteristics of available instruments, (b) critical comparisons among instrumentation methods, and (c) recommendations of promising methodology and development of new instrumentation. Information is also given regarding the pollutants to be monitored: their characteristics and forms, their sources and pathways, their effects on the ecosystem, and the means of controlling them through process and regulatory controls.

  16. Portable SERS Instrument for Explosives Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    groundwater monitoring from a cone penetrometer (CPT) platform (5) Demonstrate improved capability for discriminating explosives versus colorimetry ...interference, and better discrimination of individual explosives compared to colorimetry • Applicability to virtually any environmental water...chemicals such as nitroaromatics or nitramines. While this makes colorimetry more generally applicable at explosive sites, it also limits the ability to

  17. Monitoring instrumentation spent fuel management program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Preliminary monitoring system methodologies are identified as an input to the risk assessment of spent fuel management. Conceptual approaches to instrumentation for surveillance of canister position and orientation, vault deformation, spent fuel dissolution, temperature, and health physics conditions are presented. In future studies, the resolution, reliability, and uncertainty associated with these monitoring system methodologies will be evaluated.

  18. LEDA beam diagnostics instrumentation: Beam position monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, D.; Day, L.; Gilpatrick, J. D.; Kasemir, K.-U.; Martinez, D.; Power, J. F.; Shurter, R.; Stettler, M.

    2000-11-01

    The Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) facility located at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) accelerates protons to an energy of 6.7 MeV and current of 100 mA operating in either a pulsed or cw mode. Of key importance to the commissioning and operations effort is the Beam Position Monitor system (BPM). The LEDA BPM system uses five micro-stripline beam position monitors processed by log ratio processing electronics with data acquisition via a series of custom TMS320C40 Digital Signal Processing (DSP) boards. Of special interest to this paper is the operation of the system, the log ratio processing, and the system calibration technique. This paper will also cover the DSP system operations and their interaction with the main accelerator control system.

  19. Leda Beam Diagnostics Instrumentation Beam Position Monitors

    CERN Document Server

    Barr, D

    2000-01-01

    The Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) facility located at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) accelerates protons to an energy of 6.7-MeV and current of 100-mA operating in either a pulsed or cw mode. Of key importance to the commissioning and operations effort is the Beam Position Monitor system (BPM). The LEDA BPM system uses five micro-stripline beam position monitors processed by log ratio processing electronics with data acquisition via a series of custom TMS32OC40 Digital Signal Processing (DSP) boards. Of special interest to this paper is the operation of the system, the log ratio processing, and the system calibration technique. This paper will also cover the DSP system operations and their interaction with the main accelerator control system.

  20. Assessing hospitals' clinical risk management: Development of a monitoring instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfeiffer Yvonne

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical risk management (CRM plays a crucial role in enabling hospitals to identify, contain, and manage risks related to patient safety. So far, no instruments are available to measure and monitor the level of implementation of CRM. Therefore, our objective was to develop an instrument for assessing CRM in hospitals. Methods The instrument was developed based on a literature review, which identified key elements of CRM. These elements were then discussed with a panel of patient safety experts. A theoretical model was used to describe the level to which CRM elements have been implemented within the organization. Interviews with CRM practitioners and a pilot evaluation were conducted to revise the instrument. The first nationwide application of the instrument (138 participating Swiss hospitals was complemented by in-depth interviews with 25 CRM practitioners in selected hospitals, for validation purposes. Results The monitoring instrument consists of 28 main questions organized in three sections: 1 Implementation and organizational integration of CRM, 2 Strategic objectives and operational implementation of CRM at hospital level, and 3 Overview of CRM in different services. The instrument is available in four languages (English, German, French, and Italian. It allows hospitals to gather comprehensive and systematic data on their CRM practice and to identify areas for further improvement. Conclusions We have developed an instrument for assessing development stages of CRM in hospitals that should be feasible for a continuous monitoring of developments in this important area of patient safety.

  1. a Novel Instrument to Monitor Lanslides Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasuto, A.; Mantovani, M.; Schenato, L.; Scherneck, H.

    2013-12-01

    Landslides are more widespread than any other geological event and have high ranking among the natural disasters in terms of casualties and economical damages. Deforestation and constructions of new settlements and infrastructures, as direct consequences of population growth, and the increasing frequency of extreme meteorological events, due to the global climatic changing, could lead to a more severe impact of landslides on human life and activities in the next future. Risk reduction generally comes through countermeasures, both structural and non-structural, that directly act on the developing process or tend to reduce the effects on the fabric of the city and of the environment. Nevertheless countermeasures have often shown their flimsiness especially if they are carried out on disruptions hard to stabilize for their dimensions, kinematics and morpho-evolutive conditions. In these cases there are basically two options: the relocation of the element at risk or the surveillance of the evolution of the instability process by means of a monitoring system. Monitoring therefore represents a powerful tool in both the surveillance of the territory and the management of the emergencies coming from geo-hydrological hazard. In this study we propose the development and testbedding of a novel, low-cost wireless smart sensor network for remote monitoring of land surface deformations. The purpose is to create a flexible and scalable monitoring system in order to overcome some of the limitations of the existing devices and to strongly reduce the costs. The system consists in a master station that works as a control and measuring unit, and a series of sensors (motes) placed over the unstable areas. The master station transmits a microwave signal and receives the response from each mote measuring their relative position and inferring any deformation occurred between successive interrogations. Moreover the motes can work as bridges so that even those that are not directly visible

  2. CLOUDCLOUD : general-purpose instrument monitoring and data managing software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, António; Amorim, António; Tomé, António

    2016-04-01

    An effective experiment is dependent on the ability to store and deliver data and information to all participant parties regardless of their degree of involvement in the specific parts that make the experiment a whole. Having fast, efficient and ubiquitous access to data will increase visibility and discussion, such that the outcome will have already been reviewed several times, strengthening the conclusions. The CLOUD project aims at providing users with a general purpose data acquisition, management and instrument monitoring platform that is fast, easy to use, lightweight and accessible to all participants of an experiment. This work is now implemented in the CLOUD experiment at CERN and will be fully integrated with the experiment as of 2016. Despite being used in an experiment of the scale of CLOUD, this software can also be used in any size of experiment or monitoring station, from single computers to large networks of computers to monitor any sort of instrument output without influencing the individual instrument's DAQ. Instrument data and meta data is stored and accessed via a specially designed database architecture and any type of instrument output is accepted using our continuously growing parsing application. Multiple databases can be used to separate different data taking periods or a single database can be used if for instance an experiment is continuous. A simple web-based application gives the user total control over the monitored instruments and their data, allowing data visualization and download, upload of processed data and the ability to edit existing instruments or add new instruments to the experiment. When in a network, new computers are immediately recognized and added to the system and are able to monitor instruments connected to them. Automatic computer integration is achieved by a locally running python-based parsing agent that communicates with a main server application guaranteeing that all instruments assigned to that computer are

  3. Review of Instrumentation and Monitoring for USACE Levees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    MONITORING APPROACH: Geotechnical instrumentation can be divided into two categories: in situ determination of soil or rock properties and monitoring of...deformation, seismic loading, groundwater pressure, total stress in soil , stress changes in rock, and temperature. This information is vital to the...piping) from through seepage or underseepage, rotational slope failure, and liquefaction from earthquakes. During an extreme flood event, the level of

  4. Applied research of environmental monitoring using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Young Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Chung, Young Ju

    1997-08-01

    This technical report is written as a guide book for applied research of environmental monitoring using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The contents are as followings; sampling and sample preparation as a airborne particulate matter, analytical methodologies, data evaluation and interpretation, basic statistical methods of data analysis applied in environmental pollution studies. (author). 23 refs., 7 tabs., 9 figs.

  5. Instrumentation for full-year plot-scale runoff monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Replicated 0.34 ha cropping systems plots have been in place since 1991 at the USDA-ARS Goodwater Creek Experimental Watershed in central Missouri. Recently, instrumentation has been installed at 18 of those plots for continuous runoff water quality and quantity monitoring. That installation require...

  6. New instruments for plant area and personnel monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gammage, R. B.; Hawthorne, A. R.; Vo-Dinh, T.; Schuresko, D. D.

    1980-01-01

    Advances in portable monitoring instruments and simple luminescence techniques for analyzing polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PNAs) are reported. A small, derivative ultra-violet absorption spectrometer is suitable for multipollutant real-time monitoring of several mono- and bicyclic aromatic vapors. A non-compound selective fluorescence spill spotter and lightpipe luminoscope are active instruments for measuring general surface and skin contamination, respectively. A small passive integrating filter paper exposure device that responds to PNA vapors such a pyrene is a very promising and recent development. Synchronous luminescence and room temperature phosphoresence are two attractive and simple to use analytical methodologies for the rapid assaying of major PNA compounds. Their potential for analyzing the cyclohexane extract of particulate matter, or incorporation into a device for the continuous monitoring of select PNAs in aerosols in near-real-time, are discussed.

  7. Improved effectiveness of performance monitoring in amateur instrumental musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jentzsch, Ines; Mkrtchian, Anahit; Kansal, Nayantara

    2014-01-01

    Here we report a cross-sectional study investigating the influence of instrumental music practice on the ability to monitor for and respond to processing conflicts and performance errors. Behavioural and electrophysiological indicators of response monitoring in amateur musicians with various skill levels were collected using simple conflict tasks. The results show that instrumental musicians are better able than non-musicians to detect conflicts and errors as indicated by systematic increases in the amplitude of the error-related negativity and the N200 with increasing levels of instrumental practice. Also, high levels of musical training were associated with more efficient and less reactive responses after experience of conflicts and errors as indicated by reduced post-error interference and post-conflict processing adjustments. Together, the present findings suggest that playing a musical instrument might improve the ability to monitor our behavior and adjust our responses effectively when needed. As these processes are amongst the first to be affected by cognitive aging, our evidence could promote musical activity as a realistic intervention to slow or even prevent age-related decline in frontal cortex mediated executive functioning. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. DEBIE - first standard in-situ debris monitoring instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuitunen, J.; Drolshagen, G.; McDonnell, J. A. M.; Svedhem, H.; Leese, M.; Mannermaa, H.; Kaipiainen, M.; Sipinen, V.

    2001-10-01

    Objects larger than a few centimetres can be tracked with radar or with optical telescopes. The population of smaller particles can only be investigated by the analysis of retrieved spacecraft and passive detectors or by in-situ monitors in orbit. Patria Finavitec together with UniSpace Kent have developed the DEBIE (DEBris In-orbit Evaluator) instrument to determine the parameters of sub-millimetre sized space debris and micrometeoroids in-situ by their impact with a detecting surface. The main goal has been to develop an economical and low-resource instrument, easy to integrate into any spacecraft, while providing reliable real-time data for space debris modelling.

  9. Cavity Attenuated Phase Shift (CAPS) Monitor Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedlacek, Arthur J [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The CAPS PMex monitor is a cavity attenuated phase shift extinction instrument. It operates as an optical extinction spectrometer, using a visible-light-emitting diode (LED) as the light source, a sample cell incorporating two high-reflectivity mirrors centered at the wavelength of the LED, and a vacuum photodiode detector. Its efficacy is based on the fact that aerosols are broadband scatterers and absorbers of light.

  10. Ultrasonic wave-based structural health monitoring embedded instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranguren, G.; Monje, P. M., E-mail: pedromaria.monje@ehu.es [Electronic Design Group, Faculty of Engineering of Bilbao, University of the Basque Country, Bilbao (Spain); Cokonaj, Valerijan [AERnnova Engineering Solutions Ibérica S.A., Madrid (Spain); Barrera, Eduardo; Ruiz, Mariano [Instrumentation and Applied Acoustic Research Group of the Technical University of Madrid, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-12-15

    Piezoelectric sensors and actuators are the bridge between electronic and mechanical systems in structures. This type of sensor is a key element in the integrity monitoring of aeronautic structures, bridges, pressure vessels, wind turbine blades, and gas pipelines. In this paper, an all-in-one system for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) based on ultrasonic waves is presented, called Phased Array Monitoring for Enhanced Life Assessment. This integrated instrument is able to generate excitation signals that are sent through piezoelectric actuators, acquire the received signals in the piezoelectric sensors, and carry out signal processing to check the health of structures. To accomplish this task, the instrument uses a piezoelectric phased-array transducer that performs the actuation and sensing of the signals. The flexibility and strength of the instrument allow the user to develop and implement a substantial part of the SHM technique using Lamb waves. The entire system is controlled using configuration software and has been validated through functional, electrical loading, mechanical loading, and thermal loading resistance tests.

  11. Ultrasonic wave-based structural health monitoring embedded instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranguren, G; Monje, P M; Cokonaj, Valerijan; Barrera, Eduardo; Ruiz, Mariano

    2013-12-01

    Piezoelectric sensors and actuators are the bridge between electronic and mechanical systems in structures. This type of sensor is a key element in the integrity monitoring of aeronautic structures, bridges, pressure vessels, wind turbine blades, and gas pipelines. In this paper, an all-in-one system for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) based on ultrasonic waves is presented, called Phased Array Monitoring for Enhanced Life Assessment. This integrated instrument is able to generate excitation signals that are sent through piezoelectric actuators, acquire the received signals in the piezoelectric sensors, and carry out signal processing to check the health of structures. To accomplish this task, the instrument uses a piezoelectric phased-array transducer that performs the actuation and sensing of the signals. The flexibility and strength of the instrument allow the user to develop and implement a substantial part of the SHM technique using Lamb waves. The entire system is controlled using configuration software and has been validated through functional, electrical loading, mechanical loading, and thermal loading resistance tests.

  12. Instrumental lahar monitoring at Merapi Volcano, Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavigne, F.; Thouret, J.-C.; Voight, B.; Young, K.; LaHusen, R.; Marso, J.; Suwa, H.; Sumaryono, A.; Sayudi, D.S.; Dejean, M.

    2000-01-01

    More than 50 volcanic debris flows or lahars were generated around Mt Merapi during the first rainy season following the nuees ardentes of 22 November 1994. The rainfalls that triggered the lahars were analyzed, using such instruments as weather radar and telemetered rain gauges. Lahar dynamics were also monitored, using new non-contact detection instrumentation installed on the slopes of the volcano. These devices include real-time seismic amplitude measurement (RSAM), seismic spectral amplitude measurement (SSAM) and acoustic flow monitoring (AFM) systems. Calibration of the various systems was accomplished by field measurements of flow velocities and discharge, contemporaneously with instrumental monitoring. The 1994–1995 lahars were relatively short events, their duration in the Boyong river commonly ranging between 30 min and 1 h 30 min. The great majority (90%) of the lahars was recognized at Kaliurang village between 13:00 and 17:30 h, due to the predominance of afternoon rainfalls. The observed mean velocity of lahar fronts ranged between 1.1 and 3.4 m/s, whereas the peak velocity of the flows varied from 11 to 15 m/s, under the Gardu Pandang viewpoint location at Kaliurang, to 8–10 m/s at a section 500 m downstream from this site. River slopes vary from 28 to 22 m/km at the two sites. Peak discharges recorded in various events ranged from 33 to 360 m3/s, with the maximum value of peak discharge 360 m3/s, on 20 May 1995. To improve the lahar warning system along Boyong river, some instrumental thresholds were proposed: large and potentially hazardous lahars may be detected by RSAM units exceeding 400, SSAM units exceeding 80 on the highest frequency band, or AFM values greater than 1500 mV on the low-gain, broad-band setting.

  13. Instrumentation, Monitoring and NDE for New Fast Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Leonard J.; Doctor, Steven R.; Bunch, Kyle J.; Good, Morris S.; Waltar, Alan E.

    2007-07-28

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) has been proposed as a viable system in which to close the fuel cycle in a manner consistent with markedly expanding the global role of nuclear power while significantly reducing proliferation risks. A key part of this system relies on the development of actinide transmutation, which can only be effectively accomplished in a fast-spectrum reactor. The fundamental physics for fast reactors is well established. However, to achieve higher standards of safety and reliability, operate with longer intervals between outages, and achieve high operating capacity factors, new instrumentation and on-line monitoring capabilities will be required--during both fabrication and operation. Since the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) and Experimental Breeder Reactor – II (EBR-II) reactors were operational in the USA, there have been major advances in instrumentation, not the least being the move to digital systems. Some specific capabilities have been developed outside the USA, but new or at least re-established capabilities will be required. In many cases the only available information is in reports and papers. New and improved sensors and instrumentation will be required. Advanced instrumentation has been developed for high-temperature/high-flux conditions in some cases, but most of the original researchers and manufacturers are retired or no longer in business.

  14. Spot-4 vegetation instrument: Vegetation monitoring on a global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durpaire, J.-P.; Gentet, T.; Phulpin, T.; Arnaud, M.

    1995-04-01

    Vegetation plays a major role in global climatic change. It is a major contributor to the hydrological cycle and carbon exchanges between the Earth's surface and the atmosphere. A new space-based system dedicated to vegetation would be a boom to climatic and environmental studies. The additional possibilities of evaluating agricultural, pasture and forest production would be major contributions to improved natural resources management and a special benefit to agriculture and the general economy in developing countries. A space mission for monitoring terrestrial vegetation at global and local levels is proposed for inclusion in the Spot-4 payload, scheduled for launch around 1997. The "vegetation" concept is more than just an on-board package; it is a complete system with its own space and ground segments. The vegetation instrument (VI) on-board package is designed as an add-on payload that is quite independent of the host satellite. In addition to the basic imaging instrument, the add-on payload includes a solid-state recorder, an image telemetry subsystem and a computer to manage the work plan. To accommodate future long-term missions and achieve a lifetime in excess of 5 years, no moving parts are included in either the imaging instrument proper or the recorder subsystem. The innovative, large field-of-view (101∘) imaging instrument features telecentric lenses and focal-plane illumination compensation. Despite the large FOV, pixel size varies extremely little across the swath. Overall, the instrument offers an excellent revisit capability at the highest resolution. The inclusion of the VI package alongside Spot-4's prime payload of two HRVIR (high resolution visible and i.r.) imaging instruments will open the way to studies requiring both high accuracy satellite imagery and short revisit intervals. The combination of HRVIR and VI imagery will pave the way to powerful new multi-scale interpretation models, particularly as the instruments will share the same

  15. FTIR instrumentation to monitor vapors from Shuttle tile waterproofing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, C. B.; Schwindt, C. J.

    1995-11-01

    The Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System (TPS) tiles and blankets are waterproofed using DimethylEthoxySilane (DMEX) in the Orbiter Processing Facilities (OPF). DMES has a Threshold Limit Value (TLV) for exposure of personnel to vapor concentration in air of 0.5 ppm. The OPF high bay cannot be opened for normal work after a waterproofing operation until the DMES concentration is verified by measurement to be below the TLV. On several occasions the high bay has been kept closed for up to 8 hours following waterproofing operations due to high DMES measurements. In addition, the Miran 203 and Miran 1 BX infrared analyzers calibrated at different wavelengths gave different readings under the same conditions. There was reason to believe that some of the high DMES concentration readings were caused by interference form water and ethanol vapors. The Toxic Vapor Detection Laboratory (TVDL) was asked to test the existing DMES instruments and identify the best qualified instrument. In addition the TVDL was requested to develop instrumentation to ensure the OPF high bay could be opened safely as soon as possible after a waterproofing operation. A Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometer instrument developed for an earlier project was reprogrammed to measure DMES vapor along with ethanol, water, and several common solvent vapors. The FTIR was then used to perform a series of laboratory and field tests to evaluate the performance of the single wavelength IR instruments in use. The results demonstrated that the single wavelength IR instruments did respond to ethanol and water vapors, more or less depending on the analytical IR wavelength selected. The FTIR was able to separate the responses to DMES, water and ethanol, and give consistent readings for the DMES vapor concentration. The FTIR was then deployed to the OPF to monitor real waterproofing operations. The FTIR was also used to measure the time for DMES to evaporate from TPS tile under a range of humidity

  16. Sleep monitoring: a comparison between three wearable instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wouwe, Nelleke C; Valk, Pierre J L; Veenstra, Bertil J

    2011-07-01

    During military operations soldiers often encounter extreme environmental circumstances like heat, cold, prolonged physical exercise, and disturbed sleep, which hamper their performance. Monitoring changes in physiological parameters may assist with adequate interventions to prevent the negative consequences and support recovery. The current study was employed to reduce the number of measurement instruments to monitor physiological variables, especially with respect to adequate sleep prediction. We compared three instruments with respect to their effectiveness in predicting sleep; the Equivital, Sensewear, and Actiwatch. Additionally, we investigated the added value of cardio-respiratory to accelerometer signals to estimate sleep duration. The Equivital model (based on acceleration data) and Sensewear predict sleep and wake as accurate as the commonly used Actiwatch model, and the cardio-respiratory Equivital data further improve accuracy and specificity. In sum, the current study provides an indication that the Equivital system (or any other chestband that measures 3-dimensional acceleration plus other physiological variables) might be interchanged with an Actiwatch for sleep prediction.

  17. Simple instruments used in monitoring SID and some new results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zuo; Hao, Yongqiang; Zhang, Donghe; Xiao, Saiguan; Huang, Weiquan

    Sudden Ionospheric Disturbances are well known and commonly discussed topics. Some simple ground equipment was designed and used for monitoring continuously the effects of SIDs, especially, SWF and SFD. Besides SIDs, They also reflect clearly the acoustic gravity waves in different scale and Spread-F and these data are important supplementary to the traditional ionosonde records. It is of significance in understanding physical essentials of the ionospheric disturbances and applications in SID warning. In this paper, the designing of the instruments is given and results are discussed in detail. The results showed very clearly not only immediate effects of solar flare, but also the phenomena of ionospheric responses to Typhoon, great earthquake and volcano eruption, role of acoustic-gravity waves in seeding Spread-F.

  18. Virtual instrument for monitoring process of brush plating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JING Xue-dong; XU Bin-shi; WANG Cheng-tao; ZHU Sheng; DONG Shi-yun

    2004-01-01

    A virtual instrument(Ⅵ) was developed to monitor the technological parameters in the process of brush plating, including coating thickness, brush-plating current, current density, deposition rate, and brush plating voltage. Meanwhile two approaches were presented to improve the measurement accuracy of coating thickness. One of them aims at eliminating the random interferences by moving average filtering; while the other manages to calculate the quantity of electricity consumed accurately with rectangular integration. With these two approaches, the coating thickness can be measured in real time with higher accuracy than the voltage-frequency conversion method. During the process of plating all the technological parameters are displayed visually on the front panel of the Ⅵ. Once brush current or current density overruns the limited values, or when the coating thickness reaches the objective value, the virtual will alarm. With this Ⅵ, the solution consumption can be decreased and the operating efficiency is improved.

  19. Instrumental and scientific simulations of the LOFT Wide Field Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Evangelista, Y; Campana, R; Schmid, C; Feroci, M

    2014-01-01

    The Large Observatory for X-ray Timing (LOFT) is one of the five candidates that were considered by ESA as an M3 mission (with launch in 2022-2024). It is specifically designed to exploit the diagnostics of very rapid X-ray flux and spectral variability that directly probe the motion of matter down to distances very close to black holes and neutron stars, as well as the physical state of ultradense matter. The LOFT scientific payload is composed of the Large Area Detector (LAD), devoted to spectral-timing observation, and the Wide Field Monitor (WFM), whose primary goal it is to monitor the X-ray sky for transient events that need to be followed up with the LAD, and to measure the long-term variability of galactic X-ray sources and localize gamma-ray bursts. Here we describe the simulations carried out to optimize the WFM design and to characterize the instrument response to both isolated sources and crowded fields in the proximity of the galactic bulge.

  20. Instrumentation of Lysimeter Experiments and Monitoring of Soil Parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, T.; Tallos, A.; Millan, R.; Vera, R.; Recreo, F.

    2004-07-01

    This study forms part of the project Mercurio and Recuperation de Terrenos Afectados por Mercurio Ambiental (RETAMA), which determines the behaviour of mercury in the soil-plant system within the area of Almaden. The objective of this work is to instrument lysimeters with a set of electronic sensors to monitor physical and chemical soil parameters (moisture content, soil temperature, soil water matrix potential. Eh and pH) over a period of a complete vegetation cycle for selected crops. Physical and chemical soil analyses have been carried out on samples two soil profiles marking the extreme perimeter where the lysimeters were extracted. The monitoring data obtained every half hour show that the physicochemical conditions of the soils in the lysimeter can be correlated with the type of cultivation in the lysimeters. The results for parameters such as soil water matrix potential and the soil temperature reflect the diurnal changes; and fluctuations of the Eh can be related to the biological activities in the soils and are within oxid and suboxic conditions. Slight fluctuations have been observed for the pH and constant volumetric moisture content is maintained during the period of no hydric stress. (Author) 16 refs.

  1. Instruments for calibration and monitoring of the LHCb Muon Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Deplano, C; Lai, A

    2006-01-01

    The subject of this Ph. D. thesis is the study and the development of the instruments needed to monitor and calibrate the Muon Detector of the LHCb (Large Hadron Collider beauty) experiment. LHCb is currently under installation at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and will start to take data during 2007. The experiment will study B mesons decays to achieve a profound understanding of favour physics in the Standard Model framework and to search signs of new physics beyond. Muons can be found in the final states of many B-decays which are sensitive to CP violation. The Muon Detector has the crucial role to identify the muon particles generated by the b-hadron decays through a measurement of their transverse momentum, already at the first trigger level (Level-0). A 95% effciency in events selection is required for the Muon Trigger, which operates at the Level-0. 1380 detectors are used to equip the whole Muon System and the corresponding 122,112 readout channels must be time aligned and monitored with a resol...

  2. Multisensor Instrument for Real-Time Biological Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sean (Zhanxiang); Xu, Guoda; Qiu, Wei; Lin, Freddie

    2004-01-01

    The figure schematically depicts an instrumentation system, called a fiber optic-based integration system (FOBIS), that is undergoing development to enable real-time monitoring of fluid cell cultures, bioprocess flows, and the like. The FOBIS design combines a micro flow cytometer (MFC), a microphotometer (MP), and a fluorescence-spectrum- or binding-force-measuring micro-sensor (MS) in a single instrument that is capable of measuring multiple biological parameters simultaneously or sequentially. The fiber-optic-based integration system is so named because the MFC, the MP, and the MS are integrated into a single optical system that is coupled to light sources and photometric equipment via optical fibers. The optical coupling components also include a wavelength-division multiplexer and diffractive optical elements. The FOBIS includes a laserdiode- and fiber-optic-based optical trapping subsystem (optical tweezers ) with microphotometric and micro-sensing capabilities for noninvasive confinement and optical measurement of relevant parameters of a single cell or other particle. Some of the measurement techniques implemented together by the FOBIS have long been used separately to obtain basic understanding of the optical properties of individual cells and other organisms, the optical properties of populations of organisms, and the interrelationships among these properties, physiology of the organisms, and physical processes that govern the media that surround the organisms. For example, flow cytometry yields information on numerical concentrations, cross-sectional areas, and types of cells or other particles. Micro-sensing can be used to measure pH and concentrations of oxygen, carbon dioxide, glucose, metabolites, calcium, and antigens in a cell-culture fluid, thereby providing feedback that can be helpful in improving control over a bioprocess. Microphotometry (including measurements of scattering and fluorescence) can yield further information about optically

  3. Resent Progress in Research on Calibration Instrument for Radioactive Aerosol Monitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Xi-lin; CHEN; Yong-yong; WU; Chang-ping; XING; Yu; MENG; Jun; YANG; Qiao-ling

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive aerosol monitors are widely used in monitoring the radioactivity concentration of the artificial nuclides in gaseous effluents from the nuclear facilities.An on-developing calibration instrument for radioactive aerosol monitors consists of an α and β aerosol generating unit,aerosol transferring unit,measurement unit of radioactivity concentration of aerosol for instruments calibrated and the waste gas

  4. Survey of instrumentation for environmental monitoring: major update. Volume 3. Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    This is the third volume of a four-volume (seven-part) series, the culmination of a comprehensive survey of instrumentation for environmental monitoring. Consideration is given to instruments and techniques presently in use and to those developed for other purposes but having possible applications to radiation monitoring. The results of the survey are given as descriptions of the physical and operating characteristics of available instruments, critical comparisons among instrumentation methods, and recommendations of promising methodology and development of new instrumentation. Information is also given regarding the pollutants to be monitored, their characteristics and forms, their sources and pathways, their effects on the ecosystem, and the means of controlling them through process and regulatory controls. The discussion is presented under sections entitled radiation sources; instrumentation: by type of radiation or instrument type; and, instrumentation for specific radionuclides. (JGB)

  5. Advanced instrumentation for acousto-ultrasonic based structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithard, Joel; Galea, Steve; van der Velden, Stephen; Powlesland, Ian; Jung, George; Rajic, Nik

    2016-04-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) systems using structurally-integrated sensors potentially allow the ability to inspect for damage in aircraft structures on-demand and could provide a basis for the development of condition-based maintenance approaches for airframes. These systems potentially offer both substantial cost savings and performance improvements over conventional nondestructive inspection (NDI). Acousto-ultrasonics (AU), using structurallyintegrated piezoelectric transducers, offers a promising basis for broad-field damage detection in aircraft structures. For these systems to be successfully applied in the field the hardware for AU excitation and interrogation needs to be easy to use, compact, portable, light and, electrically and mechanically robust. Highly flexible and inexpensive instrumentation for basic background laboratory investigations is also required to allow researchers to tackle the numerous scientific and engineering issues associated with AU based SHM. The Australian Defence Science and Technology Group (DST Group) has developed the Acousto Ultrasonic Structural health monitoring Array Module (AUSAM+), a compact device for AU excitation and interrogation. The module, which has the footprint of a typical current generation smart phone, provides autonomous control of four send and receive piezoelectric elements, which can operate in pitch-catch or pulse-echo modes and can undertake electro-mechanical impedance measurements for transducer and structural diagnostics. Modules are designed to operate synchronously with other units, via an optical link, to accommodate larger transducer arrays. The module also caters for fibre optic sensing of acoustic waves with four intensity-based optical inputs. Temperature and electrical resistance strain gauge inputs as well as external triggering functionality are also provided. The development of a Matlab hardware object allows users to easily access the full hardware functionality of the device and

  6. Development of Real-Time Coal Monitoring Instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajan Gurjar, Ph.D.

    2010-06-17

    Relying on coal for energy requires optimizing the extraction of heat content from various blends of coal fuel and reducing harmful constituents and byproducts. Having a real-time measurement instrument provides relevant information about toxic constituents released in the atmosphere from burning coal and optimizes the performance of a power plant. A few commercial instruments exist and have been in operation for more than a decade. However, most of these instruments are based on radioactive sources and are bulky, expensive and time-consuming. The proposed instrument is based on the Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). The advantage of LIBS is that it is a standoff instrument, does not require sample preparation and provides precise information about sample constituents.

  7. Sleep monitoring : A comparison between three wearable instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouwe, N.C. van; Valk, P.J.L.; Veenstra, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    During military operations soldiers often encounter extreme environmental circumstances like heat, cold, prolonged physical exercise, and disturbed sleep, which hamper their performance. Monitoring changes in physiological parameters may assist with adequate interventions to prevent the negative con

  8. Instrumentation of urban hydrology monitoring sites in Southeast Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardee, Jack

    1979-01-01

    An instrumentation system developed and built in laboratories of the U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Va., has been used since 1974 to collect synchronized rainfall, runoff, and water-quality data from urban basins. A number of field modifications were made to adapt the system to local hydrologic conditions and for collection of data on about 350 rainstorms at four sites in south Florida. The instrumentation system measures rainfall at three sites, records two pressure or water-level readings for flow computations, and collects and refrigerates up to 24 water samples and rainfall-quality samples. Rainfall and runoff data are recorded every 36 seconds on a six-channel analog recorder so that all variables are time-synchronous. Flow in the storm sewer is computed from pressure measurements in a U-shaped venturi-type constriction or, when the constriction is not used, from water levels. (Kosco-USGS)

  9. Instrumentation for Monitoring around Marine Renewable Energy Converters: Workshop Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polagye, B. L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Copping, A. E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Brown-Saracino, J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Suryan, R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kramer, S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smith, C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-01-14

    To better understand the state of instrumentation and capabilities for monitoring around marine energy converters, the U.S. Department of Energy directed Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center at the University of Washington to convene an invitation-only workshop of experts from around the world to address instrumentation needs.

  10. Ultrasonic partial discharge monitoring method on instrument transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartalović Nenad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sonic and ultrasonic partial discharge monitoring have been applied since the early days of these phenomena monitoring. Modern measurement and partial discharge acoustic (ultrasonic and sonic monitoring method has been rapidly evolving as a result of new electronic component design, information technology and updated software solutions as well as the development of knowledge in the partial discharge diagnosis. Electrical discharges in the insulation system generate voltage-current pulses in the network and ultrasonic waves that propagate through the insulation system and structure. Amplitude-phase-frequency analysis of these signals reveals information about the intensity, type and location of partial discharges. The paper discusses the possibility of ultrasonic method selectivity improvement and the increase of diagnosis reliability in the field. Measurements were performed in the laboratory and in the field while a number of transformers were analysed for dissolved gases in the oil. A comparative review of methods for the partial discharge detection is also presented in this paper.

  11. Remote instrumentation and safeguards monitoring for the star project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buettner, H M; Labiak, W; Spiridon, A

    2000-06-15

    A part of the Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) is the development of the Small Transportable Autonomous Reactor (STAR) for deployment in countries that do not have a nuclear industry. STARs would have an output of from 100 to 150 MW electric, would be fueled in the country of manufacture, and after 15 to 20 years of operation the reactor core would be returned to the country of manufacture for refueling. A candidate STAR design can be found in (Greenspan, 2000). This paper describes the design of the control and monitoring system that might be used. There are two unique features to this system. One is that the monitored information will be transmitted to a remote site for two purposes, safeguards, and allowing experts a great distance away direct access to view the reactor's operating parameters. The second feature is safeguards sensors will be designed into the system and there will monitoring of the safeguards aspects of the system for tampering. Any safeguards anomalies will be sent to the remote site as alarms. Encrypted satellite communications will be used to transmit the data. These features allow the STAR to be operated by a small staff and will reduce the costs of safeguards monitoring by reducing the number of plant visits by inspectors.

  12. The DMON2: A Commercially Available Broadband Acoustic Monitoring Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    the efficiency of finding animals at sea for study (e.g., for tagging or photo- identification). For the National Oceanic and Atmospheric...Administration (NOAA), such a capability would allow improved monitoring of the distribution and occurrence of vocalizing animals for improving our...mechanical drawings nearly finalized. Endcap design done and fabricated; need to finalize Transducer Head mold for encapsulation. • Schematic

  13. Remote instrumentation and safeguards monitoring for the star project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buettner, H M; Labiak, W; Spiridon, A

    2000-06-15

    A part of the Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) is the development of the Small Transportable Autonomous Reactor (STAR) for deployment in countries that do not have a nuclear industry. STARs would have an output of from 100 to 150 MW electric, would be fueled in the country of manufacture, and after 15 to 20 years of operation the reactor core would be returned to the country of manufacture for refueling. A candidate STAR design can be found in (Greenspan, 2000). This paper describes the design of the control and monitoring system that might be used. There are two unique features to this system. One is that the monitored information will be transmitted to a remote site for two purposes, safeguards, and allowing experts a great distance away direct access to view the reactor's operating parameters. The second feature is safeguards sensors will be designed into the system and there will monitoring of the safeguards aspects of the system for tampering. Any safeguards anomalies will be sent to the remote site as alarms. Encrypted satellite communications will be used to transmit the data. These features allow the STAR to be operated by a small staff and will reduce the costs of safeguards monitoring by reducing the number of plant visits by inspectors.

  14. Survey of instrumentation used for monitoring metals in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinby-Hunt, M.S.

    1978-06-01

    A study was conducted of instrumentation used to determine metals in water. Several of the techniques most commonly used for analysis and routine determinations of metals in water are shown in Table 1. They are atomic absorption spectroscopy, both flame and flameless, atomic emission spectroscopy using conventional flame sources and inductively-coupled plasma sources, and ultraviolet-visible absorption techniques. Other less frequently employed methods are x-ray fluorescence analysis using both photon and charged particle excitation with energy-dispersive and wavelength-dispersive spectral analysis. Also electrochemical techniques and activation analysis are studied.

  15. All Sky Camera instrument for night sky monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Mandat, Dusan; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Schovanek, Petr; Palatka, Miroslav; Travnicek, Petr; Prouza, Michael; Ebr, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The All Sky Camera (ASC) was developed as an universal device for a monitoring of the night sky quality and night sky background measurement. ASC system consists of an astronomical CCD camera, a fish eye lens, a control computer and associated electronics. The measurement is carried out during astronomical twilight. The analysis results are the cloud fraction (the percentage of the sky covered by clouds), night sky brightness (in mag/arcsec2) and light background in the field of view of the camera. The analysis of the cloud fraction is based on the astrometry (comparison to catalogue positions) of the observed stars.

  16. The GLAST burst monitor instrument response simulation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, A. S.; Kippen, R. M.; Meegan, C. A.; Fishman, G. J.; Wilson, R. B.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.; Kouveliotou, C.; Lichti, G. G.; von Kienlin, A.; Diehl, R.; Greiner, J.; Schoenfelder, V.; Steinle, H.; Preece, R. D.; Briggs, M. S.; Paciesas, W. S.; Bhat, P. N.; Connaughton, V.

    2005-07-01

    The GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) is designed to provide wide field of view observations of gamma-ray bursts from 10keV to 25MeV. The GBM is composed of twelve NaI and two BGO detectors that are widely dispersed about the GLAST spacecraft. Reconstructing burst locations and energy spectra from these separated detectors requires detailed knowledge of the response to direct and scattered burst radiation. A simulation software package based on the GEANT4 Monte Carlo toolset is being developed to fulfill this requirement. We will discuss the architecture of our simulation system and evaluate the scientific capabilities of the GBM.

  17. Instrumentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Journal Scope:Instrumentation is a high quality open access peer reviewed research journal.Authors are solicited to contribute to these journals by submitting articles that illustrate most up-to-date research results,projects,surveying works and industrial experiences that describe significant advances in the instrumental science.The mission of the Instrumentation is

  18. Intelligent instruments for process measurement techniques (monitoring of sensors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, B.; Hess, H. D.; Kalinski, J. R.; Leisenberg, W.; Marsch, D.

    1984-06-01

    Possibilities to extract redundant information of temperature sensors (resistance thermometers, thermocouples, semiconductor temperature sensors), and to find out which of the suggested redundancies are most suited for self controlled monitoring were investigated. Practical experience with equipment for process measurement techniques shows that sensor failures are five times more frequent than electronic malfunction. For resistance thermometers the measured values of the redundant information source (ac resistance) are too small (relative inductivity change 7 million). The information sources strain gage and propagation of ultrasonic waves are excluded because of physical properties in the sensor materials. Changes in the crystalline structure of thermocouples have the effect that there is no well defined relationship between thermoelectric voltage and the redundant information sources, resistance and coupled current impulses. A correlation of thermovoltage with these redundant values would yield a measurement uncertainty corresponding to more than + or - 50 K. Experiments with negative temperature coefficient sensors show that a failure is proceeded by a change in capacitance of the order of 0.1 pF.

  19. ASTROMETRIC INSTRUMENT MODEL SOFTWARE TOOL FOR GAIA REAL-TIME INSTRUMENT HEALTH MONITORING AND DIAGNOSTIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Busonero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available L o s o b j e t i v o s d e l a m i s i ́ o n e s p a c i a l d e m i c r o a r c o s e g u n d o d e p e n d e n d e l a s l i m i t a c i o n e s d e d e s e m p e ̃ n o a s o c i a d a s a l a c o n fi g u r a c i ́ o n i n s t r u m e n t a l s e l e c c i o n a d a y a l a s c o n d i c i o n e s d e o b s e r v a c i ́ o n . E n p a r t i c u l a r , l a v a r i a c i ́ o n d e la respuesta instrumental sobre el campo, con respecto a la longitud de onda y el tiempo, son potencialmente cr ́ıticos. Discutimos el impacto sobre la calidad de los datos y c ́omo los datos cient ́ıficos pueden ser utilizados para rastrear directamente y en tiempo real la respuesta astrom ́etrica instrumental de Gaia. Esta es una de las filosof ́ıas que impulsan el Modelo de Instrumento Astrom ́etrico (AIM, por sus siglas en ingl ́es. Mostramos l o s r e s u l t a d o s d e l a s c a m p a ̃ n a s d e p r u e b a l l e v a d a s a c a b o e n 2 0 1 3 .

  20. Instrumentation for durability monitoring of a long-span cable-stayed bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, X. G.; Ni, Y. Q.; Zhou, H. F.; Ko, J. M.

    2005-05-01

    This paper outlines the design of an instrumentation system for durability monitoring of the world's longest cable-stayed bridge: the Sutong Bridge with a central span of 1088 m. As part of the Structural Health Monitoring And Safety Evaluation System (SHMASES) for the Sutong Bridge, the durability monitoring system is designed to monitor the corrosion in reinforced concrete structures. The sensors for durability monitoring include two categories. The first category refers to the sensors to monitor the causes leading to corrosion, such as temperature and relative humidity. The second category is electrode assemblies which are used to monitor the end results of corrosion. Data from the sensory system are then periodically collected using a portable or remotely computerized data acquisition system. The collected data from this system will provide useful information on maintenance and repair of concrete structures, and are envisaged to be incorporated into the reliability-based safety evaluation system developed for the Sutong Bridge

  1. Instrumentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Journal Scope:Instrumentation is a high quality open access peer reviewed research journal.Authors are solicited to contribute to these journals by submitting articles that illustrate most up-to-date research results,projects,surveying works and industrial experiences that describe significant advances in the instrumental science.The mission of the Instrumentation is to provide a platform for the researchers,academicians,

  2. Geo-technical Instrumentation And Monitoring For Tuen Mun Station, West Railway, Hong Kong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Geo-technical instrumentation and monitoring is very important for the construction of civil works in urban area, by which the affect or even damage to the existing building and underground utilities in the working site or vicinity caused by construction activities can be predicted. During the construction of Tuen Mun station, West Railway, Hong Kong, series of Geo-technical instruments were installed and monitored in time, and the monitoring data were transferred to the Geo-technical Monitoring System in the headquarter of the Employer promptly. Meanwhile, the alarming data were responded immediately and the modified construction methods have been adopted to avoid the damage to the building and underground utility in working site to ensure the smooth construction of the station.

  3. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2001-04-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor.

  4. The development of state/region owned goods management’s monitoring instrument design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikhwanto Yogy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problems in state/region owned goods in Indonesian state and local governments are suspected to occur because of weak monitoring programs, according to many studies. A tool or instrument in implementing this monitoring program is expected to address this problem. Such tool currently doesn’t exist yet. This research aims to fill that gap by developing a monitoring instrument design for state/region owned goods by using Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta (DIY Local Government as a research context in order to take valuable inputs for the design. This research is using developmental research method. Government Regulation were used for normative reference and Friedman’s results-based accountability quadrat were used in developing good indicators for the instrument. This research is succeeded in formulating the indicators that made up the instrument. Indicators compiled are divided into compliance-based indicators and results-based indicators. Indicators are formulated based on the validation and inputs from employees of DIY’s Assets Management Agency and experts from academia. This instrument still has some limitations that need improvement through further research.

  5. Towards the retrieval of tropospheric ozone with the ozone monitoring instrument (OMI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mielonen, T.; De Haan, J...F.; Van Peet, J.C.A.; Eremenko, M.; Veefkind, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    We have assessed the sensitivity of the operational Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) ozone profile retrieval algorithm to a number of a priori and radiative transfer assumptions. We studied the effect of stray light correction, surface albedo assumptions and a priori ozone profiles on the retrieved

  6. Monitoring student attendance, participation, and performance improvement: an instrument and forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosta, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    When students receive consistent and fair feedback about their behavior, program liability decreases. To help students to have a clearer understanding of minimum program standards and the consequences of substandard performance, the author developed attendance and participation monitoring and performance improvement instruments. The author discusses the tools that address absenteeism, tardiness, unprofessional, and unsafe clinical behaviors among students.

  7. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2002-04-01

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on instrumentation involves the development of advanced instrumentation systems for nuclear applications as well as the assessment of the performance of these instruments in a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the use of optical fibres as umbilincal links of a remote handling unit for use during maintanance of a fusion reacor, studies on the radiation hardening of plasma diagnostic systems; investigations on new instrumentation for the future MYRRHA accelerator driven system; space applications related to radiation-hardened lenses; the development of new approaches for dose, temperature and strain measurements; the assessment of radiation-hardened sensors and motors for remote handling tasks and studies of dose measurement systems including the use of optical fibres. Progress and achievements in these areas for 2001 are described.

  8. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2000-07-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation aims at evaluating the potentials of new instrumentation technologies under the severe constraints of a nuclear application. It focuses on the tolerance of sensors to high radiation doses, including optical fibre sensors, and on the related intelligent data processing needed to cope with the nuclear constraints. Main achievements in these domains in 1999 are summarised.

  9. Intraocular Pressure Fluctuations and 24-Hour Continuous Monitoring for Glaucoma Risk in Wind Instrument Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Crom, Ronald M P C; Webers, Carroll A B; van Kooten-Noordzij, Marina A W; Michiels, Agnes C; Schouten, Jan S A G; Berendschot, Tos T J M; Beckers, Henny J M

    2017-08-30

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of playing a wind instrument on intraocular pressure (IOP) and to monitor 24-hour (IOP) fluctuations in wind musicians of symphony and wind orchestras to compare IOP levels during normal daily activities with IOP levels during playing. Professional and amateur musicians of symphony and wind orchestras were invited to participate. A total of 42 participants, 9 with glaucoma, underwent a routine ophthalmologic examination. IOP measurements were taken before and immediately after 20 minutes of playing wind instruments. In addition, 6 participants underwent 24-hour IOP monitoring with the Triggerfish (Sensimed AG, Switzerland) sensing contact lens, during which they kept an activity logbook. Eleven professionals and 31 amateur musicians participated in the study. A total of 7 eyes of 6 patients underwent additional 24-hour IOP monitoring. Mean IOP before playing was 13.6±2.6 mm Hg, IOP change after playing was +1.5±2.2 mm Hg with a significant difference between professionals (2.5±1.5 mm Hg) and amateurs (1.1±2.3 mm Hg). There were no significant differences in IOP change between subjects with or without glaucoma. During 24-hour IOP monitoring there were slight increases in IOP while playing an instrument, but also during other activities and overnight. These latter IOP levels were similar or even higher than the IOP rise caused by playing a wind instrument. IOP often rises after playing wind instruments, but similar or even higher IOP levels seem to occur during common other daily activities or at night. These peaks may be relevant for glaucomatous field progression and treatment of glaucoma patients.

  10. Instrument Description: The Total Solar Irradiance Monitor on the FY-3C Satellite, an Instrument with a Pointing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongrui; Wang, Yupeng; Ye, Xin; Yang, Dongjun; Wang, Kai; Li, Huiduan; Fang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    The Total Solar Irradiance Monitor (TSIM) onboard the nadir Feng Yun-3C (FY-3C) satellite provides measurements of the total solar irradiance with accurate solar tracking and sound thermal stability of its heat sink. TSIM/FY-3C mainly consists of the pointing system, the radiometer package, the thermal control system, and the electronics. Accurate solar tracking is achieved by the pointing system, which greatly improves the science data quality when compared with the previous TSIM/FY-3A and TSIM/FY-3B. The total solar irradiance (TSI) is recorded by TSIM/FY-3C about 26 times each day, using a two-channel radiometer package. One channel is used to perform routine observation, and the other channel is used to monitor the degradation of the cavity detector in the routine channel. From the results of the ground test, the incoming irradiance is measured by the routine channel (AR1) with a relative uncertainty of 592 ppm. A general description of the TSIM, including the instrument modules, uncertainty evaluation, and its operation, is given in this article.

  11. 16 CFR Figures 1 and 2 to Part 1204 - Suggested Instrumentation for Current Monitoring Device and High Voltage Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suggested Instrumentation for Current Monitoring Device and High Voltage Facility 1 Figures 1 and 2 to Part 1204 Commercial Practices CONSUMER... Instrumentation for Current Monitoring Device and High Voltage Facility EC03OC91.008...

  12. Instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehrer, W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-12-31

    The present paper mediates a basic knowledge of the most commonly used experimental techniques. We discuss the principles and concepts necessary to understand what one is doing if one performs an experiment on a certain instrument. (author) 29 figs., 1 tab., refs.

  13. Instrumentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Journal Scope:Instrumentation is a high quality open access peer reviewed research journal,Authors are solicited to contribute to these journals by submitting articles that illustrate most up-to-date research results,projects,surveying works and industrial

  14. Potential of the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI onboard the Sentinel-5 Precursor for the monitoring of terrestrial chlorophyll fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Guanter

    2014-12-01

    photosynthetic functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. The feasibility of SIF retrievals from spaceborne atmospheric spectrometers has been demonstrated by a number of studies in the last years. In this work, we investigate the potential of the upcoming TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI onboard the Sentinel-5 Precursor satellite mission for SIF retrieval. TROPOMI will sample the 675–775 nm spectral window with a spectral resolution of 0.5 nm and a pixel size of 7 km × 7 km. We use an extensive set of simulated TROPOMI data in order to assess the uncertainty of single SIF retrievals and subsequent spatio-temporal composites. Our results illustrate the enormous improvement in SIF monitoring achievable with TROPOMI with respect to comparable spectrometers currently in-flight, such as the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2 instrument. We find that TROPOMI can reduce global uncertainties in SIF mapping by more than a factor 2 with respect to GOME-2, which comes together with an about 5-fold improvement in spatial sampling. Finally, we discuss the potential of TROPOMI to accurately map other important vegetation parameters, such as leaf photosynthetic pigments and proxies for canopy structure, which will complement SIF retrievals for a self-contained description of vegetation condition and functioning.

  15. An instrument system for monitoring and sampling suspended sediment in the benthic boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, R.W.; Johnson, R.V.; Cacchione, D.A.; Drake, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    An instrument system has been constructed that can monitor and sample suspended sediment distributions in the benthic boundary layer. It consists of miniature nephelometers and suspended sediment samplers placed within one meter of the seabed. The system is capable of continuously monitoring suspended sediment profiles at eight levels between 14 and 100 cm above the seabed and collecting suspended sediment samples at four levels (20, 50, 70 and 100 cm) at three times during a deployment period. The suspended sediment system is designed to fit onto the instrumented tripod GEOPROBE which contains four electromagnetic current meters, pressure sensor, bottom stereo camera, two temperature sensors, transmissometer, and a Savonius rotor current meter. Sensor operation, data recording, and sediment sampling events are synchronized. Thus detailed measurements of the near-bottom flow conditions are made concurrently with suspended sediment measurements. The combined system has been used in sediment transporting environments within San Francisco Bay, California, and Puget Sound, Washington. ?? 1986.

  16. Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMCs) Observed by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on Aura

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLand, Matthew T.; Shettle, Eric P.; Levelt, Pieternel F.; Kowalewski, Matthew G.

    2010-01-01

    Backscattered ultraviolet (BUV) instruments designed for measuring stratospheric ozone profiles have proven to be robust tools for observing polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs). These measurements are available for more than 30 years, and have been used to demonstrate the existence of long-term variations in PMC occurrence frequency and brightness. The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the EOS Aura satellite provides new and improved capabilities for PMC characterization. OMI uses smaller pixels than previous BUV instruments, which increases its ability to identify PMCs and discern more spatial structure, and its wide cross-track viewing swath provides full polar coverage up to 90 latitude every day in both hemispheres. This cross-track coverage allows the evolution of PMC regions to be followed over several consecutive orbits. Localized PMC variations determined from OMI measurements are consistent with coincident SBUV/2 measurements. Nine seasons of PMC observations from OMI are now available, and clearly demonstrate the advantages of these measurements for PMC analysis.

  17. A global catalogue of large SO2 sources and emissions derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    OpenAIRE

    Fioletov, Vitali E.; McLinden, Chris A; Krotkov, Nickolay; Li, Can; Joiner, Joanna; Theys, Nicolas; Carn, Simon; Moran, Mike D.

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) measurements from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) satellite sensor processed with the new principal component analysis (PCA) algorithm were used to detect large point emission sources or clusters of sources. The total of 491 continuously emitting point sources releasing from about 30 kt yr−1 to more than 4000 kt yr−1 of SO2 per year have been identified and grouped by country and by primary source origin: volcanoes (76 sources); power plants (297);...

  18. A global catalogue of large SO2 sources and emissions derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    OpenAIRE

    Fioletov, Vitali E.; McLinden, Chris A; Krotkov, Nickolay; Li, Can; Joiner, Joanna; Theys, Nicolas; Carn, Simon; Moran, Mike D.

    2016-01-01

    Sulphur dioxide (SO2) measurements from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) satellite sensor processed with the new Principal Component Analysis (PCA) algorithm were used to detect large point emission sources or clusters of sources. The total of 491 continuously emitting point sources releasing from about 30 kt yr−1 to more than 4000 kt yr−1 of SO2 per year have been identified and grouped by country and by primary source origin: volcanoes (76 sources); power plants (297); smel...

  19. Use of a PKZh-902 instrument for monitoring solid phases in an organic coolant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavrillin, A.I.; Gagarin, S.I.; Sokolov, V.E.; Zabelin, A.I.

    1986-11-01

    Preliminary tests have been performed with a PKZh-902 in checking feed and circulating coolant, and also in evaluating the performance of the cleaning devices. The test program involved determining the stability of the esnsor materials in ditolymethane, examining the effects of radioactive products and those of the optical characteristics of impurities in the first-loop coolant on the readings and errors of measurement, and checking the scope for using the instrument for continuous monitoring of particle concentrations. Results confirm that the PKZh-902 enables one to monitor the composition and concentration of the solid dispersed phase reliably and with adequate accuracy in the feed coolant. The use for monitoring the loop coolant requires additonal research.

  20. Borehole Seismic Monitoring at Otway Using the Naylor-1 Instrument String

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daley, T.M.; Sharma, Sandeep; Dzunic, Aleksander; Urosevic, Milovan; Kepic, Anton; Sherlock, Don

    2009-06-01

    The Naylor-1 monitoring completion, a unique and innovative instrumentation package, was designed and fabricated in FY 2007 at Berkeley Laboratory. Tom Daley, Barry Freifeld and Duo Wang (all from Berkeley Lab) were on site at the Otway Project between September 26 and October 14, 2007, working with CO2CRC and their subcontractors, AGR Asia Pacific and Eastern Well Services to complete Naylor-1 and initiate baseline data collection. Figure 1 shows a schematic of Naylor-1's sensor layout. There are three U-tube geochemical samplers, with one located near the top of the residual CH{sub 4} gas cap and two located beneath the gas-water contact. The 21 geophones are used for performing three distinct seismic measurements, high resolution travel time (HRTT), walkaway vertical seismic profiling (WVSP), and microseismic monitoring. These activities are separated in to active source seismic and microseismic monitoring, and will be described separately.

  1. A novel instrumented retractor to monitor tissue-disruptive forces during lateral thoracotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotin, Gil; Buckner, Gregory D; Jardine, Nicholas J; Kiefer, Aaron J; Campbell, Nigel B; Kocherginsky, Masha; Raman, Jai; Jeevanandam, Valluvan

    2007-04-01

    Acute and chronic pain after thoracotomy, post-thoracotomy pain syndrome, is well documented. The mechanical retractors used for the thoracotomy exert significant forces on the skeletal cage. Our hypothesis was that instrumented retractors could be developed to enable real-time monitoring and control of retraction forces. This would provide equivalent exposure with significantly reduced forces and tissue damage and thus less post-thoracotomy pain. A novel instrumented retractor was designed and fabricated to enable real-time force monitoring during surgical retraction. Eight mature sheep underwent bilateral thoracotomy. One lateral thoracotomy was retracted at a standard clinical pace of 5.93 +/- 0.80 minutes to 7.5 cm without real-time monitoring of retraction forces. The other lateral thoracotomy was retracted to the same exposure with real-time visual force feedback and a consequently more deliberate pace of 9.87 +/- 1.89 minutes (P = .006). Retraction forces, blood pressure, and heart rate were monitored throughout the procedure. Full lateral retraction resulted in an average force of 102.88 +/- 50.36 N at the standard clinical pace, versus 77.88 +/- 38.85 N with force feedback (a 24.3% reduction, P = .006). Standard retraction produced peak forces of 450.01 +/- 129.58 N, whereas force feedback yielded peak forces of 323.99 +/- 127.79 N (a 28.0% reduction, P = .009). Systolic blood pressure was significantly higher during standard clinical retraction (P = .0097), and rib fracture occurrences were reduced from 5 to 1 with force feedback (P = .04). Use of the novel instrumented retractor resulted in significantly lower average and peak retraction forces during lateral thoracotomy. Moreover, these reduced retraction forces were correlated with reductions in animal stress and tissue damage, as documented by lower systolic blood pressures and fewer rib fractures.

  2. Subsidence monitoring with geotechnical instruments in the Mexicali Valley, Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacka, E.; Sarychikhina, O.; Márquez Ramírez, V. H.; Robles, B.; Nava, F. A.; Farfán, F.; García Arthur, M. A.

    2015-11-01

    The Mexicali Valley (northwestern Mexico), situated in the southern part of the San Andreas fault system, is an area with high tectonic deformation, recent volcanism, and active seismicity. Since 1973, fluid extraction, from the 1500-3000 m depth range, at the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field (CPGF), has influenced deformation in the Mexicali Valley area, accelerating the subsidence and causing slip along the traces of tectonic faults that limit the subsidence area. Detailed field mapping done since 1989 (González et al., 1998; Glowacka et al., 2005; Suárez-Vidal et al., 2008) in the vicinity of the CPGF shows that many subsidence induced fractures, fissures, collapse features, small grabens, and fresh scarps are related to the known tectonic faults. Subsidence and fault rupture are causing damage to infrastructure, such as roads, railroad tracks, irrigation channels, and agricultural fields. Since 1996, geotechnical instruments installed by CICESE (Centro de Investigación Ciéntifica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada, B.C.) have operated in the Mexicali Valley, for continuous recording of deformation phenomena. Instruments are installed over or very close to the affected faults. To date, the network includes four crackmeters and eight tiltmeters; all instruments have sampling intervals in the 1 to 20 min range. Instrumental records typically show continuous creep, episodic slip events related mainly to the subsidence process, and coseismic slip discontinuities (Glowacka et al., 1999, 2005, 2010; Sarychikhina et al., 2015). The area has also been monitored by levelling surveys every few years and, since the 1990's by studies based on DInSAR data (Carnec and Fabriol, 1999; Hansen, 2001; Sarychikhina et al., 2011). In this work we use data from levelling, DInSAR, and geotechnical instruments records to compare the subsidence caused by anthropogenic activity and/or seismicity with slip recorded by geotechnical instruments, in an attempt to obtain more information

  3. MONITORING OF THE PERFORMANCE EFFICIENCY OF THE EQUIPMENT AT THE ENTERPRISES OF AVIATION INSTRUMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr P. Dobrov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article elaborates the proposals to improve the systems for monitoring performance of the equipment at the enterprises of aviation instrument. The relevance of the study due to the fact that the aviation instrument-making industry of the Russian Federation can play a role as a key factor in enhancing the competitiveness of the national economy. Currently, the global aviation market is fairly saturated, it competition is not between individual companies and between the aviation powers. The role of an efficient industrial production is largely dependent on the amount, structure, technical condition and the level of utilization of fixed assets. Specificity of high-tech high-tech production presupposes the existence of a specific fleet of expensive and unique equipment; a high degree of novelty products, single or small-scale type of production that determines the high cost of production of a unit of production; high demands on the staff . The paper noted that the production capacity is an essential tool for production planning process, which allows to determine the optimal work shifts Park main technological equipment and production program to justify the enterprises of sphere of aviation instrument. On the basis of the modification of OEE method, a stochastic model is proposed, which allows to display the efficiency of the productive capacity of the high-tech enterprises of sphere of aviation instrument in the form of multi-dimensional size and much more accurately identify the relationship between its elements.

  4. A distributed-data acquisition and monitoring system for the beam instrumentation of LEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baribaud, G.; Brahy, D.; Cojan, A.; Momal, F.; Rabany, M.; Saban, R.; Thys, A.; Wolles, J.C. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). LEP-BI/CS)

    1990-08-01

    The beam instrumentation for LEP is comprised of a number of detectors such as current transformers, split-foil monitors, interaction and background monitors and electrostatic pickups. These instruments are interfaced using about 100 VME crates spread over 25 stations located around the 27 km circumference of LEP. The crates are connected to the control system using MIL/STD-1553, an Olivetti M380 running XENIX and an IBM token-ring. Each crate is equipped with a Themis TSVME106 CPU board which runs the Motorola RMS68K operating system kernel. A set of services (alarms, communications, I/O system, libraries, log book, timing, etc.) has been implemented and constitutes a comfortable environment for the application programs. Most of the programming is done in PASCAL, using a cross compiler developed and maintained at CERN. A set of utilities running in the Olivetti M380 and in the crates provides system monitoring, system and application reload, and surveillance of the behaviour of the system and of the application tasks. (orig.).

  5. Advanced earthquake monitoring system for U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs medical buildings--instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Erol; Banga, Krishna; Ulusoy, Hasan S.; Fletcher, Jon Peter B.; Leith, William S.; Reza, Shahneam; Cheng, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    In collaboration with the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), the National Strong Motion Project (NSMP; http://nsmp.wr.usgs.gov/) of the U.S. Geological Survey has been installing sophisticated seismic systems that will monitor the structural integrity of 28 VA hospital buildings located in seismically active regions of the conterminous United States, Alaska, and Puerto Rico during earthquake shaking. These advanced monitoring systems, which combine the use of sensitive accelerometers and real-time computer calculations, are designed to determine the structural health of each hospital building rapidly after an event, helping the VA to ensure the safety of patients and staff. This report presents the instrumentation component of this project by providing details of each hospital building, including a summary of its structural, geotechnical, and seismic hazard information, as well as instrumentation objectives and design. The structural-health monitoring component of the project, including data retrieval and processing, damage detection and localization, automated alerting system, and finally data dissemination, will be presented in a separate report.

  6. Software systems for operation, control, and monitoring of the EBEX instrument

    CERN Document Server

    Milligan, Michael; Aubin, François; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Bao, Chaoyun; Borrill, Julian; Cantalupo, Christopher; Chapman, Daniel; Didier, Joy; Dobbs, Matt; Grainger, Will; Hanany, Shaul; Hillbrand, Seth; Hubmayr, Johannes; Jaffe, Andrew; Johnson, Bradley; Kisner, Theodore; Klein, Jeff; Korotkov, Andrei; Leach, Sam; Lee, Adrian; Levinson, Lorne; Limon, Michele; MacDermid, Kevin; Matsumura, Tomotake; Miller, Amber; Pascale, Enzo; Polsgrove, Daniel; Ponthieu, Nicolas; Raach, Kate; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Britt; Sagiv, Ilan; Tran, Huan; Tucker, Gregory S; Vinokurov, Yury; Yadav, Amit; Zaldarriaga, Matias; Zilic, Kyle; Physics, University of Minnesota School of; Astronomy,; USA,; University, Cardiff; Kingdom, United; University, McGill; Montréal,; Canada,; Avanzati, Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi; Trieste,; Italy,; Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley National; USA,; University, Columbia; York, New; USA,; Standards, National Institute of; Technology,; CO, Boulder; USA,; College, Imperial; London,; Kingdom, United; California, University of; Berkeley,; USA,; University, Brown; Providence,; USA,; Science, Weizmann Institute of; Rehovot,; Israel,; Technology, California Institute of; Pasadena,; USA,; Spatiale, Institut d'Astrophysique; Paris-Sud, Universite; Orsay,; France,; Study, Institute for Advanced; Princeton,; USA,

    2010-01-01

    We present the hardware and software systems implementing autonomous operation, distributed real-time monitoring, and control for the EBEX instrument. EBEX is a NASA-funded balloon-borne microwave polarimeter designed for a 14 day Antarctic flight that circumnavigates the pole. To meet its science goals the EBEX instrument autonomously executes several tasks in parallel: it collects attitude data and maintains pointing control in order to adhere to an observing schedule; tunes and operates up to 1920 TES bolometers and 120 SQUID amplifiers controlled by as many as 30 embedded computers; coordinates and dispatches jobs across an onboard computer network to manage this detector readout system; logs over 3~GiB/hour of science and housekeeping data to an onboard disk storage array; responds to a variety of commands and exogenous events; and downlinks multiple heterogeneous data streams representing a selected subset of the total logged data. Most of the systems implementing these functions have been tested during...

  7. Standardisation of a Vapour Generator for Calibration of Environmental Monitoring Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Rana

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Very low vapour pressure of 2,4,6 trinitrotoulene (TNT yields extremely low vapour concentrations at different flow rates in the air, yet considerable quantity of vapours and TNTdust during handling may be present at the workplace environment which is harmful to the health of the personnel working there. The explosive vapours, such as TNT,  2,6-dinitrotoluene (DNT, etc., though harmful to the health of the personnel, are not covered either in the emission standards or in the ambient air quality standards. Presently, no instrument is available for air monitoring of TNT vapours. These vapours need to be collected on-site to estimate TNT concentration. Realising the need for real-time air monitoring of TNT, efforts have been made to understand and device an instrument for on-site determination of TNT vapours parts per billiion (ppb range. Low-level TNT vapours and TNT buried in the soil in military operations are required to be detected. The instruments for this require careful calibration to yield accurate and reliable results. Hence, an effort has been made to develop a trace-level ppb vapour generator. The vapour generator of a spiral glass column of length 170 cm and inner diameter 4 mm 2 0.5 mm has been used. An activated charcoal glass tube has been used for sampling TNT vapours. The adsorbed TNT vapours were desorbed and analysed using high performance liquid chromatography. Thesolid support used has been studied. These vapours generated at different flow rates have been evaluated. The calibrated instrument can be used for in situ and on-site analysis of samples of TNT and also for samples collected.

  8. Virtual instrument for controlling and monitoring digitalized power supply in SSRF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) needs extremely precise power supplies for their various magnets. A digital controller is being developed for the power converters of the SSRF power supply (PS). In the digital controller, a fully digital pulse-width modulator (PWM) directly controls the power unit insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) of the PS. A program in LabVIEW language has been developed to control and monitor the digital PS via serial communication (RS232) from a PC and to modify its parameters as well. In this article, the software design of the virtual instrument for controlling and monitoring digitalized PS and its associated functions are described, and the essential elements of the program graphical main-Ⅵ and sub-Ⅵ source code are presented and explained. The communication protocol and the structure of the developed system are also included in this article.

  9. Instrumentation and control systems for monitoring and data acquisition for thermal recovery process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aparicio, J.; Hernandez, E.; Perozo, H. [PDVSA Intevep, S.A. (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    Thermal recovery methods are often applied to enhance oil recovery in heavy oil reservoirs, one of its challenges is to control the displacement of the thermal front. Methods are thus implemented to obtain data on the temperatures in the wells at any given time and to monitor other variables so that the behaviour of the thermal front can be predicted. The aim of this paper is to present a new control and instrumentation scheme to measure all of the variables. A software was created using Labview a graphs-based programming language software and PostgreSQL, a database management system. Using this software, sensors can be added or removed at any time; trends can be immediately visualized; and quality of the information is ensured since there is no human intervention in the data collection or processing. This paper presented a software which improves monitoring of all of the variables affecting the behaviour of the thermal front.

  10. Nuclear incident monitor criticality alarm instrument for the Savannah River Site: Technical manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, J.B.

    1996-05-21

    The Savannah River Site is a Department of Energy facility. The facility stores, processes, and works with fissionable material at a number of locations. Technical standards and US Department of Energy orders, require these locations to be monitored by criticality alarm systems under certain circumstances. The Savannah River Site calls such instruments Nuclear Incident Monitors or NIMs. The Sole purpose of the Nuclear Incident Monitor is to provide an immediate evacuation signal in the case of an accidental criticality in order to minimize personnel exposure to radiation. The new unit is the third generation Nuclear Incident Monitor at the Savannah River Site. The second generation unit was developed in 1979. It was designed to eliminate vacuum-tube circuits, and was the first solid state NIM at SRS. The major design objectives of the second generation NIM were to improve reliability and reduce maintenance costs. Ten prototype units have been built and tested. This report describes the design of the new NIM and the testing that took place to verify its acceptability.

  11. Unattended instruments for ground-based hyperspectral measurements: development and application for plant photosynthesis monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogliati, S.; Rossini, M.; Meroni, M.; Barducci, A.; Julitta, T.; Colombo, R.

    2011-12-01

    and long-term hyperspectral data in different measurement conditions. As a demonstration of the potential of these instruments for monitoring plant photosynthesis, the collected time series (NDVI, PRI and F@760) were successfully used as inputs of Light Use Efficiency (LUE). However, HSI and MRI would be also useful to routinely collect at ground observations of other environmental compartments, for example for calibration/validation of RS data and products.

  12. Real-Time Virtual Instruments for Remote Sensor Monitoring Using Low Bandwidth Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biruk Gebre

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of a peer-to-peer virtual instrumentation system for remote acquisition, analysis and transmission of data on low bandwidth networks is described. The objective of this system is to collect high frequency/high bandwidth data from multiple sensors placed at remote locations and adaptively adjust the resolution of this data so that it can be transmitted on bandwidth limited networks to a central monitoring and command center. This is achieved by adaptively re-sampling (decimating the data from the sensors at the remote location before transmission. The decimation is adjusted to the available bandwidth of the communications network which is characterized in real-time. As a result, the system allows users at the remote command center to view high bandwidth data (at a lower resolution with user-aware and minimized latency. This technique is applied to an eight hydrophone data acquisition system that requires a 25.6 Mbps connection for the transmission of the full data set using a wireless connection with 1 – 3.5 Mbps variable bandwidth. This technique can be used for applications that require monitoring of high bandwidth data from remote sensors in research and education fields such as remote scientific instruments and visually driven control applications.

  13. Real-Time Virtual Instruments for Remote Sensor Monitoring Using Low Bandwidth Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biruk Gebre

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of a peer-to-peer virtual instrumentation system for remote acquisition, analysis and transmission of data on low bandwidth networks is described. The objective of this system is to collect high frequency/high bandwidth data from multiple sensors placed at remote locations and adaptively adjust the resolution of this data so that it can be transmitted on bandwidth limited networks to a central monitoring and command center. This is achieved by adaptively re-sampling (decimating the data from the sensors at the remote location before transmission. The decimation is adjusted to the available bandwidth of the communications network which is characterized in real-time. As a result, the system allows users at the remote command center to view high bandwidth data (at a lower resolution with user-aware and minimized latency. This technique is applied to an eight hydrophone data acquisition system that requires a 25.6 Mbps connection for the transmission of the full data set using a wireless connection with 1 – 3.5 Mbps variable bandwidth. This technique can be used for applications that require monitoring of high bandwidth data from remote sensors in research and education fields such as remote scientific instruments and visually driven control applications.

  14. Revising the slant column density retrieval of nitrogen dioxide observed by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchenko, S.; Krotkov, N. A.; Lamsal, L. N.; Celarier, E. A.; Swartz, W. H.; Bucsela, E. J.

    2015-06-01

    Nitrogen dioxide retrievals from the Aura/Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) have been used extensively over the past decade, particularly in the study of tropospheric air quality. Recent comparisons of OMI NO2 with independent data sets and models suggested that the OMI values of slant column density (SCD) and stratospheric vertical column density (VCD) in both the NASA OMNO2 and Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute DOMINO products are too large, by around 10-40%. We describe a substantially revised spectral fitting algorithm, optimized for the OMI visible light spectrometer channel. The most important changes comprise a flexible adjustment of the instrumental wavelength shifts combined with iterative removal of the ring spectral features; the multistep removal of instrumental noise; iterative, sequential estimates of SCDs of the trace gases in the 402-465 nm range. These changes reduce OMI SCD(NO2) by 10-35%, bringing them much closer to SCDs retrieved from independent measurements and models. The revised SCDs, submitted to the stratosphere-troposphere separation algorithm, give tropospheric VCDs ˜10-15% smaller in polluted regions, and up to ˜30% smaller in unpolluted areas. Although the revised algorithm has been optimized specifically for the OMI NO2 retrieval, our approach could be more broadly applicable.

  15. Monitoring atmospheric turbulence profiles with high vertical resolution using PML/PBL instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blary, F.; Ziad, A.; Borgnino, J.; Fantéï-Caujolle, Y.; Aristidi, Eric; Lantéri, H.

    2014-07-01

    Wide-Field Adaptive Optics (WFAO) have been proposed for the next generation of telescopes. In order to be efficient, correction using WFAO require knowledge of atmospheric turbulence parameters. The structure constant of index-of-refraction fluctuations (C2 N ) being one of them. Indirect methods implemented in instruments as SCIDAR, MASS, SLODAR, CO-SLIDAR and MOSP have been proposed to measure C2 N (h) pro le through different layers of the atmosphere. A new monitor called the Profiler of Moon Limb (PML) is presented. In this instrument, C2 N (h) pro les are retrieved from the transverse covariance via minimization of a maximum likelihood criterion under positivity constraint using an iterative gradient method. An other approach using a regularization method (RM) is also studied. Instrument errors are mainly related to the detection of the Moon limb position and are mostly due to photon noise. Numerical simulations have been used to evaluate the error on the extracted pro le and its propagation from the detection to the inverse technique.

  16. Instrumental monitoring of lahars for warning purposes: new developments along the Colima Volcano, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coviello, Velio; Capra, Lucia; Vázquez, Rosario; Márquez, Víctor H.; Cruz, Sergio

    2017-04-01

    Early Warning Systems (EWSs) for rapid flow-like landslides can be classified into two main types: advance- and event-systems. Advance EWSs predict the flow occurrence by monitoring the parameters that may lead to initiation conditions, typically rainfall. This kind of EWSs are prone to a high number of false alarms because they are strongly affected by uncertainties in both precipitation measurements and in the estimate of rainfall thresholds. Event EWSs are based on the instrumental detection of the flow when it is already in progress. Those systems can be particularly effective to protect vulnerable infrastructures such as communication routes that do not require an excessively long alert time. However, having a much smaller lead time than advance-systems, their effectiveness strictly depends on the possibility to perform accurate and rapid measurements and to automatically process, store and validate monitoring data, that is to integrate an effective warning algorithm. In mountainous regions, several instrumented catchments exist where debris flow monitoring is performed using stage sensors, video cameras, and ground vibration detectors (GVDs). For early warning purpose, the possibility to detect debris flows from a distance is an important advantage of GVDs. In addition, most monitoring devices need to be installed in the channel bed or very close to it, with consequent great danger to be destructed. Consequently, a growing number of monitoring systems of active basins integrate a linear array of GVDs distributed along the channel, in safe locations. A debris flow warning algorithm based on geophone data was recently developed and implemented in the Gadria testing field for EWSs, Northeastern Italian Alps. This algorithm uses the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) as warning parameter instead of a classical intensity/duration threshold. The event detection algorithm adopts a non-simultaneous triggering condition requiring that at least two geophones trigger in order

  17. Low Cost Open-Path Instrument for Monitoring Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide at Sequestration Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Goddard

    2008-09-30

    In the past 48 months of the project, we have accomplished all objectives outlined in the proposal. In the first year, we demonstrated the technology for remote sensing on a bench top scale. The core electronics are designed and fabricated. We achieved results that will safely deliver the specifications outlined in the proposal. In the 2nd year, 2 major technical tasks outlined in the Statement of Objectives, i.e. Build a field test ready prototype of a long-range CO2 monitor, and characterize its performance in the short term and demonstrate that the monitor characteristics meet the goals set in the initial proposal, have been accomplished. We also conducted simulation work that defines the different deployment strategies for our sensors at sequestration sites. In the 3rd year, Specifications and Testing protocols have been developed for the CO2 monitor. 1% accuracy had been demonstrated in short period tests ({approx}1 hour). Unattended system operation and stability over a period of a week has been demonstrated with and without EDFA (laser power amplifier). The sensitivity of the instrument to CO2 leaks has been demonstrated. In the 4th no-cost extension year, we further field tested the system and the experience we accumulated give us a clear picture of what else are needed for final field deployment. These results have shown all the objectives of the project have been fulfilled. In July 2008, along with our commercial partner we won the DOE STTR phase I award to commercialize the instrument developed in this project - a testimony to the achievement of this research.

  18. Dose rate mapping and quantitative analysis of radioactive deposition with simple monitoring instruments in Finland after the Chernobyl accident.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koivukoski, J. [Ministry of the Interior, Rescue Dept., Helsinki (Finland); Paatero, J. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland)], E-mail: janne.koivukoski@intermin.fi

    2013-03-01

    This article reviews the Finnish dose-rate mapping equipment and the system to process the obtained results, which were used immediately after the 1986 Chernobyl accident. We present the results of the external gamma-radiation monitoring carried out with simple civil-defence gamma monitoring instruments and compare them with the subsequent deposition mapping performed with research-grade instruments. The analysis shows that the quality of radiation mapping is good enough for decision makers to direct protective measures to the right areas. This review also demonstrates that a simple stationary external gamma radiation monitoring network can be effectively used for early warning in radiation emergency situations. (orig.)

  19. The Ancona Early Warning Centre, Instrumentation and Continuous Monitoring of the Landslide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardellini, S.

    2013-12-01

    The 'Grande frana di Ancona' is an deep-seated landslide reactivated in 1982 after a long period of precipitation. The landslide involves clay and silty clay layers (Pliocene-Pleistocene), fractured with different OCR parameter, alternated with thin sand levels. Overlapped sliding zones are active (maximum depth: 100-120 m, maximum depth 1982 event is 75 m bgl). All the investigations aimed at the consolidation preliminary design in 2000, but the plan concluded that a final consolidation was impossible. Ancona Administration decided then to 'live with the landslide' reducing nevertheless the risk for the people living there. In 2002 a regional law was specifically issued for the people living in the landslide, to give Ancona Administration the responsibility of creating an Early Warning System and an Emergency Plan for people. It's active a surface monitoring system based on 7 total stations and 33 geodetic GPS integrated by a subsurface in place geotechnical system based on 3 DMS multiparametric columns installed down to 95 m depth. Surface Monitoring system The combination of the different instruments: GPS, Automatic Robotic Stations and the clinometric sensors allows us to monitor in the 3D (3D, X, Y, Z) a great number of points previously identified, to keep them under supervision with different measuring technical and from different control positions. The adoption of the geodetic GPS at dual frequency assure an high quality of the GPS measures, and a greater versatility at all the system. The measuring cycle is set up on 30 minutes, but in emergency or after a long rainy period, the system can operate on every points of the dual frequency GPS net also in Real Time RTK, and with the 7 Automatic Robotic Stations. Geotechnical monitoring (DMS) The in place Geotechnical Monitoring System DMS (patents and trade mark CSG srl -Italy) was installed in February 2009. It is made by n°3 Modular Dynamic System columns positioned inside borehole 100 m depth. DMS columns

  20. Tools and strategies for instrument monitoring, data mining and data access

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hees, R. M., ,, Dr

    2009-04-01

    The ever growing size of data sets produced by various satellite instruments creates a challenge in data management. Three main tasks were identified: instrument performance monitoring, data mining by users and data deployment. In this presentation, I will discuss the three tasks and our solution. As a practical example to illustrate the problem and make the discussion less abstract, I will use Sciamachy on-board the ESA satellite Envisat. Since the launch of Envisat, in March 2002, Sciamachy has performed nearly a billion science measurements and performed daily calibrations measurements. The total size of the data set (not including reprocessed data) is over 30 TB, distributed over 150,000 files. [Instrument Monitoring] Most instruments produce house-keeping data, which may include time, geo-location, temperature of different parts of the instrument and instrument settings and configuration. In addition, many instruments perform calibration measurements. Instrument performance monitoring requires automated analyzes of critical parameters for events, and the option to off-line inspect the behavior of various parameters in time. We choose to extract the necessary information from the SCIAMACHY data products, and store everything in one file, where we separated house-keeping data from calibration measurements. Due to the large volume and the need to have quick random-access, the Hierarchical Data Format (HDF5) was our obvious choice. The HDF5 format is self describing and designed to organize different types of data in one file. For example, one data set may contain the meta data of the calibration measurements: time, geo-location, instrument settings, quality parameters (temperature of the instrument), while a second large data set contains the actual measurements. The HDF5 high-level packet table API is ideal for tables that only grow (by appending rows), while the HDF5 table API is better suited for tables where rows need to be updated, inserted or replaced. In

  1. MUG-OBS - Multiparameter Geophysical Ocean Bottom System : a new instrumental approach to monitor earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    hello, yann; Charvis, Philippe; Yegikyan, Manuk; verfaillie, Romain; Rivet, Diane

    2016-04-01

    Real time monitoring of seismic activity is a major issue for early warning of earthquakes and tsunamis. It can be done using regional scale wired nodes, such as Neptune in Canada and in the U.S, or DONET in Japan. Another approach to monitor seismic activity at sea is to deploying repeatedly OBS array like during the amphibious Cascadia Initiative (four time 1-year deployments), the Japanese Pacific Array (broadband OBSs "ocean-bottom broadband dispersion survey" with 2-years autonomy), the Obsismer program in the French Lesser Antilles (eight time 6-months deployments) and the Osisec program in Ecuador (four time 6-months deployments). These autonomous OBSs are self-recovered or recovered using an ROV. These systems are costly including ship time, and require to recover the OBS before to start working on data. Among the most recent alternative we developed a 3/4 years autonomy ocean bottom system with 9 channels (?) allowing the acquisition of different seismic or environmental parameters. MUG-OBS is a free falling instrument rated down to 6000 m. The installation of the sensor is monitored by acoustic commands from the surface and a health bulletin with data checking is recovered by acoustic during the installation. The major innovation is that it is possible to recover the data any time on demand (regularly every 6-months or after a crisis) using one of the 6 data-shuttles released from the surface by acoustic command using a one day fast cruise boat of opportunity. Since sensors stayed at the same location for 3 years, it is a perfect tool to monitor large seismic events, background seismic activity and aftershock distribution. Clock, drift measurement and GPS localization is automatic when the shuttle reaches the surface. For remote areas, shuttles released automatically and a seismic events bulletin is transmitted. Selected data can be recovered by two-way Iridium satellite communication. After a period of 3 years the main station is self-recovered by

  2. Uveka: a UV exposure monitoring system using autonomous instruments network for Reunion Island citizens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sébastien, Nicolas; Cros, Sylvain; Lallemand, Caroline; Kurzrock, Frederik; Schmutz, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    Reunion Island is a French oversea territory located in the Indian Ocean. This tropical Island has about 840,000 inhabitants and is visited every year by more than 400,000 tourists. On average, 340 sunny days occurs on this island in a whole year. Beyond these advantageous conditions, exposure of the population to ultraviolet radiation constitutes a public health issue. The number of hospitalisations for skin cancer increased by 50% between 2005 and 2010. Health insurance reimbursements due to ophthalmic anomalies caused by the sun is about two million Euros. Among the prevention measures recommended by public health policies, access to information on UV radiation is one of the basic needs. Reuniwatt, supported by the Regional Council of La Reunion, is currently developing the project Uveka. Uveka is a solution permitting to provide in real-time and in short-term forecast (several hours), the UV radiation maps of the Reunion Island. Accessible via web interface and smartphone application, Uveka informs the citizens about the UV exposure rate and its risk according to its individual characteristics (skin phototype, past exposure to sun etc.). The present work describes this initiative through the presentation of the UV radiation monitoring system and the data processing chain toward the end-users. The UV radiation monitoring system of Uveka is a network of low cost UV sensors. Each instrument is equipped with a solar panel and a battery. Moreover, the sensor is able to communicate using the 3G telecommunication network. Then, the instrument can be installed without AC power or access to a wired communication network. This feature eliminates a site selection constraint. Indeed, with more than 200 microclimates and a strong cloud cover spatial variability, building a representative measurement site network in this island with a limited number of instruments is a real challenge. In addition to these UV radiation measurements, the mapping of the surface solar radiation

  3. Greenhouse Gases in the South Atlantic: Testing and Automation of Instrumentation for Long-Term Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, D.; Fisher, R.; Sriskantharajah, S.; Lanoisellé, M.; Etchells, A.; Manning, A.; Nisbet, E.

    2009-04-01

    Understanding ocean uptake of atmospheric CO2 by the Southern Ocean is important for modelling of future global warming scenarios, particularly since it was recently proposed that this sink was reducing (Le Quéré, et al., 2007). To help our understanding of this problem a new project aims to flask sample air from 5 South Atlantic sites and set up continuous monitoring at the 2 most accessible of these: Ascension Island and the Falklands. Flask sample measurements will include CO2 and CH4 mixing ratios and the ^13C measurement of both of these gases using the rapid continuous flow trace gas analysis system at Royal Holloway, University of London (RHUL). Routine precisions are ±0.03 per mil and ±0.05 per mil for CO2 and CH4, respectively (Fisher et al., 2006). A time series of ^13C in CH4 was maintained for Ascension Island from 2000-2005 and a time series for methane isotopes commenced for the Falkland Islands in autumn 2007. To meet the continuous monitoring requirements of the new project, three Picarro G1301 CO2 / CH4 / H2O Cavity Ring Down Spectrometers (CRDS) were installed at RHUL in October 2008 for testing, calibration and the development of an automated air inlet system suitable for analysis of calibration gases at the remote sites. Initial testing included calibration with NOAA calibrated and target gases, validation of the Picarro-defined H2O-correction of CO2, and derivation of an H2O-correction for CH4. Continuing checks on the H2O correction are made by having 2 instruments side-by-side taking air from the same inlet, but one having a combined Nafion / Mg-perchlorate drying system that utilizes the analysis system exhaust gas for the reverse flow through the Nafion and maintains water-levels at 0.05% for more than 2 weeks. These instruments are connected to the same air inlet as a GC measuring CH4 mixing ratio and a LiCor 6252 measuring CO2 mixing ratio at 30-minute and 1-minute intervals respectively. The third CRDS instrument is connected to a

  4. Automatic Detection Method of Behavior Change in Dam Monitor Instruments Cause by Earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Mucio Bando

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A hydroelectric power plant consists of a project of great relevance for the social and economic development of a country. However, this kind of construction demands extensive attention because the occurrence of unusual behavior on its structure may result in undesirable consequences. Seismic waves are some of the phenomena which demand attention of one in charge of a dam safety because once it happens can directly affect the structure behavior. The target of this work is to present a methodology to automatically detect which monitoring instruments have gone under any change in pattern and their measurements after the seism. The detection method proposed is based on a neuro/fuzzy/bayesian formulation which is divided in three steps. Firstly, a clustering of points in a time series is developed from a self-organizing Kohonen map. Afterwards a fuzzy set is built to transform the initial time series, with arbitrary distribution, into a new series with beta distribution probability and thus enable the detection of changing points through a Monte Carlo simulation via Markov chains. In order to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposal the methodology has been applied in time series generated by Itaipu power plant building structures measurement instruments, which showed little behavior change after the earthquake in Chile in 2010.

  5. AIM - Agile Instrumented Monitoring for Improving User Experience of Participation in HealthIT Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitkänen, Janne; Nieminen, Marko

    2017-01-01

    Participation of healthcare professionals in information technology development has emerged as an important challenge. As end-users, the professionals are willing to participate in the development activities, but their experiences on the current methods of participation remain mostly negative. There is lack of applicable methods for meeting the needs of agile development approach and scaling up to the largest implementation projects, while maintaining the interest of the professional users to participate in development activities and keeping up their ability to continue working in a productive manner. In this paper, we describe the Agile Instrumented Monitoring as a methodology, based on the methods of instrumented usability evaluation, for improving user experience in HealthIT development. The contribution of the proposed methodology is analyzed in relation to activities of whole iteration cycle and chosen usability evaluation methods, while the user experience of participation is addressed regarding healthcare professionals. Prospective weak and strong market tests for AIM are discussed in the conclusions for future work.

  6. Cosmic ray dose monitoring using RadFET sensors of the Rosetta instruments SESAME and COSIMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falke, Peter; Fischer, Hans-Herbert; Seidensticker, Klaus J.; Thiel, Klaus; Fischer, Henning; Hilchenbach, Martin; Henkel, Hartmut; Koch, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    On its more than 10 years journey to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, Rosetta carried RadFET ionising dose monitors in the central electronics of the orbiter instrument COSIMA and the lander instrument SESAME. The readings of the dosimeters were corrected for the temperature of the devices during measurements. Because the sensitivity of RadFETs depends on the energy of impinging charged particles, a mean efficiency factor for the prevalent proton radiation was determined by applying nine efficiency models to proton energy spectra of Rosetta's radiation environment. The resulting dose profiles show linear increases of the accumulated dose with time, mainly caused by galactic cosmic radiation, and the arrival of two solar particle events in 2005. The accumulated dose (in Silicon) during 3909 days in space from 2004-03-02 to 2014-11-14 was 3.2 ± 0.6 Gy in case of COSIMA and 1.9 ± 0.4 Gy for SESAME. The deviation of the two measurements is mainly due to the solar particle event in September 2005, which had a 5.3 ± 1.0 times stronger impact on the COSIMA RadFET. Measured dose levels are one order of magnitude lower than those expected before launch for not being exceeded on the 90% confidence level, which is mainly due to the low solar activity during the mission so far.

  7. Validation of low-cost ozone measurement instruments suitable for use in an air-quality monitoring network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Henshaw, Geoff S.; Bart, Mark; Laing, Greer; Wagner, John; Naisbitt, Simon; Salmond, Jennifer A.

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents a novel low-cost instrument that uses a sensor based on conductivity changes of heated tungstic oxide, which is capable of accurately measuring ambient concentrations of ozone. A combination of temperature steps and air flow-rate steps is used to continually reset and re-zero the sensor. A two-stage calibration procedure is presented, in which a nonlinear transformation converts sensor resistance to a signal linear in ozone concentration, then a linear correlation is used to align the calibration with a reference instrument. The required calibration functions specific for the sensor, and control system for air flow rate and sensor temperature, are housed with the sensor in a compact, simple-to-exchange assembly. The instrument can be operated on solar power and uses cell phone technology to enable monitoring in remote locations. Data from field trials are presented here to demonstrate that both the accuracy and the stability of the instrument over periods of months are within a few parts-per-billion by volume. We show that common failure modes can be detected through measurement of signals available from the instrument. The combination of long-term stability, self-diagnosis, and simple, inexpensive repair means that the cost of operation and calibration of the instruments is significantly reduced in comparison with traditional reference instrumentation. These instruments enable the economical construction and operation of ozone monitoring networks of accuracy, time resolution and spatial density sufficient to resolve the local gradients that are characteristic of urban air pollution.

  8. Tropospheric ozone column retrieval from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument by means of a neural network algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sellitto

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring tropospheric ozone from space is of critical importance in order to gain more thorough knowledge on phenomena affecting air quality and the greenhouse effect. Deriving information on tropospheric ozone from UV/VIS nadir satellite spectrometers is difficult owing to the weak sensitivity of the measured radiance spectra to variations of ozone in the troposphere. Here we propose an alternative method of analysis to retrieve tropospheric ozone columns from Ozone Monitoring Instrument radiances by means of a Neural Network algorithms. An extended set of ozone sonde measurements at northern mid-latitudes has been considered as the training and test data set. The design of the algorithm is extensively discussed. Our retrievals are compared to both tropospheric ozone residuals and optimal estimation retrievals over a similar independent test data set. Results show that our algorithm has comparable accuracy with respect to both correlative methods and its performance is slightly better over a subset containing only European ozone sonde stations. Possible sources of errors are analyzed. Finally, the capabilities of our algorithm to derive information on boundary layer ozone are studied and the results critically discussed.

  9. The Calibration and Characterization of Earth Remote Sensing and Environmental Monitoring Instruments. Chapter 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, James J.; Johnson, B. Carol; Barnes, Robert A.

    2005-01-01

    The use of remote sensing instruments on orbiting satellite platforms in the study of Earth Science and environmental monitoring was officially inaugurated with the April 1, 1960 launch of the Television Infrared Observation Satellite (TIROS) [1]. The first TIROS accommodated two television cameras and operated for only 78 days. However, the TIROS program, in providing in excess of 22,000 pictures of the Earth, achieved its primary goal of providing Earth images from a satellite platform to aid in identifying and monitoring meteorological processes. This marked the beginning of what is now over four decades of Earth observations from satellite platforms. reflected and emitted radiation from the Earth using instruments on satellite platforms. These measurements are input to climate models, and the model results are analyzed in an effort to detect short and long-term changes and trends in the Earth's climate and environment, to identify the cause of those changes, and to predict or influence future changes. Examples of short-term climate change events include the periodic appearance of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the tropical Pacific Ocean [2] and the spectacular eruption of Mount Pinatubo on the Philippine island of Luzon in 1991. Examples of long term climate change events, which are more subtle to detect, include the destruction of coral reefs, the disappearance of glaciers, and global warming. Climatic variability can be both large and small scale and can be caused by natural or anthropogenic processes. The periodic El Nino event is an example of a natural process which induces significant climatic variability over a wide range of the Earth. A classic example of a large scale anthropogenic influence on climate is the well-documented rapid increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide occurring since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution [3]. An example of the study of a small-scale anthropogenic influence in climate variability is the Atlanta Land

  10. Analysis of the potential of one possible instrumental configuration of the next generation of IASI instruments to monitor lower tropospheric ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sellitto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the added value brought by the next generation of IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounder Interferometer instruments to monitor lower tropospheric (LT ozone, we developed a pseudo-observation simulator, including a direct simulator of thermal infrared spectra and a full inversion scheme to retrieve ozone concentration profiles. We based our simulations on the instrumental configuration of IASI and of an IASI-like instrument, with a factor 2 improvement in terms of spectral resolution and radiometric noise. This scenario, that will be referred to as IASI/2, is one possible configuration of the IASI-NG (New Generation instrument (the configuration called IASI-NG/IRS2 currently designed by CNES (Centre National d'Études Spatiales. IASI-NG is expected to be launched in the 2020 timeframe as part of the EPS-SG (EUMETSAT Polar System-Second Generation, formerly post-EPS mission. We produced one month (August 2009 of tropospheric ozone pseudo-observations based on these two instrumental configurations. We compared the pseudo-observations and we found a clear improvement of LT ozone (up to 6 km altitude pseudo-observations quality for IASI/2. The estimated total error is expected to be more than 35% smaller at 5 km, and 20% smaller for the LT ozone column. The total error on the LT ozone column is, on average, lower than 10% for IASI/2. IASI/2 is expected to have a significantly better vertical sensitivity (monthly average degrees of freedom surface–6 km of 0.70 and to be sensitive at lower altitudes (more than 0.5 km lower than IASI, reaching nearly 3 km. Vertical ozone layers of 4 to 5 km thickness are expected to be resolved by IASI/2, while IASI has a vertical resolution of 6–8 km. According to our analyses, IASI/2 is expected to have the possibility of effectively separate lower from upper tropospheric ozone information even for low sensitivity scenarios. In addition, IASI/2 is expected to be able to better monitor LT ozone patterns at

  11. The Site of the ASTRI SST-2M Telescope Prototype: Atmospheric Monitoring and Auxiliary Instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Leto, G; Bellassai, G; Bruno, P; Fiorini, M; Grillo, A; Martinetti, E; La Rosa, G; Segreto, A; Sottile, G; Stringhetti, L

    2014-01-01

    ASTRI is a Flagship Project led by the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics, INAF. The main objective of the ASTRI project is to develop a prototype of the Small Size class Telescope for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) in a dual-mirror configuration (SST-2M). The ASTRI SST-2M is an end-to-end prototype that will be fully developed by the ASTRI Collaboration from the optics design and manufacturing to the focal plane camera, from the structure of the mount to all the needed software. The ASTRI SST-2M prototype will be placed at the INAF "M.G. Fracastoro" observing station in Serra La Nave on the Etna Mountain near Catania, Italy. The technological solutions adopted will be tested on field: observations of the Crab Nebula and of other sources will be essential part of the science verification phase, with the aim to assess the achievement of the scientific requirements. In the following we present the Serra La Nave site together with all the auxiliary instruments needed for atmospheric monitoring and c...

  12. Improved retrieval of SO2 from Ozone Monitoring Instrument: residual analysis and data noise correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Han

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, based on Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI observation data and considering the shortage of current Band Residual Difference algorithm (BRD algorithm in data noise correction since late 2008, we make a detailed analysis of OMI SO2 main noise sources and determine the best residual adjustment area by analyzing the different residual correction effects. After such modification, the OMI SO2 PBL results noise which use BRD retrieval algorithm is largely reduced, the precision of the SO2 results is improved, and the optimization of the BRD algorithm for data noise is realized. We select China as our study area and compare the results between the optimized results and the OMI SO2 PBL products. Results show that they are consistent with each other in January 2008; however, our modified algorithm results have higher precision and more reliable SO2 spatial distribution in January 2009. Finally, other current retrieval error sources are discussed, and further research is needed on these areas.

  13. Pomino: An Improved Satellite NO2 Product for the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J.; Martin, R.; Boersma, K. F.; Sneep, M.; Stammes, P.; Spurr, R. J. D.; Wang, P.; Van Roozendael, M.; Clemer, K.; Irie, H.

    2014-12-01

    Tropospheric NO2 columns retrieved from satellite instruments are useful to infer NOx pollution, NOx emissions and atmospheric chemistry. Current satellite products are subject to limitations in assumptions of aerosol optical effects, surface reflectance anisotropy, vertical profiles of NO2, and/or cloud optical properties. Here we develop an improved Peking University Ozone Monitoring Instrument NO2 product (POMINO) for China, complementing the popular DONIMO v2 product. POMINO explicitly accounts for aerosol optical effects, angular dependence of surface reflectance, and dynamically varying atmospheric profiles of air pressure, air temperature and NO2 at a high horizontal resolution (50 km). Prior to the NO2 retrieval, we retrieve cloud top pressure and cloud fraction using consistent assumptions about the states of the atmosphere and surface. For our NO2 and cloud retrievals, we adopt from KNMI (via www.temis.nl) the SCDs of tropospheric NO2 (DOMINO v2) and O2-O2 dimer (OMCLDO2 v1.1.1.3), the TOA reflectance, and some other ancillary information. We develop the AMFv6 code for radiative transfer calculation, based on LIDORT v3.6. Radiative transfer is calculated explicitly for each satellite pixel with no need to use a look-up table. The calculation of AMFv6 is parallelized and is sufficiently fast so that one day of retrieval with global coverage would only take about three hours using 16 CPU cores. POMINO is consistent with MAX-DOAS NO2 data in China, with a R2of 0.96 as compared to the value at 0.72 for DOMINO v2. The improved consistency is related to explicit pixel-by-pixel radiative transfer calculation (instead of using a look-up table), consistent treatments of all parameters in retrieving clouds and NO2, explicit consideration of aerosol optical effects (rather than adjusting 'effective' clouds to implicitly account for aerosols), and consideration of surface reflectance anisotropy. Additional analyses are being conducted on the daily, seasonal and

  14. Instrument evaluation no. 11. ESI nuclear model 271 C contamination monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Burgess, P H

    1978-01-01

    The various radiations encountered in radiological protection cover a wide range of energies and radiation measurements have to he carried out under an equally broad spectrum of environmental conditions. This report is one of a series intended to give information on the performance characteristics of radiological protection instruments, to assist in the selection of appropriate instruments for a given purpose, to interpret the results obtained with such instruments, and, in particular, to know the likely sources and magnitude of errors that might be associated with measurements in the field. The radiation, electrical and environmental characteristics of radiation protection instruments are considered together with those aspects of the construction which make an instrument convenient for routine use. To provide consistent criteria for instrument performance, the range of tests performed on any particular class of instrument, the test methods and the criteria of acceptable performance are based broadly on the a...

  15. A global catalogue of large SO2 sources and emissions derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fioletov, Vitali E.; McLinden, Chris A.; Krotkov, Nickolay; Li, Can; Joiner, Joanna; Theys, Nicolas; Carn, Simon; Moran, Mike D.

    2016-09-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) measurements from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) satellite sensor processed with the new principal component analysis (PCA) algorithm were used to detect large point emission sources or clusters of sources. The total of 491 continuously emitting point sources releasing from about 30 kt yr-1 to more than 4000 kt yr-1 of SO2 per year have been identified and grouped by country and by primary source origin: volcanoes (76 sources); power plants (297); smelters (53); and sources related to the oil and gas industry (65). The sources were identified using different methods, including through OMI measurements themselves applied to a new emission detection algorithm, and their evolution during the 2005-2014 period was traced by estimating annual emissions from each source. For volcanic sources, the study focused on continuous degassing, and emissions from explosive eruptions were excluded. Emissions from degassing volcanic sources were measured, many for the first time, and collectively they account for about 30 % of total SO2 emissions estimated from OMI measurements, but that fraction has increased in recent years given that cumulative global emissions from power plants and smelters are declining while emissions from oil and gas industry remained nearly constant. Anthropogenic emissions from the USA declined by 80 % over the 2005-2014 period as did emissions from western and central Europe, whereas emissions from India nearly doubled, and emissions from other large SO2-emitting regions (South Africa, Russia, Mexico, and the Middle East) remained fairly constant. In total, OMI-based estimates account for about a half of total reported anthropogenic SO2 emissions; the remaining half is likely related to sources emitting less than 30 kt yr-1 and not detected by OMI.

  16. A simple low-cost microcontroller-based photometric instrument for monitoring chloroplast movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Robert; Königer, Martina; Schjeide, Brit-Maren; Dikmak, George; Kohler, Susan; Harris, Gary C

    2006-03-01

    A new microcontroller-based photometric instrument for monitoring blue light dependent changes in leaf transmission (chloroplast movement) was developed based on a modification of the double-beam technique developed by Walzcak and Gabrys [(1980) Photosynthetica 14: 65-72]. A blue and red bicolor light emitting diode (LED) provided both a variable intensity blue actinic light and a low intensity red measuring beam. A phototransistor detected the intensity of the transmitted measuring light. An inexpensive microcontroller independently and precisely controlled the light emission of the bicolor LED. A typical measurement event involved turning off the blue actinic light for 100 mus to create a narrow temporal window for turning on and measuring the transmittance of the red light. The microcontroller was programmed using LogoChip Logo (http://www.wellesley.edu/Physics/Rberg/logochip/) to record fluence rate response curves. Laser scanning confocal microscopy was utilized to correlate the changes in leaf transmission with intercellular chloroplast position. In the dark, the chloroplasts in the spongy mesophyll exhibited no evident asymmetries in their distribution, however, in the palisade layer the cell surface in contact with the overlying epidermis was devoid of chloroplasts. The low light dependent decrease in leaf transmittance in dark acclimated leaves was correlated with the movement of chloroplasts within the palisade layer into the regions previously devoid of chloroplasts. Changes in leaf transmittance were evident within one minute following the onset of illumination. Minimal leaf transmittance was correlated with chloroplasts having retreated from cell surfaces perpendicular to the incident light (avoidance reaction) in both spongy and palisade layers.

  17. Instrumentation Recommendations for Volcano Monitoring at U.S. Volcanoes Under the National Volcano Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Seth C.; Freymueller, Jeff T.; LaHusen, Richard G.; McGee, Kenneth A.; Poland, Michael P.; Power, John A.; Schmidt, David A.; Schneider, David J.; Stephens, George; Werner, Cynthia A.; White, Randall A.

    2008-01-01

    As magma moves toward the surface, it interacts with anything in its path: hydrothermal systems, cooling magma bodies from previous eruptions, and (or) the surrounding 'country rock'. Magma also undergoes significant changes in its physical properties as pressure and temperature conditions change along its path. These interactions and changes lead to a range of geophysical and geochemical phenomena. The goal of volcano monitoring is to detect and correctly interpret such phenomena in order to provide early and accurate warnings of impending eruptions. Given the well-documented hazards posed by volcanoes to both ground-based populations (for example, Blong, 1984; Scott, 1989) and aviation (for example, Neal and others, 1997; Miller and Casadevall, 2000), volcano monitoring is critical for public safety and hazard mitigation. Only with adequate monitoring systems in place can volcano observatories provide accurate and timely forecasts and alerts of possible eruptive activity. At most U.S. volcanoes, observatories traditionally have employed a two-component approach to volcano monitoring: (1) install instrumentation sufficient to detect unrest at volcanic systems likely to erupt in the not-too-distant future; and (2) once unrest is detected, install any instrumentation needed for eruption prediction and monitoring. This reactive approach is problematic, however, for two reasons. 1. At many volcanoes, rapid installation of new ground-1. based instruments is difficult or impossible. Factors that complicate rapid response include (a) eruptions that are preceded by short (hours to days) precursory sequences of geophysical and (or) geochemical activity, as occurred at Mount Redoubt (Alaska) in 1989 (24 hours), Anatahan (Mariana Islands) in 2003 (6 hours), and Mount St. Helens (Washington) in 1980 and 2004 (7 and 8 days, respectively); (b) inclement weather conditions, which may prohibit installation of new equipment for days, weeks, or even months, particularly at

  18. Vital improvements to the retrieval of tropospheric NO2 columns from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maasakkers, Joannes D.; Folkert Boersma, K.; Williams, Jason E.; van Geffen, Jos; Vinken, Geert C. M.; Sneep, Maarten; Hendrick, Francois; van Roozendael, Michel; Pepijn Veefkind, J.

    2013-04-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) play an important role in tropospheric chemistry, they catalyze the production of ozone (O3) and contribute to aerosol formation. NOx is linked to the oxidizing efficiency of the atmosphere since O3 plays an important role in the formation of OH. Satellite observations of NO2 are important for monitoring and studying concentrations of nitrogen oxides, but considerable uncertainties on the accuracy and robustness of the retrievals, and their fitness for model evaluation still persist. These uncertainties pertain to all aspects of the retrieval: (1) spectral fitting, (2) stratospheric background correction, and (3) air mass factor calculation. Here we present a number of relevant improvements to the tropospheric nitrogen dioxide column retrieval algorithm from OMI (DOMINO v3). We revisit the 405-465 nm spectral fitting window for the OMI NO2 slant column retrievals, and suggest adaptations to this window to improve agreement with (stratospheric) columns obtained from SCIAMACHY and GOME-2, as validated with independent FTIR NO2 columns observed from the ground at Jungfraujoch. Furthermore, stronger nudging of the stratospheric O3:HNO3 ratios in the TM5 chemistry transport model (used to estimate the stratospheric background NO2) with those observed by the ODIN instrument, enables us to improve stratospheric NO2 simulations with substantial benefits for the assimilation and stratospheric NO2 corrections in the retrieval. A third important innovation is the coupling of the Dutch OMI NO2 retrieval to the TM5 model with a global resolution of 1°×1°. As suggested previously by Boersma et al. [2007] and demonstrated by Heckel et al. [2011], the better resolved a priori profile shapes lead to a much better understanding of pollution gradients observed from space. In addition to the increased resolution, updated chemistry and emissions (improved soil and ship NOx emissions) in TM5 make the OMI retrieved tropospheric NO2 columns

  19. Operational challenges for astronomical instrumentation in Antarctica: results from five years of environmental monitoring of AMICA at Dome C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolci, Mauro; Valentini, Angelo; Tavagnacco, Daniele; Di Cianno, Amico; Straniero, Oscar

    2016-08-01

    The Antarctic Plateau is one of the best observing sites on Earth, especially for infrared astronomy. The extremely low temperatures (down to -80°C), the low pressure (around 650 mbar) and the very dry atmosphere (PWV less than 1 mm) allow for a very clear and dark sky, as well as for a very low instrumental background. These unique properties, however, make it also very difficult to install and operate astronomical instrumentation. AMICA (Antarctic Multiband Infrared CAmera) is an instrument especially designed for Antarctic operation, whose installation at Dome C has been completed in 2013. Since then it has been continuously working over the last five years, monitoring and controlling in particular the environmental and operating conditions through a dedicated application, its Environmental Control System (ECS). The recorded behavior of AMICA highlighted a set of peculiar aspects of the site that are hard to consider a priori. Although mechanical and electronic COTS components can reliably work in thermally insulated and controlled boxes, simple insulation causes their overheating because of the air dryness and rarefaction which make the heat transfer extremely inefficient. Heat removal is also a real problem when managing heavy-duty devices like cryocoolers, whose excess power removal needs to be fast and efficient. Finally, the lack of an electrical ground generates a wide variety of transient electrical and electromagnetic phenomena which often make electronic instrumentation very unstable. A list of new recommendations is therefore presented, as a guideline for future astronomical instruments operating in Antarctica.

  20. Implementation of Diagnostic Model for Integrated System Health Monitoring of a Habitat Instrumentation System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The approach to developing this tool are the following: to use SysML to model the instrumentation system, to develop a method to seamlessly transfer data from SysML...

  1. A cyber-physical management system for delivering and monitoring surgical instruments in the OR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Ting; Jacob, Mithun; Akingba, George; Wachs, Juan P

    2013-08-01

    The standard practice in the operating room (OR) is having a surgical technician deliver surgical instruments to the surgeon quickly and inexpensively, as required. This human "in the loop" system may result in mistakes (eg, missing information, ambiguity of instructions, and delays). Errors can be reduced or eliminated by integrating information technology (IT) and cybernetics into the OR. Gesture and voice automatic acquisition, processing, and interpretation allow interaction with these new systems without disturbing the normal flow of surgery. This article describes the development of a cyber-physical management system (CPS), including a robotic scrub nurse, to support surgeons by passing surgical instruments during surgery as required and recording counts of surgical instruments into a personal health record (PHR). The robot used responds to hand signals and voice messages detected through sophisticated computer vision and data mining techniques. The CPS was tested during a mock surgery in the OR. The in situ experiment showed that the robot recognized hand gestures reliably (with an accuracy of 97%), it can retrieve instruments as close as 25 mm, and the total delivery time was less than 3 s on average. This online health tool allows the exchange of clinical and surgical information to electronic medical record-based and PHR-based applications among different hospitals, regardless of the style viewer. The CPS has the potential to be adopted in the OR to handle surgical instruments and track them in a safe and accurate manner, releasing the human scrub tech from these tasks.

  2. Monitoring the Health and Safety of the ACIS Instrument On-Board the Chandra X-ray Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Virani, S N; De Pasquale, J M; Plucinsky, P P; Virani, Shanil N.; Ford, Peter G.; Pasquale, Joseph M. De; Plucinsky, Paul P.

    2002-01-01

    The Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO), NASA's latest ``Great Observatory'', was launched on July 23, 1999 and reached its final orbit on August 7, 1999. The CXO is in a highly elliptical orbit, approximately 140,000 km x 10,000 km, and has a period of approximately 63.5 hours (~2.65 days). Communication with the CXO nominally consists of 1-hour contacts spaced 8-hours apart. Thus, once a communication link has been established, it is very important that the health and safety status of the scientific instruments as well as the Observatory itself be determined as quickly as possible. In this paper, we focus exclusively on the automated health and safety monitoring scripts developed for the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) to use during those 1-hour contacts. ACIS is one of the two focal plane instruments on-board the CXO. We present an overview of the real-time ACIS Engineering Data Web Page and the alert schemes developed for monitoring the instrument status during each communication contact. A suite of ...

  3. Temperature performance of portable radiation survey instruments used for environmental monitoring and clean-up activities in Fukushima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saegusa, Jun; Yanagisawa, Kayo; Hasumi, Atsushi; Shimizu, Takenori; Uchita, Yoshiaki

    2017-08-01

    Following the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011, extensive radiation monitoring and environmental clean-up activities have been conducted throughout the Fukushima region. Outside air temperatures there reach 40 °C in summer and -20 °C in winter, which are beyond the quoted operational range of many radiation survey instruments. Herein, temperature performance of four types of portable Japanese radiation survey instruments widely used in Fukushima was experimentally investigated using a temperature-controlled chamber. They included two ionization chamber type instruments, Fuji NHA1 and Aloka ICS-323C, and two NaI(Tl) scintillation type ones, Fuji NHC7 and Aloka TCS-172B. Experimental results showed significantly diverse characteristics on the temperature dependences from one type of instrument to another. For example, NHA1 overestimated the ambient dose-equivalent rate by as much as 17% at -30 °C and 10% at 40 °C, whereas the TCS-172B readings underestimated the rate by 30% at -30 °C and 7% at 40 °C.

  4. Development of a Wearable Instrumented Vest for Posture Monitoring and System Usability Verification Based on the Technology Acceptance Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Yen; Chou, Wen-Cheng; Tsai, Tsai-Hsuan; Lin, Chung-Chih; Lee, Ming-Yih

    2016-12-17

    Body posture and activity are important indices for assessing health and quality of life, especially for elderly people. Therefore, an easily wearable device or instrumented garment would be valuable for monitoring elderly people's postures and activities to facilitate healthy aging. In particular, such devices should be accepted by elderly people so that they are willing to wear it all the time. This paper presents the design and development of a novel, textile-based, intelligent wearable vest for real-time posture monitoring and emergency warnings. The vest provides a highly portable and low-cost solution that can be used both indoors and outdoors in order to provide long-term care at home, including health promotion, healthy aging assessments, and health abnormality alerts. The usability of the system was verified using a technology acceptance model-based study of 50 elderly people. The results indicated that although elderly people are anxious about some newly developed wearable technologies, they look forward to wearing this instrumented posture-monitoring vest in the future.

  5. Novel instrumentation for online monitoring of stationary beds and their height for settling slurries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ilgner, Hartmut J

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Novel instrumentation has been developed to detect stationary bed conditions for settling slurries by using externally-mounted sensor heads with a heater and a temperature sensor. These heads are configured in such a way that suitable data...

  6. Target mass monitoring and instrumentation in the Daya Bay antineutrino detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band, H. R.; Cherwinka, J. J.; Greenler, L. S.; Heeger, K. M.; Hinrichs, P.; Kang, L.; Lewis, C. A.; Li, S. F.; Lin, S. X.; McFarlane, M. C.; Wang, W.; Webber, D. M.; Wei, Y. D.; Wise, T. S.; Xiao, Q.; Yang, L.; Zhang, Z. J.

    2013-04-01

    The Daya Bay experiment measures sin 22θ13 using functionally identical antineutrino detectors located at distances of 300 to 2000 meters from the Daya Bay nuclear power complex. Each detector consists of three nested fluid volumes surrounded by photomultiplier tubes. These volumes are coupled to overflow tanks on top of the detector to allow for thermal expansion of the liquid. Antineutrinos are detected through the inverse beta decay reaction on the proton-rich scintillator target. A precise and continuous measurement of the detector's central target mass is achieved by monitoring the the fluid level in the overflow tanks with cameras and ultrasonic and capacitive sensors. In addition, the monitoring system records detector temperature and levelness at multiple positions. This monitoring information allows the precise determination of the detectors' effective number of target protons during data taking. We present the design, calibration, installation and in-situ tests of the Daya Bay real-time antineutrino detector monitoring sensors and readout electronics.

  7. A Novel Design of Needle Aspiration Biopsy Monitoring Instrument (NAOMI Tested on a Low Cost Chest Phantom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surakusumah Rino Ferdian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Needle biopsy is a medical intervention method for taking a lung tissue sample that suspected as a cancer. The disadvantage is the physicians directly visualize the anatomical structures in an open surgery for lung cancer biopsy procedure. There is a need to develop an instrument that may help the physician to guarantee the accuracy and efficiency while performing needle aspiration biopsy. Therefore, a needle aspiration biopsy monitoring instrument or named as NAOMI is proposed. It consists of a microcontroller system, an IMU sensor, an ultrasonic ranging module, a bluetooth module, and a 9V lithium battery. The experimental testing consist of performance testing, functional testing using chest phantom, and user acceptances. The results showed that the NAOMI improve the accuracy and efficiency while performing the needle biopsy operation.

  8. Distributing space weather monitoring instruments and educational materials worldwide for IHY 2007: The AWESOME and SID project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, Deborah; Cohen, Morris; Hoeksema, Todd; Inan, Umran; Mitchell, Ray; Scherrer, Philip

    2008-12-01

    The International Heliophysical Year (IHY) aims to advance our understanding of the fundamental processes that govern the Sun, Earth, and heliosphere. The IHY Education and Outreach Program is dedicated to inspiring the next generation of space and Earth scientists as well as spreading the knowledge, beauty, and relevance of our solar system to the people of the world. In our Space Weather Monitor project we deploy a global network of sensors to high schools and universities to provide quantitative diagnostics of solar-induced ionospheric disturbances, thunderstorm intensity, and magnetospheric activity. We bring real scientific instruments and data in a cost-effective way to students throughout the world. Instruments meet the objectives of being sensitive enough to produce research-quality data, yet inexpensive enough for placement in high schools and universities. The instruments and data have been shown to be appropriate to, and usable by, high school age and early university students. Data contributed to the Stanford data center is openly shared and partnerships between groups in different nations develop naturally. Students and teachers have direct access to scientific expertise. The result is a world-wide collaboration of scientists, teachers, and students to investigate the variability of the ionosphere. The research-quality AWESOME (Atmospheric Weather Electromagnetic System of Observation, Modeling, and Education) instruments have been selected as a participating program by the United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative (UNBSSI). The IHY Committee for International Education and Public Outreach has designated the simpler SID (Sudden Ionospheric Disturbance) monitors to be provided to teacher/student teams in each of the 192 countries of the world.

  9. Web-enabled and real-time reporting: Cellular based instrumentation for coastal sea level and surge monitoring

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.; Desai, R.G.P.

    every 5 min in the form of an e-mail message. The resulting data are displayed on the NTSLF web pages. Chile established a network, which Tsunami Ch022.tex 27/9/2006 11: 56 Page 251 Web-enabled and real-time reporting: instrumentation and monitoring 251... Maldonaldo), Nor- way (Daniel Hareide), France (Guy Woppelman), UK (Peter Foden), Chile (Juan Fierro), and USA (Bernie Kilonsky) to provide advice and recommendations concerning technical aspects of sea-level observations such as station configuration, data...

  10. Recent Large Reduction in Sulfur Dioxide Emissions from Chinese Power Plants Observed by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Can; Zhang, Qiang; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Streets, David G.; He, Kebin; Tsay, Si-Chee; Gleason, James F.

    2010-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aboard NASA's Aura satellite observed substantial increases in total column SO2 and tropospheric column NO2 from 2005 to 2007, over several areas in northern China where large coal-fired power plants were built during this period. The OMI-observed SO2/NO2 ratio is consistent with the SO2/ NO2, emissions estimated from a bottom-up approach. In 2008 over the same areas, OMI detected little change in NO2, suggesting steady electricity output from the power plants. However, dramatic reductions of S0 2 emissions were observed by OMI at the same time. These reductions confirm the effectiveness of the flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) devices in reducing S02 emissions, which likely became operational between 2007 and 2008. This study further demonstrates that the satellite sensors can monitor and characterize anthropogenic emissions from large point sources.

  11. GLORI: A GNSS-R Dual Polarization Airborne Instrument for Land Surface Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motte, Erwan; Zribi, Mehrez; Fanise, Pascal; Egido, Alejandro; Darrozes, José; Al-Yaari, Amen; Baghdadi, Nicolas; Baup, Frédéric; Dayau, Sylvia; Fieuzal, Remy; Frison, Pierre-Louis; Guyon, Dominique; Wigneron, Jean-Pierre

    2016-05-20

    Global Navigation Satellite System-Reflectometry (GNSS-R) has emerged as a remote sensing tool, which is complementary to traditional monostatic radars, for the retrieval of geophysical parameters related to surface properties. In the present paper, we describe a new polarimetric GNSS-R system, referred to as the GLObal navigation satellite system Reflectometry Instrument (GLORI), dedicated to the study of land surfaces (soil moisture, vegetation water content, forest biomass) and inland water bodies. This system was installed as a permanent payload on a French ATR42 research aircraft, from which simultaneous measurements can be carried out using other instruments, when required. Following initial laboratory qualifications, two airborne campaigns involving nine flights were performed in 2014 and 2015 in the Southwest of France, over various types of land cover, including agricultural fields and forests. Some of these flights were made concurrently with in situ ground truth campaigns. Various preliminary applications for the characterisation of agricultural and forest areas are presented. Initial analysis of the data shows that the performance of the GLORI instrument is well within specifications, with a cross-polarization isolation better than -15 dB at all elevations above 45°, a relative polarimetric calibration accuracy better than 0.5 dB, and an apparent reflectivity sensitivity better than -30 dB, thus demonstrating its strong potential for the retrieval of land surface characteristics.

  12. GLORI: A GNSS-R Dual Polarization Airborne Instrument for Land Surface Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwan Motte

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Global Navigation Satellite System-Reflectometry (GNSS-R has emerged as a remote sensing tool, which is complementary to traditional monostatic radars, for the retrieval of geophysical parameters related to surface properties. In the present paper, we describe a new polarimetric GNSS-R system, referred to as the GLObal navigation satellite system Reflectometry Instrument (GLORI, dedicated to the study of land surfaces (soil moisture, vegetation water content, forest biomass and inland water bodies. This system was installed as a permanent payload on a French ATR42 research aircraft, from which simultaneous measurements can be carried out using other instruments, when required. Following initial laboratory qualifications, two airborne campaigns involving nine flights were performed in 2014 and 2015 in the Southwest of France, over various types of land cover, including agricultural fields and forests. Some of these flights were made concurrently with in situ ground truth campaigns. Various preliminary applications for the characterisation of agricultural and forest areas are presented. Initial analysis of the data shows that the performance of the GLORI instrument is well within specifications, with a cross-polarization isolation better than −15 dB at all elevations above 45°, a relative polarimetric calibration accuracy better than 0.5 dB, and an apparent reflectivity sensitivity better than −30 dB, thus demonstrating its strong potential for the retrieval of land surface characteristics.

  13. Target Mass Monitoring and Instrumentation in the Daya Bay Antineutrino Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Band, Henry R; Greenler, Lee S; Heeger, Karsten M; Hinrichs, Paul; Kang, Li; Lewis, Christine; Li, Shanfeng; Lin, Shengxin; McFarlane, Michael C; Wang, Wei; Webber, David M; Wei, Yadong; Wise, Thomas; Xiao, Qiang; Yang, Li; Zhang, Zhijian

    2012-01-01

    The Daya Bay experiment measures sin^2 2{\\theta}_13 using functionally identical antineutrino detectors located at distances of 300 to 2000 meters from the Daya Bay nuclear power complex. Each detector consists of three nested fluid volumes surrounded by photomultiplier tubes. These volumes are coupled to overflow tanks on top of the detector to allow for thermal expansion of the liquid. Antineutrinos are detected through the inverse beta decay reaction on the proton-rich scintillator target. A precise and continuous measurement of the detector's central target mass is achieved by monitoring the the fluid level in the overflow tanks with cameras and ultrasonic and capacitive sensors. In addition, the monitoring system records detector temperature and levelness at multiple positions. This monitoring information allows the precise determination of the detectors' effective number of target protons during data taking. We present the design, calibration, installation and in-situ tests of the Daya Bay real-time ant...

  14. Evaluation of broadband surface solar irradiance derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, P.; Sneep, M.; Veefkind, J.P.; Stammes, P.; Levelt, P.F.

    2014-01-01

    Surface solar irradiance (SSI) data are important for planning and estimating the production of solar power plants. Long-term high quality surface solar radiation data are needed for monitoring climate change. This paper presents a new surface solar irradiance dataset, the broadband (0.2–4 μm) surfa

  15. An Exploratory Investigation of Various Assessment Instruments as Correlates of Complex Visual Monitoring Performance,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    Inventory (15) and an intelligence test, the Wonderlic Personnel Test (36), to subjects who subsequently performed a simple visual monitoring task...1962. 36. Wonderlic , E. F.: Wonderlic Personnel Test. Glencoe, Illinois: Author, 1922. 37. Zuckerman, M.: Manual and Research Report for the Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS). Newark, New Jersey: University of Delaware, 1972. 17 IATE

  16. Implementation of an Integrated, Portable Transformer Condition Monitoring Instrument in the Classroom and On-Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, B.; Dey, D.; Chakravorti, S.

    2010-01-01

    The development of integrated, portable, transformer condition monitoring (TCM) equipment for classroom demonstrations as well as for student exercises conducted in the field is discussed. Demonstrations include experimentation with real-world transformers to illustrate concepts such as polarization and depolarization current through oil-paper…

  17. Implementation of an Integrated, Portable Transformer Condition Monitoring Instrument in the Classroom and On-Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, B.; Dey, D.; Chakravorti, S.

    2010-01-01

    The development of integrated, portable, transformer condition monitoring (TCM) equipment for classroom demonstrations as well as for student exercises conducted in the field is discussed. Demonstrations include experimentation with real-world transformers to illustrate concepts such as polarization and depolarization current through oil-paper…

  18. Novel instrumentation for real-time monitoring using miniaturized flow systems with integrated biosensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freaney, R.; McShane, A.; Keaveny, T.V.; McKenna, M.; Rabenstein, K.; Scheller, F.W.; Pfeiffer, D.; Urban, G.; Moser, I.; Jobst, G.; Manz, A.; Verpoorte, E.; Widmer, M.W.; Diamond, D.; Dempsey, E.; Saez De Viteri, F.J.; Smyth, M.

    1997-01-01

    A prototype miniaturized Total Chemical Analysis System (μTAS) has been developed and applied to on-line monitoring of glucose and lactate in the core blood of anaesthetized dogs. The system consists of a highly efficient microdialysis sampling interface sited in a small-scale extracorporeal shunt c

  19. Evaluation of broadband surface solar irradiance derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, P.; Sneep, M.; Veefkind, J.P.; Stammes, P.; Levelt, P.F.

    2014-01-01

    Surface solar irradiance (SSI) data are important for planning and estimating the production of solar power plants. Long-term high quality surface solar radiation data are needed for monitoring climate change. This paper presents a new surface solar irradiance dataset, the broadband (0.2–4 μm)

  20. Provincial soil-quality monitoring networks in the Netherlands as an instrument for environmental protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busink, E.R.V.; Postma, S.

    2000-01-01

    Since 1991, several provinces in the Netherlands have put much effort in establishing soil-quality monitoring networks. The purpose of these networks is to provide insight in the trends in (geochemical) soil quality, on which new policies for environmental protection can be based, such as restrictio

  1. Process monitoring and control with CHEMIN, a miniaturized CCD-based instrument for simultaneous XRD/XRF analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaniman, David T.; Bish, D.; Guthrie, G.; Chipera, S.; Blake, David E.; Collins, S. Andy; Elliott, S. T.; Sarrazin, P.

    1999-10-01

    There is a large variety of mining and manufacturing operations where process monitoring and control can benefit from on-site analysis of both chemical and mineralogic constituents. CHEMIN is a CCD-based instrument capable of both X-ray fluorescence (XRF; chemical) and X-ray diffraction (XRD; mineralogic) analysis. Monitoring and control with an instrument like CHEMIN can be applied to feedstocks, intermediate materials, and final products to optimize production. Examples include control of cement feedstock, of ore for smelting, and of minerals that pose inhalation hazards in the workplace. The combined XRD/XRF capability of CHEMIN can be used wherever a desired commodity is associated with unwanted constituents that may be similar in chemistry or structure but not both (e.g., Ca in both gypsum and feldspar, where only the gypsum is desired to make wallboard). In the mining industry, CHEMIN can determine mineral abundances on the spot and enable more economical mining by providing the means to assay when is being mined, quickly and frequently, at minimal cost. In manufacturing, CHEMIN could be used to spot-check the chemical composition and crystalline makeup of a product at any stage of production. Analysis by CHEMIN can be used as feedback in manufacturing processes where rates of heating, process temperature, mixture of feedstocks, and other variables must be adjusted in real time to correct structure and/or chemistry of the product (e.g., prevention of periclase and alkali sulfate coproduction in cement manufacture).

  2. Ambulatory instrument for monitoring indirect beat-to-beat blood pressure in superficial temporal artery using volume-compensation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, S; Yamakoshi, K

    1996-11-01

    A portable instrument, based on a volume-compensation technique, is designed for ambulatory monitoring of indirect beat-to-beat blood pressure (BP) in the superficial temporal artery. The instrument consists of a small disc-type cuff and a portable unit carried by the subject. Several components are integrated in the cuff for applying counter-pressure to the artery, i.e. a reflectance-type photo-plethysmographic sensor for arterial volume detection, a pressure sensor for cuff pressure Pc measurement and a nozzle flapper-type- electro-pneumatic convertor for controlling Pc. The portable unit includes volume servo control circuitry and a microprocessor-based signal-processing and recording unit. This automatically performs all the necessary measurement procedures and stores into a memory IC element the processed systolic, mean and diastolic blood pressure data, together with pulse intervals on a beat-to-beat basis from the servo-controlled Pc (indirectly measured BP waveform). With this instrument, momentary changes in BP during ambulatory situations such as bicycle ergometer exercise and daily activities including motorway driving are successfully recorded. From the results of simultaneous measurement of the subject's posture changes, the effect of posture change on blood pressure, e.g. baroreceptor-cardiac reflex, is also clearly demonstrated.

  3. Development of a portable instrument for the continuous analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and its application to environmental monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Etsu; Matsushita, Kazumasa; Nakamura, Mitsuaki; Fuse, Yasuro; Miki, Sadao; Fujimoto, Kiyoomi; Morita, Hiroyoshi; Shimada, Osamu

    2006-01-01

    A small, time efficient and sensitive instrument for the continuous analysis of very volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with a boiling point lower than 100 degrees C in addition to the analysis of VOCs with a boiling point in the range of 100-150 degrees C was developed and applied to the measurement of VOCs in the course of university research and environmental monitoring. VOCs, such as n-hexane, acetone, ethyl acetate, alcohols, benzene, toluene and xylene, were continuously measured once every 30 min. The detection limits of hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene and toluene at a preconcentration time of 10 min were 0.41 microg/m(3) (0.12 ppb), 0.67 microg/m(3) (0.19 ppb), 0.22 microg/m(3) (0.07 ppb) and 0.22 microg/m(3) (0.06 ppb), respectively. The relative standard deviations of VOCs were less than 5%. The sensitivities of the present method VOCs were higher than those of the conventional method. The temporal changes in VOC concentrations in several laboratories and at a plant for the disposal of organic liquid wastes were measured, and the behavior of VOCs was analyzed. All the VOC concentrations, except that of ethyl acetate, determined using the portable instrument were slightly lower than those determined using a passive sampler. The portable instrument developed in the course of this study can be used for the risk assessment and management of chemicals.

  4. A New Submersible Imaging-in-flow Instrument to Monitor Nano- and Microplankton: Imaging FlowCytobot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, R. J.; Sosik, H. M.; Shalapyonok, A.

    2004-12-01

    Understanding of how coastal plankton communities are regulated has traditionally been limited by undersampling, but cabled observatories now provide opportunities to deploy submersible sensors that have high power and data transmission requirements. We have developed an in situ instrument to carry out high-resolution, long term monitoring of phytoplankton and microzooplankton in the size range 10 to100 micrometers, to be deployed at cabled research facilities such as the Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory (MVCO). The new instrument is designed to complement FlowCytobot, a submersible flow cytometer currently deployed at MVCO that uses fluorescence and light scattering signals from a laser beam to characterize the smallest phytoplankton cells (less than 10 micrometers). Imaging FlowCytobot uses a combination of flow cytometric and video technology to capture images of organisms for identification and to measure chlorophyll fluorescence associated with each image. Images will be classified using neural net software, while the measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence will allow us to discriminate heterotrophic from phototrophic cells. The new instrument, like the original FlowCytobot is autonomous but remotely programmable. It utilizes a computer controlled syringe pump and distribution valve that allows periodic anti-fouling treatment and analysis of standard beads. Samples are analyzed continuously (0.25 to 2.5 ml per min) and data is sent over a fiber optic link to a remote computer for analysis. Preliminary results indicate that we can detect cells as small as 5 micrometers and discriminate several taxa of diatoms and dinoflagellates.

  5. A high dynamic-range instrument for SPICA for coronagraphic observation of exoplanets and monitoring of transiting exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Enya, K; Takeuchi, S; Kotani, T; Yamamuro, T

    2011-01-01

    This paper, first, presents introductory reviews of the Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) mission and the SPICA Coronagraph Instrument (SCI). SPICA will realize a 3m class telescope cooled to 6K in orbit. The launch of SPICA is planned to take place in FY2018. The SPICA mission provides us with a unique opportunity to make high dynamic-range observations because of its large telescope aperture, high stability, and the capability for making infrared observations from deep space. The SCI is a high dynamic-range instrument proposed for SPICA. The primary objectives for the SCI are the direct coronagraphic detection and spectroscopy of Jovian exoplanets in the infrared region, while the monitoring of transiting planets is another important target owing to the non-coronagraphic mode of the SCI. Then, recent technical progress and ideas in conceptual studies are presented, which can potentially enhance the performance of the instrument: the designs of an integral 1-dimensional binary-s...

  6. A MGy radiation-hardened sensor instrumentation link for nuclear reactor monitoring and remote handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbeeck, Jens; Cao, Ying [KU Leuven - KUL, Div. LRD-MAGyICS, Kasteelpark Arenberg 10, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Van Uffelen, Marco; Mont Casellas, Laura; Damiani, Carlo; Morales, Emilio Ruiz; Santana, Roberto Ranz [Fusion for Energy - F4E, c/Josep,n deg. 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral, Ed. B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Meek, Richard; Haist, Bernhard [Oxford Technologies Ltd. OTL, 7 Nuffield Way, Abingdon OX14 1RL (United Kingdom); De Cock, Wouter; Vermeeren, Ludo [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Steyaert, Michiel [KU Leuven, ESAT-MICAS, KasteelparkArenberg 10, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Leroux, Paul [KU Leuven, ESAT-MICAS, KasteelparkArenberg 10, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium)

    2015-07-01

    Decommissioning, dismantling and remote handling applications in nuclear facilities all require robotic solutions that are able to survive in radiation environments. Recently raised safety, radiation hardness and cost efficiency demands from both the nuclear regulatory and the society impose severe challenges in traditional methods. For example, in case of the dismantling of the Fukushima sites, solutions that survive accumulated doses higher than 1 MGy are mandatory. To allow remote operation of these tools in nuclear environments, electronics were used to be shielded with several centimeters of lead or even completely banned in these solutions. However, shielding electronics always leads to bulky and heavy solutions, which reduces the flexibility of robotic tools. It also requires longer repair time and produces extra waste further in a dismantling or decommissioning cycle. In addition, often in current reactor designs, due to size restrictions and the need to inspect very tight areas there are limitations to the use of shielding. A MGy radiation-hardened sensor instrumentation link developed by MAGyICS provides a solution to build a flexible, easy removable and small I and C module with MGy radiation tolerance without any shielding. Hereby it removes all these pains to implement electronics in robotic tools. The demonstrated solution in this poster is developed for ITER Remote Handling equipments operating in high radiation environments (>1 MGy) in and around the Tokamak. In order to obtain adequately accurate instrumentation and control information, as well as to ease the umbilical management, there is a need of front-end electronics that will have to be located close to those actuators and sensors on the remote handling tool. In particular, for diverter remote handling, it is estimated that these components will face gamma radiation up to 300 Gy/h (in-vessel) and a total dose of 1 MGy. The radiation-hardened sensor instrumentation link presented here, consists

  7. Monitoring of HTS compound library quality via a high-resolution image acquisition and processing instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillargeon, Pierre; Scampavia, Louis; Einsteder, Ross; Hodder, Peter

    2011-06-01

    This report presents the high-resolution image acquisition and processing instrument for compound management applications (HIAPI-CM). The HIAPI-CM combines imaging spectroscopy and machine-vision analysis to perform rapid assessment of high-throughput screening (HTS) compound library quality. It has been customized to detect and classify typical artifacts found in HTS compound library microtiter plates (MTPs). These artifacts include (1) insufficient volume of liquid compound sample, (2) compound precipitation, and (3) colored compounds that interfere with HTS assay detection format readout. The HIAPI-CM is also configured to automatically query and compare its analysis results to data stored in a LIMS or corporate database, aiding in the detection of compound registration errors. To demonstrate its capabilities, several compound plates (n=5760 wells total) containing different artifacts were measured via automated HIAPI-CM analysis, and results compared with those obtained by manual (visual) inspection. In all cases, the instrument demonstrated high fidelity (99.8% empty wells; 100.1% filled wells; 94.4% for partially filled wells; 94.0% for wells containing colored compounds), and in the case of precipitate detection, the HIAPI-CM results significantly exceeded the fidelity of visual observations (220.0%). As described, the HIAPI-CM allows for noninvasive, nondestructive MTP assessment with a diagnostic throughput of about 1min per plate, reducing analytical expenses and improving the quality and stewardship of HTS compound libraries.

  8. Set of instruments for solar EUV and soft X-ray monitoring onboard satellite Coronas-Photon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotov, Yury; Kochemasov, Alexey; Kuzin, Sergey; Kuznetsov, Vladimir; Sylwester, Janusz; Yurov, Vitaly

    Coronas-Photon mission is the third satellite of the Russian Coronas program on solar activity observation. The main goal of the "Coronas-Photon" is the study of solar hard electromagnetic radiation in the wide energy range from UV up to high energy gamma-radiation (2000MeV). Scientific payload for solar radiation observation consists of three types of instruments: Monitors (Natalya-2M, Konus-RF, RT-2, Penguin-M, BRM, PHOKA, Sphin-X, SOKOL spectral and timing measurements of full solar disk radiation have timing in flare/burst mode up to one msec. Instruments Natalya-2M, Konus-RF, RT-2 will cover the wide energy range of hard X-rays and soft gamma-rays (15keV to 2000MeV) and will together constitute the largest area detectors ever used for solar observations. Detectors of gamma-ray monitors are based on structured inorganic scintillators. For X-ray and EUV monitors the scintillation phoswich detectors, gas proportional counter, CdZnTe assembly and filter-covered Si-diodes are used. Telescope-spectrometer TESIS for imaging solar spectroscopy in X-rays has angular resolution up to 1arcsec in three spectral lines. Satellite platform and scientific payload is under construction to be launched in autumn 2008. Satellite orbit is circular with initial height 550km and inclination 82.5degrees. Accuracy of the spacecraft orientation to the Sun is better 3arcmin. In the report the capability of PHOKA, SphinX, SOKOL and TESIS as well as the observation program are described and discussed.

  9. Synchrotron radiation microtomography of musical instruments: a non-destructive monitoring technique for insect infestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Bentivoglio-Ravasio

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available X-ray computed tomography is becoming a common technique for the structural analysis of samples of cultural relevance, providing luthiers, art historians, conservators and restorators with a unique tool for the characterization of musical instruments. Synchrotron-radiation phase-contrast microtomography is an ideal technique for the non-destructive 3D analysis of samples where small lowabsorbing details such as larvae and eggs can be detected. We report results from the first feasibility studies performed at the Elettra synchrotron laboratory, where the 1494 organ by Lorenzo Gusnasco da Pavia has been studied. Together with important information about the structural conditions, the presence of xylophages could be detected and characterized.

  10. 车内环境监测仪设计%Design on the Automobile Interior Environment Monitoring Instrument

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王倢婷; 张静

    2016-01-01

    汽车内部的环境空气质量日益受到广大车主与乘客的关注,车内环境监测仪可以用于车内环境的监测,具有监测车内PM2.5、温度、湿度、甲醛、CO等空气质量参数的功能。车内环境监测仪内置进口PM2.5传感器、温湿度传感器、甲醛传感器、CO传感器和CO2传感器,通过单片机及采集系统,能够实时监测车内当前空气质量状况,循环显示空气质量指标。当车内空气污染严重,产品将及时提示或语音报警,必要时启动防护措施,保障车内人员的生命健康和安全。%The automobile interior air quality attracts more and more attention of the drivers and passengers. The automobile interior environment monitoring instrument can be used to monitor the automobile interior environment, it can monitor PM2.5, temperature, humidity, formaldehyde, CO and other air quality parameters. The automobile interior environment monitoring instrument has import PM2.5 sensor, temperature sensor, humidity sensor, formaldehyde sensor, CO sensors and CO2 sensor. The single chip microcomputer and collecting system can real-timely monitor the current air quality inside the car, circularly shows that air quality index. When the pollution of automobile interior environment is serious, the product will prompt or voice alarm in time, it can activate protective measures when necessary to protect the life and health and safety of the people in the car.

  11. GLORI: a new airborne GNSS reflectometry instrument for land surface monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motte, Erwan; Fanise, Pascal; Zribi, Mehrez

    2015-10-01

    From the beginning of the 1990s, the use of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) reflected signals have been identified as a as source of opportunity for remote sensing applications. In the last two decades, the potential of the technique have been demonstrated for ocean and continental surfaces studies, and several applications have been proposed in the context of high availability of GNSS signals. The GNSS-R technique is generally based on the use of a passive receiver simultaneously acquiring the direct and reflected signals from various GNSS satellites to estimate geophysical parameters from the scattering surface. In the last years, several ground-based [2], [3], airborne [4] and space-borne [5]-[8] experiments have been proposed. The most considered application foreseen for GNSS-R is ocean altimetry for a precise determination of sea-surface heights as well as roughness and wind direction. For continental surfaces, because of direct relationship between surface permittivity and reflected signal, different approaches [6], [9], [10] have been proposed to estimate surface parameters (soil moisture, vegetation biomass, snow). Different observables have been proposed to analyze GNSS signals: the Delay-Doppler Map, the direct and reflected complex waveforms bistatic signal, the ratio between the direct and reflected waveform's peak time series (Interferometric Complex Field). In this context, the airborne instrument GLORI is proposed to demonstrate contribution of GNSS-R to estimate soil moisture over agricultural soils and biomass of forests or annual cultures. A secondary goal is the feasibility of centimeter-precision altimetry above continental water bodies. The second section describes the characteristics of GLORI instrument. The third section presents airborne campaigns realized over the south West of France and fourth sections discusses the first results. Conclusions are gathered in section 5.

  12. The development of advanced instrumentation and control technology -The development of digital monitoring technique-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Jong Sun; Lee, Byung Sun; Han, Sang Joon; Shin, Yong Chul; Kim, Yung Baek; Kim, Dong Hoon; Oh, Yang Kyoon; Suh, Yung; Choi, Chan Duk; Kang, Byung Hun; Hong, Hyung Pyo; Shin, Jee Tae; Moon, Kwon Kee; Lee, Soon Sung; Kim, Sung Hoh; Koo, In Soo; Kim, Dong Wan; Huh, Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    A study has been performed for the advanced DSP technology for digital nuclear I and C systems and its prototype, and for the monitoring and diagnosing techniques for the highly-pressurized components in NSSS. In the DSP part, the DSP requirements for NPPs have been induced for the performance of the DSP systems and the functional analysis for Reactor Coolant System (RCS) has been performed as the embodied target system. Total quantities of the I and C signals, signal types, and signal functions were also investigated in Ulchin NPP units 3 and 4. From these basis, the prototype facility was configured for performance validation and algorithm implementation. In order to develop the methods of DSP techniques and algorithms, the current signal validation methods have been studied and analyzed. In the analysis for the communication networks in NPP, the basic technique for the configuration of communication networks and the important considerations for applying to NPPs have been reviewed. Test and experimental facilities have been set up in order to carry out the required tests during research activities on the monitoring techniques for abnormal conditions. Studies were concentrated on methods how to acquire vibration signals from the mechanical structures and equipment including rotating machinery and reactor, and analyses for the characteristics of the signals. Fuzzy logic was evaluated as a good technique to improve the reliability of the monitoring and diagnosing algorithm through the application of the theory such as the automatic pattern recognition algorithm of the vibration spectrum, the alarm detection and diagnosis for collisions of loose parts. 71 figs, 32 tabs, 64 refs. (Author).

  13. Up-to-date instruments and systems in monitoring mine ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanko, J.

    1985-01-01

    The operation principles and forms of the most modern mine ventilation systems are discussed. In the course of monitoring the air in the mines, the methane content, the carbon monoxide content, the ventilation velocity and the depression are determined. The modern ventilation system has to fulfill the requirements. The systems should be suitable for the continuous measurement of the mine ventilation parameters; the measurement has to be of suitable accuracy; the measured data should be displayed and recorded; the system should be suitable to switch off, partially or totally, the mine electricity in case of danger.

  14. Automated Miniaturized Instrument for Space Biology Applications and the Monitoring of the Astronauts Health Onboard the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karouia, Fathi; Peyvan, Kia; Danley, David; Ricco, Antonio J.; Santos, Orlando; Pohorille, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Human space travelers experience a unique environment that affects homeostasis and physiologic adaptation. The spacecraft environment subjects the traveler to noise, chemical and microbiological contaminants, increased radiation, and variable gravity forces. As humans prepare for long-duration missions to the International Space Station (ISS) and beyond, effective measures must be developed, verified and implemented to ensure mission success. Limited biomedical quantitative capabilities are currently available onboard the ISS. Therefore, the development of versatile instruments to perform space biological analysis and to monitor astronauts' health is needed. We are developing a fully automated, miniaturized system for measuring gene expression on small spacecraft in order to better understand the influence of the space environment on biological systems. This low-cost, low-power, multi-purpose instrument represents a major scientific and technological advancement by providing data on cellular metabolism and regulation. The current system will support growth of microorganisms, extract and purify the RNA, hybridize it to the array, read the expression levels of a large number of genes by microarray analysis, and transmit the measurements to Earth. The system will help discover how bacteria develop resistance to antibiotics and how pathogenic bacteria sometimes increase their virulence in space, facilitating the development of adequate countermeasures to decrease risks associated with human spaceflight. The current stand-alone technology could be used as an integrated platform onboard the ISS to perform similar genetic analyses on any biological systems from the tree of life. Additionally, with some modification the system could be implemented to perform real-time in-situ microbial monitoring of the ISS environment (air, surface and water samples) and the astronaut's microbiome using 16SrRNA microarray technology. Furthermore, the current system can be enhanced

  15. Infrared Thermography for Monitoring of Freeze-Drying Processes: Instrumental Developments and Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emteborg, Håkan; Zeleny, Reinhard; Charoud-Got, Jean; Martos, Gustavo; Lüddeke, Jörg; Schellin, Holger; Teipel, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    Coupling an infrared (IR) camera to a freeze dryer for on-line monitoring of freeze-drying cycles is described for the first time. Normally, product temperature is measured using a few invasive Pt-100 probes, resulting in poor spatial resolution. To overcome this, an IR camera was placed on a process-scale freeze dryer. Imaging took place every 120 s through a Germanium window comprising 30,000 measurement points obtained contact-free from −40°C to 25°C. Results are presented for an empty system, bulk drying of cheese slurry, and drying of 1 mL human serum in 150 vials. During freezing of the empty system, differences of more than 5°C were measured on the shelf. Adding a tray to the empty system, a difference of more than 8°C was observed. These temperature differences probably cause different ice structures affecting the drying speed during sublimation. A temperature difference of maximum 13°C was observed in bulk mode during sublimation. When drying in vials, differences of more than 10°C were observed. Gradually, the large temperature differences disappeared during secondary drying and products were transformed into uniformly dry cakes. The experimental data show that the IR camera is a highly versatile on-line monitoring tool for different kinds of freeze-drying processes. © 2014 European Union 103:2088–2097, 2014 PMID:24902839

  16. Development of a novel sweeping Langmuir probe instrument for monitoring the upper ionosphere on board a pico-satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranvier, Sylvain; De Keyser, Johan; Cardoen, Pepijn; Pieroux, Didier

    2014-05-01

    A novel Langmuir probe instrument, which will fly on board the Pico-Satellite for Atmospheric and Space Science Observations (PICASSO), is under development at the Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy. PICASSO was initiated to join the QB50 project as scientific in-orbit demonstrator. The sweeping Langmuir probe (SLP) instrument is designed to measure both plasma density and electron temperature at an altitude varying from about 400 km up to 700 km from a high inclination orbit. Therefore, the plasma density is expected to fluctuate over a wide range, from about 1e6/m³ at high latitude and high altitude up to 1e12/m³ at low/mid latitude and low altitude. The electron temperature is expected to lie between approximately 1000 K and 3000 K. Given the high inclination of the orbit, the SLP instrument will allow a global monitoring of the ionosphere with a maximum spatial resolution of the order of 150 m. The main goals are to study 1) the ionosphere-plasmasphere coupling, 2) the subauroral ionosphere and corresponding magnetospheric features, 3) auroral structures, 4) polar caps, and 5) ionospheric dynamics via coordinated observations with EISCAT's heating radar. To achieve the scientific objectives described above, the instrument includes four thin cylindrical probes whose electrical potential is swept in such a way that both plasma density and electron temperature can be derived. In addition, since at least two probes will be out of the spacecraft's wake at any given time, differential measurements can be performed to increase the accuracy. Along the orbit, the Debye length is expected to vary from a few millimetres up to a few meters. Due to the tight constraints in terms of mass and volume inherent to pico-satellites, the use of long booms, which would guarantee that the probes are outside the sheath of the spacecraft (several Debye lengths away), is not possible. Consequently, the probes might be in the sheath of the spacecraft in polar regions. Extensive

  17. Monitoring of Refractory Wall recession using high temperature impact echo instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    University of Dayton

    2004-04-30

    Regression of refractory linings of furnaces occurs due to a variety of mechanisms. The specific mechanism selected for investigation during this program is the regression of refractories which are in direct contact with a liquid corrodant. Examples include the melting of glass, the production of pig iron and steel, and the melting of aluminum. The rates of regression to a wall thickness which requires reline or extensive reconstruction vary widely, from less than a year to over ten years depending on the specific service environment. This program investigated the feasibility of measuring refractory wall thickness with an impact-echo method while at operating temperature (wall temperatures exceeding 500 C). The impact-echo method uses the impact of a small sphere with the surface of the test object to send a stress wave into the object. In a plate-like structure, the stress wave reflects back to the front surface, reverberating in the structure and causing a periodic surface displacement whose frequency is inversely proportional to the thickness of the test object. Impact-echo testing was chosen because it requires access to only one side of the test object and could be performed during the operation of a refractory structure. Commercially-available impact-echo instrumentation is available for room temperature use for a variety of tests on concrete. The enabling technology for this work was to use a high-temperature piezoelectric material, aluminum nitride, as the receiving sensor for the stress waves, allowing its use on refractories during furnace operation.

  18. High-Density Fiber Optical Sensor and Instrumentation for Gas Turbine Operation Condition Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Xia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas turbine operation control is normally based on thermocouple-measured exhaust temperatures. Due to radiation shielding and bulky package, it is difficult to provide high spatial resolution for measuring can-to-can combustion temperature profile at the exhaust duct. This paper has demonstrated that wavelength-division-multiplexing-based fiber Bragg grating sensors could provide high spatial resolution steady and dynamic temperature measurements. A robust sensor package can be designed with either circumferential sensing cable or radial sensing rake for quasi-distributing multiple fiber sensors in the gas turbine environment. The field validations have demonstrated that quasi-distributed fiber sensors have not only demonstrated its temperature measurement accuracy compared to existing thermocouple sensors but also shown its unique dynamic response amplitude and power spectra that could be utilized for gas turbine transient operation condition monitoring and diagnostics.

  19. Monitoring of volcanic SO2 emissions using the GOME-2 instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedelt, Pascal; Valks, Pieter; Loyola, Diego

    2014-05-01

    This contribution focusses on the GOME-2 SO2 column products from the METOP-A and B satellites. The GOME-2 SO2 column product has been developed in the framework of EUMETSAT's Satellite Application Facility on Ozone and Atmospheric Chemistry Monitoring (O3M-SAF). Satellite-based remote sensing measurements of volcanic SO2 provide critical information for reducing volcanic hazards. Volcanic eruptions may bring ash and gases (e.g. SO2) high up into the atmosphere, where a long-range transport can occur. SO2 is an important indicator for volcanic activity and an excellent tracer for volcanic eruption clouds, especially if ash detection techniques fail. SO2 can affect aviation safety: In the cabin it can cause disease and respiratory symptoms, whereas in its hydrogenated form H2SO4 it is highly corrosive and can cause damage to jet engines as well as pitting of windscreens. We will present results for volcanic events retrieved from GOME-2 solar backscattered measurements in the UV wavelength region around 320nm using the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) method. SO2 columns are generated operationally by DLR with the GOME Data Processor (GDP) version 4.7 and are available in near-real-time, i.e. within two hours after sensing. Using data from both MetOp satellites allows for a daily global coverage. We will furthermore present current improvements to the GOME-2 SO2 column product.

  20. An instrumented spacial linkage for monitoring relative three-dimensional motion between fracture fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, T N; Evans, M; Kyberd, P J

    1996-11-01

    A mechanical linkage with electro-magnetic sensors (a displacement transducer) is described, which may be used to measure accurately the relative motion at a bony junction such as a fracture. The linkage may be fixed to bone screws of externally-fixated fractures during routine patient activity, to measure three-dimensional inter fragmentary displacements arising from dynamic loading. Movements of the linkage are monitored by six Hall Effect devices for the six degrees of freedom (three orthogonal translations and three rotations about the translating axes). Measurements are made within error bounds of +/- 0.025 mm and +/- 0.025 deg over a range of 5 mm for the two orthogonal transverse translations, 8 mm for axial translation and 8 deg for the three rotations. Movements at the linkage, remote from the fracture, are then translated mathematically to the fracture site, assuming rigid screw contact with the bone. Displacements of the distal fragment in relation to the proximal, at the fracture center, can then be expressed anatomically through anterior, medial, and distal translations, and rotations in the sagittal, coronal, or transverse planes.

  1. An Assessment of the Capabilities of the ERS Satellites' Active Microwave Instruments for Monitoring Soil Moisture Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Blyth

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The launch of the European Remote sensing Satellite (ERS-1 in July 1991 represented an important turning point in the development of Earth observation as it was the first of a series of satellites which would carry high resolution active microwave (radar sensors which could operate through the thickest cloudeover and provide continuity of data for at least a decade. This was of particular relevance to hydrological applications, such as soil moisture monitoring, which generally require frequent satellite observations to monitor changes in state. ERS-1 and its successor ERS-2 carry the active microwave instrument (AMI which operates in 3 modes (synthetic aperture radar, wind scatterometer and wave seatterometer together with the radar altimeter which may all be useful for the observation of soil moisture. This paper assesses the utility of these sensors through a comprehensive review of work in this field. Two approaches to soil moisture retrieval are identified: 1 inversion modelling, where the physical effects of vegetation and soil roughness on radar backscatter are quantified through the use of multi-frequency and/or multi-polarization sensors and 2 change detection where these effects are normalized through frequent satellite observation, the residual effects being attributed to short-term changes in soil moisture. Both approaches will be better supported by the future European Envisat-l satellite which will provide both multi-polarization SAR and low resolution products which should facilitate more frequent temporal observation.

  2. Computer controlled-flow injection potentiometric system based on virtual instrumentation for the monitoring of metal-biosorption processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florido, A; Valderrama, C; Nualart, S; Velazco-Molina, L; Arias de Fuentes, O; del Valle, M

    2010-05-23

    A completely automated flow-injection system was developed for the monitoring of biosorption studies of Cu(II) ion on vegetable waste by-products. The system employed flow-through Cu(II)-selective electrodes, of epoxy-resin-CuS/Ag(2)S heterogeneous crystalline type, and computer controlled pumps and valves for the flow operation. Computer automation was done through a specially devised virtual instrument, which commanded and periodically calibrated the system, allowing for the monitoring of Cu(II) ions between 0.6 and 6530 mg L(-1) at a typical frequency of 15 h(-1). Grape stalk wastes were used as biosorbent to remove Cu(II) ions in a fixed-bed column with a sorption capacity of 5.46 mg g(-1), obtained by the developed flow system, while the reference determination performed by FAAS technique supplied a comparable value of 5.41 mg g(-1). Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Description and primary results of Total Solar Irradiance Monitor, a solar-pointing instrument on an Earth observing satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongrui; Fang, Wei; Li, Huiduan

    2015-04-01

    Solar driving mechanism for Earth climate has been a controversial problem for centuries. Long-time data of solar activity is required by the investigations of the solar driving mechanism, such as Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) record. Three Total Solar Irradiance Monitors (TSIM) have been developed by Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics for China Meteorological Administration to maintain continuities of TSI data series which lasted for nearly 4 decades.The newest TSIM has recorded TSI daily with accurate solar pointing on the FY-3C meteorological satellite since Oct 2013. TSIM/FY-3C has a pointing system for automatic solar tracking, onboard the satellite designed mainly for Earth observing. Most payloads of FY-3C are developed for observation of land, ocean and atmosphere. Consequently, the FY-3C satellite is a nadir-pointing spacecraft with its z axis to be pointed at the center of the Earth. Previous TSIMs onboard the FY-3A and FY-3B satellites had no pointing system, solar observations were only performed when the sun swept through field-of-view of the instruments. And TSI measurements are influenced inevitably by the solar pointing errors. Corrections of the solar pointing errors were complex. The problem is now removed by TSIM/FY-3C.TSIM/FY-3C follows the sun accurately by itself using its pointing system based on scheme of visual servo control. The pointing system is consisted of a radiometer package, two motors for solar tracking, a sun sensor and etc. TSIM/FY-3C has made daily observations of TSI for more than one year, with nearly zero solar pointing errors. Short time-scale variations in TSI detected by TSIM/FY-3C are nearly the same with VIRGO/SOHO and TIM/SORCE.Instrument details, primary results of solar pointing control, solar observations and etc will be given in the presentation.

  4. A novel assessment of odor sources using instrumental analysis combined with resident monitoring records for an industrial area in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyung-Don; Jeon, Soo-Bin; Choi, Won-Joon; Lee, Sang-Sup; Lee, Min-Ho; Oh, Kwang-Joong

    2013-08-01

    The residents living nearby the Sa-sang industrial area (SSIA) continuously were damaged by odorous pollution since 1990s. We determined the concentrations of reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs) [hydrogen sulfide (H2S), methyl mercaptan (CH3SH), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS)], nitrogenous compounds (NCs) [ammonia (NH3) and trimethylamine (TMA)], and carbonyl compounds (CCs) [acetaldehyde and butyraldehyde] by instrumental analysis in the SSIA in Busan, Korea from Jun to Nov, 2011. We determined odor intensity (OI) based on the concentrations of the odorants and resident monitoring records (RMR). The mean concentration of H2S was 10-times higher than NCs, CCs and the other RSC. The contribution from RSCs to the OI was over 50% at all sites excluding the A-5 (chemical production) site. In particular, A-4 (food production) site showed more than 8-times higher the sum of odor activity value (SOAV) than the other sites. This suggested that the A-4 site was the most malodorous area in the SSIA. From the RMR analysis, the annoyance degree (OI ≥ 2) was 51.9% in the industrial area. The 'Rotten' smell arising from the RSCs showed the highest frequency (25.3%) while 'Burned' and 'Other' were more frequent than 'Rotten' in the residential area. The correlation between odor index calculated by instrumental analysis and OI from the RMR was analyzed. The Pearson correlation coefficient (r) of the SOAV was the highest at 0.720 (P < 0.05), and overall results of coefficient showed a moderately high correlation distribution range (from 0.465 to 0.720). Therefore, the overall results of this research confirm that H2S emitted from A-4 site including food production causes significant annoyance in the SSIA. We also confirm RMR data can be used effectively to evaluate the characteristic of odorants emitted from the SSIA.

  5. Instrumentation and monitoring of the nextgen road infrastructure: Some results and perspectives from the R5G project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautière, Nicolas; Bourquin, Frédéric

    2017-04-01

    Through the centuries, the roads - which today constitute in France a huge transport network of 1 millions kilometers length - have always been able to cope with society needs and challenges. As a consequence, the next generation road infrastructure will have to take into account at least three societal transitions: ecological, energetic and digital. The goal of the 5th generation road project (R5G©) [1], led by Ifsttar in France, aligned with the Forever Open program [2], is to design and build demonstrators of such future road infrastructures. The goal of this presentation is to present different results related to the greening of road materials [3], the design of energy-positive roads [4, 5], the test of roads that self-diagnose [6], the design of roads adapted for connected [7], autonomous [8] and electrified vehicles [9], etc. In terms of perspectives, we will demonstrate that the road infrastructures will soon become a complex system: On one side road users will benefit from new services, on the other side such massively connected and instrumented infrastructures will potentially become an opportune sensor for knowledge development in geoscience, such as air quality, visibility and fog monitoring. References: [1] R5G project. r5g.ifsttar.fr [2] Forever Open Road project. www.foreveropenroad.eu [3] Biorepavation project. www.infravation.net/projects/BIOREPAVATION [4] N. Le Touz, J. Dumoulin. Numerical study of the thermal behavior of a new deicing road structure design with energy harvesting capabilities. EGU General Assembly 2015, Apr 2015, Vienne, Austria. [5] S. Asfour, F. Bernardin, E. Toussaint, J.-M. Piau. Hydrothermal modeling of porous pavement for its surface de-freezing. Applied Thermal Engineering. Volume 107, 25 August 2016, Pages 493-500 [6] LGV BPL Instrumentation. http://railenium.eu/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/INSTRUMENTATION-BPL-FR.pdf [7] SCOOP@F project. https://ec.europa.eu/inea/en/connecting

  6. Instrument-independent flux units for laser Doppler perfusion monitoring assessed in a multi-device study on the renal cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petoukhova, AL; Steenbergen, W; Morales, F; Graaff, R; de Jong, ED; Elstrodt, JM; de Mul, FFM; Rakhorst, G

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of instrument-independent perfusion units for laser Doppler flowmetry, a comparison was performed of two commercial fiberoptic laser Doppler perfusion monitors measuring the same flux situation for two different types of probes. In vivo measurements were performed on t

  7. The Development and Validation of an Instrument to Monitor the Implementation of Social Constructivist Learning Environments in Grade 9 Science Classrooms in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckay, Melanie B.; Laugksch, Rudiger C.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of an instrument that can be used to assess students' perceptions of their learning environment as a means of monitoring and guiding changes toward social constructivist learning environments. The study used a mixed-method approach with priority given to the quantitative data collection. During…

  8. Routine Outcome Monitoring and Clinical Decision-Making in Forensic Psychiatry Based on the Instrument for Forensic Treatment Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veeken, Frida C. A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Rehabilitation in forensic psychiatry is achieved gradually with different leave modules, in line with the Risk Need Responsivity model. A forensic routine outcome monitoring tool should measure treatment progress based on the rehabilitation theory, and it should be predictive of important treatment outcomes in order to be usable in decision-making. Therefore, this study assesses the predictive validity for both positive (i.e., leave) and negative (i.e., inpatient incidents) treatment outcomes with the Instrument for Forensic Treatment Evaluation (IFTE). Methods Two-hundred and twenty-four patients were included in this study. ROC analyses were conducted with the IFTE factors and items for three leave modules: guided, unguided and transmural leave for the whole group of patients. Predictive validity of the IFTE for aggression in general, physical aggression specifically, and urine drug screening (UDS) violations was assessed for patients with the main diagnoses in Dutch forensic psychiatry, patients with personality disorders and the most frequently occurring co-morbid disorders: those with combined personality and substance use disorders. Results and Conclusions Results tentatively imply that the IFTE has a reasonable to good predictive validity for inpatient aggression and a marginal to reasonable predictive value for leave approvals and UDS violations. The IFTE can be used for information purposes in treatment decision-making, but reports should be interpreted with care and acknowledge patients’ personal risk factors, strengths and other information sources. PMID:27517721

  9. PICASSO-SLP: a Langmuir probe instrument for monitoring the upper ionosphere on board a pico-satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranvier, Sylvain; Anciaux, Michel; Cardoen, Pepijn; Gamby, Emmanuel; Bonnewijn, Sabrina; De Keyser, Johan; Echim, Marius; Pieroux, Didier

    2016-04-01

    A novel Langmuir probe instrument, which will fly on board the Pico-Satellite for Atmospheric and Space Science Observations (PICASSO), is under development at the Royal Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy. PICASSO, an ESA in-orbit demonstrator, is a triple unit CubeSat of dimensions 340.5x100x100 mm. The sweeping Langmuir probe (SLP) instrument, which includes four thin cylindrical probes whose electrical potential is swept, is designed to measure both plasma density and electron temperature at an altitude varying from about 400 km up to 700 km from a high inclination orbit. Therefore, the plasma density is expected to fluctuate over a wide range, from about 1e8/m³ at high latitude and high altitude up to several times 1e12/m³ at low/mid latitude and low altitude. The electron temperature is expected to lie between approximately 1.000 K and 10.000 K. Given the high inclination of the orbit, the SLP instrument will allow a global monitoring of the ionosphere with a maximum spatial resolution of the order of 150 m for the electron density and temperature, and up to a few meters for electron density only. The main goals are to study 1) the ionosphere-plasmasphere coupling, 2) the subauroral ionosphere and corresponding magnetospheric features, 3) auroral structures, 4) polar caps, 5) for the density, the multi-scale behaviour, spectral properties and turbulence of processes typical for the auroral regions, and 6) ionospheric dynamics via coordinated observations with EISCAT's heating radar. Along the orbit, the Debye length is expected to vary from a few millimetres up to a few meters. Due to the tight constraints in terms of mass and volume inherent to pico-satellites, the use of long booms, which would guarantee that the probes are outside the sheath of the spacecraft (several Debye lengths away), is not possible. Consequently, the probes might be in the sheath of the spacecraft in polar regions. Extensive modelling and simulations of the sheath effects on the

  10. The Community Seismic Network and Quake-Catcher Network: Monitoring building response to earthquakes through community instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, M.; Kohler, M. D.; Heaton, T. H.; Clayton, R. W.; Chandy, M.; Cochran, E.; Lawrence, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    The Community Seismic Network (CSN) and Quake-Catcher Network (QCN) are dense networks of low-cost ($50) accelerometers that are deployed by community volunteers in their homes in California. In addition, many accelerometers are installed in public spaces associated with civic services, publicly-operated utilities, university campuses, and high-rise buildings. Both CSN and QCN consist of observation-based structural monitoring which is carried out using records from one to tens of stations in a single building. We have deployed about 150 accelerometers in a number of buildings ranging between five and 23 stories in the Los Angeles region. In addition to a USB-connected device which connects to the host's computer, we have developed a stand-alone sensor-plug-computer device that directly connects to the internet via Ethernet or WiFi. In the case of CSN, the sensors report data to the Google App Engine cloud computing service consisting of data centers geographically distributed across the continent. This robust infrastructure provides parallelism and redundancy during times of disaster that could affect hardware. The QCN sensors, however, are connected to netbooks with continuous data streaming in real-time via the distributed computing Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing software program to a server at Stanford University. In both networks, continuous and triggered data streams use a STA/LTA scheme to determine the occurrence of significant ground accelerations. Waveform data, as well as derived parameters such as peak ground acceleration, are then sent to the associated archives. Visualization models of the instrumented buildings' dynamic linear response have been constructed using Google SketchUp and MATLAB. When data are available from a limited number of accelerometers installed in high rises, the buildings are represented as simple shear beam or prismatic Timoshenko beam models with soil-structure interaction. Small-magnitude earthquake records

  11. Comparison of Aerosol Single Scattering Albedo Derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument with Aerosol Robotic Network Observations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Qi; HONG Yu-Lan

    2012-01-01

    The single-scattering albedo (SSA), which quantifies radiative absorption capability, is an important optical property of aerosols. Ground-based methods have been extensively exploited to determine aerosol SSA but there were no satellite-based SSA measurements available until the advent of advanced remote sensing techniques, such as the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). Although the overall accuracy of OMI SSA is estimated to approach 0.1, its regional availability is unclear. Four-year SSA daily measurements from three Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sites in China (Xianghe, Taihu, and Hong Kong) are chosen to determine the accuracy of OMI SSA in specific locations. The results show that on a global scale, the OMI SSA is systematically higher (with a mean relative bias of 3.5% and a RMS difference of ~0.06) and has poor correlation with the AERONET observations. In the Xianghe, Taihu, and Hong Kong sites, the correlation coefficients are 0.16, 0.47, and 0.44, respectively, suggesting that the distinct qualities of OMI SSA depend on geographic locations and/or dominant aerosol environments. The two types of SSA data yield the best agreement in Taihu and the worst in Hong Kong; the differing behavior is likely caused by varying levels of cloud contamination. The good consistency of the aerosol variation between the two SSA datasets on a seasonal scale is promising. These findings suggest that the current-version OMI SSA product can be applied to qualitatively characterize climatological variations of aerosol properties despite its limited accuracy as an instantaneous measurement.

  12. The community seismic network and quake-catcher network: enabling structural health monitoring through instrumentation by community participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Monica D.; Heaton, Thomas H.; Cheng, Ming-Hei

    2013-04-01

    A new type of seismic network is in development that takes advantage of community volunteers to install low-cost accelerometers in houses and buildings. The Community Seismic Network and Quake-Catcher Network are examples of this, in which observational-based structural monitoring is carried out using records from one to tens of stations in a single building. We have deployed about one hundred accelerometers in a number of buildings ranging between five and 23 stories in the Los Angeles region. In addition to a USB-connected device which connects to the host's computer, we have developed a stand-alone sensor-plug-computer device that directly connects to the internet via Ethernet or wifi. In the case of the Community Seismic Network, the sensors report both continuous data and anomalies in local acceleration to a cloud computing service consisting of data centers geographically distributed across the continent. Visualization models of the instrumented buildings' dynamic linear response have been constructed using Google SketchUp and an associated plug-in to matlab with recorded shaking data. When data are available from only one to a very limited number of accelerometers in high rises, the buildings are represented as simple shear beam or prismatic Timoshenko beam models with soil-structure interaction. Small-magnitude earthquake records are used to identify the first set of horizontal vibrational frequencies. These frequencies are then used to compute the response on every floor of the building, constrained by the observed data. These tools are resulting in networking standards that will enable data sharing among entire communities, facility managers, and emergency response groups.

  13. Monitoring HIV Risk and Evaluating Interventions among Young People in Urban West Africa: Development and Validation of an Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boileau, Catherine; Rashed, Selim; Sylla, Mohamed; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria

    2008-01-01

    We developed an instrument for HIV/AIDS behavioral surveillance applicable to youth living in urban West Africa. The instrument includes a comprehensive set of constructs borrowed from the sociocognitive theory of planned behavior as well as measures of parental and peer communication An exploratory (n = 189) and validation sample (n = 342) of…

  14. Chemiluminescent methods and instruments for monitoring of the atmosphere and satellite validation on board of research aircrafts and unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitnikov, Nikolay; Borisov, Yuriy; Akmulin, Dimitry; Chekulaev, Igor; Sitnikova, Vera; Ulanovsky, Alexey; Sokolov, Alexey

    The results of development of instruments based on heterophase chemiluminescence for measurements of space distribution of ozone and nitrogen oxides concentrations on board of research aircrafts and unmanned aerial vehicles carried out in Central Aerological Observatory are presented. Some results of atmospheric investigations on board of research aircrafts M55 “Geophysica” (Russia) and “Falcon” (Germany) carried out using developed instruments in frame of international projects are demonstrated. Small and low power instruments based on chemiluminescent principle for UAV are developed. The results of measurements on board of UAV are shown. The development can be used for satellite data validation, as well as operative environmental monitoring of contaminated areas in particular, chemical plants, natural and industrial disasters territories, areas and facilities for space purposes etc.

  15. Design of the Intelligent Instruments Online Monitoring System Based on Wireless HART%基于无线HART的智能仪表在线监控系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高晋树; 王洪元; 潘操; 刘晓宇

    2011-01-01

    为了充分利用传统HART仪表,提高控制系统的可靠性,减少现场仪表的维护量并降低维护费用,提出了一种基于无线HART协议的智能仪表在线监控系统,给出了系统的软、硬件设计思想和实现方法.%Considering the well-application of traditional HART instruments, and enhancing control system reliability and reducing field instruments maintenance and service costs, an on-line monitoring system based on wireless HART protocol for intelligent instruments was proposed, including the introduction of system architecture and design idea and implement method.

  16. New Passive Instruments Developed for Ocean Monitoring at the Remote Sensing Lab—Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, Adriano; Bosch-Lluis, Xavier; Ramos-Perez, Isaac; Marchán-Hernández, Juan F.; Rodríguez, Nereida; Valencia, Enric; Tarongi, Jose M.; Aguasca, Albert; Acevo, René

    2009-01-01

    Lack of frequent and global observations from space is currently a limiting factor in many Earth Observation (EO) missions. Two potential techniques that have been proposed nowadays are: (1) the use of satellite constellations, and (2) the use of Global Navigation Satellite Signals (GNSS) as signals of opportunity (no transmitter required). Reflectometry using GNSS opportunity signals (GNSS-R) was originally proposed in 1993 by Martin-Neira (ESA-ESTEC) for altimetry applications, but later its use for wind speed determination has been proposed, and more recently to perform the sea state correction required in sea surface salinity retrievals by means of L-band microwave radiometry (TB). At present, two EO space-borne missions are currently planned to be launched in the near future: (1) ESA's SMOS mission, using a Y-shaped synthetic aperture radiometer, launch date November 2nd, 2009, and (2) NASA-CONAE AQUARIUS/SAC-D mission, using a three beam push-broom radiometer. In the SMOS mission, the multi-angle observation capabilities allow to simultaneously retrieve not only the surface salinity, but also the surface temperature and an “effective” wind speed that minimizes the differences between observations and models. In AQUARIUS, an L-band scatterometer measuring the radar backscatter (σ0) will be used to perform the necessary sea state corrections. However, none of these approaches are fully satisfactory, since the effective wind speed captures some sea surface roughness effects, at the expense of introducing another variable to be retrieved, and on the other hand the plots (TB-σ0) present a large scattering. In 2003, the Passive Advance Unit for ocean monitoring (PAU) project was proposed to the European Science Foundation in the frame of the EUropean Young Investigator Awards (EURYI) to test the feasibility of GNSS-R over the sea surface to make sea state measurements and perform the correction of the L-band brightness temperature. This paper: (1) provides an

  17. New passive instruments developed for ocean monitoring at the remote sensing lab-universitat politècnica de catalunya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, Adriano; Bosch-Lluis, Xavier; Ramos-Perez, Isaac; Marchán-Hernández, Juan F; Rodríguez, Nereida; Valencia, Enric; Tarongi, Jose M; Aguasca, Albert; Acevo, René

    2009-01-01

    Lack of frequent and global observations from space is currently a limiting factor in many Earth Observation (EO) missions. Two potential techniques that have been proposed nowadays are: (1) the use of satellite constellations, and (2) the use of Global Navigation Satellite Signals (GNSS) as signals of opportunity (no transmitter required). Reflectometry using GNSS opportunity signals (GNSS-R) was originally proposed in 1993 by Martin-Neira (ESA-ESTEC) for altimetry applications, but later its use for wind speed determination has been proposed, and more recently to perform the sea state correction required in sea surface salinity retrievals by means of L-band microwave radiometry (T(B)). At present, two EO space-borne missions are currently planned to be launched in the near future: (1) ESA's SMOS mission, using a Y-shaped synthetic aperture radiometer, launch date November 2nd, 2009, and (2) NASA-CONAE AQUARIUS/SAC-D mission, using a three beam push-broom radiometer. In the SMOS mission, the multi-angle observation capabilities allow to simultaneously retrieve not only the surface salinity, but also the surface temperature and an "effective" wind speed that minimizes the differences between observations and models. In AQUARIUS, an L-band scatterometer measuring the radar backscatter (σ(0)) will be used to perform the necessary sea state corrections. However, none of these approaches are fully satisfactory, since the effective wind speed captures some sea surface roughness effects, at the expense of introducing another variable to be retrieved, and on the other hand the plots (T(B)-σ(0)) present a large scattering. In 2003, the Passive Advance Unit for ocean monitoring (PAU) project was proposed to the European Science Foundation in the frame of the EUropean Young Investigator Awards (EURYI) to test the feasibility of GNSS-R over the sea surface to make sea state measurements and perform the correction of the L-band brightness temperature. This paper: (1

  18. New Passive Instruments Developed for Ocean Monitoring at the Remote Sensing Lab—Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Acevo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Lack of frequent and global observations from space is currently a limiting factor in many Earth Observation (EO missions. Two potential techniques that have been proposed nowadays are: (1 the use of satellite constellations, and (2 the use of Global Navigation Satellite Signals (GNSS as signals of opportunity (no transmitter required. Reflectometry using GNSS opportunity signals (GNSS-R was originally proposed in 1993 by Martin-Neira (ESA-ESTEC for altimetry applications, but later its use for wind speed determination has been proposed, and more recently to perform the sea state correction required in sea surface salinity retrievals by means of L-band microwave radiometry (TB. At present, two EO space-borne missions are currently planned to be launched in the near future: (1 ESA’s SMOS mission, using a Y-shaped synthetic aperture radiometer, launch date November 2nd, 2009, and (2 NASA-CONAE AQUARIUS/SAC-D mission, using a three beam push-broom radiometer. In the SMOS mission, the multi-angle observation capabilities allow to simultaneously retrieve not only the surface salinity, but also the surface temperature and an “effective” wind speed that minimizes the differences between observations and models. In AQUARIUS, an L-band scatterometer measuring the radar backscatter (σ0 will be used to perform the necessary sea state corrections. However, none of these approaches are fully satisfactory, since the effective wind speed captures some sea surface roughness effects, at the expense of introducing another variable to be retrieved, and on the other hand the plots (TB-σ0 present a large scattering. In 2003, the Passive Advance Unit for ocean monitoring (PAU project was proposed to the European Science Foundation in the frame of the EUropean Young Investigator Awards (EURYI to test the feasibility of GNSS-R over the sea surface to make sea state measurements and perform the correction of the L-band brightness temperature. This paper: (1

  19. Development and Validation of an Instrument Measuring Theory-Based Determinants of Monitoring Obesogenic Behaviors of Pre-Schoolers among Hispanic Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Branscum

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Public health interventions are greatly needed for obesity prevention, and planning for such strategies should include community participation. The study’s purpose was to develop and validate a theory-based instrument with low-income, Hispanic mothers of preschoolers, to assess theory-based determinants of maternal monitoring of child’s consumption of fruits and vegetables and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB. Nine focus groups with mothers were conducted to determine nutrition-related behaviors that mothers found as most obesogenic for their children. Next, behaviors were operationally defined and rated for importance and changeability. Two behaviors were selected for investigation (fruits and vegetable and SSB. Twenty semi-structured interviews with mothers were conducted next to develop culturally appropriate items for the instrument. Afterwards, face and content validity were established using a panel of six experts. Finally, the instrument was tested with a sample of 238 mothers. Psychometric properties evaluated included construct validity (using the maximum likelihood extraction method of factor analysis, and internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s alpha. Results suggested that all scales on the instrument were valid and reliable, except for the autonomy scales. Researchers and community planners working with Hispanic families can use this instrument to measure theory-based determinants of parenting behaviors related to preschoolers’ consumption of fruits and vegetables, and SSB.

  20. Field application of a multi-frequency acoustic instrument to monitor sediment for silt erosion study in Pelton turbine in Himalayan region, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, A. K.; Kumar, A.; Hies, T.; Nguyen, H. H.

    2016-11-01

    High sediment load passing through hydropower components erodes the hydraulic components resulting in loss of efficiency, interruptions in power production and downtime for repair/maintenance, especially in Himalayan regions. The size and concentration of sediment play a major role in silt erosion. The traditional process of collecting samples manually to analyse in laboratory cannot suffice the need of monitoring temporal variation in sediment properties. In this study, a multi-frequency acoustic instrument was applied at desilting chamber to monitor sediment size and concentration entering the turbine. The sediment size and concentration entering the turbine were also measured with manual samples collected twice daily. The samples collected manually were analysed in laboratory with a laser diffraction instrument for size and concentration apart from analysis by drying and filtering methods for concentration. A conductivity probe was used to calculate total dissolved solids, which was further used in results from drying method to calculate suspended solid content of the samples. The acoustic instrument was found to provide sediment concentration values similar to drying and filtering methods. However, no good match was found between mean grain size from the acoustic method with the current status of development and laser diffraction method in the first field application presented here. The future versions of the software and significant sensitivity improvements of the ultrasonic transducers are expected to increase the accuracy in the obtained results. As the instrument is able to capture the concentration and in the future most likely more accurate mean grain size of the suspended sediments, its application for monitoring silt erosion in hydropower plant shall be highly useful.

  1. Instrumented SSH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Scott; Campbell, Scott

    2009-05-27

    NERSC recently undertook a project to access and analyze Secure Shell (SSH) related data. This includes authentication data such as user names and key fingerprints, interactive session data such as keystrokes and responses, and information about noninteractive sessions such as commands executed and files transferred. Historically, this data has been inaccessible with traditional network monitoring techniques, but with a modification to the SSH daemon, this data can be passed directly to intrusion detection systems for analysis. The instrumented version of SSH is now running on all NERSC production systems. This paper describes the project, details about how SSH was instrumented, and the initial results of putting this in production.

  2. Micro-Arcsec mission: implications of the monitoring, diagnostic and calibration of the instrument response in the data reduction chain. .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busonero, D.; Gai, M.

    The goals of 21st century high angular precision experiments rely on the limiting performance associated to the selected instrumental configuration and observational strategy. Both global and narrow angle micro-arcsec space astrometry require that the instrument contributions to the overall error budget has to be less than the desired micro-arcsec level precision. Appropriate modelling of the astrometric response is required for optimal definition of the data reduction and calibration algorithms, in order to ensure high sensitivity to the astrophysical source parameters and in general high accuracy. We will refer to the framework of the SIM-Lite and the Gaia mission, the most challenging space missions of the next decade in the narrow angle and global astrometry field, respectively. We will focus our dissertation on the Gaia data reduction issues and instrument calibration implications. We describe selected topics in the framework of the Astrometric Instrument Modelling for the Gaia mission, evidencing their role in the data reduction chain and we give a brief overview of the Astrometric Instrument Model Data Analysis Software System, a Java-based pipeline under development by our team.

  3. The Development and Validation of an Instrument to Monitor the Implementation of Social Constructivist Learning Environments in Grade 9 Science Classrooms in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckay, Melanie B.; Laugksch, Rudiger C.

    2015-02-01

    This article describes the development and validation of an instrument that can be used to assess students' perceptions of their learning environment as a means of monitoring and guiding changes toward social constructivist learning environments. The study used a mixed-method approach with priority given to the quantitative data collection. During the quantitative data collection phase, a new instrument—the Social Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (SCLES)—was developed and used to collect data from 1,955 grade 9 science students from 52 classes in 50 schools in the Western Cape province, South Africa. The data were analysed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the new instrument, which assessed six dimensions of the classroom learning environment, namely, Working with Ideas, Personal Relevance, Collaboration, Critical Voice, Uncertainty in Science and Respect for Difference. Two dimensions were developed specifically for the present study in order to contextualise the questionnaire to the requirements of the new South African curriculum (namely, Metacognition and Respect for Difference). In the qualitative data collection phase, two case studies were used to investigate whether profiles of class mean scores on the new instrument could provide an accurate and "trustworthy" description of the learning environment of individual science classes. The study makes significant contributions to the field of learning environments in that it is one of the first major studies of its kind in South Africa with a focus on social constructivism and because the instrument developed captures important aspects of the learning environment associated with social constructivism.

  4. Monitoring healing of pressure ulcers : a review of assessment instruments for use in the spinal cord unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lis, M. S.; van Asbeck, F. W. A.; Post, M. W. M.

    2010-01-01

    Study design: Review. Objectives: To identify the pressure ulcer healing assessment instrument that is the best choice for use in spinal cord injury rehabilitation. Methods: Articles were retrieved from PubMed. Inclusion criteria were written in English, published up to December 2008 and describing

  5. The MAXI Mission on the ISS: Science and Instruments for Monitoring All Sky X-Ray Images

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuoka, Masaru; Ueno, Shiro; Tomida, Hiroshi; Kohama, Mitsuhiro; Suzuki, Motoko; Adachi, Yasuki; Ishikawa, Masaki; Mihara, Tatehiro; Sugizaki, Mutsumi; Isobe, Naoki; Nakagawa, Yujin; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Miyata, Emi; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Kataoka, Jun; Morii, Mikio; Yoshida, Atsumasa; Negoro, Hitoshi; Nakajima, Motoki; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Chujo, Hirotaka; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Yamazaki, Osamu; Nakahira, Satoshi; You, Tetsuya; Ishiwata, Ryoji; Miyoshi, Sho; Eguchi, Satoshi; Hiroi, Kazuo; Katayama, Haruyoshi; Ebisawa, Ken

    2009-01-01

    The MAXI (Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image) mission is the first astronomical payload to be installed on the Japanese Experiment Module-Exposed Facility (JEM-EF) on the ISS. It is scheduled for launch in the middle of 2009 to monitor all-sky X-ray objects on every ISS orbit. MAXI will be more powerful than any previous X-ray All Sky Monitor (ASM) payloads, being able to monitor hundreds of AGN. MAXI will provide all sky images of X-ray sources of about 20 mCrab in the energy band of 2-30 keV from observation on one ISS orbit (90 min), about 4.5 mCrab for one day, and about 1 mCrab for one month. A final detectability of MAXI could be 0.2 mCrab for 2 year observations.

  6. The added value of a visible channel to a geostationary thermal infrared instrument to monitor ozone for air quality

    OpenAIRE

    Hache, E.; Attié, J.-L.; Tourneur, C.; Ricaud, P.; L. Coret; W. A. Lahoz; El Amraoui, L.; Josse, B.; Hamer, P.; Warner, J.; Liu, X.; K. Chance; M. Höpfner; R. Spurr; V. Natraj

    2014-01-01

    Ozone is a tropospheric pollutant and plays a key role in determining the air quality that affects human wellbeing. In this study, we compare the capability of two hypothetical grating spectrometers onboard a geostationary (GEO) satellite to sense ozone in the lowermost troposphere (surface and the 0–1 km column). We consider 1 week during the Northern Hemisphere summer simulated by a chemical transport model, and use the two GEO instrument configurations to...

  7. 基于虚拟仪器沼气环境监控系统实现%Methane Fermentation Environment monitoring system implementation based on the Virtual Instrumentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘汉怀; 孙岐峰

    2013-01-01

    On virtual instrument development platform,combined with the microcontroller,sensors,signal processing technology to build gas monitoring systems,gas production can affect environmental parameters temperature,pressure,level,PH value monitoring,Acquisition and processing sensor output signal by MCU and ADC in this paper,Front panel and block diagram software programming by LabVIEW,To complete environmental parameters monitoring.Through the program demonstrate that the system can meet the commissioning of biogas environmental monitoring requirements.%以虚拟仪器为开发平台,结合单片机、传感器、信号处理等技术构建沼气监控系统,可以对影响产气环境参数温度、压力、液位、PH值进行监控,本文利用单片机和数模转换模块对传感器输出信号进行采集处理,LabVIEW软件前面板和程序框图编程,完成环境参数监控。通过程序调试证明本系统能够满足沼气环境监控要求。

  8. CIB: an improved communication architecture for real-time monitoring of aerospace materials, instruments, and sensors on the ISS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasowski, Michael J; Prokop, Norman F; Flatico, Joseph M; Greer, Lawrence C; Jenkins, Phillip P; Neudeck, Philip G; Chen, Liangyu; Spina, Danny C

    2013-01-01

    The Communications Interface Board (CIB) is an improved communications architecture that was demonstrated on the International Space Station (ISS). ISS communication interfaces allowing for real-time telemetry and health monitoring require a significant amount of development. The CIB simplifies the communications interface to the ISS for real-time health monitoring, telemetry, and control of resident sensors or experiments. With a simpler interface available to the telemetry bus, more sensors or experiments may be flown. The CIB accomplishes this by acting as a bridge between the ISS MIL-STD-1553 low-rate telemetry (LRT) bus and the sensors allowing for two-way command and telemetry data transfer. The CIB was designed to be highly reliable and radiation hard for an extended flight in low Earth orbit (LEO) and has been proven with over 40 months of flight operation on the outside of ISS supporting two sets of flight experiments. Since the CIB is currently operating in flight on the ISS, recent results of operations will be provided. Additionally, as a vehicle health monitoring enabling technology, an overview and results from two experiments enabled by the CIB will be provided. Future applications for vehicle health monitoring utilizing the CIB architecture will also be discussed.

  9. On the Potential Uses of Static Offsets Derived From Low-Cost Community Instruments and Crowd-Sourcing for Earthquake Monitoring and Rapid Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minson, S. E.; Brooks, B. A.; Murray, J. R.; Iannucci, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    We explore the efficacy of low-cost community instruments (LCCIs) and crowd-sourcing to produce rapid estimates of earthquake magnitude and rupture characteristics which can be used for earthquake loss reduction such as issuing tsunami warnings and guiding rapid response efforts. Real-time high-rate GPS data are just beginning to be incorporated into earthquake early warning (EEW) systems. These data are showing promising utility including producing moment magnitude estimates which do not saturate for the largest earthquakes and determining the geometry and slip distribution of the earthquake rupture in real-time. However, building a network of scientific-quality real-time high-rate GPS stations requires substantial infrastructure investment which is not practicable in many parts of the world. To expand the benefits of real-time geodetic monitoring globally, we consider the potential of pseudorange-based GPS locations such as the real-time positioning done onboard cell phones or on LCCIs that could be distributed in the same way accelerometers are distributed as part of the Quake Catcher Network (QCN). While location information from LCCIs often have large uncertainties, their low cost means that large numbers of instruments can be deployed. A monitoring network that includes smartphones could collect data from potentially millions of instruments. These observations could be averaged together to substantially decrease errors associated with estimated earthquake source parameters. While these data will be inferior to data recorded by scientific-grade seismometers and GPS instruments, there are features of community-based data collection (and possibly analysis) that are very attractive. This approach creates a system where every user can host an instrument or download an application to their smartphone that both provides them with earthquake and tsunami warnings while also providing the data on which the warning system operates. This symbiosis helps to encourage

  10. A wearable, low-power, health-monitoring instrumentation based on a Programmable System-on-Chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massot, Bertrand; Gehin, Claudine; Nocua, Ronald; Dittmar, Andre; McAdams, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Improvement in quality and efficiency of health and medicine, at home and in hospital, has become of paramount importance. The solution of this problem would require the continuous monitoring of several key patient parameters, including the assessment of autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity using non-invasive sensors, providing information for emotional, sensorial, cognitive and physiological analysis of the patient. Recent advances in embedded systems, microelectronics, sensors and wireless networking enable the design of wearable systems capable of such advanced health monitoring. The subject of this article is an ambulatory system comprising a small wrist device connected to several sensors for the detection of the autonomic nervous system activity. It affords monitoring of skin resistance, skin temperature and heart activity. It is also capable of recording the data on a removable media or sending it to computer via a wireless communication. The wrist device is based on a Programmable System-on-Chip (PSoC) from Cypress: PSoCs are mixed-signal arrays, with dynamic, configurable digital and analogical blocks and an 8-bit Microcontroller unit (MCU) core on a single chip. In this paper we present first of all the hardware and software architecture of the device, and then results obtained from initial experiments.

  11. Optical instrumentation systems for environmental and structural health monitoring based on the molecular condensation nuclei (MCN) detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuptsov, Vladimir D.; Katelevsky, Vadim Ya.; Valyukhov, Vladimir P.; Aladov, Andrei V.

    2016-04-01

    The foundation of measurement systems for environmental and structural health monitoring based on molecular condensation nuclei (MCN) detector is the measurement of the intensity of light scattered by aerosol particles. Aerosol particles are formed in the condensation chamber around single molecules of detected impurities (harmful and dangerous substances in the case of environmental monitoring and biomarkers in the case of structural health monitoring). The size of an aerosol particle is about 106 times larger than the size of the original impurity molecule. The ability of the aerosol particle to scatter incident light also increases 1014÷1016 times compared with the original molecule. By measuring the light scattering intensity the concentration of chemical impurities in the air is determined. The paper investigates many aspects of the detection process - the optical scattering by aerosol particles inside the photometer of MCN detector; signal conditioning, processing of light scattering measurements results, determination of the criteria for making a decision about the presence of detected impurities in the environment; multi-component sensing of detected impurities and graphical user interface design. Experimental results of the detection of toxic substances in micro-concentrations in the environment are presented.

  12. Instrumentation on commercial aircraft for monitoring the atmospheric composition on a global scale: the IAGOS system, technical overview of ozone and carbon monoxide measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillipe Nédélec

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the In-service Aircraft of a Global Observing System (IAGOS developed for operations on commercial long-range Airbus aircraft (A330/A340 for monitoring the atmospheric composition. IAGOS is the continuation of the former Measurement of OZone and water vapour on Airbus In-service airCraft (MOZAIC programme (1994–2014 with five aircraft operated by European airlines over 20 yr. MOZAIC has provided unique scientific database used worldwide by the scientific community. In continuation of MOZAIC, IAGOS aims to equip a fleet up to 20 aircraft around the world and for operations over decades. IAGOS started in July 2011 with the first instruments installed aboard a Lufthansa A340-300, and a total of six aircraft are already in operation. We present the technical aircraft system concept, with basic instruments for O3, CO, water vapour and clouds; and optional instruments for measuring either NOy, NOx, aerosols or CO2/CH4. In this article, we focus on the O3 and CO instrumentation while other measurements are or will be described in specific papers. O3 and CO are measured by optimised but well-known methods such as UV absorption and IR correlation, respectively. We describe the data processing/validation and the data quality control for O3 and CO. Using the first two overlapping years of MOZAIC/IAGOS, we conclude that IAGOS can be considered as the continuation of MOZAIC with the same data quality of O3 and CO measurements.

  13. Determination of the Characteristics of Ground-Based IR Spectral Instrumentation for Environmental Monitoring of the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, M. V.; Poberovskii, A. V.; Hase, F.; Timofeyev, Yu. M.; Imhasin, Kh. Kh.

    2016-07-01

    This is a study of the spectral characteristics of a ground-based spectral system consisting of an original system for tracking the sun developed at St. Petersburg State University and a Bruker IFS125HR Fourier spectrometer. The importance of accounting for the actual instrument function of the spectral system during processing of ground-based IR spectra of direct solar radiation is illustrated by the example of determining the overall abundance of methane in the atmosphere. Spectral intervals are proposed for taking spectra of direct solar radiation with an HBr cell, which yield information on the parameters of the ground-based system, while simultaneously checking the alignment of the system for each spectrum of the atmosphere.

  14. Virtual Instrument Application in Flow Monitoring%虚拟仪器在流量监控中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄夫海; 李岩; 董艳雪

    2012-01-01

    A MODBUS RTU-based and virtual instrument-supported flow information collection system was introduced, including the system connection and the software design for the data transmission based on Lab-VIEW; meanwhile, the converter performance and transmission method of OPTIFLUX electromagnetic flowme-ter were discussed.%介绍了一种基于MODBUS RTU实现的虚拟仪器对流量信息的采集系统,讨论了OPTIFLUX电磁流量计转换器的性能及传输方式,给出了系统连接的硬件方式及基于LabVIEW实现数据传输的软件设计方法.

  15. A new cavity ring-down instrument for airborne monitoring of N2O5, NO3, NO2 and O3 in the upper troposphere lower stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Albert A.; Brown, Steven S.; Dinesan, Hemanth; Dubé, William P.; Goulette, Marc; Hübler, Gerhard; Orphal, Johannes; Zahn, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The chemistry of NO3 and N2O5 is important to the regulation of both tropospheric and stratospheric ozone. In situ detection of NO3 and N2O5 in the upper troposphere lower stratosphere (UTLS) represents a new scientific direction as the only previous measurements of these species in this region of the atmosphere has been via remote sensing techniques. Because both the sources and the sinks for NO3 and N2O5 are potentially stratified spatially, their mixing ratios, and their influence on nitrogen oxide and ozone transport and loss at night can show large variability as a function of altitude. Aircraft-based measurements of heterogeneous N2O5 uptake in the lower troposphere have uncovered a surprising degree of variability in the uptake coefficient [1], but there are no corresponding high altitude measurements.The UTLS is routinely sampled by the IAGOS-CARIBIC program (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container, www.caribic-atmospheric.com), a European infrastructural program with the aim of studying the chemistry and transport across this part of the atmosphere. An airfreight container with 15 different automated instruments from 8 European research partners is utilized on board a commercial Lufthansa airbus 340-600 to monitor ~ 100 atmospheric species (trace gases and aerosol parameters) in the UTLS. The instrumentation in the CARIBIC container is now to be supplemented by a new cavity ring-down device for monitoring nitrogen oxides, jointly developed by researchers from Cork (Ireland), Boulder (USA) and Karlsruhe (Germany). The compact and light-weight instrument is designed to monitor not only NO3 and N2O5, but also NO2 and O3. The detection is based on 4 high-finesse optical cavities (cavity length ~ 44 cm). Two cavities are operated at 662 nm (maximum absorption of NO3), the other two at 405 nm (maximum absorption of NO2). The inlet to one of the (662)-cavities is heated in order to thermally decompose N2O5

  16. Variability of the human heart rate as a diagnostic instrument obtained by mean of a wireless monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barajas Mauricio, Sánchez; Hernández González, Martha Alicia; Figueroa Vega, Nicte; Malacara Hernández, Juan Manuel; Fraga Teodoro, Córdova

    2014-11-01

    Introduction: Heart rate variability (HRV) is the cyclic measurement of RR intervals between normal beats. Aim: To determine the VFC via a wireless Polar monitor. Material and methods: 100 symptomatic menopausal women were studied for measurements of HRV were I post a Polar RS400 Watch four hrs. Results: Obtained through the fast Fourier transform, the frequency domain HRV low frequency (LF) 0.04-0.15 Hz, high frequency (HF) 0.15-0.4Hz and the ratio LF / HF. Conclusion: obtaining HRV is important for cardiovascular autonomic assessment in menopausal women.

  17. Calibration Method of Nickel Water Quality On-line Automatic Monitoring Instrument%镍水质在线自动监测仪校准方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖克

    2016-01-01

    通过分析镍水质在线自动监测仪工作原理及结构,探讨其计量特性和校准方法。提出了校准项目和技术指标,示值误差:当镍的质量浓度c≤0.05 mg/L时为±0.01 mg/L,当0.05 mg/L<c≤0.2 mg/L时为±10%,当c>0.2 mg/L时为±5%;重复性不大于5%;稳定性不大于5%。对示值误差测量结果不确定度进行了评定,相对扩展不确定度为1.6%(k=2)。用所建校准方法对不同厂家的监测仪进行校准试验,示值误差、重复性、稳定性满足校准项目技术指标要求。该校准方法可以用于评价镍水质在线自动监测仪的性能。%The metrological characteristics and calibration method of the nickel water quality on-line automatic monitoring instrument were discussed on the basis of analysis of its working principle and structure. The calibration items and technical specifications were put forward. The indicating value error were±0.01 mg/L,±10% and±5% at the corresponding concentration of standard solutionc≤0.05 mg/L,0.05 mg/L0.2 mg/L, respectively. The repeatability was not more than 5% while the stability was not more than 5%. The measurement uncertainty of indicating value error was evaluated,and the relative expanded uncertainty was 1.6% (k=2). The established calibration method was applied to test monitoring instruments from different manufacturers. The results indicated that value error, repeatability and stability meet the requirement of technical specifications. This method can be used for the evaluation of the performance of nickel water quality on-line automatic monitoring instrument.

  18. Application of AD421 to electric power monitoring instrument%AD421在电力监控仪表中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李超; 姚传荣; 任晓红

    2015-01-01

    Electric power monitoring instrument is an advanced intelligent and digital front-end capture devices which has been widely used in various control systems and replaced the conventional power measuring instruments and trans -mitters in function.In this paper, power monitoring instrument with harmonic monitoring functions is made as a design object, the working principle of using AD421 to realize 4mA~20mA two-wire transmitter is discussed .32-bit frees-cale chip MCF51 AC256 B is used as the CPU .For security reasons , communication interface between AD 421 and CPU uses 6N136 to execute optocoupler isolation .This paper presents the design of 4mA~20mA current loop and the hardware block diagram of the meter system .Experiments verify the given current in current loop can be exported stably and accurately , the loop design is feasible and reliable .%电力监控仪表是一种先进的智能化、数字化的前端采集元件,该类仪表已广泛应用于各种控制系统,它在功能上取代了测量仪表及常规电力变送器。以带有谐波监测功能的电力监控仪表作为设计对象,重点讨论了采用AD421实现4mA~20mA两线制电流变送的工作原理。采用32位飞思卡尔单片机MCF51AC256B作为系统CPU,出于安全考虑AD421与单片机之间的通信接口采用6N136进行光耦隔离,文中给出了4mA~20mA电流变送设计电路以及仪表系统硬件框图。通过实验,验证了电流环路中的给定电流输出稳定、准确,环路设计方案可行、可靠。

  19. Active Region Soft X-Ray Spectra as Observed Using Sounding Rocket Measurements from the Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM), - a Modified SDO/EVE Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieman, S. R.; Didkovsky, L. V.; Woods, T. N.; Jones, A. R.; Caspi, A.; Warren, H. P.

    2015-12-01

    Observations of solar active regions (ARs) in the soft x-ray spectral range (0.5 to 3.0 nm) were made on sounding rocket flight NASA 36.290 using a modified Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM), a pinhole camera on the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) sounding rocket instrument. The suite of EVE rocket instruments is designed for under-flight calibrations of the orbital EVE on SDO. While the sounding rocket EVE instrument is for the most part a duplicate of the EVE on SDO, the SAM channel on the rocket version was modified in 2012 to include a free-standing transmission grating so that it could provide spectrally resolved images of the solar disk with the best signal to noise ratio for the brightest features on it, such as ARs. Calibrations of the EVE sounding rocket instrument at the National Institute of Standards and Technology Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (NIST SURF) have provided a measurement of the SAM absolute spectral response function and a mapping of wavelength separation in the grating diffraction pattern. For solar observations, this spectral separation is on a similar scale to the spatial size of the AR on the CCD, so dispersed AR images associated with emission lines of similar wavelength tend to overlap. Furthermore, SAM shares a CCD detector with MEGS-A, a separate EVE spectrometer channel, and artifacts of the MEGS-A signal (a set of bright spectral lines) appear in the SAM images. For these reasons some processing and analysis of the solar images obtained by SAM must be performed in order to determine spectra of the observed ARs. We present a method for determining AR spectra from the SAM rocket images and report initial soft X-ray spectra for two of the major active regions (AR11877 and AR11875) observed on flight 36.290 on 21 October 2013 at about 18:30 UT. We also compare our results with concurrent measurements from other solar soft x-ray instrumentation.

  20. Monitoring biothreat agents (Francisella tularensis, Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis) with a portable real-time PCR instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mölsä, Markos; Hemmilä, Heidi; Katz, Anna; Niemimaa, Jukka; Forbes, Kristian M; Huitu, Otso; Stuart, Peter; Henttonen, Heikki; Nikkari, Simo

    2015-08-01

    In the event of suspected releases or natural outbreaks of contagious pathogens, rapid identification of the infectious agent is essential for appropriate medical intervention and disease containment. The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of a novel portable real-time PCR thermocycler, PikoReal™, to the standard real-time PCR thermocycler, Applied Biosystems® 7300 (ABI 7300), for the detection of three high-risk biothreat bacterial pathogens: Francisella tularensis, Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis. In addition, a novel confirmatory real-time PCR assay for the detection of F. tularensis is presented and validated. The results show that sensitivity of the assays, based on a dilution series, for the three infectious agents ranged from 1 to 100 fg of target DNA with both instruments. No cross-reactivity was revealed in specificity testing. Duration of the assays with the PikoReal and ABI 7300 systems were 50 and 100 min, respectively. In field testing for F. tularensis, results were obtained with the PikoReal system in 95 min, as the pre-PCR preparation, including DNA extraction, required an additional 45 min. We conclude that the PikoReal system enables highly sensitive and rapid on-site detection of biothreat agents under field conditions, and may be a more efficient alternative to conventional diagnostic methods.

  1. A novel instrumented multipeg running wheel system, Step-Wheel, for monitoring and controlling complex sequential stepping in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitsukawa, Takashi; Nagata, Masatoshi; Yanagihara, Dai; Tomioka, Ryohei; Utsumi, Hideko; Kubota, Yasuo; Yagi, Takeshi; Graybiel, Ann M; Yamamori, Tetsuo

    2011-07-01

    Motor control is critical in daily life as well as in artistic and athletic performance and thus is the subject of intense interest in neuroscience. Mouse models of movement disorders have proven valuable for many aspects of investigation, but adequate methods for analyzing complex motor control in mouse models have not been fully established. Here, we report the development of a novel running-wheel system that can be used to evoke simple and complex stepping patterns in mice. The stepping patterns are controlled by spatially organized pegs, which serve as footholds that can be arranged in adjustable, ladder-like configurations. The mice run as they drink water from a spout, providing reward, while the wheel turns at a constant speed. The stepping patterns of the mice can thus be controlled not only spatially, but also temporally. A voltage sensor to detect paw touches is attached to each peg, allowing precise registration of footfalls. We show that this device can be used to analyze patterns of complex motor coordination in mice. We further demonstrate that it is possible to measure patterns of neural activity with chronically implanted tetrodes as the mice engage in vigorous running bouts. We suggest that this instrumented multipeg running wheel (which we name the Step-Wheel System) can serve as an important tool in analyzing motor control and motor learning in mice.

  2. Remotely operable compact instruments for measuring atmospheric CO2 and CH4 column densities at surface monitoring sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Matsumi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Remotely operable compact instruments for measuring atmospheric CO2 and CH4 column densities were developed in two independent systems: one utilizing a grating-based desktop optical spectrum analyzer (OSA with a resolution enough to resolve rotational lines of CO2 and CH4 in the region of 1565–1585 and 1674–1682 nm, respectively; the other is an application of an optical fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer (FFPI to the CO2 column density. Direct sunlight was collimated via a small telescope installed on a portable sun tracker and then transmitted through an optical fiber into the OSA or the FFPI for optical analysis. The near infrared spectra of the OSA were retrieved by a least squares spectral fitting algorithm. The CO2 and CH4 column densities deduced were in excellent agreement with those measured by a Fourier transform spectrometer with high resolution. The rovibronic lines in the wavelength region of 1570–1575 nm were analyzed by the FFPI. The I0 and I values in the Beer-Lambert law equation to obtain CO2 column density were deduced by modulating temperature of the FFPI, which offered column CO2 with the statistical error less than 0.2% for six hours measurement.

  3. Remotely operable compact instruments for measuring atmospheric CO2 and CH4 column densities at surface monitoring sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Morino

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Remotely operable compact instruments for measuring atmospheric CO2 and CH4 column densities were developed in two independent systems: one utilizing a grating-based desktop optical spectrum analyzer (OSA with a resolution enough to resolve rotational lines of CO2 and CH4 in the regions of 1565–1585 and 1674–1682 nm, respectively; the other is an application of an optical fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer (FFPI to obtain the CO2 column density. Direct sunlight was collimated via a small telescope installed on a portable sun tracker and then transmitted through an optical fiber into the OSA or the FFPI for optical analysis. The near infrared spectra of the OSA were retrieved by a least squares spectral fitting algorithm. The CO2 and CH4 column densities deduced were in excellent agreement with those measured by a Fourier transform spectrometer with high resolution. The rovibronic lines in the wavelength region of 1570–1575 nm were analyzed by the FFPI. The I0 and I values in the Beer-Lambert law equation to obtain CO2 column density were deduced by modulating temperature of the FFPI, which offered column CO2 with the statistical error less than 0.2% for six hours measurement.

  4. Comparative studies on detergent-assisted apocytochrome b6 reconstitution into liposomal bilayers monitored by Zetasizer instruments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał A Surma

    Full Text Available The present paper is a systematic, comparative study on the reconstitution of an apocytochrome b6 purified from a heterologous system using a detergent-free method and reconstitution into liposomes performed using three different detergents: SDS, Triton X-100 and DM, and two methods of detergent removal by dialysis and using Bio-Beads. The product size, its distribution and zeta potential, and other parameters were monitored throughout the process. We found that zeta potential of proteoliposomes is correlated with reconstitution efficiency and, as such, can serve as a quick and convenient quality control for reconstitution experiments. We also advocate using detergent-free protein purification methods as they allow for an unfettered choice of detergent for reconstitution, which is the most crucial factor influencing the final product parameters.

  5. A Fast and Sensitive New Satellite SO2 Retrieval Algorithm based on Principal Component Analysis: Application to the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Can; Joiner, Joanna; Krotkov, A.; Bhartia, Pawan K.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a new algorithm to retrieve SO2 from satellite-measured hyperspectral radiances. We employ the principal component analysis technique in regions with no significant SO2 to capture radiance variability caused by both physical processes (e.g., Rayleigh and Raman scattering and ozone absorption) and measurement artifacts. We use the resulting principal components and SO2 Jacobians calculated with a radiative transfer model to directly estimate SO2 vertical column density in one step. Application to the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) radiance spectra in 310.5-340 nm demonstrates that this approach can greatly reduce biases in the operational OMI product and decrease the noise by a factor of 2, providing greater sensitivity to anthropogenic emissions. The new algorithm is fast, eliminates the need for instrument-specific radiance correction schemes, and can be easily adapted to other sensors. These attributes make it a promising technique for producing longterm, consistent SO2 records for air quality and climate research.

  6. Qualitative analysis of the contributions of nutritionists to the development of an online instrument for monitoring the food intake of schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, V F; Kupek, E; de Assis, M A; Engel, R; da Costa, F F; Di Pietro, P F; Natal, S; Thompson, D; Baranowski, T

    2015-01-01

    The Consumo Alimentar e Atividade Fisica de Escolares (CAAFE) questionnaire is an online research tool that has been developed to enable the self-report of physical activity and diet by Brazilian schoolchildren aged 7-10 years. Formative research was conducted with nutritionists during the development of the web-based questionnaire. The suggestions and insights obtained were used to design a tool to monitor schoolchildren's food consumption based on the concept of healthy and unhealthy food indicators. The present study aimed to report the focus group discussions conducted with nutritionists concerning the CAAFE questionnaire. Focus group discussions were conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire, and these were then analysed thematically. Twenty-four nutritionists participated (four focus groups; average per group: six people); the majority (n = 22) had experience with 7-10-year-old children. Four themes emerged: (i) healthy and unhealthy food indicators; (ii) suggestions for the online instrument; (iii) potential applications; and (iv) challenges for its construction. Comments made by nutritionists enabled the construction of an instrument that is able to answer questions related to food consumption in schools and at home. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  7. Systematic Monitoring of Male Circumcision Scale-Up in Nyanza, Kenya: Exploratory Factor Analysis of Service Quality Instrument and Performance Ranking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omondi Aduda, Dickens S.; Ouma, Collins; Onyango, Rosebella; Onyango, Mathews; Bertrand, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Background Considerable conceptual and operational complexities related to service quality measurements and variability in delivery contexts of scaled-up medical male circumcision, pose real challenges to monitoring implementation of quality and safety. Clarifying latent factors of the quality instruments can enhance contextual applicability and the likelihood that observed service outcomes are appropriately assessed. Objective To explore factors underlying SYMMACS service quality assessment tool (adopted from the WHO VMMC quality toolkit) and; determine service quality performance using composite quality index derived from the latent factors. Study design Using a comparative process evaluation of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Scale-Up in Kenya site level data was collected among health facilities providing VMMC over two years. Systematic Monitoring of the Medical Male Circumcision Scale-Up quality instrument was used to assess availability of guidelines, supplies and equipment, infection control, and continuity of care services. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to clarify quality structure. Results Fifty four items and 246 responses were analyzed. Based on Eigenvalue >1.00 cut-off, factors 1, 2 & 3 were retained each respectively having eigenvalues of 5.78; 4.29; 2.99. These cumulatively accounted for 29.1% of the total variance (12.9%; 9.5%; 6.7%) with final communality estimates being 13.06. Using a cut-off factor loading value of ≥0.4, fifteen items loading on factor 1, five on factor 2 and one on factor 3 were retained. Factor 1closely relates to preparedness to deliver safe male circumcisions while factor two depicts skilled task performance and compliance with protocols. Of the 28 facilities, 32% attained between 90th and 95th percentile (excellent); 45% between 50th and 75th percentiles (average) and 14.3% below 25th percentile (poor). Conclusion the service quality assessment instrument may be simplified to have nearly 20 items that relate

  8. Systematic monitoring of male circumcision scale-up in Nyanza, Kenya: exploratory factor analysis of service quality instrument and performance ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omondi Aduda, Dickens S; Ouma, Collins; Onyango, Rosebella; Onyango, Mathews; Bertrand, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Considerable conceptual and operational complexities related to service quality measurements and variability in delivery contexts of scaled-up medical male circumcision, pose real challenges to monitoring implementation of quality and safety. Clarifying latent factors of the quality instruments can enhance contextual applicability and the likelihood that observed service outcomes are appropriately assessed. To explore factors underlying SYMMACS service quality assessment tool (adopted from the WHO VMMC quality toolkit) and; determine service quality performance using composite quality index derived from the latent factors. Using a comparative process evaluation of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Scale-Up in Kenya site level data was collected among health facilities providing VMMC over two years. Systematic Monitoring of the Medical Male Circumcision Scale-Up quality instrument was used to assess availability of guidelines, supplies and equipment, infection control, and continuity of care services. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to clarify quality structure. Fifty four items and 246 responses were analyzed. Based on Eigenvalue >1.00 cut-off, factors 1, 2 & 3 were retained each respectively having eigenvalues of 5.78; 4.29; 2.99. These cumulatively accounted for 29.1% of the total variance (12.9%; 9.5%; 6.7%) with final communality estimates being 13.06. Using a cut-off factor loading value of ≥0.4, fifteen items loading on factor 1, five on factor 2 and one on factor 3 were retained. Factor 1 closely relates to preparedness to deliver safe male circumcisions while factor two depicts skilled task performance and compliance with protocols. Of the 28 facilities, 32% attained between 90th and 95th percentile (excellent); 45% between 50th and 75th percentiles (average) and 14.3% below 25th percentile (poor). the service quality assessment instrument may be simplified to have nearly 20 items that relate more closely to service outcomes. Ranking of

  9. Tropospheric ozone column retrieval at northern mid-latitudes from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument by means of a neural network algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sellitto

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring tropospheric ozone from space is of critical importance in order to gain more thorough knowledge on phenomena affecting air quality and the greenhouse effect. Deriving information on tropospheric ozone from UV/VIS nadir satellite spectrometers is difficult owing to the weak sensitivity of the measured radiance spectra to variations of ozone in the troposphere. Here we propose an alternative method of analysis to retrieve tropospheric ozone columns from Ozone Monitoring Instrument radiances by means of a neural network algorithm. An extended set of ozone sonde measurements at northern mid-latitudes for the years 2004–2008 has been considered as the training and test data set. The design of the algorithm is extensively discussed. Our retrievals are compared to both tropospheric ozone residuals and optimal estimation retrievals over a similar independent test data set. Results show that our algorithm has comparable accuracy with respect to both correlative methods and its performance is slightly better over a subset containing only European ozone sonde stations. Possible sources of errors are analyzed. Finally, the capabilities of our algorithm to derive information on boundary layer ozone are studied and the results critically discussed.

  10. Ozone Monitoring Instrument Observations of Interannual Increases in SO2 Emissions from Indian Coal-fired Power Plants During 2005-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David D.; de Foy, Benjamin; Krotkov, Nickolay A.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the rapid growth of electricity demand and the absence of regulations, sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from coal-fired power plants in India have increased notably in the past decade. In this study, we present the first interannual comparison of SO2 emissions and the satellite SO2 observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) for Indian coal-fired power plants during the OMI era of 2005-2012. A detailed unit-based inventory is developed for the Indian coal-fired power sector, and results show that its SO2 emissions increased dramatically by 71 percent during 2005-2012. Using the oversampling technique, yearly high-resolution OMI maps for the whole domain of India are created, and they reveal a continuous increase in SO2 columns over India. Power plant regions with annual SO2 emissions greater than 50 Gg year-1 produce statistically significant OMI signals, and a high correlation (R equals 0.93) is found between SO2 emissions and OMI-observed SO2 burdens. Contrary to the decreasing trend of national mean SO2 concentrations reported by the Indian Government, both the total OMI-observed SO2 and average SO2 concentrations in coal-fired power plant regions increased by greater than 60 percent during 2005-2012, implying the air quality monitoring network needs to be optimized to reflect the true SO2 situation in India.

  11. Ecological Assessment of Autonomy in Instrumental Activities of Daily Living in Dementia Patients by the means of an Automatic Video Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra eKönig

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the assessment of autonomy and functional ability involves clinical rating scales. However, scales are often limited in their ability to provide objective and sensitive information. In contrast, information and communication technologies may overcome these limitations by capturing more fully the functional, as well as cognitive disturbances associated with Alzheimer disease (AD. We investigated the quantitative assessment of the autonomy of dementia patients based not only on gait analysis but also on the participant performance on Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL automatically recognized by a video event monitoring system (EMS. Three groups of participants (healthy controls, Mild Cognitive Impairment and AD patients had to carry out a standardized scenario consisting of physical tasks (single and dual task and several IADLs such as preparing a pillbox or making a phone call while being recorded. After, video sensor data was processed by an event monitoring system that automatically extracts kinematic parameters of the participants’ gait and recognizes their carried out activities. These parameters were then used for the assessment of the participants’ performance levels, here referred as autonomy. Autonomy assessment were approached as classification task using artificial intelligence methods that takes as input the parameters extracted by the event monitoring system, here referred as behavioral data. Activities were accurately recognized by the EMS with high precision. The most accurately recognized activities were: ‘prepare medication’ with 93% and ‘using phone’ with 89% precision. The diagnostic group classifier obtained a precision of 73.46% when combining the analyses of physical tasks with IADLs. In a further analysis, the created autonomy group classifier which obtained a precision of 83.67% when combining physical tasks and IADLs. Results suggest that it is possible to quantitatively assess IADL

  12. Evaluation of Aerosol Optical Thickness algorithm for Geostationary Environmental Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS) Using the OMI Instrument over East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, S.; Kim, J.; KIM, M.; Choi, M.; Lim, H.; Torres, O.; Chang, L.; Hong, J.

    2016-12-01

    The Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS), ultraviolet (UV) and visible channel spectrometer onboard the Geostationary Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite called GEO-KOMPSAT2B, is planned to be launched in 2018. GEMS will provide hourly images based on eight observations in a day spatially covering whole East Asia region (70°E-145°E, 0°N-50°N) centered at 120°E and 17°N with 7 km x 8 km spatial resolution. We have developed and updated GEMS aerosol retrieval algorithm, which will utilize hyper-spectral imaging in UV and visible channels from 300 nm to 500 nm with 0.6 nm resolution. GEMS aerosol products from our retrieval algorithm consist of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA) at 443 nm, Aerosol Index, and aerosol effective height. In this study, we test the GEMS algorithm for AOD retrieval using OMI level-1B data for GEMS measurement, and evaluate the results using ground-based AERONET level 2.0 products obtained from 24 sites located in East Asia. We perform this verification for 2 years from January 2005 to December 2006. Preliminary comparison results for total 24 sites show that a correlation coefficient between GEMS and AERONET AODs at 440 nm channel is 0.776, and root-mean-square error (RMSE) is 0.285 with regression line slope 0.681 and offset 0.188. The correlation coefficient between GEMS and AERONET AOD shows higher value than the correlation coefficient between OMI and AERONET AOD, but GEMS AOD slightly underestimate AERONET AOD especially over large cities. There could be several reasons causing underestimation over large cities including aerosol model selection problem, and surface reflectance problem. We analyzed the difference between GEMS and the AERONET AOD related to the variation of fine mode fraction, spectral surface reflectance. Validation results show large underestimation of AOD with respect to high fine mode fraction, but show weak dependence on spectral surface reflectance. In terms of

  13. WISDOM: the WIYN spectrograph for Doppler monitoring: a NASA-NSF concept for an extreme precision radial velocity instrument in support of TESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fżrész, Gábor; Simcoe, Robert; Barnes, Stuart I.; Buchhave, Lars A.; Egan, Mark; Foster, Rick; Hellickson, Tim; Malonis, Andrew; Phillips, David; Shectman, Stephen; Walsworth, Ronald; Winn, Josh; Woods, Deborah

    2016-08-01

    The Kepler mission highlighted that precision radial velocity (PRV) follow-up is a real bottleneck in supporting transiting exoplanet surveys. The limited availability of PRV instruments, and the desire to break the "1 m/s" precision barrier, prompted the formation of a NASA-NSF collaboration `NN-EXPLORE' to call for proposals designing a new Extreme Precision Doppler Spectrograph (EPDS). By securing a significant fraction of telescope time on the 3.5m WIYN at Kitt Peak, and aiming for unprecedented long-term precision, the EPDS instrument will provide a unique tool for U.S. astronomers in characterizing exoplanet candidates identified by TESS. One of the two funded instrument concept studies is led by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, in consortium with Lincoln Laboratories, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and the Carnegie Observatories. This paper describes the instrument concept WISDOM (WIYN Spectrograph for DOppler Monitoring) prepared by this team. WISDOM is a fiber fed, environmentally controlled, high resolution (R=110k), asymmetric white-pupil echelle spectrograph, covering a wide 380-1300nm wavelength region. Its R4 and R6 echelle gratings provide the main dispersion, symmetrically mounted on either side of a vertically aligned, vacuum-enclosed carbon fiber optical bench. Each grating feeds two cameras and thus the resulting wavelength range per camera is narrow enough that the VPHG cross-dispersers and employed anti-reflection coatings are highly efficient. The instrument operates near room temperature, and so thermal background for the near-infrared arm is mitigated by thermal blocking filters and a short (1.7μm) cutoff HgCdTe detector. To achieve high resolution while maintaining small overall instrument size (100/125mm beam diameter), imposed by the limited available space within the observatory building, we chose to slice the telescope pupil 6 ways before coupling light into fibers. An atmospheric dispersion corrector and fast

  14. 基于AVR单片机的电磁场监测仪设计%Instrument design for monitoring electromagnetic field based on AVR MCU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建平; 李吉; 葛青

    2011-01-01

    设计了一个环境电磁污染监测系统,能够测量环境磁场大小,测量精度可达到6×104-8T.利用磁阻芯片特有的置位/复位功能有效地消除因温度漂移和电路参数漂移等共模信号造成的误差,提高了磁场检测的灵敏度.监测仪器以Atmega16L为控制器,单片集成磁场传感器HMC1052L为检测元件,其输出通过运算放大器LMV358放大,利用Atmega16L单片机模数转换器转换成数字信号,并由LCD显示测量结果.%A system for monitoring environment electromagnetic pollution was designed. The instrument could measure the environment electromagnetic radiation and its measurement accuracy reached 0.6 mG. The error caused by common mode signals such as temperature and circuit parameter drift can be eliminated efficiently with the SET/RESET function of HMC, and the sensitivity of detecting the magnetic field was improved. Basing on Atmega16L, the instrument used the sensor HMC1052L as detection component. The output signal of the sensor was amplified by operational amplifier LMV358, then the amplified signal was converted to digital signal by ADC on Atmega16L MCU, and measurement result was displayed on LCD.

  15. Improved instrumental line shape monitoring for the ground-based, high-resolution FTIR spectrometers of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Hase

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We propose an improved monitoring scheme for the instrumental line shape (ILS of high-resolution, ground-based FTIR (Fourier Transform InfraRed spectrometers used for chemical monitoring of the atmosphere by the Network for Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC. Good ILS knowledge is required for the analysis of the recorded mid-infrared spectra. The new method applies a sequence of measurements using different gas cells instead of a single calibration cell. Three cells are used: cell C1 is a refillable cell offering 200 mm path length and equipped with a pressure gauge (filled with 100 Pa N2O, cells C2 and C3 are sealed cells offering 75 mm path length. C2 is filled with 5 Pa of pure N2O. Cell C3 is filled with 16 Pa N2O in 200 hPa technical air, so provides pressure-broadened N2O lines. We demonstrate that an ILS retrieval using C1 improves significantly the sensitivity of the ILS retrieval over the current calibration cells used in the network, because this cell provides narrow fully saturated N2O lines. The N2O columns derived from C2 and C3 allow the performance of a highly valuable closure experiment: adopting the ILS retrieved from C1, the N2O columns of C2 and C3 are derived. Because N2O is an inert gas, both columns should be constant on long timescales. Apparent changes in the columns would immediately attract attention and indicate either inconsistent ILS results or instrumental problems of other origin. Two different cells are applied for the closure experiment, because the NDACC spectrometers observe both stratospheric and tropospheric gases: C2 mimics signatures of stratospheric gases, whereas C3 mimics signatures of tropospheric gases.

  16. Use of a New Simltaneous Absorbance-Fluorescene Instrument to Monitor Hydraluic Fracture Mining Waste Water to Prevent Drinking Water Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, A. M.

    2013-05-01

    Recently, the issue of waste water effuse from oil and gas mining, especially that including hydraulic fracturing, has resurfaced on the news and the political atmosphere as an area of concern. One of the key concerns is drinking water contamination from the hydraulic fracturing chemicals and chemicals contained in the water introduced into the well at high-pressure and the flowback and produced water associate with the petroleum product extraction. The key to successfully meeting drinking water safety requirements lies in the drinking water treatment plant's ability to deal with often dramatic source-water variations in natural organic matter (NOM) content that can react during disinfection with high levels of chloride and bromide found in hydraulic facture waste water to form toxc disinfection by-products (DBPs). Importantly, the brominated DBP species are particularly dangerous. Whereas the regulated levels of NOM can roughly determined by measuring total organic carbon (TOC), often this parameter does not provide rapid or cost-effective qualitative or quantitative assessment of the various humic, fulvic and other aromatic NOM components associated with DBP formation. However, two main optical techniques namely UV absorbance and fluorescence excitation-emission mapping can be used for rapid assessment with precise identification of humic and fulvic components that cause DBPs. This study presents data from a new type of instrument which simultaneously measures the UV-VIS absorbance spectrum and EEM. The rapid absorbance-EEM is facilitated by a single system that is more than 100 time faster than conventional scanning absorbance and fluorescence optical benches. The new system can continuously collect EEMs and absorbance spectra at a rate often greater than 1 per min with the extra capacity to monitor the UV254 absorbance and fluorescence emission spectrum excited at 254 nm in 4 ms intervals (an equivalent scan rate of 5.5 million nm/min). The EEM spectral data is

  17. 基于虚拟仪器的加工振动监测系统%System of machining vibration monitoring based on virtual instrument

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁睿君; 叶文华; 郭杰; 王宁生

    2007-01-01

    建立振动数据采集与分析系统是对零件加工过程进行监控的基础.本文介绍了振动信号采集试验系统的构成和实现方法.系统硬件采用PC-DAQ结构,软件开发利用NI公司的虚拟仪器(LabVIEW),运用多线程技术、循环缓存技术实现数据高速、实时存储,通过参数设置解决数据采集同步问题.系统应用于精密零部件高速铣削过程的状态监控试验中进行振动信号的采集.%Vibration Data Acquisition and Analysis System(VDAAS) is the foundation of monitoring and detecting the operating process of industry equipment. The composition and realization of test system of vibration signal acquisition is introduced. In VDAAS,PC-DAQ (PCI Bus Data Acquisition) is adopted as the hardware structure, and National Instrument LabVIEW is used as the platform of software development. High-speed and real-time data storage is realized by multithreading technology and circle buffer method.The problem of channel delay is solved by suitable setting of parameter. VDAAS is applied to acquire vibration signal in test system of monitoring the process stability of equipment.

  18. Specification for Instrumentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margheritini, Lucia; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    This paper is intended to give an overview on instrumentation for monitoring the efficiency of the Converter and the performance of the device. Real-time control of plant and data monitoring and storage are the main objectives of the control system....

  19. Technical note: Sensitivity of instrumental line shape monitoring for the ground-based high-resolution FTIR spectrometer with respect to different optical attenuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Youwen; Palm, Mathias; Weinzierl, Christine; Petri, Christof; Notholt, Justus; Wang, Yuting; Liu, Cheng

    2017-03-01

    The TCCON (Total Carbon Column Observing Network) and most NDACC (Network for Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change) sites assume an ideal ILS (instrumental line shape) for analysis of the spectra. In order to adapt the radiant energy received by the detector, an attenuator or different sizes of field stop can be inserted in the light path. These processes may alter the alignment of a high-resolution FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectrometer, and may result in bias due to ILS drift. In this paper, we first investigated the sensitivity of the ILS monitoring with respect to application of different kinds of attenuators for ground-based high-resolution FTIR spectrometers within the TCCON and NDACC networks. Both lamp and sun cell measurements were conducted after the insertion of five different attenuators in front of and behind the interferometer. The ILS characteristics derived from lamp and sun spectra are in good agreement. ILSs deduced from all lamp cell measurements were compared. As a result, the disturbances to the ILS of a high-resolution FTIR spectrometer with respect to the insertion of different attenuators at different positions were quantified. A potential strategy to adapt the incident intensity of a detector was finally deduced.

  20. Long term changes of tropospheric Nitrogen Dioxide over Pakistan derived from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) during the time period of October 2004 to December 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtaza, Rabbia; Fahim Khokhar, Muhammad

    2016-07-01

    Urban air pollution is causing huge number of diseases and deaths annually. Nitrogen dioxide is an important component of urban air pollution and a precursor to particulate matter, ground level ozone, and acid rain. The satellite based measurements of nitrogen dioxide from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) can help in analyzing spatio temporal variability in ground level concentrations within a large urban area. In this study, the spatial and temporal distributions of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide Vertical Column Densities (VCDs) over Pakistan are presented from 2004 to 2014. The results showed that the winter season is having high nitrogen dioxide levels as compared to summers. The increase can be attributed to the anthropogenic activities especially thermal power generation and traffic count. Punjab is one of the major provinces with high nitrogen dioxide levels followed by Sindh, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan. Six hotspots have been examined in the present study such as Lahore, Islamabad, Karachi, Faisalabad, Okara and Multan. Emissions of nitrogen compounds from thermal power plants and transportation sector represent a significant fraction of the total nitrogen dioxide emissions to the atmosphere.

  1. Simple instruments used in monitoring ionospheric perturbations and some observational results showing the ionospheric responses to the perturbations mainly from the lower atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zuo; Hao, Yongqiang; Zhang, Donghe; Xiao, Sai-Guan; Huang, Weiquan

    Ionospheric disturbances such as SID and acoustic gravity waves in different scales are well known and commonly discussed topics. Some simple ground equipment was designed and used for monitoring continuously the effects of these disturbances, especially, SWF, SFD. Besides SIDs, They also reflect clearly the acoustic gravity waves in different scale and Spread-F and these data are important supplementary to the traditional ionosonde records. It is of signifi-cance in understanding physical essentials of the ionospheric disturbances and applications in SID warning. In this paper, the designing of the instruments is given and results are discussed in detail. Some case studies were introduced as example which showed very clearly not only immediate effects of solar flare, but also the phenomena of ionospheric responses to large scale gravity waves from lower atmosphere such as typhoon, great earthquake and volcano erup-tion. Particularlyresults showed that acoustic gravity waves play significant role in seeding ionospheric Spread-F. These examples give evidence that lower atmospheric activities strongly influence the ionosphere.

  2. Review and prospect of the development of dam safety monitoring instrument technology%大坝安全监测仪器技术发展现状与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈省三; 毛良明

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of reviews and summaries on the development of dam safety monitoring instru?ment technology, its great importance is elaborated. Combined with some emerging high-technologies, such as MEMS, IOT, WSN, cloud computing, big data etc., the future development of dam safety monitor?ing instrument technology and its associated technologies are analyzed and prospected at the same time.%在回顾和总结大坝安全监测仪器技术发展历程的基础上,结合物联网、MEMS、无线传感器、云计算、大数据等新兴技术,对安全监测仪器技术及关联技术的未来发展前景进行了分析和展望.

  3. VIRUS instrument enclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, T.; Allen, R.; Mondrik, N.; Rheault, J. P.; Sauseda, M.; Boster, E.; James, M.; Rodriguez-Patino, M.; Torres, G.; Ham, J.; Cook, E.; Baker, D.; DePoy, Darren L.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Hill, G. J.; Perry, D.; Savage, R. D.; Good, J. M.; Vattiat, Brian L.

    2014-08-01

    The Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument will be installed at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope† in the near future. The instrument will be housed in two enclosures that are mounted adjacent to the telescope, via the VIRUS Support Structure (VSS). We have designed the enclosures to support and protect the instrument, to enable servicing of the instrument, and to cool the instrument appropriately while not adversely affecting the dome environment. The system uses simple HVAC air handling techniques in conjunction with thermoelectric and standard glycol heat exchangers to provide efficient heat removal. The enclosures also provide power and data transfer to and from each VIRUS unit, liquid nitrogen cooling to the detectors, and environmental monitoring of the instrument and dome environments. In this paper, we describe the design and fabrication of the VIRUS enclosures and their subsystems.

  4. Radioisotope instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, J F; Silverleaf, D J

    1971-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Nuclear Energy, Volume 107: Radioisotope Instruments, Part 1 focuses on the design and applications of instruments based on the radiation released by radioactive substances. The book first offers information on the physical basis of radioisotope instruments; technical and economic advantages of radioisotope instruments; and radiation hazard. The manuscript then discusses commercial radioisotope instruments, including radiation sources and detectors, computing and control units, and measuring heads. The text describes the applications of radioisotop

  5. Ecological Assessment of Autonomy in Instrumental Activities of Daily Living in Dementia Patients by the Means of an Automatic Video Monitoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Alexandra; Crispim-Junior, Carlos Fernando; Covella, Alvaro Gomez Uria; Bremond, Francois; Derreumaux, Alexandre; Bensadoun, Gregory; David, Renaud; Verhey, Frans; Aalten, Pauline; Robert, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the assessment of autonomy and functional ability involves clinical rating scales. However, scales are often limited in their ability to provide objective and sensitive information. By contrast, information and communication technologies may overcome these limitations by capturing more fully functional as well as cognitive disturbances associated with Alzheimer disease (AD). We investigated the quantitative assessment of autonomy in dementia patients based not only on gait analysis but also on the participant performance on instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) automatically recognized by a video event monitoring system (EMS). Three groups of participants (healthy controls, mild cognitive impairment, and AD patients) had to carry out a standardized scenario consisting of physical tasks (single and dual task) and several IADL such as preparing a pillbox or making a phone call while being recorded. After, video sensor data were processed by an EMS that automatically extracts kinematic parameters of the participants' gait and recognizes their carried out activities. These parameters were then used for the assessment of the participants' performance levels, here referred as autonomy. Autonomy assessment was approached as classification task using artificial intelligence methods that takes as input the parameters extracted by the EMS, here referred as behavioral profile. Activities were accurately recognized by the EMS with high precision. The most accurately recognized activities were "prepare medication" with 93% and "using phone" with 89% precision. The diagnostic group classifier obtained a precision of 73.46% when combining the analyses of physical tasks with IADL. In a further analysis, the created autonomy group classifier which obtained a precision of 83.67% when combining physical tasks and IADL. Results suggest that it is possible to quantitatively assess IADL functioning supported by an EMS and that even based on the extracted data the

  6. Satellite-Based Tropospheric NO2 Column Trends in the Last 10 Years Over Mexican Urban Areas Measured by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, C. I.; Stremme, W.; Grutter, M.

    2015-12-01

    Population density and economic activities in urban agglomerations have drastically increased in many cities in Mexico during the last decade. Several factors are responsible for increased urbanization such as a shift of people from rural to urban areas while looking for better education, services and job opportunities as well as the natural growth of the urban areas themselves. Urbanization can create great social, economic and environmental pressures and changes which can easily be observed in most urban agglomerations in the world. In this study, we have focused on analyzing tropospheric NO2 (nitrogen dioxide) column trends over Mexican urban areas that have a population of at least one million inhabitants according to the latest 2010 population census. Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) measurements of NO2 conducted by the space-borne Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on board the Aura satellite between 2005 and 2014 have been used for this analysis. This dataset has allowed us to obtain a satellite-based 10-year tropospheric NO2 column trend over the most populated Mexican cities which include the dominating metropolitan area of Mexico City with more than twenty million inhabitants as well as ten other Mexican cities with a population ranging between one to five million inhabitants with a wide range of activities (commercial, agricultural or heavily industrialized) as well as two important border crossings. Distribution maps of tropospheric NO2 columns above the studied urban agglomerations were reconstructed from the analyzed OMI dataset, allowing to identify areas of interest due to clear NO2 enhancements inside these urban regions.

  7. Optical Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Precision Lapping and Optical Co. has developed a wide variety of hollow retroreflector systems for applications involving the entire optical spectrum; they are, according to company literature, cheaper, more accurate, lighter and capable of greater size than solid prisms. Precision Lapping's major customers are aerospace and defense companies, government organizations, R&D and commercial instrument companies. For example, Precision Lapping supplies hollow retroreflectors for the laser fire control system of the Army's Abrams tank, and retroreflectors have been and are being used in a number of space tests relative to the Air Force's Strategic Defense Initiative research program. An example of a customer/user is Chesapeake Laser Systems, producer of the Laser Tracker System CMS-2000, which has applications in SDI research and industrial robotics. Another customer is MDA Scientific, Inc., manufacturer of a line of toxic gas detection systems used to monitor hazardous gases present in oil fields, refineries, offshore platforms, chemical plants, waste storage sites and other locations where gases are released into the environment.

  8. Comparison of UV irradiances from Aura/Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI with Brewer measurements at El Arenosillo (Spain – Part 1: Analysis of parameter influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Antón

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to compare the erythemal UV irradiance (UVER and spectral UV irradiances (at 305, 310 and 324 nm from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI onboard NASA EOS/Aura polar sun-synchronous satellite (launched in July 2004, local equator crossing time 01:45 p.m. with ground-based measurements from the Brewer spectrophotometer #150 located at El Arenosillo (South of Spain. The analyzed period comprises more than four years, from October 2004 to December 2008. The effects of several factors (clouds, aerosols and the solar elevation on OMI-Brewer comparisons were analyzed. The proxies used for each factor were: OMI Lambertian Equivalent Reflectivity (LER at 360 nm (clouds, the aerosol optical depth (AOD at 440 nm measured from the ground-based Cimel sun-photometer (http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov, and solar zenith angle (SZA at OMI overpass time. The comparison for all sky conditions reveals positive biases (OMI higher than Brewer 12.3% for UVER, 14.2% for UV irradiance at 305 nm, 10.6% for 310 nm and 8.7% for 324 nm. The OMI-Brewer root mean square error (RMSE is reduced when cloudy cases are removed from the analysis, (e.g., RMSE~20% for all sky conditions and RMSE smaller than 10% for cloud-free conditions. However, the biases remain and even become more significant for the cloud-free cases with respect to all sky conditions. The mentioned overestimation is partially due to aerosol extinction influence. In addition, the differences OMI-Brewer typically decrease with SZA except days with high aerosol loading, when the bias is near constant. The seasonal dependence of the OMI-Brewer difference for cloud-free conditions is driven by aerosol climatology.

    To account for the aerosol effect, a first evaluation in order to compare with previous TOMS results (Antón et al., 2007 was performed. This comparison shows that the OMI bias is between +14% and +19% for

  9. Global free tropospheric NO2 abundances derived using a cloud slicing technique applied to satellite observations from the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We derive free-tropospheric NO2 volume mixing ratios (VMRs and stratospheric column amounts of NO2 by applying a cloud slicing technique to data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI on the Aura satellite. In the cloud-slicing approach, the slope of the above-cloud NO2 column vs. the cloud scene pressure is proportional to the NO2 VMR. In this work, we use a sample of nearby OMI pixel data from a single orbit for the linear fit. The OMI data include cloud scene pressures from the rotational-Raman algorithm and above-cloud NO2 vertical column density (VCD (defined as the NO2 column from the cloud scene pressure to the top-of-the-atmosphere from a differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS algorithm. Estimates of stratospheric column NO2 are obtained by extrapolating the linear fits to the tropopause. We compare OMI-derived NO2 VMRs with in situ aircraft profiles measured during the NASA Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment Phase B (INTEX-B campaign in 2006. The agreement is generally within the estimated uncertainties when appropriate data screening is applied. We then derive a global seasonal climatology of free-tropospheric NO2 VMR in cloudy conditions. Enhanced NO2 in the free troposphere commonly appears near polluted urban locations where NO2 produced in the boundary layer may be transported vertically out of the boundary layer and then horizontally away from the source. Signatures of lightning NO2 are also shown throughout low and middle latitude regions in summer months. A profile analysis of our cloud slicing data indicates signatures of uplifted and transported anthropogenic NO2 in the middle troposphere as well as lightning-generated NO2 in the upper troposphere. Comparison of the climatology with simulations from the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI for cloudy conditions (cloud optical thicknesses > 10 shows similarities in the spatial patterns of continental pollution outflow. However, there are also some

  10. Global Free Tropospheric NO2 Abundances Derived Using a Cloud Slicing Technique Applied to Satellite Observations from the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S.; Joiner, J.; Choi, Y.; Duncan, B. N.; Bucsela, E.

    2014-01-01

    We derive free-tropospheric NO2 volume mixing ratios (VMRs) and stratospheric column amounts of NO2 by applying a cloud slicing technique to data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the Aura satellite. In the cloud-slicing approach, the slope of the above-cloud NO2 column versus the cloud scene pressure is proportional to the NO2 VMR. In this work, we use a sample of nearby OMI pixel data from a single orbit for the linear fit. The OMI data include cloud scene pressures from the rotational-Raman algorithm and above-cloud NO2 vertical column density (VCD) (defined as the NO2 column from the cloud scene pressure to the top-of-the-atmosphere) from a differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) algorithm. Estimates of stratospheric column NO2 are obtained by extrapolating the linear fits to the tropopause. We compare OMI-derived NO2 VMRs with in situ aircraft profiles measured during the NASA Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment Phase B (INTEX-B) campaign in 2006. The agreement is generally within the estimated uncertainties when appropriate data screening is applied. We then derive a global seasonal climatology of free-tropospheric NO2 VMR in cloudy conditions. Enhanced NO2 in the free troposphere commonly appears near polluted urban locations where NO2 produced in the boundary layer may be transported vertically out of the boundary layer and then horizontally away from the source. Signatures of lightning NO2 are also shown throughout low and middle latitude regions in summer months. A profile analysis of our cloud slicing data indicates signatures of uplifted and transported anthropogenic NO2 in the middle troposphere as well as lightning-generated NO2 in the upper troposphere. Comparison of the climatology with simulations from the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) for cloudy conditions (cloud optical thicknesses > 10) shows similarities in the spatial patterns of continental pollution outflow. However, there are also some differences in

  11. Instrumentation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Provides instrumentation support for flight tests of prototype weapons systems using a vast array of airborne sensors, transducers, signal conditioning and encoding...

  12. Comparison of aerosol optical depths from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI on Aura with results from airborne sunphotometry, other space and ground measurements during MILAGRO/INTEX-B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Livingston

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Airborne sunphotometer measurements are used to evaluate retrievals of extinction aerosol optical depth (AOD from spatially coincident and temporally near-coincident measurements by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI aboard the Aura satellite during the March 2006 Megacity Initiative-Local And Global Research Observations/Phase B of the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment (MILAGRO/INTEX-B. The 14-channel NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS flew on nine missions over the Gulf of Mexico and four in or near the Mexico City area. Retrievals of AOD from near-coincident AATS and OMI measurements are compared for three flights over the Gulf of Mexico for flight segments when the aircraft flew at altitudes 60–70 m a.s.l., and for one flight over Mexico City when the aircraft flew ~420–590 m a.g.l. OMI-measured top of atmosphere (TOA reflectances are routinely inverted to yield aerosol products such as AOD and aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD using two different retrieval algorithms: a near-UV (OMAERUV and a multiwavelength (OMAERO technique. This study uses the archived Collection 3 data products from both algorithms. In particular, AATS and OMI AOD comparisons are presented for AATS data acquired in 20 OMAERUV retrieval pixels (15 over water and 19 OMAERO pixels (also 15 over water. At least four pixels for one of the over-water coincidences and all pixels for the over-land case were cloud-free. Coincident AOD retrievals from 17 pixels of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS aboard Aqua are available for two of the over-water flights and are shown to agree with AATS AODs to within root mean square (RMS differences of 0.00–0.06, depending on wavelength. Near-coincident ground-based AOD measurements from ground-based sun/sky radiometers operated as part of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET at three sites in and near Mexico City are also shown and are generally consistent with the AATS AODs

  13. Comparison of aerosol optical depths from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI on Aura with results from airborne sunphotometry, other space and ground measurements during MILAGRO/INTEX-B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Livingston

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Airborne sunphotometer measurements are used to evaluate retrievals of extinction aerosol optical depth (AOD from spatially coincident and temporally near-coincident measurements by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI aboard the Aura satellite during the March 2006 Megacity Initiative-Local And Global Research Observations/Phase B of the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment (MILAGRO/INTEX-B. The 14-channel NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS flew on nine missions over the Gulf of Mexico and four in or near the Mexico City area. Retrievals of AOD from near-coincident AATS and OMI measurements are compared for three flights over the Gulf of Mexico for flight segments when the aircraft flew at altitudes 60–70 m above sea level, and for one flight over the Mexico City area where the aircraft was restricted to altitudes ~320–800 m above ground level over the rural area and ~550–750 m over the city. OMI-measured top of atmosphere (TOA reflectances are routinely inverted to yield aerosol products such as AOD and aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD using two different retrieval algorithms: a near-UV (OMAERUV and a multiwavelength (OMAERO technique. This study uses the archived Collection 3 data products from both algorithms. In particular, AATS and OMI AOD comparisons are presented for AATS data acquired in 20 OMAERUV retrieval pixels (15 over water and 19 OMAERO pixels (also 15 over water. At least four pixels for one of the over-water coincidences and all pixels for the over-land case were cloud-free. Coincident AOD retrievals from 17 pixels of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS aboard Aqua are available for two of the over-water flights and are shown to agree with AATS AODs to within root mean square (RMS differences of 0.00–0.06, depending on wavelength. Near-coincident ground-based AOD measurements from ground-based sun/sky radiometers operated as part of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET

  14. Instrument Remote Control via the Astronomical Instrument Markup Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sall, Ken; Ames, Troy; Warsaw, Craig; Koons, Lisa; Shafer, Richard

    1998-01-01

    The Instrument Remote Control (IRC) project ongoing at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Information Systems Center (ISC) supports NASA's mission by defining an adaptive intranet-based framework that provides robust interactive and distributed control and monitoring of remote instruments. An astronomical IRC architecture that combines the platform-independent processing capabilities of Java with the power of Extensible Markup Language (XML) to express hierarchical data in an equally platform-independent, as well as human readable manner, has been developed. This architecture is implemented using a variety of XML support tools and Application Programming Interfaces (API) written in Java. IRC will enable trusted astronomers from around the world to easily access infrared instruments (e.g., telescopes, cameras, and spectrometers) located in remote, inhospitable environments, such as the South Pole, a high Chilean mountaintop, or an airborne observatory aboard a Boeing 747. Using IRC's frameworks, an astronomer or other scientist can easily define the type of onboard instrument, control the instrument remotely, and return monitoring data all through the intranet. The Astronomical Instrument Markup Language (AIML) is the first implementation of the more general Instrument Markup Language (IML). The key aspects of our approach to instrument description and control applies to many domains, from medical instruments to machine assembly lines. The concepts behind AIML apply equally well to the description and control of instruments in general. IRC enables us to apply our techniques to several instruments, preferably from different observatories.

  15. KEKB beam instrumentation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arinaga, M.; Flanagan, J.; Hiramatsu, S.; Ieiri, T.; Ikeda, H.; Ishii, H.; Kikutani, E.; Mimashi, T.; Mitsuhashi, T.; Mizuno, H.; Mori, K.; Tejima, M.; Tobiyama, M.

    2003-02-01

    For the stable high-luminosity operation and luminosity increase, the electron and positron storage rings of the KEK B-Factory (KEKB) is equipped with various beam instrumentations, which have been working well since the start of the commissioning in December, 1998. Details and performance of the beam-position monitor system based on the spectrum analysis using DSPs, the turn-by-turn BPM with four-dimensional function available for measurements of the individual bunch position, phase and intensity, the parametric beam-DCCTs designed so as to avoid the magnetic-core-selection problems for the parametric flux modulation, the bunch-by-bunch feedback system indispensable to suppress the strong multibunch instabilities in KEKB, the various optical beam diagnostic systems, such as synchrotron radiation interferometers for precise beam-size measurement, the tune meters, the bunch length monitors and the beam-loss monitors are described. Delicate machine tuning of KEKB is strongly supported by these instrumentations.

  16. Global Monitoring of Atmospheric Trace Gases, Clouds and Aerosols from UV/vis/NIR Satellite Instruments: Currents Status and Near Future Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, T.; Beirle, S.; Deutschmann, T.; Frankenberg, C.; Grzegorski, M.; Khokhar, M. F.; Kühl, S.; Marbach, T.; Mies, K.; de Vries, M. Penning; Platt, U.; Pukite, J.; Sanghavi, S.

    2008-04-01

    A new generation of UV/vis/near-IR satellite instruments like GOME (since 1995), SCIAMACHY (since 2002), OMI (since 2004), and GOME-2 (since 2006) allows to measure several important stratospheric and tropospheric trace gases like O3, NO2, OClO, HCHO, SO2, BrO, and H2O as well as clouds and aerosols from space. Because of its extended spectral range, the SCIAMACHY instrument also allows the retrieval of Greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4) and CO in the near IR. Almost all of the tropospheric trace gases are observed by these instruments for the first time. From satellite data it is possible to investigate the temporal and spatial variation. Also different sources can be characterised and quantified. The derived global distributions can serve as input and for the validation of atmospheric models. Here we give an overview on the current status of these new instruments and data products and their recent applications to various atmospheric and oceanic phenomena.

  17. ATP生物荧光技术在手术器械清洗效果评价中的应用研究%Study on application of ATP bioluminescence technique in surgical instruments cleaning effect monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉勤; 赵奇; 高丽君; 袁中良; 吕明洁; 刘吉起

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the difference in clean effect monitoring between ATP bioluminescence technique and other methods.Methods Naked eye observation,magnifying glass observation and ATP bioluminescence were used to monitor the clean effect of surgical instruments.Results 440 surgical instruments were examined by naked eye observation and magnifying glass observation,the qualified rate were 96.36% and 95.68% respectively.320 surgical instruments were examined by ATP bioluminescence technique after the observational methods and the qualified rate was 87.87%.The range of qualified rate was from 50% to 100% among the different kinds of surgical instruments.Conclusion ATP bioluminescence technique was a rapid,simple and effective method for monitoring the clean effect of surgical instruments.%目的 用ATP生物荧光技术评价全自动手术器械清洗机对各类手术器械的清洗效果,比较不同评价方法的差异.方法 采用肉眼裸视法、放大镜观察法与ATP生物荧光检测法监测各类手术器械清洗效果.结果 共监测手术器械440份,肉眼裸视法合格率为96.36%,放大镜法合格率为95.68%.有320份样品同时进行了ATP生物荧光检测,合格率为87.81%.各类手术器械的合格率范围为50% ~ 100%.结论 ATP生物荧光检测法是现场评价医疗器械清洗效果的一项快速、简便且有效的方法.

  18. 冷冻治疗仪不良事件现状分析及监测对策%The Analysis of Adverse Events of Cryotherapy Instruments and Monitor Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷世岳; 徐玉茗; 李穗; 周鹃

    2016-01-01

    By introdcuing the application and classiifcation of Cryotherapy instrument, analyzing the main clinical manifestations and cuases of adverse events after Cryotherapy application and prposing countermeasures of adverse events, the monitoring and the regulation can be provided with the reference from it.%通过介绍冷冻治疗仪的分类及应用,分析冷冻治疗仪应用后不良事件的主要临床表现及原因,并提出不良事件监测应对措施,以期为监管提供借鉴。

  19. Luminescence Instrumentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Mayank; Bøtter-Jensen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    This chapter gives an introduction to instrumentation for stimulated luminescence studies, with special focus on luminescence dating using the natural dosimeters, quartz and feldspars. The chapter covers basic concepts in luminescence detection, and thermal and optical stimulation, and reference...

  20. Investigating the impact of different sport trainings on particulate matter resuspension in a sport center using well-characterized reference instruments and a low-cost monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amouei Torkmahalleh, Mehdi; Kabay, Karakat; Bazhanova, Meruyet; Mohiuddin, Obaidullah; Obaidullah, Madina; Gorjinezhad, Soudabeh

    2017-09-05

    The present study investigated the exposure of teenagers, adults, and students to PM1, PM2.5, PM4, PM10, particle number concentration at two sport facilities of Nazarbayev University including Gymnastics Hall and Multi-purpose Hall. Measurements were conducted during variety of sport training sessions including soccer, basketball, volleyball, Mixed Martial Arts (MMA), boxing, table tennis, etc. A low-cost instrument, Dylos was employed to compare its performance against two TSI instruments. In overall, the Dylos showed acceptable peaks when the source of particle resuspension was present. However, no correlation was observed between Dylos data and Dusttrak fine and coarse particle data. The average PM2,5 and PM10 concentrations were found to be below the WHO limits. The number of participants during the training sessions and sports involving balls including basketball, soccer and volleyball were the two factors responsible for the observed increased particle resuspension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Ex-core instrumentation; Instrumentation hors coeur des reacteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burel, J.P. [Schneider Electric S.A., 92 - Boulogne-Billancourt (France)

    1999-01-01

    The safety and the control of the reactor need to master the nuclear power from the core radiation measurement. According to the reactor dimensions and conception, the nuclear parameters monitoring is realized through two instrumentation systems: the ex-core instrumentation system which use detector placed outside of the core and the in-core instrumentation system. This paper deals with the ex-core systems based on neutronic measurements and details the detectors choice, the treatment circuits, data processing, realizations in France and also example of the Wwr reactor instrumentation. (A.L.B.)

  2. Mass spectrometers: instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooks, R. G.; Hoke, S. H., II; Morand, K. L.; Lammert, S. A.

    1992-09-01

    Developments in mass spectrometry instrumentation over the past three years are reviewed. The subject is characterized by an enormous diversity of designs, a high degree of competition between different laboratories working with either different or similar techniques and by extremely rapid progress in improving analytical performance. Instruments can be grouped into genealogical charts based on their physical and conceptual interrelationships. This is illustrated using mass analyzers of different types. The time course of development of particular instrumental concepts is illustrated in terms of the s-curves typical of cell growth. Examples are given of instruments which are at the exponential, linear and mature growth stages. The prime examples used are respectively: (i) hybrid instruments designed to study reactive collisions of ions with surfaces: (ii) the Paul ion trap; and (iii) the triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. In the area of ion/surface collisions, reactive collisions such as hydrogen radical abstraction from the surface by the impinging ion are studied. They are shown to depend upon the chemical nature of the surface through the use of experiments which utilize self-assembled monolayers as surfaces. The internal energy deposited during surface-induced dissociation upon collision with different surfaces in a BEEQ instrument is also discussed. Attention is also given to a second area of emerging instrumentation, namely technology which allows mass spectrometers to be used for on-line monitoring of fluid streams. A summary of recent improvements in the performance of the rapidly developing quadrupole ion trap instrument illustrates this stage of instrument development. Improvements in resolution and mass range and their application to the characterization of biomolecules are described. The interaction of theory with experiment is illustrated through the role of simulations of ion motion in the ion trap. It is emphasized that mature instruments play a

  3. Instrument Remote Control Application Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Troy; Hostetter, Carl F.

    2006-01-01

    The Instrument Remote Control (IRC) architecture is a flexible, platform-independent application framework that is well suited for the control and monitoring of remote devices and sensors. IRC enables significant savings in development costs by utilizing extensible Markup Language (XML) descriptions to configure the framework for a specific application. The Instrument Markup Language (IML) is used to describe the commands used by an instrument, the data streams produced, the rules for formatting commands and parsing the data, and the method of communication. Often no custom code is needed to communicate with a new instrument or device. An IRC instance can advertise and publish a description about a device or subscribe to another device's description on a network. This simple capability of dynamically publishing and subscribing to interfaces enables a very flexible, self-adapting architecture for monitoring and control of complex instruments in diverse environments.

  4. Aethalometer™ Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedlacek, Arthur J [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The Aethalometer is an instrument that provides a real-time readout of the concentration of “Black” or “Elemental” carbon aerosol particles (BC or E) in an air stream (see Figure 1 and Figure 2). It is a self-contained instrument that measures the rate of change of optical transmission through a spot on a filter where aerosol is being continuously collected and uses the information to calculate the concentration of optically absorbing material in the sampled air stream. The instrument measures the transmitted light intensities through the “sensing” portion of the filter, on which the aerosol spot is being collected, and a “reference” portion of the filter as a check on the stability of the optical source. A mass flowmeter monitors the sample air flow rate. The data from these three measurements is used to determine the mean BC content of the air stream.

  5. Development of Diagnostic Instrument for Ship Propulsion Plant Monitoring System%一种船舶动力装置监控系统诊断仪的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱增辉; 郭文勇; 孙云岭; 吴新跃

    2015-01-01

    Based on the switch value module, analogue module,thermocouple module,thermal resistance module and impulse module of ship pow-er plant monitoring system,after thorough analy-sis of signal types of modules and functional re-quirement of the instrument,a technical scheme of a diagnostic instrument is proposed and the hard-ware design of circuits and programming process analyzed and elaborated.Finally,a test is conduc-ted on the instrument,and the result illustrates that the technical theme of the diagnostic instru-ment is feasible and effective.%针对船舶动力装置监控系统缺乏相应的诊断设备的问题,以监控系统的传感器、数据采集模块为对象,深入分析系统结构、采集信号类型以及诊断仪的功能需求,提出了船舶动力装置监控系统诊断仪的技术方案,并对硬件电路和软件设计流程进行了详细的分析和阐述。最后,完成了对诊断仪的测试,结果表明该诊断仪对船舶监控系统的诊断是可行且有效的。

  6. Active instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lim, Miguel Antonio; Ørberg, Jakob Williams

    2017-01-01

    ) show the dynamic nature of policy processes, and (3) consider the search for policy reference points among the different actors. We present rankers in motion, policies in motion, and finally the complex nature of the ranking device that needs to be both a relevant and malleable policy instrument...

  7. New-generation NASA Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) volcanic SO2 dataset: algorithm description, initial results, and continuation with the Suomi-NPP Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Can; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Carn, Simon; Zhang, Yan; Spurr, Robert J. D.; Joiner, Joanna

    2017-02-01

    Since the fall of 2004, the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) has been providing global monitoring of volcanic SO2 emissions, helping to understand their climate impacts and to mitigate aviation hazards. Here we introduce a new-generation OMI volcanic SO2 dataset based on a principal component analysis (PCA) retrieval technique. To reduce retrieval noise and artifacts as seen in the current operational linear fit (LF) algorithm, the new algorithm, OMSO2VOLCANO, uses characteristic features extracted directly from OMI radiances in the spectral fitting, thereby helping to minimize interferences from various geophysical processes (e.g., O3 absorption) and measurement details (e.g., wavelength shift). To solve the problem of low bias for large SO2 total columns in the LF product, the OMSO2VOLCANO algorithm employs a table lookup approach to estimate SO2 Jacobians (i.e., the instrument sensitivity to a perturbation in the SO2 column amount) and iteratively adjusts the spectral fitting window to exclude shorter wavelengths where the SO2 absorption signals are saturated. To first order, the effects of clouds and aerosols are accounted for using a simple Lambertian equivalent reflectivity approach. As with the LF algorithm, OMSO2VOLCANO provides total column retrievals based on a set of predefined SO2 profiles from the lower troposphere to the lower stratosphere, including a new profile peaked at 13 km for plumes in the upper troposphere. Examples given in this study indicate that the new dataset shows significant improvement over the LF product, with at least 50 % reduction in retrieval noise over the remote Pacific. For large eruptions such as Kasatochi in 2008 (˜ 1700 kt total SO2) and Sierra Negra in 2005 (> 1100 DU maximum SO2), OMSO2VOLCANO generally agrees well with other algorithms that also utilize the full spectral content of satellite measurements, while the LF algorithm tends to underestimate SO2. We also demonstrate that, despite the coarser spatial and

  8. New-Generation NASA Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Volcanic SO2 Dataset: Algorithm Description, Initial Results, and Continuation with the Suomi-NPP Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Can; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Carn, Simon; Zhang, Yan; Spurr, Robert J. D.; Joiner, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Since the fall of 2004, the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) has been providing global monitoring of volcanic SO2 emissions, helping to understand their climate impacts and to mitigate aviation hazards. Here we introduce a new-generation OMI volcanic SO2 dataset based on a principal component analysis (PCA) retrieval technique. To reduce retrieval noise and artifacts as seen in the current operational linear fit (LF) algorithm, the new algorithm, OMSO2VOLCANO, uses characteristic features extracted directly from OMI radiances in the spectral fitting, thereby helping to minimize interferences from various geophysical processes (e.g., O3 absorption) and measurement details (e.g., wavelength shift). To solve the problem of low bias for large SO2 total columns in the LF product, the OMSO2VOLCANO algorithm employs a table lookup approach to estimate SO2 Jacobians (i.e., the instrument sensitivity to a perturbation in the SO2 column amount) and iteratively adjusts the spectral fitting window to exclude shorter wavelengths where the SO2 absorption signals are saturated. To first order, the effects of clouds and aerosols are accounted for using a simple Lambertian equivalent reflectivity approach. As with the LF algorithm, OMSO2VOLCANO provides total column retrievals based on a set of predefined SO2 profiles from the lower troposphere to the lower stratosphere, including a new profile peaked at 13 km for plumes in the upper troposphere. Examples given in this study indicate that the new dataset shows significant improvement over the LF product, with at least 50% reduction in retrieval noise over the remote Pacific. For large eruptions such as Kasatochi in 2008 (approximately 1700 kt total SO2/ and Sierra Negra in 2005 (greater than 1100DU maximum SO2), OMSO2VOLCANO generally agrees well with other algorithms that also utilize the full spectral content of satellite measurements, while the LF algorithm tends to underestimate SO2. We also demonstrate that, despite the

  9. Initial In-flight Results: The Total Solar Irradiance Monitor on the FY-3C Satellite, an Instrument with a Pointing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongrui; Qi, Jin; Li, Huiduan; Fang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    The total solar irradiance (TSI) has been recorded daily since October 2013 by the Total Solar Irradiance Monitor (TSIM) onboard the FY-3C satellite, which is mainly designed for Earth observation. The TSIM has a pointing system to perform solar tracking using a sun sensor. The TSI is measured by two electrical substitution radiometers with traceability to the World Radiation Reference. The TSI value measured with the TSIM on 2 October 2013 is 1364.88 W m^{-2} with an uncertainty of 1.08 W m^{-2}. Short-term TSI variations recorded with the TSIM show good agreement with SOHO/VIRGO and SORCE/TIM. The data quality and accuracy of FY-3C/TSIM are much better than its predecessors on the FY-3A and FY-3B satellites, which operated in a scanning mode.

  10. 基于虚拟仪器的双转盘破碎机监测系统设计%A Design of Monitoring System Based on Virtual Instrument for Double Turnplate Crusher

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王元生; 樊燕

    2009-01-01

    In view of actual operating situation of the double turnplate crusher, a portable monitoring and diagnosis system of crusher based on virtual instrument was designed. This system was agile and convenient for fixing and operation with a taller cost-effective, and it still could be used for the establishment of operation record,providing hardware support to improvement of the crusher.%针对双转盘破碎机的实际应用情况,设计了基于虚拟仪器技术的便携式破碎机监测和诊断系统.该系统构成灵活、性能价格比较高、便于安装操作,还可以建立设备运行档案,为破碎机以后的改进提供了硬件支持.

  11. CO2, CO, and CH4 measurements from tall towers in the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory's Global Greenhouse Gas Reference Network: instrumentation, uncertainty analysis, and recommendations for future high-accuracy greenhouse gas monitoring efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, A. E.; Kofler, J. D.; Trudeau, M. E.; Williams, J. C.; Neff, D. H.; Masarie, K. A.; Chao, D. Y.; Kitzis, D. R.; Novelli, P. C.; Zhao, C. L.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Lang, P. M.; Crotwell, M. J.; Fischer, M. L.; Parker, M. J.; Lee, J. T.; Baumann, D. D.; Desai, A. R.; Stanier, C. O.; De Wekker, S. F. J.; Wolfe, D. E.; Munger, J. W.; Tans, P. P.

    2014-02-01

    A reliable and precise in situ CO2 and CO analysis system has been developed and deployed at eight sites in the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory's (ESRL) Global Greenhouse Gas Reference Network. The network uses very tall (> 300 m) television and radio transmitter towers that provide a convenient platform for mid-boundary-layer trace-gas sampling. Each analyzer has three sample inlets for profile sampling, and a complete vertical profile is obtained every 15 min. The instrument suite at one site has been augmented with a cavity ring-down spectrometer for measuring CO2 and CH4. The long-term stability of the systems in the field is typically better than 0.1 ppm for CO2, 6 ppb for CO, and 0.5 ppb for CH4, as determined from repeated standard gas measurements. The instrumentation is fully automated and includes sensors for measuring a variety of status parameters, such as temperatures, pressures, and flow rates, that are inputs for automated alerts and quality control algorithms. Detailed and time-dependent uncertainty estimates have been constructed for all of the gases, and the uncertainty framework could be readily adapted to other species or analysis systems. The design emphasizes use of off-the-shelf parts and modularity to facilitate network operations and ease of maintenance. The systems report high-quality data with > 93% uptime. Recurrent problems and limitations of the current system are discussed along with general recommendations for high-accuracy trace-gas monitoring. The network is a key component of the North American Carbon Program and a useful model for future research-grade operational greenhouse gas monitoring efforts.

  12. CO2, CO and CH4 measurements from the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory's Tall Tower Greenhouse Gas Observing Network: instrumentation, uncertainty analysis and recommendations for future high-accuracy greenhouse gas monitoring efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, A. E.; Kofler, J. D.; Trudeau, M. E.; Williams, J. C.; Neff, D. H.; Masarie, K. A.; Chao, D. Y.; Kitzis, D. R.; Novelli, P. C.; Zhao, C. L.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Lang, P. M.; Crotwell, M. J.; Fischer, M. L.; Parker, M. J.; Lee, J. T.; Baumann, D. D.; Desai, A. R.; Stanier, C. O.; de Wekker, S. F. J.; Wolfe, D. E.; Munger, J. W.; Tans, P. P.

    2013-02-01

    A robust in situ CO2 and CO analysis system has been developed and deployed at eight sites in the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory's (ESRL) Tall Tower Greenhouse Gas Observing Network. The network uses very tall (> 300 m) television and radio transmitter towers that provide a convenient platform for mid-boundary layer trace gas sampling. Each analyzer has three sample inlets for profile sampling, and a complete vertical profile is obtained every 15 min. The instrument suite at one site has been augmented with a cavity ring-down spectrometer for measuring CO2 and CH4. The long-term stability of the systems in the field is typically better than 0.1 ppm for CO2, 6 ppb for CO, and 0.5 ppb for CH4, as determined from repeated standard gas measurements. The instrumentation is fully automated and includes sensors for measuring a variety of status parameters, such as temperatures, pressures and flow rates that are inputs for automated alerts and quality control algorithms. These algorithms provide detailed and time-dependent uncertainty estimates for all of the gases and could be adapted to other species or analysis systems. The design emphasizes use of off the shelf parts and modularity to facilitate network operations and ease of maintenance. The systems report high-quality data with > 93% uptime. Recurrent problems and limitations of the current system are discussed along with general recommendations for high accuracy trace-gas monitoring. The network is a key component of the North American Carbon Program and a useful model for future research-grade operational greenhouse gas monitoring efforts.

  13. Dissolved Oxygen Sensor in Animal-Borne Instruments: An Innovation for Monitoring the Health of Oceans and Investigating the Functioning of Marine Ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic Bailleul

    Full Text Available The current decline in dissolved oxygen concentration within the oceans is a sensitive indicator of the effect of climate change on marine environment. However the impact of its declining on marine life and ecosystems' health is still quite unclear because of the difficulty in obtaining in situ data, especially in remote areas, like the Southern Ocean (SO. Southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina proved to be a relevant alternative to the traditional oceanographic platforms to measure physical and biogeochemical structure of oceanic regions rarely observed. In this study, we use a new stage of development in biologging technology to draw a picture of dissolved oxygen concentration in the SO. We present the first results obtained from a dissolved oxygen sensor added to Argos CTD-SRDL tags and deployed on 5 female elephant seals at Kerguelen. From October 2010 and October 2011, 742 oxygen profiles associated with temperature and salinity measurements were recorded. Whether a part of the data must be considered cautiously, especially because of offsets and temporal drifts of the sensors, the range of values recorded was consistent with a concomitant survey conducted from a research vessel (Keops-2 project. Once again, elephant seals reinforced the relationship between marine ecology and oceanography, delivering essential information about the water masses properties and the biological status of the Southern Ocean. But more than the presentation of a new stage of development in animal-borne instrumentation, this pilot study opens a new field of investigation in marine ecology and could be enlarged in a near future to other key marine predators, especially large fish species like swordfish, tuna or sharks, for which dissolved oxygen is expected to play a crucial role in distribution and behaviour.

  14. Dissolved Oxygen Sensor in Animal-Borne Instruments: An Innovation for Monitoring the Health of Oceans and Investigating the Functioning of Marine Ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailleul, Frederic; Vacquie-Garcia, Jade; Guinet, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The current decline in dissolved oxygen concentration within the oceans is a sensitive indicator of the effect of climate change on marine environment. However the impact of its declining on marine life and ecosystems' health is still quite unclear because of the difficulty in obtaining in situ data, especially in remote areas, like the Southern Ocean (SO). Southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) proved to be a relevant alternative to the traditional oceanographic platforms to measure physical and biogeochemical structure of oceanic regions rarely observed. In this study, we use a new stage of development in biologging technology to draw a picture of dissolved oxygen concentration in the SO. We present the first results obtained from a dissolved oxygen sensor added to Argos CTD-SRDL tags and deployed on 5 female elephant seals at Kerguelen. From October 2010 and October 2011, 742 oxygen profiles associated with temperature and salinity measurements were recorded. Whether a part of the data must be considered cautiously, especially because of offsets and temporal drifts of the sensors, the range of values recorded was consistent with a concomitant survey conducted from a research vessel (Keops-2 project). Once again, elephant seals reinforced the relationship between marine ecology and oceanography, delivering essential information about the water masses properties and the biological status of the Southern Ocean. But more than the presentation of a new stage of development in animal-borne instrumentation, this pilot study opens a new field of investigation in marine ecology and could be enlarged in a near future to other key marine predators, especially large fish species like swordfish, tuna or sharks, for which dissolved oxygen is expected to play a crucial role in distribution and behaviour.

  15. Environmental Monitoring, Air Quality, Ambient air monitoring sites are geographic point locations with monitoring equipment, and possibly meteorological instruments, that monitor outdoor, near ground level criteria pollutant concentrations., Published in 2011, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Florida Department of Environmental Protection.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Environmental Monitoring, Air Quality dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of...

  16. Notes on instrumentation and control

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, G J

    2013-01-01

    Notes on Instrumentation and Control presents topics on pressure (i.e., U-tube manometers and elastic type gauges), temperature (i.e. glass thermometer, bi-metallic strip thermometer, filled system thermometer, vapor pressure thermometer), level, and flow measuring devices. The book describes other miscellaneous instruments, signal transmitting devices, supply and control systems, and monitoring systems. The theory of automatic control and semi-conductor devices are also considered. Marine engineers will find the book useful.

  17. Real-time vehicle emissions monitoring using a compact LiDAR system and conventional instruments: first results of an experimental campaign in a suburban area in southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parracino, Stefano; Richetta, Maria; Gelfusa, Michela; Malizia, Andrea; Bellecci, Carlo; De Leo, Leonardo; Perrimezzi, Carlo; Fin, Alessandro; Forin, Marco; Giappicucci, Francesca; Grion, Massimo; Marchese, Giuseppe; Gaudio, Pasquale

    2016-10-01

    Urban air pollution causes deleterious effects on human health and the environment. To meet stringent standards imposed by the European Commission, advanced measurement methods are required. Remote sensing techniques, such as light detection and ranging (LiDAR), can be a valuable option for evaluating particulate matter (PM), emitted by vehicles in urban traffic, with high sensitivity and in shorter time intervals. Since air quality problems persist not only in large urban areas, a measuring campaign was specifically performed in a suburban area of Crotone, Italy, using both a compact LiDAR system and conventional instruments for real-time vehicle emissions monitoring along a congested road. First results reported in this paper show a strong dependence between variations of LiDAR backscattering signals and traffic-related air pollution levels. Moreover, time-resolved LiDAR data averaged in limited regions, directly above conventional monitoring stations at the border of an intersection, were found to be linearly correlated to the PM concentration levels with a correlation coefficient between 0.75 and 0.84.

  18. Insights into the origins of drumbeat earthquakes, periodic low frequency seismicity, and plug degradation from multi-instrument monitoring at Tungurahua volcano, Ecuador, April 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Andrew; Hernandez, Stephen; Gaunt, Elizabeth; Mothes, Patricia; Hidalgo, Silvana; Ruiz, Mario

    2016-04-01

    Highly-periodic repeating 'drumbeat' earthquakes have been reported from several andesitic and dacitic volcanoes. Physical models for the origin of drumbeat earthquakes incorporate, to different extents, the incremental upward movement of viscous magma. However, the roles played by stick-slip friction, brittle failure, and fluid flow, and the relations between drumbeat earthquakes and other low-frequency seismic signals, remain controversial. Here we report the results of analysis of three weeks of geophysical data recorded during an unrest episode at Tungurahua, an andesitic stratovolcano in Ecuador, during April 2015, by the monitoring network of the Instituto Geofisico of Ecuador. Combined seismic, geodetic, infrasound, and gas monitoring has provided new insights into the origins of periodic low-frequency seismic signals, conduit processes, and the nature of current unrest. Over the three-week period, the relative seismic amplitude (RSAM) correlated closely with short-term deformation rates and gas fluxes. However, the characteristics of the seismic signals, as recorded at a short-period station closest to the summit crater, changed considerably with time. Initially high RSAM and gas fluxes, with modest ash emissions, were associated with continuous and 'pulsed' tremor signals (amplitude modulated, with 30-100 second periods). As activity levels decreased over several days, tremor episodes became increasingly intermittent, and short-lived bursts of low-frequency earthquakes with quasiperiodic inter-event times were observed. Following one day of quiescence, the onset of pronounced low frequency drumbeat earthquakes signalled the resumption of elevated unrest, initially with mean inter-event times of 32 seconds, and later increasing to 74 seconds and longer, with periodicity progressively breaking down over several days. A reduction in RSAM was then followed by one week of persistent, quasiperiodic, longer-duration emergent low-frequency pulses, including

  19. Instrumented Pipeline Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Piro; Michael Ream

    2010-07-31

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative agreement between Concurrent Technologies Corporation (CTC) and U.S. Department of Energy to address the need for a for low-cost monitoring and inspection sensor system as identified in the Department of Energy (DOE) National Gas Infrastructure Research & Development (R&D) Delivery Reliability Program Roadmap.. The Instrumented Pipeline Initiative (IPI) achieved the objective by researching technologies for the monitoring of pipeline delivery integrity, through a ubiquitous network of sensors and controllers to detect and diagnose incipient defects, leaks, and failures. This report is organized by tasks as detailed in the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO). The sections all state the objective and approach before detailing results of work.

  20. Monitoring personnel-contamination in biology cabinet with air borne microbes instrument%空气微生物检测仪对生物安全柜中人员污染的监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏贤莉; 胡良勇

    2011-01-01

    Currently, traditional sedimentation method widely used in pharmaceuticals industry and construction industry to detect personnel-contamination, one item of three biology cabinet examination indicates, was regarded as complex operation, low detection efficiency, etc. In order to improve the status, the authors employed the new multi-function instrument for air borne microbes (JWL-ⅡC) to collect and monitor the bacterial particles in biology cabinets for different laboratories. The results indicated that the new multi-function instrument for air borne microbes has the features of simple operation, excellent portability, wide application, high rate and high accuracy in comparison to traditional sedimentation method. In addition, the experimental results confirmed that the biology cabinet indeed could effectively ensure the bio-safety of operators by preventing the aerosol leakage.%目前医药行业及建筑行业对生物安全柜有关人员污染保护指标的检测普遍采用沉降法,其操作复杂、效率低,为了改变这种现状,采用新型多功能空气微生物检测仪(JWL-IIC)对各级实验室内生物安全柜关于人员保护项目中细菌进行采集和监测.结果表明:相比于沉降法而言,它不仅操作简便、便于携带,而且使用范围广、捕获率高、结果准确;实验数据还证实,生物安全柜的合理使用确实能有效防止气溶胶的泄漏,保护操作人员的生物安全.

  1. High-Resolution Instrumentation Radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-30

    30 September 1986 Los Angeles Air Force Station 13. NUMBER OF PAGES Los Angeles, Calif. 90009-2960 36 74. MONITORING AGENCY NAME & ADDRESS(If...TREE PLMUT ",-20 -CUTLIASS DumpER SED AN... TREE TRUNK, -0 - MERC BUMPER f - 40 H!-I -50 iI Fig. 7. High-Resolution Instrumentation Radar View of

  2. Monitoring and Analyzing of Vibration Signal from Grinding of Precision Balls Based on Virtual Instrument%基于虚拟仪器的精密球研磨加工的振动信号检测与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏其表; 王洁; 许凤亚

    2011-01-01

    振动信号是反映精密球体研磨状态的重要途径.利用加速度计传感器、数据采集卡和LabVIEW,设计一套基于虚拟仪器的振动信号检测设备,对精密球在研磨加工过程中的振动信号进行测试,从时域、频域等多个角度进行分析.结果表明:利用精密球体研磨加工的振动信号能有效地监控整个研磨过程,实时反映球体研磨的状态和精度.%Vibration signal is one important approach which can reflect the state of ball lapping. The grinding vibration signals in the process of precision balls grinding were tested by one detection device built by data acquisition kard, accelerometer sensor and virtual instrument software. These signals were analyzed from time domain and frequency domain. The results indicate that grinding vibration signals can be used to monitor the process of ball grinding. The grinding state and precision of precision balls can be reflected realtime.

  3. Developments in analytical instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, G.

    The situation regarding photogrammetric instrumentation has changed quite dramatically over the last 2 or 3 years with the withdrawal of most analogue stereo-plotting machines from the market place and their replacement by analytically based instrumentation. While there have been few new developments in the field of comparators, there has been an explosive development in the area of small, relatively inexpensive analytical stereo-plotters based on the use of microcomputers. In particular, a number of new instruments have been introduced by manufacturers who mostly have not been associated previously with photogrammetry. Several innovative concepts have been introduced in these small but capable instruments, many of which are aimed at specialised applications, e.g. in close-range photogrammetry (using small-format cameras); for thematic mapping (by organisations engaged in environmental monitoring or resources exploitation); for map revision, etc. Another innovative and possibly significant development has been the production of conversion kits to convert suitable analogue stereo-plotting machines such as the Topocart, PG-2 and B-8 into fully fledged analytical plotters. The larger and more sophisticated analytical stereo-plotters are mostly being produced by the traditional mainstream photogrammetric systems suppliers with several new instruments and developments being introduced at the top end of the market. These include the use of enlarged photo stages to handle images up to 25 × 50 cm format; the complete integration of graphics workstations into the analytical plotter design; the introduction of graphics superimposition and stereo-superimposition; the addition of correlators for the automatic measurement of height, etc. The software associated with this new analytical instrumentation is now undergoing extensive re-development with the need to supply photogrammetric data as input to the more sophisticated G.I.S. systems now being installed by clients, instead

  4. Development of CAN Network Monitoring Platform for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Based on Virtual Instrument%基于虚拟仪器的混合动力汽车CAN网络监控平台

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾秋萍; 陈笃红; 邵斌

    2012-01-01

    Connected via twisted pair,the engine controller, motor controller, vehicle controller,battery management unit and instrument display controller constituted CAN communication network. The PC connected with CAN bus via the PXI - 8464 interface card, which could get the real-time parameters of each controller and modify the inner data of them. The CAN network monitoring platform for hybrid electric vehicle was developed by graphical programming language LabVIEW9.0. The monitoring platform has the function of real-time parameters displaying, command giving, data saving and interactive human-computer interface, and fully satisfy the requirements of CAN network monitoring for HEV. The experimental results show that the system has high reliability, simple operation, timely data processing, and greatly improved the test rig efficiency.%将混合动力汽车的发动机控制器、电机控制器、整车控制器、电池管理单元和仪表显示控制器通过双绞线相连,构成CAN通讯网络,上位机通过PXI-8464接口卡接到CAN总线上,实时读取各控制器的参数及修改控制器中的数据.采用图形化编程语言LabVIEW 9.0开发了混合动力汽车CAN网络监控平台,此平台具有参数实时显示、指令发送、数据保存等功能和良好的人机交互式界面,满足了混合动力汽车CAN网络监控的各种需求.试验表明:系统操作简单明了,数据处理及时可靠,极大地改善了台架性能试验的工作效率.

  5. Instrumentation for monitoring powered support behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smart, B.G.D.; Sommerville, J. M.; McGraw, W.M.

    1987-06-01

    The parameters quantifying powered support performance can be efficiently gathered underground on working faces with an electronic data logger. The paper reports modifications to a British Coal/Rapco Data Logger, to existing analogue transducers, and the development of new transducers to enable various parameters to be logged and related to mining operations. The paper also reports on the management and interpretation of the logged data by a suite of computer programs developed around a P.C. workstation. Conclusions as to the suitability of the system are drawn and recommendations about future transducer development are made. 1 ref.

  6. Portable SERS Instrument for Explosives Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    iment ma tri x : Compound Oc t a hyd ro- 1 , 3 , 5, 7- t e trani tro- 1 ,3 , 5, 7- t et razoci ne Hexa hydro- 1 ,3 ,5-trinitro- 1 ,3 ,5-triazine 1 ,3...See Sec. 11 .0 on SAFETY.) Each anal ys t mus t demonstrat e the abi 1 ity to gene rate acceptabl e results with thi s me thod. 2 .0 SUMMARY OF

  7. Glyoxal Retrieval from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. E.; Jacob, D. J.; Gonzalez Abad, G.; Wang, H.; Liu, X.; Chance, K.

    2014-12-01

    We have developed an improved algorithm for the retrieval of glyoxal (CHOCHO) from OMI. Glyoxal is a short-lived product of volatile organic carbon (VOC) oxidation. Satellite glyoxal observations may provide a powerful addition to existing formaldehyde products for constraining VOC emissions. However, glyoxal-to-formaldehyde ratios of current retrievals disagree with ground-based observations over anthropogenic and biogenic regions, inhibiting their combined use in top-down studies. To address these discrepancies we perform a series of sensitivity studies on real and simulated OMI spectra. We show that the sensitive fit window dependence found in previous studies is consistent with a combination of errors from reference cross section uncertainties and spectral interference due to the Ring effect. This implies an optimal fit window of 435-461 nm, consistent with previous retrievals. Using simulated spectra we confirm a NO2 interference associated with cross section temperature, that can be corrected using multiple cross sections. We show that cross-track biases in the OMI retrieval can be corrected by deriving offsets over the Sahara, and apply the correction to the OMI data. Average background concentrations are lower in the new product since the Sahara reference sector is free of liquid water interference associated with the oceanic regions used in previous studies. Concentrations measured over Asia during the monsoon season and the tropics are also lower, suggesting that the new retrieval is less sensitive to water vapor abundance. Consequently we do not see significant enhancements over tropical oceans. The glyoxal-to-formaldehyde ratios of the new OMI product are consistent with surface observations.

  8. Instrumentation for Undersea Visibility Monitoring. Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    shadows on this sensor. This sensor connects to the deck box through a marine cable. Cables hiit Lv ri ILour cables in the PVP-400 system. They are: 1...not ’deep cycle’ and should not be allowed to run down very far. You can leave this battery charging up to 24 hours without hurting it. This battery...the "Battery Voltage" column when the system is operating. The battery inside the Zenith Z181 computer is designed to be run until it is discharged

  9. VELA: A Microprocessor-Based Laboratory Instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Andrew

    1983-01-01

    Provides a general description of a preprogramed, microprocessor-based laboratory instrument, discussing its use in monitoring: (1) environmental changes; (2) distribution of count rates from a radioactive source, and (3) motion on an air tract. Includes list of the instrument's various capabilities: frequency meter, voltmeter, interval timer, and…

  10. Instrumentation for tropospheric aerosol characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Z.; Young, S.E.; Becker, C.H.; Coggiola, M.J. [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Wollnik, H. [Giessen Univ. (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    A new instrument has been developed that determines the abundance, size distribution, and chemical composition of tropospheric and lower stratospheric aerosols with diameters down to 0.2 {mu}m. In addition to aerosol characterization, the instrument also monitors the chemical composition of the ambient gas. More than 25.000 aerosol particle mass spectra were recorded during the NASA-sponsored Subsonic Aircraft: Contrail and Cloud Effects Special Study (SUCCESS) field program using NASA`s DC-8 research aircraft. (author) 7 refs.

  11. FHR Process Instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Fluoride salt-cooled High temperature Reactors (FHRs) are entering into early phase engineering development. Initial candidate technologies have been identified to measure all of the required process variables. The purpose of this paper is to describe the proposed measurement techniques in sufficient detail to enable assessment of the proposed instrumentation suite and to support development of the component technologies. This paper builds upon the instrumentation chapter of the recently published FHR technology development roadmap. Locating instruments outside of the intense core radiation and high-temperature fluoride salt environment significantly decreases their environmental tolerance requirements. Under operating conditions, FHR primary coolant salt is a transparent, low-vapor-pressure liquid. Consequently, FHRs can employ standoff optical measurements from above the salt pool to assess in-vessel conditions. For example, the core outlet temperature can be measured by observing the fuel s blackbody emission. Similarly, the intensity of the core s Cerenkov glow indicates the fission power level. Short-lived activation of the primary coolant provides another means for standoff measurements of process variables. The primary coolant flow and neutron flux can be measured using gamma spectroscopy along the primary coolant piping. FHR operation entails a number of process measurements. Reactor thermal power and core reactivity are the most significant variables for process control. Thermal power can be determined by measuring the primary coolant mass flow rate and temperature rise across the core. The leading candidate technologies for primary coolant temperature measurement are Au-Pt thermocouples and Johnson noise thermometry. Clamp-on ultrasonic flow measurement, that includes high-temperature tolerant standoffs, is a potential coolant flow measurement technique. Also, the salt redox condition will be monitored as an indicator of its corrosiveness. Both

  12. Propulsion IVHM Extreme Environment Instrumentation Power IVHM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrajsek, June

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents propulsion and instrumentation power for integrated vehicle health management technologies. The topics include: 1) Propulsion IVHM Capabilities Research; 2) Projects: X-33 Post-Test Diagnostic System; 3) X-34 NITEX; 4) Advanced Health Monitoring Systems; 5) Active Vibration Monitoring System; 6) Smart Self Healing Propulsion Systems; 7) Extreme Environment Sensors; and 8) Systems Engineering and Integration.

  13. Technical presentation - KEITHLEY Instruments - CANCELLED

    CERN Multimedia

    FI Department

    2009-01-01

    10 March 2009 13:30 – 15:30, Council Chamber, Bldg. 503 Keithley markets highly accurate instruments and data acquisition products, as well as complete system solutions for high-volume production and assembly testing. Keithley Instruments, Inc. designs, develops, manufactures and markets complex electronic instruments and systems geared to the specialized needs of electronics manufacturers for high-performance production testing, process monitoring, product development and research. Products and Services: Digital Multimeters and Data Acquisition Systems Current / Voltage Source and Measure Products Low Current / High Resistance Measurement Products Function/Pulse/Arbitrary/Pattern Generators Low Voltage/Low Resistance Measurement Products RF Spectrum Analyzer / RF Signal Generator / RF Switching Semiconductor Device Characterization Program: Topic 1: Welcome and short overview of new Products SMU 26XXA / ARB Generator 3390 / DMM 3706 / E-Meter 6517B Topic 2a: Te...

  14. Evaluating musical instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, D. Murray

    2014-04-01

    Scientific measurements of sound generation and radiation by musical instruments are surprisingly hard to correlate with the subtle and complex judgments of instrumental quality made by expert musicians.

  15. IOT Overview: IR Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, E.

    In this instrument review chapter the calibration plans of ESO IR instruments are presented and briefly reviewed focusing, in particular, on the case of ISAAC, which has been the first IR instrument at VLT and whose calibration plan served as prototype for the coming instruments.

  16. 2F Evaporator CP class instrumentation uncertainties evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, E.

    1994-01-28

    There are two instrumentation systems in the 2F Evaporator facilities (bldg. 242-16F) that are classified as the Critical Protection (CP). They are the Evaporator Pot Temperature instrumentations and Steam Condensate Gamma Monitor. The pot instrumentation consists of two interrelated circuits sharing the same temperature sensor and transducer. They are the high alarm and interlock circuit and the recorder circuit. The gamma monitor instrumentation consists of four interrelated circuits sharing the same scintillation detector. They are the gamma alarm and interlock circuit, failure alarm and interlock circuit, condensate cesium activity recorder circuit, and condensate americium activity recorder circuit. The resulting uncertainties for the instrument circuits are tabulated. (GHH)

  17. Energy Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus T.; Madsen, Dines; Christiensen, Thomas

    Energy measurement has become an important aspect of our daily lives since we have learned that energy consumption, is one of the main source of global warming. Measuring instruments varies from a simple watt-meter to more sophisticated microprocessor control devices. The negative effects...... that fossil fuels induce on our environment has forced us to research renewable energy such as sunlight, wind etc. This new environmental awareness has also helped us to realize the importance of monitoring and controlling our energy use. The main purpose in this research is to introduce a more sophisticated...... but affordable way to monitor energy consumption of individuals or groups of home appliances. By knowing their consumption the utilization can be regulated for more efficient use. A prototype system has been constructed to demonstrate our idea....

  18. Energy Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus T.; Madsen, Dines; Christiensen, Thomas

    Energy measurement has become an important aspect of our daily lives since we have learned that energy consumption, is one of the main source of global warming. Measuring instruments varies from a simple watt-meter to more sophisticated microprocessor control devices. The negative effects...... that fossil fuels induce on our environment has forced us to research renewable energy such as sunlight, wind etc. This new environmental awareness has also helped us to realize the importance of monitoring and controlling our energy use. The main purpose in this research is to introduce a more sophisticated...... but affordable way to monitor energy consumption of individuals or groups of home appliances. By knowing their consumption the utilization can be regulated for more efficient use. A prototype system has been constructed to demonstrate our idea....

  19. Overview of intercalibration of satellite instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chander, G.; Hewison, T.J.; Fox, N.; Wu, X.; Xiong, X.; Blackwell, W.J.

    2013-01-01

    Inter-calibration of satellite instruments is critical for detection and quantification of changes in the Earth’s environment, weather forecasting, understanding climate processes, and monitoring climate and land cover change. These applications use data from many satellites; for the data to be inter-operable, the instruments must be cross-calibrated. To meet the stringent needs of such applications requires that instruments provide reliable, accurate, and consistent measurements over time. Robust techniques are required to ensure that observations from different instruments can be normalized to a common scale that the community agrees on. The long-term reliability of this process needs to be sustained in accordance with established reference standards and best practices. Furthermore, establishing physical meaning to the information through robust Système International d'unités (SI) traceable Calibration and Validation (Cal/Val) is essential to fully understand the parameters under observation. The processes of calibration, correction, stability monitoring, and quality assurance need to be underpinned and evidenced by comparison with “peer instruments” and, ideally, highly calibrated in-orbit reference instruments. Inter-calibration between instruments is a central pillar of the Cal/Val strategies of many national and international satellite remote sensing organizations. Inter-calibration techniques as outlined in this paper not only provide a practical means of identifying and correcting relative biases in radiometric calibration between instruments but also enable potential data gaps between measurement records in a critical time series to be bridged. Use of a robust set of internationally agreed upon and coordinated inter-calibration techniques will lead to significant improvement in the consistency between satellite instruments and facilitate accurate monitoring of the Earth’s climate at uncertainty levels needed to detect and attribute the mechanisms

  20. Instrumentation System Diagnoses a Thermocouple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotti, Jose; Santiago, Josephine; Mata, Carlos; Vokrot, Peter; Zavala, Carlos; Burns, Bradley

    2008-01-01

    An improved self-validating thermocouple (SVT) instrumentation system not only acquires readings from a thermocouple but is also capable of detecting deterioration and a variety of discrete faults in the thermocouple and its lead wires. Prime examples of detectable discrete faults and deterioration include open- and short-circuit conditions and debonding of the thermocouple junction from the object, the temperature of which one seeks to measure. Debonding is the most common cause of errors in thermocouple measurements, but most prior SVT instrumentation systems have not been capable of detecting debonding. The improved SVT instrumentation system includes power circuitry, a cold-junction compensator, signal-conditioning circuitry, pulse-width-modulation (PWM) thermocouple-excitation circuitry, an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), a digital data processor, and a universal serial bus (USB) interface. The system can operate in any of the following three modes: temperature measurement, thermocouple validation, and bonding/debonding detection. The software running in the processor includes components that implement statistical algorithms to evaluate the state of the thermocouple and the instrumentation system. When the power is first turned on, the user can elect to start a diagnosis/ monitoring sequence, in which the PWM is used to estimate the characteristic times corresponding to the correct configuration. The user also has the option of using previous diagnostic values, which are stored in an electrically erasable, programmable read-only memory so that they are available every time the power is turned on.

  1. Instrument Modeling and Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Andrew B.; Beauchamp, James W.

    During the 1970s and 1980s, before synthesizers based on direct sampling of musical sounds became popular, replicating musical instruments using frequency modulation (FM) or wavetable synthesis was one of the “holy grails” of music synthesis. Synthesizers such as the Yamaha DX7 allowed users great flexibility in mixing and matching sounds, but were notoriously difficult to coerce into producing sounds like those of a given instrument. Instrument design wizards practiced the mysteries of FM instrument design.

  2. Performing the Super Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallionpaa, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The genre of contemporary classical music has seen significant innovation and research related to new super, hyper, and hybrid instruments, which opens up a vast palette of expressive potential. An increasing number of composers, performers, instrument designers, engineers, and computer programmers...... provides the performer extensive virtuoso capabilities in terms of instrumental range, harmony, timbre, or spatial, textural, acoustic, technical, or technological qualities. The discussion will be illustrated by a composition case study involving augmented musical instrument electromagnetic resonator...

  3. Performing the Super Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallionpaa, Maria

    2016-01-01

    provides the performer extensive virtuoso capabilities in terms of instrumental range, harmony, timbre, or spatial, textural, acoustic, technical, or technological qualities. The discussion will be illustrated by a composition case study involving augmented musical instrument electromagnetic resonator......The genre of contemporary classical music has seen significant innovation and research related to new super, hyper, and hybrid instruments, which opens up a vast palette of expressive potential. An increasing number of composers, performers, instrument designers, engineers, and computer programmers...

  4. Wireless Instrumentation Use on Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the results of a study on the use of wireless instrumentation and sensors on future launch vehicles. The use of wireless technologies would if feasible would allow for fewer wires, and allow for more flexibility. However, it was generally concluded that wireless solutions are not currently ready to replace wired technologies for launch vehicles. The recommendations of the study were to continue to use wired sensors as the primary choice for vehicle instrumentation, and to continue to assess needs and use wireless instrumentation where appropriate. The future work includes support efforts for wireless technologies, and continue to monitor the development of wireless solutions.

  5. Aeroacoustics of Musical Instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fabre, B.; Gilbert, J.; Hirschberg, A.; Pelorson, X.

    2012-01-01

    We are interested in the quality of sound produced by musical instruments and their playability. In wind instruments, a hydrodynamic source of sound is coupled to an acoustic resonator. Linear acoustics can predict the pitch of an instrument. This can significantly reduce the trial-and-error process

  6. An electronic circuit for sensing malfunctions in test instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W. M., Jr.

    1969-01-01

    Monitoring device differentiates between malfunctions occurring in the system undergoing test and malfunctions within the test instrumentation itself. Electronic circuits in the monitor use transistors to commutate silicon controlled rectifiers by removing the drive voltage, display circuits are then used to monitor multiple discrete lines.

  7. Condensation Particle Counter Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuang, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The Model 3772 CPC is a compact, rugged, and full-featured instrument that detects airborne particles down to 10 nm in diameter, at an aerosol flow rate of 1.0 lpm, over a concentration range from 0 to 1x104 #/cc. This CPC is ideally suited for applications without high concentration measurements, such as basic aerosol research, filter and air-cleaner testing, particle counter calibrations, environmental monitoring, mobile aerosol studies, particle shedding and component testing, and atmospheric and climate studies.

  8. Radon-Instrumentation; Radon-Instrumentacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno y Moreno, A. [Departamento de Apoyo en Ciencias Aplicadas, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, 4 Sur 104, Centro Historico 72000 Puebla (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The presentation of the active and passive methods for radon, their identification and measure, instrumentation and characteristics are the objectives of this work. Active detectors: Active Alpha Cam Continuous Air Monitor, Model 758 of Victoreen, Model CMR-510 Continuous Radon Monitor of the Signature Femto-Tech. Passive detectors: SSNTD track detectors in solids Measurement Using Charcoal Canisters, disk of activated coal deposited in a metallic box Electrets Methodology. (Author)

  9. Chemical and benthos data collected from CTD, bottle, and other instruments in the Chukchi Sea in 2009-2010 as part of the Chukchi Sea Offshore Monitoring in Drilling Area - Chemical and Benthos (COMIDA-CAB) project (NODC Accession 0095566)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains physical, chemical, and biological data collected during research cruises for the Chukchi Sea Offshore Monitoring in Drilling Area (Chemical...

  10. Robust Instrumentation[Water treatment for power plant]; Robust Instrumentering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wik, Anders [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-08-01

    Cementa Slite Power Station is a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) with moderate steam data; 3.0 MPa and 420 deg C. The heat is recovered from Cementa, a cement industry, without any usage of auxiliary fuel. The Power station commenced operation in 2001. The layout of the plant is unusual, there are no similar in Sweden and very few world-wide, so the operational experiences are limited. In connection with the commissioning of the power plant a R and D project was identified with the objective to minimise the manpower needed for chemistry management of the plant. The lean chemistry management is based on robust instrumentation and chemical-free water treatment plant. The concept with robust instrumentation consists of the following components; choice of on-line instrumentation with a minimum of O and M and a chemical-free water treatment. The parameters are specific conductivity, cation conductivity, oxygen and pH. In addition to that, two fairly new on-line instruments were included; corrosion monitors and differential pH calculated from specific and cation conductivity. The chemical-free water treatment plant consists of softening, reverse osmosis and electro-deionisation. The operational experience shows that the cycle chemistry is not within the guidelines due to major problems with the operation of the power plant. These problems have made it impossible to reach steady state and thereby not viable to fully verify and validate the concept with robust instrumentation. From readings on the panel of the online analysers some conclusions may be drawn, e.g. the differential pH measurements have fulfilled the expectations. The other on-line analysers have been working satisfactorily apart from contamination with turbine oil, which has been noticed at least twice. The corrosion monitors seem to be working but the lack of trend curves from the mainframe computer system makes it hard to draw any clear conclusions. The chemical-free water treatment has met all

  11. Calibration Monitor for Dark Energy Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, M. E.

    2009-11-23

    The goal of this program was to design, build, test, and characterize a flight qualified calibration source and monitor for a Dark Energy related experiment: ACCESS - 'Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars'. This calibration source, the On-board Calibration Monitor (OCM), is a key component of our ACCESS spectrophotometric calibration program. The OCM will be flown as part of the ACCESS sub-orbital rocket payload in addition to monitoring instrument sensitivity on the ground. The objective of the OCM is to minimize systematic errors associated with any potential changes in the ACCESS instrument sensitivity. Importantly, the OCM will be used to monitor instrument sensitivity immediately after astronomical observations while the instrument payload is parachuting to the ground. Through monitoring, we can detect, track, characterize, and thus correct for any changes in instrument senstivity over the proposed 5-year duration of the assembled and calibrated instrument.

  12. The Glast Burst Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meegan, Charles

    2000-01-01

    The Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) will include a secondary instrument to augment the observatory's capabilities for GRB studies. The GLAST Burst Monitor (GBK is a collaboration between Marshall Space Flight Center, the University of Huntsville, Alabama, and the Max Plank Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics. The purpose of the GBM is to extend energy coverage below the main instrument's lower limit of about 20 MeV, and to provide an on-board burst trigger and approximate location. The instrument consists of twelve NaI detectors and two BGO detectors. This combination provides energy coverage from a few keV up to about 30 MeV.

  13. Technical memorandum: instrumentation for APT and LTPP

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, WJvdM

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available of sensors and instruments for the GDPTRW APT and LTPP programmes. The following conclusions are drawn: There is a large range of potential parameters that can be monitored during APT and LTPP projects. However, the specific parameters required for each...

  14. Instrumentation of a manually programmed neutron diffractometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K.B.; Neisig, K.E.

    1966-01-01

    This paper describes essentially the digital part of the instrumentation for a neutron diffractometer in which the measuring procedure is governed by a control unit involving a fixed number of program points. A simultaneously running test program monitors the information transfer from the data...

  15. 14 CFR 33.29 - Instrument connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... connection must be provided on each turbojet engine for an indicator system to indicate rotor system... necessary to ensure that the probability of a fault propagating from instrumentation and monitoring functions to control functions, or vice versa, is consistent with the failure effect of the fault. (h)...

  16. Gemini Instrument Upgrade Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Ruben; Goodsell, Stephen; Kleinman, Scot

    2016-08-01

    The Gemini Observatory* remains committed to keeping its operational instrumentation competitive and serving the needs of its user community. Currently the observatory operates a 4 instruments + 1 AO system at each site. At Gemini North the GMOS-N, GNIRS, NIFS and NIRI instruments are offered supported by the ALTAIR AO system. In the south, GMOS-S, F-2, GPI and GSAOI are offered instrumentation and GeMS is the provided AO System. This paper reviews our strategy to keep our instrumentation suite competitive, examines both our current funded upgrade projects and our potential future enhancements. We summarize the work done and the results so far obtained within the instrument upgrade program.

  17. Instrumentation a reader

    CERN Document Server

    Pope, P

    1990-01-01

    This book contains a selection of papers and articles in instrumentation previously pub­ lished in technical periodicals and journals of learned societies. Our selection has been made to illustrate aspects of current practice and applications of instrumentation. The book does not attempt to be encyclopaedic in its coverage of the subject, but to provide some examples of general transduction techniques, of the sensing of particular measurands, of components of instrumentation systems and of instrumentation practice in two very different environments, the food industry and the nuclear power industry. We have made the selection particularly to provide papers appropriate to the study of the Open University course T292 Instrumentation. The papers have been chosen so that the book covers a wide spectrum of instrumentation techniques. Because of this, the book should be of value not only to students of instrumen­ tation, but also to practising engineers and scientists wishing to glean ideas from areas of instrumen...

  18. Chemical and instrumental approaches to cheese analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Anand; Rodriguez-Saona, Luis

    2010-01-01

    Overcoming the complexity of cheese matrix to reliably analyze cheese composition, flavor, and ripening changes has been a challenge. Several sample isolation or fractionation methods, chemical and enzymatic assays, and instrumental methods have been developed over the decades. While some of the methods are well established standard methods, some still need to be researched and improved. This chapter reviews the chemical and instrumental methods available to determine cheese composition and monitor biochemical events (e.g., glycolysis, lipolysis, and proteolysis) during cheese ripening that lead to the formation of cheese flavor. Chemical and enzymatic methods available for analysis of cheese composition (fat, protein, lactose, salt, nitrogen content, moisture, etc.) are presented. Electrophoretic, chromatographic, and spectroscopic techniques are also reviewed in the light of their application to monitor cheese ripening and flavor compounds. Novel instrumental methods based on Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy that are currently being researched and applied to cheese analysis are introduced.

  19. Aircrew Screening Instruments Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    available tools . Several vendors indicated that they will have new selection instruments available within a few months. These are not listed. As noted...AFCAPS-FR-2011-0012 AIRCREW SCREENING INSTRUMENTS REVIEW Diane L. Damos Damos Aviation Services, Inc...June 2007 – August 2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Aircrew Screening Instruments Review 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA3089-06-F-0385 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  20. Instrumentation in Earthquake Seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havskov, Jens; Alguacil, Gerardo

    Here is unique and comprehensive coverage of modern seismic instrumentation, based on the authors' practical experience of a quarter-century in seismology and geophysics. Their goal is to provide not only detailed information on the basics of seismic instruments but also to survey equipment on the market, blending this with only the amount of theory needed to understand the basic principles. Seismologists and technicians working with seismological instruments will find here the answers to their practical problems.

  1. [Controlling instruments in radiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, M

    2013-10-01

    Due to the rising costs and competitive pressures radiological clinics and practices are now facing, controlling instruments are gaining importance in the optimization of structures and processes of the various diagnostic examinations and interventional procedures. It will be shown how the use of selected controlling instruments can secure and improve the performance of radiological facilities. A definition of the concept of controlling will be provided. It will be shown which controlling instruments can be applied in radiological departments and practices. As an example, two of the controlling instruments, material cost analysis and benchmarking, will be illustrated.

  2. Ocean Optics Instrumentation Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides instrumentation suites for a wide variety of measurements to characterize the ocean’s optical environment. These packages have been developed to...

  3. Networked Instrumentation Element

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Armstrong researchers have developed a networked instrumentation system that connects modern experimental payloads to existing analog and digital communications...

  4. Satellite oceanography - The instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that no instrument is sensitive to only one oceanographic variable; rather, each responds to a combination of atmospheric and oceanic phenomena. This complicates data interpretation and usually requires that a number of observations, each sensitive to somewhat different phenomena, be combined to provide unambiguous information. The distinction between active and passive instruments is described. A block diagram illustrating the steps necessary to convert data from satellite instruments into oceanographic information is included, as is a diagram illustrating the operation of a radio-frequency radiometer. Attention is also given to the satellites that carry the various oceanographic instruments.

  5. Instrumentation Design and Development Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — RTTC has facilities for design, development and fabrication of: custominstrumentation, mobile instrumentation, miniaturized instrumentation, wirelessinstrumentation,...

  6. Management Approach for Earth Venture Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Diane L.; Dutta, Sanghamitra

    2013-01-01

    The Earth Venture Instrument (EVI) element of the Earth Venture Program calls for developing instruments for participation on a NASA-arranged spaceflight mission of opportunity to conduct innovative, integrated, hypothesis or scientific question-driven approaches to pressing Earth system science issues. This paper discusses the EVI element and the management approach being used to manage both an instrument development activity as well as the host accommodations activity. In particular the focus will be on the approach being used for the first EVI (EVI-1) selected instrument, Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO), which will be hosted on a commercial GEO satellite and some of the challenges encountered to date and corresponding mitigations that are associated with the management structure for the TEMPO Mission and the architecture of EVI.

  7. Characterization (environmental Signature) and Function of the Main Instrumented (monitoring Water Quality Network in Real Time) Rivers Atoyac and Zahuapan in High Atoyac Basin; in Dry, Rain and Winter Season 2013-2014; Puebla-Tlaxcala Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavera, E. M.; Rodriguez-Espinosa, P. F.; Morales-Garcia, S. S.; Muñoz-Sevilla, N. P.

    2014-12-01

    The Zahuapan and Atoyac rivers were characterized in the Upper Atoyac through the integration of physical and chemical parameters (environmental firm) determining the behavior and function of the basin as a tool for measuring and monitoring the quality and management of water resources of the water in one of the most polluted rivers in Mexico. For the determination of the environmental signature proceeded to characterize the water through 11 physicochemical parameters: temperature (T), potential hydrogen (pH), dissolved oxygen (DO), spectral absorption coefficient (SAC), the reduction of oxide potential (ORP), turbidity (Turb), conductivity (l), biochemical oxygen demand in 5 days (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS) and total dissolved solids (TDS ), which were evaluated in 49 sites in the dry season, 47 for the rainy season and 23 for the winter season in the basin and Atoyac Zahuapan Alto Atoyac, Puebla-Tlaxcala, Mexico river; finding a mathematical algorithm to assimilate and better represent the information obtained. The algorithm allows us to estimate correlation greater than 0.85. The results allow us to propose the algorithm used in the monitoring stations for purposes of processing information assimilated form.This measurement and monitoring of water quality supports the project, the monitoring network in real time and the actions to clean up Atoyac River, in the urban area of the city of Puebla.

  8. BAA instrument no. 93

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, R. A.

    2006-12-01

    Instrument no. 93 has been in almost continual use for more than a hundred years. Since it left the workshop of its maker, George Calver, it has kept company with several other notable instruments and has been used by many eminent astronomers. It was added to the Association's collection in 1945.

  9. Instrumentation in endourology

    OpenAIRE

    Khanna, Rakesh; Monga,Manoj

    2011-01-01

    Success with endourological procedures requires expertise and instrumentation. This review focuses on the instrumentation required for ureteroscopy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy, and provides a critical assessment of in vitro and clinical studies that have evaluated the comparative effectiveness of these medical devices.

  10. Academic Design of On-line Radiation Monitoring Instrument for Gaseous Radioactive Waste Processing System%核电站废气处理系统在线辐射监测仪理论设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪; 刘春雨; 罗鹏; 陈祥磊

    2013-01-01

    针对核电站废气处理系统对所排含氢废气的放射性监测要求,提出了一种在线监测方案,有效地解决了废气处理系统含氢废气中85 Kr、133 Xe核素放射性监测的问题。并利用模拟程序对监测仪的探测效率、环境γ本底影响等进行了蒙特卡罗模拟计算,为设备的研制生产提供了重要的理论参考和依据。计算结果表明:采用尺寸为φ15 mm ×0.5 mm的圆形薄片塑料闪烁体,基于在线监测方案,在理论设计上可满足AP1000核电站废气处理系统对所排含氢废气的放射性监测要求,在γ环境本底小于10μGy/h条件下无需增加铅屏蔽体。%According to the radioactivity monitoring requirements for exhaust air with the hydrogen waste gas from the waste gas processing system of the nuclear power plant , a kind of on-line monitoring scheme is de-signed to efficiently solve the problem of radiation monitoring of 85 Kr and 133 Xe in waste gas containing hydro-gen.The detection efficiency and the influences of the environmental gamma background for the monitor have been calculated by Monte Carlo code .Thereby , important theoretical references are provided for the equipment development and production .The calculated results show that plastic scintillator with the size of φ10 ×0.5mm that is based on the on -line monitoring scheme fully meets the radioactivity monitoring requirements for exhaust air with the hydrogen waste gas from the waste gas processing system of AP 1000 nuclear power plant .If the gamma environmental background is smaller than 10μGy/h, the lead shielding is not needed .

  11. TROPOMI and TROPI: UV/VIS/NIR/SWIR instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levelt, P.F.; Oord, G.H.J. van den; Dobber, M.; Eskes, H.; Weele, M. van; Veefkind, P.; Oss, R. van; Aben, I.; Jongma, R.T.; Landgraf, J.; Vries, J. de; Visser, H.

    2006-01-01

    TROPOMI (Tropospheric Ozone-Monitoring Instrument) is a five-channel UV-VIS-NIR-SWIR non-scanning nadir viewing imaging spectrometer that combines a wide swath (114°) with high spatial resolution (10 × 10 km 2). The instrument heritage consists of GOME on ERS-2, SCIAMACHY on Envisat and, especially,

  12. TROPOMI and TROPI: UV/VIS/NIR/SWIR instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levelt, P.F.; Oord, G.H.J. van den; Dobber, M.; Eskes, H.; Weele, M. van; Veefkind, P.; Oss, R. van; Aben, I.; Jongma, R.T.; Landgraf, J.; Vries, J. de; Visser, H.

    2006-01-01

    TROPOMI (Tropospheric Ozone-Monitoring Instrument) is a five-channel UV-VIS-NIR-SWIR non-scanning nadir viewing imaging spectrometer that combines a wide swath (114°) with high spatial resolution (10 × 10 km 2). The instrument heritage consists of GOME on ERS-2, SCIAMACHY on Envisat and, especially,

  13. BIO-INSTRUMENTATION FOR CONTROL OF PRESSURE CHAMBERS,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bio -instrumentation for control of pressure chambers is designed to monitor the environment within altitudesimulation chambers and alert the...exposure. This report provides a complete description of the bio -instrumentation, in terms of the system as a whole and of the individual components

  14. Monitoring Options for CO2 Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, R.; Winthaegen, P.

    2005-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of various monitoring techniques for CO2 storage that is structured into three categories-instrumentation in a well (monitoring well); instrumentation at the (near) surface (surface geophysical methods); and sampling at the (near) surface measuring CO2 concentration

  15. Instrumentation reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Boyes, Walt

    2002-01-01

    Instrumentation is not a clearly defined subject, having a 'fuzzy' boundary with a number of other disciplines. Often categorized as either 'techniques' or 'applications' this book addresses the various applications that may be needed with reference to the practical techniques that are available for the instrumentation or measurement of a specific physical quantity or quality. This makes it of direct interest to anyone working in the process, control and instrumentation fields where these measurements are essential.* Comprehensive and authoritative collection of technical information* Writte

  16. Jones' instrument technology

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Ernest Beachcroft; Kingham, Edward G; Radnai, Rudolf

    1985-01-01

    Jones' Instrument Technology, Volume 5: Automatic Instruments and Measuring Systems deals with general trends in automatic instruments and measuring systems. Specific examples are provided to illustrate the principles of such devices. A brief review of a considerable number of standards is undertaken, with emphasis on the IEC625 Interface System. Other relevant standards are reviewed, including the interface and backplane bus standards. This volume is comprised of seven chapters and begins with a short introduction to the principles of automatic measurements, classification of measuring system

  17. Medical instruments in museums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Söderqvist, Thomas; Arnold, Ken

    2011-01-01

    This essay proposes that our understanding of medical instruments might benefit from adding a more forthright concern with their immediate presence to the current historical focus on simply decoding their meanings and context. This approach is applied to the intriguingly tricky question of what...... actually is meant by a "medical instrument." It is suggested that a pragmatic part of the answer might lie simply in reconsidering the holdings of medical museums, where the significance of the physical actuality of instruments comes readily to hand....

  18. Manual of Surgical Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Lidia Sánchez Sarría

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Surgical instruments are the group of tools used in surgical procedures. They are very expensive and sophisticated. Consequently, a standardized and meticulous care is essential; they should go through the decontamination, cleaning and sterilization process. These instruments are designed in order to provide surgeons with tools that help them to perform a basic surgical procedure; there are multiple variations and the design depends on their function. This paper aims at showing all surgical instruments that can be used in an operating room during surgery and are not generally included in the medical literature.

  19. Biomedical Sensors and Instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Tagawa, Tatsuo

    2011-01-01

    The living body is a difficult object to measure: accurate measurements of physiological signals require sensors and instruments capable of high specificity and selectivity that do not interfere with the systems under study. As a result, detailed knowledge of sensor and instrument properties is required to be able to select the "best" sensor from one of the many designed to meet these challenges. From the underlying principles to practical applications, this updated edition of Biomedical Sensors and Instruments provides an easy-to-understand introduction to the various kinds of biome

  20. Power quality and harmonic instrumentation selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stebbins, W.L.; Golden, P.

    1996-05-01

    The proliferation of adjustable speed drive (ASD) systems in commercial and industrial settings has prompted a new awareness of the impact of harmonics and other power quality (PQ) concerns. The PQ issues have a direct bearing on the reliability of these systems and the ability to perform the desired tasks in an interruption free manner. Details presented include identifying power quality problems, selecting the proper type of monitoring instruments, and interpretation of data. Included are typical instrument specifications and cost. Additionally the advent of artificial intelligence tools for PQ analysis and the resulting impact on providing solutions is described.

  1. The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) instrument mechanism control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Carl T.; Pappalardo, Daniel; Pogge, Richard; Martini, Paul; Derwent, Mark; O'Brien, Thomas P.; Honscheid, Klaus

    2016-08-01

    The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) is under construction to measure the expansion history of the Universe using the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation technique. The spectra of 40 million galaxies over 14,000 sq deg will be measured during the life of the experiment. A new prime focus corrector for the KPNO Mayall telescope will deliver light to 5,000 fiber optic positioners. The fibers in turn feed ten broad-band spectrographs. We present the design details of the instrument mechanism control systems for the spectrographs. Each spectrograph has a stand-alone mechanism control box that operates the unit's four remotely-operated mechanisms (two shutters and two Hartmannn doors), and provides a suite of temperature and humidity sensors. Each control box is highly modular, and is operated by a dedicated on-board Linux computer to provide all of the control and monitoring functions. We describe our solution for integrating a number of network-connected devices within each unit spectrograph, and describe the basic software architecture.

  2. Challenges in marine instrumentation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Afzulpurkar, S.; Desa, E.; Joseph, A.; Chakraborty, B.; Nayak, M.R.; Ranade, G.

    . Acoustic and optical instrumentation combined on the same platform would be able to address these problems. For this autonomous vehicles with extremely low power requirements, long term deployment and data transmission capability via satellites after...

  3. UV and EUV Instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Werner, K

    2010-01-01

    We describe telescopes and instruments that were developed and used for astronomical research in the ultraviolet (UV) and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The wavelength ranges covered by these bands are not uniquely defined. We use the following convention here: The EUV and UV span the regions ~100-912 and 912-3000 Angstroem respectively. The limitation between both ranges is a natural choice, because the hydrogen Lyman absorption edge is located at 912 Angstroem. At smaller wavelengths, astronomical sources are strongly absorbed by the interstellar medium. It also marks a technical limit, because telescopes and instruments are of different design. In the EUV range, the technology is strongly related to that utilized in X-ray astronomy, while in the UV range the instruments in many cases have their roots in optical astronomy. We will, therefore, describe the UV and EUV instruments in appropriate conciseness and refer to the respective chapters of this volume for more technic...

  4. Fiber Optics Instrumentation Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Patrick Hon Man; Parker, Allen R., Jr.; Richards, W. Lance

    2010-01-01

    This is a general presentation of fiber optics instrumentation development work being conducted at NASA Dryden for the past 10 years and recent achievements in the field of fiber optics strain sensors.

  5. Instrumentation for Materials Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassen, Richard S.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses how sophisticated instrumentation techniques yield practical results in three typical materials problems: fracture analysis, joining, and compatibility. Describes techniques such as scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and Auger spectroscopy. (MLH)

  6. Hetdex: Virus Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hanshin; Hill, G. J.; DePoy, D. L.; Tuttle, S.; Marshall, J. L.; Vattiat, B. L.; Prochaska, T.; Chonis, T. S.; Allen, R.; HETDEX Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The Visible Integral-field-unit Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument is made up of 150+ individually compact and identical spectrographs, each fed by a fiber integral-field unit. The instrument provides integral field spectroscopy at wavelengths between 350nm and 550nm of over 33,600 spatial elements per observation, each 1.8 sq. arcsec on the sky, at R 700. The instrument will be fed by a new wide-field corrector (WFC) of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) with increased science field of view as large as 22arcmin diameter and telescope aperture of 10m. This will enable the HETDEX, a large area blind survey of Lyman-alpha emitting galaxies at redshift z VIRUS instrument construction is summarized.

  7. Design and Application of Virtual Instrument Technology in Smart Home Monitoring and Control System%虚拟仪器技术在智能家居监控系统中的应用与设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓朋

    2016-01-01

    In order to create a comfortable,convenient and safe home environment,a kind of smart home monitoring and control system based on Arduino and LabVIEW is designed. The Arduino Mega2560 controller is chosen as lower machine, and PC is chosen as host computer. The system can monitor the home environment of gas concentration, temperature, humidity, and human activities, etc. , in real time. When the monitoring data transfinite,the system can automatically control ON/OFF of home appliances and issue audio/visual alarms for implementing safety protection. Results show that the system is easy to operate,suitable for modern household community,and has a certain applicable value.%为了营造舒适、便捷、安全的家居环境,设计了一种基于 Arduino 与 LabVIEW 的智能家居监控系统。系统选用 Arduino Mega2560控制器作为下位机,以PC机为上位机。系统能够对家居环境的燃气浓度、温湿度和人体活动等数据进行实时监控。当监控数据超限时,系统能够自动控制家电设备的通断,进行声光报警,实现安全防护。测试结果表明,该系统操作方便,适用于现代住宅小区,具有一定的推广和应用价值。

  8. VIRUS instrument collimator assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jennifer L.; DePoy, Darren L.; Prochaska, Travis; Allen, Richard D.; Williams, Patrick; Rheault, Jean-Philippe; Li, Ting; Nagasawa, Daniel Q.; Akers, Christopher; Baker, David; Boster, Emily; Campbell, Caitlin; Cook, Erika; Elder, Alison; Gary, Alex; Glover, Joseph; James, Michael; Martin, Emily; Meador, Will; Mondrik, Nicholas; Rodriguez-Patino, Marisela; Villanueva, Steven; Hill, Gary J.; Tuttle, Sarah; Vattiat, Brian; Lee, Hanshin; Chonis, Taylor S.; Dalton, Gavin B.; Tacon, Mike

    2014-07-01

    The Visual Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument is a baseline array 150 identical fiber fed optical spectrographs designed to support observations for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). The collimator subassemblies of the instrument have been assembled in a production line and are now complete. Here we review the design choices and assembly practices used to produce a suite of identical low-cost spectrographs in a timely fashion using primarily unskilled labor.

  9. Modeling of Musical Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Rolf; Hansen, Uwe

    Signal processing techniques in acoustics address many concerns. Included are such things as wave propagation variables, amplitude considerations, spectral content, wavelength, and phase. Phase is primarily of concern when waves interact with each other, as well as with a medium, and the imposition of boundary conditions leads to normal mode vibrations. Such conditions are prevalent in all musical instruments, and thus relevant signal processing techniques are essential to both understanding and modeling the structure of musical instruments and the sound radiated.

  10. Application of Fiber Optic Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, William Lance; Parker, Allen R., Jr.; Ko, William L.; Piazza, Anthony; Chan, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Fiber optic sensing technology has emerged in recent years offering tremendous advantages over conventional aircraft instrumentation systems. The advantages of fiber optic sensors over their conventional counterparts are well established; they are lighter, smaller, and can provide enormous numbers of measurements at a fraction of the total sensor weight. After a brief overview of conventional and fiber-optic sensing technology, this paper presents an overview of the research that has been conducted at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in recent years to advance this promising new technology. Research and development areas include system and algorithm development, sensor characterization and attachment, and real-time experimentally-derived parameter monitoring for ground- and flight-based applications. The vision of fiber optic smart structure technology is presented and its potential benefits to aerospace vehicles throughout the lifecycle, from preliminary design to final retirement, are presented.

  11. Industrial Products for Beam Instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Schmickler, Hermann

    2001-01-01

    In various branches of high technology industry there has been considerable progress in the past years which could be used for beam instrumentation. The subject will be introduced by two short demonstrations: a demonstration of modern audio electronics with 24bit-96kHz ADC, digital signal electronics and application programs under windows on a PC, which allow to change the parameters of the signal treatment. Potential applications are data monitoring at constant sampling frequency, orbit feedbacks (including high power audio amplifiers), noise reduction on beam current transformers... digital treatment of video signals webcams, frame grabbers, CCD-data via USB, all one needs for image acquisitions, in particular interesting for profile measurements. These introductory demonstrations will not last longer than 30 minutes. The remaining time will be used to pass through the audience collecting information into a two dimensional table, which shall contain as row index the accelerator and as column index the t...

  12. Diagnostics and Instrumentation for FEL

    CERN Document Server

    Couprie, M E

    2001-01-01

    Free Electron Laser are coherent sources of radiation based on the interaction of a relativistic electron beam in an undulator field. According to the energy of the accelerator, they presently cover a wide spectral range, from the infra-red to the VUV. FELs combine the diagnostics of typical laser systems (for the measurement of spectral and temporal characteristics, the transverse mode pattern, the polarisation) and the diagnostics of relativistic electron beams. The electron beam is characterised in order to evaluate and control the FEL performances, but also in order to measure the effect of the FEL on the electron beam. The FEL characteristics are monitored with various types of detectors, depending mainly on the spectral range. Diagnostics for Linac based Infra Red FELs and storage ring FELs in the UV-VUV will be described. Particular instrumentation, required for FEL operation, such as the optical resonator, possible diagnostics inside the undulator will also be analysed.

  13. Evaluation of Instrumentation and Dynamic Thermal Ratings for Overhead Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, A. [New York Power Authority, White Plains, NY (United States)

    2013-01-31

    In 2010, a project was initiated through a partnership between the Department of Energy (DOE) and the New York Power Authority (NYPA) to evaluate EPRI's rating technology and instrumentation that can be used to monitor the thermal states of transmission lines and provide the required real-time data for real-time rating calculations. The project included the installation and maintenance of various instruments at three 230 kV line sites in northern New York. The instruments were monitored, and data collection and rating calculations were performed for about a three year period.

  14. Survey of Hospitals and Manufacturers of Biomedical Instrumentation Concerning Variables Related to the Development and Implementation of a Bio-Med Instrumentation Technologist Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaumberg, Gary F.

    The Bio-Med Instrumentation Technologist Questionnaire was sent to 105 hospitals in the Southern California area that had electronic instrumentation for patient monitoring purposes. Sixty completed questionnaires were returned. Twenty manufacturers of bio-medical instrumentation were sent the questionnaires and seven responded. Some of the…

  15. The keyboard instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchester, Ralph A

    2014-06-01

    Now that the field of performing arts medicine has been in existence for over three decades, we are approaching a key point: we should start to see more articles that bring together the data that have been collected from several studies in order to draw more robust conclusions. Review articles and their more structured relative, the meta-analysis, can help to improve our understanding of a particular topic, comparing and synthesizing the results of previous research that has been done on that subject area. One way this could be done would be to review the research that has been carried out on the performance-related problems associated with playing a particular instrument or group of instruments. While I am not going to do that myself, I hope that others will. In this editorial, I will do a very selective review of the playing-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMDs) associated with one instrument group (the keyboard instruments), focusing on the most played instrument in that group (the piano;).

  16. HPS instrument calibration laboratory accreditation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masse, F.X; Eisenhower, E.H.; Swinth, K.L.

    1993-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an accurate overview of the development and structure of the program established by the Health Physics Society (HPS) for accrediting instrument calibration laboratories relative to their ability to accurately calibrate portable health physics instrumentation. The purpose of the program is to provide radiation protection professionals more meaningful direct and indirect access to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) national standards, thus introducing a means for improving the uniformity, accuracy, and quality of ionizing radiation field measurements. The process is designed to recognize and document the continuing capability of each accredited laboratory to accurately perform instrument calibration. There is no intent to monitor the laboratory to the extent that each calibration can be guaranteed by the program; this responsibility rests solely with the accredited laboratory.

  17. Development of autonomous triggering instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Steve E.; Swift, Theresa M.; Fonda, James W.

    2008-03-01

    Triggering instrumentation for autonomous monitoring of load-induced strain is described for economical, fast bridge inspection. The development addresses one aspect for the management of transportation infrastructure - bridge monitoring and inspection. The objectives are to provide quantitative performance information from a load test, to minimize the setup time at the bridge, and to minimize the closure time to traffic. Multiple or networked measurements can be made for a prescribed loading sequence. The proposed smart system consists of in-situ strain sensors, an embedded data acquisition module, and a measurement triggering system. A companion control unit is mounted on the truck serving as the load. As the truck moves to the proper position, the desired measurement is automatically relayed back to the control unit. In this work, the testing protocol is developed and the performance parameters for the triggering and data acquisition are measured. The test system uses a dedicated wireless sensor mote and an infrared positioning system. The electronic procedure offers improvements in available information and economics.

  18. Biochemistry Instrumentation Core Technology Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The UCLA-DOE Biochemistry Instrumentation Core Facility provides the UCLA biochemistry community with easy access to sophisticated instrumentation for a wide variety...

  19. Heat Flux Instrumentation Laboratory (HFIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: The Heat Flux Instrumentation Laboratory is used to develop advanced, flexible, thin film gauge instrumentation for the Air Force Research Laboratory....

  20. ACTRIS ACSM intercomparison - Part I: Reproducibility of concentration and fragment results from 13 individual Quadrupole Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitors (Q-ACSM) and consistency with Time-of-Flight ACSM (ToF-ACSM), High Resolution ToF Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and other co-located instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crenn, V.; Sciare, J.; Croteau, P. L.; Verlhac, S.; Fröhlich, R.; Belis, C. A.; Aas, W.; Äijälä, M.; Alastuey, A.; Artiñano, B.; Baisnée, D.; Bonnaire, N.; Bressi, M.; Canagaratna, M.; Canonaco, F.; Carbone, C.; Cavalli, F.; Coz, E.; Cubison, M. J.; Esser-Gietl, J. K.; Green, D. C.; Gros, V.; Heikkinen, L.; Herrmann, H.; Lunder, C.; Minguillón, M. C.; Močnik, G.; O'Dowd, C. D.; Ovadnevaite, J.; Petit, J.-E.; Petralia, E.; Poulain, L.; Priestman, M.; Riffault, V.; Ripoll, A.; Sarda-Estève, R.; Slowik, J. G.; Setyan, A.; Wiedensohler, A.; Baltensperger, U.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Jayne, J. T.; Favez, O.

    2015-07-01

    As part of the European ACTRIS project, the first large Quadrupole Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (Q-ACSM) intercomparison study was conducted in the region of Paris for three weeks during the late fall-early winter period (November-December 2013). The first week was dedicated to tuning and calibration of each instrument whereas the second and third were dedicated to side-by-side comparison in ambient conditions with co-located instruments providing independent information on submicron aerosol optical, physical and chemical properties. Near real-time measurements of the major chemical species (organic matter, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium and chloride) in the non-refractory submicron aerosols (NR-PM1) were obtained here from 13 Q-ACSM. The results show that these instruments can produce highly comparable and robust measurements of the NR-PM1 total mass and its major components. Taking the median of the 13 Q-ACSM as a reference for this study, strong correlations (r2 > 0.9) were observed systematically for each individual ACSM across all chemical families except for chloride for which three ACSMs showing weak correlations partly due to the very low concentrations during the study. Reproducibility expanded uncertainties of Q-ACSM concentration measurements were determined using appropriate methodologies defined by the International Standard Organization (ISO 17025) and were found to be of 9, 15, 19, 28 and 36 % for NR-PM1, nitrate, organic matter, sulfate and ammonium respectively. However, discrepancies were observed in the relative concentrations of the constituent mass fragments for each chemical component. In particular, significant differences were observed for the organic fragment at mass-to-charge ratio 44, which is a key parameter describing the oxidation state of organic aerosol. Following this first major intercomparison exercise of a large number of ACSMs, detailed intercomparison results are presented as well as a discussion of some recommendations

  1. 3D Spectroscopic Instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Bershady, Matthew A

    2009-01-01

    In this Chapter we review the challenges of, and opportunities for, 3D spectroscopy, and how these have lead to new and different approaches to sampling astronomical information. We describe and categorize existing instruments on 4m and 10m telescopes. Our primary focus is on grating-dispersed spectrographs. We discuss how to optimize dispersive elements, such as VPH gratings, to achieve adequate spectral resolution, high throughput, and efficient data packing to maximize spatial sampling for 3D spectroscopy. We review and compare the various coupling methods that make these spectrographs ``3D,'' including fibers, lenslets, slicers, and filtered multi-slits. We also describe Fabry-Perot and spatial-heterodyne interferometers, pointing out their advantages as field-widened systems relative to conventional, grating-dispersed spectrographs. We explore the parameter space all these instruments sample, highlighting regimes open for exploitation. Present instruments provide a foil for future development. We give an...

  2. Micro mushroom instrumentation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, W. F.

    1986-01-01

    An electronics circuit which provides for the recording of instrumentation data on an optical disk is disclosed. The optical disk is formatted in a spiral format instead of concentric tracks. The spiral format allows data to be recorded without the gaps that would be associated with concentric tracks. The instrumentation system provides each channel with a program instrumentation amplifier, a six pole lowpass switched capacitor filter, a sample and hold amplifier, and a digital to analog converter to provide automatic offset capability. Since each channel has its own components, simultaneous samples of every channel can be captured. All of the input signal's channel variables can be captured. All of the input signal's channel variables can be changed under software control without hardware changes. A single board computer is used for a system controller.

  3. ISSUERS OF FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian GHEORGHE

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The rules laid down by Romanian Capital Market Law and the regulations put in force for its implementation apply to issuers of financial instruments admitted to trading on the regulated market established in Romania. But the issuers remain companies incorporated under Company Law of 1990. Such dual regulations need increased attention in order to observe the legal status of the issuers/companies and financial instruments/shares. Romanian legislator has chosen to implement in Capital Market Law special rules regarding the administration of the issuers of financial instruments, not only rules regarding admitting and maintaining to a regulated market. Thus issuers are, in Romanian Law perspective, special company that should comply special rule regarding board of administration and general shareholders meeting.

  4. Calibration of Geodetic Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Bajtala

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of metrology and security systems of unification, correctness and standard reproducibilities belong to the preferred requirements of theory and technical practice in geodesy. Requirements on the control and verification of measured instruments and equipments increase and the importance and up-to-date of calibration get into the foreground. Calibration possibilities of length-scales (of electronic rangefinders and angle-scales (of horizontal circles of geodetic instruments. Calibration of electronic rangefinders on the linear comparative baseline in terrain. Primary standard of planar angle – optical traverse and its exploitation for calibration of the horizontal circles of theodolites. The calibration equipment of the Institute of Slovak Metrology in Bratislava. The Calibration process and results from the calibration of horizontal circles of selected geodetic instruments.

  5. Use of a dense monitoring network of low-cost instruments to observe local changes in the diurnal ozone cycles as marine air passes over a geographically isolated urban centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissert, L F; Salmond, J A; Miskell, G; Alavi-Shoshtari, M; Grange, S K; Henshaw, G S; Williams, D E

    2017-01-01

    Ozone (O3) concentrations in urban areas are spatially and temporally variable, influenced by chemical production, depletion through deposition and chemical titration processes and dispersion. To date, analysis of intra-urban variability of O3 concentrations, and the influence of local controls on production and depletion rates, has been limited due to the low spatial and/or temporal resolution of measurements. We demonstrate that measurements made using a carefully managed multi-sensor network of low-cost gas-sensitive semiconductor instruments are sufficiently precise to resolve subtle but significant variations in ozone concentration across a region. Ozone was measured at 12 sites in the isolated subtropical city of Auckland, New Zealand. Overall O3 concentrations in the Auckland region were low (annual mean: 19ppb) across all seasons, with a minimum in summer. Higher O3 concentrations (max. 57ppb) were observed when wind speeds were >5ms(-1) and from the W/SW, and were associated with maritime air masses. Ozone formation in the Auckland region is low, which is attributed to a combination of the low O3 background concentrations, the negligible contribution of long-range transport and the effect of NOx titration. Intra-urban variability showed that the lowest O3 concentrations were measured at the residential sites, particularly at night and during rush hours. Ozone depletion from reaction with traffic-generated NO explains the rush-hour minima but did not fully account for the low night-time values. The results suggest that night-time depletion may result from other processes such as the reaction of ozone with nitrite on surfaces such as concrete, pointing towards the need for further studies concerning the rate and mechanism of dry deposition at night in urban areas.

  6. Long term dose monitoring onboard the European Columbus module of the international space station (ISS) in the frame of DOSIS and DOSIS 3D project - results from the active instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmeister, Soenke; Berger, Thomas; Reitz, Guenther; Boehme, Matthias; Haumann, Lutz; Labrenz, Johannes

    Besides the effects of the microgravity environment, and the psychological and psychosocial problems encountered in confined spaces, radiation is the main health detriment for long duration human space missions. The radiation environment encountered in space differs in nature from that on earth, consisting mostly of high energetic ions from protons up to iron, resulting in radiation levels far exceeding the ones encountered on earth for occupational radiation workers. Accurate knowledge of the physical characteristics of the space radiation field in dependence on the solar activity, the orbital parameters and the different shielding configurations of the International Space Station ISS is therefore needed. For the investigation of the spatial and temporal distribution of the radiation field inside the European COLUMBUS module the experiment DOSIS (Dose Distribution Inside the ISS) under the lead of DLR has been launched on July 15 (th) 2009 with STS-127 to the ISS. The experimental package was transferred from the Space Shuttle into COLUMBUS on July 18 (th) . It consists of a combination of passive detector packages (PDP) distributed at 11 locations inside the European Columbus Laboratory and two active radiation detectors (Dosimetry Telescopes = DOSTELs) with a DDPU (DOSTEL Data and Power Unit) in a Nomex pouch (DOSIS MAIN BOX) mounted at a fixed location beneath the European Physiology Module rack (EPM) inside COLUMBUS. The active components of the DOSIS experiment were operational from July 18 (th) 2009 to June 16 (th) 2011. After refurbishment the hardware has been reactivated on May 15 (th) 2012 as active part of the DOSIS 3D experiment and provides continuous data since this activation. The presentation will focus on the latest results from the two DOSTEL instruments as absorbed dose, dose equivalent and the related LET spectra gathered within the DOSIS (2009 - 2011) and DOSIS 3D (2012 - 2014) experiment. The CAU contributions to DOSIS and DOSIS 3D are

  7. Pulse energy measurement at the SXR instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, Stefan, E-mail: smoeller@slac.stanford.edu; Brown, Garth; Dakovski, Georgi; Hill, Bruce; Holmes, Michael; Loos, Jennifer; Maida, Ricardo; Paiser, Ernesto; Schlotter, William; Turner, Joshua J.; Wallace, Alex [Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Jastrow, Ulf; Kreis, Svea [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany); Sorokin, Andrey A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany); Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Polytekhnicheskaya 26, 194021 St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Tiedtke, Kai [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-04-14

    A gas monitor detector was implemented and characterized at the Soft X-ray Research instrument (SXR) to measure the average, absolute and pulse-resolved photon flux of the LCLS beam in the energy range between 280 and 2000 eV. A gas monitor detector was implemented and characterized at the Soft X-ray Research (SXR) instrument to measure the average, absolute and pulse-resolved photon flux of the LCLS beam in the energy range between 280 and 2000 eV. The detector is placed after the monochromator and addresses the need to provide reliable absolute pulse energy as well as pulse-resolved measurements for the various experiments at this instrument. This detector provides a reliable non-invasive measurement for determining flux levels on the samples in the downstream experimental chamber and for optimizing signal levels of secondary detectors and for the essential need of data normalization. The design, integration into the instrument and operation are described, and examples of its performance are given.

  8. Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Roy

    2011-01-01

    Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation is based on the concept of smart sensor technology for testing with intelligence needed to perform sell-diagnosis of health, and to participate in a hierarchy of health determination at sensor, process, and system levels. A virtual sensor test instrumentation consists of five elements: (1) a common sensor interface, (2) microprocessor, (3) wireless interface, (4) signal conditioning and ADC/DAC (analog-to-digital conversion/ digital-to-analog conversion), and (5) onboard EEPROM (electrically erasable programmable read-only memory) for metadata storage and executable software to create powerful, scalable, reconfigurable, and reliable embedded and distributed test instruments. In order to maximize the efficient data conversion through the smart sensor node, plug-and-play functionality is required to interface with traditional sensors to enhance their identity and capabilities for data processing and communications. Virtual sensor test instrumentation can be accessible wirelessly via a Network Capable Application Processor (NCAP) or a Smart Transducer Interlace Module (STIM) that may be managed under real-time rule engines for mission-critical applications. The transducer senses the physical quantity being measured and converts it into an electrical signal. The signal is fed to an A/D converter, and is ready for use by the processor to execute functional transformation based on the sensor characteristics stored in a Transducer Electronic Data Sheet (TEDS). Virtual sensor test instrumentation is built upon an open-system architecture with standardized protocol modules/stacks to interface with industry standards and commonly used software. One major benefit for deploying the virtual sensor test instrumentation is the ability, through a plug-and-play common interface, to convert raw sensor data in either analog or digital form, to an IEEE 1451 standard-based smart sensor, which has instructions to program sensors for a wide variety of

  9. Development and application of intelligent monitoring and controlling system of cotton-picking machine based on virtual instrument technology%基于虚拟仪器技术的采棉机智能监控系统开发与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗中华; 陆鸣超; 胡晓东; 邹兆光

    2014-01-01

    technology in embedded WinCE platform based on CAN bus communication. LabVEIW graphical design environment not only accelerated the development process but also made it easy to make use of the real-time embedded operating system. There are hundreds of advanced signal analysis modules of LabVIEW, mathematical processing modules and rich human-machine interaction modules in LabVIEW touch panel module which insures the fast and friendly interface design and the powerful signal processing and computing process. This paper thoroughly introduced the implementation method of virtual instrument technology in embedded WinCE system and explained the call flow of cross-platform dynamic link library. To achieve the communication between embedded virtual instrument and CAN bus, this paper firstly developed the bottom driver program and the DLL suitable for Win32 platform and the DLL suitable for embedded platform. And then through the shared library block in LabVIEW, this paper achieved the advanced application of the DLL. At last, this paper finished the virtual instrument development based on the touch panel module in LabVIEW. The interface was well designed which looked very simple but practical. This paper has mastered the key technology of seamless link of CAN data. It took the six-row auto-pack cotton-picking machine as the object to develop an intelligent monitoring and controlling system based on CAN bus and embedded WinCE system. The field test was done in NongYiShi crop construction area of Alar, Aksu, Xinjiang The system achieved online monitoring and error alarming to the work state of cotton harvester. Apart from that, three functional verifications were also done. 1) Central controller can transmit collected data from data acquisition module and state monitoring module to the virtual instrument. 2) Through the touchable embedded virtual instrument interface, people can configure any node in CAN network. The configuration includes parameter setting, task allocation and so on

  10. Standard NIM instrumentation system

    CERN Document Server

    1990-01-01

    NIM is a standard modular instrumentation system that is in wide use throughout the world. As the NIM system developed and accommodations were made to a dynamic instrumentation field and a rapidly advancing technology, additions, revisions and clarifications were made. These were incorporated into the standard in the form of addenda and errata. This standard is a revision of the NIM document, AEC Report TID- 20893 (Rev 4) dated July 1974. It includes all the addenda and errata items that were previously issued as well as numerous additional items to make the standard current with modern technology and manufacturing practice.

  11. Animation of MARDI Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image to view the animation This animation shows a zoom into the Mars Descent Imager (MARDI) instrument onboard NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. The Phoenix team will soon attempt to use a microphone on the MARDI instrument to capture sounds of Mars. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  12. Virtual Reality Musical Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serafin, Stefania; Erkut, Cumhur; Kojs, Juraj

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development and availability of low-cost technologies have created a wide interest in virtual reality. In the field of computer music, the term “virtual musical instruments” has been used for a long time to describe software simulations, extensions of existing musical instruments......, and ways to control them with new interfaces for musical expression. Virtual reality musical instruments (VRMIs) that include a simulated visual component delivered via a head-mounted display or other forms of immersive visualization have not yet received much attention. In this article, we present a field...

  13. Spectroelectrochemical Instrument Measures TOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounaves, Sam

    2011-01-01

    A spectroelectrochemical instrument has been developed for measuring the total organic carbon (TOC) content of an aqueous solution. Measurements of TOC are frequently performed in environmental, clinical, and industrial settings. Until now, techniques for performing such measurements have included, various ly, the use of hazardous reagents, ultraviolet light, or ovens, to promote reactions in which the carbon contents are oxidized. The instrument now being developed is intended to be a safer, more economical means of oxidizing organic carbon and determining the TOC levels of aqueous solutions and for providing a low power/mass unit for use in planetary missions.

  14. [Hardening of dental instruments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasev, G P

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of prolonging the service life of stomatological instruments by the local hardening of their working parts is discussed. Such hardening should be achieved by using hard and wear-resistant materials. The examples of hardening dental elevators and hard-alloy dental drills are given. New trends in the local hardening of instruments are the treatment of their working parts with laser beams, the application of coating on their surface by the gas-detonation method. The results of research work and trials are presented.

  15. Celadon Figurines Play Instruments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    This group of figurines, each 0.15m tall, were unearthed from a Tang Dynasty tomb in Changsha in 1977. Music was very developed in the Tang Dynasty. Colorful musical instruments and dances were popular both among the people and in the palace. These vivid-looking figurines wear pleated skirts with small sleeves and open chest, a style influenced by the non-Han nationalities living in the north and west of China. Some of the musical instruments were brought from the Western Regions. The figurines are playing the xiao (a vertical bamboo flute), the konghou (an

  16. Virtual Reality Musical Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serafin, Stefania; Erkut, Cumhur; Kojs, Juraj

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development and availability of low-cost technologies have created a wide interest in virtual reality. In the field of computer music, the term “virtual musical instruments” has been used for a long time to describe software simulations, extensions of existing musical instruments......, and ways to control them with new interfaces for musical expression. Virtual reality musical instruments (VRMIs) that include a simulated visual component delivered via a head-mounted display or other forms of immersive visualization have not yet received much attention. In this article, we present a field...

  17. Space instrumentation: physics and astronomy in harmony?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aderin, M [Surrey Satellite Technology Centre, Sevenoaks Enterprise Centre, Sevenoaks, Kent, TN14 5LJ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: m.aderin@sstl.co.uk

    2008-03-01

    Surrey Satellite Technology Limited was formed as a company in 1985 and has been involved in 23 small satellite missions, making it the most successful and experienced small satellite supplier in the world. The challenge of getting a satellite into space takes a dedicated multidisciplinary team of physicists and engineers working together to achieve a common goal. In this paper the author will look at the breakdown of the teams for a number of space projects including NigeriaSAT1; one of the satellites that make up the Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC), which produces high quality commercial images for monitoring agriculture and the environment as well as dedicating a proportion of it's time to disaster monitoring. Commercial projects like this will be contrasted to instruments such as the Integral Field Unit (IFU) for the NIRSpec instrument on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST is the replacement for the Hubble Space telescope). Although both projects have been running through commercial contracts at SSTL, how does the final goal of the instrument influence the synergy between the physics and the engineering needed to make it, and what, if any, economic differences are seen?.

  18. Isn't Citizen Science a Hoot? A Case-study Exploring the Effectiveness of Citizen Science As an Instrument to Teach the Nature of Science through a Local Nocturnal Owl-monitoring Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreofsky, Tess Marie

    Citizen science projects present a distinctive opportunity for professional and volunteer scientists to coordinate their efforts to gather unique sets of data that can benefit the scientific and local communities. These projects are assumed to be an effective educational tool to teach nature of science (NOS) to participants (Brossard, Lewenstein, Bonney, 2005). This case study evaluates the effectiveness of participation in a citizen science project as a way to learn about NOS. Through enhancement of the Tryon Creek Owl Monitoring Project the researcher reviewed the characteristics of a citizen science project that were thought to be necessary to impact the volunteers' knowledge of NOS. The study also explored the benefits and limitations to organizing the citizen science protect using the principles of action research. Analysis of participants' knowledge and the effectiveness of active research theory, was evaluated through pre- and post- questionnaires and interviews. Although volunteers were able to explore the core themes of NOS through actively engaging in the scientific process, they did not experience a statistically significant change in their demonstration of understanding. For a multitude of reasons, participants had a positive experience with the presence of an embedded researcher within the project. This case study supports the use of active research as a guide to ensure that within each project the needs of both the scientific community and the volunteer scientists are met.

  19. Beam instrumentation performance overview

    CERN Document Server

    Sapinski, M

    2012-01-01

    The 2011 run has proven that LHC can operate safely and stably with higher bunch intensity and smaller transverse emittance than foreseen in the Technical Design Report. In this presentation the performance of the Beam Position Monitoring (BPM) system is discussed. The improvements to the system, those made during the last year and those expected to be done for 2012 run are presented. The status of the three types of devices measuring the transverse beam emittance, wire scanners (BWS), synchrotron radiation monitors (BSRT) and beam gas ionization monitors (BGI), are shown. The control room applications are reviewed and a set of improvements proposed by the operation team is presented.

  20. Economic Policy Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemmensen, Børge

    2007-01-01

    Økonomiske instrumenter begrundes med behovet for politiske indgreb, der muliggør internaliseringen af omkostningerne ved de miljøpåvirkninger, produktion and levevis afstedkommer, således at hensyntagen til miljøet bliver en del af virksomheders og husholdningers omkostninger og dermed en tilsky...

  1. Creating a Super Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallionpää, Maria; Gasselseder, Hans-Peter

    2015-01-01

    Thanks to the development of new technology, musical instruments are no more tied to their existing acoustic or technical limitations as almost all parameters can be augmented or modified in real time. An increasing number of composers, performers, and computer programmers have thus become intere...

  2. Neutron instrumentation for biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, S.A. [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France)

    1994-12-31

    In the October 1994 round of proposals at the ILL, the external biology review sub- committee was asked to allocate neutron beam time to a wide range of experiments, on almost half the total number of scheduled neutron instruments: on 3 diffractometers, on 3 small angle scattering instruments, and on some 6 inelastic scattering spectrometers. In the 3.5 years since the temporary reactor shutdown, the ILL`s management structure has been optimized, budgets and staff have been trimmed, the ILL reactor has been re-built, and many of the instruments up-graded, many powerful (mainly Unix) workstations have been introduced, and the neighboring European Synchrotron Radiation Facility has established itself as the leading synchrotron radiation source and has started its official user program. The ILL reactor remains the world`s most intense dedicated neutron source. In this challenging context, it is of interest to review briefly the park of ILL instruments used to study the structure and energetics of small and large biological systems. A brief summary will be made of each class of experiments actually proposed in the latest ILL proposal round.

  3. Advanced instrumentation and teleoperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    1998-07-01

    SCK-CEN's advanced instrumentation and teleoperation project aims at evaluating the potential of a telerobotic approach in a nuclear environment and, in particular, the use of remote-perception systems. Main achievements in 1997 in the areas of R and D on radiation tolerance for remote sensing, optical fibres and optical-fibre sensors, and computer-aided teleoperation are reported.

  4. Economic Policy Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemmensen, Børge

    2007-01-01

    Økonomiske instrumenter begrundes med behovet for politiske indgreb, der muliggør internaliseringen af omkostningerne ved de miljøpåvirkninger, produktion and levevis afstedkommer, således at hensyntagen til miljøet bliver en del af virksomheders og husholdningers omkostninger og dermed en...

  5. Instrument for assaying radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Jody Rustyn; Farfan, Eduardo B.

    2016-03-22

    An instrument for assaying radiation includes a flat panel detector having a first side opposed to a second side. A collimated aperture covers at least a portion of the first side of the flat panel detector. At least one of a display screen or a radiation shield may cover at least a portion of the second side of the flat panel detector.

  6. Integrating Nephelometer Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uin, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The Integrating Nephelometer (Figure 1) is an instrument that measures aerosol light scattering. It measures aerosol optical scattering properties by detecting (with a wide angular integration – from 7 to 170°) the light scattered by the aerosol and subtracting the light scattered by the carrier gas, the instrument walls and the background noise in the detector (zeroing). Zeroing is typically performed for 5 minutes every day at midnight UTC. The scattered light is split into red (700 nm), green (550 nm), and blue (450 nm) wavelengths and captured by three photomultiplier tubes. The instrument can measure total scatter as well as backscatter only (from 90 to 170°) (Heintzenberg and Charlson 1996; Anderson et al. 1996; Anderson and Ogren 1998; TSI 3563 2015) At ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement), two identical Nephelometers are usually run in series with a sample relative humidity (RH) conditioner between them. This is possible because Nephelometer sampling is non-destructive and the sample can be passed on to another instrument. The sample RH conditioner scans through multiple RH values in cycles, treating the sample. This kind of setup allows to study how aerosol particles’ light scattering properties are affected by humidification (Anderson et al. 1996). For historical reasons, the two Nephelometers in this setup are labeled “wet” and “dry”, with the “dry” Nephelometer usually being the one before the conditioner and sampling ambient air (the names are switched for the MAOS measurement site due to the high RH of the ambient air).

  7. Instruments of Transformative Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana

    production and distribution channels. PDPs aim at overcoming current market and government failures by pooling resources in the attempt to solve this global social challenge. Thus, PDPs are a case of instruments of transformative research and innovation, operating in a transnational governance context...

  8. Virtual reality musical instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serafin, Stefania; Erkut, Cumhur; Kojs, Juraj

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development and availability of low cost technologies has created a wide interest in virtual reality (VR), but how to design and evaluate multisensory interactions in VR remains as a challenge. In this paper, we focus on virtual reality musical instruments, present an overview of our...

  9. Payment Instrument Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jacques; Kjeldsen, Martin; Hedman, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    payment innovations. Using the Repertory Grid technique to explore 15 payers’ perception of six payment instruments, including coins, banknotes, debit cards, credit cards, mobile payments, and on-line banking, we identify 16 payment characteristics. The characteristics aggregate seventy-six unique...

  10. River Ice Data Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-01

    edge in the field of ice engineering expands. For example, ice concentration and freezeup stage are not considered by the survey respondents to...im- pacts both freezeup and breakup jam formation Table 2. Ice parameters currently monitored, by Divisions (as of 1995). Ice parameters currently...V V V V Date of ice in V V V V Ice concentration V V V V Freezeup stage V V V V V Note: Southwestern Division does not currently monitor ice

  11. Standard practice for instrumented indentation testing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This practice defines the basic steps of Instrumented Indentation Testing (IIT) and establishes the requirements, accuracies, and capabilities needed by an instrument to successfully perform the test and produce the data that can be used for the determination of indentation hardness and other material characteristics. IIT is a mechanical test that measures the response of a material to the imposed stress and strain of a shaped indenter by forcing the indenter into a material and monitoring the force on, and displacement of, the indenter as a function of time during the full loading-unloading test cycle. 1.2 The operational features of an IIT instrument, as well as requirements for Instrument Verification Annex A1), Standardized Reference Blocks (Annex A2) and Indenter Requirements (Annex A3) are defined. This practice is not intended to be a complete purchase specification for an IIT instrument. 1.3 With the exception of the non-mandatory Appendix X4, this practice does not define the analysis necessary...

  12. The Science of String Instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Rossing, Thomas D

    2010-01-01

    Many performing musicians, as well as instrument builders, are coming to realize the importance of understanding the science of musical instruments. This book explains how string instruments produce sound. It presents basic ideas in simple language, and it also translates some more sophisticated ideas in non-technical language. It should be of interest to performers, researchers, and instrument makers alike.

  13. Instrumentation and Controls Division biennial progress report, September 1, 1974--September 1, 1976. Non-LMFBR programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadowski, G.S. (comp.)

    1976-11-01

    Research progress and developments are reported in the areas of basic electronics, instruments, radiation monitoring, pulse counting and analysis, electronic engineering support for research facilities, automatic control and data acquisition, reactor instrumentation and controls, fuel reprocessing and shipping, process systems and instrumentation development, thermometry, instrumentation for reactor division experiments and test loops, environmental science studies, miscellaneous engineering studies, services, and developments, and maintenance. (WHK)

  14. Instrumentation and Controls Division biennial progress report, September 1, 1976--September 1, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadowski, G.S. (ed.)

    1978-11-01

    Progress is summarized in the following research and development areas: electronic circuits;instruments; radiation monitoring; process systems and instrumentation; thermometry; instrumentation for engineering experiments and test loops; HTGR fuel recycle development; reactor measurements and analysis; automatic control and data acquisition; electronic engineering support for research facilities; miscellaneous engineering services, studies, and developments; maintenance; and environmental science studies.

  15. Validación de un instrumento para vigilar la inseguridad alimentaria en la Sierra de Manantlán, Jalisco Validation of an instrument to monitor food insecurity in Sierra de Manantlán, Jalisco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Melgar-Quiñonez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Validar una versión de la Escala de Seguridad Alimentaria (FSS en comunidades de la Sierra de Manatlán, Jalisco. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Usando grupos focales se modificó la FSS. Posteriormente se aplicó una encuesta a mujeres con niños preescolares. La FSS se validó correlacionándola con el inventario de alimentos del hogar y con la variedad de dieta de la entrevistada. La encuesta incluyó un cuestionario socio-económico. RESULTADOS: El 44% de los hogares indicaron inseguridad alimentaria leve, 33% hambre moderada y 19.7% hambre severa. La inseguridad alimentaria estuvo inversamente correlacionada con el inventario de alimentos (r=-0.36**, alimentos de origen animal (r=-0.28**, lácteos (r=-0.25**, alimentos procesados (r=-0.37**, frutas (r=-0.21* y verduras (r=-0.28**; *pOBJECTIVE: To validate a version of the Food Security Scale (FSS in communities located in Sierra de Manantlán, Jalisco. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Using focus groups, the FSS was modified to fit the Mexican context. Subsequently, a survey was applied to women with pre-school aged children. The FSS was validated in correlation with a household food inventory and the dietary variety of the individual being interviewed. The interview also included a socioeconomic questionnaire. RESULTS: Forty-four percent of the households reported mild food insecurity, 33% reported moderate hunger and 19.7% reported severe hunger. Food insecurity was significantly and inversely correlated with the number of food items in the household (r=-0.36**, animal source foods (r=-0.28**, dairy products (r=-0.25*, processed foods (r=-0.37**, fruits (r=-0.21*, and vegetables (r=-0.28**; *p<0.05, **p< 0.01. Food insecurity was also associated with low dietary variety (r=-0.23, p=0.02. These associations were maintained in multivariate models. CONCLUSIONS: The FSS is a useful tool for monitoring food insecurity in rural regions of Jalisco.

  16. Instrumentation plan for characterization of subsidence over longwall mining panels at Allen Mine, Weston, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Rourke, J.

    1980-01-01

    The program includes surface, subsurface, and mine-level instrumentation to monitor subsidence characteristics over two adjacent longwall mining panels, situated in mountainous topography in southern Colorado. An installation plan has been detailed to show numbers and arrangements of instruments in and over the panels, and includes pertinent installation details. The appendix contains technical descriptions of standard features of some of the instrument systems, though in certain cases standard instruments will be modified by Woodward-Clyde Consultants (WCC) or the manufacturer to suit site specific installation requirements detailed on attached drawings. Technical discussions on the application of the instrument arrangements and data monitored to subsidence modeling are given in the report.

  17. SVOM Gamma Ray Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Yongwei; Li, Yanguo; Zhang, Yongjie; Zhang, Shuangnan

    2009-01-01

    The Space-based multi-band astronomical Variable Object Monitor (SVOM) mission is dedicated to the detection, localization and broad-band study of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) and other high-energy transient phenomena. The Gamma Ray Monitor (GRM) onboard is designed to observe the GRBs up to 5 MeV. With this instrument one of the key GRB parameter, Epeak, can be easily measured in the hard x-ray band. It can achieve a detection rate of 100 GRBs per year which ensures the scientific output of SVOM.

  18. SVOM gamma ray monitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The space-based multi-band astronomical Variable Object Monitor(SVOM) mission is dedicated to the detection,localization and broad-band study of gamma-ray bursts(GRBs) and other high-energy transient phenomena.The gamma ray monitor(GRM) onboard is designed to observe GRBs up to 5 MeV.With this instrument,one of the key GRB parameters,Epeak,can be easily measured in the hard X-ray band.It can achieve a detection rate of 100 GRBs per year which ensures the scientific output of SVOM.

  19. UC Merced NMR Instrumentation Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-18

    UC Merced NMR Instrumentation Acquisition For the UC Merced NMR Instrumentation Acquisition proposal, a new 400 MHz and an upgraded 500 MHz NMR ...UC Merced NMR Instrumentation Acquisition Report Title For the UC Merced NMR Instrumentation Acquisition proposal, a new 400 MHz and an upgraded 500...MHz NMR have been delivered, installed, and incorporated into research and two lab courses. While no results from these instruments have been

  20. netherland hydrological modeling instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogewoud, J. C.; de Lange, W. J.; Veldhuizen, A.; Prinsen, G.

    2012-04-01

    Netherlands Hydrological Modeling Instrument A decision support system for water basin management. J.C. Hoogewoud , W.J. de Lange ,A. Veldhuizen , G. Prinsen , The Netherlands Hydrological modeling Instrument (NHI) is the center point of a framework of models, to coherently model the hydrological system and the multitude of functions it supports. Dutch hydrological institutes Deltares, Alterra, Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, RWS Waterdienst, STOWA and Vewin are cooperating in enhancing the NHI for adequate decision support. The instrument is used by three different ministries involved in national water policy matters, for instance the WFD, drought management, manure policy and climate change issues. The basis of the modeling instrument is a state-of-the-art on-line coupling of the groundwater system (MODFLOW), the unsaturated zone (metaSWAP) and the surface water system (MOZART-DM). It brings together hydro(geo)logical processes from the column to the basin scale, ranging from 250x250m plots to the river Rhine and includes salt water flow. The NHI is validated with an eight year run (1998-2006) with dry and wet periods. For this run different parts of the hydrology have been compared with measurements. For instance, water demands in dry periods (e.g. for irrigation), discharges at outlets, groundwater levels and evaporation. A validation alone is not enough to get support from stakeholders. Involvement from stakeholders in the modeling process is needed. There fore to gain sufficient support and trust in the instrument on different (policy) levels a couple of actions have been taken: 1. a transparent evaluation of modeling-results has been set up 2. an extensive program is running to cooperate with regional waterboards and suppliers of drinking water in improving the NHI 3. sharing (hydrological) data via newly setup Modeling Database for local and national models 4. Enhancing the NHI with "local" information. The NHI is and has been used for many

  1. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Lithium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Tina; Damkier, Per; Petersen, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Serum lithium is monitored to ensure levels within the narrow therapeutic window. This study examines the interlaboratory variation and inaccuracy of lithium monitoring in Denmark. METHODS: In 16 samples consisting of (1) control materials (n = 4), (2) pooled patient serum (n = 5......), and (3) serum from individual patients (n = 7), lithium was measured in 19 laboratories using 20 different instruments. The lithium concentrations were targeted by a reference laboratory. Ion-selective electrode (n = 5), reflective spectrophotometric (RSM, n = 5), and spectrophotometric (n = 10) methods...... of >12%. Seven of these instruments had a systematic positive or negative bias and more so at lower lithium concentrations. Three poorly calibrated instruments were found in the ion-selective electrode group, 3 in the spectrophotometric group, and 2 in the RSM group. The instruments using reflectance...

  2. Compact Monitor for Airborne Carbon Dioxide Measurements Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Eltron Research & Development proposes the development of a lightweight, battery-powered instrument for accurately and rapidly monitoring the local concentration...

  3. Instrumentation problems for physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, G O

    1980-01-01

    The physician has, for whatever reasons, diminished his or her level of involvement on the team dedicated to developing, refining, and evaluating medical technology. As a result, the challenge confronting the physician and the technology development team today is to orchestrate a team structure that will ensure the greatest input and commitment from physicians and other professionals during current and future technology development. The charges of cost escalation and dehumanization in our system of health care delivery will also be discussed, as will the lack of, or confusion about, access to data concerning cost of a given instrument, and fuzzy semantics and perspectives on technology and instrumentation. The author suggests answers to, or means to ameliorate, the problems.

  4. Data acquisition instruments: Psychopharmacology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, D.S. III

    1998-01-01

    This report contains the results of a Direct Assistance Project performed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., for Dr. K. O. Jobson. The purpose of the project was to perform preliminary analysis of the data acquisition instruments used in the field of psychiatry, with the goal of identifying commonalities of data and strategies for handling and using the data in the most advantageous fashion. Data acquisition instruments from 12 sources were provided by Dr. Jobson. Several commonalities were identified and a potentially useful data strategy is reported here. Analysis of the information collected for utility in performing diagnoses is recommended. In addition, further work is recommended to refine the commonalities into a directly useful computer systems structure.

  5. An ice lithography instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Anpan; Chervinsky, John; Branton, Daniel; Golovchenko, J. A.

    2011-06-01

    We describe the design of an instrument that can fully implement a new nanopatterning method called ice lithography, where ice is used as the resist. Water vapor is introduced into a scanning electron microscope (SEM) vacuum chamber above a sample cooled down to 110 K. The vapor condenses, covering the sample with an amorphous layer of ice. To form a lift-off mask, ice is removed by the SEM electron beam (e-beam) guided by an e-beam lithography system. Without breaking vacuum, the sample with the ice mask is then transferred into a metal deposition chamber where metals are deposited by sputtering. The cold sample is then unloaded from the vacuum system and immersed in isopropanol at room temperature. As the ice melts, metal deposited on the ice disperses while the metals deposited on the sample where the ice had been removed by the e-beam remains. The instrument combines a high beam-current thermal field emission SEM fitted with an e-beam lithography system, cryogenic systems, and a high vacuum metal deposition system in a design that optimizes ice lithography for high throughput nanodevice fabrication. The nanoscale capability of the instrument is demonstrated with the fabrication of nanoscale metal lines.

  6. Impact dynamics instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccormck, R. F.

    1986-01-01

    One of the tasks specified in the NASA Langley controlled impact demonstration (CID) work package was to furnish dynamic instrumentation sensors. The types of instrumentation sensors required were accelerometers for aircraft structural loads measurements, seat belt load cells to measure anthropomorphic dummy responses to the aircraft impact, and strain gage bending bridges to measure the aircraft fuselage and wing bending during impact. The objective in the selection of dynamic instrumentation for the CID was to provide 352 of the highest quality transducers and remain within budget allocation. The transducers that were selected for the CID evaluation process were each subjected to rigorous laboratory acceptance tests and to aircraft fuselage section drop tests at the LaRC Impact Dynamics Research Facility. Data compiled from this series of tests showed the selected transducers to be best suited for the CID mission requirement. The transducers installation technique on the airframe proved successful. The transducer quality assurance was guaranteed through rigorous acceptance testing. Data acquired was 97.0%.

  7. Advancements in Actuated Musical Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overholt, Daniel; Berdahl, Edgar; Hamilton, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This article presents recent developments in actuated musical instruments created by the authors, who also describe an ecosystemic model of actuated performance activities that blur traditional boundaries between the physical and virtual elements of musical interfaces. Actuated musical instrument...... that these instruments enable. We look at some of the conceptual and perceptual issues introduced by actuated musical instruments, and finally we propose some directions in which such research may be headed in the future.......This article presents recent developments in actuated musical instruments created by the authors, who also describe an ecosystemic model of actuated performance activities that blur traditional boundaries between the physical and virtual elements of musical interfaces. Actuated musical instruments...... are physical instruments that have been endowed with virtual qualities controlled by a computer in real-time but which are nevertheless tangible. These instruments provide intuitive and engaging new forms of interaction. They are different from traditional (acoustic) and fully automated (robotic) instruments...

  8. Social Networking of Instrumentation - a Case Study in Telematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBU, D.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The research work contributes to the design and implementation of the communication part for integrating remote instruments and drives via social networks (SN into instrumentation communities. It is used the virtual instrumentation (VI to manage objects that tweet on popular SN platforms applying the concept of the Internet of Things (IoT. Local and remote resource aggregation is based on National Instruments (NI data acquisition and distribution hardware in a NI software environment. NI LabVIEW-for-Twitter solutions (starting with simple authentication are extended, integrated with various third party services and validated in a complete remote monitoring proof-of-concept workbench with a closed loop for alarming-compensation. Solutions are extendible to Machine-to-Machine communication (M2M IoT scenarios for telematics, monitoring or control, and can be connected to intelligent systems based on powerful servers for cloud computing.

  9. CARMENES instrument overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirrenbach, A.; Amado, P. J.; Caballero, J. A.; Mundt, R.; Reiners, A.; Ribas, I.; Seifert, W.; Abril, M.; Aceituno, J.; Alonso-Floriano, F. J.; Ammler-von Eiff, M.; Antona Jiménez, R.; Anwand-Heerwart, H.; Azzaro, M.; Bauer, F.; Barrado, D.; Becerril, S.; Béjar, V. J. S.; Benítez, D.; Berdiñas, Z. M.; Cárdenas, M. C.; Casal, E.; Claret, A.; Colomé, J.; Cortés-Contreras, M.; Czesla, S.; Doellinger, M.; Dreizler, S.; Feiz, C.; Fernández, M.; Galadí, D.; Gálvez-Ortiz, M. C.; García-Piquer, A.; García-Vargas, M. L.; Garrido, R.; Gesa, L.; Gómez Galera, V.; González Álvarez, E.; González Hernández, J. I.; Grözinger, U.; Guàrdia, J.; Guenther, E. W.; de Guindos, E.; Gutiérrez-Soto, J.; Hagen, H.-J.; Hatzes, A. P.; Hauschildt, P. H.; Helmling, J.; Henning, T.; Hermann, D.; Hernández Castaño, L.; Herrero, E.; Hidalgo, D.; Holgado, G.; Huber, A.; Huber, K. F.; Jeffers, S.; Joergens, V.; de Juan, E.; Kehr, M.; Klein, R.; Kürster, M.; Lamert, A.; Lalitha, S.; Laun, W.; Lemke, U.; Lenzen, R.; López del Fresno, Mauro; López Martí, B.; López-Santiago, J.; Mall, U.; Mandel, H.; Martín, E. L.; Martín-Ruiz, S.; Martínez-Rodríguez, H.; Marvin, C. J.; Mathar, R. J.; Mirabet, E.; Montes, D.; Morales Muñoz, R.; Moya, A.; Naranjo, V.; Ofir, A.; Oreiro, R.; Pallé, E.; Panduro, J.; Passegger, V.-M.; Pérez-Calpena, A.; Pérez Medialdea, D.; Perger, M.; Pluto, M.; Ramón, A.; Rebolo, R.; Redondo, P.; Reffert, S.; Reinhardt, S.; Rhode, P.; Rix, H.-W.; Rodler, F.; Rodríguez, E.; Rodríguez-López, C.; Rodríguez-Pérez, E.; Rohloff, R.-R.; Rosich, A.; Sánchez-Blanco, E.; Sánchez Carrasco, M. A.; Sanz-Forcada, J.; Sarmiento, L. F.; Schäfer, S.; Schiller, J.; Schmidt, C.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Solano, E.; Stahl, O.; Storz, C.; Stürmer, J.; Suárez, J. C.; Ulbrich, R. G.; Veredas, G.; Wagner, K.; Winkler, J.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; Zechmeister, M.; Abellán de Paco, F. J.; Anglada-Escudé, G.; del Burgo, C.; Klutsch, A.; Lizon, J. L.; López-Morales, M.; Morales, J. C.; Perryman, M. A. C.; Tulloch, S. M.; Xu, W.

    2014-07-01

    This paper gives an overview of the CARMENES instrument and of the survey that will be carried out with it during the first years of operation. CARMENES (Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exoearths with Near-infrared and optical Echelle Spectrographs) is a next-generation radial-velocity instrument under construction for the 3.5m telescope at the Calar Alto Observatory by a consortium of eleven Spanish and German institutions. The scientific goal of the project is conducting a 600-night exoplanet survey targeting ~ 300 M dwarfs with the completed instrument. The CARMENES instrument consists of two separate echelle spectrographs covering the wavelength range from 0.55 to 1.7 μm at a spectral resolution of R = 82,000, fed by fibers from the Cassegrain focus of the telescope. The spectrographs are housed in vacuum tanks providing the temperature-stabilized environments necessary to enable a 1 m/s radial velocity precision employing a simultaneous calibration with an emission-line lamp or with a Fabry-Perot etalon. For mid-M to late-M spectral types, the wavelength range around 1.0 μm (Y band) is the most important wavelength region for radial velocity work. Therefore, the efficiency of CARMENES has been optimized in this range. The CARMENES instrument consists of two spectrographs, one equipped with a 4k x 4k pixel CCD for the range 0.55 - 1.05 μm, and one with two 2k x 2k pixel HgCdTe detectors for the range from 0.95 - 1.7μm. Each spectrograph will be coupled to the 3.5m telescope with two optical fibers, one for the target, and one for calibration light. The front end contains a dichroic beam splitter and an atmospheric dispersion corrector, to feed the light into the fibers leading to the spectrographs. Guiding is performed with a separate camera; on-axis as well as off-axis guiding modes are implemented. Fibers with octagonal cross-section are employed to ensure good stability of the output in the presence of residual guiding errors. The

  10. Instrumenting the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    1 An Introduction to Wireless Sensor Networks On an uninhabited island off the coast of Maine, tiny wireless sensors deep in the burrows of mysterious sea birds monitor the environmental factors affecting the shy creatures’ comings and goings. In one of Intel’s chip fabrication facilities, similar sensors measure the subtle vibrations of various machines to detect malfunctions before the equipment

  11. Final system instrumentation design package for Decade 80 solar house

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The final configuration of the Decade 80 solar house to monitor and collect system performance data is presented. A review demonstrated by actual operation that the system and the data acquisition subsystem operated satisfactorily and installation of instrumentation was in accordance with the design. This design package is made up of (1) site and system description, (2) operating and control modes, and (3) instrumentation program (including sensor schematic).

  12. Introduction to beam diagnostics and instrumentation for circular accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billing, M.

    1992-07-01

    This paper provides a basic overview of beam diagnostics and instrumentation for circular accelerators and storage rings. It addresses the techniques for measuring important accelerator parameters, such as betatron tunes, betatron functions, dispersion functions, beam position, beam size, and damping times. The instrumentation section contains a general description of beam position monitors, beam kickers, and general signal processing techniques. Some examples of actual accelerator measurements are included.

  13. Tool – Material, Metaphor – Metonymy, Instrument(ness)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Olav Wedege; Breinbjerg, Morten; Pold, Søren

    2008-01-01

    This paper, presents in an abbreviated form the argument presented in an earlier paper[1], and tries to relate it to the theme, "retro in the interface". We introduce the concept instrumentness as a quality of human-computer interfaces. Instrumentness points to the way musical instruments are con...

  14. Focal Plane Instrumentation of VERITAS

    CERN Document Server

    Nagai, T; Sleege, G; Petry, D

    2007-01-01

    VERITAS is a new atmospheric Cherenkov imaging telescope array to detect very high energy gamma rays above 100 GeV. The array is located in southern Arizona, USA, at an altitude of 1268m above sea level. The array consists of four 12-m telescopes of Davies-Cotton design and structurally resembling the Whipple 10-m telescope. The four focal plane instruments are equipped with high-resolution (499 pixels) fast photo-multiplier-tube (PMT) cameras covering a 3.5 degree field of view with 0.15 degree pixel separation. Light concentrators reduce the dead-space between PMTs to 25% and shield the PMTs from ambient light. The PMTs are connected to high-speed preamplifiers allowing operation at modest anode current and giving good single photoelectron peaks in situ. Electronics in the focus box provides real-time monitoring of the anode currents for each pixel and ambient environmental conditions. A charge injection subsystem installed in the focus box allows daytime testing of the trigger and data acquisition system b...

  15. ZBLAN Viscosity Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaukler, William

    2001-01-01

    The past year's contribution from Dr. Kaukler's experimental effort consists of these 5 parts: a) Construction and proof-of-concept testing of a novel shearing plate viscometer designed to produce small shear rates and operate at elevated temperatures; b) Preparing nonlinear polymeric materials to serve as standards of nonlinear Theological behavior; c) Measurements and evaluation of above materials for nonlinear rheometric behavior at room temperature using commercial spinning cone and plate viscometers available in the lab; d) Preparing specimens from various forms of pitch for quantitative comparative testing in a Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer, Thermal Mechanical Analyzer; and Archeological Analyzer; e) Arranging to have sets of pitch specimens tested using the various instruments listed above, from different manufacturers, to form a baseline of the viscosity variation with temperature using the different test modes offered by these instruments by compiling the data collected from the various test results. Our focus in this project is the shear thinning behavior of ZBLAN glass over a wide range of temperature. Experimentally, there are no standard techniques to perform such measurements on glasses, particularly at elevated temperatures. Literature reviews to date have shown that shear thinning in certain glasses appears to occur, but no data is available for ZBLAN glass. The best techniques to find shear thinning behavior require the application of very low rates of shear. In addition, because the onset of the thinning behavior occurs at an unknown elevated temperature, the instruments used in this study must provide controlled low rates of shear and do so for temperatures approaching 600 C. In this regard, a novel shearing parallel plate viscometer was designed and a prototype built and tested.

  16. Payment Instrument Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jacques; Kjeldsen, Martin; Hedman, Jonas;

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, we have witnessed payment innovations that fundamentally have changed the ways we pay. Payment innovations, such as mobile payments and on-line banking, include characteristics or features that are essential to understand if we want to know how and why payers choose among...... payment innovations. Using the Repertory Grid technique to explore 15 payers’ perception of six payment instruments, including coins, banknotes, debit cards, credit cards, mobile payments, and on-line banking, we identify 16 payment characteristics. The characteristics aggregate seventy-six unique...

  17. Beam Instrumentation and Diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Strehl, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This treatise covers all aspects of the design and the daily operations of a beam diagnostic system for a large particle accelerator. A very interdisciplinary field, it involves contributions from physicists, electrical and mechanical engineers and computer experts alike so as to satisfy the ever-increasing demands for beam parameter variability for a vast range of operation modi and particles. The author draws upon 40 years of research and work, most of them spent as the head of the beam diagnostics group at GSI. He has illustrated the more theoretical aspects with many real-life examples that will provide beam instrumentation designers with ideas and tools for their work.

  18. Pesticide reducing instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lars-Bo; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Andersen, Martin

    2005-01-01

    the cost and to calculate general economic and sectoral consequences. This CGE model is linked to an agricultural sector model calculating the optimal use of land, and the agricultural sector model is then linked to a biological agent based simulation model (ABM) calculating changes in the population...... for improving bio-diversity and securing drinking water. That is, combining economic modeling with physical biological modeling and geological evaluation allows us to select unsprayed field margins as the most effective instrument. Sensitivity analysis conducted on bio-diversity suggest that this result...

  19. Beam Instrument Development System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-01-08

    Beam Instrumentation Development System (BIDS) is a collection of common support libraries and modules developed during a series of Low-Level Radio Frequency (LLRF) control and timing/synchronization projects. BIDS includes a collection of Hardware Description Language (HDL) libraries and software libraries. The BIDS can be used for the development of any FPGA-based system, such as LLRF controllers. HDL code in this library is generic and supports common Digital Signal Processing (DSP) functions, FPGA-specific drivers (high-speed serial link wrappers, clock generation, etc.), ADC/DAC drivers, Ethernet MAC implementation, etc.

  20. Digibaro pressure instrument onboard the Phoenix Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Polkko, J.; Kahanpää, H. H.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M. M.; Haukka, H.; Savijarv1, H.; Kauhanen, J.

    2009-04-01

    The Phoenix Lander landed successfully on the Martian northern polar region. The mission is part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Scout program. Pressure observations onboard the Phoenix lander were performed by an FMI (Finnish Meteorological Institute) instrument, based on a silicon diaphragm sensor head manufactured by Vaisala Inc., combined with MDA data processing electronics. The pressure instrument performed successfully throughout the Phoenix mission. The pressure instrument had 3 pressure sensor heads. One of these was the primary sensor head and the other two were used for monitoring the condition of the primary sensor head during the mission. During the mission the primary sensor was read with a sampling interval of 2 s and the other two were read less frequently as a check of instrument health. The pressure sensor system had a real-time data-processing and calibration algorithm that allowed the removal of temperature dependent calibration effects. In the same manner as the temperature sensor, a total of 256 data records (8.53 min) were buffered and they could either be stored at full resolution, or processed to provide mean, standard deviation, maximum and minimum values for storage on the Phoenix Lander's Meteorological (MET) unit.The time constant was approximately 3s due to locational constraints and dust filtering requirements. Using algorithms compensating for the time constant effect the temporal resolution was good enough to detect pressure drops associated with the passage of nearby dust devils.

  1. Calibration of "Babyline" RP instruments

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

      If you have old RP instrumentation of the “Babyline” type, as shown in the photo, please contact the Radiation Protection Group (Joffrey Germa, 73171) to have the instrument checked and calibrated. Thank you. Radiation Protection Group

  2. Keyboard Emulation For Computerized Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, P. M.; Crouch, S. R.

    1989-01-01

    Keyboard emulator has interface at same level as manual keyboard entry. Since communication and control take place at high intelligence level in instrument, all instrument circuitry fully utilized. Little knowledge of instrument circuitry necessary, since only task interface performs is key closure. All existing logic and error checking still performed by instrument, minimizing workload of laboratory microcomputer. Timing constraints for interface operation minimal at keyboard entry level.

  3. Nekton Interaction Monitoring System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-15

    The software provides a real-time processing system for sonar to detect and track animals, and to extract water column biomass statistics in order to facilitate continuous monitoring of an underwater environment. The Nekton Interaction Monitoring System (NIMS) extracts and archives tracking and backscatter statistics data from a real-time stream of data from a sonar device. NIMS also sends real-time tracking messages over the network that can be used by other systems to generate other metrics or to trigger instruments such as an optical video camera. A web-based user interface provides remote monitoring and control. NIMS currently supports three popular sonar devices: M3 multi-beam sonar (Kongsberg), EK60 split-beam echo-sounder (Simrad) and BlueView acoustic camera (Teledyne).

  4. Computer monitors drilling performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-05-01

    Computer systems that can monitor over 40 drilling variables, display them graphically, record and transmit the information have been developed separately by two French companies. The systems, Vigigraphic and Visufora, involve the linking of a master computer with various surface and downhole sensors to measure the data on a real-time (as experienced) basis and compute the information. Vigigraphic is able to produce graphic displays grouped on four screens - drilling, tripping, geological and mud data. It computes at least 200 variables from the sensor readings, and it can store over 100 variables. Visufora allows the operator to group the drilling variables as desired. It can monitor and analyze surface and downhole parameters. The system can be linked with MWD tools. Twenty channels of input are assigned to surface values and the remaining 20 channels can be used to monitor downhole instrumentation.

  5. ASIM - an Instrument Suite for the International Space Station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neubert, Torsten; Crosby, B.; Huang, T.-Y.

    2009-01-01

    ). The instruments will also observe chemical effects on the atmosphere, cloud properties, aerosol loading and other processes and parameters relevant to climate. ASIM is a payload for the International Space Station developed within the European Space Agency (ESA) Directorate of Human Spaceflight. The main partners......ASIM (Atmosphere-Space Interactions Monitor) is an instrument suite for studies of severe thunderstorms and their effects on the atmosphere and ionosphere. The instruments are designed to observe transient luminous events (TLEs)—sprites, blue jets and elves—and terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs...

  6. DynTG: A tool for Interactive, Dynamic Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, M; May, J; Gyllenhaal, J

    2005-02-16

    With the increasing complexity of today's systems, detailed performance analysis is more important than ever. We have developed DynTG, a tool for interactive, dynamic instrumentation. It uses performance module plugins to reconfigure the data acquisition and provides a source browser that allows users to insert any probe functionality provided by the modules dynamically into the target application. Any instrumentation can be added both before and during the application's execution and the acquired data is presented in realtime within the source viewer. This enables users to monitor their applications' progress and interactively control and adapt the instrumentation based on their observations.

  7. Multipotenciostat System Based on Virtual Instrumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arrieta-Almario Álvaro Angel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To carry out this project an electronic multichannel system of electrochemical measurement or multipotenciostat was developed. It is based on the cyclic voltammetry measurement technique, controlled by a computer that monitors, by means of an electronic circuit, both the voltage generated from the Pc and supplied to an electrolytic cell, and the current that flows through the electrodes of it. To design the application software and the user interface, Virtual Instrumentation was used. On the other hand, to perform the communication between the multipotenciostat circuit and the designed software, the National Instruments NI9263 and NI9203 acquisition modules were used. The system was tested on a substance with a known REDOX property, as well as to discriminate and classify some samples of coffee.

  8. Advancements in Actuated Musical Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overholt, Daniel; Berdahl, Edgar; Hamilton, Robert

    2011-01-01

    are physical instruments that have been endowed with virtual qualities controlled by a computer in real-time but which are nevertheless tangible. These instruments provide intuitive and engaging new forms of interaction. They are different from traditional (acoustic) and fully automated (robotic) instruments...

  9. Electronic Instruments -- Played or Used?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulveland, Randall Dana

    1998-01-01

    Compares the experience of playing an acoustic instrument to an electronic instrument by analyzing the constant structures and relationships between the experiences. Concludes that students' understanding of the physical experience of making music increases when experiences with acoustic instruments precede their exposure to electronic…

  10. Mallet Instruments Challenge Beginning Percussionists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grumley, Fred

    1983-01-01

    Orff mallet instruments should be used in beginning band classes. Adding mallet instruments would expand a beginner's concept of percussion instruments. Just as important, the percussion section would provide a solid melodic and harmonic foundation to assist beginning wind instrumentalists with their insecurities about pitch. (RM)

  11. An Instrumental Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Think of guitars and you think of rock and country music, or the vigorous rhythms of the gypsy flamenco, or perhaps the classical strumming of a Segovia. About the last thing you would associate with guitars is aerospace technology. Yet there is a connection. A whole family of quality guitars is an outgrowth of helicopter rotor research conducted for the military services and NASA by an aerospace contractor. These musical spinoffs, commercially available and rapidly gaining in popularity, are the Ovation guitar line, manufactured by Ovation Instruments, Inc., Bloomfield, Connecticut. Ovation Instruments is a subsidiary of Kaman Corporation, a diversified company originally formed to develop and build helicopters. A helicopter's rotor system, with thousands of moving parts, is highly susceptible to vibration. For rotor efficiency, vibration must be "dampened," or reduced. Like other helicopter builders, Kaman Corporation spent years of research toward that end. The technology thus developed, together with the availability of staff experts in vibration engineering, sparked an idea in the mind of the company's president and founder, Charles H. Karnan. A guitarist of professional caliber, Kaman reasoned that vibration-dampening technology could be turned around to enhance vibration and thereby produce a guitar with superior sound.

  12. The QUIET Instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischoff, C.; et al.

    2012-07-01

    The Q/U Imaging ExperimenT (QUIET) is designed to measure polarization in the Cosmic Microwave Background, targeting the imprint of inflationary gravitational waves at large angular scales ({approx}1{sup o}). Between 2008 October and 2010 December, two independent receiver arrays were deployed sequentially on a 1.4m side-fed Dragonian telescope. The polarimeters which form the focal planes use a highly compact design based on High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs) that provides simultaneous measurements of the Stokes parameters Q, U, and I in a single module. The 17-element Q-band polarimeter array, with a central frequency of 43.1 GHz, has the best sensitivity (69 {mu}Ks{sup 1/2}) and the lowest instrumental systematic errors ever achieved in this band, contributing to the tensor-to-scalar ratio at r < 0:1. The 84-element W-band polarimeter array has a sensitivity of 87 {mu}Ks{sup 1/2} at a central frequency of 94.5 GHz. It has the lowest systematic errors to date, contributing at r < 0:01. The two arrays together cover multipoles in the range {ell} {approx} 25 -- 975. These are the largest HEMT-based arrays deployed to date. This article describes the design, calibration, performance of, and sources of systematic error for the instrument.

  13. Balances instruments, manufacturers, history

    CERN Document Server

    Robens, Erich; Kiefer, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    The book deals mainly with direct mass determination by means of a conventional balances. It covers the history of the balance from the beginnings in Egypt earlier than 3000 BC to recent developments. All balance types are described with emphasis on scientific balances. Methods of indirect mass determination, which are applied to very light objects like molecules and the basic particles of matter and celestial bodies, are included.  As additional guidance, today’s manufacturers are listed and the profile of important companies is reviewed. Several hundred photographs, reproductions and drawings show instruments and their uses. This book includes commercial weighing instruments for merchandise and raw materials in workshops as well as symbolic weighing in the ancient Egyptian’s ceremony of ‘Weighing of the Heart’, the Greek fate balance, the Roman  Justitia, Juno Moneta and Middle Ages scenes of the Last Judgement with Jesus or St. Michael and of modern balances. The photographs are selected from the...

  14. Preventive maintenance instrumentation results in Spanish nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curiel, M. [Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales SAU, Sorolla Center, local 10, Av. de las Cortes Valencianas No. 58, 46015 Valencia (Spain); Palomo, M. J.; Verdu, G. [ISIRYM, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, Valencia (Spain); Arnaldos, A., E-mail: m.curiel@lainsa.co [TITANIA Servicios Tecnologicos SL, Sorolla Center, local 10, Av. de las Cortes Valencianas No. 58, 46015 Valencia (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    This paper is a recompilation of the most significance results in relation to the researching in preventive and predictive maintenance in critical nuclear instrumentation for power plant operation, which it is being developed by Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales and the Isirym Institute of the Polytechnic University of Valencia. Instrumentation verification and test, it is a priority of the power plants control and instrumentation department's technicians. These procedures are necessary information for the daily power plant work. It is performed according to different procedures and in different moments of the fuel cycle depending on the instrumentation critical state and the monitoring process. Normally, this study is developed taking into account the instantaneous values of the instrumentation measures and, after their conversion to physical magnitude, they are analyzed according to the power plant operation point. Moreover, redundant sensors measurements are taken into consideration to the equipment and/or power plant monitoring. This work goes forward and it is in advanced to the instrument analysis as it is, independently of the operation point, using specific signal analysis techniques for preventive and predictive maintenance, with the object to obtain not only information about possible malfunctions, but the degradation scale presented in the instrument or in the system measured. We present seven real case studies of Spanish nuclear power plants each of them shall give a significant contribution to problem resolution and power plant performance. (Author)

  15. Consolidated Monitor and Review. Maxi II Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bispo, Edward L.

    This book describes a practicum project that developed instruments and procedures to aid staff members of the California State Department of Education in monitoring multiple educational programs. The instruments and procedures developed were used by staff members to analyze applicable federal and state regulations and evaluate program quality for…

  16. Back to Basics: Instrument Cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Lisa

    2017-03-01

    Adequately cleaning and processing surgical instruments may be challenging for perioperative team members; however, the cleaning and processing of instruments are critical steps in making instruments safe to use on patients and achieving an appropriately safe OR environment. Instruments that are cleaned properly have had organic debris and soil removed, rendering them ready for sterilization or disinfection. This Back to Basics article covers the basic steps and considerations for cleaning and processing instruments before sterilization. Copyright © 2017 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Raman Spectroscopy and instrumentation for monitoring soil carbon systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokes, D.L.

    2003-12-08

    This work describes developments in the application of Raman scattering and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) towards the assessment/characterization of carbon in soil. In the past, the nonspecific total carbon mass content of soil samples has generally been determined through mass loss techniques and elemental analysis. However, because of the concern over CO{sub 2} buildup in the atmosphere and its possible role in the ''Greenhouse Effect,'' there is a need for better-defined models of global cycling of carbon. As a means towards this end, there is a need to know more about the structure and functionality of organic materials in soil. Raman spectroscopy may therefore prove to be an exceptional tool in soil carbon analysis. Based on vibrational transitions of irradiated molecules, it provides structural information that is often suitable for sample identification. Furthermore, Raman scattering yields very fine spectral features which offer the potential for multicomponent sample analysis with minimal or no sample pretreatment. Although the intensity of Raman scattering is generally extremely low, the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect can greatly enhance Raman signals (10{sup 6}-10{sup 8} range) through the adsorption of compounds on specially roughened metal surfaces. In our laboratory, we have investigated copper, gold and silver as possible substrate metals in the fabrication of SERS substrates. These substrates have included metal-coated microparticles, metal island films, and redox-roughened metal foils. We have evaluated several laser excitation sources spanning the 515-785 nm range for both Raman and SERS analysis. For this particular study, we have selected fulvic and humic acids as models for establishing the feasibility of using Raman and SERS in soil carbon analysis. Our studies thus far have demonstrated that copper substrates perform best in the SERS detection of humic and fulvic acids, particularly when coupled to electrochemical processes that enhance adsorption of specific compounds. This effect not only yields a stronger signal, but can also impart selectivity in the analysis of complex samples such as soil.

  18. Microwave Instrument for Human Vital Signs Detection and Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Brian Sveistrup

    methods is presented and real measurements verifies its operation. At the moment of writing, VISDAM consists of two heterodyne radar units operating at X-band with IF frequency at 1 kHz. A small scale test is performed with VISDAM showing its capabilities to track the heart rate of a person in various...... be of benefit, it is assessed that the radar chip can contribute to a full VSD system. Time did not allow for this latter system implementation of the IC....

  19. Novel Microfluidic Instrument for Spacecraft Environmental Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — HJ Science & Technology, Inc proposes to demonstrate the feasibility of an integrated "lab-on-a-chip" technology capable of in-situ, high throughput, and real...

  20. Monitoring active filters under automotive aging scenarios with embedded instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wan, Jinbo; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    2012-01-01

    In automotive mixed-signal SoCs, the analogue/mixed-signal front-ends are of particular interest with regard to dependability. Because of the many electrical disturbances at the front-end, often (active) filters are being used. Due to the harsh environments, in some cases, degradation of these filte

  1. High resolution SAR applications and instrument design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionisio, C.; Torre, A.

    1993-01-01

    The Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) has viewed, in the last two years, a huge increment of interest from many preset and potential users. The good spatial resolution associated to the all weather capability lead to considering SAR not only a scientific instrument but a tool for verifying and controlling the daily human relationships with the Earth Environment. New missions were identified for SAR as spatial resolution became lower than three meters: disasters, pollution, ships traffic, volcanic eruptions, earthquake effect are only a few of the possible objects which can be effectively detected, controlled and monitored by SAR mounted on satellites. High resolution radar design constraints and dimensioning are discussed.

  2. THOR Electric Field Instrument - EFI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khotyaintsev, Yuri; Bale, Stuart D.; Rothkaehl, Hanna; Bonnell, John; Åhlen, Lennart; Vaivads, Andris; Lindqvist, Per-Arne; Ivchenko, Nickolay; Soucek, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Turbulence Heating ObserveR (THOR) is the first mission ever flown in space dedicated to plasma turbulence. The Electric Field Instrument (EFI) is to measure the electric field vector in the frequency range 0-200 kHz. EFI consists of two sets of sensors: Spin-plane Double Probes (EFI-SDP) providing high sensitivity DC electric field in the spacecraft spin plane (2D), and the High-Frequency Antenna (EFI-HFA) providing 3D electric field at frequencies above 1 kHz. EFI-SDP consists of 4 biased spherical probes extended on 50 m long wire booms, 90 degrees apart in the spin plane, giving a 100 m baseline for each of the two spin-plane electric field components. EFI-HFA consists of 6 x 1.25 m long monopoles, forming 3 dipolar antennas crossed at 90 degrees to each other. In addition to the sensors, EFI contains HFA and SDP pre-amplifiers, as well as bias electronics boards (BEBs) hosted in the man electronics box of the Field and Wave processor (FWP). As THOR spacecraft has a sun-pointing spin axis, EFI-SDP measures the electric field in the plane approximately orthogonal to the sun using long wire booms. The sun-pointing attitude greatly reduces errors due to wake effects and asymmetric photoelectron clouds, enabling the highly accurate in comparison to earlier missions ±0.1 mV/m near-DC electric field measurements. Interferometry using the electric field probes can be used to infer wavelengths and scale sizes at the smallest scales in the plasma. EFI also measures the floating potential of the satellite, which can be used to estimate the plasma density at very high time resolution (up to a few hundred Hz). The sun-pointing attitude greatly reduces changes in the illuminated area, and hence the associated spin-dependent errors. In combination with densities derived from the observed plasma frequency emission line, EFI monitors the plasma density from DC to a few hundred Hz. EFI measurements characterize electric field and density variations associated with kinetic

  3. Demonstration of an instrumented patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, M.; Renaud, G.; Backman, D.; Genest, M.; Delannoy, M.

    2007-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of various strain measurement techniques at detecting the disbonding of a composite repair patch and then using this information to validate a new capacitance based disbond detection technique. The instrumented repair patch was parametrically designed with the help of Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software to have a stress concentration at its tip. This stress concentration was designed to produce a disbond during fatigue testing, without the need for the introduction of any foreign material to create an artificial disbond condition. The aluminum substrate was grit blasted and the instrumented patch was bonded using FM ®73 adhesive, and was cured following the recommendations of the manufacturer. The geometric characteristics of the patch followed standard repair guidelines for such variables as material selection, taper angles and loading conditions, with the exception of the area designed for premature disbond. All test specimens were inspected using non-destructive testing technique (ultrasound pulse echo) to guarantee that no disbonding had occurred during curing of the specimen. The specimens were placed under fatigue loading to induce a disbond condition between the aluminum substrate and the patch. The specimens were cyclically loaded and strain gauges bonded to strategic locations on the aluminum and composite patch surface to be able to measure changes in surface strains as the disbond progressed. A Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system was also used to measure full field strains over the gauge length of the coupon. The DIC results were compared with the strain gauge data and were used to provide a qualitative measure of the load transfer in the bonded specimen, which clearly demonstrated the change in surface strain that occurred as the composite patch disbonded from the aluminum substrate. Thermoelastic Stress Analysis (TSA) was also used to measure surface strains on the

  4. Lidar instruments for ESA Earth observation missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hélière, Arnaud; Armandillo, Errico; Durand, Yannig; Culoma, Alain; Meynart, Roland

    2004-06-01

    The idea of deploying a lidar system on an Earth-orbiting satellite stems from the need for continuously providing profiles of our atmospheric structure with high accuracy and resolution and global coverage. Interest in this information for climatology, meteorology and the atmospheric sciences in general is huge. Areas of application range from the determination of global warming and greenhouse effects, to monitoring the transport and accumulation of pollutants in the different atmospheric regions (such as the recent fires in Southeast Asia), to the assessment of the largely unknown microphysical properties and the structural dynamics of the atmosphere itself. Spaceborne lidar systems have been the subject of extensive investigations by the European Space Agency since mid 1970's, resulting in mission and instrument concepts, such as ATLID, the cloud backscatter lidar payload of the EarthCARE mission, ALADIN, the Doppler wind lidar of the Atmospheric Dynamics Mission (ADM) and more recently a water vapour Differential Absorption Lidar considered for the WALES mission. These studies have shown the basic scientific and technical feasibility of spaceborne lidars, but they have also demonstrated their complexity from the instrument viewpoint. As a result, the Agency undertook technology development in order to strengthen the instrument maturity. This is the case for ATLID, which benefited from a decade of technology development and supporting studies and is now studied in the frame of the EarthCARE mission. ALADIN, a Direct Detection Doppler Wind Lidar operating in the Ultra-Violet, will be the 1st European lidar to fly in 2007 as payload of the Earth Explorer Core Mission ADM. WALES currently studied at the level of a phase A, is based upon a lidar operating at 4 wavelengths in near infrared and aims to profile the water vapour in the lower part of the atmosphere with high accuracy and low bias. Lastly, the European Space Agency is extending the lidar instrument field

  5. Astronomical Instrumentation System Markup Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbaum, Jesse M.

    2016-05-01

    The Astronomical Instrumentation System Markup Language (AISML) is an Extensible Markup Language (XML) based file format for maintaining and exchanging information about astronomical instrumentation. The factors behind the need for an AISML are first discussed followed by the reasons why XML was chosen as the format. Next it's shown how XML also provides the framework for a more precise definition of an astronomical instrument and how these instruments can be combined to form an Astronomical Instrumentation System (AIS). AISML files for several instruments as well as one for a sample AIS are provided. The files demonstrate how AISML can be utilized for various tasks from web page generation and programming interface to instrument maintenance and quality management. The advantages of widespread adoption of AISML are discussed.

  6. Reconfigurable laser ranging instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiter, John

    1994-03-01

    This paper describes the design and operation of a fast, flexible, non-contact, eye-safe laser ranging instrument useful in a variety of industrial metrology situations, such as in-process machining control and part inspection. The system has variable computer-controlled standoff and depth of field, and can obtain 3-D images of surfaces within a range of from 1.5 ft to almost 10 ft from the final optical element. The minimum depth of field is about 3.5 in. at 1.5 ft and about 26 in. at the far range. The largest depth of field for which useful data are available is about 41 in. Resolution, with appropriate averaging, is about one part in 4000 of the depth of field, which implies a best case resolution for this prototype of 0.00075 in. System flexibility is achieved by computer controlled relative positioning of optical components.

  7. Portable musical instrument amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, David E. (Danbury, CT)

    1990-07-24

    The present invention relates to a musical instrument amplifier which is particularly useful for electric guitars. The amplifier has a rigid body for housing both the electronic system for amplifying and processing signals from the guitar and the system's power supply. An input plug connected to and projecting from the body is electrically coupled to the signal amplifying and processing system. When the plug is inserted into an output jack for an electric guitar, the body is rigidly carried by the guitar, and the guitar is operatively connected to the electrical amplifying and signal processing system without use of a loose interconnection cable. The amplifier is provided with an output jack, into which headphones are plugged to receive amplified signals from the guitar. By eliminating the conventional interconnection cable, the amplifier of the present invention can be used by musicians with increased flexibility and greater freedom of movement.

  8. The MICE PID Instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Bonesini, M

    2008-01-01

    The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will carry out a systematic investigation of ionization cooling of a muon beam. As the emittance measurement will be done on a particle-by-particle basis, sophisticated beam instrumentation is needed to measure particle coordinates and timing vs RF. A PID system based on three time-of-flight stations, two Aerogel Cerenkov detectors and a KLOE-like calorimeter has been constructed in order to keep beam contamination ($e, \\pi$) well below 1%. The MICE time-of-flight system will measure timing with a resolution better than 70 ps per plane, in a harsh environment due to high particle rates, fringe magnetic fields and electron backgrounds from RF dark current.

  9. Instrumented Architectural Simulation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delagi, B. A.; Saraiya, N.; Nishimura, S.; Byrd, G.

    1987-01-01

    Simulation of systems at an architectural level can offer an effective way to study critical design choices if (1) the performance of the simulator is adequate to examine designs executing significant code bodies, not just toy problems or small application fragements, (2) the details of the simulation include the critical details of the design, (3) the view of the design presented by the simulator instrumentation leads to useful insights on the problems with the design, and (4) there is enough flexibility in the simulation system so that the asking of unplanned questions is not suppressed by the weight of the mechanics involved in making changes either in the design or its measurement. A simulation system with these goals is described together with the approach to its implementation. Its application to the study of a particular class of multiprocessor hardware system architectures is illustrated.

  10. Ideology as instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Michael; Karno, Donna

    2007-12-01

    Comments on the article by J. T. Jost, which argued that the end-of-ideology claims that emerged in the aftermath of World War II were both incorrect and detrimental to the field of political psychology. M. Glassman and D. Karno make three critical points. First, Jost objectified ideology as a grand strategy implemented at the individual level, rather than as an instrument used for a specific purpose in activity. In doing so, he set ideology up as an "object" that guides human behavior rather than as a rational part of human experience. Second, they take issue with the idea that, because somebody acts in a manner that can be categorized as ideological, there actually is such a thing as ideology separate from that event and/or political experience and that psychologists ought to understand the meaning of ideology in order to understand future human activities as outside observers. Third, Jost seems to see this objective ideology as a unidirectional, causal mechanism for activity, a mechanism that assumes individuals act according to ideology, which eclipses the possibility that immediate ideological positions are the residue of purposeful activity. Glassman and Karno suggest that it may be better to take a pluralistic view of ideology in human action. Where ideology does exist, it is as a purposeful instrument--part of a logically based action to meet some ends-in-view--a mixture of immediate goals tied to secondary belief systems (which have been integrated to serve the material purposes of the purveyors of these ideologies). So if we are to understand ideology, we can only understand it through its use in human activity. (Copyright) 2007 APA.

  11. Aprendizaje instrumental en anfibios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén N. Muzio

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta una revisión de los estudios realizados acerca de los mecanismos de aprendizaje en anfibios. Se conoce muy poco acerca de los procesos de aprendizaje en anfibios, y aún menos respecto de las relaciones cerebro-aprendizaje. Recientemente hemos comenzado el estudio sistemático del aprendizaje instrumental en el sapo Bufo arenarum dentro de un marco comparativo. Se observaron diversos fenómenos de aprendizaje comunes a una amplia variedad de vertebrados, tales como la adquisición bajo condiciones de entrenamiento masivo y espaciado, la extinción, la recuperación espontánea, el efecto subsiguiente al refuerzo, y el efecto en al adquisición de la magnitud del reforzamiento. Además, comenzamos el análisis de los efectos sobre el aprendizaje de las lesiones del pallium medial (estructura postulada como homóloga al hipocampo de los mamíferos. La lesión del paIlium medial no tuvo efectos sobre el desempeño ni sobre la tasa de captación de agua durante la adquisición. Pero retardó significativamente la extinción de la respuesta instrumental en un corredor recto. Estos datos sugieren que el palli um medial de los sapos juega un papel en la inhibición de respuestas previamente aprendidas. Los resultados de nuestros estudios en el sapo Bufo arenarum aportan datos origi na1es a la limitada información disponible sobre aprendizaje en anfibios.

  12. Monitoring underground movements

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    On 16 September 2015 at 22:54:33 (UTC), an 8.3-magnitude earthquake struck off the coast of Chile. 11,650 km away, at CERN, a new-generation instrument – the Precision Laser Inclinometer (PLI) – recorded the extreme event. The PLI is being tested by a JINR/CERN/ATLAS team to measure the movements of underground structures and detectors.   The Precision Laser Inclinometer during assembly. The instrument has proven very accurate when taking measurements of the movements of underground structures at CERN.    The Precision Laser Inclinometer is an extremely sensitive device capable of monitoring ground angular oscillations in a frequency range of 0.001-1 Hz with a precision of 10-10 rad/Hz1/2. The instrument is currently installed in one of the old ISR transfer tunnels (TT1) built in 1970. However, its final destination could be the ATLAS cavern, where it would measure and monitor the fine movements of the underground structures, which can affect the precise posi...

  13. Assessing the local windfield with instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zambrano, T.G.

    1980-10-01

    This report concerns the development and testing of a technique for the initial screening and evaluation of potential sites for wind-energy conversion systems (WECS). The methodology was developed through a realistic siting exercise. The siting exercise involved measurements of winds along the surface and winds aloft using a relatively new instrument system, the Tethered Aerodynamic Lifting Anemometer (TALA) kite; notation of ecological factors such as vegetation flagging, soil erosion and site exposure, and verification of an area best suited for wind-energy development by establishing and maintaining a wind monitoring network. The siting exercise was carried out in an approximately 100-square-mile region of the Tehachapi Mountains of Southern California. The results showed that a comprehensive site survey involving field measurements, ecological survey, and wind-monitoring can be an effective tool for preliminary evaluation of WECS sites.

  14. Comparative testing of slurry monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hylton, T.D.; Bayne, C.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Anderson, M.S. [Ames Lab., IA (United States); Van Essen, D.C. [Advanced Integrated Management Services, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1998-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has millions of gallons of radioactive liquid and sludge wastes that must be retrieved from underground storage tanks, transferred to treatment facilities, and processed to a final waste form. The wastes will be removed from the current storage tanks by mobilizing the sludge wastes and mixing them with the liquid wastes to create slurries. Each slurry would then be transferred by pipeline to the desired destination. To reduce the risk of plugging a pipeline, the transport properties (e.g., density, suspended solids concentration, viscosity, particle size range) of the slurry should be determined to be within acceptable limits prior to transfer. These properties should also be monitored and controlled within specified limits while the slurry transfer is in progress. The DOE issued a call for proposals for developing on-line instrumentation to measure the transport properties of slurries. In response to the call for proposals, several researchers submitted proposals and were funded to develop slurry monitoring instruments. These newly developed DOE instruments are currently in the prototype stage. Before the instruments were installed in a radioactive application, the DOE wanted to evaluate them under nonradioactive conditions to determine if they were accurate, reliable, and dependable. The goal of this project was to test the performance of the newly developed DOE instruments along with several commercially available instruments. The baseline method for comparison utilized the results from grab-sample analyses.

  15. Incidence of instrument separation using LightSpeed rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Kenneth I; Hammond, Nathan B; Biggs, Stephen G; Ibarrola, Jose L

    2006-01-01

    The use of nickel-titanium rotary instrument systems has gained popularity over the past 10 years. One of these instrument systems is the LightSpeed (LightSpeed Technology, Inc, San Antonio, TX). One drawback for all nickel-titanium rotary instruments is the incidence of instrument separation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of nonretrievable instrument separation using the LightSpeed system in a clinical setting. A total of 3543 canals were treated over a 24 month period and during that time, 46 LightSpeed instruments were separated and found to be nonretrievable, resulting in a separation rate of 1.30%. This rate was lower than previous reported studies.

  16. Tool – Material, Metaphor – Metonymy, Instrument(ness)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Olav Wedege; Breinbjerg, Morten; Pold, Søren

    2008-01-01

    This paper, presents in an abbreviated form the argument presented in an earlier paper[1], and tries to relate it to the theme, "retro in the interface". We introduce the concept instrumentness as a quality of human-computer interfaces. Instrumentness points to the way musical instruments are con...... pointing to alternative values, differing from traditional usability, which are also relevant in creative work outside art and music composition.......This paper, presents in an abbreviated form the argument presented in an earlier paper[1], and tries to relate it to the theme, "retro in the interface". We introduce the concept instrumentness as a quality of human-computer interfaces. Instrumentness points to the way musical instruments...... are controlled and conceptualized through values such as virtuosity and palyability, which are important for computer-mediated creative work supporting development in use beyond what is initially designed for. The papet performs a conceptual investigation into qualities in software interfaces that support...

  17. Monitoring of rapid sand filters using an acoustic imaging technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allouche, N.; Simons, D.G.; Rietveld, L.C.

    2012-01-01

    A novel instrument is developed to acoustically image sand filters used for water treatment and monitor their performance. The instrument consists of an omnidirectional transmitter that generates a chirp with a frequency range between 10 and 110 kHz, and an array of hydrophones. The instrument was e

  18. Pancreatitis Quality of Life Instrument: Development of a new instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahid Wassef

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The goal of this project was to develop the first disease-specific instrument for the evaluation of quality of life in chronic pancreatitis. Methods: Focus groups and interview sessions were conducted, with chronic pancreatitis patients, to identify items felt to impact quality of life which were subsequently formatted into a paper-and-pencil instrument. This instrument was used to conduct an online survey by an expert panel of pancreatologists to evaluate its content validity. Finally, the modified instrument was presented to patients during precognitive testing interviews to evaluate its clarity and appropriateness. Results: In total, 10 patients were enrolled in the focus groups and interview sessions where they identified 50 items. Once redundant items were removed, the 40 remaining items were made into a paper-and-pencil instrument referred to as the Pancreatitis Quality of Life Instrument. Through the processes of content validation and precognitive testing, the number of items in the instrument was reduced to 24. Conclusions: This marks the development of the first disease-specific instrument to evaluate quality of life in chronic pancreatitis. It includes unique features not found in generic instruments (economic factors, stigma, and spiritual factors. Although this marks a giant step forward, psychometric evaluation is still needed prior to its clinical use.

  19. Manual Control for Medical Instruments in Minimally Invasive Surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, C.

    2014-01-01

    With the introduction of new technologies, surgical procedures have been varying from free access in open surgery towards limited access in minimal invasive surgery. During such procedures, surgeons have to manoeuver the instruments from outside the patient while looking at the monitor. Long and sle

  20. Industrial instrumentation principles and design

    CERN Document Server

    Padmanabhan, Tattamangalam R

    2000-01-01

    Pneumatic, hydraulic and allied instrumentation schemes have given way to electronic schemes in recent years thanks to the rapid strides in electronics and allied areas. Principles, design and applications of such state-of-the-art instrumentation schemes form the subject matter of this book. Through representative examples, the basic building blocks of instrumentation schemes are identified and each of these building blocks discussed in terms of its design and interface characteristics. The common generic schemes synthesized with such building blocks are dealt with subsequently. This forms the scope of Part I. The focus in Part II is on application. Displacement and allied instrumentation, force and allied instrumentation and process instrumentation in terms of temperature, flow, pressure level and other common process variables are dealt with separately and exhaustively. Despite the diversity in the sensor principles and characteristics and the variety in the applications and their environments, it is possib...

  1. Instruments to assess integrated care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsø, Anne Marie; Godtfredsen, Nina Skavlan; Høst, Dorte

    2014-01-01

    abstracts were independently reviewed by two investigators. RESULTS: We identified 23 measurement instruments and, within these, eight organisational elements were found. No measurement instrument covered all organisational elements, but almost all studies include well-defined structural and process aspects......INTRODUCTION: Although several measurement instruments have been developed to measure the level of integrated health care delivery, no standardised, validated instrument exists covering all aspects of integrated care. The purpose of this review is to identify the instruments concerning how...... to measure the level of integration across health-care sectors and to assess and evaluate the organisational elements within the instruments identified. METHODS: An extensive, systematic literature review in PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, Web of Science for the years 1980-2011. Selected...

  2. Detectors for Tomorrow's Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Harvey

    2009-01-01

    Cryogenically cooled superconducting detectors have become essential tools for a wide range of measurement applications, ranging from quantum limited heterodyne detection in the millimeter range to direct searches for dark matter with superconducting phonon detectors operating at 20 mK. Superconducting detectors have several fundamental and practical advantages which have resulted in their rapid adoption by experimenters. Their excellent performance arises in part from reductions in noise resulting from their low operating temperatures, but unique superconducting properties provide a wide range of mechanisms for detection. For example, the steep dependence of resistance with temperature on the superconductor/normal transition provides a sensitive thermometer for calorimetric and bolometric applications. Parametric changes in the properties of superconducting resonators provides a mechanism for high sensitivity detection of submillimeter photons. From a practical point of view, the use of superconducting detectors has grown rapidly because many of these devices couple well to SQUID amplifiers, which are easily integrated with the detectors. These SQUID-based amplifiers and multiplexers have matured with the detectors; they are convenient to use, and have excellent noise performance. The first generation of fully integrated large scale superconducting detection systems are now being deployed. I will discuss the prospects for a new generation of instruments designed to take full advantage of the revolution in detector technology.

  3. The Clementine instrument complement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucey, Paul G.

    1993-01-01

    The recent successes of the Galileo solid-state imaging (SSI) experiment at the Moon and Gaspra show the utility of multispectral imaging of planetary objects. 'Clementine' is the planetary community's 'code name' for the SDIO (Space Defense Initiative Organization), mission to the Moon and the asteroid Geographos. This mission is designed as a long term stressing test on sensors and space systems developed for SDIO. In the course of this test Clementine will obtain science data using a varied and powerful array of remote sensing instruments which were developed by or for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California. Clementine carries five cameras, one for navigation and four for science experiments. In addition, a laser ranger is included which will serve as a laser altimeter. The Clementine cameras cover a wider range of spatial resolutions and wavelength range than did Galileo and are almost ideally suited to mapping of mafic rock types as are present on the Moon and expected at Geographos. Calibration of the cameras will occur at the sensor calibration laboratory at LLNL. In flight calibrations, using standard stars and other standards should improve the stated accuracies. Signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) include the following noise sources: shot noise, calibration error, digitization noise, readout noise, and frame transfer noise (where applicable). The achieved SNRs are a balance between detector saturation and acceptable image smear. The 'worst' case uses the longest possible integration times.

  4. Impact Disdrometers Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomew, Mary Jane [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-03-01

    To improve the quantitative description of precipitation processes in climate models, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility has been collecting observations of the drop size spectra of rain events since early in 2006. Impact disdrometers were the initial choice due to their reliability, ease of maintenance, and relatively low cost. Each of the two units deployed was accompanied by a nearby tipping bucket. In 2010, the tipping buckets were replaced by weighing buckets rain gauges. Five video disdrometers were subsequently purchased and are described in ARM’s VDIS Handbook.1 As of April 2011, three of the weighing bucket instruments were deployed, one was to travel with the second ARM Mobile Facility, and the fifth was a spare. Two of the video disdrometers were deployed, a third was to be deployed later in the spring of 2011, one was to travel with the second ARM Mobile Facility, and the last was a spare. Detailed descriptions of impact disdrometers and their datastreams are provided in this document.

  5. Halo vest instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, Dryver R.; Krag, Martin

    1996-05-01

    The halo vest is a head and neck immobilization system that is often used on patients that are recovering from cervical trauma or surgery. The halo vest system consists of a rigid halo that is firmly attached to the skull, an upright support structure for stabilization and immobilization, and a torso-enveloping vest. The main purpose of this study was to measure the forces that are carried by the halo-vest structure as the subject undergoes various activities of daily living and external loading for different vest designs. A tethered strain gage load cell based instrumentation system was used to take these load measurements on ten different subjects. Three different halo-vest systems were evaluated. The primary difference between the vests was the amount of torso coverage and the use of shoulder straps. The loads were measured, analyzed and used to compare the vests and to create a model of halo-vest-neck mechanics. Future applications of this technology to standalone data logging, pin-load measuring and biofeedback applications are discussed.

  6. INSTRUMENTATION CONTROLLING INDUSTRIAL PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuvashlova Marina Vladimirovna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze theoretical and practical basis of controlling and to provide implementation guidelines for enterprise controlling. The problem of controlling implementation was considered by two criteria: sphere of application and time of validity. Taking into account sphere of application criterion the objectives can be achieved by certain tools, namely: management accounting in the form of profit and loss statement; information flow in the form of workflow system and mapping of business processes; planning which includes budgeting and monitoring that could in turn allow to compare performance to predetermined standards, plans or objectives; responsibility accounting. The second criterion that is time of validity is considered as strategic.

  7. INSTRUMENTATION CONTROLLING INDUSTRIAL PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Марина Владимировна Чувашлова

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze theoretical and practical basis of controlling and to provide implementation guidelines for enterprise controlling. The problem of controlling implementation was considered by two criteria: sphere of application and time of validity.Taking into account sphere of application criterion the objectives can be achieved by certain tools, namely: management accounting in the form of profit and loss statement; information flow in the form of workflow system and mapping of business processes; planning which includes budgeting and monitoring that could in turn allow to compare performance to predetermined standards, plans or objectives; responsibility accounting.The second criterion that is time of validity is considered as strategic.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-1-39

  8. Measurement, instrumentation, and sensors handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Eren, Halit

    2014-01-01

    The Second Edition of the bestselling Measurement, Instrumentation, and Sensors Handbook brings together all aspects of the design and implementation of measurement, instrumentation, and sensors. Reflecting the current state of the art, it describes the use of instruments and techniques for performing practical measurements in engineering, physics, chemistry, and the life sciences and discusses processing systems, automatic data acquisition, reduction and analysis, operation characteristics, accuracy, errors, calibrations, and the incorporation of standards for control purposes. Organized acco

  9. Experimenting with string musical instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2012-03-01

    What follows are several investigations involving string musical instruments developed for and used in a Science of Sound & Light course. The experiments make use of a guitar, orchestral string instruments and data collection and graphing software. They are designed to provide students with concrete examples of how mathematical formulae, when used in physics, represent reality that can actually be observed, in this case, the operation of string musical instruments.

  10. Logical Varieties of Instrumental Reasons

    OpenAIRE

    Spielthenner, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Instrumental reasons play a central role in our practical deliberations because we apply the distinction between reasonable and unreasonable not only to beliefs, but to actions also. The question of what one has an instrumental reason to do is an important substantive question that is relevant to the general theory of practical reasoning and to ethics, too. It will be my object in the present study to show that we have different kinds of instrumental reasons, which depend solely on their logi...

  11. Instrumentation Technical Program Management Team: Annual report, FY-1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, M.L.; Fitzgerald, J.M.; Grametbauer, G.L.

    1987-03-04

    This report deals with several projects carried out at the Portsmouth and Oak Ridge gaseous diffusion plants. Line recorders were installed at the Portsmouth plant to monitor gas constituents of the cascade process gas. Technical assessment was made of the shutdown of the Oak Ridge plant to identify potential problems. Progress was made on development of a computer-controlled gas recycle system at Oak Ridge. Monitoring instruments were developed for gases in standby cells at Oak Ridge. A criticality radiation alarm was installed at Portsmouth. A scintillation device was developed to monitor purge vent effluents at Portsmouth. The report concludes with a forecast of projects to be carried out in 1987. (JDH)

  12. So Long and Thanks for All the Fish: Overexploitation of the Regionally Endemic Galapagos Grouper Mycteroperca olfax (Jenyns, 1840)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Alan M.; Koike, Haruko; Zimmerhackel, Johanna; Schuhbauer, Anna; Eddy, Tyler; Salinas-de-León, Pelayo

    2016-01-01

    The regionally endemic Galapagos Grouper, locally known as bacalao, is one of the most highly prized finfish species within the Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR). Concerns of overfishing, coupled with a lack of fishing regulations aimed at this species raises concerns about the current population health. We assessed changes in population health over a 30-year period using three simple indicators: (1) percentage of fish below reproductive size (Lm); (2) percentage of fish within the optimum length interval (Lopt); and (3) percentage of mega-spawners in the catch. Over the assessed period, none of the indicators reached values associated with healthy populations, with all indicators declining over time. Furthermore, the most recent landings data show that the vast majority of the bacalao caught (95.7%,) were below Lm, the number of fish within the Lopt interval was extremely low (4.7%), and there were virtually no mega-spawners (0.2%). Bacalao fully recruit to the fishery 15 cm below the size at which 50% of the population matures. The Spawning Potential Ratio is currently 5% of potential unfished fecundity, strongly suggesting severe overfishing. Our results suggest the need for bacalao-specific management regulations that should include minimum (65 cm TL) and maximum (78 cm TL) landing sizes, slot limits (64–78 cm TL), as well as a closed season during spawning from October to January. It is recognized that these regulations are harsh and will certainly have negative impacts on the livelihoods of fishers in the short term, however, continued inaction will likely result in a collapse of this economically and culturally valuable species. Alternative sources of income should be developed in parallel with the establishment of fishing regulations to limit the socio-economic disruption to the fishing community during the transition to a more sustainable management regime. PMID:27780213

  13. Design of Onboard Instrument Based on Virtual Instrument Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Baoping; ZHONG Yuanchang; QIU Jianwei

    2006-01-01

    After analyzing and comparing the traditional automobile instrument, the onboard instrument based on virtual instrument technology is designed in this paper. The PC/104 computer was employed as the core processing unit of the onboard instrument, and the several intelligent data acquisition nodes are set and connected by the CAN bus, through which the nodes can communicate with the core processing unit. The information of the vehicle's working condition can be displayed synthetically by adopting virtual instrument technology. When the working condition goes beyond its limit, the system can emit an alarm, record and storage the abnormal condition automatically, and suggest how to deal with the abnormity urgently. The development background and design idea of onboard information system were elaborated in the paper. The software, the hardware architecture and the principle of onboard information system were introduced in detail.

  14. Using Model-Based Reasoning for Autonomous Instrument Operation - Lessons Learned From IMAGE/LENA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael A.; Rilee, Michael L.; Truszkowski, Walt; Bailin, Sidney C.

    2001-01-01

    Model-based reasoning has been applied as an autonomous control strategy on the Low Energy Neutral Atom (LENA) instrument currently flying on board the Imager for Magnetosphere-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) spacecraft. Explicit models of instrument subsystem responses have been constructed and are used to dynamically adapt the instrument to the spacecraft's environment. These functions are cast as part of a Virtual Principal Investigator (VPI) that autonomously monitors and controls the instrument. In the VPI's current implementation, LENA's command uplink volume has been decreased significantly from its previous volume; typically, no uplinks are required for operations. This work demonstrates that a model-based approach can be used to enhance science instrument effectiveness. The components of LENA are common in space science instrumentation, and lessons learned by modeling this system may be applied to other instruments. Future work involves the extension of these methods to cover more aspects of LENA operation and the generalization to other space science instrumentation.

  15. Optical Observations Of Fermi LAT Monitored Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Kyle; Carini, M. T.

    2009-01-01

    For the past 8 years the Bell Observatory at Western Kentucky University has been conducting R band monitoring of the variability of approximately 50 Blazars. A subset of these objects are being routinely observed with the LAT instrument on-board the Fermi Space Telescope. Adding the Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT) at Kitt Peak National Observatory and observations with the AZT-11 telescope at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory (CRAO), we are intensively monitoring the Blazars on the Lat monitoring list. We present the results of our long term monitoring of the LAT monitored Blazars, as well as the recent contemporaneous optical R band observations we have obtained of the LAT Blazars.

  16. Performance of the RHIC Injection Line Instrumentation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, T. J.; Witkover, R. L.; Cameron, P.; Connolly, R.; Ryan, W. A.; Smith, G.; Zitvogel, E.

    1997-05-01

    The beam injection line from the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) to the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) transports proton and heavy ion bunches. This line and the RHIC first sextant currently contain thefollowing complement of beam instrumentation: stripline position monitors, ionization loss monitors, video profile monitors, and commercial current transformers. Over several years, these systems have been designed and bench tested to assure a desired performance level. The design criteria will be briefly reviewed. Then, using data from laboratory tests and the recent single pass beam tests, desired performance and attained performance will be compared. Finally, experience from the beam based tests will be applied to the design criteria for the future collider ring instrumentation.

  17. Formación instrumental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Zerrate

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Es el nombre dado al proyecto de investigación que un Grupo de docentes del Énfasis de Pedagogía Instrumental del Departamento de Educación Musical de la Facultad de BELLAS ARTES, propone para reflexionar sobre la Didáctica Instrumental

  18. Cryogenic Caging for Science Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penanen, Konstantin; Chui, Talso C.

    2011-01-01

    A method has been developed for caging science instrumentation to protect from pyro-shock and EDL (entry, descent, and landing) acceleration damage. Caging can be achieved by immersing the instrument (or its critical parts) in a liquid and solidifying the liquid by cooling. After the launch shock and/or after the payload has landed, the solid is heated up and evaporated.

  19. Autonomous Bio-Optical Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-09-30

    Autonomous Bio -Optical Instruments Russ E. Davis Scripps Institution of Oceanography La Jolla CA 92093-0230 phone: (858) 534-4415 fax: (858) 534... Bio -Optical Instruments 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK

  20. Instruments in science and technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, Mieke; Olsen, Jan Kyrre Berg; Pedersen, Stig Andur; Hendricks, Vincent F.

    2009-01-01

    Modern science and technology are interwoven into a complex that is sometimes called 'techno-science': the progress of science is dependent on the sophistication of instrumentation, whereas the progress of ‘high-tech’ instruments and apparatus is dependent on scientific research. Yet, how scientific

  1. A Database Management Assessment Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Jeffrey P.; Pardue, J. Harold; Daigle, Roy; Longenecker, Herbert E., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an instrument designed for assessing learning outcomes in data management. In addition to assessment of student learning and ABET outcomes, we have also found the instrument to be effective for determining database placement of incoming information systems (IS) graduate students. Each of these three uses is discussed in this…

  2. Experimenting with String Musical Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    What follows are several investigations involving string musical instruments developed for and used in a "Science of Sound & Light" course. The experiments make use of a guitar, orchestral string instruments and data collection and graphing software. They are designed to provide students with concrete examples of how mathematical formulae, when…

  3. Kodaly Strategies for Instrumental Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Priscella M.

    1996-01-01

    Advocates using the singing voice and the study of folk music in instrumental instruction. Recommends instrumental teachers confer with voice teachers to coordinate ideas and terminology. Includes several excerpts of scores and musical exercises, as well as a list of selected resources. (MJP)

  4. A systematic review of instruments to measure depressive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lako, Irene M.; Bruggeman, R.; Knegtering, H.; Wiersma, D.; Schoevers, R. A.; Slooff, C. J.; Taxis, K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Depressive symptoms require accurate recognition and monitoring in clinical practice of patients with schizophrenia. Depression instruments developed for use in depressed patients may not discriminate depressive symptoms from negative psychotic symptoms. Objective: We reviewed depression

  5. Current and Nascent SETI Instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Siemion, Andrew P V; Chen, Henry; Cordes, Jim; Filiba, Terry; Foster, Griffin; Fries, Adam; Howard, Andrew; von Korff, Josh; Korpela, Eric; Lebofsky, Matt; McMahon, Peter L; Parsons, Aaron; Spitler, Laura; Wagner, Mark; Werthimer, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Here we describe our ongoing efforts to develop high-performance and sensitive instrumentation for use in the search for extra-terrestrial intelligence (SETI). These efforts include our recently deployed Search for Extraterrestrial Emissions from Nearby Developed Intelligent Populations Spectrometer (SERENDIP V.v) and two instruments currently under development; the Heterogeneous Radio SETI Spectrometer (HRSS) for SETI observations in the radio spectrum and the Optical SETI Fast Photometer (OSFP) for SETI observations in the optical band. We will discuss the basic SERENDIP V.v instrument design and initial analysis methodology, along with instrument architectures and observation strategies for OSFP and HRSS. In addition, we will demonstrate how these instruments may be built using low-cost, modular components and programmed and operated by students using common languages, e.g. ANSI C.

  6. Monitoring madness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blankinship, S.

    2006-01-15

    High quality continuous emission monitoring capability can be as essential as high quality emission control equipment. Future mercury monitoring and control requirements add to the justification for better CEMS. The article discusses two prominent mercury measurement methods - the cold vapour atomic absorptive spectrometer (CVAAs) and the atomic absorptive spectrometer (AFS). It stresses the importance of maintaining a CEMS. 1 photo.

  7. Mobility Monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schæbel, Anne-Lise; Dybbro, Karina Løvendahl; Andersen, Lisbeth Støvring;

    2015-01-01

    Undersøgelse af digital monitorering af plejehjemsbeboeres vendinger under søvn på Fremtidens Plejehjem, Nørresundby......Undersøgelse af digital monitorering af plejehjemsbeboeres vendinger under søvn på Fremtidens Plejehjem, Nørresundby...

  8. Instrumental variables and Mendelian randomization with invalid instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyunseung

    Instrumental variables (IV) methods have been widely used to determine the causal effect of a treatment, exposure, policy, or an intervention on an outcome of interest. The IV method relies on having a valid instrument, a variable that is (A1) associated with the exposure, (A2) has no direct effect on the outcome, and (A3) is unrelated to the unmeasured confounders associated with the exposure and the outcome. However, in practice, finding a valid instrument, especially those that satisfy (A2) and (A3), can be challenging. For example, in Mendelian randomization studies where genetic markers are used as instruments, complete knowledge about instruments' validity is equivalent to complete knowledge about the involved genes' functions. The dissertation explores the theory, methods, and application of IV methods when invalid instruments are present. First, when we have multiple candidate instruments, we establish a theoretical bound whereby causal effects are only identified as long as less than 50% of instruments are invalid, without knowing which of the instruments are invalid. We also propose a fast penalized method, called sisVIVE, to estimate the causal effect. We find that sisVIVE outperforms traditional IV methods when invalid instruments are present both in simulation studies as well as in real data analysis. Second, we propose a robust confidence interval under the multiple invalid IV setting. This work is an extension of our work on sisVIVE. However, unlike sisVIVE which is robust to violations of (A2) and (A3), our confidence interval procedure provides honest coverage even if all three assumptions, (A1)-(A3), are violated. Third, we study the single IV setting where the one IV we have may actually be invalid. We propose a nonparametric IV estimation method based on full matching, a technique popular in causal inference for observational data, that leverages observed covariates to make the instrument more valid. We propose an estimator along with

  9. A compact instrument to measure perfusion of vasculature in transplanted maxillofacial free flaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziejski, Noah J.; Stapels, Christopher J.; McAdams, Daniel R.; Fernandez, Daniel E.; Podolsky, Matthew J.; Farkas, Dana; Ward, Brent B.; Vartarian, Mark; Feinberg, Stephen E.; Lee, Seung Yup; Parikh, Urmi; Mycek, Mary-Ann; Christian, James F.

    2016-03-01

    The vascularization and resulting perfusion of transferred tissues are critical to the success of grafts in buried free flap transplantations. To enable long-term clinical monitoring of grafted tissue perfusion during neovascularization and endothelialization, we are developing an implantable instrument for the continuous monitoring of perfusion using diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS), and augmented with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). This work discusses instrument construction, integration, and preliminary results using a porcine graft model.

  10. Terra and Aqua MODIS Instrument Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, X.; Wenny, B.; Sun, J.; Angal, A.; Barnes, W.

    2010-12-01

    Since launch, Terra MODIS has successfully operated for more than 10 years and Aqua MODIS for more than 8 years. Together, they have produced an unprecedentedly large amount of data products from their complementary morning and afternoon observations, over a wide spectral range from visible (VIS) to long-wave infrared (LWIR), and significantly benefited the science community for studies of changes in the Earth’s system and environment. On-orbit changes in sensor radiometric responses, spectral, and spatial characteristics are constantly monitored by a set of on-board calibrators (OBC), which include a solar diffuse, a solar diffuser stability monitor, a blackbody, and a spectroradiometric calibration assembly. In addition to using the OBC, lunar observations have been regularly scheduled and implemented in order to independently monitor changes in sensor radiometric responses. The MODIS Characterization Support Team (MCST) at NASA/GSFC is responsible for the operation and calibration of both MODIS instruments, including their Level 1B algorithm maintenance and improvements. This paper reports current status of both Terra and Aqua MODIS on-orbit operation and calibration activities and summaries their long-term radiometric, spectral, and spatial performance. Existing challenges, lessons learned, and future calibration efforts are also discussed.

  11. Instrumentation and Controls Division annual progress report for period ending September 1, 1973

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadowski, G.S. (comp.)

    1976-08-01

    Research progress is described under the following topics: (1) pulse counting and analysis; (2) support for the thermonuclear division ORMAK project; (3) miscellaneous electronics development; (4) detectors of ionizing particles and radiation; (5) radiation monitoring; (6) support for the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator; (7) automatic control and data acquisition; (8) process instrumentation and control; (9) reactor instrumentation and controls; (10) instrumentation for reactor division experiments and test loops; (11) maintenance and service; and (12) ecological science studies. (WHK)

  12. Embedded instruments for enhancing dependability of analogue and mixed-signal IPs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wan, Jinbo; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    2015-01-01

    The idea of an embedded instrument (EI) is to embed some form of test and measurement into silicon to characterize, debug and test chips. The concept of the EI is different from build-in self test (BIST) and other kinds of monitors by the fact that embedded instruments can provide the user with rich

  13. Performance status of the AIRS instrument thirteen years after launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Denis A.; Pagano, Thomas S.; Aumann, Hartmut H.; Broberg, Steven E.

    2015-09-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a hyperspectral infrared instrument on the EOS Aqua Spacecraft, launched on May 4, 2002. AIRS has 2378 infrared channels ranging from 3.7 μm to 15.4 μm and a 13.5 km footprint at nadir. AIRS is a "facility" instrument developed by NASA as an experimental demonstration of advanced technology for remote sensing and the benefits of high resolution infrared spectra to science investigations. AIRS, in conjunction with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), produces temperature profiles with 1K/km accuracy on a global scale, as well as water vapor profiles and trace gas amounts for CO2 , CO, SO2 , O3 and CH4. AIRS data are used for weather forecasting, climate process studies and validating climate models. The AIRS instrument has far exceeded its required design life of 5 years, with nearly 13 years of routine science operations that began on August 31, 2002. While the instrument has performed exceptionally well, with little sign of wear, the AIRS Project continues to monitor and maintain the health of AIRS, characterize its behavior and improve performance where possible. Radiometric stability has been monitored and trending shows better than 16 mK/year stability. Spectral calibration stability is better than 1 ppm/year. At this time we expect the AIRS to continue to perform well into the next decade. This paper contains updates to previous instrument status reports, with emphasis on the last three years.

  14. Instrumentation and Controls Division annual progress report for period ending September 1, 1974. Non-LMFBR program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadowski, G.S. (comp.)

    1976-09-01

    Research projects are summarized under the following categories: (1) basic electronics development; (2) engineering support for research facilities; (3) pulse counting and analysis; (4) radiation detection and monitoring; (5) instrument development; (6) automatic control and data acquisition; (7) process systems and instrumentation development; (8) reactor instrumentation and controls; (9) fuel reprocessing and shipping; (10) standards laboratory; (11) instrumentation for reactor division experiments and test loops; (12) maintenance and service; (13) ecological science studies; and (14) administration and training. (WHK)

  15. Digitization of optical lever instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Romeo

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Some classical old-fashioned instruments (such as the Wood-Anderson seismometers, as well as some modern instruments (like the all-quartz made Verbaandert-Melchior tiltmeters, conventionally require an impractical recording system obtained by a photographic drum recorder in a darkroom. Simple electronic equipment (made by readily available, low cost electronics may help in using such kind of instruments allowing a useful digital recording. This will reduce the time-hour in data acquisition and storage (and the manual error, and will increase the accuracy. The theory of operations and some results obtained using the described equipment are shown.

  16. Evaluating the Relational Coordination instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Lundstrøm, Sanne Lykke

    2014-01-01

    and surgical performance. This has prompted the attention of both practitioners and politicians some of who perceive relational coordination as a means to attain better performance. The relational coordination instrument has been validated as a measure of teamwork from the following perspectives: internal...... consistency, interrater agreement and reliability, structural validity, content validity. However as relational coordination is being used as a diagnostics tool it is important to examine further if the instrument can measure changes. Indeed we need to know how precise and sensitive the instrument is when...

  17. EIT based on virtual instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Jun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Design of a electrical impedance tomography system based on virtual instrument, the author firstly introduced the virtual instrument into the electrical impedance imaging from the perspective of hardware and software. The system use DAQ of NI to simplify the hardware structure and improve the stability. Software of system combines the advantages of LABVIEW and MATLAB, and verify some algorithms. Using NI virtual instrument, the system has strong expansion and do good basis for enhancing the performance of electrical impedance imaging system.

  18. 臭氧总量探测仪(TOU)与臭氧监测仪(OMI)和SBUV/2的交叉定标及其在环境中的应用%Cross-Calibration of the Total Ozone Unit (TOU) with the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and SBUV/2 for Environmental Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王维和; 刘瑞霞; 郑照君; Wei Yu; 刘国扬; Lawrence E.Flynn; 张兴赢; 王咏梅; 王英鉴; 江芳; 张艳; 黄富祥; 李晓静

    2013-01-01

    基于臭氧监测仪(OMI)对FY-3A卫星臭氧总量探测仪(TOU)进行交叉定标,交叉定标的结果用于TOU全球臭氧总量的反演。OMI是搭载在美国国家航空和航天局的地球观测系统的Aura卫星上的一个仪器,将其Level 3臭氧总量产品作为辐射传输模式的输入,计算中低纬度太平洋上臭氧总量探测仪像元的辐亮度,通过回归过程计算TOU在轨辐亮度定标系数。结果显示,在轨交叉定标后,TOU反演的臭氧总量产品与OMI仪器基于TOMS-V8算法反演臭氧总量产品相比,相对偏差大约为3%,与地面观测站点测量的臭氧总量相比,相对偏差大约为了5%。TOU、太阳后向散射紫外辐射仪(SBUV/2)以及OMI反演的2010年1月份到2011年2月份期间臭氧总量的变化相当一致。%Across-sensor calibration technique is developed and applied to improve upon the prelaunch radiance calibration and characterization for the Total Ozone Unit (TOU) onboard the FengYun-3A satellite. The Level 3 products from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard the Earth Observing System Aura are used as input to a radiative transfer model to predict the TOU radiances and characterize the biases for the measurements over the Pacific Ocean in low-and midlatitudes. The coefifcients are derived from a regression algorithm to adjust the TOU radiances. It is shown that, after the measurement bias correction, the biases between the retrieved total column ozone products from the TOU with those from the OMI Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS)-Version 8 products and those from a set of ground-based stationmeasurements are 3%and 5%, respectively. The variations in the estimated total ozone amounts from the TOU are consistent with those derived from Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Radiometer instruments and OMI for a period from January 2010 to February 2011.

  19. Instrumentation, performance visualization, and debugging tools for multiprocessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jerry C.; Fineman, Charles E.; Hontalas, Philip J.

    1991-01-01

    The need for computing power has forced a migration from serial computation on a single processor to parallel processing on multiprocessor architectures. However, without effective means to monitor (and visualize) program execution, debugging, and tuning parallel programs becomes intractably difficult as program complexity increases with the number of processors. Research on performance evaluation tools for multiprocessors is being carried out at ARC. Besides investigating new techniques for instrumenting, monitoring, and presenting the state of parallel program execution in a coherent and user-friendly manner, prototypes of software tools are being incorporated into the run-time environments of various hardware testbeds to evaluate their impact on user productivity. Our current tool set, the Ames Instrumentation Systems (AIMS), incorporates features from various software systems developed in academia and industry. The execution of FORTRAN programs on the Intel iPSC/860 can be automatically instrumented and monitored. Performance data collected in this manner can be displayed graphically on workstations supporting X-Windows. We have successfully compared various parallel algorithms for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) applications in collaboration with scientists from the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Systems Division. By performing these comparisons, we show that performance monitors and debuggers such as AIMS are practical and can illuminate the complex dynamics that occur within parallel programs.

  20. Toward fluorescence detection of protein residues on surgical instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Patricia R.; Jones, Anita C.; Baxter, Robert L.; Baxter, Helen C.; Whittaker, A. Gavin; Campbell, Gaynor A.

    2004-06-01

    Prion proteins are the infectious agents that cause Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) in humans. These proteins are particularly resistant to normal sterilization procedures, and the theoretical risk of prion transmission via surgical instruments is of current public and professional concern. We are currently investigating fluorescence methods for the detection of proteins on surfaces, with a view to developing an optical-fiber-based system for routine, online monitoring of residual protein contamination on surgical instruments, in hospital sterilization departments. This paper presents preliminary results on the detection of femtomole amounts of fluorescently labelled protein on surgical steel and discusses some of the problems involved in the detection of fluorescence from metal samples.

  1. Observations of atmospheric water vapor with the SAGE 2 instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Jack C.; Mccormick, M. P.; Mcmaster, L. R.; Chu, W. P.

    1988-01-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment 2 (SAGE 2) is discussed. The SAGE 2 instrument was a multichannel spectrometer that inferred the vertical distribution of water vapor, aerosols, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone by measuring the extinction of solar radiation at spacecraft sunrise/sunset. At altitudes above 20 km, the SAGE 2 and LIMS (Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere) data are in close agreement. The discrepancies below this altitude may be attributed to differences in the instruments' field of view and time of data acquisition.

  2. Quality Assurance of LHC Cryogenic Instrumentation during Installation and Commissioning

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez Lorente, A; Casas-Cubillos, J; Fortescue, E; Gomes, P; Jeanmonod, N; Peñacoba, G; Vauthier, N

    2009-01-01

    The operation and monitoring of the LHC requires a cryogenic instrumentation system of an unprecedented size (800 instrumentation crates, holding 15000 sensors and actuators), with strict constraints on temperature measurement uncertainty and radiation hardness for all sensors and actuators. This paper presents the applied procedures of quality assurance and the specific hard- & software tools used to meet and track the mentioned requirements during its lifetime (fabrication, installation, commissioning, operation and maintenance); within the given constraints of time schedule, accessibility and coordination with other teams.

  3. Promote the Sustainable Development of Meteorological Instrument through Standardization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Zhonghuan TIG Co.,Ltd.(formerly Tianjin Meteorological Instrument Factory) is a scientific research and production base specialized in the R&D,manufacturing of a variety of meteorological and environmental monitoring instrumentation and integration of relevant systems and service with the strong support of military meteorological system and the China Meteorological Administration.By paying attention to technological progress,the company has focused on the development of diversified,systematic,intelligent and universal sensors,the integration of high-end systems,and fine processing.

  4. Monarch Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The US Fish and Wildlife Service has engaged in a multi-partnered, integrated strategy for monitoring conservation of the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus...

  5. Monitoring Hadoop

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Gurmukh

    2015-01-01

    This book is useful for Hadoop administrators who need to learn how to monitor and diagnose their clusters. Also, the book will prove useful for new users of the technology, as the language used is simple and easy to grasp.

  6. Recombination monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, S. Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Blaskiewicz, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-02-03

    This is a brief report on LEReC recombination monitor design considerations. The recombination produced Au78+ ion rate is reviewed. Based on this two designs are discussed. One is to use the large dispersion lattice. It is shown that even with the large separation of the Au78+ beam from the Au79+ beam, the continued monitoring of the recombination is not possible. Accumulation of Au78+ ions is needed, plus collimation of the Au79+ beam. In another design, it is shown that the recombination monitor can be built based on the proposed scheme with the nominal lattice. From machine operation point of view, this design is preferable. Finally, possible studies and the alternative strategies with the basic goal of the monitor are discussed.

  7. Determining the climate impact of the German government's Integrated Energy and Climate Programme (IEKP) and proposing a plan to continuously monitor its climate impact. Work package 1. Qualitative assessment of the instruments in an Integrated Energy and Climate Programme (IEKP); Ermittlung der Klimaschutzwirkung des Integrierten Energie- und Klimaschutzprogramms der Bundesregierung IEKP und Vorschlag fuer ein Konzept zur kontinuierlichen Ueberpruefung der Klimaschutzwirkung des IEKP. Arbeitspaket 1. Qualitative Einschaetzung der Instrumente im Integrierten Energie- und Klimaschutzprogramm (IEKP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doll, Claus; Eichhammer, Wolfgang; Fleiter, Tobias [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung, Karlsruhe (DE)] (and others)

    2012-02-15

    In August 2007, the key elements for an integrated energy and climate program (IECP) were adopted within the Meseberg resolutions. The implementation of the Meseberg resolutions were performed in three packages primarily including amending laws as well as support measures. The authors of the contribution under consideration compare the climate protection instruments realized by IECP with the presentations in the IECP. This comparison is based on an analysis of documents and research projects in the periphery of the IECP and on a survey of target groups and other relevant actors on the effectiveness of the IECP mechanisms. The result of this comparison is summarized in form of 27 measures.

  8. Instrument detects bacterial life forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakas, C.

    1971-01-01

    Instrument assays enzymatic bioluminescent reaction that occurs when adenosine triphosphate /ATP/ combines with lucifrase and luciferin. Module assembly minimizes need for hardware associated with reaction fluid and waste transfer. System is applicable in marine biology and aerospace and medical fields.

  9. Technical Training seminar: Texas Instruments

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Monday 6 November TECHNICAL TRAINING SEMINAR 14:00 to 17:30 - Training Centre Auditorium (bldg. 593) Texas Instruments Technical Seminar Michael Scholtholt, Field Application Engineer / TEXAS INSTRUMENTS (US, D, CH) POWER - A short approach to Texas Instruments power products Voltage mode vs. current mode control Differentiating DC/DC converters by analyzing control and compensation schemes: line / load regulation, transient response, BOM, board space, ease-of-use Introduction to the SWIFT software FPGA + CPLD power solutions WIRELESS / CHIPCON Decision criteria when choosing a RF platform Introduction to Texas Instruments wireless products: standardized platforms proprietary platforms ( 2.4 GHz / sub 1 GHz) development tools Antenna design: example for 2.4 GHz questions, discussion Industrial partners: Robert Medioni, François Caloz / Spoerle Electronic, CH-1440 Montagny (VD), Switzerland Phone: +41 24 447 0137, email: RMedioni@spoerle.com, http://www.spoerle.com Language: English. Free s...

  10. Islamic Astronomical Instruments and Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidarzadeh, Tofigh

    This chapter is a brief survey of astronomical instruments being used and developed in Islamic territories from the eighth to the fifteenth centuries as well as a concise account of major observatories and observational programs in this period.

  11. Compact Formaldehyde Fluorescence Instrument Element

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The successful completion of this IRAD will deliver a fully functional instrument at TRL 6.  The key characteristics that we will demonstrate are simplicity,...

  12. Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Mobitrum has started the development of virtual sensor test instrumentation in Phase I for characterization and measurement of ground testing of propulsion systems....

  13. Intelligent instrumentation principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bhuyan, Manabendra

    2011-01-01

    With the advent of microprocessors and digital-processing technologies as catalyst, classical sensors capable of simple signal conditioning operations have evolved rapidly to take on higher and more specialized functions including validation, compensation, and classification. This new category of sensor expands the scope of incorporating intelligence into instrumentation systems, yet with such rapid changes, there has developed no universal standard for design, definition, or requirement with which to unify intelligent instrumentation. Explaining the underlying design methodologies of intelligent instrumentation, Intelligent Instrumentation: Principles and Applications provides a comprehensive and authoritative resource on the scientific foundations from which to coordinate and advance the field. Employing a textbook-like language, this book translates methodologies to more than 80 numerical examples, and provides applications in 14 case studies for a complete and working understanding of the material. Beginn...

  14. Preventive maintenance instrumentation results in Spanish nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomo Anaya, M. Jose; Verdu Martin, Gumersindo, E-mail: mpalomo@iqn.upv.es, E-mail: gverdu@iqn.upv.es [ISIRYM Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Arnaldos Gonzalvez, Adoracion, E-mail: a.arnaldos@titaniast.com [TITANIA Servicios Tecnologicos SL, Valencia (Spain); Nieva, Marcelino Curiel, E-mail: m.curiel@lainsa.com [Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales SAU (LAINSA), Valencia (Spain)

    2011-07-01

    This paper is a recompilation of the most significant results in relation to the researching in Preventive and Predictive Maintenance in critical nuclear instrumentation for power plant operation, which it is being developed by Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales and The Isirym Institute of the Polytechnic University of Valencia. Instrumentation verification and test, it is a priority of the Power Plants Control and Instrumentation Department technicians. These procedures are necessary information for the daily power plant work. It is performed according to different procedures and in different moments of the fuel cycle depending on the instrumentation critical state and the monitoring process. Normally, this study is developed taking into account the instantaneous values of the instrumentation measures and, after their conversion to physical magnitude, they are analyzed according to the power plant operation point. Moreover, redundant sensors measurements are taken into consideration to the equipment and/or power plant monitoring. This work goes forward and it is in advanced to the instrument analysis as it is, independently of the operation point, using specific signal analysis techniques for preventive and predictive maintenance, with the aim to obtain not only information about possible malfunctions, but the degradation scale presented in the instrument or in the system measured. We present seven real case studies of Spanish Nuclear Power Plants each of them shall give a significant contribution to problem resolution and power plant performance: Fluctuations in sensor lines (case 1), Air presence in feed water lines (case 2), Root valve partially closed (case 3), Sensor malfunctions (case 4), Electrical source malfunctions (case 5), RTD malfunctions (case 6) and LPRM malfunctions (case 7). (author)

  15. Comparison of nanoparticle measurement instruments for occupational health applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leskinen, J., E-mail: jani.leskinen@uef.fi [University of Eastern Finland, Fine Particle and Aerosol Technology Laboratory, Department of Environmental Science (Finland); Joutsensaari, J. [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Applied Physics (Finland); Lyyraenen, J. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Fine Particles (Finland); Koivisto, J. [Nanosafety Research Center, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (Finland); Ruusunen, J. [University of Eastern Finland, Fine Particle and Aerosol Technology Laboratory, Department of Environmental Science (Finland); Jaervelae, M.; Tuomi, T. [Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (Finland); Haemeri, K. [University of Helsinki, Division of Atmospheric Sciences, Department of Physics (Finland); Auvinen, A. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Fine Particles (Finland); Jokiniemi, J. [University of Eastern Finland, Fine Particle and Aerosol Technology Laboratory, Department of Environmental Science (Finland)

    2012-02-15

    Nanoparticles are used in many applications because of their novel properties compared to bulk material. A growing number of employees are working with nanomaterials and their exposure to nanoparticles trough inhalation must be evaluated and monitored continuously. However, there is an ongoing debate in the scientific literature about what are the relevant parameters to measure to evaluate exposure to level. In this study, three types of nanoparticles (ammonium sulphate, synthesised TiO{sub 2} agglomerates and aerosolised TiO{sub 2} powder, modes in a range of 30-140 nm mobility size) were measured with commonly used aerosol measurement instruments: scanning and fast mobility particle sizers (SMPS, FMPS), electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI), condensation particle counter (CPC) together with nanoparticle surface area monitor (NSAM) to achieve information about the interrelations of the outputs of the instruments. In addition, the ease of use of these instruments was evaluated. Differences between the results of different instruments can mainly be attributed to the nature of test particles. For spherical ammonium sulphate nanoparticles, the data from the instruments were in good agreement while larger differences were observed for particles with more complex morphology, the TiO{sub 2} agglomerates and powder. For instance, the FMPS showed a smaller particle size, a higher number concentration and a narrower size distribution compared with the SMPS for TiO{sub 2} particles. Thus, the type of the nanoparticle was observed to influence the data obtained from these different instruments. Therefore, care and expertise are essential when interpreting results from aerosol measurement instruments to estimate nanoparticle concentrations and properties.

  16. Bayesian Monitoring.

    OpenAIRE

    Kirstein, Roland

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a modification of the inspection game: The ?Bayesian Monitoring? model rests on the assumption that judges are interested in enforcing compliant behavior and making correct decisions. They may base their judgements on an informative but imperfect signal which can be generated costlessly. In the original inspection game, monitoring is costly and generates a perfectly informative signal. While the inspection game has only one mixed strategy equilibrium, three Perfect Bayesia...

  17. A Modular Instrumentation System for NASA's Habitat Demonstration Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojdev, Kristina; Kennedy, Kriss; Yim, Hester; Wagner, Raymond S.; Hong, Todd; Studor, George; Delaune, Paul

    2010-01-01

    NASA's human spaceflight program is focused on developing technologies to expand the reaches of human exploration and science activities beyond low earth orbit. A critical aspect of living in space or on planetary surfaces is habitation, which provides a safe and comfortable space in which humans can live and work. NASA is seeking out the best option for habitation by exploring several different concepts through the Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) project. The purpose of this HDU is to develop a fully autonomous habitation system that enables human exploration of space. One critical feature of the HDU project that helps to accomplish its mission of autonomy is the instrumentation system that monitors key subsystems operating within a Habitat configuration. The following paper will discuss previous instrumentation systems used in analog habitat concepts and how the current instrumentation system being implemented on the HDU1-PEM, or pressurized excursion module, is building upon the lessons learned of those previous systems. Additionally, this paper will discuss the benefits and the limitations of implementing a wireless sensor network (WSN) as the basis for data transport in the instrumentation system. Finally, this paper will address the experiences and lessons learned with integration, testing prior to deployment, and field testing at the JSC rock yard. NASA is developing the HDU1-PEM as a step towards a fully autonomous habitation system that enables human exploration of space. To accomplish this purpose, the HDU project is focusing on development, integration, testing, and evaluation of habitation systems. The HDU will be used as a technology pull, testbed, and integration environment in which to advance NASA's understanding of alternative mission architectures, requirements, and operations concepts definition and validation. This project is a multi-year effort. In 2010, the HDU1-PEM will be in a pressurized excursion module configuration, and in 2011 the

  18. Luminescence techniques: Instrumentation and methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes techniques, instruments and methods used in luminescence dating and environmental dosimetry in many laboratories around the world. These techniques are based on two phenomena - thermally stimulated luminescence and optically stimulated luminescence. The most commonly used...... luminescence stimulation and detection techniques are reviewed and information is given on recent developments in instrument design and on the stale of the art in luminescence measurements and analysis. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  19. The MEPHISTO scientific space instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambon, G.; Cadet, G.; Favier, J. J.

    1987-02-01

    A furnace to study solidification on Earth and in orbit was developed. Design and performances in Bridgman-Stockbarger directional solidification are given in terms of thermal gradient achievables, thermal gradient stability, back-melting mastering, and quenching capabilities. In-situ measurements in real time of fundamental parameters for the solidification process control, associated with a possible interactivity between the principal investigator on ground and the instrument in orbit, are among the main features of the space instrument.

  20. Accounting Issues On Financial Instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Shiba, Kenji

    1995-01-01

    Financial Instruments should be measured at the present value by using the current effective yield as the discount rate by reference to the current market interest rate and the risk premium. The fair value or the current market price are surrogates of the present value. The present value determined by using the historical effective yield as the discount rate is allowed under limited circumstances. However, the historical cost is not allowed as a measurement basis of financial instruments. Thi...