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Sample records for molise central italy

  1. Ethnophytotherapeutical research in the high Molise region (Central-Southern Italy

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    Lucchese Fernando

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the years 2003–2005 research was carried out concerning ethno-medicine in the high Molise (central- southern Italy, a region that has been the object of very little investigation from the ethnobotanical point of view. Upper Molise is a continuation of the mountain profiles of the Abruzzi Appenines: a series of hills, steep slopes and deep fluvial valleys making communications difficult. Primordial traditions (e.g. harvest feasts are typical of the region. Methods Field data were collected through open interviews in the field. These were conducted on both an individual and group level, fresh plants gathered from surrounding areas being displayed. In other cases, individual interviews were conducted by accompanying the person involved to the places where they perform their activities (for example, in the woods with woodcutters, kitchen gardens and fields with housewives, pastures with shepherds, etc.. In total 54 individuals were interviewed. Results Data of 70 taxa belonging to 39 families were gathered. Among the species, 64 are used in human therapy, 5 as insect repellents, 11 in veterinary medicine, 1 to keep eggs and cheeses and 4 for magic purposes. The most important findings in ethno-medicine relate to the lichen Lobaria pulmonaria (L. Hoffm. (wounds and to some vascular plant species: Asplenium trichomanes L. and Ceterach officinarum Willd. (to regularize menstruation, Cyclamen hederifolium (chilblains, Centaurium erythraea Rafn. and Pulmonaria apennina Cristof. & Puppi (bruises, while in the ethno-veterinary field, we have Valeriana officinalis L. (wounds sustained by mules. Also worthy of note, given the isolation of the area, is the number of plants used to protect foodstuffs from parasites, among which Allium sativum L. and Capsicum frutescens L. Conclusion The research revealed a deep-rooted and widespread habit of husbanding the family's resources. Whilst isolation and snowfalls contributed to the widespread

  2. CUNEOSPIRELLA SAMNITICA N. GEN. N. SP. (FORAMINIFERIDA FROM THE SANTONIAN OF THE MATESE MOUNTAINS (MOLISE, CENTRAL ITALY

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    ANTONIETTA CHERCHI

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A new larger foraminifer, Cuneospirella samnitica n. gen., n. sp., from the Santonian of the Matese Mountains (central Italy is described. This taxon, characterized by an initial planispiral, a rectilinear adult stage and the subdivision of chambers by partitions, could be descended from a morphotype like  Spiroplectammina multicamerata Said & Kenawy, recorded in the upper Turonian of the Apennines (central Italy

  3. Molise

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    Roberto Gasparini

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In Molise region 75% of women (aged 24-64 are screened regularly, meaning every 3 years. The analysis on cross-protective activity exercised by bivalent and quadrivalent vaccines shows that the bivalent vaccine could prevent more pre-cancerous lesions and cases of cervicocarcinoma than quadrivalent, and that the latter could prevent genital warts that are not prevented by bivalent. The major number of cases avoided by the bivalent make it possible to fully offset the cost savings related to warts associated with the quadrivalent vaccine. Furthermore, a cost-effectiveness analysis shows that, considering regional tariffs, the multiple cohort (12-year-old + 25-year-old women vaccination strategy with a 90% coverage could prevent 3 cases of cervicocarcinoma and 1 related death more than the vaccination of only 12-year-old girls, and thus proves to be cost-effective (10,517 €/QALY.

  4. Human environment and climate during the Middle Pleistocene in southern Italy (Boiano basin, Molise)

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    Orain, R.; Lebreton, V.; Russo Ermolli, E.; Sémah, A.-M.; Nomade, S.; Shao, Q.; Bahain, J.-J.; Peretto, C.

    2012-04-01

    Palaeobotanical investigations undertaken on early prehistoric sites of Western Europe, as Pont-de-Lavaud (France, ca 1.2 - 1 Ma) and Ca' Belvedere di Monte Poggiolo (Italy, ca 1.2 - 0.8 Ma), indicate that hominins have settled in different types of environments. During the "Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT)", at about 1 to 0.6 Ma, the transition from 41-ka to 100-ka dominant climatic oscillations occurring within a long-term cooling trend is associated with an aridity crisis and strongly modified the structure of environments. Since the MPT, the specific climate and environment evolution of the southern Italy provided propitious conditions for a long-term human occupation even during glacial times and the density of prehistoric sites could probably be explained by the amount of sustainable environments. The human strategy of occupation of a territory probably was motivated by availabilities of resources for subsistence in the local ecosystems. Sites such as La Pineta (ca 600 ka), Notarchirico (ca 600 ka), San Nicola di Monteroduni (ca 400 ka) or Ceprano (ca 350 ka) testify to the preferential occupation of the valleys of the central and southern Apennines during this period. In this area, the Boiano basin (Molise, Italy) recorded a lacustrine and fluvio-palustrine sedimentation, with basal deposits older than 440 ka deduced from tephrochronology. Pollen analyse of the Boiano sequence aims to describe the evolution of vegetation and climates between OIS 13 and 9, at regional and micro-regional scales. The characteristics of the Boiano basin are enlightened within the progressive reduction of the deciduous forest diversity along the Middle Pleistocene. The main palaeoecological information consists of an important persistence of edaphic humidity during the glacial phases. The peculiar conditions recorded in the region could have constituted a refuge for arboreal flora during the Middle Pleistocene and provided subsistence resources to the animal and human communities.

  5. Seismic sequences and swarms in the Latium-Abruzzo-Molise Apennines (central Italy): New observations and analysis from a dense monitoring of the recent activity

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    Frepoli, A.; Cimini, G. B.; De Gori, P.; De Luca, G.; Marchetti, A.; Monna, S.; Montuori, C.; Pagliuca, N. M.

    2017-08-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the seismic activity in the central Apennines based on a high quality seismogram data set collected from two temporary and three permanent networks. This integrated network recorded, between January 2009 and December 2013, a total of 7011 local earthquakes (6270 selected for this study), with local magnitudes ML ranging from 0.4 to 4.7. Hypocentres were located by using a reference 1D crustal velocity model determined with a genetic algorithm. The majority of the hypocenters are located beneath the axis of the Apenninic belt, while the rest are found along the peri-Tyrrhenian margin. Hypocentral depth distribution extends to a depth of 31 km with a pronounced peak between 8 and 12 km. Both low-to-moderate magnitude seismic sequences and diffuse swarm-like seismicity was observed. There were two major seismic swarms and a seismic sequence, which included the Marsica-Sora ML 4.7 main shock. A total of 468 fault plane solutions were derived from P-wave polarities. This new data set more than quadruples the number of focal mechanisms that was previously available for regional stress field analysis in the study region. The majority of the fault plane solutions in the central Apennines show predominantly normal fault movements, with T-axis trends oriented NE-SW. Focal mechanisms calculated in this study confirm that this area is in extension. For the seismic swarms-sequence in the Marsica-Sora area we also derived the azimuth and plunge of the principal stress axes by inverting fault plane solutions. We find a few right-lateral strike-slip focal mechanisms that possibly identify the prolongation of the strike-slip kinematics in the Gargano-Apulia foreland to the west, and mark the passage to the NW-SE striking normal faults of the inner Apenninic belt. The seismicity and stress distribution we observe might be consistent with a fragmented tectonic scenario in which faults with small dimensions release seismic energy in a diffused way.

  6. Acacia saligna: an invasive species on the coast of Molise (southern Italy

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    Calabrese V

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Italy is one of the European countries most affected by biological invasions. In this study, we focused on the impact of Acacia saligna, an Australian invasive plant species, on the coastal ecosystem’s ecology and biodiversity along the sandy coasts of Molise (southern Italy. We analyzed data from 61 vegetation plots recorded in coastal pine forest and Mediterranean scrub habitats of Molise throughout the preparatory actions of the “LIFE Maestrale” project (NAT/IT/000262. In order to study the ecological impact of Acacia saligna comparing invaded and non-invaded areas, we first assigned the Ellenberg’s indicator values to each plant species, which were then used to relate the presence of Acacia saligna with ecological characteristics of sites through a generalized linear model (GLM. Our results showed a significant positive relationship between the presence of Acacia saligna and high levels of soil nutrients and, on the contrary, a negative relationship with the presence of mesophilic species, which are typical of the community interest habitats of pine forest (2270*. The use of ecological indicators is effective to pinpoint the ecological effects of biological invasions, as well as to evaluate habitat conservation state and to identify vulnerable native species.

  7. Potentiality of SENTINEL-1 for landslide detection: first results in the Molise Region (Italy)

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    Barra, Anna; Monserrat, Oriol; Mazzanti, Paolo; Esposito, Carlo; Crosetto, Michele; Scarascia Mugnozza, Gabriele

    2016-04-01

    A detailed inventory map, including information on landslide activity, is one of the most important input to landslide susceptibility and hazard analyses. The contribution of satellite SAR Interferometry in landslide risk mitigation is well-known within the scientific community. In fact, many encouraging results have been obtained, principally, in areas characterized by high coherence of the images (e.g. due to rock lithology or urban environment setting). In terms of coherence, the expected increased capabilities of Sentinel-1 for landslide mapping and monitoring are connected to both wavelength (55.5 mm) and short temporal baseline (12 days). The latter one is expected to be a key feature for increasing coherence and for defining monitoring and updating plans. With the aim of assessing these potentialities, we processed a set of 14 Sentinel-1 SLC images, acquired during a temporal span of 7 months, over the Molise region (Southern Italy), a critical area geologically susceptible to landslides. Even though Molise is mostly covered by crops and forested areas (63% and 35% respectively), that means a non-optimal coherence condition for SAR interferometry, promising results have been obtained. This has been achieved by integrating differential interferometric SAR techniques (12-days interferograms and time series) with GIS multilayer analysis (optical, geological, geomorphological, etc.). Specifically, analyzing a single burst of a Sentinel-1 frame (approximately 1875 km2), 62 landslides have been detected, thus allowing to improve the pre-existing inventory maps both in terms of landslide boundaries and state of activity. The results of our ongoing research show that Sentinel-1 can give a significant improvement in terms of exploitation of SAR data for landslide mapping and monitoring. As a matter of fact, by analyzing longer periods, it is expected to achieve a better understanding of landslide behavior and its relationship with triggering factors. This will be key

  8. The promotion of geotourism in protected areas: a proposal of itinerary through the Matese Massif (Campania and Molise regions, Italy).

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    Rosskopf, Carmen Maria; Filocamo, Francesca; Amato, Vincenzo; Cesarano, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    The Matese Massif is a ca. 1000 km2 wide and NW-SE elongated carbonate relief, located in the inner sector of the Southern Apennine chain. It has a tabular setting with steep structural slopes bordering the central high mountain sector including its major peaks and is crossed from approximately west to east by the border between Campania and Molise regions. The Matese Mountains represent a key area for the comprehension of the geological and tectonic evolution of the Southern Apennines since Mesozoic times. Its long-term geomorphological evolution has been controlled by Quaternary tectonics and climate variations that have allowed the temporary or permanent establishment of various environments and morphodynamics. Deposits and landforms originated by glacial, periglacial, karst and fluvial processes, along with a rich assemblage of tectonic-structural features and landforms of complex origin have given origin to a geological heritage of exceptional value. The geosites actually censured within the Campanian sector of Matese are reported in the Geosites Map of Campania, available at the website of Campania Region and partly included in the Italian Geosites Inventory of ISPRA. The geosites of the Molise sector have been recently assessed within the geosite inventory carried out by Molise University. They are reported in the Geosites Map of Molise, available at the website of Molise Region, and partly included in the ISPRA's National Inventory of Geosites. The Matese area is largely included in protected areas: the Campania portion falls within the Matese Regional Park, established in 2002, while most of the Molise sector falls in the extensive ZPS/SIC IT72222287. To better protect and exploit the unique natural and geological heritage of the Matese Massif, numerous initiatives aimed at the establishment of the National Park of Matese have continued for several years and very recent attempts to promote the Matese Geopark have been made, but unfortunately without any

  9. Seismicity and seismogenic structures of Central Apennines (Italy): constraints on the present-day stress field from focal mechanisms - The SLAM (Seismicity of Lazio-Abruzzo and Molise) project

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    Frepoli, Alberto; Battista Cimini, Giovanni; De Gori, Pasquale; De Luca, Gaetano; Marchetti, Alessandro; Montuori, Caterina; Pagliuca, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    We present new results for the microseismic activity in the Central Apennines recorded from a total of 81seismic stations. The large number of recording sites derives from the combination of temporary and permanent seismic networks operating in the study region. Between January 2009 and October 2013 we recorded 6923 earthquakes with local magnitudes ML ranging from 0.1 to 4.8. We located hypocentres by using a refined 1D crustal velocity model. The majority of the hypocenters are located beneath the axes of the Apenninic chain, while the seismic activity observed along the peri-Tyrrhenian margin is lower. The seismicity extends to a depth of 32 km; the hypocentral depth distribution exhibits a pronounced peak of seismic energy release in the depth range between 8 and 20 km. During the observation period we recorded two major seismic swarms and one seismic sequence in the Marsica-Sorano area in which we have had the largest detected magnitude (ML = 4.8). Fault plane solutions for a total of 600 earthquakes were derived from P-polarities. This new data set consists of a number of focal plane solutions that is about four times the data so far available for regional stress field study. The majority of the focal mechanisms show predominantly normal fault solutions. T-axis trends are oriented NE-SW confirming that the area is in extension. We also derived the azimuths of the principal stress axes by inverting the fault plane solutions and calculated the direction of the maximum horizontal stress, which is mainly sub-vertical oriented. The study region has been historically affected by many strong earthquakes, some of them very destructive. This work can give an important contribution to the seismic hazard assessment in an area densely populated as the city of Rome which is distant around 60 km from the main seismogenic structures of Central Apennine.

  10. Integrated analysis of seismological, gravimetric and structural data for identification of active faults geometries in Abruzzo and Molise areas (Italy)

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    Gaudiosi, Germana; Nappi, Rosa; Alessio, Giuliana; Porfido, Sabina; Cella, Federico; Fedi, Maurizio; Florio, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    This paper deals with an interdisciplinary research that has been carried out for more constraining the active faults and their geometry of Abruzzo - Molise areas (Central-Southern Apennines), two of the most active areas from a geodynamic point of view of the Italian Apennines, characterized by the occurrence of intense and widely spread seismic activity. An integrated analysis of structural, seismic and gravimetric (Gaudiosi et al., 2012) data of the area has been carried out through the Geographic Information System (GIS) which has provided the capability for storing and managing large amount of spatial data from different sources. In particular, the analysis has consisted of these main steps: (a) collection and acquisition of aerial photos, numeric cartography, Digital Terrain Model (DTM) data, geophysical data; (b) generation of the vector cartographic database and alpha-numerical data; c) image processing and features classification; d) cartographic restitution and multi-layers representation. In detail three thematic data sets have been generated "fault", "earthquake" and "gravimetric" data sets. The fault Dataset has been compiled by examining and merging the available structural maps, and many recent geological and geophysical papers of literature. The earthquake Dataset has been implemented collecting seismic data by the available historical and instrumental Catalogues and new precise earthquake locations for better constraining existence and activity of some outcropping and buried tectonic structures. Seismic data have been standardized in the same format into the GIS and merged in a final catalogue. For the gravimetric Dataset, the Multiscale Derivative Analysis (MDA) of the gravity field of the area has been performed, relying on the good resolution properties of the Enhanced Horizontal Derivative (EHD) (Fedi et al., 2005). MDA of gravity data has allowed localization of several trends identifying anomaly sources whose presence was not previously

  11. New morphostratigraphic and chronological constraints for the Quaternary paleosurfaces of the Molise Apennine (southern Italy)

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    Aucelli, Pietro P. C.; Amato, Vincenzo; Cesarano, Massimo; Pappone, Gerardo; Rosskopf, Carmen M.; Ermolli, Elda Russo; Scarciglia, Fabio

    2011-02-01

    The Molise Apennines feature numerous relicts of paleosurfaces, mostly of erosional origin, which represent the remnants of gently-rolling ancient landscapes now hanging at different altitudes above the local base-levels of erosion. Their genesis can be related to prolonged periods of relative tectonic stability alternating with periods of uplift, or to the interplay between steady tectonic uplift and climatic fluctuations. Four orders of paleosurfaces were recognized: I (> 1,100 m a.s.l.), II (900-1,000 m a.s.l.), III (750-850 m a.s.l.), IV (600-720 m a.s.l.). The most ancient orders (I and II) are cut into the bedrock and are located at the top of the Matese and Montagnola di Frosolone massifs. The youngest paleosurfaces (III—IV), partially cut into Quaternary deposits, are found along the valley flanks of the main river systems and within the Boiano, Carpino, Isernia and Sessano intramontane basins. The present study deals with the dating of the Sessano Basin Paleosurface (SBP) which is related to the IV order and is cut into the basin infill. The 40Ar/39Ar age of a tephra layer (437 ± 1.9 ka), intercalated at the top of the succession, supported by archaeo-stratigraphic, palynological and paleopedological data, allowed the SBP surface to be constrained to 350-300 ka. The SBP chronological position represents an important morphostratigraphic marker: it is the first ante quem and post quem date that allows the chronological position of the other orders of paleosurfaces to be better constrained.

  12. The Moli-Sani Project, a randomized, prospective cohort study in the Molise region in Italy; design, rationale and objectives

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    Licia Iacoviello

    2007-06-01

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    Background: Cardiovascular disease and malignancies account for more than 70% of all causes of mortality and morbidity in Italy. There is a subtle balance between genetic determinants and lifestyle, that often defines the line between health and sickness. So far studies aiming at identifying risk factors have mainly come from Northern Europe and the USA. It was to understand this balance between genetics and environmental determinants better, and to tailor appropriate preventive strategies for Italian and other Southern European populations, that theMoli-sani project was launched, transforming a small Italian region into a large scientific laboratory: the “Molise lab”.

    Methods: Each participant receives a thorough medical check-up at no cost to either him/her or the national health service, resulting in thousands of hours of free public health care. With a completely computerized system, Moli-sani is a “paperless” study, in which researchers and participants communicate using recently developed technologies such as mobile phone text messages (SMS. The newly established biological data bank (the “MoliBank” will be one of the largest in Europe. Results: Early results of 8000 participants so far show a slightly worrying pattern of risk factors for a Mediterranean population. The prevalence of obesity, hypertension and metabolic syndrome is growing at rates close to those of other Western countries. Hypertension and, to a lesser extent, high blood glucose levels, are under-diagnosed and underestimated by patients, and appropriate therapy appears under-used and not very successful. However, cholesterol management appears more efficient.

    Conclusions: Paying particular attention towards innovation and new technologies, theMoli-sani project has placed itself at the cutting edge of a new paradigm crossing research and prevention.

  13. A new methodology for earthquake damage assessment (MEDEA) and its application following the Molise Italy earthquake of 31.10.02

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    Zuccaro, G.; Papa, F.; Spence, R.

    2003-04-01

    MEDEA is a multi-media tool designed to support earthquake damage assessment teams in Italy, by providing a means to train the technicians involved. In MEDEA, a range of alternative mechanisms of damage are defined and described, and the symptoms of each mechanism which can be recognised by the assessor are identified and linked to the related causative mechanisms. By using MEDEA, the assessor is guided by the experience of experts in the identification of the damage states and also of the separate mechanisms involved. This leads to a better safety assessment, a more homogeneous evaluation of damage across the affected area, and a great enhancement in the value of the damage statistics obtained in the assessment. The method is applied to both masonry and reinforced concrete buildings of the forms widespread in Italy and neighbouring countries. The paper will describe MEDEA and the context for which it was designed; and will present an example of its use in the M5.1 Molise earthquake of 31.10.02 in which 27 people died and which caused damage to hundreds of buildings.

  14. Environmental radioactivity in four national parks of the Abruzzo region (central Italy

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    S. Barbizzi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1998, the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell’Abruzzo e Molise ‘G. Caporale’ in Teramo is conducting radioecological surveys in the Abruzzo region (Central Italy, to acquire knowledge on the geochemical and biological mobility of radionuclides derived from the Chernobyl accident. To this end, samples of grasses, fungi, mosses and soils were collected in four national parks (Sirente-Velino, Abruzzo Lazio and Molise, the Gran Sasso and the park of Monti della Laga and Maiella. The results show that the Chernobyl fallout is still detectable in the samples collected in the four parks but the 137Cs concentrations are present in the semi-natural environments in quantities that do not create concerns from a radiological point of view.

  15. The october 31 (Ml 5.4) and november 1 (Ml 5.3) Molise earthquakes (southern italy):first results from geochemistry

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    Pizzino, L.; Cinti, D.; Barbieri, M.; Galli, G.; Voltattorni, N.; Quattrocchi, F.

    2003-04-01

    Two geochemical surveys have been performed in November and December 2002 in the Molise region (southern Italy) and surrounding areas struck by two moderate size earthquakes on October 31 (M_l 5.4) and on November 1 (M_l 5.3). The main goals of this study were: i) to highlight eventual variations either in the physico-chemical features or in the chemistry of thermo-mineral and cold springs (already sampled in 1997) discharging in an area located 50 km far from the epicentral one (Sannio-Matese, Campania region),; ii) to determine the chemical features of the groundwater discharging in the epicentral area, identifying the location and the extension of the various existing aquifers; iii) to collect information about eventual changes occurred in springs and wells (variations in flows, groundwater level in wells, etc.). Moreover, twice a week samplings have been carried out for two months at two important sulphurous springs (Larino spring, in the epicentral area and Telese thermo-mineral spring, in the Sannio area) in order to gather temporal chemical trend during the ongoing seismicity. We sampled a total of 35 sites (8 springs and wells in the Sannio-Matese area and 27 in the epicentral one) measuring in the field: temperature, pH, Eh, electrical conductivity, as well as radon, bicarbonate and H_2S contents. In laboratory, analyses of major, minor and trace elements have been performed, together with dissolved gas compositions. On 10 selected samples δ13C and 87/86Sr analyses are in progress. Data collected in the second survey show, for springs and wells located in the epicentral area, an evident pH and Eh increase (probably they returned to normal pre-earthquake values) together with some chemical variations; on the contrary, springs located in the Sannio-Matese area showed no variations. Local people observed sin-earthquake flow increases and variations in turbidity in two springs discharging in the epicentral area. All detected groundwater changes are discussed

  16. Segmentation pattern and structural complexities in seismogenic extensional settings: The North Matese Fault System (Central Italy)

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    Ferrarini, Federica; Boncio, Paolo; de Nardis, Rita; Pappone, Gerardo; Cesarano, Massimo; Aucelli, Pietro P. C.; Lavecchia, Giusy

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the northern slope of the Matese Mts. (Molise, Central Italy) with the aim of characterizing the N- to NE-dipping active normal fault system in the Bojano basin, a sector of primary importance from a seismic hazard perspective. We collected field data to define the geometry and segmentation pattern of two sub-systems (Patalecchia-Colle di Mezzo and Bojano-Campochiaro). New evidence of late Quaternary faulting was obtained by exploiting well log interpretations. Kinematic analysis revealed the interaction of pre-Quaternary inherited (mainly E-W-striking) and newly formed (NW-SE-striking) normal faults. Slip accommodation through linkage was clearly noted in the case of the Patalecchia-Colle di Mezzo sub-system. Detailed topographic profiles across the active fault segments provided post-LGM (15 ± 3 kyr) slip rates up to ∼2 mm/yr which agree with the high deformation rates based on different approaches in the literature. Finally, the instrumental seismicity analysis constrained the bottom of the seismogenic layer to depths of 13-14 km, and the gathered information allowed us to reconstruct the North Matese seismogenic source. Its 3D geometry and dimensions agree with both the dimension-magnitude relationships and macroseismic information available for the 1805 earthquake (Mw 6.6), the main historical earthquake to have struck the Bojano basin.

  17. Radioactivity in honey of the central Italy.

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    Meli, Maria Assunta; Desideri, Donatella; Roselli, Carla; Feduzi, Laura; Benedetti, Claudio

    2016-07-01

    Natural radionuclides and (137)Cs in twenty seven honeys produced in a region of the Central Italy were determined by alpha ((235)U, (238)U, (210)Po, (232)Th and (228)Th) and gamma spectrometry ((137)Cs, (40)K, (226)Ra and (228)Ra). The study was carried out in order to estimate the background levels of natural ((40)K, (238)U and (232)Th and their progeny) and artificial radionuclides ((137)Cs) in various honey samples, as well as to compile a data base for radioactivity levels in that region. (40)K showed a mean activity of 28.1±23.0Bqkg(-1) with a range of 7.28-101Bqkg(-1). The mean of (210)Po activity resulted 0.40±0.46Bqkg(-1) with a range of 0.03-1.98Bqkg(-1). The mean of (238)U activity resulted 0.020±0.010Bqkg(-1). (226)Ra and (228)Ra resulted always Italy. The honeys produced in Central Italy were of good quality in relation to the studied parameters, confirming the general image of a genuine and healthy food associated to this traditional products.

  18. The Energy Networks Landscape. Impacts on Rural Land in the Molise Region

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    Donatella Cialdea; Alessandra Maccarone

    2014-01-01

    The paper concerns the study of the energy infrastructure that have the most impact on rural land. The analysis focuses on the systems for wind power and ground–mounted photovoltaic plants.The case study is the Region of Molise, in Southern Italy. This Region is an emblematic case because it has a significant number of installations as seen in relationship with the whole national territory. The case becomes even more special with reference to local guidelines that have undergone successive fo...

  19. Hominin responses to environmental changes during the Middle Pleistocene in central and southern Italy

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    R. Orain

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The palaeobotanical record of early Palaeolithic sites from Western Europe indicates that hominins settled in different kinds of environments. During the "mid-Pleistocene transition (MPT", from about 1 to 0.6 Ma, the transition from 41- to 100-ka dominant climatic oscillations, occurring within a long-term cooling trend, was associated with an aridity crisis which strongly modified the ecosystems. Starting from the MPT the more favourable climate of central and southern Italy provided propitious environmental conditions for long-term human occupations even during the glacial times. In fact, the human strategy of territory occupation was certainly driven by the availabilities of resources. Prehistoric sites such as Notarchirico (ca. 680–600 ka, La Pineta (ca. 600–620 ka, Guado San Nicola (ca. 380–350 ka or Ceprano (ca. 345–355 ka testify to a preferential occupation of the central and southern Apennines valleys during interglacial phases, while later interglacial occupations were oriented towards the coastal plains, as attested by the numerous settlements of the Roma Basin (ca. 300 ka. Faunal remains indicate that human subsistence behaviours benefited from a diversity of exploitable ecosystems, from semi-open to closed environments. In central and southern Italy, several palynological records have already illustrated the regional- and local-scale vegetation dynamic trends. During the Middle Pleistocene climate cycles, mixed mesophytic forests developed during the interglacial periods and withdrew in response to increasing aridity during the glacial episodes. New pollen data from the Boiano Basin (Molise, Italy attest to the evolution of vegetation and climate between MIS 13 and 9 (ca. 500 to 300 ka. In this basin the persistence of high edaphic humidity, even during the glacial phases, could have favoured the establishment of a refuge area for the arboreal flora and provided subsistence resources for the animal and hominin communities

  20. Hominin responses to environmental changes during the Middle Pleistocene in Central and Southern Italy

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    R. Orain

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The palaeobotanical record of early Palaeolithic sites from Western Europe indicates that hominins settled in different kinds of environments. During the "Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT", from about 1 to 0.6 Ma, the transition from 41-ka to 100-ka dominant climatic oscillations, occurring within a long-term cooling trend, was associated with an aridity crisis which strongly modified the ecosystems. Starting from the MPT the more favorable climate of central and southern Italy provided propitious environmental conditions for long-term human occupations even during the glacial times. In fact, the human strategy of territory occupation was certainly driven by the availabilities of resources. Prehistoric sites such as Notarchirico (ca. 680–600 ka, La Pineta (ca. 600–620 ka, Gaudo San Nicola (ca. 380–350 ka or Ceprano (ca. 345–355 ka testify to a preferential occupation of the central and southern Apennines valleys during interglacial phases, while later interglacial occupations were oriented towards the coastal plains, as attested by the numerous settlements of the Roma basin (ca. 300 ka. Faunal remains indicate that human subsistence behaviors benefited of a diversity of exploitable ecosystems, from semi-open to closed environments. In central and southern Italy, several palynological records have already illustrated the regional and local scale vegetation dynamic trends. During the Middle Pleistocene climate cycles, mixed mesophytic forests developed during the interglacial periods and withdrew in response to increasing aridity during the glacial episodes. New pollen data from the Boiano basin (Molise, Italy, attest to the evolution of vegetation and climate between OIS 13 and 9 (ca. 500 to 300 ka. In this basin, the persistence of high edaphic humidity, even during the glacial phases, could have favored the establishment of a refuge area for the arboreal flora and provided subsistence resources for the animal and hominin communities

  1. Isolamenti di Salmonella spp. da matrici ambientali nella regione Molise negli anni 2003-2005

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    Carla Pepe

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Enter-Net is a European network used for the surveillance of human gastrointestinal infections. This network was created in 1994 and is coordinated by the HPA in Colindale. In Italy, this network is managed by the Superior Health Institute and its participants include various referral centres present in most of the regions in Italy. In Molise, the centre is located at the Arpa Provincial Department of Isernia.This centre receives strains of isolated Salmonella from six Regional hospital laboratories. In addition, the centre receives strains from other Arpa laboratories originating from surface and sewer water. All of the Centre’s activities are conducted according to the Italian law (D.L.vo n° 152/99.The isolates are tested for serotyping classification and antimicrobial susceptibility. During the three year period (2003-2005, 228 Salmonella strains were isolated throughout the principle water basins. 18.9% of the isolates were from the Biferno basins, in which the water is considered drinkable, while 51.7% were from various water bodies flowing into the Molise costal areas. Consequently, the potential impact on drinkable and recreational water is rather consistent. Particularly considering that 26 isolates (22.1% belong to serotypes relevant for public health (S.typhimurium, S.enteritidis, S.hadar, S.infantis, S.virchow.The results confirmed the presence of these endemic serotypes in surface waters in Molise.The results have also showned the impact that these could have on public health.

  2. Ethnobotanical remarks on Central and Southern Italy

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    Lucia Leporatti

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present paper is a brief survey on the ethnobotanical works published by the Authors since 1981, concerning the research carried out in some southern and central Italian regions. Before Roman domination these territories were first inhabited by local people, while the southern areas were colonized by the Greeks. These different cultural contributions left certain traces, both in the toponyms and in the vernacular names of the plants and, more generally, in the culture as a whole. Methods Field data were collected through open interviews, mainly of farmers, shepherds and elderly people, born or living in these areas for a long time. Voucher specimens of collected plants are preserved in the respective herbaria of the Authors and in the herbarium of "Roma Tre" University. Important contributions have been made by several students native to the areas under consideration. A comparative analysis with local specific ethnobotanical literature was carried out. Results The paper reports several examples concerning human and veterinary popular medicine and in addition some anti-parasitic, nutraceutic, dye and miscellaneous uses are also described. Moreover vernacular names and toponyms are cited. Eight regions of central and southern Italy (particularly Latium, Abruzzo, Marche and Basilicata were investigated and the data obtained are presented in 32 papers. Most of the species of ethnobotanical interest have been listed in Latium (368 species, Marche (274 and Abruzzo (203. The paper also highlights particularly interesting aspects or uses not previously described in the specific ethnobotanical literature. Conclusion Phyto-therapy in central and southern Italy is nowadays practised by a few elderly people who resort to medicinal plants only for mild complaints (on the contrary food uses are still commonly practised. Nowadays therapeutic uses, unlike in the past, are less closely or not at all linked to ritual aspects. Several

  3. Observations of surface radon in Central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo, Piero Di; Pitari, Giovanni; de Luca, Natalia; Battisti, Domenico

    2009-07-01

    Two years of in situ radon concentration measurements in the atmospheric surface layer have been collected in a central Italy town (L’Aquila), located in the Aterno river valley. These data have been analyzed in order to study the controlling mechanisms of surface radon abundance; observations of coincident meteorological parameters confirmed the role of dynamics on the local removal rate of this tracer. The relatively high negative correlation of hourly data of surface wind speed and radon activity concentration ( R = -0.54, on annual scale) suggests that dynamical removal of radon is one of the most important controlling processes of the tracer accumulation in the atmospheric surface layer. An attempt is made to quantify the precipitation impact on radon soil fluxes. No anticorrelation of radon and precipitation comes out from the data ( R = -0.15), as in previous studies. However, since the main physical parameter affecting the ground radon release is expected to be the soil accumulation of water, snow or ice, the emission flux has also been correlated with soil moisture; in this way a much clearer anticorrelation is found ( R = -0.54).

  4. Crayfish distribution updating in central Italy

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    M. Scalici

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introductions of non-indigenous crayfish have received great attention from biologists and policy makers during the last decade. Purposes of this study are to update the knowledge about the crayfish distribution in Latium (central Italy, and to show how interactions between indigenous and non-indigenous species can affect their distribution. The main findings of this study were (1 the great decrease of the Austropotamobius pallipes populations and (2 the alarming spread of the four non-indigenous species red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii (the main widespread crayfish, spiny-cheek crayfish Orconectes limosus, narrow-clawed crayfish Astacus leptodactylus, and yabby Cherax destructor. We never observed indigenous and non-indigenous crayfish living in syntopy, although we noted that white-clawed crayfish had become extinct at sites where non-indigenous crayfish species exist now. Other type of problems (i.e. illegal harvesting and over-abstraction of water for human use can also reduce the distribution and abundance of the indigenous crayfish stocks. The distribution of Italian crayfish populations has not been studied sufficiently and more studies are required nationwide to assess the conservation status of A. pallipes and the occurrence of non-indigenous species. A national database of crayfish records ought to be constructed and regularly updated.

  5. The 2016 Central Italy Earthquake: an Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, A.

    2016-12-01

    The M6 central Italy earthquake occurred on the seismic backbone of the Italy, just in the middle of the highest hazard belt. The shock hit suddenly during the night of August 24, when people were asleep; no foreshocks occurred before the main event. The earthquake ruptured from 10 km to the surface, and produced a more than 17,000 aftershocks (Oct. 19) spread on a 40x20 km2 area elongated NW-SE. It is geologically very similar to previous recent events of the Apennines. Both the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake to the south and the 1997 Colfiorito to the north, were characterized by the activation of adjacent fault segments. Despite its magnitude and the well known seismic hazard of the region, the earthquake produced extensive damage and 297 fatalities. The town of Amatrice, that paid the highest toll, was classified in zone 1 (the highest) since 1915, but the buildings in this and other villages revealed highly vulnerable. In contrast, in the town of Norcia, that also experienced strong ground shaking, no collapses occurred, most likely due to the retrofitting carried out after an earthquake in 1979. Soon after the quake, the INGV Crisis Unit convened at night in the Rome headquarters, in order to coordinate the activities. The first field teams reached the epicentral area at 7 am with the portable seismic stations installed to monitor the aftershocks; other teams followed to map surface faults, damage, to measure GPS sites, to install instruments for site response studies, and so on. The INGV Crisis Unit includes the Press office and the INGVterremoti team, in order to manage and coordinate the communication towards the Civil Protection Dept. (DPC), the media and the web. Several tens of reports and updates have been delivered in the first month of the sequence to DPC. Also due to the controversial situation arisen from the L'Aquila earthquake and trials, particular attention was given to the communication: continuous and timely information has been released to

  6. The 2016 Central Italy "reverse" seismic sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaraluce, Lauro; Di Stefano, Raffaele; Tinti, Elisa; Scognamiglio, Laura; Michele, Maddalena; Cattaneo, Marco; De Gori, Pasquale; Chiarabba, Claudio; Monachesi, Giancarlo; Lombardi, Annamaria; Valoroso, Luisa; Latorre, Diana; Marzorati, Simone

    2017-04-01

    The 2016 seismic sequence consists so far of a series of moderate to large earthquakes that within three month's time activated a 60 km long segmented normal fault system located in the Central Italy and almost contiguous to the 1997 Colfiorito and 2009 L'Aquila normal fault systems. The first mainshock of the sequence occurred with MW6.0 on the 24th of August at 01:36 UTC close to the Accumoli and Amatrice villages producing evidence for centimetres' surface ruptures along the Mt. Vettore normal fault outcrop. Two months later on the 26th of October at 19:18 UTC another mainshock with MW5.9 occurred 25 km to the north activating another normal fault segment approximately on the along strike continuation of the first structure. Then, four days later on the 30th of October at 06:40 UTC the largest shock of the sequence with MW6.5 close to Norcia, in the middle part of the fault system activated two months before. We reconstruct the first order anatomy of the activated normal faults system, by analysing the spatial and temporal distribution of 25,354 aftershocks with 0.1central portion it starts at about 6-7 km of depth to the west, reaching almost 12km to the east thus showing a gentle dip to the east. The variability observed all along the fault system in the anatomy of

  7. Is marriage loosing its centrality in Italy?

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    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Unlike the countries of north-western Europe, marriage in Italy has maintained a crucial role in the process of family formation. This raise doubts about the possibility that the theory of "second demographic transition" could adequately account for the behaviour of the European population living south of the Alps. The aim of this paper is twofold: to provide some empirical evidence that cohabitation is now spreading in Italy; and to propose an explanation of the delay of its diffusion until the 1990s. The hypothesis proposed here explains the delay, not so much in terms of limited interest of the Italian youth towards this type of union, but with the convenience of the children in the Mediterranean area to avoid choices which are openly clashing with the values of parents.

  8. An attempt to separate anthropic and natural fire signals in an archaeological context-The case of the Mousterian site Grotta Reali (Rocchetta a Volturno Molise, Central Italy)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiaoyu CUI; Laurent MARQUER; Marta ARZARELLO; Vincent LEBRETON

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an image analysis method for automated quantification of charcoal total area,focusing on the charcoal fractions less than 160μm observed on 14 pollen slides from Grotta Reali samples.Four fire signals were recorded with 4 high values in the microcharcoal concentration curve. On the basis of modern microcharcoal study, mean length/width ratio of the microcharcoal particles was applied in an archeological context as an indicator of vegetal type (wood, grass or leaves). Therefore, the 4 fire signals were separated into two types: high concentration with high length/width ratio,and high concentration with low length/width ratio. Two fire signals might be interpreted as anthropic fire based on hearth or combustion areas, as inferred from archeological remains.

  9. THE ALLIANCE TRACHYNION DISTACHYAE RIVAS-MARTINEZ 1978 IN CENTRAL ITALYIN CENTRAL ITALY

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    M. DE SANCTIS

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The therophytic basiphilous vegetation of Central Italy has been generally framed in a single association Trifolio scabri- Hypochoeridetum achyrophori Biondi et al. 1997. We show that a considerable floristic variation exists inside Trifolio-Hypochoeridetum in Central Italy, and that it should be treated as a complex of no less than five different associations: Medicagini rigidulae-Trifolietum scabri Fanelli et al. hoc loco, Trifolio scabri-Hypochoeridetum achyrophori Biondi, Izco. Ballelli & Formica 1997 s.s, Hippocrepido siliquosae- Brachypodietum distachyi Fanelli et al. ad interim, Trigonello gladiatae-Brachypodietum distachyi Fanelli et al. hoc loc, Crucianello latifoliae-Hypochoeridetum achyrophori Filesi, Blasi, Di Marzio 1996. These associations are floristically and ecologically distinct, and show different geographical ranges in Central Italy. The great diversity of Trachynion distachyae in Central Italy is related to the widespread occurrence of limestone and calcareous alluvial rocks and to a climate with abundant winter and autumn rains very favourable to the development of winter annuals.

  10. A tectonomagnetic effect detected in Central Italy

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    P. Palangio

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Significant variations in the absolute value of the geomagnetic field intensity related to tectonic events, as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, have been observed in several cases. To detect such a tectonomagnetic effect related to seismic activity, a seismomagnetic network was installed by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica (ING in the Abruzzi region (CentraI Italy, in July 1989. This area is being uplifting since the Pliocene. A logistic compromise between geophysical requirements and the electrified railway system tracks distribution led to the installation of five total magnetic field intensity data acquisition sites. From July 1989 to September 1992 geomagnetic intensity data were simultaneously recorded at all stations and compared to that recorded at the L'Aquila Observatory, located in the same area. A variation of about 10 nT in the absolute level of the geomagnetic field was measured at two stations located on the eastern side of the network. We suggest that the detected magnetic anomaly could resuIt from aseismic-changes in crustal stress during this time.

  11. Roost selection by barbastelle bats (Barbastella barbastellus, Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae in beech woodlands of central Italy

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    Danilo Russo

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The barbastelle bat, Barbastella barbastellus (Schreber, 1774 is a medium-sized, tree-dwelling vespertilionid classified as ?Endangered? in Italy; in western Europe it may be one of the rarest bat species. B. barbastellus shows roosting preferences that should be regarded as a key point in conservation protocols. We examined roost selection in a breeding population of B. barbastellus from the Abruzzo Lazio and Molise National Park (central Italy at three levels: woodland structure and management type; tree characteristics; and cavity characteristics. In 2001-2002, we fitted 31 adult B. barbastellus (29 lactating females, one pregnant female and one male with 0.48g radio-tags and tracked them to their roost-trees. The bats were tracked for 4.5 ± 3.7 days (range: 0-12 days. We located 33 roosts used by 25 subjects (1.8±1.2 roosts/bat, range 1-5. The bats switched roosts frequently: 13 bats used more than one tree over the study period. A chi-square analysis showed that the roosts were not distributed at random across woodland categories: unmanaged woodland was positively selected, whereas shelterwood-harvested woodland was used in proportion to its availability, and ?pastures+scattered trees? was avoided. Twenty out of 33 roost trees were dead Fagus sylvatica trees; conversely, living F. sylvatica dominated in a tree sample obtained at random; dead trees were used more than expected (Χ² test, P <0.001. Overall, roost trees were significantly taller and had a larger diameter at breast?s height and more cavities than random trees; they also had a lower percent canopy closure than random trees. To highlight which variables were actually associated with selection, we devised a logistic regression model. The full model was significant (P <0.001; removal of tree type and tree height affected the model significantly, but the other variables did not produce detectable effects. The

  12. Sustainability of pasta production under future climate in Central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Marta, Anna; Baldi, Ada; Orlandini, Simone; Calanca, Pierluigi; Altobelli, Filiberto

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, the impact of future climate on pasta green water footprint (WF) was assessed. The model DSSAT CERES-Wheat was applied to simulate the production of rainfed winter durum wheat in Val d'Orcia (Central Italy), which provides the raw material for making traditional Italian pasta. The model was calibrated and validated for a 15-years period and used to estimate wheat yield and grain green WF. Further, the processing of grain for pasta making was analysed and taken into account for the calculation of the WF of final product. Then, the model was applied on future climate scenarios created with the stochastic generator LARS-WG, starting from a set of ENSEMBLES scenarios. The trend of wheat WF was analysed and the sustainability of the production of pasta in Central Italy was investigated and discussed.

  13. Crustal blocks and seismicity in the Central Apennines of Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bella, F.; Della Monica, G. (Rome, Univ. ' Roma III' (Italy). Dip di Fisica ' E. Amaldi' ); Caputo, M. (Rome, Univ. ' La Sapienza' (Italy). Dip. di Fisica ' E. Fermi' )

    Kinematics and geo dynamics of crustal-block structures separated by compliant zones with viscoelastic rheology play an important role in defining the conditions for many deformation events such as ordinary seismic ruptures, silent and slow earthquakes and aseismic fault creep phenomena. New seismological data from the Latium-Abruzzi carbonatic platform of central Italy fit a block-tectonic modelling previously proposed for this area on the basis of structural and paleomagnetic evidences.

  14. The Energy Networks Landscape. Impacts on Rural Land in the Molise Region

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    Donatella Cialdea

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper concerns the study of the energy infrastructure that have the most impact on rural land. The analysis focuses on the systems for wind power and ground–mounted photovoltaic plants.The case study is the Region of Molise, in Southern Italy. This Region is an emblematic case because it has a significant number of installations as seen in relationship with the whole national territory. The case becomes even more special with reference to local guidelines that have undergone successive formulations, precisely in relation to the installation in specific areas of the Region. The study analyzes current national and regional rules and it proposes a methodology to support Local Authorities especially in relation to the definition of landscape quality aims, that the new Regional Landscape Plan must provide.

  15. Central bank independence in Italy and in Europe

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    A. JOZZO

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The problems concerning the relationship between monetary authorities, executive and legislative powers is currently at the centre of a political and economic debate, both at the national and at the European level. At the European level the progress of economic and monetary integration raises the issue of the autonomy of monetary authorities in charge of currency management. At the national level the need to improve Italy’s economy and reduce inflation explains the proposal to increase the Bank of Italy’s independence with respect to the Treasury. These two aspects are, however, interdependent. The present work makes reference to the post-war debate that took place in Germany regarding the reconstruction of a central bank, in order to analyse the present issue of central bank independence in Italy and Europe.

  16. Human exposure to piroplasms in Central and Northern Italy

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    Simona Gabrielli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A serosurvey has been conducted in Northern and Central Italy to investigate the presence in humans of antibodies against zoonotic Babesia and Theileria species. The study focused on a total of 432 volunteers, of which 290 were persistently exposed to tick bites because of their jobs (forester employees, livestock keepers, veterinary practitioners, farmers and hunters and 142 resident in the same area less frequently exposed. An indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT for humans was used to detect antibodies to Babesia microti, IFAT tests for veterinary use were modified to detect reactivity to Babesia bovis, Babesia canis and Theileria equi. A laboratory-derived ELISA was employed to detect antibodies to Babesia divergens. Both reactive and 10 negative sera were analysed against plasmodial antigens to evaluate possible aspecificity. A high reactivity to piroplasm antigens was found, showing significant difference between the sera of the two groups of volunteers (24% vs 7.0%; p<0.001. No cross-reactivity was observed, while each professional group showed reactivity that would fit with the professional risk exposure. In particular, a high reactivity to B. microti and B. divergens antigens was observed in foresters and hunters (32% and 12%, respectively. This is the first report on the human seroreactivity to piroplasms in Italy; it also provides additional epidemiological information on these tick-borne zoonoses in Europe. Our findings suggest the possible occurrence of piroplasm infections in Italy and alert physicians to consider these otherwise neglected parasitic diseases when dealing with any febrile illness, especially in subjects exposed to tick bites.

  17. Regional sinkhole susceptibility maps: The Latium Region case (central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Vigna, F.; Teoli, P.; Mazza, R.; Leoni, G.; Capelli, G.

    2012-04-01

    Several and frequent studies were internationally presented about landslide susceptibility, meanwhile in literature is missing a broad diffusion of studies regarding sinkhole susceptibility. That's why sinkhole recurrence depends on several geological conditions related to specific geological and hydrogeological context (sinkhole prone area) that vary case by case. Notwithstanding this regionalization problem of sinkhole recurrence, in the central Appenine sedimentary basins (Italy) a certain number of geological, geomorphologic and hydrogeological conditions (sinkhole predisposing issues) can be considered in common between the surveyed sinkholes. Eventually this could be compared with similar geological conditions and sinkhole occurrence in the rest of Italy or in other countries. In this case study is presented a probabilistic approach regarding the Latium Region deriving from the comparison between the regional sinkhole inventory realized during a precedent project and the dataset of the new Hydrogeological Map of Latium Region (scale 1:100.000). Indexed elements, chosen because associated to the majority of sinkhole phenomena, are: outcropping lithologies, water table depth, main faults (even if buried), hydrothermal springs, land use and the epicentres of recent earthquakes. These indexed elements were weighted and combined in a matrix which preliminary result is the sinkhole susceptibility map of Latium Region. When definitively validated, this approach could be suitable for local authorities to planning more targeted studies in major hazard areas.

  18. Endoparasites of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magi, M; Macchioni, F; Dell'omodarme, M; Prati, M C; Calderini, P; Gabrielli, S; Iori, A; Cancrini, G

    2009-07-01

    A parasitologic study on 129 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from Tuscany (central Italy) was carried out in 2004-2006. Five intestinal species were found at necropsy: Dipylidium caninum (prevalence 57.3%), Mesocestoides lineatus (45.4%), Uncinaria stenocephala (39.1%), Toxocara canis (9.1%), and Toxascaris leonina (5.4%). Other parasites not associated with the intestine included Crenosoma vulpis (14.7%), Capillaria aerophila (7.0%), Angiostrongylus vasorum (7.0%), and filarial parasites (17.8%). Coprologic tests were less sensitive and less specific in identifying parasites than direct examinations at necropsy. Trichinella larvae were not found in muscles submitted to artificial digestion. By immunologic assay, antigens of Echinococcus spp. were detected in fecal samples of 20 foxes, but results could not be confirmed by fecal examination or molecular tests.

  19. Amphibians of the Simbruini Mountains (Latium, Central Italy

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    Pierangelo Crucitti

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Little attention has been paid to the herpetological fauna of the Simbruini Mountains Regional Park, Latium (Central Italy. In this study, we surveyed 50 sites in the course of about ten years of field research, especially during the period 2005-2008. Nine amphibian species, four Caudata and five Anura, 60.0% out of the 15 amphibian species so far observed in Latium, were discovered in the protected area: Salamandra salamandra, Salamandrina perspicillata, Lissotriton vulgaris, Triturus carnifex, Bombina pachypus, Bufo balearicus, Bufo bufo, Rana dalmatina, Rana italica. Physiography of sites has been detailed together with potential threatening patterns. For each species the following topics have been discussed; ecology of sites, altitudinal distribution, phenology, sintopy. Salamandra salamandra and Bombina pachypus are at higher risk. The importance of the maintenance of artificial/natural water bodies for the conservation management of amphibian population of this territory is discussed.

  20. Indoor radon concentration in geothermal areas of central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciolini, R; Mazed, D

    2010-09-01

    The indoor radon ((222)Rn) activity concentration was measured between January and June in the schools of two geothermal areas in Tuscany, central Italy. One of these areas (the Larderello area) is characterized by a large number of geothermal power plants, covering about 9% of the world's geothermal power production. In contrast, the other area, Monte Pisano, has not any such facilities. About 250 measurements were made using track etch detectors. Only a slight difference in the concentrations between the two major sampling areas (98 Bq m(-3) for Larderello area and 43 Bq m(-3) for Monte Pisano area) was found, and this was related to different geological characteristics of the ground and not the presence of the geothermal plants. The measured radon concentrations were always well below the intervention levels in both areas, and health risks for students and personnel in the examined schools were excluded. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Investigation on the occurrence of Echinococcus multilocularis in Central Italy

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    Grifoni Goffredo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies on geographic distribution of Echinococcus multilocularis in Europe show that it has a wider range than previously thought. It is unclear, however, if the wider distribution is due to its recent spreading or to a lack of previous data from the new areas. Italy, previously considered E. multilocularis-free, is now part of these new areas: infected foxes (the main definitive host of the tapeworm have been observed in a Northern Alpine territory. Thus, more surveys need to be done in other Italian regions in order to monitor the spreading of E. multilocularis. The aim of the present study was to look for this parasite in 283 foxes collected in an Apennine area of Central Italy by different diagnostic methods. Results The foxes were heavily parasitized by 11 helminthic genera, but none of the animals was infected by E. multilocularis neither by E. granulosus (harboured adult worms or their DNA. Low specificity was observed in commercially available ELISA kits for the detection of E. multilocularis antigens in the faeces. Molecular diagnostics were sensitive and specific for the detection and identification of tapeworm eggs in faeces, but less sensitive, although specific, to adult tapeworms in the intestinal content. Conclusion Preliminarily, we can say that no E. multilocularis could be found in the study area. These data will enable us to follow temporal changes of the spatial distribution of the parasite in the study area of the Central Apennines. Due to its low specificity the ELISA kit for E. multilocularis coproantigens is not suitable for epidemiological surveys, whereas molecular diagnostics applied to faecal samples give useful results. Finally, absence of E. granulosus in foxes living in the endemic areas studied confirms the thought that this tapeworm prefers a different definitive host.

  2. The 2016 Central Italy Earthquake - A historic comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Andreas; Daniell, James; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2017-04-01

    In 2016, a sequence of three major seismic events hit Central Italy, the first of those, the so-called Amatrice earthquake killed almost 300 people and left several towns in ruins. The event was followed by a sequence of aftershocks which peaked with 2 sequential ruptures to the North-West. The 2016 sequence was located spatially in between the 1997 Umbria Marche sequence and the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake. Even after the first event in 2016, a seismic gap to the North indicated a potential continuation of the event sequence, which proved true only 2 months later. The spatial and temporal distribution of the sequence is compared with the events of 1997 and 2009. Here, the spatial pattern reveals parts of the local fault structure, showing how individual segments of the Central Italian fault system rupture piece-by-piece. The seismological characteristics between the 2016, 2009 and 1997 sequences are resolved and compared in detail. Intensity prediction relationships for all these events are computed and compared based on the INGV intensity surveys. After this sequence, the question of future events arises and considering the general convergence of the Central Italian fault system, the slip deficit has been derived indicating potential locations for future earthquakes.

  3. Landslide vulnerability criteria: a case study from Umbria, central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Mirco; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2007-10-01

    Little is known about the vulnerability to landslides, despite landslides causing frequent and widespread damage to the population and the built-up environment in many areas of the world. Lack of information about vulnerability to landslides limits our ability to determine landslide risk. This paper provides information on the vulnerability of buildings and roads to landslides in Umbria, central Italy. Information on 103 landslides of the slide and slide-earth flow types that have resulted in damage to buildings and roads at 90 sites in Umbria is used to establish dependencies between the area of the landslide and the vulnerability to landslides. The dependencies obtained are applied in the hills surrounding the town of Collazzone, in central Umbria, an area for which a detailed landslide inventory map is available. By exploiting the landslide inventory and the established vulnerability curves, the geographical distribution of the vulnerability to landslides is mapped and statistics of the expected damage are calculated. Reliability and limits of the vulnerability thresholds and of the obtained vulnerability assessment are discussed.

  4. Traditional phytotherapy in Central Italy (Marche, Abruzzo, and Latium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarrera, Paolo Maria

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the more significant results of extensive ethnopharmacobotanical research carried out by the author in the years 1977-2000 in 175 localities of three regions of Central Italy (Marche, Abruzzo, and Latium) have been reported and compared. The usages of 80 species belonging to 36 families are described, of which 71 were used in human therapy and 29 in veterinary medicine. Uses are suited with the number of localities in which they have been mentioned. Among the wild plant mainly still used, Malva sylvestris, Urtica dioica, and Sambucus nigra are particularly highly considered, while major uses of plants concern these plants in addition to Allium sativum, Rubus ulmifolius, Parietaria diffusa, Cynodon dactylon, and Ficus carica. Unusual phytotherapic uses concern Brassica oleracea, Taraxacum officinale (warts), Ruscus aculeatus, S. nigra (chilblains), Allium cepa (chilblains; to remove thorns and splinters), Juglans regia, R. ulmifolius (burns), and Euphorbia paralias (bites of weevers). Among new uses with only one quotation, we remember Cirsium arvense (intestinal disturbances), Centaurea bracteata (cough), Lupinus albus (calluses), Melittis melissophyllum (eye inflammations, antispasmodic), and Artemisia absinthium (tendon inflammations), while among plants employed in various regions with interesting less-known properties, there are C. arvense (emergency haemostatic), P. diffusa (insect bites), and Scrophularia canina (antiseptic and cicatrizing agent for wounds in bovines and sheep).

  5. Deep structures and carbon dioxide degassing in central Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiodini, G.; Frondini, F.; Ponziani, F. [Perugia Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Earth Sciences

    1995-02-01

    In Tyrrhenian Central Italy large amounts of CO{sub 2} are produced at depth mainly by metamorphism of marine carbonate rocks. During their ascent, the gases are trapped in deep structures, made up of Mesozoic permeable limestones covered by impermeable terrains, which become sources of a high CO{sub 2} flux toward the surface. The anomalous CO{sub 2} concentrations are detectable in groundwaters. The general map of the groundwater PCO{sub 2} values shows a decrease in the CO{sub 2} production moving from the western geothermal areas of Tuscany and Latium to the eastern sector, which is characterized by a normal heat flow. The PCO{sub 2} distribution suggests that the NW-SE extensional faults, which bound Plio-Pleistocene grabens, provide the easiest routes for the gas ascent. The geological, geophysical and geothermal deep drilling data suggest that the CO{sub 2} anomalies found in the western sector correspond to deep permeable structures of possible geothermal interest. (author)

  6. Colorectal cancer incidence rates have decreased in central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocetti, Emanuele; Buzzoni, Carlotta; Zappa, Marco

    2010-11-01

    We analyzed colorectal cancer incidence data from the Tuscany Cancer Registry, central Italy, for the period 1985-2005. We carried out a trend analysis through a Joinpoint regression analysis, and summarized trends as annual percent change (APC) of the standardized (European standard) rates. Colorectal incidence rates increased until 1996 (APC=+1.4, 95% CI: 0.8-1.9), then decreased significantly (APC=-1.1, 95% CI: -0.8 to -0.4). The change was detected as statistically significant in the age group of 54+ years. Among younger individuals, we observed an increasing incidence until 2003. In the same geographical area, a colorectal screening programme has been active from 1982; it was initially based on guaiac faecal occult blood testing (GFOBT) and on immunological testing (IFOBT) since the mid 1990s. The decline in colorectal cancer incidence since 1996, in the whole population and especially among individuals older than 54 years, may suggest the effect of FOBT screening in terms of precancerous polyps removal.

  7. Winter survival of Eurasian woodcock Scolopax rusticola in central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aradis, A.; Miller, M.W.; Landucci, G.; Ruda, P.; Taddei, S.; Spina, F.

    2008-01-01

    The Eurasian woodcock Scolopax rusticola is a popular game bird in much of Europe. However, little is known about its population dynamics. We estimated winter survival of woodcock in a protected area with no hunting in central Italy. We radio-tagged 68 woodcocks with battery-powered radio-transmitters during 2001-2005. Woodcocks were captured in fields at night from November through February and fitted with radios. Birds were classified on capture as juveniles or adults using plumage characteristics. Woodcocks were relocated daily through March of each year or until they died, disappeared from the study area, or until their radio failed. We constructed a set of eight competing models of daily survival for the period 1 December - 28 February. Estimates of survival were obtained using the program SURVIV and Akaike's Information Criteria. The best model suggested daily survival was a constant 0.9985 (95% CI = 0.9972-0.9998), corresponding to a survival rate of 0.88 (SE = 0.05) for the 90-day winter study period. Our estimate of juvenile survival is higher than previously reported, and may reflect the protected status of the study area. Our estimates of winter survival may be helpful in managing harvested woodcock populations as well as in conserving populations in an increasingly urbanised environment. ?? Wildlife Biology (2008).

  8. Shrines in Central Italy conserve plant diversity and large trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frascaroli, Fabrizio; Bhagwat, Shonil; Guarino, Riccardo; Chiarucci, Alessandro; Schmid, Bernhard

    2016-05-01

    Sacred natural sites (SNS) are instances of biocultural landscapes protected for spiritual motives. These sites frequently host important biological values in areas of Asia and Africa, where traditional resource management is still upheld by local communities. In contrast, the biodiversity value of SNS has hardly been quantitatively tested in Western contexts, where customs and traditions have relatively lost importance due to modernization and secularization. To assess whether SNS in Western contexts retain value for biodiversity, we studied plant species composition at 30 SNS in Central Italy and compared them with a paired set of similar but not sacred reference sites. We demonstrate that SNS are important for conserving stands of large trees and habitat heterogeneity across different land-cover types. Further, SNS harbor higher plant species richness and a more valuable plant species pool, and significantly contribute to diversity at the landscape scale. We suggest that these patterns are related not only to pre-existent features, but also to traditional management. Conservation of SNS should take into account these specificities, and their cultural as well as biological values, by supporting the continuation of traditional management practices.

  9. Check list, status e conservazione dei mammiferi in Molise ed aree limitrofe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mancini

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Le condizioni ambientali della regione Molise, grazie ad una evidente riduzione delle attività agricole, zootecniche e della pressione venatoria, durante gli ultimi decenni sono migliorate determinando un incremento quali-quantitativo delle aree naturali e seminaturali. Tali circostanze hanno per il momento favorito un apprezzabile ?ritorno? di alcune specie di mammiferi e l?aumento delle popolazioni di altre in passato considerate a rischio. Tale situazione si è resa possibile anche grazie alla formazione, nel passato e più recentemente, di una cortina di aree naturali protette intorno al Molise. Da qui alcune specie tentano di ricolonizzare vecchi areali dove un tempo risultavano presenti. Per la realizzazione di questo lavoro le indagini hanno riguardato essenzialmente la regione Molise tuttavia senza l?esclusione, per ragioni biogeografiche ed ecologiche, dei territori delle unità orografiche dell?Italia centrale comprese nei bacini del Sangro, del Fortore e del Volturno, quindi i monti della Daunia, del Sannio, del Matese, di Venafro, le Mainarde, della Meta, i Frentani e i colli Campanari. Tali aree hanno costituito e costituiscono tuttora importanti aree di rifugio dalle quali, attraverso alcuni corridoi faunistici, stanno avvenendo notevoli ricolonizzazioni dei territori molisani. Le ricerche sono state condotte analizzando criticamente tutta la letteratura prodotta dalla seconda metà del 1800 ad oggi, per un totale di oltre duecento titoli tra pubblicazioni storiche a carattere locale, pubblicazioni divulgative e lavori scientifici. Le segnalazioni precedenti gli anni ?70 sono state poi confrontate, verificate ed integrate, con i dati delle osservazioni condotte dagli autori negli ultimi 15 anni. Sono state altresì prese in considerazione, mediante attenta vagliatura, alcune segnalazioni raccolte da intervista. Nella check-list vengono quindi segnalate complessivamente 69 specie delle quali 10 Insettivori, 24 Chirotteri, 1

  10. GIS modeling for canine dirofilariosis risk assessment in central Italy

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    Michele Mortarino

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted in an area of central Italy in order to study the prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens in dogs. Blood samples were collected from 283 dogs and examined using a modified Knott’s technique. In addition, in order to detect D. immitis occult infection, 203 serum samples were also analysed for D. immitis antigen detection. The results were analyzed in order to evaluate the behavioural and attitudinal risk factors. A geographical information system (GIS for the study area was constructed, utilizing the following data layers: administrative boundaries, elevation, temperature, rainfall and humidity. Microfilariae were detected in 32 of the 283 dogs surveyed, constituting a total Dirofilaria prevalence of 11.3%. In particular, 20 dogs (7.1% were positive for D. immitis and 12 dogs (4.2% for D. repens microfilariae. One case of D. immitis occult infection was also detected. Choroplethic municipal maps were drawn within the GIS in order to display the distribution of each Dirofilaria species in the study area. Statistical analysis showed a significant association between Dirofilaria infection and animal attitude (hunting/truffle dogs showed a higher prevalence compared to guard/pet dogs. A higher prevalence was also recorded in 2 to 5-years old dogs. Furthermore a GIS-based modelling of climatic data, collected from 5 meteorological stations in the study area, was performed to estimate the yearly number of D. immitis generations in the mosquito vector. The results of the model as depicted by GIS analysis was highly concordant with the territorial distribution of positive dogs and showed that D. immitis spreading is markedly influenced by season. The potential transmission period in the study area was found to be confined to summer months with a peak in July and August, as expected for a temperate region where summer season is the most favourable period for the parasite.

  11. The impact of landslides in the Umbria region, central Italy

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    F. Guzzetti

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Umbria Region of Central Italy has a long history of mass movements. Landslides range from fast moving rock falls and debris flows, most abundant in mountain areas, to slow moving complex failures extending up to several hectares in the hilly part of the Region. Despite landslides occurring every year in Umbria, their impact remains largely unknown. We present an estimate of the impact of slope failures in the Umbria region based on the analysis of a catalogue of historical information on landslide events, a recent and detailed regional landslide inventory map, and three event inventories prepared after major landslide triggering events. Emphasis is given to the impact of landslides on the population, the transportation network, and the built-up areas. Analysis of the available historical information reveals that 1488 landslide events occurred at 1292 sites in Umbria between 1917 and 2001. In the same period 16 people died or were missing and 31 people were injured by slope movements. Roads and railways were damaged by slope failures at 661 sites, and 281 built-up areas suffered landslide damage. Three event inventories showing landslides triggered by high intensity rainfall events in the period 1937–1941, rapid snow melting in January 1997, and earthquakes in September–October 1997, indicate the type, abundance and distribution of damage to the population, the built-up areas and the transportation network caused by typical landslide-triggering events. Analysis of a geomorphological landslide inventory map reveals that in some of the municipalities in the region total landslide area exceeds 25%. Of the more than 45 700 landslide areas shown in the geomorphological inventory map, 4115 intersect a road or railway, and 6119 intersect a built-up area. In these areas slope failures can be expected during future landslide triggering events.

  12. In vita and at slaughter performances of kids naturally reared in Molise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Salimei

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The world importance of goat husbandry as a genetic source for the production of meat, milk, textile fibre and skin, especially in tropical and sub-tropical areas and in Developing Countries is wide documented (Husain et al., 1996. Goat rearing annually produce about 177.6 millions tons of milk (FAO, 1992 and about 3.5 millions tons of meat (FAO, 1996, with an increasing request of product, that in the last decade has driven the increase of the number of heads reared (Knights et al., 1997. Because of the peculiar behaviour of goats, the above mentioned increase has been observed mainly in Developing Countries as well as in marginal lands of the Mediterranean areas (Southern Italy and Greece, in particular. In Molise, for instance, an increase in goats consistency has been recorded over 15 years (AIA, 1997. The emerging requests by the final consumer of typical and healthy products with origin and quality certified have also contributed to the survival of certain goats population as an exploitation tool of marginal lands, otherwise voted to be abandoned...

  13. Hospital-based register of stroke in the Molise Region: focus on main subtypes of stroke. Years 2009-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacoviello, Licia; Costanzo, Simona; Persichillo, Mariarosaria; Sparano, Antonio; Bartolo, Michelangelo; Polizzi, Bianca Maria; Donati, Maria Benedetta; de Gaetano, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    We determined incidence and intra-hospital mortality rate of stroke in Molise, Italy, to provide information for planning regional healthcare facilities and to ameliorate stroke management in this region. This study is part of the "Rete Molisana dell'Ictus Cerebrale (REMOLIC)" study, a population-based Cerebrovascular Registry in Molise, from 2009 to 2013, with a cold pursuit approach. The crude annual incidence rates for total stroke per 100,000 inhabitants, notified by hospital discharge records, were 198 for 2009, 185 for 2010, 169 for 2011, and 176 for both 2012 and 2013. There was a significant decrease in risk in the years 2011-2013 [RR2011 vs. 2009: 0.85 (0.76-0.98), RR2012 vs. 2009: 0.89 (0.79-0.99), RR2013 vs. 2009: 0.89 (0.79-0.99)] as compared with 2009. For the year 2010, after adjustment to the Italian, European, and world populations, the overall incidence rates were 165, 134, and 67 per 100,000/year, respectively. Similar trends were found when men and women were analyzed separately. In the average, 20.8 % of subjects admitted for a cerebrovascular accident died during the hospitalization, among these 93.5 % in the first 28 days. The duration of hospital stay was constant in the years (2009-2012), except during 2013, where there was a significant decrease in the average (p years. This study underlines the need to plan better stroke management in Italy, in order to obtain outcomes more similar to those of the best performing countries.

  14. Overweight and Obesity among secondary school children in Central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vito, E; La Torre, G; Langiano, E; Berardi, D; Ricciardi, G

    1999-08-01

    Childhood and adolescent obesity prevalence rates have steadily increased in industrialised countries in the last 20 years. Current rates of obesity range between 6 and 30%. Several studies showed that risk factors for weight gain in school age are strongly linked to low physical activity and family environmental factors (parents' education and job, number of family members, number of hours spent on watching television, etc.). In order to plan a nutritional and health educational programme, a study was conducted on the nutritional status of the school age population of the Province of Frosinone, Central Italy, and family factors that can influence it. Three percentage of the school age population of the Province of Frosinone (2053 students) and their families were randomly sampled from the Province school district database. In each of the 12 recruited schools, a meeting with teachers and students was arranged to discuss aims and methods of research and to collect informed consent by students. Each student was interviewed about physical activity, and underwent the following measurements: height, weight, bicipital, tricipital, sub-scapular and over-iliacal skinfolds, sexual development. Students' parents were asked to answer a questionnaire about family structure, parents' educational level and job, parents' height and weight, presence in the family of pathologies as hypertension or diabetes. One thousand three hundred fifty-seven students (66% of the target population) and 1802 parents (66.5% of the responders' population) agreed to enter the study. Students' age range was 8 years (11-19 years; mean age was 14.9, SD, 2.55). Among them 8.4% were considered obese, with a higher prevalence in male population (9.8%) as compared to female population (6.5%). Of these responders, 21.4% were considered at risk of overweight with no statistical difference due to gender. Statistically significant correlations of teenagers' risk of overweight and obesity with nutritional

  15. Landslide volumes and landslide mobilization rates in Umbria, central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzetti, Fausto; Ardizzone, Francesca; Cardinali, Mauro; Rossi, Mauro; Valigi, Daniela

    2009-03-01

    A catalogue of 677 landslides of the slide type was selected from a global database of geometrical measurements of individual landslides, including landslide area ( AL) and volume ( VL). The measurements were used to establish an empirical relationship to link AL (in m 2) to VL (in m 3). The relationship takes the form of a power law with a scaling exponent α = 1.450, covers eight orders of magnitude of AL and twelve orders of magnitude of VL, and is in general agreement with existing relationships published in the literature. The reduced scatter of the experiential data around the dependency line, and the fact that the considered landslides occurred in multiple physiographic and climatic environments and were caused by different triggers, indicate that the relationship between VL and AL is largely independent of the physiographical setting. The new relationship was used to determine the volume of individual landslides of the slide type in the Collazzone area, central Italy, a 78.9 km 2 area for which a multi-temporal landslide inventory covering the 69-year period from 1937 to 2005 is available. In the observation period, the total volume of landslide material was VLT = 4.78 × 10 7 m 3, corresponding to an average rate of landslide mobilization φL = 8.8 mm yr - 1 . Exploiting the temporal information in the landslide inventory, the volume of material produced during different periods by new and reactivated landslides was singled out. The wet period from 1937 to 1941 was recognized as an episode of accelerated landslide production. During this 5-year period, approximately 45% of the total landslide material inventoried in the Collazzone area was produced, corresponding to an average rate of landslide mobilization φL = 54 mm yr - 1 , six times higher than the long term rate. The volume of landslide material in an event or period was used as a proxy for the magnitude of the event or period, defined as the logarithm (base 10) of the total landslide volume produced

  16. Food medicine and minor nourishment in the folk traditions of Central Italy (Marche, Abruzzo and Latium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarrera, Paolo Maria

    2003-09-01

    A series of research projects on wild plants used in Central Italy (Marche, Latium and Abruzzo) as food medicine and for minor nourishment was carried out in the years 1979-2000. This study reports a summary of the data personally collected in the field. Minor nourishment appears to be still consistently utilised: wild plants are consumed preferably in salads, boiled or in omelettes. Some therapeutic properties are attributed by people to the alimentary plants, often documented by the scientific literature. In this study, folk alimentary and/or therapeutic food uses of 126 entities distributed among 39 families are described. Particular folk uses concerning cultivated plants are also reported. In this paper, for the first time pharmacobotanical properties are systematically emphasised for the folk food species of Central Italy. References to analogous alimentary uses in Central Italy are documented. Comparisons among different food traditions are also discussed.

  17. The impact of education on wage determination between workers in southern and central-northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agovino Massimiliano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine the earnings dynamic in Italy, in order to explain earnings differences between southern Italy and centralnorthern Italy. In our analysis we use different techniques: ordinary least squares (OLS, quantile regression models and the algorithm developed by Machado and Mata (2005. In particular, the Machado and Mata (2005 algorithm allows us to examine the relative importance of both differences in workers’ characteristics and in their returns in explaining southern, central and northern Italy earnings differences at a point in time, as well as across time within each macro-area. We focus on the role of differences in educational endowment and returns to education, one of the most important components of human capital in the stylised literature. The level of education determines the substantial disparities in terms of wage returns. However, this holds only for levels of education related to compulsory education.

  18. How many otters are there in Italy?

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    Claudio Prigioni

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract
    Mapping available data about otter (Lutra lutra distribution according to the 10x10 km grid of the IGMI (Italian Geographical Military Institute national maps on the scale of 1:25000, we evaluated a current otter range of 9900 km2, disjoined in two areas: Molise region in central Italy, and Basilicata, Campania, Calabria and Apulia in southern Italy. Considering the results of an otter genetic census performed in the Pollino National Park and surroundings (southern Italy in 2004, we extrapolated the values of otter density found (0.18-0.20 otters/km of watercourse to the overall Italian otter range and to the linear development of the watercourses hosting otters (3313 km. The correspondent estimates of the Italian population size amounted to, respectively, 481-523 and 596-663 otters. Considering a correction factor based on the mean sprainting intensity reported, since 2000, for each catchment hosting otters, the estimated population size was reduced to 229-257 otters. We argue that a new extensive otter survey is urgently needed and that monitoring by non-invasive genetic sampling is recommended in order to define the population status and trend.
    Riassunto
    Quante lontre ci sono in Italia? I dati disponibili relativamente alla distribuzione della Lontra (Lutra lutra in Italia, sono stati mappati secondo il reticolo 10 x 10 km IGMI (Istituto Geografico Militare Italiano in scala 1:25000, ottenendo un areale complessivo di 9900 km2, suddiviso tra il Molise (Italia centrale e Puglia, Campania, Basilicata e Calabria (Italia meridionale. I valori di densità della specie (0,18 – 0,20 lontre/km di fiume ottenuti nel 2004 in un’ampia area, perlopiù compresa nel Parco Nazionale del Pollino, sono quindi stati estrapolati alla superficie complessiva dell’areale italiano e alla lunghezza totale dei corsi d’acqua attualmente frequentati dalla Lontra (3313 km. La consistenza della

  19. Assessing soil-structure interaction during the 2016 central Italy seismic sequence (Italy: preliminary results

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    Arrigo Caserta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We used the moderate-magnitude aftershocks succeeding to the 2016 August 24th, Mw = 6.0, Amatrice (Italy mainshok to asses, specially during an ongoing seismic sequence, the soil-structure interaction where cultural Heritage is involved. We have chosen as case study the San Giovanni Battista church (A.D. 1039  in Acquasanta Terme town, about 20 Km northeast of Amatrice. First of all we studied the soil shaking features in order to characterize the input to the monument. Then, using the recordings in the church, we tried to figure out  how the input seismic energy is distributed over the different monument parts. Some preliminary results are shown and discussed.

  20. Decapod crustacean assemblages off the West coast of central Italy (western Mediterranean

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    Emanuela Fanelli

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Community structure and faunal composition of decapod crustaceans off the west coast of central Italy (western Mediterranean were investigated. Samples were collected during five trawl surveys carried out from June 1996 to June 2000 from 16 to 750 m depth. Multivariate analysis revealed the occurrence of five faunistic assemblages: 1 a strictly coastal community over sandy bottoms at depths

  1. Outstanding accumulation of Sphagnum palustre in central-southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Laura; Zaccone, Claudio

    2017-04-01

    Lake Fibreno is a site where some outstanding anomalies for the flora and vegetation of the wetlands of peninsular Italy are concentrated. Here one the southernmost European population of Sphagnum palustre occurs, and is restricted on the surface of a free-floating island, i.e., a round-shaped portion of fen (with a core of Sphagnum), erratically floating on the surface of a submerged sinkhole. Geological evidences point out the existence in the area of a large lacustrine basin since Late Pleistocene. The progressive filling of the lake, caused by changing in climatic conditions and neotectonic events, resulted in the formation of peat deposits in the area, following different depositional cycles in a swampy environment. So that, the studied free-floating island, probably originated around lake margins in the waterlogged area, was somehow isolated from the bank and started to float. Once the separation occurred, sedge peat stopped to accumulate, thus enhancing the role of S. palustre as the main peat-forming plant. The vegetation occurring at the moment of the isolation of the island was a coverage of Salix cinerea/Populus tremula stands below which cushions of moss and, in a lower extent, Thelypteris palustris/Equisetum palustre accumulated resulting in the formation of 2-3 meters of peat dominated by reeds and sedges. This vegetation has been partially degraded by grazing until 1970s, while in 1980s the lake became a nature reserve. Since then, the succession could resume in a spontaneous and natural way and it was possible for the vegetation to recover to natural dynamics and growing rate. The Sphagnum tussocks were measured in an empirical way at a distance of about 60 years after the last signaling and the result was a measurement of an accretion open to about 70 cm thick. Moreover, in a recent study, a 4-m deep peat core was collected from the centre of the island and results were surprising. In fact, 14C age dating, confirmed using 210Pb and 137Cs, showed

  2. Essential oil composition and antioxidant activity of aerial parts of Grindelia robusta from Central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraternale, Daniele; Giamperi, Laura; Bucchini, Anahi; Ricci, Donata

    2007-09-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from Grindelia robusta aerial parts from central Italy was analyzed by GC and GC/MS and 45 components were identified. Borneol (15.2%), alpha pinene (10.3%), trans-pinocarveol (7.0%), bornyl acetate (4.5%), limonene (4.3%) were the main components. The antioxidant activity of the essential oil was evaluated using the DPPH and 5-lipoxygenase tests.

  3. Quaternary Geology and Surface Faulting Hazard: Active and Capable Faults in Central Apennines, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcucci, E.; Gori, S.

    2015-12-01

    The 2009 L'Aquila earthquake (Mw 6.1), in central Italy, raised the issue of surface faulting hazard in Italy, since large urban areas were affected by surface displacement along the causative structure, the Paganica fault. Since then, guidelines for microzonation were drew up that take into consideration the problem of surface faulting in Italy, and laying the bases for future regulations about related hazard, similarly to other countries (e.g. USA). More specific guidelines on the management of areas affected by active and capable faults (i.e. able to produce surface faulting) are going to be released by National Department of Civil Protection; these would define zonation of areas affected by active and capable faults, with prescriptions for land use planning. As such, the guidelines arise the problem of the time interval and general operational criteria to asses fault capability for the Italian territory. As for the chronology, the review of the international literature and regulatory allowed Galadini et al. (2012) to propose different time intervals depending on the ongoing tectonic regime - compressive or extensional - which encompass the Quaternary. As for the operational criteria, the detailed analysis of the large amount of works dealing with active faulting in Italy shows that investigations exclusively based on surface morphological features (e.g. fault planes exposition) or on indirect investigations (geophysical data), are not sufficient or even unreliable to define the presence of an active and capable fault; instead, more accurate geological information on the Quaternary space-time evolution of the areas affected by such tectonic structures is needed. A test area for which active and capable faults can be first mapped based on such a classical but still effective methodological approach can be the central Apennines. Reference Galadini F., Falcucci E., Galli P., Giaccio B., Gori S., Messina P., Moro M., Saroli M., Scardia G., Sposato A. (2012). Time

  4. Landslide hazard assessment in the Collazzone area, Umbria, Central Italy

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    F. Guzzetti

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of the application of a recently proposed model to determine landslide hazard. The model predicts where landslides will occur, how frequently they will occur, and how large they will be in a given area. For the Collazzone area, in the central Italian Apennines, we prepared a multi-temporal inventory map through the interpretation of multiple sets of aerial photographs taken between 1941 and 1997 and field surveys conducted in the period between 1998 and 2004. We then partitioned the 79 square kilometres study area into 894 slope units, and obtained the probability of spatial occurrence of landslides by discriminant analysis of thematic variables, including morphology, lithology, structure and land use. For each slope unit, we computed the expected landslide recurrence by dividing the total number of landslide events inventoried in the terrain unit by the time span of the investigated period. Assuming landslide recurrence was constant, and adopting a Poisson probability model, we determined the exceedance probability of having one or more landslides in each slope unit, for different periods. We obtained the probability of landslide size, a proxy for landslide magnitude, by analysing the frequency-area statistics of landslides, obtained from the multi-temporal inventory map. Lastly, assuming independence, we determined landslide hazard for each slope unit as the joint probability of landslide size, of landslide temporal occurrence, and of landslide spatial occurrence.

  5. Chemical analysis of essential oils from different parts of Ferula communis L. growing in central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggi, Filippo; Papa, Fabrizio; Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Nicoletti, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    Ferula communis is a showy herbaceous plant typical of the Mediterranean area where it is used as a traditional medicine. The plant is a source of bioactive compounds such as daucane sesquiterpenes and prenylated coumarins. In Italy, most of phytochemical studies focused on Sardinian populations where poisonous and nonpoisonous chemotypes were found, while investigations on peninsular populations are scarce. In this work, we report the chemical characterisation of the essential oils obtained from different parts of F. communis growing in central Italy. The chemical profiles of the plant parts, as detected by GC-FID and GC-MS, were different from each other and from those reported in insular populations. Notably, α-pinene (10.5%), γ-terpinene (7.6%) and hedycariol (8.4%) were the major volatile constituents in flowers; α-pinene (55.9%), β-pinene (16.8%) and myrcene (5.9%) in fruits; β-eudesmol (12.1%), α-eudesmol (12.1%) and hedycariol (10.3%) in leaves; (E)-β-farnesene (9.5%), β-cubebene (8.2%) and (E)-caryophyllene (7.2%) in roots. The volatile profiles detected did not allow to classify the investigated central Italy population into the poisonous and nonpoisonous chemotypes previously described in Sardinia.

  6. Inflammatory bowel diseases and the general practitioner’s role in a region of Central Italy

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    Paolo Sossai

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Paolo Sossai1,2, Fabio Filippetti3, Ali Ahmad Muselmani4, Giambattista Catalini41Department of Medicine, “Enrico Mattei” Hospital, Viale Europa, I-62024 Matelica, Italy; 2Center of Clinical Research, Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Camerino, Via M Scalzino, 3, I-62032 Camerino, Italy; 3Epidemiological Unit, Marche Region, Via Gentile da Fabriano, 3, I-60125 Ancona, Italy; 4Department of Surgery, General Hospital, Via Caselle, I-62032 Camerino, ItalyBackground: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD are a serious burden for both patients and health care providers because of the young age at which they occur and their chronic course.Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess how general practitioners (GPs in the area of Camerino-Matelica, Marche (Central Italy manage their patients with IBD.Materials and methods: Before providing an educational course about IBD to GPs, we administered a simple questionnaire containing 10 multiple-choice questions, allowing for only one possible answer, to GPs in the target area. After the educational course we administered a satisfaction questionnaire and evaluated the hospitalization rates for IBD in the catchment area in the year following the course.Results: In our GP sample, 71.8% indicated that they needed better instruction regarding IBD to enable them to diagnose the conditions given the difficulties posed by nonspecific symptoms and the need to use invasive diagnostic methods such as colonoscopy. Early results after the educational course for GPs indicate a reduced rate of hospitalization for IBD but these data must be confirmed by future research.Conclusions: If specialists and GPs managed IBD patients more carefully, their patients would probably suffer from fewer relapses and would have a better quality of life, which would be likely to mean considerable cost savings for the public health care system and society in general.Keywords: inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn’s disease

  7. Preliminary earthquake focal mechanism forecasts for the Amatrice sequence (central Italy

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    Pamela Roselli

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We place the Amatrice (central Italy seismic sequence and the related epicentral area in a contest of Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA. We apply a procedure to compute the probability to observe in the future a normal, reverse or strike-slip event and the average distribution of the P, T and N axes. This is a fundamental step to reduce the uncertainty connected to the Ground Motion Prediction Equation models, part of PSHA. For this purpose we use a significant focal mechanism catalogue and the latest present-day stress field data release for Italy to produce forecasted information that we compare with the equivalent data observed during the sequence.

  8. Prostate cancer incidence rates have started to decrease in central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocetti, Emanuele; Ciatto, Stefano; Buzzoni, Carlotta; Zappa, Marco

    2010-01-01

    The widespread use of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing has dramatically changed the epidemiology of prostate cancer. Growing incidence rates have been documented in almost all western countries following the increased usage of PSA screening. In the United States after a period of huge increase in incidence, rates have decreased to values lower than those of the pre-PSA era. Similar changes have been documented also in the area of the Tuscany Cancer Registry, central Italy, where prostate cancer incidence rates doubled from the early 1990s to 2003 and afterwards decreased. This is the first evidence, to our knowledge, of a decline in prostate cancer incidence in Italy following the screening-related increase.

  9. Magnetic variation analysis for the June 1993 seismic events in Central Italy

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    M. Marchetti

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available A scientific collaboration between the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica (Italy and the Warsaw Academy of Science (Poland gave rise to the installation of a few stations for the long-term measurement of magnetotelluric fields in Central Italy. The investigation sites were determined following the individual seismic interest of each location. For this project, the magnetic observatory in L'Aquila was also equipped with electric lines, for simultaneous measurements of the telluric field. After a few years of experience some of the installed stations had to be removed for their high noise level that made this study almost impossible. A first time interval was considered from January 1992 to February 1993 and showed the existence of significant changes in magnetotelluric parameters related to earthquake occurrence time, an extension of that analysis was made to include the event of June 1993 using the magnetic field time variation.

  10. Presence of Hepatitis E Virus in a RED Deer (Cervus elaphus) Population in Central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bartolo, I; Ponterio, E; Angeloni, G; Morandi, F; Ostanello, F; Nicoloso, S; Ruggeri, F M

    2017-02-01

    Hepatitis E is an acute human disease caused by the hepatitis E virus (HEV). In addition to humans, HEV has been detected in several animal species and is recognized as a zoonotic pathogen. Pigs, wild boar and deer can be reservoir. In this study, we evaluated HEV prevalence in a free-living red deer (Cervus elaphus) population in central Italy by detecting virus-specific antibodies and RNA in sera. A total of 35 of 251 red deer sera were positive for anti-HEV IgG. HEV RNA was detected in 10 of 91 sera examined. Two genomic fragments targeted by diagnostic PCRs in the capsid region were sequenced, both matching with genotype 3 HEV. Overall results confirmed the occurrence of HEV infection in deer also in Italy.

  11. A NEW EARLY PLEISTOCENE BIRD ASSOCIATION FROM PIETRAFITTA (PERUGIA, CENTRAL ITALY

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    GILDA ZUCCHETTA

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available We here present che preliminary results of the analysis of the fossil bird assemblages found in the lignite deposits of the Pietrafitta Mine (Perugia, Central Italy. A rich vertebrate association, mainly mammals, has been retrieved in Pietrafitta, which is the richest local fauna of the Farneta Faunal Unit (late Villafranchian, early Pleistocene. Avian remains of Podicipedidae, Ardeidae, Phalacrocoracidae, Anatidae, Phasianidae and Rallidae have been identified, for most of which Pietrafitta represents the earliest occurrence in Italy. The Pietrafitta fossil bird association is the first Italian bird assemblage of the Early Pleistocene and seems to be one of the most important ones for the early Pleistocene in Europe, especially because it contains mainly aquatic birds, often rare in many other European deposits. 

  12. Tephra layers from Holocene lake sediments of the Sulmona Basin, central Italy: implications for volcanic activity in Peninsular Italy and tephrostratigraphy in the central Mediterranean area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaccio, B.; Messina, P.; Sposato, A.; Voltaggio, M.; Zanchetta, G.; Galadini, F.; Gori, S.; Santacroce, R.

    2009-12-01

    We present a new tephrostratigraphic record from the Holocene lake sediments of the Sulmona basin, central Italy. The Holocene succession is represented by whitish calcareous mud that is divided into two units, SUL2 (ca 32 m thick) and SUL1 (ca 8 m thick), for a total thickness of ca 40 m. These units correspond to the youngest two out of six sedimentary cycles recognised in the Sulmona basin that are related to the lake sedimentation since the Middle Pleistocene. Height concordant U series age determinations and additional chronological data constrain the whole Holocene succession to between ca 8000 and 1000 yrs BP. This includes a sedimentary hiatus that separates the SUL2 and SUL1 units, which is roughly dated between Ischia Island eruption of the Cannavale tephra (2920 ± 450 cal yrs BP). The 27 ash layers compatible with Mt. Somma-Vesuvius activity are clustered in three different time intervals: from ca 2000 to >1000; from 3600 to 3100; and from 7600 to 4700 yrs BP. The first, youngest cluster, comprises six layers and correlates with the intense explosive activity of Mt. Somma-Vesuvius that occurred after the prominent AD 79 Pompeii eruption, but only the near-Plinian event of AD 472 has been tentatively recognised. The intermediate cluster (3600-3100 yrs BP) starts with tephra that chemically and chronologically matches the products from the "Pomici di Avellino" eruption (ca 3800 ± 200 yrs BP). This is followed by eight further layers, where the glasses exhibit chemical features that are similar in composition to the products from the so-called "Protohistoric" or AP eruptions; however, only the distal equivalents of three AP events (AP3, AP4 and AP6) are tentatively designated. Finally, the early cluster (7600-4700 yrs BP) comprises 12 layers that contain evidence of a surprising, previously unrecognised, activity of the Mt. Somma-Vesuvius volcano during its supposed period of quiescence, between the major Plinian "Pomici di Mercato" (ca 9000 yrs BP) and

  13. Ecosystem classification for EU habitat distribution assessment in sandy coastal environments: an application in central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Maria Laura; Acosta, Alicia T R; Stanisci, Angela; Pirone, Gianfranco; Ciaschetti, Giampiero

    2008-05-01

    Many recent developments in coastal science have gone against the demands of European Union legislation. Coastal dune systems which cover small areas of the earth can host a high level of biodiversity. However, human pressure on coastal zones around the world has increased dramatically in the last 50 years. In addition to direct habitat loss, the rapid extinction of many species that are unique to these systems can be attributed to landscape deterioration through the lack of appropriate management. In this paper, we propose to use of an ecosystem classification technique that integrates potential natural vegetation distribution as a reference framework for coastal dune EU Habitats (92/43) distribution analysis and assessment. As an example, the present study analyses the EU Habitats distribution within a hierarchical ecosystem classification of the coastal dune systems of central Italy. In total, 24 land elements belonging to 8 land units, 5 land facets, 2 land systems and 2 land regions were identified for the coastal dunes of central Italy, based on diagnostic land attributes. In central Italy, coastal dune environments including all the beach area, mobile dunes and all the fixed-dune land elements contain or could potentially hold at least one EU habitat of interest. Almost all dune slack transitions present the potentiality for the spontaneous development of EU woodlands of interest. The precise information concerning these ecosystems distribution and ecological relationships that this method produces, makes it very effective in Natura 2000 European network assessment. This hierarchical ecosystem classification method facilitates the identification of areas to be surveyed and eventually bound, under the implementation of EU Habitat directive (92/43) including areas with highly disturbed coastal dune ecosystems.

  14. Performances of the UNDERground SEISmic array for the analysis of seismicity in Central Italy

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    R. Scarpa

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the first results from the operation of a dense seismic array deployed in the underground Physics Laboratories at Gran Sasso (Central Italy. The array consists of 13 short-period, three-component seismometers with an aperture of about 550 m and average sensor spacing of 90 m. The reduced sensor spacing, joined to the spatially-white character of the background noise allows for quick and reliable detection of coherent wavefront arrivals even under very poor SNR conditions. We apply high-resolution frequency-slowness and polarization analyses to a set of 27 earthquakes recorded between November, 2002, and September, 2003, at epicentral distances spanning the 20-140 km interval. We locate these events using inversion of P- and S-wave backazimuths and S-P delay times, and compare the results with data from the Centralized National Seismic Network catalog. For the case of S-wave, the discrepancies among the two set of locations never exceed 10 km; the largest errors are instead observed for the case of P-waves. This observation may be due to the fact that the small array aperture does not allow for robust assessment of waves propagating at high apparent velocities. This information is discussed with special reference to the directions of future studies aimed at elucidating the location of seismogenetic structures in Central Italy from extended analysis of the micro-seismicity.

  15. Relationship between work-related accidents and hot weather conditions in Tuscany (central Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, Marco; Cecchi, Lorenzo; Crisci, Alfonso; Modesti, Pietro Amedeo; Orlandini, Simone

    2006-07-01

    Nowadays, no studies have been published on the relationship between meteorological conditions and work-related mortality and morbidity in Italy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between hot weather conditions and hospital admissions due to work-related accidents in Tuscany (central Italy) over the period 1998-2003. Apparent temperature (AT) values were calculated to evaluate human weather discomfort due to hot conditions and then tested for work accident differences using non-parametric procedures. Present findings showed that hot weather conditions might represent a risk factor for work-related accidents in Italy during summer. In particular early warming days during June, characterized by heat discomfort, are less tolerated by workers than warming days of the following summer months. The peak of work-related accidents occurred on days characterized by high, but not extreme, thermal conditions. Workers maybe change their behaviour when heat stress increases, reducing risks by adopting preventive measures. Results suggested that days with an average daytime AT value ranged between 24.8 degrees C and 27.5 degrees C were at the highest risk of work-related accidents. In conclusion, present findings might represent the first step for the development of a watch/warning system for workers that might be used by employers for planning work activities.

  16. Fishes and their parasites in the water district of Massaciuccoli (Tuscany, Central Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchioni, Fabio; Chelucci, Luca; Torracca, Beatrice; Prati, Maria Cristina; Magi, Marta

    2015-01-01

    This study has been conducted in the district of Massaciuccoli (lake, marsh and reclaimed areas with drainage channels) in Tuscany region (Central Italy). The aim of the research was to detect the presence of parasites in fishes, in particular of Opisthorchis felineus, which causes an important zoonosis. Between 2010-2012, the health status of 381 fishes was monitored, morphometric characteristics were determined, and parasites were searched for and identified. Of the 381 examined fishes, 189 were free of parasites while 192 were infected, among them 91 presented multiple infections. Opisthorchis felineus was not found in any of the examined fishes.

  17. APTIAN TO CAMPANIAN CALCAREOUS NANNOFOSSILS BIOSTRATIGRAPHY FROM THE BOTTACCIONE SECTION, GUBBIO, CENTRAL ITALY

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    FABRIZIO TREMOLADA

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Late Aptian-Campanian biostratigraphic investigations performed on calcareous nannofossils provided a refined stratigraphic resolution  of the Scisti a Fucoidi and Scaglia Formations in the Bottaccione section (Umbria-Marche Basin, Central italy. Additional bioevents such as the Last Occurrence (LO of both Assipetra infracretacea larsonii and Rucinolithus terebrodentarius youngii and the First Occurrences (FOs of Pararhabdolithus achlyostaurion and large Biscutum constans were detected and might be used to refine the Late Aptian-Albian biostratigraphy at low latitudes.   

  18. A study of chlorinated solvent contamination of the aquifers of an industrial area in central Italy: a possibility of bioremediation

    OpenAIRE

    FEDERICA eMATTEUCCI; CLAUDIA eERCOLE; MADDALENA eDEL GALLO

    2015-01-01

    Perchloroethene, Trichloroethene, and other chlorinated solvents are widespread groundwater pollutants. They form Dense Non Aqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs) that sink through permeable groundwater aquifers until non-permeable zone is reached. In Italy there are many situations of serious contamination of groundwater that might compromise their use in industry, agriculture, private, as the critical case of a Central Italy valley located in the province of Teramo (Val Vibrata), characterized by a...

  19. Fault scraps activity in central Italy. Seismic characterization; Sintesi delle conoscenze sulle faglie attive in Italia Centrale. Parametrizzazione ai fini della caratterizzazione della pericolosita' sismica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barchi, M.; Galadini, F.; Lavecchia, G.; Messina, P.; Michetti, A.M.; Peruzza, L.; Pizzi, A.; Tondi, E.; Vittori, E. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Gruppo Nazionale per la Difesa dai Terremoti, Rome (Italy)

    2000-05-01

    The present paper reports synthetically the results obtained in order to formalize the knowledge available on seismogenetic structures in central Italy. [Italian] Il presente rapporto rendinconta sinteticamente i risultati ottenuti per formalizzare le conoscenze disponibili su alcune strutture sismogenetiche in Italia Centrale.

  20. Agronomic-productive characteristics of two genotype of stevia rebaudiana in Central Italy

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    Lucia Ceccarini

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni produces a variety of high-potency low calorie sweeteners in its’ leaf tissue. The aim of this work was to evaluate the productive potential of two different Stevia rebaudiana genotypes and the characteristics of the production of the plant obtained through different cultivation methods, in central Italy. For several years (1992-2000 agronomic trials on Stevia rebaudiana cultivated in the littoral area near Pisa (Italy carried out. In 1992 two different genotypes of Stevia (B1 and B2 transplanted in silt-loam soil; in 1996 other plants from B2 genotype, produced by vegetative process (micropropagation, were transplanted in the same field. In the period from 1992-1999 the production of leaves from both genotypes increase as of the third year and the ratio leaf-aerial plant, after the peak in the third year, tends to diminish. Except the first year (1997 there were not recorded statistically significant differences between the two propagation methods employed in relation to leaf production. The quantity of leaves produced from a single harvest was less than resulting from two cuttings and the micropropagation plants produced a larger amount of leaves than those from cutting. The leaf-stem ratio was to become an interesting morphological and production characteristic parameter of the plant. Stevia rebaudiana appears particularly suited for the cultivation environment of central Italy. A particular positive aspect that must be considered in these regions is that Stevia can be grown successfully as poliannual species because crop survival over the winter is high. The results obtained show that this species is economically profitable until the 5th or 6th year of cultivation. At our latitudes is also necessary to establish a program of genetic improvement in order to develop earlier varieties that can guaranty an optimum qualitative and quantitative seed production.

  1. Gases dissolved in groundwaters: analytical methods and examples of applications in central Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiodini, G. [Osservatorio Vesuviano, Napoli (Italy)

    1998-12-31

    A quick method to analyse dissolved gases in natural waters is described. First partial results show that useful information on the geochemical processes affecting a variety of hydrogeological systems can be obtained from the study of dissolved gases. The study of the CO{sub 2} dissolved in the groundwaters of Central Italy indicates that one of the main factor controlling the P{sub CO2} values in these groundwaters is the input of a deeply originated gas phase. These leakage processes generally occur in correspondence with buried structural highs of the carbonate basement acting as both traps for the gas produced at depth and sources of high CO{sub 2} fluxes toward the surface. This CO{sub 2} causes significant increases in the P{sub {sub O}2} values of shallow groundwaters. The total carbon balance of two regional aquifers has been used to estimate the production rate of deep CO{sub 2} in Tyrrhenian Central Italy. These average production rates, with 5 X 10{sup 6}mol km{sup -2} y{sup -1} both at Stifone and at Colli Albani, are five times higher than the value assumed as baseline for areas of high heat flow, i.e., 10{sup 6} km{sup -2} y{sup -1}.

  2. The role of INGVterremoti blog in information management during the earthquake sequence in central Italy

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    Maurizio Pignone

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe the role the INGVterremoti blog in information management during the first part of the earthquake sequence in central Italy (August 24 to September 30. In the last four years, we have been working on the INGVterremoti blog in order to provide quick updates on the ongoing seismic activity in Italy and in-depth scientific information. These include articles on specific historical earthquakes, seismic hazard, geological interpretations, source models from different type of data, effects at the surface, and so on. We have delivered information in quasi-real-time also about all the recent magnitude M≥4.0 earthquakes in Italy, the strongest events in the Mediterranean and in the world. During the 2016 central Italy, the INGVterremoti blog has continuously released information about seismic sequences with three types of posts: i updates on the ongoing seismic activity; ii reports on the activities carried out by the INGV teams in the field and any other working groups; iii in-depth scientific articles describing some specific analysis and results. All the blog posts have been shared automatically and in real time on the other social media of the INGVterremoti platform, also to counter the bad information and to fight rumors. These include Facebook, Twitter and INGVterremoti App on IOS and Android. As well, both the main INGV home page (http://www.ingv.it and the INGV earthquake portal (http://terremoti.ingv.it have published the contents of the blog on dedicated pages that were fed automatically. The work done day by day on the INGVterremoti blog has been coordinated with the INGV Press Office that has written several press releases based on the contents of the blog. Since August 24, 53 articles were published on the blog they have had more than 1.9 million views and 1 million visitors. The peak in the number of views, which was more than 800,000 in a single day, was registered on August 24, 2016, following the M 6

  3. Osservazioni in occasione di una visita ai croati del Molise (Italia

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    Dieter Kattenbusch

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Chi venendo da Vasto, città situata sulla costa adriatica, dopo circa venti chilo­ metri lascia la strada per Isernia in direzione sud, per fare una scappata a San Felice del Molise si accorgerà difficilmente di una qualche particolarità che distingua que­ sto paese di circa 900 abitanti da altre località meridionali.

  4. Efficiency Analysis of Independent and Centralized Heating Systems for Residential Buildings in Northern Italy

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    Fabio Rinaldi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The primary energy consumption in residential buildings is determined by the envelope thermal characteristics, air change, outside climatic data, users’ behaviour and the adopted heating system and its control. The new Italian regulations strongly suggest the installation of centralized boilers in renovated buildings with more than four apartments. This work aims to investigate the differences in primary energy consumption and efficiency among several independent and centralized heating systems installed in Northern Italy. The analysis is carried out through the following approach: firstly building heating loads are evaluated using the software TRNSYS® and, then, heating system performances are estimated through a simplified model based on the European Standard EN 15316. Several heating systems have been analyzed, evaluating: independent and centralized configurations, condensing and traditional boilers, radiator and radiant floor emitters and solar plant integration. The heating systems are applied to four buildings dating back to 2010, 2006, 1960s and 1930s. All the combinations of heating systems and buildings are analyzed in detail, evaluating efficiency and primary energy consumption. In most of the cases the choice between centralized and independent heating systems has minor effects on primary energy consumption, less than 3%: the introduction of condensing technology and the integration with solar heating plant can reduce energy consumption by 11% and 29%, respectively.

  5. Assessing the role of Climate Variability in the recent evolution of coastlines in southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Paola, Gianluigi; Atkinson, David; Rosskopf, Carmen M.; Walker, Ian

    2016-04-01

    During the last century, Climatic Variability (CV) and change effects have generated a discernable impact on the world's coasts, most notably through changes in the frequency and/or magnitude of storm surges, flooding, coastal erosion and sea-level rise. This study explores CV signals and coastal responses along a 36 km stretch of coast in the Molise region of southern Italy on the Central Adriatic Sea. Two dominant signals of CV in the Mediterranean region of Europe are characterized by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the East Atlantic-West Russia (EAWR) patterns. The NAO is the leading mode of CV in the North Atlantic region and periods with positive NAO index values are typically associated with above average wind speeds across the mid-latitudes of the Atlantic and western Europe, with anomalously northerly flows across the Mediterranean region and enhanced trade winds over the sub-tropical North Atlantic. Although NAO is one of the most prominent patterns in all seasons, its relative role in regulating the variability of the European climate during non-winter months is not as clear as for the winter season. In contrast, the EAWR exerts strong influence on precipitation in the Mediterranean region such that, during the negative phase of EAWR, wetter conditions prevail across central Europe and the Mediterranean region, with precipitation extremes often occurring during these periods. This study examines the effects of NAO and EAWR on coastline response in the Molise region, which has a microtidal regime (ordinary tidal excursions of 30-40 cm). GIS analysis of shoreline changes from historical aerial photography from 1954-2011 was performed and 20 years (1989-2008) of wave data were analysed from the nearby Ortona buoy to define trends and extreme event occurrence in the wave climate in the study area. Finally, statistical associations between NAO, EAWR, and other CV indices of possible influence (e.g. Arctic Oscillation, Scandinavia Pattern, or the East

  6. Characterization of levofloxacin non-susceptible clinical Streptococcus pyogenes isolated in the central part of Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrelli, D; Di Luca, M C; Prenna, M; Bernaschi, P; Repetto, A; Vitali, L A

    2014-02-01

    We investigated the prevalence, genetics, and clonality of fluoroquinolone non-susceptible isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes in the central part of Italy. S. pyogenes strains (n = 197) were isolated during 2012 from patients with tonsillopharyngitis, skin, wound or invasive infections and screened for fluoroquinolone non-susceptibility (resistance to norfloxacin and levofloxacin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) = 2 mg/L) following EUCAST guidelines. First-step topoisomerase parC and gyrA substitutions were investigated using sequencing analysis. Clonality was determined by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE; SmaI digestion) and by emm typing. The fluoroquinolone non-susceptible phenotype was identified in 18 isolates (9.1 %) and correlated with mutations in parC, but not in gyrA, the most frequent leading to substitution of the serine at position 79 with an alanine. Most of the fluoroquinolone non-susceptible isolates belonged to the emm-type 6, even if other emm-types were also represented (emm75, emm89, and emm2). A significant level of association was measured between PFGE and both emm type and substitutions in parC. The prevalence of fluoroquinolone non-susceptible Streptococcus pyogenes isolates in Italy is of concern and, although the well-known emm type 6 is dominant, other types are appearing and spreading.

  7. The indigenous crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes complex in a national park of Central Italy

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    Mazza G.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The indigenous crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes complex has been recently defined by IUCN as an endangered species but our knowledge about its status in Italy is still provisional. An assessment of the most suitable environments for its survival is crucial to preserve the species and to develop appropriate conservation protocols for its management. To this end, during 2008 and 2009, we analyzed eight watercourses in a protected area of Central Italy for A. pallipes’ presence and for a number of environmental characteristics. Crayfish were found in four out of the eight analyzed watercourses: only one of three old reports was confirmed, while the species has disappeared from the other two. All the streams are characterized by good quality of both water and soil. The differences found for basin and riparian descriptors, canopy cover, shelters and substrate composition were independent of the crayfish presence. Non-indigenous crayfish populations were not recorded in the study area. Among the several causes of crayfish disappearance, overexploitation through illegal fishing, introduction of fish predators and drought seem to be the more likely. These threats should be urgently faced to guarantee the survival of the indigenous crayfish.

  8. Zoonotic tick-borne bacteria among wild boars (Sus scrofa in Central Italy

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    Valentina Virginia Ebani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation was to estimate the occurrence of infections by the three zoonotic bacteria Anaplasma phagocytophilum (A. phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (B. burgdorferi s.l. and Coxiella burnetii in wild boars (Sus scrofa in Central Italy. The spleen samples from 100 hunted wild boars were submitted to DNA extraction and PCR assays were carried out to detect the three agents. One (1% animal was positive for A. phagocytophilum, and three (3% for B. burgdorferi s.l. No positive reactions were observed for Coxiella burnetii. Wild boars did not seem to play an important role in the epidemiology of the three investigated agents. However, the detection of A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi s.l. in the spleen of the tested animals showed that wild boars can harbor these pathogens, thus ticked that feeding on infected wild boars are likely to become infected, too, which represents a source of infection for other animals and humans. This is the first detection of A. phagocytophilum in wild boars in Italy.

  9. THE LATE PLEISTOCENE APENNINE CHAMOIS FROM GROTTA MORA CAVORSO (SIMBRUINI MOUNTAINS, CENTRAL ITALY

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    LEONARDO SALARI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paperdescribes a sub-entire, partially articulated skeleton of chamois found togetherwith other vertebrate remainsina silty lens withlimestone clastsbetween the 104 and 105 SSUU of Grotta Mora Cavorso(Latium, Italy. Thissilty lensis chronologically correlatable to a temperate oscillation of MIS 3.The skull and post-cranial remains from Grotta Mora Cavorso were compared with the fossil remains of chamois from numerous Late Pleistocene and older Holocene sites of Italy and of Pyrenees and Iberian Peninsula. Additional comparisons were made with large samples of extant chamois, Rupicapra pyrenaica ornata , R. pyrenaica pyrenaica and R. rupicapra rupicapra .Morphological and morphometric features of the skull and the horn-core, as well as other characters of the metacarpus suggest to refer the fossil remainsfrom Grotta Mora Cavorsoto Apennine chamois, R. pyrenaica ornata . This is the earliest ascertained recordin Central-Southern Italyofthe ornata -like chamois, a subspeciesso far knownwith certaintyonly in the Holocene, orpossibly in the Lateglacial.

  10. Central Italy magnetotelluric investigation. Structures and relations to seismic events: analysis of initial data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Marianiuk

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available A scientific collaboration between the Warsaw Academy of Science, (Poland and the National Institute of Geophysics (Italy, gave rise to the installation of few stations for the long term measurement of magnetotelluric fields in central Italy. The selection of investigation sites was determined by the individual seismic interest of each location. The project began in the summer of 1991, with the installation of 2 magnetotelluric stations in the province of Isernia, (Collemeluccio and Montedimezzo. In 1992, 2 more stations became operative, one in the province of Rieti, (Fassinoro, the other in the province of L'Aquila, (S. Vittoria. For the purpose of this project, the magnetic observatory in L'Aquila was also equipped with electric lines, for the measurement of the telluric field. The aim of the analysis here presented, is to show that is possible to follow the temporal evolution of magnetotelluric characteristic parameters. At Collemeluccio this evolution was compared with the seismic released energy for events recorded within the study area.

  11. THE VEGETATION ON BADLANDS OF "VARICOLORI" CLAYS IN THE MOLISE REGION (ITALY - FRAMEWORK AND INTERPRETATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. LUCCHESE

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available

    fanelli_g._et_al._512

  12. Linking phosphorus export and hydrologic modeling: a case study in Central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroselli, Andrea; Leone, Antonio; Ripa, Maria Nicolina; Recanatesi, Fabio

    2014-11-01

    Soil erosion is an open topic, not only because soil fertility is lost, but also because nutrients are spilled into water bodies, thereby causing pollution. Research carried out in this field has amply described this process, but the interaction between these factors is complex and experimental research is needed to understand the production of loads of nutrients for different land uses. This paper describes a long-term monitoring case study using high-resolution rainfall data and runoff samples, carried out in the Lake Vico basin (Central Italy) to determine the phosphorus (P) export during erosive rainfall events. State of the art GIS-based basin characterization and advanced rainfall-runoff models are employed in order to describe the relationship between nutrient export and rainfall or runoff time distribution. Results show that the phosphorus export is strongly related to such time distributions, and less to the cumulative amount of rainfall or runoff.

  13. Surface faulting during the August 24, 2016, central Italy earthquake (Mw 6.0: preliminary results

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    Franz A. Livio

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We present some preliminary results on the mapping of coseismically-induced ground ruptures following the Aug. 24, 2016, Central Italy earthquake (Mw 6.0. The seismogenic source, as highlighted by InSAR and seismological data, ruptured across two adjacent structures: the Vettore and Laga faults. We collected field data on ground breaks along the whole deformed area and two different scenarios of on-fault coseismic displacement arise from these observations. To the north, along the Vettore fault, surface faulting can be mapped quite continuously along a well-defined fault strand while such features are almost absent to the south, along the Laga fault, where flysch-like marly units are present. A major lithological control, affects the surface expression of faulting, resulting in a complex deformation pattern.

  14. Land use, salinity and water quality. The case study of a coastal system in central Italy

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    Loredana Canfora

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the evaluation of soil and groundwater quality was coupled with a T-RFLP and real time qPCR analysis of 16S and 18S rRNA genes in order to investigate the soil microbial community structure and diversity in a coastal lagoon system of Central Italy. The main aim of the research was to assess the reciprocal effect of the lagoon salinity and of the different land uses both on the inland groundwater and quality, and on the soil microbial community structure and diversity. Results emphasize for the first time the diversity of the microbial communities in environments with a strong salinity gradient, as affected by land use, depth and spatial location.

  15. Coseismic ruptures of the 24 August 2016, Mw 6.0 Amatrice earthquake (central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucci, S.; De Martini, P. M.; Civico, R.; Villani, F.; Nappi, R.; Ricci, T.; Azzaro, R.; Brunori, C. A.; Caciagli, M.; Cinti, F. R.; Sapia, V.; De Ritis, R.; Mazzarini, F.; Tarquini, S.; Gaudiosi, G.; Nave, R.; Alessio, G.; Smedile, A.; Alfonsi, L.; Cucci, L.; Pantosti, D.

    2017-03-01

    On 24 August 2016, a Mw 6.0 normal-faulting earthquake struck central Italy, causing about 300 fatalities and heavy damage. A geological survey collected the coseismic effects observed at the surface in order to evaluate two competing hypotheses about their nature: surface faulting versus gravitational deformation. We find that the most significant geological effect is a 5.2 km long alignment of ground ruptures along the Mount Vettore Fault System. These ruptures are independent from lithology, topography, morphology, and change in slope and exhibit an average dip-slip displacement of 13 cm. Geometry, kinematics, and dimensional properties of this zone of deformation strongly lead us to favor the primary surface faulting hypothesis that fits well the predicted estimates from experimental scaling law relationships. Our study provides relevant hints for surface faulting in extensional domains, contributing to implement the worldwide database of the moderate earthquakes.

  16. Dynamic source inversion for physical parameters controlling the 2016 Amatrice, Central Italy, earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostka, Filip; Gallovic, Frantisek

    2017-04-01

    We perform dynamic finite-extent source inversion to study the source processes of three earthquakes that occurred close to Amatrice and Norcia, Central Italy, in August-October 2016. The events had moment magnitudes of 6.1-6.5 and resulted in >300 fatalities. To that end, we utilize a modified version of dynamic inversion code by Twardzik et al. (2014). The direct problem is solved by 3D fourth-order staggered-grid finite difference method in a box assuming linear slip-weakening friction law on a planar fault (Madariaga et al., 1998). The optimal solution is sought using the Neighborhood Algorithm by Sambridge (1999). We invert displacement waveforms from the 20-30 nearest stations. The distribution and evolution of slip calculated from physical parameters (stress drop, frictional properties) obtained from the dynamic inversion are compared with results of kinematic inversions and discussed in terms of fault mechanics.

  17. Occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in poultry meat at retail and processing plants’ levels in Central Italy

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    Ziad Mezher

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Human campylobacteriosis remains the most commonly reported gastrointestinal disease in Europe and Campylobacter (C. jejuni and C. coli are the two species most frequently involved in such foodborne disease. Based on the sampling plan established in the region of Lazio (Central Italy the aim of our work was to investigate the occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in poultry meat preparations collected by the local veterinary authority at retail shops and processing plants. We also observed whether various factors such as animal species or type of product affected the isolation rate. Occurrence was significantly lower than previous surveys (12/209, 5.7% and chicken meat was more contaminated than turkey meat.

  18. Ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal uses of plants in the district of Acquapendente (Latium, Central Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarrera, Paolo Maria; Forti, Gianluca; Marignoli, Silvia

    2005-01-15

    In the years 2002-2003 research was carried out concerning ethnomedicine in the Acquapendente district (Viterbo, Latium, central Italy), an area so far less frequently studied from the perspective of plant folk traditions. The district, from the ethnobotanical point of view, shows traces of the influences of the neighbouring regions. In this study 96 plant entities are described, belonging to 45 families, of which 64 are employed in human medicine, 15 in veterinary medicine, 22 in the feeding of domestic animals, 5 as antiparasitics and 5 for other uses. Some medicinal uses are linked to beliefs or residual forms of magic prescriptions (11 plants). Amongst the more notable uses the most interesting are those of: Verbena officinalis (rheumatic pains, wounds), Juglans regia (antiparasitic use for cheeses), Santolina etrusca (antimoth use), Stellaria media and Lupinus albus (birdseed for poultry and fodder for lambs), and Thymus longicaulis subsp. longicaulis (used to curdle milk).

  19. Molecular detection and characterization of spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks from Central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpulla, M; Barlozzari, G; Marcario, A; Salvato, L; Blanda, V; De Liberato, C; D'Agostini, C; Torina, A; Macrì, G

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of rickettsial pathogens in ticks from Central Italy. A total of 113 ticks hailed from Latium and Tuscany regions were identified and tested by PCR to detect gltA, ompA, ompB genes of Rickettsia. Positive amplicons were sequenced and identified at species level. Ticks were analyzed individually or in pools. The percentage of positivity for SFG rickettsiae was 12.4%, expressed as minimum infection rate (MIR) assuming that one tick was positive in each positive pool. Rickettsia aeschlimannii was detected in Hyalomma marginatum, Rickettsia monacensis in Ixodes ricinus and Rickettsia massiliae and Rickettsia conorii in Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato. These findings confirm the circulation of pathogenic rickettsiae in Latium and Tuscany regions. To our knowledge this is the first report of R. massiliae in Latium region.

  20. Structural and hydrogeological features of Pleistocene shear zones in the area of Rome (Central Italy

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    C. Faccenna

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The last tectonic episode observed in the Latium Tyrrhenian margin (Central Italy, few km cast of Rome, is represented by a set of middIe-upper Pleistocene N-S shear zones, characterised by complex geometric and kinematic setting. The easternmost of these shear zones displays a strike-slip component of motion and is located at the boundary between the Apennine carbonate chain and the volcanic areas. The distribution of travertine deposits and hydrothermal springs suggests that this fault zone acts as an impermeable barrier for lateral flow derived from superficial karstic circuit, and as a preferential upwelling surface for deep hydrothermal fluids. We propose that high fluid pressure could develop inside these fault zones favouring the reactivation of buried pre-existing crustal discontinuities and the local re-orientation of the stress field, as testified by the geometry and the kinematics of the surface fault pattern.

  1. PHYTOGEOGRAPHY OF QUERCUS SUBER L. IN LAZIO (CENTRAL ITALY: A CAUSALISTIC APPROACH

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    B. SCHIRONE

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A descriptive statistical approach to the causalistic distribution of Quercus suber in Lazio (Central Italy, based on presence/absence data and mean values of an array of environmental variables standardized on a geographical 6,9 x 5,5 Km grid, shows that only temperature, precipitation, elevation and slope are significant. At this scale, soil conditions and aspect are apparently no limiting factors to the colonization ability of the species. A simulated potential range, based on this parameterization, identifies a larger area than the one occupied by the species today. It suggests that competition and human disturbance might account for the large gaps and discontinuities in the real range. Since inland disjunct outposts still lie either outside or at the boundary of this simulated range, their establishment is likely to have originated under macroclimatic conditions different from the present day ones.

  2. PHYTOGEOGRAPHY OF QUERCUS SUBER L. IN LAZIO (CENTRAL ITALY: A CAUSALISTIC APPROACH

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    F. SPADA

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A descriptive statistical approach to the causalistic distribution of Quercus suber in Lazio (Central Italy, based on presence/absence data and mean values of an array of environmental variables standardized on a geographical 6,9 x 5,5 Km grid, shows that only temperature, precipitation, elevation and slope are significant. At this scale, soil conditions and aspect are apparently no limiting factors to the colonization ability of the species. A simulated potential range, based on this parameterization, identifies a larger area than the one occupied by the species today. It suggests that competition and human disturbance might account for the large gaps and discontinuities in the real range. Since inland disjunct outposts still lie either outside or at the boundary of this simulated range, their establishment is likely to have originated under macroclimatic conditions different from the present day ones.

  3. Characterisation of secondary metabolites in saffron from central Italy (Cascia, Umbria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossignani, Lina; Urbani, Eleonora; Simonetti, Maria Stella; Maurizi, Angela; Chiesi, Claudia; Blasi, Francesca

    2014-01-15

    Saffron's quality depends on the concentration of secondary metabolites, such as crocins, picrocrocin and safranal. The aim of this research was to evaluate the influence of drying conditions on the secondary metabolite contents of saffron produced in the area of Cascia, in central Italy. Different aliquots of the same saffron sample were subjected to various dehydration conditions and analysed by UV-Vis spectrophotometry to determine crocins, picrocrocin and safranal.. Safranal was also analysed by high resolution gas chromatography, while the crocins and picrocrocin were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array and mass spectrometric detectors. The results of chromatographic analyses showed that the samples dried in the milder conditions had the lowest content of secondary metabolites. Moreover the sample dried at 60°C for 55min presented the highest contents of trans-crocin-4 and picrocrocin, while safranal was most represented in saffron dried at 55°C for 95min.

  4. A multivariate analysis for evaluating the environmental and economical aspects of agroecosystem sustainability in central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Felice, Vincenzo; Mancinelli, Roberto; Proulx, Raphaël; Campiglia, Enio

    2012-05-15

    Over the past century farming activity has intensified worldwide, characterized by an increasing dependence on external inputs and on land conversion. Although the intensification of agriculture has increased productivity, the sustainability of agroecosystems has also been compromised. The objective of this study is to build multivariate relationships between farm structural characteristics and farm performance to highlight the relative costs and benefits of four main farming systems in Central Italy: organic, conventional, mixed and non-mixed farms. Results show that the relationship between cropping diversity and agroecological sustainability is associated to a mixed versus non-mixed farm management dichotomy, not to organic or conventional farming practices. The presence of livestock appears to have played an important role as an economic lever for diversifying the farm cropping system.

  5. Analysis of drought conditions and their effects on Lake Trasimeno (Central Italy levels

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    Daniela Valigi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of drought conditions on the Lake Trasimeno area (Umbria, Central Italy and of their influence on the lake levels is presented. Lake Trasimeno is one of the largest Italian lakes, and its economic and environmental importance is very high. The analysis of temperature data (1963-2014 shows that annual temperature is increasing – in accordance with what is known for Central Italy and the Mediterranean area – with a significant gradient of about 0.023°C/ year. No significant annual and seasonal rainfall trends were observed over the Lake Trasimeno catchment. The power spectrum analysis of rainfall and lake level fluctuations shows that both periodograms have high statistical confidence levels (>99% for annual and semi-annual cycles. The annual cycles of the periodogram of lake level fluctuations show a higher statistical confidence level than semi-annual cycles. Some other cycles such as the El-Niño Southern oscillation, North Atlantic oscillation, and solar activity are highlighted, with significance levels lower than that of annual and semi-annual cycles. The standardized precipitation (SPI and standardized reconnaissance drought indices, at different time scales, show that frequency and duration of extreme and severe droughts have increased in the last 25 years. A significant relationship between 12-month SPI and 12-month standardized lake levels fluctuations was obtained for the 1989-2014 period, indicating that SPI12 can be a useful indicator to represent drought severity for systems such as the Lake Trasimeno by considering lake level fluctuations rather than lake levels.

  6. Prevalence of the microsporidian Nosema ceranae in honeybee (Apis mellifera apiaries in Central Italy

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    Roberto Papini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nosema ceranae and Nosema apis are microsporidia which play an important role in the epidemiology of honeybee microsporidiosis worldwide. Nosemiasis reduces honeybee population size and causes significant losses in honey production. To the best of our knowledge, limited information is available about the prevalence of nosemiasis in Italy. In this research, we determined the occurrence of Nosema infection in Central Italy. Thirty-eight seemingly healthy apiaries (2 to 4 hives each were randomly selected and screened from April to September 2014 (n = 11 or from May to September 2015 (n = 27. The apiaries were located in six areas of Central Italy, including Lucca (n = 11, Massa Carrara (n = 9, Pisa (n = 9, Leghorn (n = 7, Florence (n = 1, and Prato (n = 1 provinces. Light microscopy was carried out according to current OIE recommendations to screen the presence of microsporidiosis in adult worker honeybees. Since the morphological characteristics of N. ceranae and N. apis spores are similar and can hardly be distinguished by optical microscopy, all samples were also screened by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR assay based on 16S rRNA-gene-targeted species-specific primers to differentiate N. ceranae from N. apis. Furthermore, PCR-positive samples were also sequenced to confirm the species of amplified Nosema DNA. Notably, Nosema spores were detected in samples from 24 out of 38 (63.2%, 95% CI: 47.8–78.5% apiaries. Positivity rates in single provinces were 10/11, 8/9, 3/9, 1/7, or 1/1 (n = 2. A full agreement (Cohen's Kappa = 1 was assessed between microscopy and M-PCR. Based on M-PCR and DNA sequencing results, only N. ceranae was found. Overall, our results highlighted that N. ceranae infection occurs frequently in the cohort of honeybee populations that was examined despite the lack of clinical signs. These findings suggest that colony disease outbreaks might result from environmental factors that lead to higher

  7. Epidemiological study on the Trichinellosis of the fox (Vulpes vulpes in Tuscany (Central Italy

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    Marta Magi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During the years 2004-2005, 112 foxes (Vulpes vulpes and 4 badgers (Meles meles were caught in different areas of Tuscany (Central Italy and examined for Trichinella infection, using the diagnostic technique of artificial digestion through Stomacher. No animal was positive for Trichinella larvae. According to our results, Tuscany can be considered a low-risk area for trichinellosis in the fox. In this region the presence of the parasite cannot be ruled out, two cases of infection being reported in 1993. Riassunto Epidemiologia della trichinellosi della volpe (Vulpes vulpes in Toscana (Italia centrale. Nel corso degli anni 2004-2005, 112 volpi (Vulpes vulpes e 4 tassi (Meles meles sono stati catturati ed esaminati per la presenza di infestione da Trichinella in differenti aree della Toscana (Italia centrale. L'indagine di laboratorio è stata condotta mediante digestione artificiale tramite Stomacher. Nessun animale è risultato positivo. Da questi risultati si può ritenere la Toscana una regione a basso rischio di infezione. La presenza del parassita non può però essere esclusa totalmente. Infatti, nel 1993 sono stati riportati due casi di infestione.

  8. Early urban and colonized regions of central and south Italy : A case study in comparative landscape archaeology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Attema, P; Darvill, T; Gojda, M

    2001-01-01

    Systematic field surveys and topographical research undertaken to date in various Italian regions south of Rome shou, that responses to early urbanization in central and south Italy, and the interplay of early urbanization with Greek and Roman colonization, differed widely between regions. In this p

  9. Growth performance of selected eucalypt hybrid clones for SRWC in central and southern Italy

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    Giovanni Mughini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false IT X-NONE X-NONE st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";} Eucalypt short-rotation woody crop (SRWC is becoming an attractive option for energy biomass in Mediterranean dry environments. The present study is aimed at assessing growth performance of selected eucalypt hybrid clones for SRWC in three Italian sites (Massama, Sardinia; Mirto, Calabria; Rome, Latium compared with Eucalyptus camaldulensis, the most commonly cultivated eucalypt species in Italy. The study identified eucalypt clones with stable and high performance between several alternatives. Results pointed out the declining growth performance observed in the second rotation compared with the first cycle. This is due to the cultivation model, age rotation and harvesting method adopted, which negatively affect the available soil nutrients’ content. The clone/site interaction as for basal area growth at the three investigated sites, suggests a significantly different clones’ performance among sites. Viglio and Velino clones showed the best overall performance and are suggested to be used over the large scale SRWC in central and southern Italy.

  10. Contemporary stress field in the area of the 2016 Amatrice seismic sequence (central Italy

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    Maria Teresa Mariucci

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We update the last present-day stress map for Italy relatively to the area of 2016 Amatrice seismic sequence (central Italy taking into account a large number of earthquakes occurred from August 24 to October 3, 2016. In particular in this paper, we discuss the new stress data from crustal earthquake focal mechanisms selecting those with Magnitude ≥ 4.0; at the same time, we revise the borehole data, analyze the stratigraphic profiles and the relative sonic logs in 4 deep wells located close to the Amatrice sequence along the Apennine belt and toward east along the Adriatic foredeep. From these data we consider the P-wave velocity trend with depth and estimate rock density following an empirical relationship. Then we calculate the overburden stress magnitude for each well. The new present-day stress indicators confirm the presence of prevalent normal faulting regime and better define the local stress field in the area, highlighting a slight rotation from NE-SW to ENE-WSW of extension. The analysis evidences that the lithostatic gradient gradually changes from ~26 MPa/km in the belt to less than 23 MPa/km along the Adriatic foredeep. Finally, at a depth of 5 km we estimate the vertical stress magnitude varying from 130 MPa to 114 moving from the Apennine belt to the Adriatic foredeep. Although the wells are very close each other they show different P wave velocities from the belt to the foredeep with values ~7km/s and ~4 km/s at 5 km depth, respectively.

  11. Agronomic performance and beer quality assessment of twenty hop cultivars grown in Central Italy

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    Francesco Rossini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Hop market and beer industry have always been of secondary relevance in Italy as compared to grape and wine sector. Hence, hop cultivars and the information for growing hops have been generated almost entirely from the major hop production countries. Identifying cultivars that perform well in Mediterranean environments is therefore essential to successfully start hop cultivation and breeding activity in this new growing region. To evaluate the intraspecific diversity of hop in Central Italy, 20 female hop genotypes with different origin were screened during three growing seasons (2013-2015 in an experimental hop yard. Cones yield, plant height and crop phenology were evaluated to determine which cultivars were best suited to the Mediterranean climate. Moreover, given the rising interest for the development of local beers with distinguishing aroma, a sensory analysis was performed and beers flavoured with locally produced and imported cones were compared. A significant diversity among cultivars was found for all parameters investigated. The results indicated that weather condition during flowering and development of cones markedly affected yield and plant height. Cones yield was negatively correlated with thermal time (r=–0.5, P<0.05 to harvest and positively with plant height (r=0.56, P<0.05. Cascade, Hallertauer Magnum, Hersbrucker Spat and Yeoman showed the best adaptability to the Mediterranean growing conditions as they were the top-performing cultivars across the three years. Sensory analysis evidenced the importance of cultivar selection as determining factor for flavouring properties of beers. In general, results showed that the origin of cones strongly affected the mouth feel of beers. More complex and appreciated aroma profiles were identified for beers flavoured with local cones than those hopped with commercial products.

  12. Inorganic constituents of urban air pollution in the Lazio region (Central Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrino, C; Canepari, S; Cardarelli, E; Catrambone, M; Sargolini, T

    2008-01-01

    A field study was carried out at six locations in the Lazio region (Central Italy) aimed at characterising atmospheric particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) from the point of view of the chemical composition and grain size distribution of the particles, the mixing properties of the atmosphere, the frequency and relevance of natural events. The combination of four different analytical techniques (ion chromatography, X-ray fluorescence and ICP for inorganic components, thermo-optical analysis for carbon compounds) yielded sound results in terms of characterisation of the air masses. During the first three months of the study (October-December 2004), many pollution events of natural (sea-salt or desert dust episodes) or anthropogenic nature were identified and characterised. More than 90% of the collected mass was identified by chemical analysis. The central role played by the mixing properties of the lower atmosphere when pollution events occurred was highlighted. The results show a major impact of primary anthropogenic pollutants on traffic stations and a homogeneous distribution of secondary pollutants over the regional area. An evaluation of the sources of PM and an identification of possible reliable tracers were obtained using a chemical fractionation procedure.

  13. Hydrogeochemical changes before and during the 2016 Amatrice-Norcia seismic sequence (central Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberio, Marino Domenico; Barbieri, Maurizio; Billi, Andrea; Doglioni, Carlo; Petitta, Marco

    2017-09-15

    Seismic precursors are an as yet unattained frontier in earthquake studies. With the aim of making a step towards this frontier, we present a hydrogeochemical dataset associated with the 2016 Amatrice-Norcia seismic sequence (central Apennines, Italy), developed from August 24(th), with an Mw 6.0 event, and culminating on October 30(th), with an Mw 6.5 mainshock. The seismic sequence occurred during a seasonal depletion of hydrostructures, and the four strongest earthquakes (Mw ≥ 5.5) generated an abrupt uplift of the water level, recorded up to 100 km away from the mainshock area. Monitoring a set of selected springs in the central Apennines, a few hydrogeochemical anomalies were observed months before the onset of the seismic swarm, including a variation of pH values and an increase of As, V, and Fe concentrations. Cr concentrations increased immediately after the onset of the seismic sequence. On November 2016, these elements recovered to their usual low concentrations. We interpret these geochemical anomalies as reliable seismic precursors for a dilational tectonic setting.

  14. Source properties of the three mainshocks of the 2016 Amatrice, Central Italy, earthquake sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallovic, Frantisek; Pacor, Francesca; Luzi, Lucia; Puglia, Rodolfo; Spallarossa, Daniele

    2017-04-01

    We perform detailed analysis of the rupture processes of the three mainshocks of the 2016 Amatrice, Central Italy, earthquake sequence using seismological data. Kinematic slip inversion utilizing exceptionally dense near-field accelerograms in frequency range <0.5Hz suggests that the events happened on a single normal fault with complementary slip distributions. The first Mw 6.2 shock (08/24) with maximum slip of 0.5m was followed after 2 months by another Mw 6.1 earthquake (10/26) with similar maximum slip. These two events had left an unruptured 10x5km large central segment of the normal fault. After 4 days (10/30), this segment failed in the largest earthquake of the sequence (Mw 6.5), releasing significant slip amount ( 3m) that partially reached the topographic surface. The three events were characterized by diverse rupture propagation styles. To gain further insight in the source properties and radiation we analyze source time spectra of the events in a broad frequency range (up to 20Hz) by means of the Generalized Inversion Technique. We relate the inferred source characteristics with the geometrical and rheological complexities of the area, such as the pre-existing Sibillini thrust fault system that intersects the causative normal fault.

  15. Molecular detection of Rickettsia, Borrelia, and Babesia species in Ixodes ricinus sampled in northeastern, central, and insular areas of Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Lyda R; Gabrielli, Simona; Iori, Albertina; Cancrini, Gabriella

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to provide insight into the diversity of tick-borne pathogens circulating in Italy, carried/transmitted by Ixodes ricinus, one of the most abundant tick species in the country. A total of 447 specimens sampled in five areas of northeastern, central and insular Italy were analysed by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing for the presence of rickettsiae, borreliae and babesiae. Several rickettsial species of the spotted fever group of zoonotic concern and other zoonotic pathogens were found, such as Borrelia burgdorferi s.s., Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia garinii, and Babesia venatorum. These findings confirm a wide distribution of tick-borne bacterial and protozoan species in Italy, and highlight the sanitary importance of I. ricinus, often recorded as feeding on humans.

  16. Contrasting patterns of climatic changes during the Holocene in the Central Mediterranean (Italy reconstructed from pollen data

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    O. Peyron

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Lake-level records from Italy suggest a north–south climatic partition in the Central Mediterranean during the Holocene with respect to precipitation, but the scarcity of reliable palaeoclimatic records in the North and Central-Southern Mediterranean means new evidence is needed to validate this hypothesis. Here, we provide robust quantitative estimates of Holocene climate in the Mediterranean region based on four high-resolution pollen records from Northern (Lakes Ledro and Accesa and Southern (Lakes Trifoglietti and Pergusa Italy. Multiple methods are used to provide an improved assessment of the paleoclimatic reconstruction uncertainty. The multi-method approach uses the pollen-based Weighted Averaging, Weighted-Average-Partial-Least-Squares regression, Modern Analogues Technique, and the Non-Metric-Multidimensional Scaling/Generalized-Additive-Model methods. The precipitation seasonality reconstructions are validated by independent lake-level data, obtained from the same records.

    A climatic partition between the north and the south during the Holocene confirms the hypothesis of opposing mid-Holocene summer precipitation regimes in the Mediterranean. During the early-to-mid-Holocene the northern sites (Ledro, Accesa are characterized by minima for summer precipitation and lake-levels while the southern sites (Trifoglietti, Pergusa are marked by maxima for precipitation and lake-levels. During the late Holocene, both pollen-inferred precipitation and lake-levels indicate the opposite pattern, a maximum in North Italy and a minimum in Southern Italy/Sicily. Summer temperatures also show partitioning, with warm conditions in Northern Italy and cool conditions in Sicily during the early/mid-Holocene, and a reversal during the Late-Holocene.

    Comparison with marine cores from the Aegean Sea suggests that climate trends and gradients observed in Italy shows strong similarities with those recognized from the Aegean Sea, and more

  17. Assessment of local seismic response of the Stracciacappa maar (Central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscatelli, Massimiliano; Simionato, Maurizio; Gaudiosi, Iolanda; Sottili, Gianluca; Pagliaroli, Alessandro; Sirianni, Pietro; Pileggi, Domenico; Avalle, Alessandra; Giallini, Silvia; Razzano, Roberto; Mancini, Marco; Vignaroli, Gianluca; Piscitelli, Sabatino; Bellanova, Jessica; Calamita, Giuseppe; Perrone, Angela; Lanzo, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we face the definition of a subsoil model aimed at the local seismic response assessment of the Stracciacappa maar (Sabatini Volcanic District, central Italy) (e.g., De Rita and Zanetti, 1986; Marra et al., 2014). The pyroclastic succession of Stracciacappa records two main hydromagmatic eruptive phases ended about 0.09 Ma ago (e.g., Sottili et al., 2010). The preserved crater, with a diameter of about 1500 meters and a crater floor of about 30-40 m, hosted a lake until it was drained in AD 1834. In the framework of the cooperation between CNR IGAG and Italian Department of Civil Protection (DPC) of the Presidency of Council of Ministers (DPC funds 2014), a multidisciplinary approach including detailed stratigraphic and geophysical study has been carried out in the Stracciacappa maar and surrounding areas. New geological map and cross sections illustrate the complex geometric relationships between the thick pyroclastic surge succession, showing diffuse sandwave structures, and even meter-sized lava ballistic. A composite interdigitation between lacustrine and epiclastic debris sediments fills the crater floor. A continuous coring borehole was drilled inside the crater, 45 meters deep from the wellhead, with sampling of undisturbed samples. In addition, four MASW and one SCPTU test were carried out, in order to define the velocity profile of the s-waves within the lacustrine deposits. This Vs profile was then extended at higher depths by using the results of four 2D seismic passive arrays. Moreover, in order to define the resonance frequency of sedimentary covers via the HVSR technique, twenty-eight measurements were carried out with digital sensor Tromino® and seven measurements were performed with a Lennartz® Le-3D/5s sensor with Lennartz Marslite® digitizer. Finally, three electrical resistivity tomography tests, with a total length of about 3500 meters, were carried out with the purpose of constraining the subsoil model. Regarding the non linear

  18. Extensive Field Survey, Laboratory and Greenhouse Studies Reveal Complex Nature of Pseudomonas syringae-Associated Hazelnut Decline in Central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Jay Ram; Bartoli, Claudia; Varvaro, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas avellanae (Pav) has been reported as the causal agent of bacterial decline and bacterial canker of hazelnut in Italy and Greece, respectively. Both hazelnut diseases were reported to be similar in terms of symptoms, severity and persistence. In this study, we found that both symptomatic and asymptomatic trees in the field were colonized by Pav. Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) analysis showed that Pav strains isolated during this study in Italy belong to the P. syringae phylogroup 1 and they are closely related to Pav strains previously isolated in Greece from hazelnut bacterial canker. On the other hand, strains isolated in earlier studies from hazelnut decline in Italy belong to both phylogroup 1 and 2 of P. syringae. Both phylogroup 1 strains of P. syringae from Greece and Italy are different than strains isolated in this study in terms of their capacity to excrete fluorescent pigments on different media. Despite the same plant genotype and cropping practices adopted, the incidence of hazelnut decline ranged from nearly 0 to 91% across our study sites. No disease developed on plants inoculated with Pav through wounding while leaf scar inoculations produced only mild disease symptoms. Based on our results and the previously reported correlation between pedo-climatic conditions and hazelnut decline, we conclude that hazelnut decline in central Italy could be incited by a combination of predisposing (adverse pedo-climatic conditions) and contributing factors (Pav). Because this is a true decline different from "bacterial canker" described in Greece, we refer to it as hazelnut decline (HD).

  19. The last 7 millennia of vegetation and climate changes at Lago di Pergusa (central Sicily, Italy

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    L. Sadori

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate climate changes and human activities under the lens of palynology. Based on a new high-resolution pollen sequence (PG2 from Lago di Pergusa (667 m a.s.l., central Sicily, Italy covering the last 6700 yr, we propose a reconstruction of climate and landscape changes over the recent past in central Sicily. Compared to former studies from Lago di Pergusa (Sadori and Narcisi, 2001, this work provides a reconstruction of the evolution of vegetation and climate over the last millennia in central Sicily, indeed completing previous results with new pollen data, which is particularly detailed on the last 3000 yr. Joint actions of increasing dryness, climate oscillations, and human impact shaped the landscape of this privileged site. Lago di Pergusa, besides being the main inland lake of Sicily, is very sensitive to climate change and its territory was inhabited and exploited continuously since the Palaeolithic. The lake sediments turned out to be a good observatory for natural phenomena that occurred in the last thousands of years. Results of the pollen-based study are integrated with changes in magnetic susceptibility and a tephra layer characterization. The tephra layer was shown to be related to the Sicanians' event, radiocarbon dated at 3055 ± 75 yr BP (Sadori and Narcisi, 2001. We performed palaeoclimate reconstructions by MAT (Modern Analogues Technique and WAPLS (Weighted Average Partial Least Square. Palaeoclimate reconstructions based on the core show important climate fluctuations throughout the Holocene. Climate reconstruction points out four phases of cooling and enhanced wetness in the last three millennia (2600–2000, 1650–1100, 850–550, 400–200 cal BP, corresponding to the periods between 650–50 BC, and 300–850, 1100–1400, 1550–1750 AD, respectively. This appears to be the evidence of local responses to global climate oscillations during the recent past.

  20. Seismotectonic context and coseismic surface faulting of the 24th August 2016 Amatrice (central Italy) earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boncio, P.; Brozzetti, F.; Lavecchia, G.; De Nardis, R.; Cirillo, D.; Ferrarini, F.; Liberi, F.; Auciello, E.

    2016-12-01

    The 24th August 2016 earthquake (Mw6.2) occurred within the Apennine extensional fault system of central Italy, causing severe destruction and about 300 fatalities. At today (October 18th), 16 aftershocks of Mw≥4.0 occurred within an area extending for 18 km NW and 12 km SE of the main shock, including a strong aftershock (Mw5.5) occurred 12.5 km NW of the main shock. The focal mechanisms of the two largest shocks indicate nearly dip-slip motion on normal faults striking 135-to-155° and dipping 45-50° to the SW (http://autorcmt.bo.ingv.it/, http://cnt.rm.ingv.it/tdmt). The focal depths are within the top 13 km of the crust (http://iside.rm.ingv.it/). Overall, focal depths and fault kinematics agree with previous knowledge on the seismotectonics of central Italy, but the relation between the mapped faults and the subsurface rupture is less straightforward. This might have important implications on the segmentation of major active faults.The aftershock sequence locates in the hanging wall of two adjacent active faults: the M. Vettore and M. Gorzano normal faults, with the main shock close to the stepover zone between them. The M. Vettore fault is part of a system extending 35-40 km NW of the stepover (M. Bove-M. Vettore system), with an average strike of 155° and maximum throw of 1.3-1.4 km. The M. Gorzano fault is a large isolated fault extending 28-30 km SE of the stepover, with an average strike of 150° and maximum throw of 2.3 km. There is no evidence of historical earthquakes for the M. Vettore fault, while the northern half of the M. Gorzano fault appears to have ruptured in 1639 (M 6.2).Coseismic surface faulting was mapped for 6 km along the M. Vettore fault, at the base of a Holocene fault scarp. The maximum measured coseismic throw is 27 cm. Along the M. Gorzano fault zone, we mapped only short, discontinuous open fractures. The longest fracture (200 m long, 1-to-2 cm throw) was mapped along the main fault, close to the southern termination of the

  1. A management model applied in two ‘no-kill’ dog shelters in central Italy: use of population medicine for three consecutive years

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    Paolo Dalla Villa

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The principal tools currently used in Italy to limit stray dog populations are dog registration and identification, birth control and increasing public awareness. Since 1991, national legislation does not permit euthanasia of unwanted roaming dogs unless they have an incurable condition or are proven to be dangerous. Unattended dogs are placed in long-term shelters in questionable conditions where they often remain for most of their lives. Kennel management is one of the most critical aspects of animal welfare, particularly as the number of stray dogs is rising faster than the current rate of adoption. The Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell’Abruzzo e del Molise ‘G. Caporale’ (IZS A&M manages two kennels in Teramo and uses standard management procedures that include regular behavioural and physical examinations. All results recorded in a computer database were analysed to identify production goals and improve welfare, in line with a population medicine model. Prevalence and incidence of different pathologies were recorded and analysed to improve veterinary management and organisation. No new dogs were admitted from 2005 onwards, thereby producing an ideal ‘closed system’ where the effects of rational management can be studied in the absence of unpredictable risks from introduced pathologies. Statistical evaluations revealed major differences between 2006 and 2007. The use of the ‘population medicine’ management system resulted in improved dog health and welfare, as indicated by the significant reduction in both the prevalence and incidence of major pathologies between 2006 and 2007. A significant improvement was also seen in the control of the incidence of leishmaniasis which reduced sharply during this period.

  2. Reconstructing diet and behaviour of Neanderthals from Central Italy through dental macrowear analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorenza, Luca

    2015-07-20

    Neanderthals have been traditionally considered at the top of the food chain with a diet mostly consisting of animal proteins. New findings challenged this view and suggested that Neanderthals living in areas with more favourable climatic conditions exploited various food sources, including plant materials. In this study, the attention is focused on dental macrowear of Neanderthals from Central Italy, whose diet has been largely unexplored. Three-dimensional digital models of teeth have been examined through occlusal fingerprint analysis (OFA), a method used to understand how wear facets are formed. The results show a close similarity between the specimens of Saccopastore 1 and 2, with a wear pattern that indicates the use of diverse sources of food, but with a predominance of animal proteins. On the other hand, the specimens of Guattari 2 and 3 display a slightly different dental wear from each other, which probably reflects the chronological sequence of the Guattari Cave. It appears that at the end of the marine isotope stage (MIS)5 the occupants of this cave consumed marginally more plant foods, while during MIS 3 they relied more on animal proteins. Finally, a close look at the Saccopastore maxillary molars reveals the presence of a distinct type of wear that has been previously described in some Neanderthals and early Homo sapiens from Near East, and it provides additional information about the culture and lifestyle of these Pleistocene human populations.

  3. Epidemiological study of hazelnut bacterial blight in central Italy by using laboratory analysis and geostatistics.

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    Jay Ram Lamichhane

    Full Text Available Incidence of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. corylina, the causal agent of hazelnut bacterial blight, was analyzed spatially in relation to the pedoclimatic factors. Hazelnut grown in twelve municipalities situated in the province of Viterbo, central Italy was studied. A consistent number of bacterial isolates were obtained from the infected tissues of hazelnut collected in three years (2010-2012. The isolates, characterized by phenotypic tests, did not show any difference among them. Spatial patterns of pedoclimatic data, analyzed by geostatistics showed a strong positive correlation of disease incidence with higher values of rainfall, thermal shock and soil nitrogen; a weak positive correlation with soil aluminium content and a strong negative correlation with the values of Mg/K ratio. No correlation of the disease incidence was found with soil pH. Disease incidence ranged from very low (<1% to very high (almost 75% across the orchards. Young plants (4-year old were the most affected by the disease confirming a weak negative correlation of the disease incidence with plant age. Plant cultivars did not show any difference in susceptibility to the pathogen. Possible role of climate change on the epidemiology of the disease is discussed. Improved management practices are recommended for effective control of the disease.

  4. Sr isotopes and U series radionuclides in the Sangemini area (Central Italy: Hydrogeology implications

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    Maurizio Barbieri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The strontium isotopic ratio (expressed as 87Sr/86Sr of groundwater represents a useful method for studying and understanding the groundwater circulations, also, the U and Ra isotopic compositions can vary as function of the groundwater residence time. This paper reports an evaluation of the probable recharge area of the Sangemini mineral water springs (Terni-Umbria Central Italy and an estimate of the residence time of the aquifer by coupling Sr and U series isotopic systematics. For this study have been analyzed four water sample for the isotope ratio of 87Sr/86Sr, and eleven samples, shallow waters and groundwaters, for U and Ra, furthermore were determined the values of isotopic ratio for sample of typical rocks of the area. The results of this study allow to identify: a recharge area in a restricted sector of the Meso-Cenozoic carbonates a longer and more effective water/rock interaction in the Quaternary series. U and Ra recoil models allow to estimate a groundwater residence time of about 350 years and a total water volume whose value (64*106 m3 agrees with the limited extension of the aquifer. The extension of the aquifer was constrained by comparing Sr isotopic composition of waters and local geological formations. Groundwaters seem mainly to circulate in clayey sandy Quaternary series characterized by low redox conditions.

  5. Slope instability in the Bastardo Basin (Umbria, Central Italy – The landslide of Barattano

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    C. Cencetti

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Bastardo Basin is one of the classics Apenninic intermontane basins of central Italy. They are en-closed tectonic basins (graben and semigraben with high anthropization, but with high vulnerability, too (seismic, hydrogeological and geomorphological. The paper concerns some aspects about slope instability in the Bastardo Basin as part of a wider research, which aims to actually define the characteristics of the liability to landslides of the Apenninic intermontane basins. In particular lithological, stratigraphical and hydrogeological conditions are analysed under which a landslide near village of Barattano has developed. This mass movement, at different times, produced partial or total occlusion of the torrent Puglia. Here geognostic investigations together with laboratory tests and subsequent monitoring of landslide area were carried out.  A back analysis, based on limit equilibrium solutions for the factor of safety of the slope, provided the residual strenght properties of the soil mass along the sliding surface.   The landslide of Barattano is representative of a very frequent situation (in terms of type, factors and causes of the movement, possible development of the movement not only within Bastardo Basin, but in general within Apenninic intermontane basins, too.  The study of landslide and the design of appropriate remedial measures are of great importance in terms of prevention and mitigation of geologic-hydraulic risk in Apenninic intermontane basins.

  6. Integrated Water Resources Management in a Lake System: A Case Study in Central Italy

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    Stefano Casadei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Lake Trasimeno is a closed lake in Central Italy and in historically its water level has been affected by wide fluctuations mostly depending on the climate. The lake has suffered many water crises due to water scarcity and in recent decades, droughts have also severely affected the economic and environmental situation. The aim of this study was to analyze the possibility of limiting these severe level fluctuations by evaluating of feasible water resource management policies that could also reduce the environmental stress of this area. Therefore, a specific decision support system (DSS has been developed in order to simulate different scenarios for the entire water system of the Trasimeno area. In particular, the hydrological model implemented in the DSS allowed for the simulation and validation of different management policy hypotheses for the water resource in order to mitigate environmental and water crises for the Lake Trasimeno. Results indicated that it is possible to transfer a certain amount of water from nearby reservoirs without affecting the availability of the resource for specific users. In this way, Lake Trasimeno can benefit both from an increase in water levels in the lake, so a possible better situation in quantitatively and qualitatively.

  7. Analysis of drought in the region of Abruzzo (Central Italy) by the Standardized Precipitation Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lena, B.; Vergni, L.; Antenucci, F.; Todisco, F.; Mannocchi, F.

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a comprehensive analysis of drought phenomena in the Region of Abruzzo (Central Italy) using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) computed at different time scales (3, 6, 12, 24 months). The study is based on monthly precipitation data collected from 1951 to 2009 at 69 climatic stations uniformly distributed over the region. According to the trend analysis, most stations are characterized by increments in both drought severity and variability, particularly at the longer time scales. A principal component analysis applied to SPI time series enabled to identify two main patterns: the first more correlated to the coastal areas, the second more correlated to the inland, mountainous areas. However, the spatial patterns become less defined as the time scale increases, making more uncertain the definition of homogenous areas to be used in drought management plans. In most cases, the identified drought patterns have similar negative overall tendencies, but different trend directions in some sub-periods. In particular, the first drought pattern is clearly characterized by a trend reversal (from decreasing to increasing) during the last decade. This temporal evolution, consistent with that observed by large-scale analyses in the corresponding (or near) grid points, was not detected for the second pattern, which is probably influenced by local topographic and/or orographic factors. The results confirm the complexity of drought phenomenon in a typical Mediterranean region and the necessity of high-resolution datasets to capture its temporal and spatial variability.

  8. Dermatitis associated with Dirofilaria (Nochtiella) repens microfilariae in dogs from central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarello, W

    2002-01-01

    Pruritic dermatitis associated with Dirofilaria (Nochtiella) repens microfilariae in the blood was diagnosed in 22 dogs from Fermo (Central Italy). According to the history, previous unsuccessful treatments with corticosteroids, antibiotics, restricted diet, flea control, levamisole and ivermectin were recorded in 17 dogs (77.3%). The combined filtration tests and antigen tests, performed during the study, were negative for Dirofilaria immitis and Acanthocheilonema reconditum in each case. Dermatological lesions included erythema, papules, single or multifocal alopecia, eczema, lichenification, crusting and nodules. All dogs had pruritus. Concurrent babesiosis was diagnosed in the blood smears of each case (100%), and 60% of the dogs were found to be carriers of canine granulocytic ehrlichiosis (CGE). Three dogs (13.6%) were positive for leishmaniosis. Eradication of the concurrent infections followed by specific macro- and microfilaricide treatment led to complete recovery from the dermatological syndrome. The main conclusion of the study is that D. repens infection can be more pathogenic than is currently considered, and it is apparently an opportunistic disease with serious dermatological consequences.

  9. Exploratory analysis of atmospheric pollution in a coastal forest ecosystem in central Italy

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    Rita Aromolo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Exploratory analysis of atmospheric pollution in a coastal forest ecosystem in central Italy - The study of spatial and temporal distribution of heavy metals in the atmosphere through the continuous assessment of deposition is of great interest for the analysis of anthropogenic pressure on the environment and the potential toxicity to humans and other living organisms. Information based on reliable estimates of heavy metals is therefore crucial for the evaluation of environmental quality. Trends in heavy metal concentration in atmospheric depositions on a coastal forest ecosystem (Castelporziano, Rome are analyzed in the present study based on a three-year monitoring field survey over three sites representative of different woodland characteristics in the area. Our results highlight both the influence of transportation processes in the short and medium distance based on the human pressure reflecting urban expansion and infrastructure development on the fringe of Castelporziano pristine forest. Further studies investigating the latent correlation with meteorological variables at various temporal scales are needed to provide a comprehensive picture of environmental conditions in a forest ecosystem subjected to increasing human pressure. Analysis of runoff water quality and the determination of other heavy metals, such as arsenic, may identify additional sources of pollution impacting soil and forest ecosystem.

  10. Geodetic deformations in the Central-Southern Apennines (Italy) from repeated GPS surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serpelloni, E.; Baldi, P. [Bologna Univ., Bologna (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Pesci, A.; Riguzzi, F.; Anzidei, M.; Casula, G.; Galvani, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Rome (Italy)

    2001-06-01

    It was computed the horizontal strain rate field for a sector of the Central-Southern Apennines (Italy) from GPS data collected during yearly repeated campaigns performed from 1994 to 2000 on the GeoModAp (Geodynamic Modeling of the Appennines) geodetic network. Site velocities were obtained starting from the daily coordinates and covariance solutions, using a Kalman filter approach. The residual velocity field with respect to a Eurasian fixed reference frame shows two different prevalent motion trends, NE-ward for the the eastern sector of the network and NW-ward for the western one. The mean strain rate tensor, obtained from a least square inversion method, shows a significant extensional deformation (1.2 x 10{sup -}8 strain/yr) normal to the Apennine chain, in agreement with seismological and neotectonic data. On the basis of the network dimension, of about 250 km, this value gives a well constrained estimate of about 3.0 plus or minus 0.2 mm/yr of the extensional velocity oriented N55E, normal to the chain axis. The results show a transition of the strain rate field from about N-S compression in the Tyrrhenian side to about NE-SW extension toward the Adriatic, which depicts a more complex deformation pattern.

  11. The isolation of bluetongue virus from field populations of the Obsoletus Complex in central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savini, G; Goffredo, M; Monaco, F; Di Gennaro, A; de Santis, P; Meiswinkel, R; Caporale, V

    2004-01-01

    Between July and September 2002, bluetongue (BT) virus (BTV) serotypes 2 and 9 caused mortalities amongst sheep in the communities of San Gregorio Magno (Salerno, Campania), Laviano (Salerno, Campania) and Carpino (Foggia, Puglia), central Italy. On three of the affected farms, approximately 10,000 specimens of Culicoides were captured, representing fifteen species. Not a single specimen of the classical Afro-Asiatic BT vector, C. imicola Kieffer, was found; species of the Obsoletus Complex dominated the light-trap collections (90%) and included C. obsoletus (Meigen), C. scoticus Downes and Kettle and C. dewulfi Goetghebuer. Fifty-eight pools of the Obsoletus Complex (excluding C. dewulfi), each numbering 100 individuals per pool, and containing only parous and gravid females, were assayed for virus. BTV serotype 2 (BTV-2) was isolated from three pools (San Gregorio and Carpino) and BTV-9 from one (Laviano). These results indicate clearly that a species other than C. imicola is involved in the current re-emergence of BT in the Mediterranean Basin, but whether this is only C. obsoletus sensu stricto, or only C. scoticus, or both together, has yet to be established.

  12. Time linkages between pollination onsets of different taxa in Perugia, Central Italy--an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenguelli, Giuseppe; Ghitarrini, Sofia; Tedeschini, Emma

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades, increasing attention has been paid to pollinosis. Numerous studies have been carried out concerning the pollination timing of allergenic plant species and the possibility to forecast its beginning and intensity using several statistical methods and models. This study proposes a simple and fast method to identify in advance the time lapse in which the pollination of some allergenic taxa should start. The times of pollination of 14 taxa were recorded in the area of Perugia (Central Italy) by means of a 7-volumetric Hirst-Type pollen trap. For a 30-year period (1984-2013), annual starting dates were calculated for each taxa, using the 5% method (Lejoly-Gabriel). The time linkages between these starting dates were then estimated, considering them in pairs and calculating linear regression coefficients. For the significantly linked species, forecasting models were obtained by means of linear regression analysis. To apply these models to the ongoing pollen season, pollination beginning of the earlier species has to be calculated using a sum-based method. From this date, through the obtained equations, it is possible to predict the approximate period in which the pollination of the second linked taxa should start. The possibility to predict the start of the pollen season of these taxa could be of great importance from the allergological point of view. In fact, an early or delayed flowering can have considerable effects in the prophylaxis programming and efficacy.

  13. Peri-Urban Matters. Changing Olive Growing Patterns in Central Italy

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    Anna Laura Palazzo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available For centuries, olive growing has played a major role in the central regions of Italy, with hectares of olive groves surrounding hill towns and hamlets as part of a strong deep-rooted farming tradition. With reference to Lazio and Abruzzo, this article makes use of historical documentation, geographical surveys and in-depth interviews with professionals and experts, in order to provide evidence of how olive growing, once of the mixed type, now with specialized cultivations, has somehow challenged the structural features of traditional landscapes. In some cases, this ancient farming tradition has been awarded the ‘Protected Designation of Origin Brand’ according to strict technical production policies. Besides intensive crops, today also practiced on flat ground, for some years now, olive trees have been cultivated by ‘hobby farmers’. This is frequent in fringe areas, threatened by urban sprawl, within small plots belonging to detached family homes conferring a sense of rural ‘revival’. Whether all these diverse settlement patterns are socially and economically sustainable is debatable. Definitely, such persistence in land use, which now and again can be read even as a material survival of certain tree specimens, allows for olive farming as an enduring cultural practice in the face of increasing urbanization.

  14. The INGV tectonomagnetic network in central Italy. Fifteen years of observations and future developments: an update

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    A. Meloni

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Tectonic events, as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, may generate variations in the local geomagnetic field intensity. To detect possible effects related to seismic activity in central Italy, the INGV (Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia installed a network of four magnetometers in 1989, in a region extending from 41° to 43° latitude N and 12° to 15° longitude E. The study area is characterized by active faulting and seismicity, and by historical destructive earthquakes. The total geomagnetic field intensity was synchronously sampled at the magnetometer sites since July 1989 and averaged on a daily basis. These values were then differentiated with respect to the data recorded at the permanent nearby National Geomagnetic Observatory of L’Aquila (42° 23’ N, 13° 19’ E. The aim of our work was to detect possible significant magnetic field variations of tectonic origin. Data have been regularly recorded for about 15 years with some interruptions due to instrumental temporary failures. This data set represents a long series of recordings that is valuable to characterize the local response of each station to the secular variation in a tectonically active area. In this paper we applied a new signal processing on data by means of a wavelet analysis to the differentiated geomagnetic records for the period 2000-2005. In an ongoing paper the same technique is extended back to the remaining ten years of data (1989-1999.

  15. Testing bird response to roads on a rural environment: A case study from Central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Federico; Jerzak, Leszek; Pruscini, Fabio; Santolini, Riccardo; Benedetti, Yanina; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2015-11-01

    The construction of roads is currently well spread in many parts of our world and impacts strongly on wildlife distribution. Some bird species avoid, while other prefer to be in the vicinity of these human structures. However, studies on roads effects on birds, in terms of strength or direction of these effects, are scarce. Therefore, in a study carried out in Central Italy we tested the responses of different bird species to roads at a local spatial scale, using generalized linear models (GLM). Analysis were conducted on a large dataset (more than 1400 sampled sites, mainly on rural environments). Both positive and negative effects of roads on birds were found for bird species of close or semi-close environments, while the negative effects of roads were negligible for bird species of open and semi-open environments. This fact suggest that roads can be a source of "functional heterogeneity" on semi-open environments, providing marginal habitats, hedgerows and residual vegetation typical of roadsides, offering breeding and feeding habitat for some bird species. The proposed methodology provide a useful explorative tool, in order to develop conservation policies to preserve the biodiversity, mainly in rural landscapes. The outputs of GLM can be used as inputs in ecological planning: direction and strength of the effects of roads on bird species are adequate to estimate the response of bird community, up front to the presence of new structures, or identifying which of them should be mitigated to reduce negative effects on the biodiversity.

  16. Lyme disease and the detection of Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies in Ixodes ricinus ticks from central Italy

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    Ilaria Pascucci

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Province of Pesaro-Urbino, situated in the Marche Region of central Italy, can be considered to be an area at risk for Lyme disease because of its ecological features. Field data are not yet available although the disease is known to be present in neighbouring areas. During a field study lasting twelve months, ticks were collected from the vegetation, from wild cervids and also from humans who reported a tick bite at the local hospital. All ticks were identified and Ixodes ricinus specimens were tested using three different polymerase chain reaction tests for the detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl. To identify the genospecies of B. burgdorferi sl, a fragment of the 5S-23S ribosomal rRNA intergenic spacer of the positive samples was amplified and then sequenced. Sequencing of the 5S-23S intergenic spacer led to the identification of two different genospecies, namely: B. burgdorferi sensu stricto and B. lusitaniae, both of which are involved in cases of human infection. Findings on the host-tick relationships and on the genospecies involved in the cycle of borreliosis confirm the suitable conditions for Lyme disease in the study area. The results concur with previous findings reported in the Mediterranean region.

  17. Structural control on the directional amplification of seismic noise (Campo Imperatore, central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pischiutta, M.; Fondriest, M.; Demurtas, M.; Magnoni, F.; Di Toro, G.; Rovelli, A.

    2017-08-01

    Seismic signals propagating across a fault may yield information on the internal structure of the fault zone. Here we have assessed the amplification of seismic noise (i.e., ambient vibrations generated by natural or anthropogenic disturbances) across the Vado di Corno Fault (Campo Imperatore, central Italy). The fault zone is considered as an exhumed analogue of the normal faults activated during the L'Aquila 2009 earthquake sequence. Detailed structural geological survey of the footwall block revealed that the fault zone is highly anisotropic and is affected by a complex network of faults and fractures with dominant WNW-ESE strike. We measured seismic noise with portable seismometers along a ∼500 m long transect perpendicular to the average fault strike. Seismic signals were processed calculating the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratios and performing wavefield polarization analyses. We found a predominant NE-SW to NNE-SSW (i.e., ca. perpendicular to the average strike of the fault-fracture network) amplification of the horizontal component of the seismic waves. Numerical simulations of earthquake-induced ground motions ruled out the role of topography in controlling the polarization and the amplitude of the waves. Therefore, the higher seismic noise amplitude observed in the fault-perpendicular direction was related to the measured fracture network and the resulting stiffness anisotropy of the rock mass. These observations open new perspectives in using measures of ambient seismic noise, which are fast and inexpensive, to estimate the dominant orientation of fracture networks within fault zones.

  18. Epidemiological study of hazelnut bacterial blight in central Italy by using laboratory analysis and geostatistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Jay Ram; Fabi, Alfredo; Ridolfi, Roberto; Varvaro, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    Incidence of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. corylina, the causal agent of hazelnut bacterial blight, was analyzed spatially in relation to the pedoclimatic factors. Hazelnut grown in twelve municipalities situated in the province of Viterbo, central Italy was studied. A consistent number of bacterial isolates were obtained from the infected tissues of hazelnut collected in three years (2010-2012). The isolates, characterized by phenotypic tests, did not show any difference among them. Spatial patterns of pedoclimatic data, analyzed by geostatistics showed a strong positive correlation of disease incidence with higher values of rainfall, thermal shock and soil nitrogen; a weak positive correlation with soil aluminium content and a strong negative correlation with the values of Mg/K ratio. No correlation of the disease incidence was found with soil pH. Disease incidence ranged from very low (<1%) to very high (almost 75%) across the orchards. Young plants (4-year old) were the most affected by the disease confirming a weak negative correlation of the disease incidence with plant age. Plant cultivars did not show any difference in susceptibility to the pathogen. Possible role of climate change on the epidemiology of the disease is discussed. Improved management practices are recommended for effective control of the disease.

  19. A millennium of Mediterranean climate change and forest history in central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensing, S. A.; Tunno, I.; Piovesan, G.

    2010-12-01

    A 1100 year sedimentary sequence from a lake in central Italy near Rome (Lago Lungo, Lazio, 379 m a.s.l.) was sampled for pollen and charcoal at an average interval of 26 years providing a high-resolution reconstruction of vegetation from 885 AD to the present. Pollen percentages support historical documents that describe periodic deforestation and agricultural expansion during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA). Forests recovered about 1400 AD following depopulation associated with the black plague and socio-economic instability and a shift to cool wet climate during the Little Ice Age (LIA). Mixed deciduous forest reached a maximum in 1550 AD, approximately one century later than many sites across Western Europe. A less diverse less dense forest emerged after 1650 AD following the plague of 1656 AD. There is no evidence that excessive cutting, burning and erosion during the medieval period caused permanent degradation of the landscape. Forests appear to have recovered rapidly when land use declined and climate became favorable. Comparison of the pollen data with reconstructed Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) of Morocco and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) indicate periods of deforestation and woodland regeneration coincide with climate change. During warm dry climate, deforestation accelerated and agriculture expanded, and during extended cool wet climate, conditions for cereal cultivation deteriorated, forests and wetland expanded, and the local agricultural system collapsed. These results show that in the Mediterranean, collapse of local agricultural systems may also occur during extended periods of cool/wet climate.

  20. XAS study of lead speciation in a central Italy calcareous soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comaschi, Tatiana; Meneghini, Carlo; Businelli, Daniela; Mobilio, Settimio; Businelli, Mario

    2011-05-01

    The Pb absorption processes on a heavy textured calcareous soil, typical of central Italy, were studied using synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) in order to probe, at molecular scale, the structure and chemical nature of Pb in contaminated soils and achieve precise description of Pb ions localization into these contaminated soils. In order to distinguish the role of the different components of soils in Pb retention, samples were prepared from the original soils removing the carbonate fractions, the organic matter, the metal oxides, or selecting the clay fractions. Then these samples were fortified with Pb simulating the natural interactions processes of heavy metal solutions with soils. The quantitative analysis of near edge (XANES) as well extended (EXAFS) regions of Pb L(III) edge absorption spectra, in comparison with Pb XAS data of selected reference compounds, allowed the precise determination of local structure and chemical environment of Pb ions in these soil samples. Four components were individuated as the major responsible of Pb retention in calcareous soils: the carbonates, the metal oxide surfaces, the organic matter, and the colloidal inorganic surfaces containing clay components. The structural analysis suggests that, within these experimental conditions, the Pb adsorbed on the soil is generally present as Pb hydroxide with poor crystallization degree. However, the presence of carbonates (CaCO3) induces the co-precipitation of PbCO3-like phases with some degree of crystallinity.

  1. Pb, Cu and Cd distribution in five estuary systems of Marche, central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annibaldi, Anna; Illuminati, Silvia; Truzzi, Cristina; Libani, Giulia; Scarponi, Giuseppe

    2015-07-15

    Heavy metals are subjected to monitoring in estuarine and marine water by the European Union Water Framework Directive, which requires water body health to be achieved by 2021. This is the first survey of heavy metals content in five estuaries of Marche, a region in central Italy. Results showed that total Pb and Cu concentrations decreased by 70-80%, from 1000-2000 to 100-200 ng L(-1) (Pb) and from 2000-3000 to 500-1000 ng L(-1) (Cu) from river to sea. Cd was consistently 20-40 ng L(-1). Dissolved Pb and Cu concentrations declined by 50% and 70% respectively passing from oligohaline to euhaline water, from 150 to 70 ng L(-1) and from 2000-1000 to 600-400 ng L(-1). Cd decreased slightly from ∼20 to ∼10 ng L(-1). Although such concentrations are in the range allowed by the Water Framework Directive, they far exceed (up to 10×) the ground content ceiling set for 2021. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Unsuspected diversity of Niphargus amphipods in the chemoautotrophic cave ecosystem of Frasassi, central Italy

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    Dattagupta Sharmishtha

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sulfide-rich Frasassi caves in central Italy contain a rare example of a freshwater ecosystem supported entirely by chemoautotrophy. Niphargus ictus, the sole amphipod species previously reported from this locality, was recently shown to host the first known case of a freshwater chemoautotrophic symbiosis. Since the habitat of N. ictus is highly fragmented and is comprised of streams and lakes with various sulfide concentrations, we conducted a detailed study to examine the potential genetic diversity of this species within Frasassi. Results By sequencing one nuclear (ITS and two mitochondrial (COI and 12S regions, we show that four partially sympatric Niphargus clades are present in Frasassi. Morphological and behavioral data obtained for three of these clades are perfectly congruent with this molecular delineation and make it possible to distinguish them in the field. Phylogenetic analyses of 28S ribosomal DNA sequences reveal that, among the four clades, only two are closely related to each other. Moreover, these four clades occupy distinct niches that seem to be related to the chemical properties and flow regimes of the various water bodies within Frasassi. Conclusions Our results suggest that four distinct Niphargus species are present in Frasassi and that they originated from three or four independent invasions of the cave system. At least two among the four species harbor Thiothrix epibionts, which paves the way for further studies of the specificity and evolutionary history of this symbiosis.

  3. Data Analysis of Seismic Sequence in Central Italy in 2016 using CTBTO- International Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumladze, Tea; Wang, Haijun; Graham, Gerhard

    2017-04-01

    The seismic network that forms the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-test-ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) will ultimately consist of 170 seismic stations (50 primary and 120 auxiliary) in 76 countries around the world. The Network is still under the development, but currently more than 80% of the network is in operation. The objective of seismic monitoring is to detect and locate underground nuclear explosions. However, the data from the IMS also can be widely used for scientific and civil purposes. In this study we present the results of data analysis of the seismic sequence in 2016 in Central Italy. Several hundred earthquakes were recorded for this sequence by the seismic stations of the IMS. All events were accurately located the analysts of the International Data Centre (IDC) of the CTBTO. In this study we will present the epicentral and magnitude distribution, station recordings and teleseismic phases as obtained from the Reviewed Event Bulletin (REB). We will also present a comparison of the database of the IDC with the databases of the European-Mediterranean Seismological Centre (EMSC) and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Present work shows that IMS data can be used for earthquake sequence analyses and can play an important role in seismological research.

  4. Interaction of marine and fluvial clastic sedimentation, central Italy, Tyrrhenian coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evangelista, S.; Full, W.E.; Tortora, P.

    1989-03-01

    An integrated approach was used to study the interaction of fluvial, beach, and marine processes on sedimentation at the west-central coast of Italy along the Tyrrhenian Sea. The study area, 120 km northwest of Rome, is bounded on the north by Mt. Argentario, on the east by Pleistocene volcanics, on the south by the St. Augustine River, and on the west by the 50-mn bathymetric isopleth. The primary tools used included field work, textural analysis, high-resolution marine seismic, SEM, and Fourier shape analysis. Field work revealed incised streams, potentially relict beach ridges and lagoons, and relatively steep nearshore marine slopes in the northern portions of the study area. The result of the shape analysis performed on 56 samples was the definition of four end members. Each end member reflects a sedimentation process. Three end members were directly associated with fluvial sedimentation, and the fourth reflected marine processes. The seismic data along with the SEM analysis strongly supported the interpretation of four processes that dominate the recent sedimentation history. The sand interpreted to be associated with marine processes was found to represent the smoothest end member. SEM analysis suggests that the smoothing is not due to abrasion but to plastering associated with biologic processes (digestion.) and/or with silica precipitation associated with clay alteration at the freshwater/saltwater interface.

  5. Characterizing Aftershock Sequences of the Recent Strong Earthquakes in Central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossobokov, Vladimir G.; Nekrasova, Anastasia K.

    2017-07-01

    The recent strong earthquakes in Central Italy allow for a comparative analysis of their aftershocks from the viewpoint of the Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes, USLE, which generalizes the Gutenberg-Richter relationship making use of naturally fractal distribution of earthquake sources of different size in a seismic region. In particular, we consider aftershocks as a sequence of avalanches in self-organized system of blocks-and-faults of the Earth lithosphere, each aftershock series characterized with the distribution of the USLE control parameter, η. We found the existence, in a long-term, of different, intermittent levels of rather steady seismic activity characterized with a near constant value of η, which switch, in mid-term, at times of transition associated with catastrophic events. On such a transition, seismic activity may follow different scenarios with inter-event time scaling of different kind, including constant, logarithmic, power law, exponential rise/decay or a mixture of those as observed in the case of the ongoing one associated with the three strong earthquakes in 2016. Evidently, our results do not support the presence of universality of seismic energy release, while providing constraints on modelling seismic sequences for earthquake physicists and supplying decision makers with information for improving local seismic hazard assessments.

  6. AVAILABLE SOIL WATER CAPACITY AS A DISCRIMINANT FACTOR IN MIXED OAK FOREST OF CENTRAL ITALY

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    A. TESTI

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil water content is a critical factor in Mediterranean forest vegetation, especially in areas subjected to prolonged summer drought where winter and autumn rainfall are the main sources of water. Available soil water capacity (AWC is the maximum amount of water available for plants that a soil could possibly contain. Each soil has a specific available water capacity, however, most of the published literature on AWC refers 10 agricultural settings, although the interaction between the soil and the vegetation dynamics has long been recognized. The aim of this study was to investigate whether this edaphic factor could be discriminant in species assemblage of communities belonging to the thermophylous oak forest (order Quercetalia pubescentis. Thirty-two vegetation relevés and soil profiles were carried out in five different sites, with a similar pluvio-thermic regime, located in the sub-coastal belt of Latium, Central Italy. From the physical\\-chemical analyses of soil profiles, the AWC values, of the related relevés, were calculated. Multivariate statistical analysis was applied to the vegetation surveys, using Cluster Analysis from which a classification in three different clusters was obtained; subsequently the AWC values were grouped according to the c1assification obtained. Analysis of variance was used to test similarity and the output pointed out a significant difference among the three clusters (F=6.35; P

  7. The structure and dynamics of a rhinolophid bat community of Latium (Central Italy (Chiroptera

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    Pierangelo Crucitti

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present paper summarizes the results of 3 years of observation made at six month intervals for six months at a time (18 field surveys in a man-made cave in Northern Latium (Central Italy from April 1992 to April 1995. Its aim is to analyze the main structural and dynamic features of a bat community which hibernates at the shelter. Rhinolophus ferrumequinum and especially Rhinolophus euryale are the most abundant species. Population dynamics of both species as well as that of Rhinoluphus hipposideros show higher levels of abundance between December and February of each semester. In mid-winter, large and sometimes mixed aggregations of Rhinolophus ferrumequinum and Rhinolophus euryale in deep hypothermia occur. A small number of Rhinolophus hipposideros, mainly adult males, was observed. The paper compares the structure of this community to the structure of another community of the same district which has been previously analyzed, in which Vespertilionidae, especially Miniopterus schreibersi, are much more abundant. Despite the difference in species composition, body size was found to be a significant and common feature (as highlighted by forearm length, of the dominant species in both communities, Rhinolophus euryale and Miniopterus schreibersi respectively.

  8. AVAILABLE SOIL WATER CAPACITY AS A DISCRIMINANT FACTOR IN MIXED OAK FOREST OF CENTRAL ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. SERAFINI SAULI

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil water content is a critical factor in Mediterranean forest vegetation, especially in areas subjected to prolonged summer drought where winter and autumn rainfall are the main sources of water. Available soil water capacity (AWC is the maximum amount of water available for plants that a soil could possibly contain. Each soil has a specific available water capacity, however, most of the published literature on AWC refers 10 agricultural settings, although the interaction between the soil and the vegetation dynamics has long been recognized. The aim of this study was to investigate whether this edaphic factor could be discriminant in species assemblage of communities belonging to the thermophylous oak forest (order Quercetalia pubescentis. Thirty-two vegetation relevés and soil profiles were carried out in five different sites, with a similar pluvio-thermic regime, located in the sub-coastal belt of Latium, Central Italy. From the physical-chemical analyses of soil profiles, the AWC values, of the related relevés, were calculated. Multivariate statistical analysis was applied to the vegetation surveys, using Cluster Analysis from which a classification in three different clusters was obtained; subsequently the AWC values were grouped according to the c1assification obtained. Analysis of variance was used to test similarity and the output pointed out a significant difference among the three clusters (F=6.35; P

  9. S Isotope Ratios of Central Italy Waters to Assess Their Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castorina, Francesca; Masi, Umberto

    2010-05-01

    Sr isotopes have so far applied only occasionally to the study of the waters from central Italy. Therefore, we have analyzed more than 30 water samples from thermal and cold springs, and from the lakes located in the Quaternary K-alkaline volcanic districts of Latium, aimed at providing significant information on the sources of Sr and the hydrologic circulation. The 87Sr/86Sr composition of the waters shows a general correlation with the aquifer rocks, resulting in the waters from older carbonatic rocks having a less radiogenic signature than those from younger K-alkaline volcanic rocks. The Sr-isotope ratios of most thermal waters range narrowly by 0.708, indicating a common source of Sr, likely represented by the Upper Triassic Burano Anhydrites, i.e. the lowermost permeable formation in the study area. Moreover, the positive correlation between Sr and Ca suggests that bulk Ca was also supplied from that source. A minor number of thermal waters as well as all the waters from the lakes and cold springs display a larger Sr isotopic range (0.7085-0.7115), suggesting a relative large spectrum of sources for Sr. In particular, some waters derive their Sr from a singular source, but the most show isotopic signatures suggestive of mixed contributions from different aquifers. As a whole, the results from this study confirm that Sr isotopes are a useful tool contributing to explain the geochemical characteristics of surficial and groundwaters.

  10. Variation in zoogeographical composition along an elevational gradient: the tenebrionid beetles of Latium (Central Italy

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    S. Fattorini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to propose the use of chorotype analysis of species assemblages on an elevational gradient to detect the main historical and ecological factors responsible for current faunal settings. A comprehensive faunistic database was used to assess species abundance across 100 m belts in Latium (Central Italy. Species were assigned to chorotypes according to their ranges. Entropy and evenness indices were applied to both species abundances and chorotype frequencies recorded in each belt. Both species and chorotype entropy decreased with elevation, whereas species and chorotype evenness increased. Chorotypes centred on the Mediterranean basin decreased with increasing elevation, chorotypes centred in Europe and Asia had similar frequencies among belts and endemic species increased with elevation. A cluster analysis with species presence/absence data, revealed three main clusters grouping respectively: i all belts above 1700 m; ii belts between 901 and 1500 m; and iii belts between 0 and 900 m. An analysis based on chorotype frequencies produced very similar results. We can conclude that: high elevation assemblages are less diversified, but more balanced than lowland assemblages, in terms of both species and chorological composition. Belts similar in species composition (presence/absence are also similar in zoogeographical composition (frequency of chorotypes. This indicates that elevation is a factor that strongly selects species’ attributes and especially their geographical distribution. Variations in chorotype composition along an elevational gradient may be used to trace the history of biotas.

  11. Habitat Patch Diversity Evaluation for Sustainability: a Case Study of a Rural Area in Central Italy

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    Roberto Mancinelli

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Landscape analysis is regarded as a new tool for monitoring and judging land use patterns in terms of sustainability of human activity systems at local level. A case study of evaluation for sustainability based on habitat patch diversity in an ecoregion of Central Italy is presented. In this region, ongoing land use patterns reflect both historical adaptation to local environmental constraints and positive, social-oriented management. More protective land use patterns are mostly widespread in fragile physiographic conditions like those of the mountain areas, where woodland, shrub, and grassland patches are larger and cover more than 90% of the land. This situation is regarded as a positive outcome of the traditional public ownership regime, because public lands amount to more than 70% in the mountain areas. The hilly areas, where public property drops to 28%, presents landscape metrics showing a well balanced situation between agricultural land use and protective native woods and grasslands, which provides a finegrained and harmonious Mediterranean landscape. In the low-land areas, with anthropic pressure and more favourable conditions for crop productivity, there is much more agricultural land, even if some mitigation in terms of biodiversity maintenance is offered by the presence of hedgerow ecotones. In these areas, landscape analysis is not able to supply meaningful information about cropping system design and practices which can maintain a sustainable level of soil fertility and quality of natural resources and processes, and further analysis at cropping system level should be carried out.

  12. Serologic and molecular survey for hepatitis E virus in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzei, M; Nardini, R; Verin, R; Forzan, M; Poli, A; Tolari, F

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to further investigate the role of wild boar (Sus scrofa) as a reservoir for hepatitis E virus (HEV). Sixty-four blood and faecal samples collected from wild boar hunted in Central Italy in 2011-2012 were examined by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and RT-PCR analysis. Positive RT-PCR samples were further examined by nucleotide sequence determination and subsequent phylogenetic analysis. Thirty-six sera (56.2%) were positive for HEV-specific antibodies, and six (9.4%) faecal samples scored RT-PCR-positive results. Four animals were positive by both enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and RT-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the detected wild boar-derived HEV sequences clustered within genotype 3, with similarity to sequences of human origin collected in a nearby area in 2012. Our data confirm that HEV is endemic in the wild boar population in the research area and that these wild animals could play an important role in the epidemiology of HEV infection.

  13. Exploring soil water budget of a pristine oak wood in peri-urban Rome, central Italy

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    Valerio Moretti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available 72 544x376 Normal 0 14 false false false IT X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";} Exploring soil water budget of a pristine oak wood in peri-urban Rome, central Italy. The water budget in bounded and fenced areas was assessed by analyzing pedo-climatic conditions and the soil moisture content. Water content in the soil was measured using a Theta Probe Soil Moisture sensor (ML2x by Delta-T-Devices with a direct read-out device that provides soil moisture estimates as percent volume. The correlation between the experimental values obtained by the gravimetricmethod and thevalues directly measured by Theta Probe was found significant. Soil moisture at 100 cm depth indicates soil water as permanently available for plants through the year except during exceptionally dry summer periods. Therefore, oaks experienced no water deficiency with normal rainfall rates, possibly suffering root asphyxia during rainy years. Results are collected in fenced areas, sheltered by the action of the local fauna.

  14. Surface temperature and precipitation affecting GPS signals before the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake (Central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoruso, A.; Crescentini, L.; Chiaraluce, L.

    2017-08-01

    An Mw 6.1 normal faulting earthquake struck Central Italy in 2009 April, which unfortunately nucleated right below the town of L'Aquila, causing more than 300 casualties and widespread damage. The main shock was preceded by a foreshock sequence lasting ∼6 months. It has been claimed that an analysis of continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) data shows that during the foreshock sequence a 5.9 Mw slow slip event (SSE) occurred along a decollement located beneath the reactivated normal fault system. This hypothesized SSE that started in the middle of 2009 February and lasted for almost two weeks would have eventually loaded the largest foreshock and the main shock. We show that the strain signal that the SSE would have generated at two laser strainmeters operating at about 20 km NE from the SSE source was essentially undetected. We then propose an alternative interpretation for the displacement observed in the GPS data. A transient signal is present in temperature and precipitation time-series recorded close to the GPS station that has largest signal referred to the SSE, implying that these contaminated the GPS record. This work illustrates how environmental noise may be relevant when investigating small strain signals, showing the importance of having data from weather stations and water level sensors colocated with GPS stations.

  15. Geomorphological and geophysical investigations for the characterization of the Roman Carsulae site (Tiber basin, Central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottari, C.; Aringoli, D.; Carluccio, R.; Castellano, C.; D'Ajello Caracciolo, F.; Gasperini, M.; Materazzi, M.; Nicolosi, I.; Pambianchi, G.; Pieruccini, P.; Sepe, V.; Urbini, S.; Varazi, F.

    2017-08-01

    This paper aims to bring to light the possible linkage between karstic phenomena and the human occupation of the Roman site of Carsulae (Tiber basin, Central Italy). Dolines are a typical morphological expression of karst rocks' dissolution and collapse and, usually, they represent a potential hazard for human activities and, in particular, in the care and maintenance of cultural heritage sites. In this study, we observed that the development of a subsidence doline caused severe damage to some archaeological structures at the Carsulae monumental site. According to the results obtained in our investigation, three sites at least with karst dissolution phenomena in the shallow calcareous tufa layer have been identified. One of them subsided probably in Roman times and produced a sharp deformation of the decumanus. In order to understand the evolution of this territory an integrated geomorphological and geophysical survey was carried out. The combination between the information derived from different geophysical techniques, such as: Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), Frequency-Domain Electromagnetism (FDEM), and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) clearly pointed out that the calcareous tufa layer is characterized by an irregular geometry and this resulted in the investigated area being affected by karst dissolution in several parts. Four boreholes opportunely located, provided direct information about the depth and the alteration of the calcareous tufa basement and precious calibration data for the geophysical methods. This study contributes to improving our knowledge on the evolution of the Carsulae archaeological site providing a new insight into the adaptation of ancient human societies in this problematic territory.

  16. Occurrence of fungi in dialysis water and dialysate from eight haemodialysis units in central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavano, G F; Parlani, L; Sisti, M; Sebastianelli, G; Brandi, G

    2014-03-01

    Fungal contamination of dialysis fluids may be a serious problem in therapy, particularly due to the debilitated immune system of haemodialysis patients. To investigate the occurrence, distribution, and diversity of fungi in dialysis water and dialysis solution of eight haemodialysis units in a region of central Italy. Samples were collected over a one-year period from different points of the haemodialysis circuits in accordance with the guidelines of the Italian Society of Nephrology. Isolation and identification of fungi was performed according to the ISTISAN method Reports (2007/05 and 2008/10). Of the 976 samples analysed, 96 grew filamentous fungi, 28 were positive for yeast, and six samples contained both mould and yeast. A wide variety of filamentous fungi (26 genera, of which 15 identified at species level, and 'mycelia sterilia') were recovered, many of which are known as opportunistic pathogens. Cladosporium spp. were most frequently found (39%), followed by Alternaria spp. and Tricophyton spp. Fungal counts in treated water and standard dialysate solution were always below the threshold (fungi types, in contravention of the guidelines. The large variety of opportunistic fungi recovered in the haemodialysis circuits proves the importance of including an analysis of fungi to check the microbial quality of dialysis water and dialysate. Copyright © 2014 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Water and dissolved gas geochemistry of the monomictic Paterno sinkhole (central Italy

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    Matteo Nocentini

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the chemical and isotope features of water and dissolved gases from lake Paterno (max. depth 54 m, a sinkhole located in the NE sector of the S. Vittorino plain (Rieti, Central Italy, where evidences of past and present hydrothermal activity exists. In winter (February 2011 lake Paterno waters were almost completely mixed, whereas in summer time (July 2011 thermal and chemical stratifications established. During the stratification period, water and dissolved gas chemistry along the vertical water column were mainly controlled by biological processes, such as methanogenesis, sulfate-reduction, calcite precipitation, denitrification, and NH4 and H2 production. Reducing conditions at the interface between the bottom sediments and the anoxic waters are responsible for the relatively high concentrations of dissolved iron (Fe and manganese (Mn, likely present in their reduced oxidation state. Minerogenic and biogenic products were recognized at the lake bottom even during the winter sampling. At relatively shallow depth the distribution of CH4 and CO2 was controlled by methanotrophic bacteria and photosynthesis, respectively. The carbon isotope signature of CO2 indicates a significant contribution of deep-originated inorganic CO2 that is related to the hydrothermal system feeding the CO2-rich mineralized springs discharging in the surrounding areas of lake Paterno. The seasonal lake stratification likely controls the vertical and horizontal distribution of fish populations in the different periods of the year.

  18. Diachronic analysis of farmers' strategies within a protected area of central Italy

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    Nicola Silvestri

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The farm can be considered as the decision unit in the agricultural land management, therefore it is the most suitable scale to analyse the farmers’ strategies of production. In this paper we describe the results of a comparison between two enquiries carried out in 1992-93 and 2009-10 on more than 30 farms, corresponding to about 1500 ha of utilised agricultural area (UAA, within the boundaries of the San Rossore, Migliarino, Massaciuccoli Regional Park (central-western Italy. We calculate a set of agri-environmental indicators both at territory and farm scale in order to point out the changes occurred over almost twenty years in the farms’ structure, management and production features. The results showed that the major differences were related to fertilisers management (clearly decreasing, to the reduction of some crop types (industrial crops and to the strong decrease of the gross marketable production. Furthermore, apparently stable indicators, such as the utilised agricultural area and the farm tractors’ power, were actually the result of the compensation of contrasting trends. Farmers’ behaviours were substantially homogeneous within the same typology of farm, highlighting common evolution strategies. The desirability of the occurred changes was also evaluated, underlining the improvement of environmental sustainability of the current cropping systems and a greater social acceptability of agricultural activities, while the evaluation from the farmers’ point of view was less satisfactory.

  19. NEW DATA ON THE LOWER PLEISTOCENE (GELASIAN LIGNITE BEDS OF CASTEL SAN PIETRO (RIETI, CENTRAL ITALY

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    LUCA PANDOLFI

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A multiproxy study of the lignite-bearing lacustrine sequence cropping out at Castel San Pietro (CSP (Rieti, central Italy provides new insights on the paleoenvironmental evolution of an extensional basin, located on the Tyrrhenian side of the Apennine range. The CSP fossiliferous levels reflect deposition in a stable lacustrine environment. Mammal remains collected from this locality during the past centuries include Stephanorhinus etruscus, Anancus arvernensis and the beaver Castor fiber. The co-existence of the Etruscan rhinoceros and the mastodont suggests a middle Villafranchian age (Montopoli or Coste San Giacomo Faunal Unit for the lignite beds of CSP. New paleoflora findings are in agreement with an attribution to the Piacenzian or Gelasian age for these deposits whilst the presence of the ostracod Qinghaicypris cf. Q. riojensis suggests a time interval from Zanclean to Gelasian (between ~4.5 and ~1.8 Ma. Accordingly, the lignite beds of CSP most likely were deposited during the Gelasian (from ca. 2.5 to 1.8 Ma; from Montopoli to Coste San Giacomo FUs or possibly to Olivola FU in forested area and warm and humid conditions.

  20. A geomorphological approach to the estimation of landslide hazards and risks in Umbria, Central Italy

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    M. Cardinali

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a geomorphological method to evaluate landslide hazard and risk. The method is based on the recognition of existing and past landslides, on the scrutiny of the local geological and morphological setting, and on the study of site-specific and historical information on past landslide events. For each study area a multi-temporal landslide inventory map has been prepared through the interpretation of various sets of stereoscopic aerial photographs taken over the period 1941–1999, field mapping carried out in the years 2000 and 2001, and the critical review of site-specific investigations completed to solve local instability problems. The multi-temporal landslide map portrays the distribution of the existing and past landslides and their observed changes over a period of about 60 years. Changes in the distribution and pattern of landslides allow one to infer the possible evolution of slopes, the most probable type of failures, and their expected frequency of occurrence and intensity. This information is used to evaluate landslide hazard, and to estimate the associated risk. The methodology is not straightforward and requires experienced geomorphologists, trained in the recognition and analysis of slope processes. Levels of landslide hazard and risk are expressed using an index that conveys, in a simple and compact format, information on the landslide frequency, the landslide intensity, and the likely damage caused by the expected failure. The methodology was tested in 79 towns, villages, and individual dwellings in the Umbria Region of central Italy.

  1. Magmatic control along a strike-slip volcanic arc: The central Aeolian arc (Italy)

    KAUST Repository

    Ruch, Joel

    2016-01-23

    The regional stress field in volcanic areas may be overprinted by that produced by magmatic activity, promoting volcanism and faulting. In particular, in strike-slip settings, the definition of the relationships between the regional stress field and magmatic activity remains elusive. To better understand these relationships, we collected stratigraphic, volcanic and structural field data along the strike-slip Central Aeolian arc (Italy): here the islands of Lipari and Vulcano separate the extensional portion of the arc (to the east) from the contractional one (to the west). We collected >500 measurements of faults, extension fractures and dikes at 40 sites. Most structures are NNE-SSW to NNW-SSE oriented, eastward dipping, and show almost pure dip-slip motion; consistent with an E-W extension direction, with minor dextral and sinistral shear. Our data highlight six eruptive periods during the last 55 ka, which allow considering both islands as a single magmatic system, in which tectonic and magmatic activity steadily migrated eastward and currently focus on a 10 km long x 2 km wide active segment. Faulting appears to mostly occur in temporal and spatial relation with magmatic events, supporting that most of the observable deformation derives from transient magmatic activity (shorter-term, days to months), rather than from steady longer-term regional tectonics (102-104 years). More in general, the Central Aeolian case shows how magmatic activity may affect the structure and evolution of volcanic arcs, overprinting any strike-slip motion with magma-induced extension at the surface.

  2. A hydrogeological conceptual model of the Suio hydrothermal area (central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saroli, Michele; Lancia, Michele; Albano, Matteo; Casale, Anna; Giovinco, Gaspare; Petitta, Marco; Zarlenga, Francesco; dell'Isola, Marco

    2017-09-01

    A hydrogeological conceptual model has been developed that describes the hydrothermal system of Suio Terme (central Italy). The studied area is located along the peri-Tyrrhenian zone of the central Apennines, between the Mesozoic and Cenozoic carbonate platform sequences of the Aurunci Mountains and the volcanic sequences of the Roccamonfina. A multi-disciplinary approach was followed, using new hydrogeological surveys, the interpretation of stratigraphic logs of boreholes and water wells, and geophysical data—seismic sections, shear-wave velocity (Vs) crustal model and gravimetric model. The collected information allowed for construction of a conceptual hydrogeological model and characterization of the hydrothermal system. The Suio hydrothermal system is strongly influenced by the Eastern Aurunci hydrostructure. Along the southeastern side, the top of the hydrostructure sinks to -1,000 m relative to sea level via a series of normal faults which give origin to the Garigliano graben. Geological and hydrogeological data strongly suggest the propagation and mixing of hot fluids, with cold waters coming from the shallow karst circuit. The aquitard distribution, the normal tectonic displacements and the fracturing of the karst hydrostructure strongly influence the hydrothermal basin. Carbon dioxide and other gasses play a key role in the whole circuit, facilitating the development of the hydrothermal system. The current level of knowledge suggests that the origin of the Suio hydrothermalism is the result of interaction between the carbonate reservoir of the Eastern Aurunci Mountains and the hot and deep crust of this peri-Tyrrhenian sector, where the Roccamonfina volcano represents the shallowest expression.

  3. Rupture complexity of the three main shocks of the 2016 Central Italy seismic sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinti, Elisa; Scognamiglio, Laura; Magnoni, Federica; Casarotti, Emanuele; Michelini, Alberto; Cocco, Massimo

    2017-04-01

    The 2016 Central Italy seismic sequence, started on August 24th, ruptured an almost 60 km long segmented fault system between Amatrice, Norcia and Pieve Torina and is characterized by three main events and more than 45.000 aftershocks. A key feature of the studied sequence is the temporal distribution of the seismic moment release: the largest magnitude event (Mw 6.5, 30th October) occurred two months after the first main shock (Mw 6.0, 24th August) and only four days after the second main event (Mw 5.9, 26th October). All the three main events and most of the aftershocks show NNW-SSE striking focal mechanisms in agreement with the current NE-SW extensional tectonic setting of Central Apennines. To image the rupture history of the three main events of the sequence, we invert the ground velocity time histories obtained from three-component strong motion accelerometers located within 45 km from the faults, filtered between 0.02-0.5 Hz. To improve the fit between data and synthetics we also test complex source geometries and assume rupture segmentation on a number of distinct fault planes. Overall, the retrieved rupture histories display heterogeneous slip distributions with high peak slip values and directivity effects. These features can explain the localized high values of the peak ground motions. Finally, to test the inferred source heterogeneity and directivity, and verify how the topography and geological constraints affect the calculated ground motion, we propagate the retrieved kinematic rupture models within a 3D forward simulation and compare the results to the available observations.

  4. Climatic patterns and extreme rainfalls on coastal areas in Central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramati, M. C.; Tarragoni, C.

    2012-04-01

    In this paper we focus on the extreme values analysis to estimate the rainfall return levels for some Adriatic and Tyrrhenian coastal areas in central Italy. Two approaches are mainly considered: the first one is based on the maximum annual daily rainfall series (1-day, 2-day and 3-day) for which suitable probability distributions are fitted, whereas the second one is based on the series of peaks over annual thresholds (POT) for which the best fitting Generalized Pareto distribution is identified. Spectral analysis and appropriate tests for stationarity and homogeneity are run in order to verify the hypothesis under which the analysis performed is valid. From the density plots and the parameter estimates of the fitted distributions to the various annual maximum rainfall series we can conclude that there is a different pattern in the occurrence of extreme events for the western coast with respect to the eastern coast. Specifically, on the Tyrrhenian side extreme rainfalls are more likely to happen in correspondence of longer time spans (i.e. 3-day series) as the effect of cumulated stable rainfalls over time. On the opposite, for the Adriatic coast extremes are more frequent in shorter time spans (1-day). A vector autoregressive model is then estimated and through a causal ordering the identifying restrictions are set. The impulse response analysis shows a lag in the transmission of rainfall shocks of the central Adriatic coast to the Tyrrhenian one. This paper is prepared as a background paper to the SECOA N1.2 Report: Assessment of frequency-magnitude of extreme rainfall events and flooding. Project SECOA (Solutions for Environmental contrast in Coastal Areas) is funded by the EU Commission within the 7th Framework Programme (2007-2013).

  5. A hydrogeological conceptual model of the Suio hydrothermal area (central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saroli, Michele; Lancia, Michele; Albano, Matteo; Casale, Anna; Giovinco, Gaspare; Petitta, Marco; Zarlenga, Francesco; dell'Isola, Marco

    2017-03-01

    A hydrogeological conceptual model has been developed that describes the hydrothermal system of Suio Terme (central Italy). The studied area is located along the peri-Tyrrhenian zone of the central Apennines, between the Mesozoic and Cenozoic carbonate platform sequences of the Aurunci Mountains and the volcanic sequences of the Roccamonfina. A multi-disciplinary approach was followed, using new hydrogeological surveys, the interpretation of stratigraphic logs of boreholes and water wells, and geophysical data—seismic sections, shear-wave velocity (Vs) crustal model and gravimetric model. The collected information allowed for construction of a conceptual hydrogeological model and characterization of the hydrothermal system. The Suio hydrothermal system is strongly influenced by the Eastern Aurunci hydrostructure. Along the southeastern side, the top of the hydrostructure sinks to -1,000 m relative to sea level via a series of normal faults which give origin to the Garigliano graben. Geological and hydrogeological data strongly suggest the propagation and mixing of hot fluids, with cold waters coming from the shallow karst circuit. The aquitard distribution, the normal tectonic displacements and the fracturing of the karst hydrostructure strongly influence the hydrothermal basin. Carbon dioxide and other gasses play a key role in the whole circuit, facilitating the development of the hydrothermal system. The current level of knowledge suggests that the origin of the Suio hydrothermalism is the result of interaction between the carbonate reservoir of the Eastern Aurunci Mountains and the hot and deep crust of this peri-Tyrrhenian sector, where the Roccamonfina volcano represents the shallowest expression.

  6. Middle Pleistocene molluscan fauna from the Valle Giumentina (Abruzzo, Central Italy): Palaeoenvironmental, biostratigraphical and biogeographical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limondin-Lozouet, Nicole; Villa, Valentina; Pereira, Alison; Nomade, Sébastien; Bahain, Jean-Jacques; Stoetzel, Emmanuelle; Aureli, Daniele; Nicoud, Elisa

    2017-01-01

    Palaeoenvironmental reconstructions through the Middle Pleistocene sequence in the Valle Giumentina, located in the Abruzzo region of Central Italy, are discussed. The sampled sequence is 16 m thick and includes nine levels with Lower Palaeolithic industries. The lithostratigraphy shows fluvio-glacial sediments with interbedded colluvial deposits and volcanic tephras. Fine sediments are composed of calcareous sands and silts, most of them yielding well-preserved mollusc shells. Forty-five samples, at 10 cm resolution, yielded 45 taxa, which could be assigned to four biozones. The oldest (biozone VGM1) indicate an open environment, which becomes a closed forest landscape developing under temperate conditions (VGM2). After a decline of thermophilous species (VGM3), mollusc assemblages indicate a dry open environment typical of a glacial period (VGM4). All prehistoric occupation horizons occur during stable environmental episodes but under both temperate and cold climatic conditions. The molluscan succession is allocated to the Middle Pleistocene on the basis of the occurrence of Jaminia malatestae, a well-known Italian species, now extinct, as well as the similarity of the molluscan record to that of Case Picconetto, a well-dated site nearby. This attribution is supported by three tephra layers dated by 40Ar/39Ar at 556 ± 6, 531 ± 5 and 456 ± 2 ka. The sequence is correlated with marine isotopic stages 14, 13 and 12. Four species of land snail (Azeca goodalli, Ruthenica filograna, Pagodulina pagodula, Nesovitrea hammonis) occur beyond their modern range and are therefore of biogeographical interest. These snails are western and central European in origin and their presence within the Valle Giumentina deposits highlight a north-south gradient of colonization during Pleistocene interglacial periods.

  7. Sustainable yield of the Colle Quartara carbonate aquifer in the Southern Lepini Mountains (Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Conte

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present research is aimed to contribute to the groundwater resource sustainable management of a carbonate aquifer in a test area of the Lepini Mountains (Central Italy. This aquifer constitutes a major exploited groundwater body of central Apennines. At regional scale, the hydrogeological features of the Lepini hydrostructure are well known. The present study focuses on a portion of the Lepini Mountains where important tapping-works for drinking water supply are in activity (about 1.2 m3/s. New investigations were carried out including: meteo-climatic analysis, spring discharge and hydrometric time series processing, pumping test result interpretation. In addition, a detailed lithostratigraphical and structural survey of a portion of the Lepini hydrostructure at 1:10,000 scale was performed also examining the dense network of discontinuities affecting the carbonate aquifer. Extensional Plio-Pleistocene tectonic activity displaced the carbonate rock sequence under the Pontina Plain, where the carbonate aquifer is confined. The investigation results have allowed the reconstruction of the hydrogeological conceptual model of the studied portion of carbonate massif. Given the scale of the study and the results of the investigation, the carbonate aquifer can be treated as an equivalent porous medium, and the simplified numerical model of the aquifer was constructed with the code MODFLOW-2005. The numerical model, still now under continuous implementation, produced first results on the current withdrawal sustainability, allowing evaluation of possible alternative exploitation scenarios of the carbonate aquifer also considering the probably not significant flow exchanges with the Pontina Plain aquifer.

  8. Vulnerability assessment of Central-East Sardinia (Italy to extreme rainfall events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bodini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In Sardinia (Italy, the highest frequency of extreme events is recorded in the Central-East area (3–4 events per year. The presence of high and steep mountains near the sea on the central and south-eastern coast, causes an East-West precipitation gradient in autumn especially, due to hot and moist currents coming from Africa. Soil structure and utilization make this area highly vulnerable to flash flooding and landslides. The specific purpose of this work is to provide a description of the heavy rainfall phenomenon on a statistical basis. The analysis mainly focuses on i the existence of trends in heavy rainfall and ii the characterization of the distribution of extreme events. First, to study possible trends in extreme events a few indices have been analyzed by the linear regression test. The analysis has been carried out at annual and seasonal scales. Then, extreme values analysis has been carried out by fitting a Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD to the data. As far as trends are concerned, different results are obtained at the two temporal scales: significant trends are obtained at the seasonal scale which are masked at the annual scale. By combining trend analysis and GPD analysis, the vulnerability of the study area to the occurrence of heavy rainfall has been characterized. Therefore, this work might support the improvement of land use planning and the application of suitable prevention systems. Future work will consider the extension of the analysis to all Sardinia and the application of statistical methods taking into account the spatial correlation of extreme events.

  9. Vulnerability assessment of Central-East Sardinia (Italy) to extreme rainfall events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodini, A.; Cossu, Q. A.

    2010-01-01

    In Sardinia (Italy), the highest frequency of extreme events is recorded in the Central-East area (3-4 events per year). The presence of high and steep mountains near the sea on the central and south-eastern coast, causes an East-West precipitation gradient in autumn especially, due to hot and moist currents coming from Africa. Soil structure and utilization make this area highly vulnerable to flash flooding and landslides. The specific purpose of this work is to provide a description of the heavy rainfall phenomenon on a statistical basis. The analysis mainly focuses on i) the existence of trends in heavy rainfall and ii) the characterization of the distribution of extreme events. First, to study possible trends in extreme events a few indices have been analyzed by the linear regression test. The analysis has been carried out at annual and seasonal scales. Then, extreme values analysis has been carried out by fitting a Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD) to the data. As far as trends are concerned, different results are obtained at the two temporal scales: significant trends are obtained at the seasonal scale which are masked at the annual scale. By combining trend analysis and GPD analysis, the vulnerability of the study area to the occurrence of heavy rainfall has been characterized. Therefore, this work might support the improvement of land use planning and the application of suitable prevention systems. Future work will consider the extension of the analysis to all Sardinia and the application of statistical methods taking into account the spatial correlation of extreme events.

  10. Magmatic control along a strike-slip volcanic arc: The central Aeolian arc (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruch, J.; Vezzoli, L.; De Rosa, R.; Di Lorenzo, R.; Acocella, V.

    2016-02-01

    The regional stress field in volcanic areas may be overprinted by that produced by magmatic activity, promoting volcanism and faulting. In particular, in strike-slip settings, the definition of the relationships between the regional stress field and magmatic activity remains elusive. To better understand these relationships, we collected stratigraphic, volcanic, and structural field data along the strike-slip central Aeolian arc (Italy): here the islands of Lipari and Vulcano separate the extensional portion of the arc (to the east) from the contractional one (to the west). We collected >500 measurements of faults, extension fractures, and dikes at 40 sites. Most structures are NNE-SSW to NNW-SSE oriented, eastward dipping, and show almost pure dip-slip motion, consistent with an E-W extension direction, with minor dextral and sinistral shear. Our data highlight six eruptive periods during the last 55 ka, which allow considering both islands as a single magmatic system, in which tectonic and magmatic activities steadily migrated eastward and currently focus on a 10 km long × 2 km wide active segment. Faulting appears to mostly occur in temporal and spatial relation with magmatic events, supporting that most of the observable deformation derives from transient magmatic activity (shorter term, days to months), rather than from steady longer-term regional tectonics (102-104 years). More in general, the central Aeolian case shows how magmatic activity may affect the structure and evolution of volcanic arcs, overprinting any strike-slip motion with magma-induced extension at the surface.

  11. Evolution of magnetotelluric, total magnetic field, and VLF field parameters in Central Italy. Relations to local seismic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meloni, A.; Di Mauro, D.; Mele, G.; Palangio, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Rome (Italy); Ernst, T.; Teisseyre, R. [Institute of Geophysics, Warszawa (Poland)

    2001-04-01

    Magnetotelluric data were collected at Collemeluccio (41.72{sup 0}N, 14.37{sup 0}E) in Central Italy from summer 1991 to spring 1998. Analyzed by means of tensor decomposition on the geoelectric potential and robust estimation on the geomagnetic field, this set of data allowed the investigation of the electromagnetic induction, is presented here in its time evolution and compared to local and regional seismic activity. Tecto magnetic field observations from absolute magnetic field level in Central Italy were also made on data simultaneously recorded at four magnetometer stations, using L'Aquila Geomagnetic Observatory as a reference for differentiation. Recent results gathered from a system of two VLF search coil wide-band antennas, installed in the L'Aquila Observatory, are also discussed in relation to local seismic activity.

  12. Sustainability of sunflower cultivation for biodiesel production in central Italy according to the Renewable Energy Directive methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Duca

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of renewable energies as alternative to fossil fuels has value from different points of view and has effects at environmental, social and economic level. These aspects are often connected to each other and together define the overall sustainability of bioenergy. At European level, the Directive 2009/28/EC gives the basic criteria for the estimation of sustainability of biofuels and indicates a minimum threshold of 35% of greenhouse gas saving for a biofuel in order to be considered sustainable. The Directive gives the possibility to identify standard regional values for the cultivation steps that could be utilized for the certification. This paper aims to give a contribution to the definition of these values considering the RED methodology applied to the sunflower cropped in central Italy which is characterized by a hilly landscape and not-irrigated crops. To determine input and output of sunflower cultivation in the central Italy, the results of PROBIO project, carried out by the Authors, were used. The sustainability of biodiesel produced from sunflower grown in central Italy is variable and depends on the nitrogen input and seasonal climatic conditions that affect the yields. The greenhouse gases savings of the Italian chain is 40% in average, greater than the required 35% and would be possible to assign this value as standard to the biofuel chain biodiesel from sunflower cultivated in central Italy. Using an averaged regional standard value guards against the possibility of considering unsustainable harvesting in unfavourable years and seeing it overestimated in the favourable ones.

  13. Rock-fall hazard in the Etruscan archaeological site of Norchia (Central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margottini, Claudio; Spizzichino, Daniele; Argento, Alessia; Russo, Alfonsina

    2016-04-01

    The ancient Etruscan town of Norchia (Central Italy, 80 km North of Rome) is situated on a long volcanic plateau surrounded by steep slopes, at the confluence of rivers Pile and Acqua Alta into the river Biedano. It has been constructed along the ancient Via Clodia, a short-range route intended for commercial traffic between Rome and the colonies in Etruscan lands. The flourishing of the town, evidenced by the beautiful necropolis, is placed between the end of the fourth and half of the second century BC. With its necropolis Norchia is the most significant example of funerary architecture rock Hellenistic period (IV-II century BC.). Its rock-cut tombs, are among the most important archaeological sites of Etruscan civilisation. They are an important and rare example of rock architecture and one of the few preserved in Italy. Also, the necropolis, with an extension of more than 100 hectares, is composed of rock-cut tombs of various types (façade, half-cube, false-cube and temple type) and dimensions (4-10 m in height), exhibiting a remarkable similarity with Asian tombs. From geological point of view, the area is exhibiting the overly of rigid volcanic products from both Vico and Volsini volcanic apparatus; as a bedrock, a plastic clay formation is positioned. The rock-cut tombs were excavated on two main volcanic levels, following the natural profile of tuff outcrops. The tombs located in the upper part of the necropolis have been excavated in a Red Tuff from Vico volcanic district, while those in lower level are dug in a grey tuff (Nenfro) from Vulsini volcanic apparatus. Recent investigations revealed the presence of many threats affecting the conservation of the site, that are including: surface rock weathering, water percolation and infiltration, surface vegetation and biological colonisation, instability and collapse of the cliff. The purpose of this study is mainly focused to verify whether the geological, geomorphological and geomechanical processes that

  14. Macroseismic survey of the April 6, 2009 L’Aquila earthquake (central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camassi, R.; Azzaro, R.; Bernardini, F.; D'Amico, S.; Ercolani, E.; Rossi, A.; Tertulliani, A.; Vecchi, M.; Galli, P.

    2009-12-01

    On April 6, 2009, at 01:33 GMT, central Italy has been hit by a strong earthquake (Ml 5.8, Mw 6.3) representing the mainshock of a seismic sequence of over 20.000 aftershocks recorded in about five months. The event, located in the inner of the Abruzzi region just a few kilometres SW of the town of L’Aquila, has produced destructions and heavy damage in a 30 km wide area and was felt in almost Italy, as far as the coasts of Slovenia, Croatia and Albania. In all, 308 people lost their lives. A macroseismic survey was carried out soon after the earthquake by the QUEST group (QUick Earthquake Survey Team) with the aim to define, for Civil Protection purposes, the damage scenario over a territory which is densely urbanised. Damage generally depended on the high vulnerability of the buildings both for problems related to the old age of the buildings - it is the case of the historical centre of l’Aquila - and to site effects, as in some quarters of the town and in the nearby villages. Rubble-stone and masonry buildings suffered heaviest damage - a lot of old small villages almost entirely collapsed - while reinforced concrete (RC) frame buildings generally experienced moderate structural damage except in particular condition. The macroseismic effects reached intensity IX-X MCS (Mercalli-Cancani-Sieberg scale) at Onna and Castelnuovo, while many others villages reached VIII-IX MCS, amongst which the historical centre of L’Aquila. This town was investigated in detail due to the striking difference of damage between the historical centre and the more recent surrounding areas. In all, more than 300 localities have been investigated (Galli and Camassi, 2009). The earthquake has also provoked effects on natural surroundings (EMERGEO WG, 2009). Two types of phenomena have been detected: (i) surface cracks mainly observed along previously mapped faults and (ii) slope instability processes, such as landslides and secondary fractures. The pattern of macroseismic effects

  15. Circulation of HIV-1 CRF02_AG among MSM Population in Central Italy: A Molecular Epidemiology-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Giuliani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The evolutionary and demographic history of the circular recombinant form CRF02_AG in a selected retrospective group of HIV-1 infected men who have sex with men (MSM resident in Central Italy was investigated. Methods. A total of 55 HIV-1 subtype CRF02_AG pol sequences were analyzed using Bayesian methods and a relaxed molecular clock to reconstruct their dated phylogeny and estimate population dynamics. Results. Dated phylogeny indicated that the HIV-1 CRF02_AG strains currently circulating in Central Italy originated in the early 90's. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis revealed the existence of a main HIV-1 CRF02_AG clade, introduced in the area of Rome before 2000 and subsequently differentiated in two different subclades with a different date of introduction (2000 versus 2005. All the sequences within clusters were interspersed, indicating that the MSM analyzed form a close and restricted network where the individuals, also moving within different clinical centers, attend the same places to meet and exchange sex. Conclusions. It was suggested that the HIV-1 CRF02_AG epidemic entered central Italy in the early 1990s, with a similar trend observed in western Europe.

  16. Live capture and handling of the European wildcat in central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lolita Bizzarri

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract
    Between 2003 and 2006, a live-trapping of European wildcats (Felis silvestris was carried out in the Apennines (central Italy. Double-door tunnel cage traps were set along trap-lines. A box containing live quails as bait was securely attached to the side of each cage. Trapping was carried out in 8 sessions at a total of 60 trap-sites, mainly inside woods (65%. The distance between the traps ranged from 146 m to 907 m and the length of each trap-line ranged from 541 m to 2632 m. There were 16 captures of 11 different wildcats, the capture success rate being 1 wildcat/209 trap-days. Nine males and 2 females were caught, suggesting sex-biased trapping selection. In addition to wildcats, 20 non-target species were captured during the 8 sessions. No animal was injured by the traps and no wildcat was endangered by narcosis or handling. The technique proved to be effective for future field studies that envisage the radio-tracking of wildcats.

    Riassunto
    Cattura e immobilizzazione del gatto selvatico in Italia centrale.
    Tra il 2003 e il 2006 è stato svolto un programma di ricerca sul gatto selvatico europeo (Felis silvestris in un'area dell'Appennino centrale. Trappole a tunnel a doppio ingresso sono state distribuite lungo delle line-trap; a ciascun dispositivo è stato associato un box che ospitava esche vive (quaglie. Sono state effettuate 8 sessioni di trappolamento per un totale di 60 siti trappola, perlopiù in aree boscate (65%. La distanza tra le trappole variava da 146 m a 907 m mentre la lunghezza delle line-trap variava tra 541 m a 2632 m. I 16 eventi di cattura hanno permesso di marcare 11 individui diversi, 9 maschi e 2 femmine. La differenza del numero di catture tra maschi e femmine è probabilmente da attribuire ad una diversa selettività delle trappole. Durante le 8 sessioni, oltre al gatto selvatico, sono state catturate altre

  17. Insight on fault segmentation, linkage and hazard from the 2016 Mw6.2 Amatrice earthquake (central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, R. J.; Gregory, L. C.; Wedmore, L. N. J.; Craig, T. J.; Elliott, J. R.; Wilkinson, M. W.; McCaffrey, K. J. W.; Michetti, A.; Vittori, E.; Livio, F.; Iezzi, F.; Chen, J.; Li, Z.; Roberts, G.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the 2016 Mw6.2 Amatrice earthquake (central Italy) with a combination of bodywave seismology, field measurements and satellite geodesy, and show that the earthquake ruptured across two normal faults that had previously been identified as separate structures. Our coseismic source model, obtained from GPS and InSAR data, shows slip in two major patches, taking place over a total length of 20 km, and mainly constrained to shallow (2-7 km) depths. Our model shows that the highest slip was focussed on the unknown linking section between the mapped Laga and Vettore faults. Our model predicts primary surface rupture to be present only on the Vettore fault, in agreement with our field observations. Our seismological model has a simple source-time function, implying that within the resolution of the data, the rupture proceeded without pause across the linking section between the Vettore and Laga faults. Both faults were previously identified as active, but field mapping, remote sensing data, geomorphology, and Holocene slip rates had all been used to support the idea that the faults were separate structures. Each had been thought capable of producing an earthquake with MWItaly; the destructive 1980 MW6.9 Irpinia earthquake in southern Italy was composed of multiple MW6.2-6.5 sub-events on four separate segments. Each of the MW6.7-7 largest known events in central Italy; the 1703 Norcia and L'Aquila earthquakes and the 1915 Avezzano earthquake, are also thought to have involved multi-fault rupture. MW>7 earthquakes are not reported in the long and detailed historical and palaeoseismological record of the region, but more study is needed to understand their absence, and to ensure we can rule-out such large events in future. This earthquake prompts reassessment of the state of linkage between other faults in central Italy, with an aim to better assess the increased seismic hazard posed by multi-fault ruptures.

  18. Short-term earthquake probabilities during the L'Aquila earthquake sequence in central Italy, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, G.; Murru, M.; Zhuang, J.; Console, R.

    2014-12-01

    We compare the forecasting performance of several statistical models, which are used to describe the occurrence process of earthquakes, in forecasting the short-term earthquake probabilities during the occurrence of the L'Aquila earthquake sequence in central Italy, 2009. These models include the Proximity to Past Earthquakes (PPE) model and different versions of the Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) model. We used the information gains corresponding to the Poisson and binomial scores to evaluate the performance of these models. It is shown that all ETAS models work better than the PPE model. However, when comparing the different types of the ETAS models, the one with the same fixed exponent coefficient α = 2.3 for both the productivity function and the scaling factor in the spatial response function, performs better in forecasting the active aftershock sequence than the other models with different exponent coefficients when the Poisson score is adopted. These latter models perform only better when a lower magnitude threshold of 2.0 and the binomial score are used. The reason is likely due to the fact that the catalog does not contain an event of magnitude similar to the L'Aquila main shock (Mw 6.3) in the training period (April 16, 2005 to March 15, 2009). In this case the a-value is under-estimated and thus also the forecasted seismicity is underestimated when the productivity function is extrapolated to high magnitudes. These results suggest that the training catalog used for estimating the model parameters should include earthquakes of similar magnitudes as the main shock when forecasting seismicity is during an aftershock sequences.

  19. Perception of occupational risk by rural workers in an area of central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonucci, A; Siciliano, E; Ladiana, D; Boscolo, P; Di Sivo, M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the subjective perception of risks for rural workers in Abruzzo, an area of central Italy. A group of 273 workers were asked to fill in a questionnaire which included, apart from general information, questions relative to six different types of risks normally found in the field of agriculture. The types of risks considered were: falling from a height, manually moving loads, overturning/accident whilst driving an agricultural tractor, noise and vibration, use of pesticides, the risk of being cut/injured. The workers were requested to assess, on a scale of 1 to 3, both the probability of an accident taking place and the consequent damage which could result from each of the risks considered. The assessment of the risks provided by the workers was related to the objective assessment of the risks carried out by the study group, also on the basis of objective data provided by INAIL (Italian insurance company) indexes, to highlight the eventual under/over estimations of risk. Furthermore, the possible correlation was evaluated between having received specific training regarding work safety and the workers perception of the risk. The results showed that approximately 11 percent of the workers do not consider their job as being dangerous; the risk perceived by the workers is higher for accidents that cause an immediate injury compared to those which cause professional illnesses, except the risk deriving from noise/vibrations. A direct correlation was found between the job as being dangerous and having attended courses on accident prevention.

  20. Forecasting of the flowering time for wild species observed at Guidonia, central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenci, C. A.; Ceschia, M.

    It is well known that forecasting the flowering time of wild vegetation is useful for various sectors of human activity, particularly for all agricultural practices. Therefore, continuing previous work by Cenci et al., we will present here three new phenoclimatic models of the flowering time for a set of wild species, based on an original data sample of flowering dates for more than 500 species, observed at Guidonia (42° N in central Italy) by Montelucci in the period 1960-1982. However, on applying the bootstrap technique to each species sample to check its basic statistical parameters, we found only about 200 to have data samples with an approximately Gaussian distribution. Eventually only 57 species (subdivided into eight monthly subsets from February to September) were used to formulate the models satisfactorily. The flowering date (represented by the z variable), is expressed in terms of two variables x and y by a nonlinear equation of the form z=αxβ+γy. The x variable represents either the degree-day sum (in model 1), or the daily-maximum-temperature sum (in model 2), or the daily-global-insolation sum (in model 3), while y for all three models corresponds to the rainy-day sum. Note that all summations involved in the computation of the variables x and y take place over a certain period of time (preceding the flowering phase), which is a parameter to be determined by the fitting procedure. This parameter, together with the threshold temperature (needed to compute the degree-days in model 1), represents the two implicit parameters of the process, thus the total number of parameters (including these last two) becomes respectively, five for model 1, and four for the other two models. The preliminary results of this work were reported at the XVI International Botanical Congress (1-7 August 1999, St. Louis, Missouri USA).

  1. Stature in archeological samples from central Italy: methodological issues and diachronic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannecchini, Monica; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo

    2008-03-01

    Stature reconstructions from skeletal remains are usually obtained through regression equations based on the relationship between height and limb bone length. Different equations have been employed to reconstruct stature in skeletal samples, but this is the first study to provide a systematic analysis of the reliability of the different methods for Italian historical samples. Aims of this article are: 1) to analyze the reliability of different regression methods to estimate stature for populations living in Central Italy from the Iron Age to Medieval times; 2) to search for trends in stature over this time period by applying the most reliable regression method. Long bone measurements were collected from 1,021 individuals (560 males, 461 females), from 66 archeological sites for males and 54 for females. Three time periods were identified: Iron Age, Roman period, and Medieval period. To determine the most appropriate equation to reconstruct stature the Delta parameter of Gini (Memorie di metodologia statistica. Milano: Giuffre A. 1939), in which stature estimates derived from different limb bones are compared, was employed. The equations proposed by Pearson (Philos Trans R Soc London 192 (1899) 169-244) and Trotter and Gleser for Afro-Americans (Am J Phys Anthropol 10 (1952) 463-514; Am J Phys Anthropol 47 (1977) 355-356) provided the most consistent estimates when applied to our sample. We then used the equation by Pearson for further analyses. Results indicate a reduction in stature in the transition from the Iron Age to the Roman period, and a subsequent increase in the transition from the Roman period to the Medieval period. Changes of limb lengths over time were more pronounced in the distal than in the proximal elements in both limbs.

  2. Rupture directivity of the 2016, Amatrice and Norcia (central Italy) destructive earthquakes and their largest aftershocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderoni, Giovanna; Rovelli, Antonio; Di Giovambattista, Rita

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we investigate the along-strike rupture directivity of the five moderate-magnitude (Mw > 5.0) earthquakes of the 2016 central Italy seismic sequence and height aftershocks in the moment magnitude range from 4.4 to 4.8. Rupture directivity is estimated by deconvolving the observed spectra with spectra of EGF-type events. We have found that the August 24, Mw 6.0 Amatrice earthquake results in a bilateral along-strike rupture. However, directivity of this event is asymmetrical, the predominant rupture propagation being toward NNW. In contrast, the rupture of the October 30, Mw 6.5 Norcia earthquake propagated toward SSE. We have also found that the predominant rupture directivity toward SSE is a common feature of the majority of the investigates events, including the Mw 5.4 aftershock occurred less than one hour after the Amatrice earthquake. Along-strike rupture directivity in normal-faulting earthquakes in the Apennines has been already documented for the three largest events of the 1997 Umbria-Marche seismic sequence and for 70 earthquakes with moment magnitudes from 3.0 to 6.1 of the 2009 L'Aquila-Campotosto seismic sequence (the 2016 seismic activity filled the seismic gap between them). If we put together the results of the 1997 Umbria-Marche and the 2009 earthquakes, we find a significant spatial consistency of preferred directions of ruptures. Earthquakes to the south of Colfiorito up to Norcia show directivity toward SE-SSE, similarly to earthquakes in the southern part of the Campotosto fault and in the Paganica fault. In distinct contrast, from the northern tip of the Campotosto fault up to Amatrice the predominant rupture directivity is toward NNW-NW.

  3. Integrated monitoring system of the San Vito Romano rockslide (Central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Gabriele; Fubelli, Giandomenico; Pezzo, Giuseppe; Iasio, Christian

    2017-04-01

    San Vito Romano is a small town 40km east of Rome (Central Italy). Since the village began to grow, during the 70s, the new buildings started showing evidences of landslide activity, included ground settlement and cracking. In response, several boreholes have been realised along the following years in the entire municipality area and many geotechnical data became available. By the way, after the recent landslides event occurred in July 2011, the need to deploy devices to monitor deformations became of paramount importance. As consequence, rainfall and temperatures started to be daily monitored, 6 extensimeters in real time connection were placed on the most damaged buildings and periodical inclinometric and piezometric measurements started to be conducted. Moreover, a geomorphological field survey has been realised and PSInSAR data from ERS, Envisat and Cosmo SkyMed satellites have been investigated. This work aims to integrate the information provided by the all in-situ and remote sensing techniques in order to reconstruct dimension, typology, state of activity and triggering factors of the phenomena that affect San Vito Romano. The study area is about 2km2 wide. Here, siliciclastic formation with a high percent of clayey minerals outcrops and a significant thickness of landslide deposits have been recognized in many borehole stratigraphies. The preliminary results show that the study area is affected by shallow rapid landslides as like by deep seated phenomena. The first mainly involve clayey layers and colluvium/eluvium coverture while the second is rockslide that affects the bedrock for >20m in depth. In both cases, ground displacements seem to be directly connected with rainfall intensity and underground water level variation. Data have been elaborated trough geostatistical, GIS and time series analysis and the overall results will be presented and discussed in the full work.

  4. Shrub morpho-types as indicator for the water flow energy - Tivoli travertine case (Central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erthal, Marcelle Marques; Capezzuoli, Enrico; Mancini, Alessandro; Claes, Hannes; Soete, Jeroen; Swennen, Rudy

    2017-01-01

    Travertines from Tivoli area (Central Italy) possess abundant shrub-like fabrics that are laterally continuous over hundreds of square meters. They occur dominantly in horizontal layers with aggradational and progradational stacking patterns. Their fabrics and morphologies are remarkably similar to the shrubs lithotypes reported in literature for the Pre-Salt reservoirs, offshore Brazil and Angola, with huge oil accumulations. Petrographic and micro-computer tomography analyses allowed the identification of six shrub morpho-types (i.e., narrow dendriform, wide dendriform, fili dendriform, arborescent, arbustiform and pustular). Dendriform shrubs are the most common lithotype in Tivoli area, and three different subtypes could be distinguished according to the arrangement of their branches. The shrubs consist largely of peloidal micritic aggregates engulfed in spar calcite, ranging in average from 1 to 3 cm in height. The shrubs are interpreted to have developed in very shallow extensive waterlogged slightly inclined flat areas, changing laterally into a slope system with crusts as the main lithotype. Changes in the hydrodynamic conditions with episodes of stagnancy influenced the shrub morpho-types making them very variegated. Shrub morphologies likely reflect specific (micro-) environments that are controlled by water flow rates, evaporation and microbial activity. The latter processes influenced shrub fabric and morphology. Under high flow conditions, CO2 degassing is the main process leading to carbonate precipitation. Consequently, denser and tightly packed morphologies will precipitate, composing mainly the crust lithotype. In this scenario microbes are less dominant. Dendriform shrubs, with narrow, wide and fili morphologies are interpreted to occur in moderate to low energy water flows. Narrow dendriform shrubs reflect faster flowing conditions, with decreasing impact of flow on the morphological aspects from wide dendriform shrubs to fili dendriform shrubs

  5. Site characterization in central Italy: the case of the Amatrice (IT.AMT) accelerometric station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudiosi, Iolanda; Vignaroli, Gianluca; Pacor, Francesca; Bordoni, Paola; Mancini, Marco; Moscatelli, Massimiliano; Milana, Giuliano; GeoRAN-INGV working Group

    2017-04-01

    GeoRAN - INGV working group: G. P. Cavinato, G. Cosentino, S. Giallini, F. Polpetta, R. Razzano, M. Simionato, P. Sirianni (1); S. Amoroso, A. Bucci, E. D'Alema, M. D'Amico, F. Cara, S. Carannante, R. Cogliano, G. Cultrera, G. Di Giulio, D. Di Naccio, D. Famiani, C. Felicetta, A. Fodarella, G. Franceschina, G. Lanzano, S. Lovati, L. Luzi, C. Mascandola, M. Massa, A. Mercuri, D. Picaredda, M. Pischiutta, S. Pucillo, R. Puglia, G. Riccio, M. Vassallo (2) During the Mw 6.0 Amatrice earthquake, which struck Central Italy on the 24th August 2016, the accelerometric station AMT, located at about 10km from the epicentre recorded the highest values of the ground motion (Peak Ground Acceleration of the east component reached 0.87 g). To understand the role played by the site effects in the ground motion observed at AMT, we performed a detailed geological - geotechnical characterization of the site. First, geological field investigations were carried out and used to define a detailed geological cross-section intercepting AMT station. Then, aiming at constraining the Vs model, a continuous coring borehole was drilled close to the AMT site and a down-hole test was consequently executed in order to define the shear-wave velocity profile. In addition, MASW and several noise measurements were realized for better constraining the model and evaluating any eventual geological variability along the cross-section. Finally, numerical analyses of seismic site response were carried out using both 1D and 2D approaches including linear equivalent models. In parallel, several analysis were also performed on seismic records, to infer empirical amplification functions, used to compare the results of the numerical simulations This study was partially supported by the Italian Department of Civil Protection (DPC) of the Presidency of Council of Ministers. The INGV-CNR IGAG collaboration made possible the realization of this multidisciplinary study, which includes detailed seismological

  6. Classification of the ecological status of volcanic lakes in Central Italy

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    Daria VAGAGGINI

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available A synthesis is made of biological data collected in the last three decades on five volcanic lakes in Central Italy with the aim of evaluating their environmental status by means of biological parameters related to zooplankton, littoral and profundal zoobenthos frequently used to detect water quality changes in lakes. A number of bioindicators and bioindices were selected for this purpose, as far as possible following an integrated approach using information drawn from physical and chemical variables. Our results allowed the lakes to be classified according to their biological quality level, which proved to be in good agreement with physical and chemical diagnoses. Lake Bracciano exhibited the best environmental quality, due to the presence of a ring waste water collecting system, to its large size and depth, and to its strong hydrodynamism. Lake Martignano followed, with some symptoms of stress in the hypolimnion due to a marked summer deoxygenation. Oxygen depletion in the profundal characterized also Lake Vico, which showed a mesotrophic condition in the sixties, and 20 years later now shows clear signs of increased trophy (meso-eutrophy. Lake Albano seemed meso-eutrophic with total absence of fauna below a depth of 120 m due to a meromictic status. Finally Lake Nemi, exposed to domestic wastes in the 70s, suffered a heavy eutrophication with dramatic algal blooms and fish kills. Following the diversion of discharges that occurred in the early 90s, today this lake is characterized by the partial improvement of many ecological features. The need for integration between physical and chemical analyses and biological data in order to obtain a reliable evaluation of lake environmental quality is stressed, especially as far as routine implementation in managing and recovery procedures is concerned.

  7. Influence of hydropedology on viticulture and oenology of Sangiovese vine in the Chianti area (Central Italy

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    E. A. C. Costantini

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of precision agriculture in viticulture requires the knowledge of the spatial and temporal variability of available soil water. A three-years trial was carried out in Chianti (central Italy on Sangiovese vine to test the prediction capacity of selected hydropedological models for two soil series cultivated with grape and for delineating hydrological functional units within two vineyards. The soils of the vineyards differentiated in structure, porosity and related hydropedological characteristics, as well as in salinity. Soils were mapped with a geophysical survey and six plots were selected in different morphological positions: summit, backslope and footslope. Water content, redox processes and temperature were monitored, and yield, phenological phases, and chemical analysis of grapes were determined. The isotopic ratio δ13C was measured in the wine ethanol upon harvesting to evaluate the degree of water stress suffered by vines. The grapes in each plot were collected for wine making in small barrels. The wines obtained were analysed and submitted to a blind organoleptic testing.

    The results demonstrated that the tested hydropedological models can be used for the prevision of the moisture status of soils cultivated with grape during summertime in Mediterranean climate. As foreseen by the models, the amount of mean daily transpirable soil water differed considerably between the vineyards and increased significantly along the three positions on slope in both vineyards and in every year, even during the very dry 2006. However, both the response of Sangiovese to water stress and the quality of wine were influenced by the interaction between transpirable water and salinity. The installation of IRIS tubes allowed confirmation of the occurrence of redox processes, although discoloration was influenced more by soil temperature, rather than by moisture. The map produced by once only geophysical survey mirrored only

  8. Molecular detection of vector-borne bacteria and protozoa in healthy hunting dogs from Central Italy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Valentina; Virginia; Ebani; Simona; Nardoni; Giulia; Fognani; Linda; Mugnaini; Fabrizio; Bertelloni; Guido; Rocchigiani; Roberto; Amerigo; Papini; Francesco; Stefani; Francesca; Mancianti

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To determine the pi’evalence of vector-bome bacteria and protozoa in hunting dogs living in Central Italy.Methods:Molecular testing was executed on DNA which was extracted from blood specimens collected from 117 asymptomatic dogs to detect Anaplasma phagocytophilum,Babesia canis(B.canis),Bartonella spp..Coxiella burnetii(C.burnetii).Ehrlichia canis.Hepatozoon canis.and Leislnnania infantum.Results:A total of 48 dogs(41.0%) were infested by Ixodes ricinus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks.Tick-borne infections were observed in 64(54.7%) animals.More in detail.38 dogs(32.5%) screened positive for Hepatozoon canis,24(20.5%) for Bartonella rinsonii subsp.berkhoffii.20(17.1%) for Leishmania infantum,6(5.1%) for C.burnetii,5(4.3%) for B.canis(3 B.canis vogeli and 2 B.canis canis),3(2.5%) for Anaplasma phagocytophilum,and 2(1.7%) for Ehrlichia canis.Mixed infection by 2 agents occurred in 17(14.5%) subjects,by 3 agents in 7(6.0%) dogs,and by 4 agents in 1(0.9%) animal.Conclusions:The results demonstrated that several vector-borne pathogens were circulating in this region and dogs infected by these agents were usually asymptomatic.A relevant finding was the presence of DNA of C.burnetii,a severe zoonotic agent,in the 5.1% of tested dogs,which can be source of infection for their owners not only through tick bites,but also directly with urine,feces and birth products.

  9. Empirical evidence of Rayleigh waves in Norcia (central Italy) and their quantitative contribution to ground motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffagni, Enrico; Cattaneo, Marco; Bordoni, Paola

    2016-04-01

    Spectral ratio techniques, such as the Horizontal-to-Vertical (HV) and Standard (SSR) may exhibit different trends in specific frequency bands when conducted in alluvial basins. A possible explanation of this discrepancy can be provided by the presence of Rayleigh oscillations, that are considered responsible of an amplification of the vertical component with respect to the horizontal. We propose a new methodology for the identification of Rayleigh waves arrivals, to test on small-size basins. With this procedure, candidate Rayleigh waves are localized in time-frequency domain on an instantaneous polarization plane which is constructed by defining the instantaneous maximum vertical and horizontal spectral amplitudes. Validation of the candidate Rayleigh arrivals is performed by evaluating the instantaneous ellipticity. This step yields to a quantitative measure of the polarization, providing an indicator of the Rayleigh contribution to ground motion. We tested this methodology in the Norcia basin (central Italy) using a 18 selected earthquakes (2.0 L'Aquila sequence (2009). We demonstrate the robustness of our methodology by localizing evidences of Rayleigh wave arrivals immediately from (1 s) up to 30 s after the first S-wave group, even for low-magnitude events (Ml < 3.0). The generation of the detected Rayleigh waves analyzed in time-frequency range, appears to be magnitude-dependent and in function of the location in the basin. Our quantitative estimate of the Rayleigh polarization resulted to be comparable to the HV response value in specific frequency bands, for example in deamplification, demonstrating a plausible connection with Rayleigh oscillations. The authors encourage the usage or implementation of similar procedures conducted in basin studies, in order to determine quantitatively the Rayleigh contribution to ground motion, for a better characterization of the local seismic response.

  10. Multidimensional electrical resistivity survey for bedrock detection at the Rieti Plain (Central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardarelli, Ettore; De Donno, Giorgio

    2017-06-01

    The combined use of 1D, 2D and 3D electrical resistivity methods for estimating bedrock depth is presented with an application to a case study located in Central Italy. The site is a narrow basin where two boreholes were drilled reaching the bedrock, which had the greatest depth in the center of the basin. Six vertical electrical soundings were executed along a basin cross-section in order to have a preliminary 1D reconstruction of the bedrock and the overlying alluvial deposits. Inverted resistivity models, show bedrock depths in accordance with the borehole data and a complex subsurface layering of the overburden deposits to be further investigated with 2D and 3D electrical resistivity tomography. Four additional electrical lines, acquired using a pole-dipole array and directed normally to the alignment of the vertical soundings, confirm the 1D results in regards to the bedrock depths, adding additional information about the continuity of the bedrock within the basin, and giving a high resolution image of the shallower sediments. Through the tomographic inversion of 3D data we were able to reconstruct a volumetric image of the carbonate formation at the study site. Finally, the tomographic models have been validated through the inversion of a synthetic dataset, with the aim to attain a final model, whose synthetic model is comparable with the field one. The final model, estimated using an iterative procedure that minimises the absolute difference between field and synthetic models, has retrieved a bedrock resistivity one order of magnitude higher than that obtained from field data inversion.

  11. Transient magmatic control in a tectonic domain: the central Aeolian volcanic arc (South Italy)

    KAUST Repository

    Ruch, Joel

    2015-04-01

    The background stress field in volcanic areas may be overprinted by that produced by transient magmatic intrusions, generating local faulting. These events are rarely monitored and thus not fully understood, generating debate about the role of magma and tectonics in any geodynamic setting. Here we carried out a field structural analysis on the NNW-SSE strike-slip system of the central Aeolian Arc, Italy (Lipari and Vulcano islands) with ages constrained by stratigraphy to better capture the tectonic and magmatic evolution at the local and regional scales. We consider both islands as a single magmatic system and define 5 principal stratigraphic units based on magmatic and tectonic activity. We collected >500 measurements of faults, extension fractures and dikes at 40 sites, mostly NNE-SSW to NNW-SSE oriented with a dominant NS orientation. These structures are governed quasi exclusively by pure dip-slip motion, consistent with an E-W extension direction, with minor dextral and sinistral slip, the latter being mostly related to old deposits (>50 ka). We further reconstructed the evolution of the Vulcano-Lipari system during the last ~20 ka and find that it consists of an overall half-graben-like structure, with faults with predominant eastward dips. Field evidence suggests that faulting occurs often in temporal and spatial relation with magmatic events, suggesting that most of the observable deformation derived from transient magmatic activity, rather than from steady regional tectonics. To explain the dominant magmatic and episodic extension in a tectonic dominant domain, we propose a model where the regional N-S trending maximum horizontal stress, responsible for strike-slip activity, locally rotates to vertical in response to transient pressurization of the magmatic system and magma rise below Lipari and Vulcano. This has possibly generated the propagation of N-S trending dikes in the past 1 ka along a 10 km long by 1 km wide crustal corridor, with important

  12. EARLY TO LATE OLIGOCENE CALCAREOUS NANNOFOSSIL BIOEVENTS IN THE MEDITERRANEAN (UMBRIA-MARCHE BASIN, CENTRAL ITALY

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    PATRIZIA MAIORANO

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Calcareous nannofossil assemblages have been investigated by means of quantitative analyses in three Oligocene pelagic sections located in the Umbria-Marche Apennines (Central Italy. The studied sections mainly consist of marly limestones and marls belonging to the Scaglia Cinerea Formation, and include the interval between NP23 and NP25 representing a time interval of about 3.5 Ma. Biostratigraphic resolution is extremely low and only two standard bioevents are known, which are the FO of Sphenolithus ciperoensis and the LO of Sphenolithus distentus. The distribution patterns of poorly known or recently described calcareous nannofossils provided a valuable tool for improving the current biostratigraphic framework. The studied interval is characterized by significant changes in the calcareous nannofossil assemblages and by several extinction events. The last occurrence (LO and/or the last common occurrence (LCO here proposed are: the LO of Sphenolithus akropodus, the LO of Reticulofenestra circus, the LCO of Helicosphaera ethologa, the LCO of Helicosphaera compactathe LO of Discoaster tanii nodifer. The reversal in abundance between Sphenolithus predistentus and S. distentus provided an additional biostratigraphic constraint at the NP23-NP24 transition. In addition biometric criteria enabled the recognition of the first common occurrence (FCO of Cyclicargolithus abisectus > 12 mm as potential bioevent within NP24. The quantitative distribution of Sphenolithus distentus suggests to rely on the LCO of the species rather than on the LO, for the identification of NP24-NP25 boundary. The identified bioevents is a first step towards the improvement of the present Mediterranean biostratigraphic framework of the Oligocene geological record. A preliminary correlation of the bioevents to the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale is presented.

  13. Risk indicators for water supply systems for a drought Decision Support System in central Tuscany (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Giuseppe; Garrote, Luis; Caporali, Enrica

    2010-05-01

    of total water shortage. The methodology is applied to the urban area Firenze-Prato-Pistoia in central Tuscany, in central Italy. The catchment of the investigated area has a surface of 1231 km2 and, accordingly to the census ISTAT 2001, 945˙972 inhabitants.

  14. Extensive Field Survey, Laboratory and Greenhouse Studies Reveal Complex Nature of Pseudomonas syringae-Associated Hazelnut Decline in Central Italy.

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    Jay Ram Lamichhane

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas avellanae (Pav has been reported as the causal agent of bacterial decline and bacterial canker of hazelnut in Italy and Greece, respectively. Both hazelnut diseases were reported to be similar in terms of symptoms, severity and persistence. In this study, we found that both symptomatic and asymptomatic trees in the field were colonized by Pav. Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST analysis showed that Pav strains isolated during this study in Italy belong to the P. syringae phylogroup 1 and they are closely related to Pav strains previously isolated in Greece from hazelnut bacterial canker. On the other hand, strains isolated in earlier studies from hazelnut decline in Italy belong to both phylogroup 1 and 2 of P. syringae. Both phylogroup 1 strains of P. syringae from Greece and Italy are different than strains isolated in this study in terms of their capacity to excrete fluorescent pigments on different media. Despite the same plant genotype and cropping practices adopted, the incidence of hazelnut decline ranged from nearly 0 to 91% across our study sites. No disease developed on plants inoculated with Pav through wounding while leaf scar inoculations produced only mild disease symptoms. Based on our results and the previously reported correlation between pedo-climatic conditions and hazelnut decline, we conclude that hazelnut decline in central Italy could be incited by a combination of predisposing (adverse pedo-climatic conditions and contributing factors (Pav. Because this is a true decline different from "bacterial canker" described in Greece, we refer to it as hazelnut decline (HD.

  15. Early seismogenic faults of the 2016 Accumoli-Amatrice seismic sequence (Central Apennines, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicco, Jessica; Pierantoni, Pietro Paolo; Centamore, Ernesto; Costa, Mario

    2017-04-01

    The seismic sequence which caused numerous deaths and extensive damage in the area between Amatrice and Norcia (Central Apennine, Italy) started the 24th August, 2016 with a MW = 6.0 earthquake near Accumuli village and is ongoing. The earthquake area is strongly dissected by quaternary NW/NNW-SE/SSE (Apennine) and NE/NNE-SW/SSW (Antiapennine) fault systems. The Central Apennines main structure is the NNW-SSE Cittareale-Celano Fault System (CCFS); it extends from the Marsica Range to Cittareale-Norcia and further north; Pierantoni et al. (2015) identified it as an high-angle and NE-dipping, deeply rooted in the crust (> 15 km), shear zone. During the Pleistocene/Holocene it had extensional and left transtensive kinematic. The area of the 2016 seismic sequence is bounded on the W by a NE-dipping fault (CCFS Norcia branch) and on the E by the SW-dipping Mt Vettore (VF) and Mt. Gorzano (GF) fault system. Between these main fault systems other NW-SE striking, NE or SW-dipping, faults are present. The NW/NNW-SE/SSE fault systems are locally displaced by quaternary transversal (NE/ENE-SW/WSW) fault systems. The focal mechanism of the main shock and of the main aftershock (MW=5.4 near Norcia town, to N of Accumoli) are extensional with NNW-SSE/NW-SE axes and 45°/ 50° nodal plans. According to initial seismic assessment, macroseismic and INSAR/DPGS data many specialists felt from the first days after the main shock this seismic sequence was caused by activation of the NW-SE, SW-dipping VF and GF faults. Instead recent publications of Michele et al (2016) based on high precision seismological data showed clearly that the early sequence was caused at least by two opposing faults; one NE-dipping, deeply rooted (>15 km) is located at the western edge of Norcia depression; the other shallowest, SW-dipping, is placed on the Mt Vettore western slope. To try to detect which of the two faults was at the origin of this sequence were selected and taken into account the earthquakes

  16. Petrology of the most recent ultrapotassic magmas from the Roman Province (Central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaeta, M.; Freda, C.; Marra, F.; Di Rocco, T.; Gozzi, F.; Arienzo, I.; Giaccio, B.; Scarlato, P.

    2011-11-01

    We report on the newly discovered lava flow that erupted in the Colli Albani Volcanic District, which is the most recent and, geochemically the most peculiar effusive event recognised in the entire ultrapotassic Roman Province (Central Italy). This lava flow is associated with the Monte Due Torri scoria cone, located approximately 5 km south of the Albano hydromagmatic centre (69-36 ka). The Monte Due Torri scoria cone displays well-preserved morphological characteristics and the 40 ± 7 ka age determined for the associated lava flow indicates that its activity was nearly contemporaneous to the most recent, explosive activity that occurred at the Albano centre from 41 to 36 ka. By comparing chemical and petrological features of the Monte Due Torri lava flow, Albano products, and older products (> 69 ka), we show that the youngest Colli Albani eruptions were fed by two new batches of parental magmas that originated in a phlogopite-bearing metasomatised mantle, each one feeding one of the two youngest eruptive cycles (at 69 ka and 41-36 ka). The trace element signature, e.g., very low Pb content, of primitive (MgO > 3 wt.%) magmas feeding the initiation of the hydromagmatic activity at Albano (69 ka) and the subsequent effusive activity at Monte Due Torri (40 ka) indicates that a magma chamber located in the deep anhydrite-bearing dolomite formation was tapped. However, the polygenic activity, the changes in magma composition, and the variable thermometamorphic clasts occurring in the hydromagmatic deposits (recording variable substrata) suggest, particularly for the Albano eruptive centre, a more complex plumbing system consisting of at least two more magma chambers at a shallower depth, i.e., in the Mesozoic limestone and Pliocene pelite formations. The large amount of stratigraphic, volcanological, and geochemical data collected for the Colli Albani Volcanic District, one of the main districts in the ultrapotassic Roman Province, enable us to contribute insights

  17. Modeling Fire Emissions across Central and Southern Italy: Implications for Land and Fire Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacciu, V. M.; Salis, M.; Spano, D.

    2015-12-01

    Fires play a relevant role in the global and regional carbon cycle, representing a remarkable source of CO2 and other greenhouse gases (GHG) that influence atmosphere budgets and climate. In addition, the wildfire increase projected in Southern Europe due to climate change (CC) and concurrent exacerbation of extreme weather conditions could also lead to a significant rise in GHG. Recently, in the context of the Italian National Adaptation Strategy to Climate Change (SNAC), several approaches were identified as valuable tools to adapt and mitigate the impacts of CC on wildfires, in order to reduce landscape susceptibility and to contribute to the efforts of carbon emission mitigation proposed within the Kyoto protocol. Active forest and fuel management (such as prescribed burning, fuel reduction and removal, weed and flammable shrub control, creation of fuel discontinuity) is recognised to be a key element to adapt and mitigate the impacts of CC on wildfires. Despite this, overall there is a lack of studies about the effectiveness of fire emission mitigation strategies. The current work aims to analyse the potential of a combination of fuel management practices in mitigating emissions from forest fires and evaluate valuable and viable options across Central and Southern Italy. These objectives were achieved throughout a retrospective application of an integrated approach combining a fire emission model (FOFEM - First Order Fire Effect Model) with spatially explicit, comprehensive, and accurate fire, vegetation and weather data for the period 2004-2012. Furthermore, a number of silvicultural techniques were combined to develop several fuel management scenarios and then tested to evaluate their potential in mitigating fire emissions.The preliminary results showed the crucial role of appropriate fuel, fire behavior, and weather data to reduce bias in quantifying the source and the composition of fire emissions and to attain reasonable estimations. Also, the current

  18. Geodiversity of the Umbria region (central Italy): a GIS-based quantitative index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melelli, Laura; Pica, Alessia; Del Monte, Maurizio

    2014-05-01

    The measure of natural range related to geological bedrock, landforms and geomorphological processes is the necessary starting point to geodiversity evaluation. Geodiversity plays a strategic role in landscape management. Whereas geotourism and geosites are identified as a driving power for the scientific and economic promotion of an area, the geodiversity knowledge is required for a complete and accurate research. For example, high values of this abiotic parameter identify and support the foundation of geoparks. According to this perspective, the geodiversity is the unifying factor for these areas of interest. While a subjective and qualitative approach may be adequate for geosites definition, identification and cultural promotion, the geodiversity concept needs a different evaluation method. A quantitative procedure allows achieving an objective and repeatable process exportable in different geographic units. Geographical Information Systems and spatial analysis techniques are the base to quantitative evaluation involving topographic, geological and geomorphological data. Therefore, the assessment of a numerical index derived from the overlay of spatial parameters can be conveniently computed in GIS environment. In this study, a geodiversity index is proposed where geological, geomorphological and landcover factors deriving mainly from maps and field survey; topographic ones are employed from DEM and remote sensed data. Each abiotic parameter is modelled in a grid format; focal functions do provide neighbourhood analysis and computing variety statistics. A particular extent is dedicated to topographic information and terrain roughness, that are strictly related to efficiency of geomorphological processes and generally corresponding to the abiotic components variability. The study area is located in central Italy and is characterized by a well known natural heritage. Thirty-seven geosites are detected in the Umbria region, where seven regional and one natural

  19. The Italian Seismic Bulletin: strategies, revised pickings and locations of the central Italy seismic sequence

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    Alessandro Marchetti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The central Italy seismic sequence, started with the Mw = 6.0 Amatrice earthquake on August 24th 2016, is the first significant one after the Italian Seismic Bulletin (BSI changed its analysis strategies in 2015. These new strategies consist on the release of the BSI every four months, the review of the events with ML ≥ 1.5 and the priority on the review of events with ML ≥ 3.5. Furthermore, in the last year we improved the bulletin tools and made possible the analysis of all the stations whose data are stored in the European Integrated Data Archive (EIDA. The new procedures and software utilities allowed, during the first month of 2016 emergency, to integrate, in the Bulletin, the temporary stations installed by the emergency group SISMIKO, both in real–time transmission and in stand-alone recording. In the early days of the sequence many of the BSI analysts were engaged in the monitoring room shifts, nevertheless at the end of August all events occurred in those days with ML ≥ 4 were analyzed; the largest event recovered and localized is a ML = 4.5 event immediately following the main shock. In September 2016, 83 events with ML ≥ 3.5 were analyzed and re-checked, the number of pickings greatly improved. The focal mechanism of the main shock was evaluated using first motion polarities, and compared with the available Time Domain Moment Tensors and Regional Centroid Moment Tensor. The first eight hours of the day on August 24th, the most critical for the INGV surveillance room, were carefully analyzed: the number of located events increased from 133 to 408. The magnitude of completeness, after the analysis of the BSI, has dropped significantly from about 3.5 to 2.7. The mainshock focal mechanism and the relative locations of the first 8 hours’ aftershocks give clues on the initial fault activation. The seismic sequence in November 2016 is still ongoing; it included a mainshock of Mw = 6.5 on October 30th and 3 events of magnitude

  20. Hydrochemical determination of source water contributions to Lake Lungo and Lake Ripasottile (central Italy

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    Claire Archer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Lake Lungo and Lake Ripasottile are two shallow (4-5 m lakes located in the Rieti Basin, central Italy, that have been described previously as surface outcroppings of the groundwater table. In this work, the two lakes as well as springs and rivers that represent their potential source waters are characterized physio-chemically and isotopically, using a combination of environmental tracers. Temperature and pH were measured and water samples were analyzed for alkalinity, major ion concentration, and stable isotope (δ2H, δ18O, δ13C of dissolved inorganic carbon, and δ34S and δ18O of sulfate composition.  Chemical data were also investigated in terms of local meteorological data (air temperature, precipitation to determine the sensitivity of lake parameters to changes in the surrounding environment. Groundwater represented by samples taken from Santa Susanna Spring was shown to be distinct with SO42- and Mg2+ content of 270 and 29 mg/L, respectively, and heavy sulfate isotopic composition (δ34S=15.2 ‰ and δ18O=10‰. Outflow from the Santa Susanna Spring enters Lake Ripasottile via a canal and both spring and lake water exhibits the same chemical distinctions and comparatively low seasonal variability. Major ion concentrations in Lake Lungo are similar to the Vicenna Riara Spring and are interpreted to represent the groundwater locally recharged within the plain. The δ13CDIC exhibit the same groupings as the other chemical parameters, providing supporting evidence of the source relationships. Lake Lungo exhibited exceptional ranges of δ13CDIC (±5 ‰ and δ2H, δ18O (±5 ‰ and ±7 ‰, respectively, attributed to sensitivity to seasonal changes. The hydrochemistry results, particularly major ion data, highlight how the two lakes, though geographically and morphologically similar, represent distinct hydrochemical facies. These data also show a different response in each lake to temperature and precipitation patterns in the basin that

  1. Stratigraphic control on earthquake-induced liquefaction: A case study from the Central Po Plain (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorosi, A.; Bruno, L.; Facciorusso, J.; Piccin, A.; Sammartino, I.

    2016-11-01

    Studies on earthquake-induced liquefaction tied to high-resolution stratigraphic analysis have been rarely undertaken. We report the results of a multidisciplinary study from the Quistello-Moglia area, in the central Po Plain (northern Italy). In this region, combined stratigraphic, sedimentological, geotechnical, and geochemical data allowed assessment of liquefaction potential and identification of the primary source for liquefaction, following the second main shock (Mw 6) of the 2012 Po Plain earthquake. Using Cone Penetration Test (CPT)-based simplified procedures for liquefaction hazard evaluation, we assessed the highest liquefaction potential of Holocene, fluvial-channel and related (crevasse/levee) fine sand-silt facies encased in thick, mud-prone floodplain and swamp successions. The liquefaction potential, and the intensity of the manifestations induced on the ground surface, decreased for the vertically-amalgamated, sheet-like Pleistocene sandy fluvial units encountered at depths greater than 13 m. Floodplain and swamp deposits were virtually non-liquefiable. In the Quistello area, the compositional characterization of sands that were liquefied and extruded during the 2012 earthquake reveals the diagnostic geochemical fingerprint of sediment carried by the Po River, as opposed to the Apennine composition of surficial sediments. These data rule out proximity of liquefied layers to the surface, and attest the buried, meandering Po River system at depths of 7-10 m most likely representing the source for the liquefied sand that vented to the surface. Similarly, at Moglia, liquefied sands were likely sourced from loose and saturated, ribbon-shaped, fluvial sand bodies encased in mud, though at shallower (4-7 m) depths. Pronounced liquefaction phenomena in alluvial plain systems are commonly believed to be associated primarily with elongate topographic ridges following paleo-river courses. Here, we document that under favorable stratigraphic conditions

  2. Fast 3D seismic wave simulations of 24 August 2016 Mw 6.0 central Italy earthquake for visual communication

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    Emanuele Casarotti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We present here the first application of the fast reacting framework for 3D simulations of seismic wave propagation generated by earthquakes in the Italian region with magnitude Mw 5. The driven motivation is to offer a visualization of the natural phenomenon to the general public but also to provide preliminary modeling to expert and civil protection operators. We report here a description of this framework during the emergency of 24 August 2016 Mw 6.0 central Italy Earthquake, a discussion on the accuracy of the simulation for this seismic event and a preliminary critical analysis of the visualization structure and of the reaction of the public.

  3. Lichen diversity and lichen transplants as monitors of air pollution in a rural area of central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loppi, Stefano; Frati, Luisa

    2006-03-01

    The results of a biomonitoring study carried out in the Municipality of Colle di Val d'Elsa (central Italy), using the diversity of epiphytic lichens and the accumulation of selected elements in thalli of the lichen Evernia prunastri transplanted in two urban sites are reported. The results indicate that the survey area suffers from different types of pollution. The main air pollutants are NO( X ) and Pb. Vehicular traffic and domestic heating are the main sources of the former, and traffic and a crystal factory of the latter. Furthermore, most study area is eutrophicated due to diffuse agricultural activities and the presence of pig and sheep stockfarms.

  4. Estimation of the risks of thermal stress due to the microclimate for manual fruit and vegetable harvesters in central Italy.

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    Cecchini, M; Colantoni, A; Massantini, R; Monarca, D

    2010-07-01

    Agricultural workers are exposed to various risks, including chemical agents, noise, and many other factors. One of the most characteristic and least known risk factors is constituted by the microclimatic conditions in the different phases of work (in field, in greenhouse, etc). A typical condition is thermal stress due to high temperatures during harvesting operations in open fields or in greenhouses. In Italy, harvesting is carried out for many hours during the day, mainly in the summer, with temperatures often higher than 30 degrees C. According to ISO 7243, these conditions can be considered dangerous for workers' health. The aim of this study is to assess the risks of exposure to microclimatic conditions (heat) for fruit and vegetable harvesters in central Italy by applying methods established by international standards. In order to estimate the risk for workers, the air temperature, radiative temperature, and air speed were measured using instruments in conformity with ISO 7726. Thermodynamic parameters and two more subjective parameters, clothing and the metabolic heat production rate related to the worker's physical activity, were used to calculate the predicted heat strain (PHS) for the exposed workers in conformity with ISO 7933. Environmental and subjective parameters were also measured for greenhouse workers, according to ISO 7243, in order to calculate the wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT). The results show a slight risk for workers during manual harvesting in the field. On the other hand, the data collected in the greenhouses show that the risk for workers must not be underestimated. The results of the study show that, for manual harvesting work in climates similar to central Italy, it is essential to provide plenty of drinking water and acclimatization for the workers in order to reduce health risks. Moreover, the study emphasizes that the possible health risks for greenhouse workers increase from the month of April through July.

  5. Reactivation of a Deep Seated Gravitational Slope Deformation observed during the recent seismic events in Central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Gabriele; Aringoli, Domenico; Devoti, Roberto; Fubelli, Giandomenico; Galvani, Alessandro; Pambianchi, Gilberto; Sepe, Vincenzo

    2017-04-01

    Deep-Seated Gravitational Slope Deformations (DSGSDs) represent an important geomorphological feature of the European mountain chains and several cases from Central Apennine (Italy) are accurately described in literature. These phenomena generally present evident geomorphological markers (e.g. double ridges, trenches, counterslopes) and low activity rates (i.e. mm to cm per year), which can be triggered by many different means (e.g. seismic activity, erosional processes, rainfall, post-glacial debuttressing). To understand which is the most influential factor in DSGSDs' activity is rarely an easy task because this can vary from case to case. This work illustrates the outcomes provided by a monitoring activity conducted along the Mt. Frascare slope (Fiastra Lake, Marche region, Italy). The monitoring system is composed by 4 low cost GPS stations, based on single-frequency receivers, and 2 double-frequency GPS stations, aimed to cross-check the surface deformations measured by the two types of monitoring stations. The 6 GPS stations have been operated in place starting from October 2014 grounded on the base of a geomorphological field survey of the investigated phenomenon. Two stations have been equipped with both receiver types in order to facilitate the comparison of the results. The Fiastra DSGSD affects a marly limestone bedrock throughout a >5km2 area and along a slope against which a dam for hydroelectric power leans. Our monitoring system allowed to measure the Fiastra DSGSD's seismically induced relative displacements on the order of two mean steps of about 10 cm, due to the recent seismic sequence occurred in Central Italy in 2016, which resulted considerably higher than the observed mean annual velocity (≈5mm/y).

  6. Thermal comfort optimisation of vernacular rural buildings: passive solutions to retrofit a typical farmhouse in central Italy

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    Maria Elena Menconi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An adequate retrofitting of traditional rural buildings requires to preserve their formal characteristics and to understand the constructive elements that compose them and which are different in different geographical areas. This paper analyses the typical farmhouses in central Italy. Starting from the definition of a vernacular building model, the paper analyses its performance in terms of thermal comfort and energy efficiency. The methodology involves the use of energy dynamic simulations coupled with optimisation techniques aimed to identify the best combinations of insulating materials in terms of choice of material and its optimal location in the envelope. The paper demonstrates the good thermal and energy performance of farmhouses in central Italy. The results of the optimisation process showed that in these buildings, with the addition of insulation materials with low conductivity the perceived discomfort in the inhabited areas of the building can be reduced by 79% and the energy consumption related to heating can be reduced by 77%. The level of insulation of the pavement that separates the ground and first floor needs to be more moderate to promote the heat flow between floors during summer. The sensitivity analysis shows that the most influential component for thermal comfort is the roof insulation.

  7. Beach litter occurrence in sandy littorals: The potential role of urban areas, rivers and beach users in central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeta, Gianluca; Conti, Luisa; Malavasi, Marco; Battisti, Corrado; Acosta, Alicia Teresa Rosario

    2016-11-01

    Litter washed ashore on the coastline, also called beach litter, constitutes one of the most obvious signs of marine litter pollution. Surveys of beach litter represent a fundamental tool for monitoring pollution in the marine environment and have been used world-wide to classify and quantify marine litter. Identifying the sources of marine and beach litter is, together with education, the prime weapon in combating this type of pollution. This work investigates the impact of three main potential land sources on litter occurrence: urban areas, rivers and beach users. Three sources were analyzed simultaneously on a broad scale (Lazio region, central Italy) using a random sampling design and fitting a generalized linear mixed-effect model. The results show that urban areas are the main drivers for the occurrence of marine litter along central Italy's coastal ecosystems, suggesting that the presence of such litter on Lazio beaches could be effectively reduced by identifying failings in recycling and waste collection procedures and by improving waste processing systems and sewage treatment in urban areas.

  8. Preliminary engineering analysis of the August 24th 2016, ML 6.0 central Italy earthquake records

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    Iunio Iervolino

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An earthquake of estimated local magnitude (ML 6.0 struck central Italy on the 24th of August (01:36:32 UTC in the vicinity of Accumoli (close to Rieti, central Italy initiating a long-lasting seismic sequence that also featured events of larger magnitude within a few months. The earthquake caused widespread building damage and around three-hundred fatalities. Ground motion was recorded by hundreds of seis-mic stations. This work uses accelerometric records for a preliminary discussion, from the earthquake en-gineering perspective, of strong motion caused by the earthquake. Peak and integral ground motion inten-sity measures, are presented. The response spectra at some select stations are analysed with respect to the code-mandated design actions for various return periods at the recording sites. Hazard disaggregation for different return periods is discussed referring to the site of the epicentre of the earthquake. Finally, some preliminary considerations are made concerning the impact of rupture propagation on near-source ground motion; i.e., the records are scanned for traces of pulse-like forward-directivity effects.

  9. Relationships between sinkholes areal distribution and main tectonic alignments in Abruzzo (Central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrini, G.; Moretti, A.; De Rose, C.; Stagnini, E.,; Serafini, M.

    2012-04-01

    Intermountain basins, developed at the back side of the Apennines overturning front, are the most evident morphological expressions of extensional tectonics in Central Italy and can be recognized in many different sections of the chain. L'Aquila basin and the adjoining Subequana valley are part of a single NW-SE elongated depression (about 60 km long) which began to develop about in the early Quaternary in response to the identification of various regional extensional tectonic alignments and the consequent starting of the basin subsidence. This impressive morphological element is characterized by the presence of several large funnel-shaped features (locally named Fosse = trench) which affect mainly the Meso-Cenozoic carbonatic bedrock but also the Neogenic clastic sedimentary filling of the valley. Some of these last elements are often occupied by ponds or significant artesian water resurgences like the Sinizzo Lake where, during L'Aquila earthquake of April 6th 2009, the shores collapsed and strong microseismic activity, deep rumbles and flow rate changes were reported for the following months. The Fosse mapped in the L'Aquila basin have widths in the order of hundreds of meters, a considerable difference of elevation respect the rims and present a general morphology very close to that of the classic dissolution karst sinkholes. Their evolution/localization is strictly related to the active fault systems which controls also the main tracts of the relief; the low volume of residual sedimentary deposits within the depression, not comparable with the total volume of rock removed, indicates that surface karst dissolution phenomena are absent or secondary. The elevations of the floor of many Fosse are higher respect the actual flood plain depending on their age; in fact relict circular forms, recognizable at upper altitude on the relief slope, confirm that the phenomenon has been active for a considerable period of time. About the genesis of this features, even if at

  10. A contribution for predicting Tsunami inundation induced by rock fall along the Gaeta cliff (Central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Manna, P.; Vittori, E.; Comerci, V.; Amanti, M.; Cesi, C.

    2009-04-01

    Many sectors of Italian coasts are characterized by tall scarps, close to large or pocket beaches that display ramp shape with moderate to low acclivity profile. During the summer, all these beaches are densely populated by sunbathers. Moreover, Italian coastal areas are often intensely urbanized even at a short distance from the sea and very close to sea level. Being cliffs often affected by gravity processes, the impact on the water of a falling volume of rock, depending on size and height of fall, may represent a potential source of tsunami-type hazard for adjacent beaches and boats. In this work we present an attempt to evaluate the run-up and ingression values in the Serapo beach (Gaeta, Tyrrhenian Sea coast of Central Italy) of an anomalous wave induced by a potential rock fall along the contiguous more than 100 meters high limestone cliff (the so-called Montagna Spaccata, "cleft mountain"). Detailed geological and geomorphological field analyses are being carried out, including geomechanical analyses and geodetic monitoring, in order to recognize the sectors with the most critical stability conditions. Preliminarily, the major potential volume of instable block and its most likely kinematics have been estimated with the purpose of characterizing the rock fall process. The first water rise produced by the impact of the rock on the sea surface has been estimated according to two approaches: a) the Murty (2003) equation, that gives the relation between water elevation and volume of fallen material; b) the Glasstone and Dolan method (Hills & Mader, 1997), comparing the carbonate rock fall to a meteoritic impact on the sea surface. The rockfall kinematics suggests that the Glasstone and Dolan equation, despite it was developed for a different environment, is better applicable than Murty's (valid for slides) to the case under discussion. On the basis of the Green's law (1837) we defined the shoaling component of the run-up values. Our results show that the impact

  11. Quality control of climatological time series in the province of macerata (adriatic side of central italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentilucci, Matteo; Bisci, Carlo; Fazzini, Massimiliano; Tognetti, Danilo

    2016-04-01

    The analysis is focused on more than 100 meteorological recording stations located in the Province of Macerata (Marche region, Adriatic side of Central Italy) and in its neighbours; it aims to check the time series of their climatological data (temperatures and precipitations), covering about one century of observations, in order to remove or rectify any errors. This small area (about 2.800Km2) features many different climate types, because of its varied topography ranging, moving westward, from the Adriatic coast to the Appennines (over 2.100m of altitude). In this irregular context, it is difficult to establish a common procedure for each sector; therefore, it has been followed the general guidelines of the WMO, with some important difference (mostly in the method). Data are classified on the basis of validation codes (VC): missing datum (VC=-1), correct or verified datum (VC=0), datum under investigation (VC=1), datum removed after the analysis (VC=2), datum reconstructed through interpolation or by estimating the errors of digitization (VC=3). The first step was the "Logical Control", consisting in the investigation of gross errors of digitization: the data found in this phase of the analysis has been removed without any other control (VC=2). The second step, represented by the "Internal Consistency Check", leads to the elimination (VC=2) of all the data out of range, estimated on the basis of the climate zone for each investigated variable. The third one is the "Tolerance Test", carried out comparing each datum with the historical record it belongs to, in order to apply this test, the normal distribution of data has been evaluated. The "Tolerance Test" usually defines only suspect data (VC=1) to be verified with further tests, such as the "Temporal Consistency" and the "Spatial Consistency". The "Temporal Consistency" allows an evaluation of the time sequence of data, setting a specified range for each station basing upon its historical records. Data out of

  12. Seven centuries of atmospheric Pb deposition recorded in a floating mire from Central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccone, Claudio; Lobianco, Daniela; D'Orazio, Valeria; Miano, Teodoro M.; Shotyk, William

    2016-04-01

    Floating mires generally consist of emergent vegetation rooted in highly organic buoyant mats that rise and fall with changes in water level. Generally speaking, the entire floating mass (mat) is divided into a mat root zone and an underlying mat peat zone. Floating mires are distributed world-wide; large areas of floating marsh occur along rivers and lakes in Africa, the Danube Delta in Romania, the Amazon River in South America, and in the Mississippi River delta in USA, whereas smaller areas occur also in The Netherlands, Australia and Canada. While peat cores from ombrotrophic bogs have been often (and successfully) used to reconstruct changes in the atmospheric deposition of several metals (including Pb), no studies are present in literature about the possibility to use peat profiles from floating mires. To test the hypothesis that peat-forming floating mires could provide an exceptional tool for environmental studies, a complete, 4-m deep peat profile was collected in July 2012 from the floating island of Posta Fibreno, a relic mire in the Central Italy. This floating island has a diameter of ca. 30 m, a submerged thickness of about 3 m, and the vegetation is organized in concentric belts, from the Carex paniculata palisade to the Sphagnum palustre centre. The whole core was frozen cut each 1-to-2 cm (n =231), and Pb determined by quadrupole ICP-MS (at the ultraclean SWAMP lab, University of Alberta, Canada) in each sample throughout the first 100 cm, and in each odd-numbered slice for the remaining 300 cm. The 14C age dating of organic sediments (silty peat) isolated from the sample at 385 cm of depth revealed that the island probably formed ca. 700 yrs ago. Lead concentration trend shows at least two main zones of interest, i.e., a clear peak (ranging from 200 to 1600 ppm) between 110-115 cm of depth, probably corresponding to early 1960's - late 1970's, and a broad band (80-160 ppm) between 295-320 cm of depth, corresponding to approximately AD 1480

  13. Chrysotile asbestos quantification in serpentinite quarries: a case study in Valmalenco, central Alps, northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    Outcrops of serpentinites are usually strongly fractured and cataclastic, and the rock can only be used as ballast. However, in rare cases, like in Valmalenco (Central Alps, Northern Italy), fractures are regular and well spaced, and the rock mass has good geotechnical quality, ideal conditions for the extraction of dimension stone blocks. The Valmalenco Serpentinite is marketed worldwide as dimension and decorative stone, with remarkable mechanical properties and pleasing colours and textures. However, the same area was once subject to chrysotile asbestos mining, in the form of discrete veins along the main discontinuities of the rock mass. For this reason, airborne asbestos contamination can occur during the extraction and processing cycle of the rocks, therefore it is essential to locate and quantify asbestos in the rock mass, to reduce as much as possible the exposure risk. The first step was a detailed geostructural survey of each quarry, in order to characterize the main discontinuities (orientation, spacing, linear persistence, opening, filling), with special attention to the identification of fibrous minerals. The surveys was followed by extensive sampling of massive rocks, mineralized veins and fillings of fractures, and the cutting sludge derived from diamond wire cutting. Preliminary qualitative XRPD was performed on all samples, while quantitative analysis was carried out on the most representative samples of the main rock mass discontinuities. On the other hand, XRPD is not effective in the identification of asbestos percentages of less than 2% by weight, and the accurate distinction among the various serpentine polymorphs (antigorite, lizardite, chrysotile) is very difficult (if not impossible) when they are simultaneously present, due to their very similar basic structure and the strong structural disorder. The same samples were then analyzed by SEM-EDS (fiber counting after filtration on a polycarbonate filter), for a better distinction between

  14. THE FLOATING ISLAND OF POSTA FIBRENO: AN EXAMPLE OF A RELIC MIRE IN CENTRAL ITALY

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    E. AGRILLO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The lake of Posta Fibreno (S Latium, C. Italy, is a biotope where some outstanding anomalies in the flora and vegetation of the wetlands of peninsular Italy are concentrated. Here the southernmost Italian populations of Sphagnum palustre occur on the small surface of a floating island, a cup-formed core of Sphagnum peat and rhizomes of Helophytes, erratically floating on the water-body of a submerged doline, annexed to the easternmost edge of the lake, characterised by the extension of a large reed bed. A strong correlation between characteristics of the physical environment and the structure of the vegetation on the island, points out the descriptive ability of the communities recorded in the site to reconstruc the genesis of the biotope.

  15. THE FLOATING ISLAND OF POSTA FIBRENO: AN EXAMPLE OF A RELIC MIRE IN CENTRAL ITALY

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    L. CASELLA

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The lake of Posta Fibreno (S Latium, C. Italy, is a biotope where some outstanding anomalies in the flora and vegetation of the wetlands of peninsular Italy are concentrated. Here the southernmost Italian populations of Sphagnum palustre occur on the small surface of a floating island, a cup-formed core of Sphagnum peat and rhizomes of Helophytes, erratically floating on the water-body of a submerged doline, annexed to the easternmost edge of the lake, characterised by the extension of a large reed bed. A strong correlation between characteristics of the physical environment and the structure of the vegetation on the island, points out the descriptive ability of the communities recorded in the site to reconstruc the genesis of the biotope.

  16. Amaranthus cruentus L. is suitable for cultivation in Central Italy: field evaluation and response to plant densities

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    Paolo Casini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the possibility of amaranth cultivation in Central Italy and to determine the optimum plant density. Field trials were carried out in 2011 and 2012 under non-irrigated conditions in Tuscany (43° 18’ N, 11° 47’ E. Twelve accessions of two amaranth species (Amaranthus cruentus L. and A. hypochondriacus L. were utilised. Genotypes were evaluated over a two-year period using a RCB design with three replicates. The effects of plant density were investigated in 2012. A with a split-plot design was used, where the A. cruentus accessions (AMES 5148, PI 511719 and PI 643045 constituted the main plots. Plant densities (7.5, 15, 30 and 60 plants m–2 constituted the subplots. Plants were transplanted at the 3-4 true leaf stage. Morphological traits were determined using 5 plants selected from the two central rows of the sampling area. Plots were hand-harvested and cleaned with a mechanical grid with appropriate sieve diameters. A. cruentus was shown to be more suitable to the Central Italy agro-ecological conditions than A. hypochondriacus. The accessions derived from Mexico (PI 477913, PI 576481, PI 643045, PI 643053, and PI 6495079, Guatemala (PI 511719 and Puerto Rico (AMES 5148, had both higher grain yields and a greater stability over the two-year period, with a mean grain production ranging from 2.8 to 3.2 t ha–1. The severe climatic stress in 2012 (high temperatures and aridity, resulted in a 43-60% reduction in seed production compared to that of the previous year. Under these conditions, PI 511719, AMES 26015, AMES 5386, AMES 5148, PI 477913 yielded on average 1.9 t ha–1. Yields of A. hypochondriacus were negligible in both years, probably attributable to greater photoperiod sensitivity, resulting in reduced flowering and delayed maturity. By increasing density up to 60 and 30 plants m–2 for PI 511719 and AMES 5148, respectively, grain production was increased by 55%. As the plant population

  17. What is the impact of the August 24, 2016 Amatrice earthquake on the seismic hazard assessment in central Italy?

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    Maura Murru

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The recent Amatrice strong event (Mw6.0 occurred on August 24, 2016 in Central Apennines (Italy in a seismic gap zone, motivated us to study and provide better understanding of the seismic hazard assessment in the macro area defined as “Central Italy”. The area affected by the sequence is placed between the Mw6.0 1997 Colfiorito sequence to the north (Umbria-Marche region the Campotosto area hit by the 2009 L’Aquila sequence Mw6.3 (Abruzzo region to the south. The Amatrice earthquake occurred while there was an ongoing effort to update the 2004 seismic hazard map (MPS04 for the Italian territory, requested in 2015 by the Italian Civil Protection Agency to the Center for Seismic Hazard (CPS of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia INGV. Therefore, in this study we brought to our attention new earthquake source data and recently developed ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs. Our aim was to validate whether the seismic hazard assessment in this area has changed with respect to 2004, year in which the MPS04 map was released. In order to understand the impact of the recent earthquakes on the seismic hazard assessment in central Italy we compared the annual seismic rates calculated using a smoothed seismicity approach over two different periods; the Parametric Catalog of the Historical Italian earthquakes (CPTI15 from 1871 to 2003 and the historical and instrumental catalogs from 1871 up to 31 August 2016. Results are presented also in terms of peak ground acceleration (PGA, using the recent ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs at Amatrice, interested by the 2016 sequence.

  18. Trichinella pseudospiralis in sedentary night-birds of prey from Central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozio, E; Goffredo, M; Fico, R; La Rosa, G

    1999-08-01

    Trichinella pseudospiralis has been isolated from carnivorous and carrion-feeding mammals and birds in Eastern Europe, Asia, Australia, and North America, suggesting its cosmopolitan distribution. We conducted a survey to detect this parasite in raptorial and carrion-feeding birds in Italy, examining muscles from 205 animals by artificial digestion. We isolated from the breast muscle 1 larva from a tawny owl (Strix aluco) and 2 larvae from a little owl (Athene noctua). These larvae were identified as T. pseudospiralis by the polymerase chain reaction with a specific primer set. This is the first documented report of T. pseudospiralis in animals in Western Europe.

  19. A study of chlorinated solvent contamination of the aquifers of an industrial area in central Italy: a possibility of bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteucci, Federica; Ercole, Claudia; Del Gallo, Maddalena

    2015-01-01

    Perchloroethene, trichloroethene, and other chlorinated solvents are widespread groundwater pollutants. They form dense non-aqueous phase liquids that sink through permeable groundwater aquifers until non-permeable zone is reached. In Italy, there are many situations of serious contamination of groundwater that might compromise their use in industry, agriculture, private, as the critical case of a Central Italy valley located in the province of Teramo ("Val Vibrata"), characterized by a significant chlorinated solvents contamination. Data from the various monitoring campaigns that have taken place over time were collected, and new samplings were carried out, resulting in a complete database. The data matrix was processed with a multivariate statistic analysis (in particular principal component analysis, PCA) and was then imported into geographic information system (GIS), to obtain a model of the contamination. A microcosm anaerobic study was utilized to assess the potential for in situ natural or enhanced bioremediation. Most of the microcosms were positive for dechlorination, particularly those inoculated with a mineral medium. This indicate the presence of an active native dechlorinating population in the subsurface, probably inhibited by co-contaminants in the groundwater, or more likely by the absence or lack of nutritional factors. Among the tested electron donors (i.e., yeast extract, lactate, and butyrate) lactate and butyrate enhanced dechlorination of chlorinated compounds. PCA and GIS studies allowed delimiting the contamination; the microcosm study helped to identify the conditions to promote the bioremediation of the area.

  20. Sustainability Assessment of a Self-Consumption Wood-Energy Chain on Small Scale for Heat Generation in Central Italy

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    Stefano Verani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability of a small-scale self-consumption wood-energy chain for heat generation in central Italy was analyzed from a technical, economic and energetic point of view. A micro-chain was developed within the CRA-ING farm at Monterotondo (Rome, Italy: The purpose of this system was to produce biomass for supplying a heating plant within the CRA-ING property as a substitute for diesel fuel. A poplar short rotation coppice, established with clones AF2, AF6 and Monviso, fed the micro-chain. The rotation was biennial. The average plantation production (Mgd.m.·ha−1·year−1 was 10.2, with a maximum of 13.53 for the twin-rows AF2 and a minimum of 8.00 for the single-row Monviso. The economic assessment was based on the Net Present Value (NPV method and the equivalent annuity cost, and found an average saving of 15.60 €·GJ−1 of heat generated by the wood chips heating system in comparison with the diesel heating system over a 10 year lifetime of the thermal power plant. The energy assessment of the poplar plantation, carried out using the Gross Energy Requirements method, reported an energy output/input ratio of 12.3. The energy output/input ratio of the whole micro-chain was 4.5.

  1. FLORISTIC ANALYSIS OF THE WEED COMMUNITIES IN WHEAT AND CORN CROPS: A CASE STUDY IN WESTERN-CENTRAL ITALY

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    G. Abbate

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Since a large area of Italy is lacking of updated informations about weed flora, we carried out a field survey in wheat and corn crops in western-central Italy (Lazio, by phytosociological approach, to update data, making comparisons and diachronic observations  with literature. Relevés were carried out in 62 wheat crops, 50 corn ones. Totally 149 vascular units and 36 families were recorded; Poaceae and Asteraceae are prevailing. In wheat fields 113 units were observed: Dicots s.l. are 77,88% and Monocots 22,12%; in corn fields 78 units were observed. Floristic composition of relevés is very variable. In both cultivations Therophytes, Mediterranean and wide distribution taxa dominate. Among wheat weeds one alien species was observed; greater (11% was the occurrence of non-native taxa in corn crops. The comparison of the surveys in 1981 and in 2011-2012 showed the prevailing of Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Brassicaceae, Poaceae, even if in different percentages. A strong increase of Therophytes and Mediterraneaneans is detected. Wheat crops weed flora has a higher value than that in corn crops, because of species richness and mostly native taxa presence. The prevailing of Dicots, not resistent to herbicides, can be considered an indicator of good conservation status of agro-ecosystems.

  2. A study of chlorinated solvent contamination of the aquifers of an industrial area in central Italy: a possibility of bioremediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FEDERICA eMATTEUCCI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Perchloroethene, Trichloroethene, and other chlorinated solvents are widespread groundwater pollutants. They form Dense Non Aqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs that sink through permeable groundwater aquifers until non-permeable zone is reached. In Italy there are many situations of serious contamination of groundwater that might compromise their use in industry, agriculture, private, as the critical case of a Central Italy valley located in the province of Teramo (Val Vibrata, characterized by a significant chlorinated solvents contamination. Data from the various monitoring campaigns that have taken place over time were collected, and new samplings were carried out, resulting in a complete database. The data matrix was processed with a multivariate statistic analysis (in particular Principal Components Analysis, PCA and was then imported into Geographic Information System (GIS, to obtain a model of the contamination. A microcosm anaerobic study was utilized to assess the potential for in situ natural or enhanced bioremediation. Most of the microcosms were positive for dechlorination, particularly those inoculated with a mineral medium. This indicate the presence of an active native dechlorinating population in the subsurface, probably inhibited by co-contaminants in the groundwater, or more likely by the absence or lack of nutritional factors. Among the tested electron donors (i.e., yeast extract, lactate, and butyrate lactate and butyrate enhanced dechlorination of chlorinated compounds. PCA and GIS studies allowed delimiting the contamination; the microcosm study helped to identify the conditions to promote the bioremediation of the area.

  3. Pharmaco-epidemiological description of the population of the Marche Region (central Italy treated with the antipsychotic drug olanzapine

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    Fiorenzo Mignini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND. In Italy, even though olanzapine has been discouraged for treatment of behaviour disorders in older patients affected by dementia, some physicians chose to prescribe for them. In response to this situation, the Italian Drug Agency (Agenzia Italiana del Farmaco, AIFA promulgated a cautionary note. MATERIALS AND METHODS. This study examined epidemiological indices for olanzapine prescriptions between 2004 and 2007 in the Marche Region of central Italy and in its provinces, to assess physician compliance with the AIFA note, and to determine whether there were differences in drug prescription between populations of the same territory, or differences based on gender or age group. RESULTS. Our analyses revealed high olanzapine use among young men and mature women, suggesting that these groups are most prone to psychotic symptoms. Analysis revealed that olanzapine prescription in elderly patients was reduced in some provinces, in line with the AIFA note. CONCLUSIONS. Prudent use of olanzapine prescription, in compliance with the AIFA note, was noted throughout the Region. Furthermore, this work offers details that may be useful in future studies of adverse drug reactions.

  4. The "green stones" of Valtellina and Valchiavenna (central Alps, northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Valtellina and Val Chiavenna (Sondrio, Central Alps, northern Italy) are traditionally areas of production of building and ornamental stones (e.g. Serizzo Ghiandone, Serizzo Valmasino, San Fedelino Granite), and among these the "green stones" have a leading position. These stones had an extensive use in Lombardy, as well as abroad (e.g Switzerland). The "green stones" are related to the two mafic-ultramafic bodies of Valmalenco and Chiavenna, where the two largest quarrying districts of the Province of Sondrio are located. Until the early decades of the XX century, serpentinites (and other lithologies from Valtellina) were also extracted from the erratic boulders of Brianza (north of Milan), but at present time the law protects the few remaining boulders. The extracted and processed materials are various: serpentinites, ophicalcites, soapstones. Even the "Stone of Tresivio", used in the past in important monuments of Valtellina, could be classified among the "green stones" in a broad sense: it is a green chloritic schist with scarce and thin ferriferous calcitic veins, pertaining to the sedimentary "Servino" Formation. In recent times, the ancient quarries of this stone were rediscovered near the homonymous village, a few kilometers from Sondrio. There are also historic reports about other "green stones", used in ancient times, such as the "Stone of Grosio", a chloritic schist, and the "Bormio Prasinite". Currently the extraction and processing of "green stones" occurs mostly in Valmalenco, with 22 active serpentinite quarries and a gross volume of 70000 m3 extracted per year, with a yield of about 50%. The Malenco serpentinite (interpreted as sub-continental mantle rocks) forms a 1-2 km thick tabular body, outcropping over an area of about 170 km2, almost entirely confined within the boundaries of the valley. The antigoritic serpentinites (with variable amounts of olivine, clinopyroxene, chlorite and magnetite) are moderately up to strongly foliated, sometimes

  5. Post-Hercynian subvolcanic magmatism in the Serre Massif (Central-Southern Calabria, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, V.; Cirrincione, R.; Fiannacca, P.; Mazzoleni, P.; Tranchina, A.

    2009-04-01

    In the Serre Massif (Central-Southern Calabria, Italy) dykes and subvolcanic bodies intrude diffusively both Hercynian metamorphic rocks and late-Hercynian granitoids. They range in composition from basaltic andesites to dacite-rhyodacites and can be ascribed to the extensive magmatic activity that affects the entire Hercynian orogenic belt in late Paleozoic - early Mesozoic time. The geodinamic framework of the magmatic activity is still matter of debate, nevertheless most authors agree in correlating magmatism both to the late-orogenic collapse of the Hercynian belt and to the lithosphere thinning responsible for the subsequent continental rifting. In this work, we propose a petrogenetic model for acidic to basic hypabissal bodies from southern Calabria in order to define the nature of sources, discriminate magmatic processes and supply a contribution in the geodynamic reconstruction of the Late Palaeozoic in the Calabria-Peloritani Orogen. In relation to their geochemical affinity, studied dykes have been divided in two groups: a medium- to high-K calc-alkaline and a tholeiitic one. Dykes belonging to the former group, andesitic and dacitic-rhyodacitic in composition, show typical features of subduction-related magmatism, such as LILE and LREE enrichments, depletions in HFSE, peaks in Rb, Th and Ce, accentuated troughs in Ba, Nb-Ta, P and Ti (White and Dupré, 1986; McCulloch and Gamble, 1991), contrasting with the late Hercynian collisional context. On the other side, features typical of intra-plate magmatic activity, such as a moderate enrichment in Ta, Nb, Ce, P, Zr, Hf and Sm relative to MORB composition are also present in studied rocks (Shimizu & Arculus, 1975; Pearce, 1982). REE-patterns are strongly to weakly fractionated for the andesitic rocks (Lan/Ybn = 10.03-13.98) and the dacitic-rhyodacitic ones (Lan/Ybn = 6.00 to 2.82), respectively. The latter rocks exhibit a very slight negative Eu anomaly, whereas no Eu anomaly is recognizable in the andesite

  6. Seven hundred years of peat formation recorded throughout a deep floating mire profile from Central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobianco, Daniela; D'Orazio, Valeria; Miano, Teodoro; Zaccone, Claudio

    2016-04-01

    Floating mires are defined by the occurrence of emergent vegetation rooted in highly organic buoyant mats that rise and fall with changes in water level. Islands floating and moving on a lake naturally were already described by Pliny the Elder in his Naturalis historia almost two millennia ago. Actually, he devoted a whole chapter of Naturalis historia to "Of Islands Ever Floating and Swimming", reporting how certain isles were always waving and never stood still. The status of "flotant" has been defined transitory; in fact, these small isles often disappear, in most of the cases because of a transition from floating island to firm land during decades is likely to happen. That is why most of the floating islands described by Pliny the Elder (e.g., Lacus Fundanus, Lacus Cutiliensis, Lacus Mutinensis, Lacus Statoniensis, Lacus Tarquiniensis, Lydia Calaminae, Lacus Vadimonis) do not exist anymore. In the present study, peat formation and organic matter evolution were investigated in order to understand how these peculiar environments form, and how stable actually they are. In fact, it is hoped that peat-forming floating mires could provide an exceptional tool for environmental studies, since much of their evolution, as well as the changes of the surrounding areas, is recorded in their peat deposits. A complete, 4-m deep peat core was collected in July 2012 from the floating island of Posta Fibreno, a relic mire in the Central Italy. This floating island has a diameter of ca. 30 m, a submerged thickness of about 3 m, and the vegetation is organized in concentric belts, from the Carex paniculata palisade to the Sphagnum centre. Here, some of the southernmost Italian populations of Sphagnum palustre occur. The 14C age dating of organic sediments isolated from the sample at 385 cm of depth revealed that the island formed ca. 700 yrs ago (620±30 yr BP). The top 100 cm, consisting almost exclusively of Sphagnum mosses, show a very low bulk density (avg., 0.03±0.01 g cm-3

  7. Climatic influence on slope dynamics and shoreline variations: examples from Marche region (Central Italy

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    Domenico Aringoli

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to establish relationships between shoreline historical variations (close to the river mouths and slope dynamics on mountain and hilly areas: these are considered as fundamental physiographic units of the Adriatic central Italy. The study deals about the deltaic system of the Chienti river, which is representative of the deltaic systems of the main Marchean rivers. Goal is to recognize possible geomorphological indicators of climatic variations during late Holocene. Debris flows on the Sibillini Mts were analysed and interpreted. Their activation can be associated with: late Pleistocene-early Holocene deglaciation, with regard to the oldest phenomena; agricultural, forestry and grazing activities during the Late Middle Ages, even though evidence of climatic conditioning is also present. Moreover, some important landslide phenomena on the high hilly areas were examined: historical data demonstrated an intense post-Middle Age activity (XVth-XVIIIth centuries related to the strong rainfall increase as a consequence of climatic worsening.Dans cette note, sont interprétées quelques formes mineures du paysage physique, utilisables en tant qu'indicateurs géomorphologiques des variations climatiques de l'Holocène supérieur. La création et l'évolution de ces formes sont liées à la circulation superficielle et souterraine d'importantes quantités d'eau. Les processus analysés se réfèrent aux zones représentatives de l'organisation géomorphologique des trois unités physiographiques fondamentales de l'Italie centrale adriatique : les régions montagneuses, la bande péri-adriatique des hautes collines et la plaine côtière.La première zone appartient au massif des Monts Sibyllins, dans l'Apennin central d'Ombrie-Marches. Les sommets dépassent fréquemment 2000 mètres d'altitude et atteignent 2476 mètres au Mont Vettore. Le substrat géologique est formé par la célèbre "succession d'Ombrie-Marches" (Trias sup

  8. Some reasoning on the improvement of the ETAS modeling at the occurrence of the 2016 central Italy seismic sequence

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    Anna Maria Lombardi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an application of the ETAS model to the first 20 days of the 2016 central Italy sequence. Despite of the provisional nature of data, the model is able to describe the occurrence rate, but for the first hours after the mainshock occurrence. A sensitivity analysis of the model to two uncertainty sources, the model parameters and the occurrence history, shows that the second has a main role in controlling the performance of the ETAS model, more than the uncertainty on parameters. Previous results, together with the clear inability of ETAS to forecast the occurrence of a sequence before its starting time, give important suggestions about possible improvements. Here, a very preliminary attempt in this sense is presented.

  9. A Multi-parametric Climatological Approach to Study the 2016 Amatrice-Norcia (Central Italy) Earthquake Preparatory Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscini, Alessandro; De Santis, Angelo; Marchetti, Dedalo; Cianchini, Gianfranco

    2017-07-01

    Based on observations prior to earthquakes, recent theoretical considerations suggest that some geophysical quantities reveal abnormal changes that anticipate moderate and strong earthquakes, within a defined spatial area (the so-called Dobrovolsky area) according to a lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere coupling model. One of the possible pre-earthquake effects could be the appearance of some climatological anomalies in the epicentral region, weeks/months before the major earthquakes. In this paper, the period of 2 months preceding the Amatrice-Norcia (Central Italy) earthquake sequence, that started on 24 August 2016 with an M6 earthquake and a few months later produced other two major shocks (i.e. an M5.9 on 26 October and then an M6.5 on 30 October), was analyzed in terms of skin temperature, total column water vapour and total column of ozone, compared with the past 37-year trend. The novelty of the method stands in the way the complete time series is reduced, where also the possible effect of global warming is properly removed. The simultaneous analysis showed the presence of persistent contemporary anomalies in all of the analysed parameters. To validate the technique, a confutation/confirmation analysis was undertaken where these parameters were successfully analyzed in the same months but considering a seismically "calm" year, when significant seismicity was not present. We also extended the analysis to all available years to construct a confusion matrix comparing the occurrence of climatological data anomalies with real seismicity. This work confirms the potentiality of multi parameters in anticipating the occurrence of large earthquakes in Central Italy, thus reinforcing the idea of considering such behaviour an effective tool for an integrated system of future earthquake prediction.

  10. High prevalence of anti-hepatitis E virus antibodies among blood donors in central Italy, February to March 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucarelli, Claudia; Spada, Enea; Taliani, Gloria; Chionne, Paola; Madonna, Elisabetta; Marcantonio, Cinzia; Pezzotti, Patrizio; Bruni, Roberto; La Rosa, Giuseppina; Pisani, Giulio; Dell'Orso, Luigi; Ragone, Katia; Tomei, Carla; Ciccaglione, Anna Rita

    2016-07-28

    Prevalence of anti-hepatitis E virus (HEV) antibodies is highly variable in developed countries, which seems partly due to differences in assay sensitivity. Using validated sensitive assays, we tested 313 blood donors attending a hospital transfusion unit in central Italy in January and February 2014 for anti-HEV IgG and IgM and HEV RNA. Data on HEV exposure were collected from all donors. Overall anti-HEV IgG prevalence was 49% (153/313). Eating raw dried pig-liver sausage was the only independent predictor of HEV infection (adjusted prevalence rate ratio = 2.14; 95% confidence interval: 1.23-3.74). Three donors were positive for either anti-HEV IgM (n = 2; 0.6%) or HEV RNA (n = 2; 0.6%); they were completely asymptomatic, without alanine aminotransferase (ALT) abnormalities. Of the two HEV RNA-positive donors (both harbouring genotype 3), one was anti-HEV IgG- and IgM-positive, the other was anti-HEV IgG- and IgM-negative. The third donor was positive for anti-HEV IgG and IgM but HEV RNA-negative. HEV infection is therefore hyperendemic among blood donors (80% men 18-64 years-old) from central Italy and associated with local dietary habits. Nearly 1% of donors have acute or recent infection, implying potential transmission to blood recipients. Neither ALT nor anti-HEV IgM testing seems useful to prevent transfusion-transmitted HEV infection.

  11. The earthquake lights (EQL of the 6 April 2009 Aquila earthquake, in Central Italy

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    C. Fidani

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A seven-month collection of testimonials about the 6 April 2009 earthquake in Aquila, Abruzzo region, Italy, was compiled into a catalogue of non-seismic phenomena. Luminous phenomena were often reported starting about nine months before the strong shock and continued until about five months after the shock. A summary and list of the characteristics of these sightings was made according to 20th century classifications and a comparison was made with the Galli outcomes. These sightings were distributed over a large area around the city of Aquila, with a major extension to the north, up to 50 km. Various earthquake lights were correlated with several landscape characteristics and the source and dynamic of the earthquake. Some preliminary considerations on the location of the sightings suggest a correlation between electrical discharges and asperities, while flames were mostly seen along the Aterno Valley.

  12. A methodology for assessing the maximum expected radon flux from soils in northern Latium (central Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voltaggio, Mario; Masi, Umberto; Spadoni, Massimo; Zampetti, Giorgio

    2006-12-01

    Northern Latium (Italy) is an area where the Rn risk rate is potentially high because of the extensive outcropping of Neogene U-rich volcanics and the presence of major active tectonic lineaments. The lack of data on Rn risk rates in that area, which is undergoing major urban and industrial development, has prompted this study. It proposes a methodology to evaluate the maximum potential diffusive Rn flux from soils based on the measurement of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K activities by gamma-ray spectrometry, and the measurement of main soil parameters influencing the Rn emanation. This methodology provides a simple, reliable and low-cost tool for drawing up radon flux maps useful to both public planners and private individuals, who want to operate safely in the study area. The proposed methodology may also be applied to other geographic areas outside the prescribed study area.

  13. Cultural landscapes, social networks and historical trajectories : A data-rich synthesis of Early Bronze Age networks (c. 2200-1700 BC) in Abruzzo and Lazio (Central Italy)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossenberg, van E.A.; Rossenberg, Ericus Anthonius van (Erik)

    2012-01-01

    This study wants to help Central Italy claim its place in Bronze Age studies and make a crossover between landscape and network approaches in archaeology. It starts from a methodological consideration of archaeological synthesis in Bronze Age studies. Approaching landscapes as networks of places, th

  14. Cultural landscapes, social networks and historical trajectories : A data-rich synthesis of Early Bronze Age networks (c. 2200-1700 BC) in Abruzzo and Lazio (Central Italy)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossenberg, van E.A.; Rossenberg, Ericus Anthonius van (Erik)

    2012-01-01

    This study wants to help Central Italy claim its place in Bronze Age studies and make a crossover between landscape and network approaches in archaeology. It starts from a methodological consideration of archaeological synthesis in Bronze Age studies. Approaching landscapes as networks of places, th

  15. Cultural landscapes, social networks and historical trajectories : A data-rich synthesis of Early Bronze Age networks (c. 2200-1700 BC) in Abruzzo and Lazio (Central Italy)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossenberg, van E.A.; Rossenberg, Ericus Anthonius van (Erik)

    2012-01-01

    This study wants to help Central Italy claim its place in Bronze Age studies and make a crossover between landscape and network approaches in archaeology. It starts from a methodological consideration of archaeological synthesis in Bronze Age studies. Approaching landscapes as networks of places,

  16. Etnopharmacognostic survey on the natural ingredients used in folk cosmetics, cosmeceuticals and remedies for healing skin deseases in the inland Marches, Central-Eastern Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieroni, A.; Quave, C.L.; Villanelli, M.L.; Mangino, P.; Sabbatini, G.; Santini, L.; Boccetti, T.; Profili, M.; Ciccioli, T.; Rampa, L.G.; Antonini, G.; Girolamini, C.

    2004-01-01

    An ethnopharmaceutical Study focused on domestic cosmetics, cosmeceuticals, and remedies to heal skin diseases traditionally used in the inland part of the Marches region (Central-Eastern Italy) has been conducted. At present, traditional knowledge concerning home-made phytocosmetics is represented

  17. Reconstructing production technology and distribution, using thin section petrography: A pilot study of Roman pottery production in the Pontine region, Central Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgers, B.; Tol, G.; de Haas, T.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores aspects of production and distribution of local Roman pottery from the Pontine region, Central Italy, based on ceramics recovered in surveys carried out within the ‘Minor Centres’ project. The aim of this project was to investigate the role of minor centres in local economies of

  18. Etnopharmacognostic survey on the natural ingredients used in folk cosmetics, cosmeceuticals and remedies for healing skin deseases in the inland Marches, Central-Eastern Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieroni, A.; Quave, C.L.; Villanelli, M.L.; Mangino, P.; Sabbatini, G.; Santini, L.; Boccetti, T.; Profili, M.; Ciccioli, T.; Rampa, L.G.; Antonini, G.; Girolamini, C.

    2004-01-01

    An ethnopharmaceutical Study focused on domestic cosmetics, cosmeceuticals, and remedies to heal skin diseases traditionally used in the inland part of the Marches region (Central-Eastern Italy) has been conducted. At present, traditional knowledge concerning home-made phytocosmetics is represented

  19. Environmental changes and human settlement in the central Marches (Italy during the early-middle Holocene

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    Gilberto Calderoni

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Early Holocene, the central Marches (Italy underwent a widespread development of forest cover and soils which drastically reduced slope degradation and related aggradation processes in riverbeds. In such conditions, streams deeply incised the previous alluvial sediments. In the Apennine sectors, linear erosion was locally prevented by the growth of travertine dams in correspondence with river channel knickpoints and waterfalls. Fluvial deposition prevailed in the peri-Adriatic hilly belt, where river valleys still extended from the present coastline to the uprising Adriatic Sea, as testified by a 50-m-deep cored log, drilled near the Potenza River mouth. Several archaeological sites, ranging from the Mesolithic to the Aeneolithic, testify the recurrent presence of small-scale human groups on the alluvial plains of the lower valley sectors. Sandy-clayey sediments, emplaced by flooding episodes, repeatedly buried these settlements which were commonly located on the riversides. Small Aeneolithic communities were also present in the mountain sectors, around travertine-dammed swampy-lacustrine basins. On top of the sequences, Bronze Age sites were locally found. Widespread deforestation started in the early Iron Age (about 3000 yr BP, when alluvial plains and terraces were permanently occupied by large-scale human settlements. Geo-archaeological evidence of systematic deforestation at 2950 ± 50 14C yr BP, consisting of numerous round-shaped 1.5-3 m wide hollows, filled with soil sediments and upturned blocks of alluvial gravels, were found on top of a fluvial terrace in the Esino River basin. From the Iron Age to recent historical times, notwithstanding the progressive increase of debris supply to the drainage systems due to the spreading agricultural-pastoral activities, erosion dominated almost everywhere in the Marches rivers, likely induced by climatic factors.À l’Holocène inférieur, comme ailleurs dans le monde, les Marches

  20. Mycocoenology in Abies alba Miller woods of central-southern Tuscany (Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Laganà; Elena Salerni; Carla Barluzzi; Claudia Perini; Vincenzo de Dominicis

    2014-01-01

    Numerous reports indicate that fir woods in central and northern Europe have recently been damaged by increasing pollution. It has been demonstrated that fungi can be good bioindicators of forest health status. In polluted areas the production of fruit bodies generally declines and the fungal biodiversity, especially of symbiotic species, is reduced. Here we report the results of a survey of the fungal and plant communities in woods of Abies alba Miller in central-southern Tuscany, already st...

  1. Perinatal outcomes among immigrant mothers over two periods in a region of central Italy

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    Di Lallo Domenico

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of immigrants has increased in Italy in the last twenty years (7.2% of the Italian population, as have infants of foreign-born parents, but scanty evidence on perinatal outcomes is available. The aim of this study was to investigate whether infants of foreign-born mothers living in Italy have different odds of adverse perinatal outcomes compared to those of native-born mothers, and if such measures changed over two periods. Methods The source of this area-based study was the regional hospital discharge database that records perinatal information on all births in the Lazio region. We analysed 296,739 singleton births born between 1996-1998 and 2006-2008. The exposure variable was the mother's region of birth. We considered five outcomes of perinatal health. We estimated crude and adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs to evaluate the association between mother's region of birth and perinatal outcomes. Results Perinatal outcomes were worse among infants of immigrant compared to Italian mothers, especially for sub-Saharan and west Africans, with the following crude ORs (in 1996-1998 and 2006-2008 respectively: 1.80 (95%CI:1.44-2.28 and 1.95 (95%CI:1.72-2.21 for very preterm births, and 1.32 (95%CI:1.16-1.50 and 1.32 (95%CI:1.25-1.39 for preterm births; 1.18 (95%CI:0.99-1.40 and 1.17 (95%CI:1.03-1.34 for a low Apgar score; 1.22 (95%CI:1.15-1.31 and 1.24 (95%CI:1.17-1.32 for the presence of respiratory diseases; 1.47 (95%CI:1.30-1.66 and 1.45 (95%CI:1.34-1.57 for the need for special or intensive neonatal care/in-hospital deaths; and 1.03 (95%CI:0.93-1.15 and 1.07 (95%CI:1.00-1.15 for congenital malformations. Overall, time did not affect the odds of outcomes differently between immigrant and Italian mothers and most outcomes improved over time among all infants. None of the risk factors considered confounded the associations. Conclusion Our findings suggest that migrant status is a risk factor for

  2. Organ donation quality control in Abruzzo region (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parzanese, I; Maccarone, D; Caniglia, L; Pisani, F; Laurenzi, C; Famulari, A

    2006-05-01

    Abruzzo is a region in central Italy with a population of 1,262,392. Within this region there are 13 hospitals with intensive care units, four of which have neurosurgical units. The Regional Centre for Transplants in L'Aquila is notified of encephalic deaths in hospitals in Abruzzo and Molise and coordinates organ retrieval and transplantation. Organ donation is a process that involves a whole series of professionals who, operating in a sequential manner in each hospital, make possible the use of a cadaveric organ to give life to a person or improve the quality of life of a patient on a waiting list. Quality control procedures were introduced in 2001 and involve all of the hospitals in the region with intensive care units. The system for quality control was computerized in 2004 and is used in the four hospitals with neurosurgical units (type A hospitals) and in the 13 hospitals without (type B hospitals); the different types of deaths (cause of death, age, etc) are also analyzed with this system. One of the aims of this system is to discover the theoretical donation capacity, taking as benchmark values those resulting from the regional average and those published in international literature, and noting any shortcomings. It has emerged that donor identification is well organized and efficient and this is thanks to a concerted effort that has been made to overcome technical and organizational problems connected to donor detection and donor maintenance during the 6 hours of legal observation. The high percentage of opposition to organ removal, despite the fall registered in the first half of this year (2005), is still above the national average and still remains a critical point in the organ donation process.

  3. The role of central, regional and local administrations in the application of the Kyoto protocol in the forestry sector in Italy

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    Pompei E

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available According to art. 3.3 and 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol and subsequent UNFCCC COP's and national decisions, Italy shall report the net changes in GHG emissions by sources and removals by sinks resulting from afforestation, reforestation and deforestation (art. 3.3 and forest management (art. 3.4 activities. To assess art. 3.3 activities, Italy will define methods to estimate land use changes occurring after 31 December 1989. The paper considers the key-role that central administration shall have, as well as the role of regional and local administrations in order to solve some specific topics regarding data collection and management issues.

  4. SELF and VLF electromagnetic emissions that preceded the M6.2 Central Italy earthquake occurred on August 24, 2016

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    Cataldi, Daniele; Cataldi, Gabriele; Straser, Valentino

    2017-04-01

    On August 24, 2016 at 01:36:32 UTC a destructive earthquake hit Central Italy with a magnitude of M6.2. The authors of this study have recorded some electromagnetic signals that have preceded this strong earthquake. These signals were recorded through two electromagnetic monitoring stations realized by Gabriele Cataldi and Daniele Cataldi, located near the town of Albano Laziale (Rome, Italy) and near the city of Lariano (Rome, Italy) and can monitor the radio spectrum 24h7 between 0.001 Hz and 96 kHz (SELF-LF band). The electromagnetic monitoring allowed to identify two interesting types of electromagnetic anomalies: the first electromagnetic anomaly was recorded on August 18, 2016 between 02:47 UTC and 06:21 UTC, in the VLF band prevalently between 18kHz and 26kHz; the second electromagnetic anomaly was registered between 08:00 UTC on August 23, 2016 and 05:00 UTC on August 24, 2016, prevalently between 0.01 and 0.7Hz: the most intense signals were recorded at 08:50 UTC on August 23, 2016 and approximately 1 hour before the strong earthquake. The Earth's electromagnetic background monitoring in the SELF-VLF band (0Hztechnological) have allowed us to understand that there are actually two families of pre-seismic radio emissions: 1) radio emissions identified as Earth's geomagnetic field disturbances related to "near Earth" solar wind proton density increase variations, and for this reason it can be seen from any point on the Earth (this is "no local" type emissions); 2) radio signals are not connected directly to the solar and geomagnetic activity: these radio signals are probably generated by piezoelectricity phenomena occurring near the focal area of the earthquake and are detectable near earthquake epicenter (this is a "local" type emissions). It is therefore clear that the monitoring of solar activity and Earth's geomagnetic activity is an activity of fundamental importance to be able to have a general understanding of pre-seismic radio signals nature. In fact

  5. Coastal dune systems and disturbance factors: monitoring and analysis in central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Elena; Novelli, Claudia; Barbato, Fabio; Menegoni, Patrizia; Iannetta, Massimo; Nascetti, Giuseppe

    2011-12-01

    This study describes the conservation status of dune systems in relation to disturbance factors in the coastal stretch of the Viterbo province, Latium Region, Italy. Particular emphasis was given to the bioindication value of plant communities and their sequence. Each plant community was considered as a "habitat" in accordance with Annex I of the Directive 92/43/EU. Stress factors, such as sand dynamic and erosion, and anthropogenic pressures, such as trampling and bathing settlements, influence the sequence of habitats and weaken the system of relations that makes these coenoses to occur in extreme conditions. The choice to carry out surveys along wide transects, recording different data, allowed to explore the use of habitats as bioindicators. Comparing sites characterized by the same extension in a homogeneous area, it was possible to expand the use of canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) as a tool to correlate habitat composition and disturbance factors. The application of CCA showed a high correlation of degradation and habitat loss with coastal erosion, trampling and presence of waste. Furthermore, floristic surveys allowed the application of different biodiversity indices to quantify species richness of sampled areas. The conservation status of the sites investigated was found to be diverse, from the total disappearance of the mobile dune habitats to their complete sequence. The proposed methodology has been useful to fulfill the objective of the work and is applicable to other case studies in the Mediterranean.

  6. Traditional Uses of Plants in the Tolfa–Cerite–Manziate Area (Central Italy

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    Paolo Maria Guarrera

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Traditional knowledge of local plant uses is rapidly fading away, especially in rural Mediterranean areas. We carried out ethnobotanical research in 2010-2011 in order to investigate the local knowledge of wild plants in the Tolfa–Cerite–Manziate area of Italy (Latium, district of Rome. We carried out a total of 45 semi-structured interviews with farmers, herders, and fishers. Here, a simple diachronic comparison is made between the current study and a previous one conducted in some of the villages of the study area to highlight potential losses of traditional knowledge of local plants. We documented a total of 102 plant species, belonging to 48 families, along with their uses (excluding food uses. We also reported some non-plant based remedies that were primarily used in veterinary medicine. Some plant uses, especially for making handicrafts, have not been reported previously (e.g., those of Celtis australis L. Cannabaceae, Betula pendula Roth Betulaceae. Many plant uses are no longer remembered in the area, which indicates a loss of local ethnobotanical knowledge.

  7. Phytochemical Analysis, Biological Activity, and Secretory Structures of Stachys annua (L.) L. subsp. annua (Lamiaceae) from Central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditti, Alessandro; Bianco, Armandodoriano; Quassinti, Luana; Bramucci, Massimo; Lupidi, Giulio; Damiano, Silvia; Papa, Fabrizio; Vittori, Sauro; Maleci Bini, Laura; Giuliani, Claudia; Lucarini, Domenico; Maggi, Filippo

    2015-08-01

    Stachys annua subsp. annua, well-known in central Italy as 'stregona annuale', is an annual, small, slightly-scented herb, commonly found in fields and uncultivated areas in almost all regions of Italy. In folk medicine, its aerial parts were used as anti-catarrhal, febrifuge, tonic, and vulnerary. In the present work, the chemical composition of the flowering aerial parts was studied. The hydrodistilled volatile oil, analysed by GC/MS, showed sesquiterpenoids as the major fraction (42.5%); phytol (9.8%), germacrene D (9.2%), and spathulenol (8.5%) were the most abundant constituents. The volatile oil was assayed for antioxidant and cytotoxic activity by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, and MTT methods. The cytotoxicity results against HCT116, A375, and MDA-MB 231 human tumor cell lines were significant, with IC50 values of 23.5, 37.2, and 41.5 μg/ml, respectively, whereas the antioxidant power was negligible. The EtOH extract was composed mainly of three glycosidic flavonoids, namely 7-{[2-O-(6-O-acetyl-β-D-allopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]oxy}-5,8-dihydroxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one (1), 7-{[6-O-acetyl-2-O-(6-O-acetyl-β-D-allopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]oxy}-2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5,8-dihydroxy-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one (2), and 7-{[6-O-acetyl-2-O-(β-D-allopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]oxy}-2-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-5,8-dihydroxy-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one (3). On the contrary, iridoids, considered chemotaxonomic markers of the genus Stachys, were absent in this species. Finally, the morphological and histochemical survey showed that glandular trichomes were composed of two main types, i.e. peltate type A and capitate types B and C giving positive response for both lipids and polyphenols.

  8. Soil gas geochemical behaviour across buried and exposed faults during the 24 august 2016 central Italy earthquake

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    Giancarlo Ciotoli

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Following the earthquake (ML=6.0 of 24 August 2016 that affected large part of the central Apennine between the municipalities of Norcia (PG and Amatrice (RI (central Italy, two soil gas profiles (i.e., 222Rn, 220Rn, CO2 and CO2 flux were carried out across buried and exposed coseismic fault rupture of the Mt. Vettore fault during the seismic sequence. The objective of the survey was to explore the mechanisms of migration and the spatial behaviour of different gas species near still-degassing active fault. Results provide higher gas and CO2 flux values (about twice for 222Rn and CO2 flux in correspondence of the buried sector of the fault than those measured across the exposed coseismic rupture. Anomalous peaks due to advective migration are clearly visible on both side of the buried fault (profile 1, whereas the lower soil gas concentrations measured across the exposed coseimic rupture (profile 2 are mainly caused by shallow and still acting diffusive degassing associated to faulting during the seismic sequence. These results confirm the usefulness of the soil gas survey to spatially recognise the shallow geometry of hidden faults, and to discriminate the geochemical migration mechanisms occurring at buried and exposed faults related to seismic activity.

  9. Application of indicators network analysis to support local forest management plan development: a case study in Molise, Italy

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    Santopuoli G

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Forest management plans and Criteria and Indicators are the most important tools to support sustainable forest management. Due to the important role of forests in contributing to humans’ well being through the numerous ecosystem services they provide, in the last two decades many efforts have been made to develop new forest management tools at different scale levels. Territorial Forest Plan and Criteria and Indicators for SFM are considered as the innovative tools to support forest management. A participatory approach, providing a better knowledge of social framework conditions and trends on local markets, is considered the focus of new forest management tools. Territorial Forest Plan allows to identify the main function of forest stands at territorial level, based on both forest type and stakeholders’ opinions. On the other hand, the Indicators Network can be helpful to support forest management because it allows to identify the main causal paths and crucial linkages involving the indicators and to offer decision makers the opportunity to manage the forest ecosystem in a more holistic way. In this work, an application of indicators network analysis to support Territorial Forest Plan development in the Nature 2000 site has been studied. Based on the results obtained, an integrated use of both approaches may provide an added value to sustainable forest management.

  10. Progress in the elimination of measles and congenital rubella in Central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechini, Angela; Levi, Miriam; Boccalini, Sara; Tiscione, Emilia; Panatto, Donatella; Amicizia, Daniela; Bonanni, Paolo

    2013-03-01

    Despite the launch of a WHO European Region strategic plan 2005-2010 for eliminating measles and rubella and preventing congenital rubella (CR) infection, measles and rubella are still circulating in Europe. Increased transmission and outbreaks of measles in Europe were still observed in 2011. In Italy, the objectives of the National Plan (2003-2007) for measles elimination have not yet been achieved. The goal of measles elimination and incidence reduction of CR cases has been postponed to 2015 by the Italian Ministry of Health through the implementation of the new National Plan 2010-2015 which will require (1) the achievement of more than 95% coverage with 1 dose and two doses of measles containing vaccine (MCV), respectively, within 24 mo and within 12 y of age; (2) supplementary vaccination activities aimed at susceptible populations including adolescents, young adults and those at risk (health care and educational workers, military, groups "hard to reach" like nomads); and in addition, (3) reduction to less than 5% in the proportion of susceptible women of childbearing age (especially immigrant women). Experiences at regional level, like in Tuscany, have shown promising results in order to create an integrated surveillance system between regional and local health authorities, university and laboratory and in the future, to validate elimination. Moreover, the evaluation of all preventive activities performed in Tuscany during the last decade, immunization coverage data, sero-epidemiological population profile and incidence of measles and rubella cases has highlighted critical points which should be improved and good practices already implemented which should be maintained in the future in order to reach the new goals.

  11. Hydrogeochemical processes controlling water and dissolved gas chemistry at the Accesa sinkhole (southern Tuscany, central Italy

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    Franco Tassi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The 38.5 m deep Lake Accesa is a sinkhole located in southern Tuscany (Italy that shows a peculiar water composition, being characterized by relatively high total dissolved solids (TDS values (2 g L-1 and a Ca(Mg-SO4 geochemical facies. The presence of significant amounts of extra-atmospheric gases (CO2 and CH4, which increase their concentrations with depth, is also recognized. These chemical features, mimicking those commonly shown by volcanic lakes fed by hydrothermal-magmatic reservoirs, are consistent with those of mineral springs emerging in the study area whose chemistry is produced by the interaction of meteoric-derived waters with Mesozoic carbonates and Triassic evaporites. Although the lake has a pronounced thermocline, water chemistry does not show significant changes along the vertical profile. Lake water balance calculations demonstrate that Lake Accesa has >90% of its water supply from sublacustrine springs whose subterranean pathways are controlled by the local structural assessment that likely determined the sinking event, the resulting funnel-shape being then filled by the Accesa waters. Such a huge water inflow from the lake bottom (~9·106 m3 yr-1 feeds the lake effluent (Bruna River and promotes the formation of water currents, which are able to prevent the establishment of a vertical density gradient. Consequently, a continuous mixing along the whole vertical water column is established. Changes of the drainage system by the deep-originated waters in the nearby former mining district have strongly affected the outflow rates of the local mineral springs; thus, future intervention associated with the ongoing remediation activities should carefully be evaluated to preserve the peculiar chemical features of Lake Accesa.

  12. Seasonal egg output of gastro-intestinal parasites in wild ungulates in a mediterranean area (central Italy

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    Marta Magi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Seasonal egg (or oocyst output of gastro-intestinal parasites of wild ungulates was studied in a Mediterranean protected area, the Monti Livornesi Park (Livorno, Tuscany region, Central Italy. Samples of faeces of wild boars (Sus scrofa and mouflons (Ovis ammon were collected monthly for one year. The observed trends of egg output were analysed taking into account seasonal variations of temperature and rainfall, life-cycle and survival strategy of parasites, and health condition of hosts. In our Mediterranean study area, the peaks of egg output appear in different months according to different biology and survival strategies of parasites. Riassunto Emissione stagionale di uova di parassiti gastrointestinali in cinghiali (Sus scrofa e in mufloni (Ovis ammon di un’area mediterranea (Italia centrale. E' stata studiata l'emissione stagionale di uova (o oocisti di parassiti nelle feci di ungulati selvatici in una zona mediterranea protetta, il Parco dei Monti Livornesi (Livorno, Toscana, Italia Centrale. Per un anno sono stati raccolti mensilmente campioni di feci di Cinghiale (Sus scrofa e di Muflone (Ovis ammon. Gli andamenti osservati di emissione di uova sono stati analizzati tenendo conto delle variazioni di temperatura e piovosità stagionali, del ciclo biologico e della strategia di sopravvivenza dei parassiti, e delle condizioni sanitarie dell'ospite. E’ risultato che in una zona mediterranea come quella considerata i picchi di emissione di uova appaiono in mesi differenti in relazione alla biologia e alle strategie di sopravvivenza dei diversi parassiti.

  13. LASSCI2009.2: layered earthquake rupture forecast model for central Italy, submitted to the CSEP project

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    Francesco Visini

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP selected Italy as a testing region for probabilistic earthquake forecast models in October, 2008. The model we have submitted for the two medium-term forecast periods of 5 and 10 years (from 2009 is a time-dependent, geologically based earthquake rupture forecast that is defined for central Italy only (11-15˚ E; 41-45˚ N. The model took into account three separate layers of seismogenic sources: background seismicity; seismotectonic provinces; and individual faults that can produce major earthquakes (seismogenic boxes. For CSEP testing purposes, the background seismicity layer covered a range of magnitudes from 5.0 to 5.3 and the seismicity rates were obtained by truncated Gutenberg-Richter relationships for cells centered on the CSEP grid. Then the seismotectonic provinces layer returned the expected rates of medium-to-large earthquakes following a traditional Cornell-type approach. Finally, for the seismogenic boxes layer, the rates were based on the geometry and kinematics of the faults that different earthquake recurrence models have been assigned to, ranging from pure Gutenberg-Richter behavior to characteristic events, with the intermediate behavior named as the hybrid model. The results for different magnitude ranges highlight the contribution of each of the three layers to the total computation. The expected rates for M >6.0 on April 1, 2009 (thus computed before the L'Aquila, 2009, MW= 6.3 earthquake are of particular interest. They showed local maxima in the two seismogenic-box sources of Paganica and Sulmona, one of which was activated by the L'Aquila earthquake of April 6, 2009. Earthquake rates as of August 1, 2009, (now under test also showed a maximum close to the Sulmona source for MW ~6.5; significant seismicity rates (10-4 to 10-3 in 5 years for destructive events (magnitude up to 7.0 were located in other individual sources identified as being capable of such

  14. Impact of climate Change on Groundwater Recharge in the Tiber River Basin (Central Italy) Using Regional Climate model Outputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muluneh, F. B.; Setegn, S. G.; Melesse, A. M.; Fiori, A.

    2011-12-01

    Quantification of the various components of hydrological processes in a watershed remains a challenging topic as the hydrological system is altered by many internal and external drivers. Changes in climate variables can affect the quantity and quality of various components of hydrological cycle. Among others, the local effects of climate change on groundwater resources were not fully studied in different part of the world as compared to the surface water. Moreover, understanding the potential impact of climate change on groundwater is more complex than surface water. The main objective of this study is to analyze the potential impact of climate change on Groundwater recharge in the Tiber River Basin using outputs from Regional Climate model. In this study, a physically-based watershed model called Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to estimate recharge characteristics and its response to climate change in Tiber River Basin (central Italy). The SWAT model was successfully calibrated and validated using observed weather and flow data for the period of 1963-1970 and 1971-1978 respectively. During calibration, the model was highly sensitivity to groundwater flow parameters. Dynamically downscaled rainfall and temperature datasets from ten Regional Climate Models (RCM) archived in 'Prediction of Regional scenarios and Uncertainties for Defining EuropeaN Climate change risks and Effects (PRUDENCE)' were used to force the model to assess the climate change impact on the study area. A quantile-mapping statistical correction procedure was applied to the RCM dataset to correct the inherent systematic biases. The climate change analysis indicated that by the end of 2080s the rainfall was found to decrease nearly up to 40% in dry period and there was an increase in temperature that could reach as high as 3 to 5 oC. By the end of 2080s the ground water recharge shows a decreasing trend as a response to changes in rainfall. However as the timing of both precipitation and

  15. Mycocoenology in Abies alba Miller woods of central-southern Tuscany (Italy

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    Angela Laganà

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous reports indicate that fir woods in central and northern Europe have recently been damaged by increasing pollution. It has been demonstrated that fungi can be good bioindicators of forest health status. In polluted areas the production of fruit bodies generally declines and the fungal biodiversity, especially of symbiotic species, is reduced. Here we report the results of a survey of the fungal and plant communities in woods of Abies alba Miller in central-southern Tuscany, already studied in the past. Certain changes were observed in the study areas, but they seem more likely to be due to other factors than pollution, such as the weather conditions, the age and natural evolution of the forests towards their climax.

  16. Advective heat transport associated with regional Earth degassing in central Apennine (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodini, G.; Cardellini, C.; Caliro, S.; Chiarabba, C.; Frondini, F.

    2013-07-01

    In this work we show that the main springs of the central Apennine transport a total amount of heat of ˜2.2×109 J s-1. Most of this heat (57%) is the result of geothermal warming while the remaining 43% is due to gravitational potential energy dissipation. This result indicates that a large area of the central Apennines is very hot with heat flux values >300 mW m-2. These values are higher than those measured in the magmatic and famously geothermal provinces of Tuscany and Latium and about 1/3 of the total heat discharged at Yellowstone. This finding is surprising because the central Apennines have been thought to be a relatively cold area. Translated by CO2 rich fluids, this heat anomaly suggests the existence of a thermal source such as a large magmatic intrusion at depth. Recent tomographic images of the area support the presence of such an intrusion visible as a broad negative velocity anomaly in seismic waves. Our results indicate that the thermal regime of tectonically active areas of the Earth, where meteoric waters infiltrate and deeply circulate, should be revised on the basis of mass and energy balances of the groundwater systems.

  17. A Human Deciduous Tooth and New 40Ar/39Ar Dating Results from the Middle Pleistocene Archaeological Site of Isernia La Pineta, Southern Italy.

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    Carlo Peretto

    Full Text Available Isernia La Pineta (south-central Italy, Molise is one of the most important archaeological localities of the Middle Pleistocene in Western Europe. It is an extensive open-air site with abundant lithic industry and faunal remains distributed across four stratified archaeosurfaces that have been found in two sectors of the excavation (3c, 3a, 3s10 in sect. I; 3a in sect. II. The prehistoric attendance was close to a wet environment, with a series of small waterfalls and lakes associated to calcareous tufa deposits. An isolated human deciduous incisor (labelled IS42 was discovered in 2014 within the archaeological level 3 coll (overlying layer 3a that, according to new 40Ar/39Ar measurements, is dated to about 583-561 ka, i.e. to the end of marine isotope stage (MIS 15. Thus, the tooth is currently the oldest human fossil specimen in Italy; it is an important addition to the scanty European fossil record of the Middle Pleistocene, being associated with a lithic assemblage of local raw materials (flint and limestone characterized by the absence of handaxes and reduction strategies primarily aimed at the production of small/medium-sized flakes. The faunal assemblage is dominated by ungulates often bearing cut marks. Combining chronology with the archaeological evidence, Isernia La Pineta exhibits a delay in the appearance of handaxes with respect to other European Palaeolithic sites of the Middle Pleistocene. Interestingly, this observation matches the persistence of archaic morphological features shown by the human calvarium from the Middle Pleistocene site of Ceprano, not far from Isernia (south-central Italy, Latium. In this perspective, our analysis is aimed to evaluate morphological features occurring in IS42.

  18. A Human Deciduous Tooth and New 40Ar/39Ar Dating Results from the Middle Pleistocene Archaeological Site of Isernia La Pineta, Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretto, Carlo; Arnaud, Julie; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo; Manzi, Giorgio; Nomade, Sébastien; Pereira, Alison; Falguères, Christophe; Bahain, Jean-Jacques; Grimaud-Hervé, Dominique; Berto, Claudio; Sala, Benedetto; Lembo, Giuseppe; Muttillo, Brunella; Gallotti, Rosalia; Thun Hohenstein, Ursula; Vaccaro, Carmela; Coltorti, Mauro; Arzarello, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Isernia La Pineta (south-central Italy, Molise) is one of the most important archaeological localities of the Middle Pleistocene in Western Europe. It is an extensive open-air site with abundant lithic industry and faunal remains distributed across four stratified archaeosurfaces that have been found in two sectors of the excavation (3c, 3a, 3s10 in sect. I; 3a in sect. II). The prehistoric attendance was close to a wet environment, with a series of small waterfalls and lakes associated to calcareous tufa deposits. An isolated human deciduous incisor (labelled IS42) was discovered in 2014 within the archaeological level 3 coll (overlying layer 3a) that, according to new 40Ar/39Ar measurements, is dated to about 583–561 ka, i.e. to the end of marine isotope stage (MIS) 15. Thus, the tooth is currently the oldest human fossil specimen in Italy; it is an important addition to the scanty European fossil record of the Middle Pleistocene, being associated with a lithic assemblage of local raw materials (flint and limestone) characterized by the absence of handaxes and reduction strategies primarily aimed at the production of small/medium-sized flakes. The faunal assemblage is dominated by ungulates often bearing cut marks. Combining chronology with the archaeological evidence, Isernia La Pineta exhibits a delay in the appearance of handaxes with respect to other European Palaeolithic sites of the Middle Pleistocene. Interestingly, this observation matches the persistence of archaic morphological features shown by the human calvarium from the Middle Pleistocene site of Ceprano, not far from Isernia (south-central Italy, Latium). In this perspective, our analysis is aimed to evaluate morphological features occurring in IS42. PMID:26457581

  19. A Human Deciduous Tooth and New 40Ar/39Ar Dating Results from the Middle Pleistocene Archaeological Site of Isernia La Pineta, Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretto, Carlo; Arnaud, Julie; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo; Manzi, Giorgio; Nomade, Sébastien; Pereira, Alison; Falguères, Christophe; Bahain, Jean-Jacques; Grimaud-Hervé, Dominique; Berto, Claudio; Sala, Benedetto; Lembo, Giuseppe; Muttillo, Brunella; Gallotti, Rosalia; Thun Hohenstein, Ursula; Vaccaro, Carmela; Coltorti, Mauro; Arzarello, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Isernia La Pineta (south-central Italy, Molise) is one of the most important archaeological localities of the Middle Pleistocene in Western Europe. It is an extensive open-air site with abundant lithic industry and faunal remains distributed across four stratified archaeosurfaces that have been found in two sectors of the excavation (3c, 3a, 3s10 in sect. I; 3a in sect. II). The prehistoric attendance was close to a wet environment, with a series of small waterfalls and lakes associated to calcareous tufa deposits. An isolated human deciduous incisor (labelled IS42) was discovered in 2014 within the archaeological level 3 coll (overlying layer 3a) that, according to new 40Ar/39Ar measurements, is dated to about 583-561 ka, i.e. to the end of marine isotope stage (MIS) 15. Thus, the tooth is currently the oldest human fossil specimen in Italy; it is an important addition to the scanty European fossil record of the Middle Pleistocene, being associated with a lithic assemblage of local raw materials (flint and limestone) characterized by the absence of handaxes and reduction strategies primarily aimed at the production of small/medium-sized flakes. The faunal assemblage is dominated by ungulates often bearing cut marks. Combining chronology with the archaeological evidence, Isernia La Pineta exhibits a delay in the appearance of handaxes with respect to other European Palaeolithic sites of the Middle Pleistocene. Interestingly, this observation matches the persistence of archaic morphological features shown by the human calvarium from the Middle Pleistocene site of Ceprano, not far from Isernia (south-central Italy, Latium). In this perspective, our analysis is aimed to evaluate morphological features occurring in IS42.

  20. Definition of a Sinkhole hazard methodology in the Pontina Plain (Latium Region, Central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoli, Pamela; Mazza, Roberto; Capelli, Giuseppe

    2010-05-01

    The work presented here is the continuation of " Sinkhole Project of Latium Region" (2002), carried out by Researchers of the Laboratory of Applied Geology and Hydrogeology of the Department of Geological Sciences of the University "Roma Tre", Rome (Italy), through which were found, in different plain of the whole Region, Sinkhole prone areas, using a methodology based on the superimposition of thematic layers corresponding to geological and anthropogenic breaking factors. In the last years several specific investigations have been conducted by Researchers of the Laboratory in the Pontina Plain, that is located in the south west of the Latium Region, concerning the geological-stratigraphic setting, the sketch of flow in the aquifers located in the Pontine depression, the chemiphysical groundwater characheteristics, the density of wells, the amount of well pumping and piezometric changes. This required the implementation of several piezometric and chemiphysical surveys, the collection and validation of a large number of stratigraphic and geophysical data. All data in the archive have been computerized and the maps vectorized. This makes it possible today to address the analysis with Geographical Information Systems and to start numerical flow simulations, regarding both the heavily drained deep confined aquifer, and the areas subject to the presence of an important water exchange between the recharge area in the Lepini Mountains (carbonatic ridge) and terrigenous aquifers of the plain. Among the main causes that trigger the catastrophic collapses there are, in fact, all the phenomena that cause the mass density reduction through erosion, leaching, dissolution. All these agents are associated with water circulation: flow, velocity, CO2 saturation rate, carbonates saturation rate. The spread in the Pontina plain of deep and high pumping wells, wrongly built without the correct way of progress, and without the realization of cemented portions properly located, can lead

  1. Modeling regional initiation of rainfall-induced shallow landslides in the eastern Umbria Region of central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salciarini, D.; Godt, J.W.; Savage, W.Z.; Conversini, P.; Baum, R.L.; Michael, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    We model the rainfall-induced initiation of shallow landslides over a broad region using a deterministic approach, the Transient Rainfall Infiltration and Grid-based Slope-stability (TRIGRS) model that couples an infinite-slope stability analysis with a one-dimensional analytical solution for transient pore pressure response to rainfall infiltration. This model permits the evaluation of regional shallow landslide susceptibility in a Geographic Information System framework, and we use it to analyze susceptibility to shallow landslides in an area in the eastern Umbria Region of central Italy. As shown on a landslide inventory map produced by the Italian National Research Council, the area has been affected in the past by shallow landslides, many of which have transformed into debris flows. Input data for the TRIGRS model include time-varying rainfall, topographic slope, colluvial thickness, initial water table depth, and material strength and hydraulic properties. Because of a paucity of input data, we focus on parametric analyses to calibrate and test the model and show the effect of variation in material properties and initial water table conditions on the distribution of simulated instability in the study area in response to realistic rainfall. Comparing the results with the shallow landslide inventory map, we find more than 80% agreement between predicted shallow landslide susceptibility and the inventory, despite the paucity of input data.

  2. Dynamics of natural contamination by aluminium and iron rich colloids in the volcanic aquifers of Central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viaroli, Stefano; Cuoco, Emilio; Mazza, Roberto; Tedesco, Dario

    2016-10-01

    The dynamics of natural contamination by Al and Fe colloids in volcanic aquifers of central-southern Italy were investigated. Localized perched aquifers, and their relative discharges, are strongly affected by the presence of massive suspended solids, which confer a white-lacteous coloration to the water. This phenomenon occasionally caused the interruption of water distribution due to the exceeding of Al and Fe concentrations in aquifers exploited for human supply. The cause was ascribed to water seepage from perched aquifers. Water discharges affected by such contamination was investigated for the Rocca Ripesena area (north-eastern sector of Vulsini Volcanic District) and for the Rianale Stream Valley (Roccamonfina Volcanic Complex). Hydrogeological survey of both areas confirmed the presence of perched aquifers not previously considered due to their low productivity. Pluviometric data and chemical parameters were periodically monitored. Water mineralization decreased with increasing rainfall, conversely Al and Fe concentrations increased. Statistical analysis confirmed the dependence of all the chemical variables on rock leaching, with the sole exception of Al and Fe which were imputed to colloids mobilization from local, strongly pedogenized pyroclastic material. The similarities in hydrogeological settings and mobilization dynamics in both areas suggest that the Al and Fe colloidal contamination should be more abundant than currently known in quaternary volcanic areas.

  3. Coexisting contraction-extension consistent with buoyancy of the crust and upper mantle in North-Central Italy

    CERN Document Server

    Aoudia, A; Ismail-Zadeh, A T; Panza, G F; Pontevivo, A

    2002-01-01

    The juxtaposed contraction and extension observed in the crust of the Italian Apennines and elsewhere has, for a long time, attracted the attention of geoscientists and is a long-standing enigmatic feature. Several models, invoking mainly external forces, have been put forward to explain the close association of these two end-member deformation mechanisms clearly observed by geophysical and geological investigations. These models appeal to interactions along plate margins or at the base of the lithosphere such as back-arc extension or shear tractions from mantle flow or to subduction processes such as slab roll back, retreat or pull and detachment. We present here a revisited crust and upper mantle model that supports delamination processes beneath North-Central Italy and provides a new background for the genesis and age of the recent magmatism in Tuscany. Although external forces must have been important in the building up of the Apennines, we show that internal buoyancy forces solely can explain the coexist...

  4. Heavy element accumulation in Evernia prunastri lichen transplants around a municipal solid waste landfill in central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nannoni, Francesco; Santolini, Riccardo; Protano, Giuseppe

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents the results of a biomonitoring study to evaluate the environmental impact of airborne emissions from a municipal solid waste landfill in central Italy. Concentrations of 11 heavy elements, as well as photosynthetic efficiency and cell membrane integrity were measured in Evernia prunastri lichens transplanted for 4months in 17 monitoring sites around the waste landfill. Heavy element contents were also determined in surface soils. Analytical data indicated that emissions from the landfill affected Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sb and Zn concentrations in lichens transplanted within the landfill and along the fallout direction. In these sites moderate to severe accumulation of these heavy elements in lichens was coupled with an increase in cell membrane damage and decrease in photosynthetic efficiency. Nevertheless, results indicated that landfill emissions had no relevant impact on lichens, as heavy element accumulation and weak stress symptoms were detected only in lichen transplants from sites close to solid waste. The appropriate management of this landfill poses a low risk of environmental contamination by heavy elements.

  5. Revisiting reproduction and population structure and dynamics of Procambarus clarkii eight years after its introduction into Lake Trasimeno (Central Italy

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    Dörr A.J.M.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding population dynamics and regulation is fundamental for predicting establishment and spread of invasive alien species. In addition, the population biology of invasive alien species offers an opportunity to study basic ecological processes. In this context, we investigated reproductive and growth plasticity in the invasive crayfish Procambarus clarkii in Lake Trasimeno (central Italy. In total, 3153 crayfish were collected monthly from June 2007 to July 2009. The molt status was assessed by evaluating the exoskeleton hardness. To assess the reproductive cycle, the gonado-somatic and wet hepato-somatic indices were calculated for females. The reproductive status of males was appraised as well. We estimated growth and longevity using the von Bertalanffy growth function, and calculated the total, natural and fishing mortality indices. We then compared our present data with those obtained from the same population eight years before. Our results indicate some changes in population dynamics and in both molting and reproductive periods since the initial invasion of the shallow lake investigated. Long-term differences in the life history of the Trasimeno population may be the result of selective pressures different from those of the native range, but may also result from colonization events and human interference caused by professional fishing activities.

  6. Highly anomalous accumulation rates of C and N recorded by a relic, free-floating peatland in Central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccone, Claudio; Lobianco, Daniela; Shotyk, William; Ciavatta, Claudio; Appleby, Peter G; Brugiapaglia, Elisabetta; Casella, Laura; Miano, Teodoro M; D'Orazio, Valeria

    2017-02-23

    Floating islands mysteriously moving around on lakes were described by several Latin authors almost two millennia ago. These fascinating ecosystems, known as free-floating mires, have been extensively investigated from ecological, hydrological and management points of view, but there have been no detailed studies of their rates of accumulation of organic matter (OM), organic carbon (OC) and total nitrogen (TN). We have collected a peat core 4 m long from the free-floating island of Posta Fibreno, a relic mire in Central Italy. This is the thickest accumulation of peat ever found in a free-floating mire, yet it has formed during the past seven centuries and represents the greatest accumulation rates, at both decadal and centennial timescale, of OM (0.63 vs. 0.37 kg/m(2)/yr), OC (0.28 vs. 0.18 kg/m(2)/yr) and TN (3.7 vs. 6.1 g/m(2)/yr) ever reported for coeval peatlands. The anomalously high accretion rates, obtained using (14)C age dating, were confirmed using (210)Pb and (137)Cs: these show that the top 2 m of Sphagnum-peat has accumulated in only ~100 years. As an environmental archive, Posta Fibreno offers a temporal resolution which is 10x greater than any terrestrial peat bog, and promises to provide new insight into environmental changes occurring during the Anthropocene.

  7. Status of Pseudorasbora parva in the Tiber River Basin (Umbria, central Italy 20 years after its introduction

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    Carosi A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to assess the distribution, abundance and growth of the non-native topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva that was recorded for the first time in the Tiber River Basin (central Italy in 1994. The competitive interaction of P. parva with four native fish species was also investigated. The study area comprised 92 watercourses of the Umbrian section of the Tiber River Basin. Demographic and environmental data were collected during the period 1990−2014 in 171 sampling sites. The results of this study showed a wide distribution of P. parva in the study area, with records from 23.39% of all sampling sites (40 out of 171. This species inhabits the downstream reaches, where the presence of many non-native species and the poor environmental quality are associated with a decrease in native fish species. A total of 5570 specimens of P. parva were collected and five age classes (0+ to 4+ were identified. The equation for the total length-weight relationship of P. parva was W = 0.021TL2.673±0.015. For the chub Squalius squalus, the Tiber barbel, Barbus tyberinus, and the roach, Rutilus rubilio, the average values of the relative weight were significantly higher in the sites where P. parva was absent. The results of the present study suggest the need to undertake proper strategies for native biodiversity conservation.

  8. Multi-sensor analysis of convective activity in Central Italy during the HyMeX SOP 1.1

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    N. Roberto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A multi-sensor analysis of convective precipitation events that occurred in central Italy, in autumn 2012 during the HyMeX (Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean eXperiment Special Observation Period (SOP 1.1 is presented. Various microphysical properties of liquid and solid hydrometeors were examined to assess their relationship with lightning activity. The instrumentation used consisted of a C-band dual-polarization weather radar, a 2-D video disdrometer, and a lightning network. A fuzzy logic based hydrometeor classification algorithm was tuned and optimized for the detection of graupel from C-band dual-polarization radar measurements. Graupel ice water content was then retrieved and related to lightning activity. A linear correlation was found between the total mass of graupel above the 0° isothermal and the number of strokes detected by the lightning network in agreement with model outputs, which confirms the importance of ice in the electrical charging of convective clouds, although differences were noticed among events. Parameters of the gamma raindrop size distribution measured by a 2-D video disdrometer, revealed the transition from convective to stratiform regime during the event and where related. However, lightning activity was not always recorded when the precipitation regime was classified as convective. More robust relationships were found relating lightning activity to graupel.

  9. Understanding karst environments by thermo-hygrometric monitoring: preliminary results from the Cesi Mountain karst system (Central Italy

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    Lucio Di Matteo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of karst systems is of paramount importance for the protection and valorisation of these environments. A multidisciplinary study is presented to investigate the possible interconnection between karst features of a karst area located in the south-western part of the Martani chain (Cesi Mountain, Central Italy. This hydrogeological structure contributes to recharge a deep regional aquifer. The latter feeds the high discharge and salinity Stifone springs. In the southwestern part of Martani chain, seven caves have been mapped, five of which are hosted in the Calcare Massiccio Formation. The analysis of thermo-hygrometric data collected since Autumn 2014 into the caves and those from external meteorological stations, showed the timing of the airflow inversion occurring on late winter/early spring and summer/ early autumn. Despite the complexity of the morphology of caves and of conceptual models of airflow pattern, these data seem to indicate that the monitored small caves could be interconnected to a considerably wider cave system. Data here presented coupled with the knowledge on hydrogeological and geological-structural setting of the limestone massif are useful to drive future speleological explorations, aiming to discover new large cavities and to better understand the water recharge process.

  10. A MIS 15-MIS 12 record of environmental changes and Lower Palaeolithic occupation from Valle Giumentina, central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Valentina; Pereira, Alison; Chaussé, Christine; Nomade, Sébastien; Giaccio, Biagio; Limondin-Lozouet, Nicole; Fusco, Fabio; Regattieri, Eleonora; Degeai, Jean-Philippe; Robert, Vincent; Kuzucuoglu, Catherine; Boschian, Giovanni; Agostini, Silvano; Aureli, Daniele; Pagli, Marina; Bahain, Jean Jacques; Nicoud, Elisa

    2016-11-01

    An integrated geological study, including sedimentology, stable isotope analysis (δ18O, δ13C), geochemistry, micromorphology, biomarker analysis, 40Ar/39Ar geochronology and tephrochronology, was undertaken on the Quaternary infill of the Valle Giumentina basin in Central Italy, which also includes an outstanding archaeological succession, composed of nine human occupation levels ascribed to the Lower and Middle Palaeolithic. 40Ar/39Ar dating, and other palaeoenvironmental and tephrochronological data, constrain the sedimentary history of the whole succession to the MIS 15-MIS 12 interval, between 618 ± 13 ka and 456 ± 2 ka. Palaeoenvironmental proxies suggest that over this time interval of about 150 ka, sedimentary and pedogenic processes were mainly influenced by climatic changes, in particular by the pulsing of local mountain glaciers of the Majella massif. Specifically, the Valle Giumentina succession records glacio-fluvial and lacustrine sedimentation during the colder glacial periods and pedogenesis and/or alluvial sedimentation during the warmer interglacial and/or interstadial periods. During this interval, tectonics played a negligible role as a driving factor of local morphogenesis and sedimentation, whereas the general regional uplift experienced in the Middle Pleistocene led to capture of the basin and its definitive extinction after MIS 12. These data substantially improve previous knowledge of the chronology and sedimentary evolution of the succession, providing for the first time, a well constrained chronological and palaeoenvironmental framework for the archaeological and human palaeoecological record of Valle Giumentina.

  11. Regional macroseismic field and intensity residuals of the August 24, 2016, Mw=6.0 central Italy earthquake

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    Valerio De Rubeis

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A macroseismic investigation of the August 24, 2016, Mw=6.0 Central Italy earthquake, was carried out through an online web survey. Data were collected through a macroseismic questionnaire available at the website www.haisentitoilterremoto.it, managed by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV. Over 12000 questionnaires were compiled soon after the seismic occurrence, coming from over 2600 municipalities. A statistical analysis was applied to the data collected in order to investigate the spatial distribution of intensity of the earthquake. The macroseismic intensity field (I was described by identifying three main components: an isotropic component (II, a regional anisotropic component (IA and a local random variations parameter (. The anisotropic component highlighted specific and well-defined geographical areas of amplification and attenuation. In general, the area between the Adriatic coast and Apennines Chain was characterized by an amplification of intensity, while the West side of the Apennines showed attenuation, in agreement with the domains found by other works focused on the analysis of instrumental data. Moreover, the regional macroseismic field showed similarities with instrumental PGA data. The results of our analysis confirm the reliability of web questionnaire data.

  12. A Cross-Sectional Survey to Estimate the Cat Population and Ownership Profiles in a Semirural Area of Central Italy

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    Andrea Carvelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding animal population size and its demographic features is essential to address Public Health policies as well as to provide valuable information to pet industries and veterinary practitioners. Nevertheless, official data on feline population are not available worldwide. In the present study, the owned cat population size, its demographic attributes, and the ownership profiles have been investigated through a face-to-face questionnaire in a semirural area of Central Italy. The human : cat ratio was equal to 6.8 (95% CI: 5.7–7.5; 29.3% of households own at least one cat. The majority of cats were living in a rural area (67.8% and outdoors, were neutered (70.5%, and were fed with commercial food (54.8% and they visited a veterinarian 1-2 times a year (43.3%. The cat ownership was strongly associated with people living in a rural area and owning another pet. As the cat owned population was mainly kept outdoors in rural areas, the possible relation between the owned and the stray animals is worthy to be monitored in future researches. Our study revealed that the feline owned population was larger than expected and that social and economic human factors do not influence the cat ownership. Health Authorities and veterinary practitioners should promote responsible ownership to increase the veterinary care, to intensify the official identification, and to properly manage the outdoor lifestyle.

  13. Spatial analysis of Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) male population in a mediterranean agricultural landscape in central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciarretta, A; Zinni, A; Mazzocchetti, A; Trematerra, P

    2008-04-01

    The results obtained from the spatial analysis of pheromone-baited trap catch data of Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermüller) males are reported. The research was undertaken in the Abruzzo region of central Italy. In the study area, vineyards (of Vitis vinifera L.) are the predominant cultivation, surrounded by hedgerows and small woodlots, and interspersed with cereal crops and olive groves. The main purpose of the study was to investigate the spatio-temporal dynamics of L. botrana, inside and outside vineyards, and to evaluate the effect of the landscape elements on pest distribution. A trend orientation over the experimental area was observed along the direction from northwest to southeast. Correlograms fitted using a spherical model showed in all cases an aggregated distribution and an estimated range having a mean of 174 m in 2005 and 116 m in 2006. Contour maps highlighted that spatial distribution of L. botrana was not limited to vineyards, but its presence is high particularly inside olive groves. The adult distribution on the experimental area changed during the season: hot spots of flight I were positioned inside olive groves; during flights II and III, they were concentrated in vineyards. L. botrana males were also captured in uncultivated fields, but never in high densities. Our results showed that a large proportion of the adult population of L. botrana inhabits areas outside those usually targeted by pest management programs. Thus, in Mediterranean agro-ecosystems, it is highly recommended to consider the whole landscape, with particular attention to olive crops.

  14. Late Pleistocene depositional cycles of the Lapis Tiburtinus travertine (Tivoli, Central Italy): Possible influence of climate and fault activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccenna, Claudio; Soligo, Michele; Billi, Andrea; De Filippis, Luigi; Funiciello, Renato; Rossetti, Claudio; Tuccimei, Paola

    2008-10-01

    The depositional and erosional history of the Lapis Tiburtinus endogenic travertine located circa 25 km to the east of Rome, Central Italy, near the Colli Albani quiescent volcano, is interpreted through three-dimensional stratigraphy and uranium-series geochronology. Analyses of large exposures located in active quarries and of cores obtained from 114 industrial wells reveal that the travertine deposit is about 20 km 2 wide and 60 m thick on average. The travertine thickness is over 85 m toward its western N-S-elongated side, where thermal springs and large sinkholes occur aligned over a seismically-active N-striking fault. The travertine age was calculated using the U/Th isochron method. Results constrain the onset and conclusion of travertine deposition at about 115 and 30 ka, respectively. The three-dimensional study of the travertine shows that this deposit is characterized by a succession of depositional benches grown in an aggradational fashion. The benches are separated by five main erosional surfaces, which are associated with paleosols, conglomerates, and karstic features. This evidence shows that the travertine evolution was mostly controlled by water table fluctuations. Chronological correlations between travertine evolution and paleoclimate indicators suggest that the travertine deposition was partly modulated by climate conditions. Other influencing factors may have been fault-related deformation and volcanic events.

  15. Hydrogeological study of the intensely exploited aquifer of the Santa Croce leather-producing district, Tuscany (central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Sergio; Doveri, Marco; Cortecci, Gianni; Amadori, Michele

    2011-05-01

    A hydrogeological study was undertaken to define the groundwater circulation in the Santa Croce area (Tuscany, central Italy) where the existing multilayered aquifer has long been intensively exploited. Investigations carried out on about 150 wells revealed the existence of a deep piezometric depression (to 20 m below sea level) which drains groundwater from the entire surrounding area. Samples from about 70 water points, collected twice in 2007, were analysed for major elements and stable isotope composition. Three major groups of waters, which mix in the study area, have been distinguished: (1) waters of the Ca-Mg-HCO3 type mainly flowing along the Arno River Plain; (2) waters of the Na-K-Cl/Ca-Mg-HCO3-SO4, type with SO4 content up to 275 mg/L, inflowing from the Pisane Hills; (3) relatively high-salinity waters mainly of the Na-HCO3 type which, with Cl concentrations up to 750 mg/L, likely arise from a normal fault located at the foot of the northern hills. The characteristics of the different components are greatly affected by significant modifying processes such as cation exchange and sulfate reduction. The achieved conceptual model suggests the southern hills as the main recharging area of the aquifer system from which water circulation, characterized by pathways of different length and depth, develops.

  16. U-Th fractionation by fluids in K-rich magma genesis: The Vico volcano, Central Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villemant, B.; Flehoc, C.

    1989-01-01

    The /sup 230/Th-/sup 238/U disequilibrium method has been applied to the potassic volcanic series of Vico (Latium, Central Italy). The 3 main events of the recent volcanic activity have been dated using whole-rock isochrons. The lava flows of the main cone were erupted between 260 and 180 ky. Pyroclastic flows are dated around 90 ky and the final effusive activity (Mte. Venere) around 60 ky. These results are in good agreement with previous K/Ar ages. The intense Th-U fractionation (Th/U varying from 3.2 to 11) is apparently not related to processes of partial melting and crystal fractionation. The Th-U fractionation is the most intense in basic terms of the first episode, and is due to the percolation of a deep hydrothermal fluid which impoverishes U in different batches of primary magmas. More limited Th-U fractionations in highly differentiated magma are due to U (accompanied by Sb and alkalies) enrichments in the shallow magma chambers. A time-integrated model is proposed for the evolution of the (/sup 230/Th//sup 232/Th) ratio in the mantle source of Vico. It shows that Th-U and Th-Ta fractionations are probably related to the bulk K, U and Th enrichment of the mantle of the Roman Province, around 300 ky ago. A metasomatic enrichment by a silicate melt is proposed to explain the anomalously high Th-U and Th-Ta fractionations.

  17. Occurrence of Salmonella in swine in the Latium Region (central Italy) from 1980 to 1989: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Guardo, G; Fontanelli, G; Panfili, G; Condoleo, R; De Grossi, L; Brozzi, A M; Bozzano, A I

    1992-04-01

    An extensive survey was carried out on 849 biological samples (dead animals, organs and viscera, faeces, and rectal swabs) from pigs in the Latium Region (Central Italy) throughout the years 1980-1989. In total, 46 of the samples (5.4%) were found to be bacteriologically positive for salmonellae. Among dead animals, typical gross lesions were observed in 6 clinically infected animals. As far as serotypes are concerned, 11 different ones were isolated, with a predominance of Salmonella typhimurium (26.1%), S. anatum (21.7%), S. bovis-morbificans (15.2%), and S. heidelberg (10.8%). According to Kauffmann-White's classification scheme, 39.1% of the isolated strains belonged to serogroup B, 13% to serogroup C1, 17.4% tot serogroup C2, 6.5% to serogroup D, and 23.9% to serogroup E1. In conclusion, the authors speculate that the relatively low Salmonella isolation frequency (5.4%) reported in this study was not dependent upon the cultural procedures used, since different enrichment and plating methods were used, but rather upon the great number of rural-type herds which were investigated over the decade compared to industrial-type herds. Other factors such as stress conditions, which are particularly pronounced in industrial-type herds, and overall climatic situations, which tend to be characterised by warm, dry and long summers in the Latium Region, are also considered in this respect.

  18. Size, dynamics and structure of the lesser horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus hipposideros winter aggregations in central Italy

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    Pierangelo Crucitti

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The paper presents a study regarding the aggregations of the Lesser Horseshoe bat Rhinolophus hipposideros in Latium, Central Italy, based on data collected during 27 years in natural caves (limestone and artificial buildings (abandoned mines, ancient monuments and others. Furthermore some parameters including size, dynamics, sex ratio and age structures are investigated. The number of bats that occur at the hibernacula in winter is low over the whole territory of this region, the most numerous aggregations being 18 individual bats with an average of about 4 bats/visit. In the shelters of the area, the highest numbers of R. hipposideros, a stenotherm thermophilous species, is reached at the end of January, while at the beginning of spring (April few bats are generally observed. As in many other European populations, males are more commonly represented in winter samples; some caves harbour only adult males over a long time span, about 20 years. The results would suggest that some conservation measures should be introduced to protect this widespread but uncommon and threatened species.

  19. Magnetic transfer function entropy and the 2009 Mw = 6.3 L'Aquila earthquake (Central Italy

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    L. X. Wu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of obtaining a deeper knowledge of the physical phenomena associated with the 2009 L'Aquila (Central Italy seismic sequence, culminating with a Mw = 6.3 earthquake on 6 April 2009, and possibly of identifying some kind of earthquake-related magnetic or geoelectric anomaly, we analyse the geomagnetic field components measured at the magnetic observatory of L'Aquila and their variations in time. In particular, trends of magnetic transfer functions in the years 2006–2010 are inspected. They are calculated from the horizontal to vertical magnetic component ratio in the frequency domain, and are very sensitive to deep and lateral geoelectric characteristics of the measurement site. Entropy analysis, carried out from the transfer functions with the so called transfer function entropy, points out clear temporal burst regimes of a few distinct harmonics preceding the main shock of the seismic sequence. A possible explanation is that they could be related to deep fluid migrations and/or to variations in the micro-/meso-fracturing that affected significantly the conductivity (ordered/disordered distribution in a large lithospheric volume under the seismogenic layer below L'Aquila area. This interpretation is also supported by the analysis of hypocentres depths before the main shock occurrence.

  20. Modelling air quality impact of a biomass energy power plant in a mountain valley in Central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curci, Gabriele; Cinque, Giovanni; Tuccella, Paolo; Visconti, Guido; Verdecchia, Marco; Iarlori, Marco; Rizi, Vincenzo

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we investigate the potential impact on local air quality of a biomass power plant, which is planned for installation near L'Aquila, a city of 70,000 people located in a mountain valley in Central Italy. The assessment is carried out by applying a one year simulation with the CALPUFF model, following the recommendations of the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. Meteorological input is produced with CALMET model, fed with both MM5 meteorological fields at 3 km resolution and wind observations from a surface weather station. We estimate small (<0.5 μg m-3) annual average increments to SO2, NO2 and PM10 ambient levels over the domain of interest, but significant (up to 50% for NO2) enhancements and several violations (up to 141 for NO2) of hourly limits for human protection within 1.5 km from the source. These results anticipate a larger negative effect on local air quality than those published by the building firm of the plant. We also suggest that a minimum distance of 5 km from the nearest residential area would represent a significant decrease of population exposure.

  1. Melt extraction in mush zones: The case of crystal-rich enclaves at the Sabatini Volcanic District (central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masotta, M.; Mollo, S.; Gaeta, M.; Freda, C.

    2016-04-01

    A peculiar feature of the Sabatini Volcanic District (SVD, central Italy) is the occurrence of crystal-poor pumices and crystal-rich enclaves within the same eruptive host-deposit. The stratigraphic sequence of pumices and enclaves indicates the tapping of a stratified magma chamber, where a crystal-poor phonolitic magma lay on top of a more primitive crystal-rich magma. The crystal-rich enclaves are genetically related to the pumices and record the evolution of a solidification front, in which a more differentiated melt was produced, extracted and eventually erupted. We collected and analyzed crystal-rich enclaves from one of the largest phonolitic eruptions at the SVD and used their petrological and geochemical features to reconstruct magma differentiation and crystal-melt separation in the solidification front. On this basis, three groups of enclaves have been identified: porphyritic enclaves, holocrystalline enclaves and sanidinites. The mineralogical variability faithfully reproduces the spatial and temporal evolution expected of a solidification front, from early-to-intermediate crystallization conditions (porphyritic and holocrystalline type) to the late stage of solidification (sanidinites), in which the percolation of a more differentiated melt through the crystal mush triggered the instability of the solidification front. Results from numerical models indicate that gravitational instability is the most efficient mechanism to explain melt extraction in mush zones of medium-sized (~ 10 km3), short-lived (~ 104 years) magma chambers.

  2. Molecular analysis using DHPLC of cystic fibrosis: increase of the mutation detection rate among the affected population in Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nardone Anna

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cystic fibrosis (CF is a multisystem disorder characterised by mutations of the CFTR gene, which encodes for an important component in the coordination of electrolyte movement across of epithelial cell membranes. Symptoms are pulmonary disease, pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, male infertility and elevated sweat concentrations. The CFTR gene has numerous mutations (>1000 and functionally important polymorphisms (>200. Early identification is important to provide appropriate therapeutic interventions, prognostic and genetic counselling and to ensure access to specialised medical services. However, molecular diagnosis by direct mutation screening has proved difficult in certain ethnic groups due to allelic heterogeneity and variable frequency of causative mutations. Methods We applied a gene scanning approach using DHPLC system for analysing specifically all CFTR exons and characterise sequence variations in a subgroup of CF Italian patients from the Lazio region (Central Italy characterised by an extensive allelic heterogeneity. Results We have identified a total of 36 different mutations representing 88% of the CF chromosomes. Among these are two novel CFTR mutations, including one missense (H199R and one microdeletion (4167delCTAAGCC. Conclusion Using this approach, we were able to increase our standard power rate of mutation detection of about 11% (77% vs. 88%.

  3. Rapid determination of P wave-based energy magnitude: Insights on source parameter scaling of the 2016 Central Italy earthquake sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picozzi, Matteo; Bindi, Dino; Brondi, Piero; Di Giacomo, Domenico; Parolai, Stefano; Zollo, Aldo

    2017-05-01

    We propose a P wave based procedure for the rapid estimation of the radiated seismic energy, and a novel relationship for obtaining an energy-based local magnitude (MLe) measure of the earthquake size. We apply the new procedure to the seismic sequence that struck Central Italy in 2016. Scaling relationships involving seismic moment and radiated energy are discussed for the Mw 6.0 Amatrice, Mw 5.9 Ussita, and Mw 6.5 Norcia earthquakes, including 35 ML > 4 aftershocks. The Mw 6.0 Amatrice earthquake shows the highest apparent stress, and the observed differences among the three main events highlight the dynamic heterogeneity with which large earthquakes can occur in Central Italy. Differences between estimates of MLe and Mw allows identification of events which are characterized by a higher proportion of energy being transferred to seismic waves, providing important real-time indications of earthquakes shaking potential.

  4. Structural features of the Middle Tirso Valley (Central Sardinia - Italy from geoelectrical and gravity data

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    A. Tramacere

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The Middle Tirso Valley is located in Central Sardinia and lies between two structural highs, the Marghine-Goceano chain and the Barbagia Paleozoic horst. The geological structures of the area, potentially interesting for its geothermal resources, are rather complex and dominated by two regional faults – the Marghine fault and the Nuoro fault – which affect the Palaeozoic basement and the Tertiary volcano-sedimentary deposits. Combined modelling of gravity and geoelectrical data defines the shape and extent of this Tertiary basin. The Bouguer anomaly is mainly characterized by a three-dimensional gravity low which has been named «Bolotana-Sedilo gravity low», corresponding to a structure generated by collapses attributable to transcurrent and extensional tectonic events. The down faulted zone is filled with a Tertiary low density volcano-sedimentary sequence extending southwards and overlain by Pliocene-Quaternary basalts. Another regional structure named «Tirso Fault» is proposed

  5. Sanidine holocrystalline ejecta from central Sabatini Volcanic District, Latium (Italy). II. Intergranular ejecta and minerogenetic deductions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capitanio, F.; Mottana, A.

    1998-12-31

    The Sanidine holocrystalline ejecta with intergranular texture from the central Sabatini Volcanic District contain high-T feldspars, out-of-equilibrium K- and Na- Ca-feldspar, and two pyroxene generations formed at different depths, as well as many mineral phases which indicate high f (H{sub 2}O) and/or f(O{sub 2}). A simple evolution model by fractional crystallization, in a plutonic or hypoabissal domain, has been derived from the mineralogical assemblages present in both the isotropic and intergranular type of ejecta. The intergranular type, the crystallization of which began at deeper levels than the isotropic one, underwent multiple pyroxene-liquidus re-equilibration during a quick magma ascent to shallower levels.

  6. Distribution and diversity of cave bats of Latium (Central Italy / Distribuzione e diversità dei chirotteri troglofili della regione laziale (Italia centrale

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    Pierangelo Crucitti

    1987-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An attempt was made to evaluate the diversity and distribution of cave bats of Latium (Central Italy. Data about twelve species were examined and their frequency have been determined. Only Rhinolophus ferrumequinum and R. hipposideros are really frequent: the other species are more or less localized. The average number of species (2,63 has a great importance for future contro1 of cave bat populations. Similarity between cave bat coenosis was examined, together with the altitude distribution of five species. The relation between altitudinal range, number of caves and average number of species was also studied: between 801 and 1000 m.s.l., the last parameter increases considerably and a hypothesis is presented to explain the phenomenon. This troglophilous bat fauna is probably very rich in species in comparison with other Italian bat communities. Riassunto Viene svolta un'analisi delle cenosi di Chirotteri troglofili dell'Italia Centrale. Vengono esaminati i dati relativi a 12 specie; di ciascuna è stata determinata la frequenza. Rhinolophus ferrumequinum e R. hipposideros risultano le specie più frequenti. I1 numero medio di specie (2,63 assume un importante significato ai fini del controllo delle chirotterofaune troglofile. L'affinità tra le chirotterofaune è stata esaminata, analogamente alla distribuzione altitudinale di cinque specie. Range altitudinale, numero delle cavità e numero medio di specie sono comparati: fra 801 e 1000 m, si osserva un aumento dell'ultimo parametro e vengono formulate ipotesi per spiegare il fenomeno. La ricchezza di specie del Lazio viene evidenziata dal confronto con altre chirotterofaune troglofile regionali italiane.

  7. Large teleseismic P-wave residuals observed at the Alban Hills volcano, Central Italy

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    H. Mahadeva Iyer

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available We collected teleseismic waveforms from a digital microseismic network deployed by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica (ING in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS, on the Alban Hills Quaternary volcano during the 1989-1990 seismic swann. About 50 events were recorded by the network, 30 of them by at least 4 stations. We analysed the data in order to image crustal heterogeneities beneath the volcano. The results show large delay time residuals up to - 1 second for stations located on the volcano with respect to station CP9 of the National Seismic Network located about 20 km to the east, on the Apennines. This suggests that the whole area overlies a broad low-velocity region. Although the ray coverage is not very dense, we model the gross seismic structure beneath the volcano by inverting the teleseismic relative residuals with the ACH technique. The main features detected by tbc inversion are a low-velocity zone beneath the southwestern fiank of tbc volcano, and a high-velocity region beneath the center. The depth extension of these anomalous zones ranges between 5 and 16 km. The correspondence between the low-velocity region and the most recent activity of the volcano (- 0.027 Ma leads us to infer the presence of a still hot magmatic body in the crust beneath the southwestern side of the volcano, whereas the central part overlies the older and colder high-velocity volcanic roots related to the previous central activity (0.7 to 0.3 Ma.

  8. The october 31 (Ml 5.4) and november 1 (Ml 5.0) 2002 Molise earthquakes: first results from fluid geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzino, L.; Cinti, D.; Barbieri, M.; Galli, G.; Voltattorni, N.; Quattrocchi, F.

    2003-04-01

    Two geochemical surveys have been performed in November and December 2002 in the Molise region (southern Italy) and surrounding areas struck by two moderate size earthquakes on October 31 (M_l 5.4) and on November 1 (M_l 5.3). The main goals of this study were: i) to highlight eventual variations either in the physico-chemical features or in the chemistry of thermo-mineral and cold springs (already sampled in 1997) discharging in an area located 50 km far from the epicentral one (Sannio-Matese, Campania region),; ii) to determine the chemical features of the groundwater discharging in the epicentral area, identifying the location and the extension of the various existing aquifers; iii) to collect information about eventual changes occurred in springs and wells (variations in flows, groundwater level in wells, etc.). Moreover, twice a week samplings have been carried out for two months at two important sulphurous springs (Larino spring, in the epicentral area and Telese thermo-mineral spring, in the Sannio area) in order to gather temporal chemical trend during the ongoing seismicity. We sampled a total of 35 sites (8 springs and wells in the Sannio-Matese area and 27 in the epicentral one) measuring in the field: temperature, pH, Eh, electrical conductivity, as well as radon, bicarbonate and H_2S contents. In laboratory, analyses of major, minor and trace elements have been performed, together with dissolved gas compositions. On 10 selected samples δ13C and 87/86Sr analyses are in progress. Data collected in the second survey show, for springs and wells located in the epicentral area, an evident pH and Eh increase (probably they returned to normal pre-earthquake values) together with some chemical variations; on the contrary, springs located in the Sannio-Matese area showed no variations. Local people observed sin-earthquake flow increases and variations in turbidity in two springs discharging in the epicentral area. All detected groundwater changes are discussed

  9. Olim palus, where once upon a time the marsh: distribution, demography, ecology and threats of amphibians in the Circeo National Park (Central Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Romano; Riccardo Novaga; Andrea Costa

    2016-01-01

    The Circeo National Park lies in a territory that was deeply shaped by human activity, and represents one of the few remaining patches of plain wetland habitat in Central Italy. In this study distribution and few demographic information of the amphibians in the Park were provided. Seven species and 25 bibliographic and 84 original breeding sites were recorded, and population size estimations were carried out for a population of these three species: Pelophylax sinkl esculentus, Bufo balearicus...

  10. Preliminary Report on the Seismological and Geotechnical Aspects of the April 6 2009 L'Aquila Earthquake in Central Italy (Version 2.0)

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, J. P.; G. Di Capua; et al.

    2009-01-01

    The L’Aquila earthquake occurred on April 6 2009 at 03:32:39 local time. The earthquake was located in the central Italy region of Abruzzo. Much of the damage occurred in the capital city of L’Aquila, a city of approximate population 73000, although many small villages in the surrounding regions were significantly damaged including Paganica, Castelnuovo, and Onna. Collapsed and damaged structures in L’Aquila included both older masonry buildings and relatively modern reinforced...

  11. The PRESSCA operational early warning system for landslide forecasting: the 11-12 November 2013 rainfall event in Central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciabatta, Luca; Brocca, Luca; Ponziani, Francesco; Berni, Nicola; Stelluti, Marco; Moramarco, Tommaso

    2014-05-01

    The Umbria Region, located in Central Italy, is one of the most landslide risk prone area in Italy, almost yearly affected by landslides events at different spatial scales. For early warning procedures aimed at the assessment of the hydrogeological risk, the rainfall thresholds represent the main tool for the Italian Civil Protection System. As shown in previous studies, soil moisture plays a key-role in landslides triggering. In fact, acting on the pore water pressure, soil moisture influences the rainfall amount needed for activating a landslide. In this work, an operational physically-based early warning system, named PRESSCA, that takes into account soil moisture for the definition of rainfall thresholds is presented. Specifically, the soil moisture conditions are evaluated in PRESSCA by using a distributed soil water balance model that is recently coupled with near real-time satellite soil moisture product obtained from ASCAT (Advanced SCATterometer) and from in-situ monitoring data. The integration of three different sources of soil moisture information allows to estimate the most accurate possible soil moisture condition. Then, both observed and forecasted rainfall data are compared with the soil moisture-based thresholds in order to obtain risk indicators over a grid of ~ 5 km. These indicators are then used for the daily hydrogeological risk evaluation and management by the Civil Protection regional service, through the sharing/delivering of near real-time landslide risk scenarios (also through an open source web platform: www.cfumbria.it). On the 11th-12th November, 2013, Umbria Region was hit by an exceptional rainfall event with up to 430mm/72hours that resulted in significant economic damages, but fortunately no casualties among the population. In this study, the results during the rainfall event of PRESSCA system are described, by underlining the model capability to reproduce, two days in advance, landslide risk scenarios in good spatial and temporal

  12. Serological detection of circulating Angiostrongylus vasorum antigen and specific antibodies in dogs from central and northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardone, L; Schnyder, M; Macchioni, F; Deplazes, P; Magi, M

    2013-02-18

    The most frequently employed method for the diagnosis of Angiostrongylus vasorum in dogs is the detection of first stage larvae (L1) in faeces. The sensitivity of coproscopy, however, is limited in case of low parasite load, intermittent larval excretion, and during pre-patency. An epidemiological survey on dogs was conducted applying serological methods in two Italian regions where angiostrongylosis is endemic in foxes. 265 dog serum samples from Tuscany (central Italy - site A) and 447 from Liguria (north-western Italy - site B) were tested with a sandwich-ELISA for detection of circulating antigen, and with an ELISA using A. vasorum adult somatic antigen purified by monoclonal antibodies for specific antibody detection. During previous examinations dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum (n=149), Dirofilaria immitis (n=40), Dirofilaria repens (n=30), Acanthocheilonema reconditum (n=27), Crenosoma vulpis (n=1), A. vasorum (n=2), Capillaria aerophila (n=35), Capillaria boehmi (n=3), Toxocara canis (n=68), Toxascaris leonina (n=5), hookworms (n=37) and Trichuris vulpis (n=39) were detected. Sera of these dogs were used to evaluate cross reactions. In site A, 2 dogs (0.8%) were seropositive for antibody and antigen detection and 4 (1.5%) for antibody detection only. From site B, 4 dogs (0.9%) were seropositive for both tests, while other 4 dogs (0.9%) for antigen detection only and 9 dogs (2%) for antibody detection only. Considering a subgroup of 347 dogs from site B which had also been tested with the Baermann technique, 2 (0.6%) were positive for both tests, 4 (1.2%) for antigen detection only and 9 (2.6%) for antibody detection only. The two dogs which were positive for both serological tests were also positive for A. vasorum L1 in the faeces. No significant difference in seropositivities was observed in the group of dogs with other proven parasitic infections. A. vasorum serology presents significant advantages (diagnosis before patency, single serum

  13. Arsenic in Drinking Water and Mortality for Cancer and Chronic Diseases in Central Italy, 1990-2010.

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    Daniela D'Ippoliti

    Full Text Available In several volcanic areas of Italy, arsenic levels exceed European regulatory limits (10 μg/L in drinking water. There is still uncertainty about health risks from arsenic at low-medium doses (<100 μg/L.A large population-based study using an administrative cohort of residents in the Viterbo province (Central Italy, chronically exposed to low-medium arsenic levels via drinking water, was investigated to evaluate the effects of a lifetime exposure to arsenic on mortality from cancers and chronic diseases.The study population consisted of 165,609 residents of 17 municipalities, followed from 1990 until 2010. Average individual arsenic exposure at the first residence (AsI was estimated through a space-time modeling approach using residential history and arsenic concentrations from water supply. A time-dependent Cumulative Arsenic dose Indicator (CAI was calculated, accounting for daily water intake and exposure duration. Mortality Hazard Ratios (HR were estimated by gender for different diseases using Cox proportional models, adjusting for individual and area-level confounders. A flexible non-parametric approach was used to investigate dose-response relationships.Mean AsI exposure was 19.3 μg/L, and average exposure duration was 39.5 years. Associations of AsI and CAI indicators with several diseases were found, with greatest risks found for lung cancer in both sexes (HR = 2.61 males; HR = 2.09 females, myocardial infarction, peripheral arterial disease and COPD in males (HR = 2.94; HR = 2.44; HR = 2.54 respectively and diabetes in females (HR = 2.56. For lung cancer and cardiovascular diseases dose-response relationship is modelled by piecewise linear functions revealing effects even for doses lower than 10 μg/L, and no threshold dose value was identified as safe for health.Results provide new evidence for risk assessment of low-medium concentrations of arsenic and contribute to the ongoing debate about the threshold-dose of effect, suggesting

  14. Landscapes of Central Italy through Science, Poetry and Music. A perspective for educating to the planet sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesci, Olivia; Valentini, Laura

    2016-04-01

    Born from a desire to promote the Italian landscape by integrating its physical aesthetic with its cultural and artistic heritage, we develop a story about the landscape told in popular science, and supported by visual stimulations, poetry and ancient music. Our work proceeds through two different routes. The first route analyzes the landscape from the scientific point of view trying to understand how it evolves and responds in response to changes in independent variables. The second path examines the landscape from a perspective more closely related to the visual and emotional impact that a place evokes, its history, its cultural significance, and perception of its fragility. The latter is perhaps a more complex path, more intimate, which develop fully only through the intersection of different forms of language, linked to specific arts. Three different disciplines focused on the same site, the combination of which results in an emotional experience where the encounter between different languages becomes an expression of the place. Among the many amazing landscapes of Italy, we focus on three known sites from the hystorical region of Montefeltro, in central Italy: "The flatiron of Petrano Mount", "The Stones of Montefeltro", "The sea-cliff of San Bartolo". Since a few years we have created a team of five researchers-artists, called "TerreRare" (Rare Earth Elements), whose mission is the desire to promote the gorgeous Italian landscape. Olivia Nesci, geomorphologist, begins this story analyzing the processes and the "forces" that have created and modified the landscape over time. Laura Valentini, a geologist and a musician, through the musical language, try to reproduce the emotional impact of the site, by searching for a piece of ancient music, composed for harpsichord. The choice of the musical instrument and the historical period is not accidental: the harpsichord has a punchy and gritty tone that clearly expresses the "strength" of the landscape; early music

  15. Sedimentary geochemistry depicts 2700 years of regional climate and land use change in the Rieti Basin, Central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, C.; Noble, P. J.; Mensing, S. A.; Tunno, I.; Sagnotti, L.; Florindo, F.; Cifnani, G.; Zimmerman, S. R. H.; Piovesan, G.

    2014-12-01

    A 14.4 m thick sedimentary sequence was recovered in multiple cores from Lago Lungo in the Rieti Basin, an intrapenninic extensional basin ~80 km north of Rome, Italy. This sequence provides a high-resolution record of environmental change related to climatic influence and anthropogenic landscape alteration. Pollen analyses, corroborated with historical records of land-use change, define the major shifts in forest composition and their historical context. An age model of the sequence was built using ties to regional cultigen datums and archaeomagnetic reference curves. Here we focus on sedimentologic and geochemical data (scanning XRF) from the Roman Period through the Little Ice Age (LIA). The base of the sequence (ca. 680 BCE- 1 CE) is marked by a steady increase in fine-grained detrital elements Ti, Rb, and K, and corresponding decrease in Ca, representing a transition from the unaltered system after the Romans constructed a channel that the basin. The Medieval Period (MP; 900-1350 CE) is lithologically distinct, composed of varicolored bands of alternating silt, clay, and calcareous concretions. Low counts of Ca, high detrital elements and frequent abrupt peaks in levels of the redox elements Fe and Mn indicate episodic clastic influx. Pollen data indicate that the greatest degree of deforestation and erosion occurred during the MP, supported by mean sedimentation rates of ca. 1cm/year, over twice the rate of the underlying interval. The Medieval climate was warmer and more stable, population increased, and elevations >1000 m were exploited for agriculture. The influence of the Velino River on the lake appears to increase during the MP through channel migration, increased flooding, or increased overland flow. The next transition (1350 CE) marks the start of the LIA and is coincident with the Black Plague. Historical records document a large earthquake in 1349 that severely struck Central Italy, with possible effects on the lake's depositional and hydrochemical

  16. MIDDLE AND LATE HETTANGIAN RADIOLARIANS FROM THE MT. CAMICIA SUCCESSION (GRAN SASSO, CENTRAL APENNINES - ITALY

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    ANGELA BERTINELLI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Well-preserved middle and late Hettangian radiolarians have been discovered S-E of Mt. Camicia (Central Apennines in limestone beds that contain also Hettangian ammonites.These beds are part of an Upper Triassic to Lower Jurassic carbonate succession, which crops out in the eastern part of the Gran Sasso range. This succession includes euxinic deposits (bituminous dolostone and other pelagic sediments (mudstone and calcarenites which developed in a basin rimmed by a carbonate platform. In the same time interval, the well-known formations of Dolomia Principale and Calcare Massiccio were forming on this platform.In this paper we examine the radiolarian assemblages collected in three levels of the ammonite bearing beds, and we define two new genera (Squinabolia and Turritus and eight new radiolarian species (Anaticapitula parvireticulata, Anaticapitula triangularis, Farcus aquilensis, Farcus leonseveroi, Parahsuum vraddense, Squinabolia multispinata, Turritus venturii, Zhamoidellum sphaericus, and we define twenty four other species, for a total of thirty eight identified species. The ammonites in the lowest level indicate a middle Hettangian age, those from the two upper levels a late Hettangian.In the Western Tethys successions bearing Hettangian radiolarians are rare and have been found together with ammonites only in the Mt. Camicia section described in this paper. This section permits to correlate the radiolarian assemblages with the ammonite zonation. 

  17. Source identification for situational awareness of August 24th 2016 central Italy event

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    Christian Bignami

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available On August 24, 2016, at 01:36 UTC a ML 6.0 earthquake struck a portion of the Central Apennines between the towns of Norcia and Amatrice. The epicentre was located near the town of Accumoli. Prompt Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR acquisitions and the available scientific knowledge of the area allowed to elaborate a first interpretative framework of the ongoing seismic sequence only 30 hours after the mainshock (doi: 10.5281/zenodo.60938 and a second analysis, complete of several Interferometric SAR (InSAR data within two weeks (doi: 10.5281/zenodo.61682. Through the inversion of InSAR data, we found that the seismogenic structure is oriented NNW-SSE and extends about 20 km between the towns of Norcia and Amatrice with a width of about 10 km. The retrieved slip reaches a maximum value of more than 1.2 m, and stops at a depth of about 4 km. Preliminary fault slip inversions suggest two main patches of co-seismic deformation located NW and SE of the hypocenter. As a final result, we highlight the double fold achievements obtained: a rapid fault identification, and no disadvantage in terms of reliability of the retrieved parameters.

  18. Mortality in the l'aquila (central Italy) earthquake of 6 april 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, David; Magni, Michele

    2013-01-07

    This paper presents the results of an analysis of data on mortality in the magnitude 6.3 earthquake that struck the central Italian city and province of L'Aquila during the night of 6 April 2009. The aim is to create a profile of the deaths in terms of age, gender, location, behaviour during the tremors, and other aspects. This could help predict the pattern of casualties and priorities for protection in future earthquakes. To establish a basis for analysis, the literature on seismic mortality is surveyed. The conclusions of previous studies are synthesised regarding patterns of mortality, entrapment, survival times, self-protective behaviour, gender and age. These factors are investigated for the data set covering the 308 fatalities in the L'Aquila earthquake, with help from interview data on behavioural factors obtained from 250 survivors. In this data set, there is a strong bias towards victimisation of young people, the elderly and women. Part of this can be explained by geographical factors regarding building performance: the rest of the explanation refers to the vulnerability of the elderly and the relationship between perception and action among female victims, who tend to be more fatalistic than men and thus did not abandon their homes between a major foreshock and the main shock of the earthquake, three hours later. In terms of casualties, earthquakes commonly discriminate against the elderly and women. Age and gender biases need further investigation and should be taken into account in seismic mitigation initiatives.

  19. Plant biodiversity of beech forests in central-northern Italy: a methodological approach for conservation purposes

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    Marcantonio M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Forests are reckoned essentials as biodiversity reservoirs and carbon sinks. Current threats to forest ecosystems (e.g., climate changes, habitat loss and fragmentation, management changes call for monitoring their biodiversity and preserving their ecological functions. In this study, we characterized plants diversity of five beech forests located in central and north Apennines mountain chain, using results by a probabilistic sampling. In order to achieve our goals, we have considered species richness and abundance, taxonomic distinctness and species composition, using both old and new analytical approaches. Results have shown how: (1 the forest type dominated by Fagus sylvatica is characterized by high complexity, with marked compositional, structural and biodiversity differences; (2 beech forests of Pigelleto di Piancastagnaio and Valle della Corte show the highest plants diversity values. The ecological characteristics of these areas, which sustain high diversity values, are unique and of great conservation interest; (3 the use of species richness as the only diversity measure have not allowed an efficient differentiation between studied areas. Indeed, the use of different indexes and analytical methods is required to detect multiple characteristics of biological diversity, as well as to carry out efficient biodiversity surveys aimed to develop optimal conservation strategies. In the future, we plan to apply the sampling methodology and the analytical approach used in this paper to characterize plants diversity of similar forest types.

  20. The arcuate shape of the Umbria-Marche-Sabina Apennines (central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calamita, F.; Deiana, G.

    1988-01-01

    The Umbria-Marche belt constitutes the most southern and external portion of the Northern Apennine Arc. typically convex to the northeast. Within this, the central part (the Umbria-Marche-Sabina Apennines) is the most elevated and is characterized by a locally more pronounced curvature. The Umbria-Marche belt is a thrust belt built mainly by thrust faults affecting a multilayer sedimentary series characterized by levels with markedly different competence. The main thrust (the M. Sibillini thrust) produced the tectonic superposition of the Umbria-Marche-Sabina Apennines over the most external units represented by the Lazio-Abruzzi Platform to the south and the Marche-Abruzzi domain to the north. Farther north, it joins the thrusts buried under the Po Plain. The most important of the more internal thrusts is that of the Valnerina. The pronounced local curvature of the Umbria-Marche-Sabina Apennines may be due to accentuation of an original arcuate shape. This accentuation is probably caused by differential displacement along the two main thrusts, during the initial stage of the evolution of the belt (Late Messinian-Early Pliocene). At that time, this displacement was more important in the northern part, where the thrust fronts show a NW-SE trend, than in the southern portion, where they are N-S trending, on account of the Lazio-Abruzzi Carbonate Platform, which perhaps represented a local obstacle to thrusting. As for the initial curvature, we think that this is determined by older discontinuities which controlled thrust development. The final arcuate shape was not substantially changed during the subsequent compressional history of the belt (Early Pliocene-Middle Pliocene).

  1. The vertical gradient of Electro-Atmospheric potential at Macerata (Italy (Central East Apennines

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    G. GUALTIERI

    1969-06-01

    Full Text Available This work studies eleven years of measures of the gradient
    of electro-atmospheric potential carried out in the Observatory of
    Macerata (East Central Apennines. The medium yearly and monthly
    values as well as the medium hourly values have been calculated. The
    calculations are based on the values of five calm days chosen with probabilistic
    methods from all the calm days of the month considered. The equation lias also been found from the medium hourly curve by
    means of harmonic analysis. Then the harmonics have been examined
    stopping at the third, and it has been found that these reflected the different
    general and local components such as that due to the masses of air of maritime
    origin and that due to the masses of continental air operating alternatively
    in the region of observation. The general minimum of the local hours
    "> a. m. (4 TU is clearly shown by the first harmonic, and it is also present
    in the medium hourly curve but appears in this less accentuated than what
    we would expect it to be.
    Finally the behaviours of the vertical gradient in clear, cloudy and
    calm days have been studied and the different results compared.
    The behaviour of the parameter of the atmospheric electricity in relation
    to the solar phenomena has also been studied and in particular with the
    behaviour of the sunspots during the eleven years of observations.

  2. Three-dimensional geometry and tectonostratigraphy of the Pennine zone, Central Alps, Switzerland and Northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxelon, Michael; Mancktelow, Neil S.

    2005-08-01

    Continental collision during Alpine orogenesis entailed a polyphase deformation history (D 1-D 5) in the Pennine zone of the Central Alps. The regional tectonostratigraphy was basically developed during D 1 and D 2, characterised by isoclinal, typically north-closing recumbent anticlines, separated by pinched-in synclines, on the scale of tens of kilometres. Later deformation phases (D 3 and D 4) warped the stack into wavy to open folds. Exhumation of this zone resulted locally in later vertical shortening and folding of already steep fabrics (D 5). Three-dimensional models of the nappe pile were constructed, based on geostatistical assessment of the regional foliation field and considering the abundant structural field data. These models indicate the existence of five principal tectonostratigraphic levels developed during D 1 and thus equivalent to nappe units s. str.: the Gotthard, the Leventina-Antigorio, the Maggia-Simano (and probably the Monte Leone as well as the Composite Lepontine Series), Lebendun-Soja and Adula-Cima Lunga levels. All these tectonic units formed part of the passive continental margin of Europe prior to the onset of the Alpine orogenesis. Individual isoclinal post-nappe folds reflect relative displacements on the order of 40 km or more. The most prominent D 2 post-nappe structure is the Wandfluhhorn Fold, structurally equivalent to the northern closure of the Leventina-Lucomagno Antiform. The Lebendun and Monte Leone folds are of similar magnitudes and also affect the whole nappe pile, whereas the smaller Mogno and Molare synforms only refold the Maggia-Simano nappe internally. Principal D 3 and D 4 structures are the tight Mergoscia Synform directly north of the Insubric Fault between Bellinzona and Locarno (Southern Steep Belt), the Maggia Steep Zone, forming the steep western limb of the Campo Tencia Synform and subdividing the Lepontine dome into the Simplon and Ticino subdomes, the Chiéra Synform steepening the dominant foliation in

  3. SISMIKO: emergency network deployment and data sharing for the 2016 central Italy seismic sequence

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    Milena Moretti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available At 01:36 UTC (03:36 local time on August 24th 2016, an earthquake Mw 6.0 struck an extensive sector of the central Apennines (coordinates: latitude 42.70° N, longitude 13.23° E, 8.0 km depth. The earthquake caused about 300 casualties and severe damage to the historical buildings and economic activity in an area located near the borders of the Umbria, Lazio, Abruzzo and Marche regions. The Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV located in few minutes the hypocenter near Accumoli, a small town in the province of Rieti. In the hours after the quake, dozens of events were recorded by the National Seismic Network (Rete Sismica Nazionale, RSN of the INGV, many of which had a ML > 3.0. The density and coverage of the RSN in the epicentral area meant the epicenter and magnitude of the main event and subsequent shocks that followed it in the early hours of the seismic sequence were well constrained. However, in order to better constrain the localizations of the aftershock hypocenters, especially the depths, a denser seismic monitoring network was needed. Just after the mainshock, SISMIKO, the coordinating body of the emergency seismic network at INGV, was activated in order to install a temporary seismic network integrated with the existing permanent network in the epicentral area. From August the 24th to the 30th, SISMIKO deployed eighteen seismic stations, generally six components (equipped with both velocimeter and accelerometer, with thirteen of the seismic station transmitting in real-time to the INGV seismic monitoring room in Rome. The design and geometry of the temporary network was decided in consolation with other groups who were deploying seismic stations in the region, namely EMERSITO (a group studying site-effects, and the emergency Italian strong motion network (RAN managed by the National Civil Protection Department (DPC. Further 25 BB temporary seismic stations were deployed by colleagues of the British Geological Survey

  4. 3D Quaternary deformation pattern in the central Po Plain (Northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sileo, G.; Mueller, K.; Michetti, A. M.; Livio, F.; Berlusconi, A.; Carcano, C.; Rogledi, S.; Vittori, E.

    2009-04-01

    The Po Plain is a foredeep basin flanked by the two major and active orogens of the Italian Peninsula, the Alps to the North and the Apennines to the South. The basin has a quasi - triangular shape and grades longitudinally to the East in the Adriatic Sea. We used petroleum industry seismic reflection data acquired by ENI E&P in the Central Po Plain, over an area spanning about 6800 km2 from Lake Como to the W to Lake Garda to the E, and from the Lombardian Southern Alps to the N and the Emilia Apennines to the S, in order to analyze and interpret selected seismic reflectors and to define the evolution in space and time of the local active tectonic structures. Folds associated with underlying thrusts were recognized based on deformation recorded by two regional sequence boundary horizons, i.e. the ‘A' Surface (1.6 Myr) and the ‘R' Surface (0. 9 Myr; e.g., Carcano & Piccin, 2002; Muttoni et al., 2003), characterized by good stratigraphic and age bracketing, and marking significant changes in the sedimentary architecture of the Po Basin. Age controls are based on stratigraphic, paleontological and magnetostratigraphic analysis by ENI E&P and Regione Lombardia (Carcano & Piccin, 2002; Scardia et al., 2006). The analysis of strain recorded by these horizons allowed us to: A) recognize a belt of active fold and thrust structures, each 10 to 20 km long, arranged with an en-echelon pattern across the whole Po Basin, and B) analyze their evolution over the Quaternary. 'A' surface (1.6 Myr) The ‘A' surface has been mapped over about 7800 Km2. From North to South four major morphobathymetric domains can be defined in the Pleistocene marine Po Basin: an Alpine platform domain, a slope that links it with the wider central basin domain, a smaller and steeper slope and an Apennine platform domain. The basin shape has an asymmetric transversal profile and is ca. 40 km wide. Several tectonic structures affect this surface. On the Alpine platform domain two small structures

  5. Assessing land take by urban development and its impact on carbon storage: Findings from two case studies in Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sallustio, L. [Dipartimento di Bioscienze e Territorio (DiBT), Università del Molise, C. da Fonte Lappone, I-86090 Isernia (Italy); Quatrini, V. [Dipartimento per l' Innovazione nei sistemi Biologici, Agroalimentari e Forestali (DIBAF), Università della Tuscia, v. San Camillo de Lellis, I-01100 Viterbo (Italy); Geneletti, D., E-mail: davide.geneletti@unitn.it [Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, University of Trento, Via Mesiano 77, 38123 Trento (Italy); Corona, P., E-mail: piermaria.corona@entecra.it [Consiglio per la ricerca in agricoltura e l' analisi dell' economia agraria, Forestry Research Centre (CRA-SEL), Viale S. Margherita 80, 52100 Arezzo (Italy); Marchetti, M. [Dipartimento di Bioscienze e Territorio (DiBT), Università del Molise, C. da Fonte Lappone, I-86090 Isernia (Italy)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • We tested a new methodology for monitoring land take and its effects on C storage. • The ecological impact of urban growth derives from the previous land use. • C loss increases with the naturalness of the territory. • Different urban assets may imply different forms of land take containment. Land take due to urbanization triggers a series of negative environmental impacts with direct effects on quality of life for people living in cities. Changes in ecosystem services are associated with land take, among which is the immediate C loss due to land use conversion. Land use change monitoring represents the first step in quantifying land take and its drivers and impacts. To this end, we propose an innovative methodology for monitoring land take and its effects on ecosystem services (in particular, C loss) under multi-scale contexts. The devised approach was tested in two areas with similar sizes, but different land take levels during the time-span 1990–2008 in Central Italy (the Province of Rome and the Molise Region). The estimates of total coverage of built up areas were calculated using point sampling. The area of the urban patches including each sampling point classified as built up areas in the year 1990 and/or in the year 2008 is used to estimate total abundance and average area of built up areas. Biophysical and economic values for carbon loss associated with land take were calculated using InVEST. Although land take was 7–8 times higher in the Province of Rome (from 15.1% in 1990 to 20.4% in 2008) than in Molise region, our findings show that its relative impact on C storage is higher in the latter, where the urban growth consistently affects not only croplands but also semi-natural land uses such as grasslands and other wooded lands. The total C loss due to land take has been estimated in 1.6 million Mg C, corresponding to almost 355 million €. Finally, the paper discusses the main characteristics of urban growth and their

  6. Architectural and microstructural characterization of a seismogenic normal fault in dolostones (Central Apennines, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demurtas, Matteo; Fondriest, Michele; Clemenzi, Luca; Balsamo, Fabrizio; Storti, Fabrizio; Di Toro, Giulio

    2015-04-01

    Fault zones cutting carbonate sequences represent significant seismogenic sources worldwide (e.g. L'Aquila 2009, MW 6.1). Though seismological and geophysical techniques (double differences method, trapped waves, etc.) allow us to investigate down to the decametric scale the structure of active fault zones, further geological field surveys and microstructural studies of exhumed seismogenic fault zones are required to support interpretation of geophysical data, quantify the geometry of fault zones and identify the fault processes active during the seismic cycle. Here we describe the architecture (i.e. fault geometry and fault rock distribution) of the well-exposed footwall-block of the Campo Imperatore Fault Zone (CIFZ) by means of remote sensed analyses, field surveys, mineralogical (XRD, micro-Raman spectroscopy) and microstructural (FE-SEM, optical microscope cathodoluminescence) investigations. The CIFZ dips 58° towards N210 and its strike mimics that of the arcuate Gran Sasso Thrust Belt (Central Apennines). The CIFZ was exhumed from 2-3 km depth and accommodated a normal throw of ~2 km starting from the Early-Pleistocene. In the studied area, the CIFZ puts in contact the Holocene deposits at the hangingwall with dolomitized Jurassic carbonate platform successions (Calcare Massiccio) at the footwall. From remote sensed analyses, structural lineaments both inside and outside the CIFZ have a typical NW-SE Apenninic strike, which is parallel to the local trend of the Gran Sasso Thrust. Based on the density of the fracture/fault network and the type of fault zone rocks, we distinguished four main structural domains within the ~300 m thick CIFZ footwall-block, which include (i) a well-cemented (white in color) cataclastic zone (up to ~40 m thick) at the contact with the Holocene deposits, (ii) a well-cemented (brown to grey in color) breccia zone (up to ~15 m thick), (iii) an high strain damage zone (fracture spacing 10 cm). Other than by the main boundary normal

  7. Short-term earthquake forecasting experiment before and during the L’Aquila (central Italy seismic sequence of April 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Murru

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we compare the forecasting performance of several statistical models, which are used to describe the occurrence process of earthquakes in forecasting the short-term earthquake probabilities during the L’Aquila earthquake sequence in central Italy in 2009. These models include the Proximity to Past Earthquakes (PPE model and two versions of the Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS model. We used the information gains corresponding to the Poisson and binomial scores to evaluate the performance of these models. It is shown that both ETAS models work better than the PPE model. However, in comparing the two types of ETAS models, the one with the same fixed exponent coefficient (alpha = 2.3 for both the productivity function and the scaling factor in the spatial response function (ETAS I, performs better in forecasting the active aftershock sequence than the model with different exponent coefficients (ETAS II, when the Poisson score is adopted. ETAS II performs better when a lower magnitude threshold of 2.0 and the binomial score are used. The reason is found to be that the catalog does not have an event of similar magnitude to the L’Aquila mainshock (Mw 6.3 in the training period (April 16, 2005 to March 15, 2009, and the (alpha-value is underestimated, thus the forecast seismicity is underestimated when the productivity function is extrapolated to high magnitudes. We also investigate the effect of the inclusion of small events in forecasting larger events. These results suggest that the training catalog used for estimating the model parameters should include earthquakes of magnitudes similar to the mainshock when forecasting seismicity during an aftershock sequence.

  8. Improving Landslide Forecasting Using ASCAT-Derived Soil Moisture Data: A Case Study of the Torgiovannetto Landslide in Central Italy

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    Wolfgang Wagner

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Predicting the spatial and temporal occurrence of rainfall triggered landslides represents an important scientific and operational issue due to the high threat that they pose to human life and property. This study investigates the relationship between rainfall, soil moisture conditions and landslide movement by using recorded movements of a rock slope located in central Italy, the Torgiovannetto landslide. This landslide is a very large rock slide, threatening county and state roads. Data acquired by a network of extensometers and a meteorological station clearly indicate that the movements of the unstable wedge, first detected in 2003, are still proceeding and the alternate phases of quiescence and reactivation are associated with rainfall patterns. By using a multiple linear regression approach, the opening of the tension cracks (as recorded by the extensometers as a function of rainfall and soil moisture conditions prior the occurrence of rainfall, are predicted for the period 2007–2009. Specifically, soil moisture indicators are obtained through the Soil Water Index, SWI, a product derived by the Advanced SCATterometer (ASCAT on board the MetOp (Meteorological Operational satellite and by an Antecedent Precipitation Index, API. Results indicate that the regression performance (in terms of correlation coefficient, r significantly enhances if an indicator of the soil moisture conditions is included. Specifically, r is equal to 0.40 when only rainfall is used as a predictor variable and increases to r = 0.68 and r = 0.85 if the API and the SWI are used respectively. Therefore, the coarse spatial resolution (25 km of satellite data notwithstanding, the ASCAT SWI is found to be very useful for the prediction of landslide movements on a local scale. These findings, although valid for a specific area, present new opportunities for the effective use of satellite-derived soil moisture estimates to improve landslide forecasting.

  9. Source parameters of small and moderate earthquakes in the area of the 2009 L’Aquila earthquake sequence (central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Sebastiano; Orecchio, Barbara; Presti, Debora; Neri, Giancarlo; Wu, Wen-Nan; Sandu, Ilie; Zhu, Lupei; Herrmann, Robert B.

    The main goal of this study is to provide moment tensor solutions for small and moderate earthquakes of the 2009 L’Aquila seismic sequence (central Italy). The analysis was performed by using data coming from the permanent Italian seismic network run by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) and the “Cut And Paste” (CAP) method based on broadband waveform inversion. Focal mechanisms, source depths and moment magnitudes are determined through a grid search technique. By allowing time shifts between synthetics and observed data the CAP method reduces dependence of the solution on the assumed velocity model and on earthquake location. We computed seismic moment tensors for 312 earthquakes having local magnitude in the range between 2.7 and 5.9. The CAP method has made possible to considerably expand the database of focal mechanisms from waveform analysis in the lowest magnitude range (i.e. in the neighborhood of magnitude 3) without overlooking the reliability of results. The obtained focal mechanisms generally show NW-SE striking focal planes in agreement with mapped faults in the region. Comparisons with the already published solutions and with seismological and geological information available allowed us to proper interpret the moment tensor solutions in the frame of the seismic sequence evolution and also to furnish additional information about less energetic seismic phases. Focal data were inverted to obtain the seismogenic stress in the study area. Results are compatible with the major tectonic domain. We also obtained a relation between moment and local magnitude suitable for the area and for the available magnitude range.

  10. Umbria-Marche Basin, Central Italy: A Reference Section for the Aptian-Albian Interval at Low Latitudes

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    Renato Paes de Almeida

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Within the Cretaceous Period, the Aptian-Albian interval (125–99.6 Ma, Ogg et al., 2008 was a critical time on a global scale. This is evident from 1 changes in the nature of the ocean-climate system brought about by increased ocean crust production coupled with active midplate and plate margin volcanism in a shifting paleogeography (Skelton et al., 2003; 2 cyclic deposition and preservation of common “black shales”, some of them termed Oceanic Anoxic Events(OAE1a to OAE1d (Schlanger and Jenkyns, 1976; Arthur et al., 1990; 3 periodic changes in redox conditions at the ocean bottom (Oceanic Red Beds, ORBs (Wang et al., 2009; and 4 rapid biotic radiations and turnovers (Leckie et al., 2002. The Aptian-Albian time is also of interest for one of the most noteworthy geomagnetic events, namely the post-M0r “Cretaceous Quiet Zone”. This long and constant normal polarity superchron without any convincing true reversal to date (Satolli et al., 2008 precludes usage of reversals magnetostratigraphy from the Aptian through the Santonian. The Poggio le Guaine core was designed to provide a high-resolution age model and a high-resolution relative magnetic paleointensity reference curve for the Aptian-Albian interval of the long normal Cretaceous superchron; it was also designed to understand the causal linkages among geological, biogeochemical, oceanographic and climatic eventsas well as their consequences. The core was drilled at Poggio le Guaine, where the most continuous, complete, and best preserved Aptian-Albian succession is exposed throughout the Umbria-Marche Basin (UMB of the northern Apennines of central Italy (Fig. 1. It represents a continuous record of fossiliferous pelagic rocks extending from the Albian-Cenomanian boundary down to the uppermost Barremian (99.6–126 Ma. In this progress report we present the first preliminary findings of this ongoing project.

  11. Analysis of energy wood supply chain in thinning operations: a case study in a pine stand of Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldini S

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Thinning is an essential practice in Mediterranean pine forests management but is rarely applied because of the high harvesting costs. The new market of bioenergy products could give a profit to wood biomass harvesting activities, though the drawbacks of elevated supply chain costs, related to technical problems and lack of knowledge about the wood quality have to be overcome in advance. This study analyzed technical, economic, energy and environmental factors of a pine stand thinning in Central Italy, where collected biomass was directed to energy, in order to give a decisional support to reach economical profitability and environmental sustainability in thinning practices. The introduction of Full Tree System maximized the recovery of available biomass, full tree chipping produced material with Heating Value superior than single tree components. The use of a felling frame in motor-manual felling in comparison with the traditional chainsaw reduced operator effort, increasing the number of felled trees per hour, when the stump diameter remained under 15 cm. The energy wood supply chain is not sustainable from an economic point of view, the profitability could be reached only acting on suggested technical levers and particularly reducing costs of hauling operation. The estimation of output/input energy ratio in the supply chain underlined the feasibility of thinning practices for energy. The assessment of CO2 emissions confirmed the environmental sustainability of biomass supply chain in energy when compared to traditional fossil fuels. Study conclusions provide the guidelines for thinning treatment in Mediterranean pine stands, in order to reach environmental and economic sustainability of these practices.

  12. Climate change: consequences on the pollination of grasses in Perugia (Central Italy). A 33-year-long study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofia, Ghitarrini; Emma, Tedeschini; Veronica, Timorato; Giuseppe, Frenguelli

    2017-01-01

    Many works carried out in the last decades have shown that the pollen season for taxa flowering in winter and spring, in temperate regions, has tended to be earlier, probably due to the continuous rise in temperature. The mean annual temperature in Perugia, Central Italy, was about 0.5 °C higher in the last three decades compared with that registered from 1952 to 1981. The increase of temperature took place mainly in winter and spring, while no significant variation was recorded during the summer and autumn. This scenario shows variations in the timing and behavior of flowering of many spontaneous plants such as grasses, whose phenology is strongly influenced by air temperature. This work reports fluctuations in the airborne grass pollen presence in Perugia over a 33-year period (1982-2014), in order to study the influence of the warming registered in recent years on the behavior of pollen release of this taxon. The grass pollen season in Perugia typically lasts from the beginning of May to late July. The start dates showed a marked trend to an earlier beginning of the season (-0.4 day/year), as well as a strong correlation with the average temperatures of March and April. The peak is reached around 30th May, but the annual pollen index (API) is following a decreasing trend. The correlation between starting dates and spring temperatures could be interesting for the constitution of a forecasting model capable of predicting the presence of airborne grass pollen, helping to plan therapies for allergic people.

  13. Characterization of active fault scarps from medium to high resolution DEM: case studies from Central and Southern Apennines (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunori, C.; Cinti, F. R.; Ventura, G.

    2013-12-01

    We identify geo-morphometric features of active fault scarps in Italy through a semiautomatic processing using GIS. Medium to high resolution DEM was used to characterize the geometry, structural, and erosive elements of two seismogenic normal faults in Central and Southern Apennines. The Pettino fault in L'Aquila area was detected using a 1 m pixel DEM derived from airborne LiDAR survey (Friuli Venezia Giulia Civil Protection). For the Castrovillari fault in northern Calabria region was used a 4 m pixel DEM (Regional Cartography Office of Regione Calabria). Scarp segments are region of planar discontinuities identified by selected values of DEM-derived Terrain Ruggedness Index (TRI) and Vector Ruggedness Measure (VRM). These planar discontinuities corresponds to landscape features such as, river terraces, roads scarps, and other natural or human features. The discrimination between these features have been accomplished overlaying extracted features on aerial photograph, geological and geomorphologic maps and in situ survey. After that, we perform the quantitative and statistical analysis of these areas identified as "fault scarps". The identification of elements relative to the scarps (e.g. base, crest, slope) is then obtained to derive the estimate of parameters describing the fault: altitude, height of the scarp, length, slope and aspect, Terrain Ruggedness Index (TRI) and Vector Ruggedness Measure (VRM). The spatial distribution of the extracted values was obtained through their statistical analysis. We analyze scarp parameters variations along the whole scarp extent, such as strike value from aspect variations, slope and profile curvature differences as indicators of tectonic and/or erosion activity. The combined analysis of the DEM-derived parameters allows us to (a) define aspects of three-dimensional scarp geometry, (b) decipher its geomorphological significance, and (c) estimate the long-term slip rate.

  14. Climate change: consequences on the pollination of grasses in Perugia (Central Italy). A 33-year-long study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofia, Ghitarrini; Emma, Tedeschini; Veronica, Timorato; Giuseppe, Frenguelli

    2016-06-01

    Many works carried out in the last decades have shown that the pollen season for taxa flowering in winter and spring, in temperate regions, has tended to be earlier, probably due to the continuous rise in temperature. The mean annual temperature in Perugia, Central Italy, was about 0.5 °C higher in the last three decades compared with that registered from 1952 to 1981. The increase of temperature took place mainly in winter and spring, while no significant variation was recorded during the summer and autumn. This scenario shows variations in the timing and behavior of flowering of many spontaneous plants such as grasses, whose phenology is strongly influenced by air temperature. This work reports fluctuations in the airborne grass pollen presence in Perugia over a 33-year period (1982-2014), in order to study the influence of the warming registered in recent years on the behavior of pollen release of this taxon. The grass pollen season in Perugia typically lasts from the beginning of May to late July. The start dates showed a marked trend to an earlier beginning of the season (-0.4 day/year), as well as a strong correlation with the average temperatures of March and April. The peak is reached around 30th May, but the annual pollen index (API) is following a decreasing trend. The correlation between starting dates and spring temperatures could be interesting for the constitution of a forecasting model capable of predicting the presence of airborne grass pollen, helping to plan therapies for allergic people.

  15. The MCS intensity distribution of the devastating 24 August 2016 earthquake in central Italy (MW 6.2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Galli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe the macroseismic survey of the 24 August 2016 earthquake in central Italy (M_W 6.2. By applying a revised version of the Mercalli-Cancani-Sieberg scale, we estimated the site intensity in more than 300 localities of Lazio, Abruzzi, Umbria and Marche regions, providing the Civil Protection with a quick and robust snapshot of the earthquake. The most severe effects are focused south of the instrumental epicenter, in the Amatrice intermountain basin, where intensity reached 10-11 MCS. Highest damage (area inside 9 MCS isoseismal is focused in a NNW-SSE belt of the hangingwall of the causative faults, i.e. the southern segment of the Mount Vettore fault system and the northern segment of the Laga Mounts fault system, with northward damage propagation in the far-field. The intensity dataset allows to evaluate a M_W 6.16±0.5, which is very close to the instrumental magnitude, with a seismogenic box striking N161°, mimicking the geological active faults. Epicentral intensity is I_0 10 MCS, I_MAX 10-11. The elevated level of destruction is mainly due to the high vulnerability of buildings, mostly made by cobblestone masonry. Integrating the macroseismic information with the geological, geodetical and geophysical data it is possible to hypothesize a bidirectional rupture propagation (toward NNW and SSE along the two different faults. It is also possible to attribute the 1639, M_W 6.0 earthquake to the same source of the southern 2016 rupture (northernmost Laga Mounts faults.

  16. Geochemical study of travertines along middle-lower Tiber valley (central Italy): genesis, palaeo-environmental and tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giustini, Francesca; Brilli, Mauro; Mancini, Marco

    2017-09-01

    Several travertine deposits dating to the Pleistocene outcrop along the Tiber valley between Orte and Rome. Mineralogically, they are mainly composed of calcite; various lithofacies (stromatolitic, phytoclastic, and massive) were identified and relatively wide ranges of carbon (δ13C -8.11 to +11.42‰ vs. VPDB) and oxygen (δ18O +22.74 to +27.71‰ vs. VSMOW) isotope compositions were measured. The isotope and chemical compositions of water and free gases, in some cases associated with the travertines, were also measured. Carbon isotope data show that several samples fall in the typical range of thermogenic travertine, i.e., linked to the addition of deep inorganic CO2. The oxygen isotope composition of the springs associated with the travertine deposits points to travertine precipitation by slightly thermal water of meteoric origin. In general, these travertines are in association with, or close to, mineralised groundwaters (with slightly acidic pH, low thermalism, and enrichment in sulphates or sodium chloride) and rich CO2 gas emissions, the origin of which may be linked to decarbonation reactions. The travertine bodies are locally connected with crustal structural lineaments favouring the circulation of ascending deep CO2-rich fluids. Conversely, some samples show isotopic connotations of meteogenic deposits, representing travertines formed mainly from soil biogenic or atmospheric carbon dioxide generally present in shallow groundwater or surface water. According to their morphology and isotope data, these travertines may be attributed to the sedimentary environment of waterfalls. These new geochemical and morphological data are integrated with those already available in the literature regarding the study area and contribute to shedding light on palaeo-environmental conditions in western-central Italy during the Quaternary.

  17. Application of a process-based shallow landslide hazard model over a broad area in Central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioia, Eleonora; Speranza, Gabriella; Ferretti, Maurizio; Godt, Jonathan W.; Baum, Rex L.; Marincioni, Fausto

    2015-01-01

    Process-based models are widely used for rainfall-induced shallow landslide forecasting. Previous studies have successfully applied the U.S. Geological Survey’s Transient Rainfall Infiltration and Grid-Based Regional Slope-Stability (TRIGRS) model (Baum et al. 2002) to compute infiltration-driven changes in the hillslopes’ factor of safety on small scales (i.e., tens of square kilometers). Soil data input for such models are difficult to obtain across larger regions. This work describes a novel methodology for the application of TRIGRS over broad areas with relatively uniform hydrogeological properties. The study area is a 550-km2 region in Central Italy covered by post-orogenic Quaternary sediments. Due to the lack of field data, we assigned mechanical and hydrological property values through a statistical analysis based on literature review of soils matching the local lithologies. We calibrated the model using rainfall data from 25 historical rainfall events that triggered landslides. We compared the variation of pressure head and factor of safety with the landslide occurrence to identify the best fitting input conditions. Using calibrated inputs and a soil depth model, we ran TRIGRS for the study area. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, comparing the model’s output with a shallow landslide inventory, shows that TRIGRS effectively simulated the instability conditions in the post-orogenic complex during historical rainfall scenarios. The implication of this work is that rainfall-induced landslides over large regions may be predicted by a deterministic model, even where data on geotechnical and hydraulic properties as well as temporal changes in topography or subsurface conditions are not available.

  18. Microplastic pollution in lakes and lake shoreline sediments - A case study on Lake Bolsena and Lake Chiusi (central Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Elke Kerstin; Paglialonga, Lisa; Czech, Elisa; Tamminga, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    Rivers and effluents have been identified as major pathways for microplastics of terrestrial sources. Moreover, lakes of different dimensions and even in remote locations contain microplastics in striking abundances. This study investigates concentrations of microplastic particles at two lakes in central Italy (Lake Bolsena, Lake Chiusi). A total number of six Manta Trawls have been carried out, two of them one day after heavy winds occurred on Lake Bolsena showing effects on particle distribution of fragments and fibers of varying size categories. Additionally, 36 sediment samples from lakeshores were analyzed for microplastic content. In the surface waters 2.68 to 3.36 particles/m(3) (Lake Chiusi) and 0.82 to 4.42 particles/m(3) (Lake Bolsena) were detected, respectively. Main differences between the lakes are attributed to lake characteristics such as surface and catchment area, depth and the presence of local wind patterns and tide range at Lake Bolsena. An event of heavy winds and moderate rainfall prior to one sampling led to an increase of concentrations at Lake Bolsena which is most probable related to lateral land-based and sewage effluent inputs. The abundances of microplastic particles in sediments vary from mean values of 112 (Lake Bolsena) to 234 particles/kg dry weight (Lake Chiusi). Lake Chiusi results reveal elevated fiber concentrations compared to those of Lake Bolsena what might be a result of higher organic content and a shift in grain size distribution towards the silt and clay fraction at the shallow and highly eutrophic Lake Chiusi. The distribution of particles along different beach levels revealed no significant differences.

  19. Water quality assessment of carbonate aquifers in southern Latium region, Central Italy: a case study for irrigation and drinking purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sappa, Giuseppe; Ergul, Sibel; Ferranti, Flavia

    2014-06-01

    In southern Latium region, Central Italy, groundwater and spring water resources in the carbonate aquifers are the major contributors of drinking and irrigation water supply. The aim of this study was to review hydrochemical processes that control the groundwater chemistry and to determine the suitability of springs and groundwater for irrigation and drinking purposes on the basis of the water quality indices. Physical (pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids) and hydrochemical characteristics (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO3 -, Cl-, and SO4 -) of springs and groundwater were determined. To assess the water quality, chemical parameters like sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), total hardness, Mg-hazard (MH), sodium percentage (Na %), salinity hazard, permeability index, and Kelly's ratio were calculated based on the analytical results. A Durov diagram plot revealed that the groundwater has been evolved from Ca to HCO3 recharge water, followed by mixing and reverse ion exchange processes, due to the respective dominance of Na-Cl and Ca-Cl water types. According to Gibbs's diagram plots, chemical weathering of rock forming minerals is the major driving force controlling water chemistry in this area. Groundwater and spring samples were grouped into six categories according to irrigation water quality assessment diagram of US Salinity Laboratory classification and most of the water samples distributed in category C2-S1 and C3-S1 highlighting medium to high salinity hazard and low sodium content class. The results of hydrochemical analyses and the calculated water quality parameters suggest that most of the water samples are suitable for irrigation and drinking purposes, except for the samples influenced by seawater and enhanced water-rock interaction. High values of salinity, Na %, SAR, and MH at certain sites, restrict the suitability for agricultural uses.

  20. Natural phytoplasma infection of four phloem-feeding Auchenorrhyncha across vineyard agroecosystems in central-eastern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, L; Isidoro, N; Rioloi, P

    2013-04-01

    The seasonal variations of grapevine yellow phytoplasma were investigated in four phloem-feeding planthopper and leafhopper species that are vectors of plant disease agents. In total, 1,148 wild specimens were collected from three vineyard agroecosystems in the Marche region (central-eastern Italy), from May to September 2008, and analyzed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment-length polymorphism methods. Of 525 Euscelis lineolatus Brullé, 25.1% were positive for aster yellow phytoplasma (16SrI-C, 16SrI-B subgroups) and stolbur phytoplasma (16SrXII-A subgroup; Vergilbungskrankheit type I [VK-I]). Of 368 Hyalesthes obsoletus Signoret, 19.3% were positive for the 16SrXII-A subgroup (VK-I, VK-II; mainly according to their host plant). Of 146 Neoaliturus fenestratus (Herrich-Schäffer), 15.1% were positive for the 16SrI-C and 16SrI-B subgroups, and 7.3% of 109 Psammotettix alienus (Dahlbom) were positive for the 16SrI-B subgroup. The total inoculation efficiency in the feeding medium assays was 57.1% for P. alienus, 44.7% for E. lineolatus, 44.4% for N. fenestratus and 33.9% for H. obsoletus. All of the phytoplasma subgroups identified in the insect bodies were also detected in their feeding media. Detection of stolbur phytoplasma in E. lineolatus feeding media strengthens the hypothesis that it is a candidate vector of Bois noir disease causal agent. The phytoplasma subgroups detected in the Auchenorrhyncha species showed variations according to season and/or vineyard agroecosystem. This study highlights the different specificities of these phytoplasma-Auchenorrhyncha species relationships, and suggests a primary role of the entire vineyard agroecosystem in the epidemiology of grapevine yellow phytoplasma diseases.

  1. Ground motion modeling for the 6 April 2009 earthquake (MW 6.3) at Poggio Picenze (central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, M. R.; Nunziata, C.

    2015-04-01

    The town of Poggio Picenze (central Italy), located ~12 km SE of L'Aquila, reported a damage intensity of VIII-IX (MCS) for the 6 April 2009 (MW = 6.3) earthquake. In the following days, two stations (M128 and PGG) were operating in the historical centre and recorded several aftershocks. The aim of this paper is to model ground motion at Poggio Picenze for the 6 April 2009 earthquake. First, recordings of 16 aftershocks (2.0 ≤ ML ≤ 4.2), located in the epicentral area of the strong event, are processed to define average shear wave velocity (VS) profiles with depth through the non-linear inversion of Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion curves of the fundamental mode extracted with the frequency-time analysis. Then, the local average VS model and the regional model, in addition to two shallow downhole measurements, are used to define two 2-D cross-sections passing through the seismic stations. Ground motion is modeled along such cross-sections for the strongest aftershock (ML = 4.2) with the hybrid method consisting of modal summation and finite difference algorithms. Once the modeling results at the M128 and PGG stations are validated, the ground motion is computed for the main shock. Spectral amplifications up to factors 5-6 are estimated at 3-4 Hz for the vertical component and up to factors 2-3 at 2-6 Hz for the radial and transverse components. Ground accelerations are maximum in the horizontal plane, along the transverse component (around 0.4 g) and are half along the vertical component.

  2. Directional Resonance and Wavefield Polarization in the Damage Zone of the Campo Imperatore Fault Zone (central Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pischiutta, M.; Fondriest, M.; Demurtas, M.; Di Toro, G.; Rovelli, A.

    2014-12-01

    To infer the occurrence of directional amplification effects, we performed ambient noise measurements along a 200m transect crossing the Campo Imperatore fault zone (Central Italy), an exhumed analogue of the faults responsible of the L'Aquila 2009 earthquake sequence, We have recently found in several fault zones that ambient noise is not randomly polarized, but it is amplified on the horizontal plane along a specific site-dependent direction. The analysis repeated using earthquake signals revealed that S-coda waves and surface waves show the same polarization direction, independently of the earthquake backazimuth and focal mechanism. We have explained the observed directional amplifications in terms of fractured rocks in the fault damage zone, polarization being oriented orthogonally to fractures produced by the kinematic stress component. Therefore ground motion directional amplification could be related to the higher compliance of fractured rocks. In the other studies the fracture pattern was derived from numerical-analytical modeling based on the fault geometry and kinematics, or compared with the fast direction of shear wave obtained by seismic anisotropy analysis. The aim of this study is to compare observations with fracture measurements (strike, dip, dip-azimuth, spacing, later continuity, etc.) performed in the selected fault zone. We thus acquired ambient noise using 25 stations installed along a transect where detailed structural geological measurements were carried out. Ambient noise was recorded for around 1 hour, and was processed to compute the horizontal-to-vertical noise spectral ratio as a function of frequency and direction of motion. Wavefield polarization was investigated in the time-frequency domain as well. We found that, in spite of the complexity of the seismic data, the observed polarization pattern is generally oriented orthogonal to the measured dominant fracture system, confirming the existence of a high angle relation between ground

  3. Multi-sensor analysis of convective activity in central Italy during the HyMeX SOP 1.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, N.; Adirosi, E.; Baldini, L.; Casella, D.; Dietrich, S.; Gatlin, P.; Panegrossi, G.; Petracca, M.; Sanò, P.; Tokay, A.

    2016-02-01

    A multi-sensor analysis of convective precipitation events that occurred in central Italy in autumn 2012 during the HyMeX (Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean experiment) Special Observation Period (SOP) 1.1 is presented. Various microphysical properties of liquid and solid hydrometeors are examined to assess their relationship with lightning activity. The instrumentation used consisted of a C-band dual-polarization weather radar, a 2-D video disdrometer, and the LINET lightning network. Results of T-matrix simulation for graupel were used to (i) tune a fuzzy logic hydrometeor classification algorithm based on Liu and Chandrasekar (2000) for the detection of graupel from C-band dual-polarization radar measurements and (ii) to retrieve graupel ice water content. Graupel mass from radar measurements was related to lightning activity. Three significant case studies were analyzed and linear relations between the total mass of graupel and number of LINET strokes were found with different slopes depending on the nature of the convective event (such as updraft strength and freezing level height) and the radar observational geometry. A high coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.856) and a slope in agreement with satellite measurements and model results for one of the case studies (15 October 2012) were found. Results confirm that one of the key features in the electrical charging of convective clouds is the ice content, although it is not the only one. Parameters of the gamma raindrop size distribution measured by a 2-D video disdrometer revealed the transition from a convective to a stratiform regime. The raindrop size spectra measured by a 2-D video disdrometer were used to partition rain into stratiform and convective classes. These results are further analyzed in relation to radar measurements and to the number of strokes. Lightning activity was not always recorded when the precipitation regime was classified as convective rain. High statistical scores were found

  4. Spatial Distribution of Soil Organic Matter Using Geostatistics: A Key Indicator to Assess Soil Degradation Status in Central Italy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.MARCHETTI; C.PICCINI; R.FRANCAVIGLIA; L.MABIT

    2012-01-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) content is one of the main factors to be considered in the evaluation of soil health and fertility.As timing,human and monetary resources often limit the amount of available data,geostatistical techniques provide a valid scientific approach to cope with spatial variability,to interpolate existing data and to predict values at unsampled locations for accurate SOM status survey.Using geostatistical and geographic information system (GIS) approaches,the spatial variability of some physical and chemical soil parameters was investigated under Mediterranean climatic condition in the Abruzzo region of central Italy,where soil erosion processes accelerated by human induced factors are the main causes of soil degradation associated with low SOM content.Experimental semivariograms were established to determine the spatial dependence of the soil variables under investigation.The results of 250 soil sampling point data were interpolated by means of ordinary kriging coupled with a GIS to produce contour maps distribution of soil texture,SOM content related to texture,and C/N ratio.The resulting spatial interpolation of the dataset highlighted a low content of SOM in relation with soil texture in most of the surveyed area (87%) and an optimal C/N ratio for only half of the investigated surface area.Spatial location of degraded area and the assessment of its magnitude can provide decision makers with an accurate support to design appropriate soil conservation strategies and then facilitate a regional planning of agri-environmental measures in the framework of the European Common Agricultural Policy.

  5. Inside the polygonal walls of Amelia (Central Italy): A multidisciplinary data integration, encompassing geodetic monitoring and geophysical prospections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercoli, M.; Brigante, R.; Radicioni, F.; Pauselli, C.; Mazzocca, M.; Centi, G.; Stoppini, A.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate a portion of the ancient (VI and IV centuries BC) polygonal walls of Amelia, in Central Italy. After the collapse of a portion of the walls which occurred in January 2006, a wide project started in order to monitor their external facade and inspect the characteristics of the internal structure, currently not clearly known. In this specific case, the preservation of such an important cultural heritage was mandatory, therefore invasive methods like drilling or archaeological essays cannot be used. For this purpose, a multidisciplinary approach represents an innovative way to shed light on their inner structure. We combine several non-invasive techniques such as Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), specifically adapted for this study, Laser Scanning and Digital Terrestrial Photogrammetry, integrated with other geomatic measures provided by a Total Station and Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). After collecting some historical information, we gather the whole datasets exploring for their integration an interpretation approach borrowed from the reflection seismic (attribute analysis and three dimensional visualization). The results give rise for the first time to the internal imaging of this ancient walls, highlighting features associable to different building styles related to different historical periods. Among the result, we define a max wall thickness of about 3.5 m for the cyclopic sector, we show details of the internal block organization and we detect low resistivity values interpretable with high water content behind the basal part of the walls. Then, quantitative analyses to assess their reliable geotechnical stability are done, integrating new geometrical constrains provided by the geophysics and geo-technical ground parameters available in literature. From this analysis, we highlight how the Amelia walls are interested, in the investigated sector, by a critical pseudo-static equilibrium.

  6. Rapid determination of P-wave-based Energy Magnitude: Insights on source parameter scaling of the 2016 Central Italy earthquake sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picozzi, Matteo; Bindi, Dino; Brondi, Piero; Di Giacomo, Domenico; Parolai, Stefano; Zollo, Aldo

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we proposed a novel methodology for the rapid estimation of the earthquake size from the seismic radiated energy. Two relationships have been calibrated using recordings from 29 earthquakes of the 2009 L'Aquila and the 2012 Emilia seismic sequences in Italy. The first relation allows obtaining seismic radiated energy ER estimates using as proxy the time integral of squared P-waves velocities measured over vertical components, including regional attributes for describing the attenuation with distance. The second relation is a regression between the local magnitude and the radiated energy, which allows defining an energy-based local magnitude (MLe) compatible with ML for small earthquakes. We have applied the new procedure to the seismic sequence that struck central Italy in 2016. Scaling relationships involving seismic moment and radiated energy are discussed considering the Mw 6.0 Amatrice, Mw 5.9 Ussita and Mw 6.5 Norcia earthquakes and their ML >4 aftershocks, in total 38 events. The Mw 6.0 Amatrice earthquake presents the highest apparent stress, and the observed differences among the three larger shocks highlight the dynamic heterogeneity with which large earthquakes can occur in central Italy. Differences between MLe and Mw measures allows to identify events characterized by a higher amount of energy transferred to seismic waves, providing important constraints for the real-time evaluation of an earthquake shaking potential.

  7. A multi-disciplinary approach to study coastal complex landslides: the case of Torino di Sangro (Central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciarra, Marco; Carabba, Luigi; Urbano, Tullio; Calista, Monia

    2016-04-01

    This work illustrates the studies carried out on a complex landslide phenomenon between the Sangro and Osento River's mouths, near Torino di Sangro village in Southern Abruzzo Region (Italy). Historical activity of this landslide is well-documented since 1916; the activation/reactivation of the movements caused several interruptions of a national railway and the damage of few houses. The Torino di Sangro case study can be regarded as representative of many large landslides distributed along the central Adriatic coast (e.g., Ancona, Ortona, Vasto and Petacciato Landslides) that affect densely populated urban areas with a large amount of man-made infrastructure. The main controlling factors of these large and deep-seated landslides are still debated. From the geological and geomorphological viewpoint, the central Adriatic coast is characterized by a low-relief landscape (mesa) carved on clay-sandstone-conglomerate bedrock belonging to the Upper Pliocene - Lower Pleistocene marine deposits and locally to the Middle Pleistocene marine to continental transitional deposits. This high coast is widely affected by slope instability (rock falls, rotational, complex and shallow landslides) on both active and inactive sea cliffs, the first being mainly affected by wave-cut erosion and the latter influenced by heavy rainfall and changes of pore pressure. The main landslide has the typical characteristics of a deep-seated gravitation deformation. The landslide study was based on a multidisciplinary approach including: 1) definition and GIS mapping of geology and geomorphology factors (slope, aspect, topographic curvature, bedrock lithology, near-surface deposits, deposit thickness and land use), by means of DTM processing, multi-temporal analysis, and large-scale geomorphological field survey; 2) monitoring system in the landslide; 3) application of empiric models for the analysis of unstable sandstone-conglomerate escarpments; 4) slope stability analysis performed using a

  8. Seismic slip history of the Pizzalto fault (Central Apennines, Italy) using in situ 36Cl cosmogenic dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delli Rocioli, Mattia; Pace, Bruno; Benedetti, Lucilla; Visini, Francesco; Guillou, Valery; Bourlès, Didier; Arnorld, Maurice; Aumaître, Georges; Keddadouche, Karim

    2013-04-01

    A prerequisite to constrain fault-based and time-dependent earthquake rupture forecast models is to acquire data on the past large earthquake frequency on an individual seismogenic source. Here we present a paleoseismological study on the Pizzalto fault using the in situ produced cosmogenic nuclide 36Cl (Schlagenhauf et al., 2011). The Pizzalto fault, located in central Italy about 50 km southeast of the epicenter of L'Aquila 2009 earthquake, is about 12 km long, SW dipping and belongs to the 30 km long Rotella-Aremogna active normal fault system. Recent activity along the Pizzalto fault is suggested by the presence of a continuous and linear 2 to 5 m high limestone fault scarp that was sampled every 10 cm at a site located in its particularly well-preserved central portion. 49 samples have been chemically processed and measured, and their 36Cl and Cl concentrations have been determined using isotope dilution mass spectrometry at the French AMS national facility ASTER located at CEREGE. Modeling the in situ 36Cl concentration with the scarp height allow deciphering the age and slip of the last major earthquake events on the fault. To derive those earthquake parameters, we used the published Matlab code from Schlagenhauf et al. (2011) that we implemented with a Monte Carlo approach to explore a large number of earthquake recurrence scenarios varying both the number of events, their slip and their ages. The "a priori" constraints input in the Monte Carlo code were: 1-the number of events, which is given by the stacking of individual probability density functions (assumed to be Gaussian) of each sample concentration; and, 2-the cumulative slip that should be equal to the height of the fault scarp. The first results show that 36Cl concentrations are reproduced better considering five events occurring over the last 5 ka and a previous one at about 13 ka. This suggests that most earthquake events clustered during a period of intense seismic activity preceded by a longer

  9. Geodetic model of the 2016 Central Italy earthquake sequence inferred from InSAR and GPS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheloni, Daniele

    2017-04-01

    On 24th August 2016, a Mw 6.0 earthquake struck a sector of the Apennines in Central Italy, causing extensive damage to the town of Amatrice and several surroundings villages, and killing about 300 inhabitants. The seismic sequence which followed was characterized by numerous aftershocks southeast and northwest of the main event, which decreased in frequency and magnitude until the end of October, when an event of magnitude Mw 5.9 occurred on 26th October about 25 km to the NW of the 24th August event, close to Visso village. In addition, few days later, on 30th October a third great shock of magnitude Mw 6.5, nucleated below the town of Norcia, hit an area encompassing the two previous main events. In order to infer the ground displacement field and to determine the source parameters of the causative faults associated with the three main events of the seismic sequence we exploit the InSAR and GPS coseismic measurements. In particular, we use SAR data acquired by the ALOS-2 (Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency), Sentinel-1 (European Space Agency) and COSMO-SkyMed (Italian Space Agency) satellites, from both ascending and descending orbits, and data from continuous and survey-mode GPS stations operating during the earthquake sequence. We show that our preferred model is consistent with the activation of at least four main coseismic asperities during the entire sequence, belonging to a SW-dipping normal fault system, the surface expression of which could be associated with the Mt. Gorzano-Mt. Vettore-Mt. Bove alignment. To better simulate the complex deformation pattern associated with the greatest event of the sequence (the 30th October Mw 6.5 Norcia earthquake), additional slip is required by secondary anti- and synthetic faults in the hanging-wall of the main fault, and by a further SW-dipping low-angle fault plane. Finally, we compare the latter retrieved geodetic source with the known geological structures of the Central Apennines; this result may suggest a

  10. Soil gas profiles across buried fault and exposed coseismic ruptures during the Amatrice and Norcia earthquakes, Central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciarra, Alessandra; Ciotoli, Giancarlo; Ruggiero, Livio; Annunziatellis, Aldo; Bigi, Sabina; Graziani, Stefano

    2017-04-01

    Following the earthquake (ML=6.0) of 24 August 2016 that affected large part of the central Apennine between the municipalities of Norcia (PG) and Amatrice (RI) (Central Italy), two soil gas profiles (i.e., 222Rn, 220Rn, CO2 and CO2 flux) were carried out across buried and exposed coseismic fault rupture of the Mt. Vettore fault during the seismic sequence. Two months later, another event with MW=6.5 (30th of October at 06:40 UTC) occurred in the northernmost sector of the activated area among Norcia, Preci (PG), and Castel Sant'Angelo sul Nera (MC) causing large surface fracturing also overlapped to the previous ones. A couple of weeks before and few days after the main shock, two soil gas profiles (i.e., 222Rn, 220Rn, CO2 and CO2 flux) were carried out across coseismic fault rupture in the Castelluccio Plain, SW of the Mt. Vettore. The objective of the surveys was to explore the mechanisms of migration and the spatial behaviour of different gas species near still-degassing active fault. Results provide higher gas and CO2 flux values (about twice for 222Rn and CO2 flux) in correspondence of the buried sector of the fault than those measured across the exposed coseismic rupture. Anomalous peaks due to advective migration are clearly visible on both side of the buried fault (profile 1), whereas the lower soil gas concentrations measured across the exposed coseimic rupture (profile 2) are mainly caused by shallow and still acting diffusive degassing associated to faulting during the seismic sequence. Moreover, soil gas profiles crossing a coseismic rupture and a buried conjugate of the Mt. Vettore fault in the Castelluccio plain, highlighted an increase of CO2 and 222Rn values after the earthquake of 30 October, and a decreasing of 220Rn values, indicating a shallow circulation mechanism. These results confirm the usefulness of the soil gas survey to spatially recognise the shallow geometry of hidden faults, and to discriminate the geochemical migration mechanisms

  11. Microstructural investigations on carbonate fault core rocks in active extensional fault zones from the central Apennines (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortinovis, Silvia; Balsamo, Fabrizio; Storti, Fabrizio

    2017-04-01

    The study of the microstructural and petrophysical evolution of cataclasites and gouges has a fundamental impact on both hydraulic and frictional properties of fault zones. In the last decades, growing attention has been payed to the characterization of carbonate fault core rocks due to the nucleation and propagation of coseismic ruptures in carbonate successions (e.g., Umbria-Marche 1997, L'Aquila 2009, Amatrice 2016 earthquakes in Central Apennines, Italy). Among several physical parameters, grain size and shape in fault core rocks are expected to control the way of sliding along the slip surfaces in active fault zones, thus influencing the propagation of coseismic ruptures during earthquakes. Nevertheless, the role of grain size and shape distribution evolution in controlling the weakening or strengthening behavior in seismogenic fault zones is still not fully understood also because a comprehensive database from natural fault cores is still missing. In this contribution, we present a preliminary study of seismogenic extensional fault zones in Central Apennines by combining detailed filed mapping with grain size and microstructural analysis of fault core rocks. Field mapping was aimed to describe the structural architecture of fault systems and the along-strike fault rock distribution and fracturing variations. In the laboratory we used a Malvern Mastersizer 3000 granulometer to obtain a precise grain size characterization of loose fault rocks combined with sieving for coarser size classes. In addition, we employed image analysis on thin sections to quantify the grain shape and size in cemented fault core rocks. The studied fault zones consist of an up to 5-10 m-thick fault core where most of slip is accommodated, surrounded by a tens-of-meters wide fractured damage zone. Fault core rocks consist of (1) loose to partially cemented breccias characterized by different grain size (from several cm up to mm) and variable grain shape (from very angular to sub

  12. Active faults in the epicentral and mesoseismal Ml 6.0 24, 2016 Amatrice earthquake region, central Italy. Methodological and seismotectonic issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Falcucci

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The August 24, 2016 Amatrice earthquake (Ml 6.0 struck a region of the central Apennines (Italy where several active faults were known since decades, most of which are considered the surface expression of seismogenic sources potentially able to rupture during earthquakes with M of up to 6.5-7. The current debate on which structure/s activated during the mainshock and the possibility that conterminous faults may activate in a near future urged us gathering all the data on surface geological evidence of fault activity we collected over the past 15-20 years in the area. We then map the main tectonic structures of the 2016 earthquake epicentral and mesoseismal region. Our aim is to provide hints on their seismogenic potential, as possible contribution to the national Database of Individual Seismogenic Source (DISS and to the Database of the active and capable fault ITaly HAzard from CApable faults (ITHACA.

  13. A three-dimensional slope stability model based on GRASS GIS and its application to the Collazzone area, Central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergili, M.; Marchesini, I.; Fellin, W.; Rossi, M.; Raia, S.; Guzzetti, F.

    2012-04-01

    bedrock. Any raster cell may be intersected by various sliding surfaces, each associated with a computed factor of safety. The lowest value of the factor of safety is stored for each raster cell together with the depth of the associated slip surface. This results in an overview of potentially unstable regions without showing the individual sliding areas. We test the model in the Collazzone area, Umbria, Central Italy, which is susceptible to landslides of different types. The presence of both shallow translational and deep-seated rotational landslides, and the availability of reference data, allow for the critical evaluation of the model in comparison with standard infinite slope stability models.

  14. Uncertainty in drought monitoring by the Standardized Precipitation Index: the case study of the Abruzzo region (central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergni, L.; Di Lena, B.; Todisco, F.; Mannocchi, F.

    2017-04-01

    As shown by several authors, drought monitoring by the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) presents some uncertainties, mainly dependent on the choice of the probability distribution used to describe the cumulative precipitation and on the characteristics (e.g., length and variability) of the dataset. In this paper, the uncertainty related to SPI estimates has been quantified and analyzed with regards to the case study of the Abruzzo region (Central Italy), by using monthly precipitation recorded at 75 stations during the period 1951-2009. First, a set of distributions suitable to describe the cumulative precipitation at the 3-, 6-, and 12-month time scales was identified by using L-moments ratio diagrams. The goodness-of-fit was evaluated by applying the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and the Normality test on the derived SPI series. Then the confidence intervals of SPI have been calculated by applying a bootstrap procedure. The size of the confidence intervals has been considered as a measure of uncertainty, and its dependence on several factors such as the distribution type, the time scale, the record length, and the season has been examined. Results show that the distributions Pearson type III (PE3), Weibull (WEI), Generalized Normal (GNO), Generalized Extreme Value (GEV), and Gamma (GA2) are all suitable to describe the cumulative precipitation, with a slightly better performance of the PE3 and GNO distributions. As expected, the uncertainty increases as the record length and time scale decrease. The leading source of uncertainty is the record length while the effects due to seasonality and time scale are negligible. Two-parameter distributions make it possible to obtain confidence intervals of SPI (particularly for extreme values) narrower than those obtained by three-parameter distributions. Nevertheless, due to a poorer goodness of fit, two-parameter distributions can provide less reliable estimates of the precipitation probability. In any event, independently

  15. Validation of high-resolution WRF-ARW model runs against airborne measurements over complex terrain in central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotenuto, Federico; Gioli, Beniamino; Toscano, Piero; Gualtieri, Giovanni; Miglietta, Franco; Wohlfahrt, Georg

    2015-04-01

    An intensive aerial campaign was flown in the context of the CARBIUS project (Maselli et al., 2010) between July 2004 and December 2005. The flights covered, over more than 240 Km, a target area in central Italy (between the regions of Lazio and Tuscany) characterized by various land uses and topography, ranging from coastal zones to mountainous landscapes (Colline Metallifere, Tuscany). The aerial vector (Sky Arrow 650 ERA) was equipped for high frequency (50 Hz) measurements of the three components of mean wind and turbulence, as well as air temperature, CO2 and H2O concentrations. While the aim of the CARBIUS campaign was focused on GHG fluxes, the dataset is used in the present work as a benchmark to assess the capability of mesoscale models to correctly simulate transport fields. A first assessment has been done by comparing the dataset to a coupled WRF-NMM-CALMET system (Gioli et al., 2014), but the aim of the present work is to expand on those foundations by comparing the data to higher resolution WRF-ARW simulations. WRF-ARW outputs are, in fact, frequently used as inputs to multiple dispersion models and any misrepresentation of the "real" situation is therefore propagated through the modelling chain. Our aim is to assess these potential errors keeping into account different topographic situations and seasons thanks to the existent aerial dataset. Moreover the sensitivity of the WRF-ARW model to different initial and boundary conditions (ECMWF vs. CFSR) is explored, since also the initial forcing may influence the representation of the transport field. Results show that the model is generally capable of reproducing the main features of the mean wind field independently from the choice of the initial forcing. Terrain features still show an impact on the model outputs (especially on wind directions), moreover the performance of the model is also influenced by seasonal effects. Gioli B., Gualtieri G., Busillo C., Calastrini F., Gozzini B., Miglietta F. (2014

  16. Rotational motions from the 2016, Central Italy seismic sequence, as observed by an underground ring laser gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonelli, Andreino; Belfi, Jacopo; Beverini, Nicolò; Di Virgilio, Angela; Maccioni, Enrico; De Luca, Gaetano; Saccorotti, Gilberto; Wassermann, Joachim; Igel, Heiner

    2017-04-01

    We present analyses of rotational and translational ground motions from earthquakes recorded during October-November, 2016, in association with the Central Italy seismic-sequence. We use co-located measurements of the vertical ground rotation rate from a large ring laser gyroscope (RLG), and the three components of ground velocity from a broadband seismometer. Both instruments are positioned in a deep underground environment, within the Gran Sasso National Laboratories (LNGS) of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN). We collected dozen of events spanning the 3.5-5.9 Magnitude range, and epicentral distances between 40 km and 80 km. This data set constitutes an unprecedented observation of the vertical rotational motions associated with an intense seismic sequence at local distance. In theory - assuming plane wave propagation - the ratio between the vertical rotation rate and the transverse acceleration permits, in a single station approach, the estimation of apparent phase velocity in the case of SH arrivals or real phase velocity in the case of Love surface waves. This is a standard approach for the analysis of earthquakes at teleseismic distances, and the results reported by the literature are compatible with the expected phase velocities from the PREM model. Here we extend the application of the same approach to local events, thus exploring higher frequency ranges and larger rotation rate amplitudes. We use a novel approach to joint rotation/acceleration analysis based on the continuous wavelet transform (CWT). Wavelet coherence (WTC) is used as a filter for identifying those regions of the time-period plane where the rotation rate and transverse acceleration signals exhibit significant coherence. This allows retrieving estimates of phase velocities over the period range spanned by correlated arrivals. Coherency among ground rotation and translation is also observed throughout the coda of the P-wave arrival, an observation which is interpreted in

  17. Impact Of Landslides Along Road Network And Direct Cost Estimation: A Case Study In Marche Region, Central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvati, P.; Donnini, M.; Guzzetti, F.; Ardizzone, F.; Cardinali, M.; Bucci, F.; Fiorucci, F.; Alvioli, M.; Santangelo, M.

    2014-12-01

    In November and December 2013, the Marche region (Central Italy) was hit by three severe, but not rare, meteorological events. The maximum value of the three days cumulative rainfall (499 mm) was recorded at the rain gauge of Pintura di Bolognola. The intense rainfall caused floods along the rivers and triggered numerous landslides, mostly located in the hilly and mountainous terrain of the region. The territory is crossed by a large number of roads connecting small rural settlements. After the events, the Regional Civil Protection Office requested to the Research Institute for the geo-hydrological Protection (IRPI-CNR) a technical support to evaluate the hazard condition for different sites affected by landslides. For an area of approximately 200 km2, in the Municipalities of Acquasanta Terme and Roccafluvione, field surveys were carried out to identify the rainfall-induced landslides and to produce an event inventory map. More than 1,500 slope failures were mapped including earth flows, slide-earth flows, slides, rock-falls and complex slides. Field surveys were focused also to estimate qualitatively damages along the roads. Roads were classified in two classes: the main roads under the State responsibility and the secondary roads under the Municipality responsibility. The different types of damage were classified in three classes: i) aesthetic (minor), where the road functionality was not compromised; ii) functional (medium), where the functionality was compromised and iii) structural (severe) where roads are severely or completely damaged. Immediately after the event, the technicians of the Municipalities of Acquasanta Terme and Roccafluvione spent major efforts to partially restore the functionality of the secondary roads in order to guarantee the primary human needs. In the following ten days, they compiled a list of interventions, associated with the relative direct costs, aimed to the total restoration of the roads functionality. In collaboration with the

  18. Micro-chemical and metallurgical study of Samnite bronze belts from ancient Abruzzo (central Italy, VIII-IV BC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccucci, Cristina; Ingo, Gabriel Maria; Faustoferri, Amalia; Pierigè, Maria Isabella; Parisi, Erica Isabella; Di Carlo, Gabriella; De Caro, Tilde; Faraldi, Federica

    2013-12-01

    The Samnite bronze belts and the chest disk cuirasses (VIII-IV BC) are the distinctive defensive weapons of the Samnite warriors having likely also a symbolic relevance. These artefacts were mainly found during the archaeological excavations of warriors' graves from ancient Abruzzo (central Italy). Their chemical composition, metallurgical features and corrosion products formed during the long-term burial have been studied by means of the combined use of analytical techniques such as optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray micro-analysis (SEM-EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The micro-chemical and structural results show that the bronze belts have often been produced by using unusual high-tin bronze alloys achieving a silver-like appearance and by performing tailored cycles of thermal treatments under reducing conditions and hot mechanical working aimed to shape the high-tin alloys in the form of a thin bronze sheet. Furthermore, the investigation has shown that the main alloying elements have been transformed during the burial into mineral species giving rise to the formation of stratified structures constituted by different mineral phases such as tin oxides, cuprous oxide (Cu2O) and copper carbonates (azurite (Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2 and malachite (CuCO3Cu(OH)2)) as well as dangerous chlorine-based compounds such as nantokite (CuCl) and atacamite (Cu2(OH)3Cl) polymorphs. This information evidences the strict interaction of the alloying elements with the soil components as well as the occurrence of the copper cyclic corrosion as a post-burial degradation phenomenon. The present study confirms that the combined micro-chemical and micro-structural investigation techniques such as SEM-EDS, XPS, XRD and OM can be successfully used to investigate the technological production processes of the ancient artefacts and to achieve the detailed micro-chemical and structural description of the

  19. Deep electrical resistivity tomography along the tectonically active Middle Aterno Valley (2009 L'Aquila earthquake area, central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucci, Stefano; Civico, Riccardo; Villani, Fabio; Ricci, Tullio; Delcher, Eric; Finizola, Anthony; Sapia, Vincenzo; De Martini, Paolo Marco; Pantosti, Daniela; Barde-Cabusson, Stéphanie; Brothelande, Elodie; Gusset, Rachel; Mezon, Cécile; Orefice, Simone; Peltier, Aline; Poret, Matthieu; Torres, Liliana; Suski, Barbara

    2016-11-01

    Three 2-D Deep Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) transects, up to 6.36 km long, were obtained across the Paganica-San Demetrio Basin, bounded by the 2009 L'Aquila Mw 6.1 normal-faulting earthquake causative fault (central Italy). The investigations allowed defining for the first time the shallow subsurface basin structure. The resistivity images, and their geological interpretation, show a dissected Mesozoic-Tertiary substratum buried under continental infill of mainly Quaternary age due to the long-term activity of the Paganica-San Demetrio normal faults system (PSDFS), ruling the most recent deformational phase. Our results indicate that the basin bottom deepens up to 600 m moving to the south, with the continental infill largely exceeding the known thickness of the Quaternary sequence. The causes of this increasing thickness can be: (1) the onset of the continental deposition in the southern sector took place before the Quaternary, (2) there was an early stage of the basin development driven by different fault systems that produced a depocentre in the southern sector not related to the present-day basin shape, or (3) the fault system slip rate in the southern sector was faster than in the northern sector. We were able to gain sights into the long-term PSDFS behaviour and evolution, by comparing throw rates at different timescales and discriminating the splays that lead deformation. Some fault splays exhibit large cumulative throws (>300 m) in coincidence with large displacement of the continental deposits sequence (>100 m), thus testifying a general persistence in time of their activity as leading splays of the fault system. We evaluate the long-term (3-2.5 Myr) cumulative and Quaternary throw rates of most of the leading splays to be 0.08-0.17 mm yr-1, indicating a substantial stability of the faults activity. Among them, an individual leading fault splay extends from Paganica to San Demetrio ne' Vestini as a result of a post-Early Pleistocene linkage of

  20. Investigation of post-seismic deformation resulting from the 24th August 2016 Central Italy Earthquake (M 6.2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, K. J. W.; Gregory, L. C.; Walters, R. J.; Roberts, G.; Wilkinson, M. W.; Wedmore, L. N. J.; Michetti, A.; Vittori, E.; Livio, F.; Faure Walker, J.; Mildon, Z. K.

    2016-12-01

    Our initial satellite (InSAR) observations and field studies (Walters et al in prep) following the August 24th, 2016, Mw 6.2 Central Italy earthquake revealed that co-seismic rupture occurred on two normal fault structures, the Vettore and Laga faults, which were previously thought to be separate structures. The Laga and Vettore faults cross a major inactive thrust fault, which emplaced Lower Jurassic limestone over the Miocene flysch to the south. Our preliminary InSAR analysis indicated co-seismic slip at the surface along the Vettore fault. In the field we confirmed an c. 5 km long semi-continuous surface rupture, with remarkably consistent 15-20 cm offset downthrow to the SW on an average azimuth of 235° located along the Vettore fault bedrock scarp. The rupture becomes a series of discontinuous cracks where the fault crosses from limestone bedrock along the Vettore section into underlying flysch. A continuous surface rupture was not found elsewhere in the region, and is either not present or obscured along the Laga-Amatrice fault. We present results from our field campaign and models derived from Sentinel-1 InSAR data during the post-seismic period (images collected on average every 1.5 days) to quantify the spatial distribution and temporal evolution of the post-seismic deformation on and around the causative faults. In the field, we conducted an initial survey of two sites along the surface rupture using the Structure From Motion (SfM) photogrammetric technique, and installed 6 GNSS instruments mounted in short-baseline pairs across the Vettore fault. We will show preliminary measurements of ongoing near-field post-seismic deformation and shallow afterslip from the GNSS and time-lapse TLS (Lidar) and SfM datasets, complementing the wide-area InSAR results. Our results will provide insights into the formation of bedrock scarps from repeated earthquakes and the interpretation of Holocene slip-rate data from these scarps. The coseismic and ongoing post

  1. First integrated tephrochronological record for the last ∼190 kyr from the Fucino Quaternary lacustrine succession, central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaccio, Biagio; Niespolo, Elizabeth M.; Pereira, Alison; Nomade, Sebastien; Renne, Paul R.; Albert, Paul G.; Arienzo, Ilenia; Regattieri, Eleonora; Wagner, Bernd; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Gaeta, Mario; Galli, Paolo; Mannella, Giorgio; Peronace, Edoardo; Sottili, Gianluca; Florindo, Fabio; Leicher, Niklas; Marra, Fabrizio; Tomlinson, Emma L.

    2017-02-01

    We present the first integrated tephrochronological study (major and trace elemental glass composition, Sr and Nd isotope analyses, and 40Ar/39Ar dating) for the last one tenth (∼82 m) of the ∼900 m-thick Quaternary lacustrine succession of the Fucino Basin, the largest and probably only Central Apennine intermountain tectonic depression that hosts a continuous lacustrine succession documenting the Plio-Quaternary sedimentary history up to historical times. Major element glass compositions, determined using a wavelength-dispersive electron microprobe (WDS-EMPA), yielded the geochemical fingerprinting needed for a reliable identification of most of the 23 stratigraphically ordered tephra layers under investigation. These include tephra from Italian volcanoes such as Campi Flegrei, Etna, Colli Albani, Ischia, Vico, Sabatini, and undefined volcanic sources in the Neapolitan area and Latium region. The recognition of key Mediterranean marker tephra layers (e.g. X-5 and X-6) is supported by trace element data acquired by Laser Ablation Inductively Couple Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The Sr and Nd isotope compositions of selected layers where also determined for circumscribing the volcanic source of distal tephra and for supporting correlations with individual eruptive units. We also propose a new, more expeditious covariation diagram (CaO/FeOtot vs Cl) for identifying the volcanic source of trachytic to phonolitic and tephrytic to phonolitic tephra, that are the most common compositions of pyroclastic rocks from volcanoes of Campania and Latium regions. Finally, we present five new 40Ar/39Ar age determinations, including a new, analytically well-supported, and more precise 40Ar/39Ar age for the widespread Y-7 tephra, and the first 40Ar/39Ar age determinations for one tephra from the Sabatini volcanic district (∼126 ka) and one tephra from Neapolitan volcanic area (Campi Flegrei?; ∼159 ka). These newly dated tephra are widely dispersed (e.g. Monticchio

  2. Uncertainty in drought monitoring by the Standardized Precipitation Index: the case study of the Abruzzo region (central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergni, L.; Di Lena, B.; Todisco, F.; Mannocchi, F.

    2015-12-01

    As shown by several authors, drought monitoring by the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) presents some uncertainties, mainly dependent on the choice of the probability distribution used to describe the cumulative precipitation and on the characteristics (e.g., length and variability) of the dataset. In this paper, the uncertainty related to SPI estimates has been quantified and analyzed with regards to the case study of the Abruzzo region (Central Italy), by using monthly precipitation recorded at 75 stations during the period 1951-2009. First, a set of distributions suitable to describe the cumulative precipitation at the 3-, 6-, and 12-month time scales was identified by using L-moments ratio diagrams. The goodness-of-fit was evaluated by applying the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and the Normality test on the derived SPI series. Then the confidence intervals of SPI have been calculated by applying a bootstrap procedure. The size of the confidence intervals has been considered as a measure of uncertainty, and its dependence on several factors such as the distribution type, the time scale, the record length, and the season has been examined. Results show that the distributions Pearson type III (PE3), Weibull (WEI), Generalized Normal (GNO), Generalized Extreme Value (GEV), and Gamma (GA2) are all suitable to describe the cumulative precipitation, with a slightly better performance of the PE3 and GNO distributions. As expected, the uncertainty increases as the record length and time scale decrease. The leading source of uncertainty is the record length while the effects due to seasonality and time scale are negligible. Two-parameter distributions make it possible to obtain confidence intervals of SPI (particularly for extreme values) narrower than those obtained by three-parameter distributions. Nevertheless, due to a poorer goodness of fit, two-parameter distributions can provide less reliable estimates of the precipitation probability. In any event, independently

  3. Ground-motion amplification at the Colle di Roio ridge, central Italy: a combined effect of stratigraphy and topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailemikael, S.; Lenti, L.; Martino, S.; Paciello, A.; Rossi, D.; Mugnozza, G. Scarascia

    2016-07-01

    Following the Mw 6.3 L'Aquila Earthquake of 2009 April 6, the Colle di Roio village, central Italy, suffered severe building damages. The village is located on top of an elongated carbonate ridge characterized by a complex subsurface structure, a condition prone to seismic amplification due to topographic and stratigraphic effects. We address the role of the subsurface structure and topography in the ground-motion amplification observed at the ridge top. To characterize the subsurface structure of the ridge we performed geological investigations and ambient vibration measurements in single-station as well as 2-D-array configuration. Geological investigations pointed out that the ridge top is characterized by the presence of fractured rock material as a consequence of its anticlinal fold structure. Horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) processing of ambient vibration records showed a broad peak in the HVSR functions in the frequency range 4-6 Hz and 2-D-array data demonstrated that locally the subsurface structure at the ridge top cannot be considered homogeneous. In summer 2009, we further installed one accelerometric station on the ridge top to experimentally evaluate the site amplification. By means of HVSR analysis of a sample of 18 weak-motion records (H/V), we found that ground-motion amplification occurs in a narrow frequency range centred around 4 Hz with mean ratio amplitude of 6. We also analysed the dependence of seismic amplification on the azimuth by calculating H/V ratios for horizontal components rotated into a range of azimuths. This analysis showed that the higher level of horizontal amplification occurs in the direction perpendicular to the ridge trending direction. With the aim of evaluating the contribution of the topography and the local subsurface structure on the observed seismic amplification, we performed 2-D finite-difference modelling of wave propagation through the ridge, adopting both homogeneous and heterogeneous models. We were

  4. Geochemical modeling and multivariate statistical evaluation of trace elements in arsenic contaminated groundwater systems of Viterbo Area, (Central Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sappa, Giuseppe; Ergul, Sibel; Ferranti, Flavia

    2014-01-01

    Contamination of groundwater by naturally occurring arsenic has recently become a disturbing environmental problem in Viterbo area, Central Italy. Arsenic concentrations in most of the public supply networks exceed the maximum allowable limit of 10 μg/l (WHO) for drinking water. The primary purpose of this paper is to obtain a better understanding of the factors contributing to the high levels of As in water supply networks. This study focuses on (a) the determination of basic hydrochemical characteristics of groundwater, (b) the identification of the major sources and processes controlling the As contamination in public supply networks, (c) to find out possible relationships among the As and other trace elements through principal component analysis (PCA). Groundwater samples from public water supply wells and springs were collected and analysed for physico-chemical parameters and trace elements. Springs and well water samples are predominantly of the Na-HCO3, Na -Ca-HCO3 and Ca-HCO3 types and the highest arsenic concentrations were observed in Na-HCO3 type water. Eh-pH diagrams reveal that H2AsO4 (-) and HAsO4 (2-), As(V) arsenate, are the dominating As species highlighting slightly to moderately oxidizing conditions. Geochemical modeling indicates that arsenic-bearing phases were undersaturated in the groundwater, however most of the samples were saturated with respect to Fe (i.e. magnetite, hematite and goethite) and Al (diaspore and boehmite) oxide and hydroxide minerals. Concentrations of As, Li, B, Co, Sr, Mo, U and Se are highly correlated (r > 0.7) with each other, however in some groundwater samples As show also good correlations (r > 0.5) with Fe and Mn elements reflecting the relationships among the trace elements result from different geochemical processes. Evaluation of the principal component (PCA) analysis and geochemical modeling suggest that the occurrence of As and other trace element concentrations in groundwater are probably derived

  5. Characteristics and origin of organic matter and basal respiration of soils from Majella massif (Central Apennines, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basili, M.; Cioci, C.; Cocco, S.; Agnelli, A.; di Peco, D.; Ferraris, P.; Corti, G.

    2009-04-01

    The effects of the global climate change on the soil organic matter (SOM) are still open to debate. Many studies hypothesize an increase of the CO2 fluxes from the soil following the rise of air temperature, especially for the high latitude soils where the low temperatures have a protective effect on the SOM, holding the mineralization reactions back. We studied the feedback between soil and climate change in the Mediterranean environments, on patterned ground soils and soils developed from glacial lacustrine sediments found in the high-elevated areas (2500 m a.s.l.) of Majella massif (Central Apennines, Italy). Here, several profiles were opened and the soil described and sampled according to the recognized horizons. The samples were characterised according to the routine analyses and the SOM extracted according to the International Humic Substances Society protocol. The obtained humic and fulvic acids were characterised for elemental composition and by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Further, the basal respiration at 5°C, 20°C and 30°C for 20 days was determined on the samples collected from the superficial horizon of each soil. The extracted humic substances showed a particular composition, being mostly comprised of proteinaceous residues (amides II and III), polysaccarides, and esters and aliphatic compounds. This unusual chemical structure and the paucity of vegetation in the study area could support the hypothesis of a mainly soil animal origin of the SOM, probably due to residues of insects, arachnids and arthropods. In fact, the species belonging to these Orders are abundant in these ecosystems and, further, are often characterised by the presence of compounds, such as glycerine and glycoproteins, in their organic fluids that act as antifreezing systems. The basal respiration experiments indicated that the soil microbial community was active at 5°C, while at 20°C or 30°C rather no respiration occurred; further, after 20 days at both

  6. Recent seismicity before the 24 August 2016 Mw 6.0 central Italy earthquake as recorded by the ReSIICO seismic network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Marzorati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The seismicity of the last four years before the August 24 2016 01:36 UTC MW 6.0 earthquake that struck central Italy is presented with the aim to understand the preparatory phase of the event. In contrast with the 2009 L’Aquila earthquake that was preceded by a seismic sequence and the 2013-2015 Gubbio seismic swarm that, to date, is ended without any strong event, our preliminary results don’t show seismic sequences in the last months previous the mainshock of the August 24 2016 and a low similarity between seismicity clusters in the last four years and the foreshocks.

  7. The 2009 April 6, Mw 6.3, L'Aquila (central Italy) earthquake: finite-fault effects on intensity data

    OpenAIRE

    Ameri, G.; Bindi, D.; Pacor, F.; F. Galadini

    2011-01-01

    We analyse the spatial distribution of the intensity data points surveyed after the Mw 6.3, 2009 L’Aquila (central Italy) earthquake, with the aim to recognize and quantify finite-fault and directivity effects. The study is based on the analysis of the residuals, evaluated with respect to attenuation-with-distance models, calibrated for L’Aquila earthquake. We apply a non-parametric approach considering both the epicentral and the rupture distance, which accounts for the finite extension of t...

  8. On-farm evaluation of seed yield and oil quality of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L. in inland areas of Tuscany, Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana G. Angelini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Traditional oilseed crops, such as linseed (Linum usitatissimum L., may represent valuable alternative crops in cropping systems dominated by cereals, due to their adaptability to poor soils and to their high economic value related to the interesting quality of the oil, which is being increasingly appreciated by consumers and industry. The aim of this study was to test the adaptability of linseed to the inland marginal areas of Tuscany, and to explore the levels of crop yield and oil quality which can be achieved in hilly and lowland environments. For three years (2011-2014, experimental open fields (1- 5 ha each were established and monitored in six commercial farms located in the inland countryside of Pisa province, Tuscany, Central Italy. The effect of environment (hilly and plain areas was assessed in terms of yield and yield components as well as oil content and composition. Interestingly, seed yield and biomass production were very stable over years in the two areas of cultivation, irrespectively of yearly differences in weather conditions. As expected, higher yields were obtained in plain than in hilly areas. Regarding oil composition, oil extracted from linseed grown in plain environments was richer in linolenic acid, while, oppositely, both oleic and linoleic acids were more abundant in oil from hilly areas. Definitively, our results demonstrated that linseed might be a valuable alternative to cereal crops for marginal lands of Tuscany and, more in general, of Central Italy.

  9. Comparison between 3D-Var and 4D-Var data assimilation methods for the simulation of a heavy rainfall case in central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarella, Vincenzo; Maiello, Ida; Capozzi, Vincenzo; Budillon, Giorgio; Ferretti, Rossella

    2017-08-01

    This work aims to provide a comparison between three dimensional and four dimensional variational data assimilation methods (3D-Var and 4D-Var) for a heavy rainfall case in central Italy. To evaluate the impact of the assimilation of reflectivity and radial velocity acquired from Monte Midia Doppler radar into the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model, the quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF) is used.The two methods are compared for a heavy rainfall event that occurred in central Italy on 14 September 2012 during the first Special Observation Period (SOP1) of the HyMeX (HYdrological cycle in Mediterranean EXperiment) campaign. This event, characterized by a deep low pressure system over the Tyrrhenian Sea, produced flash floods over the Marche and Abruzzo regions, where rainfall maxima reached more than 150 mm 24 h-1.To identify the best QPF, nine experiments are performed using 3D-Var and 4D-Var data assimilation techniques. All simulations are compared in terms of rainfall forecast and precipitation measured by the gauges through three statistical indicators: probability of detection (POD), critical success index (CSI) and false alarm ratio (FAR). The assimilation of conventional observations with 4D-Var method improves the QPF compared to 3D-Var. In addition, the use of radar measurements in 4D-Var simulations enhances the performances of statistical scores for higher rainfall thresholds.

  10. Ethnopharmacognostic survey on the natural ingredients used in folk cosmetics, cosmeceuticals and remedies for healing skin diseases in the inland Marches, Central-Eastern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieroni, Andrea; Quave, Cassandra L; Villanelli, Maria Lorena; Mangino, Paola; Sabbatini, Giulia; Santini, Luigina; Boccetti, Tamara; Profili, Monica; Ciccioli, Tamara; Rampa, Loredana Giovanna; Antonini, Giovanna; Girolamini, Claudia; Cecchi, Marcello; Tomasi, Marco

    2004-04-01

    An ethnopharmaceutical study focused on domestic cosmetics, cosmeceuticals, and remedies to heal skin diseases traditionally used in the inland part of the Marches region (Central-Eastern Italy) has been conducted. At present, traditional knowledge concerning home-made phytocosmetics is represented by both the remnants of an orally transmitted folk heritage and also by new forms of knowledge, sometimes coming from popular phytotherapeutical books and the mass media (out of the scope of this survey), but also as a result of recent migration trends from Eastern Europe. We recorded approximately 135 cosmetic or cosmeceutical preparations prepared from more than 70 botanical species and a very few animal or mineral ingredients. Among the recorded preparations, developing a clear distinction amongst cosmetics, cosmeceuticals and pharmaceuticals for skin diseases is very problematic, confirming that in folk knowledge systems medicinal products for healing skin diseases and cosmetics have often been perceived as two poles of a continuum. Many of the quoted species represented well-known medicinal plants of the European phytotherapy, although we also recorded a few unusual plant taxa, which are briefly discussed under the perspective of their eventual phytochemical and/or phytopharmacological potentialities. Exotic drugs or precious essences, even native of the Mediterranean, were not quoted as ingredients for preparing perfumes and fragrances by the interviewees of the present study, thus indicating that popular cosmetic practices in rural Central Italy have taken a much separated path away from the cosmetic "know-how" of the aristocracy and high bourgeois classes of the last centuries.

  11. Asbestos exposure during quarrying and processing of serpentinites: a case study in Valmalenco, Central Alps, Northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, A.; Rimoldi, B.

    2012-04-01

    Serpentinites are metamorphic rocks derived from ultramafics such as peridotites (lherzolites and/or harzburgites), with a typical mineralogical assemblage of antigorite, olivine, diopside and minor magnetite, chlorite and chrysotile. If the rock mass has good geotechnical properties, these stones are quarried because of their wide variety of green shades and outstanding technical properties. Excellent stones are produced in the Malenco Valley, Central Alps (northern Italy, Sondrio): here the geological set-up is dominated by the ultramafic Malenco massif (lower crust-mantle complex), exposed at the Penninic to Austroalpine boundary zone. Different processing operations give origin to valuable products like stoves, funeral monuments, design home appliances; important building element as roof slabs, tiles for floor and wall coverings constitute the main commercial line of production. In this area, good quality long fibre chrysotile asbestos was mined since the XIX century, till the seventies. The asbestos fissures (mostly slip-fiber) are well known in Valmalenco, associated to an important ENE-WSW striking fracture and hydrothermal vein system. Some actual serpentinite quarries "cross" at times tunnels of the old asbestos mines, because the fracture and vein system "guides" the extraction. At present time, this area represents an excellent example of naturally occurring asbestos (NOA). For these reasons, workers' exposure to asbestos during quarrying and processing cannot be ruled out, and must be assessed according to national laws. From 2004 to nowadays, the INAIL Regional Management of Lombardia, with the collaboration of University of Milan-Bicocca, carried out extensive monitoring campaigns both in quarries and in processing laboratories. More than 300 massive samples (rocks and veins) and 250 airborne dust samples were collected during the surveys. One of the main problems in the study of massive serpentinites is the accurate identification of the different

  12. Use of gravity potential field methods for defining a shallow magmatic intrusion: the Mt. Amiata case history (Tuscany, Central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girolami, Chiara; Rinaldo Barchi, Massimiliano; Pauselli, Cristina; Heyde, Ingo

    2016-04-01

    We analyzed the Bouguer gravity anomaly signal beneath the Mt. Amiata area in order to reconstruct the subsurface setting. The study area is characterized by a pronounced gravity minimum, possibly correlated with the observed anomalous heat flow and hydrothermal activity. Using different approaches, previous authors defined a low density body (generally interpreted as a magmatic intrusion) beneath this area, which could explain the observed gravity anomaly minimum. However the proposed geologic models show different geometries and densities for the batholith. The gravity data used in this study (kindly provided by eni) were acquired from different institutions (eni, OGS, USDMA and Servizio Geologico d'Italia) and collected in a unique dataset, consisting of about 50000 stations, randomly distributed, which cover Central Italy, with a spacing of less than 1 km. For each station the elevation and the Bouguer gravity anomaly data are given. From this dataset, we created two maps of the Bouguer gravity anomaly and the topography, using the Minimum Curvature gridding method considering a grid cell size of 500m x 500m. The Bouguer gravity anomaly has been computed using a density of 2.67 g/cm3. From these maps we extracted a window of about 240 km2 (12x20 km) for the study area, which includes the Mt. Amiata region and the adjacent Radicofani sedimentary basin. The first part of this study was focused on calculating the first order vertical derivative and the power spectra analysis of the Bouguer gravity anomaly to enhance the effect of shallow bodies and estimating the source depth respectively. The second part of this study was focused on constructing a 3D geological density model of the subsurface setting of the studied area, implementing a forward modelling approach. The stratigraphy of the study area's upper crust schematically consists of six litho-mechanical units, whose density was derived from velocity data collected by active seismic surveys. A preliminary

  13. Vulnerability assessment of karst aquifer feeding Pertuso Spring (Central Italy): comparison between different applications of COP method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sappa, Giuseppe; Ferranti, Flavia; Luciani, Giulia

    2016-04-01

    Vulnerability assessment of karst aquifers and vulnerability mapping are important tools for improved sustainable management and protection of karst groundwater resources. In this paper, to estimate the vulnerability degree of the karst aquifer feeding Pertuso Spring in Central Italy, two different implementations of COP method, supported by an open source GIS, were tested and a comparison of the vulnerability maps is proposed. The study area is a highly karstified carbonate aquifer located in the Upper Valley of the Aniene River, in the south-east part of Latium Region. The hydrogeological basin covers about 50 km2 and the karst aquifer provides a water supply of about 120.000 m3d-1. The well-developed karst features in this hydrogeological system is responsible of the fast infiltration of rainfall in the saturated zone and, consequently, of the high discharge rate of Pertuso Spring (up to 3 m3/s). Thus, in the aim of emphasizing the presence of these karst features, due to which, there are limited attenuation processes in the unsaturated zone, in this work COP method has been applied by the implementation of a new discretization methodology of the hydrogeological basin using polygonal layer. Therefore, the hydrogeological catchment basin has been divided into 52 polygonal layer, representative of outcropping lithology and karst features, to which COP method has been applied. The intrinsic vulnerability maps, produced using a GIS approach, has been examinated and compared with the maps obtained using traditional vulnerability assessment method, which provides the discretization of the study area generating a grid map to which associate the Vulnerability Indexes. The results of this study highlight vulnerability from low to very high. The maximum vulnerability degree is due to karstic features responsible of high recharge and high hydraulic conductivity. The new proposed discretization of the hydrogeological basin using polygonal layer raise four vulnerability

  14. Recent Transmission Clustering of HIV-1 C and CRF17_BF Strains Characterized by NNRTI-Related Mutations among Newly Diagnosed Men in Central Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Fabeni

    Full Text Available Increased evidence of relevant HIV-1 epidemic transmission in European countries is being reported, with an increased circulation of non-B-subtypes. Here, we present two recent HIV-1 non-B transmission clusters characterized by NNRTI-related amino-acidic mutations among newly diagnosed HIV-1 infected men, living in Rome (Central-Italy.Pol and V3 sequences were available at the time of diagnosis for all individuals. Maximum-Likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic-trees with bootstrap and Bayesian-probability supports defined transmission-clusters. HIV-1 drug-resistance and V3-tropism were also evaluated.Among 534 new HIV-1 non-B cases, diagnosed from 2011 to 2014, in Central-Italy, 35 carried virus gathering in two distinct clusters, including 27 HIV-1 C and 8 CRF17_BF subtypes, respectively. Both clusters were centralized in Rome, and their origin was estimated to have been after 2007. All individuals within both clusters were males and 37.1% of them had been recently-infected. While C-cluster was entirely composed by Italian men-who-have-sex-with-men, with a median-age of 34 years (IQR:30-39, individuals in CRF17_BF-cluster were older, with a median-age of 51 years (IQR:48-59 and almost all reported sexual-contacts with men and women. All carried R5-tropic viruses, with evidence of atypical or resistance amino-acidic mutations related to NNRTI-drugs (K103Q in C-cluster, and K101E+E138K in CRF17_BF-cluster.These two epidemiological clusters provided evidence of a strong and recent circulation of C and CRF17_BF strains in central Italy, characterized by NNRTI-related mutations among men engaging in high-risk behaviours. These findings underline the role of molecular epidemiology in identifying groups at increased risk of HIV-1 transmission, and in enhancing additional prevention efforts.

  15. Signals in water - the deep originated CO2 in the Peschiera-Capone acqueduct in relation to monitoring of seismic activity in central Italy

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    Claudio Martini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Valuation of the analysis performed on groundwater of Central Lazio by ACEA ATO2 SpA from 2001 to 2016, according to the model proposed by Chiodini et al. in 2004 that identifies in the Tyrrhenian coast of central and southern Italy, two notable releasing areas of the CO2 produced by the sub-crustal magma activity, or two areas of natural degassing of the planet: the TRDS area (Tuscan Roman degassing structure and the CDS area (Campanian degassing structure. Reconstruction of the CO2 produced by degassing through the analysis of the components of inorganic carbon measured in groundwater of Central Lazio (Rome and Rieti districts between 2001 and 2016. Causal relationship of the activity of mantle degassing in the TRDS area with the disastrous earthquake occurred at L’Aquila in April 6, 2009. Current use of the dissolved inorganic carbon measurement in the Peschiera and Capore spring waters to monitor the activity of mantle degassing in the TRDS area, in order to have an early warning signal of possible seismic activity in the Central Apennines. Revision and data updating after the earthquake in August 24, 2016 at Amatrice.

  16. First data on canids depredation on livestock in an area of recent recolonization by wolf in central Italy : considerations on conflict survey and prevention methods

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    Magrini Caterina

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Wolf and dog depredation on livestock in the province of Rieti, central Italy, in 2007-2008, was studied. The study area was characterized by a high degree of human disturbance, widespread presence of free ranging dogs and a recent wolf recolonization. Because of the ineffectiveness of compensation programmes, it was not possible to use the official statistics to investigate the extent of the conflict, but sample interviews and surveys of farmers were used. Also, the farming protection tecniques adopted for different livestock species were analysed; the most utilized husbandry method was stabling for cattle and pigs, annual fenced grazing for horses and sheeps, and annual open grazing only for goats. Although sheep farms were the most attacked because of their availability (33.6% of the whole farms, goat farms were the most selected by predators because of their accessibility (40% of farms kept goats in annual open grazing. Management implications to mitigate livestock depredation were discussed.

  17. The cotton buds beach: Marine litter assessment along the Tyrrhenian coast of central Italy following the marine strategy framework directive criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeta, Gianluca; Battisti, Corrado; Bazzichetto, Manuele; Acosta, Alicia T R

    2016-12-15

    We assessed the annual accumulation rates of beach litter on the Tyrrhenian coast of central Italy, providing the characterization of litter following European standardized guidelines. Three different sites of a beach were sampled seasonally from spring 2014 to winter 2015. A total of 31,739 items were removed and classified into 103 categories. Plastic represented the majority (94.4%) of the collected items. We detected temporal and spatial differences in the abundance and composition of litter between seasons and between sites. Furthermore, we found that plastic cotton bud sticks composed >30% of the total amount of litter and, together with plastic and polystyrene pieces, made up >70% of the total items. Finally, our results led us to propose that the most effective strategy to reduce litter pollution is to devise specific management procedures focusing on the most abundant items.

  18. Kinematic finite fault and 3D seismic wave propagation of the 24 August, 2016, Mw 6.0 central Italy earthquake

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    Federica Magnoni

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The magnitude Mw 6.0 earthquake of 24th August 2016 caused severe damages and nearly 300 fatalities in the central Italy region. Initial reports revealed an asymmetrical distribution of damage and coseismic effects, suggesting a major role of heterogeneities, both in the rupture history and in the geological structure of the region. Near realtime availability of seismological data afforded a timely determination of a finite fault model (Tinti et al., 2016. Here we test this source model by performing a 3D simulation of seismic wave propagation within a 3D structural model containing the major geological features of the region. Agreement between modeled seismograms and observed seismograms suggests that some complexities in the waveforms, such as high amplification in the region of the Mt. Vettore fault system, can be accounted for by complexities in the fault rupture and 3D structural models. Finally, the consistency of the hypothesis of two distinct events has been analyzed.

  19. Strong-motion observations recorded in strategic public buildings during the 24 August 2016 Mw 6.0 Amatrice (central Italy earthquake

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    Chiara Ladina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Marche Region, in collaboration with INGV, has promoted a project to monitoring public strategic buildings with permanent accelerometer installed at the base of the structures. Public structures play a primary role to maintain the functionality of a local community. Information about vibratory characteristics of the building and subsoil, in addition to the seismic instrumental history that describe the seismic shaking at the base of the structure are collected for each buildings. The real-time acquisition of seismic data allows to obtain accelerometric time history soon after the occurrence of an earthquake. The event of 24 August 2016 in Central Italy was an opportunity to test the functionality of this implemented system. In this work the parameters obtained from strong motion data recorded at the base of the structures were analyzed and the values obtained were inserted with some empirical relationships used to provide intensity microseismic values and damage indices.

  20. Relationships between statistics of rainfall extremes and mean annual precipitation: an application for design-storm estimation in northern central Italy

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    G. Di Baldassarre

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Several hydrological analyses need to be founded on a reliable estimate of the design storm, which is the expected rainfall depth corresponding to a given duration and probability of occurrence, usually expressed in terms of return period. The annual series of precipitation maxima for storm duration ranging from 15 min to 1 day, observed at a dense network of raingauges sited in northern central Italy, are analyzed using an approach based on L-moments. The analysis investigates the statistical properties of rainfall extremes and detects significant relationships between these properties and the mean annual precipitation (MAP. On the basis of these relationships, we developed a regional model for estimating the rainfall depth for a given storm duration and recurrence interval in any location of the study region. The applicability of the regional model was assessed through Monte Carlo simulations. The uncertainty of the model for ungauged sites was quantified through an extensive cross-validation.

  1. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from Ferula glauca L. (F. communis L. subsp. glauca) growing in Marche (central Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggi, Filippo; Cecchini, Cinzia; Cresci, Alberto; Coman, Maria M; Tirillini, Bruno; Sagratini, Gianni; Papa, Fabrizio

    2009-01-01

    The essential oil obtained from different parts of Ferula glauca L. (formerly considered as a subspecies of F. communis) growing in Marche (central Italy), was analyzed for the first time by GC-FID and GC-MS. The major volatiles were (E)-caryophyllene and caryophyllene oxide in leaves, alpha-pinene, myrcene and germacrene D in flowers, alpha- and beta-pinene in fruits, (E)-beta-farnesene, myristicin and elemicin in roots, respectively. The differences in composition detected with respect to F. communis, made the volatile fraction a reliable marker to distinguish between them, and confirm the botanical data at the base of their discrimination. Furthermore, the oil was assayed for its antimicrobial activity by the broth microdilution method. B. subtilis was found to be the most sensitive microorganism, with the lowest MIC values.

  2. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus genotypes in south-central Sicily, Italy: a comparative study between 2000/2001 and 2010/2014

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    Liborio Bellomo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of various genotypes in the population of south-central Sicily (Italy and to compare recent data with those of 2000/2001. In 2000, the patients tested were 202, all hepatitis C virus (HCV-RNA and anti-HCV positive. From 2010 to 2014 the patients examined are in total 535, all anti-HCV positive, but 111 with genotype negative and therefore likely HCV-RNA negative. The study showed a clear predominance of genotype 1b for both men and women, however, with a much greater prevalence in the older cohort. In both groups, then, the 3a genotype follows for men, while the 2a/2c follows for women. 1a genotype prevalence rate falls in the most recent group of women. The cases of co-infection of more genotypes remain very content in 2014 as it happened in 2000.

  3. Republic of Italy (country profile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkert, R

    1986-02-01

    since 1950. Presently, it hovers around 9.5/1000. With its low birthrate and outmigration of young adults, Italy is aging. The median age is about 34 years, and 13% of the population is aged 65 and older. Despite the stereotypical image of the large Italian family, household size in Italy, as in other industrialized nations, is declining, from a mean of 3.6 in 1961 to 3.4 in 1971 and 3.0 in 1981. Culturally, Italy is a homogeneous country. In 1984 there were 23 million people in Italy's work force. Among the economically inactive, 33% were younger than age 14, 30% were housewives, 23% were retired, and 11% were students. In 1984, average annual family income varied from the equivalent of about $15,900 in Emilia Romagna to $9,500 in Sicilia. Mean annual household budgets in 1983 varied from te equivalent of $11,950 in Lombardia to $7,400 in Molise, with a national average of $10,026.

  4. Source Rupture Models for the 2016 Mw6.2 Central Italy Earthquake from Joint Inversions of GPS and Teleseismic and strong motion data

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    Chen, K.; Liu, Z.; Song, Y. T.

    2016-12-01

    As a result of shallow normal faulting in the Central Apennines, the August 24th, 2016 Mw 6.2 Central Italy earthquake caused severe damages and killed more than 300 people. This event ruptured in a densely-instrumented area and provided very rich data for a better understanding of the local tectonic behavior, which can help to minimize seismic hazards of Italy in the future. In this contribution, we examine the spatiotemporal rupture details of the earthquake by jointly inverting local coseismic GPS offsets from Rete Integrata Nazionale GPS (RING), strong motion waveform records from Rete Accelerometrica Nazionale (RAN) and teleseismic body waves from Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology(IRIS). We estimate the fault geometry from global CMT solution and discretize the fault plane into subfaults. A frequency-wavenumber method is used to compute near-field dynamic and static Green's functions based on 1-D layered velocity model from CRUST 2.0. We use TEL3 [Chen et al., 2015] to model teleseismic data. We allow variable rake for fault slip and apply Laplacian regularization in solving earthquake rupture history in space and time. Non-negative least square method is used for inversion and 2D Akaike's Bayesian Information Criterion (ABIC) is chosen to determine optimal parameters. Our preliminary results show that the main ruptures locate at about 4 km depth with two distinct slip zones: one close to the epicenter and another lie to the northwest of the epicenter, about 20 kilometers away, and it is where the largest slip (about 30 centimeters) occurred. The equivalent seismic moment is 3.9*1018 Nm that is in agreement with other studies. In addition, we are going to refine the rupture model and evolution process by adding more data (e.g., InSAR data from sentinel-1A) and optimizing parameters settings.

  5. Angiostrongylus vasorum in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes and badgers (Meles meles from Central and Northern Italy

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    Marta Magi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During 2004-2005 and 2007-2008, 189 foxes (Vulpes vulpes and 6 badgers (Meles meles were collected in different areas of Central Northern Italy (Piedmont, Liguria and Tuscany and examined for Angiostrongylus vasorum infection. The prevalence of the infection was significantly different in the areas considered, with the highest values in the district of Imperia (80%, Liguria and in Montezemolo (70%, southern Piedmont; the prevalence in Tuscany was 7%. One badger collected in the area of Imperia turned out to be infected, representing the first report of the parasite in this species in Italy. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role played by fox populations as reservoirs of infection and the probability of its spreading to domestic dogs.
    Riassunto Angiostrongylus vasorum nella volpe (Vulpes vulpes e nel tasso (Meles meles in Italia centro-settentrionale. Nel 2004-2005 e 2007-2008, 189 volpi (Vulpes vulpes e 6 tassi (Meles meles provenienti da differenti aree dell'Italia settentrionale e centrale (Piemonte, Liguria Toscana, sono stati esaminati per la ricerca di Angiostrongylus vasorum. La prevalenza del nematode è risultata significativamente diversa nelle varie zone, con valori elevati nelle zone di Imperia (80% e di Montezemolo (70%, provincia di Cuneo; la prevalenza in Toscana è risultata del 7%. Un tasso proveniente dall'area di Imperia è risultato positivo per A. vasorum; questa è la prima segnalazione del parassita in tale specie in Italia. Ulteriori studi sono necessari per valutare il potenziale della volpe come serbatoio e la possibilità di diffusione della parassitosi ai cani domestici.

    doi:10.4404/hystrix-20.2-4442

  6. Hydrogeochemistry of regional aquifer systems from Tuscany (central Italy): the state of the art before the definition of a geochemical baseline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisi, Barbara; Battaglini, Raffaele; Raco, Brunella

    2013-04-01

    European Community Water Framework Directive (WFD) and its derivative regulations have recognized the urgent need to adopt specific measures against the contamination of water bodies by individual pollutants that may significantly affect the quality of water itself. Italian regulation takes into account the EU Directives, and charges the regional authorities to create monitoring networks and produce assessment reports on the contamination of groundwater. The knowledge of "natural baseline" for various dissolved elements in groundwaters on a regional scale becomes of primary importance to distinguish natural sources and anthropogenic inputs. The studied area includes the whole Tuscan regional district (central Italy) and covers an area of about 23,000 km2. From a geolithological point of view, Tuscan territory consists of several complexes outcropping regionally, the most typical features being the Mesozoic and Cenozoic carbonate and evaporitic formations, overlain by flysch sequences, as well as granite intrusions and volcanic rocks. Moreover, two geothermal areas (Larderello and Mt. Amiata), a large number of thermal springs and CO2-rich gas vents are mostly present in the central-southern part of Tuscany. Finally in southern Tuscany (e.g. Campiglia M.Ma, Mt. Amiata, Elba Island), mining districts, predominantly characterized by polimetallic sulphides ore deposits, were exploited since the Etruscan time. In this work statistical distribution models are used to develop summary statistics and estimate probabilities of exceeding water-quality standards according to the National Legislative Decree 152/06. Descriptive statistics on solute concentrations are based on geochemical data from the main Tuscan aquifers and investigated by the CNR-IGG (Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources of Pisa, Italy) and Department of Earth Sciences (University of Florence, Italy). The data processing was carried out on 4,767 water samples collected from 1997 to 2009. According to

  7. Preliminary data on the social ecology of the stone marten (Martes foina Erxleben 1777 in Tuscany (Central Italy

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    Piero Genovesi

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A research study on the spacing patterns and territoriality of the stone marten (Martes foina was carried out in Central Italy from 1990 to 1992. Twelve individuals were intensively radio-tracked in a wooded and rural area of Tuscany region. Our data seem to confirm a model of intrasexual territoriality for the species. In addition, social organization does not appear to change between different habitat conditions. Riassunto Dati preliminari sull'ecologia sociale della faina (Martes foina Erxleben 1777 in Toscana (Italia centrale - Dal 1990 a1 1992 è stata condotta una ricerca sull'uso dello spazio e la territorialità della faina (Martes foina in Italia centrale. 12 individui sono stati intensamente monitorati con tecniche radio-telemetriche in un'area forestale e rurale della Toscana. Dai nostri dati appare confermato per la specie il modello di territorialità intrasessuale. Inoltre, l'organizzazione sociale non sembra cambiare in differenti condizioni ambientali.

  8. Coccidiosis of wild and captive European mouflons (Ovis aries) living in a natural reserve of central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, M; Fichi, G; Ambrogi, C; Ragagli, C; Stancampiano, L; Poglayen, G; Perrucci, S

    2010-12-01

    Between December 2005 and November 2006, a survey on coccidiosis of wild and captive mouflons living in the Orecchiella Natural Reserve (Tuscany, Italy) was performed on faecal samples collected approximately every two months. A total of 96 samples were collected, 55 of which from wild mouflons and 41 from captive mouflons. On these faecal samples qualitative and quantitative parasitological analyses were performed; moreover, faecal cultures were made in order to identify the involved Eimeria species. Significantly higher prevalence (%) and mean intensity (mean OPG +/- SD) of coccidian infection resulted for captive mouflons (73.17% and 814.6 +/- 1297.2 OPG) comparing to wild mouflons (36.73% and 112.7 +/- 268.7 OPG). Eimeria parva, E ovinoidalis, E. bakuensis, E. ahasata, E. intricata, E. crandallis, E. granulosa, E. faurei and an Eimeria species very similar to the descriptions previously reported for E. arloingi and E. yakimoffmatschoulsky, were isolated.

  9. CAIROELLA TRICAMERATA N. GEN., N. SP. (FORAMINIFERIDA, MILIOLOIDEA FROM THE LOWER CENOMANIAN OF MONTE CAIRO (SOUTHERN LATIUM, CENTRAL ITALY

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    MAURIZIO CHIOCCHINI

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A new porcelaneous foraminifer, Cairoella tricamerata n. gen., n. sp., is here described from the lower Cenomanian of the Monte Cairo area near Cassino (Southern Latium, Italy. The new taxon is characterized by an early stage with triloculine to quinqueloculine coiling, followed by one or two whorls, each consisting of three or more tubular, curved, flattened and undivided chambers, with depressed sutures; it is ascribed  to the superfamily Milioloidea, but the inferred  attribution to the family Hauerinidae remains uncertain. In the type-locality its occurrence is restricted to the back-edge facies of the Latium-Abruzzi carbonate platform represented by fossiliferous grain-supported limestone rich in Sellialveolina viallii Colalongo, 1963.

  10. Modelling the effects of atmospheric sulphur and nitrogen deposition on selected lakes and streams of the Central Alps (Italy

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    M. Rogora

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic model MAGIC was calibrated and applied to selected sites in north-western Italy (3 rivers, 10 alpine lakes to predict the future response of surface water to different scenarios of atmospheric deposition of S and N compounds. Results at the study sites suggest that several factors other than atmospheric deposition may influence the long-term changes in surface water chemistry. At present the lumped approach of dynamic models such as MAGIC cannot represent all the processes occurring at the catchment scale. Climate warming in particular and its effects on surface water chemistry proved to be important in the study area. Furthermore the river catchments considered here showed clear signs of N saturation. This condition and the increasing concentrations of NO3 in river water were simulated using N dynamics recently included in MAGIC. The modelling performed in this study represents the first application of MAGIC to Italian sites. The results show that inclusion of other factors specific to the Mediterranean area, such as dust deposition and climate change, may improve the fit to observed data and the reliability of the model forecast. Despite these limitations, the model captured well the main trends in chemical data in both rivers and lakes. The outputs clearly demonstrate the benefits of achieving the emission reductions in both S and N compounds as agreed under the Gothenburg Protocol rather than making no further emission reductions. It was also clear that, besides the substantial reduction of SO4 deposition from the peak levels of the 1980s, N deposition must also be reduced in the near future to protect freshwaters from further acidification. Keywords: MAGIC, northern Italy, acidification, recovery, nitrogen saturation

  11. Real-time measurements of Hg0 and H2S at La Solfatara Crater (Campi Flegrei, Southern Italy) and Mt. Amiata volcano (Siena, Central Italy): a new geochemical approach to estimate the distribution of air contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabassi, J.; Calabrese, S.; Tassi, F.; Venturi, S.; Capecchiacci, F.; Di Lonardo, C.; D'Alessandro, W.; Vaselli, O.

    2014-12-01

    The emission of Hg and H2S from natural and anthropogenic sources may have a great environmental impact in urban areas as well as in the surroundings of active and passive degassing volcanoes. Mercury is present in the atmosphere mainly in its elemental form (Hg0~98 %), which has a relatively high volatility, low solubility and chemical inertness. Hydrogen sulfide, one of the most abundant gas species in volcanic fluids, is highly poisoning and corrosive. In this study, an innovative real-time method for the measurements of Hg0 and H2S concentrations in air was carried out at La Solfatara Crater, a hydrothermally altered tuff-cone nested in the town of Pozzuoli (Southern Italy), and at Mt. Amiata volcano (Central Italy), where a world-class Hg mining district abandoned in the seventies and a presently-exploited geothermal field for the production of electrical energy occur. The main aims were (i) to test this new methodological approach and (ii) to investigate Hg0 and H2S concentrations and the chemical-physical parameters regulating their spatial distribution in polluted areas. A portable Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometer with high frequency modulation of light polarization (Lumex RA-915M) was used in combination with a pulsed fluorescence gas analyzer (Thermo Scientific Model 450i) to measure Hg0 and H2S, respectively. The instruments were synchronized and set at high-frequency acquisition (10 sec and 1 min, respectively). Measurements were carried out along pathways (up to 12 km long) at an average speed of <10 km/h and coupled with GPS data and meteorological parameters. In selected sites, passive samplers were positioned to determine the time-integrated Hg0 and H2S concentrations to be compared with the real-time measurements. The results indicate that this approach is highly efficient and effective in providing reliable and reproducible Hg0 and H2S concentrations and can be used to identify and characterize gas emitters in different environments.

  12. First surveys on genetic variability and structure of field maple (Acer campestre L. in natural and managed populations in the landscape of central and southern Italy

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    Fulvio Ducci

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Four Tuscan populations (central Italy and three Italian populations from southern Italy (Campania were sampled to compare their genetic variability and genetic structure. In each geographical area one of the sampled populations is originated naturally in forest and used as a local reference. The remaining populations were originated artificially. Indeed, field maple was traditionally used in Italy to supply fresh fodder to animals in dry summer period as tree twigs or to train up grape trees in the fields edges. This tradition initiated  at the time of Etruscans and continued throughout the Roman partitioning of agriculture landscape. Biochemical markers were used to explore variability in the examined populations (5 enzyme systems by 11 loci. Results showed that the main amount of variation is due to the individual component as for most of the scattered hardwoods in Europe and that differentiation among populations for these neutral  traits is relatively low. On the other hand, the natural populations in both the geographical areas showed a very high level of panmittic equilibrium, whilst the artificial populations were really distant from this condition showing a high probability of “founder effect”. This could be determined by the former system of self-supplying reproductive material carried out by farmers, based on the wild offspring collection growing around few mother trees. Discussion is focused also on how handling the opportunity given by many hundreds kilometers of lines  in the agriculture landscape as a way of managing diversity for this species. st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso

  13. Paleomagnetic evidence for low-temperature emplacement of the phreatomagmatic Peperino Albano ignimbrite (Colli Albani volcano, Central Italy)

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    Porreca, M.; Mattei, M.; Macniocaill, C.; Giordano, G.; McClelland, E.; Funiciello, R.

    2008-05-01

    The Peperino Albano (approximately 19-36 ka old) is a phreatomagmatic pyroclastic flow deposit, cropping out along the slopes of the associated Albano maar (Colli Albani volcano, Italy). The deposit exhibits lateral and vertical transitions from valley pond to veneer facies, as well as intracrater facies. We present the results of a paleomagnetic study of thermal remanent magnetization (TRM) of the lithic clasts of the Peperino Albano ignimbrite that provide quantitative estimates of the range of emplacement temperatures across the different facies of the ignimbrite. Emplacement temperatures estimated for the Peperino Albano ignimbrite range between 240° and 350°C, with the temperatures defined in the intracrater facies being generally lower than in the valley pond and veneer facies. This is possibly due to the large size of the sampled clasts in the intracrater facies which, when coupled with low temperature at the vent, were not completely heated throughout their volume during emplacement. The emplacement temperatures derived from the paleomagnetic results are in good agreement with the presence of un-burnt plants at the base of the ignimbrite, indicating that the temperature of the pyroclastic flow was lower than the temperature of ignition of wood. Paleomagnetic results from the Peperino Albano confirm the reliability of the paleomagnetic approach in defining the thermal history of pyroclastic flow deposits.

  14. The environmental features of the Monte Corchia cave system (Apuan Alps, central Italy and their effects on speleothem growth

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    Piccini Leonardo

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The Monte Corchia cave system, one of the most famous and popular caves in Italy, has in recent times been the subject of investigation on its speleothems as paleoclimate archives. This paper describes the geology, geomorphology and water chemistry of the cave system with the aim to elucidate the processes that have generated these speleothems and the properties they contain that are so useful for paleoclimatology. Some general conclusions can be drawn: i the Corchia system is a cave developed over different altitudes during progressive uplift of the mountain chain in which it is located, probably under drainage conditions very different to those of the present. This has allowed the development of a large (ca. 60 km and deep (-1187 m karst system; ii the dewatering phases have left the deepest chambers far away from clastic input and with long drip pathways; iii the peculiar geological context has permitted the water to intercept and dissolve a significant source of U (still unknown that facilitates radiometric dating; iv in the last 1 Ma at least, no significant changes have occurred in the relief and in the epikarst, in the sense that speleothems have grown under very similar conditions. In addition the extremely low Ca concentration of drip waters have permitted low speleothem growth rates and, at least for the “Galleria delle Stalattiti”, the zone under paleoclimate studies,a stable plumbing system (i.e. chemistry and stable isotopes of drip waters has produced calcite close to isotopic equilibrium.

  15. Inorganic raw materials economy and provenance of chipped industry in some stone age sites of northern and central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bietti, Amilcare; Boschian, Giovanni; Crisci, Gino Mirocle; Danese, Ermanno; De Francesco, Anna Maria; Dini, Mario; Fontana, Federica; Giampietri, Alessandra; Grifoni, Renata; Guerreschi, Antonio; Liagre, Jérémie; Negrino, Fabio; Radi, Giovanna; Tozzi, Carlo; Tykot, Robert

    2004-06-01

    An opportunistic and local choice of raw materials is typically attested in the Lower and Middle Paleolithic industries throughout Italy. The quality of the raw material usually affected the flaking technology and quality of the products. In the Upper Paleolithic and the Mesolithic, raw material procurement strategies were more complex. Flint was exploited both locally, in areas where abundant outcrops of raw materials were available (such as the Lessini mountains), and in distant localities, after which it was transported or exchanged over medium/long distances. Different routes of exchange were thus followed in the various periods; good reconstruction of these routes have been provided by a study of the Garfagnana sites in Northern Tuscany, and the Mesolithic deposit of Mondeval de Sora (Dolomites). An interesting example of a Late Upper Paleolithic flint quarry and workshop were found in Abruzzo, in the San Bartolomeo shelter. The extended trade of obsidian from Lipari, Palmarola and Sardinia to the Italian Peninsula is attested in the Neolithic, with some differences concerning the age and different areas.

  16. A REVISION OF THE PLIOCENE NATICIDS OF NORTHERN AND CENTRAL ITALY. II. THE SUBFAMILY NATICINAE: ADDITIONS TO COCHLIS, TANEA AND TECTONATICA

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    LUCA PEDRIALI

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is the second in a series devoted to the revision of the Pliocene naticids of Northern and Central Italy. It concludes the section covering the calcareous operculum-bearing Naticinae and expands to 18 the total number of species and subspecies of this subfamily recovered so far from the Pliocene deposits of Italy. Of the six taxa considered in this study, two (epigloafuniculata and fredianii fully match the characters of the genus Cochlis Röding, 1798, one (koeneni is assigned to the genus Tanea Marwick, 1931, the rest (astensis, prietoi and tectula belong to the genus Tectonatica Sacco, 1890. All the six taxa considered in this paper are described and commented in the systematic account. One, Cochlis fredianii, is proposed as new. In the chapter treating the generic assignment of the studied taxa, the range of Tanea, hitherto used to allocate several Indo-Pacific species, is extended to the Mediterranean Basin as well, and the relations between Tectonatica and Cryptonatica Dall, 1892 are discussed. This study further demonstrates that the morphological characters of the teleoconch are of low significance in species recognition. In fact, should the characters be ranked, the operculum comes first and is the primary element, sufficient to distinguish each species. The protoconch and the color pattern are the second and third relevant attributes that can be used diagnostically for several taxa, but not always. The other shell features appear to be useful tools in separating species only occasionally. Some species lack distinctive shell characters and do require operculate specimens in order to be confidently 

  17. Mapping Spatial Patterns of Posidonia oceanica Meadows by Means of Daedalus ATM Airborne Sensor in the Coastal Area of Civitavecchia (Central Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy

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    Marco Marcelli

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of sea bed covers and seagrass in coastal waters is of key importance in monitoring and managing Mediterranean shallow water environments often subject to both increasing anthropogenic impacts and climate change effects. In this context we present a methodology for effective monitoring and mapping of Posidonia oceanica (PO meadows in turbid waters using remote sensing techniques tested by means of LAI (Leaf Area Index point sea truth measurements. Preliminary results using Daedalus airborne sensor are reported referring to the PO meadows at Civitavecchia site (central Tyrrhenian sea where vessel traffic due to presence of important harbors and huge power plant represent strong impact factors. This coastal area, 100 km far from Rome (Central Italy, is characterized also by significant hydrodynamic variations and other anthropogenic factors that affect the health of seagrass meadows with frequent turbidity and suspended sediments in the water column. During 2011–2012 years point measurements of several parameters related to PO meadows phenology were acquired on various stations distributed along 20 km of coast between the Civitavecchia and S. Marinella sites. The Daedalus airborne sensor multispectral data were preprocessed with the support of satellite (MERIS derived water quality parameters to obtain here improved thematic maps of the local PO distribution. Their thematic accuracy was then evaluated as agreement (R2 with the point sea truth measurements and regressive modeling using an on purpose developd method.

  18. Arsenic in Drinking Water and Mortality for Cancer and Chronic Diseases in Central Italy, 1990-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ippoliti, Daniela; Santelli, Enrica; De Sario, Manuela; Scortichini, Matteo; Davoli, Marina; Michelozzi, Paola

    2015-01-01

    In several volcanic areas of Italy, arsenic levels exceed European regulatory limits (10 μg/L in drinking water). There is still uncertainty about health risks from arsenic at low-medium doses (approach using residential history and arsenic concentrations from water supply. A time-dependent Cumulative Arsenic dose Indicator (CAI) was calculated, accounting for daily water intake and exposure duration. Mortality Hazard Ratios (HR) were estimated by gender for different diseases using Cox proportional models, adjusting for individual and area-level confounders. A flexible non-parametric approach was used to investigate dose-response relationships. Mean AsI exposure was 19.3 μg/L, and average exposure duration was 39.5 years. Associations of AsI and CAI indicators with several diseases were found, with greatest risks found for lung cancer in both sexes (HR = 2.61 males; HR = 2.09 females), myocardial infarction, peripheral arterial disease and COPD in males (HR = 2.94; HR = 2.44; HR = 2.54 respectively) and diabetes in females (HR = 2.56). For lung cancer and cardiovascular diseases dose-response relationship is modelled by piecewise linear functions revealing effects even for doses lower than 10 μg/L, and no threshold dose value was identified as safe for health. Results provide new evidence for risk assessment of low-medium concentrations of arsenic and contribute to the ongoing debate about the threshold-dose of effect, suggesting that even concentrations below 10 μg/L carry a mortality risk. Policy actions are urgently needed in areas exposed to arsenic like in the Viterbo province, to comply with current EU regulations.

  19. Molecular detection assay of the bud mite Trisetacus juniperinus on Cupressus sempervirens in nurseries of central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouneb, Mabrouk; de Lillo, Enrico; Roversi, Pio Federico; Simoni, Sauro

    2014-02-01

    Trisetacus juniperinus (Nalepa) sensu Keifer (Acari: Eriophyoidea: Phytoptidae) causes irregular development of buds, shoot deformations and stunted growth of trees, resulting in a serious threat to nurseries and young stands of Cupressus sempervirens L. (Mediterranean cypress). Recently, some cypress clones selected for their resistance to the fungal canker agent Seiridium cardinale (Wag.) have shown high susceptibility to the mite. Considering its tiny body, its hidden lifestyle inside the buds and the probable occurrence of other species (the vagrant Epitrimerus cupressi (Keifer) is common on the Mediterranean cypress in Italy), detection and monitoring of T. juniperinus require taxonomic expertise and are often time-consuming and challenging before serious damage is discernible. In the present study, a rapid, cost-effective PCR-based method was developed and validated to detect T. juniperinus on cypresses. The cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene was amplified with degenerate and specific primers, but the latter were the only ones able to discriminate between T. juniperinus and E. cupressi. PCR products distinguished the two species both in a pool of individuals in a mixed population of both species and in single individuals, indicating the sensitivity of the detection method. PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) by means of XmnI and XbaI endonucleases separated the two species. Furthermore, a washing-sieving protocol was used to make mite collection from the tree sample faster and simpler; this procedure did not interfere with the molecular detection of the species. The possibility of the routine use of this assay to monitor quarantine eriophyoids infesting plant material is discussed.

  20. Collection for Italy

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    Fabiola Gianotti, Director-General, and Ghislain Roy, President of the Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Following the earthquake of 24 August in central Italy, many of you have expressed your solidarity. The collection to support the victims raised a total of 10 000 CHF, which was transferred in its entirety to Italy’s civil protection through the Italian delegation to the CERN Council. The CERN Directorate and the CERN Staff Association sincerely thank you for your generosity.

  1. First-order and subsidiary faults controlling the time-space evolution of the Central Italy 2016 seismic sequence - a multi-source data detailed 3D reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavecchia, Giusy; de nardis, Rita; Ferrarini, Federica; Cirillo, Daniele; Brozzetti, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    The Central Italy 2016 seismic sequence, with its three major events (24 August, Mw 6.0/6.2; 26 October Mw5.9/6.0; 30 October Mw6.5/6.6), activated a well-known active west-dipping extensional fault alignment of central Italy (Vettore-Gorzano faults, VEGO). Soon after the first event, based on geological, interferometric and at that moment available seismological data, a preliminary 3D fault model of VEGO was built. Such a model is here updated and improved at the light of a large amount of relocated earthquake data (time interval 24 August to 30 November 2016, 0.1≤ML ≤6.5, Chiaraluce at al., submitted to SRL) plus additional geological information. The 3D modeling was done using the software package MOVE from the Midland Valley. All the available data were taken into consideration (surface traces, fault-slip data, primary co-seismic surface fractures, geological maps and cross-sections, hypocentral locations and focal mechanisms of both background seismicity and seismic sequences). The VEGO geometric configuration did not substantially changed with respect to the previous model, but some additional structures involved in the sequence were reconstructed. In particular, four additional faults are well evident: a NE-dipping normal fault (dip-angle 50˚ ) antithetic to Vettore Fault, located at depths between 1 and 5 km; a WNW dipping plane (dip-angle 30˚ ) located at depth between 1 and 4 km within the Vettore footwall volume; this structure represents a splay of the late Miocene Sibillini thrust, which is evidently cross-cut and dislocated by the Vettore normal fault; a SW-dipping normal fault representing an unknown northward prosecution of the VEGO alignment, where since 26 October a relevant seismic activity was released; an unknown east-dipping low-angle detachment, where VEGO detaches at a depth of about 10-11 km. An uninterrupted microseismic activity has illuminated such a detachment not only during the overall sequence, but also in the previous months

  2. A geochemical approach for assessing the possible uses of the geothermal resource in the eastern sector of the Sabatini Volcanic District (Central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinti, Daniele; Tassi, Franco; Procesi, Monia; Brusca, Lorenzo; Cabassi, Jacopo; Capecchiacci, Francesco; Delgado Huertas, Antonio; Galli, Gianfranco; Grassa, Fausto; Vaselli, Orlando; Voltattorni, Nunzia

    2017-04-01

    The Sabatini Volcanic District (SVD) hosts a hydrothermal reservoir heated by the post-magmatic activity that affected the peri-Tyrrhenian sector of central Italy, giving rise to a number of thermal and mineral discharges. In this study, a complete geochemical and isotopic dataset based on the composition of 215 water and 9 bubbling gases, collected from the eastern sector of this huge hydrothermal system, is reported. The main aims are to (i) investigate the fluid sources and the main chemical-physical processes controlling the fluid chemistry and (ii) construct a conceptual fluid circulation model to provide insights into the possible use(s) of the geothermal resource. The fluid discharges are fed by two main aquifers, characterized by: (1) a Ca-HCO3 to Ca(Na)-HCO3 composition, typical of a shallow hydrological circuit within volcanic and sedimentary formations, and (2) a Ca-HCO3(SO4) to Na(Ca)-HCO3(Cl) composition, produced by the interaction of CO2-rich fluids with Mesozoic and Triassic carbonate-evaporite rocks. A thick sequence of low-permeability volcanic products represents a physical barrier between the two fluid reservoirs. As commonly occurring in central-southern Italy, CO2 is mainly produced by thermo-metamorphic decarbonation within the carbonate-evaporite reservoir, with minor contribution of mantle CO2. A dominant crustal source is also indicated by the relatively low R/Ra values (0.07-1.04). Methane and light hydrocarbons are mostly thermogenic, whereas H2S derives from thermogenic reduction of the Triassic anhydrites. Slightly positive 15N/14N values suggest minor N2 contribution from deep sedimentary sources. On the whole, a comparison of these geochemical features with those of the thermal fluids from the western portion of SVD highlights an eastward increasing influence of the shallow aquifer on the deep-originated fluids, likely caused by the proximity of the Apennine range from where the meteoric water, recharging the hydrothermal system

  3. A new multi-parametric climatological approach to the study of the earthquake preparatory phase: the 2016 Amatrice-Norcia (Central Italy) seismic sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscini, Alessandro; De Santis, Angelo; Marchetti, Dedalo; Cianchini, Gianfranco

    2017-04-01

    Based on observations prior to earthquakes, recent theoretical considerations suggest that some geophysical quantities reveal abnormal changes that anticipate moderate and strong earthquakes, within a defined spatial area (the so-called Dobrovolsky area) according to a Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere coupling (LAIC) model. One of the possible pre-earthquake effects could be the appearance of some climatological anomalies in the epicentral region, weeks/months before the major earthquakes. An ESA-funded project, SAFE (Swarm for Earthquake study) was dedicated to investigate the LAIC from ground to satellite. In this work, the period of two months preceding the Amatrice-Norcia (Central Italy) earthquake sequence that started on 24 August 2016 with an M6 earthquake, and some months later produced other two major shocks, i.e. an M5.9 on 26 October and then an M6.5 on 30 October, was analyzed in terms of some climatological parameters. In particular, starting from a date preceding of about two months the first major shock, we applied a new approach based on the comparison of the thirty-seven year time series at the same seasonal time of three land/atmospheric parameters, i.e. skin temperature (skt), total column water vapour (tcwv) and total column of ozone (tco3), collected from European Center Medium Weather Forecast (ECMWF), and the year in which the earthquake sequence occurred. The originality of the method stands in the way the complete time series is reduced, where also the possible effect of global warming is properly removed. A confutation/confirmation analysis was undertaken where these parameters were successfully analyzed in the same months but considering two seismically "calm" years, when significant seismicity was not present, in order to validate the technique. We also extended the analysis to all available years to construct a confusion matrix comparing the climatological anomalies with the real seismicity. This latter analysis has confirmed the

  4. Study pre-earthquake features in the Earth atmosphere-ionosphere environment associated with 2016 Amatrice-Norcia (Central Italy) seismic sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounov, Dimitar; Pulinets, Sergey; Giuliani, Gioacchino; Hernández-Pajares, Manuel; García-Rigo, Alberto

    2017-04-01

    The 2016 Amatrice-Norcia (Central Italy) seismic sequence (M6.3, M6.1 and M6.5), became one of the unusual and important modern earthquake events. Recent studies indicate (including April 6th 2009 Abruzzo earthquake) an enhanced coupling between the atmospheric boundary layer and the ionosphere, which have been proposed to be related with large (>M6) earthquakes. This relationship has been studied for the 2016 Central Italy sequence using an integrated set of observations of five physical and environmental parameters. We present observational data from January to November 2016 of five physical parameters- radon, seismicity, temperature of the atmosphere boundary layer, outgoing earth infrared radiation and GPS/TEC and their temporal and spatial variations several days before the onset of the Amatrice-Norcia earthquake sequence. The Aug 24 M6.2 foreshock was situated about 70 kilometers from the 2 stations of radon near L'Aquila. These data show an increase prior to the main earthquake beginning in July-August this enhancement of radon coincides (with some delay) with an increase in the atmospheric chemical potential (Aug 11) measured near the epicentral area from satellite. And subsequently from Aug12 there was an association with the acceleration of outgoing infrared radiation observed on the top of the atmosphere from EOS satellite (Aug 16). The GPS/Total Electron Content data indicate an increase of electron concentration in ionosphere on August 22 and October 26, 1-2 days before the M6.2 foreshock and the M6.5 main shock on Oct 30, 2016. Both ground and satellite data have in common that they were evident in about the last ten days before the M6.2 foreshock of Aug 24 and continuously up to the main shock of Oct 30, although the radon variations started 2 months earlier. We examined the possible correlation between different pre-earthquake signals in the frame of a multidisciplinary investigation of Lithosphere -Atmosphere -Ionosphere coupling concept.

  5. A multi-proxy record of MIS 11-12 deglaciation and glacial MIS 12 instability from the Sulmona basin (central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regattieri, Eleonora; Giaccio, Biagio; Galli, Paolo; Nomade, Sebastien; Peronace, Edoardo; Messina, Paolo; Sposato, Andrea; Boschi, Chiara; Gemelli, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    A multi-proxy record (lithology, XRF, CaCO3 content, carbonate δ18O and δ13C) was acquired from a sediment core drilled in the intermountain Sulmona basin (central Italy). Tephrostratigraphic analyses of three volcanic ash layers ascribe the investigated succession to the MIS 12-MIS 11 period, spanning the interval ca. 500-410 ka. Litho-pedo facies assemblage indicates predominant lacustrine deposition, interrupted by a minor sub-aerial and lake low stand episode. Variations in major and minor elements concentrations are related to changes in the clastic input to the lake. The oxygen isotopic composition of carbonate (δ18Oc) intervals is interpreted mainly as a proxy for the amount of precipitation in the high-altitude catchment of the karst recharge system. The record shows pronounced hydrological variability at orbital and millennial time-scales, which appears closely related to the Northern Hemisphere summer insolation pattern and replicates North Atlantic and west Mediterranean Sea Surface Temperature (SST) fluctuations. The MIS 12 glacial inception is marked by an abrupt reduction of precipitation, lowering of the lake level and enhanced catchment erosion. A well-defined and isotopically prominent interstadial with increased precipitation maybe related to insolation maxima-precession minima at ca. 465 ka. This interstadial ends abruptly at ca. 457 ka and it is followed by a phase of strong short-term instability. Drastic lake-level lowering and enhanced clastic flux characterized the MIS 12 glacial maximum. Lacustrine deposition restarted about 440 ka ago. The MIS 12-MIS 11 transition is characterized by a rapid increase in the precipitation, lake-level rise and reduction in the clastic input, interrupted by a short and abrupt return to drier conditions. Comparison with marine records from the Iberian margin and western Mediterranean suggests that major events of ice rafted debris deposition, related to southward migrations of the polar front, match the

  6. A key continental archive for the last 2 Ma of climatic history of the central Mediterranean region: A pilot drilling in the Fucino Basin, central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaccio, B.; Regattieri, E.; Zanchetta, G.; Wagner, B.; Galli, P.; Mannella, G.; Niespolo, E.; Peronace, E.; Renne, P. R.; Nomade, S.; Cavinato, G. P.; Messina, P.; Sposato, A.; Boschi, C.; Florindo, F.; Marra, F.; Sadori, L.

    2015-12-01

    An 82 m long sedimentary succession was retrieved from the Fucino Basin, the largest intermountain tectonic depression of the central Apennines. The basin hosts a succession of fine-grained lacustrine sediments (ca. 900 m-thick) possibly continuously spanning the last 2 Ma. A preliminary tephrostratigraphy study allows us to ascribe the drilled 82 m long record to the last 180 ka. Multi-proxy geochemical analyses (XRF scanning, total organic/inorganic carbon, nitrogen and sulfur, oxygen isotopes) reveal noticeable variations, which are interpreted as paleohydrological and paleoenvironmental expressions related to classical glacial-interglacial cycles from the marine isotope stage (MIS) 6 to present day. In light of the preliminary results, the Fucino sedimentary succession is likely to provide a long, continuous, sensitive, and independently dated paleoclimatic archive of the central Mediterranean area.

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons residues in Gentile di maiale, a smoked meat product typical of some mountain areas in Latina province (Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Carrabs

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Gentile di maiale is a typical meat product prepared in some traditional plants of Latina Province (Central Italy. It is obtained from dehydration, salting, smoking and ripening of swine rectum. Aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the traditional smoking process on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs content by means of high-performance liquid chromatographic/fluorescence detection. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons detected in 8 samples of raw material (swine rectum and samples of smoked gentile were: benzo[a]anthracene, chrisene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a] pyrene, benzo[a,h]anthracene. Their residues were detected in all samples of finished product. European Regulation 835/2011 established two levels of PAHs content in meat products. According to first levels, in force until September 2014, only 2 out of 8 samples exceeded legal limit. According to the subsequent, more restrictive, limits all samples would be non-compliant. An improvement and a standardisation of traditional smoking procedures are recommended.

  8. [Spatial representativeness of monitoring stations for air quality in Florence (Tuscany Region, Central Italy) according to ARPAT e LaMMA. Critical observations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grechi, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    On March 2015, the Environmental Protection Agency of Tuscany Region (Central Italy) and the Laboratory of monitoring and environmental modelling published a Report on spatial representativeness of monitoring stations for Tuscan air quality, where they supported the decommissioning of modelling stations located in the Florentine Plain. The stations of Signa, Scandicci, and Firenze-Bassi, located in a further South area, were considered representative Believing that air quality of the Plain could be evaluated by these stations is a stretch. In this text the author show the inconsistency of the conclusion of the Report through correlation graphs comparing daily means of PM10 detected in the disposed stations and in the active ones, showing relevant differences between the reported values and the days when the limits are exceeded. The discrepancy is due to the fact that uncertainty of theoretical estimates is greater than the differences recorded by the stations considered as a reference and the areas they may represent. The area of the Plain has a population of 150,000 individuals and it is subject to a heavy environmental pression, which will change for the urban works planned for the coming years. The population's legitimate request for the analytical monitoring of air pollution could be met through the organization of participated monitoring based on the use of low-cost innovative tools.

  9. Cd, Pb and Cu in spring waters of the Sibylline Mountains National Park (Central Italy, determined by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry

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    Truzzi C.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV was used to determine Cd, Pb and Cu in spring waters of the Sibylline Mountains National Park, Central Italy. Samples were collected from three different areas of the Park (Mount Bove North, Mount Bove South and Springs of River Nera during the period 2004-2011. Physical-chemical parameters were also determined to obtain a general characterization of the waters. Very low metal concentrations were observed (i.e., Cd 1.3±0.4 ng L-1, Pb 13.8±5.6 ng L-1, Cu 157±95 ng L-1, well below the legal limits and also below the medians of known Italian and European data. Comparing the three areas it was noted that waters from the area of the Nera Springs are the poorest in heavy metals and the richest in minerals, that conversely the waters of Mt. Bove North are the richest in heavy metals and the poorest in mineral salts, and finally that intermediate values both for heavy metals and mineral salts were observed for the waters of Mt. Bove South.

  10. TP53*P72 allele influences negatively female life expectancy in a population of central Italy: cross-sectional study and genetic-demographic approach analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, Fabio; Dato, Serena; Carpi, Francesco M; Corneveaux, Jason J; Serfaustini, Simona; Maoloni, Sebastiano; Mignini, Fiorenzo; Huentelman, Matthew J; Passarino, Giuseppe; Napolioni, Valerio

    2013-05-01

    The association of TP53 P72R (rs1042522) with longevity remains uncertain and varies with ethnicity. Here, we tested its association with longevity in a cross-sectional population of Central Italy (18-106 years, N = 1,072), by integrating demographic information and frequency data to account for the different survival rates between sexes through the application of a genetic-demographic approach. rs1042522 affects females longevity, showing significant associations in Comparison 2 (Age Class 3 [>91 years] vs Age Class 2 [73-91 years]) under both additive (odds ratio [OR] 0.574; p = .006) and dominant (OR 0.513; p = .006) models. The TP53*P72 allele is significantly underrepresented in Age Class 3 only in women (OR 0.575; p = .008). The genetic-demographic approach demonstrated that the frequency of female TP53*P72 carriers underwent a significant reduction after 82 years (OR 0.586; p = .002). The same analyses gave nonsignificant results in men. The discrepancies among the results obtained on rs1042522 for longevity could result from the pleiotropic effects of p53 and the potential ethnic variation of its functional variants.

  11. Observations on the reproductive cycle, age and growth of the salema, Sarpa salpa (Osteichthyes: Sparidae along the western central coast of Italy

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    Alessandro Criscoli

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The sexual maturation and the growth of the salema, Sarpa salpa (Linnaeus, 1758, along the Italian Mediterranean coast (central Italy, were studied in fish (n = 105 killed incidentally by underwater explosions during the construction of Civitavecchia harbour in 1999 and specimens collected with trammel nets (n = 339. This species is characterized by a protandric hermaphroditism and the sex change process occurs between 24 and 31 cm TL corresponding to a wide range of ages (3-7 years. Size at maturity (L50 was 19.5 cm, at which almost all the individuals were males. Two distinct spawning periods were observed: one in spring, from March to May, and the other in autumn, from the end of September to November. During the first year, compensatory growth occurred in the individuals born in the two periods. An annual regular pattern of ring deposition was identified in the otoliths: the translucent ring was laid down during the winter months, while the opaque ring was formed during the summer months. Back-calculated lengths at age were used to estimate the parameters of the Von Bertalanffy growth equation which were: L∞ = 37.27 cm, K = 0.27 year-1 and t0 = -0.53 year. Salema showed isometric growth (b = 3.04; P = 0.84; t = 0.19.

  12. Genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni isolated from broiler chicken in farms and at time of slaughter in central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergola, S; Franciosini, M P; Comitini, F; Ciani, M; De Luca, S; Bellucci, S; Menchetti, L; Casagrande Proietti, P

    2017-05-01

    Genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni were investigated along the broiler chicken production chain in central Italy. Campylobacter sp. isolated from cloacal swabs in farms (n = 116) and from the neck skin of chilled and eviscerated carcasses at slaughter (n = 24) were identified as C. coli (n = 99) and C. jejuni (n = 41) by multiplex PCR. Characterization by single amplified fragment length polymorphism (s-AFLP) revealed a specific genotype of Campylobacter for each farm. Minimal inhibitory concentration showed high prevalence of fluoroquinolones (70%), tetracycline (70%) and erythromycin (30%) resistance among C. coli isolates. Campylobacter jejuni isolates showed lower prevalence of fluoroquinolone (39%) and tetracycline (10%) resistance, and all isolates were susceptible to erythromycin. The S-AFLP types of the C. coli and C. jejuni isolates were associated with their antimicrobial resistance profiles (P Campylobacter isolates suggested that a specific genotype was harboured in each farm. A considerable number of C. coli isolates were resistant to erythromycin. Campylobacter coli was detected more frequently than C. jejuni in contrast to common findings for poultry. The high prevalence of 30% resistance to erythromycin in C. coli strains isolated from poultry is worrisome, as this is the first antibiotic of choice to treat human campylobacteriosis. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Climate change, water supply and environmental problems of headwaters: The paradigmatic case of the Tiber, Savio and Marecchia rivers (Central Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Matteo, Lucio; Dragoni, Walter; Maccari, David; Piacentini, Simone Maria

    2017-11-15

    River headwaters, in spite of their importance for habitats and water supply, are often inadequately studied and managed. This study discusses the effects of the hydrogeological system and climatic variations on the environment of Monte Fumaiolo (Central Italy), which corresponds to the headwaters of the rivers Tiber, Savio and Marecchia. The area is a key system for supplying drinking-water and is also the habitat of amphibians such as the endemic and endangered Bombina pachypus and other amphibian species. Ongoing climate change is affecting the area: during the last 30years, five prolonged droughts have occurred, against only one in the preceding 40years. On all time-scales, there is a decrease in rainfall during the recharge period and an increase of temperature: these trends correspond to a decrease in water yield of about 12% over the last 30years. The hydrologic system of the study area is composed of one basic aquifer and a few perched aquifers feeding springs. Their resilience to drought depends on their geological setting: study of some depletion curves helped us to understand the geological setting of the various types, and two promising sites for the habitat preservation of amphibians were identified. Study results indicate new approaches to the study and management of the environment and its water supply, which could be useful in similar areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Evidence for Static and Dynamic Triggering of Seismicity Following the 24 August 2016, M W = 6.0, Amatrice (Central Italy) Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertito, Vincenzo; De Matteis, Raffaella; Pino, Nicola Alessandro

    2017-04-01

    The recent 24 August 2016, M W = 6.0, Amatrice earthquake (central Italy) and the resulting aftershock sequence represents a test case to investigate the static and dynamic stress/strain contribution to the triggering of the sequence. Here we test the hypothesis that either static or dynamic stress contribution alone may not be sufficient to explain the aftershock distribution. We first inferred the horizontal source rupture directivity together with an estimate of the surface fault projection from the analysis of the peak-ground velocity. We computed the peak-dynamic strain field, modified by source directivity, using the peak-ground velocity as a strain proxy and the Coulomb static stress change. Finally, we compared the seismicity rate map (β-statistic) with each of the estimated fields to investigate correlations with the aftershock pattern. We found that the area of the highest values of the estimated peak-dynamic strain field better reproduces the observed asymmetry in the aftershock distribution. This suggests that, in addition to Coulomb static stress change, dynamic strain enhanced by source directivity, contributed to the triggering of the Amatrice earthquake aftershocks.

  15. Life+ Trout Project (LIFE12 NAT/IT/0000940 for the recovery and conservation of Mediterranean trout (Salmo trutta complex in the central Apennines (Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Caputo Barucchi

    2015-11-01

    At present the genetic and demographic characterization of the trout populations is completed. Table 1 and Figures 1-2 show the results of abundance analysis of the fish assemblages divided by basin. The standing crop’s mean values can be considered in the standard range, according to the small size and the limited productivity that generally characterized the watercourses analyzed, as most of the Apennine rivers. The differences of the mean values among basins were highly statistically significant according to the ANOVA analysis (density: F= 5.24, p=0.001; standing crop: F=12.42, p=0.001. The results of genetic analysis separated clearly native and aliene genomes (K = 2, Fig. 3a and showed the presence of three distinct genetic stocks of native Apennine trout (K = 4, Fig. 3b: i Tevere (green bars, ii Tenna (red and iii Chienti /Potenza/Metauro/Esino (yellow. Populations characterized by very low introgression values will be the source of wild individuals to produce pure juvenile trouts in captivity. Four moderately introgressed populations will be subject to supportive breeding activities. Finally, six stream, where trouts showed almost exclusively an alien genetic make-up will be selected for the eradication activities. The data collected are the indispensable premise for the adoption of the necessary strategies for conservation of the Apennine trout in Central Italy.

  16. Depositional and erosional coastal processes during the late postglacial sea-level rise: An example from the central Tyrrhenian continental shelf (Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tortora, P. [Univ. degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza (Italy). Dept. di Scienze della Terra

    1996-03-01

    A transgressive systems tract (TST) deposit on the inner continental shelf of the south Tuscany region (central Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy) formed during the last postglacial sea-level rise. Its small-scale stratigraphy has been detailed using high-resolution seismic profiles, gravity cores, and grab samples. The TST deposit overlies a lowstand unconformity, shows a tabular geometry, and comprises three internal architectures of beach facies. Because the lateral distribution of these vertical successions is not random, but parallel to the coast, each architecture represents an individual sedimentary stage during sea-level rise. However, all architectures were formed via shoreface retreat in response to the landward migration of a beach complex over the unconformity. During this migration the beach system was characterized by a source diastem located in the surf zone and by two sediment dispersal systems. One moved the eroded sand over the flat back-barrier palustrine area by storm washover, while the other transported part of this sand to the lower shoreface, forming a reworked sand sheet above the older and inactive source diastem (ravinement surface). The TST architectures originated from a transgressive succession of beach facies, differentiated according to the intensity of shoreface retreat. Architecture A represents a low preservation potential of the original beach complex, Architecture B relatively high preservation, and Architecture C no preservation. The intensity of erosion and the consequent preservation potential were totally controlled by antecedent topography.

  17. Crustal structure of Northern Latium (central Italy) from receiver functions analysis: New evidences of a post-collisional back-arc margin evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttinelli, Mauro; Chiarabba, Claudio; Anselmi, Mario; Bianchi, Irene; De Rita, Donatella; Quattrocchi, Fedora

    2014-05-01

    The crustal velocity structure in a region of central Apennines of Italy at the hinge between the highly stretched portion of the Monte Argentario promontory and the magmatic province of the Tolfa Domes Complex (Northern Latium) is discussed in this study. S-wave velocities at depth have been constrained by the modeling of P-wave receiver functions (RF) from both temporary and permanent broadband seismic stations. The computer 3D Vs models show a thin crust (19-25 km) made of a shallow and thin sedimentary cover, a very high velocity and anisotropic layer related to a metamorphic basement, and a low Vs anisotropic layer in the middle-lower crust above a shallow Moho discontinuity modeled at about 20 km depth. The volcano-tectonic evolution of this portion of Tyrrhenian back-arc margin has been strongly influenced by its peculiar crustal architecture. The low-Vs layer acted as a shear zone in the middle-lower crust during the Tyrrhenian extension, also helping the development of Plio-Quaternary magmatism. Our findings potentially give new constraints on the evolution of the area and to the general comprehension of back-arc development in collisional regions.

  18. Fault Geometry and Active Stress from Earthquakes and Field Geology Data Analysis: The Colfiorito 1997 and L'Aquila 2009 Cases (Central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrarini, F.; Lavecchia, G.; de Nardis, R.; Brozzetti, F.

    2015-05-01

    The fault segmentation pattern and the regional stress tensor acting since the Early Quaternary in the intra-Apennine area of central Italy was constrained by integrating two large geological and seismological fault-slip data sets collected for the areas struck by the two most energetic seismic sequences of the last 15 years (Colfiorito 1997, M w 6.0 and L'Aquila 2009, M w 6.1). The integrated analysis of the earthquake fault association and the reconstruction of the 3D shape of the seismogenic sources were exploited to identify homogeneous seismogenic volumes associated with subsets of geological and focal mechanism data. The independent analysis of geological and seismological data allowed us to observe and highlight similarities between the attitude of the long-term (e.g., Quaternary) and the instantaneous present-day (seismogenic) extensional deformations and to reveal their substantial coaxiality. Coherently, with the results from the kinematic analysis, the stress field inversion also noted a prevailing tensional seismotectonic regime associated with a subhorizontal, NE-SW, minimum stress axis. A minor, very local, and shallow (L'Aquila area. These results do not agree with those indicating Quaternary regional strike-slip regimes or wide areas characterized by strike-slip deformation during the Colfiorito and L'Aquila seismic sequences.

  19. Recent seismicity of Italy: Active tectonics of the central Mediterranean region and seismicity rate changes after the Mw 6.3 L'Aquila earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarabba, Claudio; De Gori, Pasquale; Mele, Francesco Mariano

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a new image of the instrumental seismicity of Italy, obtained by refining hypocentral determinations for about 100,000 earthquakes that occurred in the period 2005-2012. The improved locations yield new constraints on active tectonics of the central Mediterranean area, where prolonged interaction between nested plates and continental slivers led to the development of the Alpine and Apennines systems. Intermediate-depth and deep earthquakes define a lateral heterogeneous process of delamination and sinking of the continental lithosphere active beneath the mountain belts. Shallow seismicity prevalently occurs beneath elevated topography and correlates with low velocity mantle anomalies, suggesting a superposition of gravity-related forces to the Eurasia-Africa plate convergence. The delamination process drives a paired system of compression and extension that stretches the mountain range while shortening the external side of the belts. The updated seismic catalog permits us to resolve a sharp variation of seismic rates that occurred in recent years, timely after the 2009 Mw 6.3 L'Aquila earthquake. The increase of seismic rates is reasonably due to regional-scale perturbation of the stress field induced by fluid flow and pore-pressure variations within the crust, probably related to deep dehydration processes active beneath the mountain belt.

  20. Lung parasites of the genus Metastrongylus Molin, 1861 (Nematoda: Metastrongilidae) in wild boar (Sus scrofa L., 1758) in Central-Italy: An eco-epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poglayen, Giovanni; Marchesi, Barbara; Dall'Oglio, Giulia; Barlozzari, Giulia; Galuppi, Roberta; Morandi, Benedetto

    2016-02-15

    The respiratory tracts of 57 wild boars (Sus scrofa L. 1758) hunted in central Italy during the 2011/2012 hunting season were examined to detect the presence of lung worms. Fifty-five out of 57 animals (96,5%) were positive. Five species of Metastrongylus were detected and their prevalence was as follows: Metastrongylus asymmetricus Noda, 1973 (91.2%), Metastrongylus confusus Jansen, 1964 and Metastrongylus salmi Gedoelst, 1923 (87.7%), Metastrongylus apri Gmelin, 1790 (80.7%), Metastrongylus pudendotectus Vostokov, 1905 (70.2%). In most cases multi-species infection was observed. The highest parasite load was found in young animals (<1 year old). The Metastrongylus genus sex ratio (M/F) had a range from 1:4.8 to 1:1.5 in favor of females. The Simpson and Shannon-Wiener indices showed a moderate uniformity in parasite community composition. The Fager index highlighted a high degree of affinity among all pairs of selected parasites. The whole parasite population showed an aggregate distribution. Our findings confirm that these parasites are widespread in the wild boar population. The establishment of outdoor domestic pig farming in the same area of the game preserve could pose the risk of infection to domestic animals. Further studies will be needed to understand the factors involved in the presence and prevalence of the intermediate host as well as the population dynamics of Metastrongylus spp.

  1. How walkable is the city? Application of the Walking Suitability Index of the Territory (T-WSI) to the city of Rieti (Lazio Region, Central Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Daniela; Appolloni, Letizia; Capasso, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    A method to evaluate the walkability of an urban neighbourhood based on direct observation has been applied. This tool, called the Walking Suitability Index of the Territory (T-WSI), measures the walkability of every street of an environmental area. It includes 12 weighted indicators, each divided into 4 categories: practicability, safety, urbanity, and pleasantness. Each indicator can obtain one of the following values: excellent (100), good (75), poor (35), bad (0). T-WSI is applied to 12/15 urban neighbourhoods of Rieti, a small city (47,912 inhabitants) located in Lazio Region (Central Italy). The average of T-WSI scores range from 24.2 to 61.2 among urban neighbourhoods. On average, safety and urbanity are the categories which reach very low scores. The T-WSI allows to underline several street criticalities that could hinder walkability and could be a good basis to support public decision-makers about health policy and local development aimed at encouraging physical activity.

  2. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Residues in Gentile Di Maiale, a Smoked Meat Product Typical of Some Mountain Areas in Latina Province (Central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrabs, Giuseppe; Mercogliano, Raffaelina; Carosielli, Leonardo; Vollano, Lucia; Anastasio, Aniello

    2014-01-01

    Gentile di maiale is a typical meat product prepared in some traditional plants of Latina Province (Central Italy). It is obtained from dehydration, salting, smoking and ripening of swine rectum. Aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the traditional smoking process on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) content by means of high-performance liquid chromatographic/fluorescence detection. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons detected in 8 samples of raw material (swine rectum) and samples of smoked gentile were: benzo[a]anthracene, chrisene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a] pyrene, benzo[a,h]anthracene. Their residues were detected in all samples of finished product. European Regulation 835/2011 established two levels of PAHs content in meat products. According to first levels, in force until September 2014, only 2 out of 8 samples exceeded legal limit. According to the subsequent, more restrictive, limits all samples would be non-compliant. An improvement and a standardisation of traditional smoking procedures are recommended.

  3. The 7 and 11 May 1984 earthquakes in Abruzzo-Latium (Central Italy): reappraisal of the existing macroseismic datasets according to the EMS98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziani, Laura; Tertulliani, Andrea; Maramai, Alessandra; Rossi, Antonio; Arcoraci, Luca

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a complete and reliable macroseismic knowledge of the events that stroke a large area in Central Italy on 7 and 11 May 1984. Previous studies, together with original accounts integrated with new and unpublished information, have been gathered and examined in order to re-evaluate macroseismic intensities in terms of the European Macroseismic Scale (EMS98). New intensity maps have been compiled; the total number of localities with available information for both the shocks increases from 1254 of the previous study to 1576. On the basis of the new dataset, the macroseismic magnitude of the first shock is MW 5.6 which is lower than the previous macroseismic computation (MW 5.7). Moreover, the topic of assessing macroseismic intensity in the presence of multiple shocks has been also investigated, proposing an unconventional approach to presenting the macroseismic data: an overall picture of the cumulative effects produced by all the seismic sequence is given to support a partial but faithful reconstruction of the second shock. This approach is inspired by the common experience in interpreting historical seismic sequences and gives a picture of the impact of the 1984 events on the territory.

  4. Germination of nine species of a pioneer plant community of pliocene clay soils of central western italy under different photo- and thermo-periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldemaro Boscagli

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Germination response under different photo- and thermo-periods was investigated in nine species of the association Parapholido-Artemisietum cretaceae, a typical plant community of clay badland vegetation in central western Italy. The species showed: (i more rapid germination under the photo- and thermo-period emulating autumn conditions than under the one emulating early spring conditions; (ii different germination rates under condition emulating periods with high diurnal insolation followed by high or low nocturnal heat dispersion: Aegilops geniculata, Parapholis strigosa and Artemisia cretacea were indifferent, Hordeum maritimum, Trifolium scabrum, Brachypodium distachyum and Parapholis incurva responded positively to higher thermal dispersion, whereas Medicago minima and Scorpiurus muricatus responded negatively; (iii different responses to a constant low temperature of 2oC: Artemisia cretacea, Parapholis incurva, Parapholis strigosa and Scorpiurus muricatus showed complete or very high dormancy; the other species showed a germination capacity between 55 and 87% in the following decreasing order: Medicago minima > Hordeum maritimum > Trifolium scabrum > Aegilops geniculata > Brachypodium distachyum. All species had delayed and reduced germination responses at 2oC. Grasses showed prompt, quick and high germination as environmental conditions became more favourable; legumes showed a similar response when their coat-imposed dormancy was removed, while the asteracea A. cretacea showed only a moderate germination capacity and one of the lowest germination rates. Nomenclaure: Pignatti (1982.

  5. Biosynthesis of beauvericin and enniatins in vitro by wheat Fusarium species and natural grain contamination in an area of central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covarelli, L; Beccari, G; Prodi, A; Generotti, S; Etruschi, F; Meca, G; Juan, C; Mañes, J

    2015-04-01

    Contamination of wheat grain by beauvericin (BEA) and enniatins (ENs) is a global emerging mycotoxicological food problem. In this study, strains of Fusarium avenaceum (FA), Fusarium poae (FP), Fusarium equiseti and Fusarium sporotrichioides, all potential BEA and EN producers, isolated from 162 grain samples of durum and soft wheat harvested in 2009 and 2010 collected in an area of central Italy, were preliminarily screened for the presence of the esyn1 gene, encoding the multifunctional enzyme enniatin-synthetase for the detection of potential hexadepsipeptide-producing isolates. All positive isolates were tested for their ability to biosynthesize BEA and ENs in vitro. In addition, all wheat samples were investigated for the natural presence of BEA and ENs (ENA, ENA1, ENB, ENB1). All FA and FP strains resulted to be positive for the presence of the esyn1 gene. All FA strains showed the ability to biosynthesize ENs in vitro but not BEA. Conversely, all FP strains resulted to be BEA producers and some of them co-biosynthesized ENs. A remarkable presence of "emerging" mycotoxins was found in the grains, particularly ENs. Co-contamination by BEA and ENs also occurred. This study gives an important contribution to assess the risk posed by mycotoxigenic fungi and their mycotoxins in food. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Olim palus, where once upon a time the marsh: distribution, demography, ecology and threats of amphibians in the Circeo National Park (Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Romano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Circeo National Park lies in a territory that was deeply shaped by human activity, and represents one of the few remaining patches of plain wetland habitat in Central Italy. In this study distribution and few demographic information of the amphibians in the Park were provided. Seven species and 25 bibliographic and 84 original breeding sites were recorded, and population size estimations were carried out for a population of these three species: Pelophylax sinkl esculentus, Bufo balearicus and Rana dalmatina. For the studied populations of pool frog and green toad the operational sex ratio and the demographic effective population size was also estimated. For Rana dalmatina, which is strictly associated to forest environment, a positive and significant correlation between the number of egg clutches and maximum depth of the swamps was found. The State plain forest is the most important habitat for amphibians’ conservation in the park. The occurrence of dangerous alien species was investigated and they are evaluated as the major threat for amphibians in the park, especially the crayfish Procambarus clarkii in the State plain forest. Index of Calling Survey were performed for anurans and the medians did not differ among species. The potential distribution of amphibians in the Park was evaluated by building a species distribution model. Finally, the absence of three species reported in literature in the 60’s of the last century (Bombina pachypus, Salamandrina perspicillata, Rana italica is also discussed.

  7. Inheritance of Jurassic rifted margin architecture into the Apennines Neogene mountain building: a case history from the Lucretili Mts. (Latium, Central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollati, Andrea; Corrado, Sveva; Marino, Maurizio

    2012-06-01

    The western Lucretili Mts. in the central Apennines (Latium, Italy) have been recently re-mapped in great detail and are the subject of combined stratigraphic, sedimentological and structural investigations. In this paper, we present a new stratigraphic interpretation of the Jurassic paleogeography of western Lucretili Mts., where a rift-derived intrabasinal paleo-high of the Alpine Tethys has been identified for the first time by means of facies analysis and biostratigraphic dating. Recognised facies associations, combined with dated stratigraphic sections, allow to define the morphology of the structural paleo-high and to identify the associated gravity-driven deposits (olistoliths) accumulated in the surrounding basin. Furthermore, we investigated the modes of interaction between Jurassic extensional structures and the subsequent contractional patterns developed during the Tertiary mountain building. In detail, the role played during Apennines tectonics by the paleo-escarpments bounding the paleo-high and by the surrounding olistoliths has been analysed. The paleo-escarpments either acted as focussing features for ENE-directed frontal thrust ramp localisation and were offset with small shortening amounts or reactivated as NNE striking high angle transpressional faults or preserved the original geometries as a result of variable orientation of paleo-escarpments with respect to the Neogene compressive stress field (with ENE oriented sigma1). Newly formed ENE striking tear faults connect these either inherited or neo-formed discontinuities. This complex stratigraphic and structural pattern is substantially different from the previous interpretations of this portion of the central Apennines based on a hypothesised layer-cake stratigraphy deformed by neo-formed Neogene thrusts. This contribution strengthens the importance of integrating facies analyses and structural investigations to detect the influence of pre-orogenic structures on compressive structural patterns

  8. ARIMIDELPHIS SORBINII A NEW SMALL KILLER WHALE-LIKE DOLPHIN FROM THE PLIOCENE OF MARECCHIA RIVER (CENTRAL EASTERN ITALY) AND A PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF THE ORCININAE (CETACEA: ODONTOCETI)

    OpenAIRE

    GIOVANNI BIANUCCI

    2005-01-01

    Arimidelphis sorbinii is a new genus and a new species of Delphinidae (Cetacea, Odontoceti) based on an incomplete skull with right ear bones, mandible, teeth and left forelimb, all from one animal, from the Late Pliocene sediments of Marecchia river (Central Eastern Italy). This specimen had previously been wrongly referred to the fossil species Tursiops osennae. Arimidelphis shows some affinities with killer whale (Orcinus), as the short rostrum, the very strong preorbital process with circ...

  9. Structural analysis and tectonic implications of a shallow layer-parallel shear zone in the central Apennines (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavani, S.; Cifelli, F.

    2009-04-01

    The central Apennines is a Neogenic NE verging fold-and-thrust belt, characterized by inherited lower Liassic structures and by different paleogeographic domains (with different rheological behaviours), which played a first order role in the tectonic evolution of the belt. The N-S trending Olevano-Antrodoco, one of the major thrusts of this area, is commonly interpreted as an oblique out-of-sequence structure, along which the Sabina slope domain (to the west) overthrusted the Latium-Abruzzi carbonate platform domain (to the East), reactivating the original Liassic to Miocenic boundary. Paleomagnetic data indicate that the Sabina domain and the Latium-Abruzzi domain were characterized by the occurrence of opposite vertical-axis rotations, clockwise and counterclockwise, respectively, in the two domains, suggesting a different tectonic evolution of these sectors. However, paleomagnetic data can provide only partial information on the kinematic evolution of this area because rocks suitable for paleomagnetic analysis are not widespread in the Latium-Abruzzi domain. Moreover, rocks exposed in the two domains do not allow performing analyses on sediments of the same ages. In this work, in order to provide additional kinematic and geometric constraints to the tectonic evolution of this part of Central Apennines, a mesostructural study was carried out in a decollement level, exposed in both Sabina and Latium-Abruzzi domains and located at the top of the meso-cenozoic carbonatic sequence. The Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) analysis was integrated with the structural analysis, representing an additional rock fabric indicator used to unravel the deformational history of the studied rocks. The analysed decollement was active in the early stages of the belt evolution and consists of a thick shear zone dominated by pressure solution cleavage oblique to bedding. The widespread exposition of this level, allows using the pressure solution cleavage as a regional

  10. Active faulting Vs other surface displacing complex geomorphic phenomena. Case studies from a tectonically active area, Abruzzi Region, central Apennines, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Sardo, Lorenzo; Gori, Stefano; Falcucci, Emanuela; Saroli, Michele; Moro, Marco; Galadini, Fabrizio; Lancia, Michele; Fubelli, Giandomenico; Pezzo, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    ., Jolivet, L. & Speranza, F., (1998). The role of pre-existing thrust faults and topography on the styles of extension in the Gran Sasso range (central Italy). Tectonophysics 292, 229-254. Falcucci, E., Gori, S., Moro, M., Fubelli, G., Saroli, M., Chiarabba, C., & Galadini, F. (2015). Deep reaching versus vertically restricted Quaternary normal faults: Implications on seismic potential assessment in tectonically active regions: Lessons from the middle Aterno valley fault system, central Italy. Tectonophysics, 651, 186-198. Galadini, F. & Giuliani R. (1993), Role of the structural geology analysis in the recent tectonics studies: an example from an area located SW of the Gran Sasso (Central Italy). Ann. Geof., 36 (1), 287-292.

  11. Paleomagnetic and Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS analyses of the Plio-Pleistocene extensional Todi basin, Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Alfonsi

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years paleomagnetic investigations within the Apennine chain have revealed that the area is characterized by a complex pattern of deformation, not linkable to a simple and homogeneous process. In order to estimate the amount, sense and timing of vertical axis rotations within the Central Apennines, Neogene continental basins have been investigated for paleomagnetic studies. The paleomagnetic results obtained in the Plio-Pleistocene Todi basin showed that the Upper Pliocene-Lower Pleistocene evolution, associated with major dip-slip tectonics, has not involved vertical axis rotation since that time. The Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility analysis (AMS, carried out on the same samples treated for paleomagnetic determination, revealed the presence of two groups of specimens characterized by different magnetic lineation directions. One direction trends NE-SW and is parallel to the orientation of the regional extension stress typical of the area. This direction is observed throughout the northern basin. The other, restricted to the southern basin, trends N-S and shows no links with the tectonic, hydrological-sedimentary conditions of the area. The results of the AMS analysis will be presented and discussed in the light of the rock magnetic results and the tectonic framework of the area.

  12. Structure of a normal seismogenic fault zone in carbonates: The Vado di Corno Fault, Campo Imperatore, Central Apennines (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demurtas, Matteo; Fondriest, Michele; Balsamo, Fabrizio; Clemenzi, Luca; Storti, Fabrizio; Bistacchi, Andrea; Di Toro, Giulio

    2016-09-01

    The Vado di Corno Fault Zone (VCFZ) is an active extensional fault cutting through carbonates in the Italian Central Apennines. The fault zone was exhumed from ∼2 km depth and accommodated a normal throw of ∼2 km since Early-Pleistocene. In the studied area, the master fault of the VCFZ dips N210/54° and juxtaposes Quaternary colluvial deposits in the hangingwall with cataclastic dolostones in the footwall. Detailed mapping of the fault zone rocks within the ∼300 m thick footwall-block evidenced the presence of five main structural units (Low Strain Damage Zone, High Strain Damage Zone, Breccia Unit, Cataclastic Unit 1 and Cataclastic Unit 2). The Breccia Unit results from the Pleistocene extensional reactivation of a pre-existing Pliocene thrust. The Cataclastic Unit 1 forms a ∼40 m thick band lining the master fault and recording in-situ shattering due to the propagation of multiple seismic ruptures. Seismic faulting is suggested also by the occurrence of mirror-like slip surfaces, highly localized sheared calcite-bearing veins and fluidized cataclasites. The VCFZ architecture compares well with seismological studies of the L'Aquila 2009 seismic sequence (mainshock MW 6.1), which imaged the reactivation of shallow-seated low-angle normal faults (Breccia Unit) cut by major high-angle normal faults (Cataclastic Units).

  13. Defining a mid-Holocene earthquake through speleoseismological and independent data: implications for the outer Central Apennines (Italy) seismotectonic framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Domenica, Alessandra; Pizzi, Alberto

    2017-02-01

    A speleoseismological study has been conducted in the Cavallone Cave, located in the easternmost carbonate sector of the Central Apennines (Maiella Massif), in a seismically active region interposed between the post-orogenic extensional domain, to the west, and the contractional one, to the east. The occurrence of active silent normal faults, to the west, close to blind thrusts, to the east, raises critical questions about the seismic hazard for this transitional zone. Large collapses of cave ceilings, fractures, broken speleothems with new re-growing stalagmites on their top, preferential orientation of fallen stalagmites and the absence of thin and long concretions have been observed in many portions of the karst conduit. This may indicate that the cave suffered sudden deformation events likely linked to the occurrence of past strong earthquakes. Radiocarbon dating and, above all, the robust correspondence with other coeval on-fault and off-fault geological data collected in surrounding areas outside the cave, provide important constraints for the individuation of a mid-Holocene paleoearthquake around 4.6-4.8 kyr BP. On the basis of the available paleoseismological data, possible seismogenic sources can be identified with the Sulmona normal fault and other active normal fault segments along its southern prosecution, which recorded synchronous strong paleoevents. Although the correlation between speleotectonic observations and quantitative modeling is disputed, studies on possible effects of earthquake on karstic landforms and features, when corroborated by independent data collected outside caves, can provide a useful contribution in discovering past earthquakes.

  14. Innovative methods of hazard evaluation. Central Italy case study; Progetto Misha. Metodi innovativi per la stima dell'hazard. Applicazione all'Italia Centrale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peruzza, L. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Gruppo Nazionale per la Difesa dai Terremoti, Rome (Italy)

    1999-12-01

    The Misha project (Innovative methods for hazard assessment) represents the application, at selected areas, of the methodologies developed in some strategic sectors for validation of non-conventional techniques for assessment of seismic risk. [Italian] Il progetto Misha (Metodi Innovativi per la Stima dell'Hazard: applicazione all'Italia Centrale) e' una delle attivita' caratterizzanti l'ultimo anno della convenzione triennale (1996-98) stipulata tra il Dipartimento della Protezione Civile ed il CNR-Gruppo Nazionale per la Difesa dai Terremoti. Misha rappresenta l'applicazione ad un'area campione delle metodologie sviluppate in taluni settori strategici nei quali si era articolata la convenzione: lo sviluppo e la validazione metodologica di tecniche non convenzionali per la stima della pericolosita' del territorio nazionale, l'individuazione di linee guida per la raccolta di informazioni sulle strutture sismogenetiche a livello nazionale, la transizione ad una nuova generazione di stime di hazard finalizzate ad un aggiornamento della classificazione sismica ed al riadeguamento antisismico del patrimonio edilizio.

  15. April 7, 2009, Mw 5.5 aftershock of the L'Aquila earthquake: seismogenic fault geometry and its implication for the central Apennines active extensional tectonics (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adinolfi, Guido Maria; Lavecchia, Giusy; De Matteis, Raffaella; Nardis Rita, De; Francesco, Brozzetti; Federica, Ferrarini; Zollo, Aldo

    2015-04-01

    On April 6, 2009 (at 01:32 UTC) a Mw 6.3 earthquake hit the town of L'Aquila (central Italy) and surrounding villages causing fatalities and severe damage in the area. After few days, a nearly 40-km-long extensional fault system was activated generating both northward and southward seismicity migration along the NW-SE trending sector of central Apennines. During the intense aftershocks sequence, different sesmogenic sources with a distinct geometry, size and the degree of involvement were reactivated. Among the relevant aftershocks with Mw 5.0 to 5.5, the largest one occurred on April 7 (at 17:47 UTC), 9 km SE-ward of the mainshock involving a source seated at much greater depths (~14 km). Despite the enormous number of studies of the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake, mainly focused on the various geological and seismological aspects of the main Paganica source, the April 7 strongest aftershock (Mw 5.5) has not yet been deeply investigated. Consistent geometric and kinematic correlations between the geological and seismological data about this seismogenic source are missing. There are still open questions concerning its unresolved geometry and the unknown style of the central Apennines structure activated at greater depths during the 2009 L'Aquila seismic sequence. Furthermore, some authors (Lavecchia et al., 2012) have supposed that the April 7, 2009 aftershock (Mw 5.5) occurred onto an high dip segment (~50°) of an east-dipping extensional basal detachment with a potential surface expression outcropping in the area of the eastern Sabina-Simbruini Mts. In this work we propose a seismological analysis of the April 7, 2009 aftershock (Mw 5.5) rupture process. In order to define the unresolved source geometry, we computed the focal mechanism through the time domain, moment tensor full waveform inversion (Dreger and Helmberger, 1993). Also, we estimated the apparent source time functions (ASTFs) by deconvolution of the impulse response of the medium from the recorded data

  16. Distribution model of understory vegetation in beech forests from Central Apennines (Italy in relation to edaphic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Nicola C

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The first results of a study of monitoring species and habitats in the framework of the Life 04NAT/IT/000190 "Tutela dei siti Natura 2000 gestiti dal Corpo Forestale dello Stato" are presented. This study was carried out by the Department of Plant Biology of the University of Rome (La Sapienza and the National Forest Service. We focused the investigation on the relationships between herbaceous species and pedological parameters (humus and soil in Central-Apennine beech forests. Data have been collected through 40 phytosociological relevés, 15 soil profiles and 40 humus profiles in 40 forest plots, between March 2005 and September 2006. In this paper we presented data elaborated on a subset of 15 plots where soil profiles were available. The species of undergrowth showed different ecological requirements to some edaphic and humus parameters (pH, sand, loam, clay, organic matter, nitrogen, carbon/nitrogen ratio, Ca++, K+;thickness and carbon content of the organic layers: significant correlations have been found using Pearson correlation test. The multiple regression analysis allowed to identify the factors more influencing the species distribution: thickness of the organic layers, carbon content (% C and carbon/nitrogen ratio (C/N. Basing on the thickness of humus horizons (OL, OF, OH, and on carbon content, two species groups with different ecology have been recognized: (a nemoral species typical of shady beech stands on oligomull/dysmull/thin amphimull (0 < 1cm.; 5.7 < %C < 9.9; (b heliophilous species of more xeric stands on thick amphimull (1.25 < 11.5 cm.; 9.9 < %C < 13.7. The relationships among species and soil parameters and humus forms allow to recognize small differences within a homogeneous habitat and therefore they can provide management indications also at micro-scale level.

  17. [Sleep disturbances and spatial memory deficits in post-traumatic stress disorder: the case of L'Aquila (Central Italy)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Michele; Mazza, Monica; Curcio, Giuseppe; Iaria, Giuseppe; De Gennaro, Luigi; Tempesta, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Altered sleep is a common and central symptom of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In fact, sleep disturbances are included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) diagnostic criteria for PTSD. However, it has been hypothesized that sleep disturbances are crucially involved in the aetiology of PTSD, rather than being solely a symptom arising secondarily from this disorder. Therefore, knowing the long-term effects of a trauma can be essential to establish the need of specific interventions for the prevention and treatment of mental disorders that may persist years after a traumatic experience. In one study we showed, for the first time, that even after a period of two years people exposed to a catastrophic disaster such as the L'Aquila earthquake continue to suffer from a reduced sleep quality. Moreover, we observed that sleep quality scores decreased as a function of the proximity to the epicentre, suggesting that the psychological effects of an earthquake may be pervasive and long-lasting. It has been widely shown that disruption of sleep by acute stress may lead to deterioration in memory processing. In fact, in a recent study we observed alterations in spatial memory in PTSD subjects. Our findings indicated that PTSD is accompanied by an impressive deficit in forming a cognitive map of the environment, as well as in sleep-dependent memory consolidation. The fact that this deterioration was correlated to the subjective sleep disturbances in our PTSD group demonstrates the existence of an intimate relationship between sleep, memory consolidation, and stress.

  18. Assessment of soil erosion sensitivity and post-timber-harvesting erosion response in a mountain environment of Central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrelli, Pasquale; Schütt, Brigitta

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the effects of forest management on the occurrence of accelerated soil erosion by water. The study site is located in a mountainous area of the Italian Central Apennines. Here, forest harvesting is a widespread forestry activity and is mainly performed on the moderate to steep slopes of the highlands. Through modeling operations based on data on soil properties and direct monitoring of changes in the post-forest-harvesting soil surface level at the hillslope scale, we show that the observed site became prone to soil erosion after human intervention. Indeed, the measured mean soil erosion rate of 49 t ha- 1 yr- 1 for the harvested watershed is about 21 times higher than the rate measured in its neighboring undisturbed forested watershed (2.3 t ha- 1 yr- 1). The erosive response is greatly aggravated by exposing the just-harvested forest, with very limited herbaceous plant cover, to the aggressive attack of the heaviest annual rainfall without adopting any conservation practices. The erosivity of the storms during the first four months of field measurements was 1571 MJ mm h- 1 ha- 1 in total (i.e., from September to December 2008). At the end of the experiment (16 months), 18.8%, 26.1% and 55.1% of the erosion monitoring sites in the harvested watershed recorded variations equal or greater than 0-5, 5-10 and > 10 mm, respectively. This study also provides a quantification of Italian forestland surfaces with the same pedo-lithological characteristics exploited for wood supply. Within a period of ten years (2002-2011), about 9891 ha of coppice forest changes were identified and their potential soil erosion rates modeled.

  19. Crustal Anisotropy Beneath The Central Apennines (Italy) as revealed by the 2009 L'Aquila Seismic Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccheschi, P.; Pastori, M.; Margheriti, L.; Piccinini, D.

    2014-12-01

    We perform a systematic analysis of the crustal anisotropic parameters, fast polarization direction (φ) and delay time (δt), of hundreds of earthquakes recorded during the 2009 L'Aquila seismic sequence, which occurred in the Central Apennines Neogene fold-and-thrust-belt. We benefit from the dense coverage of seismic stations operating in the area and from a catalogue of several accurate earthquakes locations to describe in detail the geometry of the anisotropic volume around the major active faults, providing new insights on the anisotropic structure beneath the L'Aquila area and surrounding region. The results show strong spatial variations in the φ and δt values, revealing the presence of anisotropic complexity in the area. At most of the stations φ are mainly oriented NW-SE (~N141°). This trend well matches both the strike of the nearby major active normal faults and the regional maximum horizontal compressive stress (sHmax). This is also in agreement with the main stress indicators, such as focal mechanisms and borehole breakouts. δt at single stations vary between 0.024-0.26 s, with average value of ~0.07s. Similar results could be explained by the presence of stress aligned microcracks or stress-opened fluid-filled cracks and fractures within the crustal layers, as suggested by the EDA model. Moreover, the sharp coherence between φ and the strike of major faults does not allow us to completely rule out the contribution from the structural anisotropy. Measurements obtained at the stations in the southeastern side of the study area show different anisotropic parameters. In this region φ do not appear parallel with either the strike of the local mapped faults or the sHmax direction, becoming oriented predominantly NE-SW. These stations also report the highest value of δt (up to 0.09 s). This results could be explained by the presence of a highly fractured and over-pressurized rock volumes, which causes the 90°-flips in φ and an increase in

  20. Fasting serum leptin levels in the analysis of body mass index cut-off values: are they useful for overweight screening in children and adolescents? A school population-based survey in three provinces of central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falorni, A; Galmacci, G; Bini, V; Papi, F; Molinari, D; De Giorgi, G; Faraoni, F; Celi, F; Di Stefano, G; Berioli, M G; Contessa, G; Bacosi, M L

    1998-12-01

    Body mass index (BMI) was determined in a population of school students from three provinces of central Italy. Fasting serum leptin concentrations were assayed in a large number of subjects from the same area, to determine their distribution as plotted against the standard deviation score (z-score) of BMI. Height and weight were recorded from 31170 subjects (16175 male and 14995 female), aged 3-18 y, to construct BMI charts of children and adolescents from central Italy. Percentiles and z-score were calculated using the LMS method of Cole. Serum leptin concentrations were assayed in 1929 subjects (996 male and 933 female) after overnight fasting. BMI percentiles of central Italy were higher than those from standards of other European and USA populations. When plotted against the z-score of BMI, serum leptin values were distributed according to an exponential curve, showing a steep pattern and a wide distribution, as BMI values increased. The hypothesis of the existence of two subgroups, based on a different relation between leptin and BMI, was verified and a separation point between the two subgroups was identified using cluster analysis, discriminant analysis and a novel method developed by our group, hereafter referred to as 'regression clustering'. This method allows identification of the value of the independent variable (z-score of BMI) which can be taken as a separation point. This analysis provided the best results and indicated the following separation points: central Italy standard, z-score = 0.72 (76.4th percentile) for males and z-score = 0.69 (75.5th percentile) for females; French standard (the one suggested for a European population by the European Childhood Obesity Group, ECOG), z-score = 1.46 (92.8th percentile) for males and z-score = 1.96 (97.5th percentile) for females. Similar but variable results were obtained when the same analysis was performed on serum leptin concentration, subdivided according to pubertal development (stage I, stage II

  1. WebEQ: a web-GIS System to collect, display and query data for the management of the earthquake emergency in Central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Gianluca; Cosentino, Giuseppe; Pennica, Francesco; Moscatelli, Massimiliano; Stigliano, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    After the strong earthquakes that hit central Italy in recent months, the Center for Seismic Microzonation and its applications (CentroMS) was commissioned by the Italian Department of Civil Protection to conduct the study of seismic microzonation of the territories affected by the earthquake of August 24, 2016. As part of the activities of microzonation, IGAG CNR has created WebEQ, a management tool of the data that have been acquired by all participants (i.e., more than twenty research institutes and university departments). The data collection was organized and divided into sub-areas, assigned to working groups with multidisciplinary expertise in geology, geophysics and engineering. WebEQ is a web-GIS System that helps all the subjects involved in the data collection activities, through tools aimed at data uploading and validation, and with a simple GIS interface to display, query and download geographic data. WebEQ is contributing to the creation of a large database containing geographical data, both vector and raster, from various sources and types: - Regional Technical Map em Geological and geomorphological maps em Data location maps em Maps of microzones homogeneous in seismic perspective and seismic microzonation maps em National strong motion network location. Data loading is done through simple input masks that ensure consistency with the database structure, avoiding possible errors and helping users to interact with the map through user-friendly tools. All the data are thematized through standardized symbologies and colors (Gruppo di lavoro MS 2008), in order to allow the easy interpretation by all users. The data download tools allow data exchange between working groups and the scientific community to benefit from the activities. The seismic microzonation activities are still ongoing. WebEQ is enabling easy management of large amounts of data and will form a basis for the development of tools for the management of the upcoming seismic emergencies.

  2. {sup 222}Rn and CO{sub 2} soil-gas geochemical characterization of thermally altered clays at Orciatico (Tuscany, Central Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voltattorni, N., E-mail: nunzia.voltattorni@ingv.it [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Via di Vigna Murata 605, 00143 Rome (Italy); Lombardi, S. [Earth Science Department, University ' La Sapienza' , Piazzale A. Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Rizzo, S. [Via Tito, 1/A, 00061 Anguillara Sabazia, Rome (Italy)

    2010-08-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Soil-gas technique is applied to study gas permeability of Orciatico clay units. {yields} Clay permeability depends on thermal and mechanical alteration degree. {yields} Soil-gas distributions are due to shallow fracturing of clays. {yields} Rn and CO{sub 2} soil-gas anomalies highlight secondary permeability in clay sequence. {yields} Soil-gas results are supported by detailed geoelectrical surveys. - Abstract: The physical properties of clay allow argillaceous formations to be considered geological barriers to radionuclide migration in high-level radioactive-waste isolation systems. As laboratory simulations are short term and numerical models always involve assumptions and simplifications of the natural system, natural analogues are extremely attractive surrogates for the study of long-term isolation. The clays of the Orciatico area (Tuscany, Central Italy), which were thermally altered via the intrusion of an alkali-trachyte laccolith, represent an interesting natural model of a heat source which acted on argillaceous materials. The study of this natural analogue was performed through detailed geoelectrical and soil-gas surveys to define both the geometry of the intrusive body and the gas permeability of a clay unit characterized by different degrees of thermal alteration. The results of this study show that gas permeability is increased in the clay sequences subjected to greater heat input from the emplacement of the Orciatico intrusion, despite the lack of apparent mineral and geotechnical variations. These results, which take into consideration long time periods in a natural, large-scale geological system, may have important implications for the long-term safety of underground storage of nuclear waste in clay formations.

  3. Environmental variability between the penultimate deglaciation and the mid Eemian: Insights from Tana che Urla (central Italy) speleothem trace element record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regattieri, Eleonora; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Drysdale, Russell N.; Isola, Ilaria; Woodhead, Jon D.; Hellstrom, John C.; Giaccio, Biagio; Greig, Alan; Baneschi, Ilaria; Dotsika, Elissavet

    2016-11-01

    A trace element record (Mg, Sr, Ba, Al, Si, P, Y, Zn) covering the ca. 133 ka to ca. 124 ka time interval was acquired from a flowstone core from Tana che Urla Cave (central Italy). It was compared with stable isotope data to investigate the environmental evolution in response to regional and extra-regional climate changes in the period corresponding to the latter part of the Penultimate Deglaciation and the first part of the Last Interglacial (Eemian). Trace element geochemical changes on centennial and millennial time scales responded to changes in hydrological input, variations in the supply and transport of catchment erosion products to the cave, including those linked to intense rainfall events, and to the state of the overlying soil and vegetation. Abrupt increases in precipitation and the progressive development of soil and vegetation occurred at ca. 132 ka, in response to the development of the global deglacial phase. The major changes in trace element composition are coherent with the previous hydrological interpretation of speleothem oxygen stable isotope composition (δ18O) as predominantly a rainfall-amount proxy. However, reduced growth rate persisted until ca. 130 ka, suggesting still depressed temperatures. An abrupt event of climatic deterioration, with marked decrease in precipitation and soil degradation, is apparent between ca. 131 and 130 ka. Cool-wet conditions between ca. 132 and 131 ka and the subsequent dry period may represent the local hydrological response to an interval of North Atlantic cooling and ice-rafted-debris (IRD) deposition known as Heinrich event 11 (H11). After 129.6 ka there was a rapid recovery according to all of the studied speleothem properties, indicating the onset of full interglacial conditions. A minor amplitude event of reduced precipitation is recorded within the LIG at ca. 127 ka. The record highlights the growing regional evidence for a complex penultimate deglacial climate involving major reorganization of

  4. Seismogenesis in Central Apennines, Italy: an integrated analysis of minor earthquake sequences and structural data in the Amatrice-Campotosto area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Rozzi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a seismotectonic study of the Amatrice-Campotosto area (Central Italy based on an integrated analysis of minor earthquake sequences, geological data and crustal rheology. The area has been affected by three small-magnitude seismic sequences: August 1992 (M=3.9, June 1994 (M=3.7 and October 1996 (M=4.0. The hypocentral locations and fault plane solutions of the 1996 sequence are based on original data; the seismological features of the 1992 and 1994 sequences are summarised from literature. The active WSWdipping Mt. Gorzano normal fault is interpreted as the common seismogenic structure for the three analysed sequences. The mean state of stress obtained by inversion of focal mechanisms (WSW-ENE-trending deviatoric tension is comparable to that responsible for finite Quaternary displacement, showing that the stress field has not changed since the onset of extensional tectonics. Available morphotectonic data integrated with original structural data show that the Mt. Gorzano Fault extends for ~28 km along strike. The along-strike displacement profile is typical of an isolated fault, without significant internal segmentation. The strong evidence of late Quaternary activity in the southern part of the fault (with lower displacement gradient is explained in this work in terms of displacement profile readjustment within a fault unable to grow further laterally. The depth distribution of seismicity and the crustal rheology yield a thickness of ~15 km for the brittle layer. An area of ~530 km2 is estimated for the entire Mt. Gorzano Fault surface. In historical times, the northern portion of the fault was probably activated during the 1639 Amatrice earthquake (I = X, M~ 6.3, but this is not the largest event we expect on the fault. We propose that a large earthquake might activate the entire 28 km long Mt. Gorzano Fault, with an expected Mmax up to 6.7.

  5. Cascading effects of predatory fish exclusion on the detritus-based food web of a lake littoral zone (Lake Vico, central Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancinelli, G; Costantini, M; Rossi, L

    2002-11-01

    An exclosure experiment was carried out in the reed-dominated littoral zone of a volcanic lake (Lake Vico, central Italy) to test whether the impact of predatory fish on benthic invertebrates cascades on fungal colonisation and breakdown of leaf detritus. The abundance, biomass, and Shannon diversity index of the invertebrate assemblage colonising Phragmites australis leaf packs placed inside: (1) full-exclosure cages, (2) cages allowing access only to small-sized fish predators, and (3) cageless controls, were monitored over a 45-day period together with the mass loss and associated fungal biomass of leaf packs. The species composition of the fungal assemblage was further assessed at the end of the manipulation. In general, invertebrate predators did not show any significant response to fish exclusion, either on a trophic guild or on a single taxon level. In contrast, the exclusion of large predatory fish induced a diverse spectrum of changes in the abundance and population size-structure of dominant detritivore taxa, ultimately increasing the biomass and Shannon diversity index of the whole detritivorous guild. These changes corresponded with significant variations in leaf detritus decay rates as well as in the biomass and assemblage structure of associated fungal colonisers. Our experimental findings provide evidence that in Lake Vico effects of fish predators on invertebrate detritivores influence the fungal conditioning and breakdown of the detrital substrate. We conclude that in lacustrine littoral zones predator-driven constraints may structure lower trophic levels of detritus-based food webs and affect the decomposition of leaf detritus originated from the riparian vegetation.

  6. 3D displacement maps of the 2016 central Italy seismic sequence, by applying the SISTEM method to GPS data and Sentinel 1A/1B SAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmino, Francesco; Bonforte, Alessandro

    2017-04-01

    We present an application of the SISTEM (Simultaneous and Integrated Strain Tensor Estimation from geodetic and satellite deformation Measurements) approach, to obtain the dense 3D ground deformation pattern produced by 2016 central Italy seismic sequence. We analyzed GNSS and Sentinel SAR data over 6 moths (March-November 2016); during this time interval, this area was characterized by the seismic sequence started with the August 24th Mw 5.4 and Mw 6 "Amatrice earthquakes", followed by October 26th Mw 5.9 and Mw 5.4 "Visso earthquakes" and October 30th Mw 6.5 "Norcia earthquake", among thousands of minor seismic events . The SAR processing was performed using the SBAS (Small BASeline) approach. The time series shows that no evident ground deformation was visible until the Amatrice earthquakes when a displacements of about 20 cm along the LOS (Line Of Sight) has been recorded; the following Visso earthquakes, produced a new displacement field northwards; after 4 days the Mw 6.5 Norcia earthquake produced a biggest ground displacement ( a maximum coseismic subsidence of 80cm near the Castelluccio plain) filling the gap between the previous one. We integrated the GNSS and SAR data encompassing the period from March to November 2016 for producing a detailed map of the 3D ground motion and then we inverted the SISTEM results, using an optimization algorithm based on the Genetic Algorithm, providing an accurate spatial characterization of ground deformation. Our results improve previous solutions for the principal faults kinematics and, thanks to the unprecedented details provided by SISTEM approach, it was possible to identify the kinematic of other additional faults that activated during the seismic sequence and that have contributed to the observed total ground deformations. SISTEM results are in good agreement with seismological, geodetic and geological data, including the contribution of the post-seismic signal to the modeled deformation.

  7. The influence of biological and environmental factors on the stable isotopic composition of ostracods – the Late Pleistocene record from Lake Albano, Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel ARIZTEGUI

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The stable oxygen and carbon isotopic composition of ostracod valves is the result of the interaction of several variables. Understanding and identifying the biological and ecological factors influencing the life of these animals improves the interpretation of isotopical data, and leads to better paleoenvironmental reconstructions. Ostracod biostratigraphy and determinations of oxygen and carbon stable isotopes on ostracod valves were carried out on a short sequence of the Last Glacial Maximum from Lake Albano (Central Italy. The oxygen isotopic composition of adults of Candona neglecta ranged between 0.5‰ and 1.5‰, and in Ilyocypris bradyi between –2‰ and –0.5‰ . Isotopic values from adults of C. neglecta fell within the range –1.5‰ to –0.8‰ when corrected for vital effect. The carbon isotopic signal ranged from 9.4‰ to 10.8‰ in adults and juveniles of C. neglecta, and from 9.8‰ to 11.3‰ in I. bradyi. Differences between left/right valve and gender were negligible, whereas there appeared to be a marked influence of life stage and species-specific factors related to vital effect and differences in microhabitat and seasonality. We combined analyses on carbon and oxygen isotopes with information deriving from ostracod ecology to reconstruct short term oscillations in past lake water level. Seasonal changes in either the temperature or the isotopic composition of the lake water were also identified. Relatively high δ18O values in ostracod valves were probably associated with the lake location and source of moisture, while high δ13C values were most probably related to the input of volcanic CO2 into the lake.

  8. Seismic slip history of the Aterno-Sulmona fault system in central Apennines (Italy) using in situ produced 36Cl cosmic ray exposure dating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim, T.; Benedetti, L. C.; Bruno, P.; Visini, F.; Aumaitre, G.; Bourles, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Acquiring long records of past earthquakes on a large population of faults is a key step to understand how strain release along those fault systems varies spatially and temporally.In central Italy, NE-SW extension (~4 mm/yr) is accommodated on a wide normal fault system (50 x 100km). Benedetti et al. (2013) found that 7 of these faults, belonging to the Fucino fault system, have their seismic activity synchronized during short (less than 1 ka) paroxysmal phases of activity. 36Cl measurements and rare earth elements (REE) concentrations were used to reconstruct the seismic slip history of four major faults belonging to an adjacent 30-km-long fault system, the Aterno-Sulmona fault system, at the southeastward tip of the Paganica fault that ruptured during the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake.The preliminary results suggest that 3-7 seismic events have occurred on each fault over the last 11 ka (from NE to SW the Roccapreturo, the Castel di Ieri, the Roccacasale and the Pizzalto faults), with 50 cm to 2 m of associated slip per event. These events appear clustered within intense period of seismic activity lasting less than 1ka (2 to 4 seismic events) separated by 2 to 3 ka periods with no seismic events. The most recent recorded paroxysmal activity occurred about 2.5 ka ago with all four studied faults rupturing in more than 15 earthquakes over a period lasting less than 1ka. These results thus suggest that, as already observed on the Fucino fault system, the seismic activity of the Aterno-Sulmona fault system is also synchronized during short periods of paroxysmal seismic activity.When clustering periods are compared, the seismic activity of the Fucino and the Aterno-Sulmona fault system, are, however, apparently unsynchronized since the most recent clustering period for the Aterno-Sulmona system corresponds to a quiescent period for the Fucino fault system.

  9. Morphotectonic analysis of the long-term surface expression of the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake fault (Central Italy) using airborne LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civico, Riccardo; Pucci, Stefano; De Martini, Paolo Marco; Pantosti, Daniela

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we present a morphotectonic study of the Paganica-San Demetrio fault system (PSDFS) responsible for the Mw6.1 April 6, 2009 earthquake (L'Aquila, Central Italy). The discrepancy observed between the length of the seismologic-geodetic modeled fault, the limited size of the primary coseismic surface ruptures and the significant morphological expression of the PSDFS stimulated a debate about the maximum rupture length of the PSDFS and its capability to generate larger magnitude events. To image the PSDFS long-term morphological expression and define its surface geometrical arrangement (length, number of fault splays and boundaries), we took advantage of a high-resolution airborne LiDAR dataset. LiDAR topography substantially increased our confidence in detecting even subtle tectonic-controlled morphologies. We define the PSDFS as a ~ 19 km-long fault system that displays a complex structural setting characterized by two different sectors: 1) the Paganica sector to the NW, with a narrow deformation zone, and 2) the San Demetrio sector to SE, where the strain is accommodated by several fault-splays dissecting a wider Quaternary basin. We also defined a first-order hierarchy among the numerous fault splays across the PSDFS. The long-term geomorphic expression of the PSDFS suggests that it ruptured also involving the whole 19 km-long structure besides rupturing only small sections, as it occurred in 2009. This suggests a variable slip behavior. Empirical relations applied to this hypothesis allow up to M 6.6 earthquakes along the PSDFS. These results have a critical impact on the seismic hazard assessment of the area when compared with a M 6.1 event as the 2009.

  10. Gaseous Elemental Mercury and Total and Leached Mercury in Building Materials from the Former Hg-Mining Area of Abbadia San Salvatore (Central Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaselli, Orlando; Nisi, Barbara; Rappuoli, Daniele; Cabassi, Jacopo; Tassi, Franco

    2017-04-15

    Mercury has a strong environmental impact since both its organic and inorganic forms are toxic, and it represents a pollutant of global concern. Liquid Hg is highly volatile and can be released during natural and anthropogenic processes in the hydrosphere, biosphere and atmosphere. In this study, the distribution of Gaseous Elemental Mercury (GEM) and the total and leached mercury concentrations on paint, plaster, roof tiles, concrete, metals, dust and wood structures were determined in the main buildings and structures of the former Hg-mining area of Abbadia San Salvatore (Siena, Central Italy). The mining complex (divided into seven units) covers a surface of about 65 ha and contains mining structures and managers' and workers' buildings. Nine surveys of GEM measurements were carried out from July 2011 to August 2015 for the buildings and structures located in Units 2, 3 and 6, the latter being the area where liquid mercury was produced. Measurements were also performed in February, April, July, September and December 2016 in the edifices and mining structures of Unit 6. GEM concentrations showed a strong variability in time and space mostly depending on ambient temperature and the operational activities that were carried out in each building. The Unit 2 surveys carried out in the hotter period (from June to September) showed GEM concentrations up to 27,500 ng·m(-3), while in Unit 6, they were on average much higher, and occasionally, they saturated the GEM measurement device (>50,000 ng·m(-3)). Concentrations of total (in mg·kg(-1)) and leached (in μg·L(-1)) mercury measured in different building materials (up to 46,580 mg·kg(-1) and 4470 mg·L(-1), respectively) were highly variable, being related to the edifice or mining structure from which they were collected. The results obtained in this study are of relevant interest for operational cleanings to be carried out during reclamation activities.

  11. Shallow subsurface imaging of the Piano di Pezza active normal fault (central Italy) by high-resolution refraction and electrical resistivity tomography coupled with time domain electromagnetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villani, Fabio; Tulliani, Valerio; Fierro, Elisa; Sapia, Vincenzo; Civico, Riccardo

    2015-04-01

    The Piano di Pezza fault is the north-westernmost segment of the >20 km long Ovindoli-Pezza active normal fault-system (central Italy). Although existing paleoseismic data document high vertical Holocene slip rates (~1 mm/yr) and a remarkable seismogenic potential of this fault, its subsurface setting and Pleistocene cumulative displacement are still poorly known. We investigated for the first time by means of high-resolution seismic and electrical resistivity tomography coupled with time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) measurements the shallow subsurface of a key section of the Piano di Pezza fault. Our surveys cross a ~5 m-high fault scarp that was generated by repeated surface-rupturing earthquakes displacing some Late Holocene alluvial fans. We provide 2-D Vp and resistivity images which clearly show significant details of the fault structure and the geometry of the shallow basin infill material down to 50 m depth. We can estimate the dip (~50°) and the Holocene vertical displacement of the master fault (~10 m). We also recognize in the hangingwall some low-velocity/low-resistivity regions that we relate to packages of colluvial wedges derived from scarp degradation, which may represent the record of several paleo-earthquakes older than the Late Holocene events previously recognized by paleoseismic trenching. Conversely, due to the limited investigation depth of seismic and electrical tomography, the estimation of the cumulative amount of Pleistocene throw is hampered. Therefore, to increase the depth of investigation, we performed 7 TDEM measurements along the electrical profile using a 50 m loop size both in central and offset configuration. The recovered 1-D resistivity models show a good match with 2-D resistivity images in the near surface. Moreover, TDEM inversion results indicate that in the hangingwall, ~200 m away from the surface fault trace, the carbonate pre-Quaternary basement may be found at ~90-100 m depth. The combined approach of electrical and

  12. The refinement of geomorphical and geochemical statistical techniques in the study of clay-basin tectonics: the Era basin (central Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardi, S. [Rome, Univ. `La Sapienza` (Italy). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Serafini, S.; Zarlenga, F. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dept. of Environment; Ciotoli, G.

    1997-12-31

    A comparative approach to neotectonic studies is presented, which encompasses the integration of geochemical, morphological and structural analyses. Nine-hundred-nineteen soil gas samples were collected in the Era basin (Tuscany, Central Italy) and their helium contents were measured. Helium distribution has been compared with location and orientation of known brittle deformations (faults and fractures) and morphological features obtained by air-photo interpretation and drainage network analyses. Obtained data were statistically compared by means of rose diagram plots concerning the investigated parameters and locally studied by associating the observed helium anomaly ridges with the known morphological and structural elements. The statistical approach showed a good convergence between the applied methodologies. Data from geo morphological , meso structural, and geochemical surveys are consistent with the NE-SW and NW-SE orientations, i.e. Apennine and anti-Apennine trend of the known structural pattern. Moreover the apparent N-S and E-W trending helium anomalies are thought to be due to the Middle Pleistocene deformation phase along these directions. The relationship between helium distribution and the strain field is strengthen by the good correspondence, at local scale, among geochemical data and results of the structural and geo morphological features (Orciatico-Montecatini val di Cecina and Peccioli areas). However helium soil gas technique showed to be a sensible tool for neotectonic studies in clay basin, as soil gas defines the leakage of deep seated gas along tectonic discontinuities even if they have no surface evidence and where the clay deposit is hundreds of meters thick. [Italiano] In questo lavoro viene presentata una nuova metodologia di infagine volta agli studi di neotettonica nei bacini argillosi e basata sull`integrazione di dati geochimici, morfologici e strutturali. I dati geochimici si riferiscono alle analisi delle concentrazioni di elio in

  13. Patchiness of forest landscape can predict species distribution better than abundance: the case of a forest-dwelling passerine, the short-toed treecreeper, in central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Basile

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Environmental heterogeneity affects not only the distribution of a species but also its local abundance. High heterogeneity due to habitat alteration and fragmentation can influence the realized niche of a species, lowering habitat suitability as well as reducing local abundance. We investigate whether a relationship exists between habitat suitability and abundance and whether both are affected by fragmentation. Our aim was to assess the predictive power of such a relationship to derive advice for environmental management. As a model species we used a forest specialist, the short-toed treecreeper (Family: Certhiidae; Certhia brachydactyla Brehm, 1820, and sampled it in central Italy. Species distribution was modelled as a function of forest structure, productivity and fragmentation, while abundance was directly estimated in two central Italian forest stands. Different algorithms were implemented to model species distribution, employing 170 occurrence points provided mostly by the MITO2000 database: an artificial neural network, classification tree analysis, flexible discriminant analysis, generalized boosting models, generalized linear models, multivariate additive regression splines, maximum entropy and random forests. Abundance was estimated also considering detectability, through N-mixture models. Differences between forest stands in both abundance and habitat suitability were assessed as well as the existence of a relationship. Simpler algorithms resulted in higher goodness of fit than complex ones. Fragmentation was highly influential in determining potential distribution. Local abundance and habitat suitability differed significantly between the two forest stands, which were also significantly different in the degree of fragmentation. Regression showed that suitability has a weak significant effect in explaining increasing value of abundance. In particular, local abundances varied both at low and high suitability values. The study lends

  14. Investigating the architecture of the Paganica Fault (2009 Mw 6.1 earthquake, central Italy) by integrating high-resolution multiscale refraction tomography and detailed geological mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villani, F.; Improta, L.; Pucci, S.; Civico, R.; Bruno, P. P. G.; Pantosti, D.

    2017-01-01

    We present a 2-D subsurface image of the Paganica Fault from a high-resolution refraction tomography and detailed geological investigation carried out across part of the northwestern segment of the 20-km-long Paganica-San Demetrio fault-system, and which was responsible of the 2009 April 6 Mw 6.1 L'Aquila earthquake (central Italy). We acquired two seismic profiles crossing the Paganica basin with a dense-wide aperture configuration. More than 30 000 P wave first-arrival traveltimes were input to a non-linear tomographic inversion. The obtained 250-300 m deep 2-D Vp images illuminate the shallow portion of the Paganica Fault, and depict additional unreported splays defining a complex half-graben structure. We interpret local thickening of low-Vp (tectonic clastic wedges above a high-Vp (3800-5000 m s-1) carbonate basement. These results are condensed in a 4.2-km-long section across the Paganica basin, clearly indicating that the Paganica Fault is a mature normal fault cutting the whole upper ˜10 km of the crust. We evaluate a minimum cumulative net displacement of 650 ± 90 m and a total heave of 530 ± 65 m accomplished by the Paganica Fault, respectively. In the conservative hypothesis that the extension started during the Gelasian (1.80-2.59 Ma), we obtain a minimum long-term slip-rate of 0.30 ± 0.07 mm yr-1 and an extension-rate of 0.25 ± 0.06 mm yr-1, respectively. Considering the regional averaged extensional field of ˜1 mm yr-1 obtained from geodetic and geological analyses at 104 yr timescale, we infer that the Paganica Fault accounts for ˜20 per cent of the NE-extension affecting this zone of the central Apennines axis due to the concurrent activity of other parallel normal fault-systems nearby (e.g. the Liri, Velino-Magnola, L'Aquila-Celano and Gran Sasso fault-systems).

  15. Ionospheric turbulence from TEC variations and VLF/LF transmitter signal observations before and during the destructive seismic activity of August and October 2016 in Central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contadakis, Michael E.; Arabelos, Demetrios N.; Vergos, George; Spatala, Spyrous; Skeberis, Christos; Xenos, Tomas D.; Biagi, Pierfrancesco; Scordilis, Emmanuel M.

    2017-04-01

    In this paper we investigate the ionospheric turbulence from TEC variations and VLF/LF transmitter signal observations before and during the disastrous seismic activity of August and October 2016 in Central Italy . The Total Electron Content (TEC) data of 8 Global Positioning System (GPS) stations of the EUREF network, which are being provided by IONOLAB (Turkey), were analysed using Discrete Fourier Analysis in order to investigate the TEC variations (Contadakis et al. 2009, Contadakis et al. 2012, Contadakis et al. 2015). The data acquired for VLF/LF signal observations are from the receiver of Thessaloniki(40.59N, 22,78E), Greece (Skeberis et al. 2015) which monitor the VLF/LF transmitters of the International Network for Frontier Research on Earthquake Precursors (INFREP). A method of normalization according to the distance between the receiver and the transmitter is applied on the above data and then they are processed by the Hilbert Huang Transform (HHT) to produce the corresponding spectra for visual analysis. The results of this investigation indicate that the High- Frequency limit fo, of the ionospheric turbulence content, increases as the site and the moment of the earthquake occurrence is approaching, pointing to the earthquake locus. In accordence ,the analyzed data from the receiver of INFREP network in Thessaloniki, Greece show that the signals from the two VLF European transmitters, Tavolara ( Italy) and Le Blanc (France), for wich the transmission path crosses the epicentral zones, indicate enhanced high frequency variations, the last ten days before the moment of the earthquake occurrence. We conclude that the LAIC mechanism through acoustic or gravity wave could explain this phenomenology. Reference Contadakis, M.E., Arabelos, D.N., Asteriadis, G., Spatalas, S.D., Pikridas, C. TEC variations over the Mediterranean during the seismic activity period of the last quarter of 2005 in the area of Greece, Nat. Hazards and Earth Syst. Sci., 8, 1267

  16. Shear wave splitting of the 2009 L'Aquila seismic sequence: fluid saturated microcracks and crustal fractures in the Abruzzi region (Central Apennines, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccheschi, P.; Pastori, M.; Margheriti, L.; Piccinini, D.

    2016-03-01

    The Abruzzi region is located in the Central Apennines Neogene fold-and-thrust belt and has one of the highest seismogenic potential in Italy, with high and diffuse crustal seismicity related to NE-SW oriented extension. In this study, we investigate the detailed spatial variation in shear wave splitting providing high-resolution anisotropic structure beneath the L'Aquila region. To accomplish this, we performed a systematic analysis of crustal anisotropic parameters: fast polarization direction (ϕ) and delay time (δt). We benefit from the dense coverage of seismic stations operating in the area and from a catalogue of several accurate earthquake locations of the 2009 L'Aquila seismic sequence, related to the Mw 6.1 2009 L'Aquila main shock, to describe in detail the geometry of the anisotropic volume around the active faults that ruptured. The spatial variations both in ϕ and δt suggest a complex anisotropic structure beneath the region caused by a combination of both structural- and stress-induced mechanisms. The average ϕ is NNW-SSE oriented (N141°), showing clear similarity both with the local fault strike and the SHmax. In the central part of the study area fast axes are oriented NW-SE, while moving towards the northeastern and northwestern sectors the fast directions clearly diverge from the general trend of NW-SE and rotate accordingly to the local fault strikes. The above-mentioned fault-parallel ϕ distribution suggests that the observed anisotropy is mostly controlled by the local fault-related structure. Toward the southeast fast directions become orthogonal both to strike of the local mapped faults and to the SHmax. Here, ϕ are predominantly oriented NE-SW; we interpret this orientation as due to the presence of a highly fractured and overpressurized rock volume which should be responsible of the 90° flips in ϕ and the increase in δt. Another possible mechanism for NE-SW orientation of ϕ in the southeastern sector could be ascribed to the

  17. [Resilience, social relations, and pedagogic intervention five years after the earthquake occurred in L'Aquila (Central Italy) in 2009: an action-research in the primary schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccarelli, Alessandro; Ciccozzi, Chiara; Fiorenza, Arianna

    2016-01-01

    the action-research "Outdoor training and citizenship between children from L'Aquila", carried out from 2014 to 2015 in some schools situated in the municipality of L'Aquila, aimed to answer to the needs emerged in reference to the social and psychological problems among children during the period after the L'Aquila earthquake occurred in 2009. In particular, the article provides documentary evidence about the results regarding the parts related to the study of resilience (cognitive objective) and of social relations (objective tied to the educational intervention), five years after the earthquake. the pedagogical research team, in close cooperation with the Cartography Laboratory of the University of L'Aquila and with the Grupo de Innovación Educativa Areté de la Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, has worked according to the research-action methodology, collecting secondary data and useful data to check the effectiveness of the educational actions put in place in order to promote resilient behaviours and to activate positive group dynamics. the study has been developed in 4 primary schools of the L'Aquila and has involved 83 children from 8 to 12 years. A control group made by 55 subjects, homogeneous for sex and age, has been identified in the primary schools of Borgorose, a little town near Rieti (Central Italy). data about the abilities of resilience and about the response to the stress have been collected in the first phase of the study with the purpose to outline the initial situation and develop an appropriate educational intervention. The comparison with the control group made by 55 subjects who were not from L'Aquila allowed to check that, 5 years after the disaster, the context of life produces a meaningful discrepancy in terms of responses to the stress and to the ability of resilience, and this fact is definitely negative for children from L'Aquila. On the other hand, data related to social relations allowed to verify how the educational intervention

  18. Inter-comparison of source apportionment of PM10 using PMF and CMB in three sites nearby an industrial area in central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesari, Daniela; Donateo, Antonio; Conte, Marianna; Contini, Daniele

    2016-12-01

    Receptor models (RMs), based on chemical composition of particulate matter (PM), such as Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) and Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF), represent useful tools for determining the impact of PM sources to air quality. This information is useful, especially in areas influenced by anthropogenic activities, to plan mitigation strategies for environmental management. Recent inter-comparison of source apportionment (SA) results showed that one of the difficulties in the comparison of estimated source contributions is the compatibility of the sources, i.e. the chemical profiles of factor/sources used in receptor models. This suggests that SA based on integration of several RMs could give more stable and reliable solutions with respect to a single model. The aim of this work was to perform inter-comparison of PMF (using PMF3.0 and PMF5.0 codes) and CMB outputs, focusing on both source chemical profiles and estimates of source contributions. The dataset included 347 daily PM10 samples collected in three sites in central Italy located near industrial emissions. Samples were chemically analysed for the concentrations of 21 chemical species (NH4+, Ca2 +, Mg2 +, Na+, K+, Mg2 +, SO42 -, NO3-, Cl-, Si, Al, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, EC, and OC) used as input of RMs. The approach identified 9 factor/sources: marine, traffic, resuspended dust, biomass burning, secondary sulphate, secondary nitrate, crustal, coal combustion power plant and harbour-industrial. Results showed that the application of constraints in PMF5.0 improved interpretability of profiles and comparability of estimated source contributions with stoichiometric calculations. The inter-comparison of PMF and CMB gave significant differences for secondary nitrate, biomass burning, and harbour-industrial sources, due to non-compatibility of these source profiles that have local specificities. When these site-dependent specificities were taken into account, optimising the input source profiles of

  19. The thick-bedded tail of turbidite thickness distribution as a proxy for flow confinement: Examples from tertiary basins of central and northern Apennines (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Mattia; Felletti, Fabrizio; Milli, Salvatore; Patacci, Marco

    2016-07-01

    This study reviews the thickness statistics of non-channelized turbidites from four tertiary basins of Central-Northern Apennines (Italy), where bed geometry and sedimentary character have been previously assessed. Though very different in terms of size and, arguably, character of feeder system, these basins share a common stratigraphic evolution consisting in transition from an early ponded to a late unconfined setting of deposition. Based on comparison of thickness subsets from diverse locations and stratigraphic heights within the studied turbidite fills, this paper seeks to answer the following questions: i) how data collection procedures and field operational constraints (e.g. measure location, outcrop quality, use of thicknesses data from single vs. multiple correlative sections, stratigraphic thickness of the study interval) can affect statistics of sample data? ii) how depositional controls of confined vs. unconfined turbidite basins can result in different thickness-frequency distributions?; and iii) is there in thickness statistics a 'flow confinement' signature which can be used to distinguish between confined and unconfined turbidites? Results suggest that: i) best practices of data collection are crucial to a meaningful interpretation of sample data statistics, especially in presence of stratigraphic and spatial trends of turbidite bed thickness; ii) a systematic bias against cm-thick Tcd Bouma sequence turbidites exists in sample data, which can result in the low-end tail of empirical thickness-frequency distributions to depart significantly from the actual distribution of turbidite thickness; and iii) thickness statistics of beds starting with a basal Ta/Tb Bouma division bear a coherent relationship to the transition from ponded to unconfined depositional settings, consisting in reduction of variance and mean and, consequently, parameters, or even type, of best fit model distribution. This research highlights the role of flow stripping, sediment by

  20. [Morbidity in a population living close to urban waste incinerator plants in Lazio Region (Central Italy): a retrospective cohort study using a before-after design].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golini, Martina Nicole; Ancona, Carla; Badaloni, Chiara; Bolignano, Andrea; Bucci, Simone; Sozzi, Roberto; Davoli, Marina; Forastiere, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    the body of evidence on health effects of residential exposure to urban waste incinerators suggests association with reproductive outcomes and some cancers, but the overall evidence is still limited. we evaluated the impact of two incinerators on hospital admissions for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases in a cohort of people living nearby two incineration plants in Lazio Region (Central Italy) using a before-and-after design. the study area was defined as the 7-km radius around the incinerators. People who were resident in the area from 1996 to 2008 were enrolled in a retrospective longitudinal study. All addresses were geocoded. A Lagrangian dispersion model (SPRAY) for PM₁₀ (ng/m³) was used for incinerators exposure assessment. Average annual concentration of background PM₁₀ (μg/m³) was estimated on a regional basis by means of RAMS and FARM models. Both PM₁₀ exposures were estimated at the residential address. All subjects were followed for hospital admissions in the period before (1996-2002) and after (2003-2008) the activation of the plants. The association between exposure to emissions from incinerators and hospitalizations in the two periods was estimated using the multivariate Cox model (for repeated events), adjusting for age, area-level socioeconomic status, distance from industries, traffic roads and highways. An interaction term between the period of follow-up (before or after the activation of the plants) and the exposure levels was used to test the effect of the incinerators. 47,192 subjects resident in the study area were enrolled. No clear association between pollution exposure from incinerators and cause-specific morbidity of residents in highest concentration areas was found when compared to the reference group. However, an effect of PM₁₀ on respiratory diseases and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was suggested. The effect was due to excesses of hospitalizations for the same causes among men living in highest

  1. Babesia caballi and Theileria equi infections in horses in Central-Southern Italy: Sero-molecular survey and associated risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolomé Del Pino, Leticia Elisa; Nardini, Roberto; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Iacoponi, Francesca; Cersini, Antonella; Autorino, Gian Luca; Buono, Francesco; Scicluna, Maria Teresa

    2016-04-01

    Babesia caballi and Theileria equi are tick-borne pathogens, etiological agents of equine piroplasmosis that affect different species of Equidae causing relevantly important direct and indirect losses. A field study was conducted to evaluate the distribution of the equine piroplasms in an area of Cent