WorldWideScience

Sample records for monitor lighting ordinance

  1. White light spectroscopy for free flap monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Paige M; Zeidler, Kamakshi; Carey, Joseph; Lee, Gordon K

    2013-03-01

    White light spectroscopy non-invasively measures hemoglobin saturation at the capillary level rendering an end-organ measurement of perfusion. We hypothesized this technology could be used after microvascular surgery to allow for early detection of ischemia and thrombosis. The Spectros T-Stat monitoring device, which utilizes white light spectroscopy, was compared with traditional flap monitoring techniques including pencil Doppler and clinical exam. Data were prospectively collected and analyzed. Results from 31 flaps revealed a normal capillary hemoglobin saturation of 40-75% with increase in saturation during the early postoperative period. One flap required return to the operating room 12 hours after microvascular anastomosis. The T-stat system recorded an acute decrease in saturation from ~50% to less than 30% 50 min prior to identification by clinical exam. Prompt treatment resulted in flap salvage. The Spectros T-Stat monitor may be a useful adjunct for free flap monitoring providing continuous, accurate perfusion assessment postoperatively.

  2. Transductive Ordinal Regression

    CERN Document Server

    Seah, Chun-Wei; Ong, Yew-Soon

    2011-01-01

    Ordinal regression is commonly formulated as a multi-class problem with ordinal constraints. The challenge of designing accurate classifiers for ordinal regression generally increases with the number of classes involved, due to the large number of labeled patterns that are needed. The availability of ordinal class labels, however, are often costly to calibrate or difficult to obtain. Unlabeled patterns, on the other hand, often exist in much greater abundance and are freely available. To take benefits from the abundance of unlabeled patterns, we present a novel transductive learning paradigm for ordinal regression in this paper, namely Transductive Ordinal Regression (TOR). The key challenge of the present study lies in the precise estimation of both the ordinal class label of the unlabeled data and the decision functions of the ordinal classes, simultaneously. The core elements of the proposed TOR include an objective function that caters to several commonly used loss functions casted in transductive setting...

  3. Remote monitoring of LED lighting system performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thotagamuwa, Dinusha R.; Perera, Indika U.; Narendran, Nadarajah

    2016-09-01

    The concept of connected lighting systems using LED lighting for the creation of intelligent buildings is becoming attractive to building owners and managers. In this application, the two most important parameters include power demand and the remaining useful life of the LED fixtures. The first enables energy-efficient buildings and the second helps building managers schedule maintenance services. The failure of an LED lighting system can be parametric (such as lumen depreciation) or catastrophic (such as complete cessation of light). Catastrophic failures in LED lighting systems can create serious consequences in safety critical and emergency applications. Therefore, both failure mechanisms must be considered and the shorter of the two must be used as the failure time. Furthermore, because of significant variation between the useful lives of similar products, it is difficult to accurately predict the life of LED systems. Real-time data gathering and analysis of key operating parameters of LED systems can enable the accurate estimation of the useful life of a lighting system. This paper demonstrates the use of a data-driven method (Euclidean distance) to monitor the performance of an LED lighting system and predict its time to failure.

  4. Hyperspectral remote sensing for light pollution monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Marcoionni

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available industries. In this paper we introduce the results from a remote sensing campaign performed in September 2001 at night time. For the first time nocturnal light pollution was measured at high spatial and spectral resolution using two airborne hyperspectral sensors, namely the Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer (MIVIS and the Visible InfraRed Scanner (VIRS-200. These imagers, generally employed for day-time Earth remote sensing, were flown over the Tuscany coast (Italy on board of a Casa 212/200 airplane from an altitude of 1.5-2.0 km. We describe the experimental activities which preceded the remote sensing campaign, the optimization of sensor configuration, and the images as far acquired. The obtained results point out the novelty of the performed measurements and highlight the need to employ advanced remote sensing techniques as a spectroscopic tool for light pollution monitoring.

  5. Ordinality and the nature of symbolic numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ian M; Beilock, Sian L

    2013-10-23

    The view that representations of symbolic and nonsymbolic numbers are closely tied to one another is widespread. However, the link between symbolic and nonsymbolic numbers is almost always inferred from cardinal processing tasks. In the current work, we show that considering ordinality instead points to striking differences between symbolic and nonsymbolic numbers. Human behavioral and neural data show that ordinal processing of symbolic numbers (Are three Indo-Arabic numerals in numerical order?) is distinct from symbolic cardinal processing (Which of two numerals represents the greater quantity?) and nonsymbolic number processing (ordinal and cardinal judgments of dot-arrays). Behaviorally, distance-effects were reversed when assessing ordinality in symbolic numbers, but canonical distance-effects were observed for cardinal judgments of symbolic numbers and all nonsymbolic judgments. At the neural level, symbolic number-ordering was the only numerical task that did not show number-specific activity (greater than control) in the intraparietal sulcus. Only activity in left premotor cortex was specifically associated with symbolic number-ordering. For nonsymbolic numbers, activation in cognitive-control areas during ordinal processing and a high degree of overlap between ordinal and cardinal processing networks indicate that nonsymbolic ordinality is assessed via iterative cardinality judgments. This contrasts with a striking lack of neural overlap between ordinal and cardinal judgments anywhere in the brain for symbolic numbers, suggesting that symbolic number processing varies substantially with computational context. Ordinal processing sheds light on key differences between symbolic and nonsymbolic number processing both behaviorally and in the brain. Ordinality may prove important for understanding the power of representing numbers symbolically.

  6. Lightness of Munker-White illusion and Simultaneous-Contrast illusion: Establishing an ordinal lightness relation among minimum and split-frame presentations

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ang; Tavantzis, Michael-John; Yazdanbakhsh, Arash

    2009-01-01

    The achromatic Munker-White illusion and the Simultaneous-Contrast illusion have been used extensively in vision studies to understand how the figural configuration of a stimulus can affect the perceived lightness of its components in human perception. Yet, previous modeling and psychophysics studies did not directly compare the illusions’ lightness with controlled parameters of minimum stripes and split-frame presentations, which are useful in testing model predictions and in correlating neu...

  7. Ordinals in Frobenius Monads

    CERN Document Server

    Dosen, K

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides geometrical descriptions of the Frobenius monad freely generated by a single object. These descriptions are related to results connecting Frobenius algebras and topological quantum field theories. In these descriptions, which are based on coherence results for self-adjunctions (adjunctions where an endofunctor is adjoint to itself), ordinals in $\\epsilon_0$ play a prominent role. The paper ends by considering how the notion of Frobenius algebra induces the collapse of the hierarchy of ordinals in $\\epsilon_0$, and by raising the question of the exact categorial abstraction of the notion of Frobenius algebra.

  8. LAT Monitored Source List Light Curves

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The LAT team monitors flux values for a number of bright sources and transient sources that have shown flares during the mission. (See up-to-date weekly reports on...

  9. Revision without ordinals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rivello, Edoardo

    2013-01-01

    We show that Herzberger’s and Gupta’s revision theories of truth can be recast in purely inductive terms, without any appeal neither to the transfinite ordinal numbers nor to the axiom of Choice. The result is presented in an abstract and general setting, emphasising both its validity for a wide ran

  10. Ordinal Bivariate Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne-Schmidt, Christoffer Scavenius; Tarp, Finn; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a concept of inequality comparisons with ordinal bivariate categorical data. In our model, one population is more unequal than another when they have common arithmetic median outcomes and the first can be obtained from the second by correlation-increasing switches and...

  11. Disposable indicators for monitoring lighting conditions in museums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacci, Mauro; Cucci, Costanza; Dupont, Anne-Laurence; Lavédrine, Bertrand; Picollo, Marcello; Porcinai, Simone

    2003-12-15

    Photoinduced alterations of light-sensitive artifacts represent one of the main problems that conservators and curators have to face for environmental control in museums and galleries. Therefore, increasing attention has been recently devoted to developing strategies of indoor light monitoring, especially aimed at minimizing the cumulated light exposure for the objects on exhibit. In this work a prototype of a light dosimeter, constituted by a photosensitive dyes/polymer mixture applied on a paper substrate, is presented. This indicator, specially designed for a preventive assessment of the risk of damage for highly light-sensitive objects, undergoes a progressive color variation as its exposure to the light increases. Different, easily distinguishable color steps are exhibited depending on the light dose received, so that the dosimeter can be used straightforwardly to have a first, instrumentation-free estimation of the total light exposure. A reflectance spectroscopy study in the 350-860 nm range was carried out on prototype dosimeters exposed to light emitted from a tungsten-halogen lamp to investigate the response of the dosimeter to the light and to study the fading mechanism. Two different approaches were evaluated for the calibration of the prototype: colorimetry and principal component analysis of the reflectance spectra. The usefulness of the two methods in providing a quantitative indication of the light dose received was evaluated.

  12. Mobile health-monitoring system through visible light communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yee-Yong; Chung, Wan-Young

    2014-01-01

    Promising development in the light emitting diode (LED) technology has spurred the interest to adapt LED for both illumination and data transmission. This has fostered the growth of interest in visible light communication (VLC), with on-going research to utilize VLC in various applications. This paper presents a mobile-health monitoring system, where healthcare information such as biomedical signals and patient information are transmitted via the LED lighting. A small and portable receiver module is designed and developed to be attached to the mobile device, providing a seamless monitoring environment. Three different healthcare information including ECG, PPG signals and HL7 text information is transmitted simultaneously, using a single channel VLC. This allows for a more precise and accurate monitoring and diagnosis. The data packet size is carefully designed, to transmit information in a minimal packet error rate. A comprehensive monitoring application is designed and developed through the use of a tablet computer in our study. Monitoring and evaluation such as heart rate and arterial blood pressure measurement can be performed concurrently. Real-time monitoring is demonstrated through experiment, where non-hazardous transmission method can be implemented alongside a portable device for better and safer healthcare service.

  13. ORDINAL REGRESSION FOR INFORMATION RETRIEVAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This letter presents a new discriminative model for Information Retrieval (IR), referred to as Ordinal Regression Model (ORM). ORM is different from most existing models in that it views IR as ordinal regression problem (i.e. ranking problem) instead of binary classification. It is noted that the task of IR is to rank documents according to the user information needed, so IR can be viewed as ordinal regression problem. Two parameter learning algorithms for ORM are presented. One is a perceptron-based algorithm. The other is the ranking Support Vector Machine (SVM). The effectiveness of the proposed approach has been evaluated on the task of ad hoc retrieval using three English Text REtrieval Conference (TREC) sets and two Chinese TREC sets. Results show that ORM significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art language model approaches and OKAPI system in all test sets; and it is more appropriate to view IR as ordinal regression other than binary classification.

  14. Status of the delta synchrotron light-monitoring-system

    CERN Document Server

    Berges, U

    2000-01-01

    A synchrotron radiation source like DELTA needs an optical monitoring system to measure the beam size at different points of the ring with high resolution and accuracy. The measurements with the present synchrotron light monitors show that beam sizes larger than 250 μm can be measured. The measured emittance is of the order of the theoretical values of the optics and goes down to 8 nm rad. The magnification of the system can simply be increased by adding another lens to measure smaller emittances and beamsizes down to 100 μm. In this case you still have an optical image of the beam available, but sometimes the position of the camera has to be adapted due to the great magnification of the optical system. The image processing system which is based on a VME Framegrabber makes a two dimensional gaussian fit to the images from different synchrotron light-monitors. First tests with monochromatic components of the synchrotron radiation (500 nm and 550 nm) and with short time cameras (shutter time...

  15. Photothermal radiometry monitoring of light curing in resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zambrano-Arjona, M A [Applied Physics Department, Cinvestav-Unidad Merida, A.P. 73 Cordemex, Merida, 97310 (Mexico); Medina-Esquivel, R [Cinvestav-Unidad Queretaro, Libramiento Norponiente 2000 Fracc. Real de Juriquilla, CP 76230, Queretaro (Mexico); Alvarado-Gil, J J [Applied Physics Department, Cinvestav-Unidad Merida, A.P. 73 Cordemex, Merida, 97310 (Mexico)

    2007-10-07

    Real time measurement of thermal diffusivity during the evolution of the light curing process in dental resins is reported using photothermal radiometry. The curing is induced by a non-modulated blue light beam, and at the same time, a modulated red laser beam is sent onto the sample, generating a train of thermal waves that produce modulated infrared radiation. The monitoring of this radiation permits to follow the time evolution of the process. The methodology is applied to two different commercially available light curing resin-based composites. In all cases thermal diffusivity follows a first order kinetics with similar stabilization characteristic times. Analysis of this kinetics permits to exhibit the close relationship of increase in thermal diffusivity with the decrease in monomer concentration and extension of the polymerization in the resin, induced by the curing light. It is also shown that the configuration in which the resin is illuminated by the modulated laser can be the basis for the development of an in situ technique for the determination of the degree of curing.

  16. Lysozyme Aggregation and Fibrillation Monitored by Dynamic Light Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemzer, Louis; Flanders, Bret; Schmit, Jeremy; Sorensen, Christopher

    2012-02-01

    The aggregation of amyloidogenic proteins provides a rich phase space with significant biomedical implications, including a link with several age-related diseases. We employed dynamic light scattering to monitor the aggregation of lysozyme, a model protein, from a monomeric state until the formation of micron-sized fibrils. For an aqueous lysozyme solution buffered at pH 2, the auto-correlation function of the scattered light intensity was found to be well-fit by a single exponential function with decay time τ = 1/(2Dq^2) = 0.25 ms, which corresponds to a mean hydrodynamic radius (RH) of 2.2 nm, very likely generated by monomers. Ethanol (4% v/v final concentration) induced a partial unfolding, to RH = 4.6 nm. The subsequent addition of 70 mM KCl was found to shrink the size back to RH = 2.5 nm, as expected when a denatured protein refolds due to partial screening of the intramolecular repulsion. However, further aggregation was not observed. At pH 4, using a low-salt acetate buffer, more ethanol (10% v/v) was required to initiate unfolding, but once it occurred, larger aggregates formed. These results are consistent with the model that partial unfolding, which exposes beta-motif secondary structure, is a prerequisite for aggregation and fibrillation, but the aggregation fate depends on the protein charge state (pH) and screening (salt concentration).

  17. Contributions of artificial lighting sources on light pollution in Hong Kong measured through a night sky brightness monitoring network

    CERN Document Server

    Pun, Chun Shing Jason; Leung, Wai Yan; Wong, Chung Fai

    2014-01-01

    Light pollution is a form of environmental degradation in which excessive artificial outdoor lighting, such as street lamps, neon signs, and illuminated signboards, affects the natural environment and the ecosystem. Poorly designed outdoor lighting not only wastes energy, money, and valuable Earth resources, but also robs us of our beautiful night sky. Effects of light pollution on the night sky can be evaluated by the skyglow caused by these artificial lighting sources, through measurements of the night sky brightness (NSB). The Hong Kong Night Sky Brightness Monitoring Network (NSN) was established to monitor in detail the conditions of light pollution in Hong Kong. Monitoring stations were set up throughout the city covering a wide range of urban and rural settings to continuously measure the variations of the NSB. Over 4.6 million night sky measurements were collected from 18 distinct locations between May 2010 and March 2013. This huge dataset, over two thousand times larger than our previous survey, for...

  18. The Theory of Sets of Ordinals

    OpenAIRE

    Koepke, Peter; Koerwien, Martin

    2005-01-01

    We propose a natural theory SO axiomatizing the class of sets of ordinals in a model of ZFC set theory. Both theories possess equal logical strength. Constructibility theory in SO corresponds to a natural recursion theory on ordinals.

  19. Ordinal Comparison of Multidimensional Deprivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne-Schmidt, Christoffer Scavenius; Tarp, Finn; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    This paper develops an ordinal method of comparison of multidimensional inequality. In our model, population distribution g is more unequal than f when the distributions have common median and can be obtained from f  by one or more shifts in population density that increase inequality. For our be...... benchmark 2x2 case (i.e. the case of two binary outcome variables), we derive an empirical method for making inequality comparisons. As an illustration, we apply the model to childhood poverty in Mozambique.......This paper develops an ordinal method of comparison of multidimensional inequality. In our model, population distribution g is more unequal than f when the distributions have common median and can be obtained from f  by one or more shifts in population density that increase inequality. For our...

  20. Analysis of Ordinal Categorical Data

    CERN Document Server

    Agresti, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Statistical science's first coordinated manual of methods for analyzing ordered categorical data, now fully revised and updated, continues to present applications and case studies in fields as diverse as sociology, public health, ecology, marketing, and pharmacy. Analysis of Ordinal Categorical Data, Second Edition provides an introduction to basic descriptive and inferential methods for categorical data, giving thorough coverage of new developments and recent methods. Special emphasis is placed on interpretation and application of methods including an integrated comparison of the available st

  1. Ordinal Comparison of Multidimensional Deprivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne-Schmidt, Christoffer Scavenius; Tarp, Finn; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    This paper develops an ordinal method of comparison of multidimensional inequality. In our model, population distribution g is more unequal than f when the distributions have common median and can be obtained from f  by one or more shifts in population density that increase inequality. For our be...... benchmark 2x2 case (i.e. the case of two binary outcome variables), we derive an empirical method for making inequality comparisons. As an illustration, we apply the model to childhood poverty in Mozambique....

  2. Analog Magnitudes Support Large Number Ordinal Judgments in Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanMarle, Kristy; Mou, Yi; Seok, Jin H

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have explored the source of infants' ordinal knowledge, and those that have are equivocal regarding the underlying representational system. The present study sought clear evidence that the approximate number system, which underlies children's cardinal knowledge, may also support ordinal knowledge in infancy; 10 - to 12-month-old infants' were tested with large sets (>3) in an ordinal choice task in which they were asked to choose between two hidden sets of food items. The difficulty of the comparison varied as a function of the ratio between the sets. Infants reliably chose the greater quantity when the sets differed by a 2:3 ratio (4v6 and 6v9), but not when they differed by a 3:4 ratio (6v8) or a 7:8 ratio (7v8). This discrimination function is consistent with previous studies testing the precision of number and time representations in infants of roughly this same age, thus providing evidence that the approximate number system can support ordinal judgments in infancy. The findings are discussed in light of recent proposals that different mechanisms underlie infants' reasoning about small and large numbers.

  3. Monitoring light source for CMS lead tungstate crystal calorimeter at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang Liang Ying; Zhu, R Y; Liu, D T

    2001-01-01

    Light monitoring will serve as an intercalibration for Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) lead tungstate crystals in situ at the Large Hadronic Collider, which is crucial for maintaining crystal calorimeter's subpercent constant term in the energy resolution. This paper presents the design of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter monitoring light source and high-level distribution system. The correlations between variations of the light output and the transmittance for the CMS choice of yttrium-doped PbWO/sub 4/ crystals were investigated and were used to study monitoring linearity and sensitivity as a function of wavelength. The monitoring wavelength was determined so that a good linearity as well as adequate sensitivity can be achieved. The performance of a custom manufactured tunable laser system is presented. Issues related to monitoring precision are discussed. (12 refs).

  4. Monitoring light source for CMS lead tungstate crystal calorimeter at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Li Yuan Zhang; Ren Yuan Zhu; Duncan, Liu

    2000-01-01

    Light monitoring will serve as an inter calibration for the CMS lead tungstate crystals in situ at LHC, which is crucial for maintaining the crystal calorimeter's sub percent constant term in energy resolution. This paper presents the design of the CMS ECAL monitoring light source and high level distribution system. The correlations between variations of the light output and the transmittance for the CMS choice of Y doped PbWO/sub 4/ crystals were investigated, and were used to study monitoring linearity and sensitivity as a function of the wavelength. The monitoring wavelength was determined so that a good linearity as well as adequate sensitivity can be achieved. The performance of a custom manufactured tunable laser system is presented. Issues related to monitoring precision are discussed. (13 refs).

  5. Monitoring light source for CMS lead tungstate crystal calorimeter at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, L; Wei, Q; Zhu, R Y; Liu, D T

    2002-01-01

    Light monitoring will track variations of the calibration of the CMS lead tungstate crystals in situ at LHC, which is crucial for maintaining crystal calorimeter's subpercent constant term in the energy resolution. This paper presents the design of the CMS ECAL monitoring light source and high level distribution system. The correlations between variations of the light output and the transmittance for the CMS choice of yttrium doped PbWO/sub 4/ crystals were investigated, and were used to study monitoring linearity and sensitivity as a function of wavelength. The monitoring wavelength was determined so that a good linearity as well as adequate sensitivity can be achieved. The performance of a custom manufactured tunable laser system is presented. Issues related to monitoring precision are discussed. (13 refs).

  6. Monitoring light source for CMS lead tungstate crystal calorimeter at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang Li Yuan; Zhu Ren Yuan; Liu Dun Can

    2000-01-01

    Light monitoring will serve as an inter calibration for CMS lead tungstate crystals in situ at LHC, which is crucial for maintaining crystal calorimeter's sub percent constant term in the energy resolution. This paper presents the design of the CMS ECAL monitoring light source and high level distribution system. The correlations between variations of the light output and the transmittance for the CMS choice of Y doped PbWO//4 crystals were investigated, and were used to study monitoring linearity and sensitivity as a function of the wavelength. The monitoring wavelength was determined so that a good linearity as well as adequate sensitivity can be achieved. The performance of a custom manufactured tunable laser system is presented. Issues related to monitoring precision are discussed. 29 Refs.

  7. Cable Television Report and Suggested Ordinance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    League of California Cities, Sacramento.

    Guidelines and suggested ordinances for cable television regulation by local governments are comprehensively discussed in this report. The emphasis is placed on franchising the cable operator. Seventeen legal aspects of franchising are reviewed, and an exemplary ordinance is presented. In addition, current statistics about cable franchising in…

  8. Economic Analysis of a Living Wage Ordinance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolley, George; Bernstein, Peter

    A study estimated the costs of the "Chicago Jobs and Living Wage Ordinance" that would require firms that receive assistance from the city of Chicago to pay their workers an hourly wage of at least $7.60. An estimate of the additional labor cost that would result from the proposed Ordinance was calculated. Results of a survey of…

  9. The Light-Pulser Monitoring System for the WASA detector facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabierowski, J.; Rachowski, J.

    2009-07-01

    The design and performance of the system for monitoring the stability of the scintillation counters in the WASA multi-detector apparatus are presented. The system utilizes light pulses generated by LEDs and a Xenon flash tube, for monitoring plastic and inorganic scintillator based counters, respectively.

  10. 78 FR 49283 - Chicken Ranch Rancheria-Chicken Ranch Liquor Licensing Ordinance, Ordinance No. 12-10-03

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Chicken Ranch Rancheria--Chicken Ranch Liquor Licensing Ordinance, Ordinance No... the Chicken Ranch Liquor Licensing Ordinance, Ordinance No. 12-10-03. The Ordinance regulates and controls the possession, sale and consumption of liquor within the Indian Country of the Chicken Ranch...

  11. Remote monitoring technical review for light water reactors (Phase 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seung Sik; Yoon, Wan Ki; Na, Won Woo; Kwack, Eun Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-10-01

    The IAEA has been conducting a field trial of a Remote Monitoring System (RMS) at the spent fuel storage, Younggwang 3 nuclear power plant. The system installation plan was initiated after the agreement in the 7th ROK-IAEA safeguards Implementation Review Meeting that was held in Soul, 1998. It describes that IAEA and Korea proceed RM tasks Implementation of RMS at LWRs in the ROK for field trials. The project of RMS is conducting through 3 stages with timing. RMS has been installed for the Phase I of field trial, one of two stages at Younggwang Unit 3 in October 1998. The RMS consists of video systems and a seal at the spent fuel pond area. This report provides a description of the monitoring system and its functions focusing on several technical points of the installation and its 6 month operation at Younggwang Unit 3. Subjects are selected and analyzed in the three chapters, IAEA safeguards policy on Remote Monitoring, the technology, and field test experiences. 8 refs., 12 figs., 12 tabs. (Author)

  12. Awareness on the Implementation of Anti-Smoking Ordinance No. 1S. 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowena E. Mojares

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the respondent’s profile variable such as gender, age, educational attainment, occupation, and frequency of smoking; to identify the level of awareness of the public on Anti-Smoking Ordinance and to determine the significant difference on the level of awareness in the implementation when grouped according to profile variables. The researchers used the descriptive method of research and utilized two hundred-four (204 respondents. The result showed that the respondents are dominated by male, college graduate and under graduate and most of them are private employees. They agreed that they are aware on the implementation of anti-smoking ordinance no. 1S 2012 because the ordinance was clearly stated, well disseminated, there are authorities prohibiting it and there is a usage of signage. But they agree also that they are less aware about the specific boundary that the ordinance covered, that there is regular monitoring and there is enough number of personnel implementing the ordinance. The researchers recommended that the Pamahalaang Panglunsod may continue to maintain the strict implementation of the Anti-Smoking Ordinance; authorities should specify the boundary covered by the Ordinance and should have enough personnel to implement it,

  13. Fining of Red Wine Monitored by Multiple Light Scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrentino, Giovanna; Ramezani, Mohsen; Morozova, Ksenia; Hafner, Daniela; Pedri, Ulrich; Pixner, Konrad; Scampicchio, Matteo

    2017-07-12

    This work describes a new approach based on multiple light scattering to study red wine clarification processes. The whole spectral signal (1933 backscattering points along the length of each sample vial) were fitted by a multivariate kinetic model that was built with a three-step mechanism, implying (1) adsorption of wine colloids to fining agents, (2) aggregation into larger particles, and (3) sedimentation. Each step is characterized by a reaction rate constant. According to the first reaction, the results showed that gelatin was the most efficient fining agent, concerning the main objective, which was the clarification of the wine, and consequently the increase in its limpidity. Such a trend was also discussed in relation to the results achieved by nephelometry, total phenols, ζ-potential, color, sensory, and electronic nose analyses. Also, higher concentrations of the fining agent (from 5 to 30 g/100 L) or higher temperatures (from 10 to 20 °C) sped up the process. Finally, the advantage of using the whole spectral signal vs classical univariate approaches was demonstrated by comparing the uncertainty associated with the rate constants of the proposed kinetic model. Overall, multiple light scattering technique showed a great potential for studying fining processes compared to classical univariate approaches.

  14. Design and Performance of the Upgraded LHC Synchrotron Light Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Goldblatt, A; Roncarolo, F; Trad, G

    2013-01-01

    The LHC is equipped with two synchrotron radiation systems, one per beam, used to measure the transverse bunch distributions. The light emitted by a superconducting undulator and/or by a dipole magnet (depending on beam energy) is intercepted by an extraction mirror in vacuum and sent through a viewport to the imaging Beam Synchrotron Radiation Telescope (BSRT). The first version of the telescope, used from 2009 to mid 2012, was based on spherical focusing mirrors in order to minimize chromatic aberrations. However, this required a very complicated delay line in order to switch the focus between the two different light sources as a function of beam energy. A new system based on optical lenses was designed and installed in mid 2012 in order to simplify the optical line and thus reduce misalignment and focusing errors. The first results with LHC beam using this new system showed a significant reduction in the correction factor required to match the emittance as measured by wire scanners. This contribution discu...

  15. Model‐based approaches to unconstrained ordination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hui, Francis K.C; Taskinen, Sara; Pledger, Shirley; Foster, Scott D; Warton, David I; O'Hara, Robert B

    2015-01-01

    Unconstrained ordination is commonly used in ecology to visualize multivariate data, in particular, to visualize the main trends between different sites in terms of their species composition or relative abundance...

  16. Overview of Existing Wind Energy Ordinances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oteri, F.

    2008-12-01

    Due to increased energy demand in the United States, rural communities with limited or no experience with wind energy now have the opportunity to become involved in this industry. Communities with good wind resources may be approached by entities with plans to develop the resource. Although these opportunities can create new revenue in the form of construction jobs and land lease payments, they also create a new responsibility on the part of local governments to ensure that ordinances will be established to aid the development of safe facilities that will be embraced by the community. The purpose of this report is to educate and engage state and local governments, as well as policymakers, about existing large wind energy ordinances. These groups will have a collection of examples to utilize when they attempt to draft a new large wind energy ordinance in a town or county without existing ordinances.

  17. Ordinal models of audiovisual speech perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Audiovisual information is integrated in speech perception. One manifestation of this is the McGurk illusion in which watching the articulating face alters the auditory phonetic percept. Understanding this phenomenon fully requires a computational model with predictive power. Here, we describe...... ordinal models that can account for the McGurk illusion. We compare this type of models to the Fuzzy Logical Model of Perception (FLMP) in which the response categories are not ordered. While the FLMP generally fit the data better than the ordinal model it also employs more free parameters in complex...... experiments when the number of response categories are high as it is for speech perception in general. Testing the predictive power of the models using a form of cross-validation we found that ordinal models perform better than the FLMP. Based on these findings we suggest that ordinal models generally have...

  18. Allegheny County Municipal Land Use Ordinances

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Many municipalities have their own land use ordinances and establish standards and requirements for land use and development in that municipality. This dataset is...

  19. Biofouling and the continuous monitoring of underwater light from a seagrass perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuf, C.P.

    2006-01-01

    For more than a decade, inexpensive electronic instruments have made continuous underwater light monitoring an integral part of many seagrass studies. Although biofouling, if not controlled, compromises the utility of the record. A year-long assessment of the time course of sensor fouling, in the Laguna Madre of Texas established that light transmitted through the fouling layer after 2 wk of exposure exceeded 90% except for a 6-8 wk period in May and June. On that basis, a 2-wk interval was chosen for routine servicing. Subsequent monitoring proved this choice to be grossly in error. The period of sub-90% transmittance after 2 wk extended to 4-6 mo annually over the next 3 yr. Fouling was strongly correlated with temperature, ambient light, and year. Since an algal bloom of 7-yr duration finally waned during this study, increased ambient light seemed most likely to explain increased fouling later in the study. The explanatory value of light was less than temperature or year in multiple regression, requiring some other explanation of the date effect than change in ambient light. Allelopathic and suspension-feeding depressant effects of the brown tide are offered as the most likely cause of unusually low fouling in the first year. Biofouling was so unpredictable and rapid in this study that at least weekly maintenance would be required to assure reliability of the light monitoring record. ?? 2006 Estuarine Research Federation.

  20. Establishment of a Hub for the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Online Monitoring Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nancy J. Lybeck; Magdy S. Tawfik; Binh T. Pham

    2011-08-01

    Implementation of online monitoring and prognostics in existing U.S. nuclear power plants will involve coordinating the efforts of national laboratories, utilities, universities, and private companies. Internet-based collaborative work environments provide necessary communication tools to facilitate interaction between geographically diverse participants. Available technologies were considered, and a collaborative workspace was established at INL as a hub for the light water reactor sustainability online monitoring community.

  1. Plan for Demonstration of Online Monitoring for the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Online Monitoring Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magdy S. Tawfik; Vivek Agarwal; Nancy J. Lybeck

    2011-09-01

    Condition based online monitoring technologies and development of diagnostic and prognostic methodologies have drawn tremendous interest in the nuclear industry. It has become important to identify and resolve problems with structures, systems, and components (SSCs) to ensure plant safety, efficiency, and immunity to accidents in the aging fleet of reactors. The Machine Condition Monitoring (MCM) test bed at INL will be used to demonstrate the effectiveness to advancement in online monitoring, sensors, diagnostic and prognostic technologies on a pilot-scale plant that mimics the hydraulics of a nuclear plant. As part of this research project, INL will research available prognostics architectures and their suitability for deployment in a nuclear power plant. In addition, INL will provide recommendation to improve the existing diagnostic and prognostic architectures based on the experimental analysis performed on the MCM test bed.

  2. Wearable monitors criterion validity for energy expenditure in sedentary and light activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florez-Pregonero Alberto

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: None of the WMs tested in this study were equivalent with the criterion measure (VO2 in estimating sedentary-to-light activities; however, the activPAL had greater overall accuracy in measuring SB and LPA than did the ActiGraph and SenseWear 2 monitors.

  3. Multipoint alignment monitoring with amorphous silicon position detectors in a complex light path

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberdi, J.; Arce, P.; Barcala, J.M.; Calvo, E. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Ferrando, A., E-mail: antonio.ferrando@ciemat.e [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Josa, M.I.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J.C.; Yuste, C. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Calderon, A.; Gomez, G.; Gonzalez-Sanchez, F.J.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Ruiz-Arbol, P.; Sobron, M.; Vila, I.; Virto, A.L. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria. CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain)

    2010-12-01

    This document presents an application of the new generation of amorphous silicon position detecting (ASPD) sensors to multipoint alignment. Twelve units are monitored along a 20 m long laser beam, where the light path is deflected by 90{sup o} using a pentaprism.

  4. Regenerating time series from ordinal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Michael; Sakellariou, Konstantinos; Stemler, Thomas; Small, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Recently proposed ordinal networks not only afford novel methods of nonlinear time series analysis but also constitute stochastic approximations of the deterministic flow time series from which the network models are constructed. In this paper, we construct ordinal networks from discrete sampled continuous chaotic time series and then regenerate new time series by taking random walks on the ordinal network. We then investigate the extent to which the dynamics of the original time series are encoded in the ordinal networks and retained through the process of regenerating new time series by using several distinct quantitative approaches. First, we use recurrence quantification analysis on traditional recurrence plots and order recurrence plots to compare the temporal structure of the original time series with random walk surrogate time series. Second, we estimate the largest Lyapunov exponent from the original time series and investigate the extent to which this invariant measure can be estimated from the surrogate time series. Finally, estimates of correlation dimension are computed to compare the topological properties of the original and surrogate time series dynamics. Our findings show that ordinal networks constructed from univariate time series data constitute stochastic models which approximate important dynamical properties of the original systems.

  5. Regenerating time series from ordinal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Michael; Sakellariou, Konstantinos; Stemler, Thomas; Small, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Recently proposed ordinal networks not only afford novel methods of nonlinear time series analysis but also constitute stochastic approximations of the deterministic flow time series from which the network models are constructed. In this paper, we construct ordinal networks from discrete sampled continuous chaotic time series and then regenerate new time series by taking random walks on the ordinal network. We then investigate the extent to which the dynamics of the original time series are encoded in the ordinal networks and retained through the process of regenerating new time series by using several distinct quantitative approaches. First, we use recurrence quantification analysis on traditional recurrence plots and order recurrence plots to compare the temporal structure of the original time series with random walk surrogate time series. Second, we estimate the largest Lyapunov exponent from the original time series and investigate the extent to which this invariant measure can be estimated from the surrogate time series. Finally, estimates of correlation dimension are computed to compare the topological properties of the original and surrogate time series dynamics. Our findings show that ordinal networks constructed from univariate time series data constitute stochastic models which approximate important dynamical properties of the original systems.

  6. Monitoring Spruce Budworm with Light Traps: The Effect of Trap Position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Rhainds

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Daily records of adult spruce budworms, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, captured at light traps at multiple locations in New Brunswick in the 1970s, are analyzed in relation to the physical position of light traps (tree canopies or forest clearings. Captures at light traps deployed in tree canopies were 4–400 times greater than those in forest clearings, especially for males. The phenology of captures (median date or duration of flight period did not differ in relation to trap location. Captures of both males and females in tree canopies were highly correlated with egg densities, whereas no significant relationship was observed for either sex in forest clearings. Monitoring programs for spruce budworm adults using light traps should be standardized by deploying traps in tree canopies.

  7. Ordinal ultrafilters versus P-hierarchy

    CERN Document Server

    Starosolski, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    An earlier paper, entitled "P-hierarchy on $\\beta\\omega$", investigated the relations between ordinal ultrafilters and the so-called P-hierarchy. This study is continued in the present paper and focuses on the aspects of characterization of classes of finite index, existence, generic existence and the Rudin-Keisler-order.

  8. Educating Leaders for Social Justice: The Case of Special Educational Needs Co-Ordinators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liasidou, Anastasia; Svensson, Cathy

    2014-01-01

    In the light of policy imperatives to initiate and maintain inclusive education reforms, the role of special educational needs co-ordinators (SENCOs) in England and Wales should be reconceptualised with a view to their leading school reforms commensurate with the principles of an inclusive discourse. The article concentrates on the social justice…

  9. Quantitative Analysis of VIIRS DNB Nightlight Point Source for Light Power Estimation and Stability Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changyong Cao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The high sensitivity and advanced onboard calibration on the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS Day/Night Band (DNB enables accurate measurements of low light radiances which leads to enhanced quantitative applications at night. The finer spatial resolution of DNB also allows users to examine social economic activities at urban scales. Given the growing interest in the use of the DNB data, there is a pressing need for better understanding of the calibration stability and absolute accuracy of the DNB at low radiances. The low light calibration accuracy was previously estimated at a moderate 15% using extended sources while the long-term stability has yet to be characterized. There are also several science related questions to be answered, for example, how the Earth’s atmosphere and surface variability contribute to the stability of the DNB measured radiances; how to separate them from instrument calibration stability; whether or not SI (International System of Units traceable active light sources can be designed and installed at selected sites to monitor the calibration stability, radiometric and geolocation accuracy, and point spread functions of the DNB; furthermore, whether or not such active light sources can be used for detecting environmental changes, such as aerosols. This paper explores the quantitative analysis of nightlight point sources, such as those from fishing vessels, bridges, and cities, using fundamental radiometry and radiative transfer, which would be useful for a number of applications including search and rescue in severe weather events, as well as calibration/validation of the DNB. Time series of the bridge light data are used to assess the stability of the light measurements and the calibration of VIIRS DNB. It was found that the light radiant power computed from the VIIRS DNB data matched relatively well with independent assessments based on the in situ light installations, although estimates have to be

  10. Fluorescein filled photonic crystal fiber sensor for simultaneous ultraviolet light and temperature monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatar, Peter; Kacik, Daniel; Tarjanyi, Norbert

    2016-07-01

    We present a novel structure composed of a photonic crystal fiber filled with fluorescein dissolved in water spliced between two conventional multimode fibers. Based on unique features of the fluorescein luminescence it is possible to adjust its emission spectrum to required spectral region. With increasing value of the fluorescein solvent pH factor, the peak wavelength of the emission spectrum is shifting to longer wavelength values. Since the excitation spectrum of fluorescein is relatively wide, this optical fiber sensor could be used for an efficient ultraviolet light monitoring. The detection limit at the level 0.24 mW with 490 nm excitation wavelength is presented. Moreover the emission spectrum is temperature sensitive what provides possibility of simultaneous ultraviolet light and temperature monitoring. Also the temperature sensitivity of the structure based on intermodal interference investigation for a compensation purposes and structure usage as spectrum enlarger are outlined.

  11. Monitoring of Plant Light/Dark Cycles Using Air-coupled Ultrasonic Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fariñas, M. D.; Sancho-Knapik, D.; Peguero-Pina, J.; Gil-Pelegrín, E.; Álvarez-Arenas, T. E. G.

    This work presents the application of a technique based on the excitation, sensing and spectral analysis of leaves thickness resonances using air-coupled and wide-band ultrasound to monitor variations in leaves properties due to the plant response along light/dark cycles. The main features of these resonances are determined by the tautness of the cells walls in such a way that small modifications produced by variations in the transpiration rate, stomata aperture or water potential have a direct effect on the thickness resonances that can be measured in a completely non-invasive and contactless way. Results show that it is possible to monitor leaves changes due to variations in light intensity along the diurnal cycle, moreover, the technique reveals differences in the leaf response for different species and also within the same species but for specimens grown under different conditions that present different cell structures at the tissue level.

  12. Online monitoring of a belt grinding process by using a light scattering method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Johannes; Vernes, Andras; Vorlaufer, Georg; Vellekoop, Michael

    2010-10-20

    Industrially ground surfaces often have a characteristic surface topography known as chatter marks. The surface finishing is mainly monitored by optical measurement techniques. In this work, the monitoring of an industrial belt grinding process with a light scattering sensor is presented. Although this technique is primarily applied for parametric surface roughness analysis, here it is shown that it enables also the measurement of the surface topography, i.e., the chatter marks occurring during the belt grinding process. In particular, it is proven that the light scattering method is appropriate to measure online the topography of chatter marks. Furthermore, the frequency analysis of the data reveals that the wavelength of chatter marks strongly depends on process parameters, such as the grinding speed.

  13. EVALUATION OF DIELECTRIC CURING MONITORING INVESTIGATING LIGHT-CURING DENTAL FILLING COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Steinhaus

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is the evaluation of a dielectric analysis (DEA method monitoring the curing behaviour of a light curing dental filling material in real-time. The evaluation is to extract the influence of light intensity on the photo-curing process of dental composite filling materials. The intensity change is obtained by measuring the curing process at different sample depth. It could be shown that increasing sample thickness, and therefore exponentially decreasing light intensity, causes a proportional decrease in the initial curing rate. Nevertheless, the results give rise to the assumption that lower illumination intensities over a long period cause higher overall conversion, and thus better mechanical properties. This would allow for predictions of the impact of different curing-rates on the final mechanical properties.

  14. Development of Dual-light Path Monitoring System of Optical Thin-film Thickness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Shi-jun

    2005-01-01

    The accurate monitoring of optical thin-film thickness is a key technique for depositing optical thin-film. For existing coating equipments, which are low precision and automation level on monitoring thin-film thickness, a new photoelectric control and analysis system has been developed. In the new system, main techniques include a photoelectric system with dual-light path, a dual-lock-phase circuit system and a comprehensive digital processing-control-analysis system.The test results of new system show that the static and dynamic stabilities and the control precision of thin-film thickness are extremely increased. The standard deviation of thin-film thickness, which indicates the duplication of thin-film thickness monitoring, is equal to or less than 0.72%. The display resolution limit on reflectivity is 0.02 %. In the system, the linearity of drift is very high, and the static drift ratio approaches zero.

  15. Light-mediated 15N fractionation in Caribbean gorgonian octocorals: implications for pollution monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, D. M.; Kim, K.; Andras, J. P.; Sparks, J. P.

    2011-09-01

    The stable nitrogen isotope ratio ( δ 15N) of coral tissue is a useful recorder of anthropogenic pollution in tropical marine ecosystems. However, little is known of the natural environmentally induced fractionations that affect our interpretation of coral δ 15N values. In symbiotic scleractinians, light affects metabolic fractionation of N during photosynthesis, which may confound the identification of N pollution between sites of varied depth or turbidity. Given the superiority of octocorals for δ 15N studies, our goal was to quantify the effect of light on gorgonian δ 15N in the context of monitoring N pollution sources. Using field collections, we show that δ 15N declined by 1.4‰ over 20 m depth in two species of gorgonians, the common sea fan, Gorgonia ventalina, and the slimy sea plume, Pseudopterogorgia americana. An 8-week laboratory experiment with P. americana showed that light, not temperature causes this variation, whereby the lowest fractionation of the N source was observed in the highest light treatment. Finally, we used a yearlong reciprocal depth transplant experiment to quantify the time frame over which δ 15N changes in G. ventalina as a function of light regime . Over the year, δ 15N was unchanged and increased slightly in the deep control colonies and shallow colonies transplanted to the deep site, respectively. Within 6 months, colonies transplanted from deep to shallow became enriched by 0.8‰, mirroring the enrichment observed in the shallow controls, which was likely due to the combined effect of an increase in the source δ 15N and reduced fractionation. We conclude that light affects gorgonian δ 15N fractionation and should be considered in sampling designs for N pollution monitoring. However, these fractionations are small relative to differences observed between natural and anthropogenic N sources.

  16. Processing ordinality and quantity: the case of developmental dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinsten, Orly; Sury, Dana

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to quantity processing, up to date, the nature of ordinality has received little attention from researchers despite the fact that both quantity and ordinality are embodied in numerical information. Here we ask if there are two separate core systems that lie at the foundations of numerical cognition: (1) the traditionally and well accepted numerical magnitude system but also (2) core system for representing ordinal information. We report two novel experiments of ordinal processing that explored the relation between ordinal and numerical information processing in typically developing adults and adults with developmental dyscalculia (DD). Participants made "ordered" or "non-ordered" judgments about 3 groups of dots (non-symbolic numerical stimuli; in Experiment 1) and 3 numbers (symbolic task: Experiment 2). In contrast to previous findings and arguments about quantity deficit in DD participants, when quantity and ordinality are dissociated (as in the current tasks), DD participants exhibited a normal ratio effect in the non-symbolic ordinal task. They did not show, however, the ordinality effect. Ordinality effect in DD appeared only when area and density were randomized, but only in the descending direction. In the symbolic task, the ordinality effect was modulated by ratio and direction in both groups. These findings suggest that there might be two separate cognitive representations of ordinal and quantity information and that linguistic knowledge may facilitate estimation of ordinal information.

  17. Processing ordinality and quantity: the case of developmental dyscalculia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orly Rubinsten

    Full Text Available In contrast to quantity processing, up to date, the nature of ordinality has received little attention from researchers despite the fact that both quantity and ordinality are embodied in numerical information. Here we ask if there are two separate core systems that lie at the foundations of numerical cognition: (1 the traditionally and well accepted numerical magnitude system but also (2 core system for representing ordinal information. We report two novel experiments of ordinal processing that explored the relation between ordinal and numerical information processing in typically developing adults and adults with developmental dyscalculia (DD. Participants made "ordered" or "non-ordered" judgments about 3 groups of dots (non-symbolic numerical stimuli; in Experiment 1 and 3 numbers (symbolic task: Experiment 2. In contrast to previous findings and arguments about quantity deficit in DD participants, when quantity and ordinality are dissociated (as in the current tasks, DD participants exhibited a normal ratio effect in the non-symbolic ordinal task. They did not show, however, the ordinality effect. Ordinality effect in DD appeared only when area and density were randomized, but only in the descending direction. In the symbolic task, the ordinality effect was modulated by ratio and direction in both groups. These findings suggest that there might be two separate cognitive representations of ordinal and quantity information and that linguistic knowledge may facilitate estimation of ordinal information.

  18. 36 CFR 28.15 - Approval of local zoning ordinances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of local zoning... INTERIOR FIRE ISLAND NATIONAL SEASHORE: ZONING STANDARDS Federal Standards and Approval of Local Ordinances § 28.15 Approval of local zoning ordinances. (a) The Secretary shall approve local ordinances...

  19. An ordinal model of the McGurk illusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    an ordinal model, in which the response categories are ordered cyclically, that can account for the McGurk illusion. We compare this model to the Fuzzy Logical Model of Perception (FLMP), which is not an ordinal model, based on an original data set. While the FLMP fitted the data better than the ordinal...

  20. Model county ordinance for wind projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bain, D.A. [Oregon Office of Energy, Portland, OR (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Permitting is a crucial step in the development cycle of a wind project and permits affect the timing, cost, location, feasibility, layout, and impacts of wind projects. Counties often have the lead responsibility for permitting yet few have appropriate siting regulations for wind projects. A model ordinance allows a county to quickly adopt appropriate permitting procedures. The model county wind ordinance developed for use by northwest states is generally applicable across the country and counties seeking to adopt siting or zoning regulations for wind will find it a good starting place. The model includes permitting procedures for wind measurement devices and two types of wind systems. Both discretionary and nondiscretionary standards apply to wind systems and a conditional use permit would be issued. The standards, criteria, conditions for approval, and process procedures are defined for each. Adaptation examples for the four northwest states are provided along with a model Wind Resource Overlay Zone.

  1. Night-sky brightness monitoring in Hong Kong - a city-wide light pollution assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Pun, Chun Shing Jason

    2011-01-01

    Results of the first comprehensive light pollution survey in Hong Kong are presented. The night-sky brightness was measured and monitored around the city using a portable light sensing device called the Sky Quality Meter over a 15-month period beginning in March 2008. A total of 1,957 data sets were taken at 199 distinct locations, including urban and rural sites covering all 18 Administrative Districts of Hong Kong. The survey shows that the environmental light pollution problem in Hong Kong is severe - the urban night-skies (sky brightness at 15.0 mag per arcsec square) are on average ~100 times brighter than at the darkest rural sites (20.1 mag per arcsec square), indicating that the high lighting densities in the densely populated residential and commercial areas lead to light pollution. In the worst polluted urban location studied, the night-sky at 13.2 mag per arcsec square can be over 500 times brighter than the darkest sites in Hong Kong. The observed night-sky brightness is found to be affected by hu...

  2. In situ monitoring of flash-light sintering of copper nanoparticle ink for printed electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hyun-Jun; Chung, Wan-Ho; Kim, Hak-Sung

    2012-12-01

    In this work, a flash-light sintering process for Cu nanoinks was studied. In order to precisely monitor the milliseconds flash-light sintering process, a real-time Wheatstone bridge electrical circuit and a high-rate data acquisition system were used. The effects of several flash-light irradiation conditions (irradiation energy, pulse number, on-time, and off-time) and the effects of the amount of poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) in the Cu nanoink on the flash-light sintering process were investigated. The microstructures of the sintered Cu films were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. To investigate the oxidation or reduction of the oxide-covered copper nanoparticles, a crystal phase analysis using x-ray diffraction was performed. In addition, the sheet resistance of Cu film was measured using a four-point probe method. From this study, it was found that the flash-light sintered Cu nanoink films have a conductivity of 72 Ωm/sq without any damage to the polyimide substrate. Similar nanoinks are expected to be widely used in printed and flexible electronics products in the near future.

  3. Light-induced reactions of Escherichia coli DNA photolyase monitored by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleicher, Erik; Hessling, Benedikt; Illarionova, Viktoria; Bacher, Adelbert; Weber, Stefan; Richter, Gerald; Gerwert, Klaus

    2005-04-01

    Cyclobutane-type pyrimidine dimers generated by ultraviolet irradiation of DNA can be cleaved by DNA photolyase. The enzyme-catalysed reaction is believed to be initiated by the light-induced transfer of an electron from the anionic FADH- chromophore of the enzyme to the pyrimidine dimer. In this contribution, first infrared experiments using a novel E109A mutant of Escherichia coli DNA photolyase, which is catalytically active but unable to bind the second cofactor methenyltetrahydrofolate, are described. A stable blue-coloured form of the enzyme carrying a neutral FADH radical cofactor can be interpreted as an intermediate analogue of the light-driven DNA repair reaction and can be reduced to the enzymatically active FADH- form by red-light irradiation. Difference Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to monitor vibronic bands of the blue radical form and of the fully reduced FADH- form of the enzyme. Preliminary band assignments are based on experiments with 15N-labelled enzyme and on experiments with D2O as solvent. Difference FT-IR measurements were also used to observe the formation of thymidine dimers by ultraviolet irradiation and their repair by light-driven photolyase catalysis. This study provides the basis for future time-resolved FT-IR studies which are aimed at an elucidation of a detailed molecular picture of the light-driven DNA repair process.

  4. DOS: the discrete-ordinates system. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhoades, W. A.; Emmett, M. B.

    1982-09-01

    The Discrete Ordinates System determines the flux of neutrons or photons due either to fixed sources specified by the user or to sources generated by particle interaction with the problem materials. It also determines numerous secondary results which depend upon flux. Criticality searches can be performed. Numerous input, output, and file manipulation facilities are provided. The DOS driver program reads the problem specification from an input file and calls various program modules into execution as specified by the input file.

  5. Scoring ordinal variables for constructing composite indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marica Manisera

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to provide composite indicators of latent variables, for example of customer satisfaction, it is opportune to identify the structure of the latent variable, in terms of the assignment of items to the subscales defining the latent variable. Adopting the reflective model, the impact of four different methods of scoring ordinal variables on the identification of the true structure of latent variables is investigated. A simulation study composed of 5 steps is conducted: (1 simulation of population data with continuous variables measuring a two-dimensional latent variable with known structure; (2 draw of a number of random samples; (3 discretization of the continuous variables according to different distributional forms; (4 quantification of the ordinal variables obtained in step (3 according to different methods; (5 construction of composite indicators and verification of the correct assignment of variables to subscales by the multiple group method and the factor analysis. Results show that the considered scoring methods have similar performances in assigning items to subscales, and that, when the latent variable is multinormal, the distributional form of the observed ordinal variables is not determinant in suggesting the best scoring method to use.

  6. Night-sky brightness monitoring in Hong Kong: a city-wide light pollution assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pun, Chun Shing Jason; So, Chu Wing

    2012-04-01

    Results of the first comprehensive light pollution survey in Hong Kong are presented. The night-sky brightness was measured and monitored around the city using a portable light-sensing device called the Sky Quality Meter over a 15-month period beginning in March 2008. A total of 1,957 data sets were taken at 199 distinct locations, including urban and rural sites covering all 18 Administrative Districts of Hong Kong. The survey shows that the environmental light pollution problem in Hong Kong is severe-the urban night skies (sky brightness at 15.0 mag arcsec(- 2)) are on average ~ 100 times brighter than at the darkest rural sites (20.1 mag arcsec(- 2)), indicating that the high lighting densities in the densely populated residential and commercial areas lead to light pollution. In the worst polluted urban location studied, the night-sky at 13.2 mag arcsec(- 2) can be over 500 times brighter than the darkest sites in Hong Kong. The observed night-sky brightness is found to be affected by human factors such as land utilization and population density of the observation sites, together with meteorological and/or environmental factors. Moreover, earlier night skies (at 9:30 p.m. local time) are generally brighter than later time (at 11:30 p.m.), which can be attributed to some public and commercial lightings being turned off later at night. On the other hand, no concrete relationship between the observed sky brightness and air pollutant concentrations could be established with the limited survey sampling. Results from this survey will serve as an important database for the public to assess whether new rules and regulations are necessary to control the use of outdoor lightings in Hong Kong.

  7. New Approach for Environmental Monitoring and Plant Observation Using a Light-Field Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schima, Robert; Mollenhauer, Hannes; Grenzdörffer, Görres; Merbach, Ines; Lausch, Angela; Dietrich, Peter; Bumberger, Jan

    2015-04-01

    The aim of gaining a better understanding of ecosystems and the processes in nature accentuates the need for observing exactly these processes with a higher temporal and spatial resolution. In the field of environmental monitoring, an inexpensive and field applicable imaging technique to derive three-dimensional information about plants and vegetation would represent a decisive contribution to the understanding of the interactions and dynamics of ecosystems. This is particularly true for the monitoring of plant growth and the frequently mentioned lack of morphological information about the plants, e.g. plant height, vegetation canopy, leaf position or leaf arrangement. Therefore, an innovative and inexpensive light-field (plenoptic) camera, the Lytro LF, and a stereo vision system, based on two industrial cameras, were tested and evaluated as possible measurement tools for the given monitoring purpose. In this instance, the usage of a light field camera offers the promising opportunity of providing three-dimensional information without any additional requirements during the field measurements based on one single shot, which represents a substantial methodological improvement in the area of environmental research and monitoring. Since the Lytro LF was designed as a daily-life consumer camera, it does not support depth or distance estimation or rather an external triggering by default. Therefore, different technical modifications and a calibration routine had to be figured out during the preliminary study. As a result, the used light-field camera was proven suitable as a depth and distance measurement tool with a measuring range of approximately one meter. Consequently, this confirms the assumption that a light field camera holds the potential of being a promising measurement tool for environmental monitoring purposes, especially with regard to a low methodological effort in field. Within the framework of the Global Change Experimental Facility Project, founded by

  8. Carious lesions: diagnostic accuracy using pre-calibrated monitor in various ambient light levels: an in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellén-Halme, K; Lith, A

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigated the effect of different monitor calibration modes under various ambient lighting conditions on the ability of observers to recognize proximal carious lesions of varying depths. Methods: 7 observers evaluated 100 teeth for proximal carious lesions on standardized digital radiographs using 3 set-ups: (1) pre-calibrated monitor for high ambient light (higher than 1000 lux), (2) pre-calibrated monitor for low ambient light (less than 50 lux) and (3) Barten calibration (Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine) on the monitor in dimmed ambient light (less than 50 lux). Receiver operating characteristic curves were plotted for all observations. The criterion standard was histological examination of the teeth. The effects of three conditions were compared using a paired t-test. The level of significance was set to p carious lesions between the different calibration modes of the monitor according to different ambient light levels. Conclusions: There is no evidence that any difference between ambient light levels affects the ability to detect carious lesions in digital radiographs as long as the monitor was calibrated in accordance with the surrounding light level. PMID:23775926

  9. Optical performance monitoring at 640Gb/s via slow-light in a silicon nanowire

    CERN Document Server

    Corcoran, B; Pelusi, M; Grillet, C; White, T P; Faolain, L O; Krauss, T F; Eggleton, B J; Moss, David J

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate optical performance monitoring of in-band optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) and residual dispersion, at bit rates of 40Gb/s, 160Gb/s and 640Gb/s, using slow-light enhanced optical third harmonic generation (THG) in a compact (80 micron) dispersion engineered 2D silicon photonic crystal waveguide. We show that there is no intrinsic degradation in the enhancement of the signal processing at 640 Gb/s relative to that at 40Gb/s, and that this device should operate well above 1Tb/s. This work represents a record 16-fold increase in processing speed for a silicon device, and opens the door for slow light to play a key role in ultra-high bandwidth telecommunications systems.

  10. SkyGlowNet: Multi-Disciplinary Independent Student Research in Environmental Light at Night Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craine, B. L.; Craine, E. R.; Culver, R. B.; DeBenedetti, J. C.; Flurchick, K. M.

    2014-07-01

    SkyGlowNet uses Internet-enabled sky brightness meters (iSBM) to monitor sky brightness over school sites. The data are used professionally and in STEM outreach to study natural and artificial sources of sky brightness, light pollution, energy efficiency, and environmental and health impacts of artificial night lighting. The iSBM units are owned by participating institutions and managed by faculty or students via proprietary Internet links. Student data are embargoed for two semesters to allow students to analyze data and publish results, then they are moved to a common area where students from different institutions can collaborate. The iSBM units can be set to operate automatically each night. Their data include time, sky brightness, weather conditions, and other related parameters. The data stream can be viewed and processed online or downloaded for study. SkyGlowNet is a unique, multi-disciplinary, real science program aiding research for science and non-science students.

  11. The first light of Mini-MegaTORTORA wide-field monitoring system

    CERN Document Server

    Biryukov, A; Karpov, S; Bondar, S; Ivanov, E; Katkova, E; Perkov, A; Sasyuk, V

    2014-01-01

    Here we describe the first light of the novel 9-channel wide-field optical monitoring system with sub-second temporal resolution, Mini-MegaTORTORA, which is being tested now at Special Astrophysical Observatory on Russian Caucasus. The system is able to observe the sky simultaneously in either wide (~900 square degrees) or narrow (~100 square degrees) fields of view, either in clear light or with any combination of color (Johnson B, V or R) polarimetric filters installed, with exposure times ranging from 100 ms to 100 s. The primary goal of the system is the detection of rapid -- with sub-second characteristic time-scales -- optical transients, but it may be also used for studying the variability of the sky objects on longer time scales.

  12. Immunoglobulin heavy chain/light chain pairs (HLC, Hevylite™) assays for diagnosing and monitoring monoclonal gammopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraj, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Immunofixation (IFE) is a standard method for detecting monoclonal immunoglobulins and characterizing its isotype. Recently clonality can also be determined by using immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chain/light chain immunoassays - HLC, HevyliteTM. HLC separately measures in pairs light chain types of each intact Ig class generating ratios of monoclonal Ig/uninvolved polyclonal Ig concentrations. Studies have shown that HLC and IFE are complementary methods. HLC assays quantify monoclonal proteins and identify monoclonality. It is possible to predict prognosis in multiple myeloma and to monitor response to treatment using HLC ratio. HLC ratio may serve as a parameter for myeloma induced immunoparesis and serve as a new marker for validating remission depth and relapse probabilities.

  13. Plastic cup traps equipped with light-emitting diodes for monitoring adult Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chang-Chi; Jackson, Charles G; Alexander, Patrick J; Karut, Kamil; Henneberry, Thomas J

    2003-06-01

    Equipping the standard plastic cup trap, also known as the CC trap, with lime-green light-emitting diodes (LED-plastic cup trap) increased its efficacy for catching Bemisia tabaci by 100%. Few Eretmocerus eremicus Rose and Zolnerowich and Encarsia formosa Gahan were caught in LED-plastic cup traps. The LED-plastic cup traps are less expensive than yellow sticky card traps for monitoring adult whiteflies in greenhouse crop production systems and are more compatible with whitefly parasitoids releases for Bemisia nymph control.

  14. Monitoring bacterial biofilms with a microfluidic flow chip designed for imaging with white-light interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brann, Michelle; Suter, Jonathan D.; Addleman, R. Shane; Larimer, Curtis

    2017-07-01

    There is a need for imaging and sensing instrumentation that can monitor transitions in biofilm structure in order to better understand biofilm development and emergent properties such as anti-microbial resistance. Herein, we expanded on our previously reported technique for measuring and monitoring the thickness and topology of live biofilms using white-light interferometry (WLI). A flow cell designed for WLI enabled the use of this non-disruptive imaging method for the capture of high resolution three-dimensional profile images of biofilm growth over time. The fine axial resolution (3 nm) and wide field of view (>1 mm by 1 mm) enabled detection of biofilm formation as early as three hours after inoculation of the flow cell with a live bacterial culture (Pseudomonas fluorescens). WLI imaging facilitated monitoring the early stages of biofilm development and subtle variations in the structure of mature biofilms. Minimally-invasive imaging enabled monitoring of biofilm structure with surface metrology metrics (e.g., surface roughness). The system was used to observe a transition in biofilm structure that occurred in response to expsoure to a common antiseptic. In the future, WLI and the biofilm imaging cell described herein may be used to test the effectiveness of biofilm-specific therapies to combat common diseases associated with biofilm formation such as cystic fibrosis and periodontitis.

  15. Calculating reliability measures for ordinal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamsu, C V

    1986-11-01

    Establishing the reliability of measures taken by judges is important in both clinical and research work. Calculating the statistic of choice, the kappa coefficient, unfortunately is not a particularly quick and simple procedure. Two much-needed practical tools have been developed to overcome these difficulties: a comprehensive and easily understood guide to the manual calculation of the most complex form of the kappa coefficient, weighted kappa for ordinal data, has been written; and a computer program to run under CP/M, PC-DOS and MS-DOS has been developed. With simple modification the program will also run on a Sinclair Spectrum home computer.

  16. Ordinal-Measure Based Shape Correspondence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faouzi Alaya Cheikh

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel approach to shape similarity estimation based on distance transformation and ordinal correlation. The proposed method operates in three steps: object alignment, contour to multilevel image transformation, and similarity evaluation. This approach is suitable for use in shape classification, content-based image retrieval and performance evaluation of segmentation algorithms. The two latter applications are addressed in this papers. Simulation results show that in both applications our proposed measure performs quite well in quantifying shape similarity. The scores obtained using this technique reflect well the correspondence between object contours as humans perceive it.

  17. Ordinal Welfare Comparisons with Multiple Discrete Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Distante, Roberta; Hussain, M. Azhar;

    We develop an ordinal method for making welfare comparisons between populations with multidimensional discrete well-being indicators observed at the micro level. The approach assumes that, for each well-being indicator, the levels can be ranked from worse to better; however, no assumptions are ma...... another on the basis of available binary indicators by drawing upon linear programming theory. These approaches are applied to household survey data from Vietnam and Mozambique with a focus on child poverty comparisons over time and between regions....

  18. Measure and integral with purely ordinal scales

    CERN Document Server

    Denneberg, Dieter

    2008-01-01

    We develop a purely ordinal model for aggregation functionals for lattice valued functions, comprising as special cases quantiles, the Ky Fan metric and the Sugeno integral. For modeling findings of psychological experiments like the reflection effect in decision behaviour under risk or uncertainty, we introduce reflection lattices. These are complete linear lattices endowed with an order reversing bijection like the reflection at 0 on the real interval $[-1,1]$. Mathematically we investigate the lattice of non-void intervals in a complete linear lattice, then the class of monotone interval-valued functions and their inner product.

  19. In situ monitoring of a flash light sintering process using silver nano-ink for producing flexible electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Wan-Ho; Hwang, Hyun-Jun; Lee, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Hak-Sung

    2013-01-01

    In this work, a flash light sintering process using silver nano-inks is investigated. A silver nano-ink pattern was printed on a flexible PET (polyethylene terephthalate) substrate using a gravure-offset printing system. The printed silver nano-ink was sintered at room temperature and under ambient conditions using a flash of light from a xenon lamp using an in-house flash light sintering system. In order to monitor the light sintering process, a Wheatstone bridge electrical circuit was devised and changes in the voltage difference of the silver nano-ink were recorded during the sintering process using an oscilloscope. The sheet resistance changes during the sintering process were monitored using the in situ monitoring system devised, under various light conditions (e.g. light energy, on-time and off-time duration, and pulse numbers). The microstructure of the sintered silver film and the interface between the silver film and the PET substrate were observed using a scanning electron microscope, a focused ion beam and an optical microscope. The electrical sheet resistances of the sintered silver films were measured using a four-point probe method. Using the in situ monitoring system devised, the flash light sintering mechanism was studied for each type of light pulse (e.g. evaporation of organic binder followed by the forming of a neck-like junction and its growth, etc). The optimal flash light sintering condition is suggested on the basis of the in situ monitoring results. The optimized flash light sintering process produces a silver film with a lower sheet resistance (0.95 Ω/sq) compared with that of the thermally sintered silver film (2.03 Ω/sq) without damaging the PET substrate or allowing interfacial delamination between the silver film and the PET substrate.

  20. Expected Performance of the LHC Synchrotron-Light Telescope (BSRT) and Abort-Gap Monitor (BSRA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Alan; /SLAC

    2010-06-07

    This Report presents calculations of the synchrotron light from proton and lead-ion beams in the LHC at all energies from 0.45 to 7 TeV. It computes the emission from three sources: the uniform-field region of the D3 dipole, the dipole's edge field, and the short undulator just upstream. Light emitted at or near visible wavelengths is assessed for making optical measurements of transverse beam profiles and for monitoring the emptiness of the abort gap in the fill pattern. There is sufficient light for both applications, although both species pass through energy ranges in the ramp with small photon counts. Effects limiting image resolution are examined, including geometric optics, depth of field, and diffraction. The Report also considers recent suggestions that the undulator, intended to supplement the dipole for low energies, should not be ramped off at high energies and perhaps should not be used at all. We conclude that the undulator is essential at low energy for both species, but that it is possible to leave the undulator on at the cost of some blurring at intermediate energies.

  1. Expected Performance of the LHC Synchrotron-Light Telescope (BSRT) and Abort-Gap Monitor (BSRA)

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, A S

    2010-01-01

    This Report presents calculations of the synchrotron light from proton and lead-ion beams in the LHC at all energies from 0.45 to 7 TeV. It computes the emission from three sources: the uniform-field region of the D3 dipole, the dipole’s edge field, and the short undulator just upstream. Light emitted at or near visible wavelengths is assessed for making optical measurements of transverse beam profiles and for monitoring the emptiness of the abort gap in the fill pattern. There is sufficient light for both applications, although both species pass through energy ranges in the ramp with small photon counts. Effects limiting image resolution are examined, including geometric optics, depth of field, and diffraction. The Report also considers recent suggestions that the undulator, intended to supplement the dipole for low energies, should not be ramped off at high energies and perhaps should not be used at all. We conclude that the undulator is essential at low energy for both species, but that it is possible to...

  2. Visible-light beam size monitors using synchrotron radiation at CESR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S.T., E-mail: sw565@cornell.edu [Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Science and Education, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Rubin, D.L.; Conway, J.; Palmer, M.; Hartill, D. [Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Science and Education, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Campbell, R.; Holtzapple, R. [Physics Department, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA 93407 (United States)

    2013-03-01

    A beam profile monitor utilizing visible synchrotron radiation (SR) from a bending magnet has been designed and installed in Cornell Electron-Positron Storage Ring (CESR). The monitor employs a double-slit interferometer to measure both the horizontal and vertical beam sizes over a wide range of beam currents. By varying the separation of the slits, beam sizes ranging from 50 to 500 μm can be measured with a resolution of approximately 5 μm. To measure larger beam size (>500 μm), direct imaging can be employed by rotating the double slits away from SR beam path. By imaging the π-polarized component of SR, a small vertical beam size (∼70 μm) was measured during an undulator test run in CESR, which was consistent with the interferometer measurement. To measure the bunch length, a beam splitter is inserted to direct a fraction of light into a streak camera setup. This beam size monitor measures the transverse and longitudinal beam sizes simultaneously, which is successfully used for intrabeam scattering studies. Detailed error analysis is discussed.

  3. The Lick AGN Monitoring Project: Photometric Light Curves and Optical Variability Characteristics

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Jonelle L; Bentz, Misty C; Barth, Aaron J; Baliber, Nairn; Li, Weidong; Stern, Daniel; Bennert, Vardha Nicola; Brown, Timothy M; Canalizo, Gabriela; Filippenko, Alexei V; Gates, Elinor L; Greene, Jenny E; Malkan, Matthew A; Sakata, Yu; Street, Rachel A; Treu, Tommaso; Woo, Jong-Hak; Yoshii, Yuzuru

    2009-01-01

    The Lick AGN Monitoring Project targeted 13 nearby Seyfert 1 galaxies with the intent of measuring the masses of their central black holes using reverberation mapping. The sample includes 12 galaxies selected to have black holes with masses roughly in the range 10^6-10^7 solar masses, as well as the well-studied AGN NGC 5548. In conjunction with a spectroscopic monitoring campaign, we obtained broad-band B and V images on most nights from 2008 February through 2008 May. The imaging observations were carried out by four telescopes: the 0.76-m Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope (KAIT), the 2-m Multicolor Active Galactic Nuclei Monitoring (MAGNUM) telescope, the Palomar 60-in (1.5-m) telescope, and the 0.80-m Tenagra II telescope. Having well-sampled light curves over the course of a few months is useful for obtaining the broad-line reverberation lag and black hole mass, and also allows us to examine the characteristics of the continuum variability. In this paper, we discuss the observational methods and the ph...

  4. A useful method to monitor outputs from a pulsed light source and its application to rate effect studies in a photomultiplier tube

    CERN Document Server

    Takeuchi, Y; Kurashige, H; Matono, Y; Murakami, K; Nomura, T; Sakamoto, H; Sasao, N; Suehiro, M; Fukushima, Y; Ikegami, Y; Nakamura, T T; Taniguchi, T; Asai, M

    1999-01-01

    In order to study short-term gain stability in a photomultiplier tube at high counting rate, we constructed an LED pulsed light source and its output monitoring system. For the monitoring system, we employed a photon counting method using a photomultiplier as a monitor photon detector. It is found that the method offers a simple way to monitor outputs from a pulsed light source and that, together with an LED light source, it provides a useful method to investigate photomultiplier's rate effects.

  5. Using ordinal partition transition networks to analyze ECG data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulp, Christopher W.; Chobot, Jeremy M.; Freitas, Helena R.; Sprechini, Gene D.

    2016-07-01

    Electrocardiogram (ECG) data from patients with a variety of heart conditions are studied using ordinal pattern partition networks. The ordinal pattern partition networks are formed from the ECG time series by symbolizing the data into ordinal patterns. The ordinal patterns form the nodes of the network and edges are defined through the time ordering of the ordinal patterns in the symbolized time series. A network measure, called the mean degree, is computed from each time series-generated network. In addition, the entropy and number of non-occurring ordinal patterns (NFP) is computed for each series. The distribution of mean degrees, entropies, and NFPs for each heart condition studied is compared. A statistically significant difference between healthy patients and several groups of unhealthy patients with varying heart conditions is found for the distributions of the mean degrees, unlike for any of the distributions of the entropies or NFPs.

  6. Incremental Support Vector Learning for Ordinal Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Bin; Sheng, Victor S; Tay, Keng Yeow; Romano, Walter; Li, Shuo

    2015-07-01

    Support vector ordinal regression (SVOR) is a popular method to tackle ordinal regression problems. However, until now there were no effective algorithms proposed to address incremental SVOR learning due to the complicated formulations of SVOR. Recently, an interesting accurate on-line algorithm was proposed for training ν -support vector classification (ν-SVC), which can handle a quadratic formulation with a pair of equality constraints. In this paper, we first present a modified SVOR formulation based on a sum-of-margins strategy. The formulation has multiple constraints, and each constraint includes a mixture of an equality and an inequality. Then, we extend the accurate on-line ν-SVC algorithm to the modified formulation, and propose an effective incremental SVOR algorithm. The algorithm can handle a quadratic formulation with multiple constraints, where each constraint is constituted of an equality and an inequality. More importantly, it tackles the conflicts between the equality and inequality constraints. We also provide the finite convergence analysis for the algorithm. Numerical experiments on the several benchmark and real-world data sets show that the incremental algorithm can converge to the optimal solution in a finite number of steps, and is faster than the existing batch and incremental SVOR algorithms. Meanwhile, the modified formulation has better accuracy than the existing incremental SVOR algorithm, and is as accurate as the sum-of-margins based formulation of Shashua and Levin.

  7. Online analysis of protein inclusion bodies produced in E. coli by monitoring alterations in scattered and reflected light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ude, Christian; Ben-Dov, Nadav; Jochums, André; Li, Zhaopeng; Segal, Ester; Scheper, Thomas; Beutel, Sascha

    2016-05-01

    The online monitoring of recombinant protein aggregate inclusion bodies during microbial cultivation is an immense challenge. Measurement of scattered and reflected light offers a versatile and non-invasive measurement technique. Therefore, we investigated two methods to detect the formation of inclusion bodies and monitor their production: (1) online 180° scattered light measurement (λ = 625 nm) using a sensor platform during cultivation in shake flask and (2) online measurement of the light reflective interference using a porous Si-based optical biosensor (SiPA). It could be shown that 180° scattered light measurement allows monitoring of alterations in the optical properties of Escherichia coli BL21 cells, associated with the formation of inclusion bodies during cultivation. A reproducible linear correlation between the inclusion body concentration of the non-fluorescent protein human leukemia inhibitory factor (hLIF) carrying a thioredoxin tag and the shift ("Δamp") in scattered light signal intensity was observed. This was also observed for the glutathione-S-transferase-tagged green fluorescent protein (GFP-GST). Continuous online monitoring of reflective interference spectra reveals a significant increase in the bacterium refractive index during hLIF production in comparison to a non-induced reference that coincide with the formation of inclusion bodies. These online monitoring techniques could be applied for fast and cost-effective screening of different protein expression systems.

  8. Report from the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Workshop on On-Line Monitoring Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Baldwin; Magdy Tawfik; Leonard Bond

    2010-06-01

    In support of expanding the use of nuclear power, interest is growing in methods of determining the feasibility of longer term operation for the U.S. fleet of nuclear power plants, particularly operation beyond 60 years. To help establish the scientific and technical basis for such longer term operation, the DOE-NE has established a research and development (R&D) objective. This objective seeks to develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of current reactors. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, which addresses the needs of this objective, is being developed in collaboration with industry R&D programs to provide the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe, and economical operation of nuclear power plants. The LWRS Program focus is on longer-term and higher-risk/reward research that contributes to the national policy objectives of energy and environmental security. In moving to identify priorities and plan activities, the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Workshop on On-Line Monitoring (OLM) Technologies was held June 10–12, 2010, in Seattle, Washington. The workshop was run to enable industry stakeholders and researchers to identify the nuclear industry needs in the areas of future OLM technologies and corresponding technology gaps and research capabilities. It also sought to identify approaches for collaboration that would be able to bridge or fill the technology gaps. This report is the meeting proceedings, documenting the presentations and discussions of the workshop and is intended to serve as a basis for a plan which is under development that will enable the I&C research pathway to achieve its goals. Benefits to the nuclear industry accruing from On Line Monitoring Technology cannot be ignored. Information gathered thus far has contributed significantly to the Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. DOE has

  9. Numerical analysis of the beam position monitor pickup for the Iranian light source facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee, M.; Feghhi, S. A. H.; Rahighi, J.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we describe the design of a button type Beam Position Monitor (BPM) for the low emittance storage ring of the Iranian Light Source Facility (ILSF). First, we calculate sensitivities, induced power and intrinsic resolution based on solving Laplace equation numerically by finite element method (FEM), in order to find the potential at each point of BPM's electrode surface. After the optimization of the designed BPM, trapped high order modes (HOM), wakefield and thermal loss effects are calculated. Finally, after fabrication of BPM, it is experimentally tested by using a test-stand. The results depict that the designed BPM has a linear response in the area of 2×4 mm2 inside the beam pipe and the sensitivity of 0.080 and 0.087 mm-1 in horizontal and vertical directions. Experimental results also depict that they are in a good agreement with numerical analysis.

  10. Electromagnetic Coupling Between High Intensity LHC Beams and the Synchrotron Radiation Monitor Light Extraction System

    CERN Document Server

    Andreazza, W; Bravin, E; Caspers, F; Garlasch`e, M; Gras, J; Goldblatt, A; Lefevre, T; Jones, R; Metral, E; Nosych, A; Roncarolo_, F; Salvant, B; Trad, G; Veness, R; Vollinger, C; Wendt, M

    2013-01-01

    The CERN LHC is equipped with two Synchrotron Radiation Monitor (BSRT) systems used to characterise transverse and longitudinal beam distributions. Since the end of the 2011 LHC run the light extraction system, based on a retractable mirror, has suffered deformation and mechanical failure that is correlated to the increase in beam intensity. Temperature probes have associated these observations to a strong heating of the mirror support with a dependence on the longitudinal bunch length and shape, indicating the origin as electromagnetic coupling between the beam and the structure. This paper combines all this information with the aim of characterising and improving the system in view of its upgrade during the current LHC shutdown. Beam-based observations are presented along with electromagnetic and thermomechanical simulations and complemented by laboratory measurements, including the study of the RF properties of different mirror bulk and coating materials.

  11. Lighting

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Lighting Systems Test Facilities aid research that improves the energy efficiency of lighting systems. • Gonio-Photometer: Measures illuminance from each portion of...

  12. Energy-pointwise discrete ordinates transport methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M.L.; Asgari, M.; Tashakorri, R.

    1997-06-01

    A very brief description is given of a one-dimensional code, CENTRM, which computes a detailed, space-dependent flux spectrum in a pointwise-energy representation within the resolved resonance range. The code will become a component in the SCALE system to improve computation of self-shielded cross sections, thereby enhancing the accuracy of codes such as KENO. CENTRM uses discrete-ordinates transport theory with an arbitrary angular quadrature order and a Legendre expansion of scattering anisotropy for moderator materials and heavy nuclides. The CENTRM program provides capability to deterministically compute full energy range, space-dependent angular flux spectra, rigorously accounting for resonance fine-structure and scattering anisotropy effects.

  13. An SPSSR -Menu for Ordinal Factor Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Basto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Exploratory factor analysis is a widely used statistical technique in the social sciences. It attempts to identify underlying factors that explain the pattern of correlations within a set of observed variables. A statistical software package is needed to perform the calculations. However, there are some limitations with popular statistical software packages, like SPSS. The R programming language is a free software package for statistical and graphical computing. It offers many packages written by contributors from all over the world and programming resources that allow it to overcome the dialog limitations of SPSS. This paper offers an SPSS dialog written in theR programming language with the help of some packages, so that researchers with little or no knowledge in programming, or those who are accustomed to making their calculations based on statistical dialogs, have more options when applying factor analysis to their data and hence can adopt a better approach when dealing with ordinal, Likert-type data.

  14. Ordinal Boltzmann Machines for Collaborative Filtering

    CERN Document Server

    Truyen, Tran The; Venkatesh, Svetha

    2012-01-01

    Collaborative filtering is an effective recommendation technique wherein the preference of an individual can potentially be predicted based on preferences of other members. Early algorithms often relied on the strong locality in the preference data, that is, it is enough to predict preference of a user on a particular item based on a small subset of other users with similar tastes or of other items with similar properties. More recently, dimensionality reduction techniques have proved to be equally competitive, and these are based on the co-occurrence patterns rather than locality. This paper explores and extends a probabilistic model known as Boltzmann Machine for collaborative filtering tasks. It seamlessly integrates both the similarity and co-occurrence in a principled manner. In particular, we study parameterisation options to deal with the ordinal nature of the preferences, and propose a joint modelling of both the user-based and item-based processes. Experiments on moderate and large-scale movie recomm...

  15. The possible order L'ordine possibile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Saverio Chesi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    La questione dell’ordine sembra porsi in termini ineludibili per una riflessione che, muovendo dalla kantiana logica della relazione, sappia cogliere - nel gioco tra Analitica e Dialettica - la portata metafisica del metodo analogico. Nondimeno, la tensione dell’intero arco categoriale verso la modalità porta poi a rifocalizzare la questione stessa come domanda sul nesso tempo, spazio, possibilità.

    The question of order inevitably proposes a reflection aiming at comprehending, from the play between Analytic and Dialectic, the metaphysical significance of the analogical method, the start point being Kant’s logic of relationship. Nevertheless, the tension of the entire categorical arc toward modality leads to refocus the question on the connection among time, space, and possibility.

  16. Small-angle light scattering by airborne particulates: Environnement S.A. continuous particulate monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Thaury, Claire; Mineau, Jean-Luc; Gaubicher, Bertrand

    2010-08-01

    Airborne particulate matter may have an effect on human health. It is therefore necessary to determine and control in real time the evolution of the concentration and mass of particulates in the ambient air. These parameters can be obtained using optical methods. We propose here a new instrument, 'CPM' (continuous particulate monitor), for the measurement of light scattered by ambient particulates at small angles. This geometry allows simultaneous and separate detections of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 fractions of airborne particulate matter, with no influence of their chemical nature and without using theoretical calculations. The ambient air is collected through a standard sampling head (PM10 inlet according to EN 12341, PM2.5 inlet according to EN 14907; or PM1, TSP inlets, standard US EPA inlets). The analysis of the first measurements demonstrates that this new instrument can detect, for each of the seven defined size ranges, real-time variations of particulate content in the ambient air. The measured concentrations (expressed in number per liter) can be converted into total mass concentrations (expressed in micrograms per cubic meter) of all fractions of airborne particulate matters sampled by the system. Periodic comparison with a beta-attenuation mass monitor (MP101M Beta Gauge Analyzer from Environnement S.A. company) allows the calculation of a calibration factor as a function of the mean particulate density that is used for this conversion. It is then possible to provide real-time relative variations of aerosol mass concentration.

  17. Monitoring of transient cavitation induced by ultrasound and intense pulsed light in presence of gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazgarnia, Ameneh; Shanei, Ahmad; Shanei, Mohammad Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important challenges in medical treatment is invention of a minimally invasive approach in order to induce lethal damages to cancer cells. Application of high intensity focused ultrasound can be beneficial to achieve this goal via the cavitation process. Existence of the particles and vapor in a liquid decreases the ultrasonic intensity threshold required for cavitation onset. In this study, synergism of intense pulsed light (IPL) and gold nanoparticles (GNPs) has been investigated as a means of providing nucleation sites for acoustic cavitation. Several approaches have been reported with the aim of cavitation monitoring. We conducted the experiments on the basis of sonochemiluminescence (SCL) and chemical dosimetric methods. The acoustic cavitation activity was investigated by determining the integrated SCL signal acquired over polyacrylamide gel phantoms containing luminol in the presence and absence of GNPs in the wavelength range of 400-500 nm using a spectrometer equipped with cooled charged coupled devices (CCD) during irradiation by different intensities of 1 MHz ultrasound and IPL pulses. In order to confirm these results, the terephthalic acid chemical dosimeter was utilized as well. The SCL signal recorded in the gel phantoms containing GNPs at different intensities of ultrasound in the presence of intense pulsed light was higher than the gel phantoms without GNPs. These results have been confirmed by the obtained data from the chemical dosimetry method. Acoustic cavitation in the presence of GNPs and intense pulsed light has been suggested as a new approach designed for decreasing threshold intensity of acoustic cavitation and improving targeted therapeutic effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Monitoring deep twist drilling for a rapid manufacturing of light high-strength parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    López de Lacalle, L. N.; Fernández, A.; Olvera, D.; Lamikiz, A.; Olvera, D.; Rodríguez, C.; Elias, A.

    2011-10-01

    In this work the manufacturing of high strength and/or high functional components is presented, using a new technique based on considerably long twist drills, called Deep Twist Drilling (DTD). This technology opens a rapid and economical method to manufacture parts for structural applications. Components made with this technique can reach high mass reduction and better stress distribution in comparison with welding or bolted parts with the same weight. However the application of DTD must be optimized to improve the reliability of the process and to make it economically feasible. In order to reach it, previous optimization by process monitoring was performed in AISI 1045, stainless steels, Ti6Al4V and nodular cat iron GGG70(AISI A536, SAE-ASTM 100-70-03). These materials are commonly used for structural applications in several sectors. Monitoring opened the way to improve cutting conditions and allow the application of the DTD technique focusing on a new design concept. In the same way monitoring makes drilling process reliable enough to be systematically used in industrial applications by a controlled increase of the performance demanded from the tool. In this manner, not only the objective to produce high-strength and light pieces is achieved, but also a high repetitive process is reached. In this research work a case of study is presented. A monolithic satellite-type component, its mass were reduced from 25 to 4.5 kg. The structural behavior of the component was studied under FEM analysis and the results showed high strength to compression and shear forces. During the machining of this element there was a serious risk of drill breakage due to the depth of the holes and crossing points between them; however, the previous process optimization eliminated this drawback. As a matter of fact, this paper brings out a good example where manufacturing technology allows a better performance of mechanical components within the philosophy of "new processes drive to new

  19. Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, N.B.; Kristensen, Helle Halkjær; Wathes, C.M.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter presents the effect of artificial light environments (light levels, colour, photoperiod and flicker) on the welfare of broilers in terms of vision, behaviour, lameness and mortality......This chapter presents the effect of artificial light environments (light levels, colour, photoperiod and flicker) on the welfare of broilers in terms of vision, behaviour, lameness and mortality...

  20. TRACKING DYNAMIC CHANGES AND MONITORING SOCIOECONOMIC PARAMETERS IN ALGERIA BETWEEN 1993 AND 2012, USING NIGHTTIME LIGHT REMOTE SENSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Faouzi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on using DMSP-OLS data from satellites nighttime light observations to detect both sources of light emissions in Algeria from human settlement areas and gas flaring from oil-extraction and natural gas production. We used the time series of data from DMSP-OLS images to examine the spatial and temporal characteristics of urban development in 48 Algerian provinces from 1993 to 2012. A systematic nighttime light calibration method was used to improve the consistency and comparability of the DSMPOSL images and then a separation is made between light detected from human settlements and light detected from gas flaring in order to allow us to study human settlements without other light emissions and then assess the suitability of using DMSP data in southern Algeria and its ability to monitor gas flaring. Linear regression methods were developed to identify the dynamic change of nighttime light and estimated its growth directions at pixel level. This work is the first to use nighttime light observations to detect and monitor the growth of human settlements in North Africa. In this study, we made use of DMSP-OLS data as a return ticket to the years of crises and we found the most affected provinces during that period. The DMSP-OLS data proved to be an index of growth in the economy during the period of stability in Algeria expressed by positive dynamic changes in the lighted area in all Algerian provinces. We used NTL data as an alternative to annual growth indexes for each province, which are unavailable, and its help as a monitoring system for socioeconomic parameters to fill the gap of data availability. We also proposed nighttime light remote sensing data as a useful tool to control and reduce CO2 emissions in Algeria’s petroleum sector.

  1. Un enfoque ordinal para medir la pobreza Poverty: an ordinal approach to measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Amartya

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Este articulo se propone un nuevo indicador de pobreza que evita algunas deficiencias de los indicadores que hoy utilizan. Para deducir el indicador se utiliza un enfoque axiomático. La concepción de bienestar usada para establecer el conjunto de axiomas es ordinal. La información requerida para el nuevo indicador es bastante limitada, lo que permite su utilización practica.The primary aim of this paper is to propose a new measure of poverty, which should avoid some of the shortcomings of the mea sures currently in use. An axiomatic approach is used to derive the measure. The conception of welfare in the axiom set is ordinal. The information required for the new measure is quite limited, permitting practical use.

  2. Value of serum free light chain testing for the diagnosis and monitoring of monoclonal gammopathies in hematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannath, Sundar

    2007-09-01

    The automated quantification of serum free kappa and lambda light chain concentrations provides a highly sensitive tool for the diagnosis and monitoring of monoclonal gammopathies. An abnormal kappa:lambda ratio supports the presence of clonal plasma cell expansion and requires further investigation. More than 94% of myeloma, light chain myeloma, and AL amyloidosis and, likewise, a majority of patients with light chain deposition disease are detectable with this technology. Importantly, these assays identify M-proteins in most patients with oligosecretory disease and permit their recruitment into clinical trials from which they have been previously excluded. Combining serum free light chain testing with traditional electrophoresis provides > 99% accuracy in the first-line diagnosis of monoclonal gammopathies and eliminates the need for urine testing in most instances. One third of patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance have an abnormal free light chain ratio, and these patients harbor a greater risk of progression to plasma cell dyscrasia. For monitoring response to therapy, the international uniform response criteria define a normal free light chain ratio as an essential element of the "stringent complete response" category. Because the half-life of free light chains is chain measurements at short sampling intervals allow real-time measurement of treatment-induced tumor kill, and provide prompt indications of chemosensitivity, dose adequacy, need for alternative approaches, and even prognosis, as demonstrated in AL amyloidosis if the involved free light chain concentration normalizes. Clinical applications of these assays will likely increase as their utility is more widely explored.

  3. Proposed Ordinance for the Regulation of Cable Television. Working Draft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicago City Council, IL.

    A model ordinance is proposed for the regulation of cable television in the city of Chicago. It defines the language of the ordinance, sets forth the method of granting franchises, and describes the terms of the franchises. The duties of a commission to regulate cable television are listed and the method of selecting commission members is…

  4. Fermi co-ordinates and relativistic effects in non-inertial frames

    CERN Document Server

    Nikolic, H

    2000-01-01

    Fermi co-ordinates are proper co-ordinates of a local observer determined by his trajectory in space-time. Two observers at different positions belong to different Fermi frames even if there is no relative motion between them. Use of Fermi co-ordinates leads to several physical conclusions related to relativistic effects seen by observers in arbitrary motion. In flat space-time, the relativistic length seen by an observer depends only on his instantaneous velocity, not on his acceleration or rotation. In arbitrary space-time, for any observer the velocity of light is isotropic and equal to $c$, provided that it is measured by propagating a light beam in a small neighbourhood of the observer. The value of a covariant field measured at the position of the observer depends only on his instantaneous position and velocity, not on his acceleration. The notion of radiation is observer independent. A "freely" falling charge in curved space-time does not move along a geodesic and therefore radiates.

  5. Kepler monitoring of an L dwarf I. The photometric period and white light flares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gizis, John E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Burgasser, Adam J. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Science, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Berger, Edo; Williams, Peter K. G. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Vrba, Frederick J. [US Naval Observatory, Flagstaff Station, 10391 West Naval Observatory Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Cruz, Kelle L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hunter College, City University of New York, 695 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Metchev, Stanimir [Department of Physics and Astronomy, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States)

    2013-12-20

    We report on the results of 15 months of monitoring the nearby field L1 dwarf WISEP J190648.47+401106.8 (W1906+40) with the Kepler mission. Supporting observations with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array and Gemini North Telescope reveal that the L dwarf is magnetically active, with quiescent radio and variable Hα emission. A preliminary trigonometric parallax shows that W1906+40 is at a distance of 16.35{sub −0.34}{sup +0.36} pc, and all observations are consistent with W1906+40 being an old disk star just above the hydrogen-burning limit. The star shows photometric variability with a period of 8.9 hr and an amplitude of 1.5%, with a consistent phase throughout the year. We infer a radius of 0.92 ± 0.07R{sub J} and sin i > 0.57 from the observed period, luminosity (10{sup –3.67} {sup ±} {sup 0.03} L {sub ☉}), effective temperature (2300 ± 75 K), and vsin i (11.2 ± 2.2 km s{sup –1}). The light curve may be modeled with a single large, high latitude dark spot. Unlike many L-type brown dwarfs, there is no evidence of other variations at the ≳ 2% level, either non-periodic or transient periodic, that mask the underlying rotation period. We suggest that the long-lived surface features may be due to starspots, but the possibility of cloud variations cannot be ruled out without further multi-wavelength observations. During the Gemini spectroscopy, we observed the most powerful flare ever seen on an L dwarf, with an estimated energy of ∼1.6 × 10{sup 32} erg in white light emission. Using the Kepler data, we identify similar flares and estimate that white light flares with optical/ultraviolet energies of 10{sup 31} erg or more occur on W1906+40 as often as 1-2 times per month.

  6. Semi-supervised learning for ordinal Kernel Discriminant Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ortiz, M; Gutiérrez, P A; Carbonero-Ruz, M; Hervás-Martínez, C

    2016-12-01

    Ordinal classification considers those classification problems where the labels of the variable to predict follow a given order. Naturally, labelled data is scarce or difficult to obtain in this type of problems because, in many cases, ordinal labels are given by a user or expert (e.g. in recommendation systems). Firstly, this paper develops a new strategy for ordinal classification where both labelled and unlabelled data are used in the model construction step (a scheme which is referred to as semi-supervised learning). More specifically, the ordinal version of kernel discriminant learning is extended for this setting considering the neighbourhood information of unlabelled data, which is proposed to be computed in the feature space induced by the kernel function. Secondly, a new method for semi-supervised kernel learning is devised in the context of ordinal classification, which is combined with our developed classification strategy to optimise the kernel parameters. The experiments conducted compare 6 different approaches for semi-supervised learning in the context of ordinal classification in a battery of 30 datasets, showing (1) the good synergy of the ordinal version of discriminant analysis and the use of unlabelled data and (2) the advantage of computing distances in the feature space induced by the kernel function.

  7. Urbanization Process Monitoring in Northwest China based on DMSP/OLS Nighttime Light Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K.; Bai, L. Y.; Feng, J. Z.

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, the DMSP/OLS nighttime light data have been widely applied to various fields such as monitoring and evaluation of urbanization, estimation of social economy, economical environment and health effects, hazards analysis, and fisheries research. The general urbanized level in China has rapidly developed since the 1990s, and the cities in northwest China, which were important population centres of the ancient silk road, have also been developed in a high speed thanks to China’s national strategy of Western Development. Given the Xinjiang autonomous region as a core area of One Belt and One Road, it is very necessary to study the urbanization processes and changes of its urban system and the whole northwest region of China. In this paper, we extracted built-up areas of the cities in northwest China in 1992, 1997, 2002, 2007, and 2012, evaluated urban expansion and spatial pattern through appropriate indexes, and also quantitatively analyzed the urbanized level of each city. The results showed that the cities in northwest China generally presented high strong and rapid expansion, but there were some large differences among cities. Urban expansion forms alternate with exterior expansion and interior filling, in general, the cities externally expandedafter 2002 and internally filledbefore 2002, meanwhile, there were a high positive correlation between urban built-up areas and population growth in Xinjiang autonomous.

  8. Monitoring paddy rice crops through remote sensing: productivity estimation by light use efficiency model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschetti, Mirco; Mauri, Emanuela; Gadda, Chiara; Busetto, Lorenzo; Confalonieri, Roberto; Bocchi, Stefano; Brivio, Pietro A.

    2004-10-01

    Rice is one of the most important crops in the whole world, providing staple food for more than 3000 million people. For this reason FAO declared the year 2004 as The International Year of Rice promoting initiatives and researches on this valuable crop. Assessing the Net Primary Production (NPP) is fundamental to support a sustainable development and to give crop yield forecast essential to food security policy. Crop growth models can be useful tools for estimating growth, development and yield but require complex spatial distributed input parameters to produce valuable map. Light use efficiency (LUE) models, using satellite-borne data to achieve daily surface parameters, represent an alternative approach able to monitor differences in vegetation compound providing spatial distributed NPP maps. An experiment aimed at testing the capability of a LUE model using daily MODIS data to estimate rice crop production was conducted in a rice area of Northern Italy. Direct LAI measurements and indirect LAI2000 estimation were collected on different fields during the growing season to define a relationship with MODIS data. An hyperspectral MIVIS image was acquired in early July on the experimental site to provide high spatial resolution information on land cover distribution. LUE-NPP estimations on several fields were compared with CropSyst model outputs and field biomass measurements. A comparison of different methods performance is presented and relative advantages and drawbacks in spatialization are discussed.

  9. Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring: Five Decades of More Light and Less Shadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Fernando; Mion Junior, Décio

    2016-01-01

    Casual blood pressure measurements have been extensively questioned over the last five decades. A significant percentage of patients have different blood pressure readings when examined in the office or outside it. For this reason, a change in the paradigm of the best manner to assess blood pressure has been observed. The method that has been most widely used is the Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring - ABPM. The method allows recording blood pressure measures in 24 hours and evaluating various parameters such as mean BP, pressure loads, areas under the curve, variations between daytime and nighttime, pulse pressure variability etc. Blood pressure measurements obtained by ABPM are better correlated, for example, with the risks of hypertension. The main indications for ABPM are: suspected white coat hypertension and masked hypertension, evaluation of the efficacy of the antihypertensive therapy in 24 hours, and evaluation of symptoms. There is increasing evidence that the use of ABPM has contributed to the assessment of blood pressure behaviors, establishment of diagnoses, prognosis and the efficacy of antihypertensive therapy. There is no doubt that the study of 24-hour blood pressure behavior and its variations by ABPM has brought more light and less darkness to the field, which justifies the title of this review. PMID:27168473

  10. The Lick AGN Monitoring Project 2011: Spectroscopic Campaign and Emission-Line Light Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Barth, A J; Canalizo, G; Filippenko, A V; Gates, E L; Greene, J E; Li, W; Malkan, M A; Pancoast, A; Sand, D J; Stern, D; Treu, T; Woo, J -H; Assef, R J; Bae, H -J; Brewer, B J; Cenko, S B; Clubb, K I; Cooper, M C; Diamond-Stanic, A M; Hiner, K D; Hoenig, S F; Hsiao, E; Kandrashoff, M T; Lazarova, M S; Nierenberg, A M; Rex, J; Silverman, J M; Tollerud, E J; Walsh, J L

    2015-01-01

    In the Spring of 2011 we carried out a 2.5 month reverberation mapping campaign using the 3 m Shane telescope at Lick Observatory, monitoring 15 low-redshift Seyfert 1 galaxies. This paper describes the observations, reductions and measurements, and data products from the spectroscopic campaign. The reduced spectra were fitted with a multicomponent model in order to isolate the contributions of various continuum and emission-line components. We present light curves of broad emission lines and the AGN continuum, and measurements of the broad H-beta line widths in mean and root-mean square (rms) spectra. For the most highly variable AGNs we also measured broad H-beta line widths and velocity centroids from the nightly spectra. In four AGNs exhibiting the highest variability amplitudes, we detect anticorrelations between broad H-beta width and luminosity, demonstrating that the broad-line region "breathes" on short timescales of days to weeks in response to continuum variations. We also find that broad H-beta ve...

  11. Kepler Monitoring of an L Dwarf I. The Photometric Period and White Light Flares

    CERN Document Server

    Gizis, John E; Berger, Edo; Williams, Peter K G; Vrba, Frederick J; Cruz, Kelle L; Metchev, Stanimir

    2013-01-01

    We report on the results of fifteen months of monitoring the nearby field L1 dwarf WISEP J190648.47+401106.8 (W1906+40) with the Kepler mission. Supporting observations with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array and Gemini North telescope reveal that the L dwarf is magnetically active, with quiescent radio and variable H$\\alpha$ emission. A preliminary trigonometric parallax shows that W1906+40 is at a distance of $16.35^{+0.36}_{-0.34}$ pc, and all observations are consistent with W1906+40 being an old disk star just above the hydrogen-burning limit. The star shows photometric variability with a period of 8.9 hours and an amplitude of 1.5%, with a consistent phase throughout the year. We infer a radius of $0.92 \\pm 0.07 R_J$ and $\\sin i > 0.57$ from the observed period, luminosity ($10^{-3.67 \\pm 0.03} L_\\odot$), effective temperature ($2300 \\pm 75$K), and $v \\sin i$ ($11.2 \\pm 2.2$ km/s). The light curve may be modeled with a single large, high latitude dark spot. Unlike many L-type brown dwarfs, there is no ...

  12. Interpretation of digital chest radiographs: Comparison of light emitting diode versus cold cathode fluorescent lamp backlit monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Hyun Ju; Chung, Myung Jin; Lee, Gee Won; Yie, Miyeon; Shin, Kyung Eun; Moon, Jung Won; Lee, Kyung Soo [Dept. of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    To compare the diagnostic performance of light emitting diode (LED) backlight monitors and cold cathode fluorescent lamp (CCFL) monitors for the interpretation of digital chest radiographs. We selected 130 chest radiographs from health screening patients. The soft copy image data were randomly sorted and displayed on a 3.5 M LED (2560 x 1440 pixels) monitor and a 3 M CCFL (2048 x 1536 pixels) monitor. Eight radiologists rated their confidence in detecting nodules and abnormal interstitial lung markings (ILD). Low dose chest CT images were used as a reference standard. The performance of the monitor systems was assessed by analyzing 2080 observations and comparing them by multi-reader, multi-case receiver operating characteristic analysis. The observers reported visual fatigue and a sense of heat. Radiant heat and brightness of the monitors were measured. Measured brightness was 291 cd/m{sup 2} for the LED and 354 cd/m{sup 2} for the CCFL monitor. Area under curves for nodule detection were 0.721 ± 0.072 and 0.764 ± 0.098 for LED and CCFL (p = 0.173), whereas those for ILD were 0.871 ± 0.073 and 0.844 ± 0.068 (p = 0.145), respectively. There were no significant differences in interpretation time (p = 0.446) or fatigue score (p = 0.102) between the two monitors. Sense of heat was lower for the LED monitor (p = 0.024). The temperature elevation was 6.7 degree C for LED and 12.4 degree C for the CCFL monitor. Although the LED monitor had lower maximum brightness compared with the CCFL monitor, soft copy reading of the digital chest radiographs on LED and CCFL showed no difference in terms of diagnostic performance. In addition, LED emitted less heat.

  13. PASTIS 57: Autonomous light sensors for PAI continuous monitoring. Principles, calibration and application to vegetation phenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecerf, R.; Baret, F.; Hanocq, J.; Marloie, O.; Rautiainen, M.; Mottus, M.; Heiskanen, J.; Stenberg, P.

    2010-12-01

    The LAI (Leaf Area Index) is a key variable to analyze and model vegetation and its interactions with atmosphere and soils. The LAI maps derived from remote sensing images are often validated with non-destructive LAI measures obtained from digital hemispherical photography, LAI-2000 or ceptometer instruments. These methods are expensive and time consuming particularly when human intervention is needed. Consequently it is difficult to acquire overlapping field data and remotely sensed LAI. There is a need of a cheap, autonomous, easy to use ground system to measure foliage development and senescence at least with a daily frequency in order to increase the number of validation sites where vegetation phenology is continuously monitored. A system called PASTIS-57 (PAI Autonomous System from Transmittance Instantaneous Sensors oriented at 57°) devoted to PAI (Plant Area Index) ground measurements was developed to answer this need. PASTIS-57 consists in 6 sensors plugged on one logger that record data with a sampling rate of 1 to few minutes (tunable) with up to 3 months autonomy (energy and data storage). The sensors are plugged to the logger with 2x10m wires, 2x6m wires and 2x2m wires. The distance between each sensor was determined to obtain a representative spatial sampling over a 20m pixel corresponding to an Elementary Sampling Unit (ESU). The PASTIS-57 sensors are made of photodiodes that measure the incoming light in the blue wavelength to maximize the contrast between vegetation and sky and limit multiple scattering effects in the canopy. The diodes are oriented to the north to avoid direct sun light and point to a zenithal angle of 57° to minimize leaf angle distribution and plant clumping effects. The field of view of the diodes was set to ± 20° to take into consideration vegetation cover heterogeneity and to minimize environmental effects. The sensors were calibrated after recording data on a clear view site during a week. After calibration, the sensors

  14. Implementation of Palm Print Biometric Identification System Using Ordinal Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.K. Narendira Kumar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Personal identification is one of the most important requirements in all e-commerce and criminal detection applications. In this framework, a novel palm print representation method, namely orthogonal line ordinal features, is proposed. The palm print registration, feature extraction, palm print verification and palm print recognition modules are designed to manage the palm prints and the palm print database module is designed to store their palm prints and the person details in the database. The feature extraction module is proposed to extract the ordinal measurements for the palm prints. The verification module is designed to verify the palm print with the personal identification record. The recognition module is proposed to find out the relevant person associated with the palm print image. The proposed palm print recognition scheme uses the intensity and brightness to measure the ordinal measurement. The ordinal measures are estimated for the 4 x 4 regions of the palm print images.

  15. The Lick AGN Monitoring Project 2011: Spectroscopic Campaign and Emission-line Light Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Aaron J.; Bennert, Vardha N.; Canalizo, Gabriela; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Gates, Elinor L.; Greene, Jenny E..; Li, Weidong; Malkan, Matthew A.; Pancoast, Anna; Sand, David J.; Stern, Daniel; Cenko, S. Bradley

    2016-01-01

    In the Spring of 2011 we carried out a 2.5 month reverberation mapping campaign using the 3 m Shane telescope at Lick Observatory, monitoring 15 low-redshift Seyfert 1 galaxies. This paper describes the observations, reductions and measurements, and data products from the spectroscopic campaign. The reduced spectra were fitted with a multicomponent model in order to isolate the contributions of various continuum and emission-line components. We present light curves of broad emission lines and the active galactic nucleus (AGN) continuum, and measurements of the broad Hß line widths in mean and rms spectra. For the most highly variable AGNs we also measured broad H beta line widths and velocity centroids from the nightly spectra. In four AGNs exhibiting the highest variability amplitudes, we detect anticorrelations between broad H beta width and luminosity, demonstrating that the broad-line region "breathes" on short timescales of days to weeks in response to continuum variations. We also find that broad H beta velocity centroids can undergo substantial changes in response to continuum variations; in NGC 4593, the broad H beta velocity shifted by approximately 250 km s(exp -1) over a 1 month period. This reverberation-induced velocity shift effect is likely to contribute a significant source of confusion noise to binary black hole searches that use multi-epoch quasar spectroscopy to detect binary orbital motion. We also present results from simulations that examine biases that can occur in measurement of broad-line widths from rms spectra due to the contributions of continuum variations and photon-counting noise.

  16. THE LICK AGN MONITORING PROJECT 2011: SPECTROSCOPIC CAMPAIGN AND EMISSION-LINE LIGHT CURVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, Aaron J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, University of California, Irvine, CA, 92697-4575 (United States); Bennert, Vardha N. [Physics Department, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA 93407 (United States); Canalizo, Gabriela [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Filippenko, Alexei V.; Li, Weidong [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Gates, Elinor L. [Lick Observatory, P.O. Box 85, Mount Hamilton, CA 95140 (United States); Greene, Jenny E. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Malkan, Matthew A.; Treu, Tommaso [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Pancoast, Anna [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Sand, David J. [Texas Tech University, Physics Department, Box 41051, Lubbock, TX 79409-1051 (United States); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Woo, Jong-Hak [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Assef, Roberto J. [Núcleo de Astronomía de la Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército Libertador 441, Santiago (Chile); Bae, Hyun-Jin [Department of Astronomy and Center for Galaxy Evolution Research, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Brewer, Brendon J. [Department of Statistics, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Cenko, S. Bradley [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, MC 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); and others

    2015-04-15

    In the Spring of 2011 we carried out a 2.5 month reverberation mapping campaign using the 3 m Shane telescope at Lick Observatory, monitoring 15 low-redshift Seyfert 1 galaxies. This paper describes the observations, reductions and measurements, and data products from the spectroscopic campaign. The reduced spectra were fitted with a multicomponent model in order to isolate the contributions of various continuum and emission-line components. We present light curves of broad emission lines and the active galactic nucleus (AGN) continuum, and measurements of the broad Hβ line widths in mean and rms spectra. For the most highly variable AGNs we also measured broad Hβ line widths and velocity centroids from the nightly spectra. In four AGNs exhibiting the highest variability amplitudes, we detect anticorrelations between broad Hβ width and luminosity, demonstrating that the broad-line region “breathes” on short timescales of days to weeks in response to continuum variations. We also find that broad Hβ velocity centroids can undergo substantial changes in response to continuum variations; in NGC 4593, the broad Hβ velocity shifted by ∼250 km s{sup −1} over a 1 month period. This reverberation-induced velocity shift effect is likely to contribute a significant source of confusion noise to binary black hole searches that use multi-epoch quasar spectroscopy to detect binary orbital motion. We also present results from simulations that examine biases that can occur in measurement of broad-line widths from rms spectra due to the contributions of continuum variations and photon-counting noise.

  17. Multimodal Imaging and Lighting Bias Correction for Improved μPAD-based Water Quality Monitoring via Smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, Katherine E; Angus, Scott V; Reynolds, Kelly A; Yoon, Jeong-Yeol

    2016-06-10

    Smartphone image-based sensing of microfluidic paper analytical devices (μPADs) offers low-cost and mobile evaluation of water quality. However, consistent quantification is a challenge due to variable environmental, paper, and lighting conditions, especially across large multi-target μPADs. Compensations must be made for variations between images to achieve reproducible results without a separate lighting enclosure. We thus developed a simple method using triple-reference point normalization and a fast-Fourier transform (FFT)-based pre-processing scheme to quantify consistent reflected light intensity signals under variable lighting and channel conditions. This technique was evaluated using various light sources, lighting angles, imaging backgrounds, and imaging heights. Further testing evaluated its handle of absorbance, quenching, and relative scattering intensity measurements from assays detecting four water contaminants - Cr(VI), total chlorine, caffeine, and E. coli K12 - at similar wavelengths using the green channel of RGB images. Between assays, this algorithm reduced error from μPAD surface inconsistencies and cross-image lighting gradients. Although the algorithm could not completely remove the anomalies arising from point shadows within channels or some non-uniform background reflections, it still afforded order-of-magnitude quantification and stable assay specificity under these conditions, offering one route toward improving smartphone quantification of μPAD assays for in-field water quality monitoring.

  18. Multimodal Imaging and Lighting Bias Correction for Improved μPAD-based Water Quality Monitoring via Smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, Katherine E.; Angus, Scott V.; Reynolds, Kelly A.; Yoon, Jeong-Yeol

    2016-06-01

    Smartphone image-based sensing of microfluidic paper analytical devices (μPADs) offers low-cost and mobile evaluation of water quality. However, consistent quantification is a challenge due to variable environmental, paper, and lighting conditions, especially across large multi-target μPADs. Compensations must be made for variations between images to achieve reproducible results without a separate lighting enclosure. We thus developed a simple method using triple-reference point normalization and a fast-Fourier transform (FFT)-based pre-processing scheme to quantify consistent reflected light intensity signals under variable lighting and channel conditions. This technique was evaluated using various light sources, lighting angles, imaging backgrounds, and imaging heights. Further testing evaluated its handle of absorbance, quenching, and relative scattering intensity measurements from assays detecting four water contaminants - Cr(VI), total chlorine, caffeine, and E. coli K12 - at similar wavelengths using the green channel of RGB images. Between assays, this algorithm reduced error from μPAD surface inconsistencies and cross-image lighting gradients. Although the algorithm could not completely remove the anomalies arising from point shadows within channels or some non-uniform background reflections, it still afforded order-of-magnitude quantification and stable assay specificity under these conditions, offering one route toward improving smartphone quantification of μPAD assays for in-field water quality monitoring.

  19. Overstatement in happiness reporting with ordinal, bounded scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Saori C; Yamada, Katsunori; Kitada, Ryo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Sugawara, Sho K; Ohtake, Fumio; Sadato, Norihiro

    2016-02-18

    There are various methods by which people can express subjective evaluations quantitatively. For example, happiness can be measured on a scale from 1 to 10, and has been suggested as a measure of economic policy. However, there is resistance to these types of measurement from economists, who often regard welfare to be a cardinal, unbounded quantity. It is unclear whether there are differences between subjective evaluation reported on ordinal, bounded scales and on cardinal, unbounded scales. To answer this question, we developed functional magnetic resonance imaging experimental tasks for reporting happiness from monetary gain and the perception of visual stimulus. Subjects tended to report higher values when they used ordinal scales instead of cardinal scales. There were differences in neural activation between ordinal and cardinal reporting scales. The posterior parietal area showed greater activation when subjects used an ordinal scale instead of a cardinal scale. Importantly, the striatum exhibited greater activation when asked to report happiness on an ordinal scale than when asked to report on a cardinal scale. The finding that ordinal (bounded) scales are associated with higher reported happiness and greater activation in the reward system shows that overstatement bias in happiness data must be considered.

  20. Light

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2003-01-01

    Why is left right and right left in the mirror? Baffled by the basics of reflection and refraction? Wondering just how the eye works? If you have trouble teaching concepts about light that you don t fully grasp yourself, get help from a book that s both scientifically accurate and entertaining with Light. By combining clear explanations, clever drawings, and activities that use easy-to-find materials, this book covers what science teachers and parents need to know to teach about light with confidence. It uses ray, wave, and particle models of light to explain the basics of reflection and refraction, optical instruments, polarization of light, and interference and diffraction. There s also an entire chapter on how the eye works. Each chapter ends with a Summary and Applications section that reinforces concepts with everyday examples. Whether you need a deeper understanding of how light bends or a good explanation of why the sky is blue, you ll find Light more illuminating and accessible than a college textbook...

  1. Using Surfer 8® to Interpret Light Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid Monitoring Data: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Biesterveld, Andrew C.; Schneiter, R. Wane; Marsh, Raymond W.

    2004-01-01

    Remediation of aviation fuel present in the subsurface as light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) occurred from 1982 to 1996 at a facility in an industrial section of a small city in eastern Asia. An undetermined amount of the aviation fuel had leaked from underground storage tanks into the unconfined aquifer for an unknown, but extended, period. The release was discovered in 1981, and 57 monitoring wells were eventually constructed, along with a non-aqueous phase liquid r...

  2. 25 CFR 522.8 - Publication of class III ordinance and approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Publication of class III ordinance and approval. 522.8... AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.8 Publication of class III ordinance and approval. The Chairman shall publish a class III tribal...

  3. 25 CFR 522.6 - Approval requirements for class III ordinances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Approval requirements for class III ordinances. 522.6... AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.6 Approval requirements for class III ordinances. No later than 90 days after the submission to the Chairman under §...

  4. Monitoring light hydrocarbons in Brazilian coal mines and in confined coal samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Rosangela [Pos-Graduation Program in Materials Engineering and Technology, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Pires, Marcal [Pos-Graduation Program in Materials Engineering and Technology, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Faculty of Chemistry, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Azevedo, Carla M.N. [Faculty of Chemistry, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Fagundes, Leandro [P and D Consultoria (Brazil); Garavaglia, Luciane; Gomes, Cleber J.B. [SATC, Associacao Beneficente da Industria Carbonifera de Santa Catarina, CTCL, Technological Center of Clean Coal (Brazil)

    2010-12-01

    Monitoring light hydrocarbons (LHCs) in coal mines, particularly methane, is important not only because of their implications for global climate change but also for economic and safety reasons. Furthermore, the identification and quantification of LHCs in coal mine air samples and desorbed from confined coal may contribute to a better understanding of coal seam characteristics. The paucity of information about the levels of methane in Brazilian underground coal mines can be attributed to their difficult access and a lack of adequate procedures for correct gas sampling. The aim of this study is to optimize and apply standard gas chromatography procedures to determine LHC levels in the air of coal mines and in confined coal from five mines under operation, three underground (A, B, C) and two surface (D, E) mines, in southern Brazil. The results indicate methane (C{sub 1}) levels varying from 3 ppm to 27% in the atmosphere of the underground mines. Mine A presented high levels of all LHCs analyzed (C{sub 1} to C{sub 5}), while only C{sub 1} and C{sub 2} were detected in mine B, and hydrocarbons ranging from C{sub 1} to C{sub 4} were found in mine C. On the other hand, surface mines presented narrow concentration range for C{sub 1} (3 ppm to 470 ppm) and C{sub 2}-C{sub 3}, with higher levels observed for puncture explosive points. Among LHCs, methane is desorbed in higher concentrations from confined coals and the presence of C{sub 2} was detected in all samples while C{sub 3}-C{sub 5} were only observed in coals from underground mines. These data are consistent with those obtained from the air gas samples collected in the mines under study. Geological events such as faulting and intrusions can accelerate the release of gas or the trapping of large amounts of previously released methane. The LHC emissions from coal mines were found to be highly variable, indicating the need for a comprehensive survey of Brazilian coal mine emissions. (author)

  5. Demonstration of long-distance hazard-free wearable EEG monitoring system using mobile phone visible light communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachim, Vega Pradana; Jiang, Yubing; Lee, Hyeon-Seok; Chung, Wan-Young

    2017-01-23

    A wearable electroencephalogram (EEG) is a small mobile device used for long-term brain monitoring systems. Applications of these systems include fatigue monitoring, mental/emotional monitoring, and brain-computer interfaces. However, the usage of wireless wearable EEG systems is limited due to the risks posed by the wireless RF communication radiation in a long-term exposure to the human brain. A novel microwave radiation-free system was developed by integrating visible light communication technology into a wearable EEG device. In this work, we investigated the system's performance in transmitting EEG data at different illuminance level and proposed an algorithm that functions at low illuminance levels for increased transmission distance. Using a 30 Hz smartphone camera, the proposed system was able to transmit 2.4 kbps of error-free EEG data up to 4 meter, which is equal to ~300 lux using an aspheric focus lens.

  6. Light

    CERN Document Server

    Ditchburn, R W

    2011-01-01

    This classic study, available for the first time in paperback, clearly demonstrates how quantum theory is a natural development of wave theory, and how these two theories, once thought to be irreconcilable, together comprise a single valid theory of light. Aimed at students with an intermediate-level knowledge of physics, the book first offers a historical introduction to the subject, then covers topics such as wave theory, interference, diffraction, Huygens' Principle, Fermat's Principle, and the accuracy of optical measurements. Additional topics include the velocity of light, relativistic o

  7. Manipulating and Monitoring On-Surface Biological Reactions by Light-Triggered Local pH Alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretz-Soroka, Hagit; Pevzner, Alexander; Davidi, Guy; Naddaka, Vladimir; Kwiat, Moria; Huppert, Dan; Patolsky, Fernando

    2015-07-08

    Significant research efforts have been dedicated to the integration of biological species with electronic elements to yield smart bioelectronic devices. The integration of DNA, proteins, and whole living cells and tissues with electronic devices has been developed into numerous intriguing applications. In particular, the quantitative detection of biological species and monitoring of biological processes are both critical to numerous areas of medical and life sciences. Nevertheless, most current approaches merely focus on the "monitoring" of chemical processes taking place on the sensing surfaces, and little efforts have been invested in the conception of sensitive devices that can simultaneously "control" and "monitor" chemical and biological reactions by the application of on-surface reversible stimuli. Here, we demonstrate the light-controlled fine modulation of surface pH by the use of photoactive molecularly modified nanomaterials. Through the use of nanowire-based FET devices, we showed the capability of modulating the on-surface pH, by intensity-controlled light stimulus. This allowed us simultaneously and locally to control and monitor pH-sensitive biological reactions on the nanodevices surfaces, such as the local activation and inhibition of proteolytic enzymatic processes, as well as dissociation of antigen-antibody binding interactions. The demonstrated capability of locally modulating the on-surface effective pH, by a light stimuli, may be further applied in the local control of on-surface DNA hybridization/dehybridization processes, activation or inhibition of living cells processes, local switching of cellular function, local photoactivation of neuronal networks with single cell resolution and so forth.

  8. In situ monitoring of flash-light sintering of copper nanoparticle ink for printed electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hyun-Jun; Chung, Wan-Ho; Kim, Hak-Sung

    2012-12-07

    In this work, a flash-light sintering process for Cu nanoinks was studied. In order to precisely monitor the milliseconds flash-light sintering process, a real-time Wheatstone bridge electrical circuit and a high-rate data acquisition system were used. The effects of several flash-light irradiation conditions (irradiation energy, pulse number, on-time, and off-time) and the effects of the amount of poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) in the Cu nanoink on the flash-light sintering process were investigated. The microstructures of the sintered Cu films were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. To investigate the oxidation or reduction of the oxide-covered copper nanoparticles, a crystal phase analysis using x-ray diffraction was performed. In addition, the sheet resistance of Cu film was measured using a four-point probe method. From this study, it was found that the flash-light sintered Cu nanoink films have a conductivity of 72 Ωm/sq without any damage to the polyimide substrate. Similar nanoinks are expected to be widely used in printed and flexible electronics products in the near future.

  9. Quenching the radiation induced luminescence in quartz fibers under light monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Demenkov, P V; Stepanov, V A; Stepanov, P A

    2002-01-01

    Measurements of the luminescence intensity in the optical fiber with the quartz glass core by the reactor pulsed irradiation in the visible range are carried out. Decrease in the intensity of the radiation-induced luminescence with growth of the sounding light intensity is determined by sounding the light guide by the laser radiation (the wave length of 532 and 632 nm). The decrease in the luminescence intensity takes place by the wave lengths greater, smaller or equal to the sounding light wave length

  10. Communication Pathways in the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Online Monitoring Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nancy J. Lybeck; Magdy S. Tawfik; Binh T. Pham; Vivek Agarwal; Jamie Coble

    2011-09-01

    Implementation of online monitoring and prognostics in existing U.S. nuclear power plants will involve coordinating the efforts of national laboratories, utilities, universities, and private companies. Large amounts of operational data, including failure data, are necessary for the development and calibration of diagnostic and prognostic algorithms. The ability to use data from all available resources will provide the most expeditious avenue to implementation of online monitoring in existing NPPs; however, operational plant data are often considered proprietary. Secure methods for transferring and storing data are discussed, along with a potential technology for implementation of online monitoring.

  11. Co-ordination Action on Ocean Energy (CA-OE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James; Frigaard, Peter

    In October 2004, the Co-ordination Action on Ocean Energy (CA-OE) was launched, co-financed by the European Commission, under the Renewable Energy Technologies priority within the 6th Framework programme, contract number 502701, chaired by Kim Nielsen, Rambøll, Denmark. The project involves 41...... partners. In general the public is not aware of the development of ocean energy and its exploitation. There is a need to make a united effort from the developers and research community to present the various principles and results in a coordinated manner with public appeal. The main objectives of the Co......-ordination Action on Ocean Energy are: To develop a common knowledge base necessary for coherent research and development policiesTo bring a co-ordinated approach within key areas of ocean energy research and development.To provide a forum for the longer term marketing of promising research developments...

  12. Co-ordination Action on Ocean Energy (CA-OE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James; Frigaard, Peter

    In October 2004, the Co-ordination Action on Ocean Energy (CA-OE) was launched, co-financed by the European Commission, under the Renewable Energy Technologies priority within the 6th Framework programme, contract number 502701, chaired by Kim Nielsen, Rambøll, Denmark. The project involves 41...... partners. In general the public is not aware of the development of ocean energy and its exploitation. There is a need to make a united effort from the developers and research community to present the various principles and results in a coordinated manner with public appeal. The main objectives of the Co......-ordination Action on Ocean Energy are: To develop a common knowledge base necessary for coherent research and development policiesTo bring a co-ordinated approach within key areas of ocean energy research and development.To provide a forum for the longer term marketing of promising research developments...

  13. An Ordination of the Vegetation of Ntshongweni, Natal*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Morris

    1969-12-01

    Full Text Available The physiography, soils, climate and dense woody vegetation are briefly described for Ntshongweni, a cone-shaped hill in Natal, South Africa (29° 51' S and 30° 43' E. A primary ordination of the woody plants, based on Bray & Curtis’s (1957 method, was carried out using 60 quadrats. Four stand noda were delimited and another four noda within a secondary ordination of a cluster of quadrats which could not be interpreted within the primary ordination. Edaphic and atmospheric moisture conditions and slope aspect were proposed as the main site factors correlated with species performance. Tables of density, local frequency and constancy for species occurring in each nodum were drawn up.

  14. Short-wavelength light beam in situ monitoring growth of InGaN/GaN green LEDs by MOCVD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaojuan; Li, Dabing; Song, Hang; Chen, Yiren; Jiang, Hong; Miao, Guoqing; Li, Zhiming

    2012-05-31

    In this paper, five-period InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well green light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition with 405-nm light beam in situ monitoring system. Based on the signal of 405-nm in situ monitoring system, the related information of growth rate, indium composition and interfacial quality of each InGaN/GaN QW were obtained, and thus, the growth conditions and structural parameters were optimized to grow high-quality InGaN/GaN green LED structure. Finally, a green LED with a wavelength of 509 nm was fabricated under the optimal parameters, which was also proved by ex situ characterization such as high-resolution X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, and electroluminescence. The results demonstrated that short-wavelength in situ monitoring system was a quick and non-destroyed tool to provide the growth information on InGaN/GaN, which would accelerate the research and development of GaN-based green LEDs.

  15. Ordinal pattern statistics for the assessment of heart rate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, G.; Graff, B.; Kaczkowska, A.; Makowiec, D.; Amigó, J. M.; Piskorski, J.; Narkiewicz, K.; Guzik, P.

    2013-06-01

    The recognition of all main features of a healthy heart rhythm (the so-called sinus rhythm) is still one of the biggest challenges in contemporary cardiology. Recently the interesting physiological phenomenon of heart rate asymmetry has been observed. This phenomenon is related to unbalanced contributions of heart rate decelerations and accelerations to heart rate variability. In this paper we apply methods based on the concept of ordinal pattern to the analysis of electrocardiograms (inter-peak intervals) of healthy subjects in the supine position. This way we observe new regularities of the heart rhythm related to the distribution of ordinal patterns of lengths 3 and 4.

  16. An ordinal model of the McGurk illusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Audiovisual information is integrated in speech perception. One manifestation of this is the McGurk illusion in which watching the articulating face alters the auditory phonetic percept. Understanding this phenomenon fully requires a computational model with predictive power. Here, we describe...... model it also employed 30 free parameters where the ordinal model needed only 14. Testing the predictive power of the models using a form of cross-validation we found that, although both models performed rather poorly, the ordinal model performed better than the FLMP. Based on these findings we suggest...

  17. Open Method of Co-Ordination for Demoi-Cracy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Radaelli, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Under which conditions does the open method of co-ordination match the standards for demoi-cracy? To answer this question, we need some explicit standards about demoi-cracy. In fact, open co-ordination serves three different but interrelated purposes in European Union policy: to facilitate...... considering the empirical evidence on how normative principles hit the road of implementation. In the final part of this paper, we look into the demoi-cratic effects of the Eurozone's economic and financial crisis on our findings....

  18. Projected discrete ordinates methods for numerical transport problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, E.W.

    1985-01-01

    A class of Projected Discrete-Ordinates (PDO) methods is described for obtaining iterative solutions of discrete-ordinates problems with convergence rates comparable to those observed using Diffusion Synthetic Acceleration (DSA). The spatially discretized PDO solutions are generally not equal to the DSA solutions, but unlike DSA, which requires great care in the use of spatial discretizations to preserve stability, the PDO solutions remain stable and rapidly convergent with essentially arbitrary spatial discretizations. Numerical results are presented which illustrate the rapid convergence and the accuracy of solutions obtained using PDO methods with commonplace differencing methods.

  19. IoT and Public Weather Data Based Monitoring & Control Software Development for Variable Color Temperature LED Street Lights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gandeva Bayu Satrya

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Light Emitting Diode (LED is quickly becoming the latest technology in the application of lighting on streets. By combining the concept of Internet of Things (IoT and LED streetlight, this paper aims to apply the concept of microservices architecture so that the development process can be agile and scalable on demand. This paper also describes the integration between the hardware of LED and Application Program Interface (API SKPlanet, airkorea and OpenStreetMap then displays it to the user via a web browser on PC or on mobile via http access. Furthermore, we implemented the monitoring of a smart sensor interface with the Internet can be seen from the administrator or smartphone.

  20. A voice from the margins: Investigating the African Adventist rationale on the quest for female ordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca J. Lagat

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Discussions surrounding women�s ordination reached a peak with the 60th General Conference Session (GCS 2015 of the Seventh-day Adventist (SDA Church. A report compiled by a section of delegates from the East-Central Africa Division � Biblical Research Committee indicated that this continent was not yet ready to ordain women as pastors. In light of the report, this article aims to investigate the rationale of such a stark decision. Firstly, the report shows that African Adventist women theologians were omitted from the discussions � a lack of good will from the church leadership towards the females as the majority of the membership. Secondly, the decision against ordination of women is suspect and biblically inconclusive. Through an overview of literature on a biblical missional design, the article postulates: Contextualisation and theologising are necessary for Africa, but the SDA Church must remember that globally both theology and culture are subject to the biblical guidelines, and thus to God�s missio Dei as well.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: This article balances cultural contextualism and gender relations � challenging a cultural bias through a missional hermeneutic. This can lead to fairer representation of African women in Adventist church structures and reroute the equality discourse in light of the missio Dei. The study intersects with cultural theory, social analysis and biblical hermeneutics.�

  1. All-sky brightness monitoring of light pollution with astronomical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabaza, O; Galadí-Enríquez, D; Estrella, A Espín; Dols, F Aznar

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes a mobile prototype and a protocol to measure light pollution based on astronomical methods. The prototype takes three all-sky images using BVR filters of the Johnson-Cousins astronomical photometric system. The stars are then identified in the images of the Hipparcos and General Catalogue of Photometric Data II astronomical catalogues, and are used as calibration sources. This method permits the measurement of night-sky brightness and facilitates an estimate of which fraction is due to the light up-scattered in the atmosphere by a wide variety of man-made sources. This is achieved by our software, which compares the sky background flux to that of many stars of known brightness. The reduced weight and dimensions of the prototype allow the user to make measurements from virtually any location. This prototype is capable of measuring the sky distribution of light pollution, and also provides an accurate estimate of the background flux at each photometric band.

  2. A Mega-project on Space Weather Monitoring Gets the Green Light

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ A 200-million-yuan ($25 million) mega-project of science research on space weather monitoring, namely the Meridian Space Weather Moni toting Project (Meridian Project for short), proposed by several research institutes and universities in China has been approved recently by the Chinese government.

  3. Roadside Judgments in Children with Developmental Co-ordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Catherine; Wann, John P.; Wilmut, Kate; Poulter, Damian

    2011-01-01

    As pedestrians, the perceptual ability to accurately judge the relative rate of approaching vehicles and select a suitable crossing gap requires sensitivity to looming. It also requires that crossing judgments are synchronized with motoric capabilities. Previous research has suggested that children with Developmental Co-ordination Disorder (DCD)…

  4. Modeling and evaluating repeatability and reproducibility of ordinal classifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. de Mast; W.N. van Wieringen

    2010-01-01

    This paper argues that currently available methods for the assessment of the repeatability and reproducibility of ordinal classifications are not satisfactory. The paper aims to study whether we can modify a class of models from Item Response Theory, well established for the study of the reliability

  5. 32 CFR 510.1 - Private ministrations, sacraments, and ordinances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ordinances. Chaplains will conduct or arrange for appropriate burial services at the interment of members of... may perform the marriage rite, provided he complies with the civil law of the place where the marriage.... Chaplains will administer or arrange for rites and sacraments for military personnel and civilians...

  6. When Can Information from Ordinal Scale Variables Be Integrated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Simon; Grace, Randolph C.

    2010-01-01

    Many theoretical constructs of interest to psychologists are multidimensional and derive from the integration of several input variables. We show that input variables that are measured on ordinal scales cannot be combined to produce a stable weakly ordered output variable that allows trading off the input variables. Instead a partial order is…

  7. Indoor smoking ordinances in workplaces and public places in Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, John S; Davis, Ken; Nazir, Niaman; Dunton, Nancy; Winn, Kimberly; Jacquot, Sandy; Moler, Don

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the preferences of elected city officials regarding the need for a statewide clean indoor air law and to analyze the content of local smoking ordinances. A survey of elected officials in 57 larger Kansas cities obtained information on the perceived need for statewide legislation, venues to be covered, and motivating factors. Clean indoor air ordinances from all Kansas cities were analyzed by venue. The survey response rate was 190 out of 377 (50.4%) for elected officials. Over 70% of the respondents favored or strongly favored greater restrictions on indoor smoking. Sixty percent favored statewide legislation. Among these, over 80% favored restrictions in health care facilities, theaters, indoor sports arenas (including bowling alleys), restaurants, shopping malls, lobbies, enclosed spaces in outdoor arenas, and hotel/motel rooms. Officials who had never smoked favored a more restrictive approach. Employee and public health concerns were cited as influential by 76%-79% of respondents. Thirty-eight ordinances, covering over half of the state's population, were examined. They varied considerably in their exemptions. Official's attitudes toward smoking regulations were associated with their smoking status. The examination of existing ordinances revealed a piecemeal approach to smoking regulations.

  8. Exploiting Monotonicity Constraints in Active Learning for Ordinal Classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soons, Pieter; Feelders, Adrianus

    2014-01-01

    We consider ordinal classication and instance ranking problems where each attribute is known to have an increasing or decreasing relation with the class label or rank. For example, it stands to reason that the number of query terms occurring in a document has a positive in uence on its relevance to

  9. Preference score of units in the presence of ordinal data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahanshahloo, G.R.; Soleimani-damaneh, M. [Department of Mathematics, Teacher Training University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mostafaee, A. [Department of Mathematics, North-Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: mostafaee_m@yahoo.com

    2009-01-15

    This study deals with the ordinal data in the performance analysis framework and provides a weight-restricted DEA model to obtain the preference score of each unit under assessment. The obtained scores are used to rank DMUs. Furthermore, to decrease the complexity of the provided model, the number of the constraints is decreased by some linear transformations.

  10. The anti-Manichaean theodicy of Augustine's De ordine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-04-10

    Apr 10, 2013 ... Therese Fuhrer. Email: therese.fuhrer@fu-berlin.de. Postal address: Institut für ... Milan, I have selected De ordine for my study for two reasons. Firstly, in this ..... reflections and to perceive the rule-governed character of the.

  11. Monitoring the Erosion of Hydrolytically-Degradable Nanogels via Multiangle Light Scattering Coupled to Asymmetrical Flow Field-Flow Fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael H.; South, Antoinette B.; Gaulding, Jeffrey C.; Lyon, L. Andrew

    2009-01-01

    We describe the synthesis and characterization of degradable nanogels that display bulk erosion under physiologic conditions (pH = 7.4, 37 °C). Erodible poly(N-isopropylmethacrylamide) nanogels were synthesized by copolymerization with N,O-(dimethacryloyl)hydroxylamine, a cross-linker previously used in the preparation of non-toxic and biodegradable bulk hydrogels. To monitor particle degradation, we employed multiangle light scattering and differential refractometry detection following asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation. This approach allowed the detection of changes in nanogel molar mass and topology as a function of both temperature and pH. Particle erosion was evident from both an increase in nanogel swelling and a decrease in scattering intensity as a function of time. Following these analyses, the samples were recovered for subsequent characterization by direct particle tracking, which yields hydrodynamic size measurements and enables number density determination. Additionally, we confirmed the conservation of nanogel stimuli-responsivity through turbidity measurements. Thus, we have demonstrated the synthesis of degradable nanogels that erode under conditions and on timescales that are relevant for many drug delivery applications. The combined separation and light scattering detection method is demonstrated to be a versatile means to monitor erosion and should also find applicability in the characterization of other degradable particle constructs. PMID:20000662

  12. Biological and physical dosimeters for monitoring solar UV-B light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusawa, Y; Suzuki, K; Sasaki, M

    1990-06-01

    A biological dosimetry system for measuring solar UV-B light was established using bacteriophage T1 with E. coli Bs-1 as the host cell. Also a new physical UV-B dosimeter was developed which can specifically detect the UV spectral region related to inactivation of phage T1. Phage T1 is very stable in liquid suspension and it has adequate sensitivity to measure the intensity of solar UV-B. In addition, the survival of phage T1 responded linearly to UV fluences when plotted semi-logarithmic ally. Thus T1 seemed to have characteristic features making it suitable material as a biological dosimeter for sunlight. Outdoor experiments throughout one year showed that the mean amount of solar UV light in summer was about 6 fold larger than that in winter at Isehara (139.5 degrees E, 35.5 degrees N), Japan. A novel physical dosimeter which responds faithfully to UV-B light under atmospheric conditions on the ground was developed as well. The spectral response was very close to that of biological materials. Readings of this UV-B dosimeter could be converted into the efficiency of sunlight upon biological materials. This instrument is compact; it can also be used as an erythemal dosimeter.

  13. Motion estimation accuracy for visible-light/gamma-ray imaging fusion for portable portal monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnowski, Thomas P.; Cunningham, Mark F.; Goddard, James S.; Cheriyadat, Anil M.; Hornback, Donald E.; Fabris, Lorenzo; Kerekes, Ryan A.; Ziock, Klaus-Peter; Gee, Timothy F.

    2010-01-01

    The use of radiation sensors as portal monitors is increasing due to heightened concerns over the smuggling of fissile material. Portable systems that can detect significant quantities of fissile material that might be present in vehicular traffic are of particular interest. We have constructed a prototype, rapid-deployment portal gamma-ray imaging portal monitor that uses machine vision and gamma-ray imaging to monitor multiple lanes of traffic. Vehicles are detected and tracked by using point detection and optical flow methods as implemented in the OpenCV software library. Points are clustered together but imperfections in the detected points and tracks cause errors in the accuracy of the vehicle position estimates. The resulting errors cause a "blurring" effect in the gamma image of the vehicle. To minimize these errors, we have compared a variety of motion estimation techniques including an estimate using the median of the clustered points, a "best-track" filtering algorithm, and a constant velocity motion estimation model. The accuracy of these methods are contrasted and compared to a manually verified ground-truth measurement by quantifying the rootmean- square differences in the times the vehicles cross the gamma-ray image pixel boundaries compared with a groundtruth manual measurement.

  14. Can we detect, monitor, and characterize volcanic activity using 'off the shelf' webcams and low-light cameras?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrild, M.; Webley, P. W.; Dehn, J.

    2015-12-01

    The ability to detect and monitor precursory events, thermal signatures, and ongoing volcanic activity in near-realtime is an invaluable tool. Volcanic hazards often range from low level lava effusion to large explosive eruptions, easily capable of ejecting ash to aircraft cruise altitudes. Using ground based remote sensing to detect and monitor this activity is essential, but the required equipment is often expensive and difficult to maintain, which increases the risk to public safety and the likelihood of financial impact. Our investigation explores the use of 'off the shelf' cameras, ranging from computer webcams to low-light security cameras, to monitor volcanic incandescent activity in near-realtime. These cameras are ideal as they operate in the visible and near-infrared (NIR) portions of the electromagnetic spectrum, are relatively cheap to purchase, consume little power, are easily replaced, and can provide telemetered, near-realtime data. We focus on the early detection of volcanic activity, using automated scripts that capture streaming online webcam imagery and evaluate each image according to pixel brightness, in order to automatically detect and identify increases in potentially hazardous activity. The cameras used here range in price from 0 to 1,000 and the script is written in Python, an open source programming language, to reduce the overall cost to potential users and increase the accessibility of these tools, particularly in developing nations. In addition, by performing laboratory tests to determine the spectral response of these cameras, a direct comparison of collocated low-light and thermal infrared cameras has allowed approximate eruption temperatures to be correlated to pixel brightness. Data collected from several volcanoes; (1) Stromboli, Italy (2) Shiveluch, Russia (3) Fuego, Guatemala (4) Popcatépetl, México, along with campaign data from Stromboli (June, 2013), and laboratory tests are presented here.

  15. A Rational Decision Maker with Ordinal Utility under Uncertainty: Optimism and Pessimism

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Ji

    2009-01-01

    In game theory and artificial intelligence, decision making models often involve maximizing expected utility, which does not respect ordinal invariance. In this paper, the author discusses the possibility of preserving ordinal invariance and still making a rational decision under uncertainty.

  16. Monitoring sarcomere structure changes in whole muscle using diffuse light reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, JinJun; Weaver, Amanda; Gerrard, David E.; Yao, Gang

    2006-07-01

    Normal biomechanical and physiological functions of striated muscles are facilitated by the repeating sarcomere units. Light scattering technique has been used in studying single extracted muscle fibers. However, few studies, if any, have been conducted to investigate the possibility of using optical detection to examine sarcomere structure changes in whole muscles. We conducted a series of experiments to demonstrate that optical scattering properties measured in whole muscle are related to changes in sarcomere structure. These results suggest that photon migration technique has a potential for characterizing in vivo tissue ultrastructure changes in whole muscle.

  17. 77 FR 10547 - Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas-First Amended Beer and Liquor Tax Ordinance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... among other things, beer, ale, stout, lager beer, porter and other malt or brewed liquors. (8) ``Liquor... Bureau of Indian Affairs Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas--First Amended Beer and Liquor Tax Ordinance... to the Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas' Beer and Liquor Tax Ordinance. The Ordinance regulates...

  18. 25 CFR 522.7 - Disapproval of a class III ordinance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disapproval of a class III ordinance. 522.7 Section 522.7 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.7 Disapproval of a class...

  19. Canoco reference manual and user's guide: software for ordination, version 5.0

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braak, ter C.J.F.; Smilauer, P.

    2012-01-01

    Canoco is a software package for multivariate data analysis, with an emphasis on dimesional reduction (ordination), regression analysis, and the combination of the two, constrained ordination. Canoco makes effective and powerful ordination methods easilyt accessible for scientists wanting to infer a

  20. Night and days in Cassiciacum: The anti-Manichaean theodicy of Augustine’s De ordine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese Fuhrer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In his early dialogue ‘On order’ (De ordine Augustine dramatises a discussion of theodicy in which the Manichaean solution is clearly rejected, even though the debate ends in aporia. It is argued in this paper that the dialogue’s dramatic setting at the villa in Cassiciacum is strongly reminiscent of Manichaean imagery and the stock motifs of the Manichaean mythological system. It is proposed in the dialogue itself, that the scenic elements (Augustine’s ill health, night and darkness, the dawning day, dirt and ugliness, fighting cocks have the character of signs which illustrate the significance of the not-beautiful and the negative in the divine order. The dialogue setting thus presents an ontological scale that leads from the levels of reduced being up to the highest being, linking night or darkness to light or day, dirt to purity, sickness to health, defeat to victory, the ugly to the beautiful. The dialogue setting becomes a semiotic system in which even the ontologically deficient forms of phenomenon always also refer to something at the highest level, namely the omnipotent divine creator. The scenic design of De ordine can thus be read as an extension of the Manichaean system of codes, and hence as a message also addressed to a Manichaean readership.

  1. Parameters Estimation of Geographically Weighted Ordinal Logistic Regression (GWOLR) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuhdi, Shaifudin; Retno Sari Saputro, Dewi; Widyaningsih, Purnami

    2017-06-01

    A regression model is the representation of relationship between independent variable and dependent variable. The dependent variable has categories used in the logistic regression model to calculate odds on. The logistic regression model for dependent variable has levels in the logistics regression model is ordinal. GWOLR model is an ordinal logistic regression model influenced the geographical location of the observation site. Parameters estimation in the model needed to determine the value of a population based on sample. The purpose of this research is to parameters estimation of GWOLR model using R software. Parameter estimation uses the data amount of dengue fever patients in Semarang City. Observation units used are 144 villages in Semarang City. The results of research get GWOLR model locally for each village and to know probability of number dengue fever patient categories.

  2. An Ordinal Index on the Space of Strictly Singular Operators

    CERN Document Server

    Beanland, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Using the notion of $S_\\xi$-strictly singular operator introduced by Androulakis, Dodos, Sirotkin and Troitsky, we define an ordinal index on the subspace of strictly singular operators between two separable Banach spaces. In our main result, we provide a sufficient condition implying that this index is bounded by $\\omega_1$. In particular, we apply this result to study operators on totally incomparable spaces, hereditarily indecomposable spaces and spaces with few operators.

  3. Co-ordination in the autonomous software agents’ systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Madejski

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Agents are designed to behave individually rational, which means that they should maximize their personal utility which is the way to make them less vulnerable to mean actions of others, yet they have to co-ordinate their actions to reach common goals, which is the purpose of this work.Design/methodology/approach: Agents can create and pursue their individual goals, behaving in a ‘selfish’ way to acquire the desired state of their world. To achieve that they may choose to adopt goals of other agents too, should this co-ordination be assessed as beneficial for them. Moreover, there is also a possibility to define the desired states of the agents in a way which will induce them to work together rather than try to operate individually. This may include their specialization, which forces in most cases sharing of their potential. This may be achieved by specialised design of agents being able to carry out elementary tasks. Such approach calls however, for design of a layer of supervisory agents which will be capable of realising what is the multi-agent overall system goal, setting up their teams from simple agents and committing to common sub-goals. All such systems may be efficiently developed only after careful study of the successfully operating systems in which humans are the agents, whose tasks may now be assigned to the software ones. These agents have to be coupled, as it also happens in their human counterparts.Findings: Development of the software agents’ co-operation framework based on review of publications covering both the fundamental considerations, as well as the latest developments.Research limitations/implications: Approach presented still needs careful testing and refinement of theco-ordination / negotiation rules.Originality/value: Co-ordination of agents to reach their common goal, satisfying also their individual utility

  4. Monitoring and scoring counter-diffusion protein crystallization experiments in capillaries by in situ dynamic light scattering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Oberthuer

    Full Text Available In this paper, we demonstrate the feasibility of using in situ Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS to monitor counter-diffusion crystallization experiments in capillaries. Firstly, we have validated the quality of the DLS signal in thin capillaries, which is comparable to that obtained in standard quartz cuvettes. Then, we have carried out DLS measurements of a counter-diffusion crystallization experiment of glucose isomerase in capillaries of different diameters (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mm in order to follow the temporal evolution of protein supersaturation. Finally, we have compared DLS data with optical recordings of the progression of the crystallization front and with a simulation model of counter-diffusion in 1D.

  5. Monitoring and scoring counter-diffusion protein crystallization experiments in capillaries by in situ dynamic light scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberthuer, Dominik; Melero-García, Emilio; Dierks, Karsten; Meyer, Arne; Betzel, Christian; Garcia-Caballero, Alfonso; Gavira, Jose A

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the feasibility of using in situ Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) to monitor counter-diffusion crystallization experiments in capillaries. Firstly, we have validated the quality of the DLS signal in thin capillaries, which is comparable to that obtained in standard quartz cuvettes. Then, we have carried out DLS measurements of a counter-diffusion crystallization experiment of glucose isomerase in capillaries of different diameters (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mm) in order to follow the temporal evolution of protein supersaturation. Finally, we have compared DLS data with optical recordings of the progression of the crystallization front and with a simulation model of counter-diffusion in 1D.

  6. Human Age Estimation Based on Locality and Ordinal Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changsheng; Liu, Qingshan; Dong, Weishan; Zhu, Xiaobin; Liu, Jing; Lu, Hanqing

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel feature selection-based method for facial age estimation. The face aging is a typical temporal process, and facial images should have certain ordinal patterns in the aging feature space. From the geometrical perspective, a facial image can be usually seen as sampled from a low-dimensional manifold embedded in the original high-dimensional feature space. Thus, we first measure the energy of each feature in preserving the underlying local structure information and the ordinal information of the facial images, respectively, and then we intend to learn a low-dimensional aging representation that can maximally preserve both kinds of information. To further improve the performance, we try to eliminate the redundant local information and ordinal information as much as possible by minimizing nonlinear correlation and rank correlation among features. Finally, we formulate all these issues into a unified optimization problem, which is similar to linear discriminant analysis in format. Since it is expensive to collect the labeled facial aging images in practice, we extend the proposed supervised method to a semi-supervised learning mode including the semi-supervised feature selection method and the semi-supervised age prediction algorithm. Extensive experiments are conducted on the FACES dataset, the Images of Groups dataset, and the FG-NET aging dataset to show the power of the proposed algorithms, compared to the state-of-the-arts.

  7. Exploring Local and Overall Ordinal Information for Robust Feature Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenhua; Fan, Bin; Wang, Gang; Wu, Fuchao

    2016-11-01

    This paper aims to build robust feature descriptors by exploring intensity order information in a patch. To this end, the local intensity order pattern (LIOP) and the overall intensity order pattern (OIOP) are proposed to effectively encode intensity order information of each pixel in different aspects. Specifically, LIOP captures the local ordinal information by using the intensity relationships among all the neighbouring sampling points around a pixel, while OIOP exploits the coarsely quantized overall intensity order of these sampling points. These two kinds of patterns are then separately aggregated into different ordinal bins, leading to two kinds of feature descriptors. Furthermore, as these two kinds of descriptors could encode complementary ordinal information, they are combined together to obtain a discriminative and compact mixed intensity order pattern descriptor. All these descriptors are constructed on the basis of relative relationships of intensities in a rotationally invariant way, making them be inherently invariant to image rotation and any monotonic intensity changes. Experimental results on image matching and object recognition are encouraging, demonstrating the superiorities of our descriptors over the state of the art.

  8. Quantitative spectral light scattering polarimetry for monitoring fractal growth pattern of Bacillus thuringiensis bacterial colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Paromita; Soni, Jalpa; Ghosh, Nirmalya; Sengupta, Tapas K.

    2013-02-01

    It is of considerable current interest to develop various methods which help to understand and quantify the cellular association in growing bacterial colonies and is also important in terms of detection and identification of a bacterial species. A novel approach is used here to probe the morphological structural changes occurring during the growth of the bacterial colony of Bacillus thuringiensis under different environmental conditions (in normal nutrient agar, in presence of glucose - acting as additional nutrient and additional 3mM arsenate as additional toxic material). This approach combines the quantitative Mueller matrix polarimetry to extract intrinsic polarization properties and inverse analysis of the polarization preserving part of the light scattering spectra to determine the fractal parameter H (Hurst exponent) using Born approximation. Interesting differences are observed in the intrinsic polarization parameters and also in the Hurst exponent, which is a measurement of the fractality of a pattern formed by bacteria while growing as a colony. These findings are further confirmed with optical microscopic studies of the same sample and the results indicate a very strong and distinct dependence on the environmental conditions during growth, which can be exploited to quantify different bacterial species and their growth patterns.

  9. Bifunctional AgCl/Ag composites for SERS monitoring and low temperature visible light photocatalysis degradation of pollutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lihong; Zhu, Junyi; Xia, Guangqing

    2014-12-01

    With the assistance of Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), AgCl/Ag composites were fabricated in N, N-Dimethylformamide (DMF) solvent via a photoactivated route. The size of AgCl particles was in the range of 500 nm to 1 μm and the Ag particle's diameter was about 10-20 nm. Different from those core-shell structures reported before, the Ag nanoparticles were dispersed uniformly both on the surface and in the body of AgCl particles. The generation of such kind of composites was resulted from the reducing ability of DMF and light irradiation during the formation of AgCl particles. The as-obtained AgCl/Ag composites presented great activity for both surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection and visible light photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes. Additionally, the AgCl/Ag composites could maintain high photocatalytic activity even though the ambient temperature was as low as 15 °C and recycle photocatalysis experiments indicated that the photocatalyst exhibited higher stability. Such kind of AgCl/Ag composites holds great potential for environmental monitoring devices and pollutant treatments.

  10. Developing a User Reported Measure of Care Co-ordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Crump

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Older people with chronic conditions often receive poor care because of the fragmented way in which their services are delivered from multiple sources. Providers have limited tools to directly capture the views of older people about their experiences of care co-ordination. The study aim was to design and test a survey tool to capture the experiences of older people with chronic conditions regarding how well their health and (where applicable social care was co-ordinated. Method: To inform the questionnaire development, we reviewed the literature on existing surveys and care co-ordination theory, and on the health status of our target audience (people aged 65 or over with one or more chronic conditions and not in hospital or residential institutions. We also consulted stakeholders including those working in health and social care services and those with expertise in the subject area. We grouped questions around experiences of care in three dimensions: care in the home environment, planned transitions in care and unplanned situations. We also designed the questions so they could be mapped onto three recognised dimensions of continuity of care – management continuity, information continuity and relational continuity – as articulated in the international literature. The questionnaire was tested using focus groups and cognitive interviews and piloted with people aged 65 and over with at least one chronic condition, using a postal survey. We used service user records in 32 general practices located in four areas and a population database held by one local authority in England as the sampling frame. Results: The pilot achieved an overall response rate of 27.6% (n = 562 responses. Ninety five percent of respondents answered 30 or more of the 46 questions and three respondents answered fewer than 10 questions. Twenty four items achieved one or more positive correlations greater than 0.5 with other survey items and four instances of

  11. Monitoring the Stability of Perfluorocarbon Nanoemulsions by Cryo-TEM Image Analysis and Dynamic Light Scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapentin, Christoph; Barnert, Sabine; Schubert, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Perfluorocarbon nanoemulsions (PFC-NE) are disperse systems consisting of nanoscale liquid perfluorocarbon droplets stabilized by an emulsifier, usually phospholipids. Perfluorocarbons are chemically inert and non-toxic substances that are exhaled after in vivo administration. The manufacture of PFC-NE can be done in large scales by means of high pressure homogenization or microfluidization. Originally investigated as oxygen carriers for cases of severe blood loss, their application nowadays is more focused on using them as marker agents in 19F Magnetic Resonance Imaging (19F MRI). 19F is scarce in organisms and thus PFC-NE are a promising tool for highly specific and non-invasive imaging of inflammation via 19F MRI. Neutrophils, monocytes and macrophages phagocytize PFC-NE and subsequently migrate to inflamed tissues. This technique has proven feasibility in numerous disease models in mice, rabbits and mini pigs. The translation to clinical trials in human needs the development of a stable nanoemulsion whose droplet size is well characterized over a long storage time. Usually dynamic light scattering (DLS) is applied as the standard method for determining particle sizes in the nanometer range. Our study uses a second method, analysis of transmission electron microscopy images of cryo-fixed samples (Cryo-TEM), to evaluate stability of PFC-NE in comparison to DLS. Four nanoemulsions of different composition are observed for one year. The results indicate that DLS alone cannot reveal the changes in particle size, but can even mislead to a positive estimation of stability. The combination with Cryo-TEM images gives more insight in the particulate evolution, both techniques supporting one another. The study is one further step in the development of analytical tools for the evaluation of a clinically applicable perfluorooctylbromide nanoemulsion.

  12. Optofluidic technology for monitoring rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus responses to regular light pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartlidge, Rhys; Campana, Olivia; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Wlodkowic, Donald

    2016-12-01

    Behavioural alterations can occur as a result of a toxicant exposure at concentrations significantly lower than lethal effects that are commonly measured in acute toxicity testing. The use of alternating light and dark photoperiods to test phototactic responses of aquatic invertebrates in the presence of environmental contaminants provides an attractive analytical avenue. Quantification of phototactic responses represents a sublethal endpoint that can be employed as an early warning signal. Despite the benefits associated with the assessment of these endpoints, there is currently a lack of automated and miniaturized bioanalytical technologies to implement the development of toxicity testing with small aquatic species. In this study we present a proof-of-concept microfluidic Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) platform for the assessment of rotifer swimming behavior in the presence of the toxicant copper sulfate. The device was designed to assess impact of toxicants at sub-lethal concentrations on freshwater crustacean Brachionus calyciflorus, testing behavioral endpoints such as animal swimming distance, speed and acceleration. The LOC device presented in this work enabled straightforward caging of microscopic crustaceans as well as non-invasive analysis of rapidly swimming animals in a focal plane of a video-microscopy system. The chip-based technology was fabricated using a new photolithography method that enabled formation of thick photoresist layers with minimal distortion. Photoresist molds were then employed for replica molding of LOC devices with poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) elastomer. The complete bioanalytical system consisted of: (i) microfluidic PDMS chip-based device; (ii) peristaltic microperfusion pumping manifold; (iii) miniaturized CMOS camera for video data acquisition; and (iv) video analysis software algorithms for quantification of changes in swimming behaviour of B. calyciflorus in response to reference toxicants.

  13. Development of Light Weight High Strength Carbon Dioxide Monitor for Sub Orbital Space Craft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karavolos, A. P.

    2011-12-01

    Introduction No commercially material is currently available that can satisfy the performance requirements for Suborbital Sampling of Carbon Dioxide in air .Satellite interrogation is not feasible because of the low altitude, and the altitude is too high for satisfactory performance from balloons. A hybrid material in a light weight canister may be the solution to satisfying the above requirements. An example fiber with carbon dioxide capture agent is wound in an equilateral triangle pattern 3 mm in diameter, and heat bonded to a carbon fiber panel. A layer of polypropylene-methyl cellulose 1 mm thick underlies the carbon fiber. The interior contains a metallized organic polymer heat bonded to this surface. Methodology All component materials were purchased through 3M and Sigma Aldrich Chemical Company. The carbon prepreg panel was first placed in a stainless steel mold for non reactivity with container. Polypropylene powder was homogenized with various percentages of methyl cellulose powder and tantalum nano particles. This mixture was then placed in a mold to make panel parts; epoxy bonded to a carbon fiber resin prepreg, and allowed to outgas for 24 hours before materials and chemical testing. Preliminary Results Preliminary finding of the newly tested material are shown in the table below are that the tensile strength is about 74.5 kPa, has maximum CO2 capture efficiency, and regeneration of O2 by weight of total CO2 captured. Conclusions Based on the initial experimentation accomplished, it appears that the proposed hybrid construction of carbon pre preg backing material, coupled with an inner lining of polypropylene-methyl cellulose, satisfies the strength requirements of the habitat building material. In addition, carbon dioxide adsorption and oxygen replenishment requirements also have been met.

  14. Monitoring the Stability of Perfluorocarbon Nanoemulsions by Cryo-TEM Image Analysis and Dynamic Light Scattering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Grapentin

    Full Text Available Perfluorocarbon nanoemulsions (PFC-NE are disperse systems consisting of nanoscale liquid perfluorocarbon droplets stabilized by an emulsifier, usually phospholipids. Perfluorocarbons are chemically inert and non-toxic substances that are exhaled after in vivo administration. The manufacture of PFC-NE can be done in large scales by means of high pressure homogenization or microfluidization. Originally investigated as oxygen carriers for cases of severe blood loss, their application nowadays is more focused on using them as marker agents in 19F Magnetic Resonance Imaging (19F MRI. 19F is scarce in organisms and thus PFC-NE are a promising tool for highly specific and non-invasive imaging of inflammation via 19F MRI. Neutrophils, monocytes and macrophages phagocytize PFC-NE and subsequently migrate to inflamed tissues. This technique has proven feasibility in numerous disease models in mice, rabbits and mini pigs. The translation to clinical trials in human needs the development of a stable nanoemulsion whose droplet size is well characterized over a long storage time. Usually dynamic light scattering (DLS is applied as the standard method for determining particle sizes in the nanometer range. Our study uses a second method, analysis of transmission electron microscopy images of cryo-fixed samples (Cryo-TEM, to evaluate stability of PFC-NE in comparison to DLS. Four nanoemulsions of different composition are observed for one year. The results indicate that DLS alone cannot reveal the changes in particle size, but can even mislead to a positive estimation of stability. The combination with Cryo-TEM images gives more insight in the particulate evolution, both techniques supporting one another. The study is one further step in the development of analytical tools for the evaluation of a clinically applicable perfluorooctylbromide nanoemulsion.

  15. Medical equipment ordinance and lack of personnel: two contrary factors influencing anesthesia patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, K; Dieterich, H J

    1991-01-01

    In January 1986, West German legislators enacted the Medical Equipment Ordinance (MedGV) to define specific regulations for both manufacturers and operators of medical equipment and to offer a measure of safety to patients. We describe the history of MedGV, its regulations, and the mechanisms developed to enforce those regulations. We also evaluate its impact on clinical practice in light of the current staff shortages in anesthesia practice and research in Germany. Finally, we focus our discussion on the distinction between improved equipment as a minor factor in critical-incidents and the inadequate manpower as a major factor in anesthesia mishaps. It is unclear what will develop after 1993, when the national states in Europe form a common market.

  16. Why Overlearned Sequences are Special: Distinct Neural Networks for Ordinal Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vani ePariyadath

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Several observations suggest that overlearned ordinal categories (e.g., letters, numbers, weekdays, months are processed differently than non-ordinal categories in the brain. In synesthesia, for example, anomalous perceptual experiences are most often triggered by members of ordinal categories (Rich et al., 2005; Eagleman, 2009. In semantic dementia, the processing of ordinal stimuli appears to be preserved relative to non-ordinal ones (Cappelletti et al., 2001. Moreover, ordinal stimuli often map onto unconscious spatial representations, as observed in the SNARC effect (Dehaene et al, 1993; Fias, 1996. At present, little is known about the neural representation of ordinal categories. Using functional neuroimaging, we show that words in ordinal categories are processed in a fronto-temporo-parietal network biased toward the right hemisphere. This differs from words in non-ordinal categories (such as names of furniture, animals, cars and fruit, which show an expected bias toward the left hemisphere. Further, we find that increased predictability of stimulus order correlates with smaller regions of BOLD activation, a phenomenon we term prediction suppression. Our results provide new insights into the processing of ordinal stimuli, and suggest a new anatomical framework for understanding the patterns seen in synesthesia, unconscious spatial representation, and semantic dementia.

  17. Assessment of Current Inservice Inspection and Leak Monitoring Practices for Detecting Materials Degradation in Light Water Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Michael T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Simonen, Fredric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Muscara, Joseph [US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Rockville, MD (United States); Doctor, Steven R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kupperman, David S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-09-01

    An assessment was performed to determine the effectiveness of existing inservice inspection (ISI) and leak monitoring techniques, and recommend improvements, as necessary, to the programs as currently performed for light water reactor (LWR) components. Information from nuclear power plant (NPP) aging studies and from the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL) report (NUREG-1801) was used to identify components that have already experienced, or are expected to experience, degradation. This report provides a discussion of the key aspects and parameters that constitute an effective ISI program and a discussion of the basis and background against which the effectiveness of the ISI and leak monitoring programs for timely detection of degradation was evaluated. Tables based on the GALL components were used to systematically guide the process, and table columns were included that contained the ISI requirements and effectiveness assessment. The information in the tables was analyzed using histograms to reduce the data and help identify any trends. The analysis shows that the overall effectiveness of the ISI programs is very similar for both boiling water reactors (BWRs) and pressurized water reactors (PWRs). The evaluations conducted as part of this research showed that many ISI programs are not effective at detecting degradation before its extent reached 75% of the component wall thickness. This work should be considered as an assessment of NDE practices at this time; however, industry and regulatory activities are currently underway that will impact future effectiveness assessments. A number of actions have been identified to improve the current ISI programs so that degradation can be more reliably detected.

  18. A Nuclear Reactor Transient Methodology Based on Discrete Ordinates Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of nuclear power industry, simulating and analyzing the reactor transient are of great significance for the nuclear safety. The traditional diffusion theory is not suitable for small volume or strong absorption problem. In this paper, we have studied the application of discrete ordinates method in the numerical solution of space-time kinetics equation. The fully implicit time integration was applied and the precursor equations were solved by analytical method. In order to improve efficiency of the transport theory, we also adopted some advanced acceleration methods. Numerical results of the TWIGL benchmark problem presented demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of this methodology.

  19. Implementing the Open Method of Co-ordination in Pensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław POTERAJ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an insight into the European Union Open Methodof Co-ordination (OMC in area of pension. The author’s goal was to presentthe development and the effects of implementation the OMC. The introductionis followed by three topic paragraphs: 1. the OMC – step by step, 2. theevaluation of the OMC, and 3. the effects of OMC implementation. In thesummary, the author highlights as except of advantages there are alsodisadvantages of the implementation of the OMC, and there are many doubtsexist in the context of efficiency of performing that method in the future.

  20. Women's Ordination in Denmark: The Humanization of the Ordained Ministry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Else Marie Wiberg

    2009-01-01

    of women was legislatively made possible on June 4 1947, the drama was played out within a church-state-complex, and some of the players tried to discern between the ministry, to which women i special functions could be admitted (for example pastors in a women's prison), and the ordination, which...... of this, and corresponding to the democratization of the church was the humanization of ministry. Therefore the focus and significance of ministry is not its "who" (person and sexuality) but its "what" (the authenticity and function). The article states that it is a myth when some claim that the majority...

  1. Shedding light on bioluminescence regulation in Vibrio fischeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashiro, Tim; Ruby, Edward G

    2012-06-01

    The bioluminescence emitted by the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri is a particularly striking result of individual microbial cells co-ordinating a group behaviour. The genes responsible for light production are principally regulated by the LuxR-LuxI quorum-sensing system. In addition to LuxR-LuxI, numerous other genetic elements and environmental conditions control bioluminescence production. Efforts to mathematically model the LuxR-LuxI system are providing insight into the dynamics of this autoinduction behaviour. The Hawaiian squid Euprymna scolopes forms a natural symbiosis with V. fischeri, and utilizes the symbiont-derived bioluminescence for certain nocturnal behaviours, such as counterillumination. Recent work suggests that the tissue with which V. fischeri associates not only can detect bioluminescence but may also use this light to monitor the V. fischeri population. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Strobe Light Testing and Kokanee Population Monitoring : Dworshak Dam Impacts Assessment and Fisheries Investigation Project, 87-99 : Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiolie, Melo A.; Harryman, Bill; Ament, Willaim J.

    1999-11-01

    We tested the response of kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka to strobe lights. Testing was conducted on wild, free-ranging fish in their natural environment (i.e., the pelagic region of two large Idaho lakes). Split-beam hydroacoustics were used to record the distance kokanee moved away from the lights, as well as the density of kokanee in the area near the lights. In control tests, where strobe lights were lowered into the lake but kept turned off, kokanee remained within a few meters of the lights. Once the lights began flashing, kokanee quickly moved away from the light source. Kokanee moved 20 to 40 m away from the lights in waters with Secchi transparencies from 3 to 5 m. Kokanee densities near the lights were significantly lower (p=0.07 to p=0.00) when the lights were turned on than in control samples with no lights flashing. Flash rates of 300, 360, and 450 flashes/min elicited strong avoidance responses from the fish. Kokanee remained at least 24 m from the lights during our longest test that lasted for 5 h 50 min. We also continued annual monitoring of the kokanee population in Dworshak Reservoir. Spawner counts in four tributary streams that were used as an index of the adult population reached a record low of 144 spawners. No age-1 or age-2 kokanee were caught in 15 trawl hauls used to make population estimates. The population estimate of fry was 65,000 fish, {+-} 76% (90% C.I.). Flooding during the spring of 1996 was responsible for the low kokanee population.

  3. Hyperations, Veblen progressions and transfinite iterations of ordinal functions

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández-Duque, David

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we introduce hyperations and cohyperations, which are forms of transfinite iteration of ordinal functions. Hyperations are iterations of normal functions. Unlike iteration by pointwise convergence, hyperation preserves normality. The hyperation of a normal function f is a sequence of normal functions so that f^0= id, f^1 = f and for all ordinals \\alpha, \\beta we have that f^(\\alpha + \\beta) = f^\\alpha f^\\beta. These conditions do not determine f^\\alpha uniquely; in addition, we require that the functions be minimal in an appropriate sense. We study hyperations systematically and show that they are a natural refinement of Veblen progressions. Next, we define cohyperations, very similar to hyperations except that they are left-additive: given \\alpha, \\beta, f^(\\alpha + \\beta)= f^\\beta f^\\alpha. Cohyperations iterate initial functions which are functions that map initial segments to initial segments. We systematically study cohyperations and see how they can be employed to define left inverses to h...

  4. An ordinal metrical scale built on a fuzzy nominal scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, E.

    2010-07-01

    The Measurement theory defines a measurement as a mapping from a set of empirical property manifestations to a set of abstract property values called symbols. The ordinal metrical scales were introduced within the context of Psychophysics as a way to solve the problem of multidimensional scaling. Usually the distances used to define such scales are based on the hypothesis that symbols are vectors of numbers and that each component is expressed on an interval scale or a ratio scale. In a recent paper was introduced a distance-based scale that represents manifestations from an empirical world with fuzzy subsets of lexical terms. This approach supposes only the existence of a fuzzy nominal scale and allows a choice into a wider set of distances to build the ordinal metrical scales. This paper focuses on the knowledge source used to choose a scale definition and takes metrical scales built on fuzzy nominal scale as example. Then it opens a discussion on the reality of some distances in the empirical world.

  5. The added value of ordinal analysis in clinical trials: An example in traumatic brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Roozenbeek, Bob; Perel, Pablo; Edwards, Phil; Roberts, Ian; Murray, Gordon; Maas, Andrew; Steyerberg, Ewout

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: In clinical trials, ordinal outcome measures are often dichotomized into two categories. In traumatic brain injury (TBI) the 5-point Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) is collapsed into unfavourable versus favourable outcome. Simulation studies have shown that exploiting the ordinal nature of the GOS increases chances of detecting treatment effects. The objective of this study is to quantify the benefits of ordinal analysis in the real-life situation of a large TBI trial.Me...

  6. Ordinal time series analysis for Air Quality Index (AQI) in San Bernardino County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitakasempornkul, Kessinee

    Ambient pollutant, especially ground level ozone that causes respiratory diseases, has been a great concern in Southern California. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency provides the Air Quality Index (AQI) as a tool to assist the public of health warnings. AQI for ozone is currently divided into six states depending on the level of public health concern. In statistical point of view AQI can be characterized as nonstationary ordinal-valued time series. The purpose of this study is to implement statistical models for short-term forecasting of AQI. This thesis presents a generalized linear type modeling to handle the autocorrelated ordinal time series. The model is applied with four different link functions: identity, logit, probit, and complementary log-log and their forecast performance are compared. Random time-varying covariates include past AQI state, various meteorological processes, and periodic component. Data used in this study are AQI for ozone from five monitoring stations in San Bernardino County, CA for 2004 to 2006. For the purpose of evaluating the performance of one-day-ahead forecast, the 2007 data from the same place are used. The meteorological data are from the nearby Barstow city in San Bernardino County. The portmanteau test is used to test error autocorrelations. The partial likelihood ratio test, Akaike information criterion (AIC), and Bayesian information criterion (BIC) are used to measure the goodness of fit and compare the models. The results show the model well captures the nonstationarity in ozone process and remove the nonstationarity in residuals. Both logit and probit models correctly forecast about 85% of the observed AQI.

  7. Ordinal scheduling problem and its asymptotically optimal algorithms on parallel machine system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Zhiyi; HE Yong

    2004-01-01

    Focusing on the ordinal scheduling problem on a parallel machine system, we discuss the background of ordinal scheduling and the motivation of ordinal algorithms. In addition, for the ordinal scheduling problem on identical parallel machines with the objective to maximize the minimum machine load, we then give two asymptotically optimal algorithm classes which have worst-case ratios very close to the upper bound of the problem for any given m. These results greatly improve the results proposed by He Yong and Tan Zhiyi in 2002.

  8. Three-Dimensional Radiation in Absorbing -Emitting-Scattering Medium Using the Discrete-Ordinates Approximation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    The discrete-ordinates method is a simple,accurate and of little computational time solution to predict the radiactive heat transfer in the combustion chambers,In this paper,three-dimension radiative problems for absorbing-emitting-scattering medium are modeled using this method in the rectangular enclosure.And in addition,new discrete-ordinates are developed to study the absorbing-emitting-scattering radiation processes for complex phase function.The reasonable results can be obtained though these new ordinates,yet the deviated results are only obtained through conventional Sn ordinates.

  9. ACS Algorithm in Discrete Ordinates for Pressure Vessel Dosimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walters William

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Adaptive Collision Source (ACS method can solve the Linear Boltzmann Equation (LBE more efficiently by adaptation of the angular quadrature order. This is similar to, and essentially an extension of, the first collision source method. Previously, the ACS methodology has been implemented into the TITAN discrete ordinates code, and has shown speedups of 2–4 on a simple test problem, with very little loss of accuracy (within a provided adaptive tolerance. This work examines the use of the ACS method for a more realistic problem: pressure vessel dosimetry with the VENUS-2 MOX-fuelled reactor dosimetry benchmark. The ACS method proved to be able to obtain accurate results while being approximately twice as efficient as using a constant quadrature in a standard source iteration scheme.

  10. Statistical Optimality in Multipartite Ranking and Ordinal Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uematsu, Kazuki; Lee, Yoonkyung

    2015-05-01

    Statistical optimality in multipartite ranking is investigated as an extension of bipartite ranking. We consider the optimality of ranking algorithms through minimization of the theoretical risk which combines pairwise ranking errors of ordinal categories with differential ranking costs. The extension shows that for a certain class of convex loss functions including exponential loss, the optimal ranking function can be represented as a ratio of weighted conditional probability of upper categories to lower categories, where the weights are given by the misranking costs. This result also bridges traditional ranking methods such as proportional odds model in statistics with various ranking algorithms in machine learning. Further, the analysis of multipartite ranking with different costs provides a new perspective on non-smooth list-wise ranking measures such as the discounted cumulative gain and preference learning. We illustrate our findings with simulation study and real data analysis.

  11. Comparing interval estimates for small sample ordinal CFA models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natesan, Prathiba

    2015-01-01

    Robust maximum likelihood (RML) and asymptotically generalized least squares (AGLS) methods have been recommended for fitting ordinal structural equation models. Studies show that some of these methods underestimate standard errors. However, these studies have not investigated the coverage and bias of interval estimates. An estimate with a reasonable standard error could still be severely biased. This can only be known by systematically investigating the interval estimates. The present study compares Bayesian, RML, and AGLS interval estimates of factor correlations in ordinal confirmatory factor analysis models (CFA) for small sample data. Six sample sizes, 3 factor correlations, and 2 factor score distributions (multivariate normal and multivariate mildly skewed) were studied. Two Bayesian prior specifications, informative and relatively less informative were studied. Undercoverage of confidence intervals and underestimation of standard errors was common in non-Bayesian methods. Underestimated standard errors may lead to inflated Type-I error rates. Non-Bayesian intervals were more positive biased than negatively biased, that is, most intervals that did not contain the true value were greater than the true value. Some non-Bayesian methods had non-converging and inadmissible solutions for small samples and non-normal data. Bayesian empirical standard error estimates for informative and relatively less informative priors were closer to the average standard errors of the estimates. The coverage of Bayesian credibility intervals was closer to what was expected with overcoverage in a few cases. Although some Bayesian credibility intervals were wider, they reflected the nature of statistical uncertainty that comes with the data (e.g., small sample). Bayesian point estimates were also more accurate than non-Bayesian estimates. The results illustrate the importance of analyzing coverage and bias of interval estimates, and how ignoring interval estimates can be misleading

  12. 78 FR 15037 - Bishop Paiute Tribe-Liquor Control Ordinance No. 2012-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... sovereignty and a government to government relationship with the United States of America, has all the rights..., 1961. This Ordinance (2012-07) does not change or affect any provisions of the General Council... liquor/alcohol beverages under this ordinance. .02 ``Liquor/Alcohol Beverage'' includes all...

  13. Dominant supply chain co-ordination strategies in the Dutch aerospace industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voordijk, Johannes T.; Meijboom, Bert

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – Firms in the aerospace industry face considerable pressure to improve co-ordination in their supply chains. The major question of the present study is what supply chain co-ordination strategies are dominant in the Dutch aerospace industry given the market environment of this industry?

  14. Dominant supply chain co-ordination strategies in the Dutch aerospace industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voordijk, Hans; Meijboom, Bert

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – Firms in the aerospace industry face considerable pressure to improve co-ordination in their supply chains. The major question of the present study is what supply chain co-ordination strategies are dominant in the Dutch aerospace industry given the market environment of this industry? De

  15. Increasing Magnitude "Counts" More: Asymmetrical Processing of Ordinality in 4-Month-Old Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassia, Viola Macchi; Picozzi, Marta; Girelli, Luisa; de Hevia, Maria Dolores

    2012-01-01

    While infants' ability to discriminate quantities has been extensively studied, showing that this competence is present even in neonates, the ability to compute ordinal relations between magnitudes has received much less attention. Here we show that the ability to represent ordinal information embedded in size-based sequences is apparent at 4…

  16. 40 CFR 35.935-16 - Sewer use ordinance and evaluation/rehabilitation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .../rehabilitation program. 35.935-16 Section 35.935-16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...-Clean Water Act § 35.935-16 Sewer use ordinance and evaluation/rehabilitation program. (a) The grantee... sewer use ordinance, and the grantee is complying with the sewer system evaluation and...

  17. Fitting Multilevel Models with Ordinal Outcomes: Performance of Alternative Specifications and Methods of Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Daniel J.; Sterba, Sonya K.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has compared methods of estimation for fitting multilevel models to binary data, but there are reasons to believe that the results will not always generalize to the ordinal case. This article thus evaluates (a) whether and when fitting multilevel linear models to ordinal outcome data is justified and (b) which estimator to employ…

  18. Introducing Students to Plant Geography: Polar Ordination Applied to Hanging Gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanson, George P.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Reports on a research study in which college students used a statistical ordination method to reveal relationships among plant community structures and physical, disturbance, and spatial variables. Concludes that polar ordination helps students understand the methodology of plant geography and encourages further student research. (CFR)

  19. The Development and Standardization of the Adult Developmental Co-Ordination Disorders/Dyspraxia Checklist (ADC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Amanda; Edwards, Lisa; Sugden, David; Rosenblum, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Developmental Co-ordination Disorder (DCD), also known as Dyspraxia in the United Kingdom (U.K.), is a developmental disorder affecting motor co-ordination. In the past this was regarded as a childhood disorder, however there is increasing evidence that a significant number of children will continue to have persistent difficulties into adulthood.…

  20. No toy for you! The healthy food incentives ordinance: paternalism or consumer protection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etow, Alexis M

    2012-01-01

    The newest approach to discouraging children's unhealthy eating habits, amidst increasing rates of childhood obesity and other diet-related diseases, seeks to ban something that is not even edible. In 2010, San Francisco enacted the Healthy Food Incentives Ordinance, which prohibits toys in kids' meals if the meals do not meet certain nutritional requirements. Notwithstanding the Ordinance's impact on interstate commerce or potential infringement on companies' commercial speech rights and on parents' rights to determine what their children eat, this Comment argues that the Ordinance does not violate the dormant Commerce Clause, the First Amendment, or substantive due process. The irony is that although the Ordinance likely avoids the constitutional hurdles that hindered earlier measures aimed at childhood obesity, it intrudes on civil liberties more than its predecessors. This Comment analyzes the legality of the Healthy Food Incentives Ordinance to understand its implications on subsequent legislation aimed at combating childhood obesity and on the progression of public health law.

  1. Early Prognostic Value of Monitoring Serum Free Light Chain in Patients with Multiple Myeloma Undergoing Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkurt, Zübeyde Nur; Sucak, Gülsan Türköz; Akı, Şahika Zeynep; Yağcı, Münci; Haznedar, Rauf

    2017-03-16

    We hypothesized the levels of free light chains obtained before and after autologous stem cell transplantation can be useful in predicting transplantation outcome. We analyzed 70 multiple myeloma patients. Abnormal free light chain ratios before stem cell transplantation were found to be associated early progression, although without any impact on overall survival. At day +30, the normalization of levels of involved free light chain related with early progression. According to these results almost one-third reduction of free light chain levels can predict favorable prognosis after autologous stem cell transplantation.

  2. Controlling and accessing vehicle functions by mobile from remote place by sending GPS Co-ordinates to the Web server

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Khanna SamratVivekanand Omprakash

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents how the co-ordinates from the Google map stored into database . It stored into the central web server . This co-ordinates then transfer to client program for searching the locations of particular location for electronic device . Client can access the data from internet and use into program by using API . Development of software for a particular device for putting into the vehicle has been develop. In the inbuilt circuit assigning sim card and transferring the signal to the network. Supplying a single text of co-ordinates of locations using google map in terms of latitudes and longitudes. The information in terms of string separated by comma can be extracted and stored into the database of web server . Different mobile number with locations can be stored into the database simultaneously into the server of different clients . The concept of 3 Tier Client /Server architecture is used. The sim card can access information of GPRS system with the network provider of card . Setting of electronic device signal for receiving and sending message done. Different operations can be performed on the device as it can be attached with other electronic circuit of vehicle. Windows Mobile application developed for client slide. User can take different decision of vehicle from mobile by sending sms to the device . Device receives the operation and send to the electronic circuit of vehicle for certain operations. From remote place using mobile you can get the information of your vehicle and also you can control vehicle it by providing password to the electronic circuit for authorization and authentication. The concept of vehicle security and location of vehicle can be identified. The functions of vehicle can be accessed and control like speed , brakes and lights etc as per the software application interface with electronic circuit of vehicle.

  3. Human Action Recognition Using Ordinal Measure of Accumulated Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Wonjun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for recognizing human actions from a single query action video. We propose an action recognition scheme based on the ordinal measure of accumulated motion, which is robust to variations of appearances. To this end, we first define the accumulated motion image (AMI using image differences. Then the AMI of the query action video is resized to a subimage by intensity averaging and a rank matrix is generated by ordering the sample values in the sub-image. By computing the distances from the rank matrix of the query action video to the rank matrices of all local windows in the target video, local windows close to the query action are detected as candidates. To find the best match among the candidates, their energy histograms, which are obtained by projecting AMI values in horizontal and vertical directions, respectively, are compared with those of the query action video. The proposed method does not require any preprocessing task such as learning and segmentation. To justify the efficiency and robustness of our approach, the experiments are conducted on various datasets.

  4. Eurotrac: a co-ordinated project for applied tropospheric research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrell, P. [EUROTRAC International Scientific Secretariat, Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    It was with the realisation that the scientific problems associated with regional air pollution could only be solved within the framework of an international interdisciplinary approach that in 1985 EUROTRAC, the European co-ordinated research project, was formed. Such an approach provides the scientific consensus necessary for the acceptance of regional air-pollution abatement measures by the countries affected. EUROTRAC is a EUREKA environmental project, studying the transport and chemical transformation of trace substances and pollutants in the troposphere. Three goals were specified the outset: (1) to increase the basic knowledge in atmospheric science, (2) to promote the technological development of sensitive, specific and fast response instruments for environmental research and development, and (3) to improve the scientific basis for taking future political decisions on environmental management in the European countries. Thus EUROTRAC was founded as a scientific project but had the specific intention that its results should be utilised in the formulation of policy. This presentation reviews the progress made towards each of the three goals and also indicates the proposed direction which a follow-on project is likely to take when EUROTRAC finishes at the end of 1995. (author)

  5. Metal selective co-ordinative self-assembly of -donors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ankit Jain; K Venkata Rao; Ankita Goswami; Subi J George

    2011-11-01

    Metal selective co-ordinative nanostructures were constructed by the supramolecular co-assembly of pyridine appended TTF (TTF-Py) and pyrene (PYR-Py) derivatives in appropriate solvent composition mixtures with metal ions.Microscopic analyses show that TTF-Py shows distinctive morphology with either of these metal ions, forming I-D tapes with 1:1 Pb2+ complex and 2-D sheets with 1:2 Zn2+ complex. A rationale has been provided from molecular level packing for such hierarchical changes. In case of Cu2+, we have observed an anomalous binding of metal ion to the core sulphur groups causing redox changes in the TTF core. PYR-Py on the other hand is shown to be a fluorescent sensor for Pb2+, Zn2+, Hg2+ and Ag+. With different fluorescent response for metal complexes, we essentially obtained similar 1-D assemblies suggesting similar binding modes for all of them. Supramolecular approach through which morphology of an electron donor moiety can be engineered by metal ions can be a new tool in nanoelectronics.

  6. Estimation of health benefits from a local living wage ordinance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, R; Katz, M

    2001-09-01

    This study estimated the magnitude of health improvements resulting from a proposed living wage ordinance in San Francisco. Published observational models of the relationship of income to health were applied to predict improvements in health outcomes associated with proposed wage increases in San Francisco. With adoption of a living wage of $11.00 per hour, we predict decreases in premature death from all causes for adults aged 24 to 44 years working full-time in families whose current annual income is $20,000 (for men, relative hazard [RH] = 0.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.92, 0.97; for women, RH = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.95, 0.98). Improvements in subjectively rated health and reductions in the number of days sick in bed, in limitations of work and activities of daily living, and in depressive symptoms were also predicted, as were increases in daily alcohol consumption. For the offspring of full-time workers currently earning $20,000, a living wage predicts an increase of 0.25 years (95% CI = 0.20, 0.30) of completed education, increased odds of completing high school (odds ratio = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.20, 1.49), and a reduced risk of early childbirth (RH = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.69, 0.86). A living wage in San Francisco is associated with substantial health improvement.

  7. Asymptotically Optimal Assignments In Ordinal Evaluations of Proposals

    CERN Document Server

    Oruc, A Yavuz

    2009-01-01

    In ordinal evaluations of proposals in peer review systems, a set of proposals is assigned to a fixed set of referees so as to maximize the number of pairwise comparisons of proposals under certain referee capacity and proposal subject constraints. In this paper, the following two related problems are considered: (1) Assuming that each referee has a capacity to review k out of n proposals, 2 < k < n, determine the minimum number of referees needed to ensure that each pair of proposals is reviewed by at least one referee, (2) Find an assignment that meets the lower bound determined in (1). It is easy to see that one referee is both necessary and sufficient when k = n, and n(n-1)/2 referees are both necessary and sufficient when k = 2. We show that 6 referees are both necessary and sufficient when k = n/2. We further show that 11 referees are necessary and 12 are sufficient when k = n/3, and 18 referees are necessary and 20 referees are sufficient when k = n/4. A more general lower bound of n(n-1)/k(k-1) ...

  8. Liturgical Ecclesiology of the Sacrament of Ordination in the Eastern Rite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Nowakowski

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of the above paper is the role and position of the Church community in the rite of ordination to the priesthood in the byzantine tradition. It has been considered the split of the orthodox ministers into the church ministers (lower ordination and ordained ministers (higher ordination. The influence of the local community upon the election of the candidates to priesthood has been weakened with time and nowadays within the Orthodox Church only the local bishop decides about the appointment of the new ministers and only the imposition of hands is regarded as the sacramental rite. The contemporary liturgy of ordination, however, has preserved some significant elements reminding us about the former equal importance of the community influence, who used to elect by offering to God and at the same time to accept their shepherds. This role of the Church is expressed by three main parts of the rites: 1 the election of a candidate, 2 the imposition of hands of the bishop and prayer, 3 the reception of ordination and of the newly ordained. Out of the presented liturgy of ordination one can draw the outline of the eastern ecclesiology of the sacrament of ordination, already elaborated by Prof. N. Afanasiev. This kind of liturgical ecclesiology may be of some help to the contemporary Church in regaining her more active role in electing and apointing her ministers and shepherds.

  9. CANOCO Reference Manual and CanoDraw for Windows User's Guide: Software for Canonical Community Ordination (version 4.5)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braak, ter C.J.F.; Smilauer, P.

    2002-01-01

    Canoco is a software package for multivariate data analysis, with an emphasis on dimesional reduction (ordination), regression analysis, and the combination of the two, constrained ordination. Canoco makes effective and powerful ordination methods easilyt accessible for scientists wanting to infer a

  10. Tourism and hotel revenues before and after passage of smoke-free restaurant ordinances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glantz, S A; Charlesworth, A

    1999-05-26

    Claims that ordinances requiring smoke-free restaurants will adversely affect tourism have been used to argue against passing such ordinances. Data exist regarding the validity of these claims. To determine the changes in hotel revenues and international tourism after passage of smoke-free restaurant ordinances in locales where the effect has been debated. Comparison of hotel revenues and tourism rates before and after passage of 100% smoke-free restaurant ordinances and comparison with US hotel revenue overall. Three states (California, Utah, and Vermont) and 6 cities (Boulder, Colo; Flagstaff, Ariz; Los Angeles, Calif; Mesa, Ariz; New York, NY; and San Francisco, Calif) in which the effect on tourism of smoke-free restaurant ordinances had been debated. Hotel room revenues and hotel revenues as a fraction of total retail sales compared with preordinance revenues and overall US revenues. In constant 1997 dollars, passage of the smoke-free restaurant ordinance was associated with a statistically significant increase in the rate of change of hotel revenues in 4 localities, no significant change in 4 localities, and a significant slowing in the rate of increase (but not a decrease) in 1 locality. There was no significant change in the rate of change of hotel revenues as a fraction of total retail sales (P=.16) or total US hotel revenues associated with the ordinances when pooled across all localities (P = .93). International tourism was either unaffected or increased following implementation of the smoke-free ordinances. Smoke-free ordinances do not appear to adversely affect, and may increase, tourist business.

  11. Use of the Photo-Electromyogram to Objectively Diagnose and Monitor Treatment of Post-TBI Light Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Warrier I, Aranda JV. Neonatal facial coding system scores and spectral characteristics of infant crying during newborn circumcision. Clin. J. Pain ...EMG recording with surface skin electrodes to an electrode-free system that will take advantage of facial feature changes in response to light and pain ...eyelid muscles in response to light. The photic EMG is modulated by the thalamus and central sensory trigeminal pain center of the brainstem, which

  12. Regularization for Continuously Observed Ordinal Response Variables with Piecewise-Constant Functional Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    response variable taking on ordinal values 1 to C and a 1x vector of explanatory variables , , the proportional odds model is given by...I N S T I T U T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A L Y S E S Regularization for Continuously Observed Ordinal Response Variables with Piecewise...response variable , quality of video provided by the Shadow to friendly ground units, was measured on an ordinal scale continuously over time. Functional

  13. Analysis of co-ordination between breathing and exercise rhythms in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernasconi, P; Kohl, J

    1993-11-01

    1. The purpose of the present study was to analyse the incidence and type of coordination between breathing rhythm and leg movements during running and to assess the effect of co-ordination on the running efficiency, as well as to compare the results with those found during cycling. 2. The experiments were carried out on thirty-four untrained volunteers exercising at two work loads (60 and 80% of subject's physical work capacity 170) on a treadmill. In addition nineteen of the subjects exercised at the same two work loads on a bicycle ergometer. The subjects were running at both work loads in three different modes in randomized order: with normal arm movements, without arm movements and with breathing paced by an acoustic signal which was triggered by the leg movement. 3. Respiratory variables, oxygen uptake and leg movements were continuously recorded and evaluated on-line. The degree of co-ordination was expressed as a percentage of inspirations and/or expirations starting in the same phase of the step or pedalling cycle. 4. The average degree of co-ordination was higher during running (up to 40%) than during cycling (about 20%) during both work loads. The difference in the degree of co-ordination between running and cycling is probably not due to the lack of arm movements during cycling since the degree of co-ordination during running with and without arm movements was the same. 5. The degree of co-ordination during running increased slightly but not significantly with increasing work load and could be increased significantly by paced breathing. 6. The co-ordination between breathing and running rhythms occurred in three different patterns: (a) breathing was co-ordinated all the time with the same phase of step, (b) co-ordination switched suddenly from one phase of step to another and (c) co-ordination ensued alternatively once on the right and once on the left leg movement. During cycling the pattern described in (a) occurred almost exclusively. 7. During

  14. Application of Ordinal Set Pair Analysis in Annual Rainfall Prediction of Liao River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to study the application of ordinal set pair analysis in the annual precipitation prediction of Liao River basin.[Method] The ordinal theory was introduced into the set pair analysis modeling,and the prediction model of set pair analysis was improved.A kind of rainfall prediction model based on the ordinal set pair analysis (OSPA) was put forward.The time sequence of annual rainfall in the hydrological rainfall station of Liao River basin during 1956-2006 was the research obje...

  15. Change detection and characterization of volcanic activity using ground based low-light and near infrared cameras to monitor incandescence and thermal signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrild, Martin; Webley, Peter; Dehn, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge and understanding of precursory events and thermal signatures are vital for monitoring volcanogenic processes, as activity can often range from low level lava effusion to large explosive eruptions, easily capable of ejecting ash up to aircraft cruise altitudes. Using ground based remote sensing techniques to monitor and detect this activity is essential, but often the required equipment and maintenance is expensive. Our investigation explores the use of low-light cameras to image volcanic activity in the visible to near infrared (NIR) portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. These cameras are ideal for monitoring as they are cheap, consume little power, are easily replaced and can provide near real-time data. We focus here on the early detection of volcanic activity, using automated scripts, that capture streaming online webcam imagery and evaluate image pixel brightness values to determine relative changes and flag increases in activity. The script is written in Python, an open source programming language, to reduce the overall cost to potential consumers and increase the application of these tools across the volcanological community. In addition, by performing laboratory tests to determine the spectral response of these cameras, a direct comparison of collocated low-light and thermal infrared cameras has allowed approximate eruption temperatures and effusion rates to be determined from pixel brightness. The results of a field campaign in June, 2013 to Stromboli volcano, Italy, are also presented here. Future field campaigns to Latin America will include collaborations with INSIVUMEH in Guatemala, to apply our techniques to Fuego and Santiaguito volcanoes.

  16. Evolutionary recycling of light signaling components in fleshy fruits: new insights on the role of pigments to monitor ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briardo eLlorente

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Besides an essential source of energy, light provides environmental information to plants. Photosensory pathways are thought to have occurred early in plant evolution, probably at the time of the Archaeplastida ancestor, or perhaps even earlier. Manipulation of individual components of light perception and signaling networks in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum affects the metabolism of ripening fruit at several levels. Most strikingly, recent experiments have shown that some of the molecular mechanisms originally devoted to sense and respond to environmental light cues have been re-adapted during evolution to provide plants with useful information on fruit ripening progression. In particular, the presence of chlorophylls in green fruit can strongly influence the spectral composition of the light filtered through the fruit pericarp. The concomitant changes in light quality can be perceived and transduced by phytochromes and phytochrome-interacting factors, respectively, to regulate gene expression and in turn modulate the production of carotenoids, a family of metabolites that are relevant for the final pigmentation of ripe fruits. We raise the hypothesis that the evolutionary recycling of light-signaling components to finely adjust pigmentation to the actual ripening stage of the fruit may have represented a selective advantage for primeval fleshy-fruited plants even before the extinction of dinosaurs.

  17. 基于GPRS的太阳能路灯智能监控系统%Solar street lights intelligent monitoring system based on GPRS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李悦

    2012-01-01

    For the maintenance and control problem of a large number of street lights, a solar street light intelligent monitoring system made up of monitoring center, management nodes and monitoring nodes was designed by three-level. The monitoring node was responsible for collecting the solar panel output voltage, output current, battery float and output voltage, capacity and other parameters, and sent all the data to adjacent node through 2.4 G wireless module nRF2401 until routing to the management node. The management nodes and the monitoring center was designed by C/S architecture to complete the centralized management, and to establish TCP/IP network connection with monitoring center through GPRS module to upload collected data from management nodes. Meanwhile, the monitoring center was responsible for receiving, processing, analyzing, display, storage and sending commands to each node. The experiment shows that the system can accurately obtain the operating parameters of each street light and provides a strong technical support for the operation and maintenance of the city light system that improves the intelligent management level of city lighting.%针对城市内大量路灯维护和控制难的问题,设计了太阳能路灯智能监控系统,系统采用监控中心、管理节点和路灯监控节点三级进行管理.监控节点负责对太阳电池板输出电压、工作电流、蓄电池的充放电压和容量等参数进行采集,并通过短距离2.4 G无线通信模块nRF2401将数据发送到相邻的节点单元,直至路由到管理节点;管理节点与监控中心采用C/S架构设计,完成对所属监路灯监控节点单元进行统一集中管理,与监控中心通过GPRS模块建立TCP/IP网络连接,将从各节点收集来的数据上传至远端服务器.监控中心通过管理软件对所有路灯运行状态进行接收、处理、分析、显示和存储,同时将监控中心的操作指令下达给每个节点.实验表明,该系统

  18. Photoinduced insulator-to-metal transition and surface statistics of VO2 monitored by elastic light scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysenko, Sergiy; Fernández, Felix; Rúa, Armando; Sepúlveda, Nelson; Aparicio, Joaquin

    2015-03-10

    Measurements of ultrafast light scattering within a hemisphere are performed for statistical analysis of nonequilibrium processes in VO2 epitaxial film. A Gerchberg-Saxton error reduction algorithm is applied for accurate calculation of a surface autocorrelation function from light scattering data and for partial reconstruction of a power spectral density function. Upon ultrafast photoinduced phase transition of VO2, the elastic light scattering reveals anisotropic grain-size-dependent dynamics. It was found that the transition rate depends on the optical absorption and orientation of VO2 grains with respect to polarization of the pump pulse. An observed stepwise evolution of surface autocorrelation length and transient anisotropy of the scattering field presumably originates from complex multistage transformation of VO2 lattice on a subpicosecond time scale.

  19. Long-Term Transit Timing Monitoring and Refined Light Curve Parameters of HAT-P-13b

    CERN Document Server

    Fulton, Benjamin J; Winn, Joshua N; Holman, Matthew J; Pál, András; Gazak, J Zachary

    2011-01-01

    We present 10 new transit light curves of the transiting hot Jupiter HAT-P-13b, obtained during two observational seasons by three different telescopes. When combined with 12 previously published light curves, we have a sample consisting of 22 transit light curves, spanning 1,041 days across 4 observational seasons. We use this sample to examine the recently observed large-amplitude transit timing variations (P\\'al et al. 2011), and give refined system parameters. We find that the transit times are consistent with a linear ephemeris, with the exception of a single transit time, from UT 2009 Nov 5, for which the measured mid transit time significantly deviates from our linear ephemeris. The nature of this deviation is not clear, and the rest of the data does not show any significant transit timing variation.

  20. Comparison of visual evoked potentials elicited by light-emitting diodes and TV monitor stimulation in patients with multiple sclerosis and potentially related conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, T; Sidén, A

    1994-11-01

    Visual evoked potentials elicited by reversal of a checkerboard pattern constructed of square, red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were compared with a conventional black and white pattern displayed on a TV monitor in control subjects and in 71 patients with established or suspected multiple sclerosis. Both stimuli elicited distinct responses in the control groups: the latencies were longer with LED stimulation while the amplitudes of the various components were differently altered. The frequency of abnormal responses among the patients was higher with LED stimulation than with TV stimulation, but the highest diagnostic yield was obtained when both methods were combined.

  1. Sufficient Sample Size and Power in Multilevel Ordinal Logistic Regression Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabz Ali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For most of the time, biomedical researchers have been dealing with ordinal outcome variable in multilevel models where patients are nested in doctors. We can justifiably apply multilevel cumulative logit model, where the outcome variable represents the mild, severe, and extremely severe intensity of diseases like malaria and typhoid in the form of ordered categories. Based on our simulation conditions, Maximum Likelihood (ML method is better than Penalized Quasilikelihood (PQL method in three-category ordinal outcome variable. PQL method, however, performs equally well as ML method where five-category ordinal outcome variable is used. Further, to achieve power more than 0.80, at least 50 groups are required for both ML and PQL methods of estimation. It may be pointed out that, for five-category ordinal response variable model, the power of PQL method is slightly higher than the power of ML method.

  2. The Outlier Detection for Ordinal Data Using Scalling Technique of Regression Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, Arisman; Sugiarto, Sigit

    2017-06-01

    The aims of this study is to detect the outliers by using coefficients of Ordinal Logistic Regression (OLR) for the case of k category responses where the score from 1 (the best) to 8 (the worst). We detect them by using the sum of moduli of the ordinal regression coefficients calculated by jackknife technique. This technique is improved by scalling the regression coefficients to their means. R language has been used on a set of ordinal data from reference distribution. Furthermore, we compare this approach by using studentised residual plots of jackknife technique for ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) and OLR. This study shows that the jackknifing technique along with the proper scaling may lead us to reveal outliers in ordinal regression reasonably well.

  3. Testing the results of municipal mixed-use zoning ordinances: a novel methodological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Carol L; Thomas, Sue; Treffers, Ryan D; Paschall, Mallie J; Heumann, Lauren; Mann, Gregory W; Dunkell, Dashiell O; Nauenberg, Saskia

    2013-08-01

    Municipal mixed-use zoning (MUZ) is one public health strategy to create more walkable neighborhoods by reducing the separation of daily activities. This study uses a novel data-gathering methodology to evaluate municipal zoning ordinances in twenty-two California cities in conjunction with the walkability potential of resulting mixed-use zones, to explore the extent to which variations in uses mandated by MUZ ordinances are correlated with variations in walking opportunities. We find that, after controlling for population, socioeconomic status, and zone size, significant relationships exist between the range and precision of uses mandated by MUZ ordinances and the mixture and breadth of walking destinations in these zones. The study also demonstrates that analysis of municipal zoning codes and a novel data-gathering methodology yield valid data. The analysis of MUZ ordinances is a significant complement to other approaches to measuring walkability and can be used across cities.

  4. Sufficient Sample Size and Power in Multilevel Ordinal Logistic Regression Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Amjad; Khan, Sajjad Ahmad; Hussain, Sundas

    2016-01-01

    For most of the time, biomedical researchers have been dealing with ordinal outcome variable in multilevel models where patients are nested in doctors. We can justifiably apply multilevel cumulative logit model, where the outcome variable represents the mild, severe, and extremely severe intensity of diseases like malaria and typhoid in the form of ordered categories. Based on our simulation conditions, Maximum Likelihood (ML) method is better than Penalized Quasilikelihood (PQL) method in three-category ordinal outcome variable. PQL method, however, performs equally well as ML method where five-category ordinal outcome variable is used. Further, to achieve power more than 0.80, at least 50 groups are required for both ML and PQL methods of estimation. It may be pointed out that, for five-category ordinal response variable model, the power of PQL method is slightly higher than the power of ML method.

  5. Impact of San Francisco's toy ordinance on restaurants and children's food purchases, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Jennifer J; Saelens, Brian E; Kapphahn, Kristopher I; Hekler, Eric B; Buman, Matthew P; Goldstein, Benjamin A; Krukowski, Rebecca A; O'Donohue, Laura S; Gardner, Christopher D; King, Abby C

    2014-07-17

    In 2011, San Francisco passed the first citywide ordinance to improve the nutritional standards of children's meals sold at restaurants by preventing the giving away of free toys or other incentives with meals unless nutritional criteria were met. This study examined the impact of the Healthy Food Incentives Ordinance at ordinance-affected restaurants on restaurant response (eg, toy-distribution practices, change in children's menus), and the energy and nutrient content of all orders and children's-meal-only orders purchased for children aged 0 through 12 years. Restaurant responses were examined from January 2010 through March 2012. Parent-caregiver/child dyads (n = 762) who were restaurant customers were surveyed at 2 points before and 1 seasonally matched point after ordinance enactment at Chain A and B restaurants (n = 30) in 2011 and 2012. Both restaurant chains responded to the ordinance by selling toys separately from children's meals, but neither changed their menus to meet ordinance-specified nutrition criteria. Among children for whom children's meals were purchased, significant decreases in kilocalories, sodium, and fat per order were likely due to changes in children's side dishes and beverages at Chain A. Although the changes at Chain A did not appear to be directly in response to the ordinance, the transition to a more healthful beverage and default side dish was consistent with the intent of the ordinance. Study results underscore the importance of policy wording, support the concept that more healthful defaults may be a powerful approach for improving dietary intake, and suggest that public policies may contribute to positive restaurant changes.

  6. Effectiveness of Occluded Object Representations at Displaying Ordinal Depth Information in Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Displaying Ordinal Depth Information in Augmented Reality 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...Effectiveness of Occluded Object Representations at Displaying Ordinal Depth Information in Augmented Reality Mark A. Livingston∗ Naval Research Laboratory...effectively impossible with all icon styles, whereas in the case of partial overlap, the Ground Plane had a clear advantage. Keywords: Augmented reality , human

  7. Monitoring light/dark association dynamics of multi-protein complexes in cyanobacteria using size exclusion chromatography-based proteomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerreiro, Ana C L; Penning, Renske; Raaijmakers, Linsey M; Axman, Ilka M; Heck, Albert J R; Altelaar, A F Maarten

    2016-01-01

    Diurnal rhythms are recurring 24h patterns such as light/dark cycles that affect many natural environmental and biological processes. The cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 (S. elongatus) produces its energy through photosynthesis and therefore its internal molecular machinery is strong

  8. Reduction from cost-sensitive ordinal ranking to weighted binary classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsuan-Tien; Li, Ling

    2012-05-01

    We present a reduction framework from ordinal ranking to binary classification. The framework consists of three steps: extracting extended examples from the original examples, learning a binary classifier on the extended examples with any binary classification algorithm, and constructing a ranker from the binary classifier. Based on the framework, we show that a weighted 0/1 loss of the binary classifier upper-bounds the mislabeling cost of the ranker, both error-wise and regret-wise. Our framework allows not only the design of good ordinal ranking algorithms based on well-tuned binary classification approaches, but also the derivation of new generalization bounds for ordinal ranking from known bounds for binary classification. In addition, our framework unifies many existing ordinal ranking algorithms, such as perceptron ranking and support vector ordinal regression. When compared empirically on benchmark data sets, some of our newly designed algorithms enjoy advantages in terms of both training speed and generalization performance over existing algorithms. In addition, the newly designed algorithms lead to better cost-sensitive ordinal ranking performance, as well as improved listwise ranking performance.

  9. Spectral optical monitoring of 3C390.3 in 1995-2007: I. Light curves and flux variation of the continuum and broad lines

    CERN Document Server

    Shapovalova, A I; Burenkov, A N; Chavushyan, V H; Kollatschny, D Ilic W; Bochkarev, A Kovacevic N G; Carrasco, L; León-Tavares, J; Mercado, A; Valdes, J R; Vlasuyk, V V; de la Fuente, E

    2010-01-01

    Here we present the results of the long-term (1995-2007) spectral monitoring of the broad line radio galaxy \\object{3C~390.3}, a well known AGN with the double peaked broad emission lines, usually assumed to be emitted from an accretion disk. To explore dimensions and structure of the BLR, we analyze the light curves of the broad H$\\alpha$ and H$\\beta$ line fluxes and the continuum flux. In order to find changes in the BLR, we analyze the H$\\alpha$ and H$\\beta$ line profiles, as well as the change in the line profiles during the monitoring period. First we try to find a periodicity in the continuum and H$\\beta$ light curves, finding that there is a good chance for quasi-periodical oscillations. Using the line shapes and their characteristics (as e.g. peaks separation and their intensity ratio, or FWHM) of broad H$\\beta$ and H$\\alpha$ lines, we discuss the structure of the BLR. Also, we cross-correlate the continuum flux with H$\\beta$ and H$\\alpha$ lines to find dimensions of the BLR. We found that during the ...

  10. Light-Weight Sensor Package for Precision 3d Measurement with Micro Uavs E.G. Power-Line Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnert, K.-D.; Kuhnert, L.

    2013-08-01

    The paper describes a new sensor package for micro or mini UAVs and one application that has been successfully implemented with this sensor package. It is intended for 3D measurement of landscape or large outdoor structures for mapping or monitoring purposes. The package can be composed modularly into several configurations. It may contain a laser-scanner, camera, IMU, GPS and other sensors as required by the application. Also different products of the same sensor type have been integrated. Always it contains its own computing infrastructure and may be used for intelligent navigation, too. It can be operated in cooperation with different drones but also completely independent of the type of drone it is attached to. To show the usability of the system, an application in monitoring high-voltage power lines that has been successfully realised with the package is described in detail.

  11. Monitoring of the MBE growth processes of CdTe on InSb by laser light scattering

    OpenAIRE

    J. Huerta; M. López López; O. Zelaya Angel

    1999-01-01

    We have studied by Laser Light Scattering (LLS) the oxides surface desorption of InSb substrates, and the subsequentgrowth of CdTe layers by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). LLS measurements allowed us to determine the criticaltemperature before surface degradation of InSb, which is not evidently noticed by reflection high energy electrondiffraction (RHEED). Surface defects appeared on substrates where this temperature was exceeded, as observed byscanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Atomic For...

  12. Use of the Photo-Electromyogram to Objectively Diagnose and Monitor Treatment of Post-TBI Light Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    layout parameters for each type of data recording session. During the 3rd quarter, we have adapted the tool for use in reviewing and analyzing the video... adaptation period of 15 minutes, while the DSI plate reader below the acrylic mouse holder is used to transfer the EMG signals from the mouse...with CGRP in bright light. This behavior also matches human migraineur behavior in that increased photosensitivity, and any movement and muscular

  13. A Real Time Quality Monitoring System for the Lighting Industry: A Practical and Rapid Approach Using Computer Vision and Image Processing (CVIP Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.K. Ng

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In China, the manufacturing of lighting products is very labour intensive. The approach used to check quality and control production relies on operators who test using various types of fixtures. In order to increase the competitiveness of the manufacturer and the efficiency of production, the authors propose an integrated system. This system has two major elements: a computer vision system (CVS and a real‐time monitoring system (RTMS. This model focuses not only on the rapid and practical application of modern technology to a traditional industry, but also represents a process innovation in the lighting industry. This paper describes the design and development of the prototyped lighting inspection system based on a practical and fast approach using computer vision and imaging processing (CVIP tools. LabVIEW with IMAQ Vision Builder is the chosen tool for building the CVS. Experimental results show that this system produces a lower error rate than humans produce in the quality checking process. The whole integrated manufacturing strategy, aimed at achieving a better performance, is most suitable for a China and other labour intensive environments such as India.

  14. Two-channel imaging system for the White light Active Region Monitor (WARM) telescope at Kodaikanal Observatory: design, development, and first images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruthvi, Hemanth; Ramesh, K. B.

    2015-06-01

    One of the three planned back-end systems for the proposed National Large Solar Telescope (NLST) is the Solar Dynamics Imaging System (SDIS) which is intended to obtain near simultaneous images in multiple wavelengths. As a first step, a prototype system with two channel imaging has been developed and installed at the back-end of the White light Active Region Monitor (WARM) telescope at Kodaikanal Observatory. A two-mirror Coelostat serves as a light feeding system to a refracting objective while an optical breadboard serves as a platform for the back-end instruments. A re-imaging system is used before the prime focus to get two light channels for the observations in two wavelengths. The re-imaging system is designed using ZEMAX and the alignment of the system is done using a laser. Full disk images are obtained using a red filter (674.2nm/10nm) and a G-band filter (430.5nm/0.84nm). Design aspects of the re-imaging system, preliminary observations and image reduction methods are described in this paper.

  15. Care co-ordination for older people in the third sector: scoping the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abendstern, Michele; Hughes, Jane; Jasper, Rowan; Sutcliffe, Caroline; Challis, David

    2017-01-24

    The third sector has played a significant role internationally in the delivery of adult social care services for many years. Its contribution to care co-ordination activities for older people, however, in England and elsewhere, is relatively unknown. A scoping review was therefore conducted to ascertain the character of the literature, the nature and extent of third sector care co-ordination activity, and to identify evidence gaps. It was undertaken between autumn 2013 and summer 2014 and updated with additional searches in 2016. Electronic and manual searches of international literature using distinct terms for different approaches to care co-ordination were undertaken. From a total of 835 papers, 26 met inclusion criteria. Data were organised in relation to care co-ordination approaches, types of third sector organisation and care recipients. Papers were predominantly from the UK and published this century. Key findings included that: a minority of literature focused specifically on older people and that those doing so described only one care co-ordination approach; third sector services tended to be associated with independence and person-centred practice; and working with the statutory sector, a prerequisite of care co-ordination, was challenging and required a range of features to be in place to support effective partnerships. Strengths and weaknesses of care co-ordination practice in the third sector according to key stakeholder groups were also highlighted. Areas for future research included the need for: a specific focus on older people's experiences; an investigation of workforce issues; detailed examination of third sector practices, outcomes and costs; interactions with the statutory sector; and an examination of quality assurance systems and their appropriateness to third sector practice. The main implication of the findings is a need to nurture variety within the third sector in order to provide older people and other adults with the range of service

  16. Projected health impact of the Los Angeles City living wage ordinance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Brian L; Shimkhada, Riti; Morgenstern, Hal; Kominski, Gerald; Fielding, Jonathan E; Wu, Sheng

    2005-08-01

    To estimate the relative health effects of the income and health insurance provisions of the Los Angeles City living wage ordinance. About 10 000 employees of city contractors are subject to the Los Angeles City living wage ordinance, which establishes an annually adjusted minimum wage (7.99 US dollars per hour in July 2002) and requires employers to contribute 1.25 US dollars per hour worked towards employees' health insurance, or, if health insurance is not provided, to add this amount to wages. As part of a comprehensive health impact assessment (HIA), we used estimates of the effects of health insurance and income on mortality from the published literature to construct a model to estimate and compare potential reductions in mortality attributable to the increases in wage and changes in health insurance status among workers covered by the Los Angeles City living wage ordinance. The model predicts that the ordinance currently reduces mortality by 1.4 deaths per year per 10,000 workers at a cost of 27.5 million US dollars per death prevented. If the ordinance were modified so that all uninsured workers received health insurance, mortality would be reduced by eight deaths per year per 10,000 workers at a cost of 3.4 million US dollars per death prevented. The health insurance provisions of the ordinance have the potential to benefit the health of covered workers far more cost effectively than the wage provisions of the ordinance. This analytical model can be adapted and used in other health impact assessments of related policy actions that might affect either income or access to health insurance in the affected population.

  17. Photosynthesis light-independent reactions are sensitive biomarkers to monitor lead phytotoxicity in a Pb-tolerant Pisum sativum cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Eleazar; da Conceição Santos, Maria; Azevedo, Raquel; Correia, Carlos; Moutinho-Pereira, José; Ferreira de Oliveira, José Miguel Pimenta; Dias, Maria Celeste

    2015-01-01

    Lead (Pb) environmental contamination remains prevalent. Pisum sativum L. plants have been used in ecotoxicological studies, but some cultivars showed to tolerate and accumulate some levels of Pb, opening new perspectives to their use in phytoremediation approaches. However, the putative use of pea plants in phytoremediation requires reliable toxicity endpoints. Here, we evaluated the sensitivity of a large number of photosynthesis-related biomarkers in Pb-exposed pea plants. Plants (cv. "Corne de Bélier") were exposed to Pb concentrations up to 1,000 mg kg(-1) soil during 28 days. The photosynthetic potential biomarkers that were analyzed included pigments, chlorophyll (Chl) a fluorescence, gas exchange, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) activity, and carbohydrates. Flow cytometry (FCM) was also used to assess the morpho-functional status of chloroplasts. Finally, Pb-induced nutrient disorders were also evaluated. Net CO2 assimilation rate (A) and RuBisCO activity decreased strongly in Pb-exposed plants. Plant dry mass (DM) accumulation, however, was only reduced in the higher Pb concentrations tested (500 and 1,000 mg kg(-1) soil). Pigment contents increased solely in plants exposed to the largest Pb concentration, and in addition, the parameters related to the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis, Fv/Fm and ΦPSII, were not affected by Pb exposure. In contrast to this, carbohydrates showed an overall tendency to increase in Pb-exposed plants. The morphological status of chloroplasts was affected by Pb exposure, with a general trend of volume decrease and granularity increase. These results point the endpoints related to the light-independent reactions of photosynthesis as more sensitive predictors of Pb-toxicity than the light-dependent reactions ones. Among the endpoints related to the light-independent photosynthesis reactions, RuBisCO activity and A were found to be the most sensitive. We discuss here the advantages of using

  18. Monitoring of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide by long-path pulsed differential optical absorption spectroscopy using two different light paths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambe, Yasuaki; Yoshii, Yotsumi; Takahashi, Kenshi; Tonokura, Kenichi

    2012-03-01

    Measurements of the local distribution of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) by long-path pulsed differential optical absorption spectroscopy (LP-PDOAS) in Tokyo during August 2008 are presented. Two LP-PDOAS systems simultaneously measured average NO(2) temporal mixing ratios along two different paths from a single observation point. Two flashing aviation obstruction lights, located 7.0 km north and 6.3 km east from the observation point, were used as light sources, allowing spatiotemporal variations of NO(2) in Tokyo to be inferred. The LP-PDOAS data were compared with ground-based data measured using chemiluminescence. Surface wind data indicated that large inhomogeneities were present in the spatial NO(2) distributions under southerly wind conditions, while northerly wind conditions displayed greater homogeneity between the two systems. The higher correlation in the NO(2) mixing ratio between the two LP-PDOAS systems was observed under northerly wind conditions with a correlation factor R(2) = 0.88. We demonstrated that the combined deployment of two LP-PDOAS systems oriented in different directions provides detailed information on the spatial distribution of NO(2).

  19. Optoacoustic spectroscopy for real-time monitoring of strongly light-absorbing solutions in applications to analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filimonova, Tatyana A; Volkov, Dmitry S; Proskurnin, Mikhail A; Pelivanov, Ivan M

    2013-12-01

    An optoacoustic technique for solutions of strongly light-absorbing analytes at 0.1-0.01 mol l(-1) is proposed. The technique is based on the wide-band forward mode detection of temporal profiles of laser-generated ultrasonic pulses (optoacoustic signals). The leading edge of the signal repeats the distribution of the laser fluence in the medium, which makes it possible to determine its optical absorption and investigate its dynamics during a reaction. The range of light-absorption coefficients starts from 1 to 5 and reaches 10(4) to 10(5) cm(-1). The determination of iron(II) as ferroin shows the possibility of probing 0.1 mol l(-1) of iron(II), which was not previously achieved for this reaction by optical spectroscopy. To further prove the concept, kinetic measurements for ferroin decomposition at the level of 0.1 mol l(-1) and at high pHs are performed. The results are compared with spectrophotometry at lower concentrations and show good reproducibility and accuracy of kinetic constants.

  20. Quantitative assessment of electrical resistivity tomography for monitoring DNAPLs migration - Comparison with high-resolution light transmission visualization in laboratory sandbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yaping; Shi, Xiaoqing; Xu, Hongxia; Sun, Yuanyuan; Wu, Jichun; Revil, André

    2017-01-01

    Real-time monitoring of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) migration and distribution is essential for the decision of an effective remediation strategy. Light transmission visualization (LTV) has shown its accuracy and efficiency for measuring DNAPLs saturation and water content in the laboratory, but it cannot be implemented in three dimensional sandbox or field-scale sites. Recently developed electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) has been applied in monitoring the migration and distribution of DNAPLs in bench- and field-scale studies. However, the evaluation of the ability of ERT for monitoring DNAPLs migration by a direct comparison of ERT with high-resolution techniques such as LTV within an experimental system is still lacking. Two sandbox experiments with different permeability conditions are conducted to quantitatively assess the capability of ERT for monitoring the DNAPLs migration. During the injections, LTV method is used to visualize the DNAPLs migration and provide high-resolution saturation data while ERT method is applied to capture the change of resistivity. The results from the comparison between LTV and ERT methods show that ERT is successful in detecting the accumulation and flow bypassing phenomenon around the low-permeability lenses, as well as the penetration through the high-permeability lenses. There is a fair correlation between the resistivity and saturation with overall correlation coefficients above 0.6, except at last stage. However, using classical regularization techniques (based on smoothness), the area of DNAPLs plume determined by ERT is commonly overestimated. Compared to the plume around the low-permeability lenses, the plume around the high-permeability lenses estimated by ERT is more extensive due to larger resistivity contrasts. In addition, ERT measurements indicate that the resistivity increase caused by the low-saturation DNAPLs is not apparent enough, which is likely to be covered up under the changing

  1. Spatial coding of ordinal information in short- and long-term memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronique eGinsburg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The processing of numerical information induces a spatial response bias: Faster responses to small numbers with the left hand and faster responses to large numbers with the right hand. Most theories agree that long-term representations underlie this so called SNARC effect (Spatial Numerical Association of Response Codes; Dehaene, Bossini, & Giraux, 1993. However, a spatial response bias was also observed with the activation of temporary position-space associations in working memory (ordinal position effect; van Dijck & Fias, 2011. Items belonging to the beginning of a memorized sequence are responded to faster with the left hand side while items at the end of the sequence are responded to faster with the right hand side. The theoretical possibility was put forward that the SNARC effect is an instance of the ordinal position effect, with the empirical consequence that the SNARC effect and the ordinal position effect cannot be observed simultaneously. In two experiments we falsify this claim by demonstrating that the SNARC effect and the ordinal position effect are not mutually exclusive. Consequently, this suggests that the SNARC effect and the ordinal position effect result from the activation of different representations. We conclude that spatial response biases can result from the activation of both pre-existing positions in long-term memory and from temporary space associations in working memory at the same time.

  2. Spatial coding of ordinal information in short- and long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Véronique; Gevers, Wim

    2015-01-01

    The processing of numerical information induces a spatial response bias: Faster responses to small numbers with the left hand and faster responses to large numbers with the right hand. Most theories agree that long-term representations underlie this so called SNARC effect (Spatial Numerical Association of Response Codes; Dehaene et al., 1993). However, a spatial response bias was also observed with the activation of temporary position-space associations in working memory (ordinal position effect; van Dijck and Fias, 2011). Items belonging to the beginning of a memorized sequence are responded to faster with the left hand side while items at the end of the sequence are responded to faster with the right hand side. The theoretical possibility was put forward that the SNARC effect is an instance of the ordinal position effect, with the empirical consequence that the SNARC effect and the ordinal position effect cannot be observed simultaneously. In two experiments we falsify this claim by demonstrating that the SNARC effect and the ordinal position effect are not mutually exclusive. Consequently, this suggests that the SNARC effect and the ordinal position effect result from the activation of different representations. We conclude that spatial response biases can result from the activation of both pre-existing positions in long-term memory and from temporary space associations in working memory at the same time.

  3. A case study of co-ordinative decision-making in disaster management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W; Dowell, J

    2000-08-01

    A persistent problem in the management of response to disasters is the lack of co-ordination between the various agencies involved. This paper reports a case study of inter-agency co-ordination during the response to a railway accident in the UK. The case study examined two potential sources of difficulty for co-ordination: first, poorly shared mental models; and, second, a possible conflict between the requirements of distributed decision-making and the nature of individual decision-making. Interviews were conducted with six individuals from three response agencies. Analysis of reported events suggested that inter-agency co-ordination suffered through a widespread difficulty in constructing a reflexive shared mental model; that is, a shared mental representation of the distributed decision-making process itself, and its participants. This difficulty may be an inherent problem in the flexible development of temporary multi-agency organizations. The analysis focused on a distributed decision over how to transport casualties from an isolated location to hospital. This decision invoked a technique identified here as the progression of multiple options, which contrasts with both recognition-primed and analytical models of individual decision-making. The progression of multiple options appeared to be an effective technique for dealing with uncertainty, but was a further source of difficulty for inter-agency co-ordination.

  4. Bayesian inference for joint modelling of longitudinal continuous, binary and ordinal events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiuju; Pan, Jianxin; Belcher, John

    2016-12-01

    In medical studies, repeated measurements of continuous, binary and ordinal outcomes are routinely collected from the same patient. Instead of modelling each outcome separately, in this study we propose to jointly model the trivariate longitudinal responses, so as to take account of the inherent association between the different outcomes and thus improve statistical inferences. This work is motivated by a large cohort study in the North West of England, involving trivariate responses from each patient: Body Mass Index, Depression (Yes/No) ascertained with cut-off score not less than 8 at the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Pain Interference generated from the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item short-form health survey with values returned on an ordinal scale 1-5. There are some well-established methods for combined continuous and binary, or even continuous and ordinal responses, but little work was done on the joint analysis of continuous, binary and ordinal responses. We propose conditional joint random-effects models, which take into account the inherent association between the continuous, binary and ordinal outcomes. Bayesian analysis methods are used to make statistical inferences. Simulation studies show that, by jointly modelling the trivariate outcomes, standard deviations of the estimates of parameters in the models are smaller and much more stable, leading to more efficient parameter estimates and reliable statistical inferences. In the real data analysis, the proposed joint analysis yields a much smaller deviance information criterion value than the separate analysis, and shows other good statistical properties too.

  5. The Impact of the 2002 Delaware Smoking Ordinance on Heart Attack and Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis H. Solis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the United States, smoking is the leading cause of death - having a mortality rate of approximately 435,000 people in 2000—accounting for 8.1% of all US deaths recorded that year. Consequently, we analyzed the Delaware Hospital Discharge Database, and identified state and non-state residents discharged with AMI or asthma for the years 1999 to 2004. Statistical data analysis compared the incidence of AMI or asthma for each group before (1999–2002 and after (2003–2004 the amendment. As a result, we found that pre-ordinance and post-ordinance quarterly rates of AMI for Delaware residents were 451 (se = 21 and 430 (se = 21 respectively, representing a 4.7% reduction. Over the same time period, there was negligible change in the incidence of AMI for non-Delaware residents. After adjusting for population growth, the Risk Ratio (RR for asthma in Delaware residents post-ordinance was 0.95 (95% CI, 0.90 to 0.999, which represented a significant reduction (P = 0.046. By comparison, non-Delaware residents had an increased RR for asthma post-ordinance of 1.62 (95% CI, 1.46 to 1.86; P < 0.0001.The results suggest that Delaware’s comprehensive non-smoking ordinance effectively was associated with a statistically significant decrease in the incidence of AMI and asthma in Delaware residents when compared to non-Delaware residents.

  6. A fiber optic, ultraviolet light-emitting diode-based, two wavelength fluorometer for monitoring reactive adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granz, Christopher D.; Whitten, James E., E-mail: James-Whitten@uml.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, Massachusetts 01854 (United States); Schindler, Bryan J. [Leidos, Inc., P.O. Box 68, Gunpowder, Maryland 21010 (United States); Peterson, Gregory W. [U.S. Army Edgewood Chemical and Biological Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 21010 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Construction and use of an ultraviolet light-emitting diode-based fluorometer for measuring photoluminescence (PL) from powder samples with a fiber optic probe is described. Fluorescence at two wavelengths is detected by miniature photomultiplier tubes, each equipped with a different band pass filter, whose outputs are analyzed by a microprocessor. Photoluminescent metal oxides and hydroxides, and other semiconducting nanoparticles, often undergo changes in their emission spectra upon exposure to reactive gases, and the ratio of the PL intensities at two wavelengths is diagnostic of adsorption. Use of this instrument for reactive gas sensing and gas filtration applications is illustrated by measuring changes in the PL ratio for zirconium hydroxide and zinc oxide particles upon exposure to air containing low concentrations of sulfur dioxide.

  7. Monitoring and design of stormwater control basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenhuis, J.E.; Parrish, J.H.; Jennings, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    The City of Austin, Texas, has played a pioneering role in the control of urban nonpoint source pollution by enacting watershed and stormwater ordinances, overseeing detailed monitoring programs, and improving design criteria for stormwater control methods. The effectiveness of the methods used in Austin, and perhaps in other areas of the United States, to protect urban water resources has not yet been fully established. Therefore, detailed monitoring programs capable of quantitatively determining the effectiveness of control methods and of stormwater ordinances, are required. The purpose of this report is to present an overview of the City of Austin's stormwater monitoring program, including previous monitoring programs with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Geological Survey, and to describe the relation of monitoring to design of stormwater control basins.

  8. Measurements of NO2 mixing ratios with topographic target light scattering-differential optical absorption spectroscopy system and comparisons to point monitoring technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yang; Li Ang; Xie Pin-Hua; Zeng Yi; Wang Rui-Bin; Chen Hao; Pei Xian; Liu Jian-Guo; Liu Wen-Qing

    2012-01-01

    A topographic target light scattering-differential optical absorption spectroscopy (ToTaL-DOAS) system is developed for measuring average concentrations along a known optical path and studying surface-near distributions of atmospheric trace gases.The telescope of the ToTaL-DOAS system points to targets which are located at known distances from the measurement device and illuminated by sunlight.Average concentrations with high spatial resolution can be retrieved by receiving sunlight reflected from the targets.A filed measurement of NO2 concentration is performed with the ToTaL-DOAS system in Shijiazhuang in the autumn of 2011.The measurement data are compared with concentrations measured by the point monitoring technique at the same site.The results show that the ToTaL-DOAS system is sensitive to the variation of NO2 concentrations along the optical path.

  9. Ordinal regression models to describe tourist satisfaction with Sintra's world heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouriño, Helena

    2013-10-01

    In Tourism Research, ordinal regression models are becoming a very powerful tool in modelling the relationship between an ordinal response variable and a set of explanatory variables. In August and September 2010, we conducted a pioneering Tourist Survey in Sintra, Portugal. The data were obtained by face-to-face interviews at the entrances of the Palaces and Parks of Sintra. The work developed in this paper focus on two main points: tourists' perception of the entrance fees; overall level of satisfaction with this heritage site. For attaining these goals, ordinal regression models were developed. We concluded that tourist's nationality was the only significant variable to describe the perception of the admission fees. Also, Sintra's image among tourists depends not only on their nationality, but also on previous knowledge about Sintra's World Heritage status.

  10. Conversation, co-ordination and convention: an empirical investigation of how groups establish linguistic conventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrod, S; Doherty, G

    1994-12-01

    Two experiments are reported which demonstrate the development of co-ordinated description languages in two groups of communicators playing Garrod and Anderson's (1987) maze game. The experiments contrast language co-ordination between speakers who always interact with the same partner (isolated pairs) as compared with speakers who interact with different partners drawn from the same community. Whereas the isolated pairs show higher degrees of inter-speaker convergence than the community pairs at the start of the experiment, the situation reverses by the time they have all played six or more games. The results are discussed at two levels: (1) in terms of Lewis's formal theory of conventions, and (2) in relation to a language processing model which abides by the "output/input co-ordination" principle proposed in Garrod and Anderson (1987).

  11. Infants' development of object permanence: a refined methodology and new evidence of Piaget's hypothesized ordinality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, J A; Hill, K T; Cohen, L B

    1975-03-01

    To investigate Piaget's theory of object concept development, a series of 6 tasks was administered in a combined longitudinal/cross-sectional design incorporating a number of methodological controls. The tasks spanned the entire sensorimotor period and included single versus sequential displacements combined with visible or invisible hidings. 36 infants from 5 to 32 months of age at initial testing were drawn equally from day-care and home settings. All infants received the 6 tasks during each of 3 testing sessions over a 6-month period. Clear evidence was obtained for task ordinality as proposed by Piaget, with ordinality coefficients ranging from .71 to .82 for the 3 testing sessions. Performance changes across the 3 sessions were also ordinal in 80% of the cases. Expected age, task, and session effects and accompanying interactions were also obtained.

  12. Introducing the Ordinance on energy efficiency labelling of household appliances on Croatian market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolega, Vesna [Energy institute Hrvoje Pozar, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2007-07-01

    The legal basis for the transposition of EU appliances labelling legislation in Croatia is the Energy law which Article 13 says: 'All electricity appliances have to be labelled by energy efficiency labels. The contents and design of energy efficiency labels have to be regulated by sub-law document called the Ordinance on Energy Efficiency Labelling of Households Appliances'. On 17th November 2005 the Ordinance on Energy Efficiency Labelling of Household Appliances entered into force. It is based on the Framework Directive 92/75/EEC and implementing Directives 94/2/EC, 95/12/EC, etc for the following appliances: refrigerators and freezers; washing machines; tumble driers; washing/drying machines; dishwashers; electrical ovens; electrical lamps; air-conditioners. Before 1st May 2006, in the majority of larger retail stores in Croatia, the energy efficiency labels were present on strictly voluntary basis. Such labels could be found mainly on refrigerators and freezers, washing machines, dryers and dishwashers. Recently, air-conditioners were also very often equipped with labels. These labels were correctly translated in Croatian, although text does not completely match the label defined in the Ordinance on Energy Efficiency Labelling of Household Appliances. Although such labels are not recognized as the appropriate labelling according the Ordinance, they do provide some practical basis for the implementation itself. Since 1st May 2006, although the Ordinance has been fully adopted, there are no valid Croatian labels attached on all displayed appliances in a number of HA stores. Aiming at household appliances market transformation in Croatia, it is very important at the moment to find the best ways for the Ordinance verification and enforcement.

  13. Monitoring light-induced structural changes of Channelrhodopsin-2 by UV-visible and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Eglof; Stehfest, Katja; Berndt, Andre; Hegemann, Peter; Bartl, Franz J

    2008-12-12

    Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) is a microbial type rhodopsin and a light-gated cation channel that controls phototaxis in Chlamydomonas. We expressed ChR2 in COS-cells, purified it, and subsequently investigated this unusual photoreceptor by flash photolysis and UV-visible and Fourier transform infrared difference spectroscopy. Several transient photoproducts of the wild type ChR2 were identified, and their kinetics and molecular properties were compared with those of the ChR2 mutant E90Q. Based on the spectroscopic data we developed a model of the photocycle comprising six distinguishable intermediates. This photocycle shows similarities to the photocycle of the ChR2-related Channelrhodopsin of Volvox but also displays significant differences. We show that molecular changes include retinal isomerization, changes in hydrogen bonding of carboxylic acids, and large alterations of the protein backbone structure. These alterations are stronger than those observed in the photocycle of other microbial rhodopsins like bacteriorhodopsin and are related to those occurring in animal rhodopsins. UV-visible and Fourier transform infrared difference spectroscopy revealed two late intermediates with different time constants of tau = 6 and 40 s that exist during the recovery of the dark state. The carboxylic side chain of Glu(90) is involved in the slow transition. The molecular changes during the ChR2 photocycle are discussed with respect to other members of the rhodopsin family.

  14. Multi-frequency monitoring of gamma-ray loud blazars: I. Light curves and spectral energy distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Bach, U; Villata, M; Fuhrmann, L; Buemi, C S; Larionov, V M; Leto, P; Arkharov, A A; Coloma, J M; Di Paola, A; Dolci, M; Efimova, N; Forne, E; Ibrahimov, M A; Hagen-Thorn, V; Konstantinova, T; Kopatskaya, E; Lanteri, L; Kurtanidze, O M; Maccaferri, G; Nikolashvili, M G; Orlati, A; Ros, J A; Tosti, G; Trigilio, C; Umana, G

    2006-01-01

    Context: Being dominated by non-thermal emission from aligned relativistic jets, blazars allow us to elucidate the physics of extragalactic jets, and, ltimately, how the energy is extracted from the central black hole in radio-loud active galactic nuclei. Aims: Crucial information is provided by broad-band spectral energy distributions (SEDs), their trends with luminosity and correlated multi-frequency variability. With this study we plan to obtain a database of contemporaneous radio-to-optical spectra of a sample of blazars, which are and will be observed by current and future high-energy satellites. Methods: Since December 2004 we are performing a monthly multi-frequency radio monitoring of a sample of 35 blazars at the antennas in Medicina and Noto. Contemporaneous near-IR and optical observations for all our observing epochs are organised. Results: Until June 2006 about 4000 radio measurements and 5500 near-IR and optical measurements were obtained. Most of the sources show significant variability in all ...

  15. Monte Carlo Studies of the Radiation Fields in the Linac Coherent Light Source Undulators and of the Corresponding Signals in the Cerenkov Beam Loss Monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana Leitner, Mario; Fasso, Alberto; Fisher, Alan S.; Nuhn, Heinz D.; /SLAC; Dooling, Jeffrey C.; Berg, William; Yang, Bin X.; /Argonne

    2010-09-14

    In 2009 the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at the SLAC National Accelerator Center started free electron laser (FEL) operation. In order to continue to produce the bright and short-pulsed x-ray laser demanded by FEL scientists, this pioneer hard x-ray FEL requires a perfectly tailored magnetic field at the undulators, so that the photons generated at the electron wiggling path interact at the right phase with the electron beam. In such a precise system, small (>0.01%) radiation-induced alterations of the magnetic field in the permanent magnets could affect FEL performance. This paper describes the simulation studies of radiation fields in permanent magnets and the expected signal in the detectors. The transport of particles from the radiation sources (i.e. diagnostic insert) to the undulator magnets and to the beam loss monitors (BLM) was simulated with the intra nuclear cascade codes FLUKA and MARS15. In order to accurately reproduce the optics of LCLS, lattice capabilities and magnetic fields were enabled in FLUKA and betatron oscillations were validated against reference data. All electron events entering the BLMs were printed in data files. The paper also introduces the Radioactive Ion Beam Optimizer (RIBO) Monte Carlo 3-D code, which was used to read from the event files, to compute Cerenkov production and then to simulate the optical coupling of the BLM detectors, accounting for the transmission of light through the quartz.

  16. Intercomparison Study of the CAPS PMex (Cavity Attenuated Phase Shift Particle Light Extinction Monitor) with the combination of an Integrating Nephelometer and a Particle Soot Absorption Photometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, A.; Onasch, T.; Kebabian, P.; Freedman, A.

    2012-10-01

    An evaluation of the Cavity Attenuated Phase Shift particle light extinction monitor (CAPS PMex) by means of a combination of a 3-wavelength Integrating Nephelometer (NEPH; TSI Model 3563) and a 3-wavelength filter-based Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP) was carried out using both laboratory generated test particles and ambient aerosols. An accurate determination of a fixed pathlength correction for the CAPS PMex was made by comparing extinction measurements using polystyrene latex (PSL) spheres in combination with Mie scattering calculations to account for the presence of PSL conglomerates. These studies yielded a linear instrument response over the investigated dynamical range from 20 to 450 M m-1 (10-6 m-1) with a linear correlation coefficient of R2 > 0.98. The adjustment factor was determined to be 1.05 times that previously reported. Correlating CAPS extinction to extinction measured by the NEPH-PSAP combination using laboratory-generated polydisperse mixtures of purely scattering ammonium sulfate and highly absorbing black carbon provided a linear regression line with slope m = 0.99 (R2 = 0.996) for single-scattering albedo values (λ = 630 nm) ranging from 0.35 (black carbon) to 1.00 (ammonium sulfate). For ambient aerosol, light extinction measured by CAPS PMex was highly correlated (R2 = 0.995) to extinction measured by the NEPH-PSAP combination with slope m = 0.95.

  17. In-line monitoring technique with visible light from 1.3 microm-band SHG module for optical access systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Takahiro; Taniguchi, Tomohiro; Tadanaga, Osamu; Sakurai, Naoya; Kimura, Hideaki; Hadama, Hisaya; Asobe, Masaki

    2010-02-01

    We propose an in-line monitoring technique that uses 650 nm visible light for performing maintenance work on Fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) network quickly without the need for measuring skills or external devices. This technique is characterized by visible light (650 nm) generated by an SHG module from the 1.3 microm-band line signal. We fabricate a 1.3 microm-band quasi phase matched LiNbO(3) (QPM-LN) module, and the measure the 650 nm second harmonic (SH) power to test the proposed short-pulse modulation method. The results confirm the feasibility of the short-pulse modulation method with different peak factors (PFs) (1.0-7.3). We also examine the effect of short-pulse modulation on system performance at the optical receiver by measuring the bit error rate (BER) of received data (1.25 Gb/s). The BER is basically unaffected by the PF (1.0-5.5). This means that the proposed technique has little influence on data reception as regards PF (1.0-5.5).

  18. Non-rigid registration of medical images based on ordinal feature and manifold learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Liu, Jin; Zang, Bo

    2015-12-01

    With the rapid development of medical imaging technology, medical image research and application has become a research hotspot. This paper offers a solution to non-rigid registration of medical images based on ordinal feature (OF) and manifold learning. The structural features of medical images are extracted by combining ordinal features with local linear embedding (LLE) to improve the precision and speed of the registration algorithm. A physical model based on manifold learning and optimization search is constructed according to the complicated characteristics of non-rigid registration. The experimental results demonstrate the robustness and applicability of the proposed registration scheme.

  19. Asymptotically Optimal Simulation Budget Allocation under Fixed Confidence Level by Ordinal Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGJian-feng; SUNChun-Lin; CHENYong-qing

    2004-01-01

    Ordinal optimization concentrates on isolating a subset of good designs with high probability and reduces the required simulation time dramatically for discrete event simulation. To obtain the same probability level,we may optimally allocate our computing budget among different designs,instead of equally simulating all different designs. In this paper we present an effective approach to optimally allocate computing budget for discrete-event system simulation. While ordinal optimization can dramatically reduce the computation cost, our approach can further reduce the already-low cost.

  20. Stereochemistry of substitution at trico-ordinate phosphorus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, John; Dahl, Otto

    1984-01-01

    and 31P) from reactant and product diastereoisomers have been assigned, and the stereo-chemistry of the substitution reactions have been determined by 31P n.m.r. monitoring. The outcome varies from complete inversion to complete lack of stereoselectivity. During the initial stages many of the non-selective...... reactions proceed with predominant inversion, and most of the results may be interpreted by assuming that the actual substitution step occurs with inversion, and that the lack of stereoselectivity is due to competing isomerizations of products or reactants. Exceptions are certain reactions where the leaving...... group is Cl; these appear to involve a non-selective substitution step....

  1. Monitoring Urban Clusters Expansion in the Middle Reaches of the Yangtze River, China, Using Time-Series Nighttime Light Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhong Zou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The urban clusters in the Middle Reaches of the Yangtze River (MRYR in China include the Chang-Zhu-Tan urban agglomeration, the Wuhan metropolitan area, and the Poyang Lake urban agglomeration. While previous studies of urban expansion in China focused mainly on the coastal regions, this study aimed to investigate urban expansion patterns and factors in the MRYR, which are crucial for urban development in Central China. A neighborhood statistics analysis (NSA method and a local-optimized threshold method were used to detect urban changes during 1992–2011 from the time-series Defense Meteorological Satellite Program’s Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS nighttime light (NTL images. The evolution of urban expansion intensity and landscape metrics were analyzed at multiple spatial scales, including the whole region, urban agglomeration, and city scales. Finally, the expanded STochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence, and Technology (STIRPAT model was built to explore the factors that controlled NTL intensity. The results revealed that urban areas extracted from the NTL data were consistent with those extracted from the Landsat Thematic Mapper data, with an overall accuracy of 81.74% and a Kappa of 0.40. A relatively slow urbanization pace was observed from 1992 to 2002 in the MRYR region, which then accelerated in the period of 2002 to 2007 and then slowed down between 2007 and 2011. Additionally, urban expansion exhibited a radial pattern. The results further indicated that major factors controlling NTL intensity were gross domestic product, followed by total investment in fixed assets, tertiary industry, urban construction area, non-agricultural population, and industrial output in the city clusters. The study provides important insights for further studies on the urbanization processes in the MRYR region.

  2. Design of Intelligent Lighting Monitoring System Based on LonWorks Field Bus Technology%基于LonWorks现场总线的智能照明监控系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘敏层; 杨子毛; 李阳; 赵奕; 李艳娜

    2014-01-01

    Based on the LonWorks field bus technology,this paper proposed a design scheme of intelligent lighting monitoring system,which integrated the lighting devices into the network system.The bottom control network program was compiled by LonMaker software,and the human-computer interface of force control configuration software realized the concentrated display and real-time monitoring.The intelligent lighting monitoring system was successfully applied in the intelligent lighting model of the laboratory.The test results show that the intelligent lighting monitoring system has the advantages of quick response,stable action,and higer success rate,and so on.%提出了一种基于LonWorks现场总线的智能照明监控系统设计方案,将照明设备集成为网络系统,借助LonMaker软件编写底层控制网络程序,采用力控组态软件开发人机界面,集中显示和实时监控。将智能照明监控系统成功应用于实验室的智能照明模型,测试结果表明其具有反应迅速、动作稳定、成功率高等优点。

  3. Risk Management For Unexploded Ordinance (UXO In The Marine Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Howard

    2012-10-01

    " /> Light Shading" /> Light List" /> Light Grid" /> Light Shading Accent 1" /> Light List Accent 1" />

  4. Numerical and Non-Numerical Ordinality Processing in Children with and without Developmental Dyscalculia: Evidence from fMRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, L.; Vogel, S. E.; Starke, M.; Kremser, C.; Schocke, M.

    2009-01-01

    Ordinality is--beyond numerical magnitude (i.e., quantity)--an important characteristic of the number system. There is converging empirical evidence that (intra)parietal brain regions mediate number magnitude processing. Furthermore, recent findings suggest that the human intraparietal sulcus (IPS) supports magnitude and ordinality in a…

  5. Amendment of the Ordinance on Hazardous Substances (GefStoffV); Novellierung der Gefahrstoffverordnung (GefStoffV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henrici, R.; Boehrer, R. [Bundesfachschule Kaelte-Klima-Technik, Maintal (Germany)

    2005-08-01

    The new Ordinance on Hazardous Materials (GefStoffV)came into force on 1 January 2005. The amendment was necessary for implementing European law (98/24/EG) into German law. The Ordinance states goals and specifies requirements on safety and health protection when handling hazardous materials. (orig.)

  6. Detecting DIF in Polytomous Items Using MACS, IRT and Ordinal Logistic Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elosua, Paula; Wells, Craig

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the Type I error rate and power of two model-based procedures, the mean and covariance structure model (MACS) and the item response theory (IRT), and an observed-score based procedure, ordinal logistic regression, for detecting differential item functioning (DIF) in polytomous items. A simulation…

  7. Finite Mixture Multilevel Multidimensional Ordinal IRT Models for Large Scale Cross-Cultural Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G. de Jong (Martijn); J-B.E.M. Steenkamp (Jan-Benedict)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWe present a class of finite mixture multilevel multidimensional ordinal IRT models for large scale cross-cultural research. Our model is proposed for confirmatory research settings. Our prior for item parameters is a mixture distribution to accommodate situations where different groups

  8. Errata to the Werts-Linn Comments on Boyle's "Path Analysis and Ordinal Data."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werts, Charles E.; Linn, Robert L.

    The Werts-Linn procedure for dealing with categorical errors of measurement in "Comments on Boyle's 'Path Analysis and Ordinal Data'" in The American Journal of Sociology, volume 76, number 6, May 1971, is shown to be inappropriate to the problem of ordered categories. (For related document, see TM 002 301.) (DB)

  9. 75 FR 23289 - Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma Liquor Control Ordinance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... brewed liquor or of wine by any Person to any Person and also includes giving away Liquor, Wine, Beer, or... ``Liquor'' as herein defined in this Ordinance. (b) ``Beer'' means any beverage obtained by the alcoholic... percent of Alcohol by weight shall be referred to as ``strong Beer.'' (c) ``Gaming Facility'' means a...

  10. Kernel conditional ordinal random fields for temporal segmentation of facial action units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudovic, Ognjen; Pavlovic, Vladimir; Pantic, Maja

    2012-01-01

    We consider the problem of automated recognition of temporal segments (neutral, onset, apex and offset) of Facial Action Units. To this end, we propose the Laplacian-regularized Kernel Conditional Ordinal Random Field model. In contrast to standard modeling approaches to recognition of AUs’ temporal

  11. Pelvic organ prolapse symptoms in relation to POPQ, ordinal stages and ultrasound prolapse assessment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluivers, K.B.; Hendriks, J.C.M.; Shek, C.; Dietz, H.P.

    2008-01-01

    Adequate staging of pelvic organ prolapse is important in clinical practice and research. The ability of the POPQ, ordinal stages and ultrasound prolapse assessment were evaluated for their ability to discriminate between women with and without prolapse symptoms. The leading edge of the predominant

  12. The Standards Agenda: Reflections of a Special Educational Needs Co-ordinator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazzard, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    This study is a life history account of Bev, a special educational needs co-ordinator who works in a primary school in England. The research examines how, within Bev's experiences, the discourses of integration and inclusion have affected learners with special educational needs. Additionally, the study examines the impact of the…

  13. Emerging Adulthood in Developmental Co-Ordination Disorder: Parent and Young Adult Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, A.; Edwards, L.; Sugden, D.

    2011-01-01

    Recent research widely acknowledges that developmental co-ordination disorder (DCD) is a pervasive and enduring disorder, which persists into adolescence and adulthood ([Cousins and Smyth, 2003] and [Kirby et al., 2008]). However, few studies have given detailed consideration to the range and level of functioning difficulties in emerging adults…

  14. Developmental Co-Ordination Disorder (DCD) in Adolescents and Adults in Further and Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Amanda; Sugden, David; Beveridge, Sally; Edwards, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have looked at the strengths and weaknesses and needs of students with developmental co-ordination disorder (DCD). This paper describes a cohort of 93 UK students currently studying at further or higher education and who have reported motor difficulties present since childhood. The study group consisted of 21 reporting to have DCD…

  15. 78 FR 14352 - Notice of Approved Class III Tribal Gaming Ordinances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... Indians of California 59. Crow Creek Sioux Tribe 60. Crow Indian Tribe of Montana 61. Delaware Tribe of... National Indian Gaming Commission Notice of Approved Class III Tribal Gaming Ordinances AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The purpose of this notice is to inform the public of...

  16. 75 FR 62853 - Reno-Sparks Indian Colony Liquor Control Ordinance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ...-Mart Superstore to sell liquor on tribal lands, which will general millions of dollars in sales revenue and increase funding for essential government services provided by the Reno-Sparks Indian Colony. The ordinance will increase the ability of the tribal government to control the distribution and possession of...

  17. A Composite Likelihood Inference in Latent Variable Models for Ordinal Longitudinal Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasdekis, Vassilis G. S.; Cagnone, Silvia; Moustaki, Irini

    2012-01-01

    The paper proposes a composite likelihood estimation approach that uses bivariate instead of multivariate marginal probabilities for ordinal longitudinal responses using a latent variable model. The model considers time-dependent latent variables and item-specific random effects to be accountable for the interdependencies of the multivariate…

  18. A Composite Likelihood Inference in Latent Variable Models for Ordinal Longitudinal Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasdekis, Vassilis G. S.; Cagnone, Silvia; Moustaki, Irini

    2012-01-01

    The paper proposes a composite likelihood estimation approach that uses bivariate instead of multivariate marginal probabilities for ordinal longitudinal responses using a latent variable model. The model considers time-dependent latent variables and item-specific random effects to be accountable for the interdependencies of the multivariate…

  19. A psicose ordinária e os fenômenos de corpo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Rosa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo retoma as formulações lacanianas dos anos 50 sobre a psicose, psicose freudiana à la Schreber, e aquelas outras dos anos 1970, propostas a partir do sinthoma joyciano, de modo a discutir uma nova denominação surgida contemporaneamente, a psicose ordinária, e o modo como ela trata o corpo.

  20. Supply Chain Co-ordination and Industry Clockspeed: an Exploratory Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voordijk, Hans; Akkermans, Henk; Meijboom, Bert

    2003-01-01

    The increasing velocity of change, or clockspeed, in the business environment is a key challenge for firms and industries nowadays. In this study, the impact of industry and organisation clockspeed on specific mechanisms used for supply chain co-ordination is investigated from an information-process

  1. The Design Co-ordination Framework: key elements for effective product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup; Bowen, J.; Storm, T.

    1997-01-01

    , organisation, allocations, tasks etc. during the design process, has been identified. Each frame is explained and the co-ordination, i.e. the management of the links between these frames, is presented, based upon characteristic DC situations in Industry. It is concluded that while the DCF provides a basis...

  2. The midwives ordinance of Palestine, 1929: historical perspectives and current lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katvan, Eyal; Bartal, Nira

    2010-06-01

    Until 1929, midwifery in Palestine was relatively open to anyone and only partially regulated by the 1918 Public Health Ordinance, legislated shortly after the beginning of British rule. This article describes the factors that guided the shaping of midwifery and suggests possible sources of inspiration for the British legislator in crafting the Midwives Ordinance in 1929, including American, local (Jews and Arabs), and British ones. The Midwives Ordinance reflects the adjustment of midwifery to changes in the society that evolved under the British Mandate. The ordinance shows how the modern midwife's role contracted relative to the traditional one, in the context of social processes in other countries, east and west. This historical research project is based on interviews, archive documents and research literature. It analyzes the British interests in regulating midwifery, including the rationale of preserving public health and reducing infant mortality, against a background of political power struggles as well as cultural, social and professional diversity in Palestine (the tensions between the powers of doctors, nurses, and pharmacists).

  3. Using two-level factor analysis to test for cluster bias in ordinal data.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jak, Suzanne; Oort, F.J .; Dolan, Conor V.

    2014-01-01

    The test for cluster bias is a test of measurement invariance across clusters in 2-level data. This article examines the true positive rates (empirical power) and false positive rates of the test for cluster bias using the likelihood ratio test (LRT) and the Wald test with ordinal data. A simulation

  4. 75 FR 22419 - Liquor Control Ordinance of the Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... establishments, public buildings, public meeting halls, lobbies, halls and dining room of hotels, restaurants... and attorneys fees and take any other actions reasonably necessary to carry out this ordinance... from time to time by the Tribal Council for this purpose. Said application must be filled...

  5. A New Statistic for Evaluating Item Response Theory Models for Ordinal Data. CRESST Report 839

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Li; Monroe, Scott

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new limited-information goodness of fit test statistic C[subscript 2] for ordinal IRT models. The construction of the new statistic lies formally between the M[subscript 2] statistic of Maydeu-Olivares and Joe (2006), which utilizes first and second order marginal probabilities, and the M*[subscript 2] statistic of Cai and Hansen…

  6. The Standards Agenda: Reflections of a Special Educational Needs Co-ordinator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazzard, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    This study is a life history account of Bev, a special educational needs co-ordinator who works in a primary school in England. The research examines how, within Bev's experiences, the discourses of integration and inclusion have affected learners with special educational needs. Additionally, the study examines the impact of the…

  7. Fitting Proportional Odds Models to Educational Data in Ordinal Logistic Regression Using Stata, SAS and SPSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xing

    2008-01-01

    The proportional odds (PO) model, which is also called cumulative odds model (Agresti, 1996, 2002 ; Armstrong & Sloan, 1989; Long, 1997, Long & Freese, 2006; McCullagh, 1980; McCullagh & Nelder, 1989; Powers & Xie, 2000; O'Connell, 2006), is one of the most commonly used models for the analysis of ordinal categorical data and comes from the class…

  8. Correlation Between Hue-angle and Colour Lightness of Steamed Black locust Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NÉMETH, Károly

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. wood was steamed at wide range of temperature(75-130°C applying long (22 days steaming time. The colour change was monitored by CIE L*a*b*and L*h*c* colour co-ordinate systems. A wide range of colours from greenish yellow up to chocolatebrown were created by steaming in function of the steaming time and temperature. In spite of this widecolour range a good linear correlation was found between the lightness and the colour hue. Thislinearity had little distortion only above 100°C at a long steaming time. Accordingly, this linearcorrelation gives the possibility to follow the colour change during steaming by measuring only thelightness.

  9. Stereochemistry of substitution at trico-ordinate phosphorus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, John; Dahl, Otto

    1984-01-01

    and 31P) from reactant and product diastereoisomers have been assigned, and the stereo-chemistry of the substitution reactions have been determined by 31P n.m.r. monitoring. The outcome varies from complete inversion to complete lack of stereoselectivity. During the initial stages many of the non......-selective reactions proceed with predominant inversion, and most of the results may be interpreted by assuming that the actual substitution step occurs with inversion, and that the lack of stereoselectivity is due to competing isomerizations of products or reactants. Exceptions are certain reactions where the leaving......A series of reactions of ring-substituted 1,3,2-dioxaphospholanes, 1,3,2-oxazaphospholanes, 1,2-oxaphospholes, and phosphetanes bearing the leaving groups Cl, OR, or NR2 on phosphorus, with the nucleophiles HCl, MeO-, MeOH, PhOH, Me2NH, Et2NH, and [CH 2]5NH have been studied. N.m.r. signals (1H...

  10. A comparison of ordinal regression models in an analysis of factors associated with periodontal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javali Shivalingappa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study aimed to determine the factors associated with periodontal disease (different levels of severity by using different regression models for ordinal data. Design: A cross-sectional design was employed using clinical examination and ′questionnaire with interview′ method. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted during June 2008 to October 2008 in Dharwad, Karnataka, India. It involved a systematic random sample of 1760 individuals aged 18-40 years. The periodontal disease examination was conducted by using Community Periodontal Index for Treatment Needs (CPITN. Statistical Analysis Used: Regression models for ordinal data with different built-in link functions were used in determination of factors associated with periodontal disease. Results: The study findings indicated that, the ordinal regression models with four built-in link functions (logit, probit, Clog-log and nlog-log displayed similar results with negligible differences in significant factors associated with periodontal disease. The factors such as religion, caste, sources of drinking water, Timings for sweet consumption, Timings for cleaning or brushing the teeth and materials used for brushing teeth were significantly associated with periodontal disease in all ordinal models. Conclusions: The ordinal regression model with Clog-log is a better fit in determination of significant factors associated with periodontal disease as compared to models with logit, probit and nlog-log built-in link functions. The factors such as caste and time for sweet consumption are negatively associated with periodontal disease. But religion, sources of drinking water, Timings for cleaning or brushing the teeth and materials used for brushing teeth are significantly and positively associated with periodontal disease.

  11. 合肥光源BPM真空室位移监测系统%BPM chamber displacement monitor in Hefei light source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建伟; 孙葆根; 曹涌; 卢平

    2009-01-01

    The beam horizontal orbit at Hefei light source(HLS) was drifting all along while the storage ring was operating due to the drift of BPM chamber mainly caused by the thermal effect of synchrotron light.To monitor the BPM chamber motion for all BPMs,a BPM chamber motion measurement system is built in real-time to correct the reading of BPMs.The raster gauges are used to measure the displacement,and the displacement data are transmitted by RS485 serial network to an industrial personal computer which processes the data and sends them to HLS control system.The design of BPM chamber motion measurement system is described and the measurement results are given.%合肥光源(HLS)电子储存环的束流水平轨道存在缓慢漂移现象,导致轨道水平漂移的主要原因是同步光热效应导致束流位置检测器(BPM)真空室水平移动.为抑制这种现象而研制的合肥光源BPM真空室位移监测系统,利用光栅位移传感器实时监测全环24个BPM真空室的位移,并将数据反馈至HLS控制系统,由控制系统对BPM的轨道测量值进行实时修正,从而提高了慢速轨道反馈系统有效性.

  12. Light weight, high-speed, and self-powered wireless fiber optic sensor (WiFOS) structural health monitor system for avionics and aerospace environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Edgar A.; Kempen, Cornelia; Sun, Sunjian; Esterkin, Yan

    2014-09-01

    This paper describes recent progress towards the development of an innovative light weight, high-speed, and selfpowered wireless fiber optic sensor (WiFOS™) structural health monitor system suitable for the onboard and in-flight unattended detection, localization, and classification of load, fatigue, and structural damage in advanced composite materials commonly used in avionics and aerospace systems. The WiFOS™ system is based on ROI's advancements on monolithic photonic integrated circuit microchip technology, integrated with smart power management, on-board data processing, wireless data transmission optoelectronics, and self-power using energy harvesting tools such as solar, vibration, thermoelectric, and magneto-electric. The self-powered, wireless WiFOS™ system offers a versatile and powerful SHM tool to enhance the reliability and safety of avionics platforms, jet fighters, helicopters, commercial aircraft that use lightweight composite material structures, by providing comprehensive information about the structural integrity of the structure from a large number of locations. Immediate SHM applications are found in rotorcraft and aircraft, ships, submarines, and in next generation weapon systems, and in commercial oil and petrochemical, aerospace industries, civil structures, power utilities, portable medical devices, and biotechnology, homeland security and a wide spectrum of other applications.

  13. Identification of a cis-regulatory element by transient analysis of co-ordinately regulated genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Andrew C

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transcription factors (TFs co-ordinately regulate target genes that are dispersed throughout the genome. This co-ordinate regulation is achieved, in part, through the interaction of transcription factors with conserved cis-regulatory motifs that are in close proximity to the target genes. While much is known about the families of transcription factors that regulate gene expression in plants, there are few well characterised cis-regulatory motifs. In Arabidopsis, over-expression of the MYB transcription factor PAP1 (PRODUCTION OF ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENT 1 leads to transgenic plants with elevated anthocyanin levels due to the co-ordinated up-regulation of genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. In addition to the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes, there are a number of un-associated genes that also change in expression level. This may be a direct or indirect consequence of the over-expression of PAP1. Results Oligo array analysis of PAP1 over-expression Arabidopsis plants identified genes co-ordinately up-regulated in response to the elevated expression of this transcription factor. Transient assays on the promoter regions of 33 of these up-regulated genes identified eight promoter fragments that were transactivated by PAP1. Bioinformatic analysis on these promoters revealed a common cis-regulatory motif that we showed is required for PAP1 dependent transactivation. Conclusion Co-ordinated gene regulation by individual transcription factors is a complex collection of both direct and indirect effects. Transient transactivation assays provide a rapid method to identify direct target genes from indirect target genes. Bioinformatic analysis of the promoters of these direct target genes is able to locate motifs that are common to this sub-set of promoters, which is impossible to identify with the larger set of direct and indirect target genes. While this type of analysis does not prove a direct interaction between protein and DNA

  14. The forgotten guidelines: cross-sectional analysis of participation in muscle strengthening and balance & co-ordination activities by adults and older adults in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, Tessa; Fitzsimons, Claire; Kelly, Paul; Mutrie, Nanette

    2016-10-21

    In 2011, the UK physical activity guidelines were updated to include recommendations for muscle strengthening and balance & coordination (at least two sessions of relevant activities per week). However, monitoring and policy efforts remain focussed on aerobic activity. This study aimed to assess differences by gender and age in the a) prevalence of muscle strengthening and balance & co-ordination guidelines, and b) participation in guideline-specific activities. The sample for the muscle strengthening analyses was 10,488 adult (16-64 years) and 3857 older adult (≥65 years) 2012-2014 Scottish Health Survey respondents. The balance & co-ordination analyses used only the older adult responses. Differences by gender and (where possible) age in guideline prevalence and activity participation were assessed using logistic regression and t-tests. Thirty-one percent of men and 24 % of women met the muscle strengthening guideline, approximately half that of published figures for aerobic physical activity. Nineteen percent of older men and 12 % of older women met the balance & co-ordination guidelines. The oldest age groups were less likely to meet both guidelines compared to the youngest age groups. Differences by gender were only evident for muscle strengthening: more men met the guidelines than women in all age groups, with the largest difference amongst 16-24 year olds (55 % men compared with 40 % women). Participation in relevant activities differed by gender for both guidelines. 'Workout at gym' was the most popular activity to improve muscle strength for men (18 % participated), while swimming was for women (15 % participated). Golf was the most popular activity to improve balance & co-ordination for older men (11 % participated) and aerobics was for older women (6 % participated). Participation decreased in most muscle strengthening activities for both men and women. One exception was golf, where participation levels were as high amongst older men as in

  15. Comparison of discrete ordinate and Monte Carlo simulations of polarized radiative transfer in two coupled slabs with different refractive indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, D; Stamnes, S; Tanikawa, T; Sommersten, E R; Stamnes, J J; Lotsberg, J K; Stamnes, K

    2013-04-22

    A comparison is presented of two different methods for polarized radiative transfer in coupled media consisting of two adjacent slabs with different refractive indices, each slab being a stratified medium with no change in optical properties except in the direction of stratification. One of the methods is based on solving the integro-differential radiative transfer equation for the two coupled slabs using the discrete ordinate approximation. The other method is based on probabilistic and statistical concepts and simulates the propagation of polarized light using the Monte Carlo approach. The emphasis is on non-Rayleigh scattering for particles in the Mie regime. Comparisons with benchmark results available for a slab with constant refractive index show that both methods reproduce these benchmark results when the refractive index is set to be the same in the two slabs. Computed results for test cases with coupling (different refractive indices in the two slabs) show that the two methods produce essentially identical results for identical input in terms of absorption and scattering coefficients and scattering phase matrices.

  16. Modeling the proportion of cut slopes rock on forest roads using artificial neural network and ordinal linear regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babapour, R; Naghdi, R; Ghajar, I; Ghodsi, R

    2015-07-01

    Rock proportion of subsoil directly influences the cost of embankment in forest road construction. Therefore, developing a reliable framework for rock ratio estimation prior to the road planning could lead to more light excavation and less cost operations. Prediction of rock proportion was subjected to statistical analyses using the application of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) in MATLAB and five link functions of ordinal logistic regression (OLR) according to the rock type and terrain slope properties. In addition to bed rock and slope maps, more than 100 sample data of rock proportion were collected, observed by geologists, from any available bed rock of every slope class. Four predictive models were developed for rock proportion, employing independent variables and applying both the selected probit link function of OLR and Layer Recurrent and Feed forward back propagation networks of Neural Networks. In ANN, different numbers of neurons are considered for the hidden layer(s). Goodness of the fit measures distinguished that ANN models produced better results than OLR with R (2) = 0.72 and Root Mean Square Error = 0.42. Furthermore, in order to show the applicability of the proposed approach, and to illustrate the variability of rock proportion resulted from the model application, the optimum models were applied to a mountainous forest in where forest road network had been constructed in the past.

  17. Satellite Constellation Configuration Design with Rapid Performance Calculation and Ordinal Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Hongzheng; HAN Chao

    2011-01-01

    Satellite constellation configuration design is a complicated and time-consuming simulation optimization problem.In this paper,a new method called the rapid method for satellite constellation performance calculation is developed by the Hermite interpolation technique to reduce the computing complication and time.The constellation configuration optimization model is established on the basis of the rapid performance calculation.To reduce the search space and enhance the optimization efficiency,this paper presents a new constellation optimization strategy based on the ordinal optimization(00)theory and expands the algorithm realization for constellation optimization including precise and crude models,ordered performance curves,selection rules and selected subsets.Two experiments about navigation constellation and space based surveillance system(SBSS)are carried out and the analysis of simulation results indicates that the ordinal optimization for satellite constellation configuration design is effective.

  18. Use and Misuse of the Likert Item Responses and Other Ordinal Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Phillip A; Herron, Robert L

    Likert, Likert-type, and ordinal-scale responses are very popular psychometric item scoring schemes for attempting to quantify people's opinions, interests, or perceived efficacy of an intervention and are used extensively in Physical Education and Exercise Science research. However, these numbered measures are generally considered ordinal and violate some statistical assumptions needed to evaluate them as normally distributed, parametric data. This is an issue because parametric statistics are generally perceived as being more statistically powerful than non-parametric statistics. To avoid possible misinterpretation, care must be taken in analyzing these types of data. The use of visual analog scales may be equally efficacious and provide somewhat better data for analysis with parametric statistics.

  19. Measuring information interactions on the ordinal pattern of stock time series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaojun; Shang, Pengjian; Wang, Jing

    2013-02-01

    The interactions among time series as individual components of complex systems can be quantified by measuring to what extent they exchange information among each other. In many applications, one focuses not on the original series but on its ordinal pattern. In such cases, trivial noises appear more likely to be filtered and the abrupt influence of extreme values can be weakened. Cross-sample entropy and inner composition alignment have been introduced as prominent methods to estimate the information interactions of complex systems. In this paper, we modify both methods to detect the interactions among the ordinal pattern of stock return and volatility series, and we try to uncover the information exchanges across sectors in Chinese stock markets.

  20. Using missing ordinal patterns to detect nonlinearity in time series data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulp, Christopher W.; Zunino, Luciano; Osborne, Thomas; Zawadzki, Brianna

    2017-08-01

    The number of missing ordinal patterns (NMP) is the number of ordinal patterns that do not appear in a series after it has been symbolized using the Bandt and Pompe methodology. In this paper, the NMP is demonstrated as a test for nonlinearity using a surrogate framework in order to see if the NMP for a series is statistically different from the NMP of iterative amplitude adjusted Fourier transform (IAAFT) surrogates. It is found that the NMP works well as a test statistic for nonlinearity, even in the cases of very short time series. Both model and experimental time series are used to demonstrate the efficacy of the NMP as a test for nonlinearity.

  1. Insulation co-ordination and the enlargement law for the GM counter tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolićanin Edin Ć.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze application of contemporary methods of insulation co-ordination and the enlargement law in designing a GM counting tube. It has been shown that by applying insulation co-ordination methods the counting tube can be optimally dimensioned. The application of the enlargement law was demonstrated in generalizing the results of test obtained by the GM tube to those obtained by the counting tube with m-times greater dimensions. The investigations were conducted both theoretically and by experiment. Using theoretical analysis, we derived the expressions that may be applied if a performance function of a random variable breakdown voltage is known. The experiments were conducted on a GM counter model under well controlled laboratory conditions.

  2. Constrained Ordination Analysis with Enrichment of Bell-Shaped Response Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingjie; Thas, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Constrained ordination methods aims at finding an environmental gradient along which the species abundances are maximally separated. The species response functions, which describe the expected abundance as a function of the environmental score, are according to the ecological fundamental niche theory only meaningful if they are bell-shaped. Many classical model-based ordination methods, however, use quadratic regression models without imposing the bell-shape and thus allowing for meaningless U-shaped response functions. The analysis output (e.g. a biplot) may therefore be potentially misleading and the conclusions are prone to errors. In this paper we present a log-likelihood ratio criterion with a penalisation term to enforce more bell-shaped response shapes. We report the results of a simulation study and apply our method to metagenomics data from microbial ecology.

  3. Node ordinal encoded genetic algorithm for the optimal allocation of water resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiaohua; YANG Zhifeng; SHEN Zhenyao; LI Jianqiang

    2005-01-01

    A new method, node ordinal encoded genetic algorithm (NOEGA), is proposed for solving water resources optimal allocation problems, in which the capacity of water resources is split into a number of smaller parts so that successive operations can be overlapped. Our objective is to maximize the whole benefit function. To overcome the "dimensionality and algorithm complexity curse" while searching for solutions and looking for an optimal solution, the operations of one-point crossover operator, gene exchange operator, gene random operator, gene shift operator and node ordinal strings are established. It is proved to be an effective optimal method in searching for global solutions. The NOEGA does not need a diversity of initial population, and it does not have the problem of immature convergence. The results of two cases show that using NOEGA to solve the optimal allocation model is very efficient and robust. In addition, the algorithm complexity of NOEGA is discussed.

  4. Optimization of prostate cancer treatment plans using the adjoint transport method and discrete ordinates codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, S.; Henderson, D.L. [Dept. of Medical Physics, Madison, WI (United States); Thomadsen, B.R. [Dept. of Medical Physics and Dept. of Human Oncology, Madison (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Interstitial brachytherapy is a type of radiation in which radioactive sources are implanted directly into cancerous tissue. Determination of dose delivered to tissue by photons emitted from implanted seeds is an important step in the treatment plan process. In this paper we will investigate the use of the discrete ordinates method and the adjoint method to calculate absorbed dose in the regions of interest. MIP (mixed-integer programming) is used to determine the optimal seed distribution that conforms the prescribed dose to the tumor and delivers minimal dose to the sensitive structures. The patient treatment procedure consists of three steps: (1) image acquisition with the transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) and assessing the region of interest, (2) adjoint flux computation with discrete ordinate code for inverse dose calculation, and (3) optimization with the MIP branch-and-bound method.

  5. Co-ordinating innate and adaptive immunity to viral infection: mobility is the key

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wern, Jeanette Erbo; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2009-01-01

    The host counters a viral infection through a complex response made up of components belonging to both the innate and the adaptive immune system. In this report, we review the mechanisms underlying this response, how it is induced and how it is co-ordinated. As cell-cell communication represents...... in mounting an efficient host response and co-ordinating innate and adaptive immunity during a primary viral infection....... the very essence of immune system physiology, a key to a rapid, efficient and optimally regulated immune response is the ability of the involved cells to rapidly shift between a stationary and a mobile state, combined with stringent regulation of cell migration during the mobile state. Through the co...

  6. Strobe Light Testing and Kokanee Population Monitoring : Dworshak Dam Impacts Assessment and Fisheries Investigation Project, 97-99 : annual Progress Report for 1998.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiolie, Melo A.; Harryman, Bill; Ament, William J.

    1999-12-01

    We tested the response of kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka to strobe lights. Testing was conducted on wild, free-ranging fish in their natural environment (i.e., the pelagic region of two large Idaho lakes). Split-beam hydroacoustics were used to record the distance kokanee moved away from the lights as well as the density of kokanee in the area near the lights. In control tests, where the strobe lights were lowered into the lake but kept turned off, kokanee remained within a few meters of the lights. Once the lights began flashing, kokanee quickly moved away from the light source. Kokanee were found to move an average of 30 to 136 m away from the lights in waters with Secchi transparencies from 2.8 to 17.5 m (p=0.00 to p=0.04). Kokanee densities near the lights were significantly lower (p=0.00 to p=0.07) when the lights were turned on than in control samples with no lights flashing. Flash rates of 300, 360, and 450 flashes/min elicited strong avoidance responses from the fish. Kokanee remained at least 24 m away from the lights during our longest test that lasted for 5 h 50 min. Kokanee appeared to be responding to flashes that were well less than 0.00016 lux above background lighting.

  7. A comparison of ordinal regression models in an analysis of factors associated with periodontal disease

    OpenAIRE

    Javali Shivalingappa; Pandit Parameshwar

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The study aimed to determine the factors associated with periodontal disease (different levels of severity) by using different regression models for ordinal data. Design: A cross-sectional design was employed using clinical examination and ′questionnaire with interview′ method. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted during June 2008 to October 2008 in Dharwad, Karnataka, India. It involved a systematic random sample of 1760 individuals aged 18-40 years. The periodon...

  8. Inferring long memory processes in the climate network via ordinal pattern analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Barreiro, Marcelo; Masoller, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    We use ordinal patterns and symbolic analysis to construct global climate networks and uncover long and short term memory processes. The data analyzed is the monthly averaged surface air temperature (SAT field) and the results suggest that the time variability of the SAT field is determined by patterns of oscillatory behavior that repeat from time to time, with a periodicity related to intraseasonal oscillations and to El Ni\\~{n}o on seasonal-to-interannual time scales.

  9. Human responses to Florida red tides: policy awareness and adherence to local fertilizer ordinances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Kohler, Kate; Byrne, Margaret; Fleming, Lora E; Scheller, Karen; Reich, Andrew; Hitchcock, Gary; Kirkpatrick, Gary; Ullmann, Steven; Hoagland, Porter

    2014-09-15

    To mitigate the damages of natural hazards, policy responses can be beneficial only if they are effective. Using a self-administered survey approach, this paper focuses on the adherence to local fertilizer ordinances (i.e., county or municipal rules regulating the application of fertilizer to private lawns or facilities such as golf courses) implemented in jurisdictions along the Southwest Florida coast in response to hazardous blooms of Florida red tides (Karenia brevis). These ordinances play a role in the context of evolving programs of water pollution control at federal, state, water basin, and local levels. With respect to policy effectiveness, while the strength of physical linkages is of critical importance, the extent to which humans affected are aware of and adhere to the relevant rules, is equally critical. We sought to understand the public's depth of understanding about the rationales for local fertilizer ordinances. Respondents in Sarasota, Florida, were asked about their fertilizer practices in an area that has experienced several major blooms of Florida red tides over the past two decades. A highly educated, older population of 305 residents and "snowbirds" reported relatively little knowledge about a local fertilizer ordinance, its purpose, or whether it would change the frequency, size, or duration of red tides. This finding held true even among subpopulations that were expected to have more interest in or to be more knowledgeable about harmful algal blooms. In the face of uncertain science and environmental outcomes, and with individual motivations at odds with evolving public policies, the effectiveness of local community efforts to decrease the impacts of red tides may be compromised. Targeted social-science research on human perceptions about the risks of Florida red tides and education about the rationales for potential policy responses are warranted.

  10. Application of ordinal logistic regression analysis in determining risk factors of child malnutrition in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Das Sumonkanti; Rahman Rajwanur M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The study attempts to develop an ordinal logistic regression (OLR) model to identify the determinants of child malnutrition instead of developing traditional binary logistic regression (BLR) model using the data of Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2004. Methods Based on weight-for-age anthropometric index (Z-score) child nutrition status is categorized into three groups-severely undernourished (< -3.0), moderately undernourished (-3.0 to -2.01) and nourished (≥-2.0...

  11. Discrete Ordinates Approximations to the First- and Second-Order Radiation Transport Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, W C; Powell, J L

    2002-01-01

    The conventional discrete ordinates approximation to the Boltzmann transport equation can be described in a matrix form. Specifically, the within-group scattering integral can be represented by three components: a moment-to-discrete matrix, a scattering cross-section matrix and a discrete-to-moment matrix. Using and extending these entities, we derive and summarize the matrix representations of the second-order transport equations.

  12. School-teachers awareness of developmental co-ordination delay (DCD) in children

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    non-peer-reviewed Background: Developmental Co-ordination Delay (DCD) is estimated to affect 5-6% of school children (1). School-teachers play an integral role in noting delayed signs of motor development in children (2). Limited research has been carried out investigating the awareness that Irish school-teachers demonstrate of DCD. Objectives: To determine the awareness that Irish primary school-teachers have of DCD, in children. Methods: Qualitative methodology involving three focus grou...

  13. Using the Analytic Hierarchy Process to Derive Health State Utilities from Ordinal Preference Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Brian P; Adams, Roisin; Walsh, Cathal; Barry, Michael; Kind, Paul

    2015-09-01

    The EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire is a standardized instrument used in the economic evaluation of health care to measure health state preferences across disease groups. A time trade-off (TTO) approach is commonly used to elicit preferences from the public. However, there are issues regarding how best to measure worse-than-dead states; at present, extreme valuations are rounded up to more acceptable values. TTO elicitation is also cognitively demanding for respondents and is therefore expensive to investigate. To describe how the analytic hierarchy process approach could be used to generate utilities from the ordinal relationships between the health states instead of the ordinal relationships between health states, allowing potentially useful preference data to be incorporated rather than excluded as they are at present. It was applied to the Measurement and Valuation of Health study data set, measuring health state preferences for the United Kingdom. The analytic hierarchy process approach was explained. Five approaches to structure pairwise comparisons of health state preference were described (two concave, two convex, and one linear). All approaches described predicted the rankings of health states well. However, utilities derived followed an unconventional, bunched shape compared with the original Measurement and Valuation of Health TTO study. An approach was identified by optimizing the parameters, minimizing the sum of squared errors between the ordinal "health state ranking" approach and the original TTO-derived utilities. This approach outlined offers the potential to convert ordinal preference data into cardinal utilities. It is simpler than TTO studies to carry out and removes the need to directly alter results of the preference ranking exercise. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Serial learning with wild card items by monkeys (Cebus apella): implications for knowledge of ordinal position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, M R; Colombo, M

    1989-09-01

    We investigated monkeys' knowledge of the ordinal positions of stimuli that formed a 5-item serial list, ABCDE, by means of wild card items (W) that could substitute for items in the original series. In Experiment 1, training with wild cards was given on 3-, 4-, and 5-item series. In the last of these series, the wild card substitutions created five wild card sequences, WBCDE through ABCDW. During the final 10 sessions of training with each of two different wild cards (Items x and Y), the 3 subjects were able to successfully complete almost 60% of the wild card sequences. In Experiment 2, the two wild cards were presented on the same trial in 10 different double wild card sequences (e.g., AXCDY). The 2 monkey subjects correctly completed about 59% of the double wild card sequences during the final two training sessions. The performance levels achieved on single and on double wild card sequences, although well below that observed on the baseline sequence ABCDE (90% or better), support the view that the monkeys possessed some knowledge regarding the ordinal position of each baseline item. Consequently, an associative chain interpretation, which does not provide for knowledge of ordinal position, falls short as a complete account of the monkey's capacity for serial learning.

  15. UNQUESTIONED GENDER LENS IN CONTEMPORARY INDONESIAN SHARI‘A ORDINANCES (PERDA SYARI’AH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Candraningrum

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian Muslim participation in the democratic arena is now contested with the arrival of the decentralization process in 423 districts since 1992. The most notable movement is the quest for Islamic identity in the rejuvenation of Shari‘ah Ordinances which is interpreted symbolically and transcripturally. These ordinances have unrecognized the importance of gender lens in its practice. Until the end of 2007 no less than 63 districts have ratified Perda Syari’ah. In general, these ordinances designed to govern three aspects of public life, namely (1 to eradicate social crimes especially prostitutions and gambling; (2 to enforce ritual observances among Muslims such as reading the Qur’an, Friday congregations and fasting during Ramadhan; and (3 to govern the way people dress up in public sphere—especially the head-veiling for women. Although Islam is the religion of the majority there are also non-Muslim among Indonesian and institutionally Indonesia is not an Islamic state, therefore the ratification of Perda Syari’ah betrayed national consensus agreed upon by the founding fathers of the republic.

  16. A HISTORICAL REVIEW OF HIGHWAY PLANNING AND DESIGN POLICY IN "COMMENTARY ON JAPANESE ROAD STRUCTURE ORDINANCE"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Hirohisa

    The "Commentary on Japanese Road Structure Ordinance" is a book which narrates the "Japanese Road Structure Ordinance" and was revised three times from the original version published in 1960. This paper puts together and formulates the progress and interpretation of hitory of each revision. The main results derived are as below; the thought of road design is changed from the intent of national uniformity of road structures at the beginning to the flexible application of the ordinance regulations for suitable road design for the regional condition recently; hierarchy in road classification is not clear so that the target level of service and the methodology in design are not fully established yet; the contradiction caused in the treatment of demand and capacity as daily volume should be dissolved; and it is needed that the establishment of new proper standards of lane width, design speed, and so on in road design or traffic operation through confirmation of the course and conotation of the such standards setting.

  17. Measurement of light scattering in an urban area with a nephelometer and PM2.5 FDMS TEOM monitor: accounting for the effect of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropper, Paul M; Hansen, Jaron C; Eatough, Delbert J

    2013-09-01

    The US. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed a new secondary standard based on visibility in urban areas. The proposed standard will be based on light extinction, calculated from 24-hr averaged measurements. It would be desirable to base the standard on a shorter averaging time to better represent human perception of visibility This could be accomplished by either an estimation of extinction from semicontinuous particulate matter (PM) data or direct measurement of scattering and absorption. To this end we have compared 1-hr measurements of fine plus coarse particulate scattering using a nephelometer along with an estimate of absorption from aethalometer measurements. The study took place in Lindon, UT, during February and March 2012. The nephelometer measurements were corrected for coarse particle scattering and compared to the Filter Dynamic Measurement System (FDMS) tapered element oscillating microbalance monitor (TEOM) PM2.5 measurements. The two measurements agreed with a mass scattering coefficient of 3.3 +/- 0.3 m2/g at relative humidity below 80%. However at higher humidity, the nephelometer gave higher scattering results due to water absorbed by ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate in the particles. This particle-associated water is not measured by the FDMS TEOM. The FDMS TEOM data could be corrected for this difference using appropriate IMPROVE protocols if the particle composition is known. However a better approach may be to use a particle measurement system that allows for semicontinuous measurements but also measures particle bound water Data are presented from a 2003 study in Rubidoux, CA, showing how this could be accomplished using a Grimm model 1100 aerosol spectrometer or comparable instrument.

  18. Comparison of multidimensional fuzzy set ordination with CCA and DB-RDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David W

    2009-09-01

    Multidimensional fuzzy set ordination (MFSO) is an ordination algorithm based on the principles of fuzzy set theory that employs a dissimilarity matrix and environmental or experimental variables directly in the calculation of ordination coordinates. The objective is similar to constrained ordinations such as canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) and distance-based redundancy analysis (DB-RDA), although MFSO employs a different conceptual and algorithmic basis. Results from MFSO, CCA, and DB-RDA are compared on four data sets to determine the relative ability of the methods to identify and quantify environmental variable effect sizes on community variability. Models were fit by best all-subsets solutions and tested for significance by permutation tests. Methods were compared on the basis of variables selected and dimensionality of results and were evaluated on the basis of the correlation of the pair-wise distances of the derived ordination solutions to a Bray-Curtis dissimilarity matrix of the taxon data, and by cross-comparisons of the inertia explained by the fitted or derived values substituted into DB-RDA and CCA analyses. MFSO and DB-RDA achieved the highest correlation with the Bray-Curtis dissimilarity matrix on one data set each, and they tied for highest correlation on the two other data sets (differences set, tied for second on another, and achieved the lowest correlation on two data sets. When substituting MFSO- and DB-RDA-derived values into CCA, MFSO results achieved higher inertia explained on two of the four data sets; MFSO and DB-RDA achieved equivalent results on the other two. Substituting MFSO- or CCA-derived or fitted values into DB-RDA, MFSO results achieved higher inertia explained on all four data sets. While goodness-of-fit statistics were often similar across methods, the methods sometimes chose solutions of different dimensionality or employed different variables. In general, all algorithms performed well, finding relatively low

  19. Variable discrete ordinates method for radiation transfer in plane-parallel semi-transparent media with variable refractive index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvari, S. M. Hosseini

    2017-09-01

    The traditional form of discrete ordinates method is applied to solve the radiative transfer equation in plane-parallel semi-transparent media with variable refractive index through using the variable discrete ordinate directions and the concept of refracted radiative intensity. The refractive index are taken as constant in each control volume, such that the direction cosines of radiative rays remain non-variant through each control volume, and then, the directions of discrete ordinates are changed locally by passing each control volume, according to the Snell's law of refraction. The results are compared by the previous studies in this field. Despite simplicity, the results show that the variable discrete ordinate method has a good accuracy in solving the radiative transfer equation in the semi-transparent media with arbitrary distribution of refractive index.

  20. GA Based Clustering of Mixed Data Type of Attributes (Numeric, Categorical, Ordinal, Binary and Ratio-Scaled)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rohit Rastogi; Pinki Mondal; Kritika Agarwal; Rachit Gupta;

    2015-01-01

    .... Data mining and data clustering, the prominent field of today it is a highly desirable task to apply unsupervised classification analysis on high volume of data sets with combined ordinal, ratio...

  1. Tax revenue in Mississippi communities following implementation of smoke-free ordinances: an examination of tourism and economic development tax revenues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillen, Robert; Shackelford, Signe

    2012-10-01

    There is no safe level of exposure to tobacco smoke. More than 60 Mississippi communities have passed smoke-free ordinances in the past six years. Opponents claim that these ordinances harm local businesses. Mississippi law allows municipalities to place a tourism and economic development (TED) tax on local restaurants and hotels/motels. The objective of this study is to examine the impact of these ordinances on TED tax revenues. This study applies a pre/post quasi-experimental design to compare TED tax revenue before and after implementing ordinances. Descriptive analyses indicated that inflation-adjusted tax revenues increased during the 12 months following implementation of smoke-free ordinances while there was no change in aggregated control communities. Multivariate fixed-effects analyses found no statistically significant effect of smoke-free ordinances on hospitality tax revenue. No evidence was found that smoke-free ordinances have an adverse effect on the local hospitality industry.

  2. Influence of Limitations on Possible Graph Ordinate Values of Electrical Load on Rated Values of Load Peaks and Troughs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Zhezhelenko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of limitations on possible theta-ordinate values of group non-uniform electrical load graphs on the rated values of theta peaks and theta troughs and, particularly, on the rated heating load value is considered in the paper. It is shown that neglect of limitations on graph theta- ordinates of an electrical load leads in some cases to errors in evaluation of load theta peaks and theta troughs that exceed the tolerable values by ±10 %.

  3. Methodology to resolve the transport equation with the discrete ordinates code TORT into the IPEN/MB-01 reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal García, Álvaro; Abarca Giménez, Agustín; Barrachina Celda, Teresa María; Miró Herrero, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in International Journal of Computer Mathematics in 2014, available online: http://www.tandfonline.com/10.1080/00207160.2013.799668 Resolution of the steady-state Neutron Transport Equation in a nuclear pool reactor is usually achieved by means of two different numerical methods: Monte Carlo (stochastic) and Discrete Ordinates (deterministic). The Discrete Ordinates method solves the Neutron Transport Equation for a...

  4. Impact of San Francisco’s Toy Ordinance on Restaurants and Children’s Food Purchases, 2011–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saelens, Brian E.; Kapphahn, Kristopher I.; Hekler, Eric B.; Buman, Matthew P.; Goldstein, Benjamin A.; Krukowski, Rebecca A.; O’Donohue, Laura S.; Gardner, Christopher D.; King, Abby C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In 2011, San Francisco passed the first citywide ordinance to improve the nutritional standards of children’s meals sold at restaurants by preventing the giving away of free toys or other incentives with meals unless nutritional criteria were met. This study examined the impact of the Healthy Food Incentives Ordinance at ordinance-affected restaurants on restaurant response (eg, toy-distribution practices, change in children’s menus), and the energy and nutrient content of all orders and children’s-meal–only orders purchased for children aged 0 through 12 years. Methods Restaurant responses were examined from January 2010 through March 2012. Parent–caregiver/child dyads (n = 762) who were restaurant customers were surveyed at 2 points before and 1 seasonally matched point after ordinance enactment at Chain A and B restaurants (n = 30) in 2011 and 2012. Results Both restaurant chains responded to the ordinance by selling toys separately from children’s meals, but neither changed their menus to meet ordinance-specified nutrition criteria. Among children for whom children’s meals were purchased, significant decreases in kilocalories, sodium, and fat per order were likely due to changes in children’s side dishes and beverages at Chain A. Conclusion Although the changes at Chain A did not appear to be directly in response to the ordinance, the transition to a more healthful beverage and default side dish was consistent with the intent of the ordinance. Study results underscore the importance of policy wording, support the concept that more healthful defaults may be a powerful approach for improving dietary intake, and suggest that public policies may contribute to positive restaurant changes. PMID:25032837

  5. GE Smart Prep半自动监控软件的应用要点%Application Keypoints of GE Light Speed 8 Smart Prep Semiautomatic Monitoring Software

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖建明

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨GE light speed 8 smart Prep技术在CT血管造影中的准确应用.方法 采用GE light speed 8 Smart Pmp软件对35例患者进行颅脑CTA检查.结果 总结出GE light speed 8运用smart prep 的技术要点.%Objective To investigate the application of the GE light speed 8 smart prep technique in CT angiography. Methods Used GE light speed 8 Smart Prep software to assist the check of cerebral CTA in 35 patients. Results Summarized the application keypoints of CE light speed 8 smart prep technique.

  6. Monitoring mosquitoes in urban Dar es Salaam: Evaluation of resting boxes, window exit traps, CDC light traps, Ifakara tent traps and human landing catches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mpangile John M

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ifakara tent traps (ITT are currently the only sufficiently sensitive, safe, affordable and practical method for routine monitoring host-seeking mosquito densities in Dar es Salaam. However, it is not clear whether ITT catches represent indoors or outdoors biting densities. ITT do not yield samples of resting, fed mosquitoes for blood meal analysis. Methods Outdoors mosquito sampling methods, namely human landing catch (HLC, ITT (Design B and resting boxes (RB were conducted in parallel with indoors sampling using HLC, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention miniature light traps (LT and RB as well as window exit traps (WET in urban Dar es Salaam, rotating them thirteen times through a 3 × 3 Latin Square experimental design replicated in four blocks of three houses. This study was conducted between 6th May and 2rd July 2008, during the main rainy season when mosquito biting densities reach their annual peak. Results The mean sensitivities of indoor RB, outdoor RB, WET, LT, ITT (Design B and HLC placed outdoor relative to HLC placed indoor were 0.01, 0.005, 0.036, 0.052, 0.374, and 1.294 for Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (96% An. gambiae s.s and 4% An. arabiensis, respectively, and 0.017, 0.053, 0.125, 0.423, 0.372 and 1.140 for Culex spp, respectively. The ITT (Design B catches correlated slightly better to indoor HLC (r2 = 0.619, P 2 = 0.231, P = 0.001 than outdoor HLC (r2 = 0.423, P 2 = 0.228, P = 0.001 for An. gambiae s.l. and Culex spp respectively but the taxonomic composition of mosquitoes caught by ITT does not match those of the indoor HLC (χ2 = 607.408, degrees of freedom = 18, P An. gambiae caught indoors was unaffected by the use of an LLIN in that house. Conclusion The RB, WET and LT are poor methods for surveillance of malaria vector densities in urban Dar es Salaam compared to ITT and HLC but there is still uncertainty over whether the ITT best reflects indoor or outdoor biting densities. The particular LLIN

  7. Efficient light propagation for multiple anisotropic volume scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Max, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)]|[California Univ., Davis, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Realistic rendering of participating media like clouds requires multiple anisotropic light scattering. This paper presents a propagation approximation for light scattered into M direction bins, which reduces the ``ray effect`` problem in the traditional ``discrete ordinates`` method. For a volume of n{sup 3} elements, it takes O(M n{sup 3} log n + M{sup 2} n{sup 3}) time and O(M n{sup 3}) space.

  8. A coupled ordinates method for solution acceleration of rarefied gas dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Shankhadeep; Mathur, Sanjay R.; Alexeenko, Alina; Murthy, Jayathi Y.

    2015-05-01

    Non-equilibrium rarefied flows are frequently encountered in a wide range of applications, including atmospheric re-entry vehicles, vacuum technology, and microscale devices. Rarefied flows at the microscale can be effectively modeled using the ellipsoidal statistical Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (ESBGK) form of the Boltzmann kinetic equation. Numerical solutions of these equations are often based on the finite volume method (FVM) in physical space and the discrete ordinates method in velocity space. However, existing solvers use a sequential solution procedure wherein the velocity distribution functions are implicitly coupled in physical space, but are solved sequentially in velocity space. This leads to explicit coupling of the distribution function values in velocity space and slows down convergence in systems with low Knudsen numbers. Furthermore, this also makes it difficult to solve multiscale problems or problems in which there is a large range of Knudsen numbers. In this paper, we extend the coupled ordinates method (COMET), previously developed to study participating radiative heat transfer, to solve the ESBGK equations. In this method, at each cell in the physical domain, distribution function values for all velocity ordinates are solved simultaneously. This coupled solution is used as a relaxation sweep in a geometric multigrid method in the spatial domain. Enhancements to COMET to account for the non-linearity of the ESBGK equations, as well as the coupled implementation of boundary conditions, are presented. The methodology works well with arbitrary convex polyhedral meshes, and is shown to give significantly faster solutions than the conventional sequential solution procedure. Acceleration factors of 5-9 are obtained for low to moderate Knudsen numbers on single processor platforms.

  9. Case study of attempts to enact self service tobacco display ordinances: a tale of three communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidell, M.; Furlong, M.; Dunn, D.; Koegler, J.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To examine self service tobacco displays (SSTDs) and youth retail tobacco access by comparing longitudinal illegal tobacco sales rates in three communities in Santa Barbara County, California, that considered or implemented ordinances banning SSTDs. A confirmatory survey was also conducted to substantiate the longitudinal data.
DESIGN—A longitudinal case study design was utilised. Five undercover tobacco buys were conducted between 1994 and 1997 (n = 332). In addition, one confirmatory survey was conducted in a geographically separated area, which had no ordinances banning SSTDs (n = 57).
RESULTS—Decreases in youth buy rates were reported in all three communities. Most notably, the first city to enact a SSTD ban, Carpinteria, achieved a 0% sales rate, which was maintained throughout the study period. In contrast, Santa Barbara and Goleta experienced considerable drops in their illegal sales rates, but neither community obtained results as dramatic as those found in Carpinteria. The confirmatory survey showed that 32.1% of stores with SSTDs sold cigarettes to minors; this compares to a sales rate of 3.4% in stores without SSTDs (χ2 (1) = 8.11, p = 0.004).
CONCLUSIONS—Efforts to enact self service bans are likely to meet with retail and tobacco industry opposition, as was the case in this study's three communities. The process of community debate, resultant publicity surrounding the issue, and enactment of SSTD ordinances may serve to not only increase merchant awareness of youth tobacco laws and their penalties but also may contribute to reduced youth cigarette sales rates. Implications and limitations of the findings are discussed.


Keywords: self service tobacco displays; youth tobacco access; community tobacco control efforts PMID:10691760

  10. Samsung Says All Monitors to Use LED Light by 2008%三星宣布2008年全面使用LED背光源

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Steve Sechrist

    2006-01-01

    @@ We had picked up a small mention of a story in the Korean language Digital Times on the heels of Samsung Electronics launch of Korea's first 20.1-inch LCD monitor using an LED-BLU (backlight unit), the company also announced it would switch to LED illumination for all LCD monitors by 2008.

  11. Exponential Monte Carlo Convergence of a Three-Dimensional Discrete Ordinates Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favorite, J.A.; Lichtenstein, H.

    1999-11-14

    Recent work on obtaining exponential convergence for three-dimensional solutions to the spatially and angularly continuous monoenergetic transport equation with isotropic scattering using the reduced source method was promising. The method, however, used two separate estimates of the scalar flux, a Legendre expansion (in the spatial variables) and a quadrature of the angular flux. This introduced an inconsistency that may have lead to some convergence problems. To remove this inconsistency and provide a fairer test of the combined reduced source/Monte Carlo method, the method was applied to estimate the coefficients of a Legendre expansion of the solution of the discrete ordinates equations. In this case, no supplementary approximations were required.

  12. Insulation co-ordination in high-voltage electric power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Diesendorf, W

    2015-01-01

    Insulation Co-ordination in High-Voltage Electric Power Systems deals with the methods of insulation needed in different circumstances. The book covers topics such as overvoltages and lightning surges; disruptive discharge and withstand voltages; self-restoring and non-self-restoring insulation; lightning overvoltages on transmission lines; and the attenuation and distortion of lightning surges. Also covered in the book are topics such as the switching surge designs of transmission lines, as well as the insulation coordination of high-voltage stations. The text is recommended for electrical en

  13. A Polar Discrete Ordinate Radiation Transport Method for 2D ALE Meshes in HYDRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Britton; Marinak, Marty; Weber, Chris; Peterson, Luc

    2016-10-01

    The Polar Discrete Ordinate Radiation Transport Method in HYDRA has been extended to handle general 2D r-z meshes. Previously the method was only for orthogonal 2D meshes. The new method can be employed with the ALE methodology for managing mesh motion that is used to simulate Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities on NIF capsule implosions. The results of an examination of this kind will be compared to those obtained by the corresponding diffusion method. This work was performed under the auspices of the Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, (LLNS) under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  14. An estimation approach for dividable multiattribute utility of housing via questionnaires of consumers' ordinal multicriteria preferences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟凤勇; 王要武

    2004-01-01

    multi-function characteristic. How to evaluate the multi-functional nature of housing is very useful in both theory and in application, yet it is often ignored in China. This paper introduces an approach to estimate the muhicriteria function of housing using multiattribute utility theory (MAUT) based on consumers' ordinal multicriteria peferences as determined via questionnaires. When compared with the classic framework in which MAUT is applied, this approach needs less prior information and subjective comparisons and thus can allay many of the operational difficulties involved in assessment. Some potential applications to the China housing market are also discussed.

  15. Evaluation of Boulder, CO,SmartRegs Ordinance and Better Buildings Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, L. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Vijayakumar, G. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Under the SmartRegs ordinance in the city of Boulder, Colorado, all rental properties in the city must achieve an energy efficiency level comparable to a HERS Index of approximately 120 points or lower by the year 2019. The City of Boulder received a $12 million grant from the DOE’s Better Buildings initiative to create and incentivize their EnergySmart Program. In this report, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) describes its work with the program, including energy audits of rental properties, developing training programs for insulators and inspectors, and conducting interviews with property owners.

  16. Evaluation of Boulder, CO, SmartRegs Ordinance and Better Buildings Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, L.; Vijayakumar, G.

    2012-04-01

    Under the SmartRegs ordinance in the city of Boulder, Colorado, all rental properties in the city must achieve an energy efficiency level comparable to a HERS Index of approximately 120 points or lower by the year 2019. The City of Boulder received a $12 million grant from the DOE's Better Buildings initiative to create and incentivize their EnergySmart Program. In this report, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) describes its work with the program, including energy audits of rental properties, developing training programs for insulators and inspectors, and conducting interviews with property owners.

  17. Ordinal preference elicitation methods in health economics and health services research: using discrete choice experiments and ranking methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shehzad; Ronaldson, Sarah

    2012-09-01

    The predominant method of economic evaluation is cost-utility analysis, which uses cardinal preference elicitation methods, including the standard gamble and time trade-off. However, such approach is not suitable for understanding trade-offs between process attributes, non-health outcomes and health outcomes to evaluate current practices, develop new programmes and predict demand for services and products. Ordinal preference elicitation methods including discrete choice experiments and ranking methods are therefore commonly used in health economics and health service research. Cardinal methods have been criticized on the grounds of cognitive complexity, difficulty of administration, contamination by risk and preference attitudes, and potential violation of underlying assumptions. Ordinal methods have gained popularity because of reduced cognitive burden, lower degree of abstract reasoning, reduced measurement error, ease of administration and ability to use both health and non-health outcomes. The underlying assumptions of ordinal methods may be violated when respondents use cognitive shortcuts, or cannot comprehend the ordinal task or interpret attributes and levels, or use 'irrational' choice behaviour or refuse to trade-off certain attributes. CURRENT USE AND GROWING AREAS: Ordinal methods are commonly used to evaluate preference for attributes of health services, products, practices, interventions, policies and, more recently, to estimate utility weights. AREAS FOR ON-GOING RESEARCH: There is growing research on developing optimal designs, evaluating the rationalization process, using qualitative tools for developing ordinal methods, evaluating consistency with utility theory, appropriate statistical methods for analysis, generalizability of results and comparing ordinal methods against each other and with cardinal measures.

  18. Optical properties of urban aerosols, aircraft emissions, and heavy-duty diesel trucks using aerosol light extinction measurements by an Aerodyne Cavity Attenuated Phase Shift Particle Extinction Monitor (CAPS PMex)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, A.; Massoli, P.; Wood, E. C.; Allan, J. D.; Fortner, E.; Yu, Z.; Herndon, S. C.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Onasch, T. B.

    2010-12-01

    We present results of optical property characterization of ambient particulate during several field deployments where measurements of aerosol light extinction (σep) are obtained using an Aerodyne Cavity Attenuated Phase Shift Particle Extinction Monitor (CAPS PMex). The CAPS PMex is able to provide extinction measurements with 3-σ detection limit of 3 Mm-1 for 1s integration time. The CAPS PMex (630 nm) is integrated in the Aerodyne Research, Inc. (ARI) mobile laboratory where a co-located Multi Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP) provides particle light absorption coefficient at 632 nm. The combination of the CAPS with the MAAP data allows estimating the single scattering albedo (ω) of the ambient aerosol particles. The ARI mobile laboratory was deployed in winter 2010 at the Chicago O’Hare International Airport to measure gas phase and particulate emissions from different aircraft engines, and during summer 2010 in Oakland, CA, to characterize vehicular gaseous and particulate emissions (mainly exhaust from heavy-duty diesel trucks) from the Caldecott Tunnel. We provide estimates of black carbon emission factors from individual aircraft engines and diesel trucks, in addition to characterizing the optical properties of these ambient samples studying fleet-average emissions for both light-duty passenger vehicles and heavy-duty diesel trucks. Two CAPS PMex instruments (measuring σep at 630 and 532 nm) were also deployed during the CalNex 2010 study (May 14 - June 16) at the CalTech ground site in Pasadena, CA. During the same time, a photo-acoustic spectrometer (PAS, DMT) and an aethalometer instrument (Magee Sci.) measured particle light absorption of submicron aerosol particles from the same sample line as the CAPS PMex monitors. We combine these data to provide multi-wavelength ω trends for the one-month campaign. Our results show the high potential of the CAPS as light weight, compact instrument to perform precise and accurate σep measurements of

  19. GPU accelerated simulations of 3D deterministic particle transport using discrete ordinates method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chunye; Liu, Jie; Chi, Lihua; Huang, Haowei; Fang, Jingyue; Gong, Zhenghu

    2011-07-01

    Graphics Processing Unit (GPU), originally developed for real-time, high-definition 3D graphics in computer games, now provides great faculty in solving scientific applications. The basis of particle transport simulation is the time-dependent, multi-group, inhomogeneous Boltzmann transport equation. The numerical solution to the Boltzmann equation involves the discrete ordinates ( Sn) method and the procedure of source iteration. In this paper, we present a GPU accelerated simulation of one energy group time-independent deterministic discrete ordinates particle transport in 3D Cartesian geometry (Sweep3D). The performance of the GPU simulations are reported with the simulations of vacuum boundary condition. The discussion of the relative advantages and disadvantages of the GPU implementation, the simulation on multi GPUs, the programming effort and code portability are also reported. The results show that the overall performance speedup of one NVIDIA Tesla M2050 GPU ranges from 2.56 compared with one Intel Xeon X5670 chip to 8.14 compared with one Intel Core Q6600 chip for no flux fixup. The simulation with flux fixup on one M2050 is 1.23 times faster than on one X5670.

  20. An experimental test of CSR theory using a globally calibrated ordination method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanzhi; Shipley, Bill

    2017-01-01

    Can CSR theory, in conjunction with a recently proposed globally calibrated CSR ordination ("StrateFy"), using only three easily measured leaf traits (leaf area, specific leaf area and leaf dry matter content) predict the functional signature of herbaceous vegetation along experimentally manipulated gradients of soil fertility and disturbance? To determine this, we grew 37 herbaceous species in mixture for five years in 24 experimental mesocosms differing in factorial levels of soil resources (stress) and density-independent mortality (disturbance). We measured 16 different functional traits and then ordinated the resulting vegetation within the CSR triangle using StrateFy. We then calculated community-weighted mean (CWM) values of the competitor (CCWM), stress-tolerator (SCWM) and ruderal (RCWM) scores for each mesocosm. We found a significant increase in SCWM from low to high stress mesocosms, and an increase in RCWM from lowly to highly disturbed mesocosms. However, CCWM did not decline significantly as intensity of stress or disturbance increased, as predicted by CSR theory. This last result likely arose because our herbaceous species were relatively poor competitors in global comparisons and thus no strong competitors in our species pool were selectively favoured in low stress and low disturbed mesocosms. Variation in the 13 other traits, not used by StrateFy, largely argeed with the predictions of CSR theory. StrateFy worked surprisingly well in our experimental study except for the C-dimension. Despite loss of some precision, it has great potential applicability in future studies due to its simplicity and generality.

  1. A Comparison of Imputation Strategies for Ordinal Missing Data on Likert Scale Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Jia, Fan; Enders, Craig

    2015-01-01

    This article compares a variety of imputation strategies for ordinal missing data on Likert scale variables (number of categories = 2, 3, 5, or 7) in recovering reliability coefficients, mean scale scores, and regression coefficients of predicting one scale score from another. The examined strategies include imputing using normal data models with naïve rounding/without rounding, using latent variable models, and using categorical data models such as discriminant analysis and binary logistic regression (for dichotomous data only), multinomial and proportional odds logistic regression (for polytomous data only). The result suggests that both the normal model approach without rounding and the latent variable model approach perform well for either dichotomous or polytomous data regardless of sample size, missing data proportion, and asymmetry of item distributions. The discriminant analysis approach also performs well for dichotomous data. Naïvely rounding normal imputations or using logistic regression models to impute ordinal data are not recommended as they can potentially lead to substantial bias in all or some of the parameters.

  2. Explosive ordinance disposal technology demonstration using the telerobotic small emplacement excavator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burks, B.L.; Killough, S.M.; Thompson, D.H.; Dinkins, M.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Robotics & Process Systems Div.

    1994-06-01

    The small emplacement excavator (SEE) is a ruggedized military vehicle with backhoe and front loader used by the US Army for explosive ordinance disposal (EOD), combat engineer, and general utility excavation activities. In order to evaluate the feasibility of removing personnel from the vehicle during the high risk EOD excavation tasks a development and demonstration project was initiated to evaluate performance capabilities of the SEE under telerobotic control. This feasibility study was performed at the request of the Ordinance Missile and Munitions Center and School (OMMCS) at the Redstone Arsenal to help define requirements for further joint service development activities. Development of a telerobotic SEE (TSEE) was performed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in a project funded jointly by the US Army Project Manager for Ammunition Logistics (PM-AMMOLOG) and the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) Robotics Technology Development Program (RTDP). A technology demonstration of the TSEE was conducted at McKinley Range, Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville, Alabama, on September 13--17, 1993. The primary objective of the demonstration was to evaluate and demonstrate the feasibility of remote EOD. During the demonstration, approximately 40 EOD specialists were instructed on telerobotic operation of the TSEE and then were asked to complete a series of simulated EOD tasks. Upon completion of the tasks, participants completed an evaluation of the system including human factors performance data.

  3. Hypothesis testing and estimation in ordinal data under a simple crossover design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Kung-Jong; Chang, Kuang-Chao

    2012-01-01

    Since each patient serves as his/her own control, the crossover design can be of use to improve power as compared with the parallel-groups design in studying noncurative treatments to certain chronic diseases. Although the research studies on the crossover design have been quite intensive, the discussions on analyzing ordinal data under such a design are truly limited. We propose using the generalized odds ratio (GOR) for paired sample data to measure the relative effect on patient responses for both treatment and period in ordinal data under a simple crossover trial. Assuming the treatment and period effects are multiplicative, we note that one can easily derive the maximum likelihood estimator (LE) in closed forms for the GOR of treatment and period effects. We develop asymptotic and exact procedures for testing treatment and period effects. We further derive asymptotic and exact interval estimators for the GOR of treatment and period effects. We use the data taken from a crossover trial to assess the clarity of leaflet instructions between two devices among asthma patients to illustrate the use of these test procedures and estimators developed here.

  4. Natural join construction of graded posets versus ordinal sum and discrete hyper boxes

    CERN Document Server

    Kwasniewski, A K

    2009-01-01

    One introduces here the natural join $P \\os Q$ of graded posets $$ and $$ with correspondingly maximal and minimal sets being identical as expressed by ordinal sum $P\\oplus Q$ apart from other definition and due to that one arrives at a simple proof of the $M{\\"{o}}bius $ function formula for cobweb posets. We also quote the other authors explicit formulas for the zeta matrix and its inverse for any graded posets with the finite set of minimal elements from earlier works of the author. These formulas are based on the formulas for cobweb posets and their $Hasse$ diagrams or graphs named $KoDAGs$ which are interpreted as chains of binary complete or universal relations joined by the natural join operation. Natural join of two independent sets is therefore the ordinal sum of this trivially ordered posets represented also by directed biclique named dibiclique and correspondingly by their $Hasse $ diagrams or graphs named $KoDAGs$. Such cobweb posets and equivalently their Hasse diagrams or graphs named $KoDAGs$ a...

  5. Autoregressive transitional ordinal model to test for treatment effect in neurological trials with complex endpoints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo G. Tanadini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of potential therapeutic approaches for neurological disorders have failed to provide convincing evidence of efficacy, prompting pharmaceutical and health companies to discontinue their involvement in drug development. Limitations in the statistical analysis of complex endpoints have very likely had a negative impact on the translational process. Methods We propose a transitional ordinal model with an autoregressive component to overcome previous limitations in the analysis of Upper Extremity Motor Scores, a relevant endpoint in the field of Spinal Cord Injury. Statistical power and clinical interpretation of estimated treatment effects of the proposed model were compared to routinely employed approaches in a large simulation study of two-arm randomized clinical trials. A revisitation of a key historical trial provides further comparison between the different analysis approaches. Results The proposed model outperformed all other approaches in virtually all simulation settings, achieving on average 14 % higher statistical power than the respective second-best performing approach (range: -1 %, +34 %. Only the transitional model allows treatment effect estimates to be interpreted as conditional odds ratios, providing clear interpretation and visualization. Conclusion The proposed model takes into account the complex ordinal nature of the endpoint under investigation and explicitly accounts for relevant prognostic factors such as lesion level and baseline information. Superior statistical power, combined with clear clinical interpretation of estimated treatment effects and widespread availability in commercial software, are strong arguments for clinicians and trial scientists to adopt, and further extend, the proposed approach.

  6. On analyzing ordinal data when responses and covariates are both missing at random.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Subrata; Roy, Surupa; Das, Kalyan

    2016-08-01

    In many occasions, particularly in biomedical studies, data are unavailable for some responses and covariates. This leads to biased inference in the analysis when a substantial proportion of responses or a covariate or both are missing. Except a few situations, methods for missing data have earlier been considered either for missing response or for missing covariates, but comparatively little attention has been directed to account for both missing responses and missing covariates, which is partly attributable to complexity in modeling and computation. This seems to be important as the precise impact of substantial missing data depends on the association between two missing data processes as well. The real difficulty arises when the responses are ordinal by nature. We develop a joint model to take into account simultaneously the association between the ordinal response variable and covariates and also that between the missing data indicators. Such a complex model has been analyzed here by using the Markov chain Monte Carlo approach and also by the Monte Carlo relative likelihood approach. Their performance on estimating the model parameters in finite samples have been looked into. We illustrate the application of these two methods using data from an orthodontic study. Analysis of such data provides some interesting information on human habit.

  7. Modeling thermal sensation in a Mediterranean climate—a comparison of linear and ordinal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantavou, Katerina; Lykoudis, Spyridon

    2014-08-01

    A simple thermo-physiological model of outdoor thermal sensation adjusted with psychological factors is developed aiming to predict thermal sensation in Mediterranean climates. Microclimatic measurements simultaneously with interviews on personal and psychological conditions were carried out in a square, a street canyon and a coastal location of the greater urban area of Athens, Greece. Multiple linear and ordinal regression were applied in order to estimate thermal sensation making allowance for all the recorded parameters or specific, empirically selected, subsets producing so-called extensive and empirical models, respectively. Meteorological, thermo-physiological and overall models - considering psychological factors as well - were developed. Predictions were improved when personal and psychological factors were taken into account as compared to meteorological models. The model based on ordinal regression reproduced extreme values of thermal sensation vote more adequately than the linear regression one, while the empirical model produced satisfactory results in relation to the extensive model. The effects of adaptation and expectation on thermal sensation vote were introduced in the models by means of the exposure time, season and preference related to air temperature and irradiation. The assessment of thermal sensation could be a useful criterion in decision making regarding public health, outdoor spaces planning and tourism.

  8. Assessing Heterogeneity for Factor Analysis Model with Continuous and Ordinal Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye-Mao Xia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Factor analysis models with continuous and ordinal responses are a useful tool for assessing relations between the latent variables and mixed observed responses. These models have been successfully applied to many different fields, including behavioral, educational, and social-psychological sciences. However, within the Bayesian analysis framework, most developments are constrained within parametric families, of which the particular distributions are specified for the parameters of interest. This leads to difficulty in dealing with outliers and/or distribution deviations. In this paper, we propose a Bayesian semiparametric modeling for factor analysis model with continuous and ordinal variables. A truncated stick-breaking prior is used to model the distributions of the intercept and/or covariance structural parameters. Bayesian posterior analysis is carried out through the simulation-based method. Blocked Gibbs sampler is implemented to draw observations from the complicated posterior. For model selection, the logarithm of pseudomarginal likelihood is developed to compare the competing models. Empirical results are presented to illustrate the application of the methodology.

  9. A survey of the information on co-ordination compound features which can be gained from electroanalytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontempelli, G; Andreuzzi-Sedea, M; Fiorani, M

    1982-12-01

    The information provided by modern electroanalytical techniques on co-ordination compounds is surveyed. The problem of the interaction between the electrode and intermediates or products is also briefly considered; it is pointed out that the electroanalytical approach can be successfully employed to provide new insight into chemical properties of metal complexes only when weakly interacting species are involved. The information obtainable is considered under the following headings: (i) mechanistic studies on metal complexes and electroanalytical evidence for their reactivity and stability; (ii) structural features of co-ordination compounds in solution; (iii) feasibility of electrochemical syntheses; and (iv) stability of intermediate oxidation states with reference to the nature of the ligands co-ordinated to the metal.

  10. Distinct representations of symbolic ordinality and quantity: evidence from neuropsychological investigations in a Chinese patient with Gerstmann's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongqin; Xu, Mingwei; Shang, Desheng; Peng, Guoping; Luo, Benyan

    2014-07-01

    A number of recent studies have shown conflicting evidence as to common or distinct representations between symbolic ordinality and quantity. We investigated this issue through a series of neuropsychological tests in a unique Chinese patient with the left angular gyrus and left supramarginal gyrus lesions. Behavioral experiments revealed that (1) the patient showed Gerstmann syndrome, with minimal anomia and alexia and (2) the patient showed the dissociation among number semantic representations with relatively preserved symbolic quantity knowledge and impaired processing of symbolic order meaning. Together with existing evidence in the literature, results of the current study suggest that there might be two separate cognitive representations of symbolic ordinality and quantity in logographic language according to this dissociation. Most importantly, another merit of this study is that the left angular gyrus and left supramarginal gyrus might be necessary to symbolic ordinality representation.

  11. Computation of 2-D pinhole image-formation process of large-scale furnaces using the discrete ordinates method

    CERN Document Server

    Li Hong; Lu Ji Dong; Zheng Chu Guan

    2003-01-01

    In most of the discrete ordinate schemes (DOS) reported in the literature, the discrete directions are fixed, and unable to be arbitrarily adjusted; therefore, it is difficult to employ these schemes to calculate the radiative energy image-formation of pulverized-coal furnaces. On the basis of a new DOS, named the discrete ordinate scheme with (an) infinitely small weight(s), which was recently proposed by the authors, a novel algorithm for computing the pinhole image-formation process is developed in this work. The performance of this algorithm is tested, and is found to be also suitable for parallel computation.

  12. Lighting: Green Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniccia, Dorine

    2003-01-01

    Explains that by using sustainable (green) building practices, schools and universities can make their lighting systems more efficient, noting that embracing green design principles can help schools attract students. Discusses lighting-control technologies (occupancy sensing technology, daylighting technology, and scheduling based technologies),…

  13. Electrophoresis Gel Quantification with a Flatbed Scanner and Versatile Lighting from a Screen Scavenged from a Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Brendan; Ng, Tuck Wah; Tan, Han Yen; Liew, Oi Wah

    2012-01-01

    The use of different types of stains in the quantification of proteins separated on gels using electrophoresis offers the capability of deriving good outcomes in terms of linear dynamic range, sensitivity, and compatibility with specific proteins. An inexpensive, simple, and versatile lighting system based on liquid crystal display backlighting is…

  14. Electrophoresis Gel Quantification with a Flatbed Scanner and Versatile Lighting from a Screen Scavenged from a Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Brendan; Ng, Tuck Wah; Tan, Han Yen; Liew, Oi Wah

    2012-01-01

    The use of different types of stains in the quantification of proteins separated on gels using electrophoresis offers the capability of deriving good outcomes in terms of linear dynamic range, sensitivity, and compatibility with specific proteins. An inexpensive, simple, and versatile lighting system based on liquid crystal display backlighting is…

  15. Acting Out and Lighting Up: Understanding the Links among School Misbehavior, Academic Achievement, and Cigarette Use. Monitoring the Future Occasional Paper 46.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Alison L.; Schulenberg, John; Bachman, Jerald G.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    Relations among academic achievement, school bonding, school misbehavior, and cigarette use from eighth to twelfth grade were examined in two national and panel samples of youth from the Monitoring the Future project (N=3,056). A series of competing conceptual models developed a priori was tested using structural equation modeling (SEM). The…

  16. High-order solution methods for grey discrete ordinates thermal radiative transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maginot, Peter G.; Ragusa, Jean C.; Morel, Jim E.

    2016-12-01

    This work presents a solution methodology for solving the grey radiative transfer equations that is both spatially and temporally more accurate than the canonical radiative transfer solution technique of linear discontinuous finite element discretization in space with implicit Euler integration in time. We solve the grey radiative transfer equations by fully converging the nonlinear temperature dependence of the material specific heat, material opacities, and Planck function. The grey radiative transfer equations are discretized in space using arbitrary-order self-lumping discontinuous finite elements and integrated in time with arbitrary-order diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta time integration techniques. Iterative convergence of the radiation equation is accelerated using a modified interior penalty diffusion operator to precondition the full discrete ordinates transport operator.

  17. Evaluating the implementation of the energy consumption labelling ordinance. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlomann, B.; Eichhammer, W.; Gruber, E.; Kling, N.; Mannsbart, W.; Stoeckle, F.

    2001-03-01

    The main objective of the study was to examine the present degree of compliance with the Energy Consumption Labelling Ordinance for large household appliances in Germany in an empirical inventory. Concrete proposals to improve the degree of compliance with Directive among manufacturers and retailers were to be elaborated based on this inventory and the analysis of possible deficiencies in implementation and and their causes. A further objective of the study was to examine whether there was an increase in the share of appliance sales in the highest efficiency classes, so as to be able to judge the success of the measures provided in the Directive in accordance with the underlying energy and environmental objective of further reducing energy consumption in households. Furthermore, experience of other European countries in implementing the EU Directive was to be considered. (orig./CB)

  18. Posição ordinal dos filhos, sexo e esquizofrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonios I. Térzis

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo investigou a hipótese de associação entre a posição ordinal dos filhos dentro de sua prole e a prevalência da esquizofrenia. Para examinar o objetivo acima proposto, foram observados 404 pacientes esquizofrênicos (201 do sexo masculino e 203 do sexo feminino que estavam internados em 5 hospitais da área metropolitana de São Paulo. O método estatístico utilizado, que permitiu a análise dos efeitos da ordem de nascimento sobre a prevalência de esquizofrenia, foi o de Greenwood-Yule. Verificou-se que existe associação entre ordem de nascimento e esquizofrenia e que esta relação pode ser descrita em termos de um excesso de primogênitos esquizofrênicos, tanto masculinos como femininos.

  19. Analysis of ontogenetic spectra of populations of plants and lichens via ordinal regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofronov, G. Yu.; Glotov, N. V.; Ivanov, S. M.

    2015-03-01

    Ontogenetic spectra of plants and lichens tend to vary across the populations. This means that if several subsamples within a sample (or a population) were collected, then the subsamples would not be homogeneous. Consequently, the statistical analysis of the aggregated data would not be correct, which could potentially lead to false biological conclusions. In order to take into account the heterogeneity of the subsamples, we propose to use ordinal regression, which is a type of generalized linear regression. In this paper, we study the populations of cowberry Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. and epiphytic lichens Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. and Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf. We obtain estimates for the proportions of between-sample variability in the total variability of the ontogenetic spectra of the populations.

  20. Note sull'ordine degli elementi in coppie di verbi antonimi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Vicario

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available La riflessione sulle categorie e le proprieta legate al fenomeno dell'antonimia ri­ guarda, in semantica, una serie di fatti senza dubbio interessanti e di notevole com­ plessita. La definizione comune, tradizionale, di antonimia - in una certa misura anche generica - designa, in buona sostanza, l'antitesi tra elementi della lingua, tra parole, che hanno un "significato contrario"1. A partire da tale definizione, che ri­ chiama per altro il principio binario di opposizione che costituisce uno dei fonda­ menti strutturali delle lingue, vd. Lyons (1980: 294 sgg., numerosi sono i modelli di analisi, le tassonomie e le tipologie elaborate per una migliore descrizione del feno­meno  o di casi particolari  del medesimo 2 . Si proporranno  qui, in particolare, alcune brevi osservazioni sull'ordine in cui si presentano i termini che formano  coppie di verbi  antonimi (reciproci.

  1. Vascular endothelial growth factor co-ordinates proper development of lung epithelium and vasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liqing; Wang, Ke; Ferrara, Napoleone; Vu, Thiennu H

    2005-07-01

    The vasculature forms an intrinsic functional component of the lung and its development must be tightly regulated and coordinated with lung epithelial morphogenesis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors are highly expressed in a complementary pattern in the lungs during embryonic development. VEGF is expressed by epithelium and the receptors in the surrounding mesenchyme. To determine the function of VEGF in lung formation, we inhibited its activity using a soluble receptor in lung renal capsule grafts. Inhibition of VEGF results in inhibition of vascular development and significant alteration in epithelial development. Epithelial proliferation is inhibited, sacculation is impaired, and the epithelium undergoes apoptosis. Interestingly, when VEGF is attenuated, epithelial differentiation still proceeds, as shown by acquisition of both proximal and distal markers. These data show that VEGF co-ordinates epithelial and vascular development. It is required for the development of the lung vasculature and the vasculature is necessary for epithelial proliferation and morphogenesis, but not for cell differentiation.

  2. Co-ordinated voltage control of DFIG wind turbines in uninterrupted operation during grid faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Michalke, G.; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2007-01-01

    is implemented in the power system simulation toolbox PowerFactory DIgSILENT. The DFIG wind farm ride-through capability and contribution to voltage control in the power system are assessed and discussed by means of simulations with the use of a transmission power system generic model developed and delivered......-side converter as long as it is not blocked by the protection system, otherwise the grid-side converter takes over the voltage control. Moreover, the article presents a DFIG wind farm model equipped with a grid fault protection system and the described co-ordinated voltage control. The whole DFIG wind farm model...... by the Danish Transmission System Operator Energinet.dk. The simulation results show how a DFIG wind farm equipped with voltage control can help a nearby active stall wind farm to ride through a grid fault, without implementation of any additional ride-through control strategy in the active stall wind farm....

  3. Characteristics, classification and ordination of riparian plant communities in the Three-Gorges areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Sixteen different vegetation types of grassland and shrubland were selected to study the component and diversity of plant species of riparian plant communities along main channel in the Three-Gorges areas. Species richness (s), Simpson index (D), and Shannon-Weiner index (H) were used to study the biodiversity and the hierarchical classification was carried out by the methods of TWINSPAN and DCA ordination. The results showed that the components of flora were complex and dominated by the temperate type in the riparian plant communities. Species diversity was not different between the communities, but Shannon-Weiner indexes of different layers in some grassland were significantly different. TWINSPAN and DCA indicated that riparian plant communities distributed along the gradient of moisture.

  4. High-order solution methods for grey discrete ordinates thermal radiative transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maginot, Peter G., E-mail: maginot1@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Ragusa, Jean C., E-mail: jean.ragusa@tamu.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Morel, Jim E., E-mail: morel@tamu.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    This work presents a solution methodology for solving the grey radiative transfer equations that is both spatially and temporally more accurate than the canonical radiative transfer solution technique of linear discontinuous finite element discretization in space with implicit Euler integration in time. We solve the grey radiative transfer equations by fully converging the nonlinear temperature dependence of the material specific heat, material opacities, and Planck function. The grey radiative transfer equations are discretized in space using arbitrary-order self-lumping discontinuous finite elements and integrated in time with arbitrary-order diagonally implicit Runge–Kutta time integration techniques. Iterative convergence of the radiation equation is accelerated using a modified interior penalty diffusion operator to precondition the full discrete ordinates transport operator.

  5. Municipalities' Priority Problems and Prospect of Establishing Ordinance to Measures for Marginal Hamlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Mayumi; Hoshino, Satoshi; Hashimoto, Shizuka; Kuki, Yasuaki

    The problems of Marginal Hamlets are getting worse, in which more than half of the population is over 65 and community-based life is difficult. To contribute to effective policy making, we conducted a questionnaire survey to members of the National Liaison Council of ‘Suigen no Sato’ constituted to share information about problems and effective counter measures for marginal hamlets. Our study clarified that first, most of respondents had common problems such as lack of job-opportunities and animal damage on farm, and second, though most of respondents recognized the effectiveness of selecting target communities in policy implementations, it is difficult for municipal governments to establish such ordinance provided that councilors and those who were not living in areas of policy target wouldn't agree with it. Finally, we pointed out the roles of national and prefectural governments to help municipal governments effectively cope with such entangled situations.

  6. Using Two-Level Factor Analysis to Test for Cluster Bias in Ordinal Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jak, Suzanne; Oort, Frans J; Dolan, Conor V

    2014-01-01

    The test for cluster bias is a test of measurement invariance across clusters in 2-level data. This article examines the true positive rates (empirical power) and false positive rates of the test for cluster bias using the likelihood ratio test (LRT) and the Wald test with ordinal data. A simulation study indicates that the scaled version of the LRT that accounts for nonnormality of the data gives untrustworthy results, whereas the unscaled LRT and the Wald test have acceptable false positive rates and perform well in terms of empirical power rate if the amount of cluster bias is large. The test for cluster bias is illustrated with data from research on teacher-student relations.

  7. Logistic random effects regression models: a comparison of statistical packages for binary and ordinal outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steyerberg Ewout W

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Logistic random effects models are a popular tool to analyze multilevel also called hierarchical data with a binary or ordinal outcome. Here, we aim to compare different statistical software implementations of these models. Methods We used individual patient data from 8509 patients in 231 centers with moderate and severe Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI enrolled in eight Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs and three observational studies. We fitted logistic random effects regression models with the 5-point Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS as outcome, both dichotomized as well as ordinal, with center and/or trial as random effects, and as covariates age, motor score, pupil reactivity or trial. We then compared the implementations of frequentist and Bayesian methods to estimate the fixed and random effects. Frequentist approaches included R (lme4, Stata (GLLAMM, SAS (GLIMMIX and NLMIXED, MLwiN ([R]IGLS and MIXOR, Bayesian approaches included WinBUGS, MLwiN (MCMC, R package MCMCglmm and SAS experimental procedure MCMC. Three data sets (the full data set and two sub-datasets were analysed using basically two logistic random effects models with either one random effect for the center or two random effects for center and trial. For the ordinal outcome in the full data set also a proportional odds model with a random center effect was fitted. Results The packages gave similar parameter estimates for both the fixed and random effects and for the binary (and ordinal models for the main study and when based on a relatively large number of level-1 (patient level data compared to the number of level-2 (hospital level data. However, when based on relatively sparse data set, i.e. when the numbers of level-1 and level-2 data units were about the same, the frequentist and Bayesian approaches showed somewhat different results. The software implementations differ considerably in flexibility, computation time, and usability. There are also differences in

  8. Test Statistics and Confidence Intervals to Establish Noninferiority between Treatments with Ordinal Categorical Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fanghong; Miyaoka, Etsuo; Huang, Fuping; Tanaka, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    The problem for establishing noninferiority is discussed between a new treatment and a standard (control) treatment with ordinal categorical data. A measure of treatment effect is used and a method of specifying noninferiority margin for the measure is provided. Two Z-type test statistics are proposed where the estimation of variance is constructed under the shifted null hypothesis using U-statistics. Furthermore, the confidence interval and the sample size formula are given based on the proposed test statistics. The proposed procedure is applied to a dataset from a clinical trial. A simulation study is conducted to compare the performance of the proposed test statistics with that of the existing ones, and the results show that the proposed test statistics are better in terms of the deviation from nominal level and the power.

  9. Bayesian structural equations modeling for ordinal response data with missing responses and missing covariates

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kim, S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available 6.01 Difierent background 8.86 Pay satisfaction 1.25 Supervisor support 7.27 Employee development 1.86 Customer satisfaction 6.83 Innovation 2.94 Employee satisfaction 1.43 Manager goals 5.28 Quality 1.38 Respect 1.48 Retention 0.83 Con ict... for by the facility efiect variability, in the latter the variability is accounted for by the structural dependency as well as the facility efiect. The structural part of the ordinal response SEM is given by ·ij = ¡·ij + »ij; (3.7) where »ij » N (0; diag( 2·1...

  10. A Multinomial Ordinal Probit Model with Singular Value Decomposition Method for a Multinomial Trait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soonil Kwon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We developed a multinomial ordinal probit model with singular value decomposition for testing a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs simultaneously for association with multidisease status when sample size is much smaller than the number of SNPs. The validity and performance of the method was evaluated via simulation. We applied the method to our real study sample recruited through the Mexican-American Coronary Artery Disease study. We found 3 genes (SORCS1, AMPD1, and PPARα to be associated with the development of both IGT and IFG, while 5 genes (AMPD2, PRKAA2, C5, TCF7L2, and ITR with the IGT mechanism only and 6 genes (CAPN10, IL4, NOS3, CD14, GCG, and SORT1 with the IFG mechanism only. These data suggest that IGT and IFG may indicate different physiological mechanism to prediabetes, via different genetic determinants.

  11. The impact of tourists on Antarctic tardigrades: an ordination-based model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra J. McInnes

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Tardigrades are important members of the Antarctic biota yet little is known about their role in the soil fauna or whether they are affected by anthropogenic factors. The German Federal Environment Agency commissioned research to assess the impact of human activities on soil meiofauna at 14 localities along the Antarctic peninsula during the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 austral summers. We used ordination techniques to re-assess the block-sampling design used to compare areas of high and low human impact, to identify which of the sampled variables were biologically relevant and/or demonstrated an anthropogenic significance. We found the most significant differences between locations, reflecting local habitat and vegetation factor, rather than within-location anthropogenic impact. We noted no evidence of exotic imports but report on new maritime Antarctic sample sites and habitats.

  12. Intersegmental co-ordination of undulatory movements--a "trailing oscillator" hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushima, T; Grillner, S

    1990-10-01

    Intersegmental co-ordination in undulatory locomotion was investigated in the lamprey spinal cord in vitro. It is characterized by a constant phase lag between the activation of consecutive segments. By increasing the excitability (NMDA level) locally, a "travelling wave" could be induced to start in any segment and to be conducted in both rostral and caudal directions. This leading segment, the one with the highest excitability, determined the frequency of all other segments, and the ascending and descending couplings were functionally symmetric. The intersegmental phase lag can be explained by a simple neural mechanism in which a leading oscillator will entrain the adjacent "trailing" segments, which in turn entrain their neighbours and so forth.

  13. Application of ordinal logistic regression analysis in determining risk factors of child malnutrition in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Sumonkanti

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study attempts to develop an ordinal logistic regression (OLR model to identify the determinants of child malnutrition instead of developing traditional binary logistic regression (BLR model using the data of Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2004. Methods Based on weight-for-age anthropometric index (Z-score child nutrition status is categorized into three groups-severely undernourished ( Results All the models determine that age of child, birth interval, mothers' education, maternal nutrition, household wealth status, child feeding index, and incidence of fever, ARI & diarrhoea were the significant predictors of child malnutrition; however, results of PPOM were more precise than those of other models. Conclusion These findings clearly justify that OLR models (POM and PPOM are appropriate to find predictors of malnutrition instead of BLR models.

  14. Evaluating the implementation of the energy consumption labelling ordinance. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlomann, B.; Eichhammer, W.; Gruber, E.; Kling, N.; Mannsbart, W.; Stoeckle, F.

    2001-03-01

    The main objective of the study was to examine the present degree of compliance with the Energy Consumption Labelling Ordinance for large household appliances in Germany in an empirical inventory. Concrete proposals to improve the degree of compliance with Directive among manufacturers and retailers were to be elaborated based on this inventory and the analysis of possible deficiencies in implementation and and their causes. A further objective of the study was to examine whether there was an increase in the share of appliance sales in the highest efficiency classes, so as to be able to judge the success of the measures provided in the Directive in accordance with the underlying energy and environmental objective of further reducing energy consumption in households. Furthermore, experience of other European countries in implementing the EU Directive was to be considered. (orig./CB)

  15. Discrete ordinates method for three-dimensional neutron transport equation based on unstructured-meshes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A discrete ordinates method for a threedimensional first-order neutron transport equation based on unstructured-meshes that avoids the singularity of the second-order neutron transport equation in void regions was derived.The finite element variation equation was obtained using the least-squares method.A three-dimensional transport calculation code was developed.Both the triangular-z and the tetrahedron elements were included.The numerical results of some benchmark problems demonstrated that this method can solve neutron transport problems in unstructuredmeshes very well.For most problems,the error of the eigenvalue and the angular flux is less than 0.3% and 3.0% respectively.

  16. Opg, Rank, and Rankl in tooth development: co-ordination of odontogenesis and osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohazama, A; Courtney, J-M; Sharpe, P T

    2004-03-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB (RANK), and RANK ligand (RANKL) are mediators of various cellular interactions, including bone metabolism. We analyzed expression of these three genes during murine odontogenesis from epithelial thickening to cytodifferentiation stages. Opg showed expression in the thickening and bud epithelium. Expression of Opg and Rank was observed in both the internal and the external enamel epithelium as well as in the dental papilla mesenchyme. Although Rankl expression was not detected in tooth epithelium or mesenchyme, it was expressed in pre-osteogenic mesenchymal cells close to developing tooth germs. All three genes were detected in developing dentary bone at P0. The addition of exogenous OPG to explant cultures of tooth primordia produced a delay in tooth development that resulted in reduced mineralization. We propose that the spatiotemporal expression of these molecules in early tooth and bone primordia cells has a role in co-ordinating bone and tooth development.

  17. Development of a new adaptive ordinal approach to continuous-variable probabilistic optimization.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, Vicente JosÔe; Chen, Chun-Hung (George Mason University, Fairfax, VA)

    2006-11-01

    A very general and robust approach to solving continuous-variable optimization problems involving uncertainty in the objective function is through the use of ordinal optimization. At each step in the optimization problem, improvement is based only on a relative ranking of the uncertainty effects on local design alternatives, rather than on precise quantification of the effects. One simply asks ''Is that alternative better or worse than this one?'' -not ''HOW MUCH better or worse is that alternative to this one?'' The answer to the latter question requires precise characterization of the uncertainty--with the corresponding sampling/integration expense for precise resolution. However, in this report we demonstrate correct decision-making in a continuous-variable probabilistic optimization problem despite extreme vagueness in the statistical characterization of the design options. We present a new adaptive ordinal method for probabilistic optimization in which the trade-off between computational expense and vagueness in the uncertainty characterization can be conveniently managed in various phases of the optimization problem to make cost-effective stepping decisions in the design space. Spatial correlation of uncertainty in the continuous-variable design space is exploited to dramatically increase method efficiency. Under many circumstances the method appears to have favorable robustness and cost-scaling properties relative to other probabilistic optimization methods, and uniquely has mechanisms for quantifying and controlling error likelihood in design-space stepping decisions. The method is asymptotically convergent to the true probabilistic optimum, so could be useful as a reference standard against which the efficiency and robustness of other methods can be compared--analogous to the role that Monte Carlo simulation plays in uncertainty propagation.

  18. Some aspects of the occurrence and behaviour of the crane Grus grus in Poland in light of pre-investment wind-farm monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busse Przemysław

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ornithological pre-investment monitoring at planned wind farm sites is a standard and obligatory procedure in Poland and other EU countries. Pre-investment wind farm monitoring has a very important ‘side effect’ to its main goal (the safety of bird populations, namely the collection of valuable avifaunistic data from many localities that most probably would never be studied if not for the obligation to prepare environmental reports when wind energy investments are planned. The main aim of this paper is to show what we can learn from obligatory pre-investment monitoring when the standard field monitoring procedure and unified evaluation methodology are used. As an example the Common Crane Grus grus was selected, as a bird listed in Annex 1 of Directive 2009/147/EC and easy to identify and count. The data were collected at 155 controlled monitoring sites all over Poland, but mainly along the Baltic coast and in the Masurian Lake District. The methodology of the data collection and evaluation of results was strictly according to a paper by Busse (2013. The presentation of the results includes the numerical distribution of cranes in all seasons and some details of their behaviour - observations of birds on the ground and those using the air space: below the future rotor swept area of the wind turbines, at the rotor swept height, and flying above it. The estimated collision rates vary depending on the area, season and local heights of movements. It was concluded that such an evaluation of data already collected could be helpful in evaluating a particular site in comparison with other, previously studied localities.

  19. Evaluation of an in-vehicle monitoring system (IVMS) to reduce risky driving behaviors in commercial drivers: Comparison of in-cab warning lights and supervisory coaching with videos of driving behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jennifer L; Taylor, Matthew A; Chen, Guang-Xiang; Kirk, Rachel D; Leatherman, Erin R

    2017-02-01

    Roadway incidents are the leading cause of work-related death in the United States. The objective of this research was to evaluate whether two types of feedback from a commercially available in-vehicle monitoring system (IVMS) would reduce the incidence of risky driving behaviors in drivers from two companies. IVMS were installed in 315 vehicles representing the industries of local truck transportation and oil and gas support operations, and data were collected over an approximate two-year period in intervention and control groups. In one period, intervention group drivers were given feedback from in-cab warning lights from an IVMS that indicated occurrence of harsh vehicle maneuvers. In another period, intervention group drivers viewed video recordings of their risky driving behaviors with supervisors, and were coached by supervisors on safe driving practices. Risky driving behaviors declined significantly more during the period with coaching plus instant feedback with lights in comparison to the period with lights-only feedback (ORadj=0.61 95% CI 0.43-0.86; Holm-adjusted p=0.035) and the control group (ORadj=0.52 95% CI 0.33-0.82; Holm-adjusted p=0.032). Lights-only feedback was not found to be significantly different than the control group's decline from baseline (ORadj=0.86 95% CI 0.51-1.43; Holm-adjusted p>0.05). The largest decline in the rate of risky driving behaviors occurred when feedback included both supervisory coaching and lights. Supervisory coaching is an effective form of feedback to improve driving habits in the workplace. The potential advantages and limitations of this IVMS-based intervention program are discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. 41 CFR 102-74.351 - If a state or local government has a smoke-free ordinance that is more strict than the smoking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... government has a smoke-free ordinance that is more strict than the smoking policy for Federal facilities... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Smoking § 102-74.351 If a state or local government has a smoke-free ordinance that is more strict than the smoking policy for Federal...

  1. Dyslexia and Developmental Co-Ordination Disorder in Further and Higher Education--Similarities and Differences. Does the "Label" Influence the Support Given?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Amanda; Sugden, David; Beveridge, Sally; Edwards, Lisa; Edwards, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    Developmental co-ordination disorder (DCD) is a developmental disorder affecting motor co-ordination. The "Diagnostics Statistics Manual"--IV classification for DCD describes difficulties across a range of activities of daily living, impacting on everyday skills and academic performance in school. Recent evidence has shown that…

  2. Finite Element Modelling of Infinite Euler Beams on Kelvin Foundations Exposed to Moving Loads in Convected Co-ordinates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2001-01-01

    The paper deals with the finite element method (FEM) solution of the problem with loads moving uniformly along an infinite Euler beam supported by a linear elastic Kelvin foundation with linear viscous damping. Initially, the problem is formulatedin a moving co-ordinate system following the load...

  3. Evaluation of a weighted test in the analysis of ordinal gait scores in an additivity model for five OP pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appropriate statistical analyses are critical for evaluating interactions of mixtures with a common mode of action, as is often the case for cumulative risk assessments. Our objective is to develop analyses for use when a response variable is ordinal, and to test for interaction...

  4. Genetic effects of some platinum co-ordination complexes on E.coli DNA as revealed by transformation studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, W.P.M.; Daemen, Toos

    1982-01-01

    E. coli chromosomal DNA was treated with various Pt co-ordination compounds and then used as donor DNA in E. coli transformation. Genetic analysis of transformants obtained with Pt-treated DNA showed effects of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (cis-Pt(II)) and cis-Pt-dimethyl-1,3-diaminopropane Cl4

  5. The Impact of Outliers on Cronbach's Coefficient Alpha Estimate of Reliability: Ordinal/Rating Scale Item Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Wu, Amery D.; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2010-01-01

    In a recent Monte Carlo simulation study, Liu and Zumbo showed that outliers can severely inflate the estimates of Cronbach's coefficient alpha for continuous item response data--visual analogue response format. Little, however, is known about the effect of outliers for ordinal item response data--also commonly referred to as Likert, Likert-type,…

  6. Application of Multimedia Technology to Study the Ordinal Competences of Children from 3 to 7 Years Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Pedro; Gonzalez, Jose Luis

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to present an ongoing research study on the evolution of pre-numerical and pre-inductive levels of ordinal thought in students from three to seven years old. Our methodology is based on multimedia technology, an automatic and objective record of the data and minimal interaction between students and researcher. A…

  7. The Impact of Outliers on Cronbach's Coefficient Alpha Estimate of Reliability: Ordinal/Rating Scale Item Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Wu, Amery D.; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2010-01-01

    In a recent Monte Carlo simulation study, Liu and Zumbo showed that outliers can severely inflate the estimates of Cronbach's coefficient alpha for continuous item response data--visual analogue response format. Little, however, is known about the effect of outliers for ordinal item response data--also commonly referred to as Likert, Likert-type,…

  8. A social simulation-game to explore future co-ordination in knowledge networks at the Amsterdam Police Force

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Laere, J.; De Vreede, G. J.; Sol, H. G.

    2006-01-01

    The 32 autonomous neighbourhood teams of the Amsterdam Police Force need to utilise each other's knowledge and expertise to deal with the variety and complexity of their daily work assignments. However, despite the creation of organisation wide knowledge networks, communication, co-ordination and kn

  9. Erosion monitoring along the Coosa River below Logan Martin Dam near Vincent, Alabama, using terrestrial light detection and ranging (T-LiDAR) technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrow, Dustin R.; Lee, Kathryn G.

    2013-01-01

    Alabama Power operates a series of dams on the Coosa River in east central Alabama. These dams form six reservoirs that provide power generation, flood control, recreation, economic opportunity, and fish and wildlife habitats to the region. The Logan Martin Reservoir is located approximately 45 kilometers east of Birmingham and borders Saint Clair and Talladega Counties. Discharges below the reservoir are controlled by power generation at Logan Martin Dam, and there has been an ongoing concern about the stability of the streambanks downstream of the dam. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Alabama Power conducted a scientific investigation of the geomorphic conditions of a 115-meter length of streambank along the Coosa River by using tripod-mounted terrestrial light detection and ranging technology. Two surveys were conducted before and after the winter flood season of 2010 to determine the extent and magnitude of geomorphic change. A comparison of the terrestrial light detection and ranging datasets indicated that approximately 40 cubic meters of material had been eroded from the upstream section of the study area. The terrestrial light detection and ranging data included in this report consist of electronic point cloud files containing several million georeferenced data points, as well as a surface model measuring changes between scans.

  10. El aprendizaje del número natural en un contexto ordinal en la Educación Infantil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Hernández Gutiérrez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de que los alumnos empleen los números naturales en su aspecto ordinal, realizamos la actividad “El tren” con niños de 5-6 años. En ella, un alumno debe comunicar por escrito la posición de un objeto escondido en uno de los vagones de un tren a un compañero que no ha visto dónde ha sido introducido dicho objeto. La estrategia necesaria para ganar el juego es el conteo y el uso del número natural en su sentido ordinal, tanto en la elaboración del mensaje como en su interpretación. Analizamos la puesta en marcha de esta estrategia por parte de los niños, los resultados obtenidos y cómo se puede llevar a cabo el proceso de comunicación con las familias cuando se desarrollan este tipo de actividades en el aula.Palabras clave: Educación Infantil, Matemáticas, Números naturales, Números ordinales, Teoría de Situaciones Didácticas, Rincones, Comunicación con familias.Learning of natural numbers in an ordinal context in Early Childhood Education. In order for students to use the natural numbers in ordinal aspect, we do the activity "The Train" with 5-6 year old children. The activity consists of a student who must communicate by writing the position of an object. The object is hidden in one of the carriages of a train. The classmate has not seen where that object has been introduced. The strategy for winning the game is counting and using of ordinal numbers, in the creation of the message and in its interpretation. We analyze the implementation of this strategy by the children, the results and how to carry out the process of communication with families when developing these activities in the classroom.

  11. Sky monitoring with LOBSTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudec, R.; Tichy, V.

    2014-12-01

    The X--ray sky monitoring represents valuable energy spectral extension to optical sky monitoring. Lobster--Eye all--sky monitors are able to provide relatively high sensitivity and good time resolution in the soft X--ray energy range up to 10 keV. The fine time resolution can be used to alert optical robotic telescopes for follow--up and multispectral analyzes in the visible light.

  12. Co-ordination of satellite and data programs: The committee on earth observation satellites' approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embleton, B. J. J.; Kingwell, J.

    1997-01-01

    Every year, an average of eight new civilian remote sensing satellite missions are launched. Cumulatively, over 250 such missions, each with a cost equivalent in current value to between US 100 million to US 1000 million, have been sponsored by space agencies in perhaps two dozen countries. These missions produce data and information products which are vital for informed decision making all over the world, on matters relating to natural resource exploitation, health and safety, sustainable national development, infrastructure planning, and a host of other applications. By contributing to better scientific understanding of global changes in the atmosphere, land surface, oceans and ice caps, these silently orbiting sentinels in the sky make it possible for governments and industries to make wiser environmental policy decisions and support the economic development needs of humanity. The international Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) is the premier world body for co-ordinating and planning civilian satellite missions for Earth observation. Through its technical working groups and special task teams, it endeavours to: • maximise the international benefits from Earth observation satellites; and • harmonise practice in calibration, validation, data management and information systems for Earth observation. CEOS encompasses not only space agencies (data providers), but also the great international scientific and operational programs which rely on Earth science data from space. The user organisations affiliated with CEOS, together with the mission operators, attempt to reconcile user needs with the complex set of considerations — including national interests, cost, schedule — which affect the undertaking of space missions. Without such an internationally co-ordinated consensual approach, there is a much greater risk of waste through duplication, and of missed opportunity, or through the absence of measurements of some vital physical or biological

  13. Traffic Light Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    This paper introduces, prices, and analyzes traffic light options. The traffic light option is an innovative structured OTC derivative developed independently by several London-based investment banks to suit the needs of Danish life and pension (L&P) companies, which must comply with the traffic...... light solvency stress test system introduced by the Danish Financial Supervisory Authority (DFSA) in June 2001. This monitoring system requires L&P companies to submit regular reports documenting the sensitivity of the companies' base capital to certain pre-defined market shocks - the red and yellow...... light scenarios. These stress scenarios entail drops in interest rates as well as in stock prices, and traffic light options are thus designed to pay off and preserve sufficient capital when interest rates and stock prices fall simultaneously. Sweden's FSA implemented a traffic light system in January...

  14. Erosion on tropical rain-forest terrain: a re-evaluation in the light of long-term monitoring, aerial photographic evidence and sediment fingerprinting in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Rory; Bidin, Kawi; Blake, William; Clarke, Michelle; Sayer, Aimee; Ghazali, Rosmadi; Annammala, Kogila; Chappell, Nick; Douglas, Ian

    2010-05-01

    Rain-forest vegetation is generally considered to be highly protective against erosion, but with disturbance via logging leading to major, but relatively short-lived increases in erosion for a 2-year period until rapid revegetation of slopes has occurred. This paper questions and re-assesses these views using a combination of long-term monitoring, GIS-assisted aerial photograph analysis and multi-proxy sediment fingerprinting in primary rainforest and adjacent terrain that was selectively logged either in 1988-89 or in 1992-93 within the Segama catchment in eastern Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. In primary forest areas, repeat measurements using the erosion bridge technique over the 20-year period 1990-2010 demonstrate how slopewash rates are significant, but concentrated in extreme events and increasing sharply with slope angle. Continuous monitoring of suspended sediment, coupled with repeat erosion bridge measurement, however, demonstrate that pipe erosion is at least as important even on moderate terrain and landsliding is an important process on steep terrain. In the selectively logged Baru catchment, a combination of long-term monitoring of suspended sediment and repeat measurements at an erosion bridge network has demonstrated that the erosional impact of logging is longer-term than formerly thought, with a major secondary peak in erosion 5-10 years after logging due to road-linked landslides and the decay of logs in debris dams; analysis of current bed-sediment and floodplain cores using a multi-proxy sediment fingerprinting approach demonstrates that sources of sediment are still different to those in primary forest over 20 years after logging ceased. Sediment fingerprinting at the large catchment scale (focussing on the analysis of lateral bench and floodplain sediment cores compared with upstream tributary sediment inputs), together with GIS-assisted analysis of aerial photographic evidence of spatial differences in landslide occurrence, demonstrates the key

  15. A Post-Occupancy Monitored Evaluation of the Dimmable Lighting, Automated Shading, and Underfloor Air Distribution System in The New York Times Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, E. S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fernandes, L. L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Coffey, B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McNeil, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Clear, R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Webster, T. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Bauman, F. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Dickerhoff, D. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Heinzerling, D. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Hoyt, T. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    With aggressive goals to reduce national energy use and carbon emissions, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will be looking to exemplary buildings that have already invested in new approaches to achieving the energy performance goals now needed at a national level. The New York Times Building, in New York, New York, incorporates a number of innovative technologies, systems and processes and could become model for widespread replication in new and existing buildings. A year-long monitored study was conducted to verify energy performance, assess occupant comfort and satisfaction with the indoor environment, and evaluate impact on maintenance and operations. Lessons learned were derived from the analysis; these lessons could help identify and shape policy, financial, or supporting strategies to accelerate diffusion in the commercial building market.

  16. A post-occupancy monitored evaluation of the dimmable lighting, automated shading, and underfloor air distribution system in The New York Times Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eleanor S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fernandes, Luis L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Coffey, Brian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McNeil, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Clear, Robert [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Webster, Tom [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Bauman, Fred [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Dickerhoff, Darryl [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Heinzerling, David [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Hoyt, Tyler [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    With aggressive goals to reduce national energy use and carbon emissions, the US Department of Energy will be looking to exemplary buildings that have already invested in new approaches to achieving the energy performance goals now needed at a national level. The New York Times Building, in New York, New York, incorporates a number of innovative technologies, systems and processes and could become a model for widespread replication in new and existing buildings. Post-occupancy data are invaluable in establishing confidence in innovation. A year-long monitored study was conducted to verify energy performance, assess occupant comfort and satisfaction with the indoor environment, and evaluate impacts on maintenance and operations. Lessons learned were derived from the analysis; these lessons could help identify and shape policy, financial, or supporting strategies to accelerate diffusion in the commercial building market.

  17. Design of PLC-based Traffic Light Monitoring System%基于 PLC 的交通灯监控系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵鹏; 荆红莉

    2016-01-01

    以 PC 机作为上位机,组态王软件作为上位机软件,三菱 PLC 作为下位机,组成一套以交通灯为被控对象的三菱 PLC 控制管理系统。通过对交通灯的时序分析、PLC 选项、I /O 分配及 PLC 接线等环节完成系统硬件设计;软件采用梯形图编写,实现在 PC机上启动、停止、在线修改信号灯时间、紧急情况处理及夜间模式切换等功能,达到 PC 机与 PLC 的实时交互。系统画面直观,能够模拟真实的控制现场,且操控方便,为系统的实际应用提供了可靠保障。%A Mitsubishi PLC control and management system is built up for control of traffic lights,using PC as upper computer,KingView as upper computer software and Mitsubishi PLC as lower computer.The system hardware design is completed through timing sequence analysis,PLC option,I /O distribution and PLC wiring.The software is compiled in ladder diagrams to perform such functions as start and stop through the PC,on-line modification of signal light time,emergency treatment and switch-over of night mode,so as to realize real-time interaction between the PC and PLC.This system with intuitive view can simulate actual control sites and is easy to operate, thus providing reliable guarantee for its actual application.

  18. UV-Vis/FT-NIR in situ monitoring of visible-light induced polymerization of PEGDA hydrogels initiated by eosin/triethanolamine/O2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaastrup, Kaja; Aguirre-Soto, Alan; Wang, Chen; Bowman, Christopher N; Stansbury, Jeffery; Sikes, Hadley D

    In conjunction with a tertiary amine coinitiator, eosin, a photoreducible dye, has been shown to successfully circumvent oxygen inhibition in radical photopolymerization reactions. However, the role of O2 in the initiation and polymerization processes remains inconclusive. Here, we employ a UV-Vis/FT-NIR analytical tool for real-time, simultaneous monitoring of chromophore and monomer reactive group concentrations to investigate the eosin-activated photopolymerization of PEGDA-based hydrogels under ambient conditions. First, we address the challenges associated with spectroscopic monitoring of the polymerization of hydrogels using UV-Vis and FT-NIR, proposing metrics for quantifying the extent of signal loss from reflection and scattering, and showing their relation to microgelation and network formation. Second, having established a method for extracting kinetic information by eliminating the effects of changing refractive index and scattering, the coupled UV-Vis/FT-NIR system is applied to the study of eosin-activated photopolymerization of PEGDA in the presence of O2. Analysis of the inhibition time, rate of polymerization, and rate of eosin consumption under ambient and purged conditions indicates that regeneration of eosin in the presence of oxygen and consumption of oxygen occur via a nonchain process. This suggests that the uniquely high O2 resilience is due to alternative processes such as energy transfer from photo-activated eosin to oxygen. Uncovering the intricacies of the role of O2 in eosin-mediated initiation aids the design of O2 resistant free radical polymerization systems relevant to photonics, optoelectronics, biomaterials, and biosensing.

  19. UV-Vis/FT-NIR in situ monitoring of visible-light induced polymerization of PEGDA hydrogels initiated by eosin/triethanolamine/O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaastrup, Kaja; Aguirre-Soto, Alan; Wang, Chen; Bowman, Christopher N.; Stansbury, Jeffery; Sikes, Hadley D.

    2016-01-01

    In conjunction with a tertiary amine coinitiator, eosin, a photoreducible dye, has been shown to successfully circumvent oxygen inhibition in radical photopolymerization reactions. However, the role of O2 in the initiation and polymerization processes remains inconclusive. Here, we employ a UV-Vis/FT-NIR analytical tool for real-time, simultaneous monitoring of chromophore and monomer reactive group concentrations to investigate the eosin-activated photopolymerization of PEGDA-based hydrogels under ambient conditions. First, we address the challenges associated with spectroscopic monitoring of the polymerization of hydrogels using UV-Vis and FT-NIR, proposing metrics for quantifying the extent of signal loss from reflection and scattering, and showing their relation to microgelation and network formation. Second, having established a method for extracting kinetic information by eliminating the effects of changing refractive index and scattering, the coupled UV-Vis/FT-NIR system is applied to the study of eosin-activated photopolymerization of PEGDA in the presence of O2. Analysis of the inhibition time, rate of polymerization, and rate of eosin consumption under ambient and purged conditions indicates that regeneration of eosin in the presence of oxygen and consumption of oxygen occur via a nonchain process. This suggests that the uniquely high O2 resilience is due to alternative processes such as energy transfer from photo-activated eosin to oxygen. Uncovering the intricacies of the role of O2 in eosin-mediated initiation aids the design of O2 resistant free radical polymerization systems relevant to photonics, optoelectronics, biomaterials, and biosensing. PMID:26755925

  20. Specular reflection treatment for the 3D radiative transfer equation solved with the discrete ordinates method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Hardy, D. [Université de Nantes, LTN UMR CNRS 6607 (France); Favennec, Y., E-mail: yann.favennec@univ-nantes.fr [Université de Nantes, LTN UMR CNRS 6607 (France); Rousseau, B. [Université de Nantes, LTN UMR CNRS 6607 (France); Hecht, F. [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Université Paris 06, UMR 7598, inria de Paris, Laboratoire Jacques-Louis Lions, F-75005, Paris (France)

    2017-04-01

    The contribution of this paper relies in the development of numerical algorithms for the mathematical treatment of specular reflection on borders when dealing with the numerical solution of radiative transfer problems. The radiative transfer equation being integro-differential, the discrete ordinates method allows to write down a set of semi-discrete equations in which weights are to be calculated. The calculation of these weights is well known to be based on either a quadrature or on angular discretization, making the use of such method straightforward for the state equation. Also, the diffuse contribution of reflection on borders is usually well taken into account. However, the calculation of accurate partition ratio coefficients is much more tricky for the specular condition applied on arbitrary geometrical borders. This paper presents algorithms that calculate analytically partition ratio coefficients needed in numerical treatments. The developed algorithms, combined with a decentered finite element scheme, are validated with the help of comparisons with analytical solutions before being applied on complex geometries.

  1. Improving Your Exploratory Factor Analysis for Ordinal Data: A Demonstration Using FACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Baglin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Exploratory factor analysis (EFA methods are used extensively in the field of assessment and evaluation. Due to EFA's widespread use, common methods and practices have come under close scrutiny. A substantial body of literature has been compiled highlighting problems with many of the methods and practices used in EFA, and, in response, many guidelines have been proposed with the aim to improve application. Unfortunately, implementing recommended EFA practices has been restricted by the range of options available in commercial statistical packages and, perhaps, due to an absence of clear, practical - how-to' demonstrations. Consequently, this article describes the application of methods recommended to get the most out of your EFA. The article focuses on dealing with the common situation of analysing ordinal data as derived from Likert-type scales. These methods are demonstrated using the free, stand-alone, easy-to-use and powerful EFA package FACTOR (http://psico.fcep.urv.es/utilitats/factor/, Lorenzo-Seva & Ferrando, 2006. The demonstration applies the recommended techniques using an accompanying dataset, based on the Big 5 personality test. The outcomes obtained by the EFA using the recommended procedures through FACTOR are compared to the default techniques currently available in SPSS.

  2. Experiences in the parallelization of the discrete ordinates method using OpenMP and MPI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pautz, A. [TUV Hannover/Sachsen-Anhalt e.V. (Germany); Langenbuch, S. [Gesellschaft fur Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The method of Discrete Ordinates is in principle parallelizable to a high degree, since the transport 'mesh sweeps' are mutually independent for all angular directions. However, in the well-known production code Dort such a type of angular domain decomposition has to be done on a spatial line-byline basis, causing the parallelism in the code to be very fine-grained. The construction of scalar fluxes and moments requires a large effort for inter-thread or inter-process communication. We have implemented two different parallelization approaches in Dort: firstly, we have used a shared-memory model suitable for SMP (Symmetric Multiprocessor) machines based on the standard OpenMP. The second approach uses the well-known Message Passing Interface (MPI) to establish communication between parallel processes running in a distributed-memory environment. We investigate the benefits and drawbacks of both models and show first results on performance and scaling behaviour of the parallel Dort code. (authors)

  3. Co-ordination of spark-gap protection with zinc-oxide surge arresters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, A.; German, D.M.; Waters, R.T. [Cardiff Univ., School of Engineering, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Abdul-Malek, Z. [University of Technology (Malaysia)

    2001-01-01

    Zinc-oxide (ZnO) surge arresters are now well established as a very efficient and reliable form of overvoltage protection against both fast surges, such as those generated by lightning and gas-insulated switchgear, and high-energy surges generated by switching operations and temporary faults on the network. The addition of ZnO surge arresters to existing protection schemes reinforces the system's reliability and the security of supply. The protection characteristics of the parallel configuration formed by arresters and existing spark gaps at distribution voltages are studied. Tests on various spark-gap geometries, with and without surge arresters in parallel, have been carried out to determine breakdown characteristics, probability curves and voltage-time characteristics for different impulse shapes. It is found that the introduction of the arrester in the circuit modifies the prospective impulse which results in the shift of the breakdown characteristics towards higher voltages. A proposed circuit model, based on laboratory test data, is used to simulate such parallel configurations. Good agreement between test and simulated results is obtained. As a result of these tests, it is recommended that gap-sparkover characteristics based on short-tail (about 5{mu}s) impulses are used for insulation co-ordination. The role of parallel airgaps in preserving the arrester energy-rating limits is also discussed. (Author)

  4. Performance of the Adaptive Collision Source (ACS) Method for Discrete Ordinates in Parallel Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, William J.; Haghighat, Alireza

    2014-06-01

    A new collision source method has been developed to solve the Linear Boltzmann Equation (LBE) more efficiently by adaptation of the angular quadrature order. The angular adaptation method is unique in that the flux from each scattering source iteration is obtained separately, with potentially a different quadrature order. This allows for an optimal use of processing power, by using a high order quadrature for the first few iterations that need it, before shifting to lower order quadratures for the remaining iterations. This is essentially an extension of the first collision source method, and we call it the adaptive collision source method (ACS). The ACS methodolog y has been implemented in the TITAN discrete ordinates code, and has shown a speedup of 2-3 on a test problem, with very little loss of accuracy (within a provided adaptive tolerance). Further, the code has been extended to work in parallel environments by angular decomposition. Although the method requires increased parallel communication, tests have shown excellent scalability, with parallel fractions of up to 99%.

  5. Cranial nerve development requires co-ordinated Shh and canonical Wnt signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosaka, Hiroshi; Trainor, Paul A; Leroux-Berger, Margot; Iulianella, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Cranial nerves govern sensory and motor information exchange between the brain and tissues of the head and neck. The cranial nerves are derived from two specialized populations of cells, cranial neural crest cells and ectodermal placode cells. Defects in either cell type can result in cranial nerve developmental defects. Although several signaling pathways are known to regulate cranial nerve formation our understanding of how intercellular signaling between neural crest cells and placode cells is coordinated during cranial ganglia morphogenesis is poorly understood. Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling is one key pathway that regulates multiple aspects of craniofacial development, but whether it co-ordinates cranial neural crest cell and placodal cell interactions during cranial ganglia formation remains unclear. In this study we examined a new Patched1 (Ptch1) loss-of-function mouse mutant and characterized the role of Ptch1 in regulating Shh signaling during cranial ganglia development. Ptch1(Wig/ Wig) mutants exhibit elevated Shh signaling in concert with disorganization of the trigeminal and facial nerves. Importantly, we discovered that enhanced Shh signaling suppressed canonical Wnt signaling in the cranial nerve region. This critically affected the survival and migration of cranial neural crest cells and the development of placodal cells as well as the integration between neural crest and placodes. Collectively, our findings highlight a novel and critical role for Shh signaling in cranial nerve development via the cross regulation of canonical Wnt signaling.

  6. Bonegilla Heritage Park: Contesting and Co-ordinating a Public History Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Dellios

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s, efforts to publically commemorate the former migrant training and reception centre of Bonegilla, while intermittent, have increased. I am referring to: reunions and anniversaries, state and national heritage listings, the erection of museum displays, temporary and touring exhibitions, the on-site Heritage Park, and forms of popular culture. For the national audience, as well as several ethnic communities, Bonegilla now plays a role in the collective imagination of the post-war period and the migrant journey. Furthermore, the nature of Bonegilla’s public representation has evolved since the late 1980s. Bonegilla has become much more than a place of personal migrant memory, and its previous negative connotations in the public arena have been erased. This public evolution is linked to much wider processes in our national history. This article thus explores the contestation and co-ordination of collective memories—that is, multiple narratives of Bonegilla’s past, which, while in constant dialogue with each other, are framed and sanctioned by the limits of Australian multiculturalism and heritage discourses. While the earliest efforts to commemorate Bonegilla might be typified as ‘participatory’ and vernacular, they might now be described in reference to ‘retrospective commemoration’, in which Bonegilla’s public history is framed by state-sanctioned narratives and other attendant discursive frameworks.

  7. Evaluation of reflection and refraction in simulations of ultraviolet disinfection using the discrete ordinates radiation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, C K

    2009-01-01

    Simulations of UV disinfection systems require accurate models of UV radiation within the reactor. Processes such as reflection and refraction at surfaces within the reactor can impact the intensity of the simulated radiation field, which in turn impacts the simulated dose and performance of the UV reactor. This paper describes a detailed discrete ordinates radiation model and comparisons to a test that recorded the UV radiation distribution around a low pressure UV lamp in a water-filled chamber with a UV transmittance of 88%. The effects of reflection and refraction at the quartz sleeve were investigated, along with the impact of wall reflection from the interior surfaces of the chamber. Results showed that the inclusion of wall reflection improved matches between predicted and measured values of incident radiation throughout the chamber. The difference between simulations with and without reflection ranged from several percent near the lamp to nearly 40% further away from the lamp. Neglecting reflection and refraction at the quartz sleeve increased the simulated radiation near the lamp and reduced the simulated radiation further away from the lamp. However, the distribution and trends in the simulated radiation field both with and without the effects of reflection and refraction at the quartz sleeve were consistent with the measured data distributions.

  8. Patterns of Dupuytren disease in fingers: studying correlations with a multivariate ordinal logit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanting, Rosanne; Nooraee, Nazanin; Werker, Paul M N; van den Heuvel, Edwin R

    2014-09-01

    Dupuytren disease affects fingers in a variable fashion. Knowledge about specific disease patterns (phenotype) based on location and severity of the disease is lacking. In this cross-sectional study, 344 primary affected hands with Dupuytren disease were physically examined. The Pearson correlation coefficient between the coexistence of Dupuytren disease in pairs of fingers was calculated, and agglomerative hierarchical clustering was applied to identify possible clusters of affected fingers. With a multivariate ordinal logit model, the authors studied the correlation on severity, taking into account age and sex, and tested hypotheses on independence between groups of fingers. The ring finger was most frequently affected by Dupuytren disease, and contractures were seen in 15.1 percent of affected rays. The severity of thumb and index finger, middle and ring fingers, and middle and little fingers was significantly correlated. Occurrences in pairs of fingers were highest in the middle and ring fingers and lowest in the thumb and index finger. Correlation between the ring and little fingers and a correlation between fingers from the ulnar and radial sides could not be demonstrated. Rays on the ulnar side of the hand are predominantly affected. The middle finger is substantially correlated with other fingers on the ulnar side, and the thumb and index finger are correlated; however, there was no evidence that the ulnar side and the radial side were correlated in any way, which suggests that occurrence on one side of the hand does not predict Dupuytren disease on the other side of the hand. Risk, III.

  9. c-Myc co-ordinates mRNA cap methylation and ribosomal RNA production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Sianadh; Lombardi, Olivia; Cowling, Victoria H

    2017-02-01

    The mRNA cap is a structure added to RNA pol II transcripts in eukaryotes, which recruits factors involved in RNA processing, nuclear export and translation initiation. RNA guanine-7 methyltransferase (RNMT)-RNA-activating miniprotein (RAM), the mRNA cap methyltransferase complex, completes the basic functional mRNA cap structure, cap 0, by methylating the cap guanosine. Here, we report that RNMT-RAM co-ordinates mRNA processing with ribosome production. Suppression of RNMT-RAM reduces synthesis of the 45S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) precursor. RNMT-RAM is required for c-Myc expression, a major regulator of RNA pol I, which synthesises 45S rRNA. Constitutive expression of c-Myc restores rRNA synthesis when RNMT-RAM is suppressed, indicating that RNMT-RAM controls rRNA production predominantly by controlling c-Myc expression. We report that RNMT-RAM is recruited to the ribosomal DNA locus, which may contribute to rRNA synthesis in certain contexts. © 2017 The Author(s).

  10. L'ordine del mondo le simmetrie in fisica da Aristotele a Higgs

    CERN Document Server

    Barone, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Il mondo ci appare come una lunga serie di contingenze locali: ogni fatto accade per ragioni sue e quindi ogni previsione relativa al fatto successivo sembra azzardata. C'è però un altro modo di guardare il mondo, ed è quello fondato sulle regolarità intrinseche, sulle trame ordinate della sua tessitura sottile. In fisica il discorso sulla struttura del mondo giunge a noi addirittura da Anassimandro, ma è con Einstein che si fa strada prepotentemente l'idea di necessità, o di inevitabilità, nel mondo fisico. È con la relatività ristretta, nel 1905, che per la prima volta entra a far parte della fisica il concetto di simmetria come elemento fondamentale della spiegazione del mondo. Da Einstein in poi, il mondo apparirà dotato di una sua struttura intrinseca, che permette lo sviluppo di certe regolarità, mentre ne nega altre, proprio come avviene nel "Castello dei destini incrociati" di Italo Calvino, dove il gioco di incroci tra le storie raccontate dai tarocchi permette alcuni sviluppi narrativi e ...

  11. Global Volcano Model: progress towards an international co-ordinated network for volcanic hazard and risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughlin, Susan

    2013-04-01

    GVM is a growing international collaboration that aims to create a sustainable, accessible information platform on volcanic hazard and risk. GVM is a network that aims to co-ordinate and integrate the efforts of the international volcanology community. Major international initiatives and partners such as the Smithsonian Institution - Global Volcanism Program, State University of New York at Buffalo - VHub, Earth Observatory of Singapore - WOVOdat and many others underpin GVM. Activities currently include: design and development of databases of volcano data, volcanic hazards, vulnerability and exposure with internationally agreed metadata standards; establishment of methodologies for analysis of the data (e.g. hazard and exposure indices) to inform risk assessment; development of complementary hazards models and create relevant hazards and risk assessment tools. GVM acts through establishing task forces to deliver explicit deliverables in finite periods of time. GVM has a task force to deliver a global assessment of volcanic risk for UN ISDR, a task force for indices, and a task force for volcano deformation from satellite observations. GVM is organising a Volcano Best Practices workshop in 2013. A recent product of GVM is a global database on large magnitude explosive eruptions. There is ongoing work to develop databases on debris avalanches, lava dome hazards and ash hazard. GVM aims to develop the capability to anticipate future volcanism and its consequences.

  12. Fisher Scoring Method for Parameter Estimation of Geographically Weighted Ordinal Logistic Regression (GWOLR) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyaningsih, Purnami; Retno Sari Saputro, Dewi; Nugrahani Putri, Aulia

    2017-06-01

    GWOLR model combines geographically weighted regression (GWR) and (ordinal logistic reression) OLR models. Its parameter estimation employs maximum likelihood estimation. Such parameter estimation, however, yields difficult-to-solve system of nonlinear equations, and therefore numerical approximation approach is required. The iterative approximation approach, in general, uses Newton-Raphson (NR) method. The NR method has a disadvantage—its Hessian matrix is always the second derivatives of each iteration so it does not always produce converging results. With regard to this matter, NR model is modified by substituting its Hessian matrix into Fisher information matrix, which is termed Fisher scoring (FS). The present research seeks to determine GWOLR model parameter estimation using Fisher scoring method and apply the estimation on data of the level of vulnerability to Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) in Semarang. The research concludes that health facilities give the greatest contribution to the probability of the number of DHF sufferers in both villages. Based on the number of the sufferers, IR category of DHF in both villages can be determined.

  13. Compliance with an Ordinance Requiring the Use of Personal Flotation Devices by Children in Public Waterways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garen J. Wintemute

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: For children ages 1-14, 21.6% of drowning cases involve swimming, wading, orplaying in natural bodies of water, such as rivers and lakes. Personal flotation devices (PFDs arebelieved to be an effective prevention measure. We measure compliance with city and countyordinances, publicized but not actively enforced, requiring that PFDs be worn by children accessingpublic bodies of water in Sacramento County, California.Methods: During June-August 2010, volunteers conducted 79 observation sessions at threepopular local river beaches where PFDs were available for use at no cost. They recorded personalcharacteristics and PFD use for 1,727 children in or very near the water and believed to be 0-13years of age (the age covered by the ordinances. We used logistic regression to quantify differencesin use by subject characteristics and study site.Results: The prevalence of PFD use was 29.9% overall, with large and significant differencesby age: < 1, 55.6%; 1-4, 37.6%; 5-10, 29.4%; 10-13, 14.6%; P < 0.0001. Usage did not varysignificantly by sex or race/ethnicity, and was somewhat higher at one study site (33.1% than at theothers (25.9% and 27.3%, P = 0.009.Conclusion: The combination of a statutory requirement and a cost-elimination strategy wasassociated with moderate rates of PFD use that were highest among young children.

  14. Discrete-ordinate radiative transfer in a stratified medium with first-order rotational Raman scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spurr, Robert [RT Solutions Inc., 9 Channing Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)], E-mail: rtsolutions@verizon.net; Haan, Johan de; Oss, Roeland van [KNMI, de Bilt (Netherlands); Vasilkov, Alexander [SSAI, Lanham, MD (United States)

    2008-02-15

    Rotational Raman scattering (RRS) by air molecules in the Earth's atmosphere is predominantly responsible for the Ring effect: Fraunhofer and absorption-feature filling-in observed in UV/visible backscatter spectra. Accurate determination of RRS effects requires detailed radiative transfer (RT) treatment. In this paper, we demonstrate that the discrete-ordinate RT equations may be solved analytically in a multi-layer multiple scattering atmosphere in the presence of RRS treated as a first-order perturbation. Based on this solution, we develop a generic pseudo-spherical RT model LIDORT-RRS for the determination of backscatter radiances with RRS included; the model will generate output at arbitrary viewing geometry and optical thickness. Model comparisons with measured RRS filling-in effects from OMI observations show very good agreement. We examine telluric RRS filling-in effects for satellite-view backscatter radiances in a spectral range covering the ozone Huggins absorption bands. The model is also used to investigate calcium H and K Fraunhofer filling-in through cloud layers in the atmosphere.

  15. Lagrange Discrete Ordinates: a new angular discretization for the three dimensional linear Boltzmann equation

    CERN Document Server

    Ahrens, Cory D

    2014-01-01

    The classical $S_n$ equations of Carlson and Lee have been a mainstay in multi-dimensional radiation transport calculations. In this paper, an alternative to the $S_n$ equations, the "Lagrange Discrete Ordinate" (LDO) equations are derived. These equations are based on an interpolatory framework for functions on the unit sphere in three dimensions. While the LDO equations retain the formal structure of the classical $S_n$ equations, they have a number of important differences. The LDO equations naturally allow the angular flux to be evaluated in directions other than those found in the quadrature set. To calculate the scattering source in the LDO equations, no spherical harmonic moments are needed--only values of the angular flux. Moreover, the LDO scattering source preserves the eigenstructure of the continuous scattering operator. The formal similarity of the LDO equations with the $S_n$ equations should allow easy modification of mature 3D $S_n$ codes such as PARTISN or PENTRAN to solve the LDO equations. ...

  16. The TORT three-dimensional discrete ordinates neutron/photon transport code (TORT version 3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhoades, W.A.; Simpson, D.B.

    1997-10-01

    TORT calculates the flux or fluence of neutrons and/or photons throughout three-dimensional systems due to particles incident upon the system`s external boundaries, due to fixed internal sources, or due to sources generated by interaction with the system materials. The transport process is represented by the Boltzman transport equation. The method of discrete ordinates is used to treat the directional variable, and a multigroup formulation treats the energy dependence. Anisotropic scattering is treated using a Legendre expansion. Various methods are used to treat spatial dependence, including nodal and characteristic procedures that have been especially adapted to resist numerical distortion. A method of body overlay assists in material zone specification, or the specification can be generated by an external code supplied by the user. Several special features are designed to concentrate machine resources where they are most needed. The directional quadrature and Legendre expansion can vary with energy group. A discontinuous mesh capability has been shown to reduce the size of large problems by a factor of roughly three in some cases. The emphasis in this code is a robust, adaptable application of time-tested methods, together with a few well-tested extensions.

  17. Wormhole Detection Based on Ordinal MDS Using RTT in Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saswati Mukherjee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In wireless communication, wormhole attack is a crucial threat that deteriorates the normal functionality of the network. Invasion of wormholes destroys the network topology completely. However, most of the existing solutions require special hardware or synchronized clock or long processing time to defend against long path wormhole attacks. In this work, we propose a wormhole detection method using range-based topology comparison that exploits the local neighbourhood subgraph. The Round Trip Time (RTT for each node pair is gathered to generate neighbour information. Then, the network is reconstructed by ordinal Multidimensional Scaling (MDS followed by a suspicion phase that enlists the suspected wormholes based on the spatial reconstruction. Iterative computation of MDS helps to visualize the topology changes and can localize the potential wormholes. Finally, a verification phase is used to remove falsely accused nodes and identify real adversaries. The novelty of our algorithm is that it can detect both short path and long path wormhole links. Extensive simulations are executed to demonstrate the efficacy of our approach compared to existing ones.

  18. Specular reflection treatment for the 3D radiative transfer equation solved with the discrete ordinates method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Hardy, D.; Favennec, Y.; Rousseau, B.; Hecht, F.

    2017-04-01

    The contribution of this paper relies in the development of numerical algorithms for the mathematical treatment of specular reflection on borders when dealing with the numerical solution of radiative transfer problems. The radiative transfer equation being integro-differential, the discrete ordinates method allows to write down a set of semi-discrete equations in which weights are to be calculated. The calculation of these weights is well known to be based on either a quadrature or on angular discretization, making the use of such method straightforward for the state equation. Also, the diffuse contribution of reflection on borders is usually well taken into account. However, the calculation of accurate partition ratio coefficients is much more tricky for the specular condition applied on arbitrary geometrical borders. This paper presents algorithms that calculate analytically partition ratio coefficients needed in numerical treatments. The developed algorithms, combined with a decentered finite element scheme, are validated with the help of comparisons with analytical solutions before being applied on complex geometries.

  19. C5 Benchmark Problem with Discrete Ordinate Radiation Transport Code DENOVO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yesilyurt, Gokhan [ORNL; Clarno, Kevin T [ORNL; Evans, Thomas M [ORNL; Davidson, Gregory G [ORNL; Fox, Patricia B [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The C5 benchmark problem proposed by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency was modeled to examine the capabilities of Denovo, a three-dimensional (3-D) parallel discrete ordinates (S{sub N}) radiation transport code, for problems with no spatial homogenization. Denovo uses state-of-the-art numerical methods to obtain accurate solutions to the Boltzmann transport equation. Problems were run in parallel on Jaguar, a high-performance supercomputer located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Both the two-dimensional (2-D) and 3-D configurations were analyzed, and the results were compared with the reference MCNP Monte Carlo calculations. For an additional comparison, SCALE/KENO-V.a Monte Carlo solutions were also included. In addition, a sensitivity analysis was performed for the optimal angular quadrature and mesh resolution for both the 2-D and 3-D infinite lattices of UO{sub 2} fuel pin cells. Denovo was verified with the C5 problem. The effective multiplication factors, pin powers, and assembly powers were found to be in good agreement with the reference MCNP and SCALE/KENO-V.a Monte Carlo calculations.

  20. Optimal Computing Budget Allocation for Ordinal Optimization in Solving Stochastic Job Shop Scheduling Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-an Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We focus on solving Stochastic Job Shop Scheduling Problem (SJSSP with random processing time to minimize the expected sum of earliness and tardiness costs of all jobs. To further enhance the efficiency of the simulation optimization technique of embedding Evolutionary Strategy in Ordinal Optimization (ESOO which is based on Monte Carlo simulation, we embed Optimal Computing Budget Allocation (OCBA technique into the exploration stage of ESOO to optimize the performance evaluation process by controlling the allocation of simulation times. However, while pursuing a good set of schedules, “super individuals,” which can absorb most of the given computation while others hardly get any simulation budget, may emerge according to the allocating equation of OCBA. Consequently, the schedules cannot be evaluated exactly, and thus the probability of correct selection (PCS tends to be low. Therefore, we modify OCBA to balance the computation allocation: (1 set a threshold of simulation times to detect “super individuals” and (2 follow an exclusion mechanism to marginalize them. Finally, the proposed approach is applied to an SJSSP comprising 8 jobs on 8 machines with random processing time in truncated normal, uniform, and exponential distributions, respectively. The results demonstrate that our method outperforms the ESOO method by achieving better solutions.

  1. Application of ordinal logistic regression analysis in determining risk factors of child malnutrition in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sumonkanti; Rahman, Rajwanur M

    2011-11-14

    The study attempts to develop an ordinal logistic regression (OLR) model to identify the determinants of child malnutrition instead of developing traditional binary logistic regression (BLR) model using the data of Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2004. Based on weight-for-age anthropometric index (Z-score) child nutrition status is categorized into three groups-severely undernourished (malnutrition and severe malnutrition if the proportional odds assumption satisfies. The assumption is satisfied with low p-value (0.144) due to violation of the assumption for one co-variate. So partial proportional odds model (PPOM) and two BLR models have also been developed to check the applicability of the OLR model. Graphical test has also been adopted for checking the proportional odds assumption. All the models determine that age of child, birth interval, mothers' education, maternal nutrition, household wealth status, child feeding index, and incidence of fever, ARI & diarrhoea were the significant predictors of child malnutrition; however, results of PPOM were more precise than those of other models. These findings clearly justify that OLR models (POM and PPOM) are appropriate to find predictors of malnutrition instead of BLR models.

  2. Discrete ordinates transport methods for problems with highly forward-peaked scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pautz, S.D.

    1998-04-01

    The author examines the solutions of the discrete ordinates (S{sub N}) method for problems with highly forward-peaked scattering kernels. He derives conditions necessary to obtain reasonable solutions in a certain forward-peaked limit, the Fokker-Planck (FP) limit. He also analyzes the acceleration of the iterative solution of such problems and offer improvements to it. He extends the analytic Fokker-Planck limit analysis to the S{sub N} equations. This analysis shows that in this asymptotic limit the S{sub N} solution satisfies a pseudospectral discretization of the FP equation, provided that the scattering term is handled in a certain way (which he describes) and that the analytic transport solution satisfies an analytic FP equation. Similar analyses of various spatially discretized S{sub N} equations reveal that they too produce solutions that satisfy discrete FP equations, given the same provisions. Numerical results agree with these theoretical predictions. He defines a multidimensional angular multigrid (ANMG) method to accelerate the iterative solution of highly forward-peaked problems. The analyses show that a straightforward application of this scheme is subject to high-frequency instabilities. However, by applying a diffusive filter to the ANMG corrections he is able to stabilize this method. Fourier analyses of model problems show that the resulting method is effective at accelerating the convergence rate when the scattering is forward-peaked. The numerical results demonstrate that these analyses are good predictors of the actual performance of the ANMG method.

  3. Time lagged ordinal partition networks for capturing dynamics of continuous dynamical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCullough, Michael; Iu, Herbert Ho-Ching [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Western Australia, Crawley WA 6009 (Australia); Small, Michael; Stemler, Thomas [School of Mathematics and Statistics, The University of Western Australia, Crawley WA 6009 (Australia)

    2015-05-15

    We investigate a generalised version of the recently proposed ordinal partition time series to network transformation algorithm. First, we introduce a fixed time lag for the elements of each partition that is selected using techniques from traditional time delay embedding. The resulting partitions define regions in the embedding phase space that are mapped to nodes in the network space. Edges are allocated between nodes based on temporal succession thus creating a Markov chain representation of the time series. We then apply this new transformation algorithm to time series generated by the Rössler system and find that periodic dynamics translate to ring structures whereas chaotic time series translate to band or tube-like structures—thereby indicating that our algorithm generates networks whose structure is sensitive to system dynamics. Furthermore, we demonstrate that simple network measures including the mean out degree and variance of out degrees can track changes in the dynamical behaviour in a manner comparable to the largest Lyapunov exponent. We also apply the same analysis to experimental time series generated by a diode resonator circuit and show that the network size, mean shortest path length, and network diameter are highly sensitive to the interior crisis captured in this particular data set.

  4. Developing a Patient Care Co-ordination Centre in Trafford, England: lessons from the International Foundation for Integrated Care (IFIC/Advancing Quality Alliance integrated care fellowship experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gregory

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The NHS and Social Care in England are facing one of the biggest financial challenges for a generation. Commissioners and providers need to work on collaborative schemes to manage the increasing demand on health and social care within a period of financial constraint. Different forms of care co-ordination have been developed at different levels across the world.In the north-west of England, the Trafford health and social care economy have been working through a competitive dialogue process with industry to develop an innovative and dynamic solution to deliver seamless co-ordination for all patients and service users. The strategy is to develop a new Patient Care Co-ordination Centre, which will be responsible for the delivery of co-ordinated, quality care. The Patient Care Co-ordination Centre will work at clinical, service, functional and community levels across multiple providers covering risk stratification, preventative, elective and unscheduled care.I am the clinical lead for the Patient Care Co-ordination Centre and during my year as an Advancing Quality Alliance Integrated Care Fellow, I have had the opportunity to study examples of care coordination from UK and international sites. The learning from these visits has been assimilated into the design process of the Patient Care Co-ordination Centre.

  5. Developing a Patient Care Co-ordination Centre in Trafford, England: lessons from the International Foundation for Integrated Care (IFIC/Advancing Quality Alliance integrated care fellowship experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gregory

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The NHS and Social Care in England are facing one of the biggest financial challenges for a generation. Commissioners and providers need to work on collaborative schemes to manage the increasing demand on health and social care within a period of financial constraint. Different forms of care co-ordination have been developed at different levels across the world. In the north-west of England, the Trafford health and social care economy have been working through a competitive dialogue process with industry to develop an innovative and dynamic solution to deliver seamless co-ordination for all patients and service users. The strategy is to develop a new Patient Care Co-ordination Centre, which will be responsible for the delivery of co-ordinated, quality care. The Patient Care Co-ordination Centre will work at clinical, service, functional and community levels across multiple providers covering risk stratification, preventative, elective and unscheduled care. I am the clinical lead for the Patient Care Co-ordination Centre and during my year as an Advancing Quality Alliance Integrated Care Fellow, I have had the opportunity to study examples of care coordination from UK and international sites. The learning from these visits has been assimilated into the design process of the Patient Care Co-ordination Centre.

  6. Discontinuous isogeometric analysis methods for the first-order form of the neutron transport equation with discrete ordinate (SN) angular discretisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, A. R.; Welch, J. A.; Kópházi, J.; Eaton, M. D.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper two discontinuous Galerkin isogeometric analysis methods are developed and applied to the first-order form of the neutron transport equation with a discrete ordinate (SN) angular discretisation. The discontinuous Galerkin projection approach was taken on both an element level and the patch level for a given Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline (NURBS) patch. This paper describes the detailed dispersion analysis that has been used to analyse the numerical stability of both of these schemes. The convergence of the schemes for both smooth and non-smooth solutions was also investigated using the method of manufactured solutions (MMS) for multidimensional problems and a 1D semi-analytical benchmark whose solution contains a strongly discontinuous first derivative. This paper also investigates the challenges posed by strongly curved boundaries at both the NURBS element and patch level with several algorithms developed to deal with such cases. Finally numerical results are presented both for a simple pincell test problem as well as the C5G7 quarter core MOX/UOX small Light Water Reactor (LWR) benchmark problem. These numerical results produced by the isogeometric analysis (IGA) methods are compared and contrasted against linear and quadratic discontinuous Galerkin finite element (DGFEM) SN based methods.

  7. The determinants of the growth expectations of the early-stage entrepreneurs (TEA using the ordinal logistic model (OLM: the case of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Özçam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study uses the Ordinal Logistic Model (OLM to analyze the determinants of the growth expectations of total early-stage entrepreneurship activity (TEA expressed in terms of new jobs to be created within their firms in four categories. Specifically, given the increasing importance of entrepreneurship in job creation, innovation and economic growth, we try to inquire into the question of why some of the new entrepreneurs and not the others expect a rapid development of their ventures. The data from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM for the years 2006-2008 for Turkey were employed. Our findings indicate that the personal characteristics of the early-stage Turkish entrepreneurs such as gender, education and household income, in addition to their motivation and current size of their businesses are important factors in resolving the prevalence of high-expectation new firms. Moreover, some scenarios particular to some sub-groups or population cells of Turkish developing entrepreneurs which may create the bulk of high-expectation entrepreneurial pursuit were conducted using OLM. As far as the policy implications are concerned, the availability and access of capital funding to early-stage entrepreneurs and an education system more relevant to today’s competitive world might both contribute better to Turkish economy’s prosperity, and seems to be very important for policy considerations.

  8. GLOBALIZATION AND BUILDING OF IDENTITIES IN MODERN CITIES: A DISCOURSE ANALYSIS AT BARCELONA’S NEW CIVIC ORDINANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LILIANA VARGAS MONROY

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes a discourse analysis of the Civic Ordinance of Barcelona, adopted by the City Hall of Barcelona-Spain in January of 2006, in order to typify and manage behaviour in the public spaces of the city. The textual corpuswe used for this analysis is the Ordinance project in its two versions. The Discourse Analysis methodology used in thisstudy has been proposed by different authors in this field (Martín Rojo, 2001; Parker, 1992; Potter & Wetherell, 1987;Van Dijk, 2003; Wetherell, 2001. Results point to the emergence of two kinds of discourses inside the text, as well as the strategies from which both discourses allow the construction of citizens’ identities as a new way of governability in the spaces of contemporary European cities.

  9. How can the co-ordinate transformation method of beam matching be extended to include separately labelled collimators?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan-Fletcher, S; McKenzie, A L

    1996-03-01

    The problem of matching radiation beams was tackled by Siddon in 1980 using co-ordinate transformations. Since then, the need to distinguish between individual collimators in prescriptions of treatment set-up, brought about by the widespread use of 3-D treatment planning systems and asymmetric fields, as well as a reversal of the rotation sense in the turntable co-ordinate system proposed by the International Electrotechnical Commission, have made it necessary to revisit this particular problem. This paper builds upon Siddon's general equations for the particular case of matching beams, and derives expressions for calculating treatment-unit settings which may be used in a computer program without the need to perform matrix manipulation. The expression treat the individual collimator jaws separately.

  10. Co-ordination of a new bis-terpyridine ligand with cupric perchlorate yielding a dinuclear M 2L species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, James C.; Prabaharan, Ravi; Edwards, Peter G.; Amoroso, Angelo J.

    2011-03-01

    We report the synthesis of a new bis-terpyridine ligand which could potentially yield a variety of polynuclear complexes. An investigation of the co-ordination chemistry of this ligand with Cu(II) ions in a 1:1 ratio yielded a complex with a 2:1 ratio of Cu to ligand. The crystal structure of the dinuclear copper(II) complex shows the two equivalent copper cations are co-ordinated via five donor atoms in a highly distorted square pyramidal arrangement. The structure was solved in a monoclinic space group C2/c with cell parameters, a = 21.340(5), b = 14.004(5), c = 18.368(5) Å, α = 90°, β = 106.575(5)°, γ = 90°, volume = 5261(3) Å 3, Z = 4.

  11. Time-dependent Multi-group Multidimensional Relativistic Radiative Transfer Code Based On Spherical Harmonic Discrete Ordinate Method

    CERN Document Server

    Tominaga, Nozomu; Blinnikov, Sergei I

    2015-01-01

    We develop a time-dependent multi-group multidimensional relativistic radiative transfer code, which is required to numerically investigate radiation from relativistic fluids involved in, e.g., gamma-ray bursts and active galactic nuclei. The code is based on the spherical harmonic discrete ordinate method (SHDOM) that evaluates a source function including anisotropic scattering in spherical harmonics and implicitly solves the static radiative transfer equation with a ray tracing in discrete ordinates. We implement treatments of time dependence, multi-frequency bins, Lorentz transformation, and elastic Thomson and inelastic Compton scattering to the publicly available SHDOM code. Our code adopts a mixed frame approach; the source function is evaluated in the comoving frame whereas the radiative transfer equation is solved in the laboratory frame. This implementation is validated with various test problems and comparisons with results of a relativistic Monte Carlo code. These validations confirm that the code ...

  12. Synthesis of core-shell heterostructured Cu/Cu2O nanowires monitored by in situ XRD as efficient visible-light photocatalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Core-shell heterostructured Cu/Cu2O nanowires with a high aspect ratio were synthesized from Cu foam using a novel oxidation/reduction process. In situ XRD was used as an efficient tool to acquire phase transformation details during the temperature-programmed oxidation of Cu foam and the subsequent reduction process. Based on knowledge of the crucial phase transformation, optimal synthesis conditions for producing high-quality CuO and core-shell Cu/Cu2O nanowires were determined. In favor of efficient charge separation induced by the special core-shell heterostructure and the advanced three-dimensional spatial configuration, Cu/Cu2O nanowires exhibited superior visible-light activity in the degradation of methylene blue. The present study illustrates a novel strategy for fabricating efficiently core-shell heterostructured nanowires and provides the potential for developing their applications in electronic devices, for environmental remediation and in solar energy utilization fields. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  13. Real-time selective visual monitoring of Hg(2+) detection at ppt level: An approach to lighting electrospun nanofibers using gold nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthamizhan, Anitha; Celebioglu, Asli; Uyar, Tamer

    2015-05-28

    In this work, fluorescent gold nanocluster (AuNC) decorated polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibers (AuNC*PCL-NF) for real time visual monitoring of Hg(2+) detection at ppt level in water is demonstrated. The resultant AuNC*PCL-NF exhibiting remarkable stability more than four months at ambient environment and facilitates increased accessibility to active sites resulting in improved sensing performance with rapid response time. The fluorescence changes of AuNC*PCL-NF and their corresponding time dependent spectra, upon introduction of Hg(2+), led to the visual identification of the sensor performance. It is observed that the effective removal of excess ligand (bovine serum albumin (BSA) greatly enhances the surface exposure of AuNC and therefore their selective sensing performance is achieved over competent metal ions such as Cu(2+), Ni(2+), Mn(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+), and Pb(2+) present in the water. An exceptional interaction is observed between AuNC and Hg(2+), wherein the absence of excess interrupting ligand makes AuNC more selective towards Hg(2+). The underlying mechanism is found to be due to the formation of Au-Hg amalgam, which was further investigated with XPS, TEM and elemental mapping studies. In short, our findings may lead to develop very efficient fluorescent-based nanofibrous mercury sensor, keeping in view of its stability, simplicity, reproducibility, and low cost.

  14. Real-time selective visual monitoring of Hg2+ detection at ppt level: An approach to lighting electrospun nanofibers using gold nanoclusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthamizhan, Anitha; Celebioglu, Asli; Uyar, Tamer

    2015-05-01

    In this work, fluorescent gold nanocluster (AuNC) decorated polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibers (AuNC*PCL-NF) for real time visual monitoring of Hg2+ detection at ppt level in water is demonstrated. The resultant AuNC*PCL-NF exhibiting remarkable stability more than four months at ambient environment and facilitates increased accessibility to active sites resulting in improved sensing performance with rapid response time. The fluorescence changes of AuNC*PCL-NF and their corresponding time dependent spectra, upon introduction of Hg2+, led to the visual identification of the sensor performance. It is observed that the effective removal of excess ligand (bovine serum albumin (BSA) greatly enhances the surface exposure of AuNC and therefore their selective sensing performance is achieved over competent metal ions such as Cu2+, Ni2+, Mn2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, and Pb2+ present in the water. An exceptional interaction is observed between AuNC and Hg2+, wherein the absence of excess interrupting ligand makes AuNC more selective towards Hg2+. The underlying mechanism is found to be due to the formation of Au-Hg amalgam, which was further investigated with XPS, TEM and elemental mapping studies. In short, our findings may lead to develop very efficient fluorescent-based nanofibrous mercury sensor, keeping in view of its stability, simplicity, reproducibility, and low cost.

  15. An analytical representation for the solution of neutron kinetic transport equation in slab-geometry multigroup discrete ordinates formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomaschewski, Fernanda K.; Segatto, Cynthia F., E-mail: fernandasls_89@hotmail.com, E-mail: cynthia.segatto@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Matematica Aplicada; Barros, Ricardo C., E-mail: rcbarros@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Modelagem Computacional

    2015-07-01

    Presented here is a decomposition method based on series representation of the group angular fluxes and delayed neutron precursors in smoothly continuous functions for energy multigroups, slab-geometry discrete ordinates kinetics equations supplemented with a prescribed number of delayed neutron precursors. Numerical results to a non-reflected sub-critical slab stabilized by steady-state sources are given to illustrate the accuracy and efficiency of the o offered method. (author)

  16. Characteristics of Community Newspaper Coverage of Tobacco Control and Its Relationship to the Passage of Tobacco Ordinances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckler, Petya; Rodgers, Shelly; Everett, Kevin

    2016-10-01

    To answer the call for more systematic surveillance, analysis and evaluation of tobacco news coverage, a 6-year content analysis of newspaper stories from Missouri was conducted to evaluate the presence of public health facts and characteristics of stories framed for or against tobacco control. The method was a content analysis of all Missouri newspapers (N = 381) from September 2006 to November 2011 for a total sample of 4711. Results were connected to the larger, societal context within which newspaper stories reside, i.e., towns that passed or did not pass a smoke-free ordinance during the project intervention. Results showed the majority of news stories were about tobacco control, which were mostly written at the local level, were episodic, and carried a positive slant toward tobacco control. However, there were more negative than positive headlines, and more negative editorials than non-editorials. Tobacco control stories used fewer public health facts than non-tobacco control stories. Towns with existing smoke-free ordinances had more tobacco control stories, and towns without smoke-free ordinances had fewer tobacco control stories and more non-tobacco control stories, suggesting a connection between news media coverage and the passage of smoke-free policies. We conclude that the tobacco industry may have had success in impacting news stories in no-ordinance cities by diverting attention from tobacco control to secondary topics, such as youth smoking, which meant stories had fewer public health facts and fewer positive health benefits in towns that may have needed these details most.

  17. Report of the Regional Co-ordination Meeting for the North Sea and Eastern Arctic (RCM NS&EA) 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, M.; van Beek, F; DALSKOV J.; Elliott, M; Elson, J.; Griuniene, V. (Vilda); M. Hansson; Janakakis, M. (Marta); Kjems-Nilsen, H. (Henrik); Knapp, A. (Amelie); Kunzlik, P. (Phil); Lorenzo-González, J. (José); Mahe, K (Kelig); Morgado, C.; Nimmegeers, S.

    2014-01-01

    Report of the Regional Co-ordination Meeting for the North Sea and Eastern Arctic (RCM NS&EA) 2014 Swedish University of Agriculture Sciences (SLU Aqua) Lysekil, Sweden 08-12 September 2014 The RCM NS&EA met in Lysekil (Sweden) between 8-12 September 2014. The main purpose of the RCM is coordinate the National Programmes (NP) of the Member States (MS) in the North Sea region for 2015.

  18. CONSIDERAȚII RELATIVE LA CONCEPTUL DE ORDINE PUBLICĂ ÎN DREPTUL INTERNAȚIONAL PRIVAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor VOLCINSCHI

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Articolul este consacrat analizei aspectelor definirii conceptului de ordine publică în dreptul internațional, corelației dintre conceptele de ordine publică de drept intern și de drept internațional privat și a funcțiilor sociale pe care le în­dep­linește fiecare din ele. Prin analiza reglementărilor legale, a practicii și a fondului doctrinar din domeniu sunt analizate condițiile invocării excepției de ordine publică în dreptul internațional privat, demonstrându-se în mod separat specificul invocării excepției de ordine publică în procedura de refuz al hotărârilor judecătorești străine și în procedura de refuz al sentințelor arbitrale străine.CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE PUBLIC ORDER IN THE INTERNATIONAL PRIVATE LAWDedicated to the analysis of the issues of defining the concept of public order in the international law, the correlation between the concepts of public order of national law and private international law and of the social functions performed by each of them. By analyzing the legal regulations, the practice and the doctrine in the field, are being analyzed the conditions of invocation of public order exception in private international law, and demonstrated separately the specifics of invocation of the public order exception in the procedure of refusal of foreign judgments and in the procedure of refusal of foreign arbitral awards.

  19. Public lighting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The function of public lighting and the relationship between public lighting and accidents are considered briefly as aspects of effective countermeasures. Research needs and recent developments in installation and operational described. Public lighting is an efficient accident countermeasure, but

  20. Ordinal logistic regression models: application in quality of life studies Modelos de regressão logística ordinal: aplicação em estudo sobre qualidade de vida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mery Natali Silva Abreu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality of life has been increasingly emphasized in public health research in recent years. Typically, the results of quality of life are measured by means of ordinal scales. In these situations, specific statistical methods are necessary because procedures such as either dichotomization or misinformation on the distribution of the outcome variable may complicate the inferential process. Ordinal logistic regression models are appropriate in many of these situations. This article presents a review of the proportional odds model, partial proportional odds model, continuation ratio model, and stereotype model. The fit, statistical inference, and comparisons between models are illustrated with data from a study on quality of life in 273 patients with schizophrenia. All tested models showed good fit, but the proportional odds or partial proportional odds models proved to be the best choice due to the nature of the data and ease of interpretation of the results. Ordinal logistic models perform differently depending on categorization of outcome, adequacy in relation to assumptions, goodness-of-fit, and parsimony.O tema qualidade de vida tem ganhado ênfase nos últimos anos. Tipicamente os resultados da qualidade de vida são mensurados por meio de escalas ordinais. Procedimentos como dicotomizar a variável resposta e desconsiderar a ordenação geram perda de informação e podem ocasionar inferências incorretas. Para análise de dados ordinais, métodos estatísticos específicos são necessários, como modelos de regressão logística ordinal. A proposta deste trabalho é apresentar uma revisão dos modelos de chances proporcionais, de razão contínua, estereótipo e de chances proporcionais parciais. O ajuste, inferência estatística e comparação dos modelos são ilustrados com dados de um estudo sobre qualidade de vida realizado com 273 pacientes com esquizofrenia. Todos os modelos testados mostraram bom ajuste, mas o de chances

  1. La enseñanza del número cardinal y ordinal en educación infantil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Collado Arroyo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available En el marco de la Teoría de las Situaciones Didácticas, hemos diseñado, implementado y evaluado, en el aula de segundo de Educación Infantil, dos situaciones de enseñanza: el juego del tren y el juego de las invitaciones y los sobres. En ambos casos, la estrategia óptima para resolver la situación es el recuento y la utilización del número natural en su significado ordinal o cardinal, contenidos que queremos trabajar de una manera funcional y significativa, características que están ausentes en las propuestas de las editoriales de los libros de texto que más se utilizan en las aulas, tras haber realizado un análisis de las mismas. The teaching of cardinal and ordinal numbers in Infant Education. Within the framework of Theory of Didactical Situations in Mathematics, we have designed, implemented and assessed two situations for a four year old classroom. These situations were ‘Train Game’ and ‘Invitations and Envelopes Game’. In both cases, counting and the use of natural numbers as ordinals or cardinals is the ideal strategy in order to solve the situation. These are the contents which we want the students to work in a functional and meaningful way due to these characteristics don’t exist in the proposals of textbooks publishers which prevail in most classrooms.

  2. Phase-domain power flows in the rectangular co-ordinates frame of reference including VSC-based FACTS controllers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeles-Camacho, C. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Ingenieria, Edif. Bernardo Quintana, Circuito Exterior Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Acha, E. [Electronics and Electrical Engineering, The University of Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2008-03-15

    This paper presents a method for systematic modelling of VSC-based FACTS controllers within three-phase power flows in rectangular co-ordinates. Among the FACTS controllers modelled are the STATCOM, SSSC, UPFC and HVDC-VSC. The approach taken is to represent the fundamental frequency operation of each power converter as a three-phase voltage source behind a leakage reactance, where one or two of them may be connected in either series or parallel depending on the FACTS controller being modelled. Active and reactive power flow equations are developed for each voltage source circuit together with constraint equations to account for co-ordinated operation of two converters, such as in modelling of UPFC and HVDC-VSC. The power flow equations representing the VSC-based FACTS controllers are combined with the nodal power equations of the power network for a combined iterative solution using a Newton-Raphson three-phase power flow algorithm in rectangular co-ordinates enabling robust and efficient solutions of three-phase power networks with any number and kind of VSC-based controllers. (author)

  3. The co-ordination of a RTD project at European level: difficulties and traps by the different steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doddoli, Roberto

    2002-08-01

    When a scientist wants to set up and co-ordinate a Research and Technical Development (RTD) project for the first time, he is confronted with a certain number of factors, which, generally, are completely unknown. To co-ordinate a research project, it is not sufficient to have, as starting point, a set of interesting and innovative scientific themes. In fact, after the first preparatory steps, he is confronted with a number of difficulties such as the sinking of the project before it is put forward for financing. The different visions from the scientific and industrial partners are sometimes completely opposite (4): so it is necessary to understand and to assess the requirements of every participant. The industrial partner approach is, for example, linked to this assessment, bearing in mind that his involvement is indispensable for the viability of the project. First of all, this work aims to warn scientists who wish to start up in such an adventure, and secondly serve as a 'vademecum for the co-ordinator' in order to achieve successful completion of work that requires big investments in energy and time.

  4. Co-ordinated synthesis of phytoalexin biosynthetic enzymes in biologically-stressed cells of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, C L; Bell, J N; Ryder, T B; Bailey, J A; Schuch, W; Bolwell, G P; Robbins, M P; Dixon, R A; Lamb, C J

    1985-02-01

    Changes in the rates of synthesis of three enzymes of phenyl-propanoid biosynthesis in Phaseolus vulgaris L. (dwarf French bean) have been investigated by immunoprecipitation of [S]methionine-labeled enzyme subunits with mono-specific antisera. Elicitor causes marked, rapid but transient co-ordinated increases in the rate of synthesis of phenyl-alanine ammonia-lyase, chalcone synthase and chalcone isomerase concomitant with the phase of rapid increase in enzyme activity at the onset of accumulation of phenyl-propanoid-derived phytoalexin antibiotics in suspension cultures of P. vulgaris. Co-ordinate induction of enzyme synthesis is also observed in hypocotyl tissue during race:cultivar-specific interactions with Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, causal agent of anthracnose. In an incompatible interaction (host resistant) there are early increases apparently localized to the initial site of infection prior to the onset of phytoalexin accumulation and expression of hypersensitive resistance. In contrast, in a compatible interaction (host susceptible) there is no induction of synthesis in the early stages of infection, but a delayed widespread response at the onset of lesion formation associated with attempted lesion limitation. It is concluded that expression of the phytoalexin defense response in biologically stressed cells of P. vulgaris characteristically involves co-ordinate induction of synthesis of phytoalexin biosynthetic enzymes.

  5. Design of classroom light monitoring system based on 6LoWPAN%基于6 LoWPAN 的教室灯光监控系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李枝琴; 宋勐翔; 王慧锋

    2016-01-01

    According to those classrooms lack of energy management ,a type of classroom lighting control system was presented .The system relied on CC2530 embedded hardware platform and utilized Contiki operating system to build 6LoWPAN (IPv6 low power wireless personal area network ) proto‐col stack ,leading to a wireless sensor network with self‐networking function .The node integrated il‐lumination sensors and infrared body sensors ,and added the appropriate resources for external access . The collected data were sent to the monitoring center through the gateway node ,and then the wireless sensor network could access to the Internet .On this basis ,in order to achieve B/S (browser/server) mode monitoring system ,the Node .js technology was adopted to shield the incompatibilities of appli‐cation layer protocol caused by the differences of the Internet environment .The results show that this system succeeds in real‐time accessing to resources through the Internet and monitoring classroom lighting conditions .%针对现有教室能源管理的不足,提出一种教室灯光监控系统.系统依托CC2530嵌入式硬件平台,采用Contiki操作系统搭建6LoWPAN协议栈,建立可自组网的无线传感器网络.节点集成光照度和人体红外传感器,并添加相应的资源供外部访问,采集的数据通过网关节点发送至监控中心,实现无线传感网络接入互联网.在此基础上,采用Node .js技术屏蔽由于网络环境不同导致的应用层协议不兼容问题,实现B/S模式的监控系统.结果表明:该系统可以在互联网环境下对系统资源实时访问,实现对教室照明情况的实时监控.

  6. Levels of disability in the older population of England: Comparing binary and ordinal classifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongiglione, Benedetta; Ploubidis, George B; De Stavola, Bianca L

    2017-10-01

    Recent studies suggest the importance of distinguishing severity levels of disability. Nevertheless, there is not yet a consensus with regards to an optimal classification. Our study seeks to advance the existing binary definitions towards categorical/ordinal manifestations of disability. We define disability according to the WHO's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) using data collected at the baseline wave of the English Longitudinal Study of Aging, a longitudinal study of the non-institutionalized population, living in England. First, we identify cut-off points in the continuous disability score derived from ICF to distinguish disabled from no-disabled participants. Then, we fit latent class models to the same data to find the optimal number of disability classes according to: (i) model fit indicators; (ii) estimated probabilities of each disability item; (iii) association of the predicted disability classes with observed health and mortality. According to the binary classification criteria, about 32% of both men and women are classified disabled. No optimal number of classes emerged from the latent class models according to model fit indicators. However, the other two criteria suggest that the best-fitting model of disability severity has four classes. Our findings contribute to the debate on the usefulness and relevance of adopting a finer categorization of disability, by showing that binary indicators of disability averaged the burden of disability and masked the very strong effect experienced by individuals having severe disability, and were not informative for low levels of disability. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. DiagTest3Grp: An R Package for Analyzing Diagnostic Tests with Three Ordinal Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingqin Luo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Medical researchers endeavor to identify potentially useful biomarkers to develop marker-based screening assays for disease diagnosis and prevention. Useful summary measures which properly evaluate the discriminative ability of diagnostic markers are critical for this purpose. Literature and existing software, for example, R packages nicely cover summary measures for diagnostic markers used for the binary case (e.g., healthy vs. diseased. An intermediate population at an early disease stage usually exists between the healthy and the fully diseased population in many disease processes. Supporting utilities for three-group diagnostic tests are highly desired and important for identifying patients at the early disease stage for timely treatments. However, application packages which provide summary measures for three ordinal groups are currently lacking. This paper focuses on two summary measures of diagnostic accuracy—volume under the receiver operating characteristic surface and the extended Youden index, with three diagnostic groups. We provide the R package DiagTest3Grp to estimate, under both parametric and nonparametric assumptions, the two summary measures and the associated variances, as well as the optimal cut-points for disease diagnosis. An omnibus test for multiple markers and a Wald test for two markers, on independent or paired samples, are incorporated to compare diagnostic accuracy across biomarkers. Sample size calculation under the normality assumption can be performed in the R package to design future diagnostic studies. A real world application evaluating the diagnostic accuracy of neuropsychological markers for Alzheimer’s disease is used to guide readers through step-by-step implementation of DiagTest3Grp to demonstrate its utility.

  8. I concetti di "materia", "forma" e "ordine" nel pensiero teorico musicale medievale e contemporaneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Panti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La dimensione teorica della musica occidentale, nella sua evoluzione storica, ha inevitabilmente fatto uso di concetti essenziali alla definizione di come il suono è musicalmente organizzato o organizzabile. Fra questi, risultano imprescindibili le nozioni di materia, forma e ordine, che implicano rispettivamente, nei pur diversi ambiti linguistici e contesti storico-filosofici di riferimento, ciò di cui è fatta la musica, ciò a cui la materia sonora tende, e come tale tensione è realizzata. Scopo di questo contributo è una valutazione d’insieme sulla valenza filosofica e l’uso di tali concetti nel pensiero musicale occidentale altomedievale e in quello del Novecento, che nonostante la distanza cronologica presentano convergenze significative. Nel Medioevo, un lungo processo di elaborazione teorico-pratica permise la matematizzazione dello spazio (e, più tardi, anche del tempo musicale, attraverso l’adattamento di moduli melodici, trasmessi oralmente, alle strutture scalari desunte dalla teoria greco-boeziana. La forma e l’ordo musicali furono quindi riferiti ai criteri fisico-matematici atti a distinguere nella materia sonora, in sé disorganica e indefinita, ciò che è musicale da ciò che non lo è. Tale concezione sparisce con l’affermarsi del sistema tonale, ove il suono fisico è concepito come “pre-formato” e “pre-ordinato” nella gamma scalare e nei vincoli attrattivi “naturali” degli armonici. In conseguenza, i concetti di forma e ordine abbandonano il contesto acustico, andando a definire i criteri teorici della composizione artistica, in linea con l’idea filosofica del loro esprimere la coerenza logico-sintattica dell’“insieme organico” (la Formenlehre teorizzata da Widmann. Nell’ambito del pensiero musicale del Novecento, la crisi del sistema tonale e la messa a punto di nuove modalità e tecniche di produzione del suono hanno riorientato la valenza significante e l’uso di questi tre concetti

  9. WOW: light print, light propel, light point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Aabo, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    anywhere in a sample at any orientation using real-time 3D optical micromanipulation with six degrees of freedom. One of the key aspects of our demonstrated WOWs is the change in direction of in-coupled light and the marked increase in numerical aperture of the out-coupled light. Hence, each light...... propelled WOW can tap from a relatively broad incident beam and generate a much more tightly confined light at its tip. The presentation contains both numerical simulations related to the propagation of light through a WOW and preliminary experimental demonstrations on our BioPhotonics Workstation...

  10. Interpretation of poorly defined concepts of law in the statutory ordinance on the biological effects of electromagnetic fields; Auslegung unbestimmter Rechtsbegriffe der Verordnung ueber elektromagnetische Felder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krass, G. [Vereinigung Deutscher Elektrizitaetswerke - VDEW - e.V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Abt. Recht

    1998-06-02

    The statutory ordinance on the biological effects of electromagnetic fields (26. BImSchV, Federal Emission Control Ordinance) is effective since 1 January 1997. With this ordinance, the legislator made a first approach to dealing with a matter which is an issue of debates among scientists and is known to the general public under the term `electrosmog`. The experience obtained in the last year since implementation of the ordinance in the sector of the electric power industry has shown that the 26. BImSchV does in fact provide a useful legal basis for the purpose of protection from adverse effects of radiation. The contribution here briefly reviews the regulatory content of the ordinance, and presents interpretations and improved definitions of terms used in the ordinance. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Am 1. Januar 1997 ist die Verordnung ueber elektromagnetische Felder (26. BImSchV) in Kraft getreten. Der Verordnungsgeber hat sich mit den Regelungen einer Problematik zugewandt, die wissenschaftlich kontrovers diskutiert wird und die Oeffentlichkeit unter dem diffusen Begriff `Elektrosmog` beschaeftigt. Die ueber einjaehrige Erfahrung mit der Verordnung in der Elektrizitaetswirtschaft hat gezeigt, dass die 26. BImSchV trotz einiger offener Fragen und Auslegungsprobleme einen Beitrag zur Rechtssicherheit leistet. Der nachfolgende Beitrag gibt einen Ueberblick ueber den Regelungsinhalt und widmet sich der Auslegung unbestimmter Rechtsbegriffe der Verordnung. (orig.)

  11. Structure function monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGraw, John T [Placitas, NM; Zimmer, Peter C [Albuquerque, NM; Ackermann, Mark R [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-01-24

    Methods and apparatus for a structure function monitor provide for generation of parameters characterizing a refractive medium. In an embodiment, a structure function monitor acquires images of a pupil plane and an image plane and, from these images, retrieves the phase over an aperture, unwraps the retrieved phase, and analyzes the unwrapped retrieved phase. In an embodiment, analysis yields atmospheric parameters measured at spatial scales from zero to the diameter of a telescope used to collect light from a source.

  12. Sistemas fotovoltaicos y la ordenación territorial;The photovoltaic systems and territorial ordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Rodríguez Gámez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available La generación fotovoltaica con sistemas conectados a red eléctrica en el esquema de generación distribuida, es una alternativa que contribuye con beneficios a la reducción del pico de demanda vespertina, a la disminución de pérdidas por distribución; siendo una opción en el desarrollo de las inversiones que incrementan la capacidad de la red de distribución en un escenario a gran escala, pudiendo sustituir inversiones en capacidad de generación y transmisión. Esta idea supone la penetración de la tecnología fotovoltaica aumentando su presencia en la generación eléctrica.Los resultados presentados forman parte de la elaboración de los estudios de prefactibilidad para determinar la incidencia de la radiación solar, considerando la ordenación del territorio a partir de las condiciones de la ubicación geográfica, haciendo la selección de los sitios adecuados por las características de potencial solar, eficiencia de la infraestructura eléctrica y disponibilidad del espacio para la introducción de los sistemas fotovoltaicos.The photovoltaic generation with connected systems to electric grid in the outline of distributed generation, is an alternative that contributes with benefits to the reduction of the pick of evening demand, to the decrease of losses for distribution; being an option in the development of the investments that it increase the capacity of the distribution grid in a scenario to great scale, being able to substitute investments in generation capacity and transmission. This idea supposes the penetration of the photovoltaic technology increasing in the electric generation.The presented results are part of the elaboration of the studies of feasibility to determine the incidence of the solar radiation, considering the ordination of the territory starting from the conditions of the geographical location, making the selection of the places adapted by the characteristics of solar potential, the electric efficiency

  13. Co-ordinated Interdisciplinary Efforts on Research in Animal Production and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houe Hans

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives are to review results and experiences from interdisciplinary research projects in Research Centre for the Management of Animal Production and Health (CEPROS concerning scientific content, organisation, and collaboration. The Centre has been founded as a result of an agreement between four institutions: the Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences (DIAS, the Danish Veterinary Laboratory (DVL, the Danish Veterinary Institute for Virus Research (DVIV and The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University (KVL. CEPROS is a "research centre without walls" and is physically located as an integrated part of the four institutions named above. The Centre has close collaboration with the industry. The superior goals of the Centre are to co-ordinate fundamental and applied research and simultaneously integrate the veterinary and the production oriented livestock research within animal health and welfare, taking into consideration the production economics and reduced use of medication. The assignment of the Centre is to initiate and carry out research, aiming to investigate the influence of breeding and production systems on animal health and welfare as well as on production and product quality. The Centre has since 1997 established 16 interdisciplinary research projects dealing with cattle, pigs, poultry, or mink. The scientific content can be divided into three research clusters: A. Management of animal production and health in production systems, B: Pathogenesis of production diseases, and C. Animal health economics. In Cluster A, the physical environments of production systems have been investigated, broader definitions of the concept health have been established and used in identification of risk factors. Cluster B has investigated physiological, immunological and genetic mechanisms behind development of production diseases and how to apply this knowledge in disease prevention. The cluster in animal health economics has developed decision

  14. Sistemas fotovoltaicos y la ordenación territorial The photovoltaic systems and territorial ordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Rodríguez Gámez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available La generación fotovoltaica con sistemas conectados a red eléctrica en el esquema de generación distribuida, es una alternativa que contribuye con beneficios a la reducción del pico de demanda vespertina, a la disminución de pérdidas por distribución; siendo una opción en el desarrollo de las inversiones que incrementan la capacidad de la red de distribución en un escenario a gran escala, pudiendo sustituir inversiones en capacidad de generación y transmisión. Esta idea supone la penetración de la tecnología fotovoltaica aumentando su presencia en la generación eléctrica.Los resultados presentados forman parte de la elaboración de los estudios de prefactibilidad para determinar la incidencia de la radiación solar, considerando la ordenación del territorio a partir de las condiciones de la ubicación geográfica, haciendo la selección de los sitios adecuados por las características de potencial solar, eficiencia de la infraestructura eléctrica y disponibilidad del espacio para la introducción de los sistemas fotovoltaicos.Palabras clave: The photovoltaic generation with connected systems to electric grid in the outline of distributed generation, is an alternative that contributes with benefits to the reduction of the pick of evening demand, to the decrease of losses for distribution; being an option in the development of the investments that it increase the capacity of the distribution grid in a scenario to great scale, being able to substitute investments in generation capacity and transmission. This idea supposes the penetration of the photovoltaic technology increasing in the electric generation.The presented results are part of the elaboration of the studies of feasibility to determine the incidence of the solar radiation, considering the ordination of the territory starting from the conditions of the geographical location, making the selection of the places adapted by the characteristics of solar potential, the electric

  15. Quantification of errors in ordinal outcome scales using shannon entropy: effect on sample size calculations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitchaiah Mandava

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Clinical trial outcomes often involve an ordinal scale of subjective functional assessments but the optimal way to quantify results is not clear. In stroke, the most commonly used scale, the modified Rankin Score (mRS, a range of scores ("Shift" is proposed as superior to dichotomization because of greater information transfer. The influence of known uncertainties in mRS assessment has not been quantified. We hypothesized that errors caused by uncertainties could be quantified by applying information theory. Using Shannon's model, we quantified errors of the "Shift" compared to dichotomized outcomes using published distributions of mRS uncertainties and applied this model to clinical trials. METHODS: We identified 35 randomized stroke trials that met inclusion criteria. Each trial's mRS distribution was multiplied with the noise distribution from published mRS inter-rater variability to generate an error percentage for "shift" and dichotomized cut-points. For the SAINT I neuroprotectant trial, considered positive by "shift" mRS while the larger follow-up SAINT II trial was negative, we recalculated sample size required if classification uncertainty was taken into account. RESULTS: Considering the full mRS range, error rate was 26.1%±5.31 (Mean±SD. Error rates were lower for all dichotomizations tested using cut-points (e.g. mRS 1; 6.8%±2.89; overall p<0.001. Taking errors into account, SAINT I would have required 24% more subjects than were randomized. CONCLUSION: We show when uncertainty in assessments is considered, the lowest error rates are with dichotomization. While using the full range of mRS is conceptually appealing, a gain of information is counter-balanced by a decrease in reliability. The resultant errors need to be considered since sample size may otherwise be underestimated. In principle, we have outlined an approach to error estimation for any condition in which there are uncertainties in outcome assessment. We

  16. "Tangible Lights"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Tor; Merritt, Timothy; Andersen, Oskar

    2015-01-01

    While there has been much focus on tangible lighting interfaces embedded in physical objects and smartphones as remote control, there has not been sufficient attention on how the expressivity of bodily movement can be used when designing interactions with light. Therefore, we investigate interact...... knowledge from the tangible world. Tangible Lights has been subject to initial evaluations.......While there has been much focus on tangible lighting interfaces embedded in physical objects and smartphones as remote control, there has not been sufficient attention on how the expressivity of bodily movement can be used when designing interactions with light. Therefore, we investigate...... interaction with lighting technology beyond the smartphone and physical controllers. We examine the usefulness of the in-air gestural interaction style for lighting control. We bring forward "Tangible Lights", which serves as a novel interface for in-air interaction with lighting, drawing on existing...

  17. Radiation protection ordinance. Text edition with an explanatory introduction. 9. upd. and corr. ed.; Strahlenschutzverordnung. Textausgabe mit einer erlaeuternden Einfuehrung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veith, Hans-Michael

    2013-07-01

    The Radiation Protection Ordinance is for all those who deal with radioactive substances and thus for a broad range of users from industry, commerce, hospital medicine and outpatient medicine and from the most diverse fields of research of large, partly existential importance. The proven guideline contains an extensive introduction in which the amendments and new regulations will be explained, the current text of the Radiation Protection Ordinance according to the state from 1 November 2011. It also includes an excerpt from the Atomic Energy Act and the governing Radioactivity Meters rules of the German Calibration Regulation as amended and part of the official justifications. The new edition has become necessary due to the extensive changes introduced by regulation amending Radiation Protection Ordinance on 4 October 2011 (Federal Law Gazette, I, p. 2000), which entered into force on November 1, 2011. [German] Die Strahlenschutzverordnung ist fuer alle, die mit radioaktiven Stoffen umgehen und damit fuer einen breit gefaecherten Anwenderkreis aus Industrie, Gewerbe, Krankenhausmedizin und ambulanter Medizin sowie aus den verschiedensten Gebieten der Forschung von grosser, teilweise von existentieller Bedeutung. Die bewaehrte Arbeitshilfe enthaelt neben einer umfangreichen Einfuehrung, in der auch die Aenderungen und Neuregelungen erlaeutert werden, den aktuellen Text der Strahlenschutzverordnung nach dem Stand vom 1. November 2011. Ausserdem gehoeren zum Inhalt ein Auszug aus dem Atomgesetz sowie die fuer Radioaktivitaets-Messgeraete massgeblichen Vorschriften der Eichordnung jeweils in der aktuellen Fassung und Teile der amtlichen Begruendungen. Die Neuauflage wurde auf Grund der umfangreichen Aenderungen durch die Verordnung zur Aenderung strahlenschutzrechtlicher Vorschriften vom 4. Oktober 2011 (BGBI, I S. 2000) erforderlich, die am 1. November 2011 in Kraft getreten ist.

  18. Where is the Gödel-point hiding Gentzen's consistency proof of 1936 and his representation of constructive ordinals

    CERN Document Server

    Horská, Anna

    2013-01-01

    This book explains the first published consistency proof of PA. It contains the original Gentzen's proof, but it uses modern terminology and examples to illustrate the essential notions. The author comments on Gentzen's steps which are supplemented with exact calculations and parts of formal derivations. A notable aspect of the proof is the representation of ordinal numbers that was developed by Gentzen. This representation is analysed and connection to set-theoretical representation is found, namely an algorithm for translating Gentzen's notation into Cantor normal form. The topic should inte

  19. An analytical discrete ordinates solution for a nodal model of a two-dimensional neutron transport problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filho, J. F. P. [Institute de Matematica, Estatistica e Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Av. Italia, s/n, 96203-900 Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Barichello, L. B. [Institute de Matematica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, 91509-900 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In this work, an analytical discrete ordinates method is used to solve a nodal formulation of a neutron transport problem in x, y-geometry. The proposed approach leads to an important reduction in the order of the associated eigenvalue systems, when combined with the classical level symmetric quadrature scheme. Auxiliary equations are proposed, as usually required for nodal methods, to express the unknown fluxes at the boundary introduced as additional unknowns in the integrated equations. Numerical results, for the problem defined by a two-dimensional region with a spatially constant and isotropically emitting source, are presented and compared with those available in the literature. (authors)

  20. Reconsidering the use of rankings in the valuation of health states: a model for estimating cardinal values from ordinal data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomon Joshua A

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In survey studies on health-state valuations, ordinal ranking exercises often are used as precursors to other elicitation methods such as the time trade-off (TTO or standard gamble, but the ranking data have not been used in deriving cardinal valuations. This study reconsiders the role of ordinal ranks in valuing health and introduces a new approach to estimate interval-scaled valuations based on aggregate ranking data. Methods Analyses were undertaken on data from a previously published general population survey study in the United Kingdom that included rankings and TTO values for hypothetical states described using the EQ-5D classification system. The EQ-5D includes five domains (mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression with three possible levels on each. Rank data were analysed using a random utility model, operationalized through conditional logit regression. In the statistical model, probabilities of observed rankings were related to the latent utilities of different health states, modeled as a linear function of EQ-5D domain scores, as in previously reported EQ-5D valuation functions. Predicted valuations based on the conditional logit model were compared to observed TTO values for the 42 states in the study and to predictions based on a model estimated directly from the TTO values. Models were evaluated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC between predictions and mean observations, and the root mean squared error of predictions at the individual level. Results Agreement between predicted valuations from the rank model and observed TTO values was very high, with an ICC of 0.97, only marginally lower than for predictions based on the model estimated directly from TTO values (ICC = 0.99. Individual-level errors were also comparable in the two models, with root mean squared errors of 0.503 and 0.496 for the rank-based and TTO-based predictions, respectively. Conclusions

  1. Reconsidering the use of rankings in the valuation of health states: a model for estimating cardinal values from ordinal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Joshua A

    2003-12-19

    BACKGROUND: In survey studies on health-state valuations, ordinal ranking exercises often are used as precursors to other elicitation methods such as the time trade-off (TTO) or standard gamble, but the ranking data have not been used in deriving cardinal valuations. This study reconsiders the role of ordinal ranks in valuing health and introduces a new approach to estimate interval-scaled valuations based on aggregate ranking data. METHODS: Analyses were undertaken on data from a previously published general population survey study in the United Kingdom that included rankings and TTO values for hypothetical states described using the EQ-5D classification system. The EQ-5D includes five domains (mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression) with three possible levels on each. Rank data were analysed using a random utility model, operationalized through conditional logit regression. In the statistical model, probabilities of observed rankings were related to the latent utilities of different health states, modeled as a linear function of EQ-5D domain scores, as in previously reported EQ-5D valuation functions. Predicted valuations based on the conditional logit model were compared to observed TTO values for the 42 states in the study and to predictions based on a model estimated directly from the TTO values. Models were evaluated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) between predictions and mean observations, and the root mean squared error of predictions at the individual level. RESULTS: Agreement between predicted valuations from the rank model and observed TTO values was very high, with an ICC of 0.97, only marginally lower than for predictions based on the model estimated directly from TTO values (ICC = 0.99). Individual-level errors were also comparable in the two models, with root mean squared errors of 0.503 and 0.496 for the rank-based and TTO-based predictions, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Modeling health

  2. Verification of Three Dimensional Triangular Prismatic Discrete Ordinates Transport Code ENSEMBLE-TRIZ by Comparison with Monte Carlo Code GMVP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Yuto; Moriwaki, Hiroyuki; Ohki, Shigeo; Ikeda, Kazumi

    2014-06-01

    This paper deals with verification of three dimensional triangular prismatic discrete ordinates transport calculation code ENSEMBLE-TRIZ by comparison with multi-group Monte Carlo calculation code GMVP in a large fast breeder reactor. The reactor is a 750 MWe electric power sodium cooled reactor. Nuclear characteristics are calculated at beginning of cycle of an initial core and at beginning and end of cycle of equilibrium core. According to the calculations, the differences between the two methodologies are smaller than 0.0002 Δk in the multi-plication factor, relatively about 1% in the control rod reactivity, and 1% in the sodium void reactivity.

  3. Night and days in Cassiciacum: The anti-Manichaean theodicy of Augustine’s De ordine

    OpenAIRE

    Therese Fuhrer

    2013-01-01

    In his early dialogue ‘On order’ (De ordine) Augustine dramatises a discussion of theodicy in which the Manichaean solution is clearly rejected, even though the debate ends in aporia. It is argued in this paper that the dialogue’s dramatic setting at the villa in Cassiciacum is strongly reminiscent of Manichaean imagery and the stock motifs of the Manichaean mythological system. It is proposed in the dialogue itself, that the scenic elements (Augustine’s ill health, night and darkness, the ...

  4. Light Robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin

    Light Robotics - Structure-Mediated Nanobiophotonics covers the latest means of sculpting of both light and matter for achieving bioprobing and manipulation at the smallest scales. The synergy between photonics, nanotechnology and biotechnology spans the rapidly growing field of nanobiophotonics...

  5. Twisted light

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forbes, A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Research at the Mathematical Optics Group uses "twisted" light to study new quatum-based information security systems. In order to understand the structure of "twisted" light, it is useful to start with an ordinary light beam with zero twist, namely...

  6. Public lighting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    Visual perception is very important for road users and in the dark it can be facilitated by public lighting. Public lighting has a mostly positive road safety effect. Installing public lighting on roads that were previously unlit generally results in fewer and less serious crashes. This effect seems

  7. Estimation of cardiovascular risk on routine chest CT: Ordinal coronary artery calcium scoring as an accurate predictor of Agatston score ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azour, Lea; Kadoch, Michael A; Ward, Thomas J; Eber, Corey D; Jacobi, Adam H

    Coronary artery calcium (CAC) is often identified on routine chest computed tomography (CT). The purpose of our study was to evaluate whether ordinal scoring of CAC on non-gated, routine chest CT is an accurate predictor of Agatston score ranges in a community-based population, and in particular to determine the accuracy of an ordinal score of zero on routine chest CT. Two thoracic radiologists reviewed consecutive same-day ECG-gated and routine non-gated chest CT scans of 222 individuals. CAC was quantified using the Agatston scoring on the ECG-gated scans, and using an ordinal method on routine scans, with a score from 0 to 12. The pattern and distribution of CAC was assessed. The correlation between routine exam ordinal scores and Agatston scores in ECG-gated exams, as well as the accuracy of assigning a zero calcium score on routine chest CT was determined. CAC was most prevalent in the left anterior descending coronary artery in both single and multi-vessel coronary artery disease. There was a strong correlation between the non-gated ordinal and ECG-gated Agatston scores (r = 0.811, p < 0.01). Excellent inter-reader agreement (k = 0.95) was shown for the presence (total ordinal score ≥1) or absence (total ordinal score = 0) of CAC on routine chest CT. The negative predictive value for a total ordinal score of zero on routine CT was 91.6% (95% CI, 85.1-95.9). Total ordinal scores of 0, 1-3, 4-5, and ≥6 corresponded to average Agatston scores of 0.52 (0.3-0.8), 98.7 (78.2-117.1), 350.6 (264.9-436.3) and 1925.4 (1526.9-2323.9). Visual assessment of CAC on non-gated routine chest CT accurately predicts Agatston score ranges, including the zero score, in ECG-gated CT. Inclusion of this information in radiology reports may be useful to convey important information on cardiovascular risk, particularly premature atherosclerosis in younger patients. Copyright © 2016 Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  8. A Novel Method for Detection of Epilepsy in Short and Noisy EEG Signals Using Ordinal Pattern Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Veisi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In this paper, a novel complexity measure is proposed to detect dynamical changes in nonlinear systems using ordinal pattern analysis of time series data taken from the system. Epilepsy is considered as a dynamical change in nonlinear and complex brain system. The ability of the proposed measure for characterizing the normal and epileptic EEG signals when the signal is short or is contaminated with noise is investigated and compared with some traditional chaos-based measures. Materials and Methods: In the proposed method, the phase space of the time series is reconstructed and then partitioned using ordinal patterns. The partitions can be labeled using a set of symbols. Therefore, the state trajectory is converted to a symbol sequence. A finite state machine is then constructed to model the sequence. A new complexity measure is proposed to detect dynamical changes using the state transition matrix of the state machine. The proposed complexity measure was applied to detect epilepsy in short and noisy EEG signals and the results were compared with some chaotic measures. Results: The results indicate that this complexity measure can distinguish normal and epileptic EEG signals with an accuracy of more than 97% for clean EEG and more than 75% for highly noised EEG signals. Discussion and Conclusion: The complexity measure can be computed in a very fast and easy way and, unlike traditional chaotic measures, is robust with respect to noise corrupting the data. This measure is also capable of dynamical change detection in short time series data.

  9. Characterization and source identification of pollutants in runoff from a mixed land use watershed using ordination analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Kim, Jin Hwi; Mendoza, Joseph A; Lee, Chang Hee; Kang, Joo-Hyon

    2016-05-01

    While identification of critical pollutant sources is the key initial step for cost-effective runoff management, it is challenging due to the highly uncertain nature of runoff pollution, especially during a storm event. To identify critical sources and their quantitative contributions to runoff pollution (especially focusing on phosphorous), two ordination methods were used in this study: principal component analysis (PCA) and positive matrix factorization (PMF). For the ordination analyses, we used runoff quality data for 14 storm events, including data for phosphorus, 11 heavy metal species, and eight ionic species measured at the outlets of subcatchments with different land use compositions in a mixed land use watershed. Five factors as sources of runoff pollutants were identified by PCA: agrochemicals, groundwater, native soils, domestic sewage, and urban sources (building materials and automotive activities). PMF identified similar factors to those identified by PCA, with more detailed source mechanisms for groundwater (i.e., nitrate leaching and cation exchange) and urban sources (vehicle components/motor oils/building materials and vehicle exhausts), confirming the sources identified by PCA. PMF was further used to quantify contributions of the identified sources to the water quality. Based on the results, agrochemicals and automotive activities were the two dominant and ubiquitous phosphorus sources (39-61 and 16-47 %, respectively) in the study area, regardless of land use types.

  10. Behavior of peak values and spectral ordinates of near-source strong ground motion over the smart 1 array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niazi, M.

    1990-06-01

    The array recordings are used to investigate several important properties of the seismic ground motions themselves. The results reported here address the question of the variability of the peak vertical and horizontal accelerations, velocities and displacements. Statistical treatment of the variability is feasible when ground motions are recorded, as in SMART 1, at a group of stations within a limited distance. The three rings of the SMART 1 array have radii of 200 m, 1 km and 2 km. Since it became operational in September 1980, it has recorded accelerations up to 0.33g and 0.34g on the horizontal and vertical components, respectively. At present there are over 3,000 accelerograms from 53 local earthquakes available. From the set of observations, 12 earthquakes have been selected providing more than 700 accelerograms for analysis and statistical treatment. Nonlinear regression procedure are used to fit the peak values to an attenuation form which has as parameters, earthquake magnitude and source-to-site distance. Spectral information on ground motion is included; correlations are made between spectral ordinate values at 23 discrete frequencies in the range of engineering interest. Among the notable results is the finding that the ratio of the vertical to horizontal response spectral ordinates is less than the often used value of 2/3 for periods longer than about 0.2 second, and also for all frequencies at distances greater than 30 km from the source.

  11. Adaptive Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    to be static, and no longer acts as a kind of spatial constancy maintaining stability and order? Moreover, what new potentials open in lighting design? This book is one of four books that is published in connection with the research project entitled LED Lighting; Interdisciplinary LED Lighting Research...... offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...... the investigations of lighting scenarios carried out in two test installations: White Cube and White Box. The test installations are discussed as large-scale experiential instruments. In these test installations we examine what could potentially occur when light using LED technology is integrated and distributed...

  12. Adaptive Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive Lighting Adaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities...... offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...... differently into an architectural body. We also examine what might occur when light is dynamic and able to change colour, intensity and direction, and when it is adaptive and can be brought into interaction with its surroundings. In short, what happens to an architectural space when artificial lighting ceases...

  13. Insulation of pipelines and fittings. The requirements of the Energy Saving Ordinance; Daemmung von Rohrleitungen und Armaturen. Die Anforderungen der Energieeinsparverordnung (EnEV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrae, Wolfgang [Kaimann GmbH (Germany)

    2009-10-30

    This article describes the requirements of the Energy Saving Ordinance (ENEV) regarding the insulation of pipelines and fittings. Unlike the Heating Systems Ordinance the ENEV now specifies time horizons by when uninsulated pipelines for heat distribution and warm water in cold rooms must be fitted with insulation in existing buildings. At the same time it defines minimum insulation thicknesses for various types of warm water lines. In practice this can lead to problems with increased space requirements which planners must take into account in their work.

  14. Development and application of the discrete ordinate method in orthogonal curvilinear coordinates; Developpement et application de la methode des ordonnees discretes en coordonnees curvilignes orthogonales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaillon, R.; Lallemand, M.; Lemonnier, D. [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Mecanique et d`Aerotechnique (ENSMA), 86 - Poitiers (France)

    1996-12-31

    The method of discrete ordinates, which is more and more widely used in radiant heat transfer studies, is mainly developed in Cartesian, (r,z) and (r,{Theta}) cylindrical, and spherical coordinates. In this study, the approach of this method is performed in orthogonal curvilinear coordinates: determination of the radiant heat transfer equation, treatment of the angular redistribution terms, numerical procedure. Some examples of application are described in 2-D geometry defined in curvilinear coordinates along a curve and at the thermal equilibrium. A comparison is made with the discrete ordinates method in association with the finite-volumes method in non structured mesh. (J.S.) 27 refs.

  15. An innovative statistical approach for analysing non-continuous variables in environmental monitoring: assessing temporal trends of TBT pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, José António; Galante-Oliveira, Susana; Barroso, Carlos

    2011-03-01

    The current work presents an innovative statistical approach to model ordinal variables in environmental monitoring studies. An ordinal variable has values that can only be compared as "less", "equal" or "greater" and it is not possible to have information about the size of the difference between two particular values. The example of ordinal variable under this study is the vas deferens sequence (VDS) used in imposex (superimposition of male sexual characters onto prosobranch females) field assessment programmes for monitoring tributyltin (TBT) pollution. The statistical methodology presented here is the ordered logit regression model. It assumes that the VDS is an ordinal variable whose values match up a process of imposex development that can be considered continuous in both biological and statistical senses and can be described by a latent non-observable continuous variable. This model was applied to the case study of Nucella lapillus imposex monitoring surveys conducted in the Portuguese coast between 2003 and 2008 to evaluate the temporal evolution of TBT pollution in this country. In order to produce more reliable conclusions, the proposed model includes covariates that may influence the imposex response besides TBT (e.g. the shell size). The model also provides an analysis of the environmental risk associated to TBT pollution by estimating the probability of the occurrence of females with VDS ≥ 2 in each year, according to OSPAR criteria. We consider that the proposed application of this statistical methodology has a great potential in environmental monitoring whenever there is the need to model variables that can only be assessed through an ordinal scale of values.

  16. Optical wear monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidane, Getnet S; Desilva, Upul P.; He, Chengli; Ulerich, Nancy H.

    2016-07-26

    A gas turbine includes first and second parts having outer surfaces located adjacent to each other to create an interface where wear occurs. A wear probe is provided for monitoring wear of the outer surface of the first part, and includes an optical guide having first and second ends, wherein the first end is configured to be located flush with the outer surface of the first part. A fiber bundle includes first and second ends, the first end being located proximate to the second end of the optical guide. The fiber bundle includes a transmit fiber bundle comprising a first plurality of optical fibers coupled to a light source, and a receive fiber bundle coupled to a light detector and configured to detect reflected light. A processor is configured to determine a length of the optical guide based on the detected reflected light.

  17. Baking Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin

    2005-01-01

    decisions. Display quality, comfortable navigation and realistic illumination are crucial ingredients here. Light is one of the principal elements in architectural design, so design reviews must enable the architect to judge the quality of his design in this respect. Realistic light simulations, e.g. via...... radiosity algorithms, are no longer the domain of high-end graphic workstations. Today’s off-the-shelf hardware and 3D-software provide the architect with high-quality tools to simulate physically correct light distributions. But the quality and impression of light is hard to judge by looking at still...... practical experiences with global-light-simulations. We share results which we think are helpful to others, and we highlight areas where further research is necessary....

  18. Lightness functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campi, Stefano; Gardner, Richard; Gronchi, Paolo;

    2012-01-01

    Variants of the brightness function of a convex body K in n-dimensional Euclidean are investigated. The Lambertian lightness function L(K; v , w ) gives the total reflected light resulting from illumination by a light source at infinity in the direction w that is visible when looking...... in the direction v . The partial brightness function R( K ; v , w ) gives the area of the projection orthogonal to v of the portion of the surface of K that is both illuminated by a light source from the direction w and visible when looking in the direction v . A class of functions called lightness functions...... is introduced that includes L(K;.) and R(K;.) as special cases. Much of the theory of the brightness function like uniqueness, stability, and the existence and properties of convex bodies of maximal and minimal volume with finitely many function values equal to those of a given convex body, is extended...

  19. Baking Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin

    2005-01-01

    decisions. Display quality, comfortable navigation and realistic illumination are crucial ingredients here. Light is one of the principal elements in architectural design, so design reviews must enable the architect to judge the quality of his design in this respect. Realistic light simulations, e.g. via...... radiosity algorithms, are no longer the domain of high-end graphic workstations. Today’s off-the-shelf hardware and 3D-software provide the architect with high-quality tools to simulate physically correct light distributions. But the quality and impression of light is hard to judge by looking at still...... practical experiences with global-light-simulations. We share results which we think are helpful to others, and we highlight areas where further research is necessary....

  20. Monitoring LSO/LYSO Crystal Based Calorimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Zhang, Liyuan; Zhu, Ren-Yuan

    2015-02-01

    Precision light monitoring is important for keeping excellent energy resolution promised by LSO/LYSO crystals in severe radiation environment. In this paper, we report an investigation on the wavelength choice for monitoring LYSO crystal based calorimeters. Gamma-ray induced absorption and light output loss were measured for 20 cm long crystals from five different vendors. Monitoring sensitivity and divergence between crystals from different vendors were investigated. The pros and cons of two monitoring approaches using emission and excitation light and their practical implementation for a LYSO/W Shashlik test beam matrix are discussed.

  1. Consequences of the amended Biomass Waste Ordinance for biological waste treatment; Konsequenzen der novellierten Bioabfallverordnung fuer die biologische Abfallbehandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehres, Bertram [Bundesguetegemeinschaft Kompost e.V. (BGK), Koeln (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    The amended Biomass Waste Ordinance will bring about changes in biological waste treatment to which operators of composting and fermenting plants will have to adapt. The contribution outlines the most relevant changes; at the time of publication, it was not known how the Bundesrat would decide with regard to the Amendment, probably in late March 2012. (orig.) [German] Die Novelle der Bioabfallverordnung wird fuer die biologische Abfallbehandlung verschiedene Veraenderungen mit sich bringen, auf die sich Betreiber von Kompostierungs- und von Vergaerungsanlagen einzustellen haben. Auf die wesentlichen Aenderungen wird in diesem Beitrag eingegangen. Zum Zeitpunkt der Abfassung dieses Beitrages ist allerdings noch nicht vollstaendig bekannt, wie der Bundesrat - voraussichtlich Ende Maerz 2012 - ueber die Novelle abschliessend entscheiden wird. (orig.)

  2. Likert is Pronounced "LICK-urt" not "LIE-kurt" and the Data are Ordinal not Interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kero, Patty; Lee, Daniel

    Likert-type scales are popular in educational research and often times analyzed using parametric tests. Implied in this kind of study is a general assumption that these data are interval in nature. The authors contend that this is an incorrect supposition as Likert type data are actually ordinal, hence any analysis should be restricted to non-parametric investigations. Such confusion is understandable as Likert-type responses are assigned numbers signifying varying degrees of agreement with respect to behaviors or attitudes giving rise to a certain quantitative air to these data. Such responses are qualitative with meaning limited specifically to the choices available to the respondent; no more and no less. The mode is the preferable measure of central tendency instead of the mean or standard deviation. Non-parametric analysis ensures future researchers do not mistakenly infer their results are replicable beyond that of their sample. Regrettably, Likert scales simply cannot meet this standard of reliability.

  3. The importance of isomorphism for conclusions about homology: A Bayesian multilevel structural equation modeling approach with ordinal indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel eGuenole

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe a Monte Carlo study examining the impact of assuming item isomorphism (i.e., equivalent construct meaning across levels of analysis on conclusions about homology (i.e., equivalent structural relations across levels of analysis under varying degrees of non-isomorphism in the context of ordinal indicator multilevel structural equation models (MSEMs. We focus on the condition where one or more loadings are higher on the between level than on the within level to show that while much past research on homology has ignored the issue of psychometric isomorphism, psychometric isomorphism is in fact critical to valid conclusions about homology. More specifically, when a measurement model with non-isomorphic items occupies an exogenous position in a multilevel structural model and the non-isomorphism of these items is not modeled, the within level exogenous latent variance is under-estimated leading to over-estimation of the within level structural coefficient, while the between level exogenous latent variance is overestimated leading to underestimation of the between structural coefficient. When a measurement model with non-isomorphic items occupies an endogenous position in a multilevel structural model and the non-isomorphism of these items is not modeled, the endogenous within level latent variance is under-estimated leading to under-estimation of the within level structural coefficient while the endogenous between level latent variance is over-estimated leading to over-estimation of the between level structural coefficient. The innovative aspect of this article is demonstrating that even minor violations of psychometric isomorphism render claims of homology untenable. We also show that posterior predictive p-values for ordinal indicator Bayesian MSEMs are insensitive to violations of isomorphism even when they lead to severely biased within and between level structural parameters. We highlight conditions where poor estimation of even

  4. Nested generalized linear mixed model with ordinal response: Simulation and application on poverty data in Java Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyaningsih, Yekti; Saefuddin, Asep; Notodiputro, Khairil A.; Wigena, Aji H.

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this research is to build a nested generalized linear mixed model using an ordinal response variable with some covariates. There are three main jobs in this paper, i.e. parameters estimation procedure, simulation, and implementation of the model for the real data. At the part of parameters estimation procedure, concepts of threshold, nested random effect, and computational algorithm are described. The simulations data are built for 3 conditions to know the effect of different parameter values of random effect distributions. The last job is the implementation of the model for the data about poverty in 9 districts of Java Island. The districts are Kuningan, Karawang, and Majalengka chose randomly in West Java; Temanggung, Boyolali, and Cilacap from Central Java; and Blitar, Ngawi, and Jember from East Java. The covariates in this model are province, number of bad nutrition cases, number of farmer families, and number of health personnel. In this modeling, all covariates are grouped as ordinal scale. Unit observation in this research is sub-district (kecamatan) nested in district, and districts (kabupaten) are nested in province. For the result of simulation, ARB (Absolute Relative Bias) and RRMSE (Relative Root of mean square errors) scale is used. They show that prov parameters have the highest bias, but more stable RRMSE in all conditions. The simulation design needs to be improved by adding other condition, such as higher correlation between covariates. Furthermore, as the result of the model implementation for the data, only number of farmer family and number of medical personnel have significant contributions to the level of poverty in Central Java and East Java province, and only district 2 (Karawang) of province 1 (West Java) has different random effect from the others. The source of the data is PODES (Potensi Desa) 2008 from BPS (Badan Pusat Statistik).

  5. The Importance of Isomorphism for Conclusions about Homology: A Bayesian Multilevel Structural Equation Modeling Approach with Ordinal Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenole, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    We describe a Monte Carlo study examining the impact of assuming item isomorphism (i.e., equivalent construct meaning across levels of analysis) on conclusions about homology (i.e., equivalent structural relations across levels of analysis) under varying degrees of non-isomorphism in the context of ordinal indicator multilevel structural equation models (MSEMs). We focus on the condition where one or more loadings are higher on the between level than on the within level to show that while much past research on homology has ignored the issue of psychometric isomorphism, psychometric isomorphism is in fact critical to valid conclusions about homology. More specifically, when a measurement model with non-isomorphic items occupies an exogenous position in a multilevel structural model and the non-isomorphism of these items is not modeled, the within level exogenous latent variance is under-estimated leading to over-estimation of the within level structural coefficient, while the between level exogenous latent variance is overestimated leading to underestimation of the between structural coefficient. When a measurement model with non-isomorphic items occupies an endogenous position in a multilevel structural model and the non-isomorphism of these items is not modeled, the endogenous within level latent variance is under-estimated leading to under-estimation of the within level structural coefficient while the endogenous between level latent variance is over-estimated leading to over-estimation of the between level structural coefficient. The innovative aspect of this article is demonstrating that even minor violations of psychometric isomorphism render claims of homology untenable. We also show that posterior predictive p-values for ordinal indicator Bayesian MSEMs are insensitive to violations of isomorphism even when they lead to severely biased within and between level structural parameters. We highlight conditions where poor estimation of even correctly specified

  6. The new German Electrosmog Ordinance. 26th Ordinance for implementation of the German Federal Emission Control Act (Ordinance on protection against electromagnetic fields - 26th BImSchV), as of 16 December 1996. Edition comprising explanations, legislative text, and statement of legislative intent; Die neue Elektrosmog-Verordnung. Sechsundzwanzigste Verordnung zur Durchfuehrung des Bundes-Immissionsschutzgesetzes (Verordnung ueber elektromagnetische Felder - 26. BImSchV) vom 16. Dezember 1996. Ausgabe mit Erlaeuterungsteil, Verordnungstext und amtlicher Begruendung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemmer, W.

    1997-10-01

    This Ordinance is the first of its kind in the Federal Republic of Germany, establishing legally binding limiting values for electromagnetic fields emanating from low-frequency and high-frequency systems. The Ordinance is based on the internationally accepted restrictions published by the International Commission for Protection From Non-Ionizing Radiation (ICNIRP). The Ordinance relates exclusively to commercial systems, as e.g. radio and radar systems in the range from 10 to 300 000 Megahertz, and high-voltage systems and electric railway systems in the range up to 50 Hertz. In compliance with the Ordinance, operation of these systems must not exceed the regulatory limits in buildings and places destined to accommodate people for time periods exceeding a temporary stay. The Ordinance is of particular significance against the background of the rapidly developing telecommunications market. Passing the 26th ordinance for implementation of the German Emission Control Act (26th BImSchV), the Federal Government has taken the lead in legislation in this field in Europe. Germany is the first country in Europe to have established regulatory provisions of the scope and legal effect of the German Ordinance, there is no comparable provision to date even at EU level. (orig./AJ) [Deutsch] Erstmals hat der Bundesgesetzgeber eine Verordnung zur Festlegung von Grenzwerten fuer elektromagnetische Felder der Nieder- und Hochfrequenz erlassen. Als Grundlage dienten die weltweit anerkannten Werte der Internationalen Kommission zum Schutz vor nichtionisierenden Strahlen (ICNIRP). Die Verordnung bezieht sich allerdings nur auf Anlagen, die gewerblichen Zwecken dienen. Hierzu gehoeren Sende- und Radareinrichtungen im Bereich von 10 bis 300 000 Megahertz und Hochspannungsanlagen und Bahnstromanlagen im Bereich bis 50 Hertz. Diese Anlagen sind so zu betreiben, dass die Grenzwerte der Verordnung in Gebaeuden und auf Grundstuecken, die zum nicht nur voruebergehenden Aufenthalt von Menschen

  7. Calibration and monitoring for crystal calorimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Ren Yuan

    2005-01-01

    Crystal calorimetry provides excellent energy resolution in high energy and nuclear physics. The light output of heavy crystal scintillators, however, suffers from not negligible damage in radiation environment. A precision calibration and monitoring thus is crucial for maintaining crystal precision in situ. The performance of calibration and monitoring approaches used by BaBar, CLEO and L3 experiments are presented. The design and construction of a laser- based light monitoring system for CMS PWO calorimeter is also discussed.

  8. Shaping light

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forbes, A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available mirrors, a gain medium, and a means to excite the gain medium. Quest 6(3) 2010 11 The excited gain medium has what is called a population inversion (it contains more atoms in an excited state than at a lower energy state). Laser light... of what is known as coherence, a measure of how ?in-step? the emitted photons of light are. Coherent light can be made to interfere with itself, in a way that is similar to the way in which ripples on a pond interact. As a result, it is possible...

  9. CERN Safety System Monitoring - SSM

    CERN Document Server

    Hakulinen, T; Valentini, F; Gonzalez, J; Salatko-Petryszcze, C

    2011-01-01

    CERN SSM (Safety System Monitoring) [1] is a system for monitoring state-of-health of the various access and safety systems of the CERN site and accelerator infrastructure. The emphasis of SSM is on the needs of maintenance and system operation with the aim of providing an independent and reliable verification path of the basic operational parameters of each system. Included are all network-connected devices, such as PLCs, servers, panel displays, operator posts, etc. The basic monitoring engine of SSM is a freely available system-monitoring framework Zabbix [2], on top of which a simplified traffic-light-type web-interface has been built. The web-interface of SSM is designed to be ultra-light to facilitate access from handheld devices over slow connections. The underlying Zabbix system offers history and notification mechanisms typical of advanced monitoring systems.

  10. Monitoring blazars with FACT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannheim, Karl [Lehrstuhl fuer Astronomie, Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The FACT collaboration operates an imaging air-Cherenkov telescope on La Palma optimized for monitoring bright blazars. Recently, the collaboration reported a technological breakthrough. For the first time, avalanche photo diodes operated in Geiger mode have been employed in the camera. The low power consumption, high quantum efficiency, and high reliability of the novel semi-conductor based camera is the key to robotic operation needed for monitoring. Moreover, linearity permits observations even during moon light. Analysis of gamma-ray lightcurves of blazars holds the key to understand particle acceleration and its relation to the central engine.

  11. Platelet aggregation function monitored by light transmittance aggregometry and continuous platelet count%光学比浊法与连续血小板计数法监测血小板聚集功能的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关杰; 任军伟; 朱远; 傅淑宏; 白洁; 邓新立; 丛玉隆

    2013-01-01

      目的评价血小板功能检测仪PL-11应用的连续血小板计数方法(PL-11)监测血小板功能的价值。方法通过光学比浊法(light transmittance aggregometry,LTA)与PL-11连续血小板计数法检测本院2012年26例服用氯吡格雷抗凝治疗的心血管病患者和45例健康志愿者的血小板聚集功能,分析两种方法相关性及差异。结果血小板聚集诱聚剂二磷酸腺苷(adenosine diphosphate,ADP)诱导的LTA与PL-11最大血小板聚集率(maximal aggregation ratio,MAR)存在较好相关性(r=0.766,P<0.0001)。分别用LTA与PL-11检测健康志愿者组、服药患者组,最大血小板聚集率均存在统计学差异(P<0.0001)。在两组人群中,LTA测得最大血小板聚集率范围均较PL-11广。PL-11在每例标本检测过程中,各测试点提供的平均血小板体积(mean platelet volume,MPV)变化趋势与检测期间血小板聚集率变化情况一致。结论 PL-11连续血小板计数法与“金标准”的光学比浊法检测血小板聚集功能时有较好的相关性,其应用价值可供临床及实验室参考。富血小板血浆标本与全血标本可能是两种方法检测结果差异的原因。%Objective To assess the value of continuous platelet count with platelet function analyzer PL-11 in monitoring platelet function. Methods Platelet function of 26 coronary artery disease (CAD) patients admitted to our hospital in 2012 for anticoagulant therapy with clopidogrel and 45 healthy volunteers was detected by light transmittance aggregometry (LTA) and continuous platelet count with platelet function analyzer PL-11, respectively. The correlation and the different results in the two methods were analyzed. Results The adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced maximal aggregation ratio (MAR) detected by LTA and continuous platelet count with PL-11 was well-correlated in CAD patients and healthy volunteers (r=0.766, P<0.000 1). The MAR detected by LTA was higher

  12. Improvements in the quality of co-ordination of nursing care following implementation of the Resident Assessment Instrument in Dutch nursing homes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, W.P.; Holtkamp, C.C.M.; Kerkstra, A.; Pot, A.M.; Ooms, M.E.; Ribbe, M.W.

    2001-01-01

    Aim: To study the effect of implementation of the Resident Assessment Instrument (RAI) on the quality of co-ordination of nursing care in Dutch nursing homes. Background: The Resident Assessment Instrument (RAI) was designed to improve the quality of care and quality of life in nursing homes. Until

  13. EU soft law and the functioning of representative democracy: the use of methods of open co-ordination by Dutch and British parliamentarians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, de Rik

    2010-01-01

    The Open Method of Co-ordination (OMC) promises to involve a broad range of actors, including members of national parliaments. Several scholars showed that the OMC breaks this promise by affecting the national policy-making process outside of the control of national parliaments. However, this findin

  14. New regulations in the German Radiation Protection Ordinance. What do the changes mean?; Neues in der Strahlenschutzverordnung. Was bringt die Aenderung?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickel, Angela [Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Karlsruhe Rueckbau- und Entsorgungs-GmbH, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Fehringer, Franz [Berufsgenossenschaft Energie Textil Elektro, Koeln (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz; Feldmann, Ulrike [Wirtschaftsverband Kernbrennstoff-Kreislauf und Kerntechnik e.V., Berlin (Germany)] [and others

    2012-11-01

    Since November 1{sup st} 2011, several new regulations have become effective in the Radiation Protection Ordinance, that are described here first as a general overview and then in more detail. The first part of the contribution compiles the non-medical and the second one the medical applications. (orig.)

  15. Case of cholera preparedness, response and prevention in the SADC region: A need for proactive and multi-level communication and co-ordination

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Said, MD

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors seek to identify the most appropriate model for a regional co-ordination mechanism for cholera preparedness, response and prevention. The qualitative mixed-method data collection approach that was followed revealed the need...

  16. An Exploratory Study of Special Educational Needs Co-Ordinators' Knowledge and Experience of Working with Children Who Have Sustained a Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Julia; Ball, Heather

    2017-01-01

    This research aimed to measure Special Educational Needs Co-ordinators' knowledge of the educational implications of acquired brain injury in children and young people and whether experience of working with pupils with a brain injury or additional training impacts upon this knowledge. Data was collected within one local authority in England using…

  17. Improvements in the quality of co-ordination of nursing care following implementation of the Resident Assessment Instrument in Dutch nursing homes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, W.P.; Holtkamp, C.C.M.; Kerkstra, A.; Pot, A.M.; Ooms, M.E.; Ribbe, M.W.

    2001-01-01

    Aim: To study the effect of implementation of the Resident Assessment Instrument (RAI) on the quality of co-ordination of nursing care in Dutch nursing homes. Background: The Resident Assessment Instrument (RAI) was designed to improve the quality of care and quality of life in nursing homes. Until

  18. A systematic review of instruments for assessment of capacity in activities of daily living in children with developmental co-ordination disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linde, B W; van Netten, J J; Otten, E; Postema, K; Geuze, R H; Schoemaker, M M

    2015-01-01

    Children with developmental co-ordination disorder (DCD) face evident motor difficulties in activities of daily living (ADL). Assessment of their capacity in ADL is essential for diagnosis and intervention, in order to limit the daily consequences of the disorder. The aim of this study is to systema

  19. Combination Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    The Rayovac TANDEM is an advanced technology combination work light and general purpose flashlight that incorporates several NASA technologies. The TANDEM functions as two lights in one. It features a long range spotlight and wide angle floodlight; simple one-hand electrical switching changes the beam from spot to flood. TANDEM developers made particular use of NASA's extensive research in ergonomics in the TANDEM's angled handle, convenient shape and different orientations. The shatterproof, water resistant plastic casing also draws on NASA technology, as does the shape and beam distance of the square diffused flood. TANDEM's heavy duty magnet that permits the light to be affixed to any metal object borrows from NASA research on rare earth magnets that combine strong magnetic capability with low cost. Developers used a NASA-developed ultrasonic welding technique in the light's interior.

  20. Weather Monitoring Station: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Dipak V. Sose

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Weather monitoring plays a very important role in human life hence study of weather system is necessary. Currently there are two types of the weather monitoring stations available i.e. wired and wireless. Wireless system has some advantages over the wired one hence popular now a days. The parameters are include in weather monitoring usually temperature, humidity atmospheric pressure, light intensity, rainfall etc. There are many techniques existed using different processor such as PIC, AVR, ARM etc. Analog to digital channel are used to fetch the analog output of the sensors. The wireless techniques used in the weather monitoring having GSM, FM channel, Zigbee, RF etc Protocols