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Sample records for mole rhizopus stolonifer

  1. Radiation resistance of Rhizopus stolonifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbertse, P.J.; Du Toit, T.L.; Van der Merwe, L.J.; Koekemoer, M.L.; Eilers, I.M.I.

    1983-01-01

    A problem encountered with the irradiation of food is that certain micro-organisms are highly resistant to gamma rays. This includes the fungus, Rhizopus stolonifer, associated with most fruits. The Nuclear Development Corporation of South Africa (NUCOR) has found that a combination of radiation and mild heat treatment reduces the radiation dose necessary to kill 90% of R. stolonifer by approximately half. Treatment at 50 degrees Celsius for 10 minutes or at 55 degrees Celsius for five minutes is sufficient. The article discusses the mechanism of radiation resistance in R. stolonifer and the way in which heating affects this resistance

  2. Rhizopus stolonifer exhibits dimorphism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-16

    May 16, 2011 ... C. O. Omoifo. Department of ... stolonifer could utilize glucose for growth, this study examined the effect ... H54Ar meter balance and added to the beaker. The pH was .... This work was done at the MTCC-1, Institute of Microbial. Technology ... Mucor circinelloides life cycle by on-line image analysis. J. Appl.

  3. Extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Rhizopus stolonifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid AbdelRahim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs has become a necessary field of applied science. Biological method for synthesis of AgNPs by Rhizopus stolonifer aqueous mycelial extract was used. The AgNPs were identified by UV–visible spectrometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR. The presence of surface plasmon band around 420 nm indicates AgNPs formation. The characteristic of the AgNPs within the face-centered cubic (fcc structure are indicated by the peaks of the X-ray diffraction (XRD pattern corresponding to (111, (200 and (220 planes. Spherical, mono-dispersed and stable AgNPs with diameter around 9.47 nm were prepared and affirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR shows peaks at 1426 and 1684 cm−1 that affirm the presence of coat covering protein the AgNPs which is known as capping proteins. Parameter optimization showed the smallest size of AgNPs (2.86 ± 0.3 nm was obtained with 10−2 M AgNO3 at 40 °C. The present study provides the proof that the molecules within aqueous mycelial extract of R. stolonifer facilitate synthesis of AgNPs and highlight on value-added from R. stolonifer for cost effectiveness. Also, eco-friendly medical and nanotechnology-based industries could also be provided. Size of prepared AgNPs could be controlled by temperature and AgNO3 concentration. Further studies are required to study effect of more parameters on size and morphology of AgNPs as this will help in the control of large scale production of biogenic AgNPs.

  4. Karakterisasi ekstrak kasar lipase Rhizopus stolonifer UICC 137

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Sumiarsih

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing commercial interest in enzymatic production of biologically active component, because there are a number of well-known advantages compared to chemical synthesis. One of the most valuable synthetic features of enzyme is their ability to discriminate between enantiomers of racemic substrates. Lipase have become of great interest to the chemical industries wing their usefulness in both hydrolytic and synthesis reactions. The aim of this work was to study the production of lipase by Rhizopus stolonifer UICC 137, and determine the crude lipase preparation characteristics. The lipolytic activity was determined by titrimetric method toward oil-arabic gum emultion as a substrate. The strain produced lipase at appreciable lipolytic when cultivated for 72 hours in medium containing 3% glucose and 1% olive oil. Our data suggest that the strain produced lipase since the exponential phase of its growth. Lipase with optimum lipolytic activity was obtained at late stationary phase. The optimum condition for lipolytic activity measurement were pH of 7.5 and temperature 37oC, the crude enzyme had a specific activity 20.2 unit/ mg protein, the Vmax was 15.1 mol/ min and KM was 12.5 mg/ ml. The crude enzyme retained 79.9%, 68.0% and 52.6% of its lipolytic activity, when incubated for 90 minutes at temperature of 40, 50, and 60oC respectively.

  5. Self-induction system for cellulase production by cellobiose produced from glucose in Rhizopus stolonifer

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yingying; Tang, Bin; Du, Guocheng

    2017-01-01

    Cellulolytic fungi have evolved a sophisticated genetic regulatory network of cellulase synthesis to adapt to the natural environment. Even in the absence of lignocellulose, it still secretes low levels of ?constitutive? cellulase for standby application. However, the mechanisms of this constitutive expression remain incompletely understood. Here we identified a cellobiose synthetase (CBS) from Rhizopus stolonifer, which has the capacity to catalyse the synthesis of cellobiose from uridine di...

  6. Growth Simulation and Discrimination of Botrytis cinerea, Rhizopus stolonifer and Colletotrichum acutatum Using Hyperspectral Reflectance Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Sun

    Full Text Available This research aimed to develop a rapid and nondestructive method to model the growth and discrimination of spoilage fungi, like Botrytis cinerea, Rhizopus stolonifer and Colletotrichum acutatum, based on hyperspectral imaging system (HIS. A hyperspectral imaging system was used to measure the spectral response of fungi inoculated on potato dextrose agar plates and stored at 28°C and 85% RH. The fungi were analyzed every 12 h over two days during growth, and optimal simulation models were built based on HIS parameters. The results showed that the coefficients of determination (R2 of simulation models for testing datasets were 0.7223 to 0.9914, and the sum square error (SSE and root mean square error (RMSE were in a range of 2.03-53.40×10(-4 and 0.011-0.756, respectively. The correlation coefficients between the HIS parameters and colony forming units of fungi were high from 0.887 to 0.957. In addition, fungi species was discriminated by partial least squares discrimination analysis (PLSDA, with the classification accuracy of 97.5% for the test dataset at 36 h. The application of this method in real food has been addressed through the analysis of Botrytis cinerea, Rhizopus stolonifer and Colletotrichum acutatum inoculated in peaches, demonstrating that the HIS technique was effective for simulation of fungal infection in real food. This paper supplied a new technique and useful information for further study into modeling the growth of fungi and detecting fruit spoilage caused by fungi based on HIS.

  7. Production of Cellulases by Rhizopus stolonifer from Glucose-Containing Media Based on the Regulation of Transcriptional Regulator CRE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingyiing; Tang, Bin; Du, Guocheng

    2017-03-28

    Carbon catabolite repression is a crucial regulation mechanism in microorganisms, but its characteristic in Rhizopus is still unclear. We extracted a carbon regulation gene, cre , that encoded a carbon catabolite repressor protein (CRE) from Rhizopus stolonifer TP-02, and studied the regulation of CRE by real-time qPCR. CRE responded to glucose in a certain range, where it could significantly regulate part of the cellulase genes ( eg, bg, and cbh2 ) without cbh1 . In the comparison of the response of cre and four cellulase genes to carboxymethylcellulose sodium and a simple carbon source (lactose), the effect of CRE was only related to the concentration of reducing sugars. By regulating the reducing sugars to range from 0.4% to 0.6%, a glucose-containing medium with lactose as the inducer could effectively induce cellulases without the repression of CRE. This regulation method could potentially reduce the cost of enzymes produced in industries and provide a possible solution to achieve the large-scale synthesis of cellulases.

  8. Silver nanoparticle production by Rhizopus stolonifer and its antibacterial activity against extended spectrum β-lactamase producing (ESBL) strains of Enterobacteriaceae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banu, Afreen; Rathod, Vandana; Ranganath, E.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Silver nanoparticle production by using Rhizopus stolonifer. → Antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles against extended spectrum β-lactamase producing (ESBL) strains of Enterobacteriaceae. → Synergistic effect of antibiotics with silver nanoparticles towards ESBL-strains. → Characterization of silver nanoparticles made by UV-vis spectra, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM). -- Abstract: This report focuses on the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fungus, Rhizopus stolonifer and its antimicrobial activity. Research in nanotechnology highlights the possibility of green chemistry pathways to produce technologically important nanomaterials. Characterization of newly synthesized silver nanoparticles was made by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and atomic force microscope (AFM). TEM micrograph revealed the formation of spherical nanoparticles with size ranging between 3 and 20 nm. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) showed excellent antibacterial activity against ESBL-strains which includes E. coli, Proteus. sp. and Klebsiella sp.

  9. Silver nanoparticle production by Rhizopus stolonifer and its antibacterial activity against extended spectrum {beta}-lactamase producing (ESBL) strains of Enterobacteriaceae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banu, Afreen [Department of Microbiology, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga 585106, Karnataka (India); Rathod, Vandana, E-mail: drvandanarathod@rediffmail.com [Department of Microbiology, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga 585106, Karnataka (India); Ranganath, E. [Department of Microbiology, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga 585106, Karnataka (India)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} Silver nanoparticle production by using Rhizopus stolonifer. {yields} Antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles against extended spectrum {beta}-lactamase producing (ESBL) strains of Enterobacteriaceae. {yields} Synergistic effect of antibiotics with silver nanoparticles towards ESBL-strains. {yields} Characterization of silver nanoparticles made by UV-vis spectra, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM). -- Abstract: This report focuses on the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fungus, Rhizopus stolonifer and its antimicrobial activity. Research in nanotechnology highlights the possibility of green chemistry pathways to produce technologically important nanomaterials. Characterization of newly synthesized silver nanoparticles was made by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and atomic force microscope (AFM). TEM micrograph revealed the formation of spherical nanoparticles with size ranging between 3 and 20 nm. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) showed excellent antibacterial activity against ESBL-strains which includes E. coli, Proteus. sp. and Klebsiella sp.

  10. Rhizopus in Kalanchoë

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paternotte, S.J.

    2001-01-01

    In 2001 is door PPO-glastuinbouw onderzoek gedaan aan Rhizopus stolonifer in Kalanchoë ( verslag PPO 533). Naar aanleiding van dit onderzoek en na gesprekken met de begeleidingscommissie en telers van Kalanchoë moerplanten is de conclusie getrokken dat vooral grote schommelingen in watergehalte van

  11. Phylogenetic and Phylogenomic Definition of Rhizopus Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrii P. Gryganskyi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenomic approaches have the potential to improve confidence about the inter-relationships of species in the order Mucorales within the fungal tree of life. Rhizopus species are especially important as plant and animal pathogens and bioindustrial fermenters for food and metabolite production. A dataset of 192 orthologous genes was used to construct a phylogenetic tree of 21 Rhizopus strains, classified into four species isolated from habitats of industrial, medical and environmental importance. The phylogeny indicates that the genus Rhizopus consists of three major clades, with R. microsporus as the basal species and the sister lineage to R. stolonifer and two closely related species R. arrhizus and R. delemar. A comparative analysis of the mating type locus across Rhizopus reveals that its structure is flexible even between different species in the same genus, but shows similarities between Rhizopus and other mucoralean fungi. The topology of single-gene phylogenies built for two genes involved in mating is similar to the phylogenomic tree. Comparison of the total length of the genome assemblies showed that genome size varies by as much as threefold within a species and is driven by changes in transposable element copy numbers and genome duplications.

  12. Sesquiterpenes from the Formosan stolonifer Tubipora musica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duh, C Y; Chen, K J; El-Gamal, A A; Dai, C F

    2001-11-01

    Eight new sesquiterpenes, tubipolides A-G (1-7) and tubiporone (8) (novel carbon skeleton), and a known sesquiterpene, spirotubipolide, have been isolated from the Formosan stolonifer Tubipora musica. The structures of compounds 1-8 were determined by 1D and 2D NMR spectral analysis.

  13. Quitosana no controle pós-colheita da podridão mole em caqui 'rama forte' Chitosan on the postharvest control of soft rot in 'rama forte' persimmon

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    Patrícia Cia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito da quitosana, aliada ao processo de destanização, no controle de Rhizopus stolonifer em caqui 'Rama Forte' e sobre o crescimento micelial do fungo in vitro. Caquis foram submetidos ao processo de destanização com CO2 (70% / 18 horas, em tambores herméticos, sendo em seguida submetidos à inoculação com suspensão de esporos de R. stolonifer (3x10(5 esporos mL-1. Após inoculação, os frutos permaneceram por 2 horas a 25 °C, quando foram imersos em quitosana (0; 0,5; 1,0; 1,5 e 2,0%, por 1 minuto. Os frutos foram mantidos a 25 °C / 80% UR e avaliados quanto à severidade e incidência da podridão mole, durante cinco dias. Após o período de armazenamento, avaliaram-se a coloração de casca, a firmeza e o índice de adstringência. In vitro, avaliou-se o crescimento micelial em placas contendo meio BDA incorporado com quitosana ou ácido cítrico. Os resultados mostraram que a quitosana, a 1,5%, reduz a severidade e a incidência da podridão mole em caquis e não influencia no processo de perda de adstringência, firmeza e na coloração de casca. In vitro, a quitosana inibe completamente o crescimento micelial de R. stolonifer, em concentração tão baixa quanto 0,5%.The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of chitosan in addition to de-astringency process on the control of Rhizopus stolonifer in 'Rama Forte' persimmon and on in vitro mycelial growth. Persimmon were submitted to de-astringency process using CO2 (70% / 18 h, in hermetic chambers. Next, fruit were inoculated through subcuticular injections of a R. stolonifer spore suspension (3x10(5 spore mL-1 and 2 hours later at 25 °C immersed into chitosan (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0%, for 1 min. Fruit were stored at 25 °C / 80% RH, and checked for rot severity and incidence of soft rot, during 5-days of storage. After storage the skin color, firmness and astringency index were evaluated in persimmons. In vitro, mycelial

  14. The mole

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    The mole continued its way around the SPS ring ... and on 31 July emerged where it started from, having completed its 7 kilometre journey without ever veering more than a couple of centimetres from its schedule path.

  15. Mole gun injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistré, V; Rezzouk, J

    2013-09-01

    A mole gun is a weapon, which is used to trap and kill moles. This report provides an overview of the state of knowledge of mole gun injuries, comparable to blast injuries caused by fireworks, explosive or gunshot. Over a 2-year period, the authors reported their experience with ten hand injuries caused by mole gun. Radial side of the hand was often concerned, particularly the thumb. The authors explain their choices in the management of such lesions. Surgery was performed primarily and a large debridement currently seemed to offer the best outcome for the patient. Blast, crush, burns and lacerations may explain the higher rate of amputation to the digits. A long period of physiotherapy, specifically of the hand, was needed before the patient could return to work. This ballistic hand trauma encountered by surgeons requires knowledge and understanding of these injuries. It should be in accordance with firearms law because of severe injuries encountered and possible lethal wounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Trend of Complete Hydatidiform Mole

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    K Thapa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Complete Hydatidiform mole is one of the most frequent abnormal pregnancies. This review studies the trend of complete mole in Paropakar Maternity and Women's hospital and clinical ability to detect it. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 504 cases of complete hydatidiform mole recorded at Paropakar maternity and women's hospital, Kathmandu, during 2058-2065 B.S. Medical records were reviewed and incidence, clinical presentation and method of diagnosis were studied. RESULTS: During the study period, there were 13,9117 births and 504 complete moles, 12 partial moles, 48 persistent gestational tumours, six choriocarcinoma and four invasive moles recorded in the hospital. The incidence of complete mole was one per 276 births. It was prevalent among women younger than 29 years (80% and among the primigravidae (36.7%. More than 90% women presented in the first half of their pregnancy and vaginal bleeding was the main complaint (68.3%. Suction evacuation, dilation and evacuation followed by sharp curettage and abdominal hysterectomy were performed in 80.6%, 17.6% and 1.2% of the women respectively. Persistent mole and choriocarcinoma developed in 9.5% and 0.4% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Complete mole has the highest incidence. It affects mostly younger women and presents with vaginal bleeding most of the time, usually in the first half of their pregnancy. Keywords: complete hydatidiform mole, gestational trophoblastic disease, persistent gestational tumours.

  17. Reduction of hexavalent chromium by Rhizopus Oryzae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    reduction data and the specific growth rate constant value was calculated as 0.082 and the ... Key words: Hexavalent chromium, Rhizopus Oryzae, leather tanning, Monod and Haldane models. ... composition; Glucose 1 g; K2HPO4 0.5 g; NaCl 0.5 g; MgCl2 1.0 g; ... ficantly, because of the inhibitor role of high concentration.

  18. Mole sieve cycle optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, P. [Petro-Canada Oil and Gas, Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Maturing gas basins and declining reservoirs have prompted the search for energy and cost reduction initiatives to maintain operation sustainability. This paper discusses the development of an algorithm to improve the efficiency of the Brazeau mole sieve dehydration system. Details of the operating unit and an outline of the system were provided, as well as an operator interface. The main objectives of the research were to reduce the number of corresponding regeneration cycles; reduce annual energy requirements; and extend the life of the dessicant. Reductions were anticipated at 35 per cent, leading towards fuel savings of $45,000 a year, and carbon dioxide reductions of 670 tonnes a year. However, significant barriers were also noted, including operations, maintenance and equipment replacement issues. Equations of state were used to estimate vapor pressure or water content in gases. Approximate water content was measured with gas flow rate. The resulting algorithm was implemented using a basic best fit curve generated for one variable with a correction factor applied as a second variable. Data books were provided to present water content of hydrocarbon gas, with implementation procedures. Benefits of the new system included longer service life and reduced chemical and outside service costs, and reduced lost production during sieve changes. Additional benefits included enhanced distributed computing system (DCS) interfaces within plant operations; extension of the adsorption cycle via the functionality of the algorithm; and the fact that during a plant upset, the algorithm froze cycle sequencing and eliminated the possibility of switching the beds and repeating regeneration. The improved system resulted in savings of $87,000. tabs, figs.

  19. Rhizopus Soft Rot on Lily Caused by Rhizopus oryzae in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Sang Hahm

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Rhizopus soft rot of lily (Lilium longiflorum caused by Rhizopus oryzae was observed in the experimental field in Taean Lily Experiment Station in Korea, 2012. The typical symptoms were water-soaked lesions on bottom stem and leaf rot. The lesion rapidly expanded and the plant was softened totally. The fungus grew vigorously at an optimum temperature (25oC and brownish colony and black sporangia were formed on potato dextrose agar medium. Sporangiophores formed on end of sporangia were sub-globose, brownish and 6-10 μm in size. Sporangia were globose, blackish and 87-116 μm in size. Sporangiospores were irregularly oval and sub-globose, brownish 4-8 μm in size. On the basis of mycological characteristics, analyzing sequences of internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA, and pathogenicity test on host plants, the causal fungus was identified as R. oryzae. This is the first report of Rhizopus soft rot on lily caused by R. oryzae in Korea.

  20. Moles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This can be done with a split thickness skin graft from some other normal area of the body. ... several reported cases of melanoma developing underneath a skin graft from nevus cells left behind. Occasionally, thickened scars ...

  1. Screening of allyl alcohol resistant mutant of Rhizopus oryzae and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethanol is a main by-product in the fermentation broth of Rhizopus oryzae during the production of high-optical purity L-lactic acid. By screening the lower activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) mutant, thus decreasing the flux of pyruvic acid to ethanol may be a virtual method for increasing the conversion rate of glucose ...

  2. Species boundaries and nomenclature of Rhizopus arrhizus (syn. R. oryzae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolatabadi, Somayeh; de Hoog, G Sybren; Meis, Jacques F; Walther, Grit

    2014-01-01

    Rhizopus arrhizus (Mucorales, Mucoromycotina) is the prevalent opportunist worldwide among the mucoralean species causing human infections. On the other hand the species has been used since ancient times to ferment African and Asian traditional foods and condiments based on ground soybeans. As

  3. Biosorptive removal of Hg(II) ions by Rhizopus oligosporus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, corn processing wastewater was used as a new low-cost substrate to produce Rhizopus oligosporus. Dried biomass of R. oligosporus was evaluated as a biosorbent for treatment of synthetically contaminated waters with Hg(II) ions. The biosorption process was carried out in a batch process and the effects of ...

  4. Secretory expression of Rhizopus oryzae α-amylase in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kluyveromyces lactis is a non-conventional yeast species extensively used in the expression of heterologous genes. In this study, a genetically modified K. lactis with high-level expression of α- amylase from Rhizopus oryzae was obtained, which could successfully hydrolyze and use starch for growth very well. Shake flask ...

  5. Reduction of hexavalent chromium by Rhizopus Oryzae | Sukumar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ability of Rhizopus oryzae to reduce Cr6+ was evaluated in batch microcosms. The optimum pH of R. oryzae growth was between 6.0 and 7.0. The maximum chromium reduction efficiency of 91.15% and biomass growth was achieved at a pH of 7, temperature of 37°C, with an initial Cr6+ concentration of 400 ppm and ...

  6. Moles and Mole Control on British Farms, Amenities and Gardens after Strychnine Withdrawal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra E. Baker

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Moles are considered pests in Britain, but this issue has been little studied. Lower welfare standards have been tolerated for moles than for most other managed wild mammal species, as use of both the controversial poison, strychnine, and unregulated traps have been permitted. Strychnine was withdrawn in 2006 and there were fears that mole populations would increase as a result. In 2007, we conducted a comprehensive, nationwide survey of land manager perceptions, opinions and behaviour regarding moles and mole control on farms, amenities and domestic gardens in Britain. We surveyed 2150 land managers (achieving a 59% response rate and ground-truthed 29 responses. Moles were reported to be present on most farms and amenities, and 13% of gardens, and were more common in lighter soils. Where present, moles were usually considered pests, this being more likely in Wales, Scotland and northern England, on livestock and mixed farms, and on large, high-value amenities, e.g., racecourses and golf courses. Mole control followed similar patterns to mole presence. More control may occur than is economically, and therefore potentially ethically, justified. Control should be more carefully considered and, where necessary, more effectively targeted. Kill-trapping was the favoured recent and future method on farms and amenities, even if strychnine was to be reintroduced; however, because mole traps are currently unregulated, some might not meet current welfare standards if tested. We found no evidence for an increase in moles since a farm questionnaire survey conducted in 1992; this could have wider implications for future wildlife management policy changes.

  7. Subsurface Sampling and Sensing Using Burrowing Moles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, C. R.; Richter, L.; Smith, W. H.

    2004-01-01

    Finding evidence for life on Mars will likely require accessing the subsurface since the Martian surface is both hostile to life and to preservation of biosignatures due to the cold dry conditions, the strong W environment, and the presence of strong oxidants. Systems are needed to probe beneath the sun and oxidant baked surface of Mars and return samples to the surface for analysis or to bring the instrument sensing underground. Recognizing this need, the European Space Agency incorporated a small subsurface penetrometer or Mole onto the Beagle 2 Mars lander. Had the 2003 landing been successful, the Mole would have collected samples from 1-1.5 m depth and delivered them to an organic analysis instrument on the surface. The de- vice called the Planetary Underground Tool (PLUTO), also measured soil mechanical and thermophysical properties. Constrained by the small mass and volume allowance of the Beagle lander, the PLUTO mole was a slender cylinder only 2 cm diameter and 28 cm long equipped with a small sampling device designed to collect samples and bring them to the surface for analysis by other instrument. The mass of the entire system including deployment mechanism and tether was 1/2 kg. sensor package underground to make in situ measurements. The Mars Underground Mole (MUM) is a larger Mole based on the PLUTO design but incorporating light collection optics that interface to a fiber optic cable in the tether that transmits light to a combined stimulated emission Raman Spectrometer and Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) reflectance Spectrometer with sensitivity from 0.7 to 2.5 micrometers. This instrument is called the Dual Spectral Sensor and uses a Digital Array Scanning Interferometer as the sensor technology, a type of fourier transform interferometer that uses fixed element prisms and thus is highly rugged compared to a Michaelson interferometer. Due to the size limitations of an on-Mole instrument compartment, and the availability of a tether, the sensor head

  8. Reproductive features of the eastern mole (Scalopus aquaticus) and star-nose mole (Condylura cristata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, J M; Mock, O B; Nagdas, S K; Winfrey, V P; Olson, G E

    1999-11-01

    Since moles are closely related to shrews, the gametes and reproductive tracts of the star-nose mole (Condylura cristata) and the eastern mole (Scalopus aquaticus) were examined to gain further insight into unusual reproductive traits of the Soricidae. Moles display many of these soricid traits, but with some important differences. The cumulus oophorus of Scalopus, ovulated about 16 h after hCG injection, was largely dispersed by hyaluronidase and, though quite dense, was nevertheless more similar to that of higher mammals than to the compact 'ball of the soricid cumulus. Within the female tract in these moles, approximately 85% of the length of the oviduct comprises a narrow ampulla with numerous differentiated crypts that, in shrews, house spermatozoa. However, in contrast to shrews, moles produce considerably larger numbers of spermatozoa, which challenges the proposal that, in shrews, oviductal sperm crypts specifically permit lower sperm production by the males. In the sperm head of these two moles, the acrosome displays the long rostrum that is typical of other Insectivora, and the perforatorium has the barbs by which soricid spermatozoa probably bind to the zona pellucida. Perhaps allied to this, immunoblots indicated that the immunoreactive acrosomal matrix of Scalopus spermatozoa is simpler than the polypeptide complex of the bovine and hamster acrosomal matrix.

  9. 21 CFR 184.1420 - Lipase enzyme preparation derived from Rhizopus niveus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Lipase enzyme preparation derived from Rhizopus... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1420 Lipase enzyme preparation derived from Rhizopus niveus. (a) Lipase enzyme preparation contains lipase enzyme (CAS Reg. No...

  10. The Origin of the Mole Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, William B.

    2004-01-01

    German Chemist, August Wilhelm Hofmann first introduced the term "molar" (from the Latin moles, meaning "a large mass") into chemistry, around 1865. The particular use of the term molar gained currency in the physics literature, where it was in common use at least through the 1940s.

  11. psychrometry: from partial pressures to mole fractions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    1980-03-01

    Mar 1, 1980 ... as an ideal gas mixture. Partial pressures then become identical: to mole fractions and sets of psychometric parameters result from rather elementary thermodynamic relations. Search for more accurate data has long led to the realization that neither dry air nor pure water vapour behaves like an ideal gas,.

  12. CT diagnosis of invasive hydatidiform mole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Mingquan; Jiang Lina; Li Xianxing; Wang Peijun

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the CT features and the diagnostic value in invasive mole. Methods: Eleven cases (age, 30 to 53 years, mean 40 years) with invasive mole proved by operation and pathology were studied, including 3 cases during peri-menopausal period of eight months, ten months and twelve months respectively. All cases were scanned by CT and enhanced study was done. Results: All cases showed enlargement of uterus of varying degrees. On CT, the density of uterine cavity was similar to that of water, intermingled with spotty patchy and hazy circular isodense shadows. High density stripe-like bleeding foci were found in 3 cases. The outline of uterine cavity was locally disrupted in all case and the muscle layer was thickened in 3 cases. On enhanced CT scan, the lesions in the uterine cavity appeared markedly hyperdense, just like 'the crater' and the 'mole sign'. The muscle layers at the site of disruption showed inhomogeneous enhancement after contrast injection. Conclusion: The CT features of invasive mole are characteristic, with important diagnostic value, especially for those during peri-menopausal period

  13. Social structure predicts genital morphology in African mole-rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne L Seney

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available African mole-rats (Bathyergidae, Rodentia exhibit a wide range of social structures, from solitary to eusocial. We previously found a lack of sex differences in the external genitalia and morphology of the perineal muscles associated with the phallus in the eusocial naked mole-rat. This was quite surprising, as the external genitalia and perineal muscles are sexually dimorphic in all other mammals examined. We hypothesized that the lack of sex differences in naked mole-rats might be related to their unusual social structure.We compared the genitalia and perineal muscles in three African mole-rat species: the naked mole-rat, the solitary silvery mole-rat, and the Damaraland mole-rat, a species considered to be eusocial, but with less reproductive skew than naked mole-rats. Our findings support a relationship between social structure, mating system, and sexual differentiation. Naked mole-rats lack sex differences in genitalia and perineal morphology, silvery mole-rats exhibit sex differences, and Damaraland mole-rats are intermediate.The lack of sex differences in naked mole-rats is not an attribute of all African mole-rats, but appears to have evolved in relation to their unusual social structure and reproductive biology.

  14. Social structure predicts genital morphology in African mole-rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seney, Marianne L; Kelly, Diane A; Goldman, Bruce D; Sumbera, Radim; Forger, Nancy G

    2009-10-15

    African mole-rats (Bathyergidae, Rodentia) exhibit a wide range of social structures, from solitary to eusocial. We previously found a lack of sex differences in the external genitalia and morphology of the perineal muscles associated with the phallus in the eusocial naked mole-rat. This was quite surprising, as the external genitalia and perineal muscles are sexually dimorphic in all other mammals examined. We hypothesized that the lack of sex differences in naked mole-rats might be related to their unusual social structure. We compared the genitalia and perineal muscles in three African mole-rat species: the naked mole-rat, the solitary silvery mole-rat, and the Damaraland mole-rat, a species considered to be eusocial, but with less reproductive skew than naked mole-rats. Our findings support a relationship between social structure, mating system, and sexual differentiation. Naked mole-rats lack sex differences in genitalia and perineal morphology, silvery mole-rats exhibit sex differences, and Damaraland mole-rats are intermediate. The lack of sex differences in naked mole-rats is not an attribute of all African mole-rats, but appears to have evolved in relation to their unusual social structure and reproductive biology.

  15. Definition of the mole (IUPAC Recommendation 2017)

    OpenAIRE

    Marquardt, Roberto; Meija, Juris; Mester, Zoltán; Towns, Marcy; Weir, Ron; Davis, Richard; Stohner, Jürgen

    2018-01-01

    In 2011 the General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM) noted the intention of the International Committee for Weights and Measures (CIPM) to revise the entire International System of Units (SI) by linking all seven base units to seven fundamental physical constants. Of particular interest to chemists, new definitions for the kilogram and the mole have been proposed. A recent IUPAC Technical Report discussed these new definitions in relation to immediate consequences for the chemical co...

  16. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in common moles (Talpa europaea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijger, I.M.; Cornelissen, J.B.W.J.; Wisselink, H.J.; Meerburg, B.G.

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in common moles, Talpa europaea, was investigated in order to determine whether moles can serve as an indicator species for T. gondii infections in livestock. Findings In total, 86 moles were caught from 25 different sites in the Netherlands. Five

  17. Pemeraman untuk meningkatkan kualitas keju yang diinnokulasi Rhizopus oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOLIKAH ANA ESTIKOMAH

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Estikomah SA, Sutarno, Pangastuti A. 2010. Pemeraman untuk meningkatkaan kualitas keju yang diinokulasi Rhizopus oryzae. Bioteknologi 7: 55-62. Keju merupakan makanan hasil fermentasi dari susu yang proses fermentasinya dilakukan oleh bakteri asam laktat maupun jamur. Rhizopus oryzae diketahui mampu menghasilkan asam laktat, protease, dan lipase. Perubahan cita rasa dan tekstur keju terjadi selama pemeraman keju. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk meningkatkan kualitas keju yang diinokulasi R. oryzae melalui pemeraman. Pemeraman dilakukan dengan variasi waktu (7, 14 hari dan suhu (5ºC, 10ºC, 15ºC. Penelitian ini terdiri dua tahap, yaitu pembuataan keju mentah diikuti pemeraman keju mentah tersebut. Keju penelitian dianalisis nilai pH, kadar lemak, kadar protein, kadar asam amino dan diidentifikasi mikrobanya. Data hasil penellitian dianalisis dengan uji siidik ragam (ANAVA, kemudian dilanjutkan dengan uji berjarak ganda Duncan (DMRT pada taraf signifikansi 5%. Data hasil tingkat kesukaan dianalisis dengan statistik nonparametrik uji Fridman yang dilanjutkaan dengan Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test (WSRT pada taraf sigifikansi 5%. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa keju peram yang disukai panelis adalah keju peram pada suhu 15ºC selama 14 hari. Kondisi pemeraman berpengaruh terhadap nilai pH, kadar lemak,, kadar proteinn dan tidak berpengaruh pada kadar asam amino. Kualitas keju peram terbaik terdapat pada kondisi suhu 15°C selama 14 hari, memiliki nilai pH 4,40, kadar protein tertinggi yaitu sebesar 99,78%, dan kadar lemak sebesar 35,02%. Hasil identifikasi mikroba pada keju mentah dan keju peram meliputi Enterococcus hirae (Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis, dan Aspergillus sp.

  18. Ripening for improving the quality of inoculated cheese Rhizopus oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARTINI PANGASTUTI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Estikomah SA, Sutarno, Pangastuti A 2010. Ripening for improving the quality of inoculated cheese Rhizopus oryzae. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 1-6. Cheese is dairy product resulted from fermented milk in which the fermentation process can be done by lactic acid bacteria or fungus. Rhizopus oryzae is able to produce lactic acid, protease and lipase. The ripening process changes the taste and texture. The purpose of this study is ripening to improve the quality of inoculated cheese R. oryzae. In this research the ripening was conducted the concentration variation of temperature (5oC, 10oC, 15oC, and time (7 days, 14 days. The procedure of research consisted of two steps, namely un-ripened cheese preparation followed by ripening cheese preparation. Cheese produced in this study analyzed the value of pH, fat content, protein content, amino acid levels and identification of microbe with ANOVA then followed by DMRT at 5% level of significance. Data results were analyzed with the like’s nonparametric statistical test, followed by Fridman Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test (WSRT at 5% level significance. The results showed that the preferred ripened cheese panelist was at a temperature of 15oC for 14 days. Ripening conditions affect pH, fat content, protein content and do not affect the levels of amino acids that formed ripened cheese. The best quality ripened cheese i.e. at a temperature of 15°C for 14 days, had a pH value of 4.40, the highest protein content of 9.78%, and fat content of 35.02%. The results of identified microbe in un-ripened cheese and ripened cheese include Enterococcus hirae (Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis, and Aspergillus sp.

  19. Ultrasonographic findings of hydatidiform mole and missed abortion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Kwang Myeong; Lee, Yeong Hwan; Chung, Hye Kyeong; Chung, Duck Soo; Kim, Ok Dong

    1990-01-01

    To establish the sonographic characteristics of the hydatidiform mole and the missed abortion with placental degeneration, we have retrospectively analyzed 12 cases of complete mole, 10 cases of partial mole, and 10 cases of missed abortion with placental hydropic degeneration, collected at Taegu Catholic General Hospital, from January 1986 to December 1989. The results were as follows : 1. Of 12 cases of complete mole, all demonstrated diffuse intrauterine vesicular pattern of internal echo without a gestational sac. Two cases were recurred after D and E. 2. The partial mole was characterized by focal (70%) or diffuse (20%) distribution of hydatidiform placental change and a gestational sac (100%) with or without a macerated fetus. But the striking hydatidiform placental change was not present in one cases of partial mole. 3. The uterus was larger for dates in 9 cases (90%) of complete mole, but smaller for dates in 7 cases (70%) of partial mole. 4. The missed abortion with placental hydropic degeneration was indistinguished from a partial mole due to their similar sonographic appearance : focal or diffuse cystic change of a placenta, a distorted gestational sac with or without a fetus, and a smaller uterus for dates. On conclusion, the complete mole could be easily distinguished from a partial mole or a missed abortion by sonography : a gestational sac or an area of noncystic placenta was not identified in a complete mole. The partial mole was indistinguished from a missed abortion, but if there is the suspicion of trophoblastic proliferation, such as a convex placental surface or a larger uterus for dates, then the diagnosis is probably a partial mole rather than a missed abortion

  20. Instrumented Moles for Planetary Subsurface Regolith Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, L. O.; Coste, P. A.; Grzesik, A.; Knollenberg, J.; Magnani, P.; Nadalini, R.; Re, E.; Romstedt, J.; Sohl, F.; Spohn, T.

    2006-12-01

    Soil-like materials, or regolith, on solar system objects provide a record of physical and/or chemical weathering processes on the object in question and as such possess significant scientific relevance for study by landed planetary missions. In the case of Mars, a complex interplay has been at work between impact gardening, aeolian as well as possibly fluvial processes. This resulted in regolith that is texturally as well as compositionally layered as hinted at by results from the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) missions which are capable of accessing shallow subsurface soils by wheel trenching. Significant subsurface soil access on Mars, i.e. to depths of a meter or more, remains to be accomplished on future missions. This has been one of the objectives of the unsuccessful Beagle 2 landed element of the ESA Mars Express mission having been equipped with the Planetary Underground Tool (PLUTO) subsurface soil sampling Mole system capable of self-penetration into regolith due to an internal electro-mechanical hammering mechanism. This lightweight device of less than 900 g mass was designed to repeatedly obtain and deliver to the lander regolith samples from depths down to 2 m which would have been analysed for organic matter and, specifically, organic carbon from potential extinct microbial activity. With funding from the ESA technology programme, an evolved Mole system - the Instrumented Mole System (IMS) - has now been developed to a readiness level of TRL 6. The IMS is to serve as a carrier for in situ instruments for measurements in planetary subsurface soils. This could complement or even eliminate the need to recover samples to the surface. The Engineering Model hardware having been developed within this effort is designed for accommodating a geophysical instrument package (Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package, HP3) that would be capable of measuring regolith physical properties and planetary heat flow. The chosen design encompasses a two-body Mole

  1. MOLES3: Implementing an ISO standards driven data catalogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham A Parton

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available ISO19156 Observations and Measurements (O&M provides a standardised framework for organising information about the collection of information about the environment.  Here we describe the implementation of a specialisation of O&M for environmental data, the Metadata Objects for Linking Environmental Sciences (MOLES3.MOLES3 provides support for organising information about data, and for user navigation around data holdings. The implementation described here, “CEDA-MOLES”, also supports data management functions for the Centre for Environmental Data Archival, CEDA. The previous iteration of MOLES (MOLES2 saw active use over five years, being replaced by CEDA-MOLES in late 2014. During that period important lessons were learnt both about the information needed, as well as how to design and maintain the necessary information systems. In this paper we review the problems encountered in MOLES2; how and why CEDA-MOLES was developed and engineered; the migration of information holdings from MOLES2 to CEDA-MOLES; and, finally, provide an early assessment of MOLES3 (as implemented in CEDA-MOLES and its limitations.Key drivers for the MOLES3 development included the necessity for improved data provenance, for further structured information to support ISO19115 discovery metadata  export (for EU INSPIRE compliance, and to provide appropriate fixed landing pages for Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs in the presence of evolving datasets. Key lessons learned included the importance of minimising information structure in free text fields, and the necessity to support as much agility in the information infrastructure as possible without compromising on maintainability both by those using the systems internally and externally (e.g. citing in to the information infrastructure, and those responsible for the systems themselves. The migration itself needed to ensure continuity of service and traceability of archived assets.

  2. Characterization of two thermostable inulinases from Rhizopus oligosporus NRRL 2710

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh A. Mohamed

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Two inulinases (Inu2 and Inu3 were purified from Rhizopus oligosporus NRRL 2710 by chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose and Sephacryl S-200 columns. The molecular weight of Inu2 and Inu3 were determined to be 76 and 30 kDa, respectively. Inu2 and Inu3 had the same pH optimum at 5.0, temperature optimum at 50 and 60 °C, and thermal stability up to 60 and 70 °C for 1 h, respectively. Inu2 and Inu3 had low km values (0.93 and 0.70 mM, respectively indicating the high affinity toward inulin. Mg2+, Ca2+, Zn2+ and EDTA did not significantly influence the enzyme activity. Ni2+, Cu2+, Fe2+ and Co2+ showed a partial inhibitory effect, and Hg2+ had a strong inhibitory effect. p-Chloromercuribenzoate had a partial inhibitory effect on Inu2. From these findings, R. oligosporus inulinases can be beneficial enzymes for industrial enzymatic production of high fructose syrup.

  3. Metalaxyl Degradation by Mucorales Strains Gongronella sp. and Rhizopus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Maria Rosário; Santos, Cledir; Pereira, Pablo; Cruz-Morais, Júlio; Lima, Nelson

    2017-12-14

    In this study, the degradation of metalaxyl was investigated in the presence of two Mucorales strains, previously isolated from soil subjected to repeated treatments with this fungicide and selected after enrichment technique. Fungal strains were characterised by a polyphasic approach using phylogenetic analysis of the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) gene region, phenotypic characterisation by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) spectral analysis, and growth kinetics experiments. The strains were identified as Gongronella sp. and Rhizopus oryzae . The fungal growth kinetics in liquid cultures containing metalaxyl fits with Haldane model. Under laboratory conditions, the ability of Gongronella sp. and R. oryzae cultures to degrade metalaxyl was evaluated in liquid cultures and soil experiments. Both species were able to: (a) use metalaxyl as the main carbon and energy source; and (b) degrade metalaxyl in polluted soils, with rates around 1.0 mg kg - ¹ d - ¹. This suggests these strains could degrade metalaxyl in soils contaminated with this fungicide.

  4. Biosorption of americium-241 by immobilized Rhizopus arrihizus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Jiali; Yang Yuanyou; Luo Shunzhong; Liu Ning; Jin Jiannan; Zhang Taiming; Zhao Pengji

    2004-01-01

    Rhizopus arrihizus (R. arrihizus), a fungus, which in previous experiments had shown encouraging ability to remove 241 Am from solutions, was immobilized by calcium alginate and other reagents. The various factors affecting 241 Am biosorption by the immobilized R. arrihizus were investigated. The results showed that not only can immobilized R. arrihizus adsorb 241 Am as efficiently as free R. arrihizus, but that also can be used repeatedly or continuously. The biosorption equilibrium was achieved within 2 h, and more than 94% of 241 Am was removed from 241 Am solutions of 1.08 MBq/l by immobilized R. arrihizu in the pH range 1-7. Temperature did not affect the adsorption on immobilized R. arrihizus in the range 15-45 deg. C. After repeated adsorption for 8 times, the immobilized R. arrihizus still adsorbed more than 97% of 241 Am. At this time, the total adsorption of 241 Am was more than 88.6 KBq/g, and had not yet reached saturation. Ninety-five percent of the adsorbed 241 Am was desorbed by saturated EDTA solution and 98% by 2 mol/l HNO 3

  5. Metalaxyl Degradation by Mucorales Strains Gongronella sp. and Rhizopus oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rosário Martins

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the degradation of metalaxyl was investigated in the presence of two Mucorales strains, previously isolated from soil subjected to repeated treatments with this fungicide and selected after enrichment technique. Fungal strains were characterised by a polyphasic approach using phylogenetic analysis of the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS gene region, phenotypic characterisation by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS spectral analysis, and growth kinetics experiments. The strains were identified as Gongronella sp. and Rhizopus oryzae. The fungal growth kinetics in liquid cultures containing metalaxyl fits with Haldane model. Under laboratory conditions, the ability of Gongronella sp. and R. oryzae cultures to degrade metalaxyl was evaluated in liquid cultures and soil experiments. Both species were able to: (a use metalaxyl as the main carbon and energy source; and (b degrade metalaxyl in polluted soils, with rates around 1.0 mg kg−1 d−1. This suggests these strains could degrade metalaxyl in soils contaminated with this fungicide.

  6. Metrics of a 'mole hole' against the Lobachevsky space background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tentyukov, M.N.

    1994-01-01

    'Classical' mole hole are the Euclidean metrics consisting of two large space regions connected by a throat. They are the instanton solutions of the Einstein equations. It is shown that for existence of mole holes in the general relativity theory it is required the energy-momentum tensor breaking energetic conditions. 9 refs., 7 figs

  7. Hydatidiform mole in Aminu Kano teaching hospital, northwestern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hydatidiform mole is a benign tumour of the trophoblast tissue and a relatively common gynaecological emergency. It could resolve spontaneously following evacuation, however 9-20% of patients with complete hydatidiform mole go on to have gestational trophoblast neoplasia. It is potentially curable once the ...

  8. Moles: Tool-Assisted Environment Isolation with Closures

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Halleux, Jonathan; Tillmann, Nikolai

    Isolating test cases from environment dependencies is often desirable, as it increases test reliability and reduces test execution time. However, code that calls non-virtual methods or consumes sealed classes is often impossible to test in isolation. Moles is a new lightweight framework which addresses this problem. For any .NET method, Moles allows test-code to provide alternative implementations, given as .NET delegates, for which C# provides very concise syntax while capturing local variables in a closure object. Using code instrumentation, the Moles framework will redirect calls to provided delegates instead of the original methods. The Moles framework is designed to work together with the dynamic symbolic execution tool Pex to enable automated test generation. In a case study, testing code programmed against the Microsoft SharePoint Foundation API, we achieved full code coverage while running tests in isolation without an actual SharePoint server. The Moles framework integrates with .NET and Visual Studio.

  9. Geochemical mole-balance modeling with uncertain data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhurst, David L.

    1997-01-01

    Geochemical mole-balance models are sets of chemical reactions that quantitatively account for changes in the chemical and isotopic composition of water along a flow path. A revised mole-balance formulation that includes an uncertainty term for each chemical and isotopic datum is derived. The revised formulation is comprised of mole-balance equations for each element or element redox state, alkalinity, electrons, solvent water, and each isotope; a charge-balance equation and an equation that relates the uncertainty terms for pH, alkalinity, and total dissolved inorganic carbon for each aqueous solution; inequality constraints on the size of the uncertainty terms; and inequality constraints on the sign of the mole transfer of reactants. The equations and inequality constraints are solved by a modification of the simplex algorithm combined with an exhaustive search for unique combinations of aqueous solutions and reactants for which the equations and inequality constraints can be solved and the uncertainty terms minimized. Additional algorithms find only the simplest mole-balance models and determine the ranges of mixing fractions for each solution and mole transfers for each reactant that are consistent with specified limits on the uncertainty terms. The revised formulation produces simpler and more robust mole-balance models and allows the significance of mixing fractions and mole transfers to be evaluated. In an example from the central Oklahoma aquifer, inclusion of up to 5% uncertainty in the chemical data can reduce the number of reactants in mole-balance models from seven or more to as few as three, these being cation exchange, dolomite dissolution, and silica precipitation. In another example from the Madison aquifer, inclusion of the charge-balance constraint requires significant increases in the mole transfers of calcite, dolomite, and organic matter, which reduce the estimated maximum carbon 14 age of the sample by about 10,000 years, from 22,700 years to

  10. Hydatidiform mole resulting from sexual violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drezett Jefferson

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hydatidiform mole (HM is characterized by abnormal proliferation of human trophoblast with producers functioning tissues of human chorionic gonadotropin. It can evolve with ovarian cysts tecaluteínicos, hypertension of pregnancy or hyperthyroidism. The incidence of HM is variable and its etiology poorly known, associated with nutritional factors, environmental, age, parity, history of HM, oral contraceptives, smoking, consanguinity or defects in germ cells. There is no reference in literature on HM resulting from sexual violence, objective of this report. Method Description of two cases of HM among 1146 patients with pregnancy resulting from sexual violence treated at Hospital Pérola Byington, São Paulo, from July 1994 to August 2011. Results The cases affected young, white, unmarried, low educated and low parity women. Sexual violence was perpetrated by known offenders unrelated to the victims, under death threat. Ultrasound and CT of the pelvis showed bulky uterus compatible with HM without myometrial invasion. One case was associated with theca lutein cysts. The two cases were diagnosed in the second trimester of pregnancy and evolved with hyperthyroidism. There was no hypertension, disease recurrence, metastasis or sexually transmitted infection. Conclusion The incidence of HM was 1:573 pregnancies resulting from rape, within the range estimated for Latin American countries. Trophoblastic material can be preserved to identify the violence perpetrator, considering only the paternal HM chromosomes. History of sexual violence should be investigated in cases of HM in the first half of adolescence and women in a vulnerable condition.

  11. Microscopic study of edema in hydatidiform mole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivar C. Castejón

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: the purpose of this study is to use light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy to determine the effect of edema on the structure of the molar vesicle. Methods: samples were taken from the complete hydatidiform mole and processed using conventional light and scanning electron microscopy techniques and an observation protocol that identified four variables: factors underlying the development of edema; the condition of the trophoblast basement membrane, development of the villi, accumulation and degeneration of sulphated mucosubstances at stromal level. Results: light microscopy showed a permeable trophoblastic basement membrane, a swollen syncytium, edematous regions disorganizating the stromal region and causing ischemic necrosis of cells. Using scanning electron microscopy, the basement membrane was found to be distended and thickened, with large irregular holes for the entry and movement of liquid, leaving a wide range of fluids during the influx process and depriving stromal cells of nutrition. Conclusions: a new three-dimensional view of the changes brought about by the entry of fluids into the stroma of molar hydropic vesicles was provided by scanning electron microscopy and confirmed by light microscopy, thereby explaining the changes occurring at the level of the stroma as an effect of the edema.

  12. Genome Stability Maintenance in Naked Mole-Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruseva, I O; Evdokimov, A N; Lavrik, O I

    2017-01-01

    The naked mole-rat ( Heterocephalus glaber ) is one of the most promising models used to study genome maintenance systems, including the effective repair of damage to DNA. The naked mole-rat is the longest lived rodent species, which is extraordinarily resistant to cancer and has a number of other unique phenotypic traits. For at least 80% of its lifespan, this animal shows no signs of aging or any increased likelihood of death and retains the ability to reproduce. The naked mole-rat draws the heightened attention of researchers who study the molecular basis of lengthy lifespan and cancer resistance. Despite the fact that the naked mole-rat lives under genotoxic stress conditions (oxidative, etc.), the main characteristics of its genome and proteome are a high stability and effective functioning. Replicative senescence in the somatic cells of naked mole-rats is missing, while an additional p53/pRb-dependent mechanism of early contact inhibition has been revealed in its fibroblasts, which controls cell proliferation and its mechanism of arf- dependent aging. The unique traits of phenotypic and molecular adaptations found in the naked mole-rat speak to a high stability and effective functioning of the molecular machinery that counteract damage accumulation in its genome. This review analyzes existing results in the study of the molecular basis of longevity and high cancer resistance in naked mole-rats.

  13. ACTIVITY PATTERNS IN THE MOLE-RATS TACHYORYCTES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heilophoblus spends over 50 % of the day out of its nest, Tachyoryctes, ..... Surface foraging through an open hole and mole-hill formation could be directly ..... Heliophobius fed at irregular intervals throughout the day and night (Jarvis, ...

  14. Evaluation of Rhizopus oligosporus in nursery pig diets on growth performance and nutrient digestibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    The thin stillage leftover from ethanol production contains biodegradable organic compounds and sufficient micronutrients that are ideal for fungal cultivation of Rhizopus oligosporus (RO). This fungus removes about 60% of the organic material, including the suspended solids and even more of some sp...

  15. Possible pulmonary Rhizopus oryzae infection in a previously healthy child after a near-drowning incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Magdalena M; Lippmann, Norman; Kobelt, Louise; Petzold-Quinque, Stefanie; Ritter, Lutz; Kiess, Wieland; Siekmeyer, Manuela

    2016-06-01

    This article reports on a previously healthy 17-month-old boy who developed pulmonary mucormycosis after a near-drowning incident in a goose pond. The patient survived without neurological sequelae and recovered, under treatment with amphotericin B, from the rare and often invasive fungal infection with Rhizopus spp., usually occurring in immunodeficient patients.

  16. Rheology, microstructure and baking characteristics of frozen dough containing Rhizopus chinensis lipase and transglutaminase

    Science.gov (United States)

    The beneficial effects of a new recombinant lipase (Rhizopus chinensis lipase, RCL) and transglutaminase (TG) were investigated on frozen dough systems and their breadmaking quality. Rheological properties and microstructure of doughs were measured using a dynamic rheometer, rheofermentometer F3, an...

  17. An unusual ulcer: A case of cutaneous mucormycosis caused by Rhizopus oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley J. Gardiner

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mucormycoses are high-mortality infections feared by clinicians worldwide. They predominantly affect immunocompromised hosts and are associated with a spectrum of disease. We describe a case of cutaneous mucormycosis caused by Rhizopus oryzae in a patient with multiple risk factors cured with complete surgical excision and a short course of antifungal therapy.

  18. Variation in accumulation of isoflavonoids in Phaseoleae seedlings elicited by Rhizopus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aisyah, Siti; Gruppen, Harry; Andini, Silvia; Bettonvil, Monique; Severing, Eduard; Vincken, Jean Paul

    2016-01-01

    Seeds from seven species of tribe Phaseoleae, i.e. Phaseolus, Vigna, Lablab and Psophocarpus, were investigated for inducibility of isoflavonoids by germination with or without subsequent elicitation with Rhizopus oryzae. Germination alone poorly induced isoflavonoid production (in the range of

  19. Production of α-amylase by solid state fermentation by Rhizopus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-02-18

    Feb 18, 2015 ... However, only a few strains of fungi and bacteria meet the criteria for production of ... amylase production, but solid-state fermentation (SSF) is emerging as a ..... synthesis of lactic acid in R. oryzae and Rhizopus arrhizus using ...

  20. FERMENTASI BUNGKIL KOPRA DENGAN Rhizopus sp. DAN PEMANFAATANNYA DALAM PAKAN PEMBESARAN IKAN BANDENG DI TAMBAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Usman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bungkil kopra (BK hasil fermentasi dengan Rhizopus sp. memiliki kandungan protein yang lebih tinggi dan lemak yang lebih rendah dibandingkan yang tidak difermentasi, sehingga memiliki potensi dan perlu dimanfaatkan sebagai sumber protein dalam pakan ikan-ikan herbivora-omnivora seperti ikan bandeng. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengamati pemanfaatan bungkil kopra hasil fermentasi dengan Rhizopus sp. sebagai sumber protein dalam pakan untuk pembesaran ikan bandeng di tambak. Penelitian dilakukan dengan menggunakan empat petak tambak masing-masing berukuran 2.500 m2/petak. Ikan uji yang digunakan adalah yuwana ikan bandeng berukuran awal rata-rata 10 g/ekor yang ditebar dengan kepadatan 1.500 ekor/petak, dan diaplikasikan pakan uji pada saat ikan berukuran rata-rata 65 g. Pakan uji yang digunakan adalah pakan buatan yang berbahan baku utama (A tepung bungkil kopra tanpa fermentasi, dan (B tepung bungkil kopra hasil fermentasi dengan Rhizopus sp. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa laju pertumbuhan spesifik ikan, rasio konversi pakan, dan sintasan ikan tidak berbeda nyata (P>0,05 di antara kedua perlakuan. Namun ikan yang diberi pakan uji B memiliki produksi yang lebih tinggi (P<0,05 daripada yang diberi pakan uji A. Bungkil kopra yang difermentasi dengan Rhizopus sp. dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai sumber protein dalam pakan ikan bandeng.

  1. Amount of substance and the proposed redefinition of the mole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, M. J. T.; Mills, I. M.

    2009-06-01

    There has been considerable discussion about the merits of redefining four of the base units of the SI, including the mole. In this paper, the options for implementing a new definition for the mole based on a fixed value for the Avogadro constant are discussed. They are placed in the context of the macroscopic nature of the quantity amount of substance and the opportunity to introduce a system for molar and atomic masses with unchanged values and consistent relative uncertainties.

  2. Diagnosis of hydatidiform mole by hysterography through transabdominal injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chung Kyu; Park, Chang Yun; Choi, Byung Sook [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-03-15

    Molar pregnancy presents a pathologic condition requiring surgery of the uterus promptly as possible although hydatidiform mole itself is a benign disease. In order to remove the mole as quickly as possible, early diagnosis is desirable. In actual practice, however, definite preoperative diagnosis by clinical manifestation is impossible since which is vague or altogether absent symptoms especially in first trimester. Hysterography by transabdominal injection is very valuable and easy procedure for accurate diagnosis of hydatidiform mole which shows typical honey combed, moth eaten or sponge pattern on roentgenography. We have experienced 68 cases of hydatidiform mole during last five and half years. Among them hysterography by transabdominal route was done on 26 cases and shows 96% diagnostic accuracy. One missed case was turned out to be missed abortion. The absence of accidents indicates the harmlessness of the method. We feel the best approach in making diagnosis of hydatidiform mole among clinically borderline and in conclusive for mole pregnancy and its differential diagnosis is by use of transabdominal hysterography.

  3. Diagnosis of hydatidiform mole by hysterography through transabdominal injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chung Kyu; Park, Chang Yun; Choi, Byung Sook

    1972-01-01

    Molar pregnancy presents a pathologic condition requiring surgery of the uterus promptly as possible although hydatidiform mole itself is a benign disease. In order to remove the mole as quickly as possible, early diagnosis is desirable. In actual practice, however, definite preoperative diagnosis by clinical manifestation is impossible since which is vague or altogether absent symptoms especially in first trimester. Hysterography by transabdominal injection is very valuable and easy procedure for accurate diagnosis of hydatidiform mole which shows typical honey combed, moth eaten or sponge pattern on roentgenography. We have experienced 68 cases of hydatidiform mole during last five and half years. Among them hysterography by transabdominal route was done on 26 cases and shows 96% diagnostic accuracy. One missed case was turned out to be missed abortion. The absence of accidents indicates the harmlessness of the method. We feel the best approach in making diagnosis of hydatidiform mole among clinically borderline and in conclusive for mole pregnancy and its differential diagnosis is by use of transabdominal hysterography

  4. Ultrasonographic findings of Myoma, H-mole and Missed abortion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Nam Yoon; You, H. S.; Seong, K. J.; Park, C. Y.

    1982-01-01

    Ultrasonography is very important in the diagnosis of various kinds of diseases in Obsterics and Gynecology. It has high diagnostic accuracy in the diagnosis of pelvic masses and widely used for the detection of normal orpathologic pregnancy. But still it is difficult to differentiate degenerated myoma, H-mole and missed abortion by ultrasonography. So the authors analyzed the ultrasonographic findings of 81 patients with myoma(29 cases), H-mole(23 cases), and missed abortion(29 cases) and the results are as follows; 1. Diagnostic accuracy was 8.6% in myoma, 87% in H-mole and 89% in missed abortion. 2. The most typical ultrasonographic finding of myoma was obulated mass contour with nonhomogenous internal echo. 3. The most characteristic finding of H-mole was fine vesicular pattern internal echo with globular enlargement of uterus. 4. The most frequent finding of missed abortion was deformed gestational sac with or without remained fetal echo. 5. Clinical correlation was very important for accurate diagnosis, especially when differential diagnosis was very difficult between myoma with marked cystic degeneration, missed abortion with large distorted gestational sac and H-mole with severe degeneration

  5. Comparative study on the antifungal activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Iranian Propolis and Royal jelly against Rhizopus oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moghim Hassan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mucormycosis is an opportunistic fungal infection. Rhizopus oryzae is major cause of mucormycosis in humans. This disease is the most common form of the acute fungal infection with rapid progress. Iranian Propolis extract and Royal jelly are honey bee products which have been used by human over the past centuries in traditional medicine. In this study the effects of Iranian Propolis and Royal jelly were investigated against Rhizopus oryzae and Candida albicans. Methods: The used method in this study was microdilution. To perform it, the prepared dilutions of Royal jelly and alcoholic extract of Iranian Propolis were added to tubes containing Sabouraud dextrose broth culture media except to control group and then Rhizopus oryzae suspension was added to all microtubes. In the next stage, microtubes were maintained in incubator at 25oC for 48 hours and then 10 ml of the content of each microtube was transferred to Sabouraud dextrose agar media. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC of the agents were calculated. Results: In this study, the MIC and MFC of Iranian Propolis alcoholic extract on Rhizopus oryzae were respectively 0.1 and 0.25 mg/ml and the MFC of Royal jelly on Rhizopus oryzae were respectively 100 ± 34 and 133 ± 46 mg/ml. Conclusion: The results indicate that Propolis might be used as an ideal combination for the treatment of fungal infections like Rhizopus oryzae. However, clinical studies are needed to confirm the effects of these drugs.

  6. Extreme hypoxia tolerance of naked mole-rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, John; Park, Thomas J

    2009-12-09

    Mammalian brains have extremely high levels of aerobic metabolism and typically suffer irreversible damage after brief periods of oxygen deprivation such as occur during stroke or cardiac arrest. Here we report that brain tissue from naked mole-rats, rodents that live in a chronically low-oxygen environment, is remarkably resistant to hypoxia: naked mole-rat neurons maintain synaptic transmission much longer than mouse neurons and can recover from periods of anoxia exceeding 30 min. We suggest that brain tolerance to hypoxia may result from slowed or arrested brain development in these extremely long-lived animals.

  7. KINETIC STUDY OF PALMITIC ACID ESTERIFICATION CATALYZED BY Rhizopus oryzae RESTING CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JONH J MÉNDEZ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the present study, a kinetic model for the biocatalytic synthesis of esters using Rhizopus oryzae resting cells is proposed. The kinetic study has been made in a range of 30-50 °C and atmospheric pressure. The Influence of operating variables, water content, pH, amount of mycelium was studied. Different values of temperature, initial mycelium concentration and acid/alcohol molar ratio were tested. Initial rates were estimated from the slope of the concentration of palmitic acid, or their corresponding ester at conversions of less than 10%, versus time and reported as mmol l-1 min -1. The values of kinetic constants were computed using the freeware program SIMFIT (http:\\\\www.simfit.man.ac.uk. Key words: bound lipase, esterification, fungal resting cells, Rhizopus oryzae, palmitic acid, propanol. RESUMEN En el presente estudio, un modelo cinético para la síntesis de esteres usando Rhizopus oryzae resting cells es propuesto. El estudio cinético fue realizado en un rango de temperatura de 30-50 ºC a presión atmosférica reducida. La influencia de las variables de operación tales como temperatura, pH y contenido de agua fueron estudiadas. Diferentes valores de concentración de micelio y relación molar de ácido/alcohol son ensayadas, Las velocidades iníciales se estimaron de la curva de concentración de acido palmítico, y su correspondiente conversión a ester en menos del 10%, frente a tiempo y reportadas en mmol I-1 min -1. Los valores de las constantes cinéticas fueron calculados usando el programa freeware SIMFIT (http:\\\\www.simfit.man.ac.uk. Palabras clave: Lipasas, esterificación, resting cells, Rhizopus oryzae, acido palmítico, propanol.

  8. High-level expression and characterization of a chimeric lipase from Rhizopus oryzae for biodiesel production

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Xiao-Wei; Sha, Chong; Guo, Yong-Liang; Xiao, Rong; Xu, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Background Production of biodiesel from non-edible oils is receiving increasing attention. Tung oil, called ?China wood oil? is one kind of promising non-edible biodiesel oil in China. To our knowledge, tung oil has not been used to produce biodiesel by enzymatic method. The enzymatic production of biodiesel has been investigated extensively by using Rhizopus oryzae lipase as catalyst. However, the high cost of R. oryzae lipase remains a barrier for its industrial applications. Through differ...

  9. Biosynthesis of tannase and gallic acid from tannin rich substrates by Rhizopus oryzae and Aspergillus foetidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Gargi; Banerjee, Rintu

    2004-01-01

    Modified solid-state fermentation (MSSF) of tannin-rich substrates for production of tannase and gallic acid was carried out using two fungal cultures, Rhizopus oryzae (RO IIT RB-13, NRRL 21498) and Aspergillus foetidus (GMRB013 MTCC 3557). The tannin rich substrates included powdered fruits of Terminalia chebula and Caesalpinia digyna pod cover powder. The different environmental parameters for the maximum production of tannase and gallic acid were optimized through media engineering. The highest yield of tannase and gallic acid was obtained after 60 h in case of Rhizopus oryzae and after 72 h by Aspergillus foetidus with 3 ml of induced inoculum. The optimum initial pH of the fermentation was found to be 4.5 in case of Rhizopus oryzae and 5.0 for Aspergillus foetidus. MSSF was carried out at the optimum conditions of 30 degrees C and 80% relative humidity. Collectively, the data reveal the potential of the modified solid-state fermentation process for the production of tannase and gallic acid from tannin-rich substrates with R. oryzae and A. foetidus.

  10. Differentiation of clinically relevant Mucorales Rhizopus microsporus and R. arrhizus by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolatabadi, Somayeh; Kolecka, Anna; Versteeg, Matthijs; de Hoog, Sybren G; Boekhout, Teun

    2015-07-01

    This study addresses the usefulness of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MS for reliable identification of the two most frequently occurring clinical species of Rhizopus, namely Rhizopus arrhizus with its two varieties, arrhizus and delemar, and Rhizopus microsporus. The test-set comprised 38 isolates of clinical and environmental origin previously identified by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing of rDNA. Multi-locus sequence data targeting three gene markers (ITS, ACT, TEF ) showed two monophylic clades for Rhizopus arrhizus and Rhizopus microsporus (bootstrap values of 99 %). Cluster analysis confirmed the presence of two distinct clades within Rhizopus arrhizus representing its varieties arrhizus and delemar. The MALDI Biotyper 3.0 Microflex LT platform (Bruker Daltonics) was used to confirm the distinction between Rhizopus arrhizus and Rhizopus microsporus and the presence of two varieties within the species Rhizopus arrhizus. An in-house database of 30 reference main spectra (MSPs) was initially tested for correctness using commercially available databases of Bruker Daltonics. By challenging the database with the same strains of which an in-house database was created, automatic identification runs confirmed that MALDI-TOF MS is able to recognize the strains at the variety level. Based on principal component analysis, two MSP dendrograms were created and showed concordance with the multi-locus tree; thus, MALDI-TOF MS is a useful tool for diagnostics of mucoralean species.

  11. Hydatidiform moles among patients with incomplete abortion in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SHS

    ated risk factors of HM among patients with incomplete abortion evacuated at Bugando Medical ... Konje E, Massinde A, Rambau P. Hydatidiform moles among patients with ... countries (North America, Australia, New Zealand and ... missed as the cause of abortion. .... and duration of cigarette smoking could not be elicited.

  12. Ground sounds: Seismic detection in the golden mole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narins, Peter M.; Lewis, Edwin R.

    2004-05-01

    The Namib Desert golden mole is a nocturnal, surface-foraging mammal, possessing a massively hypertrophied malleus which presumably confers low-frequency, substrate-vibration sensitivity through inertial bone conduction. Foraging trails are punctuated with characteristic sand disturbances in which the animal's head dips under the sand. The function of this behavior is not known but it is thought that it may be used to obtain a seismic fix on the next mound to be visited. To test this, we measured the local seismic vibrations both on the top of a mound and on the flats. The spectrum recorded on the flats shows a relatively low-amplitude peak at about 120 Hz, whereas the spectral peak recorded from the mound is nearly 17 dB greater in amplitude and centered at 310 Hz. This suggests that mounds act as seismic beacons for the golden moles that would be detectable from distances corresponding to typical intermound distances of 20-25 m. In addition, out of the 117 species for which data are available, these golden moles have the greatest ossicular mass relative to body size (Mason, personal communication). Functionally, they appear to be low-frequency specialists, and it is likely that golden moles hear through substrate conduction. [Work supported by NIH.

  13. Burrow architecture of the Damaraland mole-rat ( Fukomys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The burrow architecture (length, internal dimensions, fractal dimension of tunnel systems, number of nesting chambers and surface mounds) was investigated in the Damaraland mole-rat (Fukomys damarensis). A total of 31 animals were caught from five different colonies and their burrow systems were excavated in their ...

  14. Effect of Rhizopus oryzae Fermentation on Kenaf-Based Polylactic Acid’s Monomer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Aimi Mohd Nasir

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Kenaf biomass is the potential as raw materials used to produce polylactic acid's monomer which is lactic acid via fermentation by Rhizopus oryzae. Kenaf biomass' structure is complex due to its lignin and cellulose content. This matter had encouraged it to undergo pre- treatment process as the initial step before fermentation process can be done. In this paper, kenaf biomass was treated with dilute sulphuric acid (H2SO4 to hydrolyze the cellulose content in it as well as to convert the cellulose into glucose- a carbon source for Rhizopus to grow. Then, the fermentation process was carried out in shake flask for 3 days at pH 6. Several conditions for fermentation process had been chosen which were 25oC at 150 rpm, 25 oC at 200 rpm, 37 oC at 150 rpm and 37oC at 200 rpm. In this fermentation process, 0.471 g/L, 0.428 g/L, 0.444 g/L and 0.38 g/L of lactic acid was produced respectively. Sample at 25oC at 200 rpm produced maximum amount of lactic acid compared to others.ABSTRAK: Biojisim kenaf berpotensi sebagai bahan mentah dalam penghasilan monomer asid polylactic (poliester alifatik termoplastik diterbitkan daripada sumber boleh diperbaharu seperti kanji jagung yang merupakan asid laktik menerusi penapaian oleh Rhizopus oryzae (sejenis fungus yang hidup dalam jirim organik yang telah mati. Struktur biojisim kenaf adalah kompleks disebabkan kandungan lignin dan selulosanya. Hal ini menyebabkan ia perlu melalui proses pra-rawatan sebagai langkah awal sebelum proses penapaian dijalankan. Dalam kertas ini, biojirim kenaf dirawat dengan asid sulfurik (H2SO4 yang dicairkan untuk menghidrolisis kandungan selulosa di dalamnya di samping menukar selulosa menjadi glukosa - sumber karbon bagi tumbesaran Rhizopus. Kemudian, proses penapaian dijalankan di dalam kelalang goncang selama 3 hari pada pH 6. Beberapa ciri proses penapaian telah dipilih iaitu 25 oC pada 150 rpm, 25 oC pada 200 rpm, 37 oC pada 150 rpm dan 37 oC pada 200 rpm. Dalam proses penapaian

  15. Microbial Metabolism and Inhibition Studies of Phenobarbital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    techniques, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectrometry (MS) ... Keywords: Microbial metabolism, Phenobarbital, Inhibition studies, Rhizopus stolonifer, CYP 2C9, .... 24 h of incubation 0.5 ml of drug solution was ... mode, positive: spray voltage, 3.5 KV: ... Rhizopus stolonifer showed an extra peak at.

  16. Social status and sex effects on neural morphology in Damaraland mole-rats, Fukomys damarensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyan, Jeff J; Seney, Marianne L; Holley, Amanda; Bengston, Lynn; Goldman, Bruce D; Forger, Nancy G; Holmes, Melissa M

    2011-01-01

    We previously reported that in a eusocial rodent, the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber), traditional neural sex differences were absent; instead, neural dimorphisms were associated with breeding status. Here we examined the same neural regions previously studied in naked mole-rats in a second eusocial species, the Damaraland mole-rat (Fukomys damarensis). Damaraland mole-rats live in social groups with breeding restricted to a small number of animals. However, colony sizes are much smaller in Damaraland mole-rats than in naked mole-rats and there is consequently less reproductive skew. In this sense, Damaraland mole-rats may be considered intermediate in social organization between naked mole-rats and more traditional laboratory rodents. We report that, as in naked mole-rats, breeding Damaraland mole-rats have larger volumes of the principal nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus than do subordinates, with no effect of sex on these measures. Thus, these structures may play special roles in breeders of eusocial species. However, in contrast to what was seen in naked mole-rats, we also found sex differences in Damaraland mole-rats: volume of the medial amygdala and motoneuron number in Onuf's nucleus were both greater in males than in females, with no significant effect of breeding status. Thus, both sex and breeding status influence neural morphology in Damaraland mole-rats. These findings are in accord with the observed sex differences in body weight and genitalia in Damaraland but not naked mole-rats. We hypothesize that the increased sexual dimorphism in Damaraland mole-rats relative to naked mole-rats is related to reduced reproductive skew. 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. For Mole Problems, Call Avogadro: 602-1023

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthe, R. E.

    2002-10-01

    General education students who have never encountered Avogadro’s number often have difficulty grasping its magnitude and the resulting implications for sizes and numbers of particles in common materials they see around them. I have surveyed the approaches used by several chemical educators. This article describes the techniques I find best help introductory students in General College at the University of Minnesota become familiar with Avogadro’s number and mole calculations. They involve estimating numbers of common objects and then calculating the length of time needed to count large numbers of them. For example, the immense amount of time required to count a mole of sand grains at one grain per second greatly exceeds the age of the universe. The calculations also reinforce procedures for manipulating exponents and applying problem-solving techniques.

  18. Promoter sequence of 3-phosphoglycerate kinase gene 1 of lactic acid-producing fungus rhizopus oryzae and a method of expressing a gene of interest in fungal species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Johnway [Richland, WA; Skeen, Rodney S [Pendleton, OR

    2002-10-15

    The present invention provides the promoter clone discovery of phosphoglycerate kinase gene 1 of a lactic acid-producing filamentous fungal strain, Rhizopus oryzae. The isolated promoter can constitutively regulate gene expression under various carbohydrate conditions. In addition, the present invention also provides a design of an integration vector for the transformation of a foreign gene in Rhizopus oryzae.

  19. Promoter sequence of 3-phosphoglycerate kinase gene 2 of lactic acid-producing fungus rhizopus oryzae and a method of expressing a gene of interest in fungal species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Johnway [Richland, WA; Skeen, Rodney S [Pendleton, OR

    2003-03-04

    The present invention provides the promoter clone discovery of phosphoglycerate kinase gene 2 of a lactic acid-producing filamentous fungal strain, Rhizopus oryzae. The isolated promoter can constitutively regulate gene expression under various carbohydrate conditions. In addition, the present invention also provides a design of an integration vector for the transformation of a foreign gene in Rhizopus oryzae.

  20. A Mole in the Sole: Case Report on Eccrine Poroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Arnab Ghosh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Eccrine poroma is a benign tumor which arises from the intraepidermal portion of the eccrine sweat glands. 81 year old diabetic grandma worried about her persistently uncontrolled blood sugar owing to a painless mole in the sole of right foot for 2 years. Excisional biopsy revealed a sweat duct benign eccrine poroma. A relationship with diabetes mellitus could not be clearly established in this case.

  1. Severe Hand Injuries Caused by a Mole Gun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Düzgün

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Injuries by mole guns differ from other firearm injuries primarily because they are close-range, low-energy injuries that are highly contaminated owing to contact with contaminated surfaces and the presence of numerous residual foreign bodies within the wound. The aim of this article is to share our surgical experience regarding the repair of severe hand injuries caused by mole guns. Material and Methods: This retrospective study included 11 patients with hand injuries. Data obtained about the patients, including age, gender, dominant or non-dominant hand, injuries to all vital structures, and reconstructive procedures were assessed, categorized, and recorded. Results: Ten patients had defects in one or several common digital branches of the median nerve in areas ranging from the distal part of the carpal tunnel to the distal palmar crease. All patients had flexor and extensor tendon injuries in all fingers except for the first finger. Reconstruction of soft tissue and skin defects was carried out with an interpolation flap planned from a random-based subpectoral- paraumbilical region in five patients, a SCIA-based groin flap in four patients, a reverse-radial forearm flap in one patient, and an adipofascial flap planned from the forearm in one patient. Conclusion: Mole gun injuries typically include all structures of the hand, and repair procedures involve every anatomic structure of the hand. An early and effective surgical operation followed by prolonged and effective physical therapy protocols is vital for regaining the full spectrum of hand functions.

  2. Inhibition of lipases from Chromobacterium viscosum and Rhizopus oryzae by tetrahydrolipstatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potthoff, A P; Haalck, L; Spener, F

    1998-01-15

    Tetrahydrolipstatin is known as an inhibitor for pancreatic lipase but not for microbial lipases. In this paper we demonstrate that in the presence of water-insoluble substrates like tributyrin or olive oil, tetrahydrolipstatin inhibits the lipases of Chromobacterium viscosum and Rhizopus oryzae, although with different potency. In contrast to porcine pancreatic lipase, which forms an irreversible and covalent enzyme-inhibitor complex with tetrahydrolipstatin, the inhibition of the microbial lipases is reversible as the inhibitor can be removed from the enzyme-inhibitor complex by solvent extraction. Moreover, after inhibition of Chromobacterium viscosum lipase tetrahydrolipstatin remains chemically unchanged.

  3. Production of extracellular lipases by Rhizopus oligosporus in a stirred fermentor

    OpenAIRE

    Iftikhar, Tehreema; Niaz, Mubashir; Zia, Muhammad Anjum; Haq, Ikram ul

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation deals with the kinetics of submerged extracellular lipases fermentation by both wild and mutant strains of Rhizopus oligosporus var. microsporus in a laboratory scale stirred fermentor. Other parameters studied were inoculum size, pH, agitation and rate of aeration. It was found that the growth and lipases production was increased gradually and reached its maximum 9.07± 0.42ª U mL-1 (W) and 42.49 ± 3.91ª U mL-1 (M) after 30h of fermentation for both wild and mutant s...

  4. Effect of Rhizopus oryzae Fermentation on Kenaf-Based Polylactic Acid’s Monomer

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Aimi Mohd Nasir; Mohd Adlan Mustafa Kamalbahrin; Nurhafizah Mohamad; Hazleen Anuar; Maizirwan Mel; and Rashidi Othman

    2011-01-01

    Kenaf biomass is the potential as raw materials used to produce polylactic acid's monomer which is lactic acid via fermentation by Rhizopus oryzae. Kenaf biomass' structure is complex due to its lignin and cellulose content. This matter had encouraged it to undergo pre- treatment process as the initial step before fermentation process can be done. In this paper, kenaf biomass was treated with dilute sulphuric acid (H2SO4) to hydrolyze the cellulose content in it as well as to convert the cell...

  5. Proteolysis in tempeh-type products obtained with Rhizopus and Aspergillus strains from grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starzyńska-Janiszewska, Anna; Stodolak, Bożena; Wikiera, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Tempeh is a food product obtained from legumes by means of solid-state fermentation with Rhizopus sp. Our previous research proved that mixed-culture inoculum may also be successfully applied. The objective of present research was to study the proteolytic activity of R. microsporus var. chinensis and A. oryzae during tempeh-type fermentation of grass pea seeds, and the effect of inoculum composition on the protein level and in vitro protein bioavailability in products. Fermentation substrate were soaked and cooked grass pea seeds. Material was mixed with single- or mixed-culture inoculum, and incubated in perforated plastic bags at 30°C for 32 hrs. In the products, the proteolytic activity (pH 3, 5 and 7), glucosamine, total protein and free amino acids levels, as well as protein in vitro bioavailability and degree of protein hydrolysis were obtained. The significant correlation was found between glucosamine content and proteolytic activity in grass pea seeds fermented with Rhizopus or Aspergillus. The activities of Rhizopus proteases were higher than Aspergillus ones, which corresponded with the degree of seed protein hydrolysis. Both strains showed the highest activity of protease at pH 3. Tempeh made with pure culture of Rhizopus had 37% protein of 69% in-vitro bioavailability. Mixed-culture fermentation improved nutritional parameters of products only when the dose of Aspergillus spores in the inoculum was equal and lower than that of Rhizopus. This process resulted in higher in-vitro bioavailability of protein, slightly more efficient protein hydrolysis and higher level of free amino acids, as compared to standard tempeh. The activity of A. oryzae in tempeh-type fermentation is beneficial as long as it does not dominate the activity and/or growth of Rhizopus strain.

  6. Pyogenic liver abscess and peritonitis due to Rhizopus oryzae in a child with Papillon-Lefevre syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgic, Buket; Bukulmez, Aysegul; Sari, Sinan

    2011-06-01

    Papillon-Lefevre syndrome (PLS) is an autosomal recessive disease that is characterized by symmetric palmoplantar keratodermatitis and severe periodontal destruction. Mutations in the cathepsin C gene (CTSC) have recently been detected in PLS. Immune dysregulation, due to a mutation in CTSC, increases the risk of pyogenic infections in PLS patients. A child with PLS is presented here with liver abscesses and peritonitis caused by Rhizopus oryzae. His liver abscess and peritonitis were cured with amphotericin B without surgical care. This is the first case in the literature liver abscess due to Rhizopus oryzae in a child with PLS.

  7. Evaluasi Perlakuan Pendahuluan Menggunakan Kalsium Hidroksida untuk Biokonversi Jerami Padi Menjadi L-Asam Laktat oleh Rhizopus oryzae AT3 (Evaluation of Lime Pretreatment for Bioconversion of Rice Straw to L-Lactic Acid by Rhizopus Oryzae AT3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhina Aprilia Nurani Widyahapsari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available L-lactic acid can be used as a precursor of polylactic acid (PLA. PLA is a biodegradable biomaterial commonly used for biodegradable plastics. Lactic acid can be produced from lignocelluloses materials such as rice straw. Rice straw is composed of cellulose and hemicellulose that can be hydrolyzed to fermentable sugar by cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes then converted to L-lactic acid by Rhizopus oryzae. As most cellulose and hemicellulose present in lignocellulose biomass are not readily accessible for these enzyme, pretreatment is required to alter the structure of lignocellulose substrates. This research aimed to investigate the effect of lime pretreatment on rice straw bioconversion to L-lactic acid by Rhizopus oryzae AT3. Rice straw was pretreated with lime (Ca(OH2 at 85 °C for 16 hours. Unpretreated and pretreated rice straw were hydrolyzed using crude enzyme that produced by Trichoderma reesei Pk1J2. Enzyme production was carried out by solid state fermentation using rice straw and rice brand as substrate. Enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out in flasks. Each flask was added with unpretreated or pretreated rice straw, buffer citrate solution and crude enzyme then hydrolyzed for 0-96 hours. Hydrolysate was fermented by Rhizopus oryzae AT3 for 0-6 days by using adsorbed carrier solid-state fermentation method with polyurethane foam as inert support material. Lime pretreatment at 85 °C for 16 hour led to significant solubilisation of lignin and hemicellulose. It involved lignocellulose structure modified that enhance enzymatic hydrolysis and resulted higher reducing sugars than unpretreated rice straw. The high reducing sugars was not related to high lactic acid yields. Fermentation of pretreated rice straw hydrolysate by Rhizopus oryzae AT3 did not only produce L-lactic acid but also other compound. On the other hand, fermentation of unpretreated rice straw hydrolysate only produced L-lactic acid.   ABSTRAK Polimerisasi asam

  8. Hydatidiform mole: age-related clinical presentation and high rate of severe complications in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangili, Giorgia; Giorgione, Veronica; Gentile, Cinzia; Bergamini, Alice; Pella, Francesca; Almirante, Giada; Candiani, Massimo

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate differences in clinical presentation of hydatidiform mole between women ≥40 years and younger women. Retrospective study. A tertiary referral unit in northern Italy. Three hundred and sixty-five women with hydatidiform mole were divided into group A (Clinical presentation between groups A and B was analyzed, also considering partial hydatidiform mole and complete hydatidiform mole. Differences in clinical presentation according to woman's age. In group B the diagnosis of hydatidiform mole at ≥12 gestational weeks was more frequent (p presented with vaginal bleeding (p clinical features of hydatidiform mole in women ≥40 years are different from those seen in younger women. Failures in the early detection of hydatidiform mole in older women may expose them to a higher rate of severe complications. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  9. Identification of prenylated pterocarpans and other isoflavonoids in Rhizopus spp. elicited soya bean seedlings by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, R.; Vincken, J.P.; Bohin, M.C.; Kuijpers, T.F.M.; Verbruggen, M.A.; Gruppen, H.

    2011-01-01

    Phytoalexins from soya are mainly characterised as prenylated pterocarpans, the glyceollins. Extracts of non-soaked and soaked soya beans, as well as that of soya seedlings, grown in the presence of Rhizopus microsporus var. oryzae, were screened for the presence of prenylated flavonoids with a

  10. Kinetic properties of two Rhizopus exo-polygalacturonase enzymes hydrolyzing galacturonic acid oligomers using isothermal titration calorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The kinetic characteristics of two Rhizopus oryzae exo-polygalacturonases acting on galacturonic acid oligomers (GalpA) were determined using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). RPG15 hydrolyzing (GalpA)2 demonstrated a Km of 55 uM and kcat of 10.3 s^-1^ while RPG16 was shown to have greater af...

  11. Producing biodiesel from cotton seed oil using Rhizopus oryzae ATTC #34612 whole cell biocatalysts: Culture media and cultivation period optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of culture medium composition and cultivation time on biodiesel production by Rhizopus oryzae ATCC #34612 whole cell catalysts, immobilized on novel rigid polyethylene biomass supports, was investigated. Supplementation of the medium with carbon sources led to higher lipase activity and i...

  12. Biosorption of Acid Blue 290 (AB 290) and Acid Blue 324 (AB 324) dyes on Spirogyra rhizopus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozer, Ayla; Akkaya, Goenuel; Turabik, Meral

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the biosorption of Acid Blue 290 and Acid Blue 324 on Spirogyra rhizopus, a green algae growing on fresh water, was studied with respect to initial pH, temperature, initial dye concentration and biosorbent concentration. The optimum initial pH and temperature values for AB 290 and AB 324 biosorption were found to be 2.0, 30 deg. C and 3.0, 25 deg. C, respectively. It was observed that the adsorbed AB 290 and AB 324 amounts increased with increasing the initial dye concentration up to 1500 and 750 mg/L, respectively. The Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson and Koble-Corrigan isotherm models were applied to the experimental equilibrium data and the isotherm constants were determined by using Polymath 4.1 software. The monolayer coverage capacities of S. rhizopus for AB 290 and AB 324 dyes were found as 1356.6 mg/g and 367.0 mg/g, respectively. The intraparticle diffusion model and the pseudo-second order kinetic model were applied to the experimental data in order to describe the removal mechanism of these acidic dyes by S. rhizopus. The pseudo-second order kinetic model described very well the biosorption kinetics of AB 290 and AB 324 dyes. Thermodynamic studies showed that the biosorption of AB 290 and AB 324 on S. rhizopus was exothermic in nature

  13. Development of a system for integrative and stable transformation of the zygomycete Rhizopus oryzae by Agrobacterium-mediated DNA transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielse, C.B.; Salim, K.; Ragas, P.; Ram, A.F.J.; Kudla, B.; Jarry, B.; Punt, P.J.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den

    2004-01-01

    Two transformation systems, based on the use of CaCl2/PEG and Agrobacterium tumefaciens, respectively, were developed for the zygomycete Rhizopus oryzae. Irrespective of the selection marker used, a pyr4 marker derived from R. niveus or a dominant amdS+ marker from Aspergillus nidulans, and

  14. Comparative proteomics of Rhizopus delemar ATCC 20344 unravels the role of amino acid catabolism in fumarate accumulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odoni, Dorett I.; Tamayo-Ramos, Juan A.; Sloothaak, Jasper; Heck, van Ruben; Martins dos Santos, Vitor A.P.; Graaff, de Leo H.; Suarez-Diez, Maria; Schaap, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Rhizopus delemar naturally accumulates relatively high amounts of fumarate. Although the culture conditions that increase fumarate yields are well established, the network underlying the accumulation of fumarate is not yet fully understood. We set out to increase the

  15. Fob1 and Fob2 proteins are virulence determinants of Rhizopus oryzae via facilitating iron uptake from ferrioxamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dialysis patients with chronic renal failure receiving deferoxamine for treating iron overload are uniquely predisposed for mucormycosis. Although not secreted by Mucorales, previous studies established that Rhizopus species utilize iron from ferrioxamine (iron-rich form of deferoxamine). Here we de...

  16. The lipolytic activity of Rhizopus microsporus var rhizopodiformis isolat UICC No. 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doni Prayudi

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to examine the effect of peptone concentration (2,5% or 5%, inoculum concentration (0,1%, 0,5% or 1% and incubation period (0 – 96 hours, interval 12 hours on the lipolytic activity of Rhizopus microsporus var rhizopodiformis isolat UICC No. 6. Fermentation was done using the basal medium from Samad and the lipolytic activity on olive oil substrate was measured employing titration method with 0,05M NaOH. Lipolytic activity is expressed as unit/ml and one unit is defined as 1 Ωmol fatty acid liberated per minute. Results show that optimum lipolytic activity was obtained from 1 % inoculum, 5% peptone after 72 hours incubation period.

  17. Cloning and heterologous expression of the antibiotic peptide (ABP) genes from Rhizopus oligosporus NBRC 8631.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Osamu; Sakamoto, Kazutoshi; Tominaga, Mihoko; Nakayama, Tasuku; Koseki, Takuya; Fujita, Akiko; Akita, Osamu

    2005-03-01

    We carried out protein sequencing of purified Antibiotic Peptide (ABP), and cloned two genes encoding this peptide as abp1 and abp2, from Rhizopus oligosporus NBRC 8631. Both genes contain an almost identical 231-bp segment, with only 3 nucleotide substitutions, encoding a 77 amino acid peptide. The abp gene product comprises a 28 amino acid signal sequence and a 49 amino acid mature peptide. Northern blot analysis showed that at least one of the abp genes is transcribed in R. oligosporus NBRC 8631. A truncated form of abp1 encoding only the mature peptide was fused with the alpha-factor signal peptide and engineered for expression in Pichia pastoris SMD1168H. Culture broth of the recombinant Pichia displayed ABP activity against Bacillus subtilis NBRC 3335 after induction of heterologous gene expression. This result indicates that mature ABP formed the active structure without the aid of other factors from R. oligosporus, and was secreted.

  18. KAJIAN PENGARUH KONSENTRASI Rhizopus sp. SEBAGAI AGEN PENGIKIS PROTEIN TERHADAP MUTU KULIT IKAN GURAMI TERSAMAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratri Nur Hayati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to assess the effect of protease activity of Rhizopus sp. as a bating agent on the tanned carp leather quality, and their use for commercial leather products. The study was designed with a completely randomized design with four treatment, namely: the concentration of protease from Rhizopus sp. 0.5% (a1, 1.0% (a2, 1.5% (a3 and palkobat 1.0% (a4/control with 3 replications. Parameters were observed that is (1 protease activity of Rhizopus sp and palcobat; (2 Thickness (mm, tensile strength (N/cm2, tear strength (N/cm, elongation (%, enervation (mm, shrinkage temperature (ºC, fat/oil content (% of tanned leather; and (3 level of consumer acceptance (% and added valuead of comercial leather product. The data of tanned leather quality is then compared with SNI 06-4586-1998 concenring freshwater snake skin leather and chrome Burk’s Bay (1996 on the raw material quality leather products. The test results of protease activity of Rhizopus sp. = 7.97 mg/50mg/ jam and palkobat = 13.62 mg/50 mg/hour. The results of the analysis of tanned leather carp qulity sample from each treatment and comparison with the SNI as follows: (1 Thickness: 0.41 (a1, 0.38 (a2, 0.43 (a3, 0.41mm (a4 and ≥ 0.22 (SNI 06-4586-1998. Tensile strength: 1682.67; 1818.17; 1195.57; 1670.55 and 1,000N/cm2 (SNI. Tear strength: 314.87; 310.95; 332.06; 462.22, and 150.00 N/cm (SNI. Elongation: 93.33; 62.67; 56.67; 97.33, and <30.00% (SNI. Enervation: 1.87; 2.20; 1.63, 2.49, and ≥ 2.0 mm (Burk’s Bay, 1996. Shrinkage temperature: 74.00; 95.33; 96.33; 97.33, and ≥ 70.33ºC (SNI. The fat/oil content: 7.84; 8.17; 5.25; 8.49, and 2.00 to 6.00% (SNI. All treatments were tested has met the SNI quality, except elongation and fat/oil content. The level of consumer acceptance of the Oval HP Cover that is (1 aspects of the display (76.67% like and 23.33% dislike, (2 the use of convenience (66.67% like and 33.33% dislike , and (3 price (63.33% accepted and 23.67 reject. The

  19. Low Lactose Milk Production of Soybean by Fermentation Technique Using Rhizopus oligosporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Salahudin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Milk is an important food for baby that contains lactose. Normally, a baby could produce lactase enzyme that digest lactose, but in the diarrhea case lactose could not be digested. So, Low Lactose Milk is needed. Low Lactose Milk usually produced from rice or almonds that have low protein. Soybean (Glycine max is the commodity with rich of protein and also contains raffinose and stachyose, which can lead flatulence. Raffinose and stachyose could be reduced by Rhizopus oryzae at tempe process from lamtoro beans.  So the aim in this research is to know the optimum time of soybean fermentation with R. oryzae to reduce stachyiose  and raffinose. The research was done with innoculation of R. oryzae isolate in the soybeans fermentation for 72 hours. N index, raffinose and stachyose level was tested. The result shows that optimum fermentation time is 48 hour and using 5% skim milk as filler.

  20. Rhizopus oryzae - Ancient microbial resource with importance in modern food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londoño-Hernández, Liliana; Ramírez-Toro, Cristina; Ruiz, Héctor A; Ascacio-Valdés, Juan A; Aguilar-Gonzalez, Miguel A; Rodríguez-Herrera, Raúl; Aguilar, Cristóbal N

    2017-09-18

    Filamentous fungi are microorganisms widely known for their diverse biochemical features. Fungi can efficiently invade a wide variety of substrates under operational conditions producing numerous bioproducts of interest, such as enzymes, organic acids, aromatic compounds and colorants. An additional interesting characteristic of some fungi is their safety classification for different uses, which guarantees that the bioproducts obtained from them do not contain any toxic component deleterious to humans. Rhizopus oryzae is among this group of fungi and is classified as a GRAS filamentous fungus, commonly used for production of some oriental traditional foods. It is mainly recognized as a good producer of lactic acid; however, its potential for other biotechnological processes is under study. This review analyzes and discusses the current scientific and technical contributions which may maximize the potential of R. oryzae as a producer of different compounds of industrial interest. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Enhanced L-(+)-lactic acid production by an adapted strain of Rhizopus oryzae using corncob hydrolysate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bai, Dongmei; Li, S.Z.; Liu, Z.L.

    2008-01-01

    -added production of a variety of bioproducts. Lactic acid can be used as a precursor for poly-lactic acid production. Although current industrial lactic acid is produced by lactic acid bacteria using enriched medium, production by Rhizopus oryzae is preferred due to its exclusive formation of the......-isomer and a simple nutrition requirement by the fungus. Production of-L-(+)-lactic acid by R. oryzae using xylose has been reported; however, its yield and conversion rate are poor compared with that of using glucose. In this study, we report an adapted R. oryzae strain HZS6 that significantly improved efficiency...... of substrate utilization and enhanced production of L-(+)-lactic acid from corncob hydrolysate. It increased L-(+)-lactic acid final concentration, yield, and volumetric productivity more than twofold compared with its parental strain. The optimized growth and fermentation conditions for Strain HZS6 were...

  2. The risk of persistent trophoblastic disease after hydatidiform mole classified by morphology and ploidy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Isa; Hansen, Estrid S; Sunde, Lone

    2007-01-01

    classifications, and compared the ability of the two classifications to discriminate between patients with and without a substantial risk of persistent trophoblastic disease. METHODS: 294 cases of consecutively collected hydropic placentas clinically suspected of hydatidiform mole made the basis......OBJECTIVE: Hydatidiform mole can be classified by histopathologic characteristics and by genetic constitutions and most complete moles are diploid, whereas most partial moles are triploid. We investigated the concordance between these two classifications, characterized moles with conflicting......-molar miscarriage, 20 were triploids, 2 were diploid androgenetic and 2 were diploid biparental. In 23% of the conceptuses, the histopathologic and genetic classifications were conflicting. 5% of the patients with hydropic placentas classified as partial mole encountered persistent trophoblastic disease; however...

  3. MOLE 2.0: Advanced approach for analysis of biomacromolecular channels

    OpenAIRE

    Sehnal D.; Varekova R.S.; Berka K.; Pravda L.; Navratilova V.; Banas P.; Ionescu C.-M.; Otyepka M.; Koca J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Channels and pores in biomacromolecules (proteins, nucleic acids and their complexes) play significant biological roles, e.g., in molecular recognition and enzyme substrate specificity. Results We present an advanced software tool entitled MOLE 2.0, which has been designed to analyze molecular channels and pores. Benchmark tests against other available software tools showed that MOLE 2.0 is by comparison quicker, more robust and more versatile. As a new feature, MOLE 2.0 estimates ...

  4. Adult neurogenesis and its anatomical context in the hippocampus of three mole-rat species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irmgard eAmrein

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available African mole-rats (family Bathyergidae are small to medium sized, long-lived and strictly subterranean rodents that became valuable animal models as a result of their longevity and diversity in social organization. The formation and integration of new hippocampal neurons in adult mammals (adult hippocampal neurogenesis, AHN correlates negatively with age and positively with habitat complexity. Here we present quantitative data on AHN in wild-derived mole-rats of one year and older, and briefly describe its anatomical context including markers of neuronal function (calbindin and parvalbumin. Solitary Cape mole-rats (Georychus capensis, social highveld mole-rats (Cryptomys hottentotus pretoriae, and eusocial naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber were assessed. Compared to other rodents, the hippocampal formation in mole-rats is small, but shows a distinct cytoarchitecture in the dentate gyrus and CA1. Distributions of the calcium-binding proteins differ from those seen in rodents; e.g., calbindin in CA3 of naked mole-rats distributes similar to the pattern seen in early primate development, and calbindin staining extends into the stratum lacunosum-moleculare of Cape mole-rats. Proliferating cells and young neurons are found in low numbers in the hippocampus of all three mole-rat species. Resident granule cell numbers are low as well. Proliferating cells expressed as a percentage of resident granule cells are in the range of other rodents, while the percentage of young neurons is lower than that observed in surface dwelling rodents. Between mole-rat species, we observed no difference in the percentage of proliferating cells. The percentages of young neurons are high in social highveld and naked mole-rats, and low in solitary Cape mole-rats. The findings support that proliferation is regulated independently of average life expectancy and habitat. Instead, neuronal differentiation reflects species-specific demands, which appear lower in subterranean

  5. Adult neurogenesis and its anatomical context in the hippocampus of three mole-rat species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrein, Irmgard; Becker, Anton S; Engler, Stefanie; Huang, Shih-Hui; Müller, Julian; Slomianka, Lutz; Oosthuizen, Maria K

    2014-01-01

    African mole-rats (family Bathyergidae) are small to medium sized, long-lived, and strictly subterranean rodents that became valuable animal models as a result of their longevity and diversity in social organization. The formation and integration of new hippocampal neurons in adult mammals (adult hippocampal neurogenesis, AHN) correlates negatively with age and positively with habitat complexity. Here we present quantitative data on AHN in wild-derived mole-rats of 1 year and older, and briefly describe its anatomical context including markers of neuronal function (calbindin and parvalbumin). Solitary Cape mole-rats (Georychus capensis), social highveld mole-rats (Cryptomys hottentotus pretoriae), and eusocial naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber) were assessed. Compared to other rodents, the hippocampal formation in mole-rats is small, but shows a distinct cytoarchitecture in the dentate gyrus and CA1. Distributions of the calcium-binding proteins differ from those seen in rodents; e.g., calbindin in CA3 of naked mole-rats distributes similar to the pattern seen in early primate development, and calbindin staining extends into the stratum lacunosum-moleculare of Cape mole-rats. Proliferating cells and young neurons are found in low numbers in the hippocampus of all three mole-rat species. Resident granule cell numbers are low as well. Proliferating cells expressed as a percentage of resident granule cells are in the range of other rodents, while the percentage of young neurons is lower than that observed in surface dwelling rodents. Between mole-rat species, we observed no difference in the percentage of proliferating cells. The percentages of young neurons are high in social highveld and naked mole-rats, and low in solitary Cape mole-rats. The findings support that proliferation is regulated independently of average life expectancy and habitat. Instead, neuronal differentiation reflects species-specific demands, which appear lower in subterranean rodents.

  6. High molecular weight hyaluronan mediates the cancer resistance of the naked mole-rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiao; Azpurua, Jorge; Hine, Christopher; Vaidya, Amita; Myakishev-Rempel, Max; Ablaeva, Julia; Mao, Zhiyong; Nevo, Eviatar; Gorbunova, Vera; Seluanov, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    The naked mole-rat displays exceptional longevity, with a maximum lifespan exceeding 30 years1–3. This is the longest reported lifespan for a rodent species and is especially striking considering the small body mass of the naked mole-rat. In comparison, a similarly sized house mouse has a maximum lifespan of 4 years4,5. In addition to their longevity, naked mole-rats show an unusual resistance to cancer. Multi-year observations of large naked mole-rat colonies did not detect a single incidence of cancer2,6. Here we identify a mechanism responsible for the naked mole-rat’s cancer resistance. We found that naked mole-rat fibroblasts secrete extremely high molecular weight hyaluronan (HA), which is over five times larger than human or mouse HA. This high molecular weight HA accumulates abundantly in naked mole rat tissues due to the decreased activity of HA-degrading enzymes and a unique sequence of hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2). Furthermore, the naked mole-rat cells are more sensitive to HA signaling, as the naked mole rat cells have a higher affinity to HA than the mouse or human cells. Perturbation of the signaling pathways sufficient for malignant transformation of mouse fibroblasts fails to transform naked mole-rat cells. However, once high molecular weight HA is removed by either knocking down HAS2 or overexpressing the HA-degrading enzyme, Hyal2, naked mole-rat cells become susceptible to malignant transformation and readily form tumors in mice. We speculate that naked mole-rats have evolved a higher concentration of HA in the skin to provide skin elasticity needed for life in underground tunnels. This trait may have then been co-opted to provide cancer resistance and longevity to this species. PMID:23783513

  7. [Complete hydatiforme mole in Morocco: epidemiological and clinical study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufettal, H; Coullin, P; Mahdaoui, S; Noun, M; Hermas, S; Samouh, N

    2011-09-01

    Complete hydatidiform moles (CHM) are a real public health problem, especially in the "southern countries" and Asia, because of their impact on the female reproduction and the risk to progression to either invasive mole or choriocarcinoma. We collected the cases of CHM referred to our department over a period of ten years (2000 to 2009). We will present our results, emphasize the modalities of diagnosis, treatment and evolution, with a review of literature. During this study, we identified 254 cases of CHM, and recorded 57,987 births and 1627 abortions. Their incidence was 0.43% of pregnancies. The mean age of our patients is 25 years old (16 to 55). Relative risk observed was much increased among women under 20 years old (×6.8) and those over 40 years old (×15). Both of nulliparous and primiparous patients represented 52.3% of the cohort. Eighty-five percent of patients belonged to an agricultural environment associated with a low socio-economic status. Uterine bleeding was the most common symptom accounting for 93.7%. Toxic syndrome was present in 18.5% of patients. Physical examination showed a highly increased uterine size in 85% of cases associated with lateral uterine mass in 25% of cases. The diagnosis was suspected using ultrasonography in all cases associated with an elevated level of plasmatic β-human chorionic gonadotrophin (βhCG). All cases were confirmed histologically. Treatment used was endo-uterine aspiration in all cases. Recurrence of CHM was documented in 25 patients or 9.4%. Neoplasic progression was observed for 6.3% of cases. All of them have evolved into remission with chemotherapy. CHM continue to be a public health problem in Morocco, their incidence is among the highest ones. In fact, this studied population corresponds to the lowest socio-economic status and generally described as population at risk. It is subject to drastic weather's conditions causing loss of fresh products. Extreme ages and degree of parity are also risk factors

  8. Electrical Activation Studies of Silicon Implanted Aluminum Gallium Nitride with High Aluminum Mole Fraction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moore, Elizabeth A

    2007-01-01

    ...) alloys, and represents a comprehensive analysis of the resulting material's electrical and optical properties as a function of Al mole fraction, anneal temperature, anneal time, and implantation dose...

  9. High molecular weight hyaluronan mediates the cancer resistance of the naked mole-rat

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Xiao; Azpurua, Jorge; Hine, Christopher; Vaidya, Amita; Myakishev-Rempel, Max; Ablaeva, Julia; Mao, Zhiyong; Nevo, Eviatar; Gorbunova, Vera; Seluanov, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    The naked mole-rat displays exceptional longevity, with a maximum lifespan exceeding 30 years 1–3 . This is the longest reported lifespan for a rodent species and is especially striking considering the small body mass of the naked mole-rat. In comparison, a similarly sized house mouse has a maximum lifespan of 4 years 4,5 . In addition to their longevity, naked mole-rats show an unusual resistance to cancer. Multi-year observations of large naked mole-rat colonies did not detect a single inci...

  10. Application of the MOLE in post-nuclear accident characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S.J.; Alvarez, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    Following a nuclear accident there is a need to determine the chemical composition of materials in liquid, solid and gaseous form, the crystalline structure of solids, the size and chemical composition of particles, and the chemical characterization of contaminants on surfaces. This analytical information is required to reconstruct the accident scenario, to select decontamination methods, and to determine future safety requirements. The MOLE (Molecular Optical Laser Examiner) is a Raman microprobe system which has proven to be a valuable analytical tool in providing this type of chemical information. It can determine the chemical species of polyatomic molecules and ions having characteristic Raman spectra. As little as 1 picogram of a component or a 1 μm particle can be analyzed. The imaging system can also provide mapping of selected components on a surface. A system description, sample handling techniques, and applications are presented. Specific applications to the Three Mile Island-Unit 2 accident are also addressed

  11. Microwave Determination of Water Mole Fraction in Humid Gas Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuccaro, R.; Gavioso, R. M.; Benedetto, G.; Madonna Ripa, D.; Fernicola, V.; Guianvarc'h, C.

    2012-09-01

    A small volume (65 cm3) gold-plated quasi-spherical microwave resonator has been used to measure the water vapor mole fraction x w of H2O/N2 and H2O/air mixtures. This experimental technique exploits the high precision achievable in the determination of the cavity microwave resonance frequencies and is particularly sensitive to the presence of small concentrations of water vapor as a result of the high polarizability of this substance. The mixtures were prepared using the INRIM standard humidity generator for frost-point temperatures T fp in the range between 241 K and 270 K and a commercial two-pressure humidity generator operated at a dew-point temperature between 272 K and 291 K. The experimental measurements compare favorably with the calculated molar fractions of the mixture supplied by the humidity generators, showing a normalized error lower than 0.8.

  12. Placentation in the Hottentot golden mole, Amblysomus hottentotus (Afrosoricida: Chrysochloridae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, C J P; Carter, A M; Bennett, N C

    2009-01-01

    The placentation of the Hottentot golden mole (Amblysomus hottentotus) has been examined using light and electron microscopy and lectin histochemistry of nine specimens at both mid and late gestation. The placentae were lobulated towards the allantoic surface and the lobules contained roughly...... parallel arrays of labyrinthine structures converging on a central spongy zone. At mid gestation, the arrays were composed of an inner cellular and outer syncytial trophoblast layer, the inner layer enclosing scant connective tissue and fetal capillaries. Maternal blood spaces coursed through the outer...... trophoblast and were lined by trophoblastic microvilli; the blood spaces were narrow in mid gestation but enlarged near term, while the inner trophoblast layer became thinner and seemed to be syncytial. These features were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The microvillous surfaces and dispersed...

  13. A phylogenetic estimate for golden moles (Mammalia, Afrotheria, Chrysochloridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bloomer Paulette

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Golden moles (Chrysochloridae are small, subterranean, afrotherian mammals from South Africa and neighboring regions. Of the 21 species now recognized, some (e.g., Chrysochloris asiatica, Amblysomus hottentotus are relatively common, whereas others (e.g., species of Chrysospalax, Cryptochloris, Neamblysomus are rare and endangered. Here, we use a combined analysis of partial sequences of the nuclear GHR gene and morphological characters to derive a phylogeny of species in the family Chrysochloridae. Results Although not all nodes of the combined analysis have high support values, the overall pattern of relationships obtained from different methods of phylogeny reconstruction allow us to make several recommendations regarding the current taxonomy of golden moles. We elevate Huetia to generic status to include the species leucorhinus and confirm the use of the Linnean binomial Carpitalpa arendsi, which belongs within Amblysominae along with Amblysomus and Neamblysomus. A second group, Chrysochlorinae, includes Chrysochloris, Cryptochloris, Huetia, Eremitalpa, Chrysospalax, and Calcochloris. Bayesian methods make chrysochlorines paraphyletic by placing the root within them, coinciding with root positions favored by a majority of randomly-generated outgroup taxa. Maximum Parsimony (MP places the root either between chrysochlorines and amblysomines (with Chlorotalpa as sister taxon to amblysomines, or at Chlorotalpa, with the former two groups reconstructed as monophyletic in all optimal MP trees. Conclusions The inclusion of additional genetic loci for this clade is important to confirm our taxonomic results and resolve the chrysochlorid root. Nevertheless, our optimal topologies support a division of chrysochlorids into amblysomines and chrysochlorines, with Chlorotalpa intermediate between the two. Furthermore, evolution of the chrysochlorid malleus exhibits homoplasy. The elongate malleus has evolved just once in the

  14. A phylogenetic estimate for golden moles (Mammalia, Afrotheria, Chrysochloridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Robert J; Maree, Sarita; Bronner, Gary; Bennett, Nigel C; Bloomer, Paulette; Czechowski, Paul; Meyer, Matthias; Hofreiter, Michael

    2010-03-09

    Golden moles (Chrysochloridae) are small, subterranean, afrotherian mammals from South Africa and neighboring regions. Of the 21 species now recognized, some (e.g., Chrysochloris asiatica, Amblysomus hottentotus) are relatively common, whereas others (e.g., species of Chrysospalax, Cryptochloris, Neamblysomus) are rare and endangered. Here, we use a combined analysis of partial sequences of the nuclear GHR gene and morphological characters to derive a phylogeny of species in the family Chrysochloridae. Although not all nodes of the combined analysis have high support values, the overall pattern of relationships obtained from different methods of phylogeny reconstruction allow us to make several recommendations regarding the current taxonomy of golden moles. We elevate Huetia to generic status to include the species leucorhinus and confirm the use of the Linnean binomial Carpitalpa arendsi, which belongs within Amblysominae along with Amblysomus and Neamblysomus. A second group, Chrysochlorinae, includes Chrysochloris, Cryptochloris, Huetia, Eremitalpa, Chrysospalax, and Calcochloris. Bayesian methods make chrysochlorines paraphyletic by placing the root within them, coinciding with root positions favored by a majority of randomly-generated outgroup taxa. Maximum Parsimony (MP) places the root either between chrysochlorines and amblysomines (with Chlorotalpa as sister taxon to amblysomines), or at Chlorotalpa, with the former two groups reconstructed as monophyletic in all optimal MP trees. The inclusion of additional genetic loci for this clade is important to confirm our taxonomic results and resolve the chrysochlorid root. Nevertheless, our optimal topologies support a division of chrysochlorids into amblysomines and chrysochlorines, with Chlorotalpa intermediate between the two. Furthermore, evolution of the chrysochlorid malleus exhibits homoplasy. The elongate malleus has evolved just once in the Cryptochloris-Chrysochloris group; other changes in shape have

  15. Comparative morphology of the penis and clitoris in four species of moles (Talpidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Adriane Watkins; Glickman, Stephen; Catania, Kenneth; Shinohara, Akio; Baskin, Lawrence; Cunha, Gerald R.

    2017-01-01

    The penile and clitorial anatomy of four species of Talpid moles (broad-footed, star-nosed, hairy-tailed, and Japanese shrew moles) were investigated to define penile and clitoral anatomy and to examine the relationship of the clitoral anatomy with the presence or absence of ovotestes. The ovotestis contains ovarian tissue and glandular tissue resembling fetal testicular tissue and can produce androgens. The ovotestis is present in star-nosed and hairy-tailed moles, but not in broad-footed and Japanese shrew moles. Using histology, 3D reconstruction, and morphometric analysis, sexual dimorphism was examined in regard to a nine feature masculine trait score that included perineal appendage length (prepuce), anogenital distance, and presence/absence of bone. The presence/absence of ovotestes was discordant in all four mole species for sex differentiation features. For many sex differentiation features, discordance with ovotestes was observed in at least one mole species. The degree of concordance with ovotestes was highest for hairy-tailed moles and lowest for broad-footed moles. In relationship to phylogenetic clade, sex differentiation features also did not correlate with the similarity/divergence of the features and presence/absence of ovotestes. Hairy-tailed and Japanese shrew moles reside in separated clades, but they exhibit a high degree of congruence. Broad-footed and hairy-tailed moles reside within the same clade but had one of the lowest correlations in features and presence/absence of ovotestes. Thus, phylogenetic affinity and the presence/absence of ovotestes are poor predictors for most sex differentiation features within mole external genitalia. PMID:28251823

  16. High-molecular-mass hyaluronan mediates the cancer resistance of the naked mole rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiao; Azpurua, Jorge; Hine, Christopher; Vaidya, Amita; Myakishev-Rempel, Max; Ablaeva, Julia; Mao, Zhiyong; Nevo, Eviatar; Gorbunova, Vera; Seluanov, Andrei

    2013-07-18

    The naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber) displays exceptional longevity, with a maximum lifespan exceeding 30 years. This is the longest reported lifespan for a rodent species and is especially striking considering the small body mass of the naked mole rat. In comparison, a similarly sized house mouse has a maximum lifespan of 4 years. In addition to their longevity, naked mole rats show an unusual resistance to cancer. Multi-year observations of large naked mole-rat colonies did not detect a single incidence of cancer. Here we identify a mechanism responsible for the naked mole rat's cancer resistance. We found that naked mole-rat fibroblasts secrete extremely high-molecular-mass hyaluronan (HA), which is over five times larger than human or mouse HA. This high-molecular-mass HA accumulates abundantly in naked mole-rat tissues owing to the decreased activity of HA-degrading enzymes and a unique sequence of hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2). Furthermore, the naked mole-rat cells are more sensitive to HA signalling, as they have a higher affinity to HA compared with mouse or human cells. Perturbation of the signalling pathways sufficient for malignant transformation of mouse fibroblasts fails to transform naked mole-rat cells. However, once high-molecular-mass HA is removed by either knocking down HAS2 or overexpressing the HA-degrading enzyme, HYAL2, naked mole-rat cells become susceptible to malignant transformation and readily form tumours in mice. We speculate that naked mole rats have evolved a higher concentration of HA in the skin to provide skin elasticity needed for life in underground tunnels. This trait may have then been co-opted to provide cancer resistance and longevity to this species.

  17. Trading new neurons for status: Adult hippocampal neurogenesis in eusocial Damaraland mole-rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosthuizen, M K; Amrein, I

    2016-06-02

    Diversity in social structures, from solitary to eusocial, is a prominent feature of subterranean African mole-rat species. Damaraland mole-rats are eusocial, they live in colonies that are characterized by a reproductive division of labor and a subdivision into castes based on physiology and behavior. Damaraland mole-rats are exceptionally long lived and reproductive animals show delayed aging compared to non-reproductive animals. In the present study, we described the hippocampal architecture and the rate of hippocampal neurogenesis of wild-derived, adult Damaraland mole-rats in relation to sex, relative age and social status or caste. Overall, Damaraland mole-rats were found to have a small hippocampus and low rates of neurogenesis. We found no correlation between neurogenesis and sex or relative age. Social status or caste was the most prominent modulator of neurogenesis. An inverse relationship between neurogenesis and social status was apparent, with queens displaying the lowest neurogenesis while the worker mole-rats had the most. As there is no natural progression from one caste to another, social status within a colony was relatively stable and is reflected in the level of neurogenesis. Our results correspond to those found in the naked mole-rat, and may reflect an evolutionary and environmentally conserved trait within social mole-rat species. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Damage to Aspergillus fumigatus and Rhizopus oryzae Hyphae by Oxidative and Nonoxidative Microbicidal Products of Human Neutrophils In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Diamond, Richard D.; Clark, Robert A.

    1982-01-01

    Our previous studies established that human neutrophils could damage and probably kill hyphae of Aspergillus fumigatus and Rhizopus oryzae in vitro, primarily by oxygen-dependent mechanisms active at the cell surface. These studies were extended, again quantitating hyphal damage by reduction in uptake of 14C-labeled uracil or glutamine. Neither A. fumigatus nor R. oryzae hyphae were damaged by neutrophils from patients with chronic granulomatous disease, confirming the importance of oxidative...

  19. Comparative proteomics of Rhizopus delemar ATCC 20344 unravels the role of amino acid catabolism in fumarate accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Odoni, Dorett I.; Tamayo-Ramos, Juan A.; Sloothaak, Jasper; van Heck, Ruben G.A.; Martins dos Santos, Vitor A.P.; de Graaff, Leo H.; Suarez-Diez, Maria; Schaap, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Rhizopus delemar naturally accumulates relatively high amounts of fumarate. Although the culture conditions that increase fumarate yields are well established, the network underlying the accumulation of fumarate is not yet fully understood. We set out to increase the knowledge about fumarate accumulation in R. delemar. To this end, we combined a transcriptomics and proteomics approach to identify key metabolic pathways involved in fumarate production in R. delemar, and ...

  20. MOLED: Simulation of multilayer organic light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houili, H.; Tutiš, E.; Lütjens, H.; Bussac, M. N.; Zuppiroli, L.

    2003-12-01

    MOLED solves the dynamics of electrons and holes in multilayer Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLED). The carriers are injected on the positive and negative electrodes of the device by tunneling through a potential barrier. Thermal excitation processes across the barrier are also included. In the interior of the device the electron-hole recombination occurs when the two carriers are close enough, according to a model inspired from the one of Langevin. A fraction of these recombined pairs gives photons. The charge transport inside the organic material occurs through hopping. Several choices of mobility formulae are available in the code. MOLED can be used for OLEDs with an arbitrary number of layers. The output consists of numerous fields that describe the device performance. For example, there are the current, the recombination and the charge density distributions, the electric field distribution, the current-voltage characteristics and the device internal quantum efficiency. Program summaryTitle of program: MOLED Catalogue identifier: ADSG Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADSG Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Operating systems under which the program has been tested: Unix, Linux Programming language used: FORTRAN 90 Memory required to execute with typical data: 2 MB No. of bytes in distributed program: 26 942 No. of bits in a word: 64 Peripherals used: permanent disk storage No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3695 Distribution format: tar gzip file Nature of the physical problem: Injection of electrons and holes into an organic electroluminescent material occurs through tunneling from metal electrodes. The transport of carriers inside the molecular medium proceeds by hopping from one molecule to another. The emission of light is a result of their radiative Langevin recombination (for a review see [Scott et al., Synthetic Metals 111-112 (2000) 289; Friend et al

  1. PRODUCTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CELLULOLYTIC ENZYMES BY ASPERGILLUS NIGER AND RHIZOPUS SP . BY SOLID STATE FERMENTATION OF PRICKLY PEAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAMIRES CARVALHO DOS SANTOS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prickly palm cactus husk was used as a solid - state fermentation support substrate for the production of cellulolytic enzymes using Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus sp. A Box - Behnken design was used to evaluate the effects of water activity, fermentation time and temperature on endoglucanase and total cellulase production. Response Surface Methodology showed that optimum conditions for endoglucanase production were achieved at after 70.35 h of fermentation at 29.56°C and a water activity of 0.875 for Aspergillus niger and after 68.12 h at 30.41°C for Rhizopus sp. Optimum conditions for total cellulase production were achieved after 74.27 h of fermentation at 31.22°C for Aspergillus niger and after 72.48 h and 27.86°C for Rhizopus sp . Water activity had a significant effect on Aspergillus niger endoglucanase production only. In industrial applications, enzymatic characterization is important for optimizing variables such as temperature and pH. In this study we showed that endoglucanase and total cellulase had a high level of thermostability and pH stability in all the enzymatic extracts. Enzymatic deactivation kinetic experiments indicated that the enzymes remained active after the freezing of the crude extract. Based on the results, bioconversion of cactus is an excellent alternative for the production of thermostable enzymes.

  2. Genome sequencing reveals insights into physiology and longevity of the naked mole rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Eun Bae; Fang, Xiaodong; Fushan, Alexey A

    2011-01-01

    The naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a strictly subterranean, extraordinarily long-lived eusocial mammal. Although it is the size of a mouse, its maximum lifespan exceeds 30 years, making this animal the longest-living rodent. Naked mole rats show negligible senescence, no age......-related increase in mortality, and high fecundity until death. In addition to delayed ageing, they are resistant to both spontaneous cancer and experimentally induced tumorigenesis. Naked mole rats pose a challenge to the theories that link ageing, cancer and redox homeostasis. Although characterized...... by significant oxidative stress, the naked mole rat proteome does not show age-related susceptibility to oxidative damage or increased ubiquitination. Naked mole rats naturally reside in large colonies with a single breeding female, the 'queen', who suppresses the sexual maturity of her subordinates. They also...

  3. The Naked Mole Rat Genome Resource: facilitating analyses of cancer and longevity-related adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Michael; Craig, Thomas; Alföldi, Jessica; Berlin, Aaron M; Johnson, Jeremy; Seluanov, Andrei; Gorbunova, Vera; Di Palma, Federica; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Church, George M; de Magalhães, João Pedro

    2014-12-15

    The naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is an exceptionally long-lived and cancer-resistant rodent native to East Africa. Although its genome was previously sequenced, here we report a new assembly sequenced by us with substantially higher N50 values for scaffolds and contigs. We analyzed the annotation of this new improved assembly and identified candidate genomic adaptations which may have contributed to the evolution of the naked mole rat's extraordinary traits, including in regions of p53, and the hyaluronan receptors CD44 and HMMR (RHAMM). Furthermore, we developed a freely available web portal, the Naked Mole Rat Genome Resource (http://www.naked-mole-rat.org), featuring the data and results of our analysis, to assist researchers interested in the genome and genes of the naked mole rat, and also to facilitate further studies on this fascinating species. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  4. High-level expression and characterization of a chimeric lipase from Rhizopus oryzae for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Wei; Sha, Chong; Guo, Yong-Liang; Xiao, Rong; Xu, Yan

    2013-02-21

    Production of biodiesel from non-edible oils is receiving increasing attention. Tung oil, called "China wood oil" is one kind of promising non-edible biodiesel oil in China. To our knowledge, tung oil has not been used to produce biodiesel by enzymatic method. The enzymatic production of biodiesel has been investigated extensively by using Rhizopus oryzae lipase as catalyst. However, the high cost of R. oryzae lipase remains a barrier for its industrial applications. Through different heterologous expression strategies and fermentation techniques, the highest expression level of the lipase from R. oryzae reached 1334 U/mL in Pichia pastoris, which is still not optimistic for industry applications. The prosequence of lipases from Rhizopus sp. is very important for the folding and secretion of an active lipase. A chimeric lipase from R. oryzae was constructed by replacing the prosequence with that from the R. chinensis lipase and expressed in P. pastoris. The maximum activity of the chimera reached 4050 U/mL, which was 11 fold higher than that of the parent. The properties of the chimera were studied. The immobilized chimera was used successfully for biodiesel production from tung oil, which achieved higher FAME yield compared with the free chimeric lipase, non-chimeric lipase and mature lipase. By response surface methodology, three variables, water content, methanol to tung oil molar ratio and enzyme dosage were proved to be crucial parameters for biosynthesis of FAME and the FAME yield reached 91.9±2.5% at the optimized conditions by adding 5.66 wt.% of the initial water based on oil weight, 3.88 of methanol to tung oil molar ratio and 13.24 wt.% of enzyme concentration based on oil weight at 40°C. This is the first report on improving the expression level of the lipase from R. oryzae by replacing prosequences. The immobilized chimera was used successfully for biodiesel production from tung oil. Using tung oil as non-edible raw material and a chimeric lipase

  5. Acanthocephala Parasite (Profilicollis spp.) Loads in Correlation to Pacific Mole Crab (Emerita analoga) Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, T.; Huang, S.; Galathe, M.; Jenkins, M.; Ramirez, A.; Crosby, L.; Barrera, J.; FitzHoward, S.

    2013-12-01

    Since 2002, San Francisco Bay students have been conducting marine ecosystem monitoring through a joint project with the Long-term Monitoring Program and Experiential Training for Students (LiMPETS), in conjunction with the Gulf of Farallones National Marine Sanctuary. Each year students collect population and demographic data on Pacific mole crabs (Emerita analoga), an indicator species that lives in the sandy beach habitat in temperate regions along the Pacific Ocean. Pacific mole crabs are filter feeding crustaceans that inhabit the intertidal swash zone and are known to be an intermediate host for parasitic ';spiny-headed' worms in the phylum Acanthocephala (Profilicollis spp.). Sampling takes place during their reproductive period, which occurs from spring to fall, and includes measuring total body length of the Pacific mole crabs and dissecting them to determine presence of Acanthocephalan parasites. We hypothesize that due to larger body mass, larger Pacific mole crabs will have a greater number of Acanthocephala parasites.We conducted several analyses using the LiMPETS long-term data. Specifically, we compared body length, crab gender, and parasite abundance from Pacific mole crabs sampled from four beaches located in the county and city of San Francisco. Our results indicated that larger Pacific mole crabs do not necessarily have more parasites, but are more likely to have at least one parasite, while female Pacific mole crabs carrying eggs, have more parasites than males or females without eggs. We also found that parasite loads per mole crab was highest in the spring. Further analysis will be conducted to determine factors affecting Pacific mole crab parasite loads. Studying Pacific mole crabs help evaluate the health of California's intertidal systems and how human activities, geologic changes, and climate changes all make huge impacts to the intertidal ecosystems.

  6. Alternativas de controle pós-colheita da podridão-parda e da podridão-mole em frutos de pessegueiro Alternatives for post-harvest control of brown rot and soft rot in peach fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Luiz de Carvalho

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available As exigências do consumidor são cada vez maiores com relação à qualidade de produtos in natura. As podridões, além de causar perdas na produção, reduzem a qualidade final do fruto, interferindo significativamente na comercialização. Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar a eficiência de produtos alternativos, aplicados na pós-colheita, no controle da podridão-parda (Monilinia fructicola e da podridão-mole (Rhizopus spp. em pêssegos. O experimento foi conduzido no município de Nepomuceno-MG, em talhão de pessegueiro da cultivar Diamante, com 10 anos de idade. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 7 tratamentos e 3 repetições. Para o estudo, foram selecionados frutos sem lesões e sem sintomas das doenças. Os frutos foram mergulhados por 30 segundos em solução contendo os seguintes tratamentos: 1-Óleo de cravo 0,01%; 2-Dióxido de cloro 0,1%; 3-Dióxido de cloro 0,05%; 4-Cloreto de benzalcônio 0,25%; 5-Dicloran 0,12%; 6-Iprodione 0,15% e 7-Testemunha (somente água. Após os tratamentos, os frutos, em número de 10, foram colocados em bandejas esterilizadas, em três repetições. O experimento foi conduzido em condições de ambiente não controlado, sendo feitas avaliações do desenvolvimento das doenças aos 3 e aos 5 dias após os tratamentos em 2005 e aos 3; 6 e aos 9 dias após o tratamento em 2006. O iprodione controlou a incidência e a severidade de M. fructicola e Rhizopus spp. O dicloran foi o tratamento mais eficiente para o controle do Rhizopus spp. e intermediário para M. fructicola. Os tratamentos com óleo de cravo e dióxido de cloro, na maior dose, reduziram a incidência de Rhizopus spp. e para severidade apresentaram resultados intermediários.The consumers demand are increasing with regard to the quality of in nature products. The rot, besides causing loss in production, reduce the quality of the product, interfering significantly in the marketing. The objective

  7. Tecidos moles (não resistentes: como se fossilizam?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Regina Gobbo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A preservação de tecidos moles (não resistentes desperta atenção pela qualidade dos fósseis preservados, e pela raridade. Este trabalho faz ampla revisão do assunto, desfaz alguns dos mitos correntes sobre fossilização destes materiais, como anaerobiose e soterramento rápido, bem como assinala a relevância do papel da replicagem de estruturas morfológicas por colônias microbianas. No âmbito dos fatores que influenciam a preservação de tecidos não resistentes estão pH, processos de decomposição, soterramento rápido e mineralização rápida por meio de carbonatos ou fosfatos. É possível citar exemplos de fácies sedimentares nas quais há preservação de tecidos não resistentes, como os folhelhos pirobetuminosos, calcários litográficos, folhelhos e diatomitos. Destaca-se o papel das colônias microbianas, tanto na forma de microesferas, como aquelas não-esferulíticas. Os três mitos principais que se procurou desfazer no artigo são: (1 a presença de oxigênio; (2 o soterramento rápido e (3 as colônias microbianas.

  8. Purification and Characterisation of a Fibrinolytic Enzyme from Rhizopus micro sporus var. tuberosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuli Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular fibrinolytic enzyme from Rhizopus microsporus var. tuberosus was purified and characterised. The microorganism was isolated in a distillery from daqu, a fermentative agent used in the production of Chinese liquor and vinegar at diff erent temperatures. The fibrinolytic enzyme was partially purifi ed by ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis, DEAE Sepharose® Fast Flow ion exchange chromatography and Sephadex G-75 gel filtration chromatography. The molecular mass of the fi brinolytic enzyme was estimated to be 24.5 kDa by SDS-PAGE. The purified enzyme showed optimal activity at pH=7.0 and 37 °C by fibrin plate method. It showed stronger resistance to the inhibition by trypsin and was stable at 37 °C retaining 96.1 % residual activity aft er 4 h of incubation. The fibrinolytic activity of the enzyme was enhanced by Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Mn2+. Conversely, Zn2+ and Cu2+ partly inhibited enzymatic activity. Using fibrin plate method, we found that the enzyme not only degrades fibrin directly, but also activates plasminogen into plasmin to degrade fibrin. The results indicate that the pure enzyme has a potential in dissolving blood clot, and the possibility for application in the treatment of thrombosis.

  9. Extra-cellular isoamylase production by Rhizopus oryzae in solid-state fermentation of agro wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnita Ghosh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Extra-cellular isoamylase was produced by Rhizopus oryzae PR7 in solid-state fermentations of various agro wastes, among which millet, oat, tapioca, and arum (Colocasia esculenta showed promising results. The highest amount of enzyme production was obtained after 72 h of growth at 28°C. The optimum pH for enzyme production was - 8.0. Among the various additives tested, enzyme production increased with ions such as Ca2+, Mg2+ and also with cysteine, GSH, and DTT. The enzyme synthesis was reduced in the presence of thiol inhibitors like Cu2+ and pCMB. The surfactants like Tween-40, Tween-80 and Triton X-100 helped in enhancing the enzyme activity. The production could be further increased by using the combinations of substrates. The ability to produce high amount of isoamylase within a relatively very short period and the capability of degrading wastes could make the strain suitable for commercial production of the enzyme.

  10. Protein concentrations of sweet soysauces from Rhizopus oryzae and R. oligosporus fermentation without moromi fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOOR SOESANTI HANDAJANI

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Soy sauce was produce from soybean that fermented with koji/tempeh fungi and thenfermented under salt solution or moromi fermentation. The objectives of this experiment was to compare of protein (total and soluble content of sweet soy sauce that produced from soybean fermented with Rhizopus oryzae and R. oligosporus without moromi fermentation to the sweet soysauce with moromi fermentation one. The total and soluble proteins of sweet soy sauces that produce from soybean without moromi fermentation were higher that sweet soy sauces that produce with moromi fermentation. Soluble protein of sweet soy sauce that produced from soybean fermented with R. oligosporus without moromi fermentation was 8.2% and meet to the highest quality of sweet soy sweet sauce based on Indonesia Industrial Standard. Soluble protein of sweet soy sauce that produced from soybean fermented with R. oryzae without moromi fermentation was 4.1% and meet to the medium quality of sweet soy sweet sauce based on Indonesia Industrial Standard.

  11. Protein enrichment of brewery spent grain from Rhizopus oligosporus by solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canedo, Marianny Silva; de Paula, Fernanda Gomes; da Silva, Flávio Alves; Vendruscolo, Francielo

    2016-07-01

    Brewery spent grain represents approximately 85 % of total by-products generated in a brewery. Consisting of carbohydrates, fiber, minerals and low amounts of protein, the use of brewery spent grain is limited to the feeding of ruminants; however, its potential use should be investigated. The reuse of this by-product using microorganisms by solid-state fermentation process as the case of protein enrichment by single-cell protein incorporation is an alternative to ensure sustainability and generate commercially interesting products. In this context, the aim of this study was to grow Rhizopus oligosporus in brewery spent grain under different initial moisture contents and nitrogen sources to increase the protein content of the fermented material. After 7 days of fermentation, increase of 2-4 times in the crude protein and soluble protein content was verified, respectively, compared to unfermented brewery spent grain. The kinetics of protein enrichment demonstrated the possibility of application of this technique, which can be a great alternative for use in diets for animals.

  12. Kinetics Study of Extracellular Detergent Stable Alkaline Protease from Rhizopus oryzae

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    Zareena Mushtaq

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, extracellular alkaline protease was produced from Rhizopus oryzae in submerged fermentation using dairy waste (whey as a substrate. Fermentation kinetics was studied and various parameters were optimized. The strain produced maximum protease at initial medium pH of 6.0 medium depth of 26 mm, inoculum size of 2% at incubation temperature of 35ºC for 168 h of fermentation. Alkaline protease was purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulphate fractionation followed by sephadex G-100 chromatography. The molecular mass of alkaline protease was 69 kDa determined by 10% SDS-PAGE. The optimum pH and temperature of alkaline protease was 9.0 and 40ºC, respectively. Metal profile of the enzyme showed that the enzyme was non-metallic in nature. The Km , Kcat , Vmax and Kcat/Km values of purified protease were 7.0 mg/mL, 3.8 x102S-1, 54.30 µmol/min and 54.28 s-1mg -1.mL respectively, using casein as substrate. The purified alkaline protease had stability with commercial detergents.

  13. Construction of the yeast whole-cell Rhizopus oryzae lipase biocatalyst with high activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-ling; Guo, Qin; Wang, Rui-zhi; Xu, Juan; Zhou, Chen-wei; Ruan, Hui; He, Guo-qing

    2011-07-01

    Surface display is effectively utilized to construct a whole-cell biocatalyst. Codon optimization has been proven to be effective in maximizing production of heterologous proteins in yeast. Here, the cDNA sequence of Rhizopus oryzae lipase (ROL) was optimized and synthesized according to the codon bias of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and based on the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell surface display system with α-agglutinin as an anchor, recombinant yeast displaying fully codon-optimized ROL with high activity was successfully constructed. Compared with the wild-type ROL-displaying yeast, the activity of the codon-optimized ROL yeast whole-cell biocatalyst (25 U/g dried cells) was 12.8-fold higher in a hydrolysis reaction using p-nitrophenyl palmitate (pNPP) as the substrate. To our knowledge, this was the first attempt to combine the techniques of yeast surface display and codon optimization for whole-cell biocatalyst construction. Consequently, the yeast whole-cell ROL biocatalyst was constructed with high activity. The optimum pH and temperature for the yeast whole-cell ROL biocatalyst were pH 7.0 and 40 °C. Furthermore, this whole-cell biocatalyst was applied to the hydrolysis of tributyrin and the resulted conversion of butyric acid reached 96.91% after 144 h.

  14. Production of extracellular lipases by Rhizopus oligosporus in a stirred fermentor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tehreema Iftikhar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation deals with the kinetics of submerged extracellular lipases fermentation by both wild and mutant strains of Rhizopus oligosporus var. microsporus in a laboratory scale stirred fermentor. Other parameters studied were inoculum size, pH, agitation and rate of aeration. It was found that the growth and lipases production was increased gradually and reached its maximum 9.07± 0.42ª U mL-1 (W and 42.49 ± 3.91ª U mL-1 (M after 30h of fermentation for both wild and mutant strain. There is overall increase of 109% (W and 124% (M in the production of extracellular lipases as compared to shake flask. Another significant finding of the present study is that the fermentation period is reduced to 30 h in case of wild and 23 h in case of mutant from 48 h in shake flask studies. The specific productivity of mutant strain (qp = 377.3 U/g cells/h was several folds higher than wild strain. The specific production rate and growth coefficient revealed the hyperproducibility of extracellular lipases using mutant IIB-63NTG-7.

  15. Mitochondrial respiratory pathways inhibition in Rhizopus oryzae potentiates activity of posaconazole and itraconazole via apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazal Shirazi

    Full Text Available The incidence of mucormycosis has increased drastically in immunocompromised patients. Also the array of targets whose inhibition results in Mucorales death is limited. Recently, researchers identified mitochondria as important regulators of detoxification and virulence mechanisms in fungi. In this context, targeting the mitochondrial respiratory chain may provide a new platform for antifungal development. We hypothesized that targeting respiratory pathways potentiates triazoles activity via apoptosis. We found that simultaneous administration of antimycin A (AA and benzohydroxamate (BHAM, inhibitors of classical and alternative mitochondrial pathways respectively, resulted in potent activity of posaconazole (PCZ and itraconazole (ICZ against Rhizopus oryzae. We observed cellular changes characteristic of apoptosis in R. oryzae cells treated with PCZ or ICZ in combination with AA and BHAM. The fungicidal activity of this combination against R. oryzae was correlated with intracellular reactive oxygen species accumulation (ROS, phosphatidylserine externalization, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, and increased caspase like activity. DNA fragmentation and condensation assays also revealed apoptosis of R. oryzae cells. These apoptotic features were prevented by the addition of the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-cysteine. Taken together, these findings suggest that the use of PCZ or ICZ in combination with AA and BHAM makes R. oryzae exquisitely sensitive to treatment with triazoles via apoptosis. This strategy may serve as a new model for the development of improved or novel antifungal agents.

  16. Chitosan production by psychrotolerant Rhizopus oryzae in non-sterile open fermentation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasar, Ozden Canli; Erdal, Serkan; Taskin, Mesut

    2016-08-01

    A new chitosan producing fungus was locally isolated from soil samples collected around Erzurum, Turkey and identified as Rhizopus oryzae PAS 17 (GenBank accession number KU318422.1). Cultivation in low cost non-sterile conditions was achieved by exploiting its ability to grow at low temperature and pH, thus, undesired microbial contamination could be eliminated when appropriate culture conditions (incubation temperature as 15°C and initial pH of the medium as 4.5) were selected. Medium composition and culture conditions were optimized using Taguchi orthogonal array (OA) design of experiment (DOE). An OA layout of L16 (4(5)) was constructed with five most influensive factors at four levels on chitosan production like, carbon source (molasses), metal ion (Mg(2+)), inoculum amount, agitation speed and incubation time. The optimal combinations of factors (molasses, 70ml/l; MgSO4·7H2O, 0.5g/l; inoculum, 6.7×10(6) spores/disc; agitation speed, 150rpm and incubation time, 8days) obtained from the proposed DOE methodology was further validated by analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and the results revealed the increment of chitosan and biomass yields of 14.45 and 8.58 folds from its unoptimized condition, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of rice straw-derived dissolved organic matter on lactic acid fermentation by Rhizopus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xingxuan; Wang, Xiahui; Xue, Yiyun; Zhang, Tian-Ao; Li, Yuhao; Hu, Jiajun; Tsang, Yiu Fai; Zhang, Hongsheng; Gao, Min-Tian

    2018-01-31

    Rice straw can be used as carbon sources for lactic acid fermentation. However, only a small amount of lactic acid is produced even though Rhizopus oryzae can consume glucose in rice straw-derived hydrolysates. This study correlated the inhibitory effect of rice straw with rice straw-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM). Lactic acid fermentations with and without DOM were conducted to investigate the effect of DOM on lactic acid fermentation by R. oryzae. Fermentation using control medium with DOM showed a similar trend to fermentation with rice straw-derived hydrolysates, showing that DOM contained the major inhibitor of rice straw. DOM assay indicated that it mainly consisted of polyphenols and polysaccharides. The addition of polyphenols and polysaccharides derived from rice straw confirmed that lactic acid fermentation was promoted by polysaccharides and significantly inhibited by polyphenols. The removal of polyphenols also improved lactic acid production. However, the loss of polysaccharides during the removal of polyphenols resulted in low glucose consumption. This study is the first to investigate the effects of rice straw-derived DOM on lactic acid fermentation by R. oryzae. The results may provide a theoretical basis for identifying inhibitors and promoters associated with lactic acid fermentation and for establishing suitable pretreatment methods. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Enhancement of L(+)-Lactic Acid Production of Immobilized Rhizopus Oryzae Implanted by Ion Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Yonghong; Yang Yingge; Zheng Zhiming; Li Wen; Wang Peng; Yao Liming; Yu Zengliang

    2008-01-01

    Immobilized Rhizopus oryzae culturing may be a solution to the inhibited production of L(+)-lactic acid in submerged fermentation, which is caused by aggregated mycelia floc. In the present study, a R. oryzae mutant (RL6041) with a 90% conversion rate of glucose into L-lactic acid was obtained by N + implantation under the optimized conditions of a beam energy of 15 keV and a dose of 2.6 x 10 15 ions/cm 2 . Using polyurethane foam as the immobilization matrix, the optimal L-lactic acid production conditions were determined as 4 mm polyurethane foam, 150 r/min, 50 g/L ∼ 80 g/L of initial glucose, 38 deg. C and pH 6.0. 15-cycle repeated productions of L-lactic acid by immobilized RL6041 were performed under the optimized culturing conditions and over 80% of the glucose was converted into L-lactic acid in 30 hours on average. The results show that immobilized RL6041 is a promising candidate for continuous L-lactic acid production.

  19. Mutation induced enhanced biosynthesis of lipases by Rhizopus oligosporus var. microsporus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iftikhar, T.; Ikram-ul-Haq; Niaz, M.; Abbas, S.Q.; Zia, M.A.; Ashraf, I.; Lee, K.J.

    2010-01-01

    The present study describes the isolation, identification and screening of fugal strain Rhizopus oligosporus (var. microsporus) for the production of extracellular lipases. One hundred and sixty seven cultures of fungi were isolated from different environments such as soil, air, milk, pickle, oily bread, decayed fruits and vegetables by serial dilution method. The strains were initially selected qualitatively on Tween 80-Agar plates and were shifted to the slants of PDA for maintenance and storage at 4 deg. C. Quantitative screening for extracellular lipase production by isolated strains was carried out in shake flasks and the most potent strain producing 3.20 +- 0.003 U mL/sup -1/ of enzyme was selected. The strain was then identified on the basis of standard morphological measurements and was assigned the code IIB-63. The selected strain was then subjected to physical (UV and Gamma radiations) and chemical mutagenic (MNNG/NTG, NA, EtBr) treatments in order to improve its lipolytic potential. During the treatment, mutants were qualitatively and quantitatively selected and IIB-63 NTG-7 was found to be the mutant showing highest lipases production (10.37 +- 0.06a U mL/sup -1/) with a zone size of 12.3 mm on Luria-Bertani-tributyrin agar plates. This mutant showed an overall 325% increase in activity over its parent strain for the production of extracellular lipase. (author)

  20. Biodiesel production from Nannochloropsis gaditana lipids through transesterification catalyzed by Rhizopus oryzae lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro López, Elvira; Robles Medina, Alfonso; González Moreno, Pedro Antonio; Esteban Cerdán, Luis; Martín Valverde, Lorena; Molina Grima, Emilio

    2016-03-01

    Biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters, FAMEs) was produced from saponifiable lipids (SLs) extracted from wet Nannochloropsis gaditana biomass using methanolysis catalyzed by Rhizopus oryzae intracellular lipase. SLs were firstly extracted with ethanol to obtain 31 wt% pure SLs. But this low SL purity also gave a low biodiesel conversion (58%). This conversion increased up to 80% using SLs purified by crystallization in acetone (95 wt% purity). Polar lipids play an important role in decreasing the reaction velocity - using SLs extracted with hexane, which have lower polar lipid content (37.4% versus 49.0% using ethanol), we obtained higher reaction velocities and less FAME conversion decrease when the same lipase batch was reused. 83% of SLs were transformed to biodiesel using a 70 wt% lipase/SL ratio, 11:1 methanol/SL molar ratio, 10 mL t-butanol/g SLs after 72 h. The FAME conversion decreased to 71% after catalyzing three reactions with the same lipase batch. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Partial hydatidiform mole with false-negative urine human chorionic gonadatropin test in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundangepfupfu, Tichaendepi; Waseem, Muhammad

    2014-03-01

    Hydatidiform mole (molar pregnancy) is a benign tumor of placental trophoblastic cells, which release human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Several case reports have described complete hydatidiform moles with false-negative urine qualitative hCG tests. These negative pregnancy tests have been attributed to the hook effect. We report an unusual presentation of a partial mole and review an alternative explanation for the negative hCG test. As partial moles are usually not associated with a large proliferation of trophoblastic cells, levels of hCG are commonly negative and serum quantitative hCG was 1,094,950 mIU/mL. Pelvic ultrasonography showed a uterine cavity containing a soft-tissue mass with multiple cystic lesions and the hydatidiform mole was extracted with suction curettage. Tissue pathology confirmed partial hydatidiform mole. In addition to the hook effect, we present another possible explanation for the false-negative test; namely the inability of some assays to detect hCG-degradation products, which may be higher in clinical samples from patients with hydatidiform mole. This case underscores the importance of knowing the limitations of the commonly used hCG assays. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Sleep in the Cape Mole Rat: A Short-Sleeping Subterranean Rodent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Jean-Leigh; Gravett, Nadine; Bhagwandin, Adhil; Bennett, Nigel C; Archer, Elizabeth K; Manger, Paul R

    2016-01-01

    The Cape mole rat Georychus capensis is a solitary subterranean rodent found in the western and southern Cape of South Africa. This approximately 200-gram bathyergid rodent shows a nocturnal circadian rhythm, but sleep in this species is yet to be investigated. Using telemetric recordings of the electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) in conjunction with video recordings, we were able to show that the Cape mole rat, like all other rodents, has sleep periods composed of both rapid eye movement (REM) and slow-wave (non-REM) sleep. These mole rats spent on average 15.4 h awake, 7.1 h in non-REM sleep and 1.5 h in REM sleep each day. Cape mole rats sleep substantially less than other similarly sized terrestrial rodents but have a similar percentage of total sleep time occupied by REM sleep. In addition, the duration of both non-REM and REM sleep episodes was markedly shorter in the Cape mole rat than has been observed in terrestrial rodents. Interestingly, these features (total sleep time and episode duration) are similar to those observed in another subterranean bathyergid mole rat, i.e. Fukomys mechowii. Thus, there appears to be a bathyergid type of sleep amongst the rodents that may be related to their environment and the effect of this on their circadian rhythm. Investigating further species of bathyergid mole rats may fully define the emerging picture of sleep in these subterranean African rodents. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Selective inflammatory pain insensitivity in the African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Thomas J; Lu, Ying; Jüttner, René; Smith, Ewan St J; Hu, Jing; Brand, Antje; Wetzel, Christiane; Milenkovic, Nevena; Erdmann, Bettina; Heppenstall, Paul A; Laurito, Charles E; Wilson, Steven P; Lewin, Gary R

    2008-01-01

    In all mammals, tissue inflammation leads to pain and behavioral sensitization to thermal and mechanical stimuli called hyperalgesia. We studied pain mechanisms in the African naked mole-rat, an unusual rodent species that lacks pain-related neuropeptides (e.g., substance P) in cutaneous sensory fibers. Naked mole-rats show a unique and remarkable lack of pain-related behaviors to two potent algogens, acid and capsaicin. Furthermore, when exposed to inflammatory insults or known mediators, naked mole-rats do not display thermal hyperalgesia. In contrast, naked mole-rats do display nocifensive behaviors in the formalin test and show mechanical hyperalgesia after inflammation. Using electrophysiology, we showed that primary afferent nociceptors in naked mole-rats are insensitive to acid stimuli, consistent with the animal's lack of acid-induced behavior. Acid transduction by sensory neurons is observed in birds, amphibians, and fish, which suggests that this tranduction mechanism has been selectively disabled in the naked mole-rat in the course of its evolution. In contrast, nociceptors do respond vigorously to capsaicin, and we also show that sensory neurons express a transient receptor potential vanilloid channel-1 ion channel that is capsaicin sensitive. Nevertheless, the activation of capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons in naked mole-rats does not produce pain-related behavior. We show that capsaicin-sensitive nociceptors in the naked mole-rat are functionally connected to superficial dorsal horn neurons as in mice. However, the same nociceptors are also functionally connected to deep dorsal horn neurons, a connectivity that is rare in mice. The pain biology of the naked mole-rat is unique among mammals, thus the study of pain mechanisms in this unusual species can provide major insights into what constitutes "normal" mammalian nociception.

  4. Selective inflammatory pain insensitivity in the African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Park

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In all mammals, tissue inflammation leads to pain and behavioral sensitization to thermal and mechanical stimuli called hyperalgesia. We studied pain mechanisms in the African naked mole-rat, an unusual rodent species that lacks pain-related neuropeptides (e.g., substance P in cutaneous sensory fibers. Naked mole-rats show a unique and remarkable lack of pain-related behaviors to two potent algogens, acid and capsaicin. Furthermore, when exposed to inflammatory insults or known mediators, naked mole-rats do not display thermal hyperalgesia. In contrast, naked mole-rats do display nocifensive behaviors in the formalin test and show mechanical hyperalgesia after inflammation. Using electrophysiology, we showed that primary afferent nociceptors in naked mole-rats are insensitive to acid stimuli, consistent with the animal's lack of acid-induced behavior. Acid transduction by sensory neurons is observed in birds, amphibians, and fish, which suggests that this tranduction mechanism has been selectively disabled in the naked mole-rat in the course of its evolution. In contrast, nociceptors do respond vigorously to capsaicin, and we also show that sensory neurons express a transient receptor potential vanilloid channel-1 ion channel that is capsaicin sensitive. Nevertheless, the activation of capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons in naked mole-rats does not produce pain-related behavior. We show that capsaicin-sensitive nociceptors in the naked mole-rat are functionally connected to superficial dorsal horn neurons as in mice. However, the same nociceptors are also functionally connected to deep dorsal horn neurons, a connectivity that is rare in mice. The pain biology of the naked mole-rat is unique among mammals, thus the study of pain mechanisms in this unusual species can provide major insights into what constitutes "normal" mammalian nociception.

  5. Traceability of pH to the Mole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Filomena Camões

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Free acidity of aqueous solutions was initially defined in 1909 by Søren Peter Lauritz Sørensen as pH = −lgcH+ (c/mol·dm−3 or m/mol·kg−1 of the free hydrogen ions in solution, H+ soon (1910 was changed to pH = paH+ = −lgaH+, integrating the new concepts of activity, ai and activity coefficient γi, for the ionic species i under concern, H+ in this case; it is ai = −lg(miγi. Since individual ions do not exist alone in solution, primary pH values cannot be assigned solely by experimental measurements, requiring extra thermodynamic model assumptions for the activity coefficient, γH+, which has put pH in a unique situation of not being fully traceable to the International System of Units (SI. Also the concept of activity is often not felt to be as perceptible as that of concentration which may present difficulties, namely with the interpretation of data. pH measurements on unknown samples rely on calibration of the measuring setup with adequate reference pH buffers. In this work, the assignment of pH values to buffers closely matching the samples, e.g., seawater, is revisited. An approach is presented to assess the quantity pmH+ = −lgmH+ profiting from the fact that, contrary to single ion activity coefficients, mean activity coefficients,   can be assessed based on experimentally assessed quantities alone, γExp ±, thus ensuring traceability to the mole, the SI base unit for amount of substance. Compatibility between γExp ± and mean activity coefficient calculated by means of Pitzer model equations, γPtz ±, validates the model for its intended use.

  6. Assessment of Visitor Satisfaction in Mole National Park, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrad-J.Wuleka Kuuder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Arrivals to Mole National Park (MNP, the largest in Ghana were projected by management to reach 100,000 guests by the close of2010. As at the end of December 2008, the park recorded only 16, 807 guest arrivals, the highest so far in its existence. By the close of year 2010, only 14,336 tourist arrivals were recorded registering a drop, hence an illusion in attaining the2010 set target and even subsequent years to come. This therefore gave a clue that revenue generated is not always enough to support park administration and community development. This paper explores the underlying reasons accounting for this trend by finding out tourists’ preferences in the park, the category of people who patronized the park most and sourcing guest views on what can be done to make the park more attractive. A five month period was used to elicit information from498 tourists who visited the Park employing questionnaire administration and interview schedules. The results analyzed revealed that student groups in second cycle and tertiary institutions patronized the park most on the domestic front, whilst on the foreign front, all guests contacted were educated above high school level and many of them (57% were on holiday in Ghana. The driving force (motivation behind these visits was to see animals in the wild. The most preferred wildlife species visitors came to view were elephants, monkeys, lions, buffalo and birds respectively. The recommendation is made that the road linking major cities and towns to the Park which is “rough and rugged” be rehabilitated if government needs to improve tourists’ inflow to the park.

  7. Tourism potentials of Mole National Park in Northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrad Wuleka Kuuder

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor access and long distances from major cities/towns have always been major problems debarring the full utilization of nature-related touristic resources. Despite this, some adventuresome tourists still make efforts to such wildlife sanctuaries to have a feel of nature. This study explores tourism exploits at Mole National Park (the largest in Ghana which is located in the northern sector of the country. An inventory of facilities through field visits and observations were ‘exacted’ to identify different types of landforms, species of wildlife, vegetation and culture which were of touristic significance around the Park and also to have an overview of tourists’ “traffic” to the Park. With regard to data collection, the questionnaire method including personal observation were employed to obtain information from the four communities that surround the Park, the Park officials and tourists who visited the facility from April to May, 2011. The results analysed revealed that turn out was comparatively low due to the remote location of the Park including poor accessibility and low income among Ghanaians. Tourism awareness among community members was found to be high. Tourists found the Park impressive in terms of its variety in wildlife and services rendered therein. It was discovered that the Park has a high tourism potential which can be harnessed to attract both domestic and international tourists and bring socio-economic benefits to Ghana. The paper suggests that improvements in road network to and in the Park and stiffer sanctions to curb poaching were major ways to enhance tourism/recreation in the Park and making it sustainable.

  8. Fructose-driven glycolysis supports anoxia resistance in the naked mole-rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Thomas J; Reznick, Jane; Peterson, Bethany L; Blass, Gregory; Omerbašić, Damir; Bennett, Nigel C; Kuich, P Henning J L; Zasada, Christin; Browe, Brigitte M; Hamann, Wiebke; Applegate, Daniel T; Radke, Michael H; Kosten, Tetiana; Lutermann, Heike; Gavaghan, Victoria; Eigenbrod, Ole; Bégay, Valérie; Amoroso, Vince G; Govind, Vidya; Minshall, Richard D; Smith, Ewan St J; Larson, John; Gotthardt, Michael; Kempa, Stefan; Lewin, Gary R

    2017-04-21

    The African naked mole-rat's ( Heterocephalus glaber ) social and subterranean lifestyle generates a hypoxic niche. Under experimental conditions, naked mole-rats tolerate hours of extreme hypoxia and survive 18 minutes of total oxygen deprivation (anoxia) without apparent injury. During anoxia, the naked mole-rat switches to anaerobic metabolism fueled by fructose, which is actively accumulated and metabolized to lactate in the brain. Global expression of the GLUT5 fructose transporter and high levels of ketohexokinase were identified as molecular signatures of fructose metabolism. Fructose-driven glycolytic respiration in naked mole-rat tissues avoids feedback inhibition of glycolysis via phosphofructokinase, supporting viability. The metabolic rewiring of glycolysis can circumvent the normally lethal effects of oxygen deprivation, a mechanism that could be harnessed to minimize hypoxic damage in human disease. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. Optimization of xylanase production by Mucor indicus, Mucor hiemalis, and Rhizopus oryzae through solid state fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Behnam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Xylan is the main hemicellulosic polymer in a number of lignocelluloses which can be hydrolyzed by xylanolytic enzymes. One of the main ways for enzymes production is solid state fermentation (SSF. The ability of three fungal strains (Mucor indicus, Mucor hiemalis, and Rhizopus oryzae for xylanase production on wheat bran by SSF was investigated. Materials and methods: The effects of cultivation temperature, medium moisture content, and cultivation time on the enzyme production were investigated. Experiments were designed with an orthogonal central composite design on three variables using response surface methodology (RSM. Analysis of variance was applied and the enzyme production was expressed with a mathematical equation as a function of the three factors. The optimum operating conditions for the enzyme production was obtained. Results: For xylanase production by M. indicus, M. hiemalis and R. oryzae the optimum temperatures were 40.0, 43.4 and 43.4ºC respectively. These values were 49.8, 54.2 and 71.8% for moisture percent and 51.3, 53.2 and 53.5 h for cultivation time. The highest enzyme activities per g of dry substrate (gds were 43.1, 43.8 and 25.9 U/gds for M. indicus, M. hiemalis and R. oryzae respectively. Discussion and conclusion: All the fungi were able to produce xylanase. Maximum xylanase production was predicted by M. indicus and M. hiemalis at similar optimum conditions, while R. oryzae produced relatively lower xylanase activity even at the best condition. 

  10. The Role of Aquaporins in pH-Dependent Germination of Rhizopus delemar Spores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tidhar Turgeman

    Full Text Available Rhizopus delemar and associated species attack a wide range of fruit and vegetables after harvest. Host nutrients and acidic pH are required for optimal germination of R. delemar, and we studied how this process is triggered. Glucose induced spore swelling in an acidic environment, expressed by an up to 3-fold increase in spore diameter, whereas spore diameter was smaller in a neutral environment. When suspended in an acidic environment, the spores started to float, indicating a change in their density. Treatment of the spores with HgCl2, an aquaporin blocker, prevented floating and inhibited spore swelling and germ-tube emergence, indicating the importance of water uptake at the early stages of germination. Two putative candidate aquaporin-encoding genes-RdAQP1 and RdAQP2-were identified in the R. delemar genome. Both presented the conserved NPA motif and six-transmembrane domain topology. Expressing RdAQP1 and RdAQP2 in Arabidopsis protoplasts increased the cells' osmotic water permeability coefficient (Pf compared to controls, indicating their role as water channels. A decrease in R. delemar aquaporin activity with increasing external pH suggested pH regulation of these proteins. Substitution of two histidine (His residues, positioned on two loops facing the outer side of the cell, with alanine eliminated the pH sensing resulting in similar Pf values under acidic and basic conditions. Since hydration is critical for spore switching from the resting to activate state, we suggest that pH regulation of the aquaporins can regulate the initial phase of R. delemar spore germination, followed by germ-tube elongation and host-tissue infection.

  11. Structure, function, and phylogeny of the mating locus in the Rhizopus oryzae complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrii P Gryganskyi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Rhizopus oryzae species complex is a group of zygomycete fungi that are common, cosmopolitan saprotrophs. Some strains are used beneficially for production of Asian fermented foods but they can also act as opportunistic human pathogens. Although R. oryzae reportedly has a heterothallic (+/- mating system, most strains have not been observed to undergo sexual reproduction and the genetic structure of its mating locus has not been characterized. Here we report on the mating behavior and genetic structure of the mating locus for 54 isolates of the R. oryzae complex. All 54 strains have a mating locus similar in overall organization to Phycomyces blakesleeanus and Mucor circinelloides (Mucoromycotina, Zygomycota. In all of these fungi, the minus (- allele features the SexM high mobility group (HMG gene flanked by an RNA helicase gene and a TP transporter gene (TPT. Within the R. oryzae complex, the plus (+ mating allele includes an inserted region that codes for a BTB/POZ domain gene and the SexP HMG gene. Phylogenetic analyses of multiple genes, including the mating loci (HMG, TPT, RNA helicase, ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA, RPB2, and LDH genes, identified two distinct groups of strains. These correspond to previously described sibling species R. oryzae sensu stricto and R. delemar. Within each species, discordant gene phylogenies among multiple loci suggest an outcrossing population structure. The hypothesis of random-mating is also supported by a 50:50 ratio of plus and minus mating types in both cryptic species. When crossed with tester strains of the opposite mating type, most isolates of R. delemar failed to produce zygospores, while isolates of R. oryzae produced sterile zygospores. In spite of the reluctance of most strains to mate in vitro, the conserved sex locus structure and evidence for outcrossing suggest that a normal sexual cycle occurs in both species.

  12. Ethanol production by Mucor indicus and Rhizopus oryzae from rice straw by separate hydrolysis and fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abedinifar, Sorahi [Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran); Karimi, Keikhosro [Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran); School of Engineering, University of Boraas, SE-501 90 Boraas (Sweden); Khanahmadi, Morteza [Isfahan Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Centre, Isfahan (Iran); Taherzadeh, Mohammad J. [School of Engineering, University of Boraas, SE-501 90 Boraas (Sweden)

    2009-05-15

    Rice straw was successfully converted to ethanol by separate enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation by Mucor indicus, Rhizopus oryzae, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The hydrolysis temperature and pH of commercial cellulase and {beta}-glucosidase enzymes were first investigated and their best performance obtained at 45 C and pH 5.0. The pretreatment of the straw with dilute-acid hydrolysis resulted in 0.72 g g{sup -1} sugar yield during 48 h enzymatic hydrolysis, which was higher than steam-pretreated (0.60 g g{sup -1}) and untreated straw (0.46 g g{sup -1}). Furthermore, increasing the concentration of the dilute-acid pretreated straw from 20 to 50 and 100 g L{sup -1} resulted in 13% and 16% lower sugar yield, respectively. Anaerobic cultivation of the hydrolyzates with M. indicus resulted in 0.36-0.43 g g{sup -1} ethanol, 0.11-0.17 g g{sup -1} biomass, and 0.04-0.06 g g{sup -1} glycerol, which is comparable with the corresponding yields by S. cerevisiae (0.37-0.45 g g{sup -1} ethanol, 0.04-0.10 g g{sup -1} biomass and 0.05-0.07 glycerol). These two fungi produced no other major metabolite from the straw and completed the cultivation in less than 25 h. However, R. oryzae produced lactic acid as the major by-product with yield of 0.05-0.09 g g{sup -1}. This fungus had ethanol, biomass and glycerol yields of 0.33-0.41, 0.06-0.12, and 0.03-0.04 g g{sup -1}, respectively. (author)

  13. In vitro antifungal susceptibility of clinical species belonging to Aspergillus genus and Rhizopus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachuei, R; Khodavaisy, S; Rezaie, S; Sharifynia, S

    2016-03-01

    Among filamentous fungal pathogens, Aspergillus spp. and zygomycetes account for highest rates of morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised patients. Recently developed antifungal drugs offer the potential to improve management and therapeutic outcomes of fungal infections. The aim of this study was to analyse the in vitro activities of voriconazole, itraconazole, amphotericin B and caspofungin against clinical isolates of Aspergillus spp. and Rhizopus oryzae. The in vitro antifungal susceptibility of 54 isolates belonging to different clinical isolates of Aspergillus spp. and R. oryzae was tested for four antifungal agents using a microdilution reference method (CLSI, M38-A2). All isolates were identified by typical colony and microscopic characteristics, and also characterized by molecular methods. Caspofungin (MEC range: 0.008-0.25 and MEC50: 0.0023μg/mL) was the most active drug in vitro against Aspergillus spp., followed by voriconazole (MIC range: 0.031-8 and MIC50: 0.5μg/mL), itraconazole (MIC range: 0.031-16 and MIC50: 0.25μg/mL), and amphotericin B (MIC range: 0.125-4 and MIC50: 0.5μg/mL), in order of decreasing activity. The caspofungin, voriconazole, and itraconazole demonstrated poor in vitro activity against R. oryzae isolates evaluated, followed by amphotericin B. This study demonstrates that caspofungin had good antifungal activity and azole agents had better activity than amphotericin B against Aspergillus species. Although, azole drugs are considered ineffective against R. oryzae. This result is just from a small scale in vitro susceptibility study and we did not take other factors into consideration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. The Production of Biodiesel from Cottonseed Oil Using Rhizopus oryzae Whole Cell Biocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athalye, Sneha Kishor

    Biodiesel is an environmentally friendly alternative to fossil fuels which have become increasingly expensive in recent times. An alternate approach to alkaline biodiesel production is needed as catalyst miscibility with the glycerol by-product, generation of large amounts of waste water, and saponification of the feedstock are major disadvantages associated with the process. Lipases are water soluble enzymes which act as catalysts in many lipid based reactions. Reuse of lipases can significantly reduce cost of enzymatic biodiesel production; however retention of lipolytic activity still remains a challenge. Use of microbial cells immobilized on various surfaces like sponge, foam and plastics as biocatalysts instead of extracted enzyme could help overcome this problem. A novel, rigid biomass support with high surface area made from recyclable polyethylene (Bioblok(TM)) was used in this study. Several fungal and bacterial species have been reported to possess appreciable levels of lipase activity. The biomass production and immobilization as well as lipase activity of three different species; Candida rugosa (ATCC #38772), Aspergillus oryzae (ATCC #58299), and Rhizopus oryzae (ATTC #34612) were tested. C. rugosa did not attach well to the support particles while A.oryzae had lower biomass accumulation of 6.1 g (dry cell wt)/L compared to 11.8 g (dry cell wt)/L for R.oryzae. Hence Rhizopus oryzae, fungal specie with cell surface bound lipase was selected for the current study. The study investigated the influence of media composition and growth time of the R.oryzae whole cell biocatalysts, immobilized on the BSPs, for FAME production from cottonseed oil. R.oryzae BSPs grown in basal media supplemented with 1% (w/v) of glucose or oil or both for 48 h, 72 h or 90 h were used in a 36 h transesterification reaction with cottonseed oil and methanol. BSPs grown in both glucose and oil supplemented medium for 72 h had the highest conversion of 22.4% (wt/wt) and a biomass

  15. Hypersensitivity to contact inhibition provides a clue to cancer resistance of naked mole-rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seluanov, Andrei; Hine, Christopher; Azpurua, Jorge; Feigenson, Marina; Bozzella, Michael; Mao, Zhiyong; Catania, Kenneth C; Gorbunova, Vera

    2009-11-17

    The naked mole-rat is the longest living rodent with a maximum lifespan exceeding 28 years. In addition to its longevity, naked mole-rats have an extraordinary resistance to cancer as tumors have never been observed in these rodents. Furthermore, we show that a combination of activated Ras and SV40 LT fails to induce robust anchorage-independent growth in naked mole-rat cells, while it readily transforms mouse fibroblasts. The mechanisms responsible for the cancer resistance of naked mole-rats were unknown. Here we show that naked mole-rat fibroblasts display hypersensitivity to contact inhibition, a phenomenon we termed "early contact inhibition." Contact inhibition is a key anticancer mechanism that arrests cell division when cells reach a high density. In cell culture, naked mole-rat fibroblasts arrest at a much lower density than those from a mouse. We demonstrate that early contact inhibition requires the activity of p53 and pRb tumor suppressor pathways. Inactivation of both p53 and pRb attenuates early contact inhibition. Contact inhibition in human and mouse is triggered by the induction of p27(Kip1). In contrast, early contact inhibition in naked mole-rat is associated with the induction of p16(Ink4a). Furthermore, we show that the roles of p16(Ink4a) and p27(Kip1) in the control of contact inhibition became temporally separated in this species: the early contact inhibition is controlled by p16(Ink4a), and regular contact inhibition is controlled by p27(Kip1). We propose that the additional layer of protection conferred by two-tiered contact inhibition contributes to the remarkable tumor resistance of the naked mole-rat.

  16. The Naked Mole Rat Genome Resource : facilitating analyses of cancer and longevity-related adaptations

    OpenAIRE

    Keane, Michael; Craig, Thomas; Alfoldi, Jessica; Berlin, Aaron M; Johnson, Jeremy; Seluanov, Andrei; Gorbunova, Vera; Di Palma, Federica; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Church, George M; de Magalhaes, Joao Pedro

    2014-01-01

    MOTIVATION: The naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is an exceptionally long-lived and cancer-resistant rodent native to East Africa. Although its genome was previously sequenced, here we report a new assembly sequenced by us with substantially higher N50 values for scaffolds and contigs. RESULTS: We analyzed the annotation of this new improved assembly and identified candidate genomic adaptations which may have contributed to the evolution of the naked mole rat's extraordinary traits, inc...

  17. Assessment of naked mole-rat distribution and threats in Eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengistu Wale

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the distribution, threats and community attitudes towards naked molerat in Eastern Ethiopia. Methods: Data were collected through direct observation and interview and Chi-square at 95% confidence interval was used for significance test. Results: Naked mole-rat was identified in Fafan, City/Shinele, Eastern Hararghe Zone and Dire Dawa Administrative. The main threats of naked mole-rat identified were agricultural expansion, human killing and lack of awareness. From a total of 100 respondents, 92% of them considered naked mole-rat as pest as a result that 46% of them participated in direct killing. Literacy rate significantly affects the willingness to participate in the conservation of naked mole-rat (χ2 = 7.478, df = 1, P < 0.05. From a total of 26% respondents who did not show the willingness to participate in the conservation, 80.8% of them were illiterate. Conclusions: Naked mole-rat is fairly common in many of the study sites. However, rapid shift from nomadic life style to cultivation of crops and lacks of awareness were the main threats of naked mole-rat. Therefore, since there is no conservation action currently, further comprehensive study is required to design conservation plan for this species.

  18. CO2 Monitoring and Background Mole Fraction at Zhongshan Station, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulong Sun

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background CO2 mole fraction and seasonal variations, measured at Zhongshan station, Antarctica, for 2010 through 2013, exhibit the expected lowest mole fraction in March with a peak in November. Irrespective of wind direction, the mole fraction of CO2 distributes evenly after polluted air from station operations is removed from the data sets. The daily range of average CO2 mole fraction in all four seasons is small. The monthly mean CO2 mole fraction at Zhongshan station is similar to that of other stations in Antarctica, with seasonal CO2 amplitudes in the order of 384–392 µmol∙mol−1. The annual increase in recent years is about 2 µmol∙mol−1∙yr−1. There is no appreciable difference between CO2 mole fractions around the coast of Antarctica and in the interior, showing that CO2 observed in Antarctica has been fully mixed in the atmosphere as it moves from the north through the southern hemisphere.

  19. High Autophagy in the Naked Mole Rat may Play a Significant Role in Maintaining Good Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmin Zhao

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The maximum lifespan of the naked mole rat is over 28.3 years, which exceeds that of any other rodent species, suggesting that age-related changes in its body composition and functionality are either attenuated or delayed in this extraordinarily long-lived species. However, the mechanisms underlying the aging process in this species are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated whether long-lived naked mole rats display more autophagic activity than short-lived mice. Methods: Hepatic stellate cells isolated from naked mole rats were treated with 50 nM rapamycin or 20 mM 3-methyladenine (3-MA for 12 or 24 h. Expression of the autophagy marker proteins LC3-II and beclin 1 was measured with western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The induction of apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. Results: Our results demonstrate that one-day-old naked mole rats have higher levels of autophagy than one-day-old short-lived C57BL/6 mice, and that both adult naked mole rats (eight months old and adult C57BL/6 mice (eight weeks old have high basal levels of autophagy, which may be an important mechanism inhibiting aging and reducing the risk of age-related diseases. Conclusion: Here, we report that autophagy facilitated the survival of hepatic stellate cells from the naked mole rat, and that treatment with 3-MA or rapamycin increased the ratio of apoptotic cells to normal hepatic stellate cells.

  20. Blunted neuronal calcium response to hypoxia in naked mole-rat hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany L Peterson

    Full Text Available Naked mole-rats are highly social and strictly subterranean rodents that live in large communal colonies in sealed and chronically oxygen-depleted burrows. Brain slices from naked mole-rats show extreme tolerance to hypoxia compared to slices from other mammals, as indicated by maintenance of synaptic transmission under more hypoxic conditions and three fold longer latency to anoxic depolarization. A key factor in determining whether or not the cellular response to hypoxia is reversible or leads to cell death may be the elevation of intracellular calcium concentration. In the present study, we used fluorescent imaging techniques to measure relative intracellular calcium changes in CA1 pyramidal cells of hippocampal slices during hypoxia. We found that calcium accumulation during hypoxia was significantly and substantially attenuated in slices from naked mole-rats compared to slices from laboratory mice. This was the case for both neonatal (postnatal day 6 and older (postnatal day 20 age groups. Furthermore, while both species demonstrated more calcium accumulation at older ages, the older naked mole-rats showed a smaller calcium accumulation response than even the younger mice. A blunted intracellular calcium response to hypoxia may contribute to the extreme hypoxia tolerance of naked mole-rat neurons. The results are discussed in terms of a general hypothesis that a very prolonged or arrested developmental process may allow adult naked mole-rat brain to retain the hypoxia tolerance normally only seen in neonatal mammals.

  1. The naked mole-rat response to oxidative stress: just deal with it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kaitlyn N; Andziak, Blazej; Yang, Ting; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2013-10-20

    The oxidative stress theory of aging has been the most widely accepted theory of aging providing insights into why we age and die for over 50 years, despite mounting evidence from a multitude of species indicating that there is no direct relationship between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and longevity. Here we explore how different species, including the longest lived rodent, the naked mole-rat, have defied the most predominant aging theory. In the case of extremely long-lived naked mole-rat, levels of ROS production are found to be similar to mice, antioxidant defenses unexceptional, and even under constitutive conditions, naked mole-rats combine a pro-oxidant intracellular milieu with high, steady state levels of oxidative damage. Clearly, naked mole-rats can tolerate this level of oxidative stress and must have mechanisms in place to prevent its translation into potentially lethal diseases. In addition to the naked mole-rat, other species from across the phylogenetic spectrum and even certain mouse strains do not support this theory. Moreover, overexpressing or knocking down antioxidant levels alters levels of oxidative damage and even cancer incidence, but does not modulate lifespan. Perhaps, it is not oxidative stress that modulates healthspan and longevity, but other cytoprotective mechanisms that allow animals to deal with high levels of oxidative damage and stress, and nevertheless live long, relatively healthy lifespans. Studying these mechanisms in uniquely long-lived species, like the naked mole-rat, may help us tease out the key contributors to aging and longevity.

  2. Blunted neuronal calcium response to hypoxia in naked mole-rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Bethany L; Larson, John; Buffenstein, Rochelle; Park, Thomas J; Fall, Christopher P

    2012-01-01

    Naked mole-rats are highly social and strictly subterranean rodents that live in large communal colonies in sealed and chronically oxygen-depleted burrows. Brain slices from naked mole-rats show extreme tolerance to hypoxia compared to slices from other mammals, as indicated by maintenance of synaptic transmission under more hypoxic conditions and three fold longer latency to anoxic depolarization. A key factor in determining whether or not the cellular response to hypoxia is reversible or leads to cell death may be the elevation of intracellular calcium concentration. In the present study, we used fluorescent imaging techniques to measure relative intracellular calcium changes in CA1 pyramidal cells of hippocampal slices during hypoxia. We found that calcium accumulation during hypoxia was significantly and substantially attenuated in slices from naked mole-rats compared to slices from laboratory mice. This was the case for both neonatal (postnatal day 6) and older (postnatal day 20) age groups. Furthermore, while both species demonstrated more calcium accumulation at older ages, the older naked mole-rats showed a smaller calcium accumulation response than even the younger mice. A blunted intracellular calcium response to hypoxia may contribute to the extreme hypoxia tolerance of naked mole-rat neurons. The results are discussed in terms of a general hypothesis that a very prolonged or arrested developmental process may allow adult naked mole-rat brain to retain the hypoxia tolerance normally only seen in neonatal mammals.

  3. Management of pest mole crickets in Florida and Puerto Rico with a nematode and parasitic wasp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leppla, N.C.; Frank, J.H.; Adjei, M.B.; Vicente, N.E.

    2007-01-01

    Non-indigenous invasive mole crickets, Scapteriscus vicinus Scudder (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) in Florida and S. didactylus (Latreille) (the 'changa') in Puerto Rico, are being managed with an entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema scapterisci (Nguyen and Smart) (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae), and a parasitic wasp, Larra bicolor L. (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Pest mole cricket populations have declined by 95% in north central Florida since these specialist natural enemies were released and established in the 1980s. Commercial production of the nematode was initiated, nearly 70 billion were applied in 34 Florida counties, and their establishment, spread, and impact on mole crickets were monitored. The infected mole crickets dispersed the nematode rapidly, so that within 6 months these parasites were present in most of the insects trapped in experimental pastures. Three years later, mole cricket populations were reduced to acceptable levels and the bahiagrass had recovered. The nematode was released for the first time in Puerto Rico during 2001 and has persisted; the wasp was introduced in the late 1930s. The geographical distribution of the wasp is being expanded in Florida and Puerto Rico by planting plots of Spermacoce verticillata (L.), a wildflower indigenous to Puerto Rico and widely distributed in southern Florida. Pastures, sod farms, golf courses, landscapes, and vegetable farms in Florida and Puerto Rico are benefiting from biological control of invasive mole crickets. (author) [es

  4. Comparative proteomics of Rhizopus delemar ATCC 20344 unravels the role of amino acid catabolism in fumarate accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorett I. Odoni

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The filamentous fungus Rhizopus delemar naturally accumulates relatively high amounts of fumarate. Although the culture conditions that increase fumarate yields are well established, the network underlying the accumulation of fumarate is not yet fully understood. We set out to increase the knowledge about fumarate accumulation in R. delemar. To this end, we combined a transcriptomics and proteomics approach to identify key metabolic pathways involved in fumarate production in R. delemar, and propose that a substantial part of the fumarate accumulated in R. delemar during nitrogen starvation results from the urea cycle due to amino acid catabolism.

  5. The effect of different phosphate ion concentrations and ph of the phosphate buffer on lipase bioproduction by rhizopus oligosporus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haq, I.; Ali, S.; Awan, U.F.; Javed, W.; Mirza, S.

    2005-01-01

    In the present investigation, we report the effect of phosphate ion concentration and different ph of the phosphate buffer (as diluent) on lipase bioproduction by Rhizopus oligosporus. For this purpose, solid state fermentation was employed. Different agricultural by-products such as wheat bran, rice husk, almond meal, soybean meal and sunflower meal were used as substrate. The maximum lipase activity (72.60 U/g) was observed with the almond meal. Addition of phosphate ions (K/sub 2/HPO/sub 4/) influenced the lipase production. The ph of the phosphate buffer (7.0) was found to be effective for higher yield of lipase. (author)

  6. Development of Volatile Oil of Mustard and Vanillin as an Effective Food Preservation System for Military Bread and Baked Goods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Muller, Wayne S; Sikes, Anthony; Yeomans, Walter; Anderson, Danielle; Senecal, Andy

    2006-01-01

    ...) vanillin is an effective food preservation system for molds and yeast. Four bread spoilage organisms were evaluated in the study Penicillium notatum, Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, and Saccharomycopsis fibuligera...

  7. Screening of systemic fungicides and biochemicals against seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-18

    Jul 18, 2011 ... Aspergillus flavus showed highest percentage that is, 27.3% followed by Rhizopus stolonifer 17.98%,. Alternaria .... characteristics were cultured on PDA medium. ..... Fungi of Rice (Oryzae sativa L) Variety Faro 15 In Vitro.

  8. Effect of solid-state fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus on bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of raw and roasted buckwheat groats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wronkowska Małgorzata

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of solid-state fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus on the changes in the total phenolic compounds, rutin, vitamin B and C, tocopherol, phytic acid and antioxidant capacity of raw and roasted buckwheat groats was studied. The roasted groats contained reduced level of studied bioactive compounds as compared to raw groats. In this study was evidenced that the solidstate fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus enhanced water soluble vitamins (thiamine, pyridoxine and L-ascorbic acid as well as tocopherols contents. In contrast the decrease of the inositol hexaphosphate, phenolic compounds, the rutin content and antioxidant capacity determined by ACL and ABTS methods was noticed.

  9. Control of Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei by treatment with mycelial extracts from cultured fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, H.; Jørgensen, H.J.L.; Lyngkjær, M.F.

    2001-01-01

    , Trichoderma harzianum, Pythium ultimum and Rhizopus stolonifer). Three mycelial extracts from the taxonomically different fungi B. oryzae, A ultimum and R. stolonifer were selected for detailed study. In general the number of colonies formed was reduced by 70-98% compared with controls. Furthermore, the few...

  10. Identification of prenylated pterocarpans and other isoflavonoids in Rhizopus spp. elicited soya bean seedlings by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Rudy; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Bohin, Maxime C; Kuijpers, Tomas F M; Verbruggen, Marian A; Gruppen, Harry

    2011-01-15

    Phytoalexins from soya are mainly characterised as prenylated pterocarpans, the glyceollins. Extracts of non-soaked and soaked soya beans, as well as that of soya seedlings, grown in the presence of Rhizopus microsporus var. oryzae, were screened for the presence of prenylated flavonoids with a liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS)-based screening method. The glyceollins I-III and glyceollidins I-II, belonging to the isoflavonoid subclass of the pterocarpans, were tentatively assigned. The formation of these prenylated pterocarpans was accompanied by that of other prenylated isoflavonoids of the subclasses of the isoflavones and the coumestans. It was estimated that approx. 40% of the total isoflavonoid content in Rhizopus-challenged soya bean seedlings were prenylated pterocarpans, whereas 7% comprised prenylated isoflavones and prenylated coumestans. The site of prenylation (A-ring or B-ring) of the prenylated isoflavones was tentatively annotated using positive-ion mode MS by comparing the (1,3) A(+) retro-Diels-Alder (RDA) fragments of prenylated and non-prenylated isoflavones. Furthermore, the fragmentation pathways of the five pterocarpans in negative-ion (NI) mode were proposed, which involved the cleavage of the C-ring and/or D-ring. The absence of the ring-closed prenyl (pyran or furan) gave exclusively -H(2) O(x,y) RDA fragments, whereas its presence gave predominantly the common RDA fragments. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. L-lactic acid production by Aspergillus brasiliensis overexpressing the heterologous ldha gene from Rhizopus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaud, Nadège; Rosso, Marie-Noëlle; Fabre, Nicolas; Crapart, Sylvaine; Herpoël-Gimbert, Isabelle; Sigoillot, Jean-Claude; Raouche, Sana; Levasseur, Anthony

    2015-05-03

    Lactic acid is the building block of poly-lactic acid (PLA), a biopolymer that could be set to replace petroleum-based plastics. To make lactic acid production cost-effective, the production process should be carried out at low pH, in low-nutrient media, and with a low-cost carbon source. Yeasts have been engineered to produce high levels of lactic acid at low pH from glucose but not from carbohydrate polymers (e.g. cellulose, hemicellulose, starch). Aspergilli are versatile microbial cell factories able to naturally produce large amounts of organic acids at low pH and to metabolize cheap abundant carbon sources such as plant biomass. However, they have never been used for lactic acid production. To investigate the feasibility of lactic acid production with Aspergillus, the NAD-dependent lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) responsible for lactic acid production by Rhizopus oryzae was produced in Aspergillus brasiliensis BRFM103. Among transformants, the best lactic acid producer, A. brasiliensis BRFM1877, integrated 6 ldhA gene copies, and intracellular LDH activity was 9.2 × 10(-2) U/mg. At a final pH of 1.6, lactic acid titer reached 13.1 g/L (conversion yield: 26%, w/w) at 138 h in glucose-ammonium medium. This extreme pH drop was subsequently prevented by switching nitrogen source from ammonium sulfate to Na-nitrate, leading to a final pH of 3 and a lactic acid titer of 17.7 g/L (conversion yield: 47%, w/w) at 90 h of culture. Final titer was further improved to 32.2 g/L of lactic acid (conversion yield: 44%, w/w) by adding 20 g/L glucose to the culture medium at 96 h. This strain was ultimately able to produce lactic acid from xylose, arabinose, starch and xylan. We obtained the first Aspergillus strains able to produce large amounts of lactic acid by inserting recombinant ldhA genes from R. oryzae into a wild-type A. brasiliensis strain. pH regulation failed to significantly increase lactic acid production, but switching nitrogen source and changing culture feed

  12. Incidence and review of hydatidiform mole; chorioadenoma, destruens and chorio carcinoma in Mirza Kochek Khan Hospita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaffari V

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Initial management, incidence and review of hydatidiform mole, chorioadenoma and destruens and chorio carcinoma in Mirza Kochek khan hospital department of ob.gyn and gynecology oncology of women's hospital Tehran-Iran school of medicin from September 1985 to March 1990, 209 patients received primary management for hydatidiform mole at oncology department of Mirza Kochek Khan hospital medical school of Tehran Iran. All of these women HAD complete record available for analysis, of these, 167 women bydatidiform mole, 12 patients chorioadenoma-destruens 30 patients chorio carcinoma a survey was made of factors likely to provide an important clinical perspective patient aye and the status of pregnancy were noted. 41 patient only sharp curettage and 55 patients suction curettage to remove the hydatidiform mole. 97 patient require chemo terapy, suction curettage of the uterus is clearly the best means of management in the most cases their eyperince documents that hydatidiform mole is an high risk pregnancy that requires prompt and in tensive management.

  13. Central visual system of the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crish, Samuel D; Dengler-Crish, Christine M; Catania, Kenneth C

    2006-02-01

    Naked mole-rats are fossorial rodents native to eastern Africa that spend their lives in extensive subterranean burrows where visual cues are poor. Not surprisingly, they have a degenerated eye and optic nerve, suggesting they have poor visual abilities. However, little is known about their central visual system. To investigate the organization of their central visual system, we injected a neuronal tracer into the eyes of naked mole-rats and mice to compare the neural structures mediating vision. We found that the superior colliculus and lateral geniculate nucleus were severely atrophied in the naked mole-rat. The olivary pretectal nucleus was reduced but still retained its characteristic morphology, possibly indicating a role in light detection. In addition, the suprachiasmatic nucleus is well innervated and resembles the same structure in other rodents. The naked mole-rat appears to have selectively lost structures that mediate form vision while retaining structures needed for minimal entrainment of circadian rhythms. Similar results have been reported for other mole-rat species. Taken together, these data suggest that light detection may still play an important role in the lives of these "blind" animals: most likely for circadian entrainment or setting seasonal rhythms.

  14. Unraveling the message: insights into comparative genomics of the naked mole-rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kaitlyn N; Soifer, Ilya; Melamud, Eugene; Roy, Margaret; McIsaac, R Scott; Hibbs, Matthew; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2016-08-01

    Animals have evolved to survive, and even thrive, in different environments. Genetic adaptations may have indirectly created phenotypes that also resulted in a longer lifespan. One example of this phenomenon is the preternaturally long-lived naked mole-rat. This strictly subterranean rodent tolerates hypoxia, hypercapnia, and soil-based toxins. Naked mole-rats also exhibit pronounced resistance to cancer and an attenuated decline of many physiological characteristics that often decline as mammals age. Elucidating mechanisms that give rise to their unique phenotypes will lead to better understanding of subterranean ecophysiology and biology of aging. Comparative genomics could be a useful tool in this regard. Since the publication of a naked mole-rat genome assembly in 2011, analyses of genomic and transcriptomic data have enabled a clearer understanding of mole-rat evolutionary history and suggested molecular pathways (e.g., NRF2-signaling activation and DNA damage repair mechanisms) that may explain the extraordinarily longevity and unique health traits of this species. However, careful scrutiny and re-analysis suggest that some identified features result from incorrect or imprecise annotation and assembly of the naked mole-rat genome: in addition, some of these conclusions (e.g., genes involved in cancer resistance and hairlessness) are rejected when the analysis includes additional, more closely related species. We describe how the combination of better study design, improved genomic sequencing techniques, and new bioinformatic and data analytical tools will improve comparative genomics and ultimately bridge the gap between traditional model and nonmodel organisms.

  15. Prophylactic chemotherapy for hydatidiform mole to prevent gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiuyi; Fu, Jing; Hu, Lina; Fang, Fang; Xie, Lingxia; Chen, Hengxi; He, Fan; Wu, Taixiang; Lawrie, Theresa A

    2017-09-11

    This is an update of the original Cochrane Review published in Cochrane Library, Issue 10, 2012.Hydatidiform mole (HM), also called a molar pregnancy, is characterised by an overgrowth of foetal chorionic tissue within the uterus. HMs may be partial (PM) or complete (CM) depending on their gross appearance, histopathology and karyotype. PMs usually have a triploid karyotype, derived from maternal and paternal origins, whereas CMs are diploid and have paternal origins only. Most women with HM can be cured by evacuation of retained products of conception (ERPC) and their fertility preserved. However, in some women the growth persists and develops into gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN), a malignant form of the disease that requires treatment with chemotherapy. CMs have a higher rate of malignant transformation than PMs. It may be possible to reduce the risk of GTN in women with HM by administering prophylactic chemotherapy (P-Chem). However, P-Chem given before or after evacuation of HM to prevent malignant sequelae remains controversial, as the risks and benefits of this practice are unclear. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of P-Chem to prevent GTN in women with a molar pregnancy. To investigate whether any subgroup of women with HM may benefit more from P-Chem than others. For the original review we performed electronic searches in the Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Issue 2, 2012), MEDLINE (1946 to February week 4, 2012) and Embase (1980 to 2012, week 9). We developed the search strategy using free text and MeSH. For this update we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Issue 5, 2017), MEDLINE (February 2012 to June week 1, 2017) and Embase (February 2012 to 2017, week 23). We also handsearched reference lists of relevant literature to identify additional studies and searched trial registries. We included randomised controlled trials

  16. Differentiation of Clinically Relevant mucorales Rhizopus microsporus and R. arrhizus by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolatabadi, S.; Kolecka, A.; Versteeg, Matthijs; de Hoog, Sybren G; Boekhout, Teun

    This study addresses the usefulness of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for reliable identification of the two most frequently occuring clinical species of Rhizopus, namely R. arrhizus with its two varieties arrhizus and delemar and R.

  17. Evaluation of the MoleMateTM training program for assessment of suspicious pigmented lesions in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabel Wood

    2008-05-01

    Conclusion The MoleMateTM training program is a potentially effective and acceptable informatics tool to teach practitioners to recognise the features of SPLs identified by the MoleMateTM system. It will be used as part of the intervention in a randomised controlled trial to compare the diagnostic accuracy and appropriate referral rates of practitioners using the MoleMateTM system with best practice in primary care.

  18. Role of immunoexpression of cyclin D1, D3, retinoblastoma (Rb mutant and clinical risk factors on complete mole as risk factors of persistent mole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudi M Hidayat

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Changes in complete hydatidiform mole (CHM that become persistent are difficult to handle because the malignant pathogenesis of CHM is still unclear. The growth of abnormal cells in CHM is thought to be caused by cell cycle abnormalities. Some components that play a role in this phase include cyclin D and retinoblastoma (Rb. The aim of our study was to determine the role of clinical risk factors, as well as cyclin D1, cyclin D3 and Rb-protein, in the occurrence of persistent moles. Materials and Method: This study involves 68 CHM cases at Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital from 2007–2011. The protein expression of cyclin D1, cyclin D3, and Rb were determined by immunohistochemistry. The results were analyzed by comparing the two groups of CHM that became persistent to those that returned to normal, as determined by a Mochizuki regression curve assessment. Results: 20 cases (29% of CHM became persistent and that 48 cases (71% returned to normal. Significant clinical variables were age (p 0.05. Conclusion: There is a strong relationship between clinical risk factors of age, excessive proliferation histopathology, serum βhCG levels ≥100,000 mU/mL, cyclin D1 and Rb mutations with the incidence of persistent moles after the evacuation of the CHM. We proposed a model to predict the risks of persistent moles with a cut-off point of 2.384, which can be used as a reference for patients with CHM.

  19. A Mole for Warm Magnetic and Optical Measurements of LHC Dipoles

    CERN Document Server

    Bottura, L; Deferne, G; Glöckner, C; Jansen, H; Köster, A; Legrand, P; Rijllart, A; Sievers, P

    2000-01-01

    A new rotating coil probe (a mole) has been developed for the simultaneous measurement of the magnetic field and magnetic axis of warm superconducting LHC dipoles and associated corrector windings. The mole houses a radial rotating coil and travels inside the magnet aperture by means of an externally driven two-way traction belt. The coil is rotated by an on-board piezo motor, being tested in view of future devices for cold measurements as the only type of motor compatible with strong magnetic fields. A virtual light spot is generated in the coil center by a LED source. The position of this light spot is measured from the outside by a system including a telescope, a CCD camera and a DSP. Jigs on reference granite tables are used to transfer the optical measurements to the magnet fiducials. We describe here the main characteristics and performance of the mole

  20. The molecular basis of acid insensitivity in the African naked mole-rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ewan St John; Omerbašić, Damir; Lechner, Stefan G; Anirudhan, Gireesh; Lapatsina, Liudmila; Lewin, Gary R

    2011-12-16

    Acid evokes pain by exciting nociceptors; the acid sensors are proton-gated ion channels that depolarize neurons. The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is exceptional in its acid insensitivity, but acid sensors (acid-sensing ion channels and the transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 ion channel) in naked mole-rat nociceptors are similar to those in other vertebrates. Acid inhibition of voltage-gated sodium currents is more profound in naked mole-rat nociceptors than in mouse nociceptors, however, which effectively prevents acid-induced action potential initiation. We describe a species-specific variant of the nociceptor sodium channel Na(V)1.7, which is potently blocked by protons and can account for acid insensitivity in this species. Thus, evolutionary pressure has selected for an Na(V)1.7 gene variant that tips the balance from proton-induced excitation to inhibition of action potential initiation to abolish acid nociception.

  1. Extended longevity of reproductives appears to be common in Fukomys mole-rats (Rodentia, Bathyergidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Dammann

    Full Text Available African mole-rats (Bathyergidae, Rodentia contain several social, cooperatively breeding species with low extrinsic mortality and unusually high longevity. All social bathyergids live in multigenerational families where reproduction is skewed towards a few breeding individuals. Most of their offspring remain as reproductively inactive "helpers" in their natal families, often for several years. This "reproductive subdivision" of mole-rat societies might be of interest for ageing research, as in at least one social bathyergid (Ansell's mole-rats Fukomys anselli, breeders have been shown to age significantly slower than non-breeders. These animals thus provide excellent conditions for studying the epigenetics of senescence by comparing divergent longevities within the same genotypes without the inescapable short-comings of inter-species comparisons. It has been claimed that many if not all social mole-rat species may have evolved similar ageing patterns, too. However, this remains unclear on account of the scarcity of reliable datasets on the subject. We therefore analyzed a 20-year breeding record of Giant mole-rats Fukomys mechowii, another social bathyergid species. We found that breeders indeed lived significantly longer than helpers (ca. 1.5-2.2fold depending on the sex, irrespective of social rank or other potentially confounding factors. Considering the phylogenetic positions of F. mechowii and F. anselli and unpublished data on a third Fukomys-species (F. damarensis showing essentially the same pattern, it seems probable that the reversal of the classic trade-off between somatic maintenance and sexual reproduction is characteristic of the whole genus and hence of the vast majority of social mole-rats.

  2. Stress Resistance in the Naked Mole-Rat: The Bare Essentials – A Mini-Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kaitlyn N.; Mele, James; Hornsby, Peter J.; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies comparing similar-sized species with disparate longevity may elucidate novel mechanisms that abrogate aging and prolong good health. We focus on the longest living rodent, the naked mole-rat. This mouse-sized mammal lives ∼8 times longer than do mice and, despite high levels of oxidative damage evident at a young age, it is not only very resistant to spontaneous neoplasia but also shows minimal decline in age-associated physiological traits. Objectives We assess the current status of stress resistance and longevity, focusing in particular on the molecular and cellular responses to cytotoxins and other stressors between the short-lived laboratory mouse and the naked mole-rat. Results Like other experimental animal models of lifespan extension, naked mole-rat fibroblasts are extremely tolerant of a broad spectrum of cytotoxins including heat, heavy metals, DNA-damaging agents and xenobiotics, showing LD50 values between 2- and 20-fold greater than those of fibroblasts of shorter-lived mice. Our new data reveal that naked mole-rat fibroblasts stop proliferating even at low doses of toxin whereas those mouse fibroblasts that survive treatment rapidly re-enter the cell cycle and may proliferate with DNA damage. Naked mole-rat fibroblasts also show significantly higher constitutive levels of both p53 and Nrf2 protein levels and activity, and this increases even further in response to toxins. Conclusion Enhanced cell signaling via p53 and Nrf2 protects cells against proliferating with damage, augments clearance of damaged proteins and organelles and facilitates the maintenance of both genomic and protein integrity. These pathways collectively regulate a myriad of mechanisms which may contribute to the attenuated aging profile and sustained healthspan of the naked mole-rat. Understanding how these are regulated may be also integral to sustaining positive human healthspan well into old age and may elucidate novel therapeutics for delaying the onset and

  3. Stress resistance in the naked mole-rat: the bare essentials - a mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kaitlyn N; Mele, James; Hornsby, Peter J; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2012-01-01

    Studies comparing similar-sized species with disparate longevity may elucidate novel mechanisms that abrogate aging and prolong good health. We focus on the longest living rodent, the naked mole-rat. This mouse-sized mammal lives ~8 times longer than do mice and, despite high levels of oxidative damage evident at a young age, it is not only very resistant to spontaneous neoplasia but also shows minimal decline in age-associated physiological traits. We assess the current status of stress resistance and longevity, focusing in particular on the molecular and cellular responses to cytotoxins and other stressors between the short-lived laboratory mouse and the naked mole-rat. Like other experimental animal models of lifespan extension, naked mole-rat fibroblasts are extremely tolerant of a broad spectrum of cytotoxins including heat, heavy metals, DNA-damaging agents and xenobiotics, showing LD(50) values between 2- and 20-fold greater than those of fibroblasts of shorter-lived mice. Our new data reveal that naked mole-rat fibroblasts stop proliferating even at low doses of toxin whereas those mouse fibroblasts that survive treatment rapidly re-enter the cell cycle and may proliferate with DNA damage. Naked mole-rat fibroblasts also show significantly higher constitutive levels of both p53 and Nrf2 protein levels and activity, and this increases even further in response to toxins. Enhanced cell signaling via p53 and Nrf2 protects cells against proliferating with damage, augments clearance of damaged proteins and organelles and facilitates the maintenance of both genomic and protein integrity. These pathways collectively regulate a myriad of mechanisms which may contribute to the attenuated aging profile and sustained healthspan of the naked mole-rat. Understanding how these are regulated may be also integral to sustaining positive human healthspan well into old age and may elucidate novel therapeutics for delaying the onset and progression of physiological declines

  4. Twin pregnancy with both complete hydatiform mole and coexistent alive fetus: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achour Radhouane

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Twin pregnancy consisting of a complete hydatidiform mole coexisting with a live fetus is a rare condition with an incidence of 1 in 22000 to 1 in 100000 pregnancies. Clinical information is limited and management is difficult due to the risk of pregnancy complications such as fetal death, vaginal bleeding, preeclampsia, hyperthyroidism, and the risk of persistent gestational trophoblastic disease. Thus, the report described about the change of size and implantation site of the molar mass coexisting with a live fetus is rare especially about sonographic findings such as echo patterns. Recently we experienced a case of complete hydatidiform mole with a healthy infant delivered at term.

  5. Big insights from little animals: allosteric modulation and thermal sensitivity of shrew and mole hemoglobins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, K.L.; Weber, Roy E.

    2007-01-01

    Mass-specific metabolic rate varies inversely with size, while pulmonary transit time, muscle O2 storage capacity, and the ability to exploit anaerobic metabolism vary directly with this variable. Thus, small mammals must exploit a suite of morphological and physiological adjustments to supply...... and moles. Despite these constraints, several shrew (and mole) species flourish at elevations exceeding 4500 m (where atmospheric PO2 is ... operating near their upper limits, what if any additional functional properties of the Hb of these species make these achievements possible? Our findings suggest that changes in the intrinsic O2-affinity of the Hb moiety (rather than phosphate sensitivity) underlie transitions to and from hypoxic...

  6. Rhizopus oryzae hyphae are damaged by human natural killer (NK) cells, but suppress NK cell mediated immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stanislaw; Tramsen, Lars; Perkhofer, Susanne; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Hanisch, Mitra; Röger, Frauke; Klingebiel, Thomas; Koehl, Ulrike; Lehrnbecher, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    Mucormycosis has a high mortality and is increasingly diagnosed in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. In this setting, there is a growing interest to restore host defense to combat infections by adoptively transferring donor-derived immunocompetent cells. Natural killer (NK) cells exhibit antitumor and antiinfective activity, but the interaction with Mucormycetes is unknown. Our data demonstrate that both unstimulated and IL-2 prestimulated human NK cells damage Rhizopus oryzae hyphae, but do not affect resting conidia. The damage of the fungus is mediated, at least in part, by perforin. R. oryzae hyphae decrease the secretion of immunoregulatory molecules by NK cells, such as IFN-γ and RANTES, indicating an immunosuppressive effect of the fungus. Our data indicate that NK cells exhibit activity against Mucormycetes and future research should evaluate NK cells as a potential tool for adoptive immunotherapy in HSCT. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Isolation and optimization of pectinase enzyme production one of useful industrial enzyme in Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus oryzae, Penicilium chrysogenum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    akram songol

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pectinase enzyme is one of the most important industrial enzymes which isolated from a wide variety of microorganisms such as bacteria and filamentous fungi. This enzyme has been usually used in the fruit and textile industry. In this study, the isolation and optimization of pectinase-producing fungi on decaying rotten fruits were studied. Materials and methods: Isolation and screening of pectinase producing fungi performed through plate culture on pectin medium and staining with Lugol's iodine solution. The best strains were identified by ITS1, 4 sequencing as Aspergillus fumigatus, Rhizopus oryzae, Penicilium chrysogenum. The enzyme production was optimized by application of the five factorial design, each at three levels. These factors are carbon sources (whey, glucose and stevia, ammonium sulfate, manganese sulfate, temperature, and pH. Pectinase concentration was measured by the Miller method. Results: The results indicate that optimum condition for enzyme production for three fungi strains was obtained at 32 °C, pH = 6, 3g / L manganese sulfate, 2.75g / L of ammonium sulfate and 10g / L of each carbon source. The best experiment in obtaining the optimum enzyme contained 1.328 mg / ml of glucose for Aspergillus niger 1.284 and 1.039 mg / ml of whey for Rhizopus oryzae and Penicilium chrysogenum. Molecular weight of enzyme was about 40 and 37 kDa which was obtained by SDS- PAGE. Discussion and conclusion: The results indicate that three strains could grow in a wide range of carbon source, pH and temperature, which could be a good candidate for industrial application.

  8. Fob1 and Fob2 Proteins Are Virulence Determinants of Rhizopus oryzae via Facilitating Iron Uptake from Ferrioxamine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingfu Liu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Dialysis patients with chronic renal failure receiving deferoxamine for treating iron overload are uniquely predisposed for mucormycosis, which is most often caused by Rhizopus oryzae. Although the deferoxamine siderophore is not secreted by Mucorales, previous studies established that Rhizopus species utilize iron from ferrioxamine (iron-rich form of deferoxamine. Here we determined that the CBS domain proteins of Fob1 and Fob2 act as receptors on the cell surface of R. oryzae during iron uptake from ferrioxamine. Fob1 and Fob2 cell surface expression was induced in the presence of ferrioxamine and bound radiolabeled ferrioxamine. A R. oryzae strain with targeted reduced Fob1/Fob2 expression was impaired for iron uptake, germinating, and growing on medium with ferrioxamine as the sole source of iron. This strain also exhibited reduced virulence in a deferoxamine-treated, but not the diabetic ketoacidotic (DKA, mouse model of mucormycosis. The mechanism by which R. oryzae obtains iron from ferrioxamine involves the reductase/permease uptake system since the growth on ferrioxamine supplemented medium is associated with elevated reductase activity and the use of the ferrous chelator bathophenanthroline disulfonate abrogates iron uptake and growth on medium supplemented with ferrioxamine as a sole source of iron. Finally, R. oryzae mutants with reduced copies of the high affinity iron permease (FTR1 or with decreased FTR1 expression had an impaired iron uptake from ferrioxamine in vitro and reduced virulence in the deferoxamine-treated mouse model of mucormycosis. These two receptors appear to be conserved in Mucorales, and can be the subject of future novel therapy to maintain the use of deferoxamine for treating iron-overload.

  9. Influence of spatial environment on maze learning in an African mole-rat

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Toit, L

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available -1 Anim Cogn DOI 10.1007/s10071-012-0503-0 Influence of spatial environment on maze learning in an African mole-rat Lydia du Toit ? Nigel C. Bennett ? Alecia Nickless ? Martin J. Whiting L. du Toit , A. Nickless , M. J. Whiting (email) School...

  10. The eye of the African mole-rat Cryptomys anselli : to see or not to see?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cernuda-Cernuda, R; Garcia-Fernandez, JM; Gordijn, MCM; Bovee-Geurts, PHM; DeGrip, WJ; de Grip, W.J.

    In an attempt to clarify its possible physiological role, we studied the eye of the Zambian mole rat Cryptomys anselli by light, electron and confocal microscopy using conventional staining as well as immunolabelling with rod and cone cell markers. The small eyes of Cryptomys are located

  11. The eye of the african mole-rat Cryptomys anselli: to see or not to see?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cernuda-Cernuda, R.; Garcia-Fernandez, J.M.; Gordijn, M.C.; Bovee-Geurts, P.H.M.; Grip, W.J. de

    2003-01-01

    In an attempt to clarify its possible physiological role, we studied the eye of the Zambian mole rat Cryptomys anselli by light, electron and confocal microscopy using conventional staining as well as immunolabelling with rod and cone cell markers. The small eyes of Cryptomys are located

  12. The reproductive biology of the giant Zambian mole-rat, Cryptomys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1994-09-29

    Sep 29, 1994 ... gala (12° 27'S, 2T51'E) in the Copperbelt of northern Zam- hia. ... mole-rat, a pair of animals and a group comprising one male and three females .... Figure 1 Changes In bouy mass of a captive female Cr.vptom.vs mechowi ... The sex distribution was .... 'Ine social Cryptomys species are chmacteril,ed hy.

  13. Pre-evacuation hCG glycoforms in uneventful complete hydatidiform mole and persistent trophoblastic disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, C.M.G.; Kerkmeijer, L.G.W.; Ariaens, H.J.; Steen, R. van der; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Sweep, F.C.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the glycoform distribution patterns of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) obtained by chromatofocusing in pre-evacuation serum are different for patients who will eventually develop into persistent trophoblastic disease in case of complete hydatidiform mole

  14. Reading about the Power of Music: "Mole Music" and "Children of the Stone"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I review two books that address the power of music for the individual and group. Both books address the benefits of making, learning, and listening to music during times of conflict. The first brief review is David McPhail's picture book "Mole Music." The second is "Children of the Stone: The Power of Music in a…

  15. The Vital Role of Basic Mathematics in Teaching and Learning the Mole Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Alka; Koul, Anjni

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the importance of activity-based teaching in understanding the mole concept and the vital role of basic mathematical operations. It describes needs-based training for teachers in a professional development programme in India. Analysis of test results before and after the training indicates that teachers improved their…

  16. Plasticity and constraints on social evolution in African mole-rats: ultimate and proximate factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkes, Chris G; Bennett, Nigel C

    2013-05-19

    Here, we review comparative studies of African mole-rats (family Bathyergidae) to explain how constraints acting at the ultimate (environmental) and proximate (organismal) levels have led to convergent gains and losses of sociality within this extensive adaptive radiation of subterranean rodents endemic to sub-Saharan Africa. At the ultimate level, living in environments that range from mesic through to arid has led to both variation and flexibility in social organization among species, culminating in the pinnacle of social evolution in the eusocial naked and Damaraland mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber and Fukomys damarensis). The common mole-rat (Cryptomys hottentotus) provides a model example of how plasticity in social traits exists within a single species inhabiting areas with different ecological constraint. At the proximate level, reproductive strategies and cooperative breeding may be constrained by the correlated evolution of a suite of traits including physiological suppression of reproduction, the development of physiological and morphological castes, and the mode of ovulatory control and seasonality in breeding. Furthermore, recent neurobiological advances indicate that differential patterns of neurotransmitter expression within the forebrain may underpin (and limit) either a solitary or group living/cooperative lifestyle not only in mole-rats, but also more widely among disparate mammalian taxa.

  17. case of natural queen succession in a captive colony of naked mole ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Naked mole-rats occur in large colonies where usually a single queen monopolizes reproduction. Queen succession occurs from within usually as a result of aggressive encounters with subordinate females that queue for reproductive succession following colony instability, which inevitably results in death of either the ...

  18. Comparative analysis of genome maintenance genes in naked mole rat, mouse, and human

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L. Macrae (Sheila L.); Q. Zhang (Quanwei); C. Lemetre (Christophe); I. Seim (Inge); R.B. Calder (Robert B.); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); Y. Suh (Yousin); V.N. Gladyshev (Vadim N.); A. Seluanov (Andrei); V. Gorbunova (Vera); J. Vijg (Jan); Z.D. Zhang (Zhengdong D.)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractGenome maintenance (GM) is an essential defense system against aging and cancer, as both are characterized by increased genome instability. Here, we compared the copy number variation and mutation rate of 518 GM-associated genes in the naked mole rat (NMR), mouse, and human genomes. GM

  19. Morphological divergence of breeders and helpers in wild Damaraland mole-rat societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Andrew J; Bennett, Nigel C

    2010-11-01

    The specialization of body shape to an individual's role within society represents a pinnacle of social evolution. Although commonplace among social insects, divergence in the body shapes of breeders and helpers has to date been documented in just one social vertebrate, the naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber; an extraordinary species in which large colony size and frequent inbreeding may have favored the evolution of such specialization. Here, we present new evidence of morphological divergence between breeders and helpers in the Damaraland mole-rat, Fukomys damarensis; a much less socially extreme species that reflects an independent evolutionary origin of sociality. Using longitudinal data from wild populations, we show that dominant female Damaraland mole-rats, like many social insect queens, have a significantly more elongate body shape than subordinates. This difference arises not from a pre-existing difference in the body shapes of subordinates that do, and those that do not, become dominant, but from a modification to the growth trajectory of subordinates on dominance acquisition. Our findings reveal a wider role for morphological divergence within vertebrate societies and, as Damaraland mole-rats neither live in unusually large groups nor inbreed, suggest that circumstances favoring the evolution of such specializations may be more widespread among vertebrates than previously supposed. © 2010 The Author(s). Evolution© 2010 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  20. Blunted behavioral and c Fos responses to acidic fumes in the African naked mole-rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaVinka, Pamela Colleen; Park, Thomas J

    2012-01-01

    Acidosis in the skin triggers activation of pain pathways and behaviors indicative of pain in vertebrates. The exception is the naked mole-rat, the only known vertebrate to show physiological and behavioral insensitivity to acid pain in the skin. The goal of the present study was to determine behavioral and physiological responses of this species to airborne acidic fumes, which would be expected to affect the trigeminal pain pathway in other species. Behaviorally, naked mole-rats did not avoid fumes from moderately high concentrations of acetic acid (10 and 20%), and c Fos labeling showed no increase in activity in the trigeminal nuclei and nucleus tractus solitarius. In contrast, these concentrations triggered behavioral aversion and increased Fos activity in other laboratory rodents. For a very high concentration of acetic acid (50%), naked mole-rats showed significant avoidance behavior and increased Fos labeling in the nucleus tractus solitarius caudal region, which receives vagal chemosensory information. However, there was no increase in trigeminal labeling, and in fact, activity significantly decreased. This pattern is opposite of that associated with another irritant, ammonia fumes, which elicited an increase in trigeminal but not nucleus tractus solitarius Fos labeling, and no behavioral avoidance. Behavioral avoidance of acidic fumes, but no increased labeling in the trigeminal pain nucleus is consistent with the notion of adaptations to blunt acid pain, which would be advantageous for naked mole-rats as they normally live under chronically high levels of acidosis-inducing CO(2).

  1. Blunted behavioral and c Fos responses to acidic fumes in the African naked mole-rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Colleen LaVinka

    Full Text Available Acidosis in the skin triggers activation of pain pathways and behaviors indicative of pain in vertebrates. The exception is the naked mole-rat, the only known vertebrate to show physiological and behavioral insensitivity to acid pain in the skin. The goal of the present study was to determine behavioral and physiological responses of this species to airborne acidic fumes, which would be expected to affect the trigeminal pain pathway in other species. Behaviorally, naked mole-rats did not avoid fumes from moderately high concentrations of acetic acid (10 and 20%, and c Fos labeling showed no increase in activity in the trigeminal nuclei and nucleus tractus solitarius. In contrast, these concentrations triggered behavioral aversion and increased Fos activity in other laboratory rodents. For a very high concentration of acetic acid (50%, naked mole-rats showed significant avoidance behavior and increased Fos labeling in the nucleus tractus solitarius caudal region, which receives vagal chemosensory information. However, there was no increase in trigeminal labeling, and in fact, activity significantly decreased. This pattern is opposite of that associated with another irritant, ammonia fumes, which elicited an increase in trigeminal but not nucleus tractus solitarius Fos labeling, and no behavioral avoidance. Behavioral avoidance of acidic fumes, but no increased labeling in the trigeminal pain nucleus is consistent with the notion of adaptations to blunt acid pain, which would be advantageous for naked mole-rats as they normally live under chronically high levels of acidosis-inducing CO(2.

  2. Hydatidiform mole and fetus with normal karyotype: support of a separate entity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejerslev, L O; Sunde, L; Hansen, B F

    1991-01-01

    Repetitive hydatidiform mole was observed in four pregnancies. The pregnancies presented with heavy bleeding and vomiting, but the post-evacuation courses were uncomplicated, with rapid regression of serum hCG levels. Cytogenetic investigations, analyses of restriction fragment length polymorphis...

  3. A Mole in the Sole: Case Report on Eccrine Poroma | Das | Internet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eccrine poroma is a benign tumor which arises from the intraepidermal portion of the eccrine sweat glands. 81 year old diabetic grandma worried about her persistently uncontrolled blood sugar owing to a painless mole in the sole of right foot for 2 years. Excisional biopsy revealed a sweat duct benign eccrine poroma.

  4. Hardness evaluation of cured urea-formaldehyde resins with different formaldehyde/urea mole ratios using nanoindentation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byung-Dae Park; Charles R. Frihart; Yan Yu; Adya P. Singh

    2013-01-01

    To understand the influence of formaldehyde/urea (F/U) mole ratio on the properties of urea–formaldehyde (UF) resins, this study investigated hardness of cured UF resins with different F/U mole ratios using a nanoindentation method. The traditional Brinell hardness (HB) method was also used...

  5. Biological and biochemical properties of human chorionic gonadotropin from urine of patients with hydatidiform mole and its radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Ryuichiro; Hamamoto, Tamotsu; Tanabe, Keizo; Takemori, Masayuki; Ashitaka, Yoshihiko

    1981-01-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) was extracted and purified from the urine of four patients with hydatidiform mole. The immunological activities of the hCG-hydatidiform mole by hCG radioimmunoassay (RIA) ranged from 9,380 to 9,700 IU/mg, and the biological activities measured by the immature rat ovarian weight method ranged from 7,250 to 7,780 IU/mg. The results of the amino acid compositions of all the hCG-hydatidiform moles were practically identical with those of hCG-normal pregnancies. The carbohydrate moiety of the hCG-hydatidiform mole was also suspected to be almost similar to that of hCG-normal pregnancies by the results of their in vitro and in vivo biological activities. It was demonstrated that hCG-hydatidiform mole was composed of α and β subunits (similar to a hCG-normal pregnancy) when hCG-hydatidiform mole was separated into subunits by SDS disc electrophoresis after treatment with mercaptoethanol. The RIA system of hCG-hydatidiform mole can be established. The concentrations of hCG in sera of normal pregnant women and patients with trophoblastic diseases assayed by hCG-hydatidiform mole RIA were equivalent to those obtained by a standard hCG RIA. Hence, a standard hCG-immunoassay method used in the management of trophoblastic diseases is considered reasonable so far as the immunoantigenecity of hCG is concerned. (author)

  6. Distribution of vasopressin in the brain of the eusocial naked mole-rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Greta J; De Vries, Geert J; Goldman, Sharry L; Goldman, Bruce D; Forger, Nancy G

    2007-02-20

    Naked mole-rats are eusocial rodents that live in large subterranean colonies in which one queen breeds with one to three males. All other animals are nonbreeding subordinates. The external features of male and female subordinates, including their genitalia, are remarkably monomorphic, as is their behavior. Because vasopressin (VP) is associated with social behaviors and sex differences in other species, its distribution in naked mole-rats was of interest. We used immunohistochemistry to examine VP in the brains of subordinate and breeding naked mole-rats of both sexes. As in other mammals, VP-immunoreactive (-ir) somata were found in the paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic nuclei (SON) and VP-ir projections from these nuclei ran through the internal and external zone of the median eminence. However, naked mole-rats had very few VP-ir cells in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and none in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN); the extensive network of fine-caliber VP-ir fibers usually seen in projection sites of the BST and SCN were also absent. Equally unexpected was the abundance of large-caliber VP-ir fibers in the dorsomedial septum. VP immunoreactivity was generally similar in all groups, with the exception of VP-ir cell number in the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH). Breeders had a population of labeled cells in the DMH that was absent, or nearly absent, in subordinates. Future studies on the function of VP in these areas are needed to determine how the atypical distribution of VP immunoreactivity relates to eusociality and the unusual physiology of naked mole-rats.

  7. PENGGUNAAN PROTEASE ASPERGILLUS sp. DAN RHIZOPUS sp. DENGAN KONSENTRASI YANG BERBEDA DALAM TAHAPAN UNHAIRING TERHADAP KUALITAS FISIK DAN LIMBAH CAIR PADA PENYAMAKAN KULIT DOMBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus Syafie

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui aktivitas proteolitik yang dihasilkan jamur Aspergillus sp. dan Rhizopus sp. dalam tahapan unhairing (buang rambut pada proses penyamakan kulit domba serta pengaruh penggunaan dengan konsentrasi berbeda, terhadap kuat tarik, kemuluran, suhu kerut, dan kualitas limbah (pH, BOD, dan COD. Materi yang digunakan yaitu 15 lembar kulit domba awetan garam dibagi 2 bagian sepanjang garis lurus punggung sehingga diperoleh 30 lembar kulit, kulit dibagi secara acak menjadi 10 kelompok. Perlakuan terdiri dari dua belas kombinasi yaitu protease dari Aspergillus sp., Rhizopus sp. serta gabungan antara Aspergillus sp. dan Rhizopus sp. dengan konsentrasi protease 2% (P1, 2,5% (P2, 3% (P3, dan sebagai kontrol P0. Proses unhairing secara konvensional menggunakan bahan kimia Na2S (3% dan kapur Ca(OH2 6% dengan 3 ulangan. Sampel air limbah setelah proses unhairing diambil dan dibawa ke laboratorium untuk uji kualitas. Kulit diproses lebih lanjut menjadi kulit samak glazed. Data yang diperoleh dianalisis menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap pola faktorial 3 x 4, apabila berbeda nyata dilakukan uji banding dengan uji Duncan’s new Multiple Range Test (DMRT. Hasil uji aktivitas proteolitik paling tinggi adalah gabungan antara protease dari Aspergillus sp. dan Rhizopus sp. yaitu sebesar 1.079,17 μM/ml/menit, sedangkan protease Aspergillus sp. dan Rhizopus sp. masing-masing memiliki aktivitas proteolitik sebesar 542,96 μM/ml/menit dan 392,89 μM/ml/menit. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penggunaan protease dengan konsentrasi yang berbeda dapat memberikan efek yang positif terhadap kualitas fisik dan limbah cair proses unhairing kulit domba. Konsentrasi protease 2,5% dan 3% dapat meningkatkan nilai kuat tarik dan suhu kerut kulit domba serta menghasilkan kulit yang bersih tanpa ada rambut yang menempel dan struktur serabut kolagen terbuka. Perlakuan protease sangat potensial karena dapat menekan angka BOD dan COD limbah

  8. Rhizopus-associated soft tissue infection in an immunocompetent air-conditioning technician after a road traffic accident: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada B. Rabie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Rhinocerebral or sinopulmonary mucromycosis is a well-recognized human fungal infection found among immunocompromised and diabetic patients. However, the infection is rare among immunocompetent hosts. We are reporting the case of an adult immunocompetent male patient working as an air-conditioning technician. The patient was a victim of a road traffic accident (RTA and sustained multiple fractures in the proximal part of the left tibia, distal femur, and scapula. Two weeks postoperatively, Rhizopus microspores were isolated from an infected traumatic wound over the distal femur. Surgical debridement was performed, and the patient was started on amphotericin B. Occupational exposure history and workplace environmental sanitation are crucial for the prevention of this potentially fatal yet preventable infection. Keywords: Rhizopus, Immunocompetent, Air conditioning

  9. Caffeine degradation by Rhizopus delemar in packed bed column bioreactor using coffee husk as substrate Degradação de cafeína por Rhizopus delemar em biorreator de colunas usando casca de café como substrato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Vanessa Tagliari

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Various microorganisms including bacteria, yeast and fungi can degrade caffeine. There are few publications about caffeine degradation pathway in filamentous fungi, mainly by solid-state fermentation (SSF. Studies were carried out on degradation of caffeine and their metabolites by filamentous fungi in SSF using coffee husk as substrate. The purpose of this work was to investigate the caffeine degradation pathway by Rhizopus delemar in packed bed column fermenter and to compare this degradation metabolism with glass flasks fermentation. The methylxanthines were quantified by HPLC analysis. The experiments were realized with the optimized conditions in previous experiments: pH 6.5, 28ºC, inoculation rate 10(6 spores/g substrate, aeration rate 60 mL/min and initial moisture 73%. Under these conditions, after 72 hous of fermentation was achieved only 0.19% of caffeine and 0.014% of theophylline in the coffee husk. The strain proved to be able for caffeine and theophylline degradation by SSF in packed bed column bioreactor.Diversos microrganismos incluindo bactérias, fungos e leveduras são capazes de assimilar a cafeína de meios sintéticos ou de resíduos de café. Existem poucos trabalhos sobre a via de degradação da cafeína em fungos filamentosos, principalmente por fermentação no estado sólido (FES. Estudos de degradação da cafeína por fungos filamentosos em FES usando casca de café como substrato vêm sendo realizados. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a via de degradação da cafeína por Rhizopus delemar em biorreator de colunas aeradas e comparar este metabolismo de degradação com o da fermentação em frascos de vidro. As metilxantinas foram quantificadas por análises em HPLC. Os experimentos foram realizados com as condições otimizadas previamente: pH 6,5, 28ºC, 10(6 espores/g substrato, vazão de ar 60 mL/min e 73% de umidade inicial. Após 90 horas de fermentação, 65% da cafeína foi reduzida, resultando 0

  10. Sociality and the telencephalic distribution of corticotrophin-releasing factor, urocortin 3, and binding sites for CRF type 1 and type 2 receptors: A comparative study of eusocial naked mole-rats and solitary Cape mole-rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coen, Clive W; Kalamatianos, Theodosis; Oosthuizen, Maria K; Poorun, Ravi; Faulkes, Christopher G; Bennett, Nigel C

    2015-11-01

    Various aspects of social behavior are influenced by the highly conserved corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) family of peptides and receptors in the mammalian telencephalon. This study has mapped and compared the telencephalic distribution of the CRF receptors, CRF1 and CRF2 , and two of their ligands, CRF and urocortin 3, respectively, in African mole-rat species with diametrically opposed social behavior. Naked mole-rats live in large eusocial colonies that are characterized by exceptional levels of social cohesion, tolerance, and cooperation in burrowing, foraging, defense, and alloparental care for the offspring of the single reproductive female. Cape mole-rats are solitary; they tolerate conspecifics only fleetingly during the breeding season. The telencephalic sites at which the level of CRF1 binding in naked mole-rats exceeds that in Cape mole-rats include the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus, hippocampal CA3 subfield, and dentate gyrus; in contrast, the level is greater in Cape mole-rats in the shell of the nucleus accumbens and medial habenular nucleus. For CRF2 binding, the sites with a greater level in naked mole-rats include the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus and dentate gyrus, but the septohippocampal nucleus, lateral septal nuclei, amygdalostriatal transition area, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and medial habenular nucleus display a greater level in Cape mole-rats. The results are discussed with reference to neuroanatomical and behavioral studies of various species, including monogamous and promiscuous voles. By analogy with findings in those species, we speculate that the abundance of CRF1 binding in the nucleus accumbens of Cape mole-rats reflects their lack of affiliative behavior. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Effect of Inoculum Dosage Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae mixture with Fermentation Time of Oil Seed Cake (Jatropha curcas L) to the content of Protein and Crude Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniati, T.; Nurlaila, L.; Iim

    2017-04-01

    Jatropha curcas L already widely cultivated for its seeds pressed oil used as an alternative fuel. This plant productivity per hectare obtained 2.5-5 tonnes of oil/ha / year and jatropha seed cake from 5.5 to 9.5 tonnes/ha/year, nutrient content of Jatropha curcas seed L potential to be used as feed material, However, the constraints faced was the low crude protein and high crude protein. The purpose of the research was to determine the dosage of inoculum and fermentation time of Jatropha seed cake by a mixture of Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae on crude protein and crude fibre. The study was conducted by an experimental method using a Completely Randomised Design (CRD) factorial design (3×3). The treatment consisted of a mixture of three dosage levels of Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae (= 0.2% d1, d2 and d3 = 0.3% = 0.4%) and three levels of fermentation time (w1 = 72 hours, 96 hours and w2 = w3 = 120 hours) each repeated three times. The parameters measured were crude protein and crude fibre. The results showed that dosages of 0.3% (Aspergillus niger Rhizopus oryzae 0.15% and 0.15%) and 72 hours (d2w1) is the dosage and the optimal time to generate the highest crude protein content of 21.11% and crude fibre amounted to 21.36%.

  12. Purification and characterization of an extracellular lipase from a thermophilic Rhizopus oryzae strain isolated from palm fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiol; Jonzo; Rugani; Druet; Sarda; Comeau

    2000-03-01

    We have isolated a lipolytic strain from palm fruit that was identified as a Rhizopus oryzae. Culture conditions were optimized and highest lipase production amounting to 120 U/ml was achieved after 4 days of cultivation. The extracellular lipase was purified 1200-fold by ammonium sulfate precipitation, sulphopropyl-Sepharose chromatography, Sephadex G 75 gel filtration and a second sulphopropyl-Sepharose chromatography. The specific activity of the purified enzyme was 8800 U/mg. The lipolytic enzyme has a molecular mass of 32 kDa by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and gel filtration. The enzyme exhibited a single band in active polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and its isoelectric point was 7.6. Analysis of Rhizopus oryzae lipase by RP-HPLC confirmed the homogeneity of the enzyme preparation. Determination of the N-terminal sequence over 19 amino acid residues showed a high homology with lipases of the same genus. The optimum pH for enzyme activity was 7.5. Lipase was stable in the pH range from 4.5 to 7.5. The optimum temperature for lipase activity was 35 degrees C and about 65% of its activity was retained after incubation at 45 degrees C for 30 min. The lipolytic enzyme was inhibited by Triton X100, SDS, and metal ions such as Fe(3+), Cu(2+), Hg(2+) and Fe(2+). Lipase activity against triolein was enhanced by sodium cholate or taurocholate. The purified lipase had a preference for the hydrolysis of saturated fatty acid chains (C(8)-C(18)) and a 1, 3-position specificity. It showed a good stability in organic solvents and especially in long chain-fatty alcohol. The enzyme poorly hydrolyzed triacylglycerols containing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and appeared as a suitable biocatalyst for selective esterification of sardine free fatty acids with hexanol as substrate. About 76% of sardine free fatty acids were esterified after 30 h reaction whereas 90% of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was recovered in the unesterified fatty acids.

  13. O2 binding and CO2 sensitivity in haemoglobins of subterranean African mole rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Roy E.; Jarvis, Jennifer U. M.; Fago, Angela

    2017-01-01

    that predictably safeguard pulmonary loading under hypoxic and hypercapnic burrow conditions. The O2 binding characteristics are discussed in relation to available information on the primary structure of Hbs from adult and developmental stages of mammals subjected to hypoxia and hypercapnia and the molecular......Inhabiting deep and sealed subterranean burrows, mole rats exhibit a remarkable suite of specializations, including eusociality (living in colonies with single breeding queens), extraordinary longevity, cancer immunity and poikilothermy, and extreme tolerance of hypoxia and hypercapnia. With little...... and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG, the major allosteric modulator of Hb-O2 affinity in red blood cells) in four social and two solitary species of African mole rats (family Bathyergidae) originating from different biomes and soil types across Central and Southern Africa. We found no consistent patterns...

  14. Visualization of mole fraction distribution of slow jet forming stably stratified field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fumizawa, Motoo; Hishida, Makoto

    1990-01-01

    An experimental study has been performed to investigate the behavior of flow and mass transfer in gaseous slow jet in which buoyancy force opposed the flow forming stably stratified field. The study has been performed to understand the basic features of air ingress phenomena at pipe rupture accident of the high temperature gas-cooled reactor. A displacement fringe technique was adopted in Mach-Zehnder interferometer to visualize the mole fraction distribution. As the result, the followings were obtained: (1) The stably stratified fields were formed in the vicinity of the outlet of the slow jet. The penetration distance of the stably stratified fields increased with Froude number. (2) Mass fraction distributions in the stably stratified fields were well correlated with the present model using the ramp mole velocity profile. (author)

  15. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on mole rats kidney: A histopathologic and ultrastructural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Türker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to realize the ultrastructural effects of ultraviolet radiation on the kidney tissue cells of mole rats (Spalax leucodon. The mole rats of 180–200 g body weight were divided into the control and radiation-trial groups. The control group was not given any radiation. The other groups were irradiated with artificially produced UVC radiation for 14, 28 and 60 days. The kidney tissue samples were prepared at the end of experiments and analyzed by the light and electron microscope. Several effects were observed in the kidney tissues cells analyzed in accordance with the dose magnitude of radiation. These results clearly show the detrimental effects of UVC radiation on kidney tissue cells in exposure periods dependent on radiation dose and exposure time.

  16. Analysis of internal doses to Mole voles inhabiting the East-Ural radioactive trace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinovsky, G.; Yarmoshenko, I. [Institute of Industrial Ecology UB RAS (Russian Federation); Chibiryak, M.; Vasil' ev, A. [Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology UB RAS (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Substantial task of development of approaches to radiation protection of non-human biota is investigation of relationships of exposure to dose, and dose to effects. Small mammals inhabiting territory of the East-Ural Radioactive Trace (EURT) are affected to ionizing radiation for many generations after accident at Mayak plutonium production in 1957. According to results of numerous studies a number of effects of exposure are observed. It is remarkable that the revealed effects are both negative and adaptive. In particular, the analysis of the variability of morphological structures of the axial skull and lower jaw in the population of northern mole vole (Ellobius talpinus Pall.), the burrowing rodent inhabiting the EURT, is of great interest. At the same time there is no reliable assessment of the radiation doses to these animals. Earlier we developed the approach to assess internal doses to mouse-like rodents (mice and voles) caused by incorporated {sup 90}Sr, which is the main dose contributing radionuclide at the EURT. Dose assessments are based on the results of beta-radiometry of intact bone. Routine methods for measuring the activity concentration of {sup 90}Sr in skeleton require ashing of samples, however in morphometric studies the destruction of material should be avoided: the skulls of mole voles are stored in the environmental samples depository of IPAE. Coefficients linking results of beta-radiometry of intact bone and activity concentration of {sup 90}Sr in skull of mouse was obtained basing on comparison of results of beta-radiometry of intact bone and bone ash. Obtained coefficients cannot be directly applied for calculating activity concentration of {sup 90}Sr in mole vole skulls because they are significantly larger. Therefore the additional study is required to assess proper coefficient of conversion from beta-radiometry to activity concentration of {sup 90}Sr. Developed dose assessment procedure includes application of the published values of

  17. Excited state intramolecular charge transfer reaction in binary mixtures of water and tertiary butanol (TBA): alcohol mole fraction dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Tuhin; Ghoshal, Piue; Biswas, Ranjit

    2008-02-07

    The excited state intramolecular charge transfer reaction of 4-(1-azetidinyl)benzonitrile (P4C) has been studied in water-tertiary butanol (TBA) mixtures at different alcohol mole fractions by using steady state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The ratio between the areas under the locally excited (LE) and charge transferred (CT) emission bands is found to exhibit a sharp rise at alcohol mole fraction approximately 0.04, a value at which several thermodynamic properties of this mixture is known to show anomalous change due to the enhancement of H-bonding network. The radiative rate associated with the LE emission also shows a maximum at this TBA mole fraction. Although the structural transition from the water-like tetrahedral network to the alcohol-like chain is reflected in the red shift of the absorption spectrum up to TBA mole fraction approximately 0.10, the emission bands (both LE and CT) show the typical nonideal alcohol mole fraction dependence at all TBA mole fractions. Quantum yield, CT radiative rate as well as transition moments also exhibit a nonideal alcohol mole fraction dependence. The time-resolved emission decay of P4C has been found to be biexponential at all TBA mole fractions, regardless of emission collection around either the LE or the CT bands. The time constant associated with the slow component (tau(slow)) shows a minimum at TBA mole fraction approximately 0.04, whereas such a minimum for the fast time constant, tau(fast) (representing the rate of LE --> CT conversion reaction) is not observed. The nonobservation of the minimum in tau(fast) might be due to the limited time resolution employed in our experiments.

  18. Locomotor Activity and Body Temperature Patterns over a Temperature Gradient in the Highveld Mole-Rat (Cryptomys hottentotus pretoriae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, Meghan; Bennett, Nigel C; Oosthuizen, Maria K

    2017-01-01

    African mole-rats are strictly subterranean mammals that live in extensive burrow systems. High humidity levels in the burrows prevent mole-rats from thermoregulating using evaporative cooling. However, the relatively stable environment of the burrows promotes moderate temperatures and small daily temperature fluctuations. Mole-rats therefore display a relatively wide range of thermoregulation abilities. Some species cannot maintain their body temperatures at a constant level, whereas others employ behavioural thermoregulation. Here we test the effect of ambient temperature on locomotor activity and body temperature, and the relationship between the two parameters, in the highveld mole-rat. We exposed mole-rats to a 12L:12D and a DD light cycle at ambient temperatures of 30°C, 25°C and 20°C while locomotor activity and body temperature were measured simultaneously. In addition, we investigated the endogenous rhythms of locomotor activity and body temperature at different ambient temperatures. Mole-rats displayed nocturnal activity at all three ambient temperatures and were most active at 20°C, but least active at 30°C. Body temperature was highest at 30°C and lowest at 20°C, and the daily cycle was highly correlated with locomotor activity. We show that the mole-rats have endogenous rhythms for both locomotor activity and body temperature. However, the endogenous body temperature rhythm appears to be less robust compared to the locomotor activity rhythm. Female mole-rats appear to be more sensitive to temperature changes than males, increased heterothermy is evident at lower ambient temperatures, whilst males show smaller variation in their body temperatures with changing ambient temperatures. Mole-rats may rely more heavily on behavioural thermoregulation as it is more energy efficient in an already challenging environment.

  19. Factors in Early Adolescence Associated With a Mole-Prone Phenotype in Late Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haoming; Marchetti, Michael A; Dusza, Stephen W; Chung, Esther; Fonseca, Maira; Scope, Alon; Geller, Alan C; Bishop, Marilyn; Marghoob, Ashfaq A; Halpern, Allan C

    2017-10-01

    Nevi are important phenotypic risk factors for melanoma in adults. Few studies have examined the constitutional and behavioral factors associated with a mole-prone phenotype in adolescents. To identify host, behavioral, and dermoscopic factors in early adolescence (age, 14 years) that are associated with a mole-prone phenotype in late adolescence (age, 17 years). A prospective observational cohort study from the Study of Nevi in Children was conducted from January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2014, with a 2- to 3-year follow-up. A total of 569 students from the school system in Framingham, Massachusetts, were enrolled in the 8th or 9th grade (baseline; mean [SD] age, 14.4 [0.7] years). The overall retention rate was 73.3%, and 417 students were reassessed in the 11th grade. Mole-prone phenotype in the 11th grade, defined as total nevus count of the back and 1 randomly selected leg in the top decile of the cohort or having any nevi greater than 5 mm in diameter. Of the 417 students assessed at follow-up in the 11th grade (166 females and 251 males; mean [SD] age, 17.0 [0.4] years), 111 participants (26.6%) demonstrated a mole-prone phenotype: 69 students (62.2%) with 1 nevus greater than 5 mm in diameter, 23 students (20.7%) with total nevus count in the top decile, and 19 students (17.1%) with both characteristics. On multivariate analysis, baseline total nevus count (adjusted odds ratio, 9.08; 95% CI, 4.0-23.7; P adolescents for higher-intensity counseling about sun protection and skin self-examination.

  20. Naked mole-rat cortical neurons are resistant to acid-induced cell death

    OpenAIRE

    Husson, Zoé; Smith, Ewan S

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Regulation of brain pH is a critical homeostatic process and changes in brain pH modulate various ion channels and receptors and thus neuronal excitability. Tissue acidosis, resulting from hypoxia or hypercapnia, can activate various proteins and ion channels, among which acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) a family of primarily Na+ permeable ion channels, which alongside classical excitotoxicity causes neuronal death. Naked mole-rats (NMRs, Heterocephalus glaber) are ...

  1. Digital dissection of the masticatory muscles of the naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber (Mammalia, Rodentia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip G. Cox

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber, of the family Bathyergidae is a subterranean rodent that feeds on underground roots and tubers and digs extensive tunnel systems with its incisors. It is a highly unusual mammal with regard to its social structure, longevity, pain insensitivity and cancer resistance, all of which have made it the subject of a great deal of research in recent years. Yet, much of the basic anatomy of this species remains undocumented. In this paper, we describe the morphology of the jaw-closing musculature of the naked mole-rat, as revealed by contrast-enhanced micro-computed tomography. This technique uses an iodine stain to enable the imaging of soft tissues with microCT. The iodine-enhanced scans were used to create 3D reconstructions of the naked mole-rat masticatory muscles from which muscle masses were calculated. The jaw-closing musculature of Heterocephalus glaber is relatively very large compared to other rodents and is dominated by the superficial masseter, the deep masseter and the temporalis. The temporalis in particular is large for a rodent, covering the entirety of the braincase and much of the rear part of the orbit. The morphology of the masseter complex described here differs from two other published descriptions of bathyergid masticatory muscles, but is more similar to the arrangement seen in other rodent families. The zygomaticomandibularis (ZM muscle does not protrude through the infraorbital foramen on to the rostrum and thus the naked mole-rat should be considered protrogomorphous rather than hystricomorphous, and the morphology is consistent with secondarily lost hystricomorphy as has been previously suggested for Bathyergidae. Overall, the morphology of the masticatory musculature indicates a species with a high bite force and a wide gape–both important adaptations for a life dominated by digging with the incisors.

  2. Family Wide Molecular Adaptations to Underground Life in African Mole-Rats Revealed by Phylogenomic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Kalina T J; Bennett, Nigel C; Tsagkogeorga, Georgia; Rossiter, Stephen J; Faulkes, Christopher G

    2015-12-01

    During their evolutionary radiation, mammals have colonized diverse habitats. Arguably the subterranean niche is the most inhospitable of these, characterized by reduced oxygen, elevated carbon dioxide, absence of light, scarcity of food, and a substrate that is energetically costly to burrow through. Of all lineages to have transitioned to a subterranean niche, African mole-rats are one of the most successful. Much of their ecological success can be attributed to a diet of plant storage organs, which has allowed them to colonize climatically varied habitats across sub-Saharan Africa, and has probably contributed to the evolution of their diverse social systems. Yet despite their many remarkable phenotypic specializations, little is known about molecular adaptations underlying these traits. To address this, we sequenced the transcriptomes of seven mole-rat taxa, including three solitary species, and combined new sequences with existing genomic data sets. Alignments of more than 13,000 protein-coding genes encompassed, for the first time, all six genera and the full spectrum of ecological and social variation in the clade. We detected positive selection within the mole-rat clade and along ancestral branches in approximately 700 genes including loci associated with tumorigenesis, aging, morphological development, and sociality. By combining these results with gene ontology annotation and protein-protein networks, we identified several clusters of functionally related genes. This family wide analysis of molecular evolution in mole-rats has identified a suite of positively selected genes, deepening our understanding of the extreme phenotypic traits exhibited by this group. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  3. Investigation of the presence and antinociceptive function of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kristine B.; Krogh-Jensen, Karen; Pickering, Darryl S

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the cholinergic system in the African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) with focus on the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes M1 and M4. The protein sequences for the subtypes m 1–5 of the naked mole-rat were compared to that of the house mouse (Mus...... musculus) using basic local alignment search tool (BLAST). The presence and function of M1 and M4 was investigated in vivo, using the formalin test with the muscarinic receptor agonists xanomeline and VU0152100. Spinal cord tissue from the naked mole-rat was used for receptor saturation binding studies...

  4. Indium mole fraction effect on the structural and optical properties of quaternary AlInGaN epilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J P; Jin, R Q; Zhang, J C; Wang, J F; Wu, M; Zhu, J J; Zhao, D G; Wang, Y T; Yang, H

    2004-01-01

    AlInGaN quaternary epilayers with varying In mole fraction were investigated using triple-axis x-ray diffraction and photoluminescence measurements. The indium compositional fluctuation is enhanced with increasing In mole fraction, whereas the mosaicity of the AlInGaN epilayers is determined through the GaN template quality. Based on the analysis of the temperature dependence of the PL peak position, it is found that the localization effect strengthens with increasing In mole fraction due to the larger fluctuations of the In distribution. Increasing the influence of the localized state results in increasing the emission intensity and FWHM with the In content

  5. Cancer resistance in the blind mole rat is mediated by concerted necrotic cell death mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbunova, Vera; Hine, Christopher; Tian, Xiao; Ablaeva, Julia; Gudkov, Andrei V.; Nevo, Eviatar; Seluanov, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    Blind mole rats Spalax (BMR) are small subterranean rodents common in the Middle East. BMR is distinguished by its adaptations to life underground, remarkable longevity (with a maximum documented lifespan of 21 y), and resistance to cancer. Spontaneous tumors have never been observed in spalacids. To understand the mechanisms responsible for this resistance, we examined the growth of BMR fibroblasts in vitro of the species Spalax judaei and Spalax golani. BMR cells proliferated actively for 7–20 population doublings, after which the cells began secreting IFN-β, and the cultures underwent massive necrotic cell death within 3 d. The necrotic cell death phenomenon was independent of culture conditions or telomere shortening. Interestingly, this cell behavior was distinct from that observed in another long-lived and cancer-resistant African mole rat, Heterocephalus glaber, the naked mole rat in which cells display hypersensitivity to contact inhibition. Sequestration of p53 and Rb proteins using SV40 large T antigen completely rescued necrotic cell death. Our results suggest that cancer resistance of BMR is conferred by massive necrotic response to overproliferation mediated by p53 and Rb pathways, and triggered by the release of IFN-β. Thus, we have identified a unique mechanism that contributes to cancer resistance of this subterranean mammal extremely adapted to life underground. PMID:23129611

  6. Radioimmunoassay of β sub unit HCG following hydatidiform mole or chorionic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tscherne, G.; Puerstner, P.

    1979-01-01

    The radioimmunoassay of Beta Sub Unit HCG in the serum heralds a marked improvement in the diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic disease. In nine cases of hydatidiform mole and three cases of chorionic carcinoma serial examinations of the Beta Sub Unit HCG were performed. When the immunologic pregnancy test became negative following a hydatidiform mole or following treatment of chorionic carcinoma, the HCG excretion remained above detectable values for several more weeks. The decrease of Beta Sub Unit serum HCG was either linear or in fluctuations. The detection of fluctuations or a secondary rise in the Beta Sub Unit HCG titre permits the early diagnosis of invasive trophoblastic disease following hydatidiform mole or of insufficient treatment or recurrence in cases of chorionic carcinoma. Our results suggest that the optimal follow-up with Beta Sub Unit serum HCG is by weekly determinations until four consecutive determinations remained negative. This is followed by two determinations at bi-weekly intervals and thereafter monthly follow-up examinations. (orig.) 891 AJ/orig. 892 BRE [de

  7. Sex, social status, and CRF receptor densities in naked mole-rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beery, Annaliese K; Bicks, Lucy; Mooney, Skyler J; Goodwin, Nastacia L; Holmes, Melissa M

    2016-02-01

    Naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber) live in groups that are notable for their large size and caste structure, with breeding monopolized by a single female and a small number of males. Recent studies have demonstrated substantial differences between the brains of breeders and subordinates induced by changes in social standing. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptors-which bind the hormone CRF as well as related peptides-are important regulators of stress and anxiety, and are emerging as factors affecting social behavior. We conducted autoradiographic analyses of CRF1 and CRF2 receptor binding densities in female and male naked mole-rats varying in breeding status. Both globally and in specific brain regions, CRF1 receptor densities varied with breeding status. CRF1 receptor densities were higher in subordinates across brain regions, and particularly in the piriform cortex and cortical amygdala. Sex differences were present in CRF2 receptor binding densities, as is the case in multiple vole species. CRF2 receptor densities were higher in females, both globally and in the cortical amygdala and lateral amygdalar nucleus. These results provide novel insights into the neurobiology of social hierarchy in naked mole-rats, and add to a growing body of work that links changes in the CRF system with social behavior. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Cutaneous and periodontal inputs to the cerebellum of the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarko, Diana K; Leitch, Duncan B; Catania, Kenneth C

    2013-01-01

    The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a small fossorial rodent with specialized dentition that is reflected by the large cortical area dedicated to representation of the prominent incisors. Due to naked mole-rats' behavioral reliance on the incisors for digging and for manipulating objects, as well as their ability to move the lower incisors independently, we hypothesized that expanded somatosensory representations of the incisors would be present within the cerebellum in order to accommodate a greater degree of proprioceptive, cutaneous, and periodontal input. Multiunit electrophysiological recordings targeting the ansiform lobule were used to investigate tactile inputs from receptive fields on the entire body with a focus on the incisors. Similar to other rodents, a fractured somatotopy appeared to be present with discrete representations of the same receptive fields repeated within each folium of the cerebellum. These findings confirm the presence of somatosensory inputs to a large area of the naked mole-rat cerebellum with particularly extensive representations of the lower incisors and mystacial vibrissae. We speculate that these extensive inputs facilitate processing of tactile cues as part of a sensorimotor integration network that optimizes how sensory stimuli are acquired through active exploration and in turn adjusts motor outputs (such as independent movement of the lower incisors). These results highlight the diverse sensory specializations and corresponding brain organizational schemes that have evolved in different mammals to facilitate exploration of and interaction with their environment.

  9. Cutaneous and periodontal inputs to the cerebellum of the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana K Sarko

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber is a small fossorial rodent with specialized dentition that is reflected by the large cortical area dedicated to representation of the prominent incisors. Due to naked mole-rats’ behavioral reliance on the incisors for digging and for manipulating objects, as well as their ability to move the lower incisors independently, we hypothesized that expanded somatosensory representations of the incisors would be present within the cerebellum in order to accommodate a greater degree of proprioceptive, cutaneous, and periodontal input. Multiunit electrophysiological recordings targeting the ansiform lobule were used to investigate tactile inputs from receptive fields on the entire body with a focus on the incisors. Similar to other rodents, a fractured somatotopy appeared to be present with discrete representations of the same receptive fields repeated within each folium of the cerebellum. These findings confirm the presence of somatosensory inputs to a large area of the naked mole-rat cerebellum with particularly extensive representations of the lower incisors and mystacial vibrissae. We speculate that these extensive inputs facilitate processing of tactile cues as part of a sensorimotor integration network that optimizes how sensory stimuli are acquired through active exploration and in turn adjusts motor outputs (such as independent movement of the lower incisors. These results highlight the diverse sensory specializations and corresponding brain organizational schemes that have evolved in different mammals to facilitate exploration of and interaction with their environment.

  10. Naked mole-rat mortality rates defy Gompertzian laws by not increasing with age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruby, J Graham; Smith, Megan

    2018-01-01

    The longest-lived rodent, the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber), has a reported maximum lifespan of >30 years and exhibits delayed and/or attenuated age-associated physiological declines. We questioned whether these mouse-sized, eusocial rodents conform to Gompertzian mortality laws by experiencing an exponentially increasing risk of death as they get older. We compiled and analyzed a large compendium of historical naked mole-rat lifespan data with >3000 data points. Kaplan-Meier analyses revealed a substantial portion of the population to have survived at 30 years of age. Moreover, unlike all other mammals studied to date, and regardless of sex or breeding-status, the age-specific hazard of mortality did not increase with age, even at ages 25-fold past their time to reproductive maturity. This absence of hazard increase with age, in defiance of Gompertz’s law, uniquely identifies the naked mole-rat as a non-aging mammal, confirming its status as an exceptional model for biogerontology. PMID:29364116

  11. Moles (Nevi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Registration General information Housing & travel Education Exhibit hall Mobile app 2019 Annual Meeting Derm Exam Prep Course ... SkinPAC State societies Scope of practice Truth in advertising NP/PA laws Action center Public and patients ...

  12. Hydatidiform mole

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... avoid another pregnancy and to use a reliable contraceptive for 6 to 12 months after treatment for ... Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014: ...

  13. High-Level Expression of Pro-Form Lipase from Rhizopus oryzae in Pichia pastoris and Its Purification and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Rong Wang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A gene encoding Rhizopus oryzae lipase containing prosequence (ProROL was cloned into the pPICZαA and electrotransformed into the Pichia pastoris X-33 strain. The lipase was functionally expressed and secreted in Pichia pastoris with a molecular weight of 35 kDa. The maximum lipase activity of recombinant lipase (rProROL was 21,000 U/mL, which was obtained in a fed-batch cultivation after 168 h induction with methanol in a 50-L bioreactor. After fermentation, the supernatant was concentrated by ultrafiltration with a 10 kDa cut off membrane and purified with ion exchange chromatography using SP Sepharose Fast Flow chromatography. The optimum pH and temperature of the rProROL were pH 9.0 and 40 °C, respectively. The lipase was stable from pH 4.0 to 9.0 and from 25 to 55 °C. The enzyme activity was enhanced by Ca2+ and inhibited by Hg2+ and Ag+. The lipase showed high activity toward triglyceride-Tripalmitin (C16:0 and triglyceride-Trilaurin (C12:0.

  14. Antioxidant activity of raw, cooked and Rhizopus oligosporus fermented beans of Canavalia of coastal sand dunes of Southwest India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niveditha, Vedavyas R; Sridhar, Kandikere R

    2014-11-01

    The raw and processed (cooked and cooked + solid-state fermented with Rhizopus oligosporus) split beans of two landraces of coastal sand dune wild legumes (Canavalia cathartica and Canavalia maritima) of the southwest coast of India were examined for bioactive compounds (total phenolics, tannins and vitamin C) and antioxidant potential (total antioxidant activity, ferrous-ion chelating capacity, DPPH free radical-scavenging activity and reducing activity). One-way ANOVA revealed significant elevation of bioactive compounds as well as antioxidant activities in fermented beans compared to raw and cooked beans in both legumes (p beans of both legumes were significantly lowest compared to raw and cooked beans (p beans of C. cathartica, while total antioxidant and free radical-scavenging activities of fermented beans of C. maritima were clustered. The present study demonstrated that split beans of coastal sand dune Canavalia fermented by R. oligosporus endowed with high bioactive principles as well as antioxidant potential and thus serve as future nutraceutical source.

  15. Lead Biosorption by Self-Immobilized Rhizopus nigricans Pellets in a Laboratory Scale Packed Bed Column: Mathematical Model and Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Kogej

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The biosorption of lead ions from aqueous solution on a self-immobilized Rhizopus nigricans biomass has been studied. Experiments were performed in a laboratory scale packed bed column at different liquid flow rates and biosorbent bed heights. Recorded experimental breakthrough curves were compared to those predicted by a mathematical model, which was developed to simulate a packed bed biosorption process by a soft, self-immobilized fungal biosorbent. In the range of examined experimental conditions, the biomass characteristics such as pellet porosity and biosorption capacity substantially affected the predicted response curve. General correlations for the estimation of the intra-pellet effective diffusivity, the external mass transfer coefficient, as well as axial dispersion were successfully applied in this biological system with specific mechanical properties. Under the experimental conditions, mass transfer is controlled by the external film resistance, while the intra-pellet mass transfer resistance, as well as the effect of axial dispersion, can be neglected. A new parameter α, the fraction of active biomass, with an average value of α=0.7, was introduced to take into account the specific biomass characteristics, and consequently the observed non-ideal liquid flow through the bed of fungal pellets.

  16. Immobilized Rhizopus oryzae lipase catalyzed synthesis of palm stearin and cetyl alcohol wax esters: Optimization by Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gargouri Youssef

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Waxes are esters of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain alcohols. Their principal natural sources are animals (sperm whale oil and vegetables (jojoba which are expensive and not easily available. Wax esters synthesized by enzymatic transesterification, using palm stearin as raw material, can be considered as an alternative to natural ones. Results Palm stearin is a solid fraction obtained by fractionation of palm oil. Palm stearin was esterified with cetyl alcohol to produce a mixture of wax esters. A non-commercial immobilized lipase from Rhizopus oryzae was used as biocatalyst. Response surface methodology was employed to determine the effects of the temperature (30-50°C, the enzyme concentration (33.34-300 IU/mL, the alcohol/palm stearin molar ratio (3-7 mol/mol and the substrate concentration (0.06-0.34 g/mL on the conversion yield of palm stearin. Under optimal conditions (temperature, 30°C; enzyme concentration, 300 IU/mL; molar ratio 3 and substrate concentration 0.21 g/mL a high conversion yield of 98.52% was reached within a reaction time of 2 h. Conclusions Response surface methodology was successfully applied to determine the optimum operational conditions for synthesis of palm stearin based wax esters. This study may provide useful tools to develop economical and efficient processes for the synthesis of wax esters.

  17. One-pot conjugated linoleic acid production from castor oil by Rhizopus oryzae lipase and resting cells of Lactobacillus plantarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaskheli, Abid Ali; Talpur, Farah Naz; Cebeci Aydin, Aysun; Jawaid, Sana; Surhio, Muhammad Ali; Afridi, Hassan Imran

    2017-10-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has attracted as novel type of fatty acids having unusual health-promoting properties such as anticarcinogenic and antiobesitic effects. The present work employed castor oil as substrate for one-pot production of CLA using washed cells of Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) and lipases as catalysts. Among the screened lipases, the lipase Rhizopus oryzae (ROL) greatly assisted resting cells to produce CLA. Mass spectral analysis of the product showed that two major isomers of CLA were produced in the reaction mixture i.e. cis-9, trans-11 56.55% and trans-10, cis-12 43.45%. Optimum factors for CLA synthesis were found as substrate concentration (8 mg/mL), pH (6.5), washed cell concentration (12% w/v), and incubation time of 20 h. Hence, the combination of ROL with L. plantarum offers one pot production of CLA selectively using castor oil as a cost-effective substrate.

  18. The impact of Rhizopus oryzae cultivation on rice bran: Gamma-oryzanol recovery and its antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massarolo, Kelly Cristina; Denardi de Souza, Taiana; Collazzo, Carolina Carvalho; Badiale Furlong, Eliana; Souza Soares, Leonor Almeida de

    2017-08-01

    This study evaluated the effect of the solid state cultivation (SSC) time of rice bran by Rhizopus oryzae on γ-oryzanol recovery and its antioxidant properties. Gamma-oryzanol was extracted with organic solvents and its extracts were characterized by GC-FID and HPLC-UV. The antioxidant capacity was assessed by DPPH and ABTS + assays, β-carotene/linoleic acid system, and reduction of oxidation in lipid system. The biomass showed the γ-oryzanol recovery increased by 51.5% (20.52mg/g), and 5.7% in polyunsaturated fatty acids. The γ-oryzanol major components changing in their profile. The γ-oryzanol extract from biomass (72h) showed the greatest DPPH inhibition (59.0%), while 90.5% inhibition of oxidation of β-carotene/linoleic acid system, and 30% reduction of the indicators of oxidation in olive oil was observed in the one cultivated at 96h, these behaviors were confirmed by PCA analyses. SSC provides an increase in the γ-oryzanol recovery followed by improving of the functional properties of rice bran. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Antifungal Activity of Colistin against Mucorales Species In Vitro and in a Murine Model of Rhizopus oryzae Pulmonary Infection▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ami, Ronen; Lewis, Russell E.; Tarrand, Jeffrey; Leventakos, Konstantinos; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.

    2010-01-01

    In immunosuppressed hosts, mucormycosis is a life-threatening infection with few treatment options. We studied the activity of colistin (polymyxin E) against Mucorales species in vitro and in a murine model of pulmonary Rhizopus oryzae infection. Colistin exhibited fungicidal activity in vitro against Mucorales spores and mycelia. At the colistin MIC, initial R. oryzae hyphal damage was followed by rapid regrowth; however, regrowth was prevented by combining colistin with a subinhibitory concentration of amphotericin B. Using electron microscopy and FM4-64 staining, we demonstrated that colistin disrupts R. oryzae cytoplasmic and vacuolar membranes, resulting in the leakage of intracellular contents. The prophylactic intranasal treatment of immunosuppressed mice with colistimethate significantly reduced the mortality rate and pulmonary fungal burden resulting from inhalational challenge with R. oryzae spores, whereas intraperitoneal colistimethate treatment had no effect. We conclude that colistin has modest in vitro and in vivo fungicidal activity against Mucorales spp. Further studies are warranted to assess the use of this drug in the prevention and treatment of mucormycosis. PMID:19858263

  20. Antifungal activity of colistin against mucorales species in vitro and in a murine model of Rhizopus oryzae pulmonary infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ami, Ronen; Lewis, Russell E; Tarrand, Jeffrey; Leventakos, Konstantinos; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P

    2010-01-01

    In immunosuppressed hosts, mucormycosis is a life-threatening infection with few treatment options. We studied the activity of colistin (polymyxin E) against Mucorales species in vitro and in a murine model of pulmonary Rhizopus oryzae infection. Colistin exhibited fungicidal activity in vitro against Mucorales spores and mycelia. At the colistin MIC, initial R. oryzae hyphal damage was followed by rapid regrowth; however, regrowth was prevented by combining colistin with a subinhibitory concentration of amphotericin B. Using electron microscopy and FM4-64 staining, we demonstrated that colistin disrupts R. oryzae cytoplasmic and vacuolar membranes, resulting in the leakage of intracellular contents. The prophylactic intranasal treatment of immunosuppressed mice with colistimethate significantly reduced the mortality rate and pulmonary fungal burden resulting from inhalational challenge with R. oryzae spores, whereas intraperitoneal colistimethate treatment had no effect. We conclude that colistin has modest in vitro and in vivo fungicidal activity against Mucorales spp. Further studies are warranted to assess the use of this drug in the prevention and treatment of mucormycosis.

  1. Optimization of lactic acid production by pellet-form Rhizopus oryzae in 3-L airlift bioreactor using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneeboon, Thanapoom; Vanichsriratana, Wirat; Pomchaitaward, Chaiyaporn; Kitpreechavanich, Vichien

    2010-05-01

    The influence of two key environmental factors, pH and oxygen transfer coefficient (k(L)a), was evaluated on the lactic acid production as the main answer and, on the size of cell pellets of the fungal strain Rhizopus oryzae KPS106, as second dependant answer by response surface methodology using a central composite design. The results of the analysis of variance and modeling demonstrated that pH and k(L)a had a significant effect on lactic acid production by this strain. However, no interaction was observed between these two experimental factors. pH and k(L)a had no significant influence on the pellet size. Optimal pH and k(L)a of the fermentation medium for lactic acid production from response surface analysis was 5.85 and of 3.6 h(-1), respectively. The predicted and experimental lactic acid maximal values were 75.4 and 72.0 g/l, respectively, with pellets of an average of 2.54 +/- 0.41 mm. Five repeated batches in series were conducted with a mean lactic acid production of 77.54 g/l. The productivity was increased from 0.75 in the first batch to 0.99 g/l h in the last fifth batch.

  2. Cosmeceutical potentials and bioactive compounds of rice bran fermented with single and mix culture of Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dang Lelamurni Abd Razak

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, rice bran, one of the most abundant agricultural by-products in Malaysia, was fermented with single and mixed cultures of Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus oryzae. The fermented rice bran extracts were tested for their functional properties and compared to the non-fermented counterparts. Antioxidant activities as well as phenolics and organic acid contents were evaluated. Skincare-related functionalities were also tested by evaluating tyrosinase and elastase inhibition activities. Tyrosinase inhibition activity, measured to determine the anti-pigmentation effect of extracts, was found to be the highest in the extract of rice bran fermented with A. oryzae (56.18% compared to other extracts. In determining the anti-aging effect of fermented rice bran extracts, the same extract showed the highest elastase inhibition activity with a value of 60.52%. Antioxidant activities were found to be highest in the mix-cultured rice bran extract. The results of phenolic and organic acid content were varied; the major phenolic acid detected was ferulic acid with a value of 43.19 μg/ml in the mix-cultured rice bran extract. On the other hand, citric acid was the major organic acid detected, with the highest content found in the same extract (214.6 mg/g. The results of this study suggest that the fermented rice bran extracts may have the potential to be further exploited as ingredients in cosmetics as well as in antioxidant-rich products.

  3. Population characteristics of the mole crab, Hippa adactyla Fabricius, in the intertidal sediment at Kavaratti Atoll, Lakshadweep Islands

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.; Sreepada, R.A.; Ansari, Z.A.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Some population characteristics of a little known mole crab Hippa adactyla from the sandy intertidal habitat of Kavaratti atoll, Lakshadweep islands, were studied for understanding the resource potentials besides some features of breeding behavior...

  4. Community structure variability of Uropodina mites (Acari: Mesostigmata) in nests of the common mole, Talpa europaea, in Central Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Napiera?a, Agnieszka; M?dra, Anna; Leszczy?ska-Deja, Kornelia; Gwiazdowicz, Dariusz J.; Go?dyn, Bart?omiej; B?oszyk, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    Underground nests of Talpa europaea, known as the common mole, are very specific microhabitats, which are also quite often inhabited by various groups of arthropods. Mites from the suborder Uropodina (Acari: Mesostigmata) are only one of them. One could expect that mole nests that are closely located are inhabited by communities of arthropods with similar species composition and structure. However, results of empirical studies clearly show that even nests which are close to each other can be ...

  5. Efficacy of NETDC (New England Trophoblastic Disease Center prognostic index score to predict gestational trophoblastic tumor from hydatidiform mole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khrismawan Khrismawan

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A prospective longitudinal analytic study assessing the efficacy of NETDC (New England Trophoblastic Disease Center prognostic index score in predicting malignancy after hydatidiform mole had been performed. Of the parameter evaluated; age of patients, type of hydatidiform mole, uterine enlargement, serum hCG level, lutein cyst, and presence of complicating factors were significant risk factors for malignancy after hydatidiform mole were evacuated (p<0.032. The study were done on 50 women diagnosed with hydatidiform mole with 1 year observation (January 2001-December 2002 at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mohammad Hoesin Hospital, Palembang. The results showed that the NETDC prognostic index score predicted malignancy in 50% of high risk group and 10% in low risk group (p<0.05. This showed a higher number than that found by the WHO (19%-30%. The risk for incidence of  malignancy after hydatidiform mole in the high risk group is 9.0 times higher compared to that of the low risk group (CI: 1.769-45.786. (Med J Indones 2004; 13: 40-6 Keywords: New England Trophoblastic Disease Center (NETDC, gestational trophoblastic tumor, hydatidiform mole, high and low risk

  6. Investigation of the presence and antinociceptive function of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Kristine B; Krogh-Jensen, Karen; Pickering, Darryl S; Kanui, Titus I; Abelson, Klas S P

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the cholinergic system in the African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) with focus on the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes M1 and M4. The protein sequences for the subtypes m 1-5 of the naked mole-rat were compared to that of the house mouse (Mus musculus) using basic local alignment search tool (BLAST). The presence and function of M1 and M4 was investigated in vivo, using the formalin test with the muscarinic receptor agonists xanomeline and VU0152100. Spinal cord tissue from the naked mole-rat was used for receptor saturation binding studies with [(3)H]-N-methylscopolamine. The BLAST test revealed 95 % protein sequence homology showing the naked mole-rat to have the genetic potential to express all five muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes. A significant reduction in pain behavior was demonstrated after administration of 8.4 mg/kg in the formalin test. Administration of 50 mg/kg VU0152100 resulted in a non-significant tendency towards antinociception. The antinociceptive effects were reversed by the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist atropine. Binding studies indicated presence of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors with a radioligand affinity comparable to that reported in mice. In conclusion, muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes are present in the naked mole-rat and contribute to antinociception in the naked mole-rat.

  7. Hypofunctional TrkA Accounts for the Absence of Pain Sensitization in the African Naked Mole-Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omerbašić, Damir; Smith, Ewan St J; Moroni, Mirko; Homfeld, Johanna; Eigenbrod, Ole; Bennett, Nigel C; Reznick, Jane; Faulkes, Chris G; Selbach, Matthias; Lewin, Gary R

    2016-10-11

    The naked mole-rat is a subterranean rodent lacking several pain behaviors found in humans, rats, and mice. For example, nerve growth factor (NGF), an important mediator of pain sensitization, fails to produce thermal hyperalgesia in naked mole-rats. The sensitization of capsaicin-sensitive TRPV1 ion channels is necessary for NGF-induced hyperalgesia, but naked mole-rats have fully functional TRPV1 channels. We show that exposing isolated naked mole-rat nociceptors to NGF does not sensitize TRPV1. However, the naked mole-rat NGF receptor TrkA displays a reduced ability to engage signal transduction pathways that sensitize TRPV1. Between one- and three-amino-acid substitutions in the kinase domain of the naked mole-rat TrkA are sufficient to render the receptor hypofunctional, and this is associated with the absence of heat hyperalgesia. Our data suggest that evolution has selected for a TrkA variant that abolishes a robust nociceptive behavior in this species but is still compatible with species fitness. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Hypofunctional TrkA Accounts for the Absence of Pain Sensitization in the African Naked Mole-Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Omerbašić

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The naked mole-rat is a subterranean rodent lacking several pain behaviors found in humans, rats, and mice. For example, nerve growth factor (NGF, an important mediator of pain sensitization, fails to produce thermal hyperalgesia in naked mole-rats. The sensitization of capsaicin-sensitive TRPV1 ion channels is necessary for NGF-induced hyperalgesia, but naked mole-rats have fully functional TRPV1 channels. We show that exposing isolated naked mole-rat nociceptors to NGF does not sensitize TRPV1. However, the naked mole-rat NGF receptor TrkA displays a reduced ability to engage signal transduction pathways that sensitize TRPV1. Between one- and three-amino-acid substitutions in the kinase domain of the naked mole-rat TrkA are sufficient to render the receptor hypofunctional, and this is associated with the absence of heat hyperalgesia. Our data suggest that evolution has selected for a TrkA variant that abolishes a robust nociceptive behavior in this species but is still compatible with species fitness.

  9. Study of atmospheric CH4 mole fractions at three WMO/GAW stations in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shuang-Xi; Zhou, Ling-Xi; Masarie, Kenneth A.; Xu, Lin; Rella, Chris W.

    2013-05-01

    CH4 mole fractions were continuously measured from 2009 to 2011 at three WMO/GAW stations in China (Lin'an, LAN; Longfengshan, LFS; and Waliguan, WLG) using three Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy instruments. LAN and LFS are GAW regional measurement stations. LAN is located in China's most economically developed region, and LFS is in a rice production area (planting area > 40,000 km2). WLG is a global measurement station in remote northwest China. At LAN, high methane mole fractions are observed in all seasons. Surface winds from the northeast enhance CH4 values, with a maximum increase of 32 ± 15 ppb in summer. The peak to peak amplitude of the seasonal cycle is 77 ± 35 ppb. At LFS, the diurnal cycle amplitude is approximately constant throughout the year except summer, when a value of 196 ± 65 ppb is observed. CH4 values at LFS reach their peak in July, which is different from seasonal variations typically observed in the northern hemisphere. CH4 mole fractions at WLG show both the smallest values and the lowest variability. Maximum values occur during summer, which is different from other northern hemisphere WMO/GAW global stations. The seasonal cycle amplitude is 17 ± 11 ppb. The linear growth rates at LAN, LFS, and WLG are 8.0 ± 1.2, 7.9 ± 0.9, and 9.4 ± 0.2 ppb yr-1, respectively, which are all larger than the global mean over the same 3 year period. Results from this study attempt to improve our basic understanding of observed atmospheric CH4 in China.

  10. Genetic signatures for enhanced olfaction in the African mole-rats.

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    Sofia Stathopoulos

    Full Text Available The Olfactory Receptor (OR superfamily, the largest in the vertebrate genome, is responsible for vertebrate olfaction and is traditionally subdivided into 17 OR families. Recent studies characterising whole-OR subgenomes revealed a 'birth and death' model of evolution for a range of species, however little is known about fine-scale evolutionary dynamics within single-OR families. This study reports the first assessment of fine-scale OR evolution and variation in African mole-rats (Bathyergidae, a family of subterranean rodents endemic to sub-Saharan Africa. Because of the selective pressures of life underground, enhanced olfaction is proposed to be fundamental to the evolutionary success of the Bathyergidae, resulting in a highly diversified OR gene-repertoire. Using a PCR-sequencing approach, we analysed variation in the OR7 family across 14 extant bathyergid species, which revealed enhanced levels of functional polymorphisms concentrated across the receptors' ligand-binding region. We propose that mole-rats are able to recognise a broad range of odorants and that this diversity is reflected throughout their OR7 gene repertoire. Using both classic tests and tree-based methods to test for signals of selection, we investigate evolutionary forces across the mole-rat OR7 gene tree. Four well-supported clades emerged in the OR phylogeny, with varying signals of selection; from neutrality to positive and purifying selection. Bathyergid life-history traits and environmental niche-specialisation are explored as possible drivers of adaptive OR evolution, emerging as non-exclusive contributors to the positive selection observed at OR7 genes. Our results reveal unexpected complexity of evolutionary mechanisms acting within a single OR family, providing insightful perspectives into OR evolutionary dynamics.

  11. Multidimensional MRI-CT atlas of the naked mole-rat brain (Heterocephalus glaber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Fumiko; Hikishima, Keigo; Nambu, Sanae; Okanoya, Kazuo; Okano, Hirotaka J; Sasaki, Erika; Miura, Kyoko; Okano, Hideyuki

    2013-01-01

    Naked mole-rats have a variety of distinctive features such as the organization of a hierarchical society (known as eusociality), extraordinary longevity, and cancer resistance; thus, it would be worthwhile investigating these animals in detail. One important task is the preparation of a brain atlas database that provide comprehensive information containing multidimensional data with various image contrasts, which can be achievable using a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Advanced MRI techniques such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), which generates high contrast images of fiber structures, can characterize unique morphological properties in addition to conventional MRI. To obtain high spatial resolution images, MR histology, DTI, and X-ray computed tomography were performed on the fixed adult brain. Skull and brain structures were segmented as well as reconstructed in stereotaxic coordinates. Data were also acquired for the neonatal brain to allow developmental changes to be observed. Moreover, in vivo imaging of naked mole-rats was established as an evaluation tool of live animals. The data obtained comprised three-dimensional (3D) images with high tissue contrast as well as stereotaxic coordinates. Developmental differences in the visual system were highlighted in particular by DTI. Although it was difficult to delineate optic nerves in the mature adult brain, parts of them could be distinguished in the immature neonatal brain. From observation of cortical thickness, possibility of high somatosensory system development replaced to the visual system was indicated. 3D visualization of brain structures in the atlas as well as the establishment of in vivo imaging would promote neuroimaging researches towards detection of novel characteristics of eusocial naked mole-rats.

  12. Multidimensional MRI-CT atlas of the naked mole-rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiko eSeki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Naked mole-rats have a variety of distinctive features such as the organisation of a hierarchical society (known as eusociality, extraordinary longevity, and cancer resistance; thus, it would be worthwhile investigating these animals in detail. One important task is the preparation of a brain atlas database that provide comprehensive information containing multidimensional data with various image contrasts, which can be achievable using a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Advanced MRI techniques such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, which generates high contrast images of fibre structures, can characterise unique morphological properties in addition to conventional MRI. To obtain high spatial resolution images, MR histology, DTI, and X-ray computed tomography (CT were performed on the fixed adult brain. Skull and brain structures were segmented as well as reconstructed in stereotaxic coordinates. Data were also acquired for the neonatal brain to allow developmental changes to be observed. Moreover, in vivo imaging of naked mole-rats was established as an evaluation tool of live animals. The data obtained comprised three-dimensional (3D images with high tissue contrast as well as stereotaxic coordinates. Developmental differences in the visual system were highlighted in particular by DTI. Although it was difficult to delineate optic nerves in the mature adult brain, parts of them could be distinguished in the immature neonatal brain. From observation of cortical thickness, possibility of high somatosensory system development replaced to the visual system was indicated. 3D visualisation of brain structures in the atlas as well as the establishment of in vivo imaging would promote neuroimaging researches towards detection of novel characteristics of eusocial naked mole-rats.

  13. Naked mole-rat acid-sensing ion channel 3 forms nonfunctional homomers, but functional heteromers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhmacher, Laura-Nadine; Callejo, Gerard; Srivats, Shyam; Smith, Ewan St John

    2018-02-02

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) form both homotrimeric and heterotrimeric ion channels that are activated by extracellular protons and are involved in a wide range of physiological and pathophysiological processes, including pain and anxiety. ASIC proteins can form both homotrimeric and heterotrimeric ion channels. The ASIC3 subunit has been shown to be of particular importance in the peripheral nervous system with pharmacological and genetic manipulations demonstrating a role in pain. Naked mole-rats, despite having functional ASICs, are insensitive to acid as a noxious stimulus and show diminished avoidance of acidic fumes, ammonia, and carbon dioxide. Here we cloned naked mole-rat ASIC3 (nmrASIC3) and used a cell-surface biotinylation assay to demonstrate that it traffics to the plasma membrane, but using whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology we observed that nmrASIC3 is insensitive to both protons and the non-proton ASIC3 agonist 2-guanidine-4-methylquinazoline. However, in line with previous reports of ASIC3 mRNA expression in dorsal root ganglia neurons, we found that the ASIC3 antagonist APETx2 reversibly inhibits ASIC-like currents in naked mole-rat dorsal root ganglia neurons. We further show that like the proton-insensitive ASIC2b and ASIC4, nmrASIC3 forms functional, proton-sensitive heteromers with other ASIC subunits. An amino acid alignment of ASIC3s between 9 relevant rodent species and human identified unique sequence differences that might underlie the proton insensitivity of nmrASIC3. However, introducing nmrASIC3 differences into rat ASIC3 (rASIC3) produced only minor differences in channel function, and replacing the nmrASIC3 sequence with that of rASIC3 did not produce a proton-sensitive ion channel. Our observation that nmrASIC3 forms nonfunctional homomers may reflect a further adaptation of the naked mole-rat to living in an environment with high-carbon dioxide levels. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular

  14. Ultrasound imaging of partial hydatidiform mole in the second trimester of pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jover Labiste, Marina

    2012-01-01

    The case report of a 27 year-old patient with 18 weeks gestation, admitted to the Obstetrics Department of 'Mariana Grajales Coello' Provincial Gynecology and Obstetrics Hospital of Santiago de Cuba due to high blood pressure, cephalea and pain in lower abdomen is described. Additional tests confirmed a partial hydatidiform mole, so that uterine curettage was performed and small fragments of endometrial stroma were removed for pathological study. Outpatient medical monitoring was recommended and the patient had an appointment at 21 days for controlling and evaluating her general state

  15. Predictive value of some hematological parameters for non-invasive and invasive mole pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abide Yayla, Cigdem; Özkaya, Enis; Yenidede, Ilter; Eser, Ahmet; Ergen, Evrim Bostancı; Tayyar, Ahter Tanay; Şentürk, Mehmet Baki; Karateke, Ates

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to discriminate mole pregnancies and invasive forms among cases with first trimester vaginal bleeding by the utilization of some complete blood count parameters conjunct to sonographic findings and beta human chorionic gonadotropin concentration. Consecutive 257 cases with histopathologically confirmed mole pregnancies and 199 women without mole pregnancy presented with first trimester vaginal bleeding who admitted to Zeynep Kamil Women and Children's Health Training Hospital between January 2012 and January 2016 were included in this cross-sectional study. The serum beta HCG level at presentation, and beta hCG levels at 1st, 2nd and 3rd weeks of postevacuation with some parameters of complete blood count were utilized to discriminate cases with molar pregnancy and cases with invasive mole among first trimester pregnants presented with vaginal bleeding and abnormal sonographic findings. Levels of beta hCG at baseline (AUC = 0.700, p < 0.05) and 1st (AUC = 0.704, p < 0.05), 2nd (AUC = 0.870, p < 0.001) and 3rd (AUC = 0.916, p < 0.001) weeks of postevacuation period were significant predictors for the cases with persistent disease. While area under curve for mean platelet volume is 0.715, it means that mean platelet volume has 21.5% additional diagnostic value for predicting persistency in molar patients. For 8.55 cut-off point for mean platelet volume, sensitivity is 84.6% and specificity is 51.6%. Area under curve for platelet/lymphocyte ratio is 0.683 means that platelet/lymphocyte ratio has additional 18.3% diagnostic value. For 102.25 cut-off point sensitivity is 86.6% and specificity is 46.2. Simple, widely available complete blood count parameters may be used as an adjunct to other risk factors to diagnose molar pregnancies and predict postevacuation trophoblastic disease.

  16. Two unique ligand-binding clamps of Rhizopus oryzae starch binding domain for helical structure disruption of amylose.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Ying Jiang

    Full Text Available The N-terminal starch binding domain of Rhizopus oryzae glucoamylase (RoSBD has a high binding affinity for raw starch. RoSBD has two ligand-binding sites, each containing a ligand-binding clamp: a polyN clamp residing near binding site I is unique in that it is expressed in only three members of carbohydrate binding module family 21 (CBM21 members, and a Y32/F58 clamp located at binding site II is conserved in several CBMs. Here we characterized different roles of these sites in the binding of insoluble and soluble starches using an amylose-iodine complex assay, atomic force microscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry, site-directed mutagenesis, and structural bioinformatics. RoSBD induced the release of iodine from the amylose helical cavity and disrupted the helical structure of amylose type III, thereby significantly diminishing the thickness and length of the amylose type III fibrils. A point mutation in the critical ligand-binding residues of sites I and II, however, reduced both the binding affinity and amylose helix disruption. This is the first molecular model for structure disruption of the amylose helix by a non-hydrolytic CBM21 member. RoSBD apparently twists the helical amylose strands apart to expose more ligand surface for further SBD binding. Repeating the process triggers the relaxation and unwinding of amylose helices to generate thinner and shorter amylose fibrils, which are more susceptible to hydrolysis by glucoamylase. This model aids in understanding the natural roles of CBMs in protein-glycan interactions and contributes to potential molecular engineering of CBMs.

  17. Study of energetic-particle-irradiation induced biological effect on Rhizopus oryzae through synchrotron-FTIR micro-spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinghua; Qi, Zeming; Huang, Qing; Wei, Xiaoli; Ke, Zhigang; Fang, Yusheng; Tian, Yangchao; Yu, Zengliang

    2013-01-01

    Energetic particles exist ubiquitously and cause varied biological effects such as DNA strand breaks, lipid peroxidation, protein modification, cell apoptosis or death. An emerging biotechnology based on ion-beam technique has been developed to serve as an effective tool for mutation breeding of crops and microbes. In order to improve the effectiveness of ion-beam biotechnology for mutation breeding, it is indispensible to gain a better understanding of the mechanism of the interactions between the energetic ions and biological systems which is still elusive. A new trend is to conduct more comprehensive research which is based on micro-scaled observation of the changes of the cellular structures and compositions under the interactions. For this purpose, advanced synchrotron FTIR (s-FTIR) microscopy was employed to monitor the cellular changes of single fungal hyphae under irradiation of α-particles from 241Am. Intracellular contents of ROS, MDA, GSSG/GSH and activities of CAT and SOD were measured via biochemical assay. Ion-irradiation on Rhizopus oryzae causes localized vacuolation, autolysis of cell wall and membrane, lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and conformational changes of proteins, which have been clearly revealed by the s-FTIR microspectroscopy. The different changes of cell viability, SOD and CAT activities can be explained by the ROS-involved chemical reactions. Evidently, the elevated level of ROS in hyphal cells upon irradiation plays the key role in the caused biological effect. This study demonstrates that s-FTIR microspectroscopy is an effective tool to study the damage of fungal hyphae caused by ionizing radiation and it facilitates the exploit of the mechanism for the interactions between the energetic ions and biological systems.

  18. Determination of volatile components in fermented soybean prepared by a co-culture of Bacillus subtilis and Rhizopus oligosporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukeatirote, E.,

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Fermented soybeans are traditional foods widely consumed in many countries (i.e., Natto in Japan, Jang in Korea, Kinema in India, Douichi in China, and Thua Nao in Thailand. In this study, an attempt was made with an expectation to improve the fermentation process using a co-culture of Bacillus subtilis and Rhizopus oligosporus. Initially, the raw soybeans were washed, sterilized by autoclaving, and inoculated with two inocula; for this, three different ratios between B. subtilis and R. oligosporus used were 100:0, 50:50, and 0:100. The fermentation was then carried out at 30°C for 3 days. The volatile compounds in the non-fermented and the fermented soybean products were determined by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry (GC/MS and extracted using a solid phase microextraction (SPME technique. In total, 165 compounds were identified in the non-fermented and the fermented soybean products. For the non-fermented products, the predominant volatile compounds were alcohols (25.81%, aldehydes (13.64%, acids and esters (7.57%, furans (6.13% and ketones (0.88%. In contrast, the major volatiles compounds presented in the fermented soybeans were as follows: i The treatment of 100:0 consisted of acids and esters (35.89%, alcohols (14.55%, aldehydes (8.72%, ketones (4.97%, pyrazines (4.87%, and furans (4.22%; ii 50:50 comprised of acids and esters (55.62%, alcohols (16.22%, aldehydes (7.80%, pyrazine (3.65%, ketones (2.55%, furans (1.67%, and aromatic compounds (1.46%; and iii 0:100 included acids and esters (66.50%, alcohols (15.44%, aldehydes (2.59%, ketones (2.72%, furans (1.89%, aromatic compounds (1.80%, pyrazines (1.35%, and sulphur containing compounds (0.24% respectively.

  19. IN VITRO BIOACTIVITY OF CREOSOTE BUSH EXTRACTS (LARREA TRIDENTATA ON THE INHIBITION OF POSTHARVEST FUNGI: PENICILLIUM POLONICUM, ASPERGILLUS NIGER, RHIZOPUS ORYZAE Y ALTERNARIA TENUISSIMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Peñuelas-Rubio

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio se evaluó la eficiencia de extractos vegetales deLarrea tridentataobtenidos con diclorometano, etanol, metanol y agua, sobre el crecimiento radial in vitro de cuatro hongos fitopatógenos, los cuales primeramente fueron identificados en género y especie empleando claves taxonómicas y técnicas moleculares. Para los bioensayosin vitrose aplicaron diseños completamente al azar con cuatro tratamientos y tres repeticiones en cada hongo, utilizando las concentraciones: 0, 250, 500 y 750 ppm paraAlternaria sp.; 0, 2000, 2500 y 3000 paraAspergillus sp.; 0, 1500, 1750 y 2000 paraPenicillium sp. y 0, 150, 200 y 250 ppm paraRhizopus sp. Cada tratamiento tuvo tres repeticiones. El análisis molecular determinó la especie tenuissima paraAlternaria,nigerparaApergillus,polonicumparaPenicilliumyoryzaeparaRhizopus. En cuanto a las pruebasin vitro, se determinaron inhibiciones del 100% para tres de los hongos en estudio:Alternaria tenuissimacon extracto EtOH a 750 ppm;Aspergillus nigercon extracto DCM a 3000 ppm yRhizopus oryzaea partir de 150 ppm y 250 ppm de los extractos DCM y EtOH respectivamente. Se presentó una inhibición del 82% a 2000 ppm paraPenicillium polonicum. Se concluye que a pesar de las diferencias en susceptibilidad entre las especies fúngicas, los extractos deLarrea tridentataobtenidos con etanol y dicloromentano son efectivos para el control de los hongos fitopatógenos bajo estudioin vitro.

  20. Stimulation with lysates of Aspergillus terreus, Candida krusei and Rhizopus oryzae maximizes cross-reactivity of anti-fungal T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deo, Shivashni S; Virassamy, Balaji; Halliday, Catriona; Clancy, Leighton; Chen, Sharon; Meyer, Wieland; Sorrell, Tania C; Gottlieb, David J

    2016-01-01

    Invasive fungal diseases caused by filamentous fungi and yeasts are significant causes of morbidity and mortality in immunosuppressed hematology patients. We previously published a method to expand Aspergillus fumigatus-specific T cells for clinical cell therapy. In the present study, we investigated expansion of T cells specific for other fungal pathogens and creation of a broadly reactive panfungal T-cell product. Fungal strains selected were those frequently observed in the clinical hematology setting and included Aspergillus, Candida, Fusarium, Rhizopus and Lomentospora/Scedosporium. Four T-cell cultures specific to each fungus were established. We selected lysates of Aspergillus terreus, Candida krusei and Rhizopus oryzae to expand panfungal T cells. Allelic restriction of anti-fungal activity was determined through the use of specific major histocompatibility complex class II-blocking antibodies. Individual T-cell cultures specific to each fungus could be expanded in vitro, generating predominantly CD4(+) T cells of which 8% to 20% were fungus-specific. We successfully expanded panfungal T cells from the peripheral blood (n = 8) and granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor-primed stem cell products (n = 3) of normal donors by using a combination of lysates from Aspergillus terreus, Candida krusei and Rhizopus oryzae. Anti-fungal activity was mediated through human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR alleles and was maintained when antigen-presenting cells from partially HLA-DRB1-matched donors were used to stimulate T cells. We demonstrate a method to manufacture panfungal T-cell products with specificity against a range of clinical fungal pathogens by use of the blood and stem cells of healthy donors as the starting material. The safety and efficacy of these products will need to be tested clinically. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Absence of histamine-induced itch in the African naked mole-rat and "rescue" by Substance P.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ewan St John; Blass, Gregory R C; Lewin, Gary R; Park, Thomas J

    2010-05-24

    Recent research has proposed a pathway in which sensory neurons expressing the capsaicin activated ion channel TRPV1 are required for histamine-induced itch and subsequent scratching behavior. We examined histamine-induced itch in the African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) and found that although naked mole-rats display innate scratching behavior, histamine was unable to evoke increased scratching as is observed in most mouse strains. Using calcium imaging, we examined the histamine sensitivity of naked mole-rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons and identified a population of small diameter neurons activated by histamine, the majority of which are also capsaicin-sensitive. This suggested that naked mole-rat sensory neurons are activated by histamine, but that spinal dorsal horn processing of sensory information is not the same as in other rodents. We have previously shown that naked mole-rats naturally lack substance P (SP) in cutaneous C-fibers, but that the neurokinin-1 receptor is expressed in the superficial spinal cord. This led us to investigate if SP deficiency plays a role in the lack of histamine-induced scratching in this species. After intrathecal administration of SP into the spinal cord we observed robust scratching behavior in response to histamine injection. Our data therefore support a model in which TRPV1-expressing sensory neurons are important for histamine-induced itch. In addition, we demonstrate a requirement for active, SP-induced post-synaptic drive to enable histamine sensitive afferents to drive itch-related behavior in the naked mole-rat. These results illustrate that it is altered dorsal horn connectivity of nociceptors that underlies the lack of itch and pain-related behavior in the naked mole-rat.

  2. Absence of histamine-induced itch in the African naked mole-rat and "rescue" by Substance P

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewin Gary R

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent research has proposed a pathway in which sensory neurons expressing the capsaicin activated ion channel TRPV1 are required for histamine-induced itch and subsequent scratching behavior. We examined histamine-induced itch in the African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber and found that although naked mole-rats display innate scratching behavior, histamine was unable to evoke increased scratching as is observed in most mouse strains. Using calcium imaging, we examined the histamine sensitivity of naked mole-rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG neurons and identified a population of small diameter neurons activated by histamine, the majority of which are also capsaicin-sensitive. This suggested that naked mole-rat sensory neurons are activated by histamine, but that spinal dorsal horn processing of sensory information is not the same as in other rodents. We have previously shown that naked mole-rats naturally lack substance P (SP in cutaneous C-fibers, but that the neurokinin-1 receptor is expressed in the superficial spinal cord. This led us to investigate if SP deficiency plays a role in the lack of histamine-induced scratching in this species. After intrathecal administration of SP into the spinal cord we observed robust scratching behavior in response to histamine injection. Our data therefore support a model in which TRPV1-expressing sensory neurons are important for histamine-induced itch. In addition, we demonstrate a requirement for active, SP-induced post-synaptic drive to enable histamine sensitive afferents to drive itch-related behavior in the naked mole-rat. These results illustrate that it is altered dorsal horn connectivity of nociceptors that underlies the lack of itch and pain-related behavior in the naked mole-rat.

  3. Estudio de la producción heteróloga de una lipasa del hongo Rhizopus oryzae en la levadura metilotrófica Pichia pastoris

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano González, Alicia

    2004-01-01

    Consultable des del TDX Títol obtingut de la portada digitalitzada El trabajo recoge los principales aspectos de la producción recombinante de una lipasa del hongo Rhizopus oryzae (ROL) expresada en la levadura Pichia pastoris. El sistema de expresión empleado está basado en la utilización del promotor de la alcohol oxidasa (PAOX1) de la levadura y, por lo tanto es dependiente de la utilización de metanol como substrato inductor. El trabajo recoge una serie de estudios de producción en ...

  4. MOLE: A Multidisciplinary Observatory and Laboratory of Experiments in Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Dresen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The structure and mechanics of active Low Angle Normal Faults (LANFs have for decades b s been posing questions—in particular, if low angle normal faults accommodate crustal extension, and if they generate large magnitude earthquakes, or if they move aseismically. To shed new light on these challenging questions, MOLE intends to drill (down to 4–5 km an active LANF in the Umbria-Marche sector of the northern Apennines (Fig. 1 and to establish a deep borehole observatory. The target site offers a unique opportunity to reach a LANF at drillable seismogenic depth to unravel the “low angle normal fault mechanical paradox” (Wernicke, 1995; Axen, 2007. In order to discuss the scientific background and plan the MOLE project, ixty-two scientists from various research fields attended an international workshop in Spoleto, Italy, on 5–8 May 2008. The workshop focused on the following goals that need to be achieved: (I to collect new observational data at depth for constraining the fault zone structure; (II to perform laboratory experiments with gouge and fault zone materials to understand frictional properties and weakeningmechanisms; (III to record microearthquakes at distance comparable to the source radius, and (IV to obtain stress and strain measurements and geochemical data in and near the fault zone at depth to understand the mechanics of earthquakes and faulting.

  5. High accuracy measurements of dry mole fractions of carbon dioxide and methane in humid air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. W. Rella

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditional techniques for measuring the mole fractions of greenhouse gases in the well-mixed atmosphere have required dry sample gas streams (dew point inter-laboratory compatibility goals (WMO, 2011a without drying the sample gas. In this paper, we present laboratory methodology for empirically deriving the water vapour correction factors, and we summarise a series of in-situ validation experiments comparing the measurements in humid gas streams to well-characterised dry-gas measurements. By using the manufacturer-supplied correction factors, the dry-mole fraction measurements have been demonstrated to be well within the GAW compatibility goals up to a water vapour concentration of at least 1%. By determining the correction factors for individual instruments once at the start of life, this water vapour concentration range can be extended to at least 2% over the life of the instrument, and if the correction factors are determined periodically over time, the evidence suggests that this range can be extended up to and even above 4% water vapour concentrations.

  6. Dominance and queen succession in captive colonies of the eusocial naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, F M; Faulkes, C G

    1997-07-22

    Naked mole-rat colonies exhibit a high reproductive skew, breeding being typically restricted to one female (the 'queen') and one to three males. Other colony members are reproductively suppressed, although this suppression can be reversed following the removal or death of the queen. We examined dominance and queen succession within captive colonies to investigate the relationship between urinary testosterone and cortisol, dominance rank and reproductive status; and to determine if behavioural and/or physiological parameters can be used as predictors of queen succession. Social structure was characterized by a linear dominance hierarchy before and after queen removal. Prior to queen removal, dominance rank was negatively correlated with body weight and urinary testosterone and cortisol titres in males and females. Queen removal results in social instability and aggression between high ranking individuals. Dominance rank appears to be a good predictor of reproductive status: queens are the highest ranking colony females and are succeeded by the next highest ranking females. The intense dominance-related aggression that accompanies reproductive succession in naked mole-rats provides empirical support for optimal skew theory.

  7. Adaptations to a Subterranean Environment and Longevity Revealed by the Analysis of Mole Rat Genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Fang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Subterranean mammals spend their lives in dark, unventilated environments that are rich in carbon dioxide and ammonia and low in oxygen. Many of these animals are also long-lived and exhibit reduced aging-associated diseases, such as neurodegenerative disorders and cancer. We sequenced the genome of the Damaraland mole rat (DMR, Fukomys damarensis and improved the genome assembly of the naked mole rat (NMR, Heterocephalus glaber. Comparative genome analyses, along with the transcriptomes of related subterranean rodents, revealed candidate molecular adaptations for subterranean life and longevity, including a divergent insulin peptide, expression of oxygen-carrying globins in the brain, prevention of high CO2-induced pain perception, and enhanced ammonia detoxification. Juxtaposition of the genomes of DMR and other more conventional animals with the genome of NMR revealed several truly exceptional NMR features: unusual thermogenesis, an aberrant melatonin system, pain insensitivity, and unique processing of 28S rRNA. Together, these genomes and transcriptomes extend our understanding of subterranean adaptations, stress resistance, and longevity.

  8. Androgen receptor distribution in the social decision-making network of eusocial naked mole-rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Melissa M; Van Mil, Spencer; Bulkowski, Camila; Goldman, Sharry L; Goldman, Bruce D; Forger, Nancy G

    2013-11-01

    Naked mole-rats are highly social rodents that live in large groups and exhibit a strict reproductive and social hierarchy. Only a few animals in each colony breed; the remainder are non-reproductive and are socially subordinate to breeders. We have examined androgen receptor immunoreactive (AR+) cells in brain regions comprising the recently described social decision-making network in subordinate and breeder naked mole-rats of both sexes. We find that subordinates have a significantly higher percentage of AR+ cells in all brain regions expressing this protein. By contrast, there were no significant effects of sex and no sex-by-status interactions on the percentage of AR+ cells. Taken together with previous findings, the present data complete a systematic assessment of the distribution of AR protein in the social decision-making network of the eusocial mammalian brain and demonstrate a significant role for social status in the regulation of this protein throughout many nodes of this network. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Differential effects of chronic fluoxetine on the behavior of dominant and subordinate naked mole-rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongillo, Daniel L; Kosyachkova, Ekaterina A; Nguyen, Tam M; Holmes, Melissa M

    2014-01-01

    Naked mole-rats are eusocial rodents that live in large subterranean colonies with a strict reproductive and social hierarchy. The breeding female (referred to as the queen) and 1 to 3 breeding males are the only reproductive members of the colony. Breeders are socially dominant and all other colony members are non-reproductive subordinates. The effects of manipulating the serotonergic neurotransmitter system on aggression and dominance behaviors are well studied in many species, but not in eusocial rodents like the naked mole-rat. The current study investigated how the serotonergic system influences aggressive/dominant behaviors in this species. To do this, two separate but related experiments were conducted: the effects of fluoxetine hydrochloride (FLX) on status-specific behaviors of subordinates (Experiment 1) and dominant queens (Experiment 2) were evaluated both in-colony and in a social-pairing paradigm. In accordance with our main hypothesis, chronic treatment of FLX attenuated the frequency and duration of aggression in queens, but not subordinates, when paired with an unfamiliar conspecific. Further exploration of pharmacological manipulation on status-specific behaviors of this eusocial species may elucidate the neurobiological mechanisms underlying their unique and rigid social hierarchy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Retinal ganglion cell survival and axon regeneration after optic nerve injury in naked mole-rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kevin K; Luo, Xueting; Mooney, Skyler J; Yungher, Benjamin J; Belin, Stephane; Wang, Chen; Holmes, Melissa M; He, Zhigang

    2017-02-01

    In the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS), axonal damage often triggers neuronal cell death and glial activation, with very limited spontaneous axon regeneration. In this study, we performed optic nerve injury in adult naked mole-rats, the longest living rodent, with a maximum life span exceeding 30 years, and found that injury responses in this species are quite distinct from those in other mammalian species. In contrast to what is seen in other mammals, the majority of injured retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) survive with relatively high spontaneous axon regeneration. Furthermore, injured RGCs display activated signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3), whereas astrocytes in the optic nerve robustly occupy and fill the lesion area days after injury. These neuron-intrinsic and -extrinsic injury responses are reminiscent of those in "cold-blooded" animals, such as fish and amphibians, suggesting that the naked mole-rat is a powerful model for exploring the mechanisms of neuronal injury responses and axon regeneration in mammals. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:380-388, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Endocrine function and neurobiology of the longest-living rodent, the naked mole-rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edrey, Yael H; Park, Thomas J; Kang, Hyesin; Biney, Adriana; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2011-01-01

    Animals that have evolved exceptional capabilities, such as extraordinary longevity may reveal pertinent and potentially critical insights into biomedical research that are not readily apparent in standard laboratory animals. Naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber; NMRs) are extremely long-lived (30 years) mouse-sized rodents. They clearly have evolved superior anti-aging mechanisms as evident by the markedly attenuated age-related decline in physiological function, sustained reproductive capacity and pronounced cancer resistance throughout their long-lives. These eusocial rodents, like the social insects, live in colonies with breeding restricted to one female and a few males. Subordinates are sexually monomorphic, yet retain the ability to become breeders, and can undergo growth surges and neural modifications at any time throughout their life. This plasticity in physiological and behavioral aspects may have contributed to their long-lives. Naked mole-rats show numerous adaptations to life underground including extreme tolerance of hypoxia, acid insensitivity, as well as independence of photoendocrine systems. Here we review what is known about their unique social structure, sensory systems, endocrinology and neurobiology, and highlight areas that may be pertinent to biogerontology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Resonant spin-flavor conversion of supernova neutrinos: Dependence on electron mole fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Takashi; Takamura, Akira; Kimura, Keiichi; Yokomakura, Hidekazu; Kawagoe, Shio; Kajino, Toshitaka

    2009-01-01

    Detailed dependence of resonant spin-flavor (RSF) conversion of supernova neutrinos on electron mole fraction Y e is investigated. Supernova explosion forms a hot-bubble and neutrino-driven wind region of which electron mole fraction exceeds 0.5 in several seconds after the core collapse. When a higher resonance of the RSF conversion is located in the innermost region, flavor change of the neutrinos strongly depends on the sign of 1-2Y e . At an adiabatic high RSF resonance the flavor conversion of ν e ↔ν μ,τ occurs in Y e e >0.5 and inverted mass hierarchy. In other cases of Y e values and mass hierarchies, the conversion of ν e ↔ν μ,τ occurs. The final ν e spectrum is evaluated in the cases of Y e e >0.5 taking account of the RSF conversion. Based on the obtained result, time variation of the event number ratios of low ν e energy to high ν e energy is discussed. In normal mass hierarchy, an enhancement of the event ratio should be seen in the period when the electron fraction in the innermost region exceeds 0.5. In inverted mass hierarchy, on the other hand, a dip of the event ratio should be observed. Therefore, the time variation of the event number ratio is useful to investigate the effect of the RSF conversion.

  13. A stable algorithm for calculating phase equilibria with capillarity at specified moles, volume and temperature using a dynamic model

    KAUST Repository

    Kou, Jisheng

    2017-09-30

    Capillary pressure can significantly affect the phase properties and flow of liquid-gas fluids in porous media, and thus, the phase equilibrium calculation incorporating capillary pressure is crucial to simulate such problems accurately. Recently, the phase equilibrium calculation at specified moles, volume and temperature (NVT-flash) becomes an attractive issue. In this paper, capillarity is incorporated into the phase equilibrium calculation at specified moles, volume and temperature. A dynamical model for such problem is developed for the first time by using the laws of thermodynamics and Onsager\\'s reciprocal principle. This model consists of the evolutionary equations for moles and volume, and it can characterize the evolutionary process from a non-equilibrium state to an equilibrium state in the presence of capillarity effect at specified moles, volume and temperature. The phase equilibrium equations are naturally derived. To simulate the proposed dynamical model efficiently, we adopt the convex-concave splitting of the total Helmholtz energy, and propose a thermodynamically stable numerical algorithm, which is proved to preserve the second law of thermodynamics at the discrete level. Using the thermodynamical relations, we derive a phase stability condition with capillarity effect at specified moles, volume and temperature. Moreover, we propose a stable numerical algorithm for the phase stability testing, which can provide the feasible initial conditions. The performance of the proposed methods in predicting phase properties under capillarity effect is demonstrated on various cases of pure substance and mixture systems.

  14. Community structure variability of Uropodina mites (Acari: Mesostigmata) in nests of the common mole, Talpa europaea, in Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napierała, Agnieszka; Mądra, Anna; Leszczyńska-Deja, Kornelia; Gwiazdowicz, Dariusz J; Gołdyn, Bartłomiej; Błoszyk, Jerzy

    2016-04-01

    Underground nests of Talpa europaea, known as the common mole, are very specific microhabitats, which are also quite often inhabited by various groups of arthropods. Mites from the suborder Uropodina (Acari: Mesostigmata) are only one of them. One could expect that mole nests that are closely located are inhabited by communities of arthropods with similar species composition and structure. However, results of empirical studies clearly show that even nests which are close to each other can be different both in terms of the species composition and abundance of Uropodina communities. So far, little is known about the factors that can cause these differences. The major aim of this study was to identify factors determining species composition, abundance, and community structure of Uropodina communities in mole nests. The study is based on material collected during a long-term investigation conducted in western parts of Poland. The results indicate that the two most important factors influencing species composition and abundance of Uropodina communities in mole nests are nest-building material and depth at which nests are located. Composition of Uropodina communities in nests of moles was also compared with that of other microhabitats (e.g. rotten wood, forest litter, soil) based on data from 4421 samples collected in Poland. Communities of this habitat prove most similar to these of open areas, especially meadows, as well as some forest types.

  15. Production of L-lactic acid from Cassava peel wastes using single and mixed cultures of Rhizopus oligosporus and Lactobacillus plantarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwokoro Ogbonnaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of L-lactic acid using cultures of Rhizopus oligosporus and Lactobacillus plantarum was investigated. Cassava peels were hydrolyzed by boiling for 1 h in either NaOH or HCl solutions followed by neutralization to a pH of 6.2. Reducing sugar produced from the hydrolysates increased with increasing concentrations of alkali or acid. Samples hydrolyzed with HCl produced a maximum reducing sugar concentration of 402 mg/g substrate while alkali hydrolyzed samples produced a maximum reducing sugar concentration of 213 mg/g substrate. Hydrolysates were amended with 0.5% ammonium sulphate solution and inoculated with either single or mixed cultures of Rhizopus oligosporus and Lactobacillus plantarum and incubated for 48 h for lactic acid production. The best lactic acid production of 50.2 g/100g substrate was observed in a mixed culture fermentation of acid hydrolyzed peels. Mixed culture fermentation of alkali hydrolyzed peels produced a maximum lactic acid concentration of 36.4 g/100g substrate. Un hydrolyzed cassava peels inoculated with a mixed culture of the microorganisms produced only 4.6 g/100g substrate. This work reports an efficient use of cassava peels for bio-product formation through microbial fermentation.

  16. Carbohydrate-active enzymes from the zygomycete fungus Rhizopus oryzae: a highly specialized approach to carbohydrate degradation depicted at genome level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrissat Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhizopus oryzae is a zygomycete filamentous fungus, well-known as a saprobe ubiquitous in soil and as a pathogenic/spoilage fungus, causing Rhizopus rot and mucomycoses. Results Carbohydrate Active enzyme (CAZy annotation of the R. oryzae identified, in contrast to other filamentous fungi, a low number of glycoside hydrolases (GHs and a high number of glycosyl transferases (GTs and carbohydrate esterases (CEs. A detailed analysis of CAZy families, supported by growth data, demonstrates highly specialized plant and fungal cell wall degrading abilities distinct from ascomycetes and basidiomycetes. The specific genomic and growth features for degradation of easily digestible plant cell wall mono- and polysaccharides (starch, galactomannan, unbranched pectin, hexose sugars, chitin, chitosan, β-1,3-glucan and fungal cell wall fractions suggest specific adaptations of R. oryzae to its environment. Conclusions CAZy analyses of the genome of the zygomycete fungus R. oryzae and comparison to ascomycetes and basidiomycete species revealed how evolution has shaped its genetic content with respect to carbohydrate degradation, after divergence from the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota.

  17. Influence of the Oil Pequi in the Growth Mycelial and Sporulation of Colletotrichum Musae and Growth Micelial Of Rhizopus sp. in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. L. Mendes

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum musae and soft rot caused by Rhizopus sp are post-harvest diseases that influenced quality of exported fruits. To control these diseases fungicides are used, but in light of these waste products in the fruit and the environment, alternative control methods such as using biofungicides have been studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pequi oil on mycelia growth and sporulation of Colletotrichum musae and mycelia growth of Rhizopus sp. in vitro. The oil was added in aliquots of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 50L in the center of Petri dishes containing approximately 15mL of Potato-Dextrose-ar (PDA and distributed over the surface of the medium with Drigalskys handle. After 24 hours, a disc of 8mm diameter from mycelium of fungi was peaked to the center of the plates. As a control, were used Petri dishes containing only PDA. Five replicates were used for each aliquot. After analysis, it was concluded that the pequi oil is ineffective for controlling these pathogens because induced mycelium growth and sporulation.Key Words: Phytopathogens, alternative control, anthracnose, soft rot

  18. Pb(II) and Cd(II) removal from aqueous solution, shipyard wastewater, and landfill leachate by modified Rhizopus oryzae biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeimi, Behrouz; Foroutan, Rauf; Ahmadi, Bahram; Sadeghzadeh, Farzaneh; Ramavandi, Bahman

    2018-04-01

    This study was designed to remove Pb(II) and Cd(II) from aqueous solution, shipyard wastewater, and sanitary landfill leachate using an alkaline-modified Rhizopus oryzae biomass. According to the Fourier transform infrared test, different functional groups like O–H, N–H, C=O, and P–O were detected in the bioadsorbent. The x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis showed that CaO, P2O3, and SO3 oxides have the highest content in the bioadsorbent. The surface area of modified Rhizopus oryzae was obtained as 20.32 m2 g‑1. The effect of initial pH, temperature, contact time, and bioadsorbent dose on the metals removal was discussed. At optimal conditions, maximum Pb(II) and Cd(II) removal was obtained 95.66% and 94.55%, respectively. Freundlich model was well- accurately described the equilibrium data. Among four studied models, the pseudo-second-order was better able to describe the kinetic behavior of the bioadsorption process. The amount of enthalpy, free energy of Gibbs, and entropy parameters indicated that the bioadsorption process of studied heavy metals is negative, exothermic, and spontaneous. The amount of heavy metals in a shipyard wastewater and sanitary landfill leachate was significantly decreased by using the developed bioadsorbent.

  19. Effect of Meadowsweet Flower Extract-Pullulan Coatings on Rhizopus Rot Development and Postharvest Quality of Cold-Stored Red Peppers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Synowiec

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The study involved an examination of the antifungal activity on red peppers of pullulan coating (P and pullulan coating containing either water-ethanol (P + eEMF or ethanol extract of meadowsweet flowers (P + eEMF. Pullulan was obtained from a culture of Aureobasidium pullulans B-1 mutant. Both non-inoculated peppers and those artificially inoculated with Rhizopus arrhizus were coated and incubated at 24 °C for 5 days. The intensity of the decay caused by Rhizopus arrhizus in the peppers with P and P + eEMF coatings was nearly 3-fold lower, and in the case of P + weEMF 5-fold lower, than that observed in the control peppers. Additionally, the P + weEMF coating decreased, almost two-fold the severity of pepper decay compared to other samples. The influence of coating of pepper postharvest quality was examined after 30 days of storage at 6 °C and 70%–75% RH. All coatings formed a thin and well-attached additional layer of an intensified gloss. During storage, color, total soluble solid content and weight loss of coated peppers were subject to lower changes in comparison with uncoated ones. The results indicate the possibility of the application of pullulan coatings containing MFEs as an alternative to the chemical fungicides used to combat pepper postharvest diseases.

  20. The influence of inoculum composition on selected bioactive and nutritional parameters of grass pea tempeh obtained by mixed-culture fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus and Aspergillus oryzae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starzynska-Janiszewska, A; Stodolak, B; Dulinski, R; Mickowska, B

    2012-04-01

    Tempeh is a popular Indonesian product obtained from legume seeds by solid-state fermentation with Rhizopus sp. The aim of this research was to study the effect of simultaneous mixed-culture fermentation of grass pea seeds on selected parameters of products as compared to traditional tempeh. The inoculum contained different ratios of Rhizopus oligosporus and Aspergillus oryzae spores. The simultaneous fermentation of grass pea seeds with inoculum consisting of 1.2 × 10(6) R. oligosporus and 0.6 × 10(6) A. oryzae spores (per 60 g of seeds) resulted in a product of improved quality, as compared with traditionally made tempeh (obtained after inoculation with 1.2 × 10(6) R. oligosporus spores), at the same fermentation time. This product had radical scavenging ability 70% higher than the one obtained with pure R. oligosporus culture and contained 2.23 g/kg dm of soluble phenols. The thiamin and riboflavin levels were above three (340 µg/g dm) and two (50.50 µg/g dm) folds higher than in traditionally made tempeh, respectively. The product had 65% in vitro bioavailability of proteins and 33% in vitro bioavailability of sugars. It also contained 40% less 3-N-oxalyl-L-2, 3-diaminopropionic acid (0.074 g/kg dm), as compared to traditional tempeh.

  1. Antioxidant activity and prevention of pork meat lipid oxidation using traditional Mexican condiments (pasilla dry pepper, achiote, and mole sauce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Alvarez-Parrilla

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering the extensive use of hot peppers and spicy sauces in the Mexican cuisine, in the present paper, three widely consumed Mexican condiments (mole sauce, achiote, and pasilla hot pepper were analyzed for their total phenols, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins, antioxidant activity, and protective effect against lipid oxidation in chopped pork meat. All samples were extracted first with methanol and then with acetone, and the extracts were compared. Pasilla pepper showed the highest phenolic and flavonoid content in both solvents, followed by mole and achiote. Achiote showed the highest proanthocyanidin concentration. All samples showed high antioxidant activity, and good correlations with phenolic compounds and flavonoids, while no correlation was observed in the case of condensed tannins. Mole sauce methanolic extract showed the highest inhibition of pork meat oxidation, followed by pasilla pepper, and finally achiote paste extracts. These results suggest that these condiments are useful to prevent meat lipid oxidation during storage.

  2. Current transport mechanism in graphene/AlGaN/GaN heterostructures with various Al mole fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Bhishma; Seo, Tae Hoon; Ryu, Beo Deul; Cho, Jaehee

    2016-06-01

    The current transport mechanism of graphene formed on AlxGa1-xN/GaN heterostructures with various Al mole fractions (x = 0.15, 0.20, 0.30, and 0.40) is investigated. The current-voltage measurement from graphene to AlGaN/GaN shows an excellent rectifying property. The extracted Schottky barrier height of the graphene/AlGaN/GaN contacts increases with the Al mole fraction in AlGaN. However, the current transport mechanism deviates from the Schottky-Mott theory owing to the deterioration of AlGaN crystal quality at high Al mole fractions confirmed by reverse leakage current measurement.

  3. Current transport mechanism in graphene/AlGaN/GaN heterostructures with various Al mole fractions

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    Bhishma Pandit

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The current transport mechanism of graphene formed on AlxGa1−xN/GaN heterostructures with various Al mole fractions (x = 0.15, 0.20, 0.30, and 0.40 is investigated. The current–voltage measurement from graphene to AlGaN/GaN shows an excellent rectifying property. The extracted Schottky barrier height of the graphene/AlGaN/GaN contacts increases with the Al mole fraction in AlGaN. However, the current transport mechanism deviates from the Schottky-Mott theory owing to the deterioration of AlGaN crystal quality at high Al mole fractions confirmed by reverse leakage current measurement.

  4. Diagnostic reproducibility of hydatidiform moles: ancillary techniques (p57 immunohistochemistry and molecular genotyping) improve morphologic diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vang, Russell; Gupta, Mamta; Wu, Lee-Shu-Fune; Yemelyanova, Anna V; Kurman, Robert J; Murphy, Kathleen M; Descipio, Cheryl; Ronnett, Brigitte M

    2012-03-01

    Distinction of hydatidiform moles (HMs) from nonmolar specimens (NMs) and subclassification of HMs as complete hydatidiform moles (CHMs) and partial hydatidiform moles (PHMs) are important for clinical practice and investigational studies; yet, diagnosis based solely on morphology is affected by interobserver variability. Molecular genotyping can distinguish these entities by discerning androgenetic diploidy, diandric triploidy, and biparental diploidy to diagnose CHMs, PHMs, and NMs, respectively. Eighty genotyped cases (27 CHMs, 27 PHMs, and 26 NMs) were selected from a series of 200 potentially molar specimens previously diagnosed using p57 immunostaining and genotyping. Cases were classified by 3 gynecologic pathologists on the basis of H&E slides (masked to p57 immunostaining and genotyping results) into 1 of 3 categories (CHM, PHM, or NM) during 2 diagnostic rounds; a third round incorporating p57 immunostaining results was also conducted. Consensus diagnoses (those rendered by 2 of 3 pathologists) were determined. Genotyping results were used as the gold standard for assessing diagnostic performance. Sensitivity of a diagnosis of CHM ranged from 59% to 100% for individual pathologists and from 70% to 81% by consensus; specificity ranged from 91% to 96% for individuals and from 94% to 98% by consensus. Sensitivity of a diagnosis of PHM ranged from 56% to 93% for individual pathologists and from 70% to 78% by consensus; specificity ranged from 58% to 92% for individuals and from 74% to 85% by consensus. The percentage of correct classification of all cases by morphology ranged from 55% to 75% for individual pathologists and from 70% to 75% by consensus. The κ values for interobserver agreement ranged from 0.59 to 0.73 (moderate to good) for a diagnosis of CHM, from 0.15 to 0.43 (poor to moderate) for PHM, and from 0.13 to 0.42 (poor to moderate) for NM. The κ values for intraobserver agreement ranged from 0.44 to 0.67 (moderate to good). Addition of the p57

  5. Estimating regional methane surface fluxes: the relative importance of surface and GOSAT mole fraction measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fraser

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We use an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF, together with the GEOS-Chem chemistry transport model, to estimate regional monthly methane (CH4 fluxes for the period June 2009–December 2010 using proxy dry-air column-averaged mole fractions of methane (XCH4 from GOSAT (Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite and/or NOAA ESRL (Earth System Research Laboratory and CSIRO GASLAB (Global Atmospheric Sampling Laboratory CH4 surface mole fraction measurements. Global posterior estimates using GOSAT and/or surface measurements are between 510–516 Tg yr−1, which is less than, though within the uncertainty of, the prior global flux of 529 ± 25 Tg yr−1. We find larger differences between regional prior and posterior fluxes, with the largest changes in monthly emissions (75 Tg yr−1 occurring in Temperate Eurasia. In non-boreal regions the error reductions for inversions using the GOSAT data are at least three times larger (up to 45% than if only surface data are assimilated, a reflection of the greater spatial coverage of GOSAT, with the two exceptions of latitudes >60° associated with a data filter and over Europe where the surface network adequately describes fluxes on our model spatial and temporal grid. We use CarbonTracker and GEOS-Chem XCO2 model output to investigate model error on quantifying proxy GOSAT XCH4 (involving model XCO2 and inferring methane flux estimates from surface mole fraction data and show similar resulting fluxes, with differences reflecting initial differences in the proxy value. Using a series of observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs we characterize the posterior flux error introduced by non-uniform atmospheric sampling by GOSAT. We show that clear-sky measurements can theoretically reproduce fluxes within 10% of true values, with the exception of tropical regions where, due to a large seasonal cycle in the number of measurements because of clouds and aerosols, fluxes are within 15% of true fluxes. We evaluate our

  6. Transcriptional response of P. pastoris in fed-batch cultivations to Rhizopus oryzae lipase production reveals UPR induction

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    Valero Francisco

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The analysis of transcriptional levels of the genes involved in protein synthesis and secretion is a key factor to understand the host organism's responses to recombinant protein production, as well as their interaction with the cultivation conditions. Novel techniques such as the sandwich hybridization allow monitoring quantitatively the dynamic changes of specific RNAs. In this study, the transcriptional levels of some genes related to the unfolded protein response (UPR and central metabolism of Pichia pastoris were analysed during batch and fed-batch cultivations using an X-33-derived strain expressing a Rhizopus oryzae lipase under control of the formaldehyde dehydrogenase promoter (FLD1, namely the alcohol oxidase gene AOX1, the formaldehyde dehydrogenase FLD1, the protein disulfide isomerase PDI, the KAR2 gene coding for the BiP chaperone, the 26S rRNA and the R. oryzae lipase gene ROL. Results The transcriptional levels of the selected set of genes were first analysed in P. pastoris cells growing in shake flask cultures containing different carbon and nitrogen sources combinations, glycerol + ammonium, methanol + methylamine and sorbitol + methylamine. The transcriptional levels of the AOX1 and FLD1 genes were coherent with the known regulatory mechanism of C1 substrates in P. pastoris, whereas ROL induction lead to the up-regulation of KAR2 and PDI transcriptional levels, thus suggesting that ROL overexpression triggers the UPR. This was further confirmed in fed-batch cultivations performed at different growth rates. Transcriptional levels of the analysed set of genes were generally higher at higher growth rates. Nevertheless, when ROL was overexpressed in a strain having the UPR constitutively activated, significantly lower relative induction levels of these marker genes were detected. Conclusion The bead-based sandwich hybridization assay has shown its potential as a reliable instrument for quantification of

  7. The production of corn kernel miso based on rice-koji fermented by Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus oligosporus

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    Diah Ratnaningrum

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The suitability of corn kernel as raw material to produce miso fermented by rice-koji containing Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus oligosporus has been investigated. The optimization was conducted on two important factors in miso production namely mold composition in rice-koji and salt concentration. The mold composition was prepared by inoculating the spores of 2% A. oryzae, 2% R. oligosporus, and 2% the mixture of both in a ratio of 1:1, 2:1, and 1:2 (v/v into different rice media. The mold composition was optimized to produce rice-koji with high α-amylase and protease activity. Different NaCl concentrations of 10%, 15%, and 20% were subjected to optimization process and added to each mixture after five days of fermentation. The salt concentration was also optimized to produce corn kernel miso with high glucose and high dissolved protein concentration. The result showed that rice-koji containing A. oryzae and R. oligosporus in the ratio of 1:1 had the highest α-amylase and protease activity of 0.42 U/mL and 0.45 U/mL respectively. In addition, the presence of 10% NaCl in corn kernel miso fermented by A. oryzae and R. oligosporus in the ratio of 1:1 exhibited the highest glucose and dissolved protein concentration of 0.64 mg/mL and 8.80 mg/mL respectively. The optimized corn kernel miso by A. oryzae and R. oligosporus in the ratio of 1:1 with 10% NaCl was subjected to nutrient content analysis and compared to the result before the corn kernel was fermented. The nutrient content analysis showed nutrient enhancement after corn kernel was fermented and transformed into a miso. Glucose, dissolved protein, and fat content increased 6.74, 1.34, 7.63 times respectively. This study concludes corn kernel could be utilized to produce a novel corn kernel miso for dietary diversification and for improving nutritional and health status.

  8. Gis-approach for variability assessment of soil electric conductivity under pedoturbation activity of mole rat (Spalax microphthalmus

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    T. М. Konovalova

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of the investigation of the impact of the mole rat’s activity on soil electric conductivity have been presented. GIS-technology have been shown to be effective for assessment of the pedoturbation activity effect on the soil surface heterogeneity formation. Method of the one-dimension spatial coordinated array transformation into matrix form has been proposed for following multidimension statistic analysis application. The quantity estimation of the mole rats role in formation of the habitat nanorelief-level diversity has been obtained by means of indexes of the landscape complexity and diversity.

  9. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Hydatidiform Mole among Patients Undergoing Uterine Evacuation at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital

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    Olivier Mulisya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We sought to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with hydatidiform molar gestations amongst patients undergoing uterine evacuation at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital (MRRH, Mbarara, Uganda. Methods. This was a cross-sectional study carried out from November 2016 to February 2017. All patients admitted for uterine evacuation for nonviable pregnancy were included. The study registered 181 patients. Data were collected on sociodemographics, medical conditions, obstetrics, and gynecological factors. The evacuated tissue received a full gross and histopathologic examination. Cases of pathologically suspected complete hydatidiform mole were confirmed by p57 immunohistochemistry. Data were analyzed using STATA 13. Results. The prevalence of hydatidiform mole was 6.1% (11/181. All detected moles were complete hydatidiform moles, and there were no diagnosed partial hydatidiform moles. Clinical diagnosis of molar pregnancy was suspected in 13 patients, but only 69.2% (9/13 were confirmed as molar pregnancies histologically. Two cases were clinically unsuspected. Factors that had a significant relationship with complete hydatidiform mole included maternal age of 35 years and above (aOR 13.5; CI: 1.46–125.31; p=0.00, gestational age beyond the first trimester at the time of uterine evacuation (aOR 6.2; CI: 1.07–36.14; p=0.04, and history of previous abortion (aOR 4.3; CI: 1.00–18.57; p=0.05. Conclusion. The prevalence of complete hydatidiform mole was high at 6.1%. Associated risk factors included advanced maternal age (35 years and above, history of previous abortions, and gestational age beyond the first trimester at the time of evacuations. Recommendations. We recommend putting in place capacity to do routine histopathological examination of all products of conception especially those at high risk for a molar gestation either by clinical suspicion or by risk factors including advanced maternal age, advanced gestational

  10. Evidência molecular da ocorrência de um fitoplasma associado ao lenho mole da macieira

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro,Luiz Fernando Caldeira; Bedendo,Ivan Paulo; Sanhueza,Rosa Maria Valdebenito

    2007-01-01

    O lenho mole da macieira é uma doença relevante em diversas partes do mundo. Sintomas típicos desta doença têm sido observados em pomares instalados em estados do sul do território brasileiro desde a década de oitenta. Enxertia tem revelado a natureza infecciosa da doença e a observação de corpúsculos filamentosos no floema tem evidenciado possível associação com fitoplasma. No presente trabalho plantas com sintomas de lenho mole foram coletadas em pomar comercial, visando demonstrar a presen...

  11. Spatial variability of soil electrical conductivity under the mole rats (Spalax microphthalmus digging activity at the different scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Zhukov

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The soil mounds emerged owing to the mole rats’ digging activity have been shown to be characterised by less electrical conductivity than surrounded soil. This effect is due to the changes of the mounds bulk’s density and moisture. The effect of the mole rats’ digging activity on the soil electrical conductivity has been found not to be restricted by the geometrical border of the mounds. The mounds are surrounded by 1–1.5 m halo of increased soil electrical conductivity. The halo size is increased with the aging of the mound and with the compacting of their aggregation.

  12. Fingerprinting: Modelling and mapping physical top soil properties with the Mole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loonstra, Eddie; van Egmond, Fenny

    2010-05-01

    The Mole is a passive gamma ray soil sensor system. It is designed for the mobile collection of radioactive energy stemming from soil. As the system is passive, it only measures energy that reaches the surface of soil. In general, this energy comes from upto 30 to 40 cm deep, which can be considered topsoil. The gathered energy spectra are logged every second, are processed with the method of Full Spectrum Analysis. This method uses all available spectral data and processes it with a Chi square optimalisation using a set of standard spectra into individual nuclide point data. A standard spectrum is the measured full spectrum of a specific detector derived when exposed to 1 Bq/kg of a nuclide. With this method the outcome of the surveys become quantitative.The outcome of a field survey with the Mole results in a data file containing point information of position, Total Counts and the decay products of 232Th, 238U, 40K and 137Cs. Five elements are therefor available for the modelling of soil properties. There are several ways for the modelling of soil properties with sensor derived gamma ray data. The Mole generates ratio scale output. For modelling a quantitative deterministic approach is used based on sample locations. This process is called fingerprinting. Fingerprinting is a comparison of the concentration of the radioactive trace elements and the lab results (pH, clay content, etc.) by regression analysis. This results in a mathematical formula describing the relationship between a dependent and independent property. The results of the sensor readings are interpolated into a nuclide map with GIS software. With the derived formula a soil property map is composed. The principle of fingerprinting can be applied on large geographical areas for physical soil properties such as clay, loam or sand (50 micron), grain size and organic matter. Collected sample data of previous field surveys within the same region can be used for the prediction of soil properties elsewhere

  13. Slip casting of thoria-10 mole per cent yttria solid electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanathan, S.; Rao, S.V.K.

    1990-01-01

    One end closed thoria-yttria solid electrolyte have been fabricated by the slip casting technique. A systematic study of the influence of the process parameters on the characteristics of the final bodies has been carried out. Slips of ThO 2 -10 mole % Y 2 O 3 were prepared; their fluidity and castability were studied as a function of concentration, pH and particle size. The bodies were sintered at 2000degC and the physical properties like density and microstructure were evaluated. Slip cast bodies of bulk densities around 95% T.D. with relatively inhomogenous but predominantly fine grained structure could be obtained by optimizing the process variables. (author). 5 figs., 10 refs

  14. Comparative analysis of genome maintenance genes in naked mole rat, mouse, and human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacRae, Sheila L; Zhang, Quanwei; Lemetre, Christophe; Seim, Inge; Calder, Robert B; Hoeijmakers, Jan; Suh, Yousin; Gladyshev, Vadim N; Seluanov, Andrei; Gorbunova, Vera; Vijg, Jan; Zhang, Zhengdong D

    2015-04-01

    Genome maintenance (GM) is an essential defense system against aging and cancer, as both are characterized by increased genome instability. Here, we compared the copy number variation and mutation rate of 518 GM-associated genes in the naked mole rat (NMR), mouse, and human genomes. GM genes appeared to be strongly conserved, with copy number variation in only four genes. Interestingly, we found NMR to have a higher copy number of CEBPG, a regulator of DNA repair, and TINF2, a protector of telomere integrity. NMR, as well as human, was also found to have a lower rate of germline nucleotide substitution than the mouse. Together, the data suggest that the long-lived NMR, as well as human, has more robust GM than mouse and identifies new targets for the analysis of the exceptional longevity of the NMR. © 2015 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The effect of carbon mole ratio on the fabrication of silicon carbide

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    Sutham Niyomwas

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Silicon Carbide (SiC particles were synthesized by self-propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS from a powder mixture of SiO2-C-Mg. The reaction was carried out in a SHS reactor under static argon gas at a pressure of 0.5 MPa. The standard Gibbs energy minimization method was used to calculate the equilibrium composition of the reacting species. The effects of carbon mole ratio on the precursor mixture (C/SiO2/Mg: 1/1/2 to 3/1/2 and on the SiC conversion were investigated using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope technique. The as-synthesized products of SiC-MgO powders were leached with 0.1M HCl acid solution to obtain the SiC particles.

  16. Ethnotaxonomical Study of Mole Crab (Crustacea:Hippoidea on Coastal Community of Cilacap

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    Dian Bhagawati

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Local wisdom is a cultural heritage that needs to be preserved. The Cilacap’s coastal communities have traditional taxonomy knowledge that hasn’t been informed, especially about mole crab. This study aimed to explore the ethnotaxonomy knowledge of sand crabs (Crustacea: Hippoidea in Widarapayung coastal communities. The purposive snowball sampling was used for the method, followed by observation and semi-structured interviews with 30 respondents. Data were analyzed descriptively based on observations and interviews. The results showed that the coastal communities in Widarapayung tourist areas could be divided into five groups, namely catchers, collectors, processors, traders, and consumers. The catcher was able to recognize and describe three types of sand crabs based on the shape of the body and their catchment areas. Captured crabs had the local name of ‘yutuk jambe’ (Emerita emeritus Linnaeus 1767, the appellation was based on carapace shape that resembled the shape of areca fruit; ‘Yutuk bathok’ (Hippa adactyla Fabricius 1787, had the carapace shape resembling a coconut shell, and ‘yutuk Kethek’ (Albunea symmysta Linnaeus 1758, had ornaments on the carapace surface similar with a monkey face, there were dense setae on the edge of the carapace, spiny long antennas and aggressively pinch when captured. The knowledge and skills of sand crabs classification and local name entitlement acquired by the people were in accordance with the Berlin’s model. How to CiteBhagawati, D., Anggoro, S., Zainuri, M. & Sya’rani, L. (2016. Ethnotaxonomical Study of Mole Crab (Crustacea:Hippoidea on Coastal Community of Cilacap. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(2, 222-230.

  17. High accuracy measurements of dry mole fractions of carbon dioxide and methane in humid air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rella, C. W.; Chen, H.; Andrews, A. E.; Filges, A.; Gerbig, C.; Hatakka, J.; Karion, A.; Miles, N. L.; Richardson, S. J.; Steinbacher, M.; Sweeney, C.; Wastine, B.; Zellweger, C.

    2013-03-01

    Traditional techniques for measuring the mole fractions of greenhouse gases in the well-mixed atmosphere have required dry sample gas streams (dew point < -25 °C) to achieve the inter-laboratory compatibility goals set forth by the Global Atmosphere Watch programme of the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO/GAW) for carbon dioxide (±0.1 ppm in the Northern Hemisphere and ±0.05 ppm in the Southern Hemisphere) and methane (±2 ppb). Drying the sample gas to low levels of water vapour can be expensive, time-consuming, and/or problematic, especially at remote sites where access is difficult. Recent advances in optical measurement techniques, in particular cavity ring down spectroscopy, have led to the development of greenhouse gas analysers capable of simultaneous measurements of carbon dioxide, methane and water vapour. Unlike many older technologies, which can suffer from significant uncorrected interference from water vapour, these instruments permit accurate and precise greenhouse gas measurements that can meet the WMO/GAW inter-laboratory compatibility goals (WMO, 2011a) without drying the sample gas. In this paper, we present laboratory methodology for empirically deriving the water vapour correction factors, and we summarise a series of in-situ validation experiments comparing the measurements in humid gas streams to well-characterised dry-gas measurements. By using the manufacturer-supplied correction factors, the dry-mole fraction measurements have been demonstrated to be well within the GAW compatibility goals up to a water vapour concentration of at least 1%. By determining the correction factors for individual instruments once at the start of life, this water vapour concentration range can be extended to at least 2% over the life of the instrument, and if the correction factors are determined periodically over time, the evidence suggests that this range can be extended up to and even above 4% water vapour concentrations.

  18. Molecular basis of a novel adaptation to hypoxic-hypercapnia in a strictly fossorial mole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonaventura Joseph

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated blood O2 affinity enhances survival at low O2 pressures, and is perhaps the best known and most broadly accepted evolutionary adjustment of terrestrial vertebrates to environmental hypoxia. This phenotype arises by increasing the intrinsic O2 affinity of the hemoglobin (Hb molecule, by decreasing the intracellular concentration of allosteric effectors (e.g., 2,3-diphosphoglycerate; DPG, or by suppressing the sensitivity of Hb to these physiological cofactors. Results Here we report that strictly fossorial eastern moles (Scalopus aquaticus have evolved a low O2 affinity, DPG-insensitive Hb - contrary to expectations for a mammalian species that is adapted to the chronic hypoxia and hypercapnia of subterranean burrow systems. Molecular modelling indicates that this functional shift is principally attributable to a single charge altering amino acid substitution in the β-type δ-globin chain (δ136Gly→Glu of this species that perturbs electrostatic interactions between the dimer subunits via formation of an intra-chain salt-bridge with δ82Lys. However, this replacement also abolishes key binding sites for the red blood cell effectors Cl-, lactate and DPG (the latter of which is virtually absent from the red cells of this species at δ82Lys, thereby markedly reducing competition for carbamate formation (CO2 binding at the δ-chain N-termini. Conclusions We propose this Hb phenotype illustrates a novel mechanism for adaptively elevating the CO2 carrying capacity of eastern mole blood during burst tunnelling activities associated with subterranean habitation.

  19. Adaptation of pelage color and pigment variations in Israeli subterranean blind mole rats, Spalax ehrenbergi [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natarajan Singaravelan

    Full Text Available Concealing coloration in rodents is well established. However, only a few studies examined how soil color, pelage color, hair-melanin content, and genetics (i.e., the causal chain synergize to configure it. This study investigates the causal chain of dorsal coloration in Israeli subterranean blind mole rats, Spalax ehrenbergi.We examined pelage coloration of 128 adult animals from 11 populations belonging to four species of Spalax ehrenbergi superspecies (Spalax galili, Spalax golani, Spalax carmeli, and Spalax judaei and the corresponding coloration of soil samples from the collection sites using a digital colorimeter. Additionally, we quantified hair-melanin contents of 67 animals using HPLC and sequenced the MC1R gene in 68 individuals from all four mole rat species.Due to high variability of soil colors, the correlation between soil and pelage color coordinates was weak and significant only between soil hue and pelage lightness. Multiple stepwise forward regression revealed that soil lightness was significantly associated with all pelage color variables. Pelage color lightness among the four species increased with the higher southward aridity in accordance to Gloger's rule (darker in humid habitats and lighter in arid habitats. Darker and lighter pelage colors are associated with darker basalt and terra rossa, and lighter rendzina soils, respectively. Despite soil lightness varying significantly, pelage lightness and eumelanin converged among populations living in similar soil types. Partial sequencing of the MC1R gene identified three allelic variants, two of which were predominant in northern species (S. galili and S. golani, and the third was exclusive to southern species (S. carmeli and S. judaei, which might have caused the differences found in pheomelanin/eumelanin ratio.Darker dorsal pelage in darker basalt and terra rossa soils in the north and lighter pelage in rendzina and loess soils in the south reflect the combined results of

  20. Ear Structures of the Naked Mole-Rat, Heterocephalus glaber, and Its Relatives (Rodentia: Bathyergidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Mason

    Full Text Available Although increasingly popular as a laboratory species, very little is known about the peripheral auditory system of the naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber. In this study, middle and inner ears of naked mole-rats of a range of ages were examined using micro-computed tomography and dissection. The ears of five other bathyergid species (Bathyergus suillus, Cryptomys hottentotus, Fukomys micklemi, Georychus capensis and Heliophobius argenteocinereus were examined for comparative purposes. The middle ears of bathyergids show features commonly found in other members of the Ctenohystrica rodent clade, including a fused malleus and incus, a synovial stapedio-vestibular articulation and the loss of the stapedius muscle. Heterocephalus deviates morphologically from the other bathyergids examined in that it has a more complex mastoid cavity structure, poorly-ossified processes of the malleus and incus, a 'columelliform' stapes and fewer cochlear turns. Bathyergids have semicircular canals with unusually wide diameters relative to their radii of curvature. How the lateral semicircular canal reaches the vestibule differs between species. Heterocephalus has much more limited high-frequency hearing than would be predicted from its small ear structures. The spongy bone forming its ossicular processes, the weak incudo-stapedial articulation, the columelliform stapes and (compared to other bathyergids reduced cochlear coiling are all potentially degenerate features which might reflect a lack of selective pressure on its peripheral auditory system. Substantial intraspecific differences were found in certain middle and inner ear structures, which might also result from relaxed selective pressures. However, such interpretations must be treated with caution in the absence of experimental evidence.

  1. Social condition and oxytocin neuron number in the hypothalamus of naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, S J; Holmes, M M

    2013-01-29

    The naked mole-rat is a subterranean colonial rodent. In each colony, which can grow to as many as 300 individuals, there is only one female and 1-3 males that are reproductive and socially dominant. The remaining animals are reproductively suppressed subordinates that contribute to colony survival through their cooperative behaviors. Oxytocin is a peptide hormone that has shown relatively widespread effects on prosocial behaviors in other species. We examined whether social status affects the number of oxytocin-immunoreactive neurons in the paraventricular nucleus and the supraoptic nucleus by comparing dominant breeding animals to subordinate non-breeding workers from intact colonies. We also examined these regions in subordinate animals that had been removed from their colony and paired with an opposite- or same-sex conspecific for 6 months. Stereological analyses indicated that subordinates had significantly more oxytocin neurons in the paraventricular nucleus than breeders. Animals in both opposite- and same-sex pairs showed a decreased oxytocin neuron number compared to subordinates suggesting that status differences may be due to social condition rather than the reproductive activity of the animal per se. The effects of social status appear to be region specific as no group differences were found for oxytocin neuron number in the supraoptic nucleus. Given that subordinate naked mole-rats are kept reproductively suppressed through antagonism by the queen, we speculate that status differences are due either to oxytocin's anxiolytic properties to combat the stress of this antagonism or to its ability to promote the prosocial behaviors of subordinates. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ear Structures of the Naked Mole-Rat, Heterocephalus glaber, and Its Relatives (Rodentia: Bathyergidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Matthew J; Cornwall, Hannah L; Smith, Ewan St J

    2016-01-01

    Although increasingly popular as a laboratory species, very little is known about the peripheral auditory system of the naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber. In this study, middle and inner ears of naked mole-rats of a range of ages were examined using micro-computed tomography and dissection. The ears of five other bathyergid species (Bathyergus suillus, Cryptomys hottentotus, Fukomys micklemi, Georychus capensis and Heliophobius argenteocinereus) were examined for comparative purposes. The middle ears of bathyergids show features commonly found in other members of the Ctenohystrica rodent clade, including a fused malleus and incus, a synovial stapedio-vestibular articulation and the loss of the stapedius muscle. Heterocephalus deviates morphologically from the other bathyergids examined in that it has a more complex mastoid cavity structure, poorly-ossified processes of the malleus and incus, a 'columelliform' stapes and fewer cochlear turns. Bathyergids have semicircular canals with unusually wide diameters relative to their radii of curvature. How the lateral semicircular canal reaches the vestibule differs between species. Heterocephalus has much more limited high-frequency hearing than would be predicted from its small ear structures. The spongy bone forming its ossicular processes, the weak incudo-stapedial articulation, the columelliform stapes and (compared to other bathyergids) reduced cochlear coiling are all potentially degenerate features which might reflect a lack of selective pressure on its peripheral auditory system. Substantial intraspecific differences were found in certain middle and inner ear structures, which might also result from relaxed selective pressures. However, such interpretations must be treated with caution in the absence of experimental evidence.

  3. Peripheral administration of oxytocin increases social affiliation in the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Skyler J; Douglas, Natasha R; Holmes, Melissa M

    2014-04-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin regulates a wide variety of social behaviors across diverse species. However, the types of behaviors that are influenced by this hormone are constrained by the species in question and the social organization that a particular species exhibits. Therefore, the present experiments investigated behaviors regulated by oxytocin in a eusocial mammalian species by using the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber). In Experiment 1, adult non-breeding mole-rats were given intraperitoneal injections of either oxytocin (1mg/kg or 10mg/kg) or saline on alternate days. Animals were then returned to their colony and behavior was recorded for minutes 15-30 post-injection. Both doses of oxytocin increased huddling behavior during this time period. In Experiment 2, animals received intraperitoneal injections of either oxytocin (1mg/kg), an oxytocin-receptor antagonist (0.1mg/kg), a cocktail of oxytocin and the antagonist, or saline across 4 testing days in a counterbalanced design. Animals were placed in either a 2-chamber arena with a familiar conspecific or in a small chamber with 1week old pups from their home colony and behaviors were recorded for minutes 15-30 post-injection. Oxytocin increased investigation of, and time spent in close proximity to, a familiar conspecific; these effects were blocked by the oxytocin antagonist. No effects were seen on pup-directed behavior. These data suggest that oxytocin is capable of modulating affiliative-like behavior in this eusocial species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of Temperature and Mole Ratio on the Synthesis Yield of Rhenium-Tetrofosmin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widyastuti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Technetium-99m (99mTc tetrofosmin is widely used in nuclear medicine as a diagnostic agent for myocardial perfusion and as a tumor imaging agent. As a parenteral preparation it requires an evaluation of its pharmacokinetics and stability in-vivo. Since 99mTc has a short half-life and is only available in very low concentrations, it is impossible to characterize its chemical properties and presence in the body. Due to this reason, only technetium-99 (T1/2 = 5 × 105 years, which is available in macro quantities, or natural rhenium can be used for this purpose. In this study rhenium-188 (188Re tetrofosmin will be synthesized and applied, because non-radioactive Re can be easily obtained. Synthesis and radiochemical purity analysis of carrier-added 188Re-tetrofosmin were carried out as a model to study the in-vivo stability of technetium-99m tetrofosmin. Rhenium-188 was used as a tracer to identify the formation of rhenium tetrofosmin. Rhenium gluconate was synthesized first prior to the formation of rhenium tetrofosmin. The quality of labeling for both rhenium gluconate and rhenium tetrofosmin was analyzed using paper- and thin-layer chromatography, respectively. Rhenium gluconate can be synthesized with high labeling yield within 1 hour, whereas rhenium tetrofosmin was synthesized both in room temperature and in an elevated temperature with various tetrofosmin-to-rhenium mole ratios.The results showed that heating at 95oC led to a higher yield of more than 90% within 30 minutes. Rhenium tetrofosmin could be produced in high radiochemical purity using an excess of tetrofosmin with mole ratio of 2000. It is concluded that rhenium tetrofosmin could be synthesized through the formation of rhenium gluconate, and a higher yield could be obtained in a shorter time by heating process.

  5. Undifferentiated carcinoma with osteoclastic giant cells (UCOCGC) of the pancreas associated with the familial atypical multiple mole melanoma syndrome (FAMMM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koorstra, Jan-Bart M.; Maitra, Anirban; Morsink, Folkert H. M.; Drillenburg, Paul; ten Kate, Fiebo J. W.; Hruban, Ralph H.; Offerhaus, Johan A.

    2008-01-01

    The familial atypical multiple mole melanoma (FAMMM) syndrome is caused by a germline mutation of p16. More than 90% of the sporadic pancreatic carcinomas contain genetic alterations that inactivate p16. Patients with the FAMMM syndrome have an increased risk of developing pancreatic cancer. Ductal

  6. Development of Two-Tier Diagnostic Test Pictorial-Based for Identifying High School Students Misconceptions on the Mole Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswaningsih, W.; Firman, H.; Zackiyah; Khoirunnisa, A.

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to develop the two-tier pictorial-based diagnostic test for identifying student misconceptions on mole concept. The method of this study is used development and validation. The development of the test Obtained through four phases, development of any items, validation, determination key, and application test. Test was developed in the form of pictorial consisting of two tier, the first tier Consist of four possible answers and the second tier Consist of four possible reasons. Based on the results of content validity of 20 items using the CVR (Content Validity Ratio), a number of 18 items declared valid. Based on the results of the reliability test using SPSS, Obtained 17 items with Cronbach’s Alpha value of 0703, the which means that items have accepted. A total of 10 items was conducted to 35 students of senior high school students who have studied the mole concept on one of the high schools in Cimahi. Based on the results of the application test, student misconceptions were identified in each label concept in mole concept with the percentage of misconceptions on the label concept of mole (60.15%), Avogadro’s number (34.28%), relative atomic mass (62, 84%), relative molecule mass (77.08%), molar mass (68.53%), molar volume of gas (57.11%), molarity (71.32%), chemical equation (82.77%), limiting reactants (91.40%), and molecular formula (77.13%).

  7. Vocalisations of the silvery mole-rat: comparasion of vocal repertoires in subterrane an rodents with different socials systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Knotková, E.; Veitl, S.; Šumbera, R.; Sedláček, František; Burda, H.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 3 (2009), s. 241-257 ISSN 0952-4622 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : silvery mole-rat * bathyergidae * vocal communication Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.050, year: 2009

  8. Functional neurokinin and NMDA receptor activity in an animal naturally lacking substance P: the naked mole-rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Brand

    Full Text Available Naked mole-rats are extremely unusual among mammals in that their cutaneous C-fibers lack the neuropeptide Substance P (SP. In other mammals, SP plays an important role in nociception: it is released from C-fibers onto spinal neurons where it facilitates NMDA receptor activity and causes sensitization that can last for minutes, hours or days. In the present study, we tested the effects of intrathecal application of: 1 SP, 2 an SP antagonist (GR-82334, and 3 an NMDA antagonist (APV on heat-evoked foot withdrawal. In the naked mole-rat, at a high enough concentration, application of SP caused a large, immediate, and long-lasting sensitization of foot withdrawal latency that was transiently reversed by application of either antagonist. However, neither SP nor NMDA antagonists had an effect when administered alone to naïve animals. In contrast, both antagonists induced an increase in basal withdrawal latency in mice. These results indicate that spinal neurons in naked mole-rats have functional SP and NMDA receptors, but that these receptors do not participate in heat-evoked foot withdrawal unless SP is experimentally introduced. We propose that the natural lack of SP in naked mole-rat C-fibers may have resulted during adaptation to living in a chronically high carbon dioxide, high ammonia environment that, in other mammals, would stimulate C-fibers and evoke nocifensive behavior.

  9. Four Cases of Spontaneous Neoplasia in the Naked Mole-Rat (Heterocephalus glaber), A Putative Cancer-Resistant Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kyle R; Milone, Nicholas A; Rodriguez, Carlos E

    2017-01-01

    The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is widely acclaimed to be cancer-resistant and of considerable research interest based on a paucity of reports of neoplasia in this species. We have, however, encountered four spontaneous cases of neoplasia and one presumptive case of neoplasia through routine necropsy and biopsy of individuals in a zoo collection of nonhybrid naked mole-rats bred from a single pair. One case each of metastasizing hepatocellular carcinoma, nephroblastoma (Wilms' tumor), and multicentric lymphosarcoma, as well as presumptive esophageal adenocarcinoma (Barrett's esophagus-like) was identified postmortem among 37 nonautolyzed necropsy submissions of naked mole-rats over 1-year-old that were submitted for necropsy between 1998 and August 2015. One incidental case of cutaneous hemangioma was also identified antemortem by skin biopsy from one naked mole-rat examined for trauma. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. A cytosolic protein factor from the naked mole-rat activates proteasomes of other species and protects these from inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Karl A.; Osmulski, Pawel A.; Pierce, Anson; Weintraub, Susan T.; Gaczynska, Maria; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2015-01-01

    The naked mole-rat maintains robust proteostasis and high levels of proteasome-mediated proteolysis for most of its exceptional (~31y) life span. Here, we report that the highly active proteasome from the naked mole-rat liver resists attenuation by a diverse suite of proteasome-specific small molecule inhibitors. Moreover, mouse, human, and yeast proteasomes exposed to the proteasome-depleted, naked mole-rat cytosolic fractions, recapitulate the observed inhibition resistance, and mammalian proteasomes also show increased activity. Gel filtration coupled with mass spectrometry and atomic force microscopy indicates that these traits are supported by a protein factor that resides in the cytosol. This factor interacts with the proteasome and modulates its activity. Although HSP72 and HSP40 (Hdj1) are among the constituents of this factor, the observed phenomenon, such as increasing peptidase activity and protecting against inhibition cannot be reconciled with any known chaperone functions. This novel function may contribute to the exceptional protein homeostasis in the naked mole-rat and allow it to successfully defy aging. PMID:25018089

  11. Functional neurokinin and NMDA receptor activity in an animal naturally lacking substance P: the naked mole-rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Antje; Smith, Ewan St J; Lewin, Gary R; Park, Thomas J

    2010-12-21

    Naked mole-rats are extremely unusual among mammals in that their cutaneous C-fibers lack the neuropeptide Substance P (SP). In other mammals, SP plays an important role in nociception: it is released from C-fibers onto spinal neurons where it facilitates NMDA receptor activity and causes sensitization that can last for minutes, hours or days. In the present study, we tested the effects of intrathecal application of: 1) SP, 2) an SP antagonist (GR-82334), and 3) an NMDA antagonist (APV) on heat-evoked foot withdrawal. In the naked mole-rat, at a high enough concentration, application of SP caused a large, immediate, and long-lasting sensitization of foot withdrawal latency that was transiently reversed by application of either antagonist. However, neither SP nor NMDA antagonists had an effect when administered alone to naïve animals. In contrast, both antagonists induced an increase in basal withdrawal latency in mice. These results indicate that spinal neurons in naked mole-rats have functional SP and NMDA receptors, but that these receptors do not participate in heat-evoked foot withdrawal unless SP is experimentally introduced. We propose that the natural lack of SP in naked mole-rat C-fibers may have resulted during adaptation to living in a chronically high carbon dioxide, high ammonia environment that, in other mammals, would stimulate C-fibers and evoke nocifensive behavior.

  12. Dynamic Thermodynamics with Internal Energy, Volume, and Amount of Moles as States : Application to Liquefied Gas Tank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arendsen, A. R. J.; Versteeg, G. F.

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic models for process design, optimization, and control usually solve a set of heat and/or mass balances as a function of time and/or position in the process. To obtain more robust dynamic models and to minimize the amount of assumptions, internal energy, volume, and amount of moles are chosen

  13. Photic induction of Fos in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of African mole-rats: responses to increasing irradiance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosthuizen, Maria K; Bennett, Nigel C; Cooper, Howard M

    2010-09-01

    African mole-rats (family Bathyergidae) are strictly subterranean rodent species that are rarely exposed to environmental light. Morphological and physiological adaptations to the underground environment include a severely reduced eye size and regressed visual system. Responses of the circadian system to light, however, appear to be intact, since mole-rats are able to entrain their circadian activity rhythms to the light-dark cycle and light induces Fos expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Social organization varies from solitary species to highly elaborated eusocial structures, characterized by a distinct division of labor and in which one reproductive female regulates the behavior and reproductive physiology of other individuals in the colony. The authors studied light-induced Fos expression in the SCN to increasing light intensities in four mole-rat species, ranging from strictly solitary to highly social. In the solitary Cape mole-rat, light induces significant Fos expression in the SCN, and the number of Fos-immunopositive cells increases with increasing light intensity. In contrast, Fos induction in the SCN of social species was slightly greater than, but not statistically different from, the dark-control animals as is typical of most rodents. One species showed a trend for an increase in expression with increased light, whereas a second species showed no trend in expression. In the naked mole-rat, Fos expression appeared higher in the dark-controls than in the animals exposed to light, although the differences in Fos expression were not significant. These results suggest a gradient in the sensitivity of the circadian system to light in mole-rats, with a higher percentage of individuals that are unresponsive to light in correlation with the degree of sociality. In highly social species, such as the naked mole-rat that live in a relatively stable subterranean milieu in terms of food availability, temperature, constant darkness, and devoid of 24-h

  14. The effects of oxotremorine, epibatidine, atropine, mecamylamine and naloxone in the tail-flick, hot-plate, and formalin tests in the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dulu, Thomas D; Kanui, Titus I; Towett, Philemon K

    2014-01-01

    The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a promising animal model for the study of pain mechanisms, therefore a thorough characterization of this species is essential. The aim of the present study was to establish the naked mole-rat as a model for studying the cholinergic receptor system in ...

  15. Expression of acid-sensing ion channels and selection of reference genes in mouse and naked mole rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhmacher, Laura-Nadine; Smith, Ewan St John

    2016-12-13

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are a family of ion channels comprised of six subunits encoded by four genes and they are expressed throughout the peripheral and central nervous systems. ASICs have been implicated in a wide range of physiological and pathophysiological processes: pain, breathing, synaptic plasticity and excitotoxicity. Unlike mice and humans, naked mole-rats do not perceive acid as a noxious stimulus, even though their sensory neurons express functional ASICs, likely an adaptation to living in a hypercapnic subterranean environment. Previous studies of ASIC expression in the mammalian nervous system have often not examined all subunits, or have failed to adequately quantify expression between tissues; to date there has been no attempt to determine ASIC expression in the central nervous system of the naked mole-rat. Here we perform a geNorm study to identify reliable housekeeping genes in both mouse and naked mole-rat and then use quantitative real-time PCR to estimate the relative amounts of ASIC transcripts in different tissues of both species. We identify RPL13A (ribosomal protein L13A) and CANX (calnexin), and β-ACTIN and EIF4A (eukaryotic initiation factor 4a) as being the most stably expressed housekeeping genes in mouse and naked mole-rat, respectively. In both species, ASIC3 was most highly expressed in dorsal root ganglia (DRG), and ASIC1a, ASIC2b and ASIC3 were more highly expressed across all brain regions compared to the other subunits. We also show that ASIC4, a proton-insensitive subunit of relatively unknown function, was highly expressed in all mouse tissues apart from DRG and hippocampus, but was by contrast the lowliest expressed ASIC in all naked mole-rat tissues.

  16. Assessing filtering of mountaintop CO2 mole fractions for application to inverse models of biosphere-atmosphere carbon exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Heck

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available There is a widely recognized need to improve our understanding of biosphere-atmosphere carbon exchanges in areas of complex terrain including the United States Mountain West. CO2 fluxes over mountainous terrain are often difficult to measure due to unusual and complicated influences associated with atmospheric transport. Consequently, deriving regional fluxes in mountain regions with carbon cycle inversion of atmospheric CO2 mole fraction is sensitive to filtering of observations to those that can be represented at the transport model resolution. Using five years of CO2 mole fraction observations from the Regional Atmospheric Continuous CO2 Network in the Rocky Mountains (Rocky RACCOON, five statistical filters are used to investigate a range of approaches for identifying regionally representative CO2 mole fractions. Test results from three filters indicate that subsets based on short-term variance and local CO2 gradients across tower inlet heights retain nine-tenths of the total observations and are able to define representative diel variability and seasonal cycles even for difficult-to-model sites where the influence of local fluxes is much larger than regional mole fraction variations. Test results from two other filters that consider measurements from previous and following days using spline fitting or sliding windows are overly selective. Case study examples showed that these windowing-filters rejected measurements representing synoptic changes in CO2, which suggests that they are not well suited to filtering continental CO2 measurements. We present a novel CO2 lapse rate filter that uses CO2 differences between levels in the model atmosphere to select subsets of site measurements that are representative on model scales. Our new filtering techniques provide guidance for novel approaches to assimilating mountain-top CO2 mole fractions in carbon cycle inverse models.

  17. Rhizopus-associated soft tissue infection in an immunocompetent air-conditioning technician after a road traffic accident: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabie, Nada B; Althaqafi, Abdulhakeem O

    2012-03-01

    Rhinocerebral or sinopulmonary mucromycosis is a well-recognized human fungal infection found among immunocompromised and diabetic patients. However, the infection is rare among immunocompetent hosts. We are reporting the case of an adult immunocompetent male patient working as an air-conditioning technician. The patient was a victim of a road traffic accident (RTA) and sustained multiple fractures in the proximal part of the left tibia, distal femur, and scapula. Two weeks postoperatively, Rhizopus microspores were isolated from an infected traumatic wound over the distal femur. Surgical debridement was performed, and the patient was started on amphotericin B. Occupational exposure history and workplace environmental sanitation are crucial for the prevention of this potentially fatal yet preventable infection. Copyright © 2011 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Optimization of L(+)-Lactic Acid Fermentation Without Neutralisation of Rhizopus Oryzae Mutant RK02 by Low-Energy Ion Implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wen; Wang Tao; Yang Yingge; Liu Dan; Fan Yonghong; Wang Dongmei; Yang Qian; Yao Jianming; Zheng Zhiming; Yu Zengliang

    2008-01-01

    In order to get an industrial strain which can yield a high concentration of lactic acid for ISPR (in situ product removal), the original strain Rhizopus oryzae RE3303 was mutated by low-energy ion beam implantation. A mutant RK02 was screened, and the factors such as the substrate concentration, nitrogen source concentration, inoculum size, seed age, aeration and temperature that affect the production of lactic acid were studied in detail. Under optimal conditions, the maximum concentration of L(+)-lactic acid reached 34.85 g/L after 30 h shake-flask cultivation without adding any neutralisation (5% Glucose added), which was a 146% increase in lactic acid production after ion implantation compared with the original strain. It was also shown that RK02 can be used in ISPR to reduce the number of times of separation.

  19. Raman and luminescence spectroscopy of zirconium oxide with the use of the MOLE microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, T.E.; Alvarez, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    Raman and luminescence spectroscopy with the use of the MOLE microprobe has been used to characterize ZrO 2 originating from oxidized fuel-rod cladding in nuclear accidents. Micro-Raman analysis of samples from Three Mile Island Unit 2 and the Power Burst Facility identified tetragonal and cubic ZrO 2 . The tetragonal and cubic phases are high-temperature polymorphs of ZrO 2 and provide information about temperatures and hydrogen formation in the TMI-2 core. The data suggest that the tetragonal ZrO 2 in TMI-2 samples was stabilized by a crystallite size effect, whereas cubic ZrO 2 in PBF debris samples was stabilized by impurities. Luminescence was used to differentiate yttria-stabilized ZrO 2 ceramics and oxidized fuel-rod cladding in PBF debris samples. The ZrO 2 ceramics produced strong, sharp luminescence peaks which indicated the presence of titanium and yttria in the ZrO 2 . Oxidized fuel-rod cladding displayed no luminescence

  20. Influence of the mole penetrator on measurements of heat flow in lunar subsurface layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawrzaszek, Roman; Drogosz, Michal; Seweryn, Karol; Banaszkiewicz, Marek; Grygorczuk, Jerzy

    Measuring the thermal gradient in subsurface layers is a basic method of determination the heat flux from the interior of a planetary body to its surface. In case of the Moon, such measurements complemented with the results of theoretical analysis and modeling can significantly improve our understanding of the thermal and geological evolution of the Moon. In practice, temperature gradient measurements are performed by at least two sensors located at different depths under the surface. These sensors will be attached to a penetrator [1] or to a cable pulled behind the penetrator. In both cases the object that carries the sensors, e.g. penetrator, perturb temperature measurements. In our study we analyze a case of two thermal sensors attached to the ends of 350mm long penetrator made of a composite material. In agreement with the studies of other authors we have found that the penetrator should be placed at the depth of 2-3 meters, where periodic changes of the temperature due to variation of solar flux at the surface are significantly smaller than the error of temperature measurement. The most important result of our analysis is to show how to deconvolve the real gradient of the temperature from the measurements perturbed by the penetrator body. In this way it will be possible to more accurately determine heat flux in the lunar regolith. [1] Grygorczuk J., Seweryn K., Wawrzaszek R., Banaszkiewicz M., Insertion of a Mole Pene-trator -Experimental Results, /39th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference /League City, Texas 2008

  1. Effectiveness of Using Computer-Assisted Supplementary Instruction for Teaching the Mole Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalçinalp, Serpil; Geban, Ömer; Özkan, Ilker

    This study examined the effect of computer-assisted instruction (CAI), used as a problem-solving supplement to classroom instruction, on students' understanding of chemical formulas and mole concept, their attitudes toward chemistry subjects, and CAI. The objective was to assess the effectiveness of CAI over recitation hours when both teaching methods were used as a supplement to the traditional chemistry instruction. We randomly selected two classes in a secondary school. Each teaching strategy was randomly assigned to one class. The experimental group received supplementary instruction delivered via CAI, while the control group received similar instruction through recitation hours. The data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and t-test. It was found that the students who used the CAI accompanied with lectures scored significantly higher than those who attended recitation hours, in terms of school subject achievement in chemistry and attitudes toward chemistry subjects. In addition, there was a significant improvement in the attitudes of students in the experimental group toward the use of computers in a chemistry course. There was no significant difference between the performances of females versus males in each treatment group.Received: 26 April 1994; Revised: 6 April 1995;

  2. Naked Mole Rat Cells Have a Stable Epigenome that Resists iPSC Reprogramming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Naked mole rat (NMR is a valuable model for aging and cancer research due to its exceptional longevity and cancer resistance. We observed that the reprogramming efficiency of NMR fibroblasts in response to OSKM was drastically lower than that of mouse fibroblasts. Expression of SV40 LargeT antigen (LT dramatically improved reprogramming of NMR fibroblasts. Inactivation of Rb alone, but not p53, was sufficient to improve reprogramming efficiency, suggesting that NMR chromatin may be refractory to reprogramming. Analysis of the global histone landscape revealed that NMR had higher levels of repressive H3K27 methylation marks and lower levels of activating H3K27 acetylation marks than mouse. ATAC-seq revealed that in NMR, promoters of reprogramming genes were more closed than mouse promoters, while expression of LT led to massive opening of the NMR promoters. These results suggest that NMR displays a more stable epigenome that resists de-differentiation, contributing to the cancer resistance and longevity of this species.

  3. Renal Pathology in a Nontraditional Aging Model: The Naked Mole-Rat (Heterocephalus glaber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, M A; Kinsel, M J; Treuting, P M

    2016-03-01

    The naked mole-rat (NMR; Heterocephalus glaber) is growing in popularity as a model for aging research due to its extreme longevity (up to 30 years), highly adapted physiology, and resistance to cancer, particularly when compared with traditional aging models such as laboratory mice and rats. Despite the NMR's seemingly lengthy health span, several age-related lesions have been documented. During a 15-year retrospective evaluation of a zoo-housed population, histologic changes in the kidneys were reported in 127 of 138 (92%) adult NMRs. Of these, renal tubular mineralization was very common (115 of 127; 90.6%) and found in NMRs without concurrent renal lesions (36 of 127; 28.3%). Many of the other described lesions were considered progressive stages of a single process, generally referred to as chronic nephritis or nephropathy, and diagnosed in 73 of 127 (57.5%), while end-stage renal disease was reported in only 12 (9.4%) NMRs. Renal lesions of these NMRs were comparable to disease entities reported in laboratory rats and certain strains of inbred and noninbred mice. Although many lesions of NMR kidneys were similar to those found in aged laboratory rodents, some common urinary diseases were not represented in the examined colonies. The goal of this study was to describe renal lesions in NMRs from a zoologic setting to familiarize investigators and pathologists with an apparently common and presumably age-related disease in this nontraditional model. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Naked Mole Rat Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells and Their Contribution to Interspecific Chimera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Goo Lee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Naked mole rats (NMRs are exceptionally long-lived, cancer-resistant rodents. Identifying the defining characteristics of these traits may shed light on aging and cancer mechanisms. Here, we report the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs from NMR fibroblasts and their contribution to mouse-NMR chimeric embryos. Efficient reprogramming could be observed under N2B27+2i conditions. The iPSCs displayed a characteristic morphology, expressed pluripotent markers, formed embryoid bodies, and showed typical differentiation patterns. Interestingly, NMR embryonic fibroblasts and the derived iPSCs had propensity for a tetraploid karyotype and were resistant to forming teratomas, but within mouse blastocysts they contributed to both interspecific placenta and fetus. Gene expression patterns of NMR iPSCs were more similar to those of human than mouse iPSCs. Overall, we uncovered unique features of NMR iPSCs and report a mouse-NMR chimeric model. The iPSCs and associated cell culture systems can be used for a variety of biological and biomedical applications.

  5. Functional characteristics of the naked mole rat μ-opioid receptor.

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    Melanie Busch-Dienstfertig

    Full Text Available While humans and most animals respond to µ-opioid receptor (MOR agonists with analgesia and decreased aggression, in the naked mole rat (NMR opioids induce hyperalgesia and severe aggression. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the human mu-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1 can underlie altered behavioral responses to opioids. Therefore, we hypothesized that the primary structure of the NMR MOR may differ from other species. Sequencing of the NMR oprm1 revealed strong homology to other mammals, but exposed three unique amino acids that might affect receptor-ligand interactions. The NMR and rat oprm1 sequences were cloned into mammalian expression vectors and transfected into HEK293 cells. Radioligand binding and 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP enzyme immunoassays were used to compare opioid binding and opioid-mediated cAMP inhibition. At normalized opioid receptor protein levels we detected significantly lower [3H]DAMGO binding to NMR compared to rat MOR, but no significant difference in DAMGO-induced cAMP inhibition. Strong DAMGO-induced MOR internalization was detectable using radioligand binding and confocal imaging in HEK293 cells expressing rat or NMR receptor, while morphine showed weak or no effects. In summary, we found minor functional differences between rat and NMR MOR suggesting that other differences e.g. in anatomical distribution of MOR underlie the NMR's extreme reaction to opioids.

  6. Cardiac function of the naked mole-rat: ecophysiological responses to working underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Kelly M; Voorhees, Andrew; Chiao, Ying Ann; Han, Hai-Chao; Lindsey, Merry L; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2014-03-01

    The naked mole-rat (NMR) is a strictly subterranean rodent with a low resting metabolic rate. Nevertheless, it can greatly increase its metabolic activity to meet the high energetic demands associated with digging through compacted soils in its xeric natural habitat where food is patchily distributed. We hypothesized that the NMR heart would naturally have low basal function and exhibit a large cardiac reserve, thereby mirroring the species' low basal metabolism and large metabolic scope. Echocardiography showed that young (2-4 yr old) healthy NMRs have low fractional shortening (28 ± 2%), ejection fraction (43 ± 2%), and cardiac output (6.5 ± 0.4 ml/min), indicating low basal cardiac function. Histology revealed large NMR cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area (216 ± 10 μm(2)) and cardiac collagen deposition of 2.2 ± 0.4%. Neither of these histomorphometric traits was considered pathological, since biaxial tensile testing showed no increase in passive ventricular stiffness. NMR cardiomyocyte fibers showed a low degree of rotation, contributing to the observed low NMR cardiac contractility. Interestingly, when the exercise mimetic dobutamine (3 μg/g ip) was administered, NMRs showed pronounced increases in fractional shortening, ejection fraction, cardiac output, and stroke volume, indicating an increased cardiac reserve. The relatively low basal cardiac function and enhanced cardiac reserve of NMRs are likely to be ecophysiological adaptations to life in an energetically taxing environment.

  7. Antagonistic Coevolution Drives Whack-a-Mole Sensitivity in Gene Regulatory Networks.

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    Jeewoen Shin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Robustness, defined as tolerance to perturbations such as mutations and environmental fluctuations, is pervasive in biological systems. However, robustness often coexists with its counterpart, evolvability--the ability of perturbations to generate new phenotypes. Previous models of gene regulatory network evolution have shown that robustness evolves under stabilizing selection, but it is unclear how robustness and evolvability will emerge in common coevolutionary scenarios. We consider a two-species model of coevolution involving one host and one parasite population. By using two interacting species, key model parameters that determine the fitness landscapes become emergent properties of the model, avoiding the need to impose these parameters externally. In our study, parasites are modeled on species such as cuckoos where mimicry of the host phenotype confers high fitness to the parasite but lower fitness to the host. Here, frequent phenotype changes are favored as each population continually adapts to the other population. Sensitivity evolves at the network level such that point mutations can induce large phenotype changes. Crucially, the sensitive points of the network are broadly distributed throughout the network and continually relocate. Each time sensitive points in the network are mutated, new ones appear to take their place. We have therefore named this phenomenon "whack-a-mole" sensitivity, after a popular fun park game. We predict that this type of sensitivity will evolve under conditions of strong directional selection, an observation that helps interpret existing experimental evidence, for example, during the emergence of bacterial antibiotic resistance.

  8. Determination of mole fractions of ethyl-cellulose-containing monomers by NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Hiroyuki

    2017-06-05

    Three samples of ethyl cellulose (EC) with different degrees of substitution (DS)-0.51, 1.41, and 2.28-were prepared by a slurry method using ethyl bromide as the etherification reagent. 1 H- 13 C HSQC and HSQC-TOCSY NMR spectral analysis allowed for complete assignment of the 1 H and 13 C chemical shifts, respectively, of eight anhydroglucose units (AGUs) comprising EC chains-un-, 2-mono-, 3-mono-, 6-mono-, 2,3-di-, 2,6-di-, 3,6-di-, and 2,3,6-tri-substituted AGUs. In addition, the lineshape of the quantitative 13 C NMR spectra of the three EC samples provided change in the mole fractions of these AGUs against DS, making it possible to estimate the reaction mechanism for the production of EC, elucidating reactivities of the hydroxyl groups at the 2, 3, and 6 positions of cellulose and interactions between the substituent groups within the same AGU and vicinal AGUs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Mola hidatiforme e doença trofoblástica gestacional Hydatidiform mole and gestational trophoblastic disease

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    Jurandyr Moreira de Andrade

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A mola hidatiforme é uma complicação relativamente infrequente da gravidez, mas com potencial para evolução para formas que necessitam de tratamento sistêmico e podem ser ameaçadoras da vida. Sob a denominação de mola hidatiforme há duas entidades histopatológicas e clínicas: a mola parcial e a completa. As diferenças entre estas duas formas são importantes, devido ao risco de evolução para formas persistentes, ou seja, mais alto para as completas. O diagnóstico da mola hidatiforme, seu tratamento e seguimento após o tratamento inicial sofreram alterações importantes nos últimos anos. O número de pacientes assintomáticas tem aumentado devido ao emprego de ultrassonografia no início da gravidez. Para a resolução da mola hidatiforme é necessário evitar o emprego de medicamentos que induzam contrações uterinas e usar a vácuo-aspiração. Deve ser prescrito o método contraceptivo hormonal logo após o esvaziamento da mola. O seguimento é baseado nas dosagens seriadas semanais de gonadotrofinas coriônicas. É importante que o método empregado detecte todas as formas das gonadotrofinas coriônicas (molécula intacta, hiperglicosilada, subunidade β livre e fragmento central da subunidade β.The hydatiform mole is a relatively rare pregnancy complication, but with potential to evolve to forms which need systemic treatment and can be a threat to life. There are two histopathological and clinical entities under the name of hydatiform mole: the partial and the complete mole. The differences between the two forms are important due to risk of evolution to persistent forms, which is higher for the complete moles. The diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of hydatiform mole have been under important changes in the last years. The number of asymptomatic patients has increased, due to the use of ultrasonography at the onset of pregnancy. The use of medication that induces uterine contractions must be avoided, and vacuum

  10. RNA sequencing reveals differential expression of mitochondrial and oxidation reduction genes in the long-lived naked mole-rat when compared to mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chuanfei; Li, Yang; Holmes, Andrew; Szafranski, Karol; Faulkes, Chris G; Coen, Clive W; Buffenstein, Rochelle; Platzer, Matthias; de Magalhães, João Pedro; Church, George M

    2011-01-01

    The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a long-lived, cancer resistant rodent and there is a great interest in identifying the adaptations responsible for these and other of its unique traits. We employed RNA sequencing to compare liver gene expression profiles between naked mole-rats and wild-derived mice. Our results indicate that genes associated with oxidoreduction and mitochondria were expressed at higher relative levels in naked mole-rats. The largest effect is nearly 300-fold higher expression of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (Epcam), a tumour-associated protein. Also of interest are the protease inhibitor, alpha2-macroglobulin (A2m), and the mitochondrial complex II subunit Sdhc, both ageing-related genes found strongly over-expressed in the naked mole-rat. These results hint at possible candidates for specifying species differences in ageing and cancer, and in particular suggest complex alterations in mitochondrial and oxidation reduction pathways in the naked mole-rat. Our differential gene expression analysis obviated the need for a reference naked mole-rat genome by employing a combination of Illumina/Solexa and 454 platforms for transcriptome sequencing and assembling transcriptome contigs of the non-sequenced species. Overall, our work provides new research foci and methods for studying the naked mole-rat's fascinating characteristics.

  11. Adult naked mole-rat brain retains the NMDA receptor subunit GluN2D associated with hypoxia tolerance in neonatal mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Bethany L; Park, Thomas J; Larson, John

    2012-01-11

    Adult naked mole-rats show a number of systemic adaptations to a crowded underground habitat that is low in oxygen and high in carbon dioxide. Remarkably, brain slice tissue from adult naked mole-rats also is extremely tolerant to oxygen deprivation as indicated by maintenance of synaptic transmission under hypoxic conditions as well as by a delayed neuronal depolarization during anoxia. These characteristics resemble hypoxia tolerance in brain slices from neonates in a variety of mammal species. An important component of neonatal tolerance to hypoxia involves the subunit composition of NMDA receptors. Neonates have a high proportion of NMDA receptors with GluN2D subunits which are protective because they retard calcium entry into neurons during hypoxic episodes. Therefore, we hypothesized that adult naked mole-rats retain a protective, neonatal-like, NMDA receptor subunit profile. We used immunoblotting to assess age-related changes in NMDA receptor subunits in naked mole-rats and mice. The results show that adult naked mole-rat brain retains a much greater proportion of the hypoxia-protective GluN2D subunit compared to adult mice. However, age-related changes in other subunits (GluN2A and GluN2B) from the neonatal period to adulthood were comparable in mice and naked mole-rats. Hence, adult naked mole-rat brain only retains the neonatal NMDA receptor subunit that is associated with hypoxia tolerance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. RNA sequencing reveals differential expression of mitochondrial and oxidation reduction genes in the long-lived naked mole-rat when compared to mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanfei Yu

    Full Text Available The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber is a long-lived, cancer resistant rodent and there is a great interest in identifying the adaptations responsible for these and other of its unique traits. We employed RNA sequencing to compare liver gene expression profiles between naked mole-rats and wild-derived mice. Our results indicate that genes associated with oxidoreduction and mitochondria were expressed at higher relative levels in naked mole-rats. The largest effect is nearly 300-fold higher expression of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (Epcam, a tumour-associated protein. Also of interest are the protease inhibitor, alpha2-macroglobulin (A2m, and the mitochondrial complex II subunit Sdhc, both ageing-related genes found strongly over-expressed in the naked mole-rat. These results hint at possible candidates for specifying species differences in ageing and cancer, and in particular suggest complex alterations in mitochondrial and oxidation reduction pathways in the naked mole-rat. Our differential gene expression analysis obviated the need for a reference naked mole-rat genome by employing a combination of Illumina/Solexa and 454 platforms for transcriptome sequencing and assembling transcriptome contigs of the non-sequenced species. Overall, our work provides new research foci and methods for studying the naked mole-rat's fascinating characteristics.

  13. Comparison of atmospheric CO2 mole fractions and source-sink characteristics at four WMO/GAW stations in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Siyang; Zhou, Lingxi; Tans, Pieter P.; An, Xingqin; Liu, Yunsong

    2018-05-01

    As CO2 is a primary driving factor of climate change, the mole fraction and source-sink characteristics of atmospheric CO2 over China are constantly inferred from multi-source and multi-site data. In this paper, we compared ground-based CO2 measurements with satellite retrievals and investigated the source-sink regional representativeness at China's four WMO/GAW stations. The results indicate that, firstly, atmospheric CO2 mole fractions from ground-based sampling measurement and Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) products reveal similar seasonal variation. The seasonal amplitude of the column-averaged CO2 mole fractions is smaller than that of the ground-based CO2 at all stations. The extrema of the seasonal cycle of ground-based and column CO2 mole fractions are basically synchronous except a slight phase delay at Lin'an (LAN) station. For the two-year average, the column CO2 is lower than ground-based CO2, and both of them reveal the lowest CO2 mole fraction at Waliguan (WLG) station. The lowest (∼4 ppm) and largest (∼8 ppm) differences between the column and ground-based CO2 appear at WLG and Longfengshan (LFS) stations, respectively. The CO2 mole fraction and its difference between GOSAT and ground-based measurement are smaller in summer than in winter. The differences of summer column CO2 among these stations are also much smaller than their ground-based counterparts. In winter, the maximum of ground-based CO2 mole fractions and the greatest difference between the two (ground-based and column) datasets appear at the LFS station. Secondly, the representative areas of the monthly CO2 background mole fractions at each station were found by employing footprints and emissions. Smaller representative areas appeared at Shangdianzi (SDZ) and LFS, whereas larger ones were seen at WLG and LAN. The representative areas in summer are larger than those in winter at WLG and SDZ, but the situation is opposite at LAN and LFS. The representative areas for the

  14. Expression patterns of ERVWE1/Syncytin-1 and other placentally expressed human endogenous retroviruses along the malignant transformation process of hydatidiform moles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolze, Pierre-Adrien; Patrier, Sophie; Cheynet, Valérie; Oriol, Guy; Massardier, Jérôme; Hajri, Touria; Guillotte, Michèle; Bossus, Marc; Sanlaville, Damien; Golfier, François; Mallet, François

    2016-03-01

    Up to 20% of hydatidiform moles are followed by malignant transformation in gestational trophoblastic neoplasia and require chemotherapy. Syncytin-1 is involved in human placental morphogenesis and is also expressed in various cancers. We assessed the predictive value of the expression of Syncytin-1 and its interactants in the malignant transformation process of hydatidiform moles. Syncytin-1 glycoprotein was localized by immunohistochemistry in hydatidiform moles, gestational trophoblastic neoplasia and control placentas. The transcription levels of its locus ERVWE1, its interaction partners (hASCT1, hASCT2, TLR4 and DC-SIGN) and two loci (ERVFRDE1 and ERV3) involved the expression of other placental envelopes were assessed by real-time PCR. Syncytin-1 glycoprotein was expressed in syncytiotrophoblast of hydatidiform moles with an apical enhancement when compared with normal placentas. Moles with further malignant transformation had a higher staining intensity of Syncytin-1 surface unit C-terminus but the transcription level of its locus ERVWE1 was not different from that of moles with further remission and normal placentas. hASCT1 and TLR4, showed lower transcription levels in complete moles when compared to normal placentas. ERVWE1, ERVFRDE1 and ERV3 transcription was down-regulated in hydatidiform moles and gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. Variations of Syncytin-1 protein localization and down-regulation of hASCT1 and TLR4 transcription are likely to reflect altered functions of Syncytin-1 in the premalignant context of complete moles. The reduced transcription in gestational trophoblastic diseases of ERVWE1, ERVFRDE1 and ERV3, which expression during normal pregnancy is differentially regulated by promoter region methylation, suggest a joint dysregulation mechanism in malignant context. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. High specific activity N-Acetyl-3H-α-Aspartyl- L-Glutamic at micro mole scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, C.

    1984-01-01

    High specific activity N-Acetyl-3 H - α -Aspartyl-I-Glutamic acid at micro mole scale in prepared acetylating L- α -Aspartyl-L-glutamic with 3 H -acetic anhydride in re distilled toluene. The product le purified through cationic and anionic columns. The radiochemical purity as determined by thin-layer chromatography is greater then 99% at the time preparation. (Author) 5 refs

  16. Rediscovery Of The Northern Mole Vole, Ellobius Talpinus (Rodentia, Cricetidae, At The Western Bank Of The Dnipro River, Ukraine

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    Rusin M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ellobius talpinus was supposed to become extinct from the westernbank of the river Dnipro. Aft er 50 years the species was found again in Dnipropetrovsk and Kherson Region. The brief description of the current distribution of the northern mole vole to the west of the Dnipro is given. Altogether 11 localities were found. The rediscovered populations may be treated as endangered in the region.

  17. Reduced Utilization of Selenium by Naked Mole Rats Due to a Specific Defect in GPx1 Expression*

    OpenAIRE

    Kasaikina, Marina V.; Lobanov, Alexei V.; Malinouski, Mikalai Y.; Lee, Byung Cheon; Seravalli, Javier; Fomenko, Dmitri E.; Turanov, Anton A.; Finney, Lydia; Vogt, Stefan; Park, Thomas J.; Miller, Richard A.; Hatfield, Dolph L.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2011-01-01

    Naked mole rat (MR) Heterocephalus glaber is a rodent model of delayed aging because of its unusually long life span (>28 years). It is also not known to develop cancer. In the current work, tissue imaging by x-ray fluorescence microscopy and direct analyses of trace elements revealed low levels of selenium in the MR liver and kidney, whereas MR and mouse brains had similar selenium levels. This effect was not explained by uniform selenium deficiency because methionine sulfoxide reductase act...

  18. Challenging the inbreeding hypothesis in a eusocial mammal: population genetics of the naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Colleen M; Troendle, Nicholas J; Gill, Clare A; Braude, Stanton; Honeycutt, Rodney L

    2015-10-01

    The role of genetic relatedness in the evolution of eusociality has been the topic of much debate, especially when contrasting eusocial insects with vertebrates displaying reproductive altruism. The naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber, was the first described eusocial mammal. Although this discovery was based on an ecological constraints model of eusocial evolution, early genetic studies reported high levels of relatedness in naked mole-rats, providing a compelling argument that low dispersal rates and consanguineous mating (inbreeding as a mating system) are the driving forces for the evolution of this eusocial species. One caveat to accepting this long-held view is that the original genetic studies were based on limited sampling from the species' geographic distribution. A growing body of evidence supports a contrary view, with the original samples not representative of the species-rather reflecting a single founder event, establishing a small population south of the Athi River. Our study is the first to address these competing hypotheses by examining patterns of molecular variation in colonies sampled from north and south of the Athi and Tana rivers, which based on our results, serve to isolate genetically distinct populations of naked mole-rats. Although colonies south of the Athi River share a single mtDNA haplotype and are fixed at most microsatellite loci, populations north of the Athi River are considerably more variable. Our findings support the position that the low variation observed in naked mole-rat populations south of the Athi River reflects a founder event, rather than a consequence of this species' unusual mating system. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The Insulin-Like Growth Factor System in the Long-Lived Naked Mole-Rat.

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    Malene Brohus

    Full Text Available Naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber (NMRs are the longest living rodents known. They show negligible senescence, and are resistant to cancers and certain damaging effects associated with aging. The insulin-like growth factors (IGFs have pluripotent actions, influencing growth processes in virtually every system of the body. They are established contributors to the aging process, confirmed by the demonstration that decreased IGF signaling results in life-extending effects in a variety of species. The IGFs are likewise involved in progression of cancers by mediating survival signals in malignant cells. This report presents a full characterization of the IGF system in the NMR: ligands, receptors, IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs, and IGFBP proteases. A particular emphasis was placed on the IGFBP protease, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A, shown to be an important lifespan modulator in mice. Comparisons of IGF-related genes in the NMR with human and murine sequences indicated no major differences in essential parts of the IGF system, including PAPP-A. The protease was shown to possess an intact active site despite the report of a contradictory genome sequence. Furthermore, PAPP-A was expressed and translated in NMRs cells and retained IGF-dependent proteolytic activity towards IGFBP-4 and IGF-independent activity towards IGFBP-5. However, experimental data suggest differential regulatory mechanisms for PAPP-A expression in NMRs than those described in humans and mice. This overall description of the IGF system in the NMR represents an initial step towards elucidating the complex molecular mechanisms underlying longevity, and how these animals have evolved to ensure a delayed and healthy aging process.

  20. Initial Case Reports of Cancer in Naked Mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, M A; Ward, J M; Walsh, T F; Chinnadurai, S K; Kerns, K; Kinsel, M J; Treuting, P M

    2016-05-01

    Naked mole-rats (NMRs;Heterocephalus glaber) are highly adapted, eusocial rodents renowned for their extreme longevity and resistance to cancer. Because cancer has not been formally described in this species, NMRs have been increasingly utilized as an animal model in aging and cancer research. We previously reported the occurrence of several age-related diseases, including putative pre-neoplastic lesions, in zoo-housed NMR colonies. Here, we report for the first time 2 cases of cancer in zoo-housed NMRs. In Case No. 1, we observed a subcutaneous mass in the axillary region of a 22-year-old male NMR, with histologic, immunohistochemical (pancytokeratin positive, rare p63 immunolabeling, and smooth muscle actin negative), and ultrastructural characteristics of an adenocarcinoma possibly of mammary or salivary origin. In Case No. 2, we observed a densely cellular, poorly demarcated gastric mass of polygonal cells arranged in nests with positive immunolabeling for synaptophysin and chromogranin indicative of a neuroendocrine carcinoma in an approximately 20-year-old male NMR. We also include a brief discussion of other proliferative growths and pre-cancerous lesions diagnosed in 1 zoo colony. Although these case reports do not alter the longstanding observation of cancer resistance, they do raise questions about the scope of cancer resistance and the interpretation of biomedical studies in this model. These reports also highlight the benefit of long-term disease investigations in zoo-housed populations to better understand naturally occurring disease processes in species used as models in biomedical research. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. The Insulin-Like Growth Factor System in the Long-Lived Naked Mole-Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brohus, Malene; Gorbunova, Vera; Faulkes, Chris G; Overgaard, Michael T; Conover, Cheryl A

    2015-01-01

    Naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber) (NMRs) are the longest living rodents known. They show negligible senescence, and are resistant to cancers and certain damaging effects associated with aging. The insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) have pluripotent actions, influencing growth processes in virtually every system of the body. They are established contributors to the aging process, confirmed by the demonstration that decreased IGF signaling results in life-extending effects in a variety of species. The IGFs are likewise involved in progression of cancers by mediating survival signals in malignant cells. This report presents a full characterization of the IGF system in the NMR: ligands, receptors, IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs), and IGFBP proteases. A particular emphasis was placed on the IGFBP protease, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), shown to be an important lifespan modulator in mice. Comparisons of IGF-related genes in the NMR with human and murine sequences indicated no major differences in essential parts of the IGF system, including PAPP-A. The protease was shown to possess an intact active site despite the report of a contradictory genome sequence. Furthermore, PAPP-A was expressed and translated in NMRs cells and retained IGF-dependent proteolytic activity towards IGFBP-4 and IGF-independent activity towards IGFBP-5. However, experimental data suggest differential regulatory mechanisms for PAPP-A expression in NMRs than those described in humans and mice. This overall description of the IGF system in the NMR represents an initial step towards elucidating the complex molecular mechanisms underlying longevity, and how these animals have evolved to ensure a delayed and healthy aging process.

  2. Transcriptome sequencing of the naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber and identification of hypoxia tolerance genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bang Xiao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The naked mole rat (NMR; Heterocephalus glaber is a small rodent species found in regions of Kenya, Ethiopia and Somalia. It has a high tolerance for hypoxia and is thus considered one of the most important natural models for studying hypoxia tolerance mechanisms. The various mechanisms underlying the NMR's hypoxia tolerance are beginning to be understood at different levels of organization, and next-generation sequencing methods promise to expand this understanding to the level of gene expression. In this study, we examined the sequence and transcript abundance data of the muscle transcriptome of NMRs exposed to hypoxia using the Illumina HiSeq 2500 system to clarify the possible genomic adaptive responses to the hypoxic underground surroundings. The RNA-seq raw FastQ data were mapped against the NMR genome. We identified 2337 differentially expressed genes (DEGs by comparison of the hypoxic and control groups. Functional annotation of the DEGs by gene ontology (GO analysis revealed enrichment of hypoxia stress-related GO categories, including ‘biological regulation’, ‘cellular process’, ‘ion transport’ and ‘cell-cell signaling’. Enrichment of DEGs in signaling pathways was analyzed against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG database to identify possible interactions between DEGs. The results revealed significant enrichment of DEGs in focal adhesion, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathway and the glycine, serine and threonine metabolism pathway. Furthermore, inhibition of DEGs (STMN1, MAPK8IP1 and MAPK10 expression induced apoptosis and arrested cell growth in NMR fibroblasts following hypoxia. Thus, this global transcriptome analysis of NMRs can provide an important genetic resource for the study of hypoxia tolerance in mammals. Furthermore, the identified DEGs may provide important molecular targets for biomedical research into therapeutic strategies for stroke and cardiovascular diseases.

  3. A new definition for the mole based on the Avogadro constant: a journey from physics to chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Martin J T

    2011-10-28

    The mole is the most recent addition to the set of base units that form the International System of Units, although its pre-cursor the 'gram-molecule', had been in use by both physicists and chemists for more than 120 years. A proposal has been published recently to establish a new definition for the mole based on a fixed value for the Avogadro constant. This would introduce consistent relative uncertainties for the molar and the atomic masses while making no change to the system of relative atomic masses ('atomic weights'). Although the proposal would have little impact on the measurement uncertainty of practical work, it has stimulated considerable debate about the mole and the nature of the quantity amount of substance. In this paper, the rationale for the new definition is explained against the background of changes in the way the quantity amount of substance has been used, from its first use during the early development of thermodynamics through to the use of the 'number of gram-molecules' at the end of the nineteenth century.

  4. Naked mole-rats maintain healthy skeletal muscle and Complex IV mitochondrial enzyme function into old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Elizabeth A; Karapavlovic, Nevena; Rosa, Hannah; Woodmass, Michael; Rygiel, Karolina; White, Kathryn; Turnbull, Douglass M; Faulkes, Chris G

    2016-12-19

    The naked mole-rat (NMR) Heterocephalus glaber is an exceptionally long-lived rodent, living up to 32 years in captivity. This extended lifespan is accompanied by a phenotype of negligible senescence, a phenomenon of very slow changes in the expected physiological characteristics with age. One of the many consequences of normal aging in mammals is the devastating and progressive loss of skeletal muscle, termed sarcopenia, caused in part by respiratory enzyme dysfunction within the mitochondria of skeletal muscle fibers. Here we report that NMRs avoid sarcopenia for decades. Muscle fiber integrity and mitochondrial ultrastructure are largely maintained in aged animals. While mitochondrial Complex IV expression and activity remains stable, Complex I expression is significantly decreased. We show that aged naked mole-rat skeletal muscle tissue contains some mitochondrial DNA rearrangements, although the common mitochondrial DNA deletions associated with aging in human and other rodent skeletal muscles are not present. Interestingly, NMR skeletal muscle fibers demonstrate a significant increase in mitochondrial DNA copy number. These results have intriguing implications for the role of mitochondria in aging, suggesting Complex IV, but not Complex I, function is maintained in the long-lived naked mole rat, where sarcopenia is avoided and healthy muscle function is maintained for decades.

  5. Cessation of reproduction-related spine elongation after multiple breeding cycles in female naked mole-rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengler-Crish, Christine M; Catania, Kenneth C

    2009-01-01

    The breeding female or "queen" naked mole-rat has a uniquely elongated body morphology attributed to the lengthening of the lumbar vertebral column that occurs during pregnancy. It is unknown whether this vertebral growth is a continuous process, or associated only with early reproductive experience. We compared pregnancy-related bone elongation in nascent primiparous queens and established queens to determine if this vertebral expansion was a lifelong process in these females. We also investigated the impact of lactation on vertebral elongation in these mole-rats because it is known to be a time of significant bone loss in other mammals. Our data show that after eight or more pregnancies, established queens no longer experienced a net gain in lumbar spine length over the reproductive cycle, whereas the nascent breeders demonstrated significant spine lengthening over this time. Despite the lack of net spine lengthening in established breeders, our results indicated that these queens still experienced some pregnancy-specific vertebral elongation. In naked mole-rats, pregnancy-induced bone elongation may serve the dual purposes of first lengthening the spine, and then once optimal spine size is achieved, serving as a homeostatic mechanism that prepares the spine for the mineral demands of lactation. Anat Rec, 2009. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Retinal S-opsin dominance in Ansell's mole-rats (Fukomys anselli) is a consequence of naturally low serum thyroxine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Yoshiyuki; Mladěnková, Nella; Burda, Hynek; Szafranski, Karol; Begall, Sabine

    2018-03-12

    Mammals usually possess a majority of medium-wavelength sensitive (M-) and a minority of short-wavelength sensitive (S-) opsins in the retina, enabling dichromatic vision. Unexpectedly, subterranean rodents from the genus Fukomys exhibit an S-opsin majority, which is exceptional among mammals, albeit with no apparent adaptive value. Because thyroid hormones (THs) are pivotal for M-opsin expression and metabolic rate regulation, we have, for the first time, manipulated TH levels in the Ansell's mole-rat (Fukomys anselli) using osmotic pumps. In Ansell's mole-rats, the TH thyroxine (T4) is naturally low, likely as an adaptation to the harsh subterranean ecological conditions by keeping resting metabolic rate (RMR) low. We measured gene expression levels in the eye, RMR, and body mass (BM) in TH-treated animals. T4 treatment increased both, S- and M-opsin expression, albeit M-opsin expression at a higher degree. However, this plasticity was only given in animals up to approximately 2.5 years. Mass-specific RMR was not affected following T4 treatment, although BM decreased. Furthermore, the T4 inactivation rate is naturally higher in F. anselli compared to laboratory rodents. This is the first experimental evidence that the S-opsin majority in Ansell's mole-rats is a side effect of low T4, which is downregulated to keep RMR low.

  7. Effect of dietary supplementation with Rhizopus oryzae or Chrysonilia crassa on growth performance, blood profile, intestinal microbial population, and carcass traits in broilers exposed to heat stress

    OpenAIRE

    S. Sugiharto; T. Yudiarti; I. Isroli; E. Widiastuti; F. D. Putra

    2017-01-01

    Dietary supplementation of additives has recently been part of strategies to deal with the detrimental effects of heat stress (HS) on the performance and carcass traits in broiler chicks. This study aimed to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with the fungi Rhizopus oryzae or Chrysonilia crassa on growth, blood profile, intestinal microbial population and carcass traits in broiler chicks subjected to HS. R. oryzae and C. crassa are filamentous fungi isolated from...

  8. Non-invasive assessment of glucocorticoid and androgen metabolite levels in cooperatively breeding Damaraland mole-rats (Fukomys damarensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medger, Katarina; Bennett, Nigel C; Lutermann, Heike; Ganswindt, Andre

    2018-05-18

    Dominant females of cooperative breeding species often use aggression to suppress reproduction of subordinate females, resulting in subordinates experiencing stress-related increases in glucocorticoid levels, which may cause reproductive down-regulation. This would suggest a general pattern with higher glucocorticoid levels in subordinate compared to dominant individuals; however, the opposite was found in a number of cooperatively breeding species. Furthermore, breeding females of the cooperatively breeding Damaraland mole-rats (Fukomys damarensis) exhibit very high androgen concentrations during the wet season, presumably to support their breeding monopoly. Hormone analysis in Damaraland mole-rats have typically been measured using plasma and urine, but faecal analysis offers additional advantages especially for field studies on this species. The present study examines the suitability of Damaraland mole-rat faecal samples for determining glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) and androgen metabolite (fAM) concentrations using enzyme immunoassays. Using these assays, we further evaluated the effects of breeding status on fGCM and fAM concentrations in wild-caught and captive Damaraland mole-rats. Wild-caught breeding and non-breeding males and females exhibited no differences in fAM concentrations. Immunoreactive fGCM concentrations were only high in male breeders and comparatively low in non-breeders and breeding females. Concentrations of fAMs and fGCMs were similar in captive males and females, but fAM concentrations were elevated in captive compared to wild-caught individuals, which may be related to a higher reproductive activity due to removal from the breeding female. The relatively uniform fAM and fGCM concentrations found in wild-caught mole-rats may be explained by a stable colony structure during the dry season during which this study was conducted. Limited dispersal opportunities result in lower aggression and stress levels within a colony and as a result

  9. Geochemical and Petrologic Constraints on the Source of Eocene Volcanism at Mole Hill, Rockingham County, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E. A.; Beard, J. S.

    2010-12-01

    Mole Hill is an Eocene (48 Ma) basaltic volcanic neck located west of Harrisonburg, VA, and provides a unique opportunity to probe the mantle beneath the Shenandoah Valley. It lies on the northeastern edge of a swarm of alkaline-series volcanic plugs, dikes, and diatremes extending through Rockingham and Highland Counties, VA, and Pendleton County, WV. The Eocene volcanics are thought to have exploited extensive basement fracture systems originally formed during the Alleghenian Orogeny and subsequent rifting. The Eocene volcanism may have been triggered by reactivation of faults due to global shifts in relative plate motions (Southworth 1993, USGS Bull, B1839-I) but the source material and magmatic processes for the Eocene volcanism are largely unknown. Compositional and texture analyses of xenocrystic and groundmass clinopyroxene, olivine, and spinel were completed either at Virginia Tech on the Cameca SX-50 electron microprobe in the Dept of Geological Sciences, or in the Dept of Mineral Sciences, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C using the JEOL JXA-8900R WD/EDS microanalyzer or the FEI NOVA nanoSEM600 FEG Variable Pressure Scanning Electron Microscope. Xenocrysts up to 2cm in diameter are distributed throughout the volcanic neck, with clinopyroxene >>spinel>olivine. The clinopyroxene and olivine xenocrysts show undulatory extinction in cross-polarized light and are found as individual crystals or as aggregates. Clinopyroxene xenocryst cores are high-Al, low-Cr augite ( ˜Wo44En46Fs10) with Mg# 78.5-85.9. The clinopyroxene xenocrysts have compositionally zoned rims 100-250 μm-wide containing abundant plagioclase inclusions and sparse melt inclusions in a sieve texture. The outer edges of xenocrysts approach the compositions of groundmass and microphenocryst clinopyroxenes ( ˜Wo47En38Fs15; Mg# 67.9-74.5). Olivine xenocrysts contain sulfide inclusions and Cr-rich spinel and have Mg-rich ( ˜Fo86-90) cores with more Fe- and Ca-rich rims (Fo70

  10. Membrane phospholipid composition may contribute to exceptional longevity of the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber): a comparative study using shotgun lipidomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Todd W; Buffenstein, Rochelle; Hulbert, A J

    2007-11-01

    Phospholipids containing highly polyunsaturated fatty acids are particularly prone to peroxidation and membrane composition may therefore influence longevity. Phospholipid molecules, in particular those containing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), from the skeletal muscle, heart, liver and liver mitochondria were identified and quantified using mass-spectrometry shotgun lipidomics in two similar-sized rodents that show an approximately 9-fold difference in maximum lifespan. The naked mole rat is the longest-living rodent known with a maximum lifespan of >28 years. Total phospholipid distribution is similar in tissues of both species; DHA is only found in phosphatidylcholines (PC), phosphatidylethanolamines (PE) and phosphatidylserines (PS), and DHA is relatively more concentrated in PE than PC. Naked mole-rats have fewer molecular species of both PC and PE than do mice. DHA-containing phospholipids represent 27-57% of all phospholipids in mice but only 2-6% in naked mole-rats. Furthermore, while mice have small amounts of di-polyunsaturated PC and PE, these are lacking in naked mole-rats. Vinyl ether-linked phospholipids (plasmalogens) are higher in naked mole-rat tissues than in mice. The lower level of DHA-containing phospholipids suggests a lower susceptibility to peroxidative damage in membranes of naked mole-rats compared to mice. Whereas the high level of plasmalogens might enhance membrane antioxidant protection in naked mole-rats compared to mice. Both characteristics possibly contribute to the exceptional longevity of naked mole-rats and may indicate a special role for peroxisomes in this extended longevity.

  11. Experimental Investigation of InSight HP3 Mole Interaction with Martian Regolith Simulant. Quasi-Static and Dynamic Penetration Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jason P.; Hudson, Troy L.; Andrade, José E.

    2017-10-01

    The InSight mission launches in 2018 to characterize several geophysical quantities on Mars, including the heat flow from the planetary interior. This quantity will be calculated by utilizing measurements of the thermal conductivity and the thermal gradient down to 5 meters below the Martian surface. One of the components of InSight is the Mole, which hammers into the Martian regolith to facilitate these thermal property measurements. In this paper, we experimentally investigated the effect of the Mole's penetrating action on regolith compaction and mechanical properties. Quasi-static and dynamic experiments were run with a 2D model of the 3D cylindrical mole. Force resistance data was captured with load cells. Deformation information was captured in images and analyzed using Digitial Image Correlation (DIC). Additionally, we used existing approximations of Martian regolith thermal conductivity to estimate the change in the surrounding granular material's thermal conductivity due to the Mole's penetration. We found that the Mole has the potential to cause a high degree of densification, especially if the initial granular material is relatively loose. The effect on the thermal conductivity from this densification was found to be relatively small in first-order calculations though more complete thermal models incorporating this densification should be a subject of further investigation. The results obtained provide an initial estimate of the Mole's impact on Martian regolith thermal properties.

  12. Naked mole-rat has increased translational fidelity compared with the mouse, as well as a unique 28S ribosomal RNA cleavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azpurua, Jorge; Ke, Zhonghe; Chen, Iris X; Zhang, Quanwei; Ermolenko, Dmitri N; Zhang, Zhengdong D; Gorbunova, Vera; Seluanov, Andrei

    2013-10-22

    The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a subterranean eusocial rodent with a markedly long lifespan and resistance to tumorigenesis. Multiple data implicate modulation of protein translation in longevity. Here we report that 28S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) of the naked mole-rat is processed into two smaller fragments of unequal size. The two breakpoints are located in the 28S rRNA divergent region 6 and excise a fragment of 263 nt. The excised fragment is unique to the naked mole-rat rRNA and does not show homology to other genomic regions. Because this hidden break site could alter ribosome structure, we investigated whether translation rate and amino acid incorporation fidelity were altered. We report that naked mole-rat fibroblasts have significantly increased translational fidelity despite having comparable translation rates with mouse fibroblasts. Although we cannot directly test whether the unique 28S rRNA structure contributes to the increased fidelity of translation, we speculate that it may change the folding or dynamics of the large ribosomal subunit, altering the rate of GTP hydrolysis and/or interaction of the large subunit with tRNA during accommodation, thus affecting the fidelity of protein synthesis. In summary, our results show that naked mole-rat cells produce fewer aberrant proteins, supporting the hypothesis that the more stable proteome of the naked mole-rat contributes to its longevity.

  13. Effect of the Ti/B4C mole ratio on the reaction products and reaction mechanism in an Al–Ti–B4C powder mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Lee, Jung-Moo; Cho, Young-Hee; Kim, Su-Hyeon; Yu, Huashun

    2014-01-01

    The effect of the Ti/B 4 C mole ratio on the fabrication behavior of Al composites is investigated using Al–Ti–B 4 C powder mixtures as reactants. The quick spontaneous infiltration (QSI) process combined with the combustion reaction and DTA analysis were used. According to the thermodynamic predictions, which are verified in the experimental results, TiB 2 is formed in all the samples whereas TiC is only formed in reactants with a Ti/B 4 C mole ratio of more than two. The C atoms from the reacted B 4 C do not move into TiC but instead they move into Al 3 BC or Al 4 C 3 when the Ti/B 4 C mole ratio is less than two. In addition, the reaction mechanism with a Ti/B 4 C mole ratio of 0.75 is investigated extensively. - Highlights: • The critical role of the Ti/B 4 C mole ratio on the reaction products of Al–Ti–B 4 C was studied using experiments. • The experimental results are also supported by thermodynamic calculations presented in this paper. • The reaction mechanism with a Ti/B 4 C mole ratio of 0.75 is investigated extensively

  14. The Production of Benzaldehyde by Rhizopus oligosporus USM R1 in a Solid State Fermentation (SSF System of Soy Bean Meal: Rice Husks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norliza, A. W.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of Rhizopus oligosporus USM R1 for the production of benzaldehyde, a bitter cherry almond flavour was performed using soya bean meal and rice husks as the substrates. The identification of R. oligosporus USM R1 was performed based on the observation made under light microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM. The optimum conditions for the SSF in a 250-ml Erlenmeyer flask system were 40% (v/w water content, substrate particle size of 0.7 mm; inoculum size of 1 x 10^5 spores/g substrate; incubation temperature of 30C; substrate amount of 7 g and the ratio of soy bean meal: rice husks of 50:50%. A maximum benzaldehyde production was obtained when the substrate was agitated after 48 hour for a 96 hour fermentation time. The highest benzaldehyde production obtained after 96 hour cultivation was 5.47 mg g-1 substrate. The supplementation of carbon and nitrogen sources in the substrate mixture revealed an enhancement in the growth and benzyldehyde production. A maximum production of benzaldehyde was obtained with the supplementation of L-phenylalanine, a precursor for benzaldehyde biosynthesis which gave 38.69 mg benzaldehyde/g substrate. This is approximately 6-folds higher compared to the substrates without the supplementation of L-phenylalanine.

  15. Enhanced production of raw starch degrading enzyme using agro-industrial waste mixtures by thermotolerant Rhizopus microsporus for raw cassava chip saccharification in ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakarnpaiboon, Srisakul; Srisuk, Nantana; Piyachomkwan, Kuakoon; Sakai, Kenji; Kitpreechavanich, Vichien

    2017-09-14

    In the present study, solid-state fermentation for the production of raw starch degrading enzyme was investigated by thermotolerant Rhizopus microsporus TISTR 3531 using a combination of agro-industrial wastes as substrates. The obtained crude enzyme was applied for hydrolysis of raw cassava starch and chips at low temperature and subjected to nonsterile ethanol production using raw cassava chips. The agro-industrial waste ratio was optimized using a simplex axial mixture design. The results showed that the substrate mixture consisting of rice bran:corncob:cassava bagasse at 8 g:10 g:2 g yielded the highest enzyme production of 201.6 U/g dry solid. The optimized condition for solid-state fermentation was found as 65% initial moisture content, 35°C, initial pH of 6.0, and 5 × 10 6 spores/mL inoculum, which gave the highest enzyme activity of 389.5 U/g dry solid. The enzyme showed high efficiency on saccharification of raw cassava starch and chips with synergistic activities of commercial α-amylase at 50°C, which promotes low-temperature bioethanol production. A high ethanol concentration of 102.2 g/L with 78% fermentation efficiency was achieved from modified simultaneous saccharification and fermentation using cofermentation of the enzymatic hydrolysate of 300 g raw cassava chips/L with cane molasses.

  16. Biocatalytic Behaviour of Immobilized Rhizopus oryzae Lipase in the 1,3-Selective Ethanolysis of Sunflower Oil to Obtain a Biofuel Similar to Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Luna

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A new biofuel similar to biodiesel was obtained in the 1,3-selective transesterification reaction of sunflower oil with ethanol using as biocatalyst a Rhizopus oryzae lipase (ROL immobilized on Sepiolite, an inorganic support. The studied lipase was a low cost powdered enzyme preparation, Biolipase-R, from Biocon-Spain, a multipurpose additive used in food industry. In this respect, it is developed a study to optimize the immobilization procedure of these lipases on Sepiolite. Covalent immobilization was achieved by the development of an inorganic-organic hybrid linker formed by a functionalized hydrocarbon chain with a pendant benzaldehyde, bonded to the AlPO4 support surface. Thus, the covalent immobilization of lipases on amorphous AlPO4/sepiolite (20/80 wt % support was evaluated by using two different linkers (p-hydroxybenzaldehyde and benzylamine-terephthalic aldehyde, respectively. Besides, the catalytic behavior of lipases after physical adsorption on the demineralized sepiolite  was also evaluated. Obtained results indicated that covalent immobilization with the p-hydroxybenzaldehyde linker gave the best biocatalytic behavior. Thus, this covalently immobilized lipase showed a remarkable stability as well as an excellent capacity of reutilization (more than five successive reuses without a significant loss of its initial catalytic activity. This could allow a more efficient fabrication of biodiesel minimizing the glycerol waste production.

  17. Biosorption of Cr(VI) in Aqueous Solution using Microorganisms: Comparison of the Use of Rhizopus oryzae, Bacillus firmus, and Trichoderma viride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safitri, Anna; Mahardini, Putri; Prasetyawan, Sasangka; Roosdiana, Anna

    2018-01-01

    In this work, the study of biosorption of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution was conducted using Rhizopus oryzae, Bacillus firmus, and Trichoderma viride as microorganisms that can absorb Cr(VI). The research is focused on determination of optimum conditions including pH, the number of R. oryzae, B. firmus, and T. viride (inoculums), and initial concentrations of Cr(VI) used. Optimum pH was obtained at pH 5, 4.5 and 6, for biosorption of Cr(VI) with R. oryzae, B. firmus, and T. viride, respectively, in the capacity of 45.3%, 24.5%, and 90.3%. The highest amount of Cr(VI) adsorbed for biosorption with R. oryzae, B. firmus, and T. viride, were 55.4%, 18.5%, and 74.5%, respectively, using 6-mL inoculums. The equilibrium concentrations achieved for R. oryzae, B. firmus, and T. viride were 60 mg/mL, 40 mg/mL, and 40 mg/mL, with the amount of Cr(VI) adsorbed were 32.4%, 28.2%, and 89.3%, respectively. The adsorption capacity for R. oryzae, B. firmus, and T. viride were 45.3 mg/1×106 colonies, 36.2 mg/1×106 cells, and 77.8 mg/1×106 colonies, respectively. Overall, the biosorbents effectivity order in the biosorption process of Cr(VI) are T. viride > R. oryzae > B. firmus.

  18. Eco-friendly methodology for efficient synthesis and scale-up of 2-ethylhexyl-p-methoxycinnamate using Rhizopus oryzae lipase and its biological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Jahan, Firdaus; Kameswaran, Karthikeya; Mahajan, Richi V; Saxena, Rajendra Kumar

    2014-06-01

    Lipase-mediated synthesis of phenolic acid esters is a green and economical alternative to current chemical methods. Octyl methoxycinnamate, an important UVB-absorbing compound, was synthesized by the esterification of p-methoxycinnamic acid with 2-ethyl hexanol using Rhizopus oryzae lipase. A molar ratio of 1:2 of p-methoxycinnamic acid and 2-ethyl hexanol was found to give an optimum yield using cyclo-octane (50 ml) as reaction solvent, at a temperature of 45 °C, and 750 U of lipase, resulting in a yield of 91.3 % in 96 h. This reaction was successfully scaled up to 400-ml reaction size where 88.6 %bioconversion was achieved. The synthesized compound was found to have superior antioxidant activity as compared to ascorbic acid. The synthesized compound also exhibited good antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aures, Candida albicans (yeast), Aspergillus niger, Alternaria solani, and Fussarium oxysporum by well diffusion method in terms of zone of inhibitions (in mm).

  19. [State of Fungal Lipases of Rhizopus microsporus, Penicillium sp. and Oospora lactis in Border Layers Water-Solid Phase and Factors Affecting Catalytic Properties of Enzymes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasanov, Kh T; Davranov, K; Rakhimov, M M

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrated that a change in the catalytic activity of fungal lipases synthesized by Rhizopus microsporus, Penicillium sp. and Oospora lactis and their ability to absorb on different sorbents depended on the nature of groups on the solid phase surface in the model systems water: lipid and water: solid phase. Thus, the stability of Penicillium sp. lipases increased 85% in the presence ofsorsilen or DEAE-cellulose, and 55% of their initial activity respectively was preserved. In the presence of silica gel and CM-cellulose, a decreased rate of lipid hydrolysis by Pseudomonas sp. enzymes was observed in water medium, and the hydrolysis rate increased by 2.4 and 1.5 times respectively in the presence of aminoaerosil and polykefamid. In an aqueous-alcohol medium, aminoaerosil and polykefamid decreased the rate of substrate hydrolysis by more than 30 times. The addition of aerosil to aqueous and aqueous-alcohol media resulted in an increase in the hydrolysis rate by 1.2-1.3 times. Sorsilen stabilized Penicillium sp. lipase activity at 40, 45, 50 and 55 degrees C. Either stabilization or inactivation of lipases was observed depending on the pH of the medium and the nature of chemical groups localized on the surface of solid phase. The synthetizing activity of lipases also changed depending on the conditions.

  20. Omics-based approaches reveal phospholipids remodeling of Rhizopus oryzae responding to furfural stress for fumaric acid-production from xylose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xinrong; Liu, Huanhuan; Liu, Jiao; Wang, Cheng; Wen, Jianping

    2016-12-01

    In order to relieve the toxicity of furfural on Rhizopus oryzae fermentation, the molecular mechanism of R. oryzae responding to furfural stress for fumaric acid-production was investigated by omics-based approaches. In metabolomics analysis, 29 metabolites including amino acid, sugars, polyols and fatty acids showed significant changes for maintaining the basic cell metabolism at the cost of lowering fumaric acid production. To further uncover the survival mechanism, lipidomics was carried out, revealing that phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and polyunsaturated acyl chains might be closely correlated with R. oryzae's adapting to furfural stress. Based on the above omics analysis, lecithin, inositol and soybean oil were exogenously supplemented separately with an optimized concentration in the presence of furfural, which increased fumaric acid titer from 5.78g/L to 10.03g/L, 10.05g/L and 12.13g/L (increased by 73.5%, 73.8% and 110%, respectively). These findings provide a methodological guidance for hemicellulose-fumaric acid development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Antifungal effect of phenolic extract of fermented rice bran with Rhizopus oryzae and its potential use in loaf bread shelf life extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denardi-Souza, Taiana; Luz, Carlos; Mañes, Jordi; Badiale-Furlong, Eliana; Meca, Giuseppe

    2018-03-30

    In this study the antifungal potential of a phenolic extract obtained from rice bran fermented with Rhizopus oryzae CECT 7560 and its application in the elaboration of bread was assessed. Eighteen compounds with antifungal potential were identified by LC-ESI-qTOF-MS in the extract: organic acids, gallates and gallotannins, flavonoids, ellagic acid and benzophenone derivatives. The extract was active against strains of Fusarium, Aspergillus and Penicillium, with minimum inhibitory concentration ranging from 390 to 3100 µg mL -1 and minimum fungicidal concentration variable from 780 to 6300 µg mL -1 . The strains that were most sensitive to the phenolic extract were F. graminearum, F. culmorum, F. poae, P. roqueforti, P. expansum and A. niger. The phenolic extract added at 5 and 1 g kg -1 concentrations in the preparation of bread loaves contaminated with P. expansum produced a reduction of 0.6 and 0.7 log CFU g -1 . The bread loaves treated with calcium propionate and 10 g kg -1 of the phenolic extract evidenced an improvement in their shelf lives of 3 days. The phenolic extract assessed in this study could be considered as an alternative for inhibiting toxigenic fungi and as a substitute for synthetic compounds in food preservation. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. An optimized fed-batch culture strategy integrated with a one-step fermentation improves L-lactic acid production by Rhizopus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yongqian; Sun, Xiaolong; Zhu, Huayue; Jiang, Ru; Luo, Xi; Yin, Longfei

    2018-05-21

    In previous work, we proposed a novel modified one-step fermentation fed-batch strategy to efficiently generate L-lactic acid (L-LA) using Rhizopus oryzae. In this study, to further enhance efficiency of L-LA production through one-step fermentation in fed-batch cultures, we systematically investigated the initial peptone- and glucose-feeding approaches, including different initial peptone and glucose concentrations and maintained residual glucose levels. Based on the results of this study, culturing R. oryzae with initial peptone and glucose concentrations of 3.0 and 50.0 g/l, respectively, using a fed-batch strategy is an effective approach of producing L-LA through one-step fermentation. Changing the residual glucose had no obvious effect on the generation of L-LA. We determined the maximum LA production and productivity to be 162 g/l and 6.23 g/(l·h), respectively, during the acid production stage. Compared to our previous work, there was almost no change in L-LA production or yield; however, the productivity of L-LA increased by 14.3%.

  3. Preparation of hydrolytic liquid from dried distiller's grains with solubles and fumaric acid fermentation by Rhizopus arrhizus RH 7-13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Yue, Xuemin; Jin, Yuhan; Wang, Meng; Deng, Li; Wang, Fang; Tan, Tianwei

    2017-10-01

    Fumaric acid production from lignocellulosic materials is an alternative chemicals production system. This work investigated the suitable conditions for hydrolysis of dried distiller's grains with solubles (DDGS). The hydrolytic liquid was subsequently used for the production of fumaric acid. After optimizing the hydrolysis conditions, the most suitable concentration of H 2 SO 4 (2%), hydrolysis temperature (120 °C), hydrolysis time (100min) and solid/liquid ratio (1:10) were obtained. The yield of monosaccharides reached 258 mg/g DDGS and 15.88 g/L glucose, 7.53 g/L xylose and 2.35 g/L arabinose were obtained in unprocessed hydrolytic liquid. The furfural inhibitor in the hydrolytic liquid was also detected and the yield of it was reducing progressively in the pretreatment process. The ferment ability of the hydrolytic liquid from DDGS was tested through the process of fumaric acid production by Rhizopus arrhizus RH 7-13. The unprocessed hydrolytic liquid was not appropriate for the fermentation process. The yield of fumaric acid from the concentrated processed hydrolytic liquid reached 18.93 g/L, which was close to the yield of fermenting 80 g/L glucose. This result indicated that the commonly used carbon resource glucose could to some extent be replaced by processed hydrolytic liquid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Response surface optimization for the transesterification of karanja oil using immobilized whole cells of Rhizopus oryzae in n-hexane system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganesan, Devanesan; Rajendran, Aravindan; Thangavelu, Viruthagiri [Annamalai University, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Biochemical Engineering Laboratory, Annamalai Nagar, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2012-03-15

    Non-edible oils represent one of the most viable alternative feed stocks for the production of large volumes of biodiesel at cheaper cost in tropical countries. The objective of the present study is to investigate the ability of the immobilized whole cells of Rhizopus oryzae MTCC 262 to catalyze the biodiesel production from karanja oil in n-hexane system. Response surface methodology was employed to evaluate the effects of synthesis parameters, such as molar ratio of oil to alcohol, reaction temperature and reaction time on percentage biodiesel (methyl esters) yield. Transesterification was performed in shake flasks containing immobilized cells in the reaction mixture with 10% oil weight of n-hexane. The quadratic effects of molar ratio of oil to alcohol and reaction time proved to be the significant at 1% and 5% levels, respectively. The optimum synthesis conditions were found to be: molar ratio of oil to alcohol 1:2.73, reaction temperature 41.39 C and reaction time 73.97 h. Biodiesel yield (methyl ester) was 75.98 (wt.%) under the optimal conditions and the subsequent verification experiments with biodiesel yield of 78.0 (wt.%) confirmed the validity of the proposed model. (orig.)

  5. Role of N-terminal 28-amino-acid region of Rhizopus oryzae lipase in directing proteins to secretory pathway of Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hama, Shinji; Tamalampudi, Sriappareddy; Shindo, Naoki; Numata, Takao; Yamaji, Hideki; Fukuda, Hideki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2008-07-01

    To develop a new approach for improving heterologous protein production in Aspergillus oryzae, we focused on the functional role of the N-terminal region of Rhizopus oryzae lipase (ROL). Several N-terminal deletion variants of ROL were expressed in A. oryzae. Interestingly, a segment of 28 amino acids from the C-terminal region of the propeptide (N28) was found to be critical for secretion of ROL into the culture medium. To further investigate the role of N28, the ROL secretory process was visualized in vivo using ROL-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion proteins. In cells producing ROL with N28, fluorescence observations showed that the fusion proteins are transported through endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi, and cell wall, which is one of the typical secretory processes in a eukaryotic cell. Because the expression of the mature ROL-GFP fusion protein induced fluorescence accumulation without its translocation into the ER, N28 is considered to play a crucial role in protein transport. When N28 was inserted between the secretion signal and GFP, fluorescence observations showed that GFP, which is originally a cytoplasmic protein, was efficiently translocated into the ER of A. oryzae, resulting in an enhanced secretion of mature GFP after proteolytic cleavage of N28. These findings suggest that N28 facilitates protein translocation into ER and can be a promising candidate for improving heterologous protein production in A. oryzae.

  6. Unusual ratio between free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine in a long-lived mole-rat species with bimodal ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Yoshiyuki; Vole, Christiane; Begall, Sabine; Bens, Martin; Broecker-Preuss, Martina; Sahm, Arne; Szafranski, Karol; Burda, Hynek; Dammann, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Ansell's mole-rats (Fukomys anselli) are subterranean, long-lived rodents, which live in eusocial families, where the maximum lifespan of breeders is twice as long as that of non-breeders. Their metabolic rate is significantly lower than expected based on allometry, and their retinae show a high density of S-cone opsins. Both features may indicate naturally low thyroid hormone levels. In the present study, we sequenced several major components of the thyroid hormone pathways and analyzed free and total thyroxine and triiodothyronine in serum samples of breeding and non-breeding F. anselli to examine whether a) their thyroid hormone system shows any peculiarities on the genetic level, b) these animals have lower hormone levels compared to euthyroid rodents (rats and guinea pigs), and c) reproductive status, lifespan and free hormone levels are correlated. Genetic analyses confirmed that Ansell's mole-rats have a conserved thyroid hormone system as known from other mammalian species. Interspecific comparisons revealed that free thyroxine levels of F. anselli were about ten times lower than of guinea pigs and rats, whereas the free triiodothyronine levels, the main biologically active form, did not differ significantly amongst species. The resulting fT4:fT3 ratio is unusual for a mammal and potentially represents a case of natural hypothyroxinemia. Comparisons with total thyroxine levels suggest that mole-rats seem to possess two distinct mechanisms that work hand in hand to downregulate fT4 levels reliably. We could not find any correlation between free hormone levels and reproductive status, gender or weight. Free thyroxine may slightly increase with age, based on sub-significant evidence. Hence, thyroid hormones do not seem to explain the different ageing rates of breeders and non-breeders. Further research is required to investigate the regulatory mechanisms responsible for the unusual proportion of free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine.

  7. Unusual ratio between free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine in a long-lived mole-rat species with bimodal ageing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Henning

    Full Text Available Ansell's mole-rats (Fukomys anselli are subterranean, long-lived rodents, which live in eusocial families, where the maximum lifespan of breeders is twice as long as that of non-breeders. Their metabolic rate is significantly lower than expected based on allometry, and their retinae show a high density of S-cone opsins. Both features may indicate naturally low thyroid hormone levels. In the present study, we sequenced several major components of the thyroid hormone pathways and analyzed free and total thyroxine and triiodothyronine in serum samples of breeding and non-breeding F. anselli to examine whether a their thyroid hormone system shows any peculiarities on the genetic level, b these animals have lower hormone levels compared to euthyroid rodents (rats and guinea pigs, and c reproductive status, lifespan and free hormone levels are correlated. Genetic analyses confirmed that Ansell's mole-rats have a conserved thyroid hormone system as known from other mammalian species. Interspecific comparisons revealed that free thyroxine levels of F. anselli were about ten times lower than of guinea pigs and rats, whereas the free triiodothyronine levels, the main biologically active form, did not differ significantly amongst species. The resulting fT4:fT3 ratio is unusual for a mammal and potentially represents a case of natural hypothyroxinemia. Comparisons with total thyroxine levels suggest that mole-rats seem to possess two distinct mechanisms that work hand in hand to downregulate fT4 levels reliably. We could not find any correlation between free hormone levels and reproductive status, gender or weight. Free thyroxine may slightly increase with age, based on sub-significant evidence. Hence, thyroid hormones do not seem to explain the different ageing rates of breeders and non-breeders. Further research is required to investigate the regulatory mechanisms responsible for the unusual proportion of free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine.

  8. Social status and sex independently influence androgen receptor expression in the eusocial naked mole-rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Melissa M; Goldman, Bruce D; Forger, Nancy G

    2008-08-01

    Naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber) are eusocial rodents that live in large subterranean colonies including a single breeding female and 1-3 breeding males; all other members of the colony, known as subordinates, are reproductively suppressed. We recently found that naked mole-rats lack many of the sex differences in the brain and spinal cord commonly found in other rodents. Instead, neural morphology is influenced by breeding status, such that breeders, regardless of sex, have more neurons than subordinates in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH), and larger overall volumes of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST), paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and medial amygdala (MeA). To begin to understand how breeding status influences brain morphology, we examined the distribution of androgen receptor (AR) immunoreactivity in gonadally intact breeders and subordinates of both sexes. All animals had AR+ nuclei in many of the same regions positive for AR in other mammals, including the VMH, BST, PVN, MeA, and the ventral portion of the premammillary nucleus (PMv). We also observed diffuse labeling throughout the preoptic area, demonstrating that distribution of the AR protein in presumptive reproductive brain nuclei is well-conserved, even in a species that exhibits remarkably little sexual dimorphism. In contrast to other rodents, however, naked mole-rats lacked AR+ nuclei in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and hippocampus. Males had more AR+ nuclei in the MeA, VMH, and PMv than did females. Surprisingly, breeders had significantly fewer AR+ nuclei than subordinates in all brain regions examined (VMH, BST, PVN, MeA, and PMv). Thus, social status is strongly correlated with AR immunoreactivity in this eusocial species.

  9. Postprandial heat increment does not substitute for active thermogenesis in cold-challenged star-nosed moles (Condylura cristata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, K L; McIntyre, I W; MacArthur, R A

    2000-01-01

    The postprandial increase in metabolic rate associated with consuming, assimilating and excreting a meal is often termed the heat increment of feeding (HIF). The metabolic heat production of star-nosed moles, Condylura cristata, held at thermoneutrality was monitored for 4 h following a single 10 min session of feeding on a ration consisting of 0 g (controls), 3.5 g or 10 g of earthworms. Coefficients for metabolizable energy digestibility and digesta passage rate of earthworms fed to C. cristata were also determined. We then tested whether feeding-induced thermogenesis substitutes partially or completely for thermoregulatory heat production in these animals exposed to sub-thermoneutral air temperatures (9-24 degrees C). A single feeding on earthworms had both short- and long-term effects on the metabolic rate and respiratory exchange ratio of C. cristata. The observed short-term (0-65 min) rise in metabolic rate, assumed to be associated primarily with the physical costs of nutrient digestion, absorption and excretion, was similar to the calculated mean retention time (66.7+/-7.8 min; mean +/- s.e. m., N=5) of this species. This component of the HIF represented 2.9 % of the food energy ingested by moles fed a single 3.5 g (13.21 kJ) meal of earthworms and 1.4 % of the food energy ingested by moles fed a single 7.5 g (28.09 kJ) meal of earthworms. At all test temperatures, resting metabolic rate typically remained above fasting levels for 1-4 h following ingestion of the high-protein earthworm diet. This protracted rise in metabolic rate, presumably associated with the biochemical costs of amino acid oxidation/gluconeogenesis and ureagenesis, averaged 12.8 % of the metabolizable energy and 8.7 % of the gross energy intake. Despite the potential thermoregulatory benefit, we found no evidence that biochemical HIF substitutes for facultative thermogenesis in star-nosed moles exposed to low air temperatures.

  10. Diffusion coefficients in 4-component mixture expressed explicitly in terms of binary diffusion coefficients and mole fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Ichiro

    1996-01-01

    Diffusion coefficients in 4-component mixture D ij (4) were expressed explicitly in terms of binary diffusion coefficients and mole fractions by solving a ratio of determinants defined by Hirschfelder et al. The explicit expressions of D ij (4) were divided into two terms, a term due to the i-j pairs of attention and a term common to all the pairs out of the 4 components. The two terms of D ij (4) had extended structures similar to corresponding those of D ij (3) respectively. (author)

  11. Antifungal properties of Musa paradisiaca (Plantain) peel and stalk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of plantain (Musa paradisiaca (L) AAB genomic group) peel and stalk extracts were investigated using percentage inhibition test. Complete inhibition of growth (100%) was observed for Aspergillusniger, Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus stolonifer at 1.0 mg/ml concentration of stalk extract. Peel extract inhibited A.

  12. Bio-deterioration of sweet potato (ipomoea batatas lam) in storage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    ABSTRACT: The biodeterioration of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) was investigated at Port. Harcourt, south southern Nigeria. Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizopus stolonifer,. Botryodiplodia theobroma and Penicillium sp. were found to be associated with deteriorating sweet potato tubers and used for ...

  13. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research - Vol 13, No 1 (2014)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Design and Development of Halogenated Chalcone Derivatives as Potential Anticancer Agents · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ... Antimicrobial, Cytotoxic and Phytotoxic Potency of Ethyl Acetate Extract of Rhizopus stolonifer Culture · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  14. Biodeterioration of the African star apple (Chrysophylum albidum) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biodeterioration of the African star apple fruits in storage was investigated at Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria. Eight fungal isolates were found associated with the deteriorating fruits. The fungi are Botryodiplodia theobromae, Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, A. tamarii, A. flavus, Fusarium spp, Penicilium spp and ...

  15. Fungal species associated with Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp (Cowpea)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem, Botryodiplodia theobromae (Pat) Novel, Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht and Rhizopus stolonifer Ehrenb ex Link were isolated from both blotter and agar methods. Botryodiplodia theobromae had the highest mean occurrence (42.37%) followed by Fusarium oxysporum (30.02%), Aspergillus ...

  16. Storage rot fungi and seed-borne pathogens of onion | Adongo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rotten onion bulbs obtained from the four markets (Abinchi, Anloga, Kwadaso and Central markets) were infected by five fungal species: Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, Penicillium sp., Rhizopus stolonifer and Fusarium oxysporum. Of these, A. niger and Penicillium sp. were the most frequently isolated fungi. A. flavus was the ...

  17. Mycological Assessment of Suya Sold in Some Parts of Minna, Niger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    different locations A total of fifty seven (57) fungi isolates were obtained from suya in all sampled locations. Fungi species such as Candida tropicalis, Penicillium chrysogenum,. Aspergillus niger Mucor spp, Aspergillus flavus ,Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium digitatum,. Fusarium solanii, Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus ...

  18. Biodegradation of cassava root sieviate with enzymes extracted from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to investigate changes in proximate, sugars and cell wall components of cassava root sieviates (CRS) treated with extracted enzymes obtained from Aspergillus niger (An), Trichoderma viridae (Tv), Rhizopus stolonifer (Rs) and Mucor mucedo (Mm) applied on autoclaved CRS at 250ml/kg. Another ...

  19. Kwoseh et al

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    Black mould, blue mould, soft rot, neck rot and basal plate rot were the major storage rots iden- tified in a dry .... holes made in healthy bulbs. Observation for ... Aspergillus flavus. 9.0. Penicillium sp. 27.0. Rhizopus stolonifer. 14.5. Fusarium oxysporum. 14.5. Market. Post-harvest disease incidence (%). Black mould. Dry Wet.

  20. Quantifying Fungal Viability in Air and Water Samples using Quantitative PCR after Treatment with Propidium Monoazide (PMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A method is described to discriminate between live and dead cells of the infectious fungi Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus, A. terreus, Mucor racemosus, Rhizopus stolonifer and Paecilomyces variotii. To test the method, conidial suspensions were heat inactivated at 85oC or held ...

  1. Bio-deterioration of breadfruit (Artocarpus Communis) in storage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bio-deterioration of breadfruit in storage and its effects on the nutrient composition of the fruit was investigated at Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria. Freshly dropped fruits were stored under laboratory conditions for a period of 9 days. Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus stolonifer, Botryodiplodia theobromae, Mycovellosiella fulva, ...

  2. Transcriptome sequencing of the blind subterranean mole rat, Spalax galili: Utility and potential for the discovery of novel evolutionary patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Malik, Assaf

    2011-08-12

    The blind subterranean mole rat (Spalax ehrenbergi superspecies) is a model animal for survival under extreme environments due to its ability to live in underground habitats under severe hypoxic stress and darkness. Here we report the transcriptome sequencing of Spalax galili, a chromosomal type of S. ehrenbergi. cDNA pools from muscle and brain tissues isolated from animals exposed to hypoxic and normoxic conditions were sequenced using Sanger, GS FLX, and GS FLX Titanium technologies. Assembly of the sequences yielded over 51,000 isotigs with homology to ~12,000 mouse, rat or human genes. Based on these results, it was possible to detect large numbers of splice variants, SNPs, and novel transcribed regions. In addition, multiple differential expression patterns were detected between tissues and treatments. The results presented here will serve as a valuable resource for future studies aimed at identifying genes and gene regions evolved during the adaptive radiation associated with underground life of the blind mole rat. 2011 Malik et al.

  3. Exceptional Chromosomal Evolution and Cryptic Speciation of Blind Mole Rats Nannospalax leucodon (Spalacinae, Rodentia from South-Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Savić

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mole rats are exclusively subterranean and highly specialized rodents. Their long lifespans, remarkable anti-cancer mechanisms, and various distinctive adaptive features make them a useful research model. Moreover, opposing convergence of morphological traits, they have developed extremely high karyotype variability. Thus, 74 chromosomal forms have been described so far and new ones are being revealed continuously. These evolved during the process of rapid radiation and occur in different biogeographical regions. During research into their reproductive biology we have already provided substantial evidence for species-level separation of these taxa. Here, we review diverse chromosomal forms of the lesser blind mole rat, Mediterranean Nannospalax leucodon, distributed in South-eastern Europe, their karyotype records, biogeography, origin, and phylogeny from our extensive research. In the light of new data from molecular genetic studies, we question some former valuations and propose a cryptospecies rank for seven reproductively isolated chromosomal forms with sympatric and parapatric distribution and clear ecogeographical discrepances in their habitats, as well as new experimental and theoretical methods for understanding the courses of speciation of these unique fossorial mammals.

  4. Environmental physiology of the mole crab Emerita asiatica, at a power plant discharge area on the east coast of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suresh, K.; Ahamed, M.S.; Durairaj, G.; Nair, K.V.K.

    1995-01-01

    Cage experiments at the discharge area of Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS) facilitated studies of thermal tolerance in Emerita asiatica. At the laboratory, oxygen consumption at various temperatures and varying salinities was also investigated. In the field 100% mortality of crabs was recorded at the Condenser Cooling Water Pumps (CCWP) discharge site compared to no mortality at the Processed Sea Water Pumps (PSWP) site. This observation implicated temperature as a stress factor at the CCWP outfall, because other factors, including residual chlorine and water velocity, were the same at the PSWP and CCWP sites. Laboratory experiments on tolerance revealed that 38.5 o C was lethal to mole crabs. The time taken for 100% mortality decreased as the temperature increased from 35 to 40 o C. Oxygen metabolism showed a progressive increase with temperature from 29 to 36 o c, and declined at 37 o C. The influence of salinity on oxygen consumption was marginal at salinities of 20 to 35o/oo but, when reduced to 15o/oo, the oxygen consumption declined. The present study thus indicates that temperature could be the lethal factor, determining the distribution of mole crabs near the power station, where water temperature can exceed 40 o C. (author)

  5. The anti-tumorigenic activity of A2M-A lesson from the naked mole-rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Kurz

    Full Text Available Cancer resistance is a major cause for longevity of the naked mole-rat. Recent liver transcriptome analysis in this animal compared to wild-derived mice revealed higher expression of alpha2-macroglobulin (A2M and cell adhesion molecules, which contribute to the naked mole-rat's cancer resistance. Notably, A2M is known to dramatically decrease with age in humans. We hypothesize that this might facilitate tumour development. Here we found that A2M modulates tumour cell adhesion, migration and growth by inhibition of tumour promoting signalling pathways, e.g. PI3K / AKT, SMAD and up-regulated PTEN via down-regulation of miR-21, in vitro and in tumour xenografts. A2M increases the expression of CD29 and CD44 but did not evoke EMT. Transcriptome analysis of A2M-treated tumour cells, xenografts and mouse liver demonstrated a multifaceted regulation of tumour promoting signalling pathways indicating a less tumorigenic environment mediated by A2M. By virtue of these multiple actions the naturally occurring A2M has strong potential as a novel therapeutic agent.

  6. The anti-tumorigenic activity of A2M-A lesson from the naked mole-rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Susanne; Thieme, René; Amberg, Ronny; Groth, Marco; Jahnke, Heinz-Georg; Pieroh, Philipp; Horn, Lars-Christian; Kolb, Marlen; Huse, Klaus; Platzer, Matthias; Volke, Daniela; Dehghani, Faramarz; Buzdin, Anton; Engel, Kathrin; Robitzki, Andrea; Hoffmann, Ralf; Gockel, Ines; Birkenmeier, Gerd

    2017-01-01

    Cancer resistance is a major cause for longevity of the naked mole-rat. Recent liver transcriptome analysis in this animal compared to wild-derived mice revealed higher expression of alpha2-macroglobulin (A2M) and cell adhesion molecules, which contribute to the naked mole-rat's cancer resistance. Notably, A2M is known to dramatically decrease with age in humans. We hypothesize that this might facilitate tumour development. Here we found that A2M modulates tumour cell adhesion, migration and growth by inhibition of tumour promoting signalling pathways, e.g. PI3K / AKT, SMAD and up-regulated PTEN via down-regulation of miR-21, in vitro and in tumour xenografts. A2M increases the expression of CD29 and CD44 but did not evoke EMT. Transcriptome analysis of A2M-treated tumour cells, xenografts and mouse liver demonstrated a multifaceted regulation of tumour promoting signalling pathways indicating a less tumorigenic environment mediated by A2M. By virtue of these multiple actions the naturally occurring A2M has strong potential as a novel therapeutic agent.

  7. Negligible senescence in the longest living rodent, the naked mole-rat: insights from a successfully aging species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2008-05-01

    Aging refers to a gradual deterioration in function that, over time, leads to increased mortality risk, and declining fertility. This pervasive process occurs in almost all organisms, although some long-lived trees and cold water inhabitants reportedly show insignificant aging. Negligible senescence is characterized by attenuated age-related change in reproductive and physiological functions, as well as no observable age-related gradual increase in mortality rate. It was questioned whether the longest living rodent, the naked mole-rat, met these three strict criteria. Naked mole-rats live in captivity for more than 28.3 years, approximately 9 times longer than similar-sized mice. They maintain body composition from 2 to 24 years, and show only slight age-related changes in all physiological and morphological characteristics studied to date. Surprisingly breeding females show no decline in fertility even when well into their third decade of life. Moreover, these animals have never been observed to develop any spontaneous neoplasm. As such they do not show the typical age-associated acceleration in mortality risk that characterizes every other known mammalian species and may therefore be the first reported mammal showing negligible senescence over the majority of their long lifespan. Clearly physiological and biochemical processes in this species have evolved to dramatically extend healthy lifespan. The challenge that lies ahead is to understand what these mechanisms are.

  8. Walking the oxidative stress tightrope: a perspective from the naked mole-rat, the longest-living rodent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Karl A; Wywial, Ewa; Perez, Viviana I; Lambert, Adriant J; Edrey, Yael H; Lewis, Kaitlyn N; Grimes, Kelly; Lindsey, Merry L; Brand, Martin D; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2011-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS), by-products of aerobic metabolism, cause oxidative damage to cells and tissue and not surprisingly many theories have arisen to link ROS-induced oxidative stress to aging and health. While studies clearly link ROS to a plethora of divergent diseases, their role in aging is still debatable. Genetic knock-down manipulations of antioxidants alter the levels of accrued oxidative damage, however, the resultant effect of increased oxidative stress on lifespan are equivocal. Similarly the impact of elevating antioxidant levels through transgenic manipulations yield inconsistent effects on longevity. Furthermore, comparative data from a wide range of endotherms with disparate longevity remain inconclusive. Many long-living species such as birds, bats and mole-rats exhibit high-levels of oxidative damage, evident already at young ages. Clearly, neither the amount of ROS per se nor the sensitivity in neutralizing ROS are as important as whether or not the accrued oxidative stress leads to oxidative-damage-linked age-associated diseases. In this review we examine the literature on ROS, its relation to disease and the lessons gleaned from a comparative approach based upon species with widely divergent responses. We specifically focus on the longest lived rodent, the naked mole-rat, which maintains good health and provides novel insights into the paradox of maintaining both an extended healthspan and lifespan despite high oxidative stress from a young age.

  9. Disparate patterns of age-related changes in lipid peroxidation in long-lived naked mole-rats and shorter-lived mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andziak, Blazej; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2006-12-01

    A key tenet of the oxidative stress theory of aging is that levels of accrued oxidative damage increase with age. Differences in damage generation and accumulation therefore may underlie the natural variation in species longevity. We compared age-related profiles of whole-organism lipid peroxidation (urinary isoprostanes) and liver lipid damage (malondialdehyde) in long living naked mole-rats [maximum lifespan (MLS) > 28.3 years] and shorter-living CB6F1 hybrid mice (MLS approximately 3.5 years). In addition, we compared age-associated changes in liver non-heme iron to assess how intracellular conditions, which may modulate oxidative processes, are affected by aging. Surprisingly, even at a young age, concentrations of both markers of lipid peroxidation, as well as of iron, were at least twofold (P naked mole tats than in mice. This refutes the hypothesis that prolonged naked mole-rat longevity is due to superior protection against oxidative stress. The age-related profiles of all three parameters were distinctly species specific. Rates of lipid damage generation in mice were maintained throughout adulthood, while accrued damage in old animals was twice that of young mice. In naked mole-rats, urinary isoprostane excretion declined by half with age (P naked mole-rats is independent of oxidative stress parameters.

  10. Fos expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus in response to light stimulation in a solitary and social species of African mole-rat (family Bathyergidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosthuizen, M K; Bennett, N C; Cooper, H M

    2005-01-01

    Mole-rats are strictly subterranean rodents that are rarely exposed to environmental light. They are well adapted to their environment and have reduced eyes and a severely regressed visual system. It has been shown, however, that mole-rats do exhibit endogenous circadian rhythms that can be entrained, suggesting an intact and functional circadian system. To determine whether light is the entraining agent in these animals, Fos expression in response to light pulses at different circadian times was investigated to obtain phase response curves. Light is integrated effectively in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the Cape mole-rat (Georychus capensis), and Fos expression is gated according to the phase of the circadian clock. The Fos response in the Cape mole-rat was comparable to that of aboveground rodents. In contrast, the highveld mole-rat (Cryptomys hottentotus pretoriae) was less sensitive to light and did not show a selective Fos response according to the phase of the circadian cycle. Social species appear to be less sensitive to light than their solitary counterparts, which compares well with results from locomotor activity studies.

  11. Occurrence of fungus Rhizopus sp in bioassays with Allium cepa germinated in the presence of uranium to study the effect of natural radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, Magno N.; Oliveira, Andressa L.; Maffei, Eliane M.D.; Campos, Simara S., E-mail: simaracampos@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia (UESB), Vitoria da Conquista, BA (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas; Gennari, Roseli F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica. Departamento de Fisica Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    The demographic and global economic growth has promoted increasing power consumption. In this context, several studies point to nuclear energy as being promising to meet such demand. Although Brazil composes the seventh position in the world ranking of uranium reserves, the ore is still little explored in Brazil, considering its vast existing arsenal. On the one hand, despite nuclear energy has brought great benefits, technological and socio-economic development, it generates controversy about environmental contamination and risks to public health. Studies on this subject indicate that areas where uranium ore concentration is high, natural environmental radiation exposure levels are already higher than in other regions. The aim of this study is to observe the simple germination of the bio-indicator (Allium cepa), typically used to assess potential chromosomal aberrations, suffer any adverse effect caused by natural radiation uranium. The choice of this bio-indicator is based on its potential for evaluating the mutation caused by countless chemical compounds. Four treatments with three replicates were designed. In each treatment, 10 seeds of onion A. cepa without any pesticides were packed in the Petri dish lined with germination paper and room temperature (25°C) was kept until the root reaches approximately 1cm long. As a result, growth of the fungus Rhizopus sp was observed, in the experiments where uranium ore was added. It is important to mention according to the literature, this fungus can cause serious infections (and often fatal) in humans and animals, due to its high growth rate and also to their ability on surviving in relatively high temperatures. (author)

  12. Occurrence of fungus Rhizopus sp in bioassays with Allium cepa germinated in the presence of uranium to study the effect of natural radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xavier, Magno N.; Oliveira, Andressa L.; Maffei, Eliane M.D.; Campos, Simara S.; Gennari, Roseli F.

    2015-01-01

    The demographic and global economic growth has promoted increasing power consumption. In this context, several studies point to nuclear energy as being promising to meet such demand. Although Brazil composes the seventh position in the world ranking of uranium reserves, the ore is still little explored in Brazil, considering its vast existing arsenal. On the one hand, despite nuclear energy has brought great benefits, technological and socio-economic development, it generates controversy about environmental contamination and risks to public health. Studies on this subject indicate that areas where uranium ore concentration is high, natural environmental radiation exposure levels are already higher than in other regions. The aim of this study is to observe the simple germination of the bio-indicator (Allium cepa), typically used to assess potential chromosomal aberrations, suffer any adverse effect caused by natural radiation uranium. The choice of this bio-indicator is based on its potential for evaluating the mutation caused by countless chemical compounds. Four treatments with three replicates were designed. In each treatment, 10 seeds of onion A. cepa without any pesticides were packed in the Petri dish lined with germination paper and room temperature (25°C) was kept until the root reaches approximately 1cm long. As a result, growth of the fungus Rhizopus sp was observed, in the experiments where uranium ore was added. It is important to mention according to the literature, this fungus can cause serious infections (and often fatal) in humans and animals, due to its high growth rate and also to their ability on surviving in relatively high temperatures. (author)

  13. Effect of hydrolysis enzymatic process of corn using protease crude (Rhizopus oligosporus-C1) to produce corn hydrolisate rich folic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryati, Yati; Susilowati, Agustine; Melanie, Hakiki; Lotulung, Puspa D.

    2017-11-01

    Corn hydrolyzate (Zea mays L) as a functional food fortificant derived from natural folic acid has been evaluated through a hydrolysis process using protease enzyme Rhizopus oligosporus strain C1. Enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out on two types of corn; yellow and white pearl variety corn, at concentration of protease enzyme (rough) 0.025; 0.125; and 0.225% (v/w of soluble nixtamal corn protein) with a hydrolysis time of 24 h at 30 °C, and pH 5.0. The results showed that the concentration of protease enzymes can increase the folic acid to the optimum condition, from the beginning to the end of the process time. Folic acid optimization of hydrolysis results in each corn was at the concentration of protease enzyme 0.225% (v/w of soluble nixtamal corn protein) in white corn and yellow corn at 24 hours hydrolysis, with folic acid composition, 283.56 µg/mL and 412.52 µg/mL, 1.07 and 1.04 mg/mL of soluble proteins, proteolytic activity 2.09 and 2.06 U/mL, total solids of 21.74 and 17.85%, total sugars of 0.56 and 2.22 mg/mL, and reducing sugar 91.72 and 48.47 mg/mL. In this condition, the increase of optimum folic acid for white corn was 33.57% and for yellow corn was 71.60% after hydrolysis.

  14. Comparative analysis for the production of fatty acid alkyl esterase using whole cell biocatalyst and purified enzyme from Rhizopus oryzae on waste cooking oil (sunflower oil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, Bharathiraja; Sudalaiyadum Perumal, Ayyappasamy; Jayaraman, Jayamuthunagai; Mani, Jayakumar; Ramanujam, Praveenkumar

    2012-08-01

    The petroleum fuel is nearing the line of extinction. Recent research and technology have provided promising outcomes to rely on biodiesel as the alternative and conventional source of fuel. The use of renewable source - vegetable oil constitutes the main stream of research. In this preliminary study, Waste Cooking Oil (WCO) was used as the substrate for biodiesel production. Lipase enzyme producing fungi Rhizopus oryzae 262 and commercially available pure lipase enzyme were used for comparative study in the production of Fatty Acid Alkyl Esters (FAAE). The whole cell (RO 262) and pure lipase enzyme (PE) were immobilized using calcium alginate beads. Calcium alginate was prepared by optimizing with different molar ratios of calcium chloride and different per cent sodium alginate. Entrapment immobilization was done for whole cell biocatalyst (WCB). PE was also immobilized by entrapment for the transesterification reaction. Seven different solvents - methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, n-butanol, iso-propanol, iso-butanol and iso-amyl alcohol were used as the acyl acceptors. The reaction parameters like temperature (30°C), molar ratio (1:3 - oil:solvent), reaction time (24 h), and amount of enzyme (10% mass ratio to oil) were also optimized for methanol alone. The same parameters were adopted for the other acyl acceptors too. Among the different acyl acceptors - methanol, whose reaction parameters were optimized showed maximum conversion of triglycerides to FAAE-94% with PE and 84% with WCB. On the whole, PE showed better catalytic converting ability with all the acyl acceptor compared to WCB. Gas chromatography analysis (GC) was done to determine the fatty acid composition of WCO (sunflower oil) and FAAE production with different acyl acceptors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of a Thermotolerant Phytase Produced by Rhizopus microsporus var. microsporus Biofilm on an Inert Support Using Sugarcane Bagasse as Carbon Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Vanessa Sayuri; Jorge, João Atílio; Guimarães, Luis Henrique Souza

    2016-06-01

    The Rhizopus microsporus var. microsporus biofilm was able to produce increased levels of an extracellular thermotolerant phytase using polyethylene and viscose as an inert support in both modified NBRIP medium and modified Khanna medium containing sugarcane bagasse as the carbon source. The enzyme production was strictly regulated by the phosphorus content with optimal production at 0.5 mM of sodium phytate and KH2PO4. The extracellular phytase, RMPhy1, was purified 4.18-fold with 4.78 % recovery using DEAE-cellulose and CM-cellulose. A single protein band with a molecular mass of 35.4 kDa was obtained when the samples were subjected to 10 % SDS-PAGE. The optimum temperature for activity was 55 °C and the optimum pH was 4.5. R. microsporus var. microsporus phytase exhibited high stability at 30 and 40 °C with a half-life of 115 min at 60 °C. The enzyme activity increased in the presence of Ca (2+) and was inhibited by Zn(2+), arsenate, and sodium phosphate. Phytase demonstrated high substrate specificity for sodium phytate with K m = 0.72 mM and V max = 94.55 U/mg of protein and for p-NPP with K m = 0.04 mM and V max = 106.38 U/mg of protein. The enzyme also hydrolyzed ATP, AMPc, glucose 6-phosphate, glucose 1-phosphate, and UDPG. This is the first report on phytase characterization delivered with biofilm technology. The properties of the enzyme account for its high potential for use in biotechnology and the possibility of application in different industrial sectors as feed in the future.

  16. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of serum TNF-α and EGF levels after chemotherapy in patients with malignant hydatidiform mole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaochao; Zhou Dongxia; Zhang Liming

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of changes of serum TNF-α and EGF levels after chemotherapy in patients with malignant hydatidiform mole. Methods: Serum TNF-α, EGF levels (with RIA) were measured both before and after chemotherapy in 32 patients with malignant hydatidiform mole as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before chemotherapy, serum TNF- α and EGF levels were significantly higher in the patients than those in controls (P<0.01). Six months after chemotherapy, serum TNF-α and EGF levels, though dropped markedly, remained significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: Development of malignant hydatidiform mole in patients was closely related to the serum TNF-α and EGF levels. (authors)

  17. The naked mole-rat exhibits an unusual cardiac myofilament protein profile providing new insights into heart function of this naturally subterranean rodent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Kelly M; Barefield, David Y; Kumar, Mohit; McNamara, James W; Weintraub, Susan T; de Tombe, Pieter P; Sadayappan, Sakthivel; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2017-12-01

    The long-lived, hypoxic-tolerant naked mole-rat well-maintains cardiac function over its three-decade-long lifespan and exhibits many cardiac features atypical of similar-sized laboratory rodents. For example, they exhibit low heart rates and resting cardiac contractility, yet have a large cardiac reserve. These traits are considered ecophysiological adaptations to their dank subterranean atmosphere of low oxygen and high carbon dioxide levels and may also contribute to negligible declines in cardiac function during aging. We asked if naked mole-rats had a different myofilament protein signature to that of similar-sized mice that commonly show both high heart rates and high basal cardiac contractility. Adult mouse ventricles predominantly expressed α-myosin heavy chain (97.9 ± 0.4%). In contrast, and more in keeping with humans, β myosin heavy chain was the dominant isoform (79.0 ± 2.0%) in naked mole-rat ventricles. Naked mole-rat ventricles diverged from those of both humans and mice, as they expressed both cardiac and slow skeletal isoforms of troponin I. This myofilament protein profile is more commonly observed in mice in utero and during cardiomyopathies. There were no species differences in phosphorylation of cardiac myosin binding protein-C or troponin I. Phosphorylation of both ventricular myosin light chain 2 and cardiac troponin T in naked mole-rats was approximately half that observed in mice. Myofilament function was also compared between the two species using permeabilized cardiomyocytes. Together, these data suggest a cardiac myofilament protein signature that may contribute to the naked mole-rat's suite of adaptations to its natural subterranean habitat.

  18. Familial atypical multiple mole melanoma syndrome in an adult Indian male-case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika C G Raj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial atypical multiple mole melanoma syndrome (FAMMMS is an autosomal dominant genodermatosis characterized by multiple melanocytic nevi, usually more than 50, and a family history of melanoma. It is known to be associated with carcinoma of pancreas and other malignancies involving gastrointestinal tract, breast, lung, larynx, and skin in the kindred. There is no published report of FAMMMS in dark-skinned individuals. We report a case of FAMMMS in a dark-skinned adult Indian male, who had multiple extensive nevi all over the body and oral mucosa; associated with malignant melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma (Marjolin′s ulcer, and carcinoma of pancreas. His father had died of carcinoma of lung and his sister had a partial phenotypic expression. The clinical presentation of the case is discussed with review of literature.

  19. Spatial and temporal activity patterns of the free-living giant mole-rat (Fukomys mechowii, the largest social bathyergid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matěj Lövy

    Full Text Available Despite the considerable attention devoted to the biology of social species of African mole-rats (Bathyergidae, Rodentia, knowledge is lacking about their behaviour under natural conditions. We studied activity of the largest social bathyergid, the giant mole-rat Fukomys mechowii, in its natural habitat in Zambia using radio-telemetry. We radio-tracked six individuals during three continuous 72-h sessions. Five of these individuals, including a breeding male, belonged to a single family group; the remaining female was probably a solitary disperser. The non-breeders of the family were active (i.e. outside the nest 5.8 hours per 24h-day with the activity split into 6.5 short bouts. The activity was more concentrated in the night hours, when the animals also travelled longer distances from the nest. The breeding male spent only 3.2 hours per day outside the nest, utilizing less than 20% of the whole family home range. The dispersing female displayed a much different activity pattern than the family members. Her 8.0 hours of outside-nest activity per day were split into 4.6 bouts which were twice as long as in the family non-breeders. Her activity peak in the late afternoon coincided with the temperature maximum in the depth of 10 cm (roughly the depth of the foraging tunnels. Our results suggest that the breeding individuals (at least males contribute very little to the work of the family group. Nevertheless, the amount of an individual's activity and its daily pattern are probably flexible in this species and can be modified in response to actual environmental and social conditions.

  20. Response of mole crab, Emerita emeritus to the thermal effluents from the Madras Atomic Power Station at Kalpakkam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramoniam, T.; Munuswamy, N.; Israel, Sunil; Sathish, R.; Venugopalan, V.P.

    2007-01-01

    Mole crabs belonging to the genus Emerita are exclusively inhabitants of exposed wave washed sandy beaches in certain temperate and tropical seas. Its sedentary adult life and a primitive filter-feeding behavior make this intertidal crab an excellent indicator species for monitoring anthropogenic impact. Hence, this sand crab has been used to determine the effect of elevated temperature (rT) arising out of the thermal effluent from the Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS), Kalpakkam with special reference to the intertidal fauna. Since Emerita exhibits limited capacity to move from their place of habitation, an analysis of the population structure of Emerita emeritus in the Kalpakkam coast including the impacted and the adjoining control sandy beaches on either side of the mixing point in the vicinity of the power plant was done. The data indicate that in the impact zone having an elevated seawater temperature of <35 deg C, the crab is completely absent. However, as we move away from the impact zone, with normalization of seawater temperature, Emerita move to safer areas on either side of the impact zone. Thus, the extensive field data on the distribution of mole crabs indicated that population structure is affected by the thermal plume, although the shifting positions of the mixing point (caused by northerly and southerly long shore currents) allowed decolonization of Emerita due to transmigration in positions that were earlier mixing points. This paper also describes a complete larval development of Emerita emeritus in the laboratory. Different life stages of E. emeritus were subjected to various power plant stressors to determine their varying responses. The expression of heat shock protein (hsp) in the gill tissue of the adult crabs was also observed when the crabs were exposed to elevated temperatures (35 deg C). However, no expression of heat shock proteins was observed when the crabs were subjected to chlorine stress. (author)

  1. Resistance to experimental tumorigenesis in cells of a long-lived mammal, the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Sitai; Mele, James; Wu, Yuehong; Buffenstein, Rochelle; Hornsby, Peter J

    2010-08-01

    The naked mole-rat (NMR, Heterocephalus glaber) is a long-lived mammal in which spontaneous cancer has not been observed. To investigate possible mechanisms for cancer resistance in this species, we studied the properties of skin fibroblasts from the NMR following transduction with oncogenes that cause cells of other mammalian species to form malignant tumors. Naked mole-rat fibroblasts were transduced with a retrovirus encoding SV40 large T antigen and oncogenic Ras(G12V). Following transplantation of transduced cells into immunodeficient mice, cells rapidly entered crisis, as evidenced by the presence of anaphase bridges, giant cells with enlarged nuclei, multinucleated cells, and cells with large number of chromosomes or abnormal chromatin material. In contrast, similarly transduced mouse and rat fibroblasts formed tumors that grew rapidly without crisis. Crisis was also observed after > 40 population doublings in SV40 TAg/Ras-expressing NMR cells in culture. Crisis in culture was prevented by additional infection of the cells with a retrovirus encoding hTERT (telomerase reverse transcriptase). SV40 TAg/Ras/hTERT-expressing NMR cells formed tumors that grew rapidly in immunodeficient mice without evidence of crisis. Crisis could also be induced in SV40 TAg/Ras-expressing NMR cells by loss of anchorage, but after hTERT transduction, cells were able to proliferate normally following loss of anchorage. Thus, rapid crisis is a response of oncogene-expressing NMR cells to growth in an in vivo environment, which requires anchorage independence, and hTERT permits cells to avoid crisis and to achieve malignant tumor growth. The unique reaction of NMR cells to oncogene expression may form part of the cancer resistance of this species.

  2. Metabolic clues to salubrious longevity in the brain of the longest-lived rodent: the naked mole-rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triplett, Judy C; Swomley, Aaron; Kirk, Jessime; Lewis, Katilyn; Orr, Miranda; Rodriguez, Karl; Cai, Jian; Klein, Jon B; Buffenstein, Rochelle; Butterfield, D Allan

    2015-08-01

    Naked mole-rats (NMRs) are the oldest-living rodent species. Living underground in a thermally stable ecological niche, NMRs have evolved certain exceptional traits, resulting in sustained health spans, negligible cognitive decline, and a pronounced resistance to age-related disease. Uncovering insights into mechanisms underlying these extraordinary traits involved in successful aging may conceivably provide crucial clues to extend the human life span and health span. One of the most fundamental processes inside the cell is the production of ATP, which is an essential fuel in driving all other energy-requiring cellular activities. Not surprisingly, a prominent hallmark in age-related diseases, such as neurodegeneration and cancer, is the impairment and dysregulation of metabolic pathways. Using a two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis proteomics approach, alterations in expression and phosphorylation levels of metabolic proteins in the brains of NMRs, aged 2-24 years, were evaluated in an age-dependent manner. We identified 13 proteins with altered levels and/or phosphorylation states that play key roles in various metabolic pathways including glycolysis, β-oxidation, the malate-aspartate shuttle, the Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle (TCA) cycle, the electron transport chain, NADPH production, as well as the production of glutamate. New insights into potential pathways involved in metabolic aspects of successful aging have been obtained by the identification of key proteins through which the NMR brain responds and adapts to the aging process and how the NMR brain adapted to resist age-related degeneration. This study examines the changes in the proteome and phosphoproteome in the brain of the naked mole-rat aged 2-24 years. We identified 13 proteins (labeled in red) with altered expression and/or phosphorylation levels that are conceivably associated with sustained metabolic functions in the oldest NMRs that may promote a sustained health span and life span.

  3. Subcaste differences in neural activation suggest a prosocial role for oxytocin in eusocial naked mole-rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Georgia A; Faykoo-Martinez, Mariela; Peragine, Deane E; Mooney, Skyler J; Holmes, Melissa M

    2016-03-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) influences prosocial behavior(s), aggression, and stress responsiveness, and these diverse effects are regulated in a species- and context-specific manner. The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a unique species with which to study context-dependent effects of OT, exhibiting a strict social hierarchy with behavioral specialization within the subordinate caste: soldiers are aggressive and defend colonies against unfamiliar conspecifics while workers are prosocial and contribute to in-colony behaviors such as pup care. To determine if OT is involved in subcaste-specific behaviors, we compared behavioral responses between workers and soldiers of both sexes during a modified resident/intruder paradigm, and quantified activation of OT neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and supraoptic nucleus (SON) using the immediate-early-gene marker c-fos co-localized with OT neurons. Resident workers and soldiers were age-matched with unfamiliar worker stimulus animals as intruders, and encounters were videorecorded and scored for aggressive behaviors. Colony-matched controls were left in their home colony for the duration of the encounters. Brains were extracted and cell counts were conducted for OT immunoreactive (ir), c-fos-ir, and percentage of OT-c-fos double-labeled cells. Results indicate that resident workers were less aggressive but showed greater OT neural activity than soldiers. Furthermore, a linear model including social treatment, cortisol, and subcaste revealed that subcaste was the only significant predictor of OT-c-fos double-labeled cells in the PVN. These data suggest that in naked mole-rats OT promotes prosocial behaviors rather than aggression and that even within subordinates status exerts robust effects on brain and behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Parentage analysis of Ansell’s mole-rat family groups indicates a high reproductive skew despite relatively relaxed ecological constraints on dispersal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Patzenhauerová, Hana; Šklíba, J.; Bryja, Josef; Šumbera, R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 19 (2013), s. 4988-5000 ISSN 0962-1083 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA601410802; GA ČR GAP506/10/0983 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : African mole-rat * dispersal * eusociality * Fukomys * mating system * reproductive skew Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 5.840, year: 2013

  5. The Evasion of the Text; Invasion of the Text; Again, Evasion of the Text; "The Eagle and the Mole": The Affective Fallacy Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducharme, Edward R.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    Three writers debate whether English teachers should depend on external or internal criteria when analyzing and teaching literature. Each writer discusses the meaning of Elinor Wylie's poem, "The Eagle and the Mole," according to his particular view of literary analysis. Edward Ducharme, in "The Evasion of the Text," submits…

  6. Variability of space-use patterns in a free living eusocial rodent, Ansell’s mole-rat indicates age-based rather than caste polyethism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šklíba, Jan; Lövy, M.; Burda, H.; Šumbera, R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, DEC 06 (2016), č. článku 37497. ISSN 2045-2322 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 669609 - Diversity6continents Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : eusocial rodent * mole-rats * Fukomys anselli Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016 https://www.nature.com/articles/srep37497

  7. An energy stable evolution method for simulating two-phase equilibria of multi-component fluids at constant moles, volume and temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Kou, Jisheng; Sun, Shuyu; Wang, Xiuhua

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an energy-stable evolution method for the calculation of the phase equilibria under given volume, temperature, and moles (VT-flash). An evolution model for describing the dynamics of two-phase fluid system is based on Fick

  8. Identification of patients with persistent trophoblastic disease after complete hydatidiform mole by using a normal 24-hour urine hCG regression curve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cromvoirt, S.M. van; Thomas, C.M.G.; Quinn, M.A.; McNally, O.M.; Bekkers, R.L.M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to establish a reference 24-hour urine human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) regression curve in patients with complete hydatidiform mole (CHM) as diagnostic tool in the prediction of persistent trophoblastic disease (PTD). METHODS: From 2004 to 2011, 312 cases

  9. Effects of laboratory housing on exploratory behaviour, novelty discrimination and spatial reference memory in a subterranean, solitary rodent, the Cape mole-rat (Georychus capensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosthuizen, Maria Kathleen; Scheibler, Anne-Gita; Bennett, Nigel Charles; Amrein, Irmgard

    2013-01-01

    A large number of laboratory and field based studies are being carried out on mole-rats, both in our research group and others. Several studies have highlighted the development of adverse behaviours in laboratory animals and have emphasised the importance of enrichment for captive animals. Hence we were interested in evaluating how laboratory housing would affect behavioural performance in mole-rats. We investigated exploratory behaviour, the ability to discriminate between novel and familiar environments and reference memory in the solitary Cape mole-rat (Georychus capensis). Our data showed that both wild and captive animals readily explore open spaces and tunnels. Wild animals were however more active than their captive counterparts. In the Y maze two trial discrimination task, wild animals failed to discriminate between novel and familiar environments, while laboratory housed mole-rats showed preferential spatial discrimination in terms of the length of time spent in the novel arm. The performance of the laboratory and wild animals were similar when tested for reference memory in the Y maze, both groups showed a significant improvement compared to the first day, from the 3rd day onwards. Wild animals made more mistakes whereas laboratory animals were slower in completing the task. The difference in performance between wild and laboratory animals in the Y-maze may be as a result of the lower activity of the laboratory animals. Laboratory maintained Cape mole-rats show classic behaviours resulting from a lack of stimulation such as reduced activity and increased aggression. However, they do display an improved novelty discrimination compared to the wild animals. Slower locomotion rate of the laboratory animals may increase the integration time of stimuli, hence result in a more thorough inspection of the surroundings. Unlike the captive animals, wild animals show flexibility in their responses to unpredictable events, which is an important requirement under

  10. Altered composition of liver proteasome assemblies contributes to enhanced proteasome activity in the exceptionally long-lived naked mole-rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Karl A; Edrey, Yael H; Osmulski, Pawel; Gaczynska, Maria; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2012-01-01

    The longest-lived rodent, the naked mole-rat (Bathyergidae; Heterocephalus glaber), maintains robust health for at least 75% of its 32 year lifespan, suggesting that the decline in genomic integrity or protein homeostasis routinely observed during aging, is either attenuated or delayed in this extraordinarily long-lived species. The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) plays an integral role in protein homeostasis by degrading oxidatively-damaged and misfolded proteins. In this study, we examined proteasome activity in naked mole-rats and mice in whole liver lysates as well as three subcellular fractions to probe the mechanisms behind the apparently enhanced effectiveness of UPS. We found that when compared with mouse samples, naked mole-rats had significantly higher chymotrypsin-like (ChT-L) activity and a two-fold increase in trypsin-like (T-L) in both whole lysates as well as cytosolic fractions. Native gel electrophoresis of the whole tissue lysates showed that the 20S proteasome was more active in the longer-lived species and that 26S proteasome was both more active and more populous. Western blot analyses revealed that both 19S subunits and immunoproteasome catalytic subunits are present in greater amounts in the naked mole-rat suggesting that the observed higher specific activity may be due to the greater proportion of immunoproteasomes in livers of healthy young adults. It thus appears that proteasomes in this species are primed for the efficient removal of stress-damaged proteins. Further characterization of the naked mole-rat proteasome and its regulation could lead to important insights on how the cells in these animals handle increased stress and protein damage to maintain a longer health in their tissues and ultimately a longer life.

  11. Specific paucity of unmyelinated C-fibers in cutaneous peripheral nerves of the African naked-mole rat: comparative analysis using six species of Bathyergidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John Smith, Ewan; Purfürst, Bettina; Grigoryan, Tamara; Park, Thomas J; Bennett, Nigel C; Lewin, Gary R

    2012-08-15

    In mammalian peripheral nerves, unmyelinated C-fibers usually outnumber myelinated A-fibers. By using transmission electron microscopy, we recently showed that the saphenous nerve of the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) has a C-fiber deficit manifested as a substantially lower C:A-fiber ratio compared with other mammals. Here we determined the uniqueness of this C-fiber deficit by performing a quantitative anatomical analysis of several peripheral nerves in five further members of the Bathyergidae mole-rat family: silvery (Heliophobius argenteocinereus), giant (Fukomys mechowii), Damaraland (Fukomys damarensis), Mashona (Fukomys darlingi), and Natal (Cryptomys hottentotus natalensis) mole-rats. In the largely cutaneous saphenous and sural nerves, the naked mole-rat had the lowest C:A-fiber ratio (∼1.5:1 compared with ∼3:1), whereas, in nerves innervating both skin and muscle (common peroneal and tibial) or just muscle (lateral/medial gastrocnemius), this pattern was mostly absent. We asked whether lack of hair follicles alone accounts for the C-fiber paucity by using as a model a mouse that loses virtually all its hair as a consequence of conditional deletion of the β-catenin gene in the skin. These β-catenin loss-of function mice (β-cat LOF mice) displayed only a mild decrease in C:A-fiber ratio compared with wild-type mice (4.42 compared with 3.81). We suggest that the selective cutaneous C-fiber deficit in the cutaneous nerves of naked mole-rats is unlikely to be due primarily to lack of skin hair follicles. Possible mechanisms contributing to this unique peripheral nerve anatomy are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Altered composition of liver proteasome assemblies contributes to enhanced proteasome activity in the exceptionally long-lived naked mole-rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl A Rodriguez

    Full Text Available The longest-lived rodent, the naked mole-rat (Bathyergidae; Heterocephalus glaber, maintains robust health for at least 75% of its 32 year lifespan, suggesting that the decline in genomic integrity or protein homeostasis routinely observed during aging, is either attenuated or delayed in this extraordinarily long-lived species. The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS plays an integral role in protein homeostasis by degrading oxidatively-damaged and misfolded proteins. In this study, we examined proteasome activity in naked mole-rats and mice in whole liver lysates as well as three subcellular fractions to probe the mechanisms behind the apparently enhanced effectiveness of UPS. We found that when compared with mouse samples, naked mole-rats had significantly higher chymotrypsin-like (ChT-L activity and a two-fold increase in trypsin-like (T-L in both whole lysates as well as cytosolic fractions. Native gel electrophoresis of the whole tissue lysates showed that the 20S proteasome was more active in the longer-lived species and that 26S proteasome was both more active and more populous. Western blot analyses revealed that both 19S subunits and immunoproteasome catalytic subunits are present in greater amounts in the naked mole-rat suggesting that the observed higher specific activity may be due to the greater proportion of immunoproteasomes in livers of healthy young adults. It thus appears that proteasomes in this species are primed for the efficient removal of stress-damaged proteins. Further characterization of the naked mole-rat proteasome and its regulation could lead to important insights on how the cells in these animals handle increased stress and protein damage to maintain a longer health in their tissues and ultimately a longer life.

  13. [Effects of prophylactic chemotherapy on outcomes and prognosis of patients older than 40 years with invasive mole].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, S Y; Li, L; Zhao, J; Xiang, Y; Wan, X R; Feng, F Z; Ren, T; Yang, J J

    2017-06-25

    Objective: To discuss the effects of prophylactic chemotherapy on the outcomes and prognosis of invasive mole patients. Methods: One hundred and fifteen invasive mole (IM) patients older than 40 years were registered in Peking Union Medical Collage Hospital.Eleven of them were treated with prophylactic chemotherapy before diagnosed as IM prophylactic chemotherapy group, while the other 104 cases received therapeutic chemotherapy after diagnosed as IM (non-prophylactic chemotherapy group). The general clinical data (including age, clinical stage, risk factor score), treatment, outcomes and relapse of patients were retrospectively compared between two groups. Results: (1) The age of prophylactic chemotherapy group and non-prophylactic chemotherapy group were (47±5) versus (46±4) years old. Ratio of clinical stageⅠ-Ⅱ were 3/11 versus 29.8% (31/104), clinical stage Ⅲ-Ⅳ were 8/11 versus 70.2% (73/104). Ratio of risk factor score 0-6 were 11/11 versus 84.6% (88/104), risk factor score >6 were 0 versus 15.4% (16/104). There were no significant statistical differences between two groups in age, clinical stage or risk factor score (all P> 0.05). (2) Treatment: the total chemotherapy courses between prophylactic chemotherapy group and non-prophylactic chemotherapy group (median 7 versus 5) were significantly different ( Z= 3.071, P= 0.002). There were no significant statistical differences between two groups in the chemotherapy courses until negative conversion of β-hCG, consolidation chemotherapy courses, total therapeutic chemotherapy courses or ratio of hysterectomy (all P> 0.05). (3) Outcomes and relapse: between the prophylactic chemotherapy group and the non-prophylactic chemotherapy group, the complete remission rate were 11/11 versus 98.1%(102/104), the relapse rate were 0 versus 1.0%(1/102). There were no significant difference between the two groups in outcomes or relapse rate ( P> 0.05). Conclusions: Prophylactic chemotherapy does not substantially

  14. Mola hidatiforme completa e eclâmpsia: relato de caso Complete hydatidiform mole and eclampsia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izildinha Maestá

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento de pré-eclâmpsia ou eclâmpsia antes da 20ª semana deve levar à suspeita de mola hidatiforme. Descrevemos um caso de mola hidatiforme completa (MHC e eclâmpsia concomitante em paciente com 20 anos que apresentava sangramento genital, anemia, tamanho uterino excessivo e cistos de ovário, associados a hipertensão arterial e proteinúria. Os níveis de b-hCG estavam elevados e a função tiroidiana, alterada. A ultra-sonografia mostrou-se compatível com MHC. Após o esvaziamento uterino apresentou cefaléia e alterações visuais, seguidas por convulsões tônico-clônicas que cessaram com sulfato de magnésio hepta-hidratado a 50%. No seguimento pós-molar foi diagnosticado tumor trofoblástico gestacional (TTG prontamente tratado com quimioterapia. A associação de MHC e eclâmpsia determina esvaziamento uterino imediato e seguimento pós-molar rigoroso, pelo risco aumentado de desenvolvimento de TTG.Development of preeclampsia/eclampsia prior to 20 weeks of pregnancy should raise the suspicion of hydatidiform mole. We report a case of complete hydatidiform mole (CHM concurrent with eclampsia in a 20-year-old patient with vaginal bleeding, anemia, large uterine size, and ovary cysts associated with hypertension and proteinuria. Plasmatic b-hCG levels were high and there was abnormal thyroid function. The ultrasonographic findings were compatible with CHM. After uterine evacuation, the patient had headache and visual alterations, followed by tonic-clonic seizures, which ceased with the administration of 50% magnesium sulfate. At post-molar follow-up, a gestational trophoblastic tumor (GTT was diagnosed and promptly treated with chemotherapy. Association between CHM and eclampsia requires immediate uterine evacuation and strict post-molar follow-up, due to increased risk of GTT development.

  15. Influence of 17β-estradiol treatment on the expression of NF-κB in complete hydatidiform mole culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatit Nurseta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background:  Genetic evidence has established a role of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB signaling in oncogenesis. However, activity of NF-κB in complete hydatidiform mole (CHM cell culture under 17β-estradiol (E2 treatment is not yet known. Recently, a positive cross-talk between estrogen receptor (ER and NF-κB to promote survival and progress of cancer cells to a more aggressive phenotype was established. In the present study, we examined the influence of E2 treatment on the NF-κB expression in CHM’s culture.Methods:  This experimental study measured the expression of NF-κB in CHM culture treated with E2: 10, 100, 300, 600, and 1000 pg/mL and without E2. Imunohistochemistry staining was used to assess the expression of NF-κB. Microphotographs were taken using 400x magnification. Adobe photoshop CS2 was used to assess the NF-κB expression in cell nucleus. The lower the color intensity of cell RGBbv, is the higher the expression of NF-κB in cells. ANOVA test was performed to compare the expression of NF-κB.Results: NF-κB expression as indicated by color intensity in control group was 114.84 ± 9.02. NF-κB expression in E2 treatment groups were respectively: E2 10 pg/mL: 106.30 ± 13.95; E2 100 pg/mL: 82.47 ± 4.72; E2 300 pg/mL: 82.24 ± 2.67; E2 600 pg/mL: 69.05 ± 6.47; E2 1000 pg/mL: 68.49 ± 2.37. There was progressive decline in color intensity of cells with E2 treatment indicating the increase expression of NF-κB. Significant differences with the control group occurred in doses of E2 100, 300, 600, dan 1000 pg/mL.Conclusion: Treatment of CHM trophoblast culture with escalating doses of E2 was associated with the increase of NF-κB expression in a dose dependent manner. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:197-201. doi: 10.13181/mji.v22i4.599Keywords: 17-β Estradiol, Hydatidiform mole, NF-κB

  16. A distinct role of the queen in coordinated workload and soil distribution in eusocial naked mole-rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Kutsukake

    Full Text Available We investigated how group members achieve collective decision-making, by considering individual intrinsic behavioural rules and behavioural mechanisms for maintaining social integration. Using a simulated burrow environment, we investigated the behavioural rules of coordinated workload for soil distribution in a eusocial mammal, the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber. We tested two predictions regarding a distinct role of the queen, a socially dominant individual in the caste system: the presence of a queen would increase the workload of other caste individuals, and the cues by a queen would affect the soil distribution. In experiment 1, we placed four individuals of various castes from the same colony into an experimental burrow. Workers exhibited the highest frequency of workload compared to other castes. The presence of a queen activated the workload by other individuals. Individuals showed a consistent workload in a particular direction so as to bias the soil distribution. These results suggest that individuals have a consensus on soil distribution and that the queen plays a distinct role. In experiment 2, we placed the odour of a queen in one of four cells and observed its effect on other individuals' workload and soil distribution. Relative to other cells, individuals frequently dug in the queen cell so the amount of soil in the queen cell decreased. These results suggest that queen odour is an important cue in coordinated workload and soil distribution in this species.

  17. Recurrent hydatidiform mole: A case report of six consecutive molar pregnancies complicated by choriocarcinoma, and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahlam A Al-Ghamdi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydatidiform mole (HM is the most common form of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. Recurrence of HM is extremely rare. Here, we report the case of a patient with six consecutive partial HMs without normal pregnancy. A 42-year-old lady who was referred to us at King Fahad Hospital of the University, Al Khobar, initially as a case of 26-year-old with persistent trophoblastic disease after three recurrent molar pregnancies that were confirmed histologically in the referring hospital. She underwent evacuation and curettage and was followed up by serial β-human chorionic gonadotropin levels, and did not require chemotherapy. She then had three more molar pregnancies in 1995, 1996, and 2004; all molar pregnancies were evacuated by suction curettage at her base hospital, but in the last event, she complained of shortness of breath and abdominal pain. Diagnostic workup in our hospital confirmed choriocarcinoma, for which she received multiple regimen chemotherapy and was cured. Unfortunately, she lately presented with symptoms suggestive of premature menopause.

  18. Effect of dietary supplementation with Rhizopus oryzae or Chrysonilia crassa on growth performance, blood profile, intestinal microbial population, and carcass traits in broilers exposed to heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sugiharto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Dietary supplementation of additives has recently been part of strategies to deal with the detrimental effects of heat stress (HS on the performance and carcass traits in broiler chicks. This study aimed to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with the fungi Rhizopus oryzae or Chrysonilia crassa on growth, blood profile, intestinal microbial population and carcass traits in broiler chicks subjected to HS. R. oryzae and C. crassa are filamentous fungi isolated from the ileum of indigenous Indonesian chickens which exhibited probiotic and antioxidant properties. Two hundred and forty 21-day-old male broiler chicks were randomly allotted into six groups, including birds reared under normal temperature (28 ± 2 °C (CONT, birds reared under HS conditions (35 ± 2 °C (HS-CONT, birds reared under HS and provided with commercial anti-stress formula (HS-VIT, birds reared under HS and provided with R. oryzae (HS-RO, birds reared under HS and provided with C. crassa (HS-CC and birds reared under HS and provided with rice bran (HS-RB. Body weight gain was highest (P < 0. 01 and lowest (P < 0. 01 in CONT and HS-CONT birds, respectively. The heart was heavier (P < 0. 05 in CONT than in HS-CONT and HS-VIT birds. CONT birds had heavier duodenum (P < 0. 05 and jejunum (P < 0. 01 than other birds. Eosinophils was higher (P < 0. 05 in HS-CC than in other birds. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL was higher (P < 0. 05 in HS-CONT than in CONT, HS-VIT and HS-CC birds. Total triglyceride was highest (P < 0. 05 and lowest (P < 0. 05 in HS-RB and HS-RO birds, respectively. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT was higher (P < 0. 05 in HS-CONT than in other HS birds. Total protein was lowest and highest (P < 0. 05 in CONT and HS-CONT birds, respectively. Albumin was higher (P < 0. 05 in HS-CONT and HS-VIT than in HS-RO birds. Globulin was lower (P < 0. 05 in CONT than in HS

  19. Bilateral lesions of the medial frontal cortex disrupt recognition of social hierarchy during antiphonal communication in naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yosida, Shigeto; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2012-02-01

    Generation of the motor patterns of emotional sounds in mammals occurs in the periaqueductal gray matter of the midbrain and is not directly controlled by the cortex. The medial frontal cortex indirectly controls vocalizations, based on the recognition of social context. We examined whether the medial frontal cortex was responsible for antiphonal vocalization, or turn-taking, in naked mole-rats. In normal turn-taking, naked mole-rats vocalize more frequently to dominant individuals than to subordinate ones. Bilateral lesions of the medial frontal cortex disrupted differentiation of call rates to the stimulus animals, which had varied social relationships to the subject. However, medial frontal cortex lesions did not affect either the acoustic properties of the vocalizations or the timing of the vocal exchanges. This suggests that the medial frontal cortex may be involved in social cognition or decision making during turn-taking, while other regions of the brain regulate when animals vocalize and the vocalizations themselves.

  20. Numerical Investigation of the Effect of C/O Mole Ratio on the Performance of Rotary Hearth Furnace Using a Combined Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Wen, Zhi; Lou, Guofeng; Li, Zhi; Yong, Haiquan; Feng, Xiaohong

    2014-12-01

    In a rotary hearth furnace (RHF) the direct reduction of composite pellets and processes of heat and mass transfer as well as combustion in the chamber of RHF influence each other. These mutual interactions should be considered when an accurate model of RHF is established. This paper provides a combined model that incorporates two sub-models to investigate the effects of C/O mole ratio in the feed pellets on the reduction kinetics and heat and mass transfer as well as combustion processes in the chamber of a pilot-scale RHF. One of the sub-models is established to describe the direct reduction process of composite pellets on the hearth of RHF. Heat and mass transfer within the pellet, chemical reactions, and radiative heat transfer from furnace walls and combustion gas to the surface of the pellet are considered in the model. The other sub-model is used to simulate gas flow and combustion process in the chamber of RHF by using commercial CFD software, FLUENT. The two sub-models were linked through boundary conditions and heat, mass sources. Cases for pellets with different C/O mole ratio were calculated by the combined model. The calculation results showed that the degree of metallization, the total amounts of carbon monoxide escaping from the pellet, and heat absorbed by chemical reactions within the pellet as well as CO and CO2 concentrations in the furnace increase with the increase of C/O mole ratio ranging from 0.6 to 1.0, when calculation conditions are the same except for C/O molar ratio. Carbon content in the pellet has little influence on temperature distribution in the furnace under the same calculation conditions except for C/O mole ratio in the feed pellets.

  1. The long gestation of the small naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber Rüppell, 1842) studied with ultrasound biomicroscopy and 3D-ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roellig, Kathleen; Drews, Barbara; Goeritz, Frank; Hildebrandt, Thomas Bernd

    2011-03-07

    The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is one of the two known mammalian species that live in a eusocial population structure. Here we investigate the exceptionally long gestation period of 70 days observed in the mole-rat queen. The course of seven successful pregnancies in two individuals was recorded in a colony of captive naked mole-rats using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) and 3D-ultrasonography. We establish a catalogue of basic reference ultrasound data for this species by describing the ultrasonographic appearance of reproductive organs, calculating growth curves to predict gestational age and defining ultrasonographic milestones to characterize pregnancy stages. Mean litter size was 10.9±2.7, of which 7.2±1.5 survived the weaning period. Mean interbirth interval was 128.8±63.0 days. The reproductive success in our colony did not differ from previously published data. In the queen the active corpora lutea had an anechoic, fluid filled centre. Using UBM, pregnancy could be detected 53 days before parturition. The period of embryonic development is assumed to last until 30 days before parturition. Embryonic resorptions were detected frequently in the queen, indicating that this might be an ordinary event in this species. We discuss the extraordinary long gestation period of this small rodent and postulate that the long gestation is beneficial to both the eusocial structure and longevity. An increased litter size, twice as large as for other rodents of similar size, seemingly compensates for the doubling of pregnancy length. We demonstrate that the lifetime reproductive effort of a naked mole-rat queen is equivalent to the mass of offspring that would be produced if all of the females of a colony would be reproducing.

  2. The long gestation of the small naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber Ruppell, 1842 studied with ultrasound biomicroscopy and 3D-ultrasonography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Roellig

    Full Text Available The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber is one of the two known mammalian species that live in a eusocial population structure. Here we investigate the exceptionally long gestation period of 70 days observed in the mole-rat queen. The course of seven successful pregnancies in two individuals was recorded in a colony of captive naked mole-rats using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM and 3D-ultrasonography. We establish a catalogue of basic reference ultrasound data for this species by describing the ultrasonographic appearance of reproductive organs, calculating growth curves to predict gestational age and defining ultrasonographic milestones to characterize pregnancy stages. Mean litter size was 10.9±2.7, of which 7.2±1.5 survived the weaning period. Mean interbirth interval was 128.8±63.0 days. The reproductive success in our colony did not differ from previously published data. In the queen the active corpora lutea had an anechoic, fluid filled centre. Using UBM, pregnancy could be detected 53 days before parturition. The period of embryonic development is assumed to last until 30 days before parturition. Embryonic resorptions were detected frequently in the queen, indicating that this might be an ordinary event in this species. We discuss the extraordinary long gestation period of this small rodent and postulate that the long gestation is beneficial to both the eusocial structure and longevity. An increased litter size, twice as large as for other rodents of similar size, seemingly compensates for the doubling of pregnancy length. We demonstrate that the lifetime reproductive effort of a naked mole-rat queen is equivalent to the mass of offspring that would be produced if all of the females of a colony would be reproducing.

  3. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy-based tomography system for on-line monitoring of two-dimensional distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Lijun; Liu, Chang; Jing, Wenyang; Cao, Zhang; Xue, Xin; Lin, Yuzhen

    2016-01-01

    To monitor two-dimensional (2D) distributions of temperature and H 2 O mole fraction, an on-line tomography system based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) was developed. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report on a multi-view TDLAS-based system for simultaneous tomographic visualization of temperature and H 2 O mole fraction in real time. The system consists of two distributed feedback (DFB) laser diodes, a tomographic sensor, electronic circuits, and a computer. The central frequencies of the two DFB laser diodes are at 7444.36 cm −1 (1343.3 nm) and 7185.6 cm −1 (1391.67 nm), respectively. The tomographic sensor is used to generate fan-beam illumination from five views and to produce 60 ray measurements. The electronic circuits not only provide stable temperature and precise current controlling signals for the laser diodes but also can accurately sample the transmitted laser intensities and extract integrated absorbances in real time. Finally, the integrated absorbances are transferred to the computer, in which the 2D distributions of temperature and H 2 O mole fraction are reconstructed by using a modified Landweber algorithm. In the experiments, the TDLAS-based tomography system was validated by using asymmetric premixed flames with fixed and time-varying equivalent ratios, respectively. The results demonstrate that the system is able to reconstruct the profiles of the 2D distributions of temperature and H 2 O mole fraction of the flame and effectively capture the dynamics of the combustion process, which exhibits good potential for flame monitoring and on-line combustion diagnosis

  4. Long-term analysis of carbon dioxide and methane column-averaged mole fractions retrieved from SCIAMACHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Schneising

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide (CO2 and methane (CH4 are the two most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases contributing to global climate change. SCIAMACHY onboard ENVISAT (launch 2002 was the first and is now with TANSO onboard GOSAT (launch 2009 one of only two satellite instruments currently in space whose measurements are sensitive to CO2 and CH4 concentration changes in the lowest atmospheric layers where the variability due to sources and sinks is largest.

    We present long-term SCIAMACHY retrievals (2003–2009 of column-averaged dry air mole fractions of both gases (denoted XCO2 and XCH4 derived from absorption bands in the near-infrared/shortwave-infrared (NIR/SWIR spectral region focusing on large-scale features. The results are obtained using an upgraded version (v2 of the retrieval algorithm WFM-DOAS including several improvements, while simultaneously maintaining its high processing speed. The retrieved mole fractions are compared to global model simulations (CarbonTracker XCO2 and TM5 XCH4 being optimised by assimilating highly accurate surface measurements from the NOAA/ESRL network and taking the SCIAMACHY averaging kernels into account. The comparisons address seasonal variations and long-term characteristics.

    The steady increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide primarily caused by the burning of fossil fuels can be clearly observed with SCIAMACHY globally. The retrieved global annual mean XCO2 increase agrees with CarbonTracker within the error bars (1.80±0.13 ppm yr−1 compared to 1.81±0.09 ppm yr−1. The amplitude of the XCO2 seasonal cycle as retrieved by SCIAMACHY, which is 4.3±0.2 ppm for the Northern Hemisphere and 1.4±0.2 ppm for the Southern Hemisphere, is on average about 1 ppm larger than for CarbonTracker.

    An investigation of the boreal forest carbon uptake during the

  5. Reduced Utilization of Selenium by Naked Mole Rats Due to a Specific Defect in GPx1 Expression*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasaikina, Marina V.; Lobanov, Alexei V.; Malinouski, Mikalai Y.; Lee, Byung Cheon; Seravalli, Javier; Fomenko, Dmitri E.; Turanov, Anton A.; Finney, Lydia; Vogt, Stefan; Park, Thomas J.; Miller, Richard A.; Hatfield, Dolph L.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2011-01-01

    Naked mole rat (MR) Heterocephalus glaber is a rodent model of delayed aging because of its unusually long life span (>28 years). It is also not known to develop cancer. In the current work, tissue imaging by x-ray fluorescence microscopy and direct analyses of trace elements revealed low levels of selenium in the MR liver and kidney, whereas MR and mouse brains had similar selenium levels. This effect was not explained by uniform selenium deficiency because methionine sulfoxide reductase activities were similar in mice and MR. However, glutathione peroxidase activity was an order of magnitude lower in MR liver and kidney than in mouse tissues. In addition, metabolic labeling of MR cells with 75Se revealed a loss of the abundant glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1) band, whereas other selenoproteins were preserved. To characterize the MR selenoproteome, we sequenced its liver transcriptome. Gene reconstruction revealed standard selenoprotein sequences except for GPx1, which had an early stop codon, and SelP, which had low selenocysteine content. When expressed in HEK 293 cells, MR GPx1 was present in low levels, and its expression could be rescued neither by removing the early stop codon nor by replacing its SECIS element. In addition, GPx1 mRNA was present in lower levels in MR liver than in mouse liver. To determine if GPx1 deficiency could account for the reduced selenium content, we analyzed GPx1 knock-out mice and found reduced selenium levels in their livers and kidneys. Thus, MR is characterized by the reduced utilization of selenium due to a specific defect in GPx1 expression. PMID:21372135

  6. Awareness of sunburn in childhood, use of sunbeds and change of moles in Denmark, Northern Ireland, Norway and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdarevic, Senada; Hvidberg, Line; Lin, Yulan; Donnelly, Conan; Gavin, Anna; Lagerlund, Magdalena; Pedersen, Anette F; Rasmussen, Birgit H; Runesdotter, Sara; Vedsted, Peter; Tishelman, Carol

    2016-02-01

    Malignant melanoma (MM) is increasing rapidly in Northern Europe. To reduce incidence and mortality through earlier diagnosis, public awareness of MM is important. Thus, we aim to examine awareness of risk factors and a symptom of MM, and how awareness varies by country and socio-demographic factors in Denmark, Northern Ireland (NI), Norway and Sweden. Population-based telephone interviews using the 'Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer' measure were conducted in 2011 among 8355 adults ≥50 years as part of the International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership Module 2. Prevalence ratios (PRs) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. In these four countries, lowest awareness was found for 'sunburn in childhood' (63%), whereas awareness was high for 'use of sunbeds' (91%) and 'mole change' (97%). Lack of awareness of 'sunburn in childhood' was more prevalent among respondents from Norway [PR = 1.38 (1.28-1.48)] but less prevalent among respondents from Northern Ireland (NI) [PR = 0.78 (0.72-0.85)] and Sweden [PR = 0.86 (0.79-0.93)] compared with respondents from Denmark. Lack of awareness of 'use of sunbeds' was more prevalent among respondents from Norway [PR = 2.99 (2.39-3.74)], Sweden [PR = 1.57 (1.22-2.00)], and NI [PR = 1.65 (1.30-2.10)] compared with respondents form Denmark. Being a man, age ≥70, living alone, and having lower education, were each independently associated with lack of MM-awareness. The results indicate relatively low awareness of 'sunburn in childhood' as a risk factor for MM, and important disparities in MM-awareness across countries and socio-demographic groups. Improved and more directed initiatives to enhance public MM-awareness, particularly about 'sunburn in childhood', are needed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  7. Immunohistochemical characterization of the chemosensory pulmonary neuroepithelial bodies in the naked mole-rat reveals a unique adaptive phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Pan

    Full Text Available The pulmonary neuroepithelial bodies (NEBs constitute polymodal airway chemosensors for monitoring and signaling ambient gas concentrations (pO2, pCO2/H+ via complex innervation to the brain stem controlling breathing. NEBs produce the bioactive amine, serotonin (5-HT, and a variety of peptides with multiple effects on lung physiology and other organ systems. NEBs in mammals appear prominent and numerous during fetal and neonatal periods, and decline in the post-natal period suggesting an important role during perinatal adaptation. The naked mole-rat (NMR, Heterocephalus glaber, has adapted to the extreme environmental conditions of living in subterranean burrows in large colonies (up to 300 colony mates. The crowded, unventilated burrows are environments of severe hypoxia and hypercapnia. However, NMRs adjust readily to above ground conditions. The chemosensory NEBs of this species were characterized and compared to those of the conventional Wistar rat (WR to identify similarities and differences that could explain the NMR's adaptability to environments. A multilabel immunohistochemical analysis combined with confocal microscopy revealed that the expression patterns of amine, peptide, neuroendocrine, innervation markers and chemosensor component proteins in NEBs of NMR were similar to that of WR. However, we found the following differences: 1 NEBs in both neonatal and adult NMR lungs were significantly larger and more numerous as compared to WR; 2 NEBs in NMR had a more variable compact cell organization and exhibited significant differences in the expression of adhesion proteins; 3 NMR NEBs showed a significantly greater ratio of 5-HT positive cells with an abundance of 5-HT; 4 NEBs in NMR expressed the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA and the neurogenic gene (MASH1 indicating active proliferation and a state of persistent differentiation. Taken together our findings suggest that NEBs in lungs of NMR are in a hyperactive, functional

  8. They live in the land down under: thyroid function and basal metabolic rate in the Blind Mole Rat, Spalax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avivi, Aaron; Nevo, Eviatar; Cohen, Keren; Sotnichenko, Nick; Hercbergs, Aleck; Band, Mark; Davis, Paul J; Ellis, Martin; Ashur-Fabian, Osnat

    2014-01-01

    The Israeli blind subterranean mole rat (Spalax ehrenbergi superspecies) lives in sealed underground burrows under extreme, hypoxic conditions. The four Israeli Spalax allospecies have adapted to different climates, the cool-humid (Spalax galili, 2 n = 52 chromosomes), semihumid (S. golani, 2 n = 54) north regions, warm-humid (S. carmeli, 2 n = 58) central region and the warm-dry S. judaei, 2 n = 60) southern regions. A dramatic interspecies decline in basal metabolic rate (BMR) from north to south, even after years of captivity, indicates a genetic basis for this BMR trait. We examined the possibility that the genetically-conditioned interspecies BMR difference was expressed via circulating thyroid hormone. An unexpected north to south increase in serum free thyroxine (FT4) and total 3, 5, 3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) (p BMR measurements. The increases in serum FT4 and T3 were symmetrical, so that the T3:FT4 ratio - interpretable as an index of conversion of T4 to T3 in nonthyroidal tissues - did not support relative decrease in production of T3 as a contributor to BMR. Increased north-to-south serum FT4 and T3 levels also correlated negatively with hemoglobin/hematocrit. North-to-south adaptations in spalacids include decreased BMR and hematocrit/hemoglobin in the face of increasing thyroid hormone levels, arguing for independent control of hormone secretion and BMR/hematocrit/hemoglobin. But the significant inverse relationship between thyroid hormone levels and BMR/hematocrit/hemoglobin is also consistent with a degree of cellular resistance to thyroid hormone action that protects against hormone-induced increase in oxygen consumption in a hostile, hypoxic environment.

  9. Removal of reproductive suppression reveals latent sex differences in brain steroid hormone receptors in naked mole-rats, Heterocephalus glaber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift-Gallant, Ashlyn; Mo, Kaiguo; Peragine, Deane E; Monks, D Ashley; Holmes, Melissa M

    2015-01-01

    Naked mole-rats are eusocial mammals, living in large colonies with a single breeding female and 1-3 breeding males. Breeders are socially dominant, and only the breeders exhibit traditional sex differences in circulating gonadal steroid hormones and reproductive behaviors. Non-reproductive subordinates also fail to show sex differences in overall body size, external genital morphology, and non-reproductive behaviors. However, subordinates can transition to breeding status if removed from their colony and housed with an opposite-sex conspecific, suggesting the presence of latent sex differences. Here, we assessed the expression of steroid hormone receptor and aromatase messenger RNA (mRNA) in the brains of males and females as they transitioned in social and reproductive status. We compared in-colony subordinates to opposite-sex subordinate pairs that were removed from their colony for either 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, or until they became breeders (i.e., produced a litter). Diencephalic tissue was collected and mRNA of androgen receptor (Ar), estrogen receptor alpha (Esr1), progesterone receptor (Pgr), and aromatase (Cyp19a1) was measured using qPCR. Testosterone, 17β-estradiol, and progesterone from serum were also measured. As early as 1 week post-removal, males exhibited increased diencephalic Ar mRNA and circulating testosterone, whereas females had increased Cyp19a1 mRNA in the diencephalon. At 1 month post-removal, females exhibited increased 17β-estradiol and progesterone. The largest changes in steroid hormone receptors were observed in breeders. Breeding females had a threefold increase in Cyp19a1 and fivefold increases in Esr1 and Pgr, whereas breeding males had reduced Pgr and increased Ar. These data demonstrate that sex differences in circulating gonadal steroids and hypothalamic gene expression emerge weeks to months after subordinate animals are removed from reproductive suppression in their home colony.

  10. Immunohistochemical characterization of the chemosensory pulmonary neuroepithelial bodies in the naked mole-rat reveals a unique adaptive phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jie; Park, Thomas J; Cutz, Ernest; Yeger, Herman

    2014-01-01

    The pulmonary neuroepithelial bodies (NEBs) constitute polymodal airway chemosensors for monitoring and signaling ambient gas concentrations (pO2, pCO2/H+) via complex innervation to the brain stem controlling breathing. NEBs produce the bioactive amine, serotonin (5-HT), and a variety of peptides with multiple effects on lung physiology and other organ systems. NEBs in mammals appear prominent and numerous during fetal and neonatal periods, and decline in the post-natal period suggesting an important role during perinatal adaptation. The naked mole-rat (NMR), Heterocephalus glaber, has adapted to the extreme environmental conditions of living in subterranean burrows in large colonies (up to 300 colony mates). The crowded, unventilated burrows are environments of severe hypoxia and hypercapnia. However, NMRs adjust readily to above ground conditions. The chemosensory NEBs of this species were characterized and compared to those of the conventional Wistar rat (WR) to identify similarities and differences that could explain the NMR's adaptability to environments. A multilabel immunohistochemical analysis combined with confocal microscopy revealed that the expression patterns of amine, peptide, neuroendocrine, innervation markers and chemosensor component proteins in NEBs of NMR were similar to that of WR. However, we found the following differences: 1) NEBs in both neonatal and adult NMR lungs were significantly larger and more numerous as compared to WR; 2) NEBs in NMR had a more variable compact cell organization and exhibited significant differences in the expression of adhesion proteins; 3) NMR NEBs showed a significantly greater ratio of 5-HT positive cells with an abundance of 5-HT; 4) NEBs in NMR expressed the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and the neurogenic gene (MASH1) indicating active proliferation and a state of persistent differentiation. Taken together our findings suggest that NEBs in lungs of NMR are in a hyperactive, functional and

  11. Pigmentary Markers in Danes--Associations with Quantitative Skin Colour, Nevi Count, Familial Atypical Multiple-Mole, and Melanoma Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Johansen

    Full Text Available To investigate whether pigmentation genes involved in the melanogenic pathway (melanogenesis contributed to melanoma predisposition, we compared pigmentary genetics with quantitative skin pigmentation measurements, the number of atypical nevi, the total nevus count, and the familial atypical multiple mole and melanoma (FAMMM syndrome. We typed 32 pigmentary SNP markers and sequenced MC1R in 246 healthy individuals and 116 individuals attending periodic control for malignant melanoma development, 50 of which were diagnosed with FAMMM. It was observed that individuals with any two grouped MC1R variants (missense, NM_002386:c. 456C > A (p.TYR152*, or NM_002386:c.83_84insA (p.Asn29Glnfs*14 had significantly (p<0.001 lighter skin pigmentation of the upper-inner arm than those with none or one MC1R variant. We did not observe any significant association of the MC1R variants with constitutive pigmentation measured on the buttock area. We hypothesize that the effect of MC1R variants on arm pigmentation is primarily reflecting the inability to tan when subjected to UVR. A gender specific effect on skin pigmentation was also observed, and it was found that the skin pigmentation of females on average were darker than that of males (p<0.01. We conclude that MC1R variants are associated with quantitative skin colour in a lightly pigmented Danish population. We did not observe any association between any pigmentary marker and the FAMMM syndrome. We suggest that the genetics of FAMMM is not related to the genetics of the pigmentary pathway.

  12. Theoretical paper: exploring overlooked natural mitochondria-rejuvenative intervention: the puzzle of bowhead whales and naked mole rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopov, Arkadi F

    2007-12-01

    There is an imperative need for exploring and implementing mitochondria-rejuvenative interventions that can bridge the current gap toward the step-by step realization of strategies for engineered negligible senescence (SENS) agenda. Recently discovered in mammals, natural mechanism mitoptosis-a selective "suicide" of mutated mitochondria-can facilitate continuous purification of mitochondrial pool in an organism from the most reactive oxygen species (ROS)-producing mitochondria. Mitoptosis, which is considered to be the first stage of ROS-induced apoptosis, underlies follicular atresia (a "quality control" mechanism in female germline cells that eliminates most germinal follicles in female embryos). Mitoptosis can be also activated in adult postmitotic somatic cells by evolutionary conserved phenotypic adaptations to intermittent oxygen restriction (IOR) and synergistically acting intermittent caloric restriction (ICR). IOR and ICR are common in mammals and seem to underlie extraordinary longevity and augmented cancer resistance in bowhead whales (Balena mysticetus) and naked mole rats (Heterocephalus glaber). Furthermore, in mammals IOR can facilitate continuous stromal stem cells-de-pendent tissue repair. A comparative analysis of IOR and ICR mechanisms in both mammals, in conjunction with the experience of decades of biomedical and clinical research on emerging preventative, therapeutic, and rehabilitative modality-the intermittent hypoxic training/therapy (IHT)-indicates that the notable clinical efficiency of IHT is based on the universal adaptational mechanisms that are common in mammals. Further exploration of natural mitochondria-preserving and -rejuvenating strategies can help refinement of IOR- and ICR-based synergistic protocols, having value in clinical human rejuvenation.

  13. An energy stable evolution method for simulating two-phase equilibria of multi-component fluids at constant moles, volume and temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Kou, Jisheng

    2016-02-25

    In this paper, we propose an energy-stable evolution method for the calculation of the phase equilibria under given volume, temperature, and moles (VT-flash). An evolution model for describing the dynamics of two-phase fluid system is based on Fick’s law of diffusion for multi-component fluids and the Peng-Robinson equation of state. The mobility is obtained from diffusion coefficients by relating the gradient of chemical potential to the gradient of molar density. The evolution equation for moles of each component is derived using the discretization of diffusion equations, while the volume evolution equation is constructed based on the mechanical mechanism and the Peng-Robinson equation of state. It is proven that the proposed evolution system can well model the VT-flash problem, and moreover, it possesses the property of total energy decay. By using the Euler time scheme to discretize this evolution system, we develop an energy stable algorithm with an adaptive choice strategy of time steps, which allows us to calculate the suitable time step size to guarantee the physical properties of moles and volumes, including positivity, maximum limits, and correct definition of the Helmhotz free energy function. The proposed evolution method is also proven to be energy-stable under the proposed time step choice. Numerical examples are tested to demonstrate efficiency and robustness of the proposed method.

  14. Effect of the growth temperature and the AlN mole fraction on In incorporation and properties of quaternary III-nitride layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Garrido, S.; Pereiro, J.; Munoz, E.; Calleja, E.; Redondo-Cubero, A.; Gago, R.; Bertram, F.; Christen, J.; Luna, E.; Trampert, A.

    2008-01-01

    Indium incorporation into wurtzite (0001)-oriented In x Al y Ga 1-x-y N layers grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy was studied as a function of the growth temperature (565-635 deg. C) and the AlN mole fraction (0.01< y<0.27). The layer stoichiometry was determined by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). RBS shows that indium incorporation decreased continuously with increasing growth temperature due to thermally enhanced dissociation of In-N bonds and for increasing AlN mole fractions. High resolution x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements did not show evidence of phase separation. The mosaicity of the quaternary layers was found to be mainly determined by the growth temperature and independent on alloy composition within the range studied. However, depending on the AlN mole fraction, nanometer-sized composition fluctuations were detected by TEM. Photoluminescence spectra showed a single broad emission at room temperature, with energy and bandwidth S- and W-shaped temperature dependences typical of exciton localization by alloy inhomogeneities. Cathodoluminescence measurements demonstrated that the alloy inhomogeneities, responsible of exciton localization, occur on a lateral length scale below 150 nm, which is corroborated by TEM

  15. Low sulfide levels and a high degree of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) activation by S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) in the long-lived naked mole-rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziegelewska, Maja; Holtze, Susanne; Vole, Christiane; Wachter, Ulrich; Menzel, Uwe; Morhart, Michaela; Groth, Marco; Szafranski, Karol; Sahm, Arne; Sponholz, Christoph; Dammann, Philip; Huse, Klaus; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Platzer, Matthias

    2016-08-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gaseous signalling molecule involved in many physiological and pathological processes. There is increasing evidence that H2S is implicated in aging and lifespan control in the diet-induced longevity models. However, blood sulfide concentration of naturally long-lived species is not known. Here we measured blood sulfide in the long-lived naked mole-rat and five other mammalian species considerably differing in lifespan and found a negative correlation between blood sulfide and maximum longevity residual. In addition, we show that the naked mole-rat cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), an enzyme whose activity in the liver significantly contributes to systemic sulfide levels, has lower activity in the liver and is activated to a higher degree by S-adenosylmethionine compared to other species. These results add complexity to the understanding of the role of H2S in aging and call for detailed research on naked mole-rat transsulfuration. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Low sulfide levels and a high degree of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS activation by S-adenosylmethionine (SAM in the long-lived naked mole-rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Dziegelewska

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S is a gaseous signalling molecule involved in many physiological and pathological processes. There is increasing evidence that H2S is implicated in aging and lifespan control in the diet-induced longevity models. However, blood sulfide concentration of naturally long-lived species is not known. Here we measured blood sulfide in the long-lived naked mole-rat and five other mammalian species considerably differing in lifespan and found a negative correlation between blood sulfide and maximum longevity residual. In addition, we show that the naked mole-rat cystathionine β-synthase (CBS, an enzyme whose activity in the liver significantly contributes to systemic sulfide levels, has lower activity in the liver and is activated to a higher degree by S-adenosylmethionine compared to other species. These results add complexity to the understanding of the role of H2S in aging and call for detailed research on naked mole-rat transsulfuration.

  17. The effects of oxotremorine, epibatidine, atropine, mecamylamine and naloxone in the tail-flick, hot-plate, and formalin tests in the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulu, Thomas D; Kanui, Titus I; Towett, Philemon K; Maloiy, Geoffrey M; Abelson, Klas S P

    2014-01-01

    The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a promising animal model for the study of pain mechanisms, therefore a thorough characterization of this species is essential. The aim of the present study was to establish the naked mole-rat as a model for studying the cholinergic receptor system in antinociception by investigating the involvement of muscarinic, nicotinic and opioid receptors in nociceptive tests in this species. The effects of systemic administration of the muscarinic receptor agonist oxotremorine and the nicotinic receptor agonist epibatidine were investigated in the tail-flick, the hot-plate, and the formalin tests. The effects of co-administration of the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine, the nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine, and the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone were also investigated. Oxotremorine and epibatidine induced a significant, dose-dependent antinociceptive effect in the tail-flick, hot-plate, and formalin tests, respectively. The effects of oxotremorine and epibatidine were blocked by atropine and mecamylamine, respectively. In all three nociceptive tests, naloxone in combination with oxotremorine or epibatidine enhanced the antinociceptive effects of the drugs. The present study demonstrated that stimulation of muscarinic and nicotinic receptors produces antinociceptive effects in the naked-mole rat. The reversal effect of atropine and mecamylamine suggests that this effect is mediated by cholinergic receptors. As naloxone increases the antinociceptive effects of cholinergic agonists, it is suggested that the cholinergic antinociception acts via a gateway facilitated by opioid receptor blockage; however, the precise interaction between these receptor systems needs further investigation.

  18. A window into extreme longevity; the circulating metabolomic signature of the naked mole-rat, a mammal that shows negligible senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kaitlyn N; Rubinstein, Nimrod D; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2018-04-20

    Mouse-sized naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber), unlike other mammals, do not conform to Gompertzian laws of age-related mortality; adults show no age-related change in mortality risk. Moreover, we observe negligible hallmarks of aging with well-maintained physiological and molecular functions, commonly altered with age in other species. We questioned whether naked mole-rats, living an order of magnitude longer than laboratory mice, exhibit different plasma metabolite profiles, which could then highlight novel mechanisms or targets involved in disease and longevity. Using a comprehensive, unbiased metabolomics screen, we observe striking inter-species differences in amino acid, peptide, and lipid metabolites. Low circulating levels of specific amino acids, particularly those linked to the methionine pathway, resemble those observed during the fasting period at late torpor in hibernating ground squirrels and those seen in longer-lived methionine-restricted rats. These data also concur with metabolome reports on long-lived mutant mice, including the Ames dwarf mice and calorically restricted mice, as well as fruit flies, and even show similarities to circulating metabolite differences observed in young human adults when compared to older humans. During evolution, some of these beneficial nutrient/stress response pathways may have been positively selected in the naked mole-rat. These observations suggest that interventions that modify the aging metabolomic profile to a more youthful one may enable people to lead healthier and longer lives.

  19. Is Ki-67 of Diagnostic Value in Distinguishing Between Partial and Complete Hydatidiform Moles? A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yue; Xiong, Guang-Wu; Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Hang, B O

    2018-02-01

    To demonstrate the value of Ki-67 in distinguishing between partial and complete hydatidiform moles. We searched electronic databases included Medline, WOK, Cochrane Library and CNKI, through January 24, 2015. Experts were consulted, and references from related articles were examined. The meta-analysis was conducted with RevMan5.3, according to the PRISMA guidelines. Mantel-Haenszel estimates were calculated and pooled under a random effect model, with data expressed as odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). We analyzed eight trials with a total of 337 participants who underwent uterine curettage and met the inclusion criteria. A significantly higher expression of Ki-67 was observed in complete than in partial hydatidiform moles (OR=3.28; 95%CI=1.80-5.96; pvalue in distinguishing between partial and complete hydatidiform moles. However, the present study had only a limited number of samples, so investigation of a greater number of cases is needed to confirm this conclusion. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  20. Human chorionic gonadotrophin regression rate as a predictive factor of postmolar gestational trophoblastic neoplasm in high-risk hydatidiform mole: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bo Wook; Cho, Hanbyoul; Kim, Hyunki; Nam, Eun Ji; Kim, Sang Wun; Kim, Sunghoon; Kim, Young Tae; Kim, Jae-Hoon

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was early prediction of postmolar gestational trophoblastic neoplasm (GTN) after evacuation of high-risk mole, by comparison of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) regression rates. Fifty patients with a high-risk mole initially and spontaneously regressing after molar evacuation were selected from January 1, 1996 to May 31, 2010 (spontaneous regression group). Fifty patients with a high-risk mole initially and progressing to postmolar GTN after molar evacuation were selected (postmolar GTN group). hCG regression rates represented as hCG/initial hCG were compared between the two groups. The sensitivity and specificity of these rates for prediction of postmolar GTN were assessed using receiver operating characteristic curves. Multivariate analyses of associations between risk factors and postmolar GTN progression were performed. The mean regression rate of hCG between the two groups was compared. hCG regression rates represented as hCG/initial hCG (%) were 0.36% in the spontaneous regression group and 1.45% in the postmolar GTN group in the second week (p=0.003). Prediction of postmolar GTN by hCG regression rate revealed a sensitivity of 48.0% and specificity of 89.5% with a cut-off value of 0.716% and area under the curve (AUC) of 0.759 in the 2nd week (pfactor for postmolar GTN. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Body Mole Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... find any new or suspicious spots on your skin, or any spots that are changing, itching or bleeding, make an ... to you by the American Academy of Dermatology’s SPOT Skin Cancer ™ campaign, dedicated to a world without skin ...

  2. [Richard C. M. Mole: The Baltic states from the Soviet Union to the European Union. Identity, discourse and power in the post-communist transition of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania] / Karsten Brüggemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Mole, Richard C. M. The Baltic States from the Soviet Union to the European Union : identity, discourse and power in the post-communist transition of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. London ; New York : Routledge, 2012, 2013

  3. Effect of the Ti/B{sub 4}C mole ratio on the reaction products and reaction mechanism in an Al–Ti–B{sub 4}C powder mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jingjing [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Light Metal Division, Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon 642-831 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung-Moo, E-mail: jmoolee@kims.re.kr [Light Metal Division, Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon 642-831 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Young-Hee; Kim, Su-Hyeon [Light Metal Division, Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon 642-831 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Huashun [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2014-10-15

    The effect of the Ti/B{sub 4}C mole ratio on the fabrication behavior of Al composites is investigated using Al–Ti–B{sub 4}C powder mixtures as reactants. The quick spontaneous infiltration (QSI) process combined with the combustion reaction and DTA analysis were used. According to the thermodynamic predictions, which are verified in the experimental results, TiB{sub 2} is formed in all the samples whereas TiC is only formed in reactants with a Ti/B{sub 4}C mole ratio of more than two. The C atoms from the reacted B{sub 4}C do not move into TiC but instead they move into Al{sub 3}BC or Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} when the Ti/B{sub 4}C mole ratio is less than two. In addition, the reaction mechanism with a Ti/B{sub 4}C mole ratio of 0.75 is investigated extensively. - Highlights: • The critical role of the Ti/B{sub 4}C mole ratio on the reaction products of Al–Ti–B{sub 4}C was studied using experiments. • The experimental results are also supported by thermodynamic calculations presented in this paper. • The reaction mechanism with a Ti/B{sub 4}C mole ratio of 0.75 is investigated extensively.

  4. Effect of Al mole fraction on structural and electrical properties of AlxGa1-xN/GaN heterostructures grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, A. SH.; Hassan, Z.; Thahab, S.M.; Ng, S.S.; Hassan, H. Abu; Chin, C.W.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of Al mole fractions on the structural and electrical properties of Al x Ga 1-x N/GaN thin films grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PA-MBE) on Si (1 1 1) substrates has been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and current-voltage (I-V) measurements. X-ray results revealed that the AlGaN/GaN/AlN was epitaxially grown on Si substrate. By applying Vegard's law, the Al mole fractions of Al x Ga 1-x N samples were found to be 0.11, 0.24, 0.30 and 0.43, respectively. The structural and morphology results indicated that there is a relatively larger tensile strain for the sample with the smallest Al mole fraction; while a smaller compressive strain and larger grain size appear with Al mole fraction equal to 0.30. The strain gets relaxed with the highest Al mole fraction sample. Finally, the linear relationship between the barrier height and Al mole fraction was obtained.

  5. Frequência de mola hidatiforme em tecidos obtidos por curetagem uterina Frequency of hydatidiform mole in tissue obtained by curettage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Biscaro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a frequência de mola hidatiforme em tecidos obtidos por curetagem uterina. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, prospectivo e descritivo que incluiu pacientes submetidas à curetagem uterina por diagnóstico de aborto ou mola hidatiforme cujo material obtido foi encaminhado para exame anatomopatológico. Foram excluídas aquelas que não aceitaram participar da pesquisa, recusando-se a assinar o Termo de Consentimento Informado Livre e Esclarecido. Foram analisadas as seguintes variáveis: achados anatomopatológicos, idade, raça/cor, número de gestações e abortos prévios, idade gestacional no momento do diagnóstico, níveis séricos quantitativos da fração beta da gonadotrofina coriônica humana e achados ultrassonográficos. As variáveis foram empregadas para a verificação com o diagnóstico histológico, considerado o padrão-ouro. Os dados foram armazenados e analisados no software Microsoft Excel® e no programa Epi-Info, versão 6.0 (STATCALC e os resultados apresentados como frequência (porcentagem ou média±desvio padrão. Para a associação entre variáveis qualitativas foi usado o teste do χ², e admitiu-se significância estatística quando pPURPOSE: To determine the frequency of hydatiform mole in tissues obtained by curettage. METHODS: A cross-sectional, prospective and descriptive conducted on patients who underwent curretage due to a diagnosis of abortion or hydatiform mole whose material was sent for pathological examination. We excluded women who did not accept to participate and refused to sign the free informed consent form. We studied the following variables: pathological findings, age, race, number of pregnancies and previous abortions, gestational age at diagnosis, quantitative serum beta fraction of human chorionic gonadotropin and ultrasound findings. The data were compared to the to histological diagnosis, considered to be the gold standard. Data were stored and analyzed in Microsoft Excel

  6. Phase behaviour of pseudo-binary systems of pressurized ((propane + L,L-lactide)) at different ethanol to L,L-lactide mole ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, João P.; Tres, Marcus V.; Corazza, Marcos L.; Ferreira, Sandra R.S.; Oliveira, J. Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Phase equilibrium data of (propane + L,L-lactide) system at different ethanol to monomer mole ratios. • Static synthetic method from (323 to 353) K and pressures up to 3.3 MPa. • (Vapour + liquid) (VLE) was observed with bubble point (BP) type transitions. • Experimental modelled using the Peng–Robinson (PR) equation with the Wong–Sandler (PR–WS) rule. - Abstract: This work reports phase equilibrium data of pressurized (propane + L,L-lactide) system at different ethanol to monomer mole ratios (9:1; 7:1; 5:1). Phase equilibrium experiments were accomplished in a high-pressure variable-volume view cell employing the static synthetic method. (Vapour + liquid) equilibrium data for the pseudo-binary systems were determined within the temperature range from (323 to 353) K and pressures up to 3.3 MPa. For the systems investigated, (vapour + liquid) equilibrium (VLE) was visually recorded. It was observed that an increase in temperature or in propane concentration led to a pronounced rise in pressure transition values. On the other hand, an increase in the ethanol to L,L-lactide mole ratio led to a reduction in pressure transitions, whereas a reduction in ethanol concentration complicates the achievement of one-phase homogeneous system. Thus, rapid complete miscibility of the system can be controlled by the amount of ethanol added as a co-solvent. The experimental results were modelled using the Peng–Robinson (PR) equation of state with the Wong–Sandler (PR–WS) mixing rule, providing a good representation of the experimental phase transition points

  7. Structural Changes and Lack of HCN1 Channels in the Binaural Auditory Brainstem of the Naked Mole-Rat (Heterocephalus glaber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessele, Nikodemus; Garcia-Pino, Elisabet; Omerbašić, Damir; Park, Thomas J; Koch, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    Naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber) live in large eu-social, underground colonies in narrow burrows and are exposed to a large repertoire of communication signals but negligible binaural sound localization cues, such as interaural time and intensity differences. We therefore asked whether monaural and binaural auditory brainstem nuclei in the naked mole-rat are differentially adjusted to this acoustic environment. Using antibody stainings against excitatory and inhibitory presynaptic structures, namely the vesicular glutamate transporter VGluT1 and the glycine transporter GlyT2 we identified all major auditory brainstem nuclei except the superior paraolivary nucleus in these animals. Naked mole-rats possess a well structured medial superior olive, with a similar synaptic arrangement to interaural-time-difference encoding animals. The neighboring lateral superior olive, which analyzes interaural intensity differences, is large and elongated, whereas the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body, which provides the contralateral inhibitory input to these binaural nuclei, is reduced in size. In contrast, the cochlear nucleus, the nuclei of the lateral lemniscus and the inferior colliculus are not considerably different when compared to other rodent species. Most interestingly, binaural auditory brainstem nuclei lack the membrane-bound hyperpolarization-activated channel HCN1, a voltage-gated ion channel that greatly contributes to the fast integration times in binaural nuclei of the superior olivary complex in other species. This suggests substantially lengthened membrane time constants and thus prolonged temporal integration of inputs in binaural auditory brainstem neurons and might be linked to the severely degenerated sound localization abilities in these animals.

  8. Structural Changes and Lack of HCN1 Channels in the Binaural Auditory Brainstem of the Naked Mole-Rat (Heterocephalus glaber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikodemus Gessele

    Full Text Available Naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber live in large eu-social, underground colonies in narrow burrows and are exposed to a large repertoire of communication signals but negligible binaural sound localization cues, such as interaural time and intensity differences. We therefore asked whether monaural and binaural auditory brainstem nuclei in the naked mole-rat are differentially adjusted to this acoustic environment. Using antibody stainings against excitatory and inhibitory presynaptic structures, namely the vesicular glutamate transporter VGluT1 and the glycine transporter GlyT2 we identified all major auditory brainstem nuclei except the superior paraolivary nucleus in these animals. Naked mole-rats possess a well structured medial superior olive, with a similar synaptic arrangement to interaural-time-difference encoding animals. The neighboring lateral superior olive, which analyzes interaural intensity differences, is large and elongated, whereas the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body, which provides the contralateral inhibitory input to these binaural nuclei, is reduced in size. In contrast, the cochlear nucleus, the nuclei of the lateral lemniscus and the inferior colliculus are not considerably different when compared to other rodent species. Most interestingly, binaural auditory brainstem nuclei lack the membrane-bound hyperpolarization-activated channel HCN1, a voltage-gated ion channel that greatly contributes to the fast integration times in binaural nuclei of the superior olivary complex in other species. This suggests substantially lengthened membrane time constants and thus prolonged temporal integration of inputs in binaural auditory brainstem neurons and might be linked to the severely degenerated sound localization abilities in these animals.

  9. Morphogenetic Effects of Resettlement of Mole Voles (Ellobius talpinus Pall., 1770) from the Southern Population to the Northern Boundary of the Species Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil'ev, A G; Bol'shakov, V N; Vasil'eva, I A; Evdokimov, N G; Sineva, N V

    2018-01-01

    Geometric morphometry has been used to reveal transformations of mandible morphogenesis in the offspring of mole voles resettled to the northern part of the species range from a southern population. The transformations were new compared to both the original (southern) and the aboriginal (northern) populations. A significant increase in the intragroup morphological disparity estimated by the mean nearest neighbor distance (MNND) in the resettled animals compared to both aboriginal populations is an indirect indication of an increased developmental instability in the resettled animals exposed to new climatic conditions.

  10. Diagnostic reproducibility of hydatidiform moles: ancillary techniques (p57 immunohistochemistry and molecular genotyping) improve morphologic diagnosis for both recently trained and experienced gynecologic pathologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Mamta; Vang, Russell; Yemelyanova, Anna V; Kurman, Robert J; Li, Fanghong Rose; Maambo, Emily C; Murphy, Kathleen M; DeScipio, Cheryl; Thompson, Carol B; Ronnett, Brigitte M

    2012-12-01

    Distinction of hydatidiform moles from nonmolar specimens (NMs) and subclassification of hydatidiform moles as complete hydatidiform mole (CHM) and partial hydatidiform mole (PHM) are important for clinical practice and investigational studies; however, diagnosis based solely on morphology is affected by interobserver variability. Molecular genotyping can distinguish these entities by discerning androgenetic diploidy, diandric triploidy, and biparental diploidy to diagnose CHMs, PHMs, and NMs, respectively. Eighty genotyped cases (27 CHMs, 27 PHMs, 26 NMs) were selected from a series of 200 potentially molar specimens previously diagnosed using p57 immunohistochemistry and genotyping. Cases were classified by 6 pathologists (3 faculty level gynecologic pathologists and 3 fellows) on the basis of morphology, masked to p57 immunostaining and genotyping results, into 1 of 3 categories (CHM, PHM, or NM) during 2 diagnostic rounds; a third round incorporating p57 immunostaining results was also conducted. Consensus diagnoses (those rendered by 2 of 3 pathologists in each group) were also determined. Performance of experienced gynecologic pathologists versus fellow pathologists was compared, using genotyping results as the gold standard. Correct classification of CHMs ranged from 59% to 100%; there were no statistically significant differences in performance of faculty versus fellows in any round (P-values of 0.13, 0.67, and 0.54 for rounds 1 to 3, respectively). Correct classification of PHMs ranged from 26% to 93%, with statistically significantly better performance of faculty versus fellows in each round (P-values of 0.04, <0.01, and <0.01 for rounds 1 to 3, respectively). Correct classification of NMs ranged from 31% to 92%, with statistically significantly better performance of faculty only in round 2 (P-values of 1.0, <0.01, and 0.61 for rounds 1 to 3, respectively). Correct classification of all cases combined ranged from 51% to 75% by morphology and 70% to 80

  11. Reproduction is associated with a tissue-dependent reduction of oxidative stress in eusocial female Damaraland mole-rats (Fukomys damarensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M Schmidt

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress has been implicated as both a physiological cost of reproduction and a driving force on an animal's lifespan. Since increased reproductive effort is generally linked with a reduction in survival, it has been proposed that oxidative stress may influence this relationship. Support for this hypothesis is inconsistent, but this may, in part, be due to the type of tissues that have been analyzed. In Damaraland mole-rats the sole reproducing female in the colony is also the longest lived. Therefore, if oxidative stress does impact the trade-off between reproduction and survival in general, this species may possess some form of enhanced defense. We assessed this relationship by comparing markers of oxidative damage (malondialdehyde, MDA; protein carbonyls, PC and antioxidants (total antioxidant capacity, TAC; superoxide dismutase, SOD in various tissues including plasma, erythrocytes, heart, liver, kidney and skeletal muscle between wild-caught reproductive and non-reproductive female Damaraland mole-rats. Reproductive females exhibited significantly lower levels of PC across all tissues, and lower levels of MDA in heart, kidney and liver relative to non-reproductive females. Levels of TAC and SOD did not differ significantly according to reproductive state. The reduction in oxidative damage in breeding females may be attributable to the unusual social structure of this species, as similar relationships have been observed between reproductive and non-reproductive eusocial insects.

  12. Effects of KOH:ZnCl2 mole ratio on the phase formation, morphological and inhibitive properties of potassium zinc phosphate (PZP) pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askari, F.; Ghasemi, E.; Ramezanzadeh, B.; Mahdavian, M.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: This figure illustrates the inhibition mechanism. The film precipitation on the anodic and cathodic regions of the metal surface causes a drop in dissolution rate of steel. - Highlights: • We synthesized the ZP pigments via coprecipitation method. • Effect of KOH:ZnCl 2 on phase formation, morphology and inhibitive performance of pigment. • KOH:ZnCl 2 ratio is effective on phase formation and morphology of ZP pigments. • KZn 2 H(PO 4 ) 2 phase showed superior corrosion inhibition behavior than KZnPO 4 . - Abstract: Different types of potassium zinc phosphate (PZP) pigments were synthesized by a co-precipitation method. The PZPs were obtained through changing KOH:ZnCl 2 mole ratio. The chemical composition of the pigments was studied by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Then, the extracts of the PZPs were prepared in 3.5% (w/w) NaCl solution. The inhibitive performance of the pigments was investigated by polarization technique and SEM surface analysis through dipping mild steel panels in the pigment extracts for different immersion times. Results showed that changing ZnCl 2 /KOH mole ratio could influence formation of KZn 2 H(PO 4 ) 2 and KZnPO 4 phases. It was known that the KZn 2 H(PO 4 ) 2 phase has a superior corrosion inhibition behavior in 3.5% NaCl solution than KZnPO 4 phase

  13. How attractive is the girl next door? An assessment of spatial mate acquisition and paternity in the solitary Cape dune mole-rat, Bathyergus suillus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy C Bray

    Full Text Available Behavioural observations of reproduction and mate choice in wild fossorial rodents are extremely limited and consequently indirect methods are typically used to infer mating strategies. We use a combination of morphological, reproductive, spatial, and genetic data to investigate the reproductive strategy of a solitary endemic species, the Cape dune mole-rat Bathyergus suillus. These data provide the first account on the population dynamics of this species. Marked sexual dimorphism was apparent with males being both significantly larger and heavier than females. Of all females sampled 36% had previously reproduced and 12% were pregnant at the time of capture. Post-partum sex ratio was found to be significantly skewed in favour of females. The paternity of fifteen litters (n = 37 was calculated, with sires assigned to progeny using both categorical and full probability methods, and including a distance function. The maximum distance between progeny and a putative sire was determined as 2149 m with males moving between sub-populations. We suggest that above-ground movement should not be ignored in the consideration of mate acquisition behaviour of subterranean mammals. Estimated levels of multiple paternity were shown to be potentially as high as 26%, as determined using sibship and sire assignment methods. Such high levels of multiple paternity have not been found in other solitary mole-rat species. The data therefore suggest polyandry with no evidence as yet for polygyny.

  14. Familial Melanoma Associated with Li-Fraumeni Syndrome and Atypical Mole Syndrome: Total-body Digital Photography, Dermoscopy and Confocal Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giavedoni, Priscila; Ririe, Marnie; Carrera, Cristina; Puig, Susana; Malvehy, Josep

    2017-06-09

    Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder caused by a mutation in the p53 gene. Melanoma is considered to be a rare, controversial component of LFS. The aim of this study is to describe the utility of systematic screening for melanoma in patients with LFS and atypical mole syndrome. Two 28-year-old identical twin sisters with LFS and atypical moles were monitored by physical examination, total-body digital photography and dermoscopy be-tween 2006 and 2014. A total of 117, predominantly dark-brown, reticular naevi were identified on case 1 and 105 on case 2. Excisions were performed during the evaluation period of 1 in-situ melanoma and 3 basal cell carcinomas in case 1, and 1 in-situ melanoma and 1 early invasive melanoma in case 2. The remaining melanocytic lesions in both patients were stable during follow-up. The 3 melanomas were new atypical lesions detected with total-body photography and dermoscopy. In conclusion, monitoring LFS patients with total-body photography and dermoscopy may be useful to detect early melanoma.

  15. Gestação gemelar de mola hidatiforme completa com feto vivo Twin pregnancy with complete hydatidiform mole and living fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Angerame Yela

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A gestação gemelar de uma mola hidatiforme completa coexistindo com um feto vivo é uma entidade rara. Os poucos casos descritos na literatura mostram que, em geral, esse tipo de gestação cursa com risco aumentado de aborto espontâneo, parto prematuro, morte fetal intraútero, sangramento, pré-eclâmpsia e doença trofoblástica persistente. Neste artigo, descreveremos o caso de uma primigesta de 20 anos de idade que apresentou uma gestação gemelar de feto vivo com mola completa, a qual transcorreu sem intercorrências e complicações e cujo diagnóstico diferencial com degeneração da placenta foi feito com anatomopatológico.Twin pregnancy with a complete hydatidiform mole and a living fetus is a rare entity. According to the few cases described in the literature, this kind of gestation commonly has higher risks of miscarriage, preterm delivery, intrauterine fetal death, bleeding, preeclampsia and persistent trophoblastic disease. This study reports the case of a 20 years old primiparous patient with complete hydatidiform mole and living fetus, whose pregnancy was successfully carried to term. The differential diagnosis with placental degeneration was reached through anatomopathological investigation.

  16. Effect of Cu{sup 2+}/Al{sup 3+} mole ratio on structure of Cu-Al bimetallic nanoparticles prepared by radiation induced method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abedini, Alam; Larki, Farhad; Saion, Elias; Noroozi, Monir [Putra Malaysia Univ., Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia). Dept. of Physics

    2013-07-15

    Cu-Al bimetallic nanoparticles were synthesized by gamma irradiation technique in aqueous solutions containing metal chlorides as precursors, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a capping agent, isopropanol as a radical scavenger, and distilled water as a solvent. The Cu-Al bimetallic nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-visible absorption spectrometry, powder X-ray diffractometer (XRD), and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The TEM, XRD, EDX, and absorption analyses confirmed the formation of core-shell structure of Cu-Al bimetallic nanoparticles at lower Cu{sup 2+}/Al{sup 3+} mole ratio, and the formation of Cu-Al alloy nanoparticles at higher Cu{sup 2+}/Al{sup 3+} mole ratio. The TEM analysis for particle size and size distribution revealed that the average particle size of Cu-Al bimetallic nanoparticles decreased with the increase of absorbed dose. It may be explained due to the competition between nucleation and aggregation processes in the formation of metallic nanoparticles under irradiation. (orig.)

  17. Development of Mole Concept Module Based on Structured Inquiry with Interconection of Macro, Submicro, and Symbolic Representation for Grade X of Senior High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagita, R.; Azra, F.; Azhar, M.

    2018-04-01

    The research has created the module of mole concept based on structured inquiry with interconection of macro, submicro, and symbolic representation and determined the validity and practicality of the module. The research type was Research and Development (R&D). The development model was 4-D models that consist of four steps: define, design, develop, and disseminate. The research was limited on develop step. The instrument of the research was questionnaire form that consist of validity and practicality sheets. The module was validated by 5 validators. Practicality module was tested by 2 chemistry teachers and 28 students of grade XI MIA 5 at SMAN 4 of Padang. Validity and practicality data were analysed by using the kappa Cohen formula. The moment kappa average of 5 validators was 0,95 with highest validity category. The moment kappa average of teachers and students were 0,89 and 0,91 praticality with high category. The result of the research showed that the module of mole concept based on structured inquiry with interconection of macro, submicro, and symbolic representation was valid and practice to be used on the learning chemistry.

  18. Antimicrobial Activity of Extracts from Leaves, Stems and Flowers of Euphorbia macroclada against plant pathogenic fungi

    OpenAIRE

    K. Al-Mughrabi

    2003-01-01

    Extracts drawn from dried and powdered flowers, stems and leaves of Euphorbia macroclada with some organic solvents were tested for antimicrobial effect against the fungi Verticillium dahliae, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizopus stolonifer, Penicillium italicum, Rhizoctonia solani, Alternaria solani, Stemphylium solani, Cladosporium sp., Mucor sp., and Pythium sp. The strongest inhibitory effect of the extracts was observed against R. solani, V. dahliae, F. oxysporum, Pythium sp. and R. ...

  19. Modern methods in cereal grain mycology

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Johan

    2000-01-01

    A simple rapid DNA extraction method, equally suitable for spores and mycelia is proposed. Heating samples in NaOH and SDS provides DNA of high purity, suitable for Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) analysis. For Penicillium roqueforti the detection limit was 6 x lo3 conidia and 1 mg (fresh weight) mycelium in the extraction liquid. The method proved efficient with Aspergillus jlavus, Fusarium graminearum, Rhizopus stolonifer, Eurotium herbariorum, and Cladosporium herbarum, as well. An optimis...

  20. Effect of extracellular calcium chloride on sporangiospore-yeast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To examine this model further, this study evaluated the ability of sporangiospores of Rhizopus stolonifer to undergo morphogenetic transformation in the presence of different levels of extracellular calcium (0.0, 0.20, 0.25, 0.50, 1.0, 1.5 and 1.8 mM). It was found that calcium supported yeast induction and proliferation to ...

  1. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of serum IL-2, SIL-2R levels, B lymphocyte number and T-cell subsets after chemotherapy in patients with malignant hydatidiform mole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guangcai

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of changes of serum IL-2, SIL-2R level, peripheral blood B lymphocyte number and T-cell subsets after chemotherapy in patients with malignant hydatidiform mole. Methods: Serum IL-2 ( with RIA), SIL-2R level (with ELISA) and peripheral blood B lymphocytes number as well as T subsets (with monoclonal antibody technique) were measured both before and after chemotherapy in 32 patients with malignant hydatidiform mole as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before chemotherapy serum SIL-2R level and B lymphocyte were significantly higher in the patients than those in controls (P<0.01), while the serum IL-2 level, CD3, CD4, CD4/CD8 were significantly lower (P<0.01). Six months after chemotherapy the levels changed markedly toward normal, but remained significantly different from those in controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: Abnormal immuno-regulation were present in patients with malignant mole. (authors)

  2. Quantification of urban atmospheric boundary layer greenhouse gas dry mole fraction enhancements in the dormant season: Results from the Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha L. Miles

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We assess the detectability of city emissions via a tower-based greenhouse gas (GHG network, as part of the Indianapolis Flux (INFLUX experiment. By examining afternoon-averaged results from a network of carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4, and carbon monoxide (CO mole fraction measurements in Indianapolis, Indiana for 2011–2013, we quantify spatial and temporal patterns in urban atmospheric GHG dry mole fractions. The platform for these measurements is twelve communications towers spread across the metropolitan region, ranging in height from 39 to 136 m above ground level, and instrumented with cavity ring-down spectrometers. Nine of the sites were deployed as of January 2013 and data from these sites are the focus of this paper. A background site, chosen such that it is on the predominantly upwind side of the city, is utilized to quantify enhancements caused by urban emissions. Afternoon averaged mole fractions are studied because this is the time of day during which the height of the boundary layer is most steady in time and the area that influences the tower measurements is likely to be largest. Additionally, atmospheric transport models have better performance in simulating the daytime convective boundary layer compared to the nighttime boundary layer. Averaged from January through April of 2013, the mean urban dormant-season enhancements range from 0.3 ppm CO2 at the site 24 km typically downwind of the edge of the city (Site 09 to 1.4 ppm at the site at the downwind edge of the city (Site 02 to 2.9 ppm at the downtown site (Site 03. When the wind is aligned such that the sites are downwind of the urban area, the enhancements are increased, to 1.6 ppm at Site 09, and 3.3 ppm at Site 02. Differences in sampling height affect the reported urban enhancement by up to 50%, but the overall spatial pattern remains similar. The time interval over which the afternoon data are averaged alters the calculated urban enhancement by an average of 0.4 ppm

  3. Reaching Out to Send a Message: Proteins Associated with Neurite Outgrowth and Neurotransmission are Altered with Age in the Long-Lived Naked Mole-Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triplett, Judy C; Swomley, Aaron M; Kirk, Jessime; Grimes, Kelly M; Lewis, Kaitilyn N; Orr, Miranda E; Rodriguez, Karl A; Cai, Jian; Klein, Jon B; Buffenstein, Rochelle; Butterfield, D Allan

    2016-07-01

    Aging is the greatest risk factor for developing neurodegenerative diseases, which are associated with diminished neurotransmission as well as neuronal structure and function. However, several traits seemingly evolved to avert or delay age-related deterioration in the brain of the longest-lived rodent, the naked mole-rat (NMR). The NMR remarkably also exhibits negligible senescence, maintaining an extended healthspan for ~75 % of its life span. Using a proteomic approach, statistically significant changes with age in expression and/or phosphorylation levels of proteins associated with neurite outgrowth and neurotransmission were identified in the brain of the NMR and include: cofilin-1; collapsin response mediator protein 2; actin depolymerizing factor; spectrin alpha chain; septin-7; syntaxin-binding protein 1; synapsin-2 isoform IIB; and dynamin 1. We hypothesize that such changes may contribute to the extended lifespan and healthspan of the NMR.

  4. Correlation analysis of reactivity in the oxidation of methionine by benzimidazolium fluorochromate in different mole fractions of acetic acid–water mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sheik Mansoor

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of oxidation of methionine (Met by benzimidazolium fluorochromate (BIFC has been studied in the presence of chloroacetic acid. The reaction is first order with respect to methionine, BIFC and acid. The reaction rate has been determined at different temperatures and activation parameters calculated. With an increase in the mole fraction of acetic acid in its aqueous mixture, the rate increases. The solvent effect has been analyzed using the Kamlet’s multi parametric equation. A correlation of data with the Kamlet–Taft solvatochromic parameters (α, β, π∗ suggests that the specific solute–solvent interactions play a major role in governing the reactivity. The reaction does not induce polymerization of acrylonitrile. A suitable mechanism has been proposed.

  5. Avaliação das alterações em tecidos moles e duros de pacientes submetidos à cirurgia ortognática combinada utilizando cefalometria computadorizada

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Otávio Emmel

    2012-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Avaliar as diferenças e verificar a correlação existente entre pontos de tecido mole e pontos de tecido duro do perfil facial e entre medidas em vias aéreas faríngeas e os movimentos nos ossos gnáticos, nos períodos pré operatório e pós operatórios, a curto e médio prazo, em pacientes com padrão facial Classe III, submetidos à cirurgia ortognática (CO) bimaxilar (combinada-avanço de maxila e recuo de mandíbula).MATERIAL E METODOS: Tele radiografias pré-operatórias (T1), pós-operatór...

  6. Assessing Animal Welfare Impacts in the Management of European Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), European Moles (Talpa europaea) and Carrion Crows (Corvus corone)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Sandra E.; Sharp, Trudy M.; Macdonald, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Human-wildlife conflict is a global issue. Attempts to manage this conflict impact upon wild animal welfare, an issue receiving little attention until relatively recently. Where human activities harm animal welfare these effects should be minimised where possible. However, little is known about the welfare impacts of different wildlife management interventions, and opinions on impacts vary widely. Welfare impacts therefore need to be assessed objectively. Our objectives were to: 1) establish whether an existing welfare assessment model could differentiate and rank the impacts of different wildlife management interventions (for decision-making purposes); 2) identify and evaluate any additional benefits of making formal welfare assessments; and 3) illustrate issues raised by application of the model. We applied the welfare assessment model to interventions commonly used with rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), moles (Talpa europaea) and crows (Corvus corone) in the UK. The model ranked interventions for rabbits (least impact first: fencing, head shot, chest shot) and crows (shooting, scaring, live trapping with cervical dislocation). For moles, managing molehills and tunnels scored least impact. Both spring trapping, and live trapping followed by translocation, scored greater impacts, but these could not be compared directly as they scored on different axes of the model. Some rankings appeared counter-intuitive, highlighting the need for objective formal welfare assessments. As well as ranking the humaneness of interventions, the model highlighted future research needs and how Standard Operating Procedures might be improved. The model is a milestone in assessing wildlife management welfare impacts, but our research revealed some limitations of the model and we discuss likely challenges in resolving these. In future, the model might be developed to improve its utility, e.g. by refining the time-scales. It might also be used to reach consensus among stakeholders about

  7. Assessing Animal Welfare Impacts in the Management of European Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), European Moles (Talpa europaea) and Carrion Crows (Corvus corone).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Sandra E; Sharp, Trudy M; Macdonald, David W

    2016-01-01

    Human-wildlife conflict is a global issue. Attempts to manage this conflict impact upon wild animal welfare, an issue receiving little attention until relatively recently. Where human activities harm animal welfare these effects should be minimised where possible. However, little is known about the welfare impacts of different wildlife management interventions, and opinions on impacts vary widely. Welfare impacts therefore need to be assessed objectively. Our objectives were to: 1) establish whether an existing welfare assessment model could differentiate and rank the impacts of different wildlife management interventions (for decision-making purposes); 2) identify and evaluate any additional benefits of making formal welfare assessments; and 3) illustrate issues raised by application of the model. We applied the welfare assessment model to interventions commonly used with rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), moles (Talpa europaea) and crows (Corvus corone) in the UK. The model ranked interventions for rabbits (least impact first: fencing, head shot, chest shot) and crows (shooting, scaring, live trapping with cervical dislocation). For moles, managing molehills and tunnels scored least impact. Both spring trapping, and live trapping followed by translocation, scored greater impacts, but these could not be compared directly as they scored on different axes of the model. Some rankings appeared counter-intuitive, highlighting the need for objective formal welfare assessments. As well as ranking the humaneness of interventions, the model highlighted future research needs and how Standard Operating Procedures might be improved. The model is a milestone in assessing wildlife management welfare impacts, but our research revealed some limitations of the model and we discuss likely challenges in resolving these. In future, the model might be developed to improve its utility, e.g. by refining the time-scales. It might also be used to reach consensus among stakeholders about

  8. Extended postnatal brain development in the longest-lived rodent: prolonged maintenance of neotenous traits in the naked mole-rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda E. Orr

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The naked mole-rat (NMR is the longest-lived rodent with a maximum lifespan >31 years. Intriguingly, fully-grown naked mole-rats (NMRs exhibit many traits typical of neonatal rodents. However, little is known about NMR growth and maturation, and we question whether sustained neotenous features when compared to mice, reflect an extended developmental period, commensurate with their exceptionally long life. We tracked development from birth to three years of age in the slowest maturing organ, the brain, by measuring mass, neural stem cell proliferation, axonal and dendritic maturation, synaptogenesis and myelination. NMR brain maturation was compared to data from similar sized rodents, mice, and to that of long-lived mammals, humans and non-human primates. We found that at birth, NMR brains are significantly more developed than mice, and rather are more similar to those of newborn primates, with clearly laminated hippocampi and myelinated white matter tracts. Despite this more mature brain at birth than mice, postnatal NMR brain maturation occurs at a far slower rate than mice, taking four-times longer than required for mice to fully complete brain development. At four months of age, NMR brains reach 90% of adult size with stable neuronal cytostructural protein expression whereas myelin protein expression does not plateau until nine months of age in NMRs, and synaptic protein expression continues to change throughout the first three years of life. Intriguingly, NMR axonal composition is more similar to humans than mice whereby NMRs maintain expression of three-repeat (3R tau even after brain growth is complete; mice experience an abrupt downregulation of 3R tau by postnatal day 8 which continues to diminish through six weeks of age. We have identified key ages in NMR cerebral development and suggest that the long-lived NMR may provide neurobiologists an exceptional model to study brain developmental processes that are compressed in common short

  9. Karyotypic evolution and organization of the highly repetitive DNA sequences in the Japanese shrew-moles, Dymecodon pilirostris and Urotrichus talpoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, A; Yoshimura, A; Kuro-o, M; Obara, Y

    2005-01-01

    The karyological relationship and organization of highly repetitive DNA sequences in Japanese shrew-moles were studied by zoo-blot hybridization and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). When the genomic DNA of the eastern race of Urotrichus talpoides was digested with PstI, three fragments of highly repetitive DNA sequences, approximately 0.7, 0.9, and 1.4 kb in length, were observed as distinct bands. The results of FISH in the eastern race of U. talpoides using these three fragments separately as probes showed that the 0.7-kb PstI fragment was distributed in the centromeric regions of most chromosomes, and that the 0.9- and 1.4-kb fragments were predominantly located in the C-heterochromatin region of chromosome 13p. Although the western race of U. talpoides also had three PstI fragments, 0.9- and 1.4-kb PstI fragments were more ambiguous than those of the eastern race. The PstI- digested genomic DNA in Dymecodonpilirostris produced only a faint 0.9-kb band, and its signal patterns obtained by zoo-blot hybridization were clearly different from those of U. talpoides. The 0.7-kb fragment of U. talpoides hybridized strongly with the 0.9-kb fragment of D. pilirostris. In a FISH analysis, the 0.9-kb fragment of D. pilirostris hybridized with highly repetitive DNA in the centromeric regions of most chromosomes from both D. pilirostris and U. talpoides. Zoo-blot hybridization and FISH analyses suggest that the 0.9- and 1.4-kb PstI fragments were generated specifically in the genome of U. talpoides after the common ancestor differentiated into two extant shrew-mole species. A difference in the length of the centromeric elements between U. talpoides and D. pilirostris might be observed due to certain modifications of the repeating unit.

  10. Assessing Animal Welfare Impacts in the Management of European Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus, European Moles (Talpa europaea and Carrion Crows (Corvus corone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra E Baker

    Full Text Available Human-wildlife conflict is a global issue. Attempts to manage this conflict impact upon wild animal welfare, an issue receiving little attention until relatively recently. Where human activities harm animal welfare these effects should be minimised where possible. However, little is known about the welfare impacts of different wildlife management interventions, and opinions on impacts vary widely. Welfare impacts therefore need to be assessed objectively. Our objectives were to: 1 establish whether an existing welfare assessment model could differentiate and rank the impacts of different wildlife management interventions (for decision-making purposes; 2 identify and evaluate any additional benefits of making formal welfare assessments; and 3 illustrate issues raised by application of the model. We applied the welfare assessment model to interventions commonly used with rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus, moles (Talpa europaea and crows (Corvus corone in the UK. The model ranked interventions for rabbits (least impact first: fencing, head shot, chest shot and crows (shooting, scaring, live trapping with cervical dislocation. For moles, managing molehills and tunnels scored least impact. Both spring trapping, and live trapping followed by translocation, scored greater impacts, but these could not be compared directly as they scored on different axes of the model. Some rankings appeared counter-intuitive, highlighting the need for objective formal welfare assessments. As well as ranking the humaneness of interventions, the model highlighted future research needs and how Standard Operating Procedures might be improved. The model is a milestone in assessing wildlife management welfare impacts, but our research revealed some limitations of the model and we discuss likely challenges in resolving these. In future, the model might be developed to improve its utility, e.g. by refining the time-scales. It might also be used to reach consensus among

  11. Extended Postnatal Brain Development in the Longest-Lived Rodent: Prolonged Maintenance of Neotenous Traits in the Naked Mole-Rat Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Miranda E; Garbarino, Valentina R; Salinas, Angelica; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2016-01-01

    The naked mole-rat (NMR) is the longest-lived rodent with a maximum lifespan >31 years. Intriguingly, fully-grown naked mole-rats (NMRs) exhibit many traits typical of neonatal rodents. However, little is known about NMR growth and maturation, and we question whether sustained neotenous features when compared to mice, reflect an extended developmental period, commensurate with their exceptionally long life. We tracked development from birth to 3 years of age in the slowest maturing organ, the brain, by measuring mass, neural stem cell proliferation, axonal, and dendritic maturation, synaptogenesis and myelination. NMR brain maturation was compared to data from similar sized rodents, mice, and to that of long-lived mammals, humans, and non-human primates. We found that at birth, NMR brains are significantly more developed than mice, and rather are more similar to those of newborn primates, with clearly laminated hippocampi and myelinated white matter tracts. Despite this more mature brain at birth than mice, postnatal NMR brain maturation occurs at a far slower rate than mice, taking four-times longer than required for mice to fully complete brain development. At 4 months of age, NMR brains reach 90% of adult size with stable neuronal cytostructural protein expression whereas myelin protein expression does not plateau until 9 months of age in NMRs, and synaptic protein expression continues to change throughout the first 3 years of life. Intriguingly, NMR axonal composition is more similar to humans than mice whereby NMRs maintain expression of three-repeat (3R) tau even after brain growth is complete; mice experience an abrupt downregulation of 3R tau by postnatal day 8 which continues to diminish through 6 weeks of age. We have identified key ages in NMR cerebral development and suggest that the long-lived NMR may provide neurobiologists an exceptional model to study brain developmental processes that are compressed in common short-lived laboratory animal models.

  12. Effects of KOH:ZnCl{sub 2} mole ratio on the phase formation, morphological and inhibitive properties of potassium zinc phosphate (PZP) pigments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Askari, F. [Inorganic Pigment and Glazes Department, Institute for Color Science and Technology, Tehran 1668814811 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Surface Coatings and Corrosion Department, Institute for Color Science and Technology, Tehran 1668814811 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghasemi, E., E-mail: eghasemi@iust.ac.ir [Inorganic Pigment and Glazes Department, Institute for Color Science and Technology, Tehran 1668814811 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ramezanzadeh, B.; Mahdavian, M. [Surface Coatings and Corrosion Department, Institute for Color Science and Technology, Tehran 1668814811 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Graphical abstract: This figure illustrates the inhibition mechanism. The film precipitation on the anodic and cathodic regions of the metal surface causes a drop in dissolution rate of steel. - Highlights: • We synthesized the ZP pigments via coprecipitation method. • Effect of KOH:ZnCl{sub 2} on phase formation, morphology and inhibitive performance of pigment. • KOH:ZnCl{sub 2} ratio is effective on phase formation and morphology of ZP pigments. • KZn{sub 2}H(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} phase showed superior corrosion inhibition behavior than KZnPO{sub 4}. - Abstract: Different types of potassium zinc phosphate (PZP) pigments were synthesized by a co-precipitation method. The PZPs were obtained through changing KOH:ZnCl{sub 2} mole ratio. The chemical composition of the pigments was studied by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Then, the extracts of the PZPs were prepared in 3.5% (w/w) NaCl solution. The inhibitive performance of the pigments was investigated by polarization technique and SEM surface analysis through dipping mild steel panels in the pigment extracts for different immersion times. Results showed that changing ZnCl{sub 2}/KOH mole ratio could influence formation of KZn{sub 2}H(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} and KZnPO{sub 4} phases. It was known that the KZn{sub 2}H(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} phase has a superior corrosion inhibition behavior in 3.5% NaCl solution than KZnPO{sub 4} phase.

  13. [Variability of Cytochrome b Gene and Adjacent Section of Gene tRNA-Thr of Mitochondrial DNA in the Northern Mole Vole Ellobius talpinus (Mammalia, Rodentia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, A S; Lebedev, V S; Zykov, A E; Bakloushinskaya, I Yu

    2015-12-01

    The Northern mole vole E. talpinus, despite its wide distribution, is characterized by a stable karyotype (2n = NF = 54) and slight morphological polymorphism. We made a preliminary analysis of a mitochondrial DNA fragment to clarify the level of genetic variation and differentiation of E. talpinus. the complete cytochrome b gene (cyt b, 1143 bp) and a short part of its flanking gene tRNA-Thr (27 bp) were sequenced. We studied 16 specimens from eight localities, including Crimea, the Volga region, the Trans-Volga region, the Southern Urals, Western Siberia, and Eastern Turkmenistan. Mitotypes of E. talpinus were distributed on a ML dendrogram as four distinct clusters: the first (I) contains specimens from the Crimea, the second (II) combines individuals from the Volgograd region and the left bank of the Don River, the third (III) includes those from the Trans-Volga region, Southern Urals, the left bank of the Irtysh River, and Eastern Turkmenistan; the fourth (IV) are those from the right bank of the Irtysh River. These clusters were relatively distant from each other: the mean genetic distances (D) between them are 0.021-0.051. The Eastern mole vole E. tancrei differed from E. talpinus population groups 1.5-2 times more (D = 0.077-0.084) than the latter did among themselves. Such variations indirectly proved the unity of E. talpinus, despite its high intraspecific differentiation for the studied fragment of mitochondrial DNA. This differentiation apparently occurred because of the long isolation of E. talpinus population groups, which was due to geographic barriers, in particular, the large rivers that completely separate the species range meridionally (the Volga River, the Irtysh River). Sociality and underground lifestyle could accelerate the fixation of mutations in disjunct populations. The composition and distribution of intraspecific groups of E. talpinus, which were identified in analysis of the mitochondrial DNA fragment, do not coincide with the

  14. A low-fluorine solution with a 2:1 F/Ba mole ratio for the fabrication of YBCO films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Wei; Feng, Feng; Yue, Zhao

    2014-01-01

    must be at least 2 for full conversion of the Ba-precursor to BaF2 to avoid the formation of BaCO3, which is detrimental to the superconducting performance of YBCO films. In this study, a solution with a 2:1 F/Ba mole ratio was developed, and the fluorine content of this solution was approximately only...... 10.3% of that used in the conventional TFA-MOD method. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform-infrared spectra (ATR-FT-IR) revealed that BaCO3 was remarkably suppressed in the as-pyrolyzed film—and eliminated at 700 °C. Thus, YBCO films with a critical current density (Jc) of over 5 MA cm−2...... (77 K, 0 T, 200 nm thickness) could be obtained on lanthanum aluminate single-crystal substrates. In situ FT-IR spectra showed that no obvious fluorinated gaseous by-products were detected in the pyrolysis step, which indicated that all F atoms might remain in the film as fluorides. X-ray diffraction...

  15. Biomonitoring of the genotoxic effects and oxidative potentials of commercial edible dung beetles (Onitis sp.), grasshopper (Caelifera sp.) and mole crickets (Gryllotalpa sp.) in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Kubra; Incekara, Umit; Turkez, Hasan

    2014-09-01

    In this investigation, the genotoxic and oxidative effects of water soluble extracts of dung beetles, flying grasshopper and mole crickets have been assessed on cultured human blood cells. The extracts were added to the culture tubes at 12 different concentrations (0-2000 ppm). Micronucleus test was used to monitor the DNA and the chromosomal damage produced by aqueous extracts in vitro. In addition, to assess the oxidative effects, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidant status (TOS) levels were also measured. Our results indicated that these extracts did not show genotoxic effects at the tested concentrations. However, the extracts caused dose-dependent alterations in both TAC and TOS levels. Based on the findings, it was concluded that the studied insects can be consumed safely, but it is necessary to consider the cellular damages which are likely to appear depending on oxidative stress at higher concentrations. It has also been suggested that this in vitro approach for oxidative and genotoxicity assessments may be useful to evaluate the potential health risks of edible insects. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Amyloid beta and the longest-lived rodent: the naked mole-rat as a model for natural protection from Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edrey, Yael H; Medina, David X; Gaczynska, Maria; Osmulski, Pawel A; Oddo, Salvatore; Caccamo, Antonella; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2013-10-01

    Amyloid beta (Aβ) is implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) as an integral component of both neural toxicity and plaque formation. Brains of the longest-lived rodents, naked mole-rats (NMRs) approximately 32 years of age, had levels of Aβ similar to those of the 3xTg-AD mouse model of AD. Interestingly, there was no evidence of extracellular plaques, nor was there an age-related increase in Aβ levels in the individuals examined (2-20+ years). The NMR Aβ peptide showed greater homology to the human sequence than to the mouse sequence, differing by only 1 amino acid from the former. This subtle difference led to interspecies differences in aggregation propensity but not neurotoxicity; NMR Aβ was less prone to aggregation than human Aβ. Nevertheless, both NMR and human Aβ were equally toxic to mouse hippocampal neurons, suggesting that Aβ neurotoxicity and aggregation properties were not coupled. Understanding how NMRs acquire and tolerate high levels of Aβ with no plaque formation could provide useful insights into AD, and may elucidate protective mechanisms that delay AD progression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Mola hidatiforme en un embarazo ectópico. Presentación de un caso Hydatid mole in an ectopic pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Díaz Noda

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available La Mola Hidatiforme se caracteriza por la presencia de anormalidades de las vellosidades coriónicas que consisten en grados variables de proliferación trofoblásticas y de edema del estroma de las vellosidades.Su incidencia varia de manera importante en las diversas regiones del mundo, no ocurriendo así con el embarazo ectópico que ha tenido un aumento significativo en todo el planeta. Pero la asociación de estas dos entidades es muy rara. Presentamos un caso de 35 años de edad donde observamos esta rara asociación, en el que se realizó salpingectomia derecha con evolución favorable.The Hydatiform mole is characterized by the presence of abnormalities of chorionic vellus which consist of variables degrees of trophoblastic proliferation and edema of the vellus stroma. Its incidence varies very importantly in the varuopus regions all over the world, which is not the same for the ectopic pregnancy that has increased significantly around the globe. The association between these two entities is uncommon. We presented a case with a 35 year - old person and observed this uncommon association, and performed a right salpingectomy with favorable progress.

  18. Common Moles, Atypical Moles (Dysplastic Nevi), and Risk of Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data Conducting Clinical Trials Statistical Tools and Data Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog Cryo-EM NCI's Role ... freckles have an increased chance of melanoma. Certain medical conditions or medicines : Medical conditions or medicines (such ...

  19. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy-based tomography system for on-line monitoring of two-dimensional distributions of temperature and H{sub 2}O mole fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Lijun, E-mail: lijunxu@buaa.edu.cn; Liu, Chang; Jing, Wenyang; Cao, Zhang [School of Instrument Science and Opto-Electronic Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Ministry of Education’s Key Laboratory of Precision Opto-Mechatronics Technology, Beijing 100191 (China); Xue, Xin; Lin, Yuzhen [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2016-01-15

    To monitor two-dimensional (2D) distributions of temperature and H{sub 2}O mole fraction, an on-line tomography system based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) was developed. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report on a multi-view TDLAS-based system for simultaneous tomographic visualization of temperature and H{sub 2}O mole fraction in real time. The system consists of two distributed feedback (DFB) laser diodes, a tomographic sensor, electronic circuits, and a computer. The central frequencies of the two DFB laser diodes are at 7444.36 cm{sup −1} (1343.3 nm) and 7185.6 cm{sup −1} (1391.67 nm), respectively. The tomographic sensor is used to generate fan-beam illumination from five views and to produce 60 ray measurements. The electronic circuits not only provide stable temperature and precise current controlling signals for the laser diodes but also can accurately sample the transmitted laser intensities and extract integrated absorbances in real time. Finally, the integrated absorbances are transferred to the computer, in which the 2D distributions of temperature and H{sub 2}O mole fraction are reconstructed by using a modified Landweber algorithm. In the experiments, the TDLAS-based tomography system was validated by using asymmetric premixed flames with fixed and time-varying equivalent ratios, respectively. The results demonstrate that the system is able to reconstruct the profiles of the 2D distributions of temperature and H{sub 2}O mole fraction of the flame and effectively capture the dynamics of the combustion process, which exhibits good potential for flame monitoring and on-line combustion diagnosis.

  20. High specific activity N-Acetyl-3{sup H}-{alpha}-Aspartyl- L-Glutamic at micro mole scale; Sintesis de N-Acetil-3{sup H}- {alpha} -Aspartil-Glutamico a escala de Micromoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, C

    1984-07-01

    High specific activity N-Acetyl-3{sup H}- {alpha} -Aspartyl-I-Glutamic acid at micro mole scale in prepared acetylating L- {alpha} -Aspartyl-L-glutamic with 3{sup H}-acetic anhydride in re distilled toluene. The product le purified through cationic and anionic columns. The radiochemical purity as determined by thin-layer chromatography is greater then 99% at the time preparation. (Author) 5 refs.

  1. Ciências Humanas e Sociais: ciências moles? A propósito do trabalho científico nesta contemporaneidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Adélia Aparecida de Souza

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Este ensaio busca atender uma velha e interminável discussão sobre uma questão que longe de ser científica é, sobretudo, política, qual seja a classificação das ciências. A Geografia tem oscilado nessas classificações: ora é uma ciência humana, social, ora é uma ciência da natureza. Este estímulo é o motivo principal da realização deste ensaio que, inspirado em uma interessante reflexão de Abraham Moles, prêmio Nobel de Matemática, quando sugere que reflitamos com seriedade científica e acadêmica sobre esse debate. Esse autor propõe corajosamente que as ciências humanas sejam elas sim consideradas “ciências duras”. Aqui é defendida a tese de que, dadas as características e dinâmicas do mundo do presente, as classificações carecem de um processo de discussão condizente com a essência do mundo de hoje, que reverte por vezes o conhecimento pré-estabelecido. Sugere-se, por exemplo, nesta perspectiva, que o espaço geográfico, por ser uma instância social, tal como a economia, a política e a cultura, seja considerado uma categoria social de análise e não um palco de realização da vida, como tem sido considerado pela geografia descritiva, completamente ultrapassada pela velocidade do mundo e pelos sistemas técnicos disponíveis. Resumé SCIENCES HUMAINES ET SOCIALES: SCIENCES "MOLLES"? A PROPOS DU TRAVAIL SCIENTIFIQUE DANS LA CONTEMRAINETÉ Ce teste cherche à participer d´une interminable discussion sur question du classement des sciences. Catte discussion, loin d'être scientifique ou académique est uni discussion politique. Une source d'inspiration de cette reflexion a été I'oeuvre de Abraham Moles, Prix Nobel de Mathématique. Eant la Géographie une science que parfois est classée comme science de la nature, parfois comme science humaine et sociale. Catte discussion a inspirée aussi cet article. II attire I' ATTENTION SUR LA necessité, pour cette de prendre en consideration les

  2. Multiple pregnancies with complete mole and coexisting normal fetus in North and South America: A retrospective multicenter cohort and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lawrence H; Maestá, Izildinha; Braga, Antonio; Sun, Sue Y; Fushida, Koji; Francisco, Rossana P V; Elias, Kevin M; Horowitz, Neil; Goldstein, Donald P; Berkowitz, Ross S

    2017-04-01

    To determine the clinical characteristics of multiple gestation with complete mole and coexisting fetus (CHMCF) in North and South America. Retrospective non-concurrent cohorts compromised of CHMCF from New England Trophoblastic Disease Center (NETDC) (1966-2015) and four Brazilian Trophoblastic Disease Centers (BTDC) (1990-2015). From a total of 12,455 cases of gestational trophoblastic disease seen, 72 CHMCF were identified. Clinical characteristics were similar between BTDC (n=46) and NETDC (n=13) from 1990 to 2015, apart from a much higher frequency of potentially life-threatening conditions in Brazil (p=0.046). There were no significant changes in the clinical presentation or outcomes over the past 5 decades in NETDC (13 cases in 1966-1989 vs 13 cases in 1990-2015). Ten pregnancies were electively terminated and 35 cases resulted in viable live births (60% of 60 continued pregnancies). The overall rate of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) was 46%; the cases which progressed to GTN presented with higher chorionic gonadotropin levels (p=0.026) and higher frequency of termination of pregnancy due to medical complications (p=0.006) when compared to those with spontaneous remission. The main regional difference in CHMCF presentation is related to a higher rate of potentially life-threatening conditions in South America. Sixty percent of the expectantly managed CHMCF delivered a viable infant, and the overall rate of GTN in this study was 46%. Elective termination of pregnancy did not influence the risk for GTN; however the need for termination due to complications and higher hCG levels were associated with development of GTN in CHMCF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Caught in the act: Incipient speciation across a latitudinal gradient in a semifossorial mammal from Madagascar, the mole tenrec Oryzorictes hova (Tenrecidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everson, Kathryn M; Hildebrandt, Kyndall B P; Goodman, Steven M; Olson, Link E

    2018-02-28

    Madagascar is one of the world's foremost biodiversity hotspots, yet a large portion of its flora and fauna remains undescribed and the driving forces of in situ diversification are not well understood. Recent studies have identified a widespread, latitudinally structured phylogeographic pattern in Madagascar's humid-forest mammals, amphibians, reptiles, and insects. Several factors may be driving this pattern, namely biogeographic barriers (i.e., rivers or valleys) or past episodes of forest contraction and expansion. In this study, we describe the phylogeographic structure of the small, semifossorial mammal Oryzorictes hova, one of Madagascar's two species of mole tenrec, found throughout Madagascar's eastern humid forest belt, from high-elevation montane forest to low-elevation forests, as well as disturbed habitat such as rice fields. Using one mitochondrial locus, four nuclear loci, and 31 craniomandibular measurements, we identified three distinct populations of O. hova associated with the northern, central, and southern regions of the island. We found little evidence of gene flow among these populations, so we treated each population as a potential species. We validated species limits using two Bayesian methods: BP&P, employing only DNA sequence data, and iBPP using both DNA and morphological data, and we assessed whether these methods are susceptible to producing false positive errors. Molecular and morphological data support the recognition of each of the three populations of O. hova as distinct species, but formal species descriptions will require additional data from type specimens. This study illustrates the importance of using integrative datasets, multiple methodological approaches, and extensive geographic sampling for species delimitation and adds evidence for a widespread phylogeographic pattern in Madagascar's humid forest taxa. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of soft tissues on mandibular gray scale levels Influência dos tecidos moles sobre os níveis de cinza mandibulares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Couto Souza

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the gray levels, expressed in pixels, of the mandibular retromolar region, with regard to the influence of muscular and fat soft tissues near this region. Fifteen dry mandibles were X-rayed with the presence of soft tissue simulators. The radiographs were digitized and evaluated by Digora® software. A one cm thick layer of wax was used as a simulator of the muscular soft tissue. Animal fat samples of different thicknesses - 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 cm - were used as a simulator of the fat soft tissue. Results showed that the fat soft tissue simulator influenced the gray level values in pixels of the mandibular retromolar region when analyzed in different thicknesses using the Digora® digitized image software.O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de analisar os níveis de cinza, expressos em "pixels", da região retromolar mandibular, considerando a influência dos tecidos moles muscular e, principalmente, adiposo adjacentes a essa região. Para o estudo, 15 mandíbulas secas foram tecnicamente radiografadas, sendo que as radiografias obtidas foram escaneadas e avaliadas pelo programa de imagens digitalizadas Digora®. Como simuladores dos tecidos muscular e adiposo, foram utilizadas cera utilidade na espessura de 1,0 cm e amostras de gordura animal em espessuras diferentes de 0,5; 1,0; 1,5 e 2,0 cm. Os resultados mostraram que o tecido adiposo foi capaz de influenciar a análise dos valores de níveis de cinza em "pixels" da região retromolar mandibular quando estudado em espessuras diferentes pelo programa de imagens digitalizadas Digora®.

  5. Uso de antagonistas e produtos alternativos no manejo pós-colheita de podridão mole em pimentão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Silva e Silva

    Full Text Available Visando o controle da podridão mole causada por Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc em pimentão, foram avaliados 10 tratamentos: Bacillus spp.: isolado C116 (B. pumilus; Leveduras: isolados Lma (Rhodotorula aurantiaca e Lms (R. glutinis; Fosfito de potássio e cálcio; Fontes de cálcio: CaCl2, Ca(CO32 e Ca(SO42; fungicida/bactericida orgânico Antica®; antibiótico Kasumin®. Após a determinação da concentração dos antagonistas e produtos alternativos pelo teste do antibiograma, foi realizado o teste in vivo, pela inoculação do patógeno, seis horas após os tratamentos com os antagonistas e produtos alternativos. Foram determinados o Período de Incubação (PI, Severidade da doença (SEV, Redução da severidade da doença (RSD% e Área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPD. Todos os tratamentos testados apresentaram maiores valores de PI e RSD% e menores valores de SEV e AACPD quando comparados à testemunha. Fosfito de cálcio, C116, Lms, Lma e fosfito de potássio foram significativamente superiores quando comparados como demais tratamentos. Pcc foi resistente ao Kasumin®, possuindo SEV e AACPD que não diferiram significativamente da testemunha.

  6. Socially regulated reproductive development: analysis of GnRH-1 and kisspeptin neuronal systems in cooperatively breeding naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuzhi; Holmes, Melissa M; Forger, Nancy G; Goldman, Bruce D; Lovern, Matthew B; Caraty, Alain; Kalló, Imre; Faulkes, Christopher G; Coen, Clive W

    2013-09-01

    In naked mole-rat (NMR) colonies, breeding is monopolized by the queen and her consorts. Subordinates experience gonadal development if separated from the queen. To elucidate the neuroendocrine factors underlying reproductive suppression/development in NMRs, we quantified plasma gonadal steroids and GnRH-1- and kisspeptin-immunoreactive (ir) neurons in subordinate adults and in those allowed to develop into breeders, with or without subsequent gonadectomy. In males and females, respectively, plasma testosterone and progesterone are higher in breeders than in subordinates. No such distinction occurs for plasma estradiol; its presence after gonadectomy and its positive correlation with adrenal estradiol suggest an adrenal source. Numbers of GnRH-1-ir cell bodies do not differ between gonad-intact breeders and subordinates within or between the sexes. As in phylogenetically related guinea pigs, kisspeptin-ir processes pervade the internal and external zones of the median eminence. Their distribution is consistent with actions on GnRH-1 neurons at perikaryal and/or terminal levels. In previously investigated species, numbers of kisspeptin-ir cell bodies vary from substantial to negligible according to sex and/or reproductive state. NMRs are exceptional: irrespective of sex, reproductive state, or presence of gonads, substantial numbers of kisspeptin-ir cell bodies are detected in the rostral periventricular region of the third ventricle (RP3V) and in the anterior periventricular (PVa), arcuate, and dorsomedial hypothalamic nuclei. Nevertheless, the greater number in the RP3V/PVa of female breeders compared with female subordinates or male breeders suggests that emergence from a hypogonadotrophic state in females may involve kisspeptin-related mechanisms similar to those underlying puberty or seasonal breeding in other species. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Sox9 gene regulation and the loss of the XY/XX sex-determining mechanism in the mole vole Ellobius lutescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri-Fam, Stefan; Sreenivasan, Rajini; Bernard, Pascal; Knower, Kevin C; Sekido, Ryohei; Lovell-Badge, Robin; Just, Walter; Harley, Vincent R

    2012-01-01

    In most mammals, the Y chromosomal Sry gene initiates testis formation within the bipotential gonad, resulting in male development. SRY is a transcription factor and together with SF1 it directly up-regulates the expression of the pivotal sex-determining gene Sox9 via a 1.3-kb cis-regulatory element (TESCO) which contains an evolutionarily conserved region (ECR) of 180 bp. Remarkably, several rodent species appear to determine sex in the absence of Sry and a Y chromosome, including the mole voles Ellobius lutescens and Ellobius tancrei, whereas Ellobius fuscocapillus of the same genus retained Sry. The sex-determining mechanisms in the Sry-negative species remain elusive. We have cloned and sequenced 1.1 kb of E. lutescens TESCO which shares 75% sequence identity with mouse TESCO indicating that testicular Sox9 expression in E. lutescens might still be regulated via TESCO. We have also cloned and sequenced the ECRs of E. tancrei and E. fuscocapillus. While the three Ellobius ECRs are highly similar (94-97% sequence identity), they all display a 14-bp deletion (Δ14) removing a highly conserved SOX/TCF site. Introducing Δ14 into mouse TESCO increased both basal activity and SF1-mediated activation of TESCO in HEK293T cells. We propose a model whereby Δ14 may have triggered up-regulation of Sox9 in XX gonads leading to destabilization of the XY/XX sex-determining mechanism in Ellobius. E. lutescens/E. tancrei and E. fuscocapillus could have independently stabilized their sex determination mechanisms by Sry-independent and Sry-dependent approaches, respectively.

  8. Development of accurate dimethyl sulphide primary standard gas mixtures at low nanomole per mole levels in high-pressure aluminium cylinders for ambient measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eon Kim, Mi; Kang, Ji Hwan; Doo Kim, Yong; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Sangil

    2018-04-01

    Dimethyl sulphide (DMS) plays an important role in atmospheric chemistry and climate change. Ambient DMS is monitored in a global network and reported at sub-nanomole per mole (nmol/mol) levels. Developing traceable, accurate DMS standards at ambient levels is essential for tracking the long-term trends and understanding the role of DMS in the atmosphere. Gravimetrically prepared gas standards in cylinders are widely used for calibrating instruments. Therefore, a stable primary standard gas mixture (PSM) is required for traceable ambient DMS measurement at remote sites. In this study, to evaluate adsorption loss on the internal surface of the gas cylinder, 6 nmol mol-1 DMS gas mixtures were prepared in three types of aluminium cylinders: a cylinder without a special coating on its internal surface (AL), an Aculife IV  +  III-treated cylinder (AC), and an Experis-treated cylinder (EX). There was little adsorption loss on the EX cylinder, whereas there was substantial adsorption loss on the other two cylinders. The EX cylinder was used to prepare 0.5, 2, 5, and 7 nmol mol-1 DMS PSMs with relative expanded uncertainties of less than 0.4%. The DMS PSMs were analytically verified and consistent within a relative expanded uncertainty of less than 1.2%. The long-term stability of the 7 nmol mol-1 DMS PSM was assessed by tracking the ratio of the DMS to the internal standard, benzene. The results showed that the DMS was stable for about seven months and it was projected to be stable for more than 60 months within a relative expanded uncertainty of 3%.

  9. And the beat goes on: maintained cardiovascular function during aging in the longest-lived rodent, the naked mole-rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Kelly M; Reddy, Anilkumar K; Lindsey, Merry L; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2014-08-01

    The naked mole-rat (NMR) is the longest-lived rodent known, with a maximum lifespan potential (MLSP) of >31 years. Despite such extreme longevity, these animals display attenuation of many age-associated diseases and functional changes until the last quartile of their MLSP. We questioned if such abilities would extend to cardiovascular function and structure in this species. To test this, we assessed cardiac functional reserve, ventricular morphology, and arterial stiffening in NMRs ranging from 2 to 24 years of age. Dobutamine echocardiography (3 μg/g ip) revealed no age-associated changes in left ventricular (LV) function either at baseline or with exercise-like stress. Baseline and dobutamine-induced LV pressure parameters also did not change. Thus the NMR, unlike other mammals, maintains cardiac reserve with age. NMRs showed no cardiac hypertrophy, evidenced by no increase in cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area or LV dimensions with age. Age-associated arterial stiffening does not occur since there are no changes in aortic blood pressures or pulse-wave velocity. Only LV interstitial collagen deposition increased 2.5-fold from young to old NMRs (P < 0.01). However, its effect on LV diastolic function is likely minor since NMRs experience attenuated age-related increases in diastolic dysfunction in comparison with other species. Overall, these findings conform to the negligible senescence phenotype, as NMRs largely stave off cardiovascular changes for at least 75% of their MLSP. This suggests that using a comparative strategy to find factors that change with age in other mammals but not NMRs could provide novel targets to slow or prevent cardiovascular aging in humans.

  10. Surface and bulk modifications of 1.5 mole % Sr/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst with different Co, Ni, and Cu amounts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cortes, Sergio; Fontal, Bernardo [Universidad de los Andes, Merida (Venezuela); Moronta, Delfin [Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas (Venezuela)

    2001-08-01

    The effects of Co, Ni and Cu oxide content on the surface and bulk of the 1.5 mole % Sr/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts were studied. Series of M/Sr-La catalysts (MCo, Ni, Cu) were prepared by successive immersion impregnation. The solids were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), specific surface area measurements (BET) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The Sr/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} modified with different Co, Ni, and Cu loading shows a strong metal oxide interaction with La{sub 2}O{sub 3}. This probably begin over anionic vacancies or structure defects favoring LaSrMO{sub x} solid solution formation with island-like structures according to a Volmer-Weber growth. It is proposed that the growth mode of La-Co, La-Ni and La-Cu stoichiometric phases occur from solid solutions. The formation of only a La-M single phase, probably non-stoichiometric, increases the material porosity while different phases favor the agglomeration or sintering of the particles. [Spanish] En este trabajo se estudia el efecto de la cantidad de cobalto, niquel y cobre sobre las estructuras superficial y masica del sistema 1.5% molar Sr/La{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Los catalizadores M/Sr-La (M = Co, Ni, Cu) fueron preparados por el metodo de impregnacion con exceso de solucion. Los solidos se caracterizaron por difraccion de rayos-X, espectroscopia infrarroja con transformada de Fourier, reduccion a temperatura programada, resonancia paramagnetica del electron, medidas del area superficial especifica por el metodo de BET y analisis termogravimetrico. El catalizador Sr/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} modificado con diferentes cantidades de Co, Ni y Cu muestra una interaccion fuerte con el oxido del metal de transicion, probablemente sobre las vacancias anionicas o defectos estructurales que favorecen la formacion de la solucion solida LaSrMox en forma de isla, segun el mecanismo de crecimiento de fase de Volmer

  11. Estimating surface CO2 fluxes from space-borne CO2 dry air mole fraction observations using an ensemble Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dance

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We have developed an ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF to estimate 8-day regional surface fluxes of CO2 from space-borne CO2 dry-air mole fraction observations (XCO2 and evaluate the approach using a series of synthetic experiments, in preparation for data from the NASA Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO. The 32-day duty cycle of OCO alternates every 16 days between nadir and glint measurements of backscattered solar radiation at short-wave infrared wavelengths. The EnKF uses an ensemble of states to represent the error covariances to estimate 8-day CO2 surface fluxes over 144 geographical regions. We use a 12×8-day lag window, recognising that XCO2 measurements include surface flux information from prior time windows. The observation operator that relates surface CO2 fluxes to atmospheric distributions of XCO2 includes: a the GEOS-Chem transport model that relates surface fluxes to global 3-D distributions of CO2 concentrations, which are sampled at the time and location of OCO measurements that are cloud-free and have aerosol optical depths 2 profiles to XCO2, accounting for differences between nadir and glint measurements, and the associated scene-dependent observation errors. We show that OCO XCO2 measurements significantly reduce the uncertainties of surface CO2 flux estimates. Glint measurements are generally better at constraining ocean CO2 flux estimates. Nadir XCO2 measurements over the terrestrial tropics are sparse throughout the year because of either clouds or smoke. Glint measurements provide the most effective constraint for estimating tropical terrestrial CO2 fluxes by accurately sampling fresh continental outflow over neighbouring oceans. We also present results from sensitivity experiments that investigate how flux estimates change with 1 bias and unbiased errors, 2 alternative duty cycles, 3 measurement density and correlations, 4 the spatial resolution of estimated flux estimates, and 5 reducing the length of the lag window and the

  12. Analysis of Alpha-2 Macroglobulin from the Long-Lived and Cancer-Resistant Naked Mole-Rat and Human Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, René; Kurz, Susanne; Kolb, Marlen; Debebe, Tewodros; Holtze, Susanne; Morhart, Michaela; Huse, Klaus; Szafranski, Karol; Platzer, Matthias; Hildebrandt, Thomas B; Birkenmeier, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    The naked mole-rat (NMR) is a long-lived and cancer resistant species. Identification of potential anti-cancer and age related mechanisms is of great interest and makes this species eminent to investigate anti-cancer strategies and understand aging mechanisms. Since it is known that the NMR expresses higher liver mRNA-levels of alpha 2-macroglobulin than mice, nothing is known about its structure, functionality or expression level in the NMR compared to the human A2M. Here we show a comprehensive analysis of NMR- and human plasma-A2M, showing a different prediction in glycosylation of NMR-A2M, which results in a higher molecular weight compared to human A2M. Additionally, we found a higher concentration of A2M (8.3±0.44 mg/mL vs. and 4.4±0.20 mg/mL) and a lower total plasma protein content (38.7±1.79 mg/mL vs. 61.7±3.20 mg/mL) in NMR compared to human. NMR-A2M can be transformed by methylamine and trypsin resulting in a conformational change similar to human A2M. NMR-A2M is detectable by a polyclonal antibody against human A2M. Determination of tryptic and anti-tryptic activity of NMR and human plasma revealed a higher anti-tryptic activity of the NMR plasma. On the other hand, less proteolytic activity was found in NMR plasma compared to human plasma. We found transformed NMR-A2M binding to its specific receptor LRP1. We could demonstrate lower protein expression of LRP1 in the NMR liver tissue compared to human but higher expression of A2M. This was accompanied by a higher EpCAM protein expression as central adhesion molecule in cancer progression. NMR-plasma was capable to increase the adhesion in human fibroblast in vitro most probably by increasing CD29 protein expression. This is the first report, demonstrating similarities as well as distinct differences between A2M in NMR and human plasma. This might be directly linked to the intriguing phenotype of the NMR and suggests that A2M might probably play an important role in anti-cancer and the anti

  13. Analysis of Alpha-2 Macroglobulin from the Long-Lived and Cancer-Resistant Naked Mole-Rat and Human Plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Thieme

    Full Text Available The naked mole-rat (NMR is a long-lived and cancer resistant species. Identification of potential anti-cancer and age related mechanisms is of great interest and makes this species eminent to investigate anti-cancer strategies and understand aging mechanisms. Since it is known that the NMR expresses higher liver mRNA-levels of alpha 2-macroglobulin than mice, nothing is known about its structure, functionality or expression level in the NMR compared to the human A2M.Here we show a comprehensive analysis of NMR- and human plasma-A2M, showing a different prediction in glycosylation of NMR-A2M, which results in a higher molecular weight compared to human A2M. Additionally, we found a higher concentration of A2M (8.3±0.44 mg/mL vs. and 4.4±0.20 mg/mL and a lower total plasma protein content (38.7±1.79 mg/mL vs. 61.7±3.20 mg/mL in NMR compared to human. NMR-A2M can be transformed by methylamine and trypsin resulting in a conformational change similar to human A2M. NMR-A2M is detectable by a polyclonal antibody against human A2M. Determination of tryptic and anti-tryptic activity of NMR and human plasma revealed a higher anti-tryptic activity of the NMR plasma. On the other hand, less proteolytic activity was found in NMR plasma compared to human plasma.We found transformed NMR-A2M binding to its specific receptor LRP1. We could demonstrate lower protein expression of LRP1 in the NMR liver tissue compared to human but higher expression of A2M. This was accompanied by a higher EpCAM protein expression as central adhesion molecule in cancer progression. NMR-plasma was capable to increase the adhesion in human fibroblast in vitro most probably by increasing CD29 protein expression. This is the first report, demonstrating similarities as well as distinct differences between A2M in NMR and human plasma. This might be directly linked to the intriguing phenotype of the NMR and suggests that A2M might probably play an important role in anti-cancer and the

  14. Characterization of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone precursor cDNA in the Old World mole-rat Cryptomys hottentotus pretoriae: high degree of identity with the New World guinea pig sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalamatianos, T; du Toit, L; Hrabovszky, E; Kalló, I; Marsh, P J; Bennett, N C; Coen, C W

    2005-05-01

    Regulation of pituitary gonadotrophins by the decapeptide gonadotrophin-releasing hormone 1 (GnRH1) is crucial for the development and maintenance of reproductive functions. A common amino acid sequence for this decapeptide, designated as 'mammalian' GnRH, has been identified in all mammals thus far investigated with the exception of the guinea pig, in which there are two amino acid substitutions. Among hystricognath rodents, the members of the family Bathyergidae regulate reproduction in response to diverse cues. Thus, highveld mole-rats (Cryptomys hottentotus pretoriae) are social bathyergids in which breeding is restricted to a particular season in the dominant female, but continuously suppressed in subordinate colony members. Elucidation of reproductive control in these animals will be facilitated by characterization of their GnRH1 gene. A partial sequence of GnRH1 precursor cDNA was isolated and characterized. Comparative analysis revealed the highest degree of identity (86%) to guinea pig GnRH1 precursor mRNA. Nevertheless, the deduced amino acid sequence of the mole-rat decapeptide is identical to the 'mammalian' sequence rather than that of guinea pigs. Successful detection of GnRH1-synthesizing neurones using either a guinea pig GnRH1 riboprobe or an antibody against the 'mammalian' decapeptide is consistent with the guinea pig-like sequence for the precursor and the classic 'mammalian' form for the decapeptide. The high degree of identity in the GnRH1 precursor sequence between this Old World mole-rat and the New World guinea pig is consistent with the theory that caviomorphs and phiomorphs originated from a common ancestral line in the Palaeocene to mid Eocene, some 63-45 million years ago.

  15. Potential use of the non-random distribution of N2 and N2O mole masses in the atmosphere as a tool for tracing atmospheric mixing and isotope fractionation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Well, R.; Langel, R.; Reineking, A.

    2002-01-01

    The variation in the natural abundance of 15 N in atmospheric gas species is often used to determine the mixing of trace gases from different sources. With conventional budget calculations one unknown quantity can be determined if the remaining quantities are known. From 15 N tracer studies in soils with highly enriched 15 N-nitrate a procedure is known to calculate the mixing of atmospheric and soil derived N 2 based on the measurement of the 30/28 and 29/28 ratios in gas samples collected from soil covers. Because of the non-random distribution of the mole masses 30 N 2 , 29 N 2 and 28 N 2 in the mixing gas it is possible to calculate two quantities simultaneously, i.e. the mixing ratio of atmospheric and soil derived N 2 , and the isotopic signature of the soil derived N 2 . Routine standard measurements of laboratory air had suggested a non-random distribution of N 2 -mole masses. The objective of this study was to investigate and explain the existence of non-random distributions of 15 N 15 N, 14 N 15 N and 14 N 14 N in N 2 and N 2 O in environmental samples. The calculation of theoretical isotope data resulting from hypothetical mixing of two sources differing in 15 N natural abundance demonstrated, that the deviation from an ideal random distribution of mole masses is not detectable with the current precision of mass spectrometry. 15 N-analysis of N 2 or N 2 O was conducted with randomised and non-randomised replicate samples of different origin. 15 N abundance as calculated from 29/28 ratios were generally higher in randomised samples. The differences between the treatments ranged between 0.05 and 0.17 δper mille 15 N. It was concluded that the observed randomisation effect is probably caused by 15 N 15 N fractionation during environmental processes. (author)

  16. Antimicrobial Activity of Extracts from Leaves, Stems and Flowers of Euphorbia macroclada against plant pathogenic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Al-Mughrabi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Extracts drawn from dried and powdered flowers, stems and leaves of Euphorbia macroclada with some organic solvents were tested for antimicrobial effect against the fungi Verticillium dahliae, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizopus stolonifer, Penicillium italicum, Rhizoctonia solani, Alternaria solani, Stemphylium solani, Cladosporium sp., Mucor sp., and Pythium sp. The strongest inhibitory effect of the extracts was observed against R. solani, V. dahliae, F. oxysporum, Pythium sp. and R. stolonifer. The weakest effect was against A. solani. Extracts from the stems had a stronger inhibitory effect than those from the flowers or leaves. Butanol was the best solvent to extract antimicrobial compounds from leaves, stems and flowers and was superior to chloroform, water and petroleum ether. Results clearly indicate that E. macroclada is a promising source of antimicrobial compounds.

  17. Inactivation of contaminated fungi and antioxidant effects of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch cv Dangeumdo) by 0.5-2 kGy gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyoung-Hee; Kim, Mi-Seon [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hong-Gi [Department of Applied Biology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Yook, Hong-Sun, E-mail: yhsuny@naver.co [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    The effect of gamma irradiation (0.5-2 kGy) on the physicochemical properties of peaches was investigated during a 6-day storage at 20+-3 deg. C. Gamma irradiation is able to inactivate the four pathogens, namely Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium expansum, Rhizopus stolonifer var. stolonifer and Monilinia fructicola in peaches. Hardness significantly decreased with the increment of irradiation dose level whereas soluble solid and total polyphenol contents increased with increment of irradiation dose level. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity of the irradiated peach was higher than that of control, and its activity increased with increment of irradiation dose level. These results suggest that gamma irradiation of peaches improved antioxidant activity, but dramatically affects the hardness throughout the entire storage time.

  18. Inactivation of contaminated fungi and antioxidant effects of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch cv Dangeumdo) by 0.5-2 kGy gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoung-Hee; Kim, Mi-Seon; Kim, Hong-Gi; Yook, Hong-Sun

    2010-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation (0.5-2 kGy) on the physicochemical properties of peaches was investigated during a 6-day storage at 20±3 deg. C. Gamma irradiation is able to inactivate the four pathogens, namely Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium expansum, Rhizopus stolonifer var. stolonifer and Monilinia fructicola in peaches. Hardness significantly decreased with the increment of irradiation dose level whereas soluble solid and total polyphenol contents increased with increment of irradiation dose level. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity of the irradiated peach was higher than that of control, and its activity increased with increment of irradiation dose level. These results suggest that gamma irradiation of peaches improved antioxidant activity, but dramatically affects the hardness throughout the entire storage time.

  19. Dependence of the interband transitions on the in mole fraction and the applied electric field in In xGa1-xAs/In0.52Al0.48As multiple quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.H.; Woo, J.T.; Lee, I.; Kim, T.W.; Yoo, K.H.; Kim, M.D.; Ram-Mohan, L.R.

    2005-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and photocurrent (PC) measurements were carried out to investigate the microstructural properties and excitonic transitions in In x Ga 1-x As/In 0.52 Al 0.48 As multiple quantum wells (MQWs) for x = 0.54, 0.57 and 0.60. TEM images showed that high-quality 11-period In x Ga 1-x As/In 0.52 Al 0.48 As MQWs had high-quality heterointerfaces. The results for the PC spectra at 300 K showed that the peaks corresponding to the excitonic transitions from the ground state electronic sub-band to the ground state heavy-hole band (E 1 -HH 1 ) and the ground state electronic sub-band to the ground state light-hole band (E 1 -LH 1 ) became closer to each other with decreasing In mole fraction and that E 1 -HH 1 and E 1 -LH 1 excitonic peaks shifted to longer wavelength with increasing applied electric field. The calculated values of the E 1 -HH 1 interband transition energies were in qualitative agreement with those obtained form the PC measurements with and without applied electric field. These results can be helpful in understanding potential applications of In x Ga 1-x As/In y Al 1-y As MQWs dependent on In mole fraction and applied electric field in long-wavelength optoelectronic devices

  20. Actinomicose cutânea primária do pé simulando neoplasia de partes moles: relato de caso Primary cutaneous actinomycosis of the foot mimicking a soft tissue neoplasm: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata La Rocca Vieira

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Relatamos um caso de actinomicose cutânea primária do pé simulando neoplasia de partes moles, com revisão da literatura sobre sua incidência, aspectos clínicos, patológicos e de imagem. Utilizamos radiografias simples, ressonância magnética e estudo anatomopatológico. A importância do estudo se deve à raridade da enfermidade, localização atípica e, particularmente, ao diagnóstico diferencial com neoplasia de partes moles.We report a case of a patient with primary cutaneous actinomycosis of the foot mimicking a soft tissue neoplasm. A literature review on the incidence, clinical features, pathology and imaging findings is also presented. The plain films and magnetic resonance imaging findings and the pathology results are presented. This paper reports a rare disease occurring in an atypical location, simulating a soft tissue neoplasm.