WorldWideScience

Sample records for moisture sensing activities

  1. Summary of fiscal year 1994 near-infrared spectroscopy moisture sensing activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, F.R.; Johnson, R.E.; Philipp, B.L.; Duncan, J.B.; Schutzenhofer, G.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the work to develop and deploy near-infrared (NIR) moisture sensing technology for application to the Hanford Site's high-level nuclear waste materials. This work is jointly supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) EM-50 Office of Technology Development Support and the EM-30 Tank Waste Safety and Tank Waste Remediation Systems Programs. A basic NIR system was developed at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) with support from DOE's EM-50 Office. The application of this technology to Hanford's high-level wastes (HLW). Including deployment, is supported by DOE's EM-30 Systems Programs. The need to know the moisture content in HLW is driven by concerns for the safety of underground storage tanks that contain or are suspected of containing ferrocyanide and organic types of materials. The NIR technology has application for both ex situ (hot cell core measurements) and in situ waste tank moisture sensing. The cold test/calibration data in this report was generated as part of the total life cycle development path being followed in the development and deployment of the NIR technology at the Hanford Site

  2. Microwave bale moisture sensing: Field trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    A microwave moisture measurement technique was developed for moisture sensing of cotton bales after the bale press. The technique measures the propagation delay of a microwave signal that is transmitted through the cotton bale. This research conducted a field trial to test the sensor in a commercial...

  3. Passive microwave remote sensing of soil moisture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, T.J.; Schmugge, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    Microwave remote sensing provides a unique capability for direct observation of soil moisture. Remote measurements from space afford the possibility of obtaining frequent, global sampling of soil moisture over a large fraction of the Earth's land surface. Microwave measurements have the benefit of being largely unaffected by cloud cover and variable surface solar illumination, but accurate soil moisture estimates are limited to regions that have either bare soil or low to moderate amounts of vegetation cover. A particular advantage of passive microwave sensors is that in the absence of significant vegetation cover soil moisture is the dominant effect on the received signal. The spatial resolutions of passive microwave soil moisture sensors currently considered for space operation are in the range 10–20 km. The most useful frequency range for soil moisture sensing is 1–5 GHz. System design considerations include optimum choice of frequencies, polarizations, and scanning configurations, based on trade-offs between requirements for high vegetation penetration capability, freedom from electromagnetic interference, manageable antenna size and complexity, and the requirement that a sufficient number of information channels be available to correct for perturbing geophysical effects. This paper outlines the basic principles of the passive microwave technique for soil moisture sensing, and reviews briefly the status of current retrieval methods. Particularly promising are methods for optimally assimilating passive microwave data into hydrologic models. Further studies are needed to investigate the effects on microwave observations of within-footprint spatial heterogeneity of vegetation cover and subsurface soil characteristics, and to assess the limitations imposed by heterogeneity on the retrievability of large-scale soil moisture information from remote observations

  4. Microwave moisture sensing of wet bales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensing of moisture in very wet lint bales is unique due to the fact that moisture distribution is typically non-uniform and can in some instances be highly localized. This issue is even further complicated by the use of a sensor that reads only a portion of the bale and/or with a sensor that provid...

  5. Microwave bale moisture sensing: Field trial continued

    Science.gov (United States)

    A microwave moisture measurement technique was developed at the USDA, ARS Cotton Production and Processing Research Unit for moisture sensing of cotton bales after the bale press. The technique measures the propagation delay of a microwave signal that is transmitted through the cotton bale. This res...

  6. Advanced Soil Moisture Network Technologies; Developments in Collecting in situ Measurements for Remote Sensing Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, M.; Silva, A. R. D.; Akbar, R.; Clewley, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Soil moisture Sensing Controller And oPtimal Estimator (SoilSCAPE) wireless sensor network has been developed to support Calibration and Validation activities (Cal/Val) for large scale soil moisture remote sensing missions (SMAP and AirMOSS). The technology developed here also readily supports small scale hydrological studies by providing sub-kilometer widespread soil moisture observations. An extensive collection of semi-sparse sensor clusters deployed throughout north-central California and southern Arizona provide near real time soil moisture measurements. Such a wireless network architecture, compared to conventional single points measurement profiles, allows for significant and expanded soil moisture sampling. The work presented here aims at discussing and highlighting novel and new technology developments which increase in situ soil moisture measurements' accuracy, reliability, and robustness with reduced data delivery latency. High efficiency and low maintenance custom hardware have been developed and in-field performance has been demonstrated for a period of three years. The SoilSCAPE technology incorporates (a) intelligent sensing to prevent erroneous measurement reporting, (b) on-board short term memory for data redundancy, (c) adaptive scheduling and sampling capabilities to enhance energy efficiency. A rapid streamlined data delivery architecture openly provides distribution of in situ measurements to SMAP and AirMOSS cal/val activities and other interested parties.

  7. Use of passive microwave remote sensing to monitor soil moisture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigneron, J.P.; Schmugge, T.; Chanzy, A.; Calvet, J.C.; Kerr, Y.

    1998-01-01

    Surface soil moisture is a key variable to describe the water and energy exchanges at the land surface/atmosphere interface. However, soil moisture is highly variable both spatially and temporally. Passive microwave remotely sensed data have great potential for providing estimates of soil moisture with good temporal repetition (on a daily basis) and at regional scale (∼ 10 km). This paper reviews the various methods for remote sensing of soil moisture from microwave radiometric systems. Potential applications from both airborne and spatial observations are discussed in the fields of agronomy, hydrology and meteorology. Emphasis in this paper is given to relatively new aspects of microwave techniques and of temporal soil moisture information analysis. In particular, the aperture synthesis technique allows us now to a address the soil moisture information needs on a global basis, from space instruments. (author) [fr

  8. Soil Moisture Retrieval Using Convolutional Neural Networks: Application to Passive Microwave Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Z.; Xu, L.; Yu, B.

    2018-04-01

    A empirical model is established to analyse the daily retrieval of soil moisture from passive microwave remote sensing using convolutional neural networks (CNN). Soil moisture plays an important role in the water cycle. However, with the rapidly increasing of the acquiring technology for remotely sensed data, it's a hard task for remote sensing practitioners to find a fast and convenient model to deal with the massive data. In this paper, the AMSR-E brightness temperatures are used to train CNN for the prediction of the European centre for medium-range weather forecasts (ECMWF) model. Compared with the classical inversion methods, the deep learning-based method is more suitable for global soil moisture retrieval. It is very well supported by graphics processing unit (GPU) acceleration, which can meet the demand of massive data inversion. Once the model trained, a global soil moisture map can be predicted in less than 10 seconds. What's more, the method of soil moisture retrieval based on deep learning can learn the complex texture features from the big remote sensing data. In this experiment, the results demonstrates that the CNN deployed to retrieve global soil moisture can achieve a better performance than the support vector regression (SVR) for soil moisture retrieval.

  9. SOIL MOISTURE RETRIEVAL USING CONVOLUTIONAL NEURAL NETWORKS: APPLICATION TO PASSIVE MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Hu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A empirical model is established to analyse the daily retrieval of soil moisture from passive microwave remote sensing using convolutional neural networks (CNN. Soil moisture plays an important role in the water cycle. However, with the rapidly increasing of the acquiring technology for remotely sensed data, it's a hard task for remote sensing practitioners to find a fast and convenient model to deal with the massive data. In this paper, the AMSR-E brightness temperatures are used to train CNN for the prediction of the European centre for medium-range weather forecasts (ECMWF model. Compared with the classical inversion methods, the deep learning-based method is more suitable for global soil moisture retrieval. It is very well supported by graphics processing unit (GPU acceleration, which can meet the demand of massive data inversion. Once the model trained, a global soil moisture map can be predicted in less than 10 seconds. What's more, the method of soil moisture retrieval based on deep learning can learn the complex texture features from the big remote sensing data. In this experiment, the results demonstrates that the CNN deployed to retrieve global soil moisture can achieve a better performance than the support vector regression (SVR for soil moisture retrieval.

  10. Microwave remote sensing of soil moisture for estimation of profile soil property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattikalli, N.M.; Engman, E.T.; Ahuja, L.R.; Jackson, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    Multi-temporal microwave remotely-sensed soil moisture has been utilized for the estimation of profile soil property, viz. the soil hydraulic conductivity. Passive microwave remote sensing was employed to collect daily soil moisture data across the Little Washita watershed, Oklahoma, during 10-18 June 1992. The ESTAR (Electronically Steered Thin Array Radiometer) instrument operating at L -band was flown on a NASA C-130 aircraft. Brightness temperature (TB) data collected at a ground resolution of 200m were employed to derive spatial distribution of surface soil moisture. Analysis of spatial and temporal soil moisture information in conjunction with soils data revealed a direct relation between changes in soil moisture and soil texture. A geographical information system (GIS) based analysis suggested that 2-days initial drainage of soil, measured from remote sensing, was related to an important soil hydraulic property viz. the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat). A hydrologic modelling methodology was developed for estimation of Ksat of surface and sub-surface soil layers. Specifically, soil hydraulic parameters were optimized to obtain a good match between model estimated and field measured soil moisture profiles. Relations between 2-days soil moisture change and Ksat of 0-5 cm, 0-30 cm and 0-60cm depths yielded correla tions of 0.78, 0.82 and 0.71, respectively. These results are comparable to the findings of previous studies involving laboratory-controlled experiments and numerical simulations, and support their extension to the field conditions of the Little Washita watershed. These findings have potential applications of microwave remote sensing to obtain 2-days of soil moisture and then to quickly estimate the spatial distribution of Ksat over large areas. (author)

  11. The benefits of using remotely sensed soil moisture in parameter identification of large-scale hydrological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanders, N.; Bierkens, M. F. P.; de Jong, S. M.; de Roo, A.; Karssenberg, D.

    2014-08-01

    Large-scale hydrological models are nowadays mostly calibrated using observed discharge. As a result, a large part of the hydrological system, in particular the unsaturated zone, remains uncalibrated. Soil moisture observations from satellites have the potential to fill this gap. Here we evaluate the added value of remotely sensed soil moisture in calibration of large-scale hydrological models by addressing two research questions: (1) Which parameters of hydrological models can be identified by calibration with remotely sensed soil moisture? (2) Does calibration with remotely sensed soil moisture lead to an improved calibration of hydrological models compared to calibration based only on discharge observations, such that this leads to improved simulations of soil moisture content and discharge? A dual state and parameter Ensemble Kalman Filter is used to calibrate the hydrological model LISFLOOD for the Upper Danube. Calibration is done using discharge and remotely sensed soil moisture acquired by AMSR-E, SMOS, and ASCAT. Calibration with discharge data improves the estimation of groundwater and routing parameters. Calibration with only remotely sensed soil moisture results in an accurate identification of parameters related to land-surface processes. For the Upper Danube upstream area up to 40,000 km2, calibration on both discharge and soil moisture results in a reduction by 10-30% in the RMSE for discharge simulations, compared to calibration on discharge alone. The conclusion is that remotely sensed soil moisture holds potential for calibration of hydrological models, leading to a better simulation of soil moisture content throughout the catchment and a better simulation of discharge in upstream areas. This article was corrected on 15 SEP 2014. See the end of the full text for details.

  12. Evaluation of AMSR-E derived soil moisture over Australia, /Remote Sensing of Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draper, C.S.; Walker, J.P.; Steinle, P.J.; De Jeu, R.A.M.; Holmes, T.R.H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses remotely sensed near-surface soil moisture over Australia, derived from the passive microwave Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) instrument. Soil moisture fields generated by the AMSR-E soil moisture retrieval algorithm developed at the Vrije

  13. Applications of microwave remote sensing of soil moisture for water resources and agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engman, E.T.

    1991-01-01

    There has been significant progress in the application of microwave remote sensing for measuring soil moisture. Both passive and active systems have demonstrated the capability to measure soil moisture, and there have been a number of studies using aircraft and spaceborne data that have demonstrated its usefulness for agricultural and hydrologic applications. However, there are still several unresolved questions regarding the optimal instrument configuration and other target characteristics such as roughness and vegetation. In addition, the most likely disciplines for using these data, agriculture and hydrology, do not currently possess adequate models or procedures to use this new technology

  14. Distributed fiber optic moisture intrusion sensing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2003-06-24

    Method and system for monitoring and identifying moisture intrusion in soil such as is contained in landfills housing radioactive and/or hazardous waste. The invention utilizes the principle that moist or wet soil has a higher thermal conductance than dry soil. The invention employs optical time delay reflectometry in connection with a distributed temperature sensing system together with heating means in order to identify discrete areas within a volume of soil wherein temperature is lower. According to the invention an optical element and, optionally, a heating element may be included in a cable or other similar structure and arranged in a serpentine fashion within a volume of soil to achieve efficient temperature detection across a large area or three dimensional volume of soil. Remediation, moisture countermeasures, or other responsive action may then be coordinated based on the assumption that cooler regions within a soil volume may signal moisture intrusion where those regions are located.

  15. Soil moisture variations in remotely sensed and reanalysis datasets during weak monsoon conditions over central India and central Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Sourabh; Kar, Sarat C.; Sharma, Anu Rani

    2017-07-01

    Variation of soil moisture during active and weak phases of summer monsoon JJAS (June, July, August, and September) is very important for sustenance of the crop and subsequent crop yield. As in situ observations of soil moisture are few or not available, researchers use data derived from remote sensing satellites or global reanalysis. This study documents the intercomparison of soil moisture from remotely sensed and reanalyses during dry spells within monsoon seasons in central India and central Myanmar. Soil moisture data from the European Space Agency (ESA)—Climate Change Initiative (CCI) has been treated as observed data and was compared against soil moisture data from the ECMWF reanalysis-Interim (ERA-I) and the climate forecast system reanalysis (CFSR) for the period of 2002-2011. The ESA soil moisture correlates rather well with observed gridded rainfall. The ESA data indicates that soil moisture increases over India from west to east and from north to south during monsoon season. The ERA-I overestimates the soil moisture over India, while the CFSR soil moisture agrees well with the remotely sensed observation (ESA). Over Myanmar, both the reanalysis overestimate soil moisture values and the ERA-I soil moisture does not show much variability from year to year. Day-to-day variations of soil moisture in central India and central Myanmar during weak monsoon conditions indicate that, because of the rainfall deficiency, the observed (ESA) and the CFSR soil moisture values are reduced up to 0.1 m3/m3 compared to climatological values of more than 0.35 m3/m3. This reduction is not seen in the ERA-I data. Therefore, soil moisture from the CFSR is closer to the ESA observed soil moisture than that from the ERA-I during weak phases of monsoon in the study region.

  16. The use of soil moisture - remote sensing products for large-scale groundwater modeling and assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutanudjaja, E.H.

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, the possibilities of using spaceborne remote sensing for large-scale groundwater modeling are explored. We focus on a soil moisture product called European Remote Sensing Soil Water Index (ERS SWI, Wagner et al., 1999) - representing the upper profile soil moisture. As a test-bed, we

  17. Using Remotely Sensed Fluorescence and Soil Moisture to Better Understand the Seasonal Cycle of Tropical Grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dakota Carlysle

    Seasonal grasslands account for a large area of Earth's land cover. Annual and seasonal changes in these grasslands have profound impacts on Earth's carbon, energy, and water cycles. In tropical grasslands, growth is commonly water-limited and the landscape oscillates between highly productive and unproductive. As the monsoon begins, soils moisten providing dry grasses the water necessary to photosynthesize. However, along with the rain come clouds that obscure satellite products that are commonly used to study productivity in these areas. To navigate this issue, we used solar induced fluorescence (SIF) products from OCO-2 along with soil moisture products from the Soil Moisture Active Passive satellite (SMAP) to "see through" the clouds to monitor grassland productivity. To get a broader understanding of the vegetation dynamics, we used the Simple Biosphere Model (SiB4) to simulate the seasonal cycles of vegetation. In conjunction with SiB4, the remotely sensed SIF and soil moisture observations were utilized to paint a clearer picture of seasonal productivity in tropical grasslands. The remotely sensed data is not available for every place at one time or at every time for one place. Thus, the study was focused on a large area from 15° E to 35° W and from 8°S to 20°N in the African Sahel. Instead of studying productivity relative to time, we studied it relative to soil moisture. Through this investigation we found soil moisture thresholds for the emergence of grassland growth, near linear grassland growth, and maturity of grassland growth. We also found that SiB4 overestimates SIF by about a factor of two for nearly every value of soil moisture. On the whole, SiB4 does a surprisingly good job of predicting the response of seasonal growth in tropical grasslands to soil moisture. Future work will continue to integrate remotely sensed SIF & soil moisture with SiB4 to add to our growing knowledge of carbon, water, and energy cycling in tropical grasslands.

  18. Soil moisture variability across different scales in an Indian watershed for satellite soil moisture product validation

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Gurjeet; Panda, Rabindra K.; Mohanty, Binayak P.; Jana, Raghavendra Belur

    2016-01-01

    Strategic ground-based sampling of soil moisture across multiple scales is necessary to validate remotely sensed quantities such as NASA’s Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) product. In the present study, in-situ soil moisture data were collected

  19. Robust Initial Wetness Condition Framework of an Event-Based Rainfall–Runoff Model Using Remotely Sensed Soil Moisture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wooyeon Sunwoo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Runoff prediction in limited-data areas is vital for hydrological applications, such as the design of infrastructure and flood defenses, runoff forecasting, and water management. Rainfall–runoff models may be useful for simulation of runoff generation, particularly event-based models, which offer a practical modeling scheme because of their simplicity. However, there is a need to reduce the uncertainties related to the estimation of the initial wetness condition (IWC prior to a rainfall event. Soil moisture is one of the most important variables in rainfall–runoff modeling, and remotely sensed soil moisture is recognized as an effective way to improve the accuracy of runoff prediction. In this study, the IWC was evaluated based on remotely sensed soil moisture by using the Soil Conservation Service-Curve Number (SCS-CN method, which is one of the representative event-based models used for reducing the uncertainty of runoff prediction. Four proxy variables for the IWC were determined from the measurements of total rainfall depth (API5, ground-based soil moisture (SSMinsitu, remotely sensed surface soil moisture (SSM, and soil water index (SWI provided by the advanced scatterometer (ASCAT. To obtain a robust IWC framework, this study consists of two main parts: the validation of remotely sensed soil moisture, and the evaluation of runoff prediction using four proxy variables with a set of rainfall–runoff events in the East Asian monsoon region. The results showed an acceptable agreement between remotely sensed soil moisture (SSM and SWI and ground based soil moisture data (SSMinsitu. In the proxy variable analysis, the SWI indicated the optimal value among the proposed proxy variables. In the runoff prediction analysis considering various infiltration conditions, the SSM and SWI proxy variables significantly reduced the runoff prediction error as compared with API5 by 60% and 66%, respectively. Moreover, the proposed IWC framework with

  20. MAPSM: A Spatio-Temporal Algorithm for Merging Soil Moisture from Active and Passive Microwave Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sat Kumar Tomer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Availability of soil moisture observations at a high spatial and temporal resolution is a prerequisite for various hydrological, agricultural and meteorological applications. In the current study, a novel algorithm for merging soil moisture from active microwave (SAR and passive microwave is presented. The MAPSM algorithm—Merge Active and Passive microwave Soil Moisture—uses a spatio-temporal approach based on the concept of the Water Change Capacity (WCC which represents the amplitude and direction of change in the soil moisture at the fine spatial resolution. The algorithm is applied and validated during a period of 3 years spanning from 2010 to 2013 over the Berambadi watershed which is located in a semi-arid tropical region in the Karnataka state of south India. Passive microwave products are provided from ESA Level 2 soil moisture products derived from Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS satellite (3 days temporal resolution and 40 km nominal spatial resolution. Active microwave are based on soil moisture retrievals from 30 images of RADARSAT-2 data (24 days temporal resolution and 20 m spatial resolution. The results show that MAPSM is able to provide a good estimate of soil moisture at a spatial resolution of 500 m with an RMSE of 0.025 m3/m3 and 0.069 m3/m3 when comparing it to soil moisture from RADARSAT-2 and in-situ measurements, respectively. The use of Sentinel-1 and RISAT products in MAPSM algorithm is envisioned over other areas where high number of revisits is available. This will need an update of the algorithm to take into account the angle sampling and resolution of Sentinel-1 and RISAT data.

  1. Ecosystem-scale plant hydraulic strategies inferred from remotely-sensed soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassiouni, M.; Good, S. P.; Higgins, C. W.

    2017-12-01

    Characterizing plant hydraulic strategies at the ecosystem scale is important to improve estimates of evapotranspiration and to understand ecosystem productivity and resilience. However, quantifying plant hydraulic traits beyond the species level is a challenge. The probability density function of soil moisture observations provides key information about the soil moisture states at which evapotranspiration is reduced by water stress. Here, an inverse Bayesian approach is applied to a standard bucket model of soil column hydrology forced with stochastic precipitation inputs. Through this approach, we are able to determine the soil moisture thresholds at which stomata are open or closed that are most consistent with observed soil moisture probability density functions. This research utilizes remotely-sensed soil moisture data to explore global patterns of ecosystem-scale plant hydraulic strategies. Results are complementary to literature values of measured hydraulic traits of various species in different climates and previous estimates of ecosystem-scale plant isohydricity. The presented approach provides a novel relation between plant physiological behavior and soil-water dynamics.

  2. Evaluating ESA CCI Soil Moisture in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Amy; Shukla, Shraddhanand; Arsenault, Kristi R.; Wang, Shugong; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Verdin, James P.

    2016-01-01

    To assess growing season conditions where ground based observations are limited or unavailable, food security and agricultural drought monitoring analysts rely on publicly available remotely sensed rainfall and vegetation greenness. There are also remotely sensed soil moisture observations from missions like the European Space Agency (ESA) Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and NASAs Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP), however these time series are still too short to conduct studies that demonstrate the utility of these data for operational applications, or to provide historical context for extreme wet or dry events. To promote the use of remotely sensed soil moisture in agricultural drought and food security monitoring, we use East Africa as a case study to evaluate the quality of a 30+ year time series of merged active-passive microwave soil moisture from the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI-SM). Compared to the Normalized Difference Vegetation index (NDVI) and modeled soil moisture products, we found substantial spatial and temporal gaps in the early part of the CCI-SM record, with adequate data coverage beginning in 1992. From this point forward, growing season CCI-SM anomalies were well correlated (R greater than 0.5) with modeled, seasonal soil moisture, and in some regions, NDVI. We use correlation analysis and qualitative comparisons at seasonal time scales to show that remotely sensed soil moisture can add information to a convergence of evidence framework that traditionally relies on rainfall and NDVI in moderately vegetated regions.

  3. Studies and Application of Remote Sensing Retrieval Method of Soil Moisture Content in Land Parcel Units in Irrigation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H.; Zhao, H. L.; Jiang, Y. Z.; Zang, W. B.

    2018-05-01

    Soil moisture is one of the important hydrological elements. Obtaining soil moisture accurately and effectively is of great significance for water resource management in irrigation area. During the process of soil moisture content retrieval with multiremote sensing data, multi- remote sensing data always brings multi-spatial scale problems which results in inconformity of soil moisture content retrieved by remote sensing in different spatial scale. In addition, agricultural water use management has suitable spatial scale of soil moisture information so as to satisfy the demands of dynamic management of water use and water demand in certain unit. We have proposed to use land parcel unit as the minimum unit to do soil moisture content research in agricultural water using area, according to soil characteristics, vegetation coverage characteristics in underlying layer, and hydrological characteristic into the basis of study unit division. We have proposed division method of land parcel units. Based on multi thermal infrared and near infrared remote sensing data, we calculate the ndvi and tvdi index and make a statistical model between the tvdi index and soil moisture of ground monitoring station. Then we move forward to study soil moisture remote sensing retrieval method on land parcel unit scale. And the method has been applied in Hetao irrigation area. Results show that compared with pixel scale the soil moisture content in land parcel unit scale has displayed stronger correlation with true value. Hence, remote sensing retrieval method of soil moisture content in land parcel unit scale has shown good applicability in Hetao irrigation area. We converted the research unit into the scale of land parcel unit. Using the land parcel units with unified crops and soil attributes as the research units more complies with the characteristics of agricultural water areas, avoids the problems such as decomposition of mixed pixels and excessive dependence on high-resolution data

  4. Low-cost microwave radiometry for remote sensing of soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikando, Eric Ndjoukwe

    2007-12-01

    Remote sensing is now widely regarded as a dominant means of studying the Earth and its surrounding atmosphere. This science is based on blackbody theory, which states that all objects emit broadband electromagnetic radiation proportional to their temperature. This thermal emission is detectable by radiometers---highly sensitive receivers capable of measuring extremely low power radiation across a continuum of frequencies. In the particular case of a soil surface, one important parameter affecting the emitted radiation is the amount of water content or, soil moisture. A high degree of precision is required when estimating soil moisture in order to yield accurate forecasting of precipitations and short-term climate variability such as storms and hurricanes. Rapid progress within the remote sensing community in tackling current limitations necessitates an awareness of the general public towards the benefits of the science. Information about remote sensing instrumentation and techniques remain inaccessible to many higher-education institutions due to the high cost of instrumentation and the current general inaccessibility of the science. In an effort to draw more talent within the field, more affordable and reliable scientific instrumentation are needed. This dissertation introduces the first low-cost handheld microwave instrumentation fully capable of surface soil moisture studies. The framework of this research is two-fold. First, the development of a low-cost handheld microwave radiometer using the well-known Dicke configuration is examined. The instrument features a super-heterodyne architecture and is designed following a microwave integrated circuit (MIC) system approach. Validation of the instrument is performed by applying it to various soil targets and comparing measurement results to gravimetric technique measured data; a proven scientific method for determining volumetric soil moisture content. Second, the development of a fully functional receiver RF front

  5. IRIS - A concept for microwave sensing of soil moisture and ocean salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, M.; Njoku, E.

    1997-01-01

    A concept is described for passive microwave sensing of soil moisture and ocean salinity from space. The Inflatable Radiometric Imaging System (IRIS) makes use of a large-diameter, offset-fed, parabolic-torus antenna with multiple feeds, in a conical pushbroom configuration.

  6. Landscape complexity and soil moisture variation in south Georgia, USA, for remote sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, Mario A.; Bosch, David; Madden, Marguerite; Usery, Lynn; Kvien, Craig

    2008-08-01

    soil moisture, since t-test's among adjacent plots with different LULCs showed significant differences. These results confirm that a remote sensing approach that considers homogeneous LULC landscape fragments can be used to identify landscape units of similar soil moisture behavior under heterogeneous landscapes. In addition, the in situ USDA-ARS network will serve better in remote sensing studies in which sensors with fine spatial resolution are evaluated. This study is a first step towards identifying landscape units that can be monitored using the single point reading of the USDA-ARS stations network.

  7. The use of remotely sensed soil moisture data in large-scale models of the hydrological cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomonson, V. V.; Gurney, R. J.; Schmugge, T. J.

    1985-01-01

    Manabe (1982) has reviewed numerical simulations of the atmosphere which provided a framework within which an examination of the dynamics of the hydrological cycle could be conducted. It was found that the climate is sensitive to soil moisture variability in space and time. The challenge arises now to improve the observations of soil moisture so as to provide up-dated boundary condition inputs to large scale models including the hydrological cycle. Attention is given to details regarding the significance of understanding soil moisture variations, soil moisture estimation using remote sensing, and energy and moisture balance modeling.

  8. Error characterisation of global active and passive microwave soil moisture datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. Dorigo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the error structures of remotely sensed soil moisture observations is essential for correctly interpreting observed variations and trends in the data or assimilating them in hydrological or numerical weather prediction models. Nevertheless, a spatially coherent assessment of the quality of the various globally available datasets is often hampered by the limited availability over space and time of reliable in-situ measurements. As an alternative, this study explores the triple collocation error estimation technique for assessing the relative quality of several globally available soil moisture products from active (ASCAT and passive (AMSR-E and SSM/I microwave sensors. The triple collocation is a powerful statistical tool to estimate the root mean square error while simultaneously solving for systematic differences in the climatologies of a set of three linearly related data sources with independent error structures. Prerequisite for this technique is the availability of a sufficiently large number of timely corresponding observations. In addition to the active and passive satellite-based datasets, we used the ERA-Interim and GLDAS-NOAH reanalysis soil moisture datasets as a third, independent reference. The prime objective is to reveal trends in uncertainty related to different observation principles (passive versus active, the use of different frequencies (C-, X-, and Ku-band for passive microwave observations, and the choice of the independent reference dataset (ERA-Interim versus GLDAS-NOAH. The results suggest that the triple collocation method provides realistic error estimates. Observed spatial trends agree well with the existing theory and studies on the performance of different observation principles and frequencies with respect to land cover and vegetation density. In addition, if all theoretical prerequisites are fulfilled (e.g. a sufficiently large number of common observations is available and errors of the different

  9. Ground Albedo Neutron Sensing (GANS) method for measurements of soil moisture in cropped fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres Rivera Villarreyes, Carlos; Baroni, Gabriele; Oswald, Sascha E.

    2013-04-01

    Measurement of soil moisture at the plot or hill-slope scale is an important link between local vadose zone hydrology and catchment hydrology. However, so far only few methods are on the way to close this gap between point measurements and remote sensing. This study evaluates the applicability of the Ground Albedo Neutron Sensing (GANS) for integral quantification of seasonal soil moisture in the root zone at the scale of a field or small watershed, making use of the crucial role of hydrogen as neutron moderator relative to other landscape materials. GANS measurements were performed at two locations in Germany under different vegetative situations and seasonal conditions. Ground albedo neutrons were measured at (i) a lowland Bornim farmland (Brandenburg) cropped with sunflower in 2011 and winter rye in 2012, and (ii) a mountainous farmland catchment (Schaefertal, Harz Mountains) since middle 2011. At both sites depth profiles of soil moisture were measured at several locations in parallel by frequency domain reflectometry (FDR) for comparison and calibration. Initially, calibration parameters derived from a previous study with corn cover were tested under sunflower and winter rye periods at the same farmland. GANS soil moisture based on these parameters showed a large discrepancy compared to classical soil moisture measurements. Therefore, two new calibration approaches and four different ways of integration the soil moisture profile to an integral value for GANS were evaluated in this study. This included different sets of calibration parameters based on different growing periods of sunflower. New calibration parameters showed a good agreement with FDR network during sunflower period (RMSE = 0.023 m3 m-3), but they underestimated soil moisture in the winter rye period. The GANS approach resulted to be highly affected by temporal changes of biomass and crop types which suggest the need of neutron corrections for long-term observations with crop rotation. Finally

  10. A Conceptual Approach to Assimilating Remote Sensing Data to Improve Soil Moisture Profile Estimates in a Surface Flux/Hydrology Model. Part 1; Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosson, William L.; Laymon, Charles A.; Inguva, Ramarao; Schamschula, Marius; Caulfield, John

    1998-01-01

    Knowledge of the amount of water in the soil is of great importance to many earth science disciplines. Soil moisture is a key variable in controlling the exchange of water and energy between the land surface and the atmosphere. Thus, soil moisture information is valuable in a wide range of applications including weather and climate, runoff potential and flood control, early warning of droughts, irrigation, crop yield forecasting, soil erosion, reservoir management, geotechnical engineering, and water quality. Despite the importance of soil moisture information, widespread and continuous measurements of soil moisture are not possible today. Although many earth surface conditions can be measured from satellites, we still cannot adequately measure soil moisture from space. Research in soil moisture remote sensing began in the mid 1970s shortly after the surge in satellite development. Recent advances in remote sensing have shown that soil moisture can be measured, at least qualitatively, by several methods. Quantitative measurements of moisture in the soil surface layer have been most successful using both passive and active microwave remote sensing, although complications arise from surface roughness and vegetation type and density. Early attempts to measure soil moisture from space-borne microwave instruments were hindered by what is now considered sub-optimal wavelengths (shorter than 5 cm) and the coarse spatial resolution of the measurements. L-band frequencies between 1 and 3 GHz (10-30 cm) have been deemed optimal for detection of soil moisture in the upper few centimeters of soil. The Electronically Steered Thinned Array Radiometer (ESTAR), an aircraft-based instrument operating a 1,4 GHz, has shown great promise for soil moisture determination. Initiatives are underway to develop a similar instrument for space. Existing space-borne synthetic aperture radars (SARS) operating at C- and L-band have also shown some potential to detect surface wetness. The

  11. Remote sensing estimation of vegetation moisture for the prediction of fire hazard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maffei, C.; Menenti, M.

    2013-01-01

    Various factors contribute to forest fire hazard, and among them vegetation moisture is the one that dictates susceptibility to fire ignition and propagation. The scientific community has developed a number of spectral indexes based on remote sensing measurements in the optical domain for the

  12. Data Assimilation using observed streamflow and remotely-sensed soil moisture for improving sub-seasonal-to-seasonal forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, S.; Mazrooei, A.; Lakshmi, V.; Wood, A.

    2017-12-01

    Subseasonal-to-seasonal (S2S) forecasts of soil moisture and streamflow provides critical information for water and agricultural systems to support short-term planning and mangement. This study evaluates the role of observed streamflow and remotely-sensed soil moisture from SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive) mission in improving S2S streamflow and soil moisture forecasting using data assimilation (DA). We first show the ability to forecast soil moisture at monthly-to-seaasonal time scale by forcing climate forecasts with NASA's Land Information System and then compares the developed soil moisture forecast with the SMAP data over the Southeast US. Our analyses show significant skill in forecasting real-time soil moisture over 1-3 months using climate information. We also show that the developed soil moisture forecasts capture the observed severe drought conditions (2007-2008) over the Southeast US. Following that, we consider both SMAP data and observed streamflow for improving S2S streamflow and soil moisture forecasts for a pilot study area, Tar River basin, in NC. Towards this, we consider variational assimilation (VAR) of gauge-measured daily streamflow data in improving initial hydrologic conditions of Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model. The utility of data assimilation is then assessed in improving S2S forecasts of streamflow and soil moisture through a retrospective analyses. Furthermore, the optimal frequency of data assimilation and optimal analysis window (number of past observations to use) are also assessed in order to achieve the maximum improvement in S2S forecasts of streamflow and soil moisture. Potential utility of updating initial conditions using DA and providing skillful forcings are also discussed.

  13. Comparisons of remotely sensed and model-simulated soil moisture over a heterogenous watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, D.S.; Wood, E.F.; Troch, P.A.; Mancini, M.; Jackson, T.J.

    1994-01-01

    Soil moisture estimates from a distributed hydrologic model and two microwave airborne sensors (Push Broom Microwave Radiometer and Synthetic Aperture Radar) are compared with ground measurements on two different scales, using data collected during afield experiment over a 7.4-km 2 heterogeneous watershed located in central Pennsylvania. It is found that both microwave sensors and the hydrologic model successfully reflect the temporal variation of soil moisture. Watershed-averaged soil moistures estimated by the microwave sensors are in good agreement with ground measurements. The hydrologic model initialized by stream flow records yields estimates that are wetter than observations. The preliminary test of utilizing remotely sensed information as a feedback to correct the initial state of the hydrologic model shows promising results. (author)

  14. Australian Soil Moisture Field Experiments in Support of Soil Moisture Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Edward; Walker, Jeff; Rudiger, Christopher; Panciera, Rocco

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale field campaigns provide the critical fink between our understanding retrieval algorithms developed at the point scale, and algorithms suitable for satellite applications at vastly larger pixel scales. Retrievals of land parameters must deal with the substantial sub-pixel heterogeneity that is present in most regions. This is particularly the case for soil moisture remote sensing, because of the long microwave wavelengths (L-band) that are optimal. Yet, airborne L-band imagers have generally been large, heavy, and required heavy-lift aircraft resources that are expensive and difficult to schedule. Indeed, US soil moisture campaigns, have been constrained by these factors, and European campaigns have used non-imagers due to instrument and aircraft size constraints. Despite these factors, these campaigns established that large-scale soil moisture remote sensing was possible, laying the groundwork for satellite missions. Starting in 2005, a series of airborne field campaigns have been conducted in Australia: to improve our understanding of soil moisture remote sensing at large scales over heterogeneous areas. These field data have been used to test and refine retrieval algorithms for soil moisture satellite missions, and most recently with the launch of the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission, to provide validation measurements over a multi-pixel area. The campaigns to date have included a preparatory campaign in 2005, two National Airborne Field Experiments (NAFE), (2005 and 2006), two campaigns to the Simpson Desert (2008 and 2009), and one Australian Airborne Cal/val Experiment for SMOS (AACES), just concluded in the austral spring of 2010. The primary airborne sensor for each campaign has been the Polarimetric L-band Microwave Radiometer (PLMR), a 6-beam pushbroom imager that is small enough to be compatible with light aircraft, greatly facilitating the execution of the series of campaigns, and a key to their success. An

  15. Validation of remotely-sensed soil moisture in the absence of in situ soil moisture: the case of the Yankin Basin, a tributary of the Niger River basin

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Badou, DF

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available of remotely-sensed soil moisture is therefore promising. However, considering the limitations of remote sensing data, there is a need to check their validity prior to their utilization for impact studies. This in turn poses a problem in the absence of in situ...

  16. Using high-resolution soil moisture modelling to assess the uncertainty of microwave remotely sensed soil moisture products at the correct spatial and temporal support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanders, N.; Karssenberg, D.; Bierkens, M. F. P.; Van Dam, J. C.; De Jong, S. M.

    2012-04-01

    Soil moisture is a key variable in the hydrological cycle and important in hydrological modelling. When assimilating soil moisture into flood forecasting models, the improvement of forecasting skills depends on the ability to accurately estimate the spatial and temporal patterns of soil moisture content throughout the river basin. Space-borne remote sensing may provide this information with a high temporal and spatial resolution and with a global coverage. Currently three microwave soil moisture products are available: AMSR-E, ASCAT and SMOS. The quality of these satellite-based products is often assessed by comparing them with in-situ observations of soil moisture. This comparison is however hampered by the difference in spatial and temporal support (i.e., resolution, scale), because the spatial resolution of microwave satellites is rather low compared to in-situ field measurements. Thus, the aim of this study is to derive a method to assess the uncertainty of microwave satellite soil moisture products at the correct spatial support. To overcome the difference in support size between in-situ soil moisture observations and remote sensed soil moisture, we used a stochastic, distributed unsaturated zone model (SWAP, van Dam (2000)) that is upscaled to the support of different satellite products. A detailed assessment of the SWAP model uncertainty is included to ensure that the uncertainty in satellite soil moisture is not overestimated due to an underestimation of the model uncertainty. We simulated unsaturated water flow up to a depth of 1.5m with a vertical resolution of 1 to 10 cm and on a horizontal grid of 1 km2 for the period Jan 2010 - Jun 2011. The SWAP model was first calibrated and validated on in-situ data of the REMEDHUS soil moisture network (Spain). Next, to evaluate the satellite products, the model was run for areas in the proximity of 79 meteorological stations in Spain, where model results were aggregated to the correct support of the satellite

  17. Opto-thermal moisture content and moisture depth profile measurements in organic materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiao, P.; Guo, X.; Cui, Y.Y.; Imhof, R.; Bicanic, D.D.

    2004-01-01

    Opto-thermal transient emission radiometry(OTTER) is a infrared remote sensing technique, which has been successfully used in in vivo skin moisture content and skin moisture depth profiling measurements.In present paper, we extend this moisture content measurement capability to analyze the moisture

  18. Absolute moisture sensing for cotton bales

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the recent prevalence of moisture restoration systems in cotton gins, more and more gins are putting moisture back into the bales immediately before the packaging operation. There are two main reasons for this recent trend, the first is that it has been found that added moisture at the bale pre...

  19. Detecting moisture status of pecan orchards and the potential of remotely-sensed surface reflectance data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Yahia Abdelrahman

    Demand for New Mexico's limited water resources coupled with periodic drought has increased the need to schedule irrigation of pecan orchards based on tree water status. The overall goal of this research was to develop advanced tree water status sensing techniques to optimize irrigation scheduling of pecan orchards. To achieve this goal, I conducted three studies in the La Mancha and Leyendecker orchards, both mature pecan orchards located in the Mesilla Valley, New Mexico. In the first study, I screened leaf-level physiological changes that occurred during cyclic irrigation to determine parameters that best represented changes in plant moisture status. Then, I linked plant physiological changes to remotely-sensed surface reflectance data derived from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+). In the second study, I assessed the impact of water deficits that developed during the flood irrigation dry-down cycles on photosynthesis (A) and gas exchange and established preliminary water deficit thresholds of midday stem water potential (Psi smd) critical to A and gas exchange of pecans. In a third study, I investigated whether hyperspectral data obtained from a handheld spectroradiometer and multispectral remotely-sensed data derived from Landsat 7 ETM+ and Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) could detect moisture status in pecans during cyclic flood irrigations. I conducted the first study simultaneously in both orchards. Leaf-level physiological responses and remotely-sensed surface reflectance data were collected from trees that were either well watered or in water deficit. Midday stem water potential was the best leaf-level physiological response to detect moisture status in pecans. Multiple linear regression between Psismd and vegetation indices revealed a significant relationship (R 2 = 0.54) in both orchards. Accordingly, I concluded that remotely-sensed multispectral data form Landsat TMETM+ holds promise for detecting the moisture

  20. Global-scale assessment and combination of SMAP with ASCAT (Active) and AMSR2 (Passive) soil moisture products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Global-scale surface soil moisture (SSM) products retrieved from active and passive microwave remote sensing provide an effective method for monitoring near-real-time SSM content with nearly daily temporal resolution. In the present study, we first inter-compared global-scale error patterns and comb...

  1. Evaluating the Utility of Remotely-Sensed Soil Moisture Retrievals for Operational Agricultural Drought Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolten, John D.; Crow, Wade T.; Zhan, Xiwu; Jackson, Thomas J.; Reynolds,Curt

    2010-01-01

    Soil moisture is a fundamental data source used by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) International Production Assessment Division (IPAD) to monitor crop growth stage and condition and subsequently, globally forecast agricultural yields. Currently, the USDA IPAD estimates surface and root-zone soil moisture using a two-layer modified Palmer soil moisture model forced by global precipitation and temperature measurements. However, this approach suffers from well-known errors arising from uncertainty in model forcing data and highly simplified model physics. Here we attempt to correct for these errors by designing and applying an Ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) data assimilation system to integrate surface soil moisture retrievals from the NASA Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) into the USDA modified Palmer soil moisture model. An assessment of soil moisture analysis products produced from this assimilation has been completed for a five-year (2002 to 2007) period over the North American continent between 23degN - 50degN and 128degW - 65degW. In particular, a data denial experimental approach is utilized to isolate the added utility of integrating remotely-sensed soil moisture by comparing EnKF soil moisture results obtained using (relatively) low-quality precipitation products obtained from real-time satellite imagery to baseline Palmer model runs forced with higher quality rainfall. An analysis of root-zone anomalies for each model simulation suggests that the assimilation of AMSR-E surface soil moisture retrievals can add significant value to USDA root-zone predictions derived from real-time satellite precipitation products.

  2. Assimilation of Remotely Sensed Soil Moisture Profiles into a Crop Modeling Framework for Reliable Yield Estimations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, V.; Cruise, J.; Mecikalski, J. R.

    2017-12-01

    Much effort has been expended recently on the assimilation of remotely sensed soil moisture into operational land surface models (LSM). These efforts have normally been focused on the use of data derived from the microwave bands and results have often shown that improvements to model simulations have been limited due to the fact that microwave signals only penetrate the top 2-5 cm of the soil surface. It is possible that model simulations could be further improved through the introduction of geostationary satellite thermal infrared (TIR) based root zone soil moisture in addition to the microwave deduced surface estimates. In this study, root zone soil moisture estimates from the TIR based Atmospheric Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI) model were merged with NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) based surface estimates through the application of informational entropy. Entropy can be used to characterize the movement of moisture within the vadose zone and accounts for both advection and diffusion processes. The Principle of Maximum Entropy (POME) can be used to derive complete soil moisture profiles and, fortuitously, only requires a surface boundary condition as well as the overall mean moisture content of the soil column. A lower boundary can be considered a soil parameter or obtained from the LSM itself. In this study, SMAP provided the surface boundary while ALEXI supplied the mean and the entropy integral was used to tie the two together and produce the vertical profile. However, prior to the merging, the coarse resolution (9 km) SMAP data were downscaled to the finer resolution (4.7 km) ALEXI grid. The disaggregation scheme followed the Soil Evaporative Efficiency approach and again, all necessary inputs were available from the TIR model. The profiles were then assimilated into a standard agricultural crop model (Decision Support System for Agrotechnology, DSSAT) via the ensemble Kalman Filter. The study was conducted over the Southeastern United States for the

  3. Investigation of remote sensing scale up for hot cell waste tank applications. CPAC optical moisture monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.L.

    1994-01-01

    This report discusses work done to investigate the feasibility of using non-contact optical absorption to remotely sense the surface moisture content of salt cake materials. Optical measurements were made in a dimensionally scaled setup to investigate this technique for in-situ waste tank applications. Moisture measurements were obtained from BY-104 simulant samples with 0 wt%, 10 wt%, and 20 wt% moisture content using the back-scattered light from a pulsed infrared optical parametric converter (OPC) laser source operating from 1.51 to 2.12 micron. An InGaAs detector, with 0.038 steradian solid angle (hemisphere = 6.28 steradians) collection angle was used to detect the back-scattered light. This work indicated that there was sufficient back-scatter from the BY-104 material to provide an indication of the surface moisture content

  4. Error Characterisation and Merging of Active and Passive Microwave Soil Moisture Data Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Wolfgang; Gruber, Alexander; de Jeu, Richard; Parinussa, Robert; Chung, Daniel; Dorigo, Wouter; Reimer, Christoph; Kidd, Richard

    2015-04-01

    the products is available, the estimate of the respective product is used, while on days where both active and passive sensors provide an estimate, their observations are averaged. REFERENCES Dorigo, W.A., A. Gruber, R. de Jeu, W. Wagner, T. Stacke, A. Löw, C. Albergel, L. Brocca, D. Chung, R. Parinussa, R. Kidd (2015) Evaluation of the ESA CCI soil moisture product using ground-based observations, Remote Sensing of Environment, in press. Wagner, W., W. Dorigo, R. de Jeu, D. Fernandez, J. Benveniste, E. Haas, M. Ertl (2012) Fusion of active and passive microwave observations to create an Essential Climate Variable data record on soil moisture, ISPRS Annals of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences (ISPRS Annals), Volume I-7, XXII ISPRS Congress, Melbourne, Australia, 25 August-1 September 2012, 315-321. Zwieback, S., K. Scipal, W. Dorigo, W. Wagner (2012) Structural and statistical properties of the collocation technique for error characterization, Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics, 19, 69-80.

  5. Cross-evaluation of modelled and remotely sensed surface soil moisture with in situ data in southwestern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Albergel

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The SMOSMANIA soil moisture network in Southwestern France is used to evaluate modelled and remotely sensed soil moisture products. The surface soil moisture (SSM measured in situ at 5 cm permits to evaluate SSM from the SIM operational hydrometeorological model of Météo-France and to perform a cross-evaluation of the normalised SSM estimates derived from coarse-resolution (25 km active microwave observations from the ASCAT scatterometer instrument (C-band, onboard METOP, issued by EUMETSAT and resampled to the Discrete Global Grid (DGG, 12.5 km gridspacing by TU-Wien (Vienna University of Technology over a two year period (2007–2008. A downscaled ASCAT product at one kilometre scale is evaluated as well, together with operational soil moisture products of two meteorological services, namely the ALADIN numerical weather prediction model (NWP and the Integrated Forecasting System (IFS analysis of Météo-France and ECMWF, respectively. In addition to the operational SSM analysis of ECMWF, a second analysis using a simplified extended Kalman filter and assimilating the ASCAT SSM estimates is tested. The ECMWF SSM estimates correlate better with the in situ observations than the Météo-France products. This may be due to the higher ability of the multi-layer land surface model used at ECMWF to represent the soil moisture profile. However, the SSM derived from SIM corresponds to a thin soil surface layer and presents good correlations with ASCAT SSM estimates for the very first centimetres of soil. At ECMWF, the use of a new data assimilation technique, which is able to use the ASCAT SSM, improves the SSM and the root-zone soil moisture analyses.

  6. Use of active and passive microwave remote sensing for soil moisture estimation through corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, P.E.; Chauhan, N.S.; Jackson, T.J.

    1996-01-01

    Over the past several years NASA, USDA, and Princeton University have collaborated to conduct hydrology field experiments in instrumented research watersheds in Pennsylvania and Oklahoma with a goal of characterizing the spatial and temporal variability of soil moisture using microwave sensors. As part of these experiments, L-band radar data from both truck and aircraft sensors were used to validate the performance of a vegetation scattering model in which discrete scatter random media techniques were employed to calculate vegetation transmissivity and scattering. These parameters were then used in a soil moisture prediction algorithm based on a radiative transfer approach utilizing aircraft passive microwave data from the L-band PBMR and ESTAR radiometers. Soil moisture was predicted in both experiments for several large corn fields which represented the densest vegetation canopies of all the test fields. Over the 20 per cent change in soil moisture encountered in the experiments, the match of predicted to measured soil moisture was excellent, with an average absolute error of about 0 · 02 cm 3 cm −3 . (author)

  7. Ground-based investigation of soil moisture variability within remote sensing footprints during the Southern Great Plains 1997 (SGP97) Hydrology Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Famiglietti, J.S.; Devereaux, J.A.; Laymon, C.A.; Tsegaye, T.; Houser, P.R.; Jackson, T.J.; Graham, S.T.; Rodell, M.; Oevelen, van P.J.

    1999-01-01

    Surface soil moisture content is highly variable in both space and time. While remote sensing provides an effective methodology for mapping surface moisture content over large areas, it averages within-pixel variability thereby masking the underlying heterogeneity observed at the land surface. This

  8. Two Solutions of Soil Moisture Sensing with RFID for Landslide Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Francisco Pichorim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Two solutions for UHF RFID tags for soil moisture sensing were designed and are described in this paper. In the first, two conventional tags (standard transponders are employed: one, placed close to the soil surface, is the sensor tag, while the other, separated from the soil, is the reference for system calibration. By transmission power ramps, the tag’s turn-on power levels are measured and correlated with soil condition (dry or wet. In the second solution, the SL900A chip, which supports up to two external sensors and an internal temperature sensor, is used. An interdigital capacitive sensor was connected to the transponder chip and used for soil moisture measurement. In a novel design for an UHF RFID tag the sensor is placed below the soil surface, while the transponder and antenna are above the soil to improve communication. Both solutions are evaluated practically and results show the presence of water in soil can be remotely detected allowing for their application in landslide monitoring.

  9. Assessment of soil moisture dynamics on an irrigated maize field using cosmic ray neutron sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiffele, Lena Maria; Baroni, Gabriele; Oswald, Sascha E.

    2015-04-01

    In recent years cosmic ray neutron sensing (CRS) developed as a valuable, indirect and non-invasive method to estimate soil moisture at a scale of tens of hectares, covering the gap between point scale measurements and large scale remote sensing techniques. The method is particularly promising in cropped and irrigated fields where invasive installation of belowground measurement devices could conflict with the agricultural management. However, CRS is affected by all hydrogen pools in the measurement footprint and a fast growing biomass provides some challenges for the interpretation of the signal and application of the method for detecting soil moisture. For this aim, in this study a cosmic ray probe was installed on a field near Braunschweig (Germany) during one maize growing season (2014). The field was irrigated in stripes of 50 m width using sprinkler devices for a total of seven events. Three soil sampling campaigns were conducted throughout the growing season to assess the effect of different hydrogen pools on calibration results. Additionally, leaf area index and biomass measurements were collected to provide the relative contribution of the biomass on the CRS signal. Calibration results obtained with the different soil sampling campaigns showed some discrepancy well correlated with the biomass growth. However, after the calibration function was adjusted to account also for lattice water and soil organic carbon, thus representing an equivalent water content of the soil, the differences decreased. Soil moisture estimated with CRS responded well to precipitation and irrigation events, confirming also the effective footprint of the method (i.e., radius 300 m) and showing occurring water stress for the crop. Thus, the dynamics are in agreement with the soil moisture determined with point scale measurements but they are less affected by the heterogeneous moisture conditions within the field. For this reason, by applying a detailed calibration, CRS proves to be a

  10. X-ray and visible light transmission as two-dimensional, full-field moisture-sensing techniques: A preliminary comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tidwell, V.C.; Glass, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    Two independent high-resolution moisture-sensing techniques, x-ray absorption and light transmission, have been developed for use in two-dimensional, thin-slab experimental systems. The techniques yield full-field measurement capabilities with exceptional resolution of moisture content in time and space. These techniques represent powerful tools for the experimentalist to investigate processes governing unsaturated flow and transport through fractured and nonfractured porous media. Evaluation of these techniques has been accomplished by direct comparison of data obtained by means of the x-ray and light techniques as well as comparison with data collected by gravimetric and gamma-ray densitometry techniques. Results show excellent agreement between data collected by the four moisture-content measurement techniques. This program was established to support the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

  11. Assessment of Wildfire Risk in Southern California with Live Fuel Moisture Measurement and Remotely Sensed Vegetation Water Content Proxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, S.; Kim, S. H.; Nghiem, S. V.; Kafatos, M.

    2017-12-01

    Live fuel moisture (LFM) is the water content of live herbaceous plants expressed as a percentage of the oven-dry weight of plant. It is a critical parameter in fire ignition in Mediterranean climate and routinely measured in sites selected by fire agencies across the U.S. Vegetation growing cycle, meteorological metrics, soil type, and topography all contribute to the seasonal and inter-annual variation of LFM, and therefore, the risk of wildfire. The optical remote sensing-based vegetation indices (VIs) have been used to estimate the LFM. Comparing to the VIs, microwave remote sensing products have advantages like less saturation effect in greenness and representing the water content of the vegetation cover. In this study, we established three models to evaluate the predictability of LFM in Southern California using MODIS NDVI, vegetation temperature condition index (VTCI) from downscaled Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) products, and vegetation optical depth (VOD) derived by Land Parameter Retrieval Model. Other ancillary variables, such as topographic factors (aspects and slope) and meteorological metrics (air temperature, precipitation, and relative humidity), are also considered in the models. The model results revealed an improvement of LFM estimation from SMAP products and VOD, despite the uncertainties introduced in the downscaling and parameter retrieval. The estimation of LFM using remote sensing data can provide an assessment of wildfire danger better than current methods using NDVI-based growing seasonal index. Future study will test the VOD estimation from SMAP data using the multi-temporal dual channel algorithm (MT-DCA) and extend the LFM modeling to a regional scale.

  12. Inter-Comparison of Retrieved and Modelled Soil Moisture and Coherency of Remotely Sensed Hydrology Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolassa, Jana; Aires, Filipe

    2013-04-01

    A neural network algorithm has been developed for the retrieval of Soil Moisture (SM) from global satellite observations. The algorithm estimates soil moisture from a synergy of passive and active microwave, infrared and visible satellite observations in order to capture the different SM variabilities that the individual sensors are sensitive to. The advantages and drawbacks of each satellite observation have been analysed and the information type and content carried by each observation have been determined. A global data set of monthly mean soil moisture for the 1993-2000 period has been computed with the neural network algorithm (Kolassa et al., in press, 2012). The resulting soil moisture retrieval product has then been used in an inter-comparison study including soil moisture from (1) the HTESSEL model (Balsamo et al., 2009), (2) the WACMOS satellite product (Liu et al., 2011), and (3) in situ measurements from the International Soil Moisture Network (Dorigo et al., 2011). The analysis showed that the satellite remote sensing products are well-suited to capture the spatial variability of the in situ data and even show the potential to improve the modelled soil moisture. Both satellite retrievals also display a good agreement with the temporal structures of the in situ data, however, HTESSEL appears to be more suitable for capturing the temporal variability (Kolassa et al., in press, 2012). The use of this type of neural network approach is currently being investigated as a retrieval option for the SMOS mission. Our soil moisture retrieval product has also been used in a coherence study with precipitation data from GPCP (Adler et al., 2003) and inundation estimates from GIEMS (Prigent et al., 2007). It was investigated on a global scale whether the three observation-based datasets are coherent with each other and show the expected behaviour. For most regions of the Earth, the datasets were consistent and the behaviour observed could be explained with the known

  13. ESTAR: The Electronically Scanned Thinned Array Radiometer for remote sensing measurement of soil moisture and ocean salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, C. T.

    1993-01-01

    The product of a working group assembled to help define the science objectives and measurement requirements of a spaceborne L-band microwave radiometer devoted to remote sensing of surface soil moisture and sea surface salinity is presented. Remote sensing in this long-wavelength portion of the microwave spectrum requires large antennas in low-Earth orbit to achieve acceptable spatial resolution. The proposed radiometer, ESTAR, is unique in that it employs aperture synthesis to reduce the antenna area requirements for a space system.

  14. Hydrological Storage Length Scales Represented by Remote Sensing Estimates of Soil Moisture and Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Ruzbeh; Short Gianotti, Daniel; McColl, Kaighin A.; Haghighi, Erfan; Salvucci, Guido D.; Entekhabi, Dara

    2018-03-01

    The soil water content profile is often well correlated with the soil moisture state near the surface. They share mutual information such that analysis of surface-only soil moisture is, at times and in conjunction with precipitation information, reflective of deeper soil fluxes and dynamics. This study examines the characteristic length scale, or effective depth Δz, of a simple active hydrological control volume. The volume is described only by precipitation inputs and soil water dynamics evident in surface-only soil moisture observations. To proceed, first an observation-based technique is presented to estimate the soil moisture loss function based on analysis of soil moisture dry-downs and its successive negative increments. Then, the length scale Δz is obtained via an optimization process wherein the root-mean-squared (RMS) differences between surface soil moisture observations and its predictions based on water balance are minimized. The process is entirely observation-driven. The surface soil moisture estimates are obtained from the NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission and precipitation from the gauge-corrected Climate Prediction Center daily global precipitation product. The length scale Δz exhibits a clear east-west gradient across the contiguous United States (CONUS), such that large Δz depths (>200 mm) are estimated in wetter regions with larger mean precipitation. The median Δz across CONUS is 135 mm. The spatial variance of Δz is predominantly explained and influenced by precipitation characteristics. Soil properties, especially texture in the form of sand fraction, as well as the mean soil moisture state have a lesser influence on the length scale.

  15. Deriving temporally continuous soil moisture estimations at fine resolution by downscaling remotely sensed product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yan; Ge, Yong; Wang, Jianghao; Heuvelink, Gerard B. M.

    2018-06-01

    Land surface soil moisture (SSM) has important roles in the energy balance of the land surface and in the water cycle. Downscaling of coarse-resolution SSM remote sensing products is an efficient way for producing fine-resolution data. However, the downscaling methods used most widely require full-coverage visible/infrared satellite data as ancillary information. These methods are restricted to cloud-free days, making them unsuitable for continuous monitoring. The purpose of this study is to overcome this limitation to obtain temporally continuous fine-resolution SSM estimations. The local spatial heterogeneities of SSM and multiscale ancillary variables were considered in the downscaling process both to solve the problem of the strong variability of SSM and to benefit from the fusion of ancillary information. The generation of continuous downscaled remote sensing data was achieved via two principal steps. For cloud-free days, a stepwise hybrid geostatistical downscaling approach, based on geographically weighted area-to-area regression kriging (GWATARK), was employed by combining multiscale ancillary variables with passive microwave remote sensing data. Then, the GWATARK-estimated SSM and China Soil Moisture Dataset from Microwave Data Assimilation SSM data were combined to estimate fine-resolution data for cloudy days. The developed methodology was validated by application to the 25-km resolution daily AMSR-E SSM product to produce continuous SSM estimations at 1-km resolution over the Tibetan Plateau. In comparison with ground-based observations, the downscaled estimations showed correlation (R ≥ 0.7) for both ascending and descending overpasses. The analysis indicated the high potential of the proposed approach for producing a temporally continuous SSM product at fine spatial resolution.

  16. Evaluation of Assimilated SMOS Soil Moisture Data for US Cropland Soil Moisture Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhengwei; Sherstha, Ranjay; Crow, Wade; Bolten, John; Mladenova, Iva; Yu, Genong; Di, Liping

    2016-01-01

    Remotely sensed soil moisture data can provide timely, objective and quantitative crop soil moisture information with broad geospatial coverage and sufficiently high resolution observations collected throughout the growing season. This paper evaluates the feasibility of using the assimilated ESA Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS)Mission L-band passive microwave data for operational US cropland soil surface moisture monitoring. The assimilated SMOS soil moisture data are first categorized to match with the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) survey based weekly soil moisture observation data, which are ordinal. The categorized assimilated SMOS soil moisture data are compared with NASSs survey-based weekly soil moisture data for consistency and robustness using visual assessment and rank correlation. Preliminary results indicate that the assimilated SMOS soil moisture data highly co-vary with NASS field observations across a large geographic area. Therefore, SMOS data have great potential for US operational cropland soil moisture monitoring.

  17. Assimilation of a thermal remote sensing-based soil moisture proxy into a root-zone water balance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, W. T.; Kustas, W. P.

    2006-05-01

    Two types of Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer (SVAT) modeling approaches are commonly applied to monitoring root-zone soil water availability. Water and Energy Balance (WEB) SVAT modeling are based forcing a prognostic water balance model with precipitation observations. In constrast, thermal Remote Sensing (RS) observations of canopy radiometric temperatures can be integrated into purely diagnostic SVAT models to predict the onset of vegetation water stress due to low root-zone soil water availability. Unlike WEB-SVAT models, RS-SVAT models do not require observed precipitation. Using four growings seasons (2001 to 2004) of profile soil moisture, micro-meteorology, and surface radiometric temperature observations at the USDA's OPE3 site, root-zone soil moisture predictions made by both WEB- and RS-SVAT modeling approaches are intercompared with each other and availible root- zone soil moisture observations. Results indicate that root-zone soil moisture estimates derived from a WEB- SVAT model have slightly more skill in detecting soil moisture anomalies at the site than comporable predictions from a competing RS-SVAT modeling approach. However, the relative advantage of the WEB-SVAT model disappears when it is forced with lower-quality rainfall information typical of continental and global-scale rainfall data sets. Most critically, root-zone soil moisture errors associated with both modeling approaches are sufficiently independent such that the merger of both information from both proxies - using either simple linear averaging or an Ensemble Kalman filter - creates a merge soil moisture estimate that is more accurate than either of its parent components.

  18. Water activity reduction of intermediate moisture yellowstrip trevally (Selaroides leptolepis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phomajun, P.

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Water activity reduction of intermediate moisture yellowstrip trevally was studied. The optimal time (8, 12, 16, 20 hrs. for curing marinade was investigated. The effects of different humectants (glycerol, sorbitol, lactitol, glucose syrup at 50% w/w of curing ingredients were compared. Results showed that moisture content and water activity of cured yellowstrip trevally decreased as curing time increased (p0.05. However, the hardness of intermediate moisture Yellowstrip trevally, determined by texture analyzer, decreased. Hardness, shear force, L a b value of sample added with various humectants were lower than those of the control (p0.05. The glycerol-added samples had the highest overall acceptability score and were higher than control, whereas the glucose syrup-added samples had the lowest score. Moisture content of the samples with the addition of various humectants was higher than that of the control (18.28 %. The samples added with glycerol retained the highest moisture (24.94%. The adsorption isotherm studies showed that the equilibrium moisture of sample added with glycerol was higher than that added with lactitol.

  19. Surface soil moisture retrievals from remote sensing: Current status, products & future trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, George P.; Ireland, Gareth; Barrett, Brian

    Advances in Earth Observation (EO) technology, particularly over the last two decades, have shown that soil moisture content (SMC) can be measured to some degree or other by all regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, and a variety of techniques have been proposed to facilitate this purpose. In this review we provide a synthesis of the efforts made during the last 20 years or so towards the estimation of surface SMC exploiting EO imagery, with a particular emphasis on retrievals from microwave sensors. Rather than replicating previous overview works, we provide a comprehensive and critical exploration of all the major approaches employed for retrieving SMC in a range of different global ecosystems. In this framework, we consider the newest techniques developed within optical and thermal infrared remote sensing, active and passive microwave domains, as well as assimilation or synergistic approaches. Future trends and prospects of EO for the accurate determination of SMC from space are subject to key challenges, some of which are identified and discussed within. It is evident from this review that there is potential for more accurate estimation of SMC exploiting EO technology, particularly so, by exploring the use of synergistic approaches between a variety of EO instruments. Given the importance of SMC in Earth's land surface interactions and to a large range of applications, one can appreciate that its accurate estimation is critical in addressing key scientific and practical challenges in today's world such as food security, sustainable planning and management of water resources. The launch of new, more sophisticated satellites strengthens the development of innovative research approaches and scientific inventions that will result in a range of pioneering and ground-breaking advancements in the retrievals of soil moisture from space.

  20. Upscaling of Surface Soil Moisture Using a Deep Learning Model with VIIRS RDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongying Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In current upscaling of in situ surface soil moisture practices, commonly used novel statistical or machine learning-based regression models combined with remote sensing data show some advantages in accurately capturing the satellite footprint scale of specific local or regional surface soil moisture. However, the performance of most models is largely determined by the size of the training data and the limited generalization ability to accomplish correlation extraction in regression models, which are unsuitable for larger scale practices. In this paper, a deep learning model was proposed to estimate soil moisture on a national scale. The deep learning model has the advantage of representing nonlinearities and modeling complex relationships from large-scale data. To illustrate the deep learning model for soil moisture estimation, the croplands of China were selected as the study area, and four years of Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS raw data records (RDR were used as input parameters, then the models were trained and soil moisture estimates were obtained. Results demonstrate that the estimated models captured the complex relationship between the remote sensing variables and in situ surface soil moisture with an adjusted coefficient of determination of R ¯ 2 = 0.9875 and a root mean square error (RMSE of 0.0084 in China. These results were more accurate than the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP active radar soil moisture products and the Global Land data assimilation system (GLDAS 0–10 cm depth soil moisture data. Our study suggests that deep learning model have potential for operational applications of upscaling in situ surface soil moisture data at the national scale.

  1. Non-destructive radio-frequency and microwave measurement of moisture content in agricultural commodities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, S.O.

    1994-01-01

    The importance of moisture content in agricultural commodities, the usefulness of the dielectric properties of such products for sensing moisture content by radiofrequency and microwave measurements, and factors affecting these properties are briefly discussed. Recent developments in the understanding of principles for online moisture sensing and the sensing of individual kernel, seed, nut and fruit moisture contents by radiofrequency and microwave techniques are reviewed. A brief discussion is included on aspects of practical application

  2. Remote Sensing of Surface Soil Moisture using Semi-Concurrent Radar and Radiometer Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L.; Ouellette, J. D.; Colliander, A.; Cosh, M. H.; Caldwell, T. G.; Walker, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    Radar backscatter and radiometer brightness temperature both have well-documented sensitivity to surface soil moisture, particularly in the microwave regime. While radiometer-derived soil moisture retrievals have been shown to be stable and accurate, they are only available at coarse spatial resolutions on the order of tens of kilometers. Backscatter from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is similarly sensitive to soil moisture but can yield higher spatial resolutions, with pixel sizes about an order of magnitude smaller. Soil moisture retrieval from radar backscatter is more difficult, however, due to the combined sensitivity of radar scattering to surface roughness, vegetation structure, and soil moisture. The algorithm uses a time-series of SAR data to retrieval soil moisture information, constraining the SAR-derived soil moisture estimates with radiometer observations. This effectively combines the high spatial resolution offered by SAR with the precision offered by passive radiometry. The algorithm is a change detection approach which maps changes in the radar backscatter to changes in surface soil moisture. This new algorithm differs from existing retrieval techniques in that it does not require ancillary vegetation information, but assumes vegetation and surface roughness are stable between pairs of consecutive radar overpasses. Furthermore, this method does not require a radar scattering model for the vegetation canopy, nor the use of a training data set. The algorithm works over a long time series, and is constrained by hard bounds which are defined using a coarse-resolution radiometer soil moisture product. The presentation will include soil moisture retrievals from Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) SAR data. Two sets of optimization bounds will constrain the radar change detection algorithm: one defined by SMAP radiometer retrievals and one defined by WindSat radiometer retrievals. Retrieved soil moisture values will be presented on a world map and will

  3. An Assessment of the Capabilities of the ERS Satellites' Active Microwave Instruments for Monitoring Soil Moisture Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Blyth

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The launch of the European Remote sensing Satellite (ERS-1 in July 1991 represented an important turning point in the development of Earth observation as it was the first of a series of satellites which would carry high resolution active microwave (radar sensors which could operate through the thickest cloudeover and provide continuity of data for at least a decade. This was of particular relevance to hydrological applications, such as soil moisture monitoring, which generally require frequent satellite observations to monitor changes in state. ERS-1 and its successor ERS-2 carry the active microwave instrument (AMI which operates in 3 modes (synthetic aperture radar, wind scatterometer and wave seatterometer together with the radar altimeter which may all be useful for the observation of soil moisture. This paper assesses the utility of these sensors through a comprehensive review of work in this field. Two approaches to soil moisture retrieval are identified: 1 inversion modelling, where the physical effects of vegetation and soil roughness on radar backscatter are quantified through the use of multi-frequency and/or multi-polarization sensors and 2 change detection where these effects are normalized through frequent satellite observation, the residual effects being attributed to short-term changes in soil moisture. Both approaches will be better supported by the future European Envisat-l satellite which will provide both multi-polarization SAR and low resolution products which should facilitate more frequent temporal observation.

  4. Error characterization methods for surface soil moisture products from remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doubková, M.

    2012-01-01

    To support the operational use of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) earth observation systems, the European Space Agency (ESA) is developing Sentinel-1 radar satellites operating in C-band. Much like its SAR predecessors (Earth Resource Satellite, ENVISAT, and RADARSAT), the Sentinel-1 will operate at a medium spatial resolution (ranging from 5 to 40 m), but with a greatly improved revisit period, especially over Europe (∼2 days). Given the planned high temporal sampling and the operational configuration Sentinel-1 is expected to be beneficial for operational monitoring of dynamic processes in hydrology and phenology. The benefit of a C-band SAR monitoring service in hydrology has already been demonstrated within the scope of the Soil Moisture for Hydrometeorologic Applications (SHARE) project using data from the Global Mode (GM) of the Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR). To fully exploit the potential of the SAR soil moisture products, well characterized error needs to be provided with the products. Understanding errors of remotely sensed surface soil moisture (SSM) datasets was indispensible for their application in models, for extractions of blended SSM products, as well as for their usage in evaluation of other soil moisture datasets. This thesis has several objectives. First, it provides the basics and state of the art methods for evaluating measures of SSM, including both the standard (e.g. Root Mean Square Error, Correlation coefficient) and the advanced (e.g. Error propagation, Triple collocation) evaluation measures. A summary of applications of soil moisture datasets is presented and evaluation measures are suggested for each application according to its requirement on the dataset quality. The evaluation of the Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) Global Mode (GM) SSM using the standard and advanced evaluation measures comprises a second objective of the work. To achieve the second objective, the data from the Australian Water Assessment System

  5. Soil moisture remote sensing: State of the science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satellites (e.g., SMAP, SMOS) using passive microwave techniques, in particular at L band frequency, have shown good promise for global mapping of near-surface (0-5 cm) soil moisture at a spatial resolution of 25-40 km and temporal resolution of 2-3 days. C- and X-band soil moisture records date bac...

  6. Moisture Management in an Active Sportswear: Techniques and Evaluation—A Review Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, Mani; Sampath, M. B.; Ramachandran, T.

    2012-10-01

    Moisture management property is an important aspect of any fabric meant for active sportswear, which decides the comfort level of that fabric. Every human being sweats during different kinds of activities. An important feature of any fabric is how it transports this water out of the body, so as to make the wearer feel comfortable. This paper reports the concept of moisture management, various production techniques and evaluation of the moisture management characteristics on fabrics for active sportswear.

  7. Drought monitoring over the Horn of Africa using remotely sensed evapotranspiration, soil moisture and vegetation parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, J.; Gokmen, M.; Eden, U.; Abou Ali, M.; Vekerdy, Z.; Su, Z.

    2012-04-01

    The need to good drought monitoring and management for the Horn of Africa has never been greater. This ongoing drought is the largest in the past sixty years and is effecting the life of around 10 million people, according to the United Nations. The impact of drought is most apparent in food security and health. In addition secondary problems arise related to the drought such as large migration; more than 15000 Somalia have fled to neighboring countries to escape the problems caused by the drought. These problems will only grow in the future to larger areas due to increase in extreme weather patterns due to global climate change. Monitoring drought impact and managing the drought effects are therefore of critical importance. The impact of a drought is hard to characterize as drought depends on several parameters, like precipitation, land use, irrigation. Consequently the effects of the drought vary spatially and range from short-term to long-term. For this reason a drought event can be characterized into four categories: meteorological, agricultural, hydrological and socio-economical. In terms of food production the agricultural drought, or short term dryness near the surface layer, is most important. This drought is usually characterized by low soil moisture content in the root zone, decreased evapotranspiration, and changes in vegetation vigor. All of these parameters can be detected with good accuracy from space. The advantage of remote sensing in Drought monitoring is evident. Drought monitoring is usually performed using drought indices, like the Palmer Index (PDSI), Crop Moisture Index (CMI), Standard Precipitation Index (SPI). With the introduction of remote sensing several indices of these have shown great potential for large scale application. These indices however all incorporate precipitation as the main surface parameter neglecting the response of the surface to the dryness. More recently two agricultural drought indices, the EvapoTranspiration Deficit

  8. The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Applications Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.; Moran, Susan; Escobar, Vanessa; Entekhabi, Dara; O'Neill, Peggy; Njoku, Eni

    2011-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission is one of the first-tier satellite missions recommended by the U.S. National Research Council Committee on Earth Science and Applications from Space. The SMAP mission 1 is under development by NASA and is scheduled for launch late in 2014. The SMAP measurements will allow global and high-resolution mapping of soil moisture and its freeze/thaw state at resolutions from 3-40 km. These measurements will have high value for a wide range of environmental applications that underpin many weather-related decisions including drought and flood guidance, agricultural productivity estimation, weather forecasting, climate predictions, and human health risk. In 2007, NASA was tasked by The National Academies to ensure that emerging scientific knowledge is actively applied to obtain societal benefits by broadening community participation and improving means for use of information. SMAP is one of the first missions to come out of this new charge, and its Applications Plan forms the basis for ensuring its commitment to its users. The purpose of this paper is to outline the methods and approaches of the SMAP applications activity, which is designed to increase and sustain the interaction between users and scientists involved in mission development.

  9. Soil moisture variability across different scales in an Indian watershed for satellite soil moisture product validation

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Gurjeet

    2016-05-05

    Strategic ground-based sampling of soil moisture across multiple scales is necessary to validate remotely sensed quantities such as NASA’s Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) product. In the present study, in-situ soil moisture data were collected at two nested scale extents (0.5 km and 3 km) to understand the trend of soil moisture variability across these scales. This ground-based soil moisture sampling was conducted in the 500 km2 Rana watershed situated in eastern India. The study area is characterized as sub-humid, sub-tropical climate with average annual rainfall of about 1456 mm. Three 3x3 km square grids were sampled intensively once a day at 49 locations each, at a spacing of 0.5 km. These intensive sampling locations were selected on the basis of different topography, soil properties and vegetation characteristics. In addition, measurements were also made at 9 locations around each intensive sampling grid at 3 km spacing to cover a 9x9 km square grid. Intensive fine scale soil moisture sampling as well as coarser scale samplings were made using both impedance probes and gravimetric analyses in the study watershed. The ground-based soil moisture samplings were conducted during the day, concurrent with the SMAP descending overpass. Analysis of soil moisture spatial variability in terms of areal mean soil moisture and the statistics of higher-order moments, i.e., the standard deviation, and the coefficient of variation are presented. Results showed that the standard deviation and coefficient of variation of measured soil moisture decreased with extent scale by increasing mean soil moisture. © (2016) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  10. L-band microwave remote sensing and land data assimilation improve the representation of pre-storm soil moisture conditions for hydrologic forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent advances in remote sensing and land data assimilation purport to improve the quality of antecedent soil moisture information available for operational hydrologic forecasting. We objectively validate this claim by calculating the strength of the relationship between storm-scale runoff ratio (i...

  11. AN ACTIVE-PASSIVE COMBINED ALGORITHM FOR HIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION RETRIEVAL OF SOIL MOISTURE FROM SATELLITE SENSORS (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, V.; Mladenova, I. E.; Narayan, U.

    2009-12-01

    Soil moisture is known to be an essential factor in controlling the partitioning of rainfall into surface runoff and infiltration and solar energy into latent and sensible heat fluxes. Remote sensing has long proven its capability to obtain soil moisture in near real-time. However, at the present time we have the Advanced Scanning Microwave Radiometer (AMSR-E) on board NASA’s AQUA platform is the only satellite sensor that supplies a soil moisture product. AMSR-E coarse spatial resolution (~ 50 km at 6.9 GHz) strongly limits its applicability for small scale studies. A very promising technique for spatial disaggregation by combining radar and radiometer observations has been demonstrated by the authors using a methodology is based on the assumption that any change in measured brightness temperature and backscatter from one to the next time step is due primarily to change in soil wetness. The approach uses radiometric estimates of soil moisture at a lower resolution to compute the sensitivity of radar to soil moisture at the lower resolution. This estimate of sensitivity is then disaggregated using vegetation water content, vegetation type and soil texture information, which are the variables on which determine the radar sensitivity to soil moisture and are generally available at a scale of radar observation. This change detection algorithm is applied to several locations. We have used aircraft observed active and passive data over Walnut Creek watershed in Central Iowa in 2002; the Little Washita Watershed in Oklahoma in 2003 and the Murrumbidgee Catchment in southeastern Australia for 2006. All of these locations have different soils and land cover conditions which leads to a rigorous test of the disaggregation algorithm. Furthermore, we compare the derived high spatial resolution soil moisture to in-situ sampling and ground observation networks

  12. The use of remotely-sensed snow, soil moisture and vegetation indices to develop resilience to climate change in Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidaliyeva, Zarina; Davenport, Ian; Nobakht, Mohamad; White, Kevin; Shahgedanova, Maria

    2017-04-01

    Kazakhstan is a major producer of grain. Large scale grain production dominates in the north, making Kazakhstan one of the largest exporters of grain in the world. Agricultural production accounts for 9% of the national GDP, providing 25% of national employment. The south relies on grain production from household farms for subsistence, and has low resilience, so is vulnerable to reductions in output. Yields in the south depend on snowmelt and glacier runoff. The major limit to production is water supply, which is affected by glacier retreat and frequent droughts. Climate change is likely to impact all climate drivers negatively, leading to a decrease in crop yield, which will impact Kazakhstan and countries dependent on importing its produce. This work makes initial steps in modelling the impact of climate change on crop yield, by identifying the links between snowfall, soil moisture and agricultural productivity. Several remotely-sensed data sources are being used. The availability of snowmelt water over the period 2010-2014 is estimated by extracting the annual maximum snow water equivalent (SWE) from the Globsnow dataset, which assimilates satellite microwave observations with field observations to produce a spatial map. Soil moisture over the period 2010-2016 is provided by the ESA Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission. Vegetation density is approximated by the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) produced from NASA's MODIS instruments. Statistical information on crop yields is provided by the Ministry of National Economy of the Republic of Kazakhstan Committee on Statistics. Demonstrating the link between snowmelt yield and agricultural productivity depends on showing the impact of snow mass during winter on remotely-sensed soil moisture, the link between soil moisture and vegetation density, and finally the link between vegetation density and crop yield. Soil moisture maps were extracted from SMOS observations, and resampled onto a 40km x

  13. Remotely sensed vegetation moisture as explanatory variable of Lyme borreliosis incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, J. M.; Verstraeten, W. W.; Maes, P.; Clement, J.; Aerts, J. M.; Farifteh, J.; Lagrou, K.; Van Ranst, M.; Coppin, P.

    2012-08-01

    The strong correlation between environmental conditions and abundance and spatial spread of the tick Ixodes ricinus is widely documented. I. ricinus is in Europe the main vector of the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, the pathogen causing Lyme borreliosis (LB). Humidity in vegetated systems is a major factor in tick ecology and its effects might translate into disease incidence in humans. Time series of two remotely sensed indices with sensitivity to vegetation greenness and moisture were tested as explanatory variables of LB incidence. Wavelet-based multiresolution analysis allowed the examination of these signals at different temporal scales in study sites in Belgium, where increases in LB incidence were reported in recent years. The analysis showed the potential of the tested indices for disease monitoring, the usefulness of analyzing the signal in different time frames and the importance of local characteristics of the study area for the selection of the vegetation index.

  14. Cosmic Ray Neutron Sensing: Use, Calibration and Validation for Soil Moisture Estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-03-01

    Nuclear and related techniques can help develop climate-smart agricultural practices by optimizing water use efficiency. The measurement of soil water content is essential to improve the use of this resource in agriculture. However, most sensors monitor small areas (less than 1m in radius), hence a large number of sensors are needed to obtain soil water content across a large area. This can be both costly and labour intensive and so larger scale measuring devices are needed as an alternative to traditional point-based soil moisture sensing techniques. The cosmic ray neutron sensor (CRNS) is such a device that monitors soil water content in a non-invasive and continuous way. This publication provides background information about this novel technique, and explains in detail the calibration and validation process.

  15. Developing Soil Moisture Profiles Utilizing Remotely Sensed MW and TIR Based SM Estimates Through Principle of Maximum Entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, V.; Cruise, J. F.; Mecikalski, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Developing accurate vertical soil moisture profiles with minimum input requirements is important to agricultural as well as land surface modeling. Earlier studies show that the principle of maximum entropy (POME) can be utilized to develop vertical soil moisture profiles with accuracy (MAE of about 1% for a monotonically dry profile; nearly 2% for monotonically wet profiles and 3.8% for mixed profiles) with minimum constraints (surface, mean and bottom soil moisture contents). In this study, the constraints for the vertical soil moisture profiles were obtained from remotely sensed data. Low resolution (25 km) MW soil moisture estimates (AMSR-E) were downscaled to 4 km using a soil evaporation efficiency index based disaggregation approach. The downscaled MW soil moisture estimates served as a surface boundary condition, while 4 km resolution TIR based Atmospheric Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI) estimates provided the required mean root-zone soil moisture content. Bottom soil moisture content is assumed to be a soil dependent constant. Mulit-year (2002-2011) gridded profiles were developed for the southeastern United States using the POME method. The soil moisture profiles were compared to those generated in land surface models (Land Information System (LIS) and an agricultural model DSSAT) along with available NRCS SCAN sites in the study region. The end product, spatial soil moisture profiles, can be assimilated into agricultural and hydrologic models in lieu of precipitation for data scarce regions.Developing accurate vertical soil moisture profiles with minimum input requirements is important to agricultural as well as land surface modeling. Previous studies have shown that the principle of maximum entropy (POME) can be utilized with minimal constraints to develop vertical soil moisture profiles with accuracy (MAE = 1% for monotonically dry profiles; MAE = 2% for monotonically wet profiles and MAE = 3.8% for mixed profiles) when compared to laboratory and field

  16. NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Barron; Moran, M. Susan; Escobar, Vanessa; Brown, Molly E.

    2014-05-01

    The launch of the NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission in 2014 will provide global soil moisture and freeze-thaw measurements at moderate resolution (9 km) with latency as short as 24 hours. The resolution, latency and global coverage of SMAP products will enable new applications in the fields of weather, climate, drought, flood, agricultural production, human health and national security. To prepare for launch, the SMAP mission has engaged more than 25 Early Adopters. Early Adopters are users who have a need for SMAP-like soil moisture or freeze-thaw data, and who agreed to apply their own resources to demonstrate the utility of SMAP data for their particular system or model. In turn, the SMAP mission agreed to provide Early Adopters with simulated SMAP data products and pre-launch calibration and validation data from SMAP field campaigns, modeling, and synergistic studies. The applied research underway by Early Adopters has provided fundamental knowledge of how SMAP data products can be scaled and integrated into users' policy, business and management activities to improve decision-making efforts. This presentation will cover SMAP applications including weather and climate forecasting, vehicle mobility estimation, quantification of greenhouse gas emissions, management of urban potable water supply, and prediction of crop yield. The presentation will end with a discussion of potential international applications with focus on the ESA/CEOS TIGER Initiative entitled "looking for water in Africa", the United Nations (UN) Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) which carries a specific mandate focused on Africa, the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) which lists soil moisture as an Essential Climate Variable (ECV), and the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) which reported a food and nutrition crisis in the Sahel.

  17. NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission Status and Science Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yueh, Simon H.; Entekhabi, Dara; O'Neill, Peggy; Njoku, Eni; Entin, Jared K.

    2016-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) observatory was launched January 31, 2015, and its L-band radiometer and radar instruments became operational since mid-April 2015. The SMAP radiometer has been operating flawlessly, but the radar transmitter ceased operation on July 7. This paper provides a status summary of the calibration and validation of the SMAP instruments and the quality assessment of its soil moisture and freeze/thaw products. Since the loss of the radar in July, the SMAP project has been conducting two parallel activities to enhance the resolution of soil moisture products. One of them explores the Backus Gilbert optimum interpolation and de-convolution techniques based on the oversampling characteristics of the SMAP radiometer. The other investigates the disaggregation of the SMAP radiometer data using the European Space Agency's Sentinel-1 C-band synthetic radar data to obtain soil moisture products at about 1 to 3 kilometers resolution. In addition, SMAP's L-band data have found many new applications, including vegetation opacity, ocean surface salinity and hurricane ocean surface wind mapping. Highlights of these new applications will be provided.

  18. Drought monitoring with soil moisture active passive (SMAP) measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ashok; Vu, Tue; Veettil, Anoop Valiya; Entekhabi, Dara

    2017-09-01

    Recent launch of space-borne systems to estimate surface soil moisture may expand the capability to map soil moisture deficit and drought with global coverage. In this study, we use Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) soil moisture geophysical retrieval products from passive L-band radiometer to evaluate its applicability to forming agricultural drought indices. Agricultural drought is quantified using the Soil Water Deficit Index (SWDI) based on SMAP and soil properties (field capacity and available water content) information. The soil properties are computed using pedo-transfer function with soil characteristics derived from Harmonized World Soil Database. The SMAP soil moisture product needs to be rescaled to be compatible with the soil parameters derived from the in situ stations. In most locations, the rescaled SMAP information captured the dynamics of in situ soil moisture well and shows the expected lag between accumulations of precipitation and delayed increased in surface soil moisture. However, the SMAP soil moisture itself does not reveal the drought information. Therefore, the SMAP based SWDI (SMAP_SWDI) was computed to improve agriculture drought monitoring by using the latest soil moisture retrieval satellite technology. The formulation of SWDI does not depend on longer data and it will overcome the limited (short) length of SMAP data for agricultural drought studies. The SMAP_SWDI is further compared with in situ Atmospheric Water Deficit (AWD) Index. The comparison shows close agreement between SMAP_SWDI and AWD in drought monitoring over Contiguous United States (CONUS), especially in terms of drought characteristics. The SMAP_SWDI was used to construct drought maps for CONUS and compared with well-known drought indices, such as, AWD, Palmer Z-Index, sc-PDSI and SPEI. Overall the SMAP_SWDI is an effective agricultural drought indicator and it provides continuity and introduces new spatial mapping capability for drought monitoring. As an

  19. Calculating crop water requirement satisfaction in the West Africa Sahel with remotely sensed soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Amy; Gregory J. Husak,; Molly Brown,; Carroll, Mark L.; Funk, Christopher C.; Soni Yatheendradas,; Kristi Arsenault,; Christa Peters-Lidard,; Verdin, James

    2015-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission will provide soil moisture data with unprecedented accuracy, resolution, and coverage, enabling models to better track agricultural drought and estimate yields. In turn, this information can be used to shape policy related to food and water from commodity markets to humanitarian relief efforts. New data alone, however, do not translate to improvements in drought and yield forecasts. New tools will be needed to transform SMAP data into agriculturally meaningful products. The objective of this study is to evaluate the possibility and efficiency of replacing the rainfall-derived soil moisture component of a crop water stress index with SMAP data. The approach is demonstrated with 0.1°-resolution, ~10-day microwave soil moisture from the European Space Agency and simulated soil moisture from the Famine Early Warning Systems Network Land Data Assimilation System. Over a West Africa domain, the approach is evaluated by comparing the different soil moisture estimates and their resulting Water Requirement Satisfaction Index values from 2000 to 2010. This study highlights how the ensemble of indices performs during wet versus dry years, over different land-cover types, and the correlation with national-level millet yields. The new approach is a feasible and useful way to quantitatively assess how satellite-derived rainfall and soil moisture track agricultural water deficits. Given the importance of soil moisture in many applications, ranging from agriculture to public health to fire, this study should inspire other modeling communities to reformulate existing tools to take advantage of SMAP data.

  20. A simple model for retrieving bare soil moisture from radar-scattering coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.S.; Yen, S.K.; Huang, W.P.

    1995-01-01

    A simple algorithm based on a rough surface scattering model was developed to invert the bare soil moisture content from active microwave remote sensing data. In the algorithm development, a frequency mixing model was used to relate soil moisture to the dielectric constant. In particular, the Integral Equation Model (IEM) was used over a wide range of surface roughness and radar frequencies. To derive the algorithm, a sensitivity analysis was performed using a Monte Carlo simulation to study the effects of surface parameters, including height variance, correlation length, and dielectric constant. Because radar return is inherently dependent on both moisture content and surface roughness, the purpose of the sensitivity testing was to select the proper radar parameters so as to optimally decouple these two factors, in an attempt to minimize the effects of one while the other was observed. As a result, the optimal radar parameter ranges can be chosen for the purpose of soil moisture content inversion. One thousand samples were then generated with the IEM model followed by multivariate linear regression analysis to obtain an empirical soil moisture model. Numerical comparisons were made to illustrate the inversion performance using experimental measurements. Results indicate that the present algorithm is simple and accurate, and can be a useful tool for the remote sensing of bare soil surfaces. (author)

  1. Use of soil moisture sensors for irrigation scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various types of soil moisture sensing devices have been developed and are commercially available for water management applications. Each type of soil moisture sensors has its advantages and shortcomings in terms of accuracy, reliability, and cost. Resistive and capacitive based sensors, and time-d...

  2. HydroCube mission concept: P-Band signals of opportunity for remote sensing of snow and root zone soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yueh, Simon; Shah, Rashmi; Xu, Xiaolan; Elder, Kelly; Chae, Chun Sik; Margulis, Steve; Liston, Glen; Durand, Michael; Derksen, Chris

    2017-09-01

    We have developed the HydroCube mission concept with a constellation of small satellites to remotely sense Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) and Root Zone Soil Moisture (RZSM). The HydroCube satellites would operate at sun-synchronous 3- day repeat polar orbits with a spatial resolution of about 1-3 Km. The mission goals would be to improve the estimation of terrestrial water storage and weather forecasts. Root-zone soil moisture and snow water storage in land are critical parameters of the water cycle. The HydroCube Signals of Opportunity (SoOp) concept utilizes passive receivers to detect the reflection of strong existing P-band radio signals from geostationary Mobile Use Objective System (MUOS) communication satellites. The SWE remote sensing measurement principle using the P-band SoOp is based on the propagation delay (or phase change) of radio signals through the snowpack. The time delay of the reflected signal due to the snowpack with respect to snow-free conditions is directly proportional to the snowpack SWE. To address the ionospheric delay at P-band frequencies, the signals from both MUOS bands (360-380 MHz and 250-270 MHz) would be used. We have conducted an analysis to trade off the spatial resolution for a space-based sensor and measurement accuracy. Through modeling analysis, we find that the dual-band MUOS signals would allow estimation of soil moisture and surface roughness together. From the two MUOS frequencies at 260 MHz and 370 MHz, we can retrieve the soil moisture from the reflectivity ratio scaled by wavenumbers using the two P-band frequencies for MUOS. A modeling analysis using layered stratified model has been completed to determine the sensitivity requirements of HydroCube measurements. For mission concept demonstration, a field campaign has been conducted at the Fraser Experimental Forest in Colorado since February 2016. The data acquired has provided support to the HydroCube concept.

  3. Assessing Wetland Hydroperiod and Soil Moisture With Remote Sensing: A Demonstration for the NASA Plum Brook Station Year 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Colin; Bourgeau-Chavez, Laura; Endres, Sarah; Battaglia, Michael; Shuchman, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Primary Goal: Assist with the evaluation and measuring of wetlands hydroperiod at the PlumBrook Station using multi-source remote sensing data as part of a larger effort on projecting climate change-related impacts on the station's wetland ecosystems. MTRI expanded on the multi-source remote sensing capabilities to help estimate and measure hydroperiod and the relative soil moisture of wetlands at NASA's Plum Brook Station. Multi-source remote sensing capabilities are useful in estimating and measuring hydroperiod and relative soil moisture of wetlands. This is important as a changing regional climate has several potential risks for wetland ecosystem function. The year two analysis built on the first year of the project by acquiring and analyzing remote sensing data for additional dates and types of imagery, combined with focused field work. Five deliverables were planned and completed: 1) Show the relative length of hydroperiod using available remote sensing datasets 2) Date linked table of wetlands extent over time for all feasible non-forested wetlands 3) Utilize LIDAR data to measure topographic height above sea level of all wetlands, wetland to catchment area radio, slope of wetlands, and other useful variables 4) A demonstration of how analyzed results from multiple remote sensing data sources can help with wetlands vulnerability assessment 5) A MTRI style report summarizing year 2 results. This report serves as a descriptive summary of our completion of these our deliverables. Additionally, two formal meetings were held with Larry Liou and Amanda Sprinzl to provide project updates and receive direction on outputs. These were held on 2/26/15 and 9/17/15 at the Plum Brook Station. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is a multivariate statistical technique used to identify dominant spatial and temporal backscatter signatures. PCA reduces the information contained in the temporal dataset to the first few new Principal Component (PC) images. Some advantages of PCA

  4. Monitoring soil moisture patterns in alpine meadows using ground sensor networks and remote sensing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoldi, Giacomo; Brenner, Johannes; Notarnicola, Claudia; Greifeneder, Felix; Nicolini, Irene; Della Chiesa, Stefano; Niedrist, Georg; Tappeiner, Ulrike

    2015-04-01

    Soil moisture content (SMC) is a key factor for numerous processes, including runoff generation, groundwater recharge, evapotranspiration, soil respiration, and biological productivity. Understanding the controls on the spatial and temporal variability of SMC in mountain catchments is an essential step towards improving quantitative predictions of catchment hydrological processes and related ecosystem services. The interacting influences of precipitation, soil properties, vegetation, and topography on SMC and the influence of SMC patterns on runoff generation processes have been extensively investigated (Vereecken et al., 2014). However, in mountain areas, obtaining reliable SMC estimations is still challenging, because of the high variability in topography, soil and vegetation properties. In the last few years, there has been an increasing interest in the estimation of surface SMC at local scales. On the one hand, low cost wireless sensor networks provide high-resolution SMC time series. On the other hand, active remote sensing microwave techniques, such as Synthetic Aperture Radars (SARs), show promising results (Bertoldi et al. 2014). As these data provide continuous coverage of large spatial extents with high spatial resolution (10-20 m), they are particularly in demand for mountain areas. However, there are still limitations related to the fact that the SAR signal can penetrate only a few centimeters in the soil. Moreover, the signal is strongly influenced by vegetation, surface roughness and topography. In this contribution, we analyse the spatial and temporal dynamics of surface and root-zone SMC (2.5 - 5 - 25 cm depth) of alpine meadows and pastures in the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Area Mazia Valley (South Tyrol - Italy) with different techniques: (I) a network of 18 stations; (II) field campaigns with mobile ground sensors; (III) 20-m resolution RADARSAT2 SAR images; (IV) numerical simulations using the GEOtop hydrological model (Rigon et al

  5. Fostering Application Opportunites for the NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, M. Susan; O'Neill, Peggy E.; Entekhabi, Dara; Njoku, Eni G.; Kellogg, Kent H.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission will provide global observations of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state from space. We outline how priority applications contributed to the SMAP mission measurement requirements and how the SMAP mission plans to foster applications and applied science.

  6. State of the Art in Large-Scale Soil Moisture Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochsner, Tyson E.; Cosh, Michael Harold; Cuenca, Richard H.; Dorigo, Wouter; Draper, Clara S.; Hagimoto, Yutaka; Kerr, Yan H.; Larson, Kristine M.; Njoku, Eni Gerald; Small, Eric E.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Soil moisture is an essential climate variable influencing land atmosphere interactions, an essential hydrologic variable impacting rainfall runoff processes, an essential ecological variable regulating net ecosystem exchange, and an essential agricultural variable constraining food security. Large-scale soil moisture monitoring has advanced in recent years creating opportunities to transform scientific understanding of soil moisture and related processes. These advances are being driven by researchers from a broad range of disciplines, but this complicates collaboration and communication. For some applications, the science required to utilize large-scale soil moisture data is poorly developed. In this review, we describe the state of the art in large-scale soil moisture monitoring and identify some critical needs for research to optimize the use of increasingly available soil moisture data. We review representative examples of 1) emerging in situ and proximal sensing techniques, 2) dedicated soil moisture remote sensing missions, 3) soil moisture monitoring networks, and 4) applications of large-scale soil moisture measurements. Significant near-term progress seems possible in the use of large-scale soil moisture data for drought monitoring. Assimilation of soil moisture data for meteorological or hydrologic forecasting also shows promise, but significant challenges related to model structures and model errors remain. Little progress has been made yet in the use of large-scale soil moisture observations within the context of ecological or agricultural modeling. Opportunities abound to advance the science and practice of large-scale soil moisture monitoring for the sake of improved Earth system monitoring, modeling, and forecasting.

  7. Estimating Regional Scale Hydroclimatic Risk Conditions from the Soil Moisture Active-Passive (SMAP Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Champagne

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Satellite soil moisture is a critical variable for identifying susceptibility to hydroclimatic risks such as drought, dryness, and excess moisture. Satellite soil moisture data from the Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP mission was used to evaluate the sensitivity to hydroclimatic risk events in Canada. The SMAP soil moisture data sets in general capture relative moisture trends with the best estimates from the passive-only derived soil moisture and little difference between the data at different spatial resolutions. In general, SMAP data sets overestimated the magnitude of moisture at the wet extremes of wetting events. A soil moisture difference from average (SMDA was calculated from SMAP and historical Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS data showed a relatively good delineation of hydroclimatic risk events, although caution must be taken due to the large variability in the data within risk categories. Satellite soil moisture data sets are more sensitive to short term water shortages than longer term water deficits. This was not improved by adding “memory” to satellite soil moisture indices to improve the sensitivity of the data to drought, and there is a large variability in satellite soil moisture values with the same drought severity rating.

  8. Design and Test of a Soil Profile Moisture Sensor Based on Sensitive Soil Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng; Qian, Hongzhou; Cao, Weixing; Ni, Jun

    2018-01-01

    To meet the demand of intelligent irrigation for accurate moisture sensing in the soil vertical profile, a soil profile moisture sensor was designed based on the principle of high-frequency capacitance. The sensor consists of five groups of sensing probes, a data processor, and some accessory components. Low-resistivity copper rings were used as components of the sensing probes. Composable simulation of the sensor’s sensing probes was carried out using a high-frequency structure simulator. According to the effective radiation range of electric field intensity, width and spacing of copper ring were set to 30 mm and 40 mm, respectively. A parallel resonance circuit of voltage-controlled oscillator and high-frequency inductance-capacitance (LC) was designed for signal frequency division and conditioning. A data processor was used to process moisture-related frequency signals for soil profile moisture sensing. The sensor was able to detect real-time soil moisture at the depths of 20, 30, and 50 cm and conduct online inversion of moisture in the soil layer between 0–100 cm. According to the calibration results, the degree of fitting (R2) between the sensor’s measuring frequency and the volumetric moisture content of soil sample was 0.99 and the relative error of the sensor consistency test was 0–1.17%. Field tests in different loam soils showed that measured soil moisture from our sensor reproduced the observed soil moisture dynamic well, with an R2 of 0.96 and a root mean square error of 0.04. In a sensor accuracy test, the R2 between the measured value of the proposed sensor and that of the Diviner2000 portable soil moisture monitoring system was higher than 0.85, with a relative error smaller than 5%. The R2 between measured values and inversed soil moisture values for other soil layers were consistently higher than 0.8. According to calibration test and field test, this sensor, which features low cost, good operability, and high integration, is qualified for

  9. Multifrequency passive microwave remote sensing of soil moisture and roughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paloscia, S.; Pampaloni, P.; Chiarantini, L.; Coppo, P.; Gagliani, S.; Luzi, G.

    1993-01-01

    The accuracy achievable in the surface soil moisture measurement of rough bare and vegetated soils, typical of the Italian landscape, has been investigated by using microwave experimental data collected by means of a multi-band sensor package (L, X, Ka and infrared bands). The thickness of soil that mainly affects the emission at the three microwave frequencies has been assessed. The sensitivity of L band emission to the moisture content of a soil layer about 5 cm thick has been confirmed, as well as the attenuation effect due to the surface roughness and presence of vegetation. A correction criterion based on the sensitivity to roughness and crop parameters of the highest frequencies (X and Ka bands) is proposed in order to increase the precision in soil moisture measurements

  10. The influence of temperature and moisture contents regimes on the aerobic microbial activity of a biosolids composting blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, C; Das, K C; McClendon, R W

    2003-01-01

    To understand the relationships between temperature, moisture content, and microbial activity during the composting of biosolids (municipal wastewater treatment sludge), well-controlled incubation experiments were conducted using a 2-factor factorial design with six temperatures (22, 29, 36, 43, 50, and 57 degrees C) and five moisture contents (30, 40, 50, 60, and 70%). The microbial activity was measured as O2 uptake rate (mg g(-1) h(-1)) using a computer controlled respirometer. In this study, moisture content proved to be a dominant factor impacting aerobic microbial activity of the composting blend. Fifty percent moisture content appeared to be the minimal requirement for obtaining activities greater than 1.0 mg g(-1) h(-1). Temperature was also documented to be an important factor for biosolids composting. However, its effect was less influential than moisture content. Particularly, the enhancement of composting activities induced by temperature increment could be realized by increasing moisture content alone.

  11. Real-Time Wireless Moisture Sensing in Concrete Using Interdigitated Stick-on Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashed H. Bhuiyan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The analyses, design, and performance of an interdigitated moisture sensor are presented. The analytical results clearly delineate the scope of the design in terms of the expected electric field penetration depth and interelectrode capacitance when the sensor is placed on top of a Material Under Test (MUT for a simple two electrode sensor. A multielectrode circular sensor was fabricated, instrumented, and used to measure concrete moisture content. Real-time moisture measurement results in both fresh concrete (when curing and dry concrete (when moisture intrusion is occurring are presented in a wireless system level measurement scenario where the measured results are relayed to a distant receiver using a wireless transmitter.

  12. Estimation of Surface Soil Moisture from Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing Using an Improved Trapezoid Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuting Yang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Surface soil moisture (SM plays a fundamental role in energy and water partitioning in the soil–plant–atmosphere continuum. A reliable and operational algorithm is much needed to retrieve regional surface SM at high spatial and temporal resolutions. Here, we provide an operational framework of estimating surface SM at fine spatial resolutions (using visible/thermal infrared images and concurrent meteorological data based on a trapezoidal space defined by remotely sensed vegetation cover (Fc and land surface temperature (LST. Theoretical solutions of the wet and dry edges were derived to achieve a more accurate and effective determination of the Fc/LST space. Subjectivity and uncertainty arising from visual examination of extreme boundaries can consequently be largely reduced. In addition, theoretical derivation of the extreme boundaries allows a per-pixel determination of the VI/LST space such that the assumption of uniform atmospheric forcing over the entire domain is no longer required. The developed approach was tested at the Tibetan Plateau Soil Moisture/Temperature Monitoring Network (SMTMN site in central Tibet, China, from August 2010 to August 2011 using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Terra images. Results indicate that the developed trapezoid model reproduced the spatial and temporal patterns of observed surface SM reasonably well, with showing a root-mean-square error of 0.06 m3·m−3 at the site level and 0.03 m3·m−3 at the regional scale. In addition, a case study on 2 September 2010 highlighted the importance of the theoretically calculated wet and dry edges, as they can effectively obviate subjectivity and uncertainties in determining the Fc/LST space arising from visual interpretation of satellite images. Compared with Land Surface Models (LSMs in Global Land Data Assimilation System-1, the remote sensing-based trapezoid approach gave generally better surface SM estimates, whereas the LSMs showed

  13. Assimilation of microwave brightness temperatures for soil moisture estimation using particle filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi, H Y; Ma, J W; Qin, S X; Zeng, J Y

    2014-01-01

    Soil moisture plays a significant role in global water cycles. Both model simulations and remote sensing observations have their limitations when estimating soil moisture on a large spatial scale. Data assimilation (DA) is a promising tool which can combine model dynamics and remote sensing observations to obtain more precise ground soil moisture distribution. Among various DA methods, the particle filter (PF) can be applied to non-linear and non-Gaussian systems, thus holding great potential for DA. In this study, a data assimilation scheme based on the residual resampling particle filter (RR-PF) was developed to assimilate microwave brightness temperatures into the macro-scale semi-distributed Variance Infiltration Capacity (VIC) Model to estimate surface soil moisture. A radiative transfer model (RTM) was used to link brightness temperatures with surface soil moisture. Finally, the data assimilation scheme was validated by experimental data obtained at Arizona during the Soil Moisture Experiment 2004 (SMEX04). The results show that the estimation accuracy of soil moisture can be improved significantly by RR-PF through assimilating microwave brightness temperatures into VIC model. Both the overall trends and specific values of the assimilation results are more consistent with ground observations compared with model simulation results

  14. Rainfall events and soil moisture deviations as detected by operational ASCAT soil moisture data: case study in semi-arid regions of Somalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubkova, M.; Bartsch, A.; Wagner, W.

    2009-04-01

    Large and widely dispersed populations in Somalia depend on pastoralism and on rainfed and irrigated farming. Droughts and floods that have plagued the country in the course of its history were critical for the herders and farmers and have often initiated long-lasting food crises. Recently, the Somalia Water and Land Information Management (SWALIM) has initiated collaborative activities to identify and quantify the physical causes of drought for better understanding of this phenomenon and better addressing the humanitarian aid in Somalia. The soil moisture was identified as one of the parameter that may improve the drought assessment studies in Somalia. The poor accessibility and long-lasting conflicts in Somalia region caused periods of missing values in the meteorological networks that complicate or disable further weather analyses. In this study, a comparison of operational available spatial soil moisture dataset from active microwave sensor with 50 km spatial resolution - ASCAT scatterometer - with existing in-situ rainfall data is performed. The ASCAT data are processed at the Vienna University of Technology (TU WIEN), and recently became operationally available via EUMETCAST. Together with its predecessor - ERS 1/2 - the ASCAT/ERS scatterometers embrace period of 1992 until recent with existing gap over Somalia (2001-2007). The rainfall data were provided by the SWALIM organization. The focus is brought on the ability of the ASCAT scatterometer to detect first rains in the season that dictate the schedule of agricultural activities from land preparation, crop variety to selection to planting. Further, the ability to detect moisture deviations with coarse resolution soil moisture data is studied. The remote sensing data are especially important for countries like Somalia with the poor field accessibility. The improved understanding of the soil moisture data from active microwave sensor may help in interpolating data from existing in-situ networks both

  15. Effective moisture diffusivity and activation energy of rambutan seed under different drying methods to promote storage stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, So'bah; Shamsul Anuar, Mohd; Saleena Taip, Farah; Shamsudin, Rosnah; M, Siti Roha A.

    2017-05-01

    The effects of two drying methods, oven and microwave drying on the effective moisture diffusivity and activation energy of rambutan seed were studied. Effective moisture diffusivity and activation energy are the main indicators used for moisture movement within the material. Hence, it is beneficial to determine an appropriate drying method to attain a final moisture content of rambutan seed that potentially could be used as secondary sources in the industry. An appropriate final moisture content will provide better storage stability that can extend the lifespan of the rambutan seed. The rambutan seeds were dried with two drying methods (oven and microwave) at two level of the process variables (oven temperature; 40°C and 60°C and microwave power; 250W and 1000W) at constant initial moisture contents. The result showed that a higher value of effective moisture diffusivity and less activation energy were observed in microwave drying compared to oven drying. This finding portrays microwave drying expedites the moisture removal to achieve the required final moisture content and the most appropriate drying method for longer storage stability for rambutan seed. With respect to the process variables; higher oven temperatures and lower microwave powers also exhibit similar trends. Hopefully, this study would provide a baseline data to determine an appropriate drying method for longer storage period for turning waste to by-products.

  16. Long-term 4D Geoelectrical Imaging of Moisture Dynamics in an Active Landslide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlemann, S.; Chambers, J. E.; Wilkinson, P. B.; Maurer, H.; Meldrum, P.; Gunn, D.; Smith, A.; Dijkstra, T.

    2016-12-01

    Landslides are a major natural hazard, endangering communities and infrastructure worldwide. Mitigating landslide risk relies on understanding causes and triggering processes, which are often linked to moisture dynamics in slopes causing material softening and elevated pore water pressures. Geoelectrical monitoring is frequently applied to study landslide hydrology. However, its sensitivity to sensor movements has been a challenge for long-term studies on actively failing slopes. Although 2D data acquisition has previously been favoured, it provides limited resolution and relatively poor representation of important 3D landslide structures. We present a novel methodology to incorporate electrode movements into a time-lapse 3D inversion workflow, resulting in a virtually artefact-free time-series of resistivity models. Using temperature correction and laboratory hydro-geophysical relationships, resistivity models are translated into models of moisture content. The data span more than three years, enabling imaging of processes pre- and post landslide reactivation. In the two years before reactivation, the models showed surficial wetting and drying, drainage pathways, and deeper groundwater dynamics. During reactivation, exceptionally high moisture contents were imaged throughout the slope, which was confirmed by independent measurements. Preferential flow was imaged that stabilized parts of the landslide by diverting moisture, and thus dissipating pore pressures, from the slip surface. The results highlight that moisture levels obtained from resistivity monitoring may provide a better activity threshold than rainfall intensity. Based on this work, pro-active remediation measures could be designed and effective early-warning systems implemented. Eventually, resistivity monitoring that can account for moving electrodes may provide a new means for pro-active mitigation of landslide risk, especially for communities and critical infrastructure.

  17. Soil moisture estimation using reflected solar and emitted thermal infrared radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, R. D.; Cihlar, J.; Estes, J. E.; Heilman, J. L.; Kahle, A.; Kanemasu, E. T.; Millard, J.; Price, J. C.; Wiegand, C. L.

    1978-01-01

    Classical methods of measuring soil moisture such as gravimetric sampling and the use of neutron moisture probes are useful for cases where a point measurement is sufficient to approximate the water content of a small surrounding area. However, there is an increasing need for rapid and repetitive estimations of soil moisture over large areas. Remote sensing techniques potentially have the capability of meeting this need. The use of reflected-solar and emitted thermal-infrared radiation, measured remotely, to estimate soil moisture is examined.

  18. Moisture sensor based on evanescent wave light scattering by porous sol-gel silica coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Shiquan; Singh, Jagdish P.; Winstead, Christopher B.

    2006-05-02

    An optical fiber moisture sensor that can be used to sense moisture present in gas phase in a wide range of concentrations is provided, as well techniques for making the same. The present invention includes a method that utilizes the light scattering phenomenon which occurs in a porous sol-gel silica by coating an optical fiber core with such silica. Thus, a porous sol-gel silica polymer coated on an optical fiber core forms the transducer of an optical fiber moisture sensor according to an embodiment. The resulting optical fiber sensor of the present invention can be used in various applications, including to sense moisture content in indoor/outdoor air, soil, concrete, and low/high temperature gas streams.

  19. Study on cooperative active sensing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukune, Hideo; Kita, Nobuyuki; Kuniyoshi, Yasuo; Hara, Isao; Matsui, Toshihiro; Matsushita, Toshio; Nagata, Kazuyuki; Nagakubo, Akihiko

    1998-01-01

    This study aims to develop a dispersed cooperative intellectualized system technique and a sensing system required for construction of a robot group inspectable in patrol and maintainable in selfish in a plant with large scale and complex variety. In particular, in order to establish a system with flexibility response to environment and soundness durable to abnormal accident, a cooperative active sensing technique and real-time active vision sensing technique were started. On the base of last two years results, in 1996 fiscal year, important and expansion of each element technique was conducted to start a study on movement of focussing point which was an important function of the active vision sensing. (G.K.)

  20. Quantifying soil moisture impacts on light use efficiency across biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Benjamin D; Zscheischler, Jakob; Keenan, Trevor F; Prentice, I Colin; Peñuelas, Josep; Seneviratne, Sonia I

    2018-06-01

    Terrestrial primary productivity and carbon cycle impacts of droughts are commonly quantified using vapour pressure deficit (VPD) data and remotely sensed greenness, without accounting for soil moisture. However, soil moisture limitation is known to strongly affect plant physiology. Here, we investigate light use efficiency, the ratio of gross primary productivity (GPP) to absorbed light. We derive its fractional reduction due to soil moisture (fLUE), separated from VPD and greenness changes, using artificial neural networks trained on eddy covariance data, multiple soil moisture datasets and remotely sensed greenness. This reveals substantial impacts of soil moisture alone that reduce GPP by up to 40% at sites located in sub-humid, semi-arid or arid regions. For sites in relatively moist climates, we find, paradoxically, a muted fLUE response to drying soil, but reduced fLUE under wet conditions. fLUE identifies substantial drought impacts that are not captured when relying solely on VPD and greenness changes and, when seasonally recurring, are missed by traditional, anomaly-based drought indices. Counter to common assumptions, fLUE reductions are largest in drought-deciduous vegetation, including grasslands. Our results highlight the necessity to account for soil moisture limitation in terrestrial primary productivity data products, especially for drought-related assessments. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. THE EFFECT OF ACTIVATED CARBON SURFACE MOISTURE ON LOW TEMPERATURE MERCURY ADSORPTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments with elemental mercury (Hg0) adsorption by activated carbons were performed using a bench-scale fixed-bed reactor at room temperature (27 degrees C) to determine the role of surface moisture in capturing Hg0. A bituminous-coal-based activated carbon (BPL) and an activ...

  2. Dead fuel moisture estimation with MSG-SEVIRI data. Retrieval of meteorological data for the calculation of the equilibrium moisture content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieto Solana, Hector; Sandholt, Inge; Aguado, Inmaculada

    2010-01-01

    In this study we propose to use remote sensing data to estimate hourly meteorological data and then assess the moisture content of dead fuels. Three different models to estimate the equilibrium moisture content (EMC) were applied together with remotely sensed retrieved air temperature and relative...... humidity. The input data were acquired by the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) sensor, on board the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite, from which air temperature and relative humidity were estimated every 15 min. Air temperature estimations are based on the Temperature-Vegetation...... Index (TVX) algorithm. This algorithm exploits the inverse linear relationship between the land surface temperature and the vegetation fractional cover. This relationship was evaluated in a spatial window where the meteorological forcing is assumed to be constant. To estimate the vapour pressure...

  3. Pectin Methyl Esterase Activity Change in Intermediate Moisture Sun-Dried Figs after Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Demirbüker Kavak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Intermediate moisture fruits can be obtained by rehydrating dried fruits. Intermediate moisture fruits are suitable for direct consumption compared to dry fruits and can be directly used in the production of various products such as bakery products, dairy products and candies. Aim of this study is to compare the pectin methyl esterase (PME activity of intermediate moisture figs which causes softening of the texture and to compare their microbial stability after 3 months storage period. For this purpose, dried figs were rehydrated in 30 and 80° C water until they reach 30% moisture content. Rehydrated samples were stored for 3 months at +4°C. Results showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the control samples and the samples rehydrated at 80°C according to the total viable counts. At the end of the storage period, results of residual PME activity in control samples was 24.1 μmol COOH min-1g-1, while it was found 17.4 μmol COOH min-1g-1 in samples rehydrated at 80°C. As a result rehydration conducted at 80°C provided 28% reduction in PME activity compared to the control samples rehydrated at 30°C, although it did not affect the microbial load significantly after storage.

  4. Dielectric properties-based method for rapid and nondestructive moisture sensing in almonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    A dielectric-based method is presented for moisture determination in almonds independent of bulk density. The dielectric properties of almond were measured between 5 and 15 GHz, with a 1-GHz increments, for samples with moisture contents ranging from 4.8% to 16.5%, wet basis, bulk densities ranging ...

  5. Role of subsurface physics in the assimilation of surface soil moisture observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil moisture controls the exchange of water and energy between the land surface and the atmosphere and exhibits memory that may be useful for climate prediction at monthly time scales. Though spatially distributed observations of soil moisture are increasingly becoming available from remotely sense...

  6. Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission Level 4 Surface and Root Zone Soil Moisture (L4_SM) Product Specification Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichle, Rolf H.; Ardizzone, Joseph V.; Kim, Gi-Kong; Lucchesi, Robert A.; Smith, Edmond B.; Weiss, Barry H.

    2015-01-01

    This is the Product Specification Document (PSD) for Level 4 Surface and Root Zone Soil Moisture (L4_SM) data for the Science Data System (SDS) of the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) project. The L4_SM data product provides estimates of land surface conditions based on the assimilation of SMAP observations into a customized version of the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System, Version 5 (GEOS-5) land data assimilation system (LDAS). This document applies to any standard L4_SM data product generated by the SMAP Project. The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission will enhance the accuracy and the resolution of space-based measurements of terrestrial soil moisture and freeze-thaw state. SMAP data products will have a noteworthy impact on multiple relevant and current Earth Science endeavors. These include: Understanding of the processes that link the terrestrial water, the energy and the carbon cycles, Estimations of global water and energy fluxes over the land surfaces, Quantification of the net carbon flux in boreal landscapes Forecast skill of both weather and climate, Predictions and monitoring of natural disasters including floods, landslides and droughts, and Predictions of agricultural productivity. To provide these data, the SMAP mission will deploy a satellite observatory in a near polar, sun synchronous orbit. The observatory will house an L-band radiometer that operates at 1.40 GHz and an L-band radar that operates at 1.26 GHz. The instruments will share a rotating reflector antenna with a 6 meter aperture that scans over a 1000 km swath.

  7. An intercomparison of remotely sensed soil moisture products at various spatial scales over the Iberian Peninsula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parinussa, R.M.; Yilmaz, M.T.; Anderson, M.; Hain, C.; de Jeu, R.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Soil moisture (SM) can be retrieved from active microwave (AM), passive microwave (PM) and thermal infrared (TIR) observations, each having unique spatial and temporal coverages. A limitation of TIR-based retrievals is a dependence on cloud-free conditions, whereas microwave retrievals are almost

  8. Use of visible, near-infrared, and thermal infrared remote sensing to study soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, M. B.; Greeley, R.; Goettelman, R.

    1974-01-01

    Two methods are described which are used to estimate soil moisture remotely using the 0.4- to 14.0 micron wavelength region: (1) measurement of spectral reflectance, and (2) measurement of soil temperature. The reflectance method is based on observations which show that directional reflectance decreases as soil moisture increases for a given material. The soil temperature method is based on observations which show that differences between daytime and nighttime soil temperatures decrease as moisture content increases for a given material. In some circumstances, separate reflectance or temperature measurements yield ambiguous data, in which case these two methods may be combined to obtain a valid soil moisture determination. In this combined approach, reflectance is used to estimate low moisture levels; and thermal inertia (or thermal diffusivity) is used to estimate higher levels. The reflectance method appears promising for surface estimates of soil moisture, whereas the temperature method appears promising for estimates of near-subsurface (0 to 10 cm).

  9. Study on cooperative active sensing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukune, Hideo; Kita, Nobuyuki; Hirai, Shigeoki; Kuniyoshi, Yasuo; Hara, Isao; Matsui, Toshihiro

    1999-01-01

    In order to realize autonomous type nuclear plant, three-dimensional geometrical modelling method, and a basic technology on information collection and processing system preparation in some nuclear basic technology developments such as 'study on system evaluation of nuclear facility furnished with artificial intelligence for nuclear power' and 'study on adaptability evaluation of information collection and processing system into autonomous type plant' had already been developed. In this study, a study on sensing system required for constructing robot groups capable of conducting autonomously traveling inspection and maintenance in large scale, complicated and diverse plant has been processed by aiming at establishment of dispersed cooperative intelligent system technology. In 1997 fiscal year, integration of cooperative visual sensing technique was attempted. And, at the same time, upgrading of individual element technology and transportation method essential to the integrated system were investigated. As a result, an operative active sensing prototype system due to transportation robot groups furnished with real time processing capacity on diverse informations by integration of cooperative active sensing technique and real time active sensing technique developed independently plural transportation robot. (G.K.)

  10. Global retrieval of soil moisture and vegetation properties using data-driven methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Fernandez, Nemesio; Richaume, Philippe; Kerr, Yann

    2017-04-01

    Data-driven methods such as neural networks (NNs) are a powerful tool to retrieve soil moisture from multi-wavelength remote sensing observations at global scale. In this presentation we will review a number of recent results regarding the retrieval of soil moisture with the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite, either using SMOS brightness temperatures as input data for the retrieval or using SMOS soil moisture retrievals as reference dataset for the training. The presentation will discuss several possibilities for both the input datasets and the datasets to be used as reference for the supervised learning phase. Regarding the input datasets, it will be shown that NNs take advantage of the synergy of SMOS data and data from other sensors such as the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT, active microwaves) and MODIS (visible and infra red). NNs have also been successfully used to construct long time series of soil moisture from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) and SMOS. A NN with input data from ASMR-E observations and SMOS soil moisture as reference for the training was used to construct a dataset sharing a similar climatology and without a significant bias with respect to SMOS soil moisture. Regarding the reference data to train the data-driven retrievals, we will show different possibilities depending on the application. Using actual in situ measurements is challenging at global scale due to the scarce distribution of sensors. In contrast, in situ measurements have been successfully used to retrieve SM at continental scale in North America, where the density of in situ measurement stations is high. Using global land surface models to train the NN constitute an interesting alternative to implement new remote sensing surface datasets. In addition, these datasets can be used to perform data assimilation into the model used as reference for the training. This approach has recently been tested at the European Centre

  11. Using a terrestrial laser scanner to measure spatiotemporal surface moisture dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Y.; Donker, J.; Ruessink, G.

    2017-12-01

    A terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) is an active remote sensing technique that utilizes the round trip time of an emitted laser beam to provide the range between the laser scanner and the backscattering object. It is routinely used for topographic mapping, forest measurements or 3D city models since it derives useful object representations by means of a dense three-dimensional (3D) point cloud. Here, we present a novel application using the returned intensity of the emitted beam to detect surface moisture with the RIEGL VZ-400. Because this TLS operates at a wavelength near a water absorption band (1550 nm), reflectance is an accurate parameter to measure surface moisture over its full range. Five days of intensive laser scanning were performed on a Dutch beach to illustrate the applicability of the TLS. Concurrent gravimetric surface moisture samples were collected to calibrate the relation between reflectance and surface moisture. Results reveal the reflectance output is a robust parameter to measure surface moisture from the thin upper layer over its full range from 0% to 25%. The obtained calibration curve of the presented TLS, describing the relationship between reflectance and surface moisture, has a root-mean-square error of 2.7% and a correlation coefficient squared of 0.85. This relation holds to about 60 m from the TLS. Within this distance the TLS typically produces O(10^6-10^7) data points, which we averaged into surface moisture maps with a 1 x 1 m resolution. This grid size largely removes small moisture disturbances induced by, for example, footprints or tire tracks, while retaining larger scale trends. Concluding, TLS (RIEGL-VZ 400) is a highly suited technique to accurately and robustly measure spatiotemporal surface moisture variations on a coastal beach with high spatial ( 1 x 1 m) and temporal ( 15-30min.) resolution.

  12. Using high-resolution soil moisture modelling to assess the uncertainty of microwave remotely sensed soil moisture products at the correct spatial and temporal support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanders, N.; Karssenberg, D.; Bierkens, M. F. P.; Van Dam, J. C.; De Jong, S. M.

    Soil moisture is a key variable in the hydrological cycle and important in hydrological modelling. When assimilating soil moisture into flood forecasting models, the improvement of forecasting skills depends on the ability to accurately estimate the spatial and temporal patterns of soil moisture

  13. Assimilating Remote Sensing Observations of Leaf Area Index and Soil Moisture for Wheat Yield Estimates: An Observing System Simulation Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearing, Grey S.; Crow, Wade T.; Thorp, Kelly R.; Moran, Mary S.; Reichle, Rolf H.; Gupta, Hoshin V.

    2012-01-01

    Observing system simulation experiments were used to investigate ensemble Bayesian state updating data assimilation of observations of leaf area index (LAI) and soil moisture (theta) for the purpose of improving single-season wheat yield estimates with the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) CropSim-Ceres model. Assimilation was conducted in an energy-limited environment and a water-limited environment. Modeling uncertainty was prescribed to weather inputs, soil parameters and initial conditions, and cultivar parameters and through perturbations to model state transition equations. The ensemble Kalman filter and the sequential importance resampling filter were tested for the ability to attenuate effects of these types of uncertainty on yield estimates. LAI and theta observations were synthesized according to characteristics of existing remote sensing data, and effects of observation error were tested. Results indicate that the potential for assimilation to improve end-of-season yield estimates is low. Limitations are due to a lack of root zone soil moisture information, error in LAI observations, and a lack of correlation between leaf and grain growth.

  14. Synergistic use of active and passive microwave in soil moisture estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, P.; Chauhan, N.; Jackson, T.; Saatchi, S.

    1992-01-01

    Data gathered during the MACHYDRO experiment in central Pennsylvania in July 1990 have been utilized to study the synergistic use of active and passive microwave systems for estimating soil moisture. These data sets were obtained during an eleven-day period with NASA's Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) and Push-Broom Microwave Radiometer (PBMR) over an instrumented watershed which included agricultural fields with a number of different crop covers. Simultaneous ground truth measurements were also made in order to characterize the state of vegetation and soil moisture under a variety of meteorological conditions. A combination algorithm is presented as applied to a representative corn field in the MACHYDRO watershed.

  15. Use of Soil Moisture Variability in Artificial Neural Network Retrieval of Soil Moisture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert Veenendaal

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Passive microwave remote sensing is one of the most promising techniques for soil moisture retrieval. However, the inversion of soil moisture from brightness temperature observations is not straightforward, as it is influenced by numerous factors such as surface roughness, vegetation cover, and soil texture. Moreover, the relationship between brightness temperature, soil moisture and the factors mentioned above is highly non-linear and ill-posed. Consequently, Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs have been used to retrieve soil moisture from microwave data, but with limited success when dealing with data different to that from the training period. In this study, an ANN is tested for its ability to predict soil moisture at 1 km resolution on different dates following training at the same site for a specific date. A novel approach that utilizes information on the variability of soil moisture, in terms of its mean and standard deviation for a (sub region of spatial dimension up to 40 km, is used to improve the current retrieval accuracy of the ANN method. A comparison between the ANN with and without the use of the variability information showed that this enhancement enables the ANN to achieve an average Root Mean Square Error (RMSE of around 5.1% v/v when using the variability information, as compared to around 7.5% v/v without it. The accuracy of the soil moisture retrieval was further improved by the division of the target site into smaller regions down to 4 km in size, with the spatial variability of soil moisture calculated from within the smaller region used in the ANN. With the combination of an ANN architecture of a single hidden layer of 20 neurons and the dual-polarized brightness temperatures as input, the proposed use of variability and sub-region methodology achieves an average retrieval accuracy of 3.7% v/v. Although this accuracy is not the lowest as comparing to the research in this field, the main contribution is the ability of ANN in

  16. Soil moisture and temperature algorithms and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passive microwave remote sensing of soil moisture has matured over the past decade as a result of the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR) program of JAXA. This program has resulted in improved algorithms that have been supported by rigorous validation. Access to the products and the valida...

  17. Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission L4_C Data Product Assessment (Version 2 Validated Release)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, John S.; Jones, Lucas A.; Glassy, Joseph; Stavros, E. Natasha; Madani, Nima; Reichle, Rolf H.; Jackson, Thomas; Colliander, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The SMAP satellite was successfully launched January 31st 2015, and began acquiring Earth observation data following in-orbit sensor calibration. Global data products derived from the SMAP L-band microwave measurements include Level 1 calibrated and geolocated radiometric brightness temperatures, Level 23 surface soil moisture and freezethaw geophysical retrievals mapped to a fixed Earth grid, and model enhanced Level 4 data products for surface to root zone soil moisture and terrestrial carbon (CO2) fluxes. The post-launch SMAP mission CalVal Phase had two primary objectives for each science product team: 1) calibrate, verify, and improve the performance of the science algorithms, and 2) validate accuracies of the science data products as specified in the L1 science requirements. This report provides analysis and assessment of the SMAP Level 4 Carbon (L4_C) product pertaining to the validated release. The L4_C validated product release effectively replaces an earlier L4_C beta-product release (Kimball et al. 2015). The validated release described in this report incorporates a longer data record and benefits from algorithm and CalVal refinements acquired during the SMAP post-launch CalVal intensive period. The SMAP L4_C algorithms utilize a terrestrial carbon flux model informed by SMAP soil moisture inputs along with optical remote sensing (e.g. MODIS) vegetation indices and other ancillary biophysical data to estimate global daily net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) and component carbon fluxes for vegetation gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (Reco). Other L4_C product elements include surface (10 cm depth) soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks and associated environmental constraints to these processes, including soil moisture and landscape freeze/thaw (FT) controls on GPP and respiration (Kimball et al. 2012). The L4_C product encapsulates SMAP carbon cycle science objectives by: 1) providing a direct link between terrestrial carbon fluxes and

  18. MAPPING SPATIAL MOISTURE CONTENT OF UNSATURATED AGRICULTURAL SOILS WITH GROUND-PENETRATING RADAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Shamir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil subsurface moisture content, especially in the root zone, is important for evaluation the influence of soil moisture to agricultural crops. Conservative monitoring by point-measurement methods is time-consuming and expensive. In this paper we represent an active remote-sensing tool for subsurface spatial imaging and analysis of electromagnetic physical properties, mostly water content, by ground-penetrating radar (GPR reflection. Combined with laboratory methods, this technique enables real-time and highly accurate evaluations of soils' physical qualities in the field. To calculate subsurface moisture content, a model based on the soil texture, porosity, saturation, organic matter and effective electrical conductivity is required. We developed an innovative method that make it possible measures spatial subsurface moisture content up to a depth of 1.5 m in agricultural soils and applied it to two different unsaturated soil types from agricultural fields in Israel: loess soil type (Calcic haploxeralf, common in rural areas of southern Israel with about 30% clay, 30% silt and 40% sand, and hamra soil type (Typic rhodoxeralf, common in rural areas of central Israel with about 10% clay, 5% silt and 85% sand. Combined field and laboratory measurements and model development gave efficient determinations of spatial moisture content in these fields. The environmentally friendly GPR system enabled non-destructive testing. The developed method for measuring moisture content in the laboratory enabled highly accurate interpretation and physical computing. Spatial soil moisture content to 1.5 m depth was determined with 1–5% accuracy, making our method useful for the design of irrigation plans for different interfaces.

  19. Sensitivity Analysis of b-factor in Microwave Emission Model for Soil Moisture Retrieval: A Case Study for SMAP Mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugwon Seo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity analysis is critically needed to better understand the microwave emission model for soil moisture retrieval using passive microwave remote sensing data. The vegetation b-factor along with vegetation water content and surface characteristics has significant impact in model prediction. This study evaluates the sensitivity of the b-factor, which is function of vegetation type. The analysis is carried out using Passive and Active L and S-band airborne sensor (PALS and measured field soil moisture from Southern Great Plains experiment (SGP99. The results show that the relative sensitivity of the b-factor is 86% in wet soil condition and 88% in high vegetated condition compared to the sensitivity of the soil moisture. Apparently, the b-factor is found to be more sensitive than the vegetation water content, surface roughness and surface temperature; therefore, the effect of the b-factor is fairly large to the microwave emission in certain conditions. Understanding the dependence of the b-factor on the soil and vegetation is important in studying the soil moisture retrieval algorithm, which can lead to potential improvements in model development for the Soil Moisture Active-Passive (SMAP mission.

  20. A rare earth-based metal-organic framework for moisture removal and control in confined spaces

    KAUST Repository

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed; AbdulHalim, Rasha; Belmabkhout, Youssef

    2017-01-01

    method of controlling moisture in an environment comprising sensing the relative humidity in the environment comprising a MOF; and adsorbing water vapor on the MOF if the relative humidity is above a first level, sufficient to control moisture

  1. Continuous data assimilation for downscaling large-footprint soil moisture retrievals

    KAUST Repository

    Altaf, Muhammad; Jana, Raghavendra Belur; Hoteit, Ibrahim; McCabe, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    on coarse scale observations. Application of this approach is likely in generating fine and intermediate resolution soil moisture fields conditioned on the radiometerbased, coarse resolution products from remote sensing satellites.

  2. Red-Edge Spectral Reflectance as an Indicator of Surface Moisture Content in an Alaskan Peatland Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPartland, M.; Kane, E. S.; Turetsky, M. R.; Douglass, T.; Falkowski, M. J.; Montgomery, R.; Edwards, J.

    2015-12-01

    Arctic and boreal peatlands serve as major reservoirs of terrestrial organic carbon (C) because Net Primary Productivity (NPP) outstrips C loss from decomposition over long periods of time. Peatland productivity varies as a function of water table position and surface moisture content, making C storage in these systems particularly vulnerable to the climate warming and drying predicted for high latitudes. Detailed spatial knowledge of how aboveground vegetation communities respond to changes in hydrology would allow for ecosystem response to environmental change to be measured at the landscape scale. This study leverages remotely sensed data along with field measurements taken at the Alaska Peatland Experiment (APEX) at the Bonanza Creek Long Term Ecological Research site to examine relationships between plant solar reflectance and surface moisture. APEX is a decade-long experiment investigating the effects of hydrologic change on peatland ecosystems using water table manipulation treatments (raised, lowered, and control). Water table levels were manipulated throughout the 2015 growing season, resulting in a maximum separation of 35 cm between raised and lowered treatment plots. Water table position, soil moisture content, depth to seasonal ice, soil temperature, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), CO2 and CH4 fluxes were measured as predictors of C loss through decomposition and NPP. Vegetation was surveyed for percent cover of plant functional types. Remote sensing data was collected during peak growing season, when the separation between treatment plots was at maximum difference. Imagery was acquired via a SenseFly eBee airborne platform equipped with a Canon S110 red-edge camera capable of detecting spectral reflectance from plant tissue at 715 nm band center to within centimeters of spatial resolution. Here, we investigate empirical relationships between spectral reflectance, water table position, and surface moisture in relation to peat carbon balance.

  3. [Bare Soil Moisture Inversion Model Based on Visible-Shortwave Infrared Reflectance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiao-po; Sun, Yue-jun; Qin, Qi-ming; Ren, Hua-zhong; Gao, Zhong-ling; Wu, Ling; Meng, Qing-ye; Wang, Jin-liang; Wang, Jian-hua

    2015-08-01

    Soil is the loose solum of land surface that can support plants. It consists of minerals, organics, atmosphere, moisture, microbes, et al. Among its complex compositions, soil moisture varies greatly. Therefore, the fast and accurate inversion of soil moisture by using remote sensing is very crucial. In order to reduce the influence of soil type on the retrieval of soil moisture, this paper proposed a normalized spectral slope and absorption index named NSSAI to estimate soil moisture. The modeling of the new index contains several key steps: Firstly, soil samples with different moisture level were artificially prepared, and soil reflectance spectra was consequently measured using spectroradiometer produced by ASD Company. Secondly, the moisture absorption spectral feature located at shortwave wavelengths and the spectral slope of visible wavelengths were calculated after analyzing the regular spectral feature change patterns of different soil at different moisture conditions. Then advantages of the two features at reducing soil types' effects was synthesized to build the NSSAI. Thirdly, a linear relationship between NSSAI and soil moisture was established. The result showed that NSSAI worked better (correlation coefficient is 0.93) than most of other traditional methods in soil moisture extraction. It can weaken the influences caused by soil types at different moisture levels and improve the bare soil moisture inversion accuracy.

  4. Effect of vegetation on soil moisture sensing observed from orbiting microwave radiometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    The microwave radiometric measurements made by the Skylab 1.4 GHz radiometer and by the 6.6 GHz and 10.7 GHz channels of the Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer were analyzed to study the large-area soil moisture variations of land surfaces. Two regions in Texas, one with sparse and the other with dense vegetation covers, were selected for the study. The results gave a confirmation of the vegetation effect observed by ground-level microwave radiometers. Based on the statistics of the satellite data, it was possible to estimate surface soil moisture in about five different levels from dry to wet conditions with a 1.4 GHz radiometer, provided that the biomass of the vegetation cover could be independently measured. At frequencies greater than about 6.6 GHz, the radiometric measurements showed little sensitivity to moisture variation for vegetation-covered soils. The effects of polarization in microwave emission were studied also. (author)

  5. Optimizing operational water management with soil moisture data from Sentinel-1 satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezij, Michiel; Augustijn, Denie; Hendriks, Dimmie; Hulscher, Suzanne

    2016-04-01

    In the Netherlands, regional water authorities are responsible for management and maintenance of regional water bodies. Due to socio-economic developments (e.g. agricultural intensification and on-going urbanisation) and an increase in climate variability, the pressure on these water bodies is growing. Optimization of water availability by taking into account the needs of different users, both in wet and dry periods, is crucial for sustainable developments. To support timely and well-directed operational water management, accurate information on the current state of the system as well as reliable models to evaluate water management optimization measures are essential. Previous studies showed that the use of remote sensing data (for example soil moisture data) in water management offers many opportunities (e.g. Wanders et al. (2014)). However, these data are not yet used in operational applications at a large scale. The Sentinel-1 satellites programme offers high spatiotemporal resolution soil moisture data (1 image per 6 days with a spatial resolution of 10 by 10 m) that are freely available. In this study, these data will be used to improve the Netherlands Hydrological Instrument (NHI). The NHI consists of coupled models for the unsaturated zone (MetaSWAP), groundwater (iMODFLOW) and surface water (Mozart and DM). The NHI is used for scenario analyses and operational water management in the Netherlands (De Lange et al., 2014). Due to the lack of soil moisture data, the unsaturated zone model is not yet thoroughly validated and its output is not used by regional water authorities for decision-making. Therefore, the newly acquired remotely sensed soil moisture data will be used to improve the skill of the MetaSWAP-model and the NHI as whole. The research will focus among other things on the calibration of soil parameters by comparing model output (MetaSWAP) with the remotely sensed soil moisture data. Eventually, we want to apply data-assimilation to improve

  6. Variation in root activity with season and soil moisture in coconut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venugopal, Vandana; Balachandran, P.V.

    2007-01-01

    An experiment was conducted at the College of Horticulture, Vellanikkara to study the effect of season and soil moisture regime on the physiological activity of roots in coconut. The experiment has been laid out in CRD with two replications at two different depths (20 and 75 cm) and moisture regimes (irrigated and rain fed) round the year. The 32 P uptake was higher during wet season as compared to dry season in monocrop of coconut. The absorption was more from the surface layers during wet season and roots explored deeper soil layers during dry season. Irrigation in general improved absorption of 32 P in coconut and resulted in higher uptake from the surface soil compared to that under rainfed condition. (author)

  7. Soil moisture extremes drive tree canopy death in 2011 Texas drought: multispectral (Landsat, NAIP) and L-band passive microwave remote sensing (SMOS-IC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, J. J.; Schwantes, A. M.; Johnson, D. M.; Domec, J. C.; Wigneron, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change is bringing more frequent and intense droughts that are causing broad scale tree mortality events. Detecting regional drought stress is now more frequently monitored with passive microwave satellite sensing of soil moisture (SM) and vegetation water status (through the vegetation optical depth (VOD) index), that can be validated with in-situ measurements of soil moisture or corroborated with satellite multispectral indices of greenness. The detection of canopy death however marks the passing of a definitive physiological threshold. We compare soil moisture from the L-band SMOS-IC passive microwave product (2010-20176) to an accurate and detailed (30-m spatial resolution) map of canopy loss across the US state of Texas during the record breaking 2011 drought. The SMOS-IC product (25 km) is a new and simpler product of soil moisture and VOD that has been shown to be more accurate than past SMOS products and it is independent of ancillary data. Canopy loss was mapped from Landsat imagery trained with 186, 41 km2 subplots of classified National Agriculture Inventory Program color infrared aerial imagery recorded before and after the drought. Bringing these two datasets of disparate spatial resolution together and averaging them across the state, we find that areas with at least 25% tree cover that experienced the most canopy loss (highest quartile) had lower soil moisture compared to areas with less canopy loss in 2011. These areas with the most loss, experienced up to 9 weeks of the growing season at stress as well as the effects of topography, soil, and climate. Having more information on plant hydraulic limits would lend itself to modeling and prediction of die offs based on satellite tracked SM.

  8. Inter-Annual Variability of Soil Moisture Stress Function in the Wheat Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuraju, V. R.; Ryu, D.; George, B.; Ryu, Y.; Dassanayake, K. B.

    2014-12-01

    Root-zone soil moisture content is a key variable that controls the exchange of water and energy fluxes between land and atmosphere. In the soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) schemes, the influence of root-zone soil moisture on evapotranspiration (ET) is parameterized by the soil moisture stress function (SSF). Dependence of actual ET: potential ET (fPET) or evaporative fraction to the root-zone soil moisture via SSF can also be used inversely to estimate root-zone soil moisture when fPET is estimated by remotely sensed land surface states. In this work we present fPET versus available soil water (ASW) in the root zone observed in the experimental farm sites in Victoria, Australia in 2012-2013. In the wheat field site, fPET vs ASW exhibited distinct features for different soil depth, net radiation, and crop growth stages. Interestingly, SSF in the wheat field presented contrasting shapes for two cropping years of 2012 and 2013. We argue that different temporal patterns of rainfall (and resulting soil moisture) during the growing seasons in 2012 and 2013 are responsible for the distinctive SSFs. SSF of the wheat field was simulated by the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM). The APSIM was able to reproduce the observed fPET vs. ASW. We discuss implications of our findings for existing modeling and (inverse) remote sensing approaches relying on SSF and alternative growth-stage-dependent SSFs.

  9. Identification of sewage leaks by active remote-sensing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldshleger, Naftaly; Basson, Uri

    2016-04-01

    The increasing length of sewage pipelines, and concomitant risk of leaks due to urban and industrial growth and development is exposing the surrounding land to contamination risk and environmental harm. It is therefore important to locate such leaks in a timely manner, to minimize the damage. Advances in active remote sensing Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Frequency Domain Electromagnetic (FDEM) technologies was used to identify leaking potentially responsible for pollution and to identify minor spills before they cause widespread damage. This study focused on the development of these electromagnetic methods to replace conventional acoustic methods for the identification of leaks along sewage pipes. Electromagnetic methods provide an additional advantage in that they allow mapping of the fluid-transport system in the subsurface. Leak-detection systems using GPR and FDEM are not limited to large amounts of water, but enable detecting leaks of tens of liters per hour, because they can locate increases in environmental moisture content of only a few percentage along the pipes. The importance and uniqueness of this research lies in the development of practical tools to provide a snapshot and monitoring of the spatial changes in soil moisture content up to depths of about 3-4 m, in open and paved areas, at relatively low cost, in real time or close to real time. Spatial measurements performed using GPR and FDEM systems allow monitoring many tens of thousands of measurement points per hectare, thus providing a picture of the spatial situation along pipelines and the surrounding. The main purpose of this study was to develop a method for detecting sewage leaks using the above-proposed geophysical methods, since their contaminants can severely affect public health. We focused on identifying, locating and characterizing such leaks in sewage pipes in residential and industrial areas.

  10. NASA's Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Kent; Njoku, Eni; Thurman, Sam; Edelstein, Wendy; Jai, Ben; Spencer, Mike; Chen, Gun-Shing; Entekhabi, Dara; O'Neill, Peggy; Piepmeier, Jeffrey; hide

    2010-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active-Passive (SMAP) Mission is one of the first Earth observation satellites being formulated by NASA in response to the 2007 National Research Council s Decadal Survey. SMAP will make global measurements of soil moisture at the Earth's land surface and its freeze-thaw state. These measurements will allow significantly improved estimates of water, energy and carbon transfers between the land and atmosphere. Soil moisture measurements are also of great importance in assessing flooding and monitoring drought. Knowledge gained from SMAP observations can help mitigate these natural hazards, resulting in potentially great economic and social benefits. SMAP observations of soil moisture and freeze/thaw timing over the boreal latitudes will also reduce a major uncertainty in quantifying the global carbon balance and help to resolve an apparent missing carbon sink over land. The SMAP mission concept will utilize an L-band radar and radiometer sharing a rotating 6-meter mesh reflector antenna flying in a 680 km polar orbit with an 8-day exact ground track repeat aboard a 3-axis stabilized spacecraft to provide high-resolution and high-accuracy global maps of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state every two to three days. In addition, the SMAP project will use these surface observations with advanced modeling and data assimilation to provide estimates of deeper root-zone soil moisture and net ecosystem exchange of carbon. SMAP recently completed its Phase A Mission Concept Study Phase for NASA and transitioned into Phase B (Formulation and Detailed Design). A number of significant accomplishments occurred during this initial phase of mission development. The SMAP project held several open meetings to solicit community feedback on possible science algorithms, prepared preliminary draft Algorithm Theoretical Basis Documents (ATBDs) for each mission science product, and established a prototype algorithm testbed to enable testing and evaluation of the

  11. The relationship between brightness temperature and soil moisture. Selection of frequency range for microwave remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, K.S.; Chandra, G.; Rao, P.V.N.

    1987-01-01

    The analysis of brightness temperature data acquired from field and aircraft experiments demonstrates a linear relationship between soil moisture and brightness temperature. However, the analysis of brightness temperature data acquired by the Skylab radiometer demonstrates a non-linear relationship between soil moisture and brightness temperature. In view of the above and also because of recent theoretical developments for the calculation of the dielectric constant and brightness temperature under varying soil moisture profile conditions, an attempt is made to study the theoretical relationship between brightness temperature and soil moisture as a function of frequency. Through the above analysis, the appropriate microwave frequency range for soil moisture studies is recommended

  12. Dynamics and characteristics of soil temperature and moisture of active layer in central Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, L.; Hu, G.; Wu, X.; Tian, L.

    2017-12-01

    Research on the hydrothermal properties of active layer during the thawing and freezing processes was considered as a key question to revealing the heat and moisture exchanges between permafrost and atmosphere. The characteristics of freezing and thawing processes at Tanggula (TGL) site in permafrost regions on the Tibetan Plateau, the results revealed that the depth of daily soil temperature transmission was about 40 cm shallower during thawing period than that during the freezing period. Soil warming process at the depth above 140 cm was slower than the cooling process, whereas they were close below 140 cm depth. Moreover, the hydro-thermal properties differed significantly among different stages. Precipitation caused an obviously increase in soil moisture at 0-20 cm depth. The vertical distribution of soil moisture could be divided into two main zones: less than 12% in the freeze state and greater than 12% in the thaw state. In addition, coupling of moisture and heat during the freezing and thawing processes also showed that soil temperature decreased faster than soil moisture during the freezing process. At the freezing stage, soil moisture exhibited an exponential relationship with the absolute soil temperature. Energy consumed for water-ice conversion during the freezing process was 149.83 MJ/m2 and 141.22 MJ/m2 in 2011 and 2012, respectively, which was estimated by the soil moisture variation.

  13. Moisture sorption isotherms of dehydrated whey proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Rimac Brnčić

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Moisture sorption isotherms describe the relation between the moisture content of the dry material (food and relative humidity of the surrounding environment. The data obtained are important in modelling of drying process conditions, packaging and shelf-life stability of food that will provide maximum retaining of aroma, colour and texture as well as nutritive and biological value. The objective of this research was to establish the equilibrium moisture content and water activity, as well as monolayer value of two commercial powdered whey protein isolates before and after tribomechanical micronisation and enzymatic hydrolysis, respectively. At the same time it was necessary to evaluate the best moisture sorption isotherm equation to fit the experimental data. The equilibrium moisture contents in investigated samples were determined using standard gravimetric method at 20 °C. The range of water activities was 0.11 to 0.75. The monolayer moisture content was estimated from sorption data using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET and Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB models. The results have shown that tribomechanically treated whey protein isolates as well as protein hydrolizates had lower monolayer moisture content values as well as higher corresponding water activity. Therefore, in spite of the fact that they have lower moisture content, they can be storage at higher relative humidity compared to untreated samples. BET model gave better fit to experimental sorption data for a water activity range from 0.11-0.54, while GAB model gave the closest fit for a water activity to 0.75.

  14. Study on a cooperative active sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukune, Hideo; Kita, Nobuyuki; Kuniyoshi, Yasuo; Hara, Isao; Matsui, Toshihiro; Matsushita, Toshio; Nagata, Kazuyuki; Nagakubo, Akihiko

    1997-01-01

    This study was made as a part of the research project ''Study on the evaluation of applicability of information collection·processing system to autonomous plant''. Previously, the basic techniques for 3-dimensional geometric modeling of working environments and for systemizing of information collection and processing have been developed. Thus, this study aimed to establish the techniques for a decentralized and cooperatively intellectualized system which allows to automatically perform patrol for inspection and maintenance in complicated plants. First, developments of cooperative active sensing for functioning in a multi-robot system and real-time active visual sensing were attempted and then the both were integrated to produce a prototype system for cooperative active sensing. The outcomes of the project in this year were as follows; a mobile platform with expanded functions, acoustic information processing, parallel EusLisp, a simulator for moving robot's behaviors, a visual monitoring system for moving objects, etc. All of these were usable for general purpose. (M.N.)

  15. Temperature and moisture effects on greenhouse gas emissions from deep active-layer boreal soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Smith, A. Peyton; Bailey, Vanessa

    2016-12-01

    Rapid climatic changes, rising air temperatures, and increased fires are expected to drive permafrost degradation and alter soil carbon (C) cycling in many high-latitude ecosystems. How these soils will respond to changes in their temperature, moisture, and overlying vegetation is uncertain but critical to understand given the large soil C stocks in these regions. We used a laboratory experiment to examine how temperature and moisture control CO2 and CH4 emissions from mineral soils sampled from the bottom of the annual active layer, i.e., directly above permafrost, in an Alaskan boreal forest. Gas emissions from 30 cores, subjected to two temperatures and either field moisture conditions or experimental drought, were tracked over a 100-day incubation; we also measured a variety of physical and chemical characteristics of the cores. Gravimetric water content was 0.31 ± 0.12 (unitless) at the beginning of the incubation; cores at field moisture were unchanged at the end, but drought cores had declined to 0.06 ± 0.04. Daily CO2 fluxes were positively correlated with incubation chamber temperature, core water content, and percent soil nitrogen. They also had a temperature sensitivity (Q10) of 1.3 and 1.9 for the field moisture and drought treatments, respectively. Daily CH4 emissions were most strongly correlated with percent nitrogen, but neither temperature nor water content was a significant first-order predictor of CH4 fluxes. The cumulative production of C from CO2 was over 6 orders of magnitude higher than that from CH4; cumulative CO2 was correlated with incubation temperature and moisture treatment, with drought cores producing 52-73 % lower C. Cumulative CH4 production was unaffected by any treatment. These results suggest that deep active-layer soils may be sensitive to changes in soil moisture under aerobic conditions, a critical factor as discontinuous permafrost thaws in interior Alaska. Deep but unfrozen high-latitude soils have been shown to be

  16. A Cloud Computing-Enabled Spatio-Temporal Cyber-Physical Information Infrastructure for Efficient Soil Moisture Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianjie Zhou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive surface soil moisture (SM monitoring is a vital task in precision agriculture applications. SM monitoring includes remote sensing imagery monitoring and in situ sensor-based observational monitoring. Cloud computing can increase computational efficiency enormously. A geographical web service was developed to assist in agronomic decision making, and this tool can be scaled to any location and crop. By integrating cloud computing and the web service-enabled information infrastructure, this study uses the cloud computing-enabled spatio-temporal cyber-physical infrastructure (CESCI to provide an efficient solution for soil moisture monitoring in precision agriculture. On the server side of CESCI, diverse Open Geospatial Consortium web services work closely with each other. Hubei Province, located on the Jianghan Plain in central China, is selected as the remote sensing study area in the experiment. The Baoxie scientific experimental field in Wuhan City is selected as the in situ sensor study area. The results show that the proposed method enhances the efficiency of remote sensing imagery mapping and in situ soil moisture interpolation. In addition, the proposed method is compared to other existing precision agriculture infrastructures. In this comparison, the proposed infrastructure performs soil moisture mapping in Hubei Province in 1.4 min and near real-time in situ soil moisture interpolation in an efficient manner. Moreover, an enhanced performance monitoring method can help to reduce costs in precision agriculture monitoring, as well as increasing agricultural productivity and farmers’ net-income.

  17. An overview of the measurements of soil moisture and modeling of moisture flux in FIFE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of soil moisture and calculations of moisture transfer in the soil medium and at the air-soil interface were performed over a 15-km by 15-km test site during FIFE in 1987 and 1989. The measurements included intensive soil moisture sampling at the ground level and surveys at aircraft altitudes by several passive and active microwave sensors as well as a gamma radiation device.

  18. Assimilation of passive and active CCI soil moisture products into hydrological modelling: an intercomparison study in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggioni, V.; Massari, C.; Camici, S.; Brocca, L.; Marchesini, I.

    2017-12-01

    Soil moisture (SM) is a key variable in rainfall-runoff partitioning since it acts on the main hydrological processes taking part within a catchment. Modeling SM is often a difficult task due to its large variability at different temporal and spatial scales. Ground soil moisture measurements are a valuable tool for improving runoff prediction but are often limited and suffer from spatial representativeness issues. Remotely sensed observations offer a new source of data able to cope the latter issues thus opening new possibilities for improving flood simulations worldwide. Today, several different SM products are available at increased accuracy with respect to the past. Some interesting products are those derived from the Climate Change Initiative (CCI) which offer the most complete and most consistent global SM data record based on active and passive microwave sensors.Thanks to the combination of multiple sensors within an active, a passive and an active+passive products, the CCI SM is expected to provide a significant benefit for the improvement of rainfall-runoff simulations through data assimilation. However, previous studies have shown that the success of the assimilation is not only related to the accuracy of the observations but also to the specific climate and the catchment physical and hydrological characteristics as well as to many necessary choices related to the assimilation technique. These choices along with the type of SM observations (i.e. passive or active) might play an important role for the success or the failure of the assimilation exercise which is not still clear. In this study, based on a large dataset of catchments covering large part of the Europe, we assimilated satellite SM observations from the passive and the active CCI SM products into Modello Idrologico Semiditribuito in Continuo (MISDc, Brocca et al. 2011). Rainfall and temperature data were collected from the European Climate Assessment & Dataset (E-OBS) while discharge data were

  19. Humidity Sensing Behavior of Polyaniline / Strontium Arsenate Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machappa T.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The response of conducting Polyaniline (PANI / Ceramic (Sr3(AsO42 composites system to air moisture environment is studied. The conducting PANI and its composites are prepared by in situ polymerization technique. These prepared samples were characterized by XRD, FTIR & SEM, which confirms crystallinity, composite formation and porosity of the samples. The temperature dependent conductivity measurement shows the thermally activated behavior, where the conductivity increases with increase in temperature. The decrease in electrical resistance with change in relative humidity (RH over broad range (ranging between 20 to 95 % is due to the increase in surface electrical conductivity resulting from moisture absorption and due to capillary condensation of water causing increase in conductivity within the sensing materials.

  20. Use of remote sensing data in distributed hydrological models: applications in the Senegal River basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandholt, Inge; Andersen, Jens Asger; Gybkjær, Gorm

    1999-01-01

    Earth observation, remote sensing, hydrology, distributed hydrological modelling, West Africa, Senegal river basin, land cover, soil moisture, NOAA AVHRR, SPOT, Mike-she......Earth observation, remote sensing, hydrology, distributed hydrological modelling, West Africa, Senegal river basin, land cover, soil moisture, NOAA AVHRR, SPOT, Mike-she...

  1. Remote sensing for agriculture, ecosystems, and hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engman, E.T.

    1998-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of SPIE's remote sensing symposium which was held September 22--24, 1998, in Barcelona, Spain. Topics of discussion include the following: calibration techniques for soil moisture measurements; remote sensing of grasslands and biomass estimation of meadows; evaluation of agricultural disasters; monitoring of industrial and natural radioactive elements; and remote sensing of vegetation and of forest fires

  2. Evaluation of free water and water activity measurements as functional alternatives to total moisture content in broiler excreta and litter samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hoeven-Hangoor, E; Rademaker, C J; Paton, N D; Verstegen, M W A; Hendriks, W H

    2014-07-01

    Litter moisture contents vary greatly between and within practical poultry barns. The current experiment was designed to measure the effects of 8 different dietary characteristics on litter and excreta moisture content. Additionally, free water content and water activity of the excreta and litter were evaluated as additional quality measures. The dietary treatments consisted of nonstarch polysaccharide content (NSP; corn vs. wheat), particle size of insoluble fiber (coarse vs. finely ground oat hulls), viscosity of a nonfermentable fiber (low- and high-viscosity carboxymethyl cellulose), inclusion of a clay mineral (sepiolite), and inclusion of a laxative electrolyte (MgSO4). The 8 treatments were randomly assigned to cages within blocks, resulting in 12 replicates per treatment with 6 birds per replicate. Limited effects of the dietary treatments were noted on excreta and litter water activity, and indications were observed that this measurement is limited in high-moisture samples. Increasing dietary NSP content by feeding a corn-based diet (low NSP) compared with a wheat-based diet (high NSP) increased water intake, excreta moisture and free water, and litter moisture content. Adding insoluble fibers to the wheat-based diet reduced excreta and litter moisture content, as well as litter water activity. Fine grinding of the oat hulls diminished the effect on litter moisture and water activity. However, excreta moisture and free water content were similar when fed finely or coarsely ground oat hulls. The effects of changing viscosity and adding a clay mineral or laxative deviated from results observed in previous studies. Findings of the current experiment indicate a potential for excreta free water measurement as an additional parameter to assess excreta quality besides total moisture. The exact implication of this parameter warrants further investigation. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  3. Preservative activity of lavender hydrosols in moisturizing body gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunicka-Styczyńska, A; Śmigielski, K; Prusinowska, R; Rajkowska, K; Kuśmider, B; Sikora, M

    2015-01-01

    The study was undertaken to verify the antimicrobial activity of Lavandula angustifolia hydrosols in moisturizing body gels. The inhibition efficacy of four lavender hydrosols (obtained from fresh or dry herbs or flowers) was tested against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Escherichia coli ATCC 1627, Candida sp. ŁOCK 0008 and Aspergillus niger ATCC 16404 in compliance with the standards of the European Pharmacopoeia Commission. Although the tested hydrosols did not express any remarkable antimicrobial action when tested via the macrodilution method, they show preservative activity in cosmetic preparations. Criterion A for fungi was fulfilled for the cosmetic formulation containing dried flower hydrosol (reduction of the inoculum by two logarithmic units within 14 days with no increase up to the 28th day) and Criterion B for bacteria E. coli and Staph. aureus (reduction of the inoculum by three logarithmic units within 14 days with no increase up to the 28th day). The fresh herb lavender hydrosol in the cosmetic formulation was regarded as the second one effectively satisfying Criterion B for bacteria, but its activity against fungi was below the acceptance value set out in the official regulations. Lavender hydrosols used as a replacement for water phase in cosmetics may contribute to maintaining microbiological stability of cosmetic formulations. The presented research proved antimicrobial activity of hydrosols obtained from fresh or dried Lavandula angustifolia herbs or flowers in moisturizing body gel. The study shows the usefulness of lavender hydrosols as a natural, ecologically friendly component of cosmetics with potential preservative activity in formulations. Hydrosols are commonly regarded as waste in the production of essential oils. The use of lavender hydrosols in the cosmetic industry as a replacement for water phase in cosmetics may not only result in expenses reduction for chemical stabilizers and preservatives but also in substantial decrease

  4. Moisture relationships in composting processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richard, T.L.; Veeken, A.H.M.

    2002-01-01

    Moisture is a key environmental factor that affects many aspects of the composting process. Biodegradation kinetics are affected by moisture through changes in oxygen diffusion, water potential and water activity, and microbial growth rates. These relationships are made more complex by the dynamic

  5. GCOM-W soil moisture and temperature algorithms and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passive microwave remote sensing of soil moisture has matured over the past decade as a result of the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR) program of JAXA. This program has resulted in improved algorithms that have been supported by rigorous validation. Access to the products and the valida...

  6. Radar Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    This lecture was just a taste of radar remote sensing techniques and applications. Other important areas include Stereo radar grammetry. PolInSAR for volumetric structure mapping. Agricultural monitoring, soil moisture, ice-mapping, etc. The broad range of sensor types, frequencies of observation and availability of sensors have enabled radar sensors to make significant contributions in a wide area of earth and planetary remote sensing sciences. The range of applications, both qualitative and quantitative, continue to expand with each new generation of sensors.

  7. A model for estimating time-variant rainfall infiltration as a function of antecedent surface moisture and hydrologic soil type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkening, H. A.; Ragan, R. M.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research indicates that the use of remote sensing techniques for the measurement of near surface soil moisture could be practical in the not too distant future. Other research shows that infiltration rates, especially for average or frequent rainfall events, are extremely sensitive to the proper definition and consideration of the role of the soil moisture at the beginning of the rainfall. Thus, it is important that an easy to use, but theoretically sound, rainfall infiltration model be available if the anticipated remotely sensed soil moisture data is to be optimally utilized for hydrologic simulation. A series of numerical experiments with the Richards' equation for an array of conditions anticipated in watershed hydrology were used to develop functional relationships that describe temporal infiltration rates as a function of soil type and initial moisture conditions.

  8. Effect of Organic Vapour on Porous Alumina Based Moisture Sensor in Dry Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saakshi DHANEKAR

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A capacitive porous alumina based trace moisture sensor in the range of 50 to 500 ppm (V was fabricated by low cost sol-gel technique. The cross-sensitivities due to the presence of organic vapours like ethanol, methanol, acetone and benzene were studied. The change in response and recovery time with ppm for moisture sensing was also calculated. The experimental results conclude that moisture sensor is responsive to the polar organic vapours but has almost negligible response to the nonpolar molecules like benzene. Response of the sensor to the organic vapours as compared to the moisture sensitivity is very less. The effect of ambient temperature was found to be negligible.

  9. Comparing soil moisture anomalies from multiple independent sources over different regions across the globe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammalleri, Carmelo; Vogt, Jürgen V.; Bisselink, Bernard; de Roo, Ad

    2017-12-01

    Agricultural drought events can affect large regions across the world, implying the need for a suitable global tool for an accurate monitoring of this phenomenon. Soil moisture anomalies are considered a good metric to capture the occurrence of agricultural drought events, and they have become an important component of several operational drought monitoring systems. In the framework of the JRC Global Drought Observatory (GDO, eu/gdo/" target="_blank">http://edo.jrc.ec.europa.eu/gdo/), the suitability of three datasets as possible representations of root zone soil moisture anomalies has been evaluated: (1) the soil moisture from the Lisflood distributed hydrological model (namely LIS), (2) the remotely sensed Land Surface Temperature data from the MODIS satellite (namely LST), and (3) the ESA Climate Change Initiative combined passive/active microwave skin soil moisture dataset (namely CCI). Due to the independency of these three datasets, the triple collocation (TC) technique has been applied, aiming at quantifying the likely error associated with each dataset in comparison to the unknown true status of the system. TC analysis was performed on five macro-regions (namely North America, Europe, India, southern Africa and Australia) detected as suitable for the experiment, providing insight into the mutual relationship between these datasets as well as an assessment of the accuracy of each method. Even if no definitive statement on the spatial distribution of errors can be provided, a clear outcome of the TC analysis is the good performance of the remote sensing datasets, especially CCI, over dry regions such as Australia and southern Africa, whereas the outputs of LIS seem to be more reliable over areas that are well monitored through meteorological ground station networks, such as North America and Europe. In a global drought monitoring system, the results of the error analysis are used to design a weighted-average ensemble system that exploits the advantages of

  10. Relationship between xerostomia and psychotropic drugs in patients with schizophrenia: evaluation using an oral moisture meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, A; Miyachi, H; Tanaka, K; Chikazu, D; Miyaoka, H

    2016-12-01

    Patients with schizophrenia are most commonly treated with antipsychotic medications, often with the addition of anxiolytics. This study used an oral moisture meter to evaluate xerostomia in patients with schizophrenia taking typical and atypical antipsychotics, anxiolytics and non-psychotropic medications. Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia according to ICD-10 criteria in the Department of Psychiatry, Kitasato University East, and affiliated hospitals were studied. All patients were on psychotropic medications. Patients with diseases associated with xerostomia, such as Sjögren's syndrome I, were excluded. A total of 127 patients were enrolled. Mean oral moisture was 27·81 ± 2·27% (normal, ≥30·0%). A significant association was observed between objective oral moisture and the subjective sense of dry mouth. Multivariate analysis revealed a negative correlation between the number of antipsychotics and, especially, anxiolytics, and the degree of oral moisture. Drug dosages themselves were not significantly correlated with dry mouth. These findings suggest that objective oral moisture measurements show decreased moisture in patients on these medications and that the degree of moisture shows a greater negative correlation with the number, as opposed to the dosages, of psychotropic drugs administered. When patients with schizophrenia visit a dental clinic, it is important for the dentist to accurately assess the degree of oral moisture and to determine the medications being taken. Based on these findings of the association of polypharmacy with xerostomia, dentists are encouraged to inform the psychiatrist of the need to actively manage patients' xerostomia. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Active Sensing System with In Situ Adjustable Sensor Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurzaman, Surya G.; Culha, Utku; Brodbeck, Luzius; Wang, Liyu; Iida, Fumiya

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the widespread use of sensors in engineering systems like robots and automation systems, the common paradigm is to have fixed sensor morphology tailored to fulfill a specific application. On the other hand, robotic systems are expected to operate in ever more uncertain environments. In order to cope with the challenge, it is worthy of note that biological systems show the importance of suitable sensor morphology and active sensing capability to handle different kinds of sensing tasks with particular requirements. Methodology This paper presents a robotics active sensing system which is able to adjust its sensor morphology in situ in order to sense different physical quantities with desirable sensing characteristics. The approach taken is to use thermoplastic adhesive material, i.e. Hot Melt Adhesive (HMA). It will be shown that the thermoplastic and thermoadhesive nature of HMA enables the system to repeatedly fabricate, attach and detach mechanical structures with a variety of shape and size to the robot end effector for sensing purposes. Via active sensing capability, the robotic system utilizes the structure to physically probe an unknown target object with suitable motion and transduce the arising physical stimuli into information usable by a camera as its only built-in sensor. Conclusions/Significance The efficacy of the proposed system is verified based on two results. Firstly, it is confirmed that suitable sensor morphology and active sensing capability enables the system to sense different physical quantities, i.e. softness and temperature, with desirable sensing characteristics. Secondly, given tasks of discriminating two visually indistinguishable objects with respect to softness and temperature, it is confirmed that the proposed robotic system is able to autonomously accomplish them. The way the results motivate new research directions which focus on in situ adjustment of sensor morphology will also be discussed. PMID:24416094

  12. Active sensing system with in situ adjustable sensor morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurzaman, Surya G; Culha, Utku; Brodbeck, Luzius; Wang, Liyu; Iida, Fumiya

    2013-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of sensors in engineering systems like robots and automation systems, the common paradigm is to have fixed sensor morphology tailored to fulfill a specific application. On the other hand, robotic systems are expected to operate in ever more uncertain environments. In order to cope with the challenge, it is worthy of note that biological systems show the importance of suitable sensor morphology and active sensing capability to handle different kinds of sensing tasks with particular requirements. This paper presents a robotics active sensing system which is able to adjust its sensor morphology in situ in order to sense different physical quantities with desirable sensing characteristics. The approach taken is to use thermoplastic adhesive material, i.e. Hot Melt Adhesive (HMA). It will be shown that the thermoplastic and thermoadhesive nature of HMA enables the system to repeatedly fabricate, attach and detach mechanical structures with a variety of shape and size to the robot end effector for sensing purposes. Via active sensing capability, the robotic system utilizes the structure to physically probe an unknown target object with suitable motion and transduce the arising physical stimuli into information usable by a camera as its only built-in sensor. The efficacy of the proposed system is verified based on two results. Firstly, it is confirmed that suitable sensor morphology and active sensing capability enables the system to sense different physical quantities, i.e. softness and temperature, with desirable sensing characteristics. Secondly, given tasks of discriminating two visually indistinguishable objects with respect to softness and temperature, it is confirmed that the proposed robotic system is able to autonomously accomplish them. The way the results motivate new research directions which focus on in situ adjustment of sensor morphology will also be discussed.

  13. Use of geostationary satellite imagery in optical and thermal bands for the estimation of soil moisture status and land evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghilain, N.; Arboleda, A.; Gellens-Meulenberghs, F.

    2009-04-01

    For water and agricultural management, there is an increasing demand to monitor the soil water status and the land evapotranspiration. In the framework of the LSA-SAF project (http://landsaf.meteo.pt), we are developing an energy balance model forced by remote sensing products, i.e. radiation components and vegetation parameters, to monitor in quasi real-time the evapotranspiration rate over land (Gellens-Meulenberghs et al, 2007; Ghilain et al, 2008). The model is applied over the full MSG disk, i.e. including Europe and Africa. Meteorological forcing, as well as the soil moisture status, is provided by the forecasts of the ECMWF model. Since soil moisture is computed by a forecast model not dedicated to the monitoring of the soil water status, inadequate soil moisture input can occur, and can cause large effects on evapotranspiration rates, especially over semi-arid or arid regions. In these regions, a remotely sensed-based method for the soil moisture retrieval can therefore be preferable, to avoid too strong dependency in ECMWF model estimates. Among different strategies, remote sensing offers the advantage of monitoring large areas. Empirical methods of soil moisture assessment exist using remotely sensed derived variables either from the microwave bands or from the thermal bands. Mainly polar orbiters are used for this purpose, and little attention has been paid to the new possibilities offered by geosynchronous satellites. In this contribution, images of the SEVIRI instrument on board of MSG geosynchronous satellites are used. Dedicated operational algorithms were developed for the LSA-SAF project and now deliver images of land surface temperature (LST) every 15-minutes (Trigo et al, 2008) and vegetations indices (leaf area index, LAI; fraction of vegetation cover, FVC; fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation, FAPAR) every day (Garcia-Haro et al, 2005) over Africa and Europe. One advantage of using products derived from geostationary

  14. Disaggregation of remotely sensed soil moisture under all sky condition using machine learning approach in Northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S.; Kim, H.; Choi, M.; Kim, K.

    2016-12-01

    Estimating spatiotemporal variation of soil moisture is crucial to hydrological applications such as flood, drought, and near real-time climate forecasting. Recent advances in space-based passive microwave measurements allow the frequent monitoring of the surface soil moisture at a global scale and downscaling approaches have been applied to improve the spatial resolution of passive microwave products available at local scale applications. However, most downscaling methods using optical and thermal dataset, are valid only in cloud-free conditions; thus renewed downscaling method under all sky condition is necessary for the establishment of spatiotemporal continuity of datasets at fine resolution. In present study Support Vector Machine (SVM) technique was utilized to downscale a satellite-based soil moisture retrievals. The 0.1 and 0.25-degree resolution of daily Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM) L3 soil moisture datasets from Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) were disaggregated over Northeast Asia in 2015. Optically derived estimates of surface temperature (LST), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and its cloud products were obtained from MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for the purpose of downscaling soil moisture in finer resolution under all sky condition. Furthermore, a comparison analysis between in situ and downscaled soil moisture products was also conducted for quantitatively assessing its accuracy. Results showed that downscaled soil moisture under all sky condition not only preserves the quality of AMSR2 LPRM soil moisture at 1km resolution, but also attains higher spatial data coverage. From this research we expect that time continuous monitoring of soil moisture at fine scale regardless of weather conditions would be available.

  15. Fire activity and severity in the western US vary along proxy gradients representing fuel amount and fuel moisture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean A Parks

    Full Text Available Numerous theoretical and empirical studies have shown that wildfire activity (e.g., area burned at regional to global scales may be limited at the extremes of environmental gradients such as productivity or moisture. Fire activity, however, represents only one component of the fire regime, and no studies to date have characterized fire severity along such gradients. Given the importance of fire severity in dictating ecological response to fire, this is a considerable knowledge gap. For the western US, we quantify relationships between climate and the fire regime by empirically describing both fire activity and severity along two climatic water balance gradients, actual evapotranspiration (AET and water deficit (WD, that can be considered proxies for fuel amount and fuel moisture, respectively. We also concurrently summarize fire activity and severity among ecoregions, providing an empirically based description of the geographic distribution of fire regimes. Our results show that fire activity in the western US increases with fuel amount (represented by AET but has a unimodal (i.e., humped relationship with fuel moisture (represented by WD; fire severity increases with fuel amount and fuel moisture. The explicit links between fire regime components and physical environmental gradients suggest that multivariable statistical models can be generated to produce an empirically based fire regime map for the western US. Such models will potentially enable researchers to anticipate climate-mediated changes in fire recurrence and its impacts based on gridded spatial data representing future climate scenarios.

  16. Dimerization of the voltage-sensing phosphatase controls its voltage-sensing and catalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayaprolu, Vamseedhar; Royal, Perrine; Stengel, Karen; Sandoz, Guillaume; Kohout, Susy C

    2018-05-07

    Multimerization is a key characteristic of most voltage-sensing proteins. The main exception was thought to be the Ciona intestinalis voltage-sensing phosphatase (Ci-VSP). In this study, we show that multimerization is also critical for Ci-VSP function. Using coimmunoprecipitation and single-molecule pull-down, we find that Ci-VSP stoichiometry is flexible. It exists as both monomers and dimers, with dimers favored at higher concentrations. We show strong dimerization via the voltage-sensing domain (VSD) and weak dimerization via the phosphatase domain. Using voltage-clamp fluorometry, we also find that VSDs cooperate to lower the voltage dependence of activation, thus favoring the activation of Ci-VSP. Finally, using activity assays, we find that dimerization alters Ci-VSP substrate specificity such that only dimeric Ci-VSP is able to dephosphorylate the 3-phosphate from PI(3,4,5)P 3 or PI(3,4)P 2 Our results indicate that dimerization plays a significant role in Ci-VSP function. © 2018 Rayaprolu et al.

  17. Towards an integrated soil moisture drought monitor for East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. B. Anderson

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Drought in East Africa is a recurring phenomenon with significant humanitarian impacts. Given the steep climatic gradients, topographic contrasts, general data scarcity, and, in places, political instability that characterize the region, there is a need for spatially distributed, remotely derived monitoring systems to inform national and international drought response. At the same time, the very diversity and data scarcity that necessitate remote monitoring also make it difficult to evaluate the reliability of these systems. Here we apply a suite of remote monitoring techniques to characterize the temporal and spatial evolution of the 2010–2011 Horn of Africa drought. Diverse satellite observations allow for evaluation of meteorological, agricultural, and hydrological aspects of drought, each of which is of interest to different stakeholders. Focusing on soil moisture, we apply triple collocation analysis (TCA to three independent methods for estimating soil moisture anomalies to characterize relative error between products and to provide a basis for objective data merging. The three soil moisture methods evaluated include microwave remote sensing using the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer – Earth Observing System (AMSR-E sensor, thermal remote sensing using the Atmosphere-Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI surface energy balance algorithm, and physically based land surface modeling using the Noah land surface model. It was found that the three soil moisture monitoring methods yield similar drought anomaly estimates in areas characterized by extremely low or by moderate vegetation cover, particularly during the below-average 2011 long rainy season. Systematic discrepancies were found, however, in regions of moderately low vegetation cover and high vegetation cover, especially during the failed 2010 short rains. The merged, TCA-weighted soil moisture composite product takes advantage of the relative strengths of each method, as judged by the

  18. Rainfall estimation by inverting SMOS soil moisture estimates: A comparison of different methods over Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocca, Luca; Pellarin, Thierry; Crow, Wade T.; Ciabatta, Luca; Massari, Christian; Ryu, Dongryeol; Su, Chun-Hsu; Rüdiger, Christoph; Kerr, Yann

    2016-10-01

    Remote sensing of soil moisture has reached a level of maturity and accuracy for which the retrieved products can be used to improve hydrological and meteorological applications. In this study, the soil moisture product from the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite is used for improving satellite rainfall estimates obtained from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission multisatellite precipitation analysis product (TMPA) using three different "bottom up" techniques: SM2RAIN, Soil Moisture Analysis Rainfall Tool, and Antecedent Precipitation Index Modification. The implementation of these techniques aims at improving the well-known "top down" rainfall estimate derived from TMPA products (version 7) available in near real time. Ground observations provided by the Australian Water Availability Project are considered as a separate validation data set. The three algorithms are calibrated against the gauge-corrected TMPA reanalysis product, 3B42, and used for adjusting the TMPA real-time product, 3B42RT, using SMOS soil moisture data. The study area covers the entire Australian continent, and the analysis period ranges from January 2010 to November 2013. Results show that all the SMOS-based rainfall products improve the performance of 3B42RT, even at daily time scale (differently from previous investigations). The major improvements are obtained in terms of estimation of accumulated rainfall with a reduction of the root-mean-square error of more than 25%. Also, in terms of temporal dynamic (correlation) and rainfall detection (categorical scores) the SMOS-based products provide slightly better results with respect to 3B42RT, even though the relative performance between the methods is not always the same. The strengths and weaknesses of each algorithm and the spatial variability of their performances are identified in order to indicate the ways forward for this promising research activity. Results show that the integration of bottom up and top down approaches

  19. MODIS-based spatiotemporal patterns of soil moisture and evapotranspiration interactions in Tampa Bay urban watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ni-Bin; Xuan, Zhemin; Wimberly, Brent

    2011-09-01

    Soil moisture and evapotranspiration (ET) is affected by both water and energy balances in the soilvegetation- atmosphere system, it involves many complex processes in the nexus of water and thermal cycles at the surface of the Earth. These impacts may affect the recharge of the upper Floridian aquifer. The advent of urban hydrology and remote sensing technologies opens new and innovative means to undertake eventbased assessment of ecohydrological effects in urban regions. For assessing these landfalls, the multispectral Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) remote sensing images can be used for the estimation of such soil moisture change in connection with two other MODIS products - Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), Land Surface Temperature (LST). Supervised classification for soil moisture retrieval was performed for Tampa Bay area on the 2 kmx2km grid with MODIS images. Machine learning with genetic programming model for soil moisture estimation shows advances in image processing, feature extraction, and change detection of soil moisture. ET data that were derived by Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) data and hydrologic models can be retrieved from the USGS web site directly. Overall, the derived soil moisture in comparison with ET time series changes on a seasonal basis shows that spatial and temporal variations of soil moisture and ET that are confined within a defined region for each type of surfaces, showing clustered patterns and featuring space scatter plot in association with the land use and cover map. These concomitant soil moisture patterns and ET fluctuations vary among patches, plant species, and, especially, location on the urban gradient. Time series plots of LST in association with ET, soil moisture and EVI reveals unique ecohydrological trends. Such ecohydrological assessment can be applied for supporting the urban landscape management in hurricane-stricken regions.

  20. Improving agricultural drought monitoring in West Africa using root zone soil moisture estimates derived from NDVI

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, A.; Funk, C. C.; Yatheendradas, S.; Michaelsen, J.; Cappelarere, B.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Verdin, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) relies heavily on remotely sensed rainfall and vegetation data to monitor agricultural drought in Sub-Saharan Africa and other places around the world. Analysts use satellite rainfall to calculate rainy season statistics and force crop water accounting models that show how the magnitude and timing of rainfall might lead to above or below average harvest. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is also an important indicator of growing season progress and is given more weight over regions where, for example, lack of rain gauges increases error in satellite rainfall estimates. Currently, however, near-real time NDVI is not integrated into a modeling framework that informs growing season predictions. To meet this need for our drought monitoring system a land surface model (LSM) is a critical component. We are currently enhancing the FEWS NET monitoring activities by configuring a custom instance of NASA's Land Information System (LIS) called the FEWS NET Land Data Assimilation System. Using the LIS Noah LSM, in-situ measurements, and remotely sensed data, we focus on the following questions: What is the relationship between NDVI and in-situ soil moisture measurements over the West Africa Sahel? How can we use this relationship to improve modeled water and energy fluxes over the West Africa Sahel? We investigate soil moisture and NDVI cross-correlation in the time and frequency domain to develop a transfer function model to predict soil moisture from NDVI. This work compares sites in southwest Niger, Benin, Burkina Faso, and Mali to test the generality of the transfer function. For several sites with fallow and millet vegetation in the Wankama catchment in southwest Niger we developed a non-parametric frequency response model, using NDVI inputs and soil moisture outputs, that accurately estimates root zone soil moisture (40-70cm). We extend this analysis by developing a low order parametric transfer function

  1. Moisture distribution in sludges based on different testing methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenyi Deng; Xiaodong Li; Jianhua Yan; Fei Wang; Yong Chi; Kefa Cen

    2011-01-01

    Moisture distributions in municipal sewage sludge, printing and dyeing sludge and paper mill sludge were experimentally studied based on four different methods, i.e., drying test, thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) test, thermogravimetricdifferential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) test and water activity test. The results indicated that the moistures in the mechanically dewatered sludges were interstitial water, surface water and bound water. The interstitial water accounted for more than 50% wet basis (wb) of the total moisture content. The bond strength of sludge moisture increased with decreasing moisture content, especially when the moisture content was lower than 50% wb. Furthermore, the comparison among the four different testing methods was presented.The drying test was advantaged by its ability to quantify free water, interstitial water, surface water and bound water; while TG-DSC test, TG-DTA test and water activity test were capable of determining the bond strength of moisture in sludge. It was found that the results from TG-DSC and TG-DTA test are more persuasive than water activity test.

  2. Initializing numerical weather prediction models with satellite-derived surface soil moisture: Data assimilation experiments with ECMWF's Integrated Forecast System and the TMI soil moisture data set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drusch, M.

    2007-02-01

    Satellite-derived surface soil moisture data sets are readily available and have been used successfully in hydrological applications. In many operational numerical weather prediction systems the initial soil moisture conditions are analyzed from the modeled background and 2 m temperature and relative humidity. This approach has proven its efficiency to improve surface latent and sensible heat fluxes and consequently the forecast on large geographical domains. However, since soil moisture is not always related to screen level variables, model errors and uncertainties in the forcing data can accumulate in root zone soil moisture. Remotely sensed surface soil moisture is directly linked to the model's uppermost soil layer and therefore is a stronger constraint for the soil moisture analysis. For this study, three data assimilation experiments with the Integrated Forecast System (IFS) of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) have been performed for the 2-month period of June and July 2002: a control run based on the operational soil moisture analysis, an open loop run with freely evolving soil moisture, and an experimental run incorporating TMI (TRMM Microwave Imager) derived soil moisture over the southern United States. In this experimental run the satellite-derived soil moisture product is introduced through a nudging scheme using 6-hourly increments. Apart from the soil moisture analysis, the system setup reflects the operational forecast configuration including the atmospheric 4D-Var analysis. Soil moisture analyzed in the nudging experiment is the most accurate estimate when compared against in situ observations from the Oklahoma Mesonet. The corresponding forecast for 2 m temperature and relative humidity is almost as accurate as in the control experiment. Furthermore, it is shown that the soil moisture analysis influences local weather parameters including the planetary boundary layer height and cloud coverage.

  3. Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission Level 4 Carbon (L4_C) Product Specification Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassy, Joe; Kimball, John S.; Jones, Lucas; Reichle, Rolf H.; Ardizzone, Joseph V.; Kim, Gi-Kong; Lucchesi, Robert A.; Smith, Edmond B.; Weiss, Barry H.

    2015-01-01

    This is the Product Specification Document (PSD) for Level 4 Surface and Root Zone Soil Moisture (L4_SM) data for the Science Data System (SDS) of the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) project. The L4_SM data product provides estimates of land surface conditions based on the assimilation of SMAP observations into a customized version of the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System, Version 5 (GEOS-5) land data assimilation system (LDAS). This document applies to any standard L4_SM data product generated by the SMAP Project.

  4. Selection of soil hydraulic properties in a land surface model using remotely-sensed soil moisture and surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellito, P. J.; Small, E. E.; Gutmann, E. D.

    2013-12-01

    Synoptic-scale weather is heavily influenced by latent and sensible heating from the land surface. The partitioning of available energy between these two fluxes as well as the distribution of moisture throughout the soil column is controlled by a unique set of soil hydraulic properties (SHPs) at every location. Weather prediction systems, which use coupled land surface and atmospheric models in their forecasts, must therefore be parameterized with estimates of SHPs. Currently, land surface models (LSMs) obtain SHP values by assuming a correlation exists between SHPs and the soil type, which the USDA maps in 12 classes. This method is spurious because texture is only one control of many that affects SHPs. Alternatively, SHPs can be obtained by calibrating them within the framework of an LSM. Because remotely-sensed data have the potential for continent-wide application, there is a critical need to understand their specific role in calibration efforts and the extent to which such calibrated SHPs can improve model simulations. This study focuses on SHP calibration with soil moisture content (SMC) and land surface temperature (Ts), data that are available from the SMOS and MODIS satellite missions, respectively. The scientific goals of this study are: (1) What is the model performance tradeoff between weighting SMC and Ts differently during the calibration process? (2) What can the tradeoff between calibration using in-situ and remotely-sensed SMC reveal about SHP scaling? (3) How are these relationships influenced by climatic regime and vegetation type? (4) To what extent can calibrated SHPs improve model performance over that of texture-based SHPs? Model calibrations are carried out within the framework of the Noah LSM using the Shuffled Complex Evolution Metropolis (SCEM-UA) algorithm in five different climatic regimes. At each site, a five-dimensional parameter space of SHPs is searched to find the location that minimizes the difference between observed and

  5. Optimizing Soil Moisture Sampling Locations for Validation Networks for SMAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshani, E.; Berg, A. A.; Lindsay, J.

    2013-12-01

    Soil Moisture Active Passive satellite (SMAP) is scheduled for launch on Oct 2014. Global efforts are underway for establishment of soil moisture monitoring networks for both the pre- and post-launch validation and calibration of the SMAP products. In 2012 the SMAP Validation Experiment, SMAPVEX12, took place near Carman Manitoba, Canada where nearly 60 fields were sampled continuously over a 6 week period for soil moisture and several other parameters simultaneous to remotely sensed images of the sampling region. The locations of these sampling sites were mainly selected on the basis of accessibility, soil texture, and vegetation cover. Although these criteria are necessary to consider during sampling site selection, they do not guarantee optimal site placement to provide the most efficient representation of the studied area. In this analysis a method for optimization of sampling locations is presented which combines the state-of-art multi-objective optimization engine (non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm, NSGA-II), with the kriging interpolation technique to minimize the number of sampling sites while simultaneously minimizing the differences between the soil moisture map resulted from the kriging interpolation and soil moisture map from radar imaging. The algorithm is implemented in Whitebox Geospatial Analysis Tools, which is a multi-platform open-source GIS. The optimization framework is subject to the following three constraints:. A) sampling sites should be accessible to the crew on the ground, B) the number of sites located in a specific soil texture should be greater than or equal to a minimum value, and finally C) the number of sampling sites with a specific vegetation cover should be greater than or equal to a minimum constraint. The first constraint is implemented into the proposed model to keep the practicality of the approach. The second and third constraints are considered to guarantee that the collected samples from each soil texture categories

  6. Virulent poxviruses inhibit DNA sensing by preventing STING activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgana, Iliana; Sumner, Rebecca P; Towers, Greg J; Maluquer de Motes, Carlos

    2018-02-28

    Cytosolic recognition of DNA has emerged as a critical cellular mechanism of host immune activation upon pathogen invasion. The central cytosolic DNA sensor cGAS activates STING, which is phosphorylated, dimerises and translocates from the ER to a perinuclear region to mediate IRF-3 activation. Poxviruses are dsDNA viruses replicating in the cytosol and hence likely to trigger cytosolic DNA sensing. Here we investigated the activation of innate immune signalling by 4 different strains of the prototypic poxvirus vaccinia virus (VACV) in a cell line proficient in DNA sensing. Infection with the attenuated VACV strain MVA activated IRF-3 via cGAS and STING, and accordingly STING dimerised and was phosphorylated during MVA infection. Conversely, VACV strains Copenhagen and Western Reserve inhibited STING dimerisation and phosphorylation during infection and in response to transfected DNA and cGAMP, thus efficiently suppressing DNA sensing and IRF-3 activation. A VACV deletion mutant lacking protein C16, thought to be the only viral DNA sensing inhibitor acting upstream of STING, retained the ability to block STING activation. Similar inhibition of DNA-induced STING activation was also observed for cowpox and ectromelia viruses. Our data demonstrate that virulent poxviruses possess mechanisms for targeting DNA sensing at the level of the cGAS-STING axis and that these mechanisms do not operate in replication-defective strains such as MVA. These findings shed light on the role of cellular DNA sensing in poxvirus-host interactions and will open new avenues to determine its impact on VACV immunogenicity and virulence. IMPORTANCE Poxviruses are dsDNA viruses infecting a wide range of vertebrates and include the causative agent of smallpox (variola virus) and its vaccine vaccinia virus (VACV). Despite smallpox eradication VACV remains of interest as a therapeutic. Attenuated strains are popular vaccine candidates, whereas replication-competent strains are emerging as

  7. Microwave moisture sensing of seedcotton: Part 1: Seedcotton microwave material properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisture content at harvest is a key parameter that impacts quality and how well the cotton crop can be stored without degrading before processing. It is also a key parameter of interest for harvest time field trials as it can directly influence the quality of the harvested crop as well as alter the...

  8. Galvanic Cell Type Sensor for Soil Moisture Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikwad, Pramod; Devendrachari, Mruthyunjayachari Chattanahalli; Thimmappa, Ravikumar; Paswan, Bhuneshwar; Raja Kottaichamy, Alagar; Makri Nimbegondi Kotresh, Harish; Thotiyl, Musthafa Ottakam

    2015-07-21

    Here we report the first potentiometric sensor for soil moisture analysis by bringing in the concept of Galvanic cells wherein the redox energies of Al and conducting polyaniline are exploited to design a battery type sensor. The sensor consists of only simple architectural components, and as such they are inexpensive and lightweight, making it suitable for on-site analysis. The sensing mechanism is proved to be identical to a battery type discharge reaction wherein polyaniline redox energy changes from the conducting to the nonconducting state with a resulting voltage shift in the presence of soil moisture. Unlike the state of the art soil moisture sensors, a signal derived from the proposed moisture sensor is probe size independent, as it is potentiometric in nature and, hence, can be fabricated in any shape or size and can provide a consistent output signal under the strong aberration conditions often encountered in soil moisture analysis. The sensor is regenerable by treating with 1 M HCl and can be used for multiple analysis with little read out hysteresis. Further, a portable sensor is fabricated which can provide warning signals to the end user when the moisture levels in the soil go below critically low levels, thereby functioning as a smart device. As the sensor is inexpensive, portable, and potentiometric, it opens up avenues for developing effective and energy efficient irrigation strategies, understanding the heat and water transfer at the atmosphere-land interface, understanding soil mechanics, forecasting the risk of natural calamities, and so on.

  9. Educational activities of remote sensing archaeology (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.; Agapiou, Athos; Lysandrou, Vasilki; Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Cuca, Branka; Nisantzi, Argyro; Lasaponara, Rosa; Masini, Nicola; Krauss, Thomas; Cerra, Daniele; Gessner, Ursula; Schreier, Gunter

    2016-10-01

    Remote sensing science is increasingly being used to support archaeological and cultural heritage research in various ways. Satellite sensors either passive or active are currently used in a systematic basis to detect buried archaeological remains and to systematic monitor tangible heritage. In addition, airborne and low altitude systems are being used for documentation purposes. Ground surveys using remote sensing tools such as spectroradiometers and ground penetrating radars can detect variations of vegetation and soil respectively, which are linked to the presence of underground archaeological features. Education activities and training of remote sensing archaeology to young people is characterized of highly importance. Specific remote sensing tools relevant for archaeological research can be developed including web tools, small libraries, interactive learning games etc. These tools can be then combined and aligned with archaeology and cultural heritage. This can be achieved by presenting historical and pre-historical records, excavated sites or even artifacts under a "remote sensing" approach. Using such non-form educational approach, the students can be involved, ask, read, and seek to learn more about remote sensing and of course to learn about history. The paper aims to present a modern didactical concept and some examples of practical implementation of remote sensing archaeology in secondary schools in Cyprus. The idea was built upon an ongoing project (ATHENA) focused on the sue of remote sensing for archaeological research in Cyprus. Through H2020 ATHENA project, the Remote Sensing Science and Geo-Environment Research Laboratory at the Cyprus University of Technology (CUT), with the support of the National Research Council of Italy (CNR) and the German Aerospace Centre (DLR) aims to enhance its performance in all these new technologies.

  10. Using lagged dependence to identify (de)coupled surface and subsurface soil moisture values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Coleen D. U.; van der Ploeg, Martine J.; Torfs, Paul J. J. F.

    2018-04-01

    Recent advances in radar remote sensing popularized the mapping of surface soil moisture at different spatial scales. Surface soil moisture measurements are used in combination with hydrological models to determine subsurface soil moisture values. However, variability of soil moisture across the soil column is important for estimating depth-integrated values, as decoupling between surface and subsurface can occur. In this study, we employ new methods to investigate the occurrence of (de)coupling between surface and subsurface soil moisture. Using time series datasets, lagged dependence was incorporated in assessing (de)coupling with the idea that surface soil moisture conditions will be reflected at the subsurface after a certain delay. The main approach involves the application of a distributed-lag nonlinear model (DLNM) to simultaneously represent both the functional relation and the lag structure in the time series. The results of an exploratory analysis using residuals from a fitted loess function serve as a posteriori information to determine (de)coupled values. Both methods allow for a range of (de)coupled soil moisture values to be quantified. Results provide new insights into the decoupled range as its occurrence among the sites investigated is not limited to dry conditions.

  11. Validation of two gridded soil moisture products over India with in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2Atmospheric and Climate Sciences Group, Earth & Climate Science Area, National Remote Sensing Centre, ... soil moisture from India Meteorological Department (IMD) are used for the validation of the gridded soil .... the first generation satellite of Global Change ..... urban, inland water, bare soil and land ice) derived.

  12. Does the precipitation redistribution of the canopy sense in the moisture pattern of the forest litter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagyvai-Kiss, Katalin Anita; Kalicz, Péter; Csáfordi, Péter; Kucsara, Mihály; Gribovszki, Zoltán

    2013-04-01

    Precipitation is trapped and temporarily stored by the surfaces of forest crown (canopy interception) and forest litter (litter interception). The stemflow and throughfall reach the litter, thus theoretically the litter moisture content depends on these parts of precipitation. Nowadays the moisture pattern of the forest floor, both spatial and temporal scale, have growing respect for the forestry. The transition to the continuous cover forestry induce much higher variability compared to the even aged, more-less homogeneous, monocultural stands. The gap cutting is one of the key methods in the Hungarian forestry. There is an active discussion among the forest professionals how to determine the optimal gap size to maintain the optimal conditions for the seedlings. Among the open questions is how to modify surrounding trees the moisture pattern of the forest floor in the gap? In the early steps of a multidisciplinary project we processed some available data, to estimate the spatial dependency between the water content of forest litter and the spatial pattern of the canopy represented by the tree trunk. The maximum water content depends on dry weight of litter, thus we also analysed that parameter. Data were measured in three different forest ecosystems: a middle age beech (Fagus sylvatica), a sessile oak (Quercus petraea) and a spruce (Picea abies) stand. The study site (Hidegvíz Valley Research Cathcment) is located in Sopron Hills at the eastern border of the Alps. Litter samples were collected under each stand (occasionally 10-10 pieces from 40?40 cm area) and locations of the samples and neighbouring trees were mapped. We determined dry weight and the water content of litter in laboratory. The relationship between water content and the distance of tree trunks in case of spruce and oak stands were not significant and in case of the beech stand was weakly significant. Climate change effects can influence significantly forest floor moisture content, therefore this

  13. Comparing soil moisture anomalies from multiple independent sources over different regions across the globe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Cammalleri

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural drought events can affect large regions across the world, implying the need for a suitable global tool for an accurate monitoring of this phenomenon. Soil moisture anomalies are considered a good metric to capture the occurrence of agricultural drought events, and they have become an important component of several operational drought monitoring systems. In the framework of the JRC Global Drought Observatory (GDO, http://edo.jrc.ec.europa.eu/gdo/, the suitability of three datasets as possible representations of root zone soil moisture anomalies has been evaluated: (1 the soil moisture from the Lisflood distributed hydrological model (namely LIS, (2 the remotely sensed Land Surface Temperature data from the MODIS satellite (namely LST, and (3 the ESA Climate Change Initiative combined passive/active microwave skin soil moisture dataset (namely CCI. Due to the independency of these three datasets, the triple collocation (TC technique has been applied, aiming at quantifying the likely error associated with each dataset in comparison to the unknown true status of the system. TC analysis was performed on five macro-regions (namely North America, Europe, India, southern Africa and Australia detected as suitable for the experiment, providing insight into the mutual relationship between these datasets as well as an assessment of the accuracy of each method. Even if no definitive statement on the spatial distribution of errors can be provided, a clear outcome of the TC analysis is the good performance of the remote sensing datasets, especially CCI, over dry regions such as Australia and southern Africa, whereas the outputs of LIS seem to be more reliable over areas that are well monitored through meteorological ground station networks, such as North America and Europe. In a global drought monitoring system, the results of the error analysis are used to design a weighted-average ensemble system that exploits the advantages of each dataset.

  14. Evaluation of a Soil Moisture Data Assimilation System Over West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolten, J. D.; Crow, W.; Zhan, X.; Jackson, T.; Reynolds, C.

    2009-05-01

    A crucial requirement of global crop yield forecasts by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) International Production Assessment Division (IPAD) is the regional characterization of surface and sub-surface soil moisture. However, due to the spatial heterogeneity and dynamic nature of precipitation events and resulting soil moisture, accurate estimation of regional land surface-atmosphere interactions based sparse ground measurements is difficult. IPAD estimates global soil moisture using daily estimates of minimum and maximum temperature and precipitation applied to a modified Palmer two-layer soil moisture model which calculates the daily amount of soil moisture withdrawn by evapotranspiration and replenished by precipitation. We attempt to improve upon the existing system by applying an Ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) data assimilation system to integrate surface soil moisture retrievals from the NASA Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) into the USDA soil moisture model. This work aims at evaluating the utility of merging satellite-retrieved soil moisture estimates with the IPAD two-layer soil moisture model used within the DBMS. We present a quantitative analysis of the assimilated soil moisture product over West Africa (9°N- 20°N; 20°W-20°E). This region contains many key agricultural areas and has a high agro- meteorological gradient from desert and semi-arid vegetation in the North, to grassland, trees and crops in the South, thus providing an ideal location for evaluating the assimilated soil moisture product over multiple land cover types and conditions. A data denial experimental approach is utilized to isolate the added utility of integrating remotely-sensed soil moisture by comparing assimilated soil moisture results obtained using (relatively) low-quality precipitation products obtained from real-time satellite imagery to baseline model runs forced with higher quality rainfall. An analysis of root-zone anomalies for each model

  15. Validation of the GCOM-W SCA and JAXA soil moisture algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satellite-based remote sensing of soil moisture has matured over the past decade as a result of the Global Climate Observing Mission-Water (GCOM-W) program of JAXA. This program has resulted in improved algorithms that have been supported by rigorous validation. Access to the products and the valida...

  16. Negative soil moisture-precipitation feedback in dry and wet regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lingbin; Sun, Guoqing; Zhi, Lu; Zhao, Jianjun

    2018-03-05

    Soil moisture-precipitation (SM-P) feedback significantly influences the terrestrial water and energy cycles. However, the sign of the feedback and the associated physical mechanism have been debated, leaving a research gap regarding global water and climate changes. Based on Koster's framework, we estimate SM-P feedback using satellite remote sensing and ground observation data sets. Methodologically, the sign of the feedback is identified by the correlation between monthly soil moisture and next-month precipitation. The physical mechanism is investigated through coupling precipitation and soil moisture (P-SM), soil moisture ad evapotranspiration (SM-E) and evapotranspiration and precipitation (E-P) correlations. Our results demonstrate that although positive SM-P feedback is predominant over land, non-negligible negative feedback occurs in dry and wet regions. Specifically, 43.75% and 40.16% of the negative feedback occurs in the arid and humid climate zones. Physically, negative SM-P feedback depends on the SM-E correlation. In dry regions, evapotranspiration change is soil moisture limited. In wet regions, evapotranspiration change is energy limited. We conclude that the complex SM-E correlation results in negative SM-P feedback in dry and wet regions, and the cause varies based on the environmental and climatic conditions.

  17. Soil moisture modelling of a SMOS pixel: interest of using the PERSIANN database over the Valencia Anchor Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Juglea

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS Calibration/Validation (Cal/Val activities, this study addresses the use of the PERSIANN-CCS1database in hydrological applications to accurately simulate a whole SMOS pixel by representing the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of the soil moisture fields over a wide area (50×50 km2. The study focuses on the Valencia Anchor Station (VAS experimental site, in Spain, which is one of the main SMOS Cal/Val sites in Europe.

    A faithful representation of the soil moisture distribution at SMOS pixel scale (50×50 km2 requires an accurate estimation of the amount and temporal/spatial distribution of precipitation. To quantify the gain of using the comprehensive PERSIANN database instead of sparsely distributed rain gauge measurements, comparisons between in situ observations and satellite rainfall data are done both at point and areal scale. An overestimation of the satellite rainfall amounts is observed in most of the cases (about 66% but the precipitation occurrences are in general retrieved (about 67%.

    To simulate the high variability in space and time of surface soil moisture, a Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer (SVAT model – ISBA (Interactions between Soil Biosphere Atmosphere is used. The interest of using satellite rainfall estimates as well as the influence that the precipitation events can induce on the modelling of the water content in the soil is depicted by a comparison between different soil moisture data. Point-like and spatialized simulated data using rain gauge observations or PERSIANN – CCS database as well as ground measurements are used. It is shown that a good adequacy is reached in most part of the year, the precipitation differences having less impact upon the simulated soil moisture. The behaviour of simulated surface soil moisture at SMOS scale is verified by the use of remote sensing data from the Advanced

  18. The economic benefits of sorting SPF lumber to be kiln-dried on the basis of initial moisture content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, S.; Johnson, G.

    1997-01-01

    This study evaluates the economic benefits of sorting green lumber into moisture content classes before kiln-drying. Laser moisture sensing technology was implemented in the sawmill for sorting purposes. The grade outturn and energy savings resulting from shortened drying times were examined. The final moisture content distribution resulting from moisture sorting did not show overdrying or underdrying. Based on grade outturn, the benefits were as much as $15.94 per thousand board feet (MBF) for 2 by 4 by 16 lumber and $19.66 per MBF for 2 by 6 by 16 lumber; energy savings were $1.88 per thousand board feet

  19. Evaluation of free water and water activity measurements as functional alternatives to total moisture content in broiler excreta and litter samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeven-Hangoor, van der E.; Rademaker, C.; Paton, N.D.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    Litter moisture contents vary greatly between and within practical poultry barns. The current experiment was designed to measure the effects of 8 different dietary characteristics on litter and excreta moisture content. Additionally, free water content and water activity of the excreta and litter

  20. Moisture sorption isotherms and thermodynamic properties of bovine leather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhfakh, Rihab; Mihoubi, Daoued; Kechaou, Nabil

    2018-04-01

    This study was aimed at the determination of bovine leather moisture sorption characteristics using a static gravimetric method at 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 °C. The curves exhibit type II behaviour according to the BET classification. The sorption isotherms fitting by seven equations shows that GAB model is able to reproduce the equilibrium moisture content evolution with water activity for moisture range varying from 0.02 to 0.83 kg/kg d.b (0.9898 thermodynamic properties such as isosteric heat of sorption, sorption entropy, spreading pressure, net integral enthalpy and entropy. Net isosteric heat of sorption and differential entropy were evaluated through direct use of moisture isotherms by applying the Clausius-Clapeyron equation and used to investigate the enthalpy-entropy compensation theory. Both sorption enthalpy and entropy for desorption increase to a maximum with increasing moisture content, and then decrease sharply with rising moisture content. Adsorption enthalpy decreases with increasing moisture content. Whereas, adsorption entropy increases smoothly with increasing moisture content to a maximum of 6.29 J/K.mol. Spreading pressure increases with rising water activity. The net integral enthalpy seemed to decrease and then increase to become asymptotic. The net integral entropy decreased with moisture content increase.

  1. Pre-Launch Phase 1 Calibration and Validation Rehearsal of Geophysical Data Products of Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colliander, A.; Jackson, T. J.; Chan, S.; Dunbar, R.; Das, N. N.; Kim, S.; Reichle, R. H.; De Lannoy, G. J.; Liu, Q.; Kimball, J. S.; Yi, Y.; Cosh, M. H.; Bindlish, R.; Crow, W. T.; Dang, L.; Yueh, S. H.; Njoku, E. G.

    2013-12-01

    NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission is scheduled for launch in October 2014. The objective of the mission is global mapping of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state. SMAP utilizes an L-band radar and radiometer sharing a rotating 6-meter mesh reflector antenna. The instruments will operate onboard the SMAP spacecraft in a 685-km Sun-synchronous near-polar orbit, viewing the surface at a constant 40-degree incidence angle with a 1000-km swath width. Merging of active and passive L-band observations of the mission will enable an unprecedented combination of accuracy, resolution, coverage and revisit-time for soil moisture and freeze/thaw state retrieval. SMAP measurements will enable significantly improved estimates of water, energy and carbon transfers between the land and atmosphere. The SMAP science data product suite of geophysical parameters will include estimates of surface (top 5 cm) and root-zone (down to 1-m depth) soil moisture, net ecosystem exchange, and classification of the frozen/non-frozen state of the landscape. The primary validation reference of the data products will be ground-based measurements. Other remote sensing and model-based products will be used as additional resources. The post-launch timeline of the mission requires that the geophysical data products are validated (with respect to the mission requirements) within 12 months after a 3-month in-orbit check-out phase. SMAP is taking several preparatory steps in order to meet this schedule. One of the main steps consists of running a rehearsal to exercise calibration and validation procedures planned for the Cal/Val Phase. The rehearsal is divided into two stages. Phase 1, which was conducted in June-August 2013, focused on validation methodologies for the geophysical data products. Phase 2, which will be conducted in May-June 2014, includes operational aspects including a fully functioning SMAP Science Data System. (Note that the rehearsals do not include an airborne field

  2. Inversion of Farmland Soil Moisture in Large Region Based on Modified Vegetation Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. X.; Yu, B. S.; Zhang, G. Z.; Zhao, G. C.; He, S. D.; Luo, W. R.; Zhang, C. C.

    2018-04-01

    Soil moisture is an important parameter for agricultural production. Efficient and accurate monitoring of soil moisture is an important link to ensure the safety of agricultural production. Remote sensing technology has been widely used in agricultural moisture monitoring because of its timeliness, cyclicality, dynamic tracking of changes in things, easy access to data, and extensive monitoring. Vegetation index and surface temperature are important parameters for moisture monitoring. Based on NDVI, this paper introduces land surface temperature and average temperature for optimization. This article takes the soil moisture in winter wheat growing area in Henan Province as the research object, dividing Henan Province into three main regions producing winter wheat and dividing the growth period of winter wheat into the early, middle and late stages on the basis of phenological characteristics and regional characteristics. Introducing appropriate correction factor during the corresponding growth period of winter wheat, correcting the vegetation index in the corresponding area, this paper establishes regression models of soil moisture on NDVI and soil moisture on modified NDVI based on correlation analysis and compare models. It shows that modified NDVI is more suitable as a indicator of soil moisture because of the better correlation between soil moisture and modified NDVI and the higher prediction accuracy of the regression model of soil moisture on modified NDVI. The research in this paper has certain reference value for winter wheat farmland management and decision-making.

  3. Moisture sorption isotherms of dehydrated whey proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Suzana Rimac Brnčić; Vesna Lelas; Zoran Herceg; Marija Badanjak

    2010-01-01

    Moisture sorption isotherms describe the relation between the moisture content of the dry material (food) and relative humidity of the surrounding environment. The data obtained are important in modelling of drying process conditions, packaging and shelf-life stability of food that will provide maximum retaining of aroma, colour and texture as well as nutritive and biological value. The objective of this research was to establish the equilibrium moisture content and water activity, as well as...

  4. Estimation of Soil Moisture in an Alpine Catchment with RADARSAT2 Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pasolli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil moisture retrieval is one of the most challenging problems in the context of biophysical parameter estimation from remotely sensed data. Typically, microwave signals are used thanks to their sensitivity to variations in the water content of soil. However, especially in the Alps, the presence of vegetation and the heterogeneity of topography may significantly affect the microwave signal, thus increasing the complexity of the retrieval. In this paper, the effectiveness of RADARSAT2 SAR images for the estimation of soil moisture in an alpine catchment is investigated. We first carry out a sensitivity analysis of the SAR signal to the moisture content of soil and other target properties (e.g., topography and vegetation. Then we propose a technique for estimating soil moisture based on the Support Vector Regression algorithm and the integration of ancillary data. Preliminary results are discussed both in terms of accuracy over point measurements and effectiveness in handling spatially distributed data.

  5. Improving World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates by Integrating NASA Remote Sensing Soil Moisture Data into USDA World Agricultural Outlook Board Decision Making Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, W. L.; de Jeu, R. A.; Doraiswamy, P. C.; Kempler, S. J.; Shannon, H. D.

    2009-12-01

    A primary goal of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is to expand markets for U.S. agricultural products and support global economic development. The USDA World Agricultural Outlook Board (WAOB) supports this goal by developing monthly World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates (WASDE) for the U.S. and major foreign producing countries. Because weather has a significant impact on crop progress, conditions, and production, WAOB prepares frequent agricultural weather assessments, in a GIS-based, Global Agricultural Decision Support Environment (GLADSE). The main objective of this project, thus, is to improve WAOB's estimates by integrating NASA remote sensing soil moisture observations and research results into GLADSE. Soil moisture is a primary data gap at WAOB. Soil moisture data, generated by the Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM, developed by NASA GSFC and Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam) and customized to WAOB's requirements, will be directly integrated into GLADSE, as well as indirectly by first being integrated into USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS)'s Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) crop model. The LPRM-enhanced EPIC will be validated using three major agricultural regions important to WAOB and then integrated into GLADSE. Project benchmarking will be based on retrospective analyses of WAOB's analog year comparisons. The latter are between a given year and historical years with similar weather patterns. WAOB is the focal point for economic intelligence within the USDA. Thus, improving WAOB's agricultural estimates by integrating NASA satellite observations and model outputs will visibly demonstrate the value of NASA resources and maximize the societal benefits of NASA investments.

  6. Technical Report Series on Global Modeling and Data Assimilation. Volume 42; Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Project Calibration and Validation for the L4_C Beta-Release Data Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Randal D. (Editor); Kimball, John S.; Jones, Lucas A.; Glassy, Joseph; Stavros, E. Natasha; Madani, Nima (Editor); Reichle, Rolf H.; Jackson, Thomas; Colliander, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    During the post-launch Cal/Val Phase of SMAP there are two objectives for each science product team: 1) calibrate, verify, and improve the performance of the science algorithms, and 2) validate accuracies of the science data products as specified in the L1 science requirements according to the Cal/Val timeline. This report provides analysis and assessment of the SMAP Level 4 Carbon (L4_C) product specifically for the beta release. The beta-release version of the SMAP L4_C algorithms utilizes a terrestrial carbon flux model informed by SMAP soil moisture inputs along with optical remote sensing (e.g. MODIS) vegetation indices and other ancillary biophysical data to estimate global daily NEE and component carbon fluxes, particularly vegetation gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (Reco). Other L4_C product elements include surface (<10 cm depth) soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks and associated environmental constraints to these processes, including soil moisture and landscape FT controls on GPP and Reco (Kimball et al. 2012). The L4_C product encapsulates SMAP carbon cycle science objectives by: 1) providing a direct link between terrestrial carbon fluxes and underlying freeze/thaw and soil moisture constraints to these processes, 2) documenting primary connections between terrestrial water, energy and carbon cycles, and 3) improving understanding of terrestrial carbon sink activity in northern ecosystems.

  7. Soil Moisture Estimate under Forest using a Semi-empirical Model at P-Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong-Loi, M.; Saatchi, S.; Jaruwatanadilok, S.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we show the potential of a semi-empirical algorithm to retrieve soil moisture under forests using P-band polarimetric SAR data. In past decades, several remote sensing techniques have been developed to estimate the surface soil moisture. In most studies associated with radar sensing of soil moisture, the proposed algorithms are focused on bare or sparsely vegetated surfaces where the effect of vegetation can be ignored. At long wavelengths such as L-band, empirical or physical models such as the Small Perturbation Model (SPM) provide reasonable estimates of surface soil moisture at depths of 0-5cm. However for densely covered vegetated surfaces such as forests, the problem becomes more challenging because the vegetation canopy is a complex scattering environment. For this reason there have been only few studies focusing on retrieving soil moisture under vegetation canopy in the literature. Moghaddam et al. developed an algorithm to estimate soil moisture under a boreal forest using L- and P-band SAR data. For their studied area, double-bounce between trunks and ground appear to be the most important scattering mechanism. Thereby, they implemented parametric models of radar backscatter for double-bounce using simulations of a numerical forest scattering model. Hajnsek et al. showed the potential of estimating the soil moisture under agricultural vegetation using L-band polarimetric SAR data and using polarimetric-decomposition techniques to remove the vegetation layer. Here we use an approach based on physical formulation of dominant scattering mechanisms and three parameters that integrates the vegetation and soil effects at long wavelengths. The algorithm is a simplification of a 3-D coherent model of forest canopy based on the Distorted Born Approximation (DBA). The simplified model has three equations and three unknowns, preserving the three dominant scattering mechanisms of volume, double-bounce and surface for three polarized backscattering

  8. Estimation of improved resolution soil moisture in vegetated areas using passive AMSR-E data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradizadeh, Mina; Saradjian, Mohammad R.

    2018-03-01

    Microwave remote sensing provides a unique capability for soil parameter retrievals. Therefore, various soil parameters estimation models have been developed using brightness temperature (BT) measured by passive microwave sensors. Due to the low resolution of satellite microwave radiometer data, the main goal of this study is to develop a downscaling approach to improve the spatial resolution of soil moisture estimates with the use of higher resolution visible/infrared sensor data. Accordingly, after the soil parameters have been obtained using Simultaneous Land Parameters Retrieval Model algorithm, the downscaling method has been applied to the soil moisture estimations that have been validated against in situ soil moisture data. Advance Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS BT data in Soil Moisture Experiment 2003 region in the south and north of Oklahoma have been used to this end. Results illustrated that the soil moisture variability is effectively captured at 5 km spatial scales without a significant degradation of the accuracy.

  9. A Comparison of Methods for a Priori Bias Correction in Soil Moisture Data Assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sujay V.; Reichle, Rolf H.; Harrison, Kenneth W.; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Yatheendradas, Soni; Santanello, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    Data assimilation is being increasingly used to merge remotely sensed land surface variables such as soil moisture, snow and skin temperature with estimates from land models. Its success, however, depends on unbiased model predictions and unbiased observations. Here, a suite of continental-scale, synthetic soil moisture assimilation experiments is used to compare two approaches that address typical biases in soil moisture prior to data assimilation: (i) parameter estimation to calibrate the land model to the climatology of the soil moisture observations, and (ii) scaling of the observations to the model s soil moisture climatology. To enable this research, an optimization infrastructure was added to the NASA Land Information System (LIS) that includes gradient-based optimization methods and global, heuristic search algorithms. The land model calibration eliminates the bias but does not necessarily result in more realistic model parameters. Nevertheless, the experiments confirm that model calibration yields assimilation estimates of surface and root zone soil moisture that are as skillful as those obtained through scaling of the observations to the model s climatology. Analysis of innovation diagnostics underlines the importance of addressing bias in soil moisture assimilation and confirms that both approaches adequately address the issue.

  10. Footprint Characteristics of Cosmic-Ray Neutron Sensors for Soil Moisture Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrön, Martin; Köhli, Markus; Zreda, Marek; Dietrich, Peter; Zacharias, Steffen

    2015-04-01

    Cosmic-ray neutron sensing is a unique and an increasingly accepted method to monitor the effective soil water content at the field scale. The technology is famous for its low maintenance, non-invasiveness, continuous measurement, and most importantly, for its large footprint. Being more representative than point data and finer resolved than remote-sensing products, cosmic-ray neutron derived soil moisture products provide unrivaled advantage for mesoscale hydrologic and land surface models. The method takes advantage of neutrons induced by cosmic radiation which are extraordinarily sensitive to hydrogen and behave like a hot gas. Information about nearby water sources are quickly mixed in a domain of tens of hectares in air. Since experimental determination of the actual spatial extent is hardly possible, scientists have applied numerical models to address the footprint characteristics. We have revisited previous neutron transport simulations and present a modified conceptual design and refined physical assumptions. Our revised study reveals new insights into probing distance and water sensitivity of detected neutrons under various environmental conditions. These results sharpen the range of interpretation concerning the spatial extent of integral soil moisture products derived from cosmic-ray neutron counts. Our findings will have important impact on calibration strategies, on scales for data assimilation and on the interpolation of soil moisture data derived from mobile cosmic-ray neutron surveys.

  11. Continuous data assimilation for downscaling large-footprint soil moisture retrievals

    KAUST Repository

    Altaf, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Soil moisture is a key component of the hydrologic cycle, influencing processes leading to runoff generation, infiltration and groundwater recharge, evaporation and transpiration. Generally, the measurement scale for soil moisture is found to be different from the modeling scales for these processes. Reducing this mismatch between observation and model scales in necessary for improved hydrological modeling. An innovative approach to downscaling coarse resolution soil moisture data by combining continuous data assimilation and physically based modeling is presented. In this approach, we exploit the features of Continuous Data Assimilation (CDA) which was initially designed for general dissipative dynamical systems and later tested numerically on the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation, and the Benard equation. A nudging term, estimated as the misfit between interpolants of the assimilated coarse grid measurements and the fine grid model solution, is added to the model equations to constrain the model\\'s large scale variability by available measurements. Soil moisture fields generated at a fine resolution by a physically-based vadose zone model (HYDRUS) are subjected to data assimilation conditioned upon coarse resolution observations. This enables nudging of the model outputs towards values that honor the coarse resolution dynamics while still being generated at the fine scale. Results show that the approach is feasible to generate fine scale soil moisture fields across large extents, based on coarse scale observations. Application of this approach is likely in generating fine and intermediate resolution soil moisture fields conditioned on the radiometerbased, coarse resolution products from remote sensing satellites.

  12. Monitoring Moisture Damage Propagation in GFRP Composites Using Carbon Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Sabagh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP composites are widely used in infrastructure applications including water structures due to their relatively high durability, high strength to weight ratio, and non-corrosiveness. Here we demonstrate the potential use of carbon nanoparticles dispersed during GFRP composite fabrication to reduce water absorption of GFRP and to enable monitoring of moisture damage propagation in GFRP composites. GFRP coupons incorporating 2.0 wt % carbon nanofibers (CNFs and 2.0 wt % multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs were fabricated in order to study the effect of moisture damage on mechanical properties of GFRP. Water absorption tests were carried out by immersing the GFRP coupons in a seawater bath at two temperatures for a time period of three months. Effects of water immersion on the mechanical properties and glass transition temperature of GFRP were investigated. Furthermore, moisture damage in GFRP was monitored by measuring the electrical conductivity of the GFRP coupons. It was shown that carbon nanoparticles can provide a means of self-sensing that enables the monitoring of moisture damage in GFRP. Despite the success of the proposed technique, it might not be able to efficiently describe moisture damage propagation in GFRP beyond a specific threshold because of the relatively high electrical conductivity of seawater. Microstructural investigations using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR explained the significance of seawater immersion time and temperature on the different levels of moisture damage in GFRP.

  13. Incorporation of Passive Microwave Brightness Temperatures in the ECMWF Soil Moisture Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Muñoz-Sabater

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available For more than a decade, the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF has used in-situ observations of 2 m temperature and 2 m relative humidity to operationally constrain the temporal evolution of model soil moisture. These observations are not available everywhere and they are indirectly linked to the state of the surface, so under various circumstances, such as weak radiative forcing or strong advection, they cannot be used as a proxy for soil moisture reinitialization in numerical weather prediction. Recently, the ECMWF soil moisture analysis has been updated to be able to account for the information provided by microwave brightness temperatures from the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS mission of the European Space Agency (ESA. This is the first time that ECMWF uses direct information of the soil emission from passive microwave data to globally adjust the estimation of soil moisture by a land-surface model. This paper presents a novel version of the ECMWF Extended Kalman Filter soil moisture analysis to account for remotely sensed passive microwave data. It also discusses the advantages of assimilating direct satellite radiances compared to current soil moisture products, with a view to an operational implementation. A simple assimilation case study at global scale highlights the potential benefits and obstacles of using this new type of information in a global coupled land-atmospheric model.

  14. Estimation of Surface Soil Moisture in Irrigated Lands by Assimilation of Landsat Vegetation Indices, Surface Energy Balance Products, and Relevance Vector Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso F. Torres-Rua

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Spatial surface soil moisture can be an important indicator of crop conditions on farmland, but its continuous estimation remains challenging due to coarse spatial and temporal resolution of existing remotely-sensed products. Furthermore, while preceding research on soil moisture using remote sensing (surface energy balance, weather parameters, and vegetation indices has demonstrated a relationship between these factors and soil moisture, practical continuous spatial quantification of the latter is still unavailable for use in water and agricultural management. In this study, a methodology is presented to estimate volumetric surface soil moisture by statistical selection from potential predictors that include vegetation indices and energy balance products derived from satellite (Landsat imagery and weather data as identified in scientific literature. This methodology employs a statistical learning machine called a Relevance Vector Machine (RVM to identify and relate the potential predictors to soil moisture by means of stratified cross-validation and forward variable selection. Surface soil moisture measurements from irrigated agricultural fields in Central Utah in the 2012 irrigation season were used, along with weather data, Landsat vegetation indices, and energy balance products. The methodology, data collection, processing, and estimation accuracy are presented and discussed.

  15. Rapid prototyping of soil moisture estimates using the NASA Land Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantharaj, V.; Mostovoy, G.; Li, B.; Peters-Lidard, C.; Houser, P.; Moorhead, R.; Kumar, S.

    2007-12-01

    The Land Information System (LIS), developed at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, is a functional Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) that incorporates a suite of land models in an interoperable computational framework. LIS has been integrated into a computational Rapid Prototyping Capabilities (RPC) infrastructure. LIS consists of a core, a number of community land models, data servers, and visualization systems - integrated in a high-performance computing environment. The land surface models (LSM) in LIS incorporate surface and atmospheric parameters of temperature, snow/water, vegetation, albedo, soil conditions, topography, and radiation. Many of these parameters are available from in-situ observations, numerical model analysis, and from NASA, NOAA, and other remote sensing satellite platforms at various spatial and temporal resolutions. The computational resources, available to LIS via the RPC infrastructure, support e- Science experiments involving the global modeling of land-atmosphere studies at 1km spatial resolutions as well as regional studies at finer resolutions. The Noah Land Surface Model, available with-in the LIS is being used to rapidly prototype soil moisture estimates in order to evaluate the viability of other science applications for decision making purposes. For example, LIS has been used to further extend the utility of the USDA Soil Climate Analysis Network of in-situ soil moisture observations. In addition, LIS also supports data assimilation capabilities that are used to assimilate remotely sensed soil moisture retrievals from the AMSR-E instrument onboard the Aqua satellite. The rapid prototyping of soil moisture estimates using LIS and their applications will be illustrated during the presentation.

  16. Continuous data assimilation for downscaling large-footprint soil moisture retrievals

    KAUST Repository

    Altaf, M. U.

    2016-09-01

    Soil moisture is a crucial component of the hydrologic cycle, significantly influencing runoff, infiltration, recharge, evaporation and transpiration processes. Models characterizing these processes require soil moisture as an input, either directly or indirectly. Better characterization of the spatial variability of soil moisture leads to better predictions from hydrologic/climate models. In-situ measurements have fine resolution, but become impractical in terms of coverage over large extents. Remotely sensed data have excellent spatial coverage extents, but suffer from poorer spatial and temporal resolution. We present here an innovative approach to downscaling coarse resolution soil moisture data by combining data assimilation and physically based modeling. In this approach, we exploit the features of Continuous Data Assimilation (CDA). A nudging term, estimated as the misfit between interpolants of the assimilated coarse grid measurements and the fine grid model solution, is added to the model equations to constrain the model’s large scale variability by available measurements. Soil moisture fields generated at a fine resolution by a physically-based vadose zone model (e.g., HYDRUS) are subjected to data assimilation conditioned upon the coarse resolution observations. This enables nudging of the model outputs towards values that honor the coarse resolution dynamics while still being generated at the fine scale. The large scale features of the model output are constrained to the observations, and as a consequence, the misfit at the fine scale is reduced. The advantage of this approach is that fine resolution soil moisture maps can be generated across large spatial extents, given the coarse resolution data. The data assimilation approach also enables multi-scale data generation which is helpful to match the soil moisture input data to the corresponding modeling scale. Application of this approach is likely in generating fine and intermediate resolution soil

  17. A simple nudging scheme to assimilate ASCAT soil moisture data in the WRF model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capecchi, V.; Gozzini, B.

    2012-04-01

    The present work shows results obtained in a numerical experiment using the WRF (Weather and Research Forecasting, www.wrf-model.org) model. A control run where soil moisture is constrained by GFS global analysis is compared with a test run where soil moisture analysis is obtained via a simple nudging scheme using ASCAT data. The basic idea of the assimilation scheme is to "nudge" the first level (0-10 cm below ground in NOAH model) of volumetric soil moisture of the first-guess (say θ(b,1) derived from global model) towards the ASCAT derived value (say ^θ A). The soil moisture analysis θ(a,1) is given by: { θ + K (^θA - θ ) l = 1 θ(a,1) = θ(b,l) (b,l) l > 1 (b,l) (1) where l is the model soil level. K is a constant scalar value that is user specified and in this study it is equal to 0.2 (same value as in similar studies). Soil moisture is critical for estimating latent and sensible heat fluxes as well as boundary layer structure. This parameter is, however, poorly assimilated in current global and regional numerical models since no extensive soil moisture observation network exists. Remote sensing technologies offer a synoptic view of the dynamics and spatial distribution of soil moisture with a frequent temporal coverage and with a horizontal resolution similar to mesoscale NWP model. Several studies have shown that measurements of normalized backscatter (surface soil wetness) from the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) operating at microwave frequencies and boarded on the meteorological operational (Metop) satellite, offer quality information about surface soil moisture. Recently several studies deal with the implementation of simple assimilation procedures (nudging, Extended Kalman Filter, etc...) to integrate ASCAT data in NWP models. They found improvements in screen temperature predictions, particularly in areas such as North-America and in the Tropics, where it is strong the land-atmosphere coupling. The ECMWF (Newsletter No. 127) is currently

  18. On the assimilation of satellite derived soil moisture in numerical weather prediction models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drusch, M.

    2006-12-01

    Satellite derived surface soil moisture data sets are readily available and have been used successfully in hydrological applications. In many operational numerical weather prediction systems the initial soil moisture conditions are analysed from the modelled background and 2 m temperature and relative humidity. This approach has proven its efficiency to improve surface latent and sensible heat fluxes and consequently the forecast on large geographical domains. However, since soil moisture is not always related to screen level variables, model errors and uncertainties in the forcing data can accumulate in root zone soil moisture. Remotely sensed surface soil moisture is directly linked to the model's uppermost soil layer and therefore is a stronger constraint for the soil moisture analysis. Three data assimilation experiments with the Integrated Forecast System (IFS) of the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) have been performed for the two months period of June and July 2002: A control run based on the operational soil moisture analysis, an open loop run with freely evolving soil moisture, and an experimental run incorporating bias corrected TMI (TRMM Microwave Imager) derived soil moisture over the southern United States through a nudging scheme using 6-hourly departures. Apart from the soil moisture analysis, the system setup reflects the operational forecast configuration including the atmospheric 4D-Var analysis. Soil moisture analysed in the nudging experiment is the most accurate estimate when compared against in-situ observations from the Oklahoma Mesonet. The corresponding forecast for 2 m temperature and relative humidity is almost as accurate as in the control experiment. Furthermore, it is shown that the soil moisture analysis influences local weather parameters including the planetary boundary layer height and cloud coverage. The transferability of the results to other satellite derived soil moisture data sets will be discussed.

  19. Antioxidative activity, moisture retention, film formation, and viscosity stability of Auricularia fuscosuccinea, white strain water extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wayne C; Hsueh, Chiu-Yen; Chan, Chin-Feng

    2014-01-01

    This study showed that both water extracts (WAF-W) and ethanol extracts (EAF-W) of Auricularia fuscosuccinea (Montagne) Farlow, white strain (AF-W) demonstrated significantly stronger antioxidative effects than did commercially available Tremella fuciformis sporocarp extracts (WSK; with the exception of EAF-W in terms of superoxide radical scavenging activity levels). The moisture retention capacity of WAF-W is as potent as that of sodium hyaluronate (SHA), but less than that of WSK. No corrugation or fissures were observed in WAF-W film; only the SHA and WSK films demonstrated such effects in low-moisture conditions. The WAF-W solution also exhibited stable viscosity at high temperatures, indicating that the WAF-W film was more stable compared with the SHA and WSK films. WAF-W induced no adverse effects when a hen's egg test was performed on the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). This study demonstrated that WAF-W exhibits excellent potential as a topical material for skin moisturizing and anti-aging effects.

  20. An application of the perpendicular moisture index for the prediction of fire hazard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maffei, C.; Menenti, M.

    2014-01-01

    Various factors contribute to forest fire hazard, and among them vegetation moisture is the one that dictates susceptibility to fire ignition and propagation. The scientific community has developed a number of spectral indices based on remote sensing measurements in the optical domain for the

  1. The ASCAT soil moisture product. A Review of its specifications, validation results, and emerging applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Wolfgang; Hahn, Sebastian; Kidd, Richard [Vienna Univ. of Technology (Austria). Dept. of Geodesy and Geoinformation] [and others

    2013-02-15

    Many physical, chemical and biological processes taking place at the land surface are strongly influenced by the amount of water stored within the upper soil layers. Therefore, many scientific disciplines require soil moisture observations for developing, evaluating and improving their models. One of these disciplines is meteorology where soil moisture is important due to its control on the exchange of heat and water between the soil and the lower atmosphere. Soil moisture observations may thus help to improve the forecasts of air temperature, air humidity and precipitation. However, until recently, soil moisture observations had only been available over a limited number of regional soil moisture networks. This has hampered scientific progress as regards the characterisation of land surface processes not just in meteorology but many other scientific disciplines as well. Fortunately, in recent years, satellite soil moisture data have increasingly become available. One of the freely available global soil moisture data sets is derived from the backscatter measurements acquired by the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) that is a C-band active microwave remote sensing instrument flown on board of the Meteorological Operational (METOP) satellite series. ASCAT was designed to observe wind speed and direction over the oceans and was initially not foreseen for monitoring soil moisture over land. Yet, as argued in this review paper, the characteristics of the ASCAT instrument, most importantly its wavelength (5.7 cm), its high radiometric accuracy, and its multiple-viewing capabilities make it an attractive sensor for measuring soil moisture. Moreover, given the operational status of ASCAT, and its promising long-term prospects, many geoscientific applications might benefit from using ASCAT soil moisture data. Nonetheless, the ASCAT soil moisture product is relatively complex, requiring a good understanding of its properties before it can be successfully used in applications. To

  2. The ASCAT Soil Moisture Product: A Review of its Specifications, Validation Results, and Emerging Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Wagner

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Many physical, chemical and biological processes taking place at the land surface are strongly influenced by the amount of water stored within the upper soil layers. Therefore, many scientific disciplines require soil moisture observations for developing, evaluating and improving their models. One of these disciplines is meteorology where soil moisture is important due to its control on the exchange of heat and water between the soil and the lower atmosphere. Soil moisture observations may thus help to improve the forecasts of air temperature, air humidity and precipitation. However, until recently, soil moisture observations had only been available over a limited number of regional soil moisture networks. This has hampered scientific progress as regards the characterisation of land surface processes not just in meteorology but many other scientific disciplines as well. Fortunately, in recent years, satellite soil moisture data have increasingly become available. One of the freely available global soil moisture data sets is derived from the backscatter measurements acquired by the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT that is a C-band active microwave remote sensing instrument flown on board of the Meteorological Operational (METOP satellite series. ASCAT was designed to observe wind speed and direction over the oceans and was initially not foreseen for monitoring soil moisture over land. Yet, as argued in this review paper, the characteristics of the ASCAT instrument, most importantly its wavelength (5.7 cm, its high radiometric accuracy, and its multiple-viewing capabilities make it an attractive sensor for measuring soil moisture. Moreover, given the operational status of ASCAT, and its promising long-term prospects, many geoscientific applications might benefit from using ASCAT soil moisture data. Nonetheless, the ASCAT soil moisture product is relatively complex, requiring a good understanding of its properties before it can be successfully used in

  3. Soil moisture effects during bioventing in fuel-contaminated arid soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwick, T.C.; Leeson, A.; Hinchee, R.E.; Hoeppel, R.E.; Bowling, L.

    1995-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of soil moisture addition on microbial activity during bioventing of dry, sandy soils at the Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center (MCAGCC), Twentynine Palms, California. Soils at the site have been contaminated to a depth of approximately 80 ft (24 m) with gasoline, JP-5 jet fuel, and diesel fuel. Based on the low soil moisture measured at the site (2 to 3% by weight), it was determined that soil moisture may be limiting biodegradation. To evaluate the effect that moisture addition had on microbial activity under field conditions, a subsurface drip irrigation system was installed above the fuel hydrocarbon plume. Irrigation water was obtained from two monitoring wells on the site, where groundwater was approximately 192 ft (59 m) below ground surface. Advancement of the wetting front was monitored. In situ respiration rates increased significantly after moisture addition. The results of this study provide evidence for the potential applicability of moisture addition in conjunction with bioventing for site remediation in arid environments. Further work is planned to investigate optimization of moisture addition

  4. Improving streamflow simulations and forecasting performance of SWAT model by assimilating remotely sensed soil moisture observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Amol; Ramsankaran, RAAJ

    2017-12-01

    This article presents a study carried out using EnKF based assimilation of coarser-scale SMOS soil moisture retrievals to improve the streamflow simulations and forecasting performance of SWAT model in a large catchment. This study has been carried out in Munneru river catchment, India, which is about 10,156 km2. In this study, an EnkF based new approach is proposed for improving the inherent vertical coupling of soil layers of SWAT hydrological model during soil moisture data assimilation. Evaluation of the vertical error correlation obtained between surface and subsurface layers indicates that the vertical coupling can be improved significantly using ensemble of soil storages compared to the traditional static soil storages based EnKF approach. However, the improvements in the simulated streamflow are moderate, which is due to the limitations in SWAT model in reflecting the profile soil moisture updates in surface runoff computations. Further, it is observed that the durability of streamflow improvements is longer when the assimilation system effectively updates the subsurface flow component. Overall, the results of the present study indicate that the passive microwave-based coarser-scale soil moisture products like SMOS hold significant potential to improve the streamflow estimates when assimilating into large-scale distributed hydrological models operating at a daily time step.

  5. NASAs Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission and Opportunities For Applications Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.; Escobar, Vanessa; Moran, Susan; Entekhabi, Dara; O'Neill, Peggy; Njoku, Eni G.; Doorn, Brad; Entin, Jared K.

    2013-01-01

    Water in the soil, both its amount (soil moisture) and its state (freeze/thaw), plays a key role in water and energy cycles, in weather and climate, and in the carbon cycle. Additionally, soil moisture touches upon human lives in a number of ways from the ravages of flooding to the needs for monitoring agricultural and hydrologic droughts. Because of their relevance to weather, climate, science, and society, accurate and timely measurements of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state with global coverage are critically important.

  6. Density-independent algorithm for sensing moisture content of sawdust based on reflection measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    A density-independent algorithm for moisture content determination in sawdust, based on a one-port reflection measurement technique is proposed for the first time. Performance of this algorithm is demonstrated through measurement of the dielectric properties of sawdust with an open-ended haft-mode s...

  7. Passive and Active Sensing Technologies for Structural Health Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Richard

    A combination of passive and active sensing technologies is proposed as a structural health monitoring solution for several applications. Passive sensing is differentiated from active sensing in that with the former, no energy is intentionally imparted into the structure under test; sensors are deployed in a pure detection mode for collecting data mined for structural health monitoring purposes. In this thesis, passive sensing using embedded fiber Bragg grating optical strain gages was used to detect varying degrees of impact damage using two different classes of features drawn from traditional spectral analysis and auto-regressive time series modeling. The two feature classes were compared in detail through receiver operating curve performance analysis. The passive detection problem was then augmented with an active sensing system using ultrasonic guided waves (UGWs). This thesis considered two main challenges associated with UGW SHM including in-situ wave propagation property determination and thermal corruption of data. Regarding determination of wave propagation properties, of which dispersion characteristics are the most important, a new dispersion curve extraction method called sparse wavenumber analysis (SWA) was experimentally validated. Also, because UGWs are extremely sensitive to ambient temperature changes on the structure, it significantly affects the wave propagation properties by causing large errors in the residual error in the processing of the UGWs from an array. This thesis presented a novel method that compensates for uniform temperature change by considering the magnitude and phase of the signal separately and applying a scalable transformation.

  8. Fabrication of Porous Silicon Based Humidity Sensing Elements on Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tero Jalkanen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A roll-to-roll compatible fabrication process of porous silicon (pSi based sensing elements for a real-time humidity monitoring is described. The sensing elements, consisting of printed interdigitated silver electrodes and a spray-coated pSi layer, were fabricated on a coated paper substrate by a two-step process. Capacitive and resistive responses of the sensing elements were examined under different concentrations of humidity. More than a three orders of magnitude reproducible decrease in resistance was measured when the relative humidity (RH was increased from 0% to 90%. A relatively fast recovery without the need of any refreshing methods was observed with a change in RH. Humidity background signal and hysteresis arising from the paper substrate were dependent on the thickness of sensing pSi layer. Hysteresis in most optimal sensing element setup (a thick pSi layer was still noticeable but not detrimental for the sensing. In addition to electrical characterization of sensing elements, thermal degradation and moisture adsorption properties of the paper substrate were examined in connection to the fabrication process of the silver electrodes and the moisture sensitivity of the paper. The results pave the way towards the development of low-cost humidity sensors which could be utilized, for example, in smart packaging applications or in smart cities to monitor the environment.

  9. Cosmic Ray Neutron Sensing in Complex Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piussi, L. M.; Tomelleri, E.; Tonon, G.; Bertoldi, G.; Mejia Aguilar, A.; Monsorno, R.; Zebisch, M.

    2017-12-01

    Soil moisture is a key variable in environmental monitoring and modelling: being located at the soil-atmosphere boundary, it is a driving force for water, energy and carbon fluxes. Nevertheless its importance, soil moisture observations lack of long time-series at high acquisition frequency in spatial meso-scale resolutions: traditional measurements deliver either long time series with high measurement frequency at spatial point scale or large scale and low frequency acquisitions. The Cosmic Ray Neutron Sensing (CRNS) technique fills this gap because it supplies information from a footprint of 240m of diameter and 15 to 83 cm of depth at a temporal resolution varying between 15 minutes and 24 hours. In addition, being a passive sensing technique, it is non-invasive. For these reasons, CRNS is gaining more and more attention from the scientific community. Nevertheless, the application of this technique in complex systems is still an open issue: where different Hydrogen pools are present and where their distributions vary appreciably with space and time, the traditional calibration method shows some limits. In order to obtain a better understanding of the data and to compare them with remote sensing products and spatially distributed traditional measurements (i.e. Wireless Sensors Network), the complexity of the surrounding environment has to be taken into account. In the current work we assessed the effects of spatial-temporal variability of soil moisture within the footprint, in a steep, heterogeneous mountain grassland area. Measurement were performed with a Cosmic Ray Neutron Probe (CRNP) and a mobile Wireless Sensors Network. We performed an in-deep sensitivity analysis of the effects of varying distributions of soil moisture on the calibration of the CRNP and our preliminary results show how the footprint shape varies depending on these dynamics. The results are then compared with remote sensing data (Sentinel 1 and 2). The current work is an assessment of

  10. Assessment of the SMAP Passive Soil Moisture Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Steven K.; Bindlish, Rajat; O'Neill, Peggy E.; Njoku, Eni; Jackson, Tom; Colliander, Andreas; Chen, Fan; Burgin, Mariko; Dunbar, Scott; Piepmeier, Jeffrey; hide

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite mission was launched on January 31, 2015. The observatory was developed to provide global mapping of high-resolution soil moisture and freeze-thaw state every two to three days using an L-band (active) radar and an L-band (passive) radiometer. After an irrecoverable hardware failure of the radar on July 7, 2015, the radiometer-only soil moisture product became the only operational Level 2 soil moisture product for SMAP. The product provides soil moisture estimates posted on a 36 kilometer Earth-fixed grid produced using brightness temperature observations from descending passes. Within months after the commissioning of the SMAP radiometer, the product was assessed to have attained preliminary (beta) science quality, and data were released to the public for evaluation in September 2015. The product is available from the NASA Distributed Active Archive Center at the National Snow and Ice Data Center. This paper provides a summary of the Level 2 Passive Soil Moisture Product (L2_SM_P) and its validation against in situ ground measurements collected from different data sources. Initial in situ comparisons conducted between March 31, 2015 and October 26, 2015, at a limited number of core validation sites (CVSs) and several hundred sparse network points, indicate that the V-pol Single Channel Algorithm (SCA-V) currently delivers the best performance among algorithms considered for L2_SM_P, based on several metrics. The accuracy of the soil moisture retrievals averaged over the CVSs was 0.038 cubic meter per cubic meter unbiased root-mean-square difference (ubRMSD), which approaches the SMAP mission requirement of 0.040 cubic meter per cubic meter.

  11. Hydrologic Remote Sensing and Land Surface Data Assimilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradkhani, Hamid

    2008-05-06

    Accurate, reliable and skillful forecasting of key environmental variables such as soil moisture and snow are of paramount importance due to their strong influence on many water resources applications including flood control, agricultural production and effective water resources management which collectively control the behavior of the climate system. Soil moisture is a key state variable in land surface-atmosphere interactions affecting surface energy fluxes, runoff and the radiation balance. Snow processes also have a large influence on land-atmosphere energy exchanges due to snow high albedo, low thermal conductivity and considerable spatial and temporal variability resulting in the dramatic change on surface and ground temperature. Measurement of these two variables is possible through variety of methods using ground-based and remote sensing procedures. Remote sensing, however, holds great promise for soil moisture and snow measurements which have considerable spatial and temporal variability. Merging these measurements with hydrologic model outputs in a systematic and effective way results in an improvement of land surface model prediction. Data Assimilation provides a mechanism to combine these two sources of estimation. Much success has been attained in recent years in using data from passive microwave sensors and assimilating them into the models. This paper provides an overview of the remote sensing measurement techniques for soil moisture and snow data and describes the advances in data assimilation techniques through the ensemble filtering, mainly Ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) and Particle filter (PF), for improving the model prediction and reducing the uncertainties involved in prediction process. It is believed that PF provides a complete representation of the probability distribution of state variables of interests (according to sequential Bayes law) and could be a strong alternative to EnKF which is subject to some limitations including the linear

  12. Assimilation of the ESA CCI Soil Moisture ACTIVE and PASSIVE Product into the SURFEX Land Surface Model using the Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyverket, J.; Hamer, P.; Bertino, L.; Lahoz, W. A.

    2017-12-01

    The European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative for soil moisture (ESA CCI SM) was initiated in 2012 for a period of six years, the objective for this period was to produce the most complete and consistent global soil moisture data record based on both active and passive sensors. The ESA CCI SM products consist of three surface soil moisture datasets: The ACTIVE product and the PASSIVE product were created by fusing scatterometer and radiometer soil moisture data, respectively. The COMBINED product is a blended product based on the former two datasets. In this study we assimilate globally both the ACTIVE and PASSIVE product at a 25 km spatial resolution. The different satellite platforms have different overpass times, an observation is mapped to the hours 00.00, 06.00, 12.00 or 18.00 if it falls within a 3 hour window centred at these times. We use the SURFEX land surface model with the ISBA diffusion scheme for the soil hydrology. For the assimilation routine we apply the Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter (ETKF). The land surface model is driven by perturbed MERRA-2 atmospheric forcing data, which has a temporal resolution of one hour and is mapped to the SURFEX model grid. Bias between the land surface model and the ESA CCI product is removed by cumulative distribution function (CDF) matching. This work is a step towards creating a global root zone soil moisture product from the most comprehensive satellite surface soil moisture product available. As a first step we consider the period from 2010 - 2016. This allows for comparison against other global root zone soil moisture products (SMAP Level 4, which is independent of the ESA CCI SM product).

  13. Research on active imaging information transmission technology of satellite borne quantum remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Siwen; Zhen, Ming; Yang, Song; Lin, Xuling; Wu, Zhiqiang

    2017-08-01

    According to the development and application needs of Remote Sensing Science and technology, Prof. Siwen Bi proposed quantum remote sensing. Firstly, the paper gives a brief introduction of the background of quantum remote sensing, the research status and related researches at home and abroad on the theory, information mechanism and imaging experiments of quantum remote sensing and the production of principle prototype.Then, the quantization of pure remote sensing radiation field, the state function and squeezing effect of quantum remote sensing radiation field are emphasized. It also describes the squeezing optical operator of quantum light field in active imaging information transmission experiment and imaging experiments, achieving 2-3 times higher resolution than that of coherent light detection imaging and completing the production of quantum remote sensing imaging prototype. The application of quantum remote sensing technology can significantly improve both the signal-to-noise ratio of information transmission imaging and the spatial resolution of quantum remote sensing .On the above basis, Prof.Bi proposed the technical solution of active imaging information transmission technology of satellite borne quantum remote sensing, launched researches on its system composition and operation principle and on quantum noiseless amplifying devices, providing solutions and technical basis for implementing active imaging information technology of satellite borne Quantum Remote Sensing.

  14. Feasibility study of prompt gamma neutron activation for NDT measurement of moisture in stone and brick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingston, R. A.; Al-Sheikhly, M. [Materials Science and Engineering Dept., U. of Maryland, College Park MD 20742 (United States); Grissom, C.; Aloiz, E. [Museum Conservation Institute, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC 20746 (United States); Paul, R. [Chemical Sciences Division, NIST, Gaithersburg MD 20899 (United States)

    2014-02-18

    The conservation of stone and brick architecture or sculpture often involves damage caused by moisture. The feasibility of a NDT method based on prompt gamma neutron activation (PGNA) for measuring the element hydrogen as an indication of water is being evaluated. This includes systematic characterization of the lithology and physical properties of seven building stones and one brick type used in the buildings of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. To determine the required dynamic range of the NDT method, moisture-related properties were measured by standard methods. Cold neutron PGNA was also used to determine chemically bound water (CBW) content. The CBW does not damage porous masonry, but creates an H background that defines the minimum level of detection of damaging moisture. The CBW was on the order of 0.5% for all the stones. This rules out the measurement of hygric processes in all of the stones and hydric processed for the stones with fine scale pore-size distributions The upper bound of moisture content, set by porosity through water immersion, was on the order of 5%. The dynamic range is about 10–20. The H count rates were roughly 1–3 cps. Taking into account differences in neutron energies and fluxes and sample volume between cold PGNA and a portable PGNA instrument, it appears that it is feasible to apply PGNA in the field.

  15. Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Microwave Radiometer Radio-Frequency Interference (RFI) Mitigation: Initial On-Orbit Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Priscilla N.; Piepmeier, Jeffrey R.; Johnson, Joel T.; Aksoy, Mustafa; Bringer, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, launched in January 2015, provides global measurements of soil moisture using a microwave radiometer. SMAPs radiometer passband lies within the passive frequency allocation. However, both unauthorized in-band transmitters as well as out-of-band emissions from transmitters operating at frequencies adjacent to this allocated spectrum have been documented as sources of radio frequency interference (RFI) to the L-band radiometers on SMOS and Aquarius. The spectral environment consists of high RFI levels as well as significant occurrences of low level RFI equivalent to 0.1 to 10 K. The SMAP ground processor reports the antenna temperature both before and after RFI mitigation is applied. The difference between these quantities represents the detected RFI level. The presentation will review the SMAP RFI detection and mitigation procedure and discuss early on-orbit RFI measurements from the SMAP radiometer. Assessments of global RFI properties and source types will be provided, as well as the implications of these results for SMAP soil moisture measurements.

  16. Exploiting Soil Moisture, Precipitation, and Streamflow Observations to Evaluate Soil Moisture/Runoff Coupling in Land Surface Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, W. T.; Chen, F.; Reichle, R. H.; Xia, Y.; Liu, Q.

    2018-05-01

    Accurate partitioning of precipitation into infiltration and runoff is a fundamental objective of land surface models tasked with characterizing the surface water and energy balance. Temporal variability in this partitioning is due, in part, to changes in prestorm soil moisture, which determine soil infiltration capacity and unsaturated storage. Utilizing the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Soil Moisture Active Passive Level-4 soil moisture product in combination with streamflow and precipitation observations, we demonstrate that land surface models (LSMs) generally underestimate the strength of the positive rank correlation between prestorm soil moisture and event runoff coefficients (i.e., the fraction of rainfall accumulation volume converted into stormflow runoff during a storm event). Underestimation is largest for LSMs employing an infiltration-excess approach for stormflow runoff generation. More accurate coupling strength is found in LSMs that explicitly represent subsurface stormflow or saturation-excess runoff generation processes.

  17. Moisture sorption of Thai red curry powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudathip Inchuen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Moisture sorption study was conducted on Thai red curry powder prepared by two different drying methods, viz. microwave and hot-air drying. Moisture sorption isotherms of the red curry powder at 30 C and water activity in the range of 0.113-0.970 were determined by a static gravimetric method. The isotherms exhibited Type III behaviour. The moisture sorption data were fitted to several sorption models and a non-linear regression analysis method was used to evaluate the constants of the sorption equations. The fit was evaluated using the coefficient of determination (R2, the reduced chi-square (2 and the root mean square error (RMSE. The GAB model followed by the Lewiski-3 model gave the best fit to the experimental data. The monolayer moisture content, taken as the safe minimum moisture level in the red curry powder, was determined using the BET equation and was found to range between 0.080 - 0.085 gram water per gram dry matter.

  18. Moisture conditions in buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Growth of mould requires the presence of moisture at a certain high level. In a heated indoor environment such moisture levels occur only if there is a reason for the moisture supply. Such moisture can come from the use of the building, because of malfunctioning constructions, or it can be the re......Growth of mould requires the presence of moisture at a certain high level. In a heated indoor environment such moisture levels occur only if there is a reason for the moisture supply. Such moisture can come from the use of the building, because of malfunctioning constructions, or it can...

  19. Cold-pressed and hot-pressed rapeseed oil: The effects of roasting and seed moisture on the antioxi- dant activity, canolol, and tocopherol level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siger, Aleksander; Józefiak, Marta; Górnaś, Paweł

    2017-01-01

    The paper looks at the levels of canolol, tocopherols and antioxidant activity in cold-pressed and hot-pressed rapeseed oils produced from seeds of various moisture levels (5%, 7.5%, and 10%). The paper also considers the effects of seed roasting on the levels of these compounds. The material used for the tests was rapeseed cv. Adrianna. The quality of the oils obtained is determined using peroxide and acid values. The levels of canolol and tocopherols are analyzed using HPLC. The DPPH radical-scavenging activity method for oil samples and phenolic extract from oils was used. It has been demonstrated that the oils produced from rapeseeds with a 5% moisture content, and   in particular from cold-pressed oils, were characterized by the lowest peroxide values. Cold-pressed oils produced from rapeseeds with a 5% moisture content were characterized by higher levels of tocopherols and plastochromanol-8. In the case of hot-pressed oils, the highest levels of tocopherols were found in oils pro- duced from seeds with a 7.5% moisture content, and the greatest amount of PC-8 (more than 4 mg/100 g) was found in oils produced from seeds with a 10% moisture content. Hot-pressed oils have been shown to have higher levels of these compounds than cold-pressed oils. Both roasting and hot pressing led to an increase in the amount of canolol in the oils investigated. When analysing the antioxidant activity of the oils and phenolic extracts it was shown that phenolic compounds are responsible for approx. 10% of total antioxidant activity. Various levels of biologically active compounds were shown to be present in the rapeseed oil obtained from raw materials of a varying moisture content. The type of pressing process (cold-pressing or hot-pressing) and whether the seeds have undergone roasting has also been shown to affect the resulting oil and the level of native antioxidants it contains.

  20. EDITORIAL: Microwave Moisture Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaatze, Udo; Kupfer, Klaus; Hübner, Christof

    2007-04-01

    microwave applications. Dr Kraszewski was a pioneer in moisture content sensing and the founder of microwave aquametry. He organized the first conferences on electromagnetic wave interactions with water and moist substances and helped to maintain the progress of microwave aquametry research internationally. Andrzej Kraszewski is missed by the microwave moisture measurement community who appreciated both his unusual technical ability and his pleasant and endearing character. Andrzej W Kraszewski, 1933-2006 We hope you will enjoy reading these papers and will extend your scientific curiosity to this field. Finally, we would like to thank all the authors, referees and the staff of Measurement Science and Technology for their contributions and support which have made the publication of this special issue possible.

  1. An improved triple collocation algorithm for decomposing autocorrelated and white soil moisture retrieval errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    If not properly account for, auto-correlated errors in observations can lead to inaccurate results in soil moisture data analysis and reanalysis. Here, we propose a more generalized form of the triple collocation algorithm (GTC) capable of decomposing the total error variance of remotely-sensed surf...

  2. Assimilation of Spatially Sparse In Situ Soil Moisture Networks into a Continuous Model Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, A.; Crow, W. T.; Dorigo, W. A.

    2018-02-01

    Growth in the availability of near-real-time soil moisture observations from ground-based networks has spurred interest in the assimilation of these observations into land surface models via a two-dimensional data assimilation system. However, the design of such systems is currently hampered by our ignorance concerning the spatial structure of error afflicting ground and model-based soil moisture estimates. Here we apply newly developed triple collocation techniques to provide the spatial error information required to fully parameterize a two-dimensional (2-D) data assimilation system designed to assimilate spatially sparse observations acquired from existing ground-based soil moisture networks into a spatially continuous Antecedent Precipitation Index (API) model for operational agricultural drought monitoring. Over the contiguous United States (CONUS), the posterior uncertainty of surface soil moisture estimates associated with this 2-D system is compared to that obtained from the 1-D assimilation of remote sensing retrievals to assess the value of ground-based observations to constrain a surface soil moisture analysis. Results demonstrate that a fourfold increase in existing CONUS ground station density is needed for ground network observations to provide a level of skill comparable to that provided by existing satellite-based surface soil moisture retrievals.

  3. The Impacts of Heating Strategy on Soil Moisture Estimation Using Actively Heated Fiber Optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jianzhi; Agliata, Rosa; Steele-Dunne, Susan; Hoes, Olivier; Bogaard, Thom; Greco, Roberto; van de Giesen, Nick

    2017-09-13

    Several recent studies have highlighted the potential of Actively Heated Fiber Optics (AHFO) for high resolution soil moisture mapping. In AHFO, the soil moisture can be calculated from the cumulative temperature ( T cum ), the maximum temperature ( T max ), or the soil thermal conductivity determined from the cooling phase after heating ( λ ). This study investigates the performance of the T cum , T max and λ methods for different heating strategies, i.e., differences in the duration and input power of the applied heat pulse. The aim is to compare the three approaches and to determine which is best suited to field applications where the power supply is limited. Results show that increasing the input power of the heat pulses makes it easier to differentiate between dry and wet soil conditions, which leads to an improved accuracy. Results suggest that if the power supply is limited, the heating strength is insufficient for the λ method to yield accurate estimates. Generally, the T cum and T max methods have similar accuracy. If the input power is limited, increasing the heat pulse duration can improve the accuracy of the AHFO method for both of these techniques. In particular, extending the heating duration can significantly increase the sensitivity of T cum to soil moisture. Hence, the T cum method is recommended when the input power is limited. Finally, results also show that up to 50% of the cable temperature change during the heat pulse can be attributed to soil background temperature, i.e., soil temperature changed by the net solar radiation. A method is proposed to correct this background temperature change. Without correction, soil moisture information can be completely masked by the background temperature error.

  4. Reducing the Influence of Soil Moisture on the Estimation of Clay from Hyperspectral Data: A Case Study Using Simulated PRISMA Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Castaldi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Soil moisture hampers the estimation of soil variables such as clay content from remote and proximal sensing data, reducing the strength of the relevant spectral absorption features. In the present study, two different strategies have been evaluated for their ability to minimize the influence of soil moisture on clay estimation by using soil spectra acquired in a laboratory and by simulating satellite hyperspectral data. Simulated satellite data were obtained according to the spectral characteristics of the forthcoming hyperspectral imager on board of the Italian PRISMA satellite mission. The soil datasets were split into four groups according to the water content. For each soil moisture level a prediction model was applied, using either spectral indices or partial least squares regression (PLSR. Prediction models were either specifically developed for the soil moisture level or calibrated using synthetically dry soil spectra, generated from wet soil data. Synthetically dry spectra were obtained using a new technique based on the effects caused by soil moisture on the optical spectrum from 400 to 2400 nm. The estimation of soil clay content, when using different prediction models according to soil moisture, was slightly more accurate as compared to the use of synthetically dry soil spectra, both employing clay indices and PLSR models. The results obtained in this study demonstrate that the a priori knowledge of the soil moisture class can reduce the error of clay estimation when using hyperspectral remote sensing data, such as those that will be provided by the PRISMA satellite mission in the near future.

  5. The Utility of Using a Near-Infrared (NIR) Camera to Measure Beach Surface Moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, S.; Schmutz, P. P.

    2017-12-01

    Surface moisture content is an important factor that must be considered when studying aeolian sediment transport in a beach environment. A few different instruments and procedures are available for measuring surface moisture content (i.e. moisture probes, LiDAR, and gravimetric moisture data from surface scrapings); however, these methods can be inaccurate, costly, and inapplicable, particularly in the field. Near-infrared (NIR) spectral band imagery is another technique used to obtain moisture data. NIR imagery has been predominately used through remote sensing and has yet to be used for ground-based measurements. Dry sand reflects infrared radiation given off by the sun and wet sand absorbs IR radiation. All things considered, this study assesses the utility of measuring surface moisture content of beach sand with a modified NIR camera. A traditional point and shoot digital camera was internally modified with the placement of a visible light-blocking filter. Images were taken of three different types of beach sand at controlled moisture content values, with sunlight as the source of infrared radiation. A technique was established through trial and error by comparing resultant histogram values using Adobe Photoshop with the various moisture conditions. The resultant IR absorption histogram values were calibrated to actual gravimetric moisture content from surface scrapings of the samples. Overall, the results illustrate that the NIR spectrum modified camera does not provide the ability to adequately measure beach surface moisture content. However, there were noted differences in IR absorption histogram values among the different sediment types. Sediment with darker quartz mineralogy provided larger variations in histogram values, but the technique is not sensitive enough to accurately represent low moisture percentages, which are of most importance when studying aeolian sediment transport.

  6. Understanding natural moisturizing mechanisms: implications for moisturizer technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandar, Prem; Nole, Greg; Johnson, Anthony W

    2009-07-01

    Dry skin and moisturization are important topics because they impact the lives of many individuals. For most individuals, dry skin is not a notable concern and can be adequately managed with current moisturizing products. However, dry skin can affect the quality of life of some individuals because of the challenges of either harsh environmental conditions or impaired stratum corneum (SC) dry skin protection processes resulting from various common skin diseases. Dry skin protection processes of the SC, such as the development of natural moisturizing factor (NMF), are complex, carefully balanced, and easily perturbed. We discuss the importance of the filaggrin-NMF system and the composition of NMF in both healthy and dry skin, and also reveal new insights that suggest the properties required for a new generation of moisturizing technologies.

  7. Use of microwave remote sensing in salinity estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.P.; Kumar, V.; Srivastav, S.K.

    1990-01-01

    Soil-moisture interaction and the consequent liberation of ions causes the salinity of waters. The salinity of river, lake, ocean and ground water changes due to seepage and surface runoff. We have studied the feasibility of using microwave remote sensing for the estimation of salinity by carrying out numerical calculations to study the microwave remote sensing responses of various models representative of river, lake and ocean water. The results show the dependence of microwave remote sensing responses on the salinity and surface temperature of water. The results presented in this paper will be useful in the selection of microwave sensor parameters and in the accurate estimation of salinity from microwave remote sensing data

  8. On-line measurement of moisture content of powdered food using microwave free-space transmission technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Bok; Park, Seong Un; Kim, Ji Yeon; Kim, Jong Heon; Lee, ChanJoo

    2006-01-01

    The moisture content of food is not only the most important quality factor but also one of the essential parameters affecting their physical and chemical properties related to storage, capability of processing and quality control. The moisture measurement technique using microwave is very attractive because that method has merits of rapid and accurate measurement in the wider range of moisture content, simple implementation and inexpensive compared with other methods. In this study, microwave free-space transmission technique was applied to measure the moisture content of powdered food. The on-line measurement system consisting of microwave system with 2.5 GHz, 7.0 GHz and 10.5 GHz, conveying device to move the food samples, inlet and outlet of the food samples, guide plate to control the thickness of the food samples, temperature sensing nit, taco-meter and central processing unit having analog to digital convert and microprocessor was constructed and its performance was evaluated.

  9. Selective vibration sensing: a new concept for activity-sensing rate-responsive pacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, C P; Stott, J R; Toff, W D; Zetlein, M B; Ward, D E; Camm, A J

    1988-09-01

    A clinically available model of an activity-sensing, rate-responsive pacemaker (Activitrax, Medtronic) utilizes body vibration during exercise as an indicator of the need for a rate increase. Although having the advantage of rapid onset of rate response, this system lacks specificity and the rate response does not closely correlate with the level of exertion. In addition, this pacemaker is susceptible to the effects of extraneous vibration. In this study involving 20 normal subjects fitted with an external Activitrax pacemaker, the rate responses to a variety of exercises were studied and were compared with the corresponding sinus rates. The vibration generated at the level of the pacemaker was also measured by accelerometers in three axes. Only a fair correlation (r = 0.51) was achieved between the pacemaker rate and the sinus rate. The total root mean square value of acceleration in either the anteroposterior or the vertical axes was found to have a better correlation (r = 0.8). As the main accelerations during physical activities were in the lower frequency range (0.1-4 Hz), a low-pass filter was used to reduce the influence of extraneous vibration. Selective sensing of the acceleration level may be usefully implemented in an algorithm for activity pacing.

  10. Development and evaluation of the MTVDI for soil moisture monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenbin; Lv, Aifeng; Jia, Shaofeng; Sun, Liang

    2017-06-01

    Several parameterization schemes have been developed to retrieve the soil moisture information involved in the remotely sensed surface temperature-vegetation index (Ts - VI) space. However, most of them are performed with the constraint of the dry edge of the Ts - VI space to define the maximum water stressed conditions. In view of the subjectivity and uncertainty involved in the determination of the dry edge, a new index termed as the Modified Temperature-Vegetation Dryness Index (MTVDI) was developed in this paper to reduce the reliance of the parameterization scheme on the dry edge. In the parameterization scheme of MTVDI, isopleth lines of soil moisture involved in the feature space were retrieved by the temperature-vegetation index method, and only the maximum surface temperature of bare soil (Tsmax) was indispensable in the definition of maximum water stressed conditions. For evaluation purpose, the MTVDI was demonstrated in the Southern Great Plains region of the U.S. and was compared with two other traditional soil moisture indexes developed under the constraint of dry edge. The comparison confirmed the effectivity of the MTVDI in monitoring the spatial pattern and seasonal variation of soil moisture. Our analyses also suggest that Tsmax, the only parameter needed in the definition of maximum water stressed conditions, can be retrieved directly from the parameterization scheme itself. Therefore, the retrieval of MTVDI can be performed independent of the dry edge, which is a significant improvement to the traditional parameterization schemes of soil moisture from the Ts - VI feature space.

  11. ESA remote-sensing programme - Present activities and future plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plevin, J [ESA, Directorate of Planning and Future Programmes, Paris, France; Pryke, I [ESA, Directorate of Applications Programmes, Toulouse, France

    1979-02-01

    The present activities and future missions of the ESA program of spaceborne remote sensing of earth resources and environment are discussed. Program objectives have been determined to be the satisfaction of European regional needs by agricultural, land use, water resources, coastal and polar surveys, and meeting the requirements of developing nations in the areas of agricultural production, mineral exploration and disaster warning and assessment. The Earthnet system of data processing centers presently is used for the distribution of remote sensing data acquired by NASA satellites. Remote sensing experiments to be flown aboard Spacelab are the Metric Camera, to test high resolution mapping capabilities of a large format camera, and the Microwave Remote-Sensing Experiment, which operates as a two-frequency scatterometer, a synthetic aperture radar and a passive microwave radiometer. Studies carried out on the definition of future remote sensing satellite systems are described, including studies of system concepts for land applications and coastal monitoring satellites.

  12. Multiscale soil moisture estimates using static and roving cosmic-ray soil moisture sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McJannet, David; Hawdon, Aaron; Baker, Brett; Renzullo, Luigi; Searle, Ross

    2017-12-01

    Soil moisture plays a critical role in land surface processes and as such there has been a recent increase in the number and resolution of satellite soil moisture observations and the development of land surface process models with ever increasing resolution. Despite these developments, validation and calibration of these products has been limited because of a lack of observations on corresponding scales. A recently developed mobile soil moisture monitoring platform, known as the rover, offers opportunities to overcome this scale issue. This paper describes methods, results and testing of soil moisture estimates produced using rover surveys on a range of scales that are commensurate with model and satellite retrievals. Our investigation involved static cosmic-ray neutron sensors and rover surveys across both broad (36 × 36 km at 9 km resolution) and intensive (10 × 10 km at 1 km resolution) scales in a cropping district in the Mallee region of Victoria, Australia. We describe approaches for converting rover survey neutron counts to soil moisture and discuss the factors controlling soil moisture variability. We use independent gravimetric and modelled soil moisture estimates collected across both space and time to validate rover soil moisture products. Measurements revealed that temporal patterns in soil moisture were preserved through time and regression modelling approaches were utilised to produce time series of property-scale soil moisture which may also have applications in calibration and validation studies or local farm management. Intensive-scale rover surveys produced reliable soil moisture estimates at 1 km resolution while broad-scale surveys produced soil moisture estimates at 9 km resolution. We conclude that the multiscale soil moisture products produced in this study are well suited to future analysis of satellite soil moisture retrievals and finer-scale soil moisture models.

  13. Correlation of neural activity with behavioral kinematics reveals distinct sensory encoding and evidence accumulation processes during active tactile sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delis, Ioannis; Dmochowski, Jacek P; Sajda, Paul; Wang, Qi

    2018-03-23

    Many real-world decisions rely on active sensing, a dynamic process for directing our sensors (e.g. eyes or fingers) across a stimulus to maximize information gain. Though ecologically pervasive, limited work has focused on identifying neural correlates of the active sensing process. In tactile perception, we often make decisions about an object/surface by actively exploring its shape/texture. Here we investigate the neural correlates of active tactile decision-making by simultaneously measuring electroencephalography (EEG) and finger kinematics while subjects interrogated a haptic surface to make perceptual judgments. Since sensorimotor behavior underlies decision formation in active sensing tasks, we hypothesized that the neural correlates of decision-related processes would be detectable by relating active sensing to neural activity. Novel brain-behavior correlation analysis revealed that three distinct EEG components, localizing to right-lateralized occipital cortex (LOC), middle frontal gyrus (MFG), and supplementary motor area (SMA), respectively, were coupled with active sensing as their activity significantly correlated with finger kinematics. To probe the functional role of these components, we fit their single-trial-couplings to decision-making performance using a hierarchical-drift-diffusion-model (HDDM), revealing that the LOC modulated the encoding of the tactile stimulus whereas the MFG predicted the rate of information integration towards a choice. Interestingly, the MFG disappeared from components uncovered from control subjects performing active sensing but not required to make perceptual decisions. By uncovering the neural correlates of distinct stimulus encoding and evidence accumulation processes, this study delineated, for the first time, the functional role of cortical areas in active tactile decision-making. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A Time Series Analysis of Global Soil Moisture Data Products for Water Cycle Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, X.; Yin, J.; Liu, J.; Fang, L.; Hain, C.; Ferraro, R. R.; Weng, F.

    2017-12-01

    Water is essential for sustaining life on our planet Earth and water cycle is one of the most important processes of out weather and climate system. As one of the major components of the water cycle, soil moisture impacts significantly the other water cycle components (e.g. evapotranspiration, runoff, etc) and the carbon cycle (e.g. plant/crop photosynthesis and respiration). Understanding of soil moisture status and dynamics is crucial for monitoring and predicting the weather, climate, hydrology and ecological processes. Satellite remote sensing has been used for soil moisture observation since the launch of the Scanning Multi-channel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) on NASA's Nimbus-7 satellite in 1978. Many satellite soil moisture data products have been made available to the science communities and general public. The soil moisture operational product system (SMOPS) of NOAA NESDIS has been operationally providing global soil moisture data products from each of the currently available microwave satellite sensors and their blends. This presentation will provide an update of SMOPS products. The time series of each of these soil moisture data products are analyzed against other data products, such as precipitation and evapotranspiration from other independent data sources such as the North America Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS). Temporal characteristics of these water cycle components are explored against some historical events, such as the 2010 Russian, 2010 China and 2012 United States droughts, 2015 South Carolina floods, etc. Finally whether a merged global soil moisture data product can be used as a climate data record is evaluated based on the above analyses.

  15. Synergistic soil moisture observation - an interdisciplinary multi-sensor approach to yield improved estimates across scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrön, M.; Fersch, B.; Jagdhuber, T.

    2017-12-01

    The representative determination of soil moisture across different spatial ranges and scales is still an important challenge in hydrology. While in situ measurements are trusted methods at the profile- or point-scale, cosmic-ray neutron sensors (CRNS) are renowned for providing volume averages for several hectares and tens of decimeters depth. On the other hand, airborne remote-sensing enables the coverage of regional scales, however limited to the top few centimeters of the soil.Common to all of these methods is a challenging data processing part, often requiring calibration with independent data. We investigated the performance and potential of three complementary observational methods for the determination of soil moisture below grassland in an alpine front-range river catchment (Rott, 55 km2) of southern Germany.We employ the TERENO preAlpine soil moisture monitoring network, along with additional soil samples taken throughout the catchment. Spatial soil moisture products have been generated using surveys of a car-mounted mobile CRNS (rover), and an aerial acquisition of the polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (F-SAR) of DLR.The study assesses (1) the viability of the different methods to estimate soil moisture for their respective scales and extents, and (2) how either method could support an improvement of the others. We found that in situ data can provide valuable information to calibrate the CRNS rover and to train the vegetation removal part of the polarimetric SAR (PolSAR) retrieval algorithm. Vegetation correction is mandatory to obtain the sub-canopy soil moisture patterns. While CRNS rover surveys can be used to evaluate the F-SAR product across scales, vegetation-related PolSAR products in turn can support the spatial correction of CRNS products for biomass water. Despite the different physical principles, the synthesis of the methods can provide reasonable soil moisture information by integrating from the plot to the landscape scale. The

  16. Sub-bandage sensing system for remote monitoring of chronic wounds in healthcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariz, Alex; Mehmood, Nasir; Voelcker, Nico

    2015-12-01

    Chronic wounds, such as venous leg ulcers, can be monitored non-invasively by using modern sensing devices and wireless technologies. The development of such wireless diagnostic tools may improve chronic wound management by providing evidence on efficacy of treatments being provided. In this paper we present a low-power portable telemetric system for wound condition sensing and monitoring. The system aims at measuring and transmitting real-time information of wound-site temperature, sub-bandage pressure and moisture level from within the wound dressing. The system comprises commercially available non-invasive temperature, moisture, and pressure sensors, which are interfaced with a telemetry device on a flexible 0.15 mm thick printed circuit material, making up a lightweight biocompatible sensing device. The real-time data obtained is transmitted wirelessly to a portable receiver which displays the measured values. The performance of the whole telemetric sensing system is validated on a mannequin leg using commercial compression bandages and dressings. A number of trials on a healthy human volunteer are performed where treatment conditions were emulated using various compression bandage configurations. A reliable and repeatable performance of the system is achieved under compression bandage and with minimal discomfort to the volunteer. The system is capable of reporting instantaneous changes in bandage pressure, moisture level and local temperature at wound site with average measurement resolutions of 0.5 mmHg, 3.0 %RH, and 0.2 °C respectively. Effective range of data transmission is 4-5 m in an open environment.

  17. Humidity sensing characteristics of hydrotungstite thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The electrical conductivity of the films is observed to vary with humidity and selectively show high sensitivity to moisture at room temperature. In order to understand the mechanism of sensing, the films were examined by X-ray diffraction at elevated temperatures and in controlled atmospheres. Based on these observations ...

  18. Iowa flood studies (IFloodS) in the South Fork experimental watershed: soil moisture and precipitation monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil moisture estimates are valuable for hydrologic modeling and agricultural decision support. These estimates are typically produced via a combination of sparse ¬in situ networks and remotely-sensed products or where sensory grids and quality satellite estimates are unavailable, through derived h...

  19. Enhanced Soil Moisture Initialization Using Blended Soil Moisture Product and Regional Optimization of LSM-RTM Coupled Land Data Assimilation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, A. S.; Indu, J.

    2017-12-01

    Prediction of soil moisture dynamics is high priority research challenge because of the complex land-atmosphere interaction processes. Soil moisture (SM) plays a decisive role in governing water and energy balance of the terrestrial system. An accurate SM estimate is imperative for hydrological and weather prediction models. Though SM estimates are available from microwave remote sensing and land surface model (LSM) simulations, it is affected by uncertainties from several sources during estimation. Past studies have generally focused on land data assimilation (DA) for improving LSM predictions by assimilating soil moisture from single satellite sensor. This approach is limited by the large time gap between two consequent soil moisture observations due to satellite repeat cycle of more than three days at the equator. To overcome this, in the present study, we have performed DA using ensemble products from the soil moisture operational product system (SMOPS) blended soil moisture retrievals from different satellite sensors into Noah LSM. Before the assimilation period, the Noah LSM is initialized by cycling through seven multiple loops from 2008 to 2010 forcing with Global data assimilation system (GDAS) data over the Indian subcontinent. We assimilated SMOPS into Noah LSM for a period of two years from 2010 to 2011 using Ensemble Kalman Filter within NASA's land information system (LIS) framework. Results show that DA has improved Noah LSM prediction with a high correlation of 0.96 and low root mean square difference of 0.0303 m3/m3 (figure 1a). Further, this study has also investigated the notion of assimilating microwave brightness temperature (Tb) as a proxy for SM estimates owing to the close proximity of Tb and SM. Preliminary sensitivity analysis show a strong need for regional parameterization of radiative transfer models (RTMs) to improve Tb simulation. Towards this goal, we have optimized the forward RTM using swarm optimization technique for direct Tb

  20. Global-scale assessment and combination of SMAP with ASCAT (active) and AMSR2 (passive) soil moisture products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunglok; Parinussa, Robert; Konings, Alexandra G.; Wagner, Wolfgang; Cosh, Michael H.; Lakshmi, Venkat; Zohaib, Muhammad; Choi, Minha

    2018-01-01

    Global-scale surface soil moisture (SSM) products retrieved from active and passive microwave remote sensing provide an effective method for monitoring near-real-time SSM content with nearly daily temporal resolution. In the present study, we first inter-compared global-scale error patterns and combined the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP), Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT), and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) SSM products using a triple collocation (TC) analysis and the maximized Pearson correlation coefficient (R) method from April 2015 to December 2016. The Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) and global in situ observations were utilized to investigate and to compare the quality of satellite-based SSM products. The average R-values of SMAP, ASCAT, and AMSR2 were 0.74, 0.64, and 0.65 when they compared with in situ networks, respectively. The ubRMSD values were (0.0411, 0.0625, and 0.0708) m3 m- 3; and the bias values were (- 0.0460, 0.0010, and 0.0418) m3 m- 3 for SMAP, ASCAT, and AMSR2, respectively. The highest average R-values from SMAP against the in situ results are very encouraging; only SMAP showed higher R-values than GLDAS in several in situ networks with low ubRMSD (0.0438 m3 m- 3). Overall, SMAP showed a dry bias (- 0.0460 m3 m- 3) and AMSR2 had a wet bias (0.0418 m3 m- 3); while ASCAT showed the least bias (0.0010 m3 m- 3) among all the products. Each product was evaluated using TC metrics with respect to the different ranges of vegetation optical depth (VOD). Under vegetation scarce conditions (VOD 0.40) ASCAT showed comparatively better performance than did the other products. Using the maximized R method, SMAP, ASCAT, and AMSR2 products were combined one by one using the GLDAS dataset for reference SSM values. When the satellite products were combined, R-values of the combined products were improved or degraded depending on the VOD ranges produced, when compared with the results from the original products alone. The

  1. Multi-Scale Soil Moisture Monitoring and Modeling at ARS Watersheds for NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Calibration/Validation Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coopersmith, E. J.; Cosh, M. H.

    2014-12-01

    NASA's SMAP satellite, launched in November of 2014, produces estimates of average volumetric soil moisture at 3, 9, and 36-kilometer scales. The calibration and validation process of these estimates requires the generation of an identically-scaled soil moisture product from existing in-situ networks. This can be achieved via the integration of NLDAS precipitation data to perform calibration of models at each ­in-situ gauge. In turn, these models and the gauges' volumetric estimations are used to generate soil moisture estimates at a 500m scale throughout a given test watershed by leveraging, at each location, the gauge-calibrated models deemed most appropriate in terms of proximity, calibration efficacy, soil-textural similarity, and topography. Four ARS watersheds, located in Iowa, Oklahoma, Georgia, and Arizona are employed to demonstrate the utility of this approach. The South Fork watershed in Iowa represents the simplest case - the soil textures and topography are relative constants and the variability of soil moisture is simply tied to the spatial variability of precipitation. The Little Washita watershed in Oklahoma adds soil textural variability (but remains topographically simple), while the Little River watershed in Georgia incorporates topographic classification. Finally, the Walnut Gulch watershed in Arizona adds a dense precipitation network to be employed for even finer-scale modeling estimates. Results suggest RMSE values at or below the 4% volumetric standard adopted for the SMAP mission are attainable over the desired spatial scales via this integration of modeling efforts and existing in-situ networks.

  2. Potential of bias correction for downscaling passive microwave and soil moisture data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passive microwave satellites such as SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) or SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive) observe brightness temperature (TB) and retrieve soil moisture at a spatial resolution greater than most hydrological processes. Bias correction is proposed as a simple method to disag...

  3. Global characterization of surface soil moisture drydowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColl, Kaighin A.; Wang, Wei; Peng, Bin; Akbar, Ruzbeh; Short Gianotti, Daniel J.; Lu, Hui; Pan, Ming; Entekhabi, Dara

    2017-04-01

    Loss terms in the land water budget (including drainage, runoff, and evapotranspiration) are encoded in the shape of soil moisture "drydowns": the soil moisture time series directly following a precipitation event, during which the infiltration input is zero. The rate at which drydowns occur—here characterized by the exponential decay time scale τ—is directly related to the shape of the loss function and is a key characteristic of global weather and climate models. In this study, we use 1 year of surface soil moisture observations from NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive mission to characterize τ globally. Consistent with physical reasoning, the observations show that τ is lower in regions with sandier soils, and in regions that are more arid. To our knowledge, these are the first global estimates of τ—based on observations alone—at scales relevant to weather and climate models.

  4. Examining the Effectiveness of Hacked, Commercial, Self-Tuning RFID Tags to Passively Sense the Volumetric Water Content of Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, B. S.; Udell, C.; Selker, J. S.

    2017-12-01

    Currently available soil volumetric water content (VWC) sensors have several drawbacks that pose certain challenges for implementation on large scale for farms. Such issues include cost, scalability, maintenance, wires running through fields, and single-spot resolution. The development of a passive soil moisture sensing system utilizing Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) would allay many of these issues. The type of passive RFID tags discussed in this paper currently cost between 8 to 15 cents retail per tag when purchased in bulk. An incredibly cheap, scalable, low-maintenance, wireless, high-resolution system for sensing soil moisture would be possible if such tags were introduced into the agricultural world. This paper discusses both the use cases as well as examines one implementation of the tags. In 2015, RFID tag manufacturer SmarTrac started selling RFID moisture sensing tags for use in the automotive industry to detect leaks during quality assurance. We place those tags in soil at a depth of 4 inches and compared the moisture levels sensed by the RFID tags with the relative permittivity (ɛr) of the soil as measured by an industry-standard probe. Using an equation derived by Topp et al, we converted to VWC. We tested this over a wide range of moisture conditions and found a statistically significant, correlational relationship between the sensor values from the RFID tags and the probe's measurement of ɛr. We also identified a possible function for mapping vales from the RFID tag to the probe bounded by a reasonable margin of error.

  5. Validation of soil moisture ocean salinity (SMOS) satellite soil moisture products

    Science.gov (United States)

    The surface soil moisture state controls the partitioning of precipitation into infiltration and runoff. High-resolution observations of soil moisture will lead to improved flood forecasts, especially for intermediate to large watersheds where most flood damage occurs. Soil moisture is also key in d...

  6. Hydrologic Remote Sensing and Land Surface Data Assimilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Moradkhani

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Accurate, reliable and skillful forecasting of key environmental variables such as soil moisture and snow are of paramount importance due to their strong influence on many water resources applications including flood control, agricultural production and effective water resources management which collectively control the behavior of the climate system. Soil moisture is a key state variable in land surface–atmosphere interactions affecting surface energy fluxes, runoff and the radiation balance. Snow processes also have a large influence on land-atmosphere energy exchanges due to snow high albedo, low thermal conductivity and considerable spatial and temporal variability resulting in the dramatic change on surface and ground temperature. Measurement of these two variables is possible through variety of methods using ground-based and remote sensing procedures. Remote sensing, however, holds great promise for soil moisture and snow measurements which have considerable spatial and temporal variability. Merging these measurements with hydrologic model outputs in a systematic and effective way results in an improvement of land surface model prediction. Data Assimilation provides a mechanism to combine these two sources of estimation. Much success has been attained in recent years in using data from passive microwave sensors and assimilating them into the models. This paper provides an overview of the remote sensing measurement techniques for soil moisture and snow data and describes the advances in data assimilation techniques through the ensemble filtering, mainly Ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF and Particle filter (PF, for improving the model prediction and reducing the uncertainties involved in prediction process. It is believed that PF provides a complete representation of the probability distribution of state variables of interests (according to sequential Bayes law and could be a strong alternative to EnKF which is subject to some

  7. Object texture recognition by dynamic tactile sensing using active exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drimus, Alin; Børlum Petersen, Mikkel; Bilberg, Arne

    with a dynamic tactile transducer based on polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) piezoelectric film. Different test surfaces are actively explored and the signal from the sensor is used for feature extraction, which is subsequently used for classification. A comparison between the significance of different extracted......For both humans and robots, tactile sensing is important for interaction with the environment: it is the core sensing used for exploration and manipulation of objects. In this paper, we present a method for determining object texture by active exploration with a robotic fingertip equipped...

  8. Facile Preparation of Carbon-Nanotube-based 3-Dimensional Transparent Conducting Networks for Flexible Noncontact Sensing Device

    KAUST Repository

    Tai, Yanlong

    2016-04-12

    Here, we report the controllable fabrication of transparent conductive films (TCFs) for moisture-sensing applications based on heating-rate-triggered, 3-dimensional porous conducting networks of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS). How baking conditions influence the self-assembled microstructure of the TCFs is discussed. The sensor presents high-performance properties, including a reasonable sheet resistance (2.1 kohm/sq), a high visible-range transmittance (> 69 %, PET = 90 %), and good stability when subjected to cyclic loading (> 1000 cycles, better than indium tin oxide film) during processing. Moreover, the benefits of these kinds of TCFs were verified through a fully transparent, highly sensitive, rapid response, noncontact moisture-sensing device (5×5 sensing pixels).

  9. MoisturEC: a new R program for moisture content estimation from electrical conductivity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Neil; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Werkema, Dale D.; Lane, John W.

    2018-01-01

    Noninvasive geophysical estimation of soil moisture has potential to improve understanding of flow in the unsaturated zone for problems involving agricultural management, aquifer recharge, and optimization of landfill design and operations. In principle, several geophysical techniques (e.g., electrical resistivity, electromagnetic induction, and nuclear magnetic resonance) offer insight into soil moisture, but data‐analysis tools are needed to “translate” geophysical results into estimates of soil moisture, consistent with (1) the uncertainty of this translation and (2) direct measurements of moisture. Although geostatistical frameworks exist for this purpose, straightforward and user‐friendly tools are required to fully capitalize on the potential of geophysical information for soil‐moisture estimation. Here, we present MoisturEC, a simple R program with a graphical user interface to convert measurements or images of electrical conductivity (EC) to soil moisture. Input includes EC values, point moisture estimates, and definition of either Archie parameters (based on experimental or literature values) or empirical data of moisture vs. EC. The program produces two‐ and three‐dimensional images of moisture based on available EC and direct measurements of moisture, interpolating between measurement locations using a Tikhonov regularization approach.

  10. The global distribution and dynamics of surface soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColl, Kaighin A.; Alemohammad, Seyed Hamed; Akbar, Ruzbeh; Konings, Alexandra G.; Yueh, Simon; Entekhabi, Dara

    2017-01-01

    Surface soil moisture has a direct impact on food security, human health and ecosystem function. It also plays a key role in the climate system, and the development and persistence of extreme weather events such as droughts, floods and heatwaves. However, sparse and uneven observations have made it difficult to quantify the global distribution and dynamics of surface soil moisture. Here we introduce a metric of soil moisture memory and use a full year of global observations from NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive mission to show that surface soil moisture--a storage believed to make up less than 0.001% of the global freshwater budget by volume, and equivalent to an, on average, 8-mm thin layer of water covering all land surfaces--plays a significant role in the water cycle. Specifically, we find that surface soil moisture retains a median 14% of precipitation falling on land after three days. Furthermore, the retained fraction of the surface soil moisture storage after three days is highest over arid regions, and in regions where drainage to groundwater storage is lowest. We conclude that lower groundwater storage in these regions is due not only to lower precipitation, but also to the complex partitioning of the water cycle by the surface soil moisture storage layer at the land surface.

  11. Parameterization of L-, C- and X-band Radiometer-based Soil Moisture Retrieval Algorithm Using In-situ Validation Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y.; Colliander, A.; Burgin, M. S.; Walker, J. P.; Chae, C. S.; Dinnat, E.; Cosh, M. H.; Caldwell, T. G.

    2017-12-01

    Passive microwave remote sensing has become an important technique for global soil moisture estimation over the past three decades. A number of missions carrying sensors at different frequencies that are capable for soil moisture retrieval have been launched. Among them, there are Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA's) Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS (AMSR-E) launched in May 2002 on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Aqua satellite (ceased operation in October 2011), European Space Agency's (ESA's) Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission launched in November 2009, JAXA's Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) onboard the GCOM-W satellite launched in May 2012, and NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission launched in January 2015. Therefore, there is an opportunity to develop a consistent inter-calibrated long-term soil moisture data record based on the availability of these four missions. This study focuses on the parametrization of the tau-omega model at L-, C- and X-band using the brightness temperature (TB) observations from the four missions and the in-situ soil moisture and soil temperature data from core validation sites across various landcover types. The same ancillary data sets as the SMAP baseline algorithm are applied for retrieval at different frequencies. Preliminary comparison of SMAP and AMSR2 TB observations against forward-simulated TB at the Yanco site in Australia showed a generally good agreement with each other and higher correlation for the vertical polarization (R=0.96 for L-band and 0.93 for C- and X-band). Simultaneous calibrations of the vegetation parameter b and roughness parameter h at both horizontal and vertical polarizations are also performed. Finally, a set of model parameters for successfully retrieving soil moisture at different validation sites at L-, C- and X-band respectively are presented. The research described in this paper is supported by the Jet Propulsion

  12. Impact of the assimilation of satellite soil moisture and LST on the hydrological cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiolo, Paola; Gabellani, Simone; Delogu, Fabio; Silvestro, Francesco; Rudari, Roberto; Campo, Lorenzo; Boni, Giorgio

    2014-05-01

    The reliable estimation of hydrological variables (e.g. soil moisture, evapotranspiration, surface temperature) in space and time is of fundamental importance in operational hydrology to improve the forecast of the rainfall-runoff response of catchments and, consequently, flood predictions. Nowadays remote sensing can offer a chance to provide good space-time estimates of several hydrological variables and then improve hydrological model performances especially in environments with scarce ground based data. The aim of this work is to investigate the impacts on the performances of a distributed hydrological model (Continuum) of the assimilation of satellite-derived soil moisture products and Land Surface (LST). In this work three different soil moisture (SM) products, derived by ASCAT sensor, are used. These data are provided by the EUMETSAT's H-SAF (Satellite Application Facility on Support to Operational Hydrology and Water Management) program. The considered soil moisture products are: large scale surface soil moisture (SM OBS 1 - H07), small scale surface soil moisture (SM OBS 2 - H08) and profile index in the roots region (SM DAS 2 - H14). These data are compared with soil moisture estimated by Continuum model on the Orba catchment (800 km2), in the northern part of Italy, for the period July 2012-June 2013. Different assimilation experiments have been performed. The first experiment consists in the assimilation of the SM products by using a simple Nudging technique; the second one is the assimilation of only LST data, derived from MSG satellite, and the third is the assimilation of both SM products and LST. The benefits on the model predictions of discharge, LST and soil moisture dynamics were tested.

  13. On-line moisture analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutmore, N.G.; Mijak, D.G

    2002-01-01

    Measurement of the moisture content of iron ore has become a key issue for controlling moisture additions for dust suppression. In most cases moisture content is still determined by manual or automatic sampling of the ore stream, followed by conventional laboratory analysis by oven drying. Although this procedure enables the moisture content to be routinely monitored, it is too slow for control purposes. This has generated renewed interest in on-line techniques for the accurate and rapid measurement of moisture in iron ore on conveyors. Microwave transmission techniques have emerged over the past 40 years as the dominant technology for on-line measurement of moisture in bulk materials, including iron ores. Alternative technologies have their limitations. Infra-red analysers are used in a variety of process industries, but rely on the measurement of absorption by moisture in a very thin surface layer. Consequently such probes may be compromised by particle size effects and biased presentation of the bulk material. Nuclear-based analysers measure the total hydrogen content in the sample and do not differentiate between free and combined moisture. Such analysers may also be sensitive to material presentation and elemental composition. Very low frequency electromagnetic probes, such as capacitance or conductance probes, operate in the frequency region where the DC conductivity dominates much of the response, which is a function not only of moisture content but also of ionic composition and chemistry. These problems are overcome using microwave transmission techniques, which also have the following advantages, as a true bulk moisture analysis is obtained, because a high percentage of the bulk material is analysed; the moisture estimate is mostly insensitive to any biased presentation of moisture, for example due to stratification of bulk material with different moisture content and because no physical contact is made between the sensor and the bulk material. This is

  14. MoisturEC: A New R Program for Moisture Content Estimation from Electrical Conductivity Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Neil; Day-Lewis, Frederick D; Werkema, Dale; Lane, John W

    2018-03-06

    Noninvasive geophysical estimation of soil moisture has potential to improve understanding of flow in the unsaturated zone for problems involving agricultural management, aquifer recharge, and optimization of landfill design and operations. In principle, several geophysical techniques (e.g., electrical resistivity, electromagnetic induction, and nuclear magnetic resonance) offer insight into soil moisture, but data-analysis tools are needed to "translate" geophysical results into estimates of soil moisture, consistent with (1) the uncertainty of this translation and (2) direct measurements of moisture. Although geostatistical frameworks exist for this purpose, straightforward and user-friendly tools are required to fully capitalize on the potential of geophysical information for soil-moisture estimation. Here, we present MoisturEC, a simple R program with a graphical user interface to convert measurements or images of electrical conductivity (EC) to soil moisture. Input includes EC values, point moisture estimates, and definition of either Archie parameters (based on experimental or literature values) or empirical data of moisture vs. EC. The program produces two- and three-dimensional images of moisture based on available EC and direct measurements of moisture, interpolating between measurement locations using a Tikhonov regularization approach. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  15. Large-area Soil Moisture Surveys Using a Cosmic-ray Rover: Approaches and Results from Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawdon, A. A.; McJannet, D. L.; Renzullo, L. J.; Baker, B.; Searle, R.

    2017-12-01

    Recent improvements in satellite instrumentation has increased the resolution and frequency of soil moisture observations, and this in turn has supported the development of higher resolution land surface process models. Calibration and validation of these products is restricted by the mismatch of scales between remotely sensed and contemporary ground based observations. Although the cosmic ray neutron soil moisture probe can provide estimates soil moisture at a scale useful for the calibration and validation purposes, it is spatially limited to a single, fixed location. This scaling issue has been addressed with the development of mobile soil moisture monitoring systems that utilizes the cosmic ray neutron method, typically referred to as a `rover'. This manuscript describes a project designed to develop approaches for undertaking rover surveys to produce soil moisture estimates at scales comparable to satellite observations and land surface process models. A custom designed, trailer-mounted rover was used to conduct repeat surveys at two scales in the Mallee region of Victoria, Australia. A broad scale survey was conducted at 36 x 36 km covering an area of a standard SMAP pixel and an intensive scale survey was conducted over a 10 x 10 km portion of the broad scale survey, which is at a scale equivalent to that used for national water balance modelling. We will describe the design of the rover, the methods used for converting neutron counts into soil moisture and discuss factors controlling soil moisture variability. We found that the intensive scale rover surveys produced reliable soil moisture estimates at 1 km resolution and the broad scale at 9 km resolution. We conclude that these products are well suited for future analysis of satellite soil moisture retrievals and finer scale soil moisture models.

  16. Microbial growth and quorum sensing antagonist activities of herbal plants extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hussaini, Reema; Mahasneh, Adel M

    2009-09-03

    Antimicrobial and antiquorum sensing (AQS) activities of fourteen ethanolic extracts of different parts of eight plants were screened against four Gram-positive, five Gram-negative bacteria and four fungi. Depending on the plant part extract used and the test microorganism, variable activities were recorded at 3 mg per disc. Among the Grampositive bacteria tested, for example, activities of Laurus nobilis bark extract ranged between a 9.5 mm inhibition zone against Bacillus subtilis up to a 25 mm one against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Staphylococcus aureus and Aspergillus fumigatus were the most susceptible among bacteria and fungi tested towards other plant parts. Of interest is the tangible antifungal activity of a Tecoma capensis flower extract, which is reported for the first time. However, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC's) for both bacteria and fungi were relatively high (0.5-3.0 mg). As for antiquorum sensing activity against Chromobacterium violaceum, superior activity (>17 mm QS inhibition) was associated with Sonchus oleraceus and Laurus nobilis extracts and weak to good activity (8-17 mm) was recorded for other plants. In conclusion, results indicate the potential of these plant extracts in treating microbial infections through cell growth inhibition or quorum sensing antagonism, which is reported for the first time, thus validating their medicinal use.

  17. Microbial Growth and Quorum Sensing Antagonist Activities of Herbal Plants Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reema Al-Hussaini

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial and antiquorum sensing (AQS activities of fourteen ethanolic extracts of different parts of eight plants were screened against four Gram-positive, five Gram-negative bacteria and four fungi. Depending on the plant part extract used and the test microorganism, variable activities were recorded at 3 mg per disc. Among the Grampositive bacteria tested, for example, activities of Laurus nobilis bark extract ranged between a 9.5 mm inhibition zone against Bacillus subtilis up to a 25 mm one against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Staphylococcus aureus and Aspergillus fumigatus were the most susceptible among bacteria and fungi tested towards other plant parts. Of interest is the tangible antifungal activity of a Tecoma capensis flower extract, which is reported for the first time. However, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC's for both bacteria and fungi were relatively high (0.5-3.0 mg. As for antiquorum sensing activity against Chromobacterium violaceum, superior activity (>17 mm QS inhibition was associated with Sonchus oleraceus and Laurus nobilis extracts and weak to good activity (8-17 mm was recorded for other plants. In conclusion, results indicate the potential of these plant extracts in treating microbial infections through cell growth inhibition or quorum sensing antagonism, which is reported for the first time, thus validating their medicinal use.

  18. From ASCAT to Sentinel-1: Soil Moisture Monitoring using European C-Band Radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Wolfgang; Bauer-Marschallinger, Bernhard; Hochstöger, Simon

    2016-04-01

    backscatter observation, the same physical processes and geophysical variables (e.g. vegetation optical depth, surface roughness, soil volume scattering, etc.) need to be considered. The difference lies mainly in the scaling, i.e. how prominently the different variables influence the C-band data at the different spatial (25 km versus 20 m) and temporal (daily versus 3-30 days repeat coverage) scales. Therefore, while the general properties of soil moisture retrievals schemes used for ASCAT and Sentinel-1 can be the same, the details of the algorithm and parameterization will be different. This presentation will review similarities and differences of soil moisture retrieval approaches used for ASCAT and Sentinel-1, with a focus on the change detection method developed by TU Wien. Some first comparisons of ASCAT and Sentinel-1 soil moisture data over Europe will also be shown. REFERENCES Entekhabi, D., Njoku, E.G., O'Neill, P.E., Kellog, K.H., Crow, W.T., Edelstein, W.N., Entin, J.K., Goodman, S.D., Jackson, T.J., Johnson, J., Kimball, J., Piepmeier, J.R., Koster, R., Martin, N., McDonald, K.C., Moghaddam, M., Moran, S., Reichle, R., Shi, J.C., Spencer, M.W., Thurman, S.W., Tsang, L., & Van Zyl, J. (2010). The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission. Proceedings of the IEEE, 98, 704-716 Hornacek, M., Wagner, W., Sabel, D., Truong, H.L., Snoeij, P., Hahmann, T., Diedrich, E., & Doubkova, M. (2012). Potential for High Resolution Systematic Global Surface Soil Moisture Retrieval via Change Detection Using Sentinel-1. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, 5, 1303-1311 Wagner, W., Hahn, S., Kidd, R., Melzer, T., Bartalis, Z., Hasenauer, S., Figa-Saldana, J., De Rosnay, P., Jann, A., Schneider, S., Komma, J., Kubu, G., Brugger, K., Aubrecht, C., Züger, C., Gangkofer, U., Kienberger, S., Brocca, L., Wang, Y., Blöschl, G., Eitzinger, J., Steinnocher, K., Zeil, P., & Rubel, F. (2013). The ASCAT soil moisture product: A review of its

  19. Spectroscopic analysis of seasonal changes in live fuel moisture content and leaf dry mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi Qi; Philip E. Dennison; W. Matt Jolly; Rachael C. Kropp; Simon C. Brewer

    2014-01-01

    Live fuel moisture content (LFMC), the ratio of water mass to dry mass contained in live plant material, is an important fuel property for determining fire danger and for modeling fire behavior. Remote sensing estimation of LFMC often relies on an assumption of changing water and stable dry mass over time. Fundamental understanding of seasonal variation in plant water...

  20. A rare earth-based metal-organic framework for moisture removal and control in confined spaces

    KAUST Repository

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2017-04-13

    A method for preparing a metal-organic framework (MOF) comprising contacting one or more of a rare earth metal ion component with one or more of a tetratopic ligand component, sufficient to form a rare earth-based MOF for controlling moisture in an environment. A method of moisture control in an environment comprising adsorbing and/or desorbing water vapor in an environment using a MOF, the MOF including one or more of a rare earth metal ion component and one or more of a tetratopic ligand component. A method of controlling moisture in an environment comprising sensing the relative humidity in the environment comprising a MOF; and adsorbing water vapor on the MOF if the relative humidity is above a first level, sufficient to control moisture in an environment. The examples relate to a MOF created from 1,2,4,5-Tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl )benzene (BTEB) as tetratopic ligand, 2-fluorobenzoic acid and Y(NO3)3, Tb(NO3)3 and Yb(NO3)3 as rare earth metals.

  1. On-line moisture analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cutmore, N G

    2002-01-01

    Measurement of the moisture content of iron ore has become a key issue for controlling moisture additions for dust suppression. In most cases moisture content is still determined by manual or automatic sampling of the ore stream, followed by conventional laboratory analysis by oven drying. Although this procedure enables the moisture content to be routinely monitored, it is too slow for control purposes. This has generated renewed interest in on-line techniques for the accurate and rapid measurement of moisture in iron ore on conveyors. Microwave transmission techniques have emerged over the past 40 years as the dominant technology for on-line measurement of moisture in bulk materials, including iron ores. Alternative technologies have their limitations. Infra-red analysers are used in a variety of process industries, but rely on the measurement of absorption by moisture in a very thin surface layer. Consequently such probes may be compromised by particle size effects and biased presentation of the bulk mater...

  2. Theoretical analysis of moisture transport in wood as an open porous hygroscopic material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hozjan, Tomaz; Svensson, Staffan

    2010-01-01

    Moisture transport in an open porous hygroscopic material such as wood is a complex system of coupled processes. For seasoned wood in natural climate three fully coupled processes active in the moisture transport are readily identified: (1) diffusion of vapor in pores; (2) phase change from one...... state to another, also called moisture sorption; and (3) diffusion of bound water in wood tissue (in the cell wall). A mathematical model for predicting moisture transport in wood for a given condition must at least consider the dominating active processes simultaneously to be considered accurate...... of the three processes on the outcome of the coupled model. Least significant is the bound water diffusion. Based on the results from the sensitivity analyses, a simplified model for moisture transport in wood is proposed....

  3. Soft Active Materials for Actuation, Sensing, and Electronics

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, Rebecca Krone

    2012-01-01

    Future generations of robots, electronics, and assistive medical devices will include systems that are soft and elastically deformable, allowing them to adapt their morphology in unstructured environments. This will require soft active materials for actuation, circuitry, and sensing of deformation and contact pressure. The emerging field of soft robotics utilizes these soft active materials to mimic the inherent compliance of natural soft-bodied systems. As the elasticity of robot components ...

  4. Application of Modular Modeling System to Predict Evaporation, Infiltration, Air Temperature, and Soil Moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggs, Johnny; Birgan, Latricia J.; Tsegaye, Teferi; Coleman, Tommy; Soman, Vishwas

    1997-01-01

    Models are used for numerous application including hydrology. The Modular Modeling System (MMS) is one of the few that can simulate a hydrology process. MMS was tested and used to compare infiltration, soil moisture, daily temperature, and potential and actual evaporation for the Elinsboro sandy loam soil and the Mattapex silty loam soil in the Microwave Radiometer Experiment of Soil Moisture Sensing at Beltsville Agriculture Research Test Site in Maryland. An input file for each location was created to nut the model. Graphs were plotted, and it was observed that the model gave a good representation for evaporation for both plots. In comparing the two plots, it was noted that infiltration and soil moisture tend to peak around the same time, temperature peaks in July and August and the peak evaporation was observed on September 15 and July 4 for the Elinsboro Mattapex plot respectively. MMS can be used successfully to predict hydrological processes as long as the proper input parameters are available.

  5. The deterioration of intermediate moisture foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labruza, T. P.

    1971-01-01

    Deteriorative reactions are low and food quality high if intermediate moisture content of a food is held at a water activity of 0.6 to 0.75. Information is of interest to food processing and packaging industry.

  6. Electrical characterization of γ-Al2O3 thin film parallel plate capacitive sensor for trace moisture detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Lokesh; Kumar, Shailesh; Khan, S. A.; Islam, Tariqul

    2012-10-01

    A moisture sensor was fabricated based on porous thin film of γ-Al2O3 formed between the parallel gold electrodes. The sensor works on capacitive technique. The sensing film was fabricated by dipcoating of aluminium hydroxide sol solution obtained from the sol-gel method. The porous structure of the film of γ-Al2O3 phase was obtained by sintering the film at 450 °C for 1 h. The electrical parameters of the sensor have been determined by Agilent 4294A impedance analyzer. The sensor so obtained is found to be sensitive in moisture range 100-600 ppmV. The response time of the sensor in ppmV range moisture is very low ~ 24 s and recovery time is ~ 37 s.

  7. Historical precipitation predictably alters the shape and magnitude of microbial functional response to soil moisture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averill, Colin; Waring, Bonnie G; Hawkes, Christine V

    2016-05-01

    Soil moisture constrains the activity of decomposer soil microorganisms, and in turn the rate at which soil carbon returns to the atmosphere. While increases in soil moisture are generally associated with increased microbial activity, historical climate may constrain current microbial responses to moisture. However, it is not known if variation in the shape and magnitude of microbial functional responses to soil moisture can be predicted from historical climate at regional scales. To address this problem, we measured soil enzyme activity at 12 sites across a broad climate gradient spanning 442-887 mm mean annual precipitation. Measurements were made eight times over 21 months to maximize sampling during different moisture conditions. We then fit saturating functions of enzyme activity to soil moisture and extracted half saturation and maximum activity parameter values from model fits. We found that 50% of the variation in maximum activity parameters across sites could be predicted by 30-year mean annual precipitation, an indicator of historical climate, and that the effect is independent of variation in temperature, soil texture, or soil carbon concentration. Based on this finding, we suggest that variation in the shape and magnitude of soil microbial response to soil moisture due to historical climate may be remarkably predictable at regional scales, and this approach may extend to other systems. If historical contingencies on microbial activities prove to be persistent in the face of environmental change, this approach also provides a framework for incorporating historical climate effects into biogeochemical models simulating future global change scenarios. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Moisture Adsorption and Thermodynamic Properties of California Grown Almonds (Varieties: Nonpareil and Monterey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zuo Taitano

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Moisture adsorption characteristics of California grown almonds (Nonpareil: pasteurized and unpasteurized almonds; Monterey: pasteurized, unpasteurized and blanched almonds were obtained using the gravimetric method over a range of water activities from 0.11 to 0.98 at 7-50ºC. The weights of almonds were measured until samples reached a constant weight. The relationship between equilibrium moisture content and water activity was established using the Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer model. The diffusion coefficient of water in almond kernels was calculated based on Ficks second law. The monolayer moisture value of almonds ranged from 0.020 to 0.035 kg H2O kg-1 solids. The diffusion coefficient increased with temperature at a constant water activity, and decreased with water activity at a constant temperature. The thermodynamic properties (net isosteric heat, differential enthalpy and entropy were also determined. The net isosteric heat of adsorption decreased with the increasing moisture content, and the plot of differential enthalpy versus entropy satisfied the enthalpy-entropy compensation theory. The adsorption process of almond samples was enthalpy driven over the range of studied moisture contents.

  9. Simultaneous retrieval of sea ice thickness and snow depth using concurrent active altimetry and passive L-band remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L.; Xu, S.; Liu, J.

    2017-12-01

    The retrieval of sea ice thickness mainly relies on satellite altimetry, and the freeboard measurements are converted to sea ice thickness (hi) under certain assumptions over snow loading. The uncertain in snow depth (hs) is a major source of uncertainty in the retrieved sea ice thickness and total volume for both radar and laser altimetry. In this study, novel algorithms for the simultaneous retrieval of hi and hs are proposed for the data synergy of L-band (1.4 GHz) passive remote sensing and both types of active altimetry: (1) L-band (1.4GHz) brightness temperature (TB) from Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite and sea ice freeboard (FBice) from radar altimetry, (2) L-band TB data and snow freeboard (FBsnow) from laser altimetry. Two physical models serve as the forward models for the retrieval: L-band radiation model, and the hydrostatic equilibrium model. Verification with SMOS and Operational IceBridge (OIB) data is carried out, showing overall good retrieval accuracy for both sea ice parameters. Specifically, we show that the covariability between hs and FBsnow is crucial for the synergy between TB and FBsnow. Comparison with existing algorithms shows lower uncertainty in both sea ice parameters, and that the uncertainty in the retrieved sea ice thickness as caused by that of snow depth is spatially uncorrelated, with the potential reduction of the volume uncertainty through spatial sampling. The proposed algorithms can be applied to the retrieval of sea ice parameters at basin-scale, using concurrent active and passive remote sensing data based on satellites.

  10. Estimating the spatial distribution of soil moisture based on Bayesian maximum entropy method with auxiliary data from remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shengguo; Zhu, Zhongli; Liu, Shaomin; Jin, Rui; Yang, Guangchao; Tan, Lei

    2014-10-01

    Soil moisture (SM) plays a fundamental role in the land-atmosphere exchange process. Spatial estimation based on multi in situ (network) data is a critical way to understand the spatial structure and variation of land surface soil moisture. Theoretically, integrating densely sampled auxiliary data spatially correlated with soil moisture into the procedure of spatial estimation can improve its accuracy. In this study, we present a novel approach to estimate the spatial pattern of soil moisture by using the BME method based on wireless sensor network data and auxiliary information from ASTER (Terra) land surface temperature measurements. For comparison, three traditional geostatistic methods were also applied: ordinary kriging (OK), which used the wireless sensor network data only, regression kriging (RK) and ordinary co-kriging (Co-OK) which both integrated the ASTER land surface temperature as a covariate. In Co-OK, LST was linearly contained in the estimator, in RK, estimator is expressed as the sum of the regression estimate and the kriged estimate of the spatially correlated residual, but in BME, the ASTER land surface temperature was first retrieved as soil moisture based on the linear regression, then, the t-distributed prediction interval (PI) of soil moisture was estimated and used as soft data in probability form. The results indicate that all three methods provide reasonable estimations. Co-OK, RK and BME can provide a more accurate spatial estimation by integrating the auxiliary information Compared to OK. RK and BME shows more obvious improvement compared to Co-OK, and even BME can perform slightly better than RK. The inherent issue of spatial estimation (overestimation in the range of low values and underestimation in the range of high values) can also be further improved in both RK and BME. We can conclude that integrating auxiliary data into spatial estimation can indeed improve the accuracy, BME and RK take better advantage of the auxiliary

  11. Assimilation of ASCAT near-surface soil moisture into the SIM hydrological model over France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, C.; Mahfouf, J.-F.; Calvet, J.-C.; Martin, E.; Wagner, W.

    2011-12-01

    This study examines whether the assimilation of remotely sensed near-surface soil moisture observations might benefit an operational hydrological model, specifically Météo-France's SAFRAN-ISBA-MODCOU (SIM) model. Soil moisture data derived from ASCAT backscatter observations are assimilated into SIM using a Simplified Extended Kalman Filter (SEKF) over 3.5 years. The benefit of the assimilation is tested by comparison to a delayed cut-off version of SIM, in which the land surface is forced with more accurate atmospheric analyses, due to the availability of additional atmospheric observations after the near-real time data cut-off. However, comparing the near-real time and delayed cut-off SIM models revealed that the main difference between them is a dry bias in the near-real time precipitation forcing, which resulted in a dry bias in the root-zone soil moisture and associated surface moisture flux forecasts. While assimilating the ASCAT data did reduce the root-zone soil moisture dry bias (by nearly 50%), this was more likely due to a bias within the SEKF, than due to the assimilation having accurately responded to the precipitation errors. Several improvements to the assimilation are identified to address this, and a bias-aware strategy is suggested for explicitly correcting the model bias. However, in this experiment the moisture added by the SEKF was quickly lost from the model surface due to the enhanced surface fluxes (particularly drainage) induced by the wetter soil moisture states. Consequently, by the end of each winter, during which frozen conditions prevent the ASCAT data from being assimilated, the model land surface had returned to its original (dry-biased) climate. This highlights that it would be more effective to address the precipitation bias directly, than to correct it by constraining the model soil moisture through data assimilation.

  12. Using machine learning to produce near surface soil moisture estimates from deeper in situ records at U.S. Climate Reference Network (USCRN) locations: Analysis and applications to AMSR-E satellite validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface soil moisture is critical parameter for understanding the energy flux at the land atmosphere boundary. Weather modeling, climate prediction, and remote sensing validation are some of the applications for surface soil moisture information. The most common in situ measurement for these purpo...

  13. The role of sense of coherence and physical activity in positive and negative affect of Turkish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztekin, Ceyda; Tezer, Esin

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the role of sense of coherence and total physical activity in positive and negative affect. Participants were 376 (169 female, 206 male, and 1 missing value) student volunteers from different faculties of Middle East Technical University. Three questionnaires: Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC), Physical Activity Assessment Questionnaire (PAAQ), and Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) were administered to the students together with the demographic information sheet. Two separate stepwise multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to examine the predictive power of sense of coherence and total physical activity on positive and negative affect scores. Results revealed that both sense of coherence and total physical activity predicted the positive affect whereas only the sense of coherence predicted the negative affect on university students. Findings are discussed in light of sense of coherence, physical activity, and positive and negative affect literature.

  14. Highly Efficient Moisture-Triggered Nanogenerator Based on Graphene Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yaxin; Cheng, Huhu; Shi, Gaoquan; Qu, Liangti

    2017-11-08

    A high-performance moisture triggered nanogenerator is fabricated by using graphene quantum dots (GQDs) as the active material. GQDs are prepared by direct oxidation and etching of natural graphite powder, which have small sizes of 2-5 nm and abundant oxygen-containing functional groups. After the treatment by electrochemical polarization, the GQDs-based moisture triggered nanogenerator can deliver a high voltage up to 0.27 V under 70% relative humidity variation, and a power density of 1.86 mW cm -2 with an optimized load resistor. The latter value is much higher than the moisture-electric power generators reported previously. The GQD moisture triggered nanogenerator is promising for self-power electronics and miniature sensors.

  15. A new method to determine the water activity and the net isosteric heats of sorption for low moisture foods at elevated temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadapaneni, Ravi Kiran; Yang, Ren; Carter, Brady; Tang, Juming

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, research studies have shown that the thermal resistance of foodborne pathogens in the low moisture foods is greatly influenced by the water activity (a w ) at temperatures relevant to thermal treatments for pathogen control. Yet, there has been a lack of an effective method for accurate measurement of a w at those temperatures. Thus, the main aim of this study was to evaluate a new method for measuring a w of food samples at elevated temperatures. An improved thermal cell with a relative humidity and temperature sensor was used to measure the a w of the three different food samples, namely, organic wheat flour, almond flour, and non-fat milk powder, over the temperature range between 20 and 80°C. For a constant moisture content, the a w data was used to estimate the net isosteric heat of sorption (q st ). The q st values were then used in the Clausius Clapeyron equation (CCE) equation to estimate the moisture sorption isotherm for all test food samples at different temperatures. For all the tested samples of any fixed moisture content, a w value generally increased with the temperature. The energy for sorption decreased with increasing moisture content. With the experimentally determined q st value, CCE describes well about the changes in a w of the food samples between 20 and 80°C. This study presents a method to obtain a w of a food sample for a specific moisture content at different temperatures which could be extended to obtain q st values for different moisture contents and hence, the moisture sorption isotherm of a food sample at different temperatures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis and optimal design of moisture sensor for rice grain moisture measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sweety; Mishra, Pankaj Kumar; Thakare, Vandana Vikas

    2018-04-01

    The analysis and design of a microstrip sensor for accurate determination of moisture content (MC) in rice grains based on oven drying technique, this technique is easy, fast and less time-consuming to other techniques. The sensor is designed with low insertion loss, reflection coefficient and maximum gain is -35dB and 5.88dB at 2.68GHz as well as discussed all the parameters such as axial ratio, maximum gain, smith chart etc, which is helpful for analysis the moisture measurement. The variation in percentage of moisture measurement with magnitude and phase of transmission coefficient is investigated at selected frequencies. The microstrip moisture sensor consists of one layer: substrate FR4, thickness 1.638 is simulated by computer simulated technology microwave studio (CST MWS). It is concluded that the proposed sensor is suitable for development as a complete sensor and to estimate the optimum moisture content of rice grains with accurately, sensitivity, compact, versatile and suitable for determining the moisture content of other crops and agriculture products.

  17. Examining the relationship between intermediate scale soil moisture and terrestrial evaporation within a semi-arid grassland

    KAUST Repository

    Jana, Raghavendra Belur

    2016-05-17

    Interactions between soil moisture and terrestrial evaporation affect water cycle behaviour and responses between the land surface and the atmosphere across scales. With strong heterogeneities at the land surface, the inherent spatial variability in soil moisture makes its representation via point-scale measurements challenging, resulting in scale-mismatch when compared to coarser-resolution satellite-based soil moisture or evaporation estimates. The Cosmic Ray Soil Moisture Observing System (COSMOS) was developed to address such issues in the measurement and representation of soil moisture at intermediate scales. Here we present an examination of the links observed between COSMOS soil moisture retrievals and evaporation estimates over a pasture in the semi-arid central-west region of New South Wales, Australia. The COSMOS soil moisture product was compared to evaporation derived from three distinct approaches, including the Priestley-Taylor (PT-JPL), Penman-Monteith (PM-Mu) and Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) models, driven by forcing data from local meteorological station data and remote sensing retrievals from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor. Pearson’s Correlations, Quantile-Quantile (Q-Q) plots, and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were used to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate the temporal distributions of soil moisture and evaporation over the study site. The relationships were examined against nearly two years of observation data, as well as for different seasons and for defined periods of analysis. Results highlight that while direct correlations of raw data were not particularly instructive, the Q-Q plots and ANOVA illustrate that the root-zone soil moisture represented by the COSMOS measurements and the modelled evaporation estimates reflect similar distributions under most meteorological conditions. The PT-JPL and PM-Mu model estimates performed contrary to expectation when high soil moisture and cold

  18. Moisture transport in coated wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meel, P.A. van; Erich, S.J.F.; Huinink, H.P.; Kopinga, K.; Jong, J. DE; Adan, O.C.G.

    2011-01-01

    Moisture accumulation inside wood causes favorable conditions for decay. Application of a coating alters the moisture sorption of wood and prevents accumulation of moisture. This paper presents the results of a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study on the influence of a coating on the moisture

  19. Vegetation-induced turbulence influencing evapotranspiration-soil moisture coupling: Implications for semiarid regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighi, E.; Kirchner, J. W.; Entekhabi, D.

    2016-12-01

    The relationship between soil moisture and evapotranspiration (ET) fluxes is an important component of land-atmosphere interactions controlling hydrology-climate feedback processes. Important as this relationship is, it remains empirical and physical mechanisms governing its dynamics are insufficiently studied. This is particularly of importance for semiarid regions (currently comprising about half of the Earth's land surface) where the shallow surface soil layer is the primary source of ET and direct evaporation from bare soil is likely a large component of the total flux. Hence, ET-soil moisture coupling in these regions is hypothesized to be strongly influenced by soil evaporation and associated mechanisms. Motivated by recent progress in mechanistic modeling of localized heat and mass exchange rates from bare soil surfaces covered by cylindrical bluff-body elements, we developed a physically based ET model explicitly incorporating coupled impacts of soil moisture and vegetation-induced turbulence in the near-surface region. Model predictions of ET and its partitioning were in good agreement with measured data and suggest that the strength and nature of ET-soil moisture interactions in sparsely vegetated areas are strongly influenced by aerodynamic (rather than radiative) forcing namely wind speed and near-surface turbulence generation as a function of vegetation type and cover fraction. The results demonstrated that the relationship between ET and soil moisture varies from a nonlinear function (the dual regime behavior) to a single moisture-limited regime (linear relationship) by increasing wind velocity and enhancing turbulence generation in the near-surface region (small-scale woody vegetation species of low cover fraction). Potential benefits of this study for improving accuracy and predictive capabilities of remote sensing techniques when applied to semiarid environments will also be discussed.

  20. MoisturEC: an R application for geostatistical estimation of moisture content from electrical conductivity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, N.; Day-Lewis, F. D.; Werkema, D. D.; Lane, J. W., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Soil moisture is a critical parameter for agriculture, water supply, and management of landfills. Whereas direct data (as from TDR or soil moisture probes) provide localized point scale information, it is often more desirable to produce 2D and/or 3D estimates of soil moisture from noninvasive measurements. To this end, geophysical methods for indirectly assessing soil moisture have great potential, yet are limited in terms of quantitative interpretation due to uncertainty in petrophysical transformations and inherent limitations in resolution. Simple tools to produce soil moisture estimates from geophysical data are lacking. We present a new standalone program, MoisturEC, for estimating moisture content distributions from electrical conductivity data. The program uses an indicator kriging method within a geostatistical framework to incorporate hard data (as from moisture probes) and soft data (as from electrical resistivity imaging or electromagnetic induction) to produce estimates of moisture content and uncertainty. The program features data visualization and output options as well as a module for calibrating electrical conductivity with moisture content to improve estimates. The user-friendly program is written in R - a widely used, cross-platform, open source programming language that lends itself to further development and customization. We demonstrate use of the program with a numerical experiment as well as a controlled field irrigation experiment. Results produced from the combined geostatistical framework of MoisturEC show improved estimates of moisture content compared to those generated from individual datasets. This application provides a convenient and efficient means for integrating various data types and has broad utility to soil moisture monitoring in landfills, agriculture, and other problems.

  1. Measurement of rain intensity by means of active-passive remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkova, Anna; Khlopov, Grygoriy

    2014-05-01

    Measurement of rain intensity is of great interest for municipal services and agriculture, particularly because of increasing number of floods and landslides. At that monitoring of amount of liquid precipitation allows to schedule work of hydrological services to inform the relevant public authorities about violent weather in time. That is why development of remote sensing methods for monitoring of rains is quite important task. The inverse problem solution of rain remote sensing is based on the measurements of scattering or radiation characteristics of rain drops. However liquid precipitation has a difficult structure which depends on many parameters. So using only scattering or radiation characteristics obtained by active and passive sensing at a single frequency does not allow to solve the inverse problem. Therefore double frequency sensing is widely used now for precipitation monitoring. Measurement of reflected power at two frequencies allows to find two parameters of drop size distribution of rain drops. However three-parameter distributions (for example gamma distribution) are the most prevalent now as a rain model, so in this case solution of the inverse problem requires the measurement of at least three uncorrelated variables. That is why a priori statistical meteorological data obtained by contact methods are used additionally to the double frequency sensing to solve the inverse problem. In particular, authors proposed and studied the combined method of double frequency sensing of rains based on dependence of the parameters of gamma distribution on rain intensity. The numerical simulation and experimental study shown that the proposed method allows to retrieve the profile of microstructure and integral parameters of rain with accuracy less than 15%. However, the effectiveness of the proposed method essentially depends on the reliability of the used statistical data which are tend to have a strong seasonal and regional variability led to significant

  2. Hydrologic responses to restored wildfire regimes revealed by soil moisture-vegetation relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisramé, Gabrielle; Thompson, Sally; Stephens, Scott

    2018-02-01

    Many forested mountain watersheds worldwide evolved with frequent fire, which Twentieth Century fire suppression activities eliminated, resulting in unnaturally dense forests with high water demand. Restoration of pre-suppression forest composition and structure through a variety of management activities could improve forest resilience and water yields. This study explores the potential for "managed wildfire", whereby naturally ignited fires are allowed to burn, to alter the water balance. Interest in this type of managed wildfire is increasing, yet its long-term effects on water balance are uncertain. We use soil moisture as a spatially-distributed hydrologic indicator to assess the influence of vegetation, fire history and landscape position on water availability in the Illilouette Creek Basin in Yosemite National Park. Over 6000 manual surface soil moisture measurements were made over a period of three years, and supplemented with continuous soil moisture measurements over the top 1m of soil in three sites. Random forest and linear mixed effects models showed a dominant effect of vegetation type and history of vegetation change on measured soil moisture. Contemporary and historical vegetation maps were used to upscale the soil moisture observations to the basin and infer soil moisture under fire-suppressed conditions. Little change in basin-averaged soil moisture was inferred due to managed wildfire, but the results indicated that large localized increases in soil moisture had occurred, which could have important impacts on local ecology or downstream flows.

  3. Integration of Remote Sensing Data In Operational Flood Forecast In Southwest Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, H.; Appel, F.; Schulz, W.; Merkel, U.; Ludwig, R.; Mauser, W.

    Methods to accurately assess and forecast flood discharge are mandatory to minimise the impact of hydrological hazards. However, existing rainfall-runoff models rarely accurately consider the spatial characteristics of the watershed, which is essential for a suitable and physics-based description of processes relevant for runoff formation. Spatial information with low temporal variability like elevation, slopes and land use can be mapped or extracted from remote sensing data. However, land surface param- eters of high temporal variability, like soil moisture and snow properties are hardly available and used in operational forecasts. Remote sensing methods can improve flood forecast by providing information on the actual water retention capacities in the watershed and facilitate the regionalisation of hydrological models. To prove and demonstrate this, the project 'InFerno' (Integration of remote sensing data in opera- tional water balance and flood forecast modelling) has been set up, funded by DLR (50EE0053). Within InFerno remote sensing data (optical and microwave) are thor- oughly processed to deliver spatially distributed parameters of snow properties and soil moisture. Especially during the onset of a flood this information is essential to estimate the initial conditions of the model. At the flood forecast centres of 'Baden- Württemberg' and 'Rheinland-Pfalz' (Southwest Germany) the remote sensing based maps on soil moisture and snow properties will be integrated in the continuously op- erated water balance and flood forecast model LARSIM. The concept is to transfer the developed methodology from the Neckar to the Mosel basin. The major challenges lie on the one hand in the implementation of algorithms developed for a multisensoral synergy and the creation of robust, operationally applicable remote sensing products. On the other hand, the operational flood forecast must be adapted to make full use of the new data sources. In the operational phase of the

  4. Global Soil Moisture from the Aquarius/SAC-D Satellite: Description and Initial Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindlish, Rajat; Jackson, Thomas; Cosh, Michael; Zhao, Tianjie; O'Neil, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    Aquarius satellite observations over land offer a new resource for measuring soil moisture from space. Although Aquarius was designed for ocean salinity mapping, our objective in this investigation is to exploit the large amount of land observations that Aquarius acquires and extend the mission scope to include the retrieval of surface soil moisture. The soil moisture retrieval algorithm development focused on using only the radiometer data because of the extensive heritage of passive microwave retrieval of soil moisture. The single channel algorithm (SCA) was implemented using the Aquarius observations to estimate surface soil moisture. Aquarius radiometer observations from three beams (after bias/gain modification) along with the National Centers for Environmental Prediction model forecast surface temperatures were then used to retrieve soil moisture. Ancillary data inputs required for using the SCA are vegetation water content, land surface temperature, and several soil and vegetation parameters based on land cover classes. The resulting global spatial patterns of soil moisture were consistent with the precipitation climatology and with soil moisture from other satellite missions (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System and Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity). Initial assessments were performed using in situ observations from the U.S. Department of Agriculture Little Washita and Little River watershed soil moisture networks. Results showed good performance by the algorithm for these land surface conditions for the period of August 2011-June 2013 (rmse = 0.031 m(exp 3)/m(exp 3), Bias = -0.007 m(exp 3)/m(exp 3), and R = 0.855). This radiometer-only soil moisture product will serve as a baseline for continuing research on both active and combined passive-active soil moisture algorithms. The products are routinely available through the National Aeronautics and Space Administration data archive at the National Snow and Ice Data Center.

  5. Estimating Rangeland Forage Production Using Remote Sensing Data from a Small Unmanned Aerial System (sUAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H.; Jin, Y.; Devine, S.; Dahlgren, R. A.; Covello, S.; Larsen, R.; O'Geen, A. T.

    2017-12-01

    California rangelands cover 23 million hectares and support a $3.4 billion annual cattle industry. Rangeland forage production varies appreciably from year-to-year and across short distances on the landscape. Spatially explicit and near real-time information on forage production at a high resolution is critical for effective rangeland management, especially during an era of climatic extremes. We here integrated a multispectral MicaSense RedEdge camera with a 3DR solo quad-copter and acquired time-series images during the 2017 growing season over a topographically complex 10-hectare rangeland in San Luis Obispo County, CA. Soil moisture and temperature sensors were installed at 16 landscape positions, and vegetation clippings were collected at 36 plots to quantify forage dry biomass. We built four centimeter-level models for forage production mapping using time series of sUAS images and ground measurements of forage biomass and soil temperature and moisture. The biophysical model based on Monteith's eco-physiological plant growth theory estimated forage production reasonably well with a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.86 and a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 424 kg/ha when the soil parameters were included, and a R2 of 0.79 and a RMSE of 510 kg/ha when only remote sensing and topographical variables were included. We built two empirical models of forage production using a stepwise variable selection technique, one with soil variables. Results showed that cumulative absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR) and elevation were the most important variables in both models, explaining more than 40% of the spatio-temporal variance in forage production. Soil moisture accounted for an additional 29% of the variance. Illumination condition was selected as a proxy for soil moisture in the model without soil variables, and accounted for 18% of the variance. We applied the remote sensing-based models to map daily forage production at 30-cm resolution for the

  6. Oxygen plasma treatment of HKUST-1 for porosity retention upon exposure to moisture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jaeyeon; Jung, Jin-Woo; Park, Hyo Yul; Cho, Chang-Hee; Park, Jinhee

    2017-11-07

    Despite their remarkable properties, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) present vulnerable structures that are sensitive to moisture; therefore, their application to real field situations is challenging. Herein, an O 2 plasma technique was introduced as a new method for the activation and protection of porosity in HKUST-1. In an unprecedented manner, O 2 plasma-treated HKUST-1 retains its porosity after a long exposure to moisture as compared to pristine HKUST-1. Porosity retention was examined by N 2 adsorption/desorption measurements of non-activated HKUST-1 after exposure to moisture.

  7. Triple collocation-based estimation of spatially correlated observation error covariance in remote sensing soil moisture data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kai; Shu, Hong; Nie, Lei; Jiao, Zhenhang

    2018-01-01

    Spatially correlated errors are typically ignored in data assimilation, thus degenerating the observation error covariance R to a diagonal matrix. We argue that a nondiagonal R carries more observation information making assimilation results more accurate. A method, denoted TC_Cov, was proposed for soil moisture data assimilation to estimate spatially correlated observation error covariance based on triple collocation (TC). Assimilation experiments were carried out to test the performance of TC_Cov. AMSR-E soil moisture was assimilated with a diagonal R matrix computed using the TC and assimilated using a nondiagonal R matrix, as estimated by proposed TC_Cov. The ensemble Kalman filter was considered as the assimilation method. Our assimilation results were validated against climate change initiative data and ground-based soil moisture measurements using the Pearson correlation coefficient and unbiased root mean square difference metrics. These experiments confirmed that deterioration of diagonal R assimilation results occurred when model simulation is more accurate than observation data. Furthermore, nondiagonal R achieved higher correlation coefficient and lower ubRMSD values over diagonal R in experiments and demonstrated the effectiveness of TC_Cov to estimate richly structuralized R in data assimilation. In sum, compared with diagonal R, nondiagonal R may relieve the detrimental effects of assimilation when simulated model results outperform observation data.

  8. Monitoring drought affected crop yields based on ERS-scatterometer data : exploration of possibilities to integrate ERS-scatterometer derived soil moisture into the CGMS crop model for a Russian-Ukrainian study area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaard, H.L.; Diepen, van C.A.; Savin, I.

    2000-01-01

    In this study the possibilities of integrating ERS scatterometer-derived soil moisture into CGMS are explored. This remote sensed soil moisture is used to calculate drought stress in grains of barley for a Russian-Ukrainian study area. The results arecompared with drought stress based on the

  9. Retrieval of canopy moisture content for dynamic fire risk assessment using simulated MODIS bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffei, Carmine; Leone, Antonio P.; Meoli, Giuseppe; Calabrò, Gaetano; Menenti, Massimo

    2007-10-01

    Forest fires are one of the major environmental hazards in Mediterranean Europe. Biomass burning reduces carbon fixation in terrestrial vegetation, while soil erosion increases in burned areas. For these reasons, more sophisticated prevention tools are needed by local authorities to forecast fire danger, allowing a sound allocation of intervention resources. Various factors contribute to the quantification of fire hazard, and among them vegetation moisture is the one that dictates vegetation susceptibility to fire ignition and propagation. Many authors have demonstrated the role of remote sensing in the assessment of vegetation equivalent water thickness (EWT), which is defined as the weight of liquid water per unit of leaf surface. However, fire models rely on the fuel moisture content (FMC) as a measure of vegetation moisture. FMC is defined as the ratio of the weight of the liquid water in a leaf over the weight of dry matter, and its retrieval from remote sensing measurements might be problematic, since it is calculated from two biophysical properties that independently affect vegetation reflectance spectrum. The aim of this research is to evaluate the potential of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) in retrieving both EWT and FMC from top of the canopy reflectance. The PROSPECT radiative transfer code was used to simulate leaf reflectance and transmittance as a function of leaf properties, and the SAILH model was adopted to simulate the top of the canopy reflectance. A number of moisture spectral indexes have been calculated, based on MODIS bands, and their performance in predicting EWT and FMC has been evaluated. Results showed that traditional moisture spectral indexes can accurately predict EWT but not FMC. However, it has been found that it is possible to take advantage of the multiple MODIS short-wave infrared (SWIR) channels to improve the retrieval accuracy of FMC (r2 = 0.73). The effects of canopy structural properties on MODIS

  10. Use of Radar Vegetation Index (RVI) in Passive Microwave Algorithms for Soil Moisture Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlandson, T. L.; Berg, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite will provide a unique opportunity for the estimation of soil moisture by having simultaneous radar and radiometer measurements available. As with the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite, the soil moisture algorithms will need to account for the contribution of vegetation to the brightness temperature. Global maps of vegetation volumetric water content (VWC) are difficult to obtain, and the SMOS mission has opted to estimate the optical depth of standing vegetation by using a relationship between the VWC and the leaf area index (LAI). LAI is estimated from optical remote sensing or through soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer modeling. During the growing season, the VWC of agricultural crops can increase rapidly, and if cloud cover exists during an optical acquisition, the estimation of LAI may be delayed, resulting in an underestimation of the VWC and overestimation of the soil moisture. Alternatively, the radar vegetation index (RVI) has shown strong correlation and linear relationship with VWC for rice and soybeans. Using the SMAP radar to produce RVI values that are coincident to brightness temperature measurements may eliminate the need for LAI estimates. The SMAP Validation Experiment 2012 (SMAPVEX12) was a cal/val campaign for the SMAP mission held in Manitoba, Canada, during a 6-week period in June and July, 2012. During this campaign, soil moisture measurements were obtained for 55 fields with varying soil texture and vegetation cover. Vegetation was sampled from each field weekly to determine the VWC. Soil moisture measurements were taken coincident to overpasses by an aircraft carrying the Passive and Active L-band System (PALS) instrumentation. The aircraft flew flight lines at both high and low altitudes. The low altitude flight lines provided a footprint size approximately equivalent to the size of the SMAPVEX12 field sites. Of the 55 field sites, the low altitude flight lines provided

  11. Monitoring of Vibrio harveyi quorum sensing activity in real time during infection of brine shrimp larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defoirdt, Tom; Sorgeloos, Patrick

    2012-12-01

    Quorum sensing, bacterial cell-to-cell communication, has been linked to the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Indeed, in vitro experiments have shown that many bacterial pathogens regulate the expression of virulence genes by this cell-to-cell communication process. Moreover, signal molecules have been detected in samples retrieved from infected hosts and quorum sensing disruption has been reported to result in reduced virulence in different host-pathogen systems. However, data on in vivo quorum sensing activity of pathogens during infection of a host are currently lacking. We previously reported that quorum sensing regulates the virulence of Vibrio harveyi in a standardised model system with gnotobiotic brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) larvae. Here, we monitored quorum sensing activity in Vibrio harveyi during infection of the shrimp, using bioluminescence as a read-out. We found that wild-type Vibrio harveyi shows a strong increase in quorum sensing activity early during infection. In this respect, the bacteria behave remarkably similar in different larvae, despite the fact that only half of them survive the infection. Interestingly, when expressed per bacterial cell, Vibrio harveyi showed around 200-fold higher maximal quorum sensing-regulated bioluminescence when associated with larvae than in the culture water. Finally, the in vivo quorum sensing activity of mutants defective in the production of one of the three signal molecules is consistent with their virulence, with no detectable in vivo quorum sensing activity in AI-2- and CAI-1-deficient mutants. These results indicate that AI-2 and CAI-1 are the dominant signals during infection of brine shrimp.

  12. Moisture Transport in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    2005-01-01

    Modelling of moisture transport in wood is of great importance as most mechanical and physical properties of wood depend on moisture content. Moisture transport in porous materials is often described by Ficks second law, but several observations indicate that this does not apply very well to wood....... Recently at the Technical University of Denmark, Department of Civil Engineering, a new model for moisture transport in wood has been developed. The model divides the transport into two phases, namely water vapour in the cell lumens and bound water in the cell walls....

  13. Combined Radar-Radiometer Surface Soil Moisture and Roughness Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Ruzbeh; Cosh, Michael H.; O'Neill, Peggy E.; Entekhabi, Dara; Moghaddam, Mahta

    2017-01-01

    A robust physics-based combined radar-radiometer, or Active-Passive, surface soil moisture and roughness estimation methodology is presented. Soil moisture and roughness retrieval is performed via optimization, i.e., minimization, of a joint objective function which constrains similar resolution radar and radiometer observations simultaneously. A data-driven and noise-dependent regularization term has also been developed to automatically regularize and balance corresponding radar and radiometer contributions to achieve optimal soil moisture retrievals. It is shown that in order to compensate for measurement and observation noise, as well as forward model inaccuracies, in combined radar-radiometer estimation surface roughness can be considered a free parameter. Extensive Monte-Carlo numerical simulations and assessment using field data have been performed to both evaluate the algorithms performance and to demonstrate soil moisture estimation. Unbiased root mean squared errors (RMSE) range from 0.18 to 0.03 cm3cm3 for two different land cover types of corn and soybean. In summary, in the context of soil moisture retrieval, the importance of consistent forward emission and scattering development is discussed and presented.

  14. Measured moisture in buildings and adverse health effects: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendell, Mark J; Macher, Janet M; Kumagai, Kazukiyo

    2018-04-23

    It has not yet been possible to quantify dose-related health risks attributable to indoor dampness or mold (D/M), to support the setting of health-related limits for D/M. An overlooked target for assessing D/M is moisture in building materials, the critical factor allowing microbial growth. A search for studies of quantified building moisture and occupant health effects identified three eligible studies. Two studies assessed associations between measured wall moisture content and respiratory health in the UK. Both reported dose-related increases in asthma exacerbation with higher measured moisture, with one study reporting an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 7.0 for night-time asthma symptoms with higher bedroom moisture. The third study assessed relationships between infrared camera-determined wall moisture and atopic dermatitis in South Korea, reporting an adjusted OR of 14.5 for water-damaged homes and moderate or severe atopic dermatitis. Measuring building moisture has, despite extremely limited available findings, potential promise for detecting unhealthy D/M in homes and merits more research attention. Further research to validate these findings should include measured "water activity," which directly assesses moisture availability for microbial growth. Ultimately, evidence-based, health-related thresholds for building moisture, across specific materials and measurement devices, could better guide assessment and remediation of D/M in buildings. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Active Distribute Temperature Sensing to Estimate Vertical Water Content Variations in a Loamy-Sandy Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocca, F.; Van De Giesen, N.; Assouline, S.; Huwald, H.; Hopmans, J. W.; Lunati, I.; Parlange, M. B.

    2011-12-01

    Optical fibers in combination with Raman scattering measurements (Distributed Temperature Sensor: DTS) have recently become more standard for the measurement of soil temperature. A recently developed technique to measure soil moisture called Active DTS (ADTS) is investigated in this study. ADTS consists of an application of a heat pulse for a fixed duration and power along the metal sheath covering the optical fiber placed in the soil. Soil moisture can be inferred from the increased temperature measured during the heating phase and the subsequent temperature decrease during the cooling phase. We assess this technique for a loamy-sandy soil as part of a field campaign that took place during the 2011 summer at EPFL. The measurements were taken within a weighing lysimeter (2.5 m depth and 1.2 m diameter) using an optical fiber arranged in 15 loops for a total measurement length of 52 m in the top 80 cm of the soil profile. Local soil moistures were simultaneously measured using capacity-based probes. Thermocouples, wrapped around the fiber, are used to account for the effects of the insulating cover surrounding the cable. Heat pulses of various duration and power have been applied for a range of soil moistures. Measurements were taken during periods of drainage and evaporation. The accuracy of the technique for the EPFL 2011 field campaign and the experiment are discussed and the soil moisture measurements are presented.

  16. Moisture in Crawl Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton TenWolde; Samuel V. Glass

    2013-01-01

    Crawl space foundations can be designed and built to avoid moisture problems. In this article we provide a brief overview of crawl spaces with emphasis on the physics of moisture. We review trends that have been observed in the research literature and summarize cur-rent recommendations for moisture control in crawl spaces.

  17. Moisture management properties of plain knitted fabrics made of natural and regenerated cellulose fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novaković Milada S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Moisture management is a complicated process which is known to be influenced by a variety of fabric characteristics such as fibre nature (hydrophilic or hydrophobic, porosity and thickness. There are different aspects of the moisture management properties of textile materials since water transport in textile materials can be in the form of liquid and vapour. The ability of textile materials to transfer water vapour allows the human body to keep thermal balance due to evaporation. With stronger physical activity of a person when the body produces a large amount of heat, the skin perspiration increases (in order to regulate the body temperature and liquid sweat should be taken from the skin, otherwise it will worsen the sense of comfort. The aim of this research was to investigate the factors influencing moisture management properties of plain knitted fabrics at the three scale levels, i.e. microscopic (fibre type, mesoscopic (yarn geometry and macroscopic (fabric porosity levels. Plain knitted fabrics were produced from the two-assembled hemp, cotton and viscose yarns under controlled conditions so as to be comparable in basic construction characteristics, but varying in yarns geometry. Evaporative resistance test reflecting vapour transport and water distribution test reflecting liquid transport in the knitted fabrics were conducted. To determine the statistical importance of the results, analysis of variance (ANOVA was applied. As a consequence of the geometry and deformation behaviour of the fibres used and spinning techniques applied, the yarns differed in both packing density and surface geometry, thus determining the pore distribution. Due to loose structure of the cotton yarn, the cotton knitted fabric was characterised by the lowest free open surface (macroporosity exhibiting the lowest both water vapour and liquid permeability. Although having the highest macroporosity, the water vapour and liquid transport capability of the hemp knitted

  18. Green tea moisturizer improves skin hydration in elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Oentarini Tjandra; Linda J Wijayadi; Marcella E Rumawas

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND Dry skin is a major skin health problem in elderly. Green tea, which has an antioxidant effect, has recently been used as an active ingredient in moisturizing creams; yet the effect has not been well studied. This study compares the skin hydration effect of green tea and vitamin E moisturizer among elderly. METHODS This quasi-experimental study involved 60 elderly living in Tresna Werda Budi Mulia 4 Social Institution, Jakarta. Using the Runve HL 611 skin analyzer, skin c...

  19. A Smart Irrigation Approach Aided by Monitoring Surface Soil Moisture using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wienhold, K. J.; Li, D.; Fang, N. Z.

    2017-12-01

    Soil moisture is a critical component in the optimization of irrigation scheduling in water resources management. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) equipped with multispectral sensors represent an emerging technology capable of detecting and estimating soil moisture for irrigation and crop management. This study demonstrates a method of using a UAV as an optical and thermal remote sensing platform combined with genetic programming to derive high-resolution, surface soil moisture (SSM) estimates. The objective is to evaluate the feasibility of spatially-variable irrigation management for a golf course (about 50 acres) in North Central Texas. Multispectral data is collected over the course of one month in the visible, near infrared and longwave infrared spectrums using a UAV capable of rapid and safe deployment for daily estimates. The accuracy of the model predictions is quantified using a time domain reflectometry (TDR) soil moisture sensor and a holdout validation test set. The model produces reasonable estimates for SSM with an average coefficient of correlation (r) = 0.87 and coefficient of determination of (R2) = 0.76. The study suggests that the derived SSM estimates be used to better inform irrigation scheduling decisions for lightly vegetated areas such as the turf or native roughs found on golf courses.

  20. Buffer moisture protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritola, J.; Peura, J.

    2013-11-01

    With the present knowledge, bentonite blocks have to be protected from the air relative humidity and from any moisture leakages in the environment that might cause swelling of the bentonite blocks during the 'open' installation phase before backfilling. The purpose of this work was to design the structural reference solution both for the bottom of the deposition hole and for the buffer moisture protection and dewatering system with their integrated equipment needed in the deposition hole. This report describes the Posiva's reference solution for the buffer moisture protection system and the bottom plate on basis of the demands and functional requirements set by long-term safety. The reference solution with structural details has been developed in research work made 2010-2011. The structural solution of the moisture protection system has not yet been tested in practice. On the bottom of the deposition hole a copper plate which protects the lowest bentonite block from the gathered water is installed straight to machined and even rock surface. The moisture protection sheet made of EPDM rubber is attached to the copper plate with an inflatable seal. The upper part of the moisture protection sheet is fixed to the collar structures of the lid which protects the deposition hole in the disposal tunnel. The main function of the moisture protection sheet is to protect bentonite blocks from the leaking water and from the influence of the air humidity at their installation stage. The leaking water is controlled by the dewatering and alarm system which has been integrated into the moisture protection liner. (orig.)

  1. Microcomputerized neutron moisture gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shengkang; Mei Yu

    1987-01-01

    A microcomputerized neutron moisture gauge is introduced. This gauge consists of a neutron moisture sensor and instruments. It is developed from the neutron moisture gauge for concrete mixer. A TECH-81 single card microcomputer is used for count, computation and display. It has the function of computing compensated quantity of sand. It can acquire the data from several neutron sensors by the multichanneling sampling, therefore it can measure moisture values of sand in several hoppers simultaneously. The precision of the static state calibration curve is 0.24% wt. The error limits of the dynamic state check is < 0.50% wt

  2. Effect of Initial Moisture on the Adsorption and Desorption Equilibrium Moisture Contents of Polished Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Murata, Satoshi; Amaratunga, K.S.P.; Tanaka, Fumihiko; Hori, Yoshiaki; 村田, 敏; 田中, 史彦; 堀, 善昭

    1993-01-01

    The moisture adsorption and desorption properties for polished rice have been measured using a dynamic ventilatory method. Air temperatures of 10,20,30 and 40℃, relative humidities of 50,60,70,80 and 90%, and five levels of initial moisture contents ranging approximately from 8% to 19% d.b. were used to obtain moisture content data. The value of equilibrium moisture content for each initial moisture content at the range of air condition was determined by a method of nonlinear least squares. R...

  3. Photoprotection in moisturizers and daily-care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seite, S; Fourtanier, A; Rougier, A

    2010-10-01

    During usual daily activities, an appropriate protection against solar UV exposure should prevent clinical, cellular and molecular changes potentially leading to photoaging. In skin areas regularly exposed to sun, UV-damage is superimposed to tissue degeneration resulting from chronological aging. It is, therefore, important to know if moisturizers and daily-care products containing UVA absorbers combined with UVB ones are able to prevent these skin damages. This review will summarize clinical studies evaluating this topic. These studies demonstrate that broad-spectrum protection in moisturizers or daily-care products can prevent the "silent" sub-erythemal cumulative effects of UVR from inadvertent sun exposure.

  4. Moisture content measurement in paddy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klomklao, P.; Kuntinugunetanon, S.; Wongkokua, W.

    2017-09-01

    Moisture content is an important quantity for agriculture product, especially in paddy. In principle, the moisture content can be measured by a gravimetric method which is a direct method. However, the gravimetric method is time-consuming. There are indirect methods such as resistance and capacitance methods. In this work, we developed an indirect method based on a 555 integrated circuit timer. The moisture content sensor was capacitive parallel plates using the dielectric constant property of the moisture. The instrument generated the output frequency that depended on the capacitance of the sensor. We fitted a linear relation between periods and moisture contents. The measurement results have a standard uncertainty of 1.23 % of the moisture content in the range of 14 % to 20 %.

  5. Use of microwave remote sensing data to monitor spatio temporal characteristics of surface soil moisture at local and regional scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Löw

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrologic processes, such as runoff production or evapotranspiration, largely depend on the variation of soil moisture and its spatial pattern. The interaction of electromagnetic waves with the land surface can be dependant on the water content of the uppermost soil layer. Especially in the microwave domain of the electromagnetic spectrum, this is the case. New sensors as e.g. ENVISAT ASAR, allow for frequent, synoptically and homogeneous image acquisitions over larger areas. Parameter inversion models are therefore developed to derive bio- and geophysical parameters from the image products. The paper presents a soil moisture inversion model for ENVISAT ASAR data for local and regional scale applications. The model is validated against in situ soil moisture measurements. The various sources of uncertainties, being related to the inversion process are assessed and quantified.

  6. Large area mapping of soil moisture using the ESTAR passive microwave radiometer in Washita'92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, T.J.; Le Vine, D.M.; Swift, C.T.; Schmugge, T.J.; Schiebe, F.R.

    1995-01-01

    Washita'92 was a large-scale study of remote sensing and hydrology conducted on the Little Washita watershed in southwest Oklahoma. Data collection during the experiment included passive microwave observations using an L-band electronically scanned thinned array radiometer (ESTAR) and surface soil moisture observations at sites distributed over the area. Data were collected on 8 days over a 9-day period in June 1992. The watershed was saturated with a great deal of standing water at the outset of the study. During the experiment there was no rainfall and surface soil moisture observations exhibited a drydown pattern over the period. Significant variations in the level and rate of change in surface soil moisture were noted over areas dominated by different soil textures. ESTAR data were processed to produce brightness temperature maps of a 740 sq. km. area on each of the 8 days. These data exhibited significant spatial and temporal patterns. Spatial patterns were clearly associated with soil textures and temporal patterns with drainage and evaporative processes. Relationships between the ground sampled soil moisture and the brightness temperatures were consistent with previous results. Spatial averaging of both variables was analyzed to study scaling of soil moisture over a mixed landscape. Results of these studies showed that a strong correlation is retained at these scales, suggesting that mapping surface moisture for large footprints may provide important information for regional studies. (author)

  7. Multi-decadal analysis of root-zone soil moisture applying the exponential filter across CONUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Tobin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study applied the exponential filter to produce an estimate of root-zone soil moisture (RZSM. Four types of microwave-based, surface satellite soil moisture were used. The core remotely sensed data for this study came from NASA's long-lasting AMSR-E mission. Additionally, three other products were obtained from the European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative (CCI. These datasets were blended based on all available satellite observations (CCI-active, CCI-passive, and CCI-combined. All of these products were 0.25° and taken daily. We applied the filter to produce a soil moisture index (SWI that others have successfully used to estimate RZSM. The only unknown in this approach was the characteristic time of soil moisture variation (T. We examined five different eras (1997–2002; 2002–2005; 2005–2008; 2008–2011; 2011–2014 that represented periods with different satellite data sensors. SWI values were compared with in situ soil moisture data from the International Soil Moisture Network at a depth ranging from 20 to 25 cm. Selected networks included the US Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM program (25 cm, Soil Climate Analysis Network (SCAN; 20.32 cm, SNOwpack TELemetry (SNOTEL; 20.32 cm, and the US Climate Reference Network (USCRN; 20 cm. We selected in situ stations that had reasonable completeness. These datasets were used to filter out periods with freezing temperatures and rainfall using data from the Parameter elevation Regression on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM. Additionally, we only examined sites where surface and root-zone soil moisture had a reasonably high lagged r value (r > 0. 5. The unknown T value was constrained based on two approaches: optimization of root mean square error (RMSE and calculation based on the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI value. Both approaches yielded comparable results; although, as to be expected, the optimization approach generally

  8. Portable neutron moisture gage for the moisture determination of structure parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harnisch, M.

    1985-01-01

    For determining the moisture of structure parts during building or before repairing a portable neutron moisture gage consisting of a neutron probe and pulse analyzer has been developed. The measuring process, calibration, and prerequisites of application are briefly discussed

  9. Theoretical Modeling and Analysis of L- and P-band Radar Backscatter Sensitivity to Soil Active Layer Dielectric Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyang Du

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Freeze-thaw (FT and moisture dynamics within the soil active layer are critical elements of boreal, arctic and alpine ecosystems, and environmental change assessments. We evaluated the potential for detecting dielectric changes within different soil layers using combined L- and P-band radar remote sensing as a prerequisite for detecting FT and moisture profile changes within the soil active layer. A two-layer scattering model was developed and validated for simulating radar responses from vertically inhomogeneous soil. The model simulations indicated that inhomogeneity in the soil dielectric profile contributes to both L- and P-band backscatter, but with greater P-band sensitivity at depth. The difference in L- and P-band responses to soil dielectric profile inhomogeneity appears suitable for detecting associated changes in soil active layer conditions. Additional evaluation using collocated airborne radar (AIRSAR observations and in situ soil moisture measurements over alpine tundra indicates that combined L- and P-band SAR observations are sensitive to soil dielectric profile heterogeneity associated with variations in soil moisture and FT conditions.

  10. Microwave interferometric radiometry in remote sensing: An invited historical review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin-Neira, M.; LeVine, D. M.; Kerr, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The launch of the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission on 2 November 2009 marked a milestone in remote sensing for it was the first time a radiometer capable of acquiring wide field of view images at every single snapshot, a unique feature of the synthetic aperture technique, made...

  11. Evaluation of standard methods for collecting and processing fuel moisture samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sally M. Haase; José Sánchez; David R. Weise

    2016-01-01

    A variety of techniques for collecting and processing samples to determine moisture content of wildland fuels in support of fire management activities were evaluated. The effects of using a chainsaw or handsaw to collect samples of largediameter wood, containers for storing and transporting collected samples, and quick-response ovens for estimating moisture content...

  12. Remote sensing for mapping soil moisture and drainage potential in semi-arid regions: Applications to the Campidano plain of Sardinia, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filion, Rébecca; Bernier, Monique; Paniconi, Claudio; Chokmani, Karem; Melis, Massimo; Soddu, Antonino; Talazac, Manon; Lafortune, Francois-Xavier

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the potential of radar (ENVISAT ASAR and RADARSAT-2) and LANDSAT data to generate reliable soil moisture maps to support water management and agricultural practice in Mediterranean regions, particularly during dry seasons. The study is based on extensive field surveys conducted from 2005 to 2009 in the Campidano plain of Sardinia, Italy. A total of 12 small bare soil fields were sampled for moisture, surface roughness, and texture values. From field scale analysis with ENVISAT ASAR (C-band, VV polarized, descending mode, incidence angle from 15.0° to 31.4°), an empirical model for estimating bare soil moisture was established, with a coefficient of determination (R(2)) of 0.85. LANDSAT TM5 images were also used for soil moisture estimation using the TVX slope (temperature/vegetation index), and in this case the best linear relationship had an R(2) of 0.81. A cross-validation on the two empirical models demonstrated the potential of C-band SAR data for estimation of surface moisture, with and R(2) of 0.76 (bias +0.3% and RMSE 7%) for ENVISAT ASAR and 0.54 (bias +1.3% and RMSE 5%) for LANDSAT TM5. The two models developed at plot level were then applied over the Campidano plain and assessed via multitemporal and spatial analyses, in the latter case against soil permeability data from a pedological map of Sardinia. Encouraging estimated soil moisture (ESM) maps were obtained for the SAR-based model, whereas the LANDSAT-based model would require a better field data set for validation, including ground data collected on vegetated fields. ESM maps showed sensitivity to soil drainage qualities or drainage potential, which could be useful in irrigation management and other agricultural applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of the Sun on Remote Sensing of Sea Surface Salinity from Space

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Le Vine, David M; Abraham, Saji; Wentz, F; Lagerloef, G. S

    2005-01-01

    ... to monitor soil moisture and sea surface salinity. Radiation from the sun can impact passive remote sensing systems in several ways, including line-of-sight radiation that comes directly from the sun and enters through antenna side lobes...

  14. Examining the relationship between intermediate-scale soil moisture and terrestrial evaporation within a semi-arid grassland

    KAUST Repository

    Jana, Raghavendra B.

    2016-09-30

    Interactions between soil moisture and terrestrial evaporation affect water cycle behaviour and responses between the land surface and the atmosphere across scales. With strong heterogeneities at the land surface, the inherent spatial variability in soil moisture makes its representation via point-scale measurements challenging, resulting in scale mismatch when compared to coarser-resolution satellite based soil moisture or evaporation estimates. The Cosmic Ray Neutron Probe (CRNP) was developed to address such issues in the measurement and representation of soil moisture at intermediate scales. Here, we present a study to assess the utility of CRNP soil moisture observations in validating model evaporation estimates. The CRNP soil moisture product from a pasture in the semi-arid central west region of New South Wales, Australia, was compared to evaporation derived from three distinct approaches, including the Priestley–Taylor (PT-JPL), Penman–Monteith (PM-Mu), and Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) models, driven by forcing data from local meteorological station data and remote sensing retrievals from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor. Pearson’s correlations, quantile–quantile (Q–Q) plots, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate the temporal distributions of soil moisture and evaporation over the study site. The relationships were examined against nearly 2 years of observation data, as well as for different seasons and for defined periods of analysis. Results highlight that while direct correlations of raw data were not particularly instructive, the Q–Q plots and ANOVA illustrate that the root-zone soil moisture represented by the CRNP measurements and the modelled evaporation estimates reflect similar distributions under most meteorological conditions. The PT-JPL and PM-Mu model estimates performed contrary to expectation when high soil moisture and cold temperatures were

  15. Collective impacts of soil moisture and orography on deep convective thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamovic, Adel; Schlemmer, Linda; Schär, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    Thunderstorm activity in many land regions peaks in summer, when surface heat fluxes and the atmospheric moisture content reach an annual maximum. Studies using satellite and ground-based observations have shown that the timing and vigor of summer thunderstorms are influenced by the presence of triggering mechanisms such as soil-moisture heterogeneity or orography. In the current process-based study we aim to dissect the combined impact of soil-moisture and orography on moist convection by using convection-resolving climate simulations with idealized landsurface and orographic conditions. First we systematically investigate the sensitivity of moist convection in absence of orography to a mesoscale soil-moisture anomaly, i.e. a region with drier or moister soil. Consistent with previous studies, a high sensitivity of total rain to soil-moisture anomalies over flat terrain is found. The total rain in the presence of a dry soil-moisture anomaly increases linearly if the soil-moisture anomaly is dried: an anomaly that is 50 % dryer than the reference case with a homogeneous soil-moisture distribution produces up to 40 % more rain. The amplitude of this negative response to the dry soil-moisture anomaly cannot be reproduced by either drying or moistening the soil in the whole domain, even when using unrealistic soil-moisture values. A moist soil anomaly showed little impact on total rain. The triggering effects of the soil-moisture anomalies can be reproduced by an isolated mountain of 250 m height. In order to test to what extent the impact of the soil-moisture anomaly and the mountain are additive, the soil-moisture perturbation method is applied to soil-moisture over the isolated mountain. A 250 m high mountain with drier (moister) soil than its surrounding is found to enhance (suppress) rain amounts. However, the sensitivity of rain amount to the soil-moisture anomaly decreases with the mountain height: A 500 m high mountain is already sufficient to eliminate the

  16. Improved Assimilation of Streamflow and Satellite Soil Moisture with the Evolutionary Particle Filter and Geostatistical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hongxiang; Moradkhani, Hamid; Abbaszadeh, Peyman

    2017-04-01

    Assimilation of satellite soil moisture and streamflow data into hydrologic models using has received increasing attention over the past few years. Currently, these observations are increasingly used to improve the model streamflow and soil moisture predictions. However, the performance of this land data assimilation (DA) system still suffers from two limitations: 1) satellite data scarcity and quality; and 2) particle weight degeneration. In order to overcome these two limitations, we propose two possible solutions in this study. First, the general Gaussian geostatistical approach is proposed to overcome the limitation in the space/time resolution of satellite soil moisture products thus improving their accuracy at uncovered/biased grid cells. Secondly, an evolutionary PF approach based on Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), the so-called EPF-MCMC, is developed to further reduce weight degeneration and improve the robustness of the land DA system. This study provides a detailed analysis of the joint and separate assimilation of streamflow and satellite soil moisture into a distributed Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting (SAC-SMA) model, with the use of recently developed EPF-MCMC and the general Gaussian geostatistical approach. Performance is assessed over several basins in the USA selected from Model Parameter Estimation Experiment (MOPEX) and located in different climate regions. The results indicate that: 1) the general Gaussian approach can predict the soil moisture at uncovered grid cells within the expected satellite data quality threshold; 2) assimilation of satellite soil moisture inferred from the general Gaussian model can significantly improve the soil moisture predictions; and 3) in terms of both deterministic and probabilistic measures, the EPF-MCMC can achieve better streamflow predictions. These results recommend that the geostatistical model is a helpful tool to aid the remote sensing technique and the EPF-MCMC is a

  17. Assimilation of SMOS Retrieved Soil Moisture into the Land Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, Clay; Case, Jonathan; Zavodsky, Bradley; Jedlovec, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Soil moisture retrievals from the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) instrument are assimilated into the Noah land surface model (LSM) within the NASA Land Information System (LIS). Before assimilation, SMOS retrievals are bias-corrected to match the model climatological distribution using a Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF) matching approach. Data assimilation is done via the Ensemble Kalman Filter. The goal is to improve the representation of soil moisture within the LSM, and ultimately to improve numerical weather forecasts through better land surface initialization. We present a case study showing a large area of irrigation in the lower Mississippi River Valley, in an area with extensive rice agriculture. High soil moisture value in this region are observed by SMOS, but not captured in the forcing data. After assimilation, the model fields reflect the observed geographic patterns of soil moisture. Plans for a modeling experiment and operational use of the data are given. This work helps prepare for the assimilation of Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) retrievals in the near future.

  18. Does dystonic muscle activity affect sense of effort in cervical dystonia?

    OpenAIRE

    Carment, Lo?c; Maier, Marc A.; Sangla, Sophie; Guiraud, Vincent; Mesure, Serge; Vidailhet, Marie; Lindberg, P?vel G; Bleton, Jean-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    International audience; BackgroundFocal dystonia has been associated with deficient processing of sense of effort cues. However, corresponding studies are lacking in cervical dystonia (CD). We hypothesized that dystonic muscle activity would perturb neck force control based on sense of effort cues.MethodsNeck extension force control was investigated in 18 CD patients with different clinical features (7 with and 11 without retrocollis) and in 19 control subjects. Subjects performed force-match...

  19. Active sensing associated with spatial learning reveals memory-based attention in an electric fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, James J; Longtin, André; Maler, Leonard

    2016-05-01

    Active sensing behaviors reveal what an animal is attending to and how it changes with learning. Gymnotus sp, a gymnotiform weakly electric fish, generates an electric organ discharge (EOD) as discrete pulses to actively sense its surroundings. We monitored freely behaving gymnotid fish in a large dark "maze" and extracted their trajectories and EOD pulse pattern and rate while they learned to find food with electrically detectable landmarks as cues. After training, they more rapidly found food using shorter, more stereotyped trajectories and spent more time near the food location. We observed three forms of active sensing: sustained high EOD rates per unit distance (sampling density), transient large increases in EOD rate (E-scans) and stereotyped scanning movements (B-scans) were initially strong at landmarks and food, but, after learning, intensified only at the food location. During probe (no food) trials, after learning, the fish's search area and intense active sampling was still centered on the missing food location, but now also increased near landmarks. We hypothesize that active sensing is a behavioral manifestation of attention and essential for spatial learning; the fish use spatial memory of landmarks and path integration to reach the expected food location and confine their attention to this region. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Improving groundwater storage and soil moisture estimates by assimilating GRACE, SMOS, and SMAP data into CABLE using ensemble Kalman batch smoother and particle batch smoother frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, S. C.; Tangdamrongsub, N.; Yeo, I. Y.; Dong, J.

    2017-12-01

    Soil moisture and groundwater storage are important information for comprehensive understanding of the climate system and accurate assessment of the regional/global water resources. It is possible to derive the water storage from land surface models but the outputs are commonly biased by inaccurate forcing data, inefficacious model physics, and improper model parameter calibration. To mitigate the model uncertainty, the observation (e.g., from remote sensing as well as ground in-situ data) are often integrated into the models via data assimilation (DA). This study aims to improve the estimation of soil moisture and groundwater storage by simultaneously assimilating satellite observations from the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE), the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS), and the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) into the Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLE) land surface model using the ensemble Kalman batch smoother (EnBS) and particle batch smoother (PBS) frameworks. The uncertainty of GRACE observation is obtained rigorously from the full error variance-covariance matrix of the GRACE data product. This method demonstrates the use of a realistic representative of GRACE uncertainty, which is spatially correlated in nature, leads to a higher accuracy of water storage computation. Additionally, the comparison between EnBS and PBS results is discussed to understand the filter's performance, limitation, and suitability. The joint DA is demonstrated in the Goulburn catchment, South-East Australia, where diverse ground observations (surface soil moisture, root-zone soil moisture, and groundwater level) are available for evaluation of our DA results. Preliminary results show that both smoothers provide significant improvement of surface soil moisture and groundwater storage estimates. Importantly, our developed DA scheme disaggregates the catchment-scale GRACE information into finer vertical and spatial scales ( 25 km). We present an

  1. Linking Remote Sensing Data and Energy Balance Models for a Scalable Agriculture Insurance System for sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M. E.; Osgood, D. E.; McCarty, J. L.; Husak, G. J.; Hain, C.; Neigh, C. S. R.

    2014-12-01

    One of the most immediate and obvious impacts of climate change is on the weather-sensitive agriculture sector. Both local and global impacts on production of food will have a negative effect on the ability of humanity to meet its growing food demands. Agriculture has become more risky, particularly for farmers in the most vulnerable and food insecure regions of the world such as East Africa. Smallholders and low-income farmers need better financial tools to reduce the risk to food security while enabling productivity increases to meet the needs of a growing population. This paper will describe a recently funded project that brings together climate science, economics, and remote sensing expertise to focus on providing a scalable and sensor-independent remote sensing based product that can be used in developing regional rainfed agriculture insurance programs around the world. We will focus our efforts in Ethiopia and Kenya in East Africa and in Senegal and Burkina Faso in West Africa, where there are active index insurance pilots that can test the effectiveness of our remote sensing-based approach for use in the agriculture insurance industry. The paper will present the overall program, explain links to the insurance industry, and present comparisons of the four remote sensing datasets used to identify drought: the CHIRPS 30-year rainfall data product, the GIMMS 30-year vegetation data product from AVHRR, the ESA soil moisture ECV-30 year soil moisture data product, and a MODIS Evapotranspiration (ET) 15-year dataset. A summary of next year's plans for this project will be presented at the close of the presentation.

  2. Sensitivity Enhancement of a PPM Level Capacitive Moisture Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokesh Kumar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of moisture at ppm or ppb level is very difficult and the fabrication of such sensors at low cost is always challenging. High sensitivity is an important parameter for trace level (ppm humidity sensors. Anelectronic detection circuit for interfacing the humidity sensor with high sensitivity requires a simple hardware circuit with few active devices. The recent trends for increasing the sensitivity include fabricating nanoporous film with a very large surface area. In the present work, the sensitivity of a parallel plate capacitive type sensor with metal oxide sensing film has been significantly improved with an aim to detect moisture from 3 to 100 ppm in the industrial process gases used to fabricate semiconductors and other sensitive electronic devices. The sensitivity has been increased by (i fabricating a nanoporous film of aluminum oxide using the sol-gel method and (ii increasing the cross-sectional area of a parallel plate capacitor. A novel double sided capacitive structure has been proposed where two capacitors have been fabricated—one on the top and one on the bottom side of a flat alumina substrate—and then the capacitors are connected in parallel. The structure has twice the sensitivity of a single sensor in the same ppm range but the size of the structure remains unchanged. The important characteristics of the sensors such as the sensitivity (S = Δ C Δ p p m × 100 , the response time (tr, and the recovery time (tc are determined and compared with a commercial SHAW, UKdew point meter. The fabricated double sided sensor has comparable sensitivity (S = 100%, tr (s = 28, tc (s = 40 with the commercial meter (S = 100.5%, tr (s = 258 but has a faster response time. The proposed method of sensitivity enhancement is simple, and mass producible.

  3. Effects of moisture barrier and initial moisture content on the storage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The two factors examined were moisture barrier at three levels namely: thick lining, thin lining and non-lining. The other factor included initial moisture content of the produce, namely, turgid and partially wilted. Partial wilting of the produce was achieved by exposing freshly harvested materials at ambient temperature to dry ...

  4. Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing for Analysis of Landscape Ecological Processes: Methods and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.

    1998-01-01

    Thermal Infrared (TIR) remote sensing data can provide important measurements of surface energy fluxes and temperatures, which are integral to understanding landscape processes and responses. One example of this is the successful application of TIR remote sensing data to estimate evapotranspiration and soil moisture, where results from a number of studies suggest that satellite-based measurements from TIR remote sensing data can lead to more accurate regional-scale estimates of daily evapotranspiration. With further refinement in analytical techniques and models, the use of TIR data from airborne and satellite sensors could be very useful for parameterizing surface moisture conditions and developing better simulations of landscape energy exchange over a variety of conditions and space and time scales. Thus, TIR remote sensing data can significantly contribute to the observation, measurement, and analysis of energy balance characteristics (i.e., the fluxes and redistribution of thermal energy within and across the land surface) as an implicit and important aspect of landscape dynamics and landscape functioning. The application of TIR remote sensing data in landscape ecological studies has been limited, however, for several fundamental reasons that relate primarily to the perceived difficulty in use and availability of these data by the landscape ecology community, and from the fragmentation of references on TIR remote sensing throughout the scientific literature. It is our purpose here to provide evidence from work that has employed TIR remote sensing for analysis of landscape characteristics to illustrate how these data can provide important data for the improved measurement of landscape energy response and energy flux relationships. We examine the direct or indirect use of TIR remote sensing data to analyze landscape biophysical characteristics, thereby offering some insight on how these data can be used more robustly to further the understanding and modeling of

  5. Use of satellite and modeled soil moisture data for predicting event soil loss at plot scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todisco, F.; Brocca, L.; Termite, L. F.; Wagner, W.

    2015-09-01

    The potential of coupling soil moisture and a Universal Soil Loss Equation-based (USLE-based) model for event soil loss estimation at plot scale is carefully investigated at the Masse area, in central Italy. The derived model, named Soil Moisture for Erosion (SM4E), is applied by considering the unavailability of in situ soil moisture measurements, by using the data predicted by a soil water balance model (SWBM) and derived from satellite sensors, i.e., the Advanced SCATterometer (ASCAT). The soil loss estimation accuracy is validated using in situ measurements in which event observations at plot scale are available for the period 2008-2013. The results showed that including soil moisture observations in the event rainfall-runoff erosivity factor of the USLE enhances the capability of the model to account for variations in event soil losses, the soil moisture being an effective alternative to the estimated runoff, in the prediction of the event soil loss at Masse. The agreement between observed and estimated soil losses (through SM4E) is fairly satisfactory with a determination coefficient (log-scale) equal to ~ 0.35 and a root mean square error (RMSE) of ~ 2.8 Mg ha-1. These results are particularly significant for the operational estimation of soil losses. Indeed, currently, soil moisture is a relatively simple measurement at the field scale and remote sensing data are also widely available on a global scale. Through satellite data, there is the potential of applying the SM4E model for large-scale monitoring and quantification of the soil erosion process.

  6. Use of satellite and modelled soil moisture data for predicting event soil loss at plot scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todisco, F.; Brocca, L.; Termite, L. F.; Wagner, W.

    2015-03-01

    The potential of coupling soil moisture and a~USLE-based model for event soil loss estimation at plot scale is carefully investigated at the Masse area, in Central Italy. The derived model, named Soil Moisture for Erosion (SM4E), is applied by considering the unavailability of in situ soil moisture measurements, by using the data predicted by a soil water balance model (SWBM) and derived from satellite sensors, i.e. the Advanced SCATterometer (ASCAT). The soil loss estimation accuracy is validated using in situ measurements in which event observations at plot scale are available for the period 2008-2013. The results showed that including soil moisture observations in the event rainfall-runoff erosivity factor of the RUSLE/USLE, enhances the capability of the model to account for variations in event soil losses, being the soil moisture an effective alternative to the estimated runoff, in the prediction of the event soil loss at Masse. The agreement between observed and estimated soil losses (through SM4E) is fairly satisfactory with a determination coefficient (log-scale) equal to of ~ 0.35 and a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of ~ 2.8 Mg ha-1. These results are particularly significant for the operational estimation of soil losses. Indeed, currently, soil moisture is a relatively simple measurement at the field scale and remote sensing data are also widely available on a global scale. Through satellite data, there is the potential of applying the SM4E model for large-scale monitoring and quantification of the soil erosion process.

  7. Temporal variation of soil moisture over the Wuding River basin assessed with an eco-hydrological model, in-situ observations and remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Shu

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The change pattern and trend of soil moisture (SM in the Wuding River basin, Loess Plateau, China is explored based on the simulated long-term SM data from 1956 to 2004 using an eco-hydrological process-based model, Vegetation Interface Processes model, VIP. In-situ SM observations together with a remotely sensed SM dataset retrieved by the Vienna University of Technology are used to validate the model. In the VIP model, climate-eco-hydrological (CEH variables such as precipitation, air temperature and runoff observations and also simulated evapotranspiration (ET, leaf area index (LAI, and vegetation production are used to analyze the soil moisture evolution mechanism. The results show that the model is able to capture seasonal SM variations. The seasonal pattern, multi-year variation, standard deviation and coefficient of variation (CV of SM at the daily, monthly and annual scale are well explained by CEH variables. The annual and inter-annual variability of SM is the lowest compared with that of other CEH variables. The trend analysis shows that SM is in decreasing tendency at α=0.01 level of significance, confirming the Northern Drying phenomenon. This trend can be well explained by the decreasing tendency of precipitation (α=0.1 and increasing tendency of temperature (α=0.01. The decreasing tendency of runoff has higher significance level (α=0.001. Because of SM's decreasing tendency, soil evaporation (ES is also decreasing (α=0.05. The tendency of net radiation (Rn, evapotranspiration (ET, transpiration (EC, canopy intercept (EI is not obvious. Net primary productivity (NPP, of which the significance level is lower than α=0.1, and gross primary productivity (GPP at α=0.01 are in increasing tendency.

  8. Multi-channel ground-penetrating radar to explore spatial variations in thaw depth and moisture content in the active layer of a permafrost site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Wollschläger

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Multi-channel ground-penetrating radar (GPR was applied at a permafrost site on the Tibetan Plateau to investigate the influence of surface properties and soil texture on the late-summer thaw depth and average soil moisture content of the active layer. Measurements were conducted on an approximately 85 × 60 m2 sized area with surface and soil textural properties that ranged from medium to coarse textured bare soil to finer textured, sparsely vegetated areas covered with fine, wind blown sand, and it included the bed of a gravel road. The survey allowed a clear differentiation of the various units. It showed (i a shallow thaw depth and low average soil moisture content below the sand-covered, vegetated area, (ii an intermediate thaw depth and high average soil moisture content along the gravel road, and (iii an intermediate to deep thaw depth and low to intermediate average soil moisture content in the bare soil terrain. From our measurements, we found hypotheses for the permafrost processes at this site leading to the observed late-summer thaw depth and soil moisture conditions. The study clearly indicates the complicated interactions between surface and subsurface state variables and processes in this environment. Multi-channel GPR is an operational technology to efficiently study such a system at scales varying from a few meters to a few kilometers.

  9. 7 CFR 52.3185 - Moisture limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Moisture limits. 52.3185 Section 52.3185 Agriculture... United States Standards for Grades of Dried Prunes Moisture, Uniformity of Size, Defects § 52.3185 Moisture limits. Dried prunes shall not exceed the moisture limits for the applicable grades and kind and...

  10. Older active users of ICTs make sense of their engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Kania-Lundholm

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Research on older people’s ICT usage tends to focus on either the ways in which they go about learning to use these technologies or the impact that ICTs have on their lives. This research seems, in other words, to take for granted that older people are ‘digital immigrants’ as the digital divide debate proposed. Research that specifically looks at the ways in which older ICT users make sense of their engagement with these technologies is still limited. This article explores therefore – through focus group interviews – how a group of older people who are active ICT users make sense of their ‘digital nativeness’. The analysis shows that the interviewees are well aware that their ICT proficiency differentiated them from their peers, which is why they make sense of their ICT usage by making reference to the issues that make them ‘exceptional’ older people. These include the fact that they have used computers for many years and therefore made ICT usage an everyday habit early on; the fact that most older people do not have the skills that they themselves have, which is why they feel the need to share them with others; and the fact that their lifelong experience means they can use these technologies in judicious ways. By bringing attention to how older active ICT users make sense of their engagement, this article contributes to the notion of the digital spectrum and the debate on the inequalities that ICT proficiency brings about. 

  11. THE ANALYSIS OF MOISTURE DEFICIT BASED ON MODIS AND LANDSAT SATELLITE IMAGES. CASE STUDY: THE OLTENIA PLAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ONȚEL IRINA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Satellite images are an important source of information to identify and analyse some hazardous climatic phenomena such as the dryness and drought. These phenomena are characterized by scarce rainfall, increased evapotranspiration and high soil moisture deficit. The soil water reserve depletes to the wilting coefficient, soon followed by the pedological drought which has negative effects on vegetation and agricultural productivity. The MODIS satellite images (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer allow the monitoring of the vegetation throughout the entire vegetative period, with a frequency of 1-2 days and with a spatial resolution of 250 m, 500 m and 1 km away. Another useful source of information is the LANDSAT satellite images, with a spatial resolution of 30 m. Based on MODIS and Landsat satellite images, were calculated moisture monitoring index such as SIWSI (Shortwave Infrared Water Stress Index. Consequently, some years with low moisture such as 2000, 2002, 2007 and 2012 could be identified. Spatially, the areas with moisture deficit varied from one year to another all over the whole analised period (2000-2012. The remote sensing results was corelated with Standard Precipitation Anomaly, which gives a measure of the severity of a wet or dry event.

  12. 7 CFR 868.258 - Moisture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Moisture. 868.258 Section 868.258 Agriculture... Governing Application of Standards § 868.258 Moisture. Water content in brown rice for processing as... purpose of this paragraph, “approved device” shall include the Motomco Moisture Meter and any other...

  13. Errors in the calculation of sub-soil moisture probe by equivalent moisture content technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakshmipathy, A.V.; Gangadharan, P.

    1982-01-01

    The size of the soil sample required to obtain the saturation response, with a neutron moisture probe is quite large and this poses practical problems of handling and mixing large amounts of samples for absolute laboratory calibration. Hydrogenous materials are used as a substitute for water in the equivalent moisture content technique, for calibration of soil moisture probes. In this it is assumed that only hydrogen of the bulk sample is responsible for the slowing down of fast neutrons and the slow neutron countrate is correlated to equivalent water content by considering the hydrogen density of sample. It is observed that the higher atomic number elements present in water equivalent media also affect the response of the soil moisture probe. Hence calculations, as well as experiments, were undertaken to know the order of error introduced by this technique. The thermal and slow neutron flux distribution around the BF 3 counter of a sub-soil moisture probe is calculated using three group diffusion theory. The response of the probe corresponding to different equivalent moisture content of hydrogenous media, is calculated taking into consideration the effective length of BF 3 counter. Soil with hydrogenous media such as polyethylene, sugar and water are considered for calculation, to verify the suitability of these materials as substitute for water during calibration of soil moisture probe. Experiments were conducted, to verify the theoretically calculated values. (author)

  14. Ground Albedo Neutron Sensing (GANS) for Measurement of Integral Soil Water Content at the Small Catchment Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera Villarreyes, C.; Baroni, G.; Oswald, S. E.

    2012-12-01

    Soil water content at the plot or hill-slope scale is an important link between local vadose zone hydrology and catchment hydrology. One largest initiative to cover the measuring gap of soil moisture between point scale and remote sensing observations is the COSMOS network (Zreda et al., 2012). Here, cosmic-ray neutron sensing, which may be more precisely named ground albedo neutron sensing (GANS), is applied. The measuring principle is based on the crucial role of hydrogen as neutron moderator compared to others landscape materials. Soil water content contained in a footprint of ca. 600 m diameter and a depth ranging down to a few decimeters is inversely correlated to the neutron flux at the air-ground interface. This approach is now implemented, e.g. in USA (Zreda et al., 2012) and Germany (Rivera Villarreyes et al., 2011), based on its simple installation and integral measurement of soil moisture at the small catchment scale. The present study performed Ground Albedo Neutron Sensing on farmland at two locations in Germany under different vegetative situations (cropped and bare field) and different seasonal conditions (summer, autumn and winter). Ground albedo neutrons were measured at (i) a farmland close to Potsdam and Berlin cropped with corn in 2010, sunflower in 2011 and winter rye in 2012, and (ii) a mountainous farmland catchment (Schaefertal, Harz Mountains) since middle 2011. In order to test this methodology, classical soil moisture devices and meteorological data were used for comparison. Moreover, several calibration approaches, role of vegetation cover and transferability of calibration parameters to different times and locations were also evaluated. Observations suggest that GANS can overcome the lack of data for hydrological processes at the intermediate scale. Soil moisture from GANS compared quantitatively with mean values derived from a network of classical devices under vegetated and non- vegetated conditions. The GANS approach responded well

  15. Moisture accumulation in a building envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forest, T.W.; Checkwitch, K.

    1988-09-01

    In a large number of cases, the failure of a building envelope can be traced to the accumulation of moisture. In a cold winter climate, characteristic of the Canadian prairies, moisture is deposited in the structure by the movement of warm, moist air through the envelope. Tests on the moisture accumulation in a building envelope were initiated in a test house at an Alberta research facility during the 1987/88 heating season. The indoor moisture generation rate was measured and compared with the value inferred from the measured air infiltration rate. With the flue open, the moisture generation rate was approximately 5.5 kg/d of which 0.7 kg/d entered the building envelope; the remainder was exhausted through the flue. With the flue blocked, the moisture generation rate decreased to 3.4 kg/d, while the amount of moisture migrating through the envelope increased to 4.0 kg/d. The moisture accumulation in wall panels located on the north and south face of the test house was also monitored. Moisture was allowed to enter the wall cavity via a hole in the drywall. The fiberglass insulation remained dry throughout the test period. The moisture content of the exterior sheathing of the north panel increased to a maximum of 18% wt in the vicinity of the hole, but quickly dried when the ambient temperatures increased towards the end of the season. The south panel showed very little moisture accumlation due to the effects of solar radiation. 14 refs., 9 figs.

  16. Integrated Approach to Inform the New York City Water Supply System Coupling SAR Remote Sensing Observations and the SWAT Watershed Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesser, D.; Hoang, L.; McDonald, K. C.

    2017-12-01

    Efforts to improve municipal water supply systems increasingly rely on an ability to elucidate variables that drive hydrologic dynamics within large watersheds. However, fundamental model variables such as precipitation, soil moisture, evapotranspiration, and soil freeze/thaw state remain difficult to measure empirically across large, heterogeneous watersheds. Satellite remote sensing presents a method to validate these spatially and temporally dynamic variables as well as better inform the watershed models that monitor the water supply for many of the planet's most populous urban centers. PALSAR 2 L-band, Sentinel 1 C-band, and SMAP L-band scenes covering the Cannonsville branch of the New York City (NYC) water supply watershed were obtained for the period of March 2015 - October 2017. The SAR data provides information on soil moisture, free/thaw state, seasonal surface inundation, and variable source areas within the study site. Integrating the remote sensing products with watershed model outputs and ground survey data improves the representation of related processes in the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) utilized to monitor the NYC water supply. PALSAR 2 supports accurate mapping of the extent of variable source areas while Sentinel 1 presents a method to model the timing and magnitude of snowmelt runoff events. SMAP Active Radar soil moisture product directly validates SWAT outputs at the subbasin level. This blended approach verifies the distribution of soil wetness classes within the watershed that delineate Hydrologic Response Units (HRUs) in the modified SWAT-Hillslope. The research expands the ability to model the NYC water supply source beyond a subset of the watershed while also providing high resolution information across a larger spatial scale. The global availability of these remote sensing products provides a method to capture fundamental hydrology variables in regions where current modeling efforts and in situ data remain limited.

  17. Moisture Dynamics in Building Envelopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele

    2003-01-01

    The overall scope of this Thesis "Moisture dynamics in building envelopes" has been to characterise how the various porous insulation materials investigated performed hygrothermally under conditions similar to those in a typical building envelope. As a result of the changing temperature...... part of the Thesis consists of a theory and literature review on the moisture storage and transport processes (Chapter 2), on the non-Fickian moisture transport (Chapter 3)and on the methods for determining the moisture properties (Chapter 4). In the second part, the conducted experimental work...

  18. Moisture dynamics in building envelopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peuhkuri, R.

    2003-07-01

    The overall scope of this Thesis 'Moisture dynamics in building envelopes' has been to characterise how the various porous insulation materials investigated performed hygro thermally under conditions similar to those in a typical building envelope. As a result of the changing temperature and moisture conditions in the exterior weather and indoor climate the materials dynamically absorb and release moisture. The complexity of the impact of these conditions on the resulting moisture transport and content of the materials has been studied in this Thesis with controlled laboratory tests. (au)

  19. Diuron mineralisation in a Mediterranean vineyard soil: impact of moisture content and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sebaï, Talaat; Devers, Marion; Lagacherie, Bernard; Rouard, Nadine; Soulas, Guy; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice

    2010-09-01

    The diuron-mineralising ability of the microbiota of a Mediterranean vineyard soil exposed each year to this herbicide was measured. The impact of soil moisture and temperature on this microbial activity was assessed. The soil microbiota was shown to mineralise diuron. This mineralising activity was positively correlated with soil moisture content, being negligible at 5% and more than 30% at 20% soil moisture content. According to a double Gaussian model applied to fit the dataset, the optimum temperature/soil moisture conditions were 27.9 degrees C/19.3% for maximum mineralisation rate and 21.9 degrees C/18.3% for maximum percentage mineralisation. The impact of temperature and soil moisture content variations on diuron mineralisation was estimated. A simulated drought period had a suppressive effect on subsequent diuron mineralisation. This drought effect was more marked when higher temperatures were used to dry (40 degrees C versus 28 degrees C) or incubate (28 degrees C versus 20 degrees C) the soil. The diuron kinetic parameters measured after drought conditions were no longer in accordance with those estimated by the Gaussian model. Although soil microbiota can adapt to diuron mineralisation, its activity is strongly dependent on climatic conditions. It suggests that diuron is not rapidly degraded under Mediterranean climate, and that arable Mediterranean soils are likely to accumulate diuron residues. (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. 7 CFR 868.207 - Moisture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Moisture. 868.207 Section 868.207 Agriculture... Application of Standards § 868.207 Moisture. Water content in rough rice as determined by an approved device..., “approved device” shall include the Motomco Moisture Meter and any other equipment that is approved by the...

  1. Thermophysical properties of enzyme clarified Lime (Citrus aurantifolia L) juice at different moisture contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunatha, S S; Raju, P S; Bawa, A S

    2014-11-01

    Thermophysical properties of enzyme clarified lime (Citrus aurantifolia L.) juice were evaluated at different moisture contents ranging from 30.37 % to 89.30 % (wet basis) corresponding to a water activity range of 0.835 to 0.979. The thermophysical properties evaluated were density, Newtonian viscosity, thermal conductivity, specific heat and thermal diffusivity. The investigation showed that density and Newtonian viscosity of enzyme clarified lime juice decreased significantly (p lime juice with moisture content/water activity employing regression analysis by the method of least square approximation. Results indicated the existence of strong correlation between thermophysical properties and moisture content/water activity of enzyme clarified lime juice, a significant (p < 0.0001) negative correlation between physical and thermal properties was observed.

  2. Anti-quorum sensing activity of essential oils from Colombian plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo-Colorado, Beatriz; Olivero-Verbel, Jesus; Stashenko, Elena E; Wagner-Döbler, Irene; Kunze, Brigitte

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils from Colombian plants were characterised by GC-MS, and assayed for anti-quorum sensing activity in bacteria sensor strains. Two major chemotypes were found for Lippia alba, the limonene-carvone and the citral (geranial-neral). For other species, the main components included α-pinene (Ocotea sp.), β-pinene (Swinglea glutinosa), cineol (Elettaria cardamomun), α-zingiberene (Zingiber officinale) and pulegone (Minthostachys mollis). Several essential oils presented promising inhibitory properties for the short chain AHL quorum sensing (QS) system, in Escherichia coli containing the biosensor plasmid pJBA132, in particular Lippia alba. Moderate activity as anti-QS using the same plasmid, were also found for selected constituents of essential oils studied here, such as citral, carvone and α-pinene, although solely at the highest tested concentration (250 µg mL(-1)). Only citral presented some activity for the long chain AHL QS system, in Pseudomonas putida containing the plasmid pRK-C12. In short, essential oils from Colombian flora have promising properties as QS modulators.

  3. A Host-Produced Autoinducer-2 Mimic Activates Bacterial Quorum Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Anisa S; Valastyan, Julie S; Bassler, Bonnie L

    2016-04-13

    Host-microbial symbioses are vital to health; nonetheless, little is known about the role crosskingdom signaling plays in these relationships. In a process called quorum sensing, bacteria communicate with one another using extracellular signal molecules called autoinducers. One autoinducer, AI-2, is proposed to promote interspecies bacterial communication, including in the mammalian gut. We show that mammalian epithelia produce an AI-2 mimic activity in response to bacteria or tight-junction disruption. This AI-2 mimic is detected by the bacterial AI-2 receptor, LuxP/LsrB, and can activate quorum-sensing-controlled gene expression, including in the enteric pathogen Salmonella typhimurium. AI-2 mimic activity is induced when epithelia are directly or indirectly exposed to bacteria, suggesting that a secreted bacterial component(s) stimulates its production. Mutagenesis revealed genes required for bacteria to both detect and stimulate production of the AI-2 mimic. These findings uncover a potential role for the mammalian AI-2 mimic in fostering crosskingdom signaling and host-bacterial symbioses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Facile Preparation of Carbon-Nanotube-based 3-Dimensional Transparent Conducting Networks for Flexible Noncontact Sensing Device

    KAUST Repository

    Tai, Yanlong; Lubineau, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the controllable fabrication of transparent conductive films (TCFs) for moisture-sensing applications based on heating-rate-triggered, 3-dimensional porous conducting networks of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)/poly(3

  5. Soil Moisture Estimation over Vegetated Agricultural Areas: Tigris Basin, Turkey from Radarsat-2 Data by Polarimetric Decomposition Models and a Generalized Regression Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Siraç Özerdem

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Determining the soil moisture in agricultural fields is a significant parameter to use irrigation systems efficiently. In contrast to standard soil moisture measurements, good results might be acquired in a shorter time over large areas by remote sensing tools. In order to estimate the soil moisture over vegetated agricultural areas, a relationship between Radarsat-2 data and measured ground soil moistures was established by polarimetric decomposition models and a generalized regression neural network (GRNN. The experiments were executed over two agricultural sites on the Tigris Basin, Turkey. The study consists of four phases. In the first stage, Radarsat-2 data were acquired on different dates and in situ measurements were implemented simultaneously. In the second phase, the Radarsat-2 data were pre-processed and the GPS coordinates of the soil sample points were imported to this data. Then the standard sigma backscattering coefficients with the Freeman–Durden and H/A/α polarimetric decomposition models were employed for feature extraction and a feature vector with four sigma backscattering coefficients (σhh, σhv, σvh, and σvv and six polarimetric decomposition parameters (entropy, anisotropy, alpha angle, volume scattering, odd bounce, and double bounce were generated for each pattern. In the last stage, GRNN was used to estimate the regional soil moisture with the aid of feature vectors. The results indicated that radar is a strong remote sensing tool for soil moisture estimation, with mean absolute errors around 2.31 vol %, 2.11 vol %, and 2.10 vol % for Datasets 1–3, respectively; and 2.46 vol %, 2.70 vol %, 7.09 vol %, and 5.70 vol % on Datasets 1 & 2, 2 & 3, 1 & 3, and 1 & 2 & 3, respectively.

  6. Estimating irrigated areas from satellite and model soil moisture data over the contiguous US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaussinger, Felix; Dorigo, Wouter; Gruber, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    Information about irrigation is crucial for a number of applications such as drought- and yield management and contributes to a better understanding of the water-cycle, land-atmosphere interactions as well as climate projections. Currently, irrigation is mainly quantified by national agricultural statistics, which do not include spatial information. The digital Global Map of Irrigated Areas (GMIA) has been the first effort to quantify irrigation at the global scale by merging these statistics with remote sensing data. Also, the MODIS-Irrigated Agriculture Dataset (MirAD-US) was created by merging annual peak MODIS-NDVI with US county level irrigation statistics. In this study we aim to map irrigated areas by confronting time series of various satellite soil moisture products with soil moisture from the ERA-Interim/Land reanalysis product. We follow the assumption that irrigation signals are not modelled in the reanalysis product, nor contributing to its forcing data, but affecting the spatially continuous remote sensing observations. Based on this assumption, spatial patterns of irrigation are derived from differences between the temporal slopes of the modelled and remotely sensed time series during the irrigation season. Results show that a combination of ASCAT and ERA-Interim/Land show spatial patterns which are in good agreement with the MIrAD-US, particularly within the Mississippi Delta, Texas and eastern Nebraska. In contrast, AMSRE shows weak agreements, plausibly due to a higher vegetation dependency of the soil moisture signal. There is no significant agreement to the MIrAD-US in California, which is possibly related to higher crop-diversity and lower field sizes. Also, a strong signal in the region of the Great Corn Belt is observed, which is generally not outlined as an irrigated area. It is not yet clear to what extent the signal obtained in the Mississippi Delta is related to re-reflection effects caused by standing water due to flood or furrow

  7. The study of active tectonic based on hyperspectral remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, J.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, J.; Shen, X.; Ding, R.; Xu, S.

    2017-12-01

    As of the latest technical methods, hyperspectral remote sensing technology has been widely used in each brach of the geosciences. However, it is still a blank for using the hyperspectral remote sensing to study the active structrure. Hyperspectral remote sensing, with high spectral resolution, continuous spectrum, continuous spatial data, low cost, etc, has great potentialities in the areas of stratum division and fault identification. Blind fault identification in plains and invisible fault discrimination in loess strata are the two hot problems in the current active fault research. Thus, the study of active fault based on the hyperspectral technology has great theoretical significance and practical value. Magnetic susceptibility (MS) records could reflect the rhythm alteration of the formation. Previous study shown that MS has correlation with spectral feature. In this study, the Emaokou section, located to the northwest of the town of Huairen, in Shanxi Province, has been chosen for invisible fault study. We collected data from the Emaokou section, including spectral data, hyperspectral image, MS data. MS models based on spectral features were established and applied to the UHD185 image for MS mapping. The results shown that MS map corresponded well to the loess sequences. It can recognize the stratum which can not identity by naked eyes. Invisible fault has been found in this section, which is useful for paleoearthquake analysis. The faults act as the conduit for migration of terrestrial gases, the fault zones, especially the structurally weak zones such as inrtersections or bends of fault, may has different material composition. We take Xiadian fault for study. Several samples cross-fault were collected and these samples were measured by ASD Field Spec 3 spectrometer. Spectral classification method has been used for spectral analysis, we found that the spectrum of the fault zone have four special spectral region(550-580nm, 600-700nm, 700-800nm and 800-900nm

  8. Retrieving soil moisture for non-forested areas using PALS radiometer measurements in SMAPVEX12 field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this paper we investigate retrieval of soil moisture based on L-band brightness temperature under diverse conditions and land cover types. We apply the PALS (Passive Active L-band System) radiometer data collected in the SMAPVEX12 (Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment 2012) field ex...

  9. Examining the relationship between intermediate-scale soil moisture and terrestrial evaporation within a semi-arid grassland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Jana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Interactions between soil moisture and terrestrial evaporation affect water cycle behaviour and responses between the land surface and the atmosphere across scales. With strong heterogeneities at the land surface, the inherent spatial variability in soil moisture makes its representation via point-scale measurements challenging, resulting in scale mismatch when compared to coarser-resolution satellite-based soil moisture or evaporation estimates. The Cosmic Ray Neutron Probe (CRNP was developed to address such issues in the measurement and representation of soil moisture at intermediate scales. Here, we present a study to assess the utility of CRNP soil moisture observations in validating model evaporation estimates. The CRNP soil moisture product from a pasture in the semi-arid central west region of New South Wales, Australia, was compared to evaporation derived from three distinct approaches, including the Priestley–Taylor (PT-JPL, Penman–Monteith (PM-Mu, and Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS models, driven by forcing data from local meteorological station data and remote sensing retrievals from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS sensor. Pearson's correlations, quantile–quantile (Q–Q plots, and analysis of variance (ANOVA were used to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate the temporal distributions of soil moisture and evaporation over the study site. The relationships were examined against nearly 2 years of observation data, as well as for different seasons and for defined periods of analysis. Results highlight that while direct correlations of raw data were not particularly instructive, the Q–Q plots and ANOVA illustrate that the root-zone soil moisture represented by the CRNP measurements and the modelled evaporation estimates reflect similar distributions under most meteorological conditions. The PT-JPL and PM-Mu model estimates performed contrary to expectation when high soil moisture and cold

  10. Mapping land water and energy balance relations through conditional sampling of remote sensing estimates of atmospheric forcing and surface states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhadi, Leila; Entekhabi, Dara; Salvucci, Guido

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we develop and apply a mapping estimation capability for key unknown parameters that link the surface water and energy balance equations. The method is applied to the Gourma region in West Africa. The accuracy of the estimation method at point scale was previously examined using flux tower data. In this study, the capability is scaled to be applicable with remotely sensed data products and hence allow mapping. Parameters of the system are estimated through a process that links atmospheric forcing (precipitation and incident radiation), surface states, and unknown parameters. Based on conditional averaging of land surface temperature and moisture states, respectively, a single objective function is posed that measures moisture and temperature-dependent errors solely in terms of observed forcings and surface states. This objective function is minimized with respect to parameters to identify evapotranspiration and drainage models and estimate water and energy balance flux components. The uncertainty of the estimated parameters (and associated statistical confidence limits) is obtained through the inverse of Hessian of the objective function, which is an approximation of the covariance matrix. This calibration-free method is applied to the mesoscale region of Gourma in West Africa using multiplatform remote sensing data. The retrievals are verified against tower-flux field site data and physiographic characteristics of the region. The focus is to find the functional form of the evaporative fraction dependence on soil moisture, a key closure function for surface and subsurface heat and moisture dynamics, using remote sensing data.

  11. Moving horizon estimation for assimilating H-SAF remote sensing data into the HBV hydrological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Rodolfo Alvarado; Schwanenberg, Dirk; Krahe, Peter; Lisniak, Dmytro; Sensoy, Aynur; Sorman, A. Arda; Akkol, Bulut

    2016-06-01

    Remote sensing information has been extensively developed over the past few years including spatially distributed data for hydrological applications at high resolution. The implementation of these products in operational flow forecasting systems is still an active field of research, wherein data assimilation plays a vital role on the improvement of initial conditions of streamflow forecasts. We present a novel implementation of a variational method based on Moving Horizon Estimation (MHE), in application to the conceptual rainfall-runoff model HBV, to simultaneously assimilate remotely sensed snow covered area (SCA), snow water equivalent (SWE), soil moisture (SM) and in situ measurements of streamflow data using large assimilation windows of up to one year. This innovative application of the MHE approach allows to simultaneously update precipitation, temperature, soil moisture as well as upper and lower zones water storages of the conceptual model, within the assimilation window, without an explicit formulation of error covariance matrixes and it enables a highly flexible formulation of distance metrics for the agreement of simulated and observed variables. The framework is tested in two data-dense sites in Germany and one data-sparse environment in Turkey. Results show a potential improvement of the lead time performance of streamflow forecasts by using perfect time series of state variables generated by the simulation of the conceptual rainfall-runoff model itself. The framework is also tested using new operational data products from the Satellite Application Facility on Support to Operational Hydrology and Water Management (H-SAF) of EUMETSAT. This study is the first application of H-SAF products to hydrological forecasting systems and it verifies their added value. Results from assimilating H-SAF observations lead to a slight reduction of the streamflow forecast skill in all three cases compared to the assimilation of streamflow data only. On the other hand

  12. RFI and Remote Sensing of the Earth from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Vine, D. M.; Johnson, J. T.; Piepmeier, J.

    2016-01-01

    Passive microwave remote sensing of the Earth from space provides information essential for understanding the Earth's environment and its evolution. Parameters such as soil moisture, sea surface temperature and salinity, and profiles of atmospheric temperature and humidity are measured at frequencies determined by the physics (e.g. sensitivity to changes in desired parameters) and by the availability of suitable spectrum free from interference. Interference from manmade sources (radio frequency interference) is an impediment that in many cases limits the potential for accurate measurements from space. A review is presented here of the frequencies employed in passive microwave remote sensing of the Earth from space and the associated experience with RFI.

  13. Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing for Analysis of Landscape Ecological Processes: Current Insights and Trends. Chapter 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.

    2014-01-01

    NASA or NOAA Earth-observing satellites are not the only space-based TIR platforms. The European Space Agency (ESA), the Chinese, and other countries have in orbit or plan to launch TIR remote sensing systems. Satellite remote sensing provides an excellent opportunity to study land-atmosphere energy exchanges at the regional scale. A predominant application of TIR data has been in inferring evaporation, evapotranspiration (ET), and soil moisture. In addition to using TIR data for ET and soil moisture analysis over vegetated surfaces, there is also a need for using these data for assessment of drought conditions. The concept of ecological thermodynamics provides a quantification of surface energy fluxes for landscape characterization in relation to the overall amount of energy input and output from specific land cover types.

  14. Temporal changes of spatial soil moisture patterns: controlling factors explained with a multidisciplinary approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Edoardo; Wollschläger, Ute; Kögler, Simon; Behrens, Thorsten; Dietrich, Peter; Reinstorf, Frido; Schmidt, Karsten; Weiler, Markus; Werban, Ulrike; Zacharias, Steffen

    2016-04-01

    Characterizing the spatial patterns of soil moisture is critical for hydrological and meteorological models, as soil moisture is a key variable that controls matter and energy fluxes and soil-vegetation-atmosphere exchange processes. Deriving detailed process understanding at the hillslope scale is not trivial, because of the temporal variability of local soil moisture dynamics. Nevertheless, it remains a challenge to provide adequate information on the temporal variability of soil moisture and its controlling factors. Recent advances in wireless sensor technology allow monitoring of soil moisture dynamics with high temporal resolution at varying scales. In addition, mobile geophysical methods such as electromagnetic induction (EMI) have been widely used for mapping soil water content at the field scale with high spatial resolution, as being related to soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa). The objective of this study was to characterize the spatial and temporal pattern of soil moisture at the hillslope scale and to infer the controlling hydrological processes, integrating well established and innovative sensing techniques, as well as new statistical methods. We combined soil hydrological and pedological expertise with geophysical measurements and methods from digital soil mapping for designing a wireless soil moisture monitoring network. For a hillslope site within the Schäfertal catchment (Central Germany), soil water dynamics were observed during 14 months, and soil ECa was mapped on seven occasions whithin this period of time using an EM38-DD device. Using the Spearman rank correlation coefficient, we described the temporal persistence of a dry and a wet characteristic state of soil moisture as well as the switching mechanisms, inferring the local properties that control the observed spatial patterns and the hydrological processes driving the transitions. Based on this, we evaluated the use of EMI for mapping the spatial pattern of soil moisture under

  15. Reaction of LiD with moisture by temperature programmed reaction (TPR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinh, L N; Balooch, M; Cecala, C M; Leckey, J H

    2000-01-01

    The temperature programmed reaction technique was performed on LiOH powders and LiD single crystals previously exposed to different moisture levels. Our results show that the LiOH decomposition process has an activation energy barrier of 30 to 33.1 kcal/mol. The LiOH structure is stable at 320 K for 100 years. However, LiOH structures formed on the surface of LiD during moisture exposure at low dosages may have multiple activation energy barriers, some of which may be much lower than 30 kcal/mol. We attribute the lowering of the activation energy barrier for the LiOH decomposition to the existence of dangling bonds, cracks, and other long range disorders in the LiOH structures formed at low levels of moisture exposure. These defective LiOH structures may decompose significantly over the next 100 years of storage even at room temperature. At high moisture exposure levels, LiOH.H 2 O formation is observed. The release of H 2 O molecules from LiOH.H 2 O structure has small activation energy barriers in the range of 13.8 kcal/mol to 16.0 kcal/mol. The loosely bonded H 2 O molecules in the LiOH.H 2 O structure can be easily pumped away at room temperature in a reasonable amount of time. Our experiments also suggest that handling LiD single crystals at an elevated temperature of 340 K or more reduces the growth of LiOH and LiOH.H 2 O significantly

  16. Validation and Scaling of Soil Moisture in a Semi-Arid Environment: SMAP Validation Experiment 2015 (SMAPVEX15)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colliander, Andreas; Cosh, Michael H.; Misra, Sidharth; Jackson, Thomas J.; Crow, Wade T.; Chan, Steven; Bindlish, Rajat; Chae, Chun; Holifield Collins, Chandra; Yueh, Simon H.

    2017-01-01

    The NASA SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive) mission conducted the SMAP Validation Experiment 2015 (SMAPVEX15) in order to support the calibration and validation activities of SMAP soil moisture data products. The main goals of the experiment were to address issues regarding the spatial disaggregation methodologies for improvement of soil moisture products and validation of the in situ measurement upscaling techniques. To support these objectives high-resolution soil moisture maps were acquired with the airborne PALS (Passive Active L-band Sensor) instrument over an area in southeast Arizona that includes the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed (WGEW), and intensive ground sampling was carried out to augment the permanent in situ instrumentation. The objective of the paper was to establish the correspondence and relationship between the highly heterogeneous spatial distribution of soil moisture on the ground and the coarse resolution radiometer-based soil moisture retrievals of SMAP. The high-resolution mapping conducted with PALS provided the required connection between the in situ measurements and SMAP retrievals. The in situ measurements were used to validate the PALS soil moisture acquired at 1-km resolution. Based on the information from a dense network of rain gauges in the study area, the in situ soil moisture measurements did not capture all the precipitation events accurately. That is, the PALS and SMAP soil moisture estimates responded to precipitation events detected by rain gauges, which were in some cases not detected by the in situ soil moisture sensors. It was also concluded that the spatial distribution of the soil moisture resulted from the relatively small spatial extents of the typical convective storms in this region was not completely captured with the in situ stations. After removing those cases (approximately10 of the observations) the following metrics were obtained: RMSD (root mean square difference) of0.016m3m3 and correlation of 0.83. The

  17. Surface moisture estimation in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yitong

    Surface moisture is an important parameter because it modifies urban microclimate and surface layer meteorology. The primary objectives of this paper are: 1) to analyze the impact of surface roughness from buildings on surface moisture in urban areas; and 2) to quantify the impact of surface roughness resulting from urban trees on surface moisture. To achieve the objectives, two hypotheses were tested: 1) the distribution of surface moisture is associated with the structural complexity of buildings in urban areas; and 2) The distribution and change of surface moisture is associated with the distribution and vigor of urban trees. The study area is Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. In the part of the morphology of urban trees, Warren Township was selected due to the limitation of tree inventory data. To test the hypotheses, the research design was made to extract the aerodynamic parameters, such as frontal areas, roughness length and displacement height of buildings and trees from Terrestrial and Airborne LiDAR data, then to input the aerodynamic parameters into the urban surface energy balance model. The methodology was developed for comparing the impact of aerodynamic parameters from LiDAR data with the parameters that were derived empirically from land use and land cover data. The analytical procedures are discussed below: 1) to capture the spatial and temporal variation of surface moisture, daily and hourly Land Surface Temperature (LST) were downscaled from 4 km to 1 km, and 960 m to 30 m, respectively, by regression between LST and various components that impact LST; 2) to estimate surface moisture, namely soil moisture and evapotranspiration (ET), land surfaces were classified into soil, vegetation, and impervious surfaces, using Linear Spectral Mixture Analysis (LSMA); 3) aerodynamic parameters of buildings and trees were extracted from Airborne and Terrestrial LiDAR data; 4) the Temperature-Vegetation-Index (TVX) method, and the Two-Source-Energy-Balance (TSEB

  18. Assimilation of ASCAT near-surface soil moisture into the French SIM hydrological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, C.; Mahfouf, J.-F.; Calvet, J.-C.; Martin, E.; Wagner, W.

    2011-06-01

    The impact of assimilating near-surface soil moisture into the SAFRAN-ISBA-MODCOU (SIM) hydrological model over France is examined. Specifically, the root-zone soil moisture in the ISBA land surface model is constrained over three and a half years, by assimilating the ASCAT-derived surface degree of saturation product, using a Simplified Extended Kalman Filter. In this experiment ISBA is forced with the near-real time SAFRAN analysis, which analyses the variables required to force ISBA from relevant observations available before the real time data cut-off. The assimilation results are tested against ISBA forecasts generated with a higher quality delayed cut-off SAFRAN analysis. Ideally, assimilating the ASCAT data will constrain the ISBA surface state to correct for errors in the near-real time SAFRAN forcing, the most significant of which was a substantial dry bias caused by a dry precipitation bias. The assimilation successfully reduced the mean root-zone soil moisture bias, relative to the delayed cut-off forecasts, by close to 50 % of the open-loop value. The improved soil moisture in the model then led to significant improvements in the forecast hydrological cycle, reducing the drainage, runoff, and evapotranspiration biases (by 17 %, 11 %, and 70 %, respectively). When coupled to the MODCOU hydrogeological model, the ASCAT assimilation also led to improved streamflow forecasts, increasing the mean discharge ratio, relative to the delayed cut off forecasts, from 0.68 to 0.76. These results demonstrate that assimilating near-surface soil moisture observations can effectively constrain the SIM model hydrology, while also confirming the accuracy of the ASCAT surface degree of saturation product. This latter point highlights how assimilation experiments can contribute towards the difficult issue of validating remotely sensed land surface observations over large spatial scales.

  19. Remote Impedance-based Loose Bolt Inspection Using a Radio-Frequency Active Sensing Node

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seung Hee; Yun, Chung Bang [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Inman, Daniel J. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Virginia (United States)

    2007-06-15

    This paper introduces an active sensing node using radio-frequency (RF) telemetry. This device has brought the traditional impedance-based structural health monitoring (SHM) technique to a new paradigm. The RF active sensing node consists of a miniaturized impedance measuring device (AD5933), a microcontroller (ATmega128L), and a radio frequency (RF) transmitter (XBee). A macro-fiber composite (MFC) patch interrogates a host structure by using a self-sensing technique of the miniaturized impedance measuring device. All the process including structural interrogation, data acquisition, signal processing, and damage diagnostic is being performed at the sensor location by the microcontroller. The RF transmitter is used to communicate the current status of the host structure. The feasibility of the proposed SHM strategy is verified through an experimental study inspecting loose bolts in a bolt-jointed aluminum structure

  20. Remote Impedance-based Loose Bolt Inspection Using a Radio-Frequency Active Sensing Node

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seung Hee; Yun, Chung Bang; Inman, Daniel J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces an active sensing node using radio-frequency (RF) telemetry. This device has brought the traditional impedance-based structural health monitoring (SHM) technique to a new paradigm. The RF active sensing node consists of a miniaturized impedance measuring device (AD5933), a microcontroller (ATmega128L), and a radio frequency (RF) transmitter (XBee). A macro-fiber composite (MFC) patch interrogates a host structure by using a self-sensing technique of the miniaturized impedance measuring device. All the process including structural interrogation, data acquisition, signal processing, and damage diagnostic is being performed at the sensor location by the microcontroller. The RF transmitter is used to communicate the current status of the host structure. The feasibility of the proposed SHM strategy is verified through an experimental study inspecting loose bolts in a bolt-jointed aluminum structure

  1. Strand displacement activated peroxidase activity of hemin for fluorescent DNA sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quanbo; Xu, Nan; Gui, Zhen; Lei, Jianping; Ju, Huangxian; Yan, Feng

    2015-10-07

    To efficiently regulate the catalytic activity of the peroxidase mimic hemin, this work designs a double-stranded DNA probe containing an intermolecular dimer of hemin, whose peroxidase activity can be activated by a DNA strand displacement reaction. The double-stranded probe is prepared by annealing two strands of hemin labelled DNA oligonucleotides. Using the fluorescent oxidation product of tyramine by H2O2 as a tracing molecule, the low peroxidase activity of the hemin dimer ensures a low fluorescence background. The strand displacement reaction of the target DNA dissociates the hemin dimer and thus significantly increases the catalytic activity of hemin to produce a large amount of dityramine for fluorescence signal readout. Based on the strand displacement regulated peroxidase activity, a simple and sensitive homogeneous fluorescent DNA sensing method is proposed. The detection can conveniently be carried out in a 96-well plate within 20 min with a detection limit of 0.18 nM. This method shows high specificity, which can effectively distinguish single-base mismatched DNA from perfectly matched target DNA. The DNA strand displacement regulated catalytic activity of hemin has promising application in the determination of various DNA analytes.

  2. Precipitation Estimation Using L-Band and C-Band Soil Moisture Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Randal D.; Brocca, Luca; Crow, Wade T.; Burgin, Mariko S.; De Lannoy, Gabrielle J. M.

    2016-01-01

    An established methodology for estimating precipitation amounts from satellite-based soil moisture retrievals is applied to L-band products from the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) and Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite missions and to a C-band product from the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) mission. The precipitation estimates so obtained are evaluated against in situ (gauge-based) precipitation observations from across the globe. The precipitation estimation skill achieved using the L-band SMAP and SMOS data sets is higher than that obtained with the C-band product, as might be expected given that L-band is sensitive to a thicker layer of soil and thereby provides more information on the response of soil moisture to precipitation. The square of the correlation coefficient between the SMAP-based precipitation estimates and the observations (for aggregations to approximately100 km and 5 days) is on average about 0.6 in areas of high rain gauge density. Satellite missions specifically designed to monitor soil moisture thus do provide significant information on precipitation variability, information that could contribute to efforts in global precipitation estimation.

  3. Evaluation of Optimum Moisture Content for Composting of Beef Manure and Bedding Material Mixtures Using Oxygen Uptake Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Eunjong Kim; Dong-Hyun Lee; Seunggun Won; Heekwon Ahn

    2016-01-01

    Moisture content influences physiological characteristics of microbes and physical structure of solid matrices during composting of animal manure. If moisture content is maintained at a proper level, aerobic microorganisms show more active oxygen consumption during composting due to increased microbial activity. In this study, optimum moisture levels for composting of two bedding materials (sawdust, rice hull) and two different mixtures of bedding and beef manure (BS, Beef cattle manure+sawdu...

  4. Arctic temperature and moisture trends during the past 2000 years - Progress from multiproxy-paleoclimate data compilations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Darrell; Routson, Cody; McKay, Nicholas; Beltrami, Hugo; Jaume-Santero, Fernando; Konecky, Bronwen; Saenger, Casey

    2017-04-01

    Instrumental climate data and climate-model projections show that Arctic-wide surface temperature and precipitation are positively correlated. Higher temperatures coincide with greater moisture by: (1) expanding the duration and source area for evaporation as sea ice retracts, (2) enhancing the poleward moisture transport, and (3) increasing the water-vapor content of the atmosphere. Higher temperature also influences evaporation rate, and therefore precipitation minus evaporation (P-E), the climate variable often sensed by paleo-hydroclimate proxies. Here, we test whether Arctic temperature and moisture also correlate on centennial timescales over the Common Era (CE). We use the new PAGES2k multiproxy-temperature dataset along with a first-pass compilation of moisture-sensitive proxy records to calculate century-scale composite timeseries, with a focus on longer records that extend back through the first millennium CE. We present a new Arctic borehole temperature reconstruction as a check on the magnitude of Little Ice Age cooling inferred from the proxy records, and we investigate the spatial pattern of centennial-scale variability. Similar to previous reconstructions, v2 of the PAGES2k proxy temperature dataset shows that, prior to the 20th century, mean annual Arctic-wide temperature decreased over the CE. The millennial-scale cooling trend is most prominent in proxy records from glacier ice, but is also registered in lake and marine sediment, and trees. In contrast, the composite of moisture-sensitive (primarily P-E) records does not exhibit a millennial-scale trend. Determining whether fluctuations in the mean state of Arctic temperature and moisture were in fact decoupled is hampered by the difficulty in detecting a significant trend within the relatively small number of spatially heterogeneous multi-proxy moisture-sensitive records. A decoupling of temperature and moisture would indicate that evaporation had a strong counterbalancing effect on precipitation

  5. Measurement of soil moisture using gypsum blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Dela, B.

    the building. Consequently, measuring the moisture of the surrounding soil is of great importance for detecting the source of moisture in a building. Up till now, information has been needed to carry out individual calibrations for the different types of gypsum blocks available on the market and to account......For the past 50 years, gypsum blocks have been used to determine soil moisture content. This report describes a method for calibrating gypsum blocks for soil moisture measurements. Moisture conditions inside a building are strongly influenced by the moisture conditions in the soil surrounding...

  6. Finally It Is Possible To Measure Area-Average Soil Moisture!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuttleworth, W. J.; Zreda, M. G.; Zeng, X.; Zweck, C.; Franz, T. E.; Rosolem, R.

    2011-12-01

    When a hitherto impossible measurement becomes possible, there are transformational changes in understanding. Measuring soil moisture using cosmic rays sounds like 1950s science fiction. But the non-invasive measurement of soil moisture at a horizontal scale of ~700m and depths of 15-70 cm is now feasible, by counting cosmic-ray neutrons that are generated within soil, moderated mainly by the hydrogen atoms, and emitted back to the atmosphere. The number of neutrons counted is sensitive to water content changes, only weakly sensitive to soil chemistry, and their intensity is inversely correlated with the hydrogen (i.e., water) content of the soil. Neither the basis of this measurement method nor the sensor technology used is new, they have been around for decades. However, the systematic understanding of cosmic-ray interactions at the ground-atmosphere interface and resulting knowledge of the source "footprint" of above ground neutron detectors and recognition of their limited of sensitivity to soil type in selected neutron energy bands is new, as is the low power electronics used for remote signal conditioning, counting and data capture. The measurement with a portable neutron detector placed above the ground takes minutes to hours, permitting high-resolution, long-term monitoring of undisturbed soil moisture. The large footprint makes the method suitable for weather and short-term climate forecast initialization and satellite validation, while the measurement depth makes the probe ideal for studying plant/soil/atmosphere interactions. Inclusion of a second detector that is sensitive to neutrons with lower energy shows promise as a means for detecting snow cover. This talk briefly overviews evidence that soil moisture status can potentially influence weather and seasonal climate and describe the COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing System (COSMOS), which observing program will install initially a network of 50 probes (to provide a proof of concept) and subsequently

  7. Progress in Analysis to Remote Sensed Thermal Abnormity with Fault Activity and Seismogenic Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WU Lixin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Research to the remote sensed thermal abnormity with fault activity and seismogenic process is a vital topic of the Earth observation and remote sensing application. It is presented that a systematic review on the international researches on the topic during the past 30 years, in the respects of remote sensing data applications, anomaly analysis methods, and mechanism understanding. Firstly, the outlines of remote sensing data applications are given including infrared brightness temperature, microwave brightness temperature, outgoing longwave radiation, and assimilated data from multiple earth observations. Secondly, three development phases are summarized as qualitative analysis based on visual interpretation, quantitative analysis based on image processing, and multi-parameter spatio-temporal correlation analysis. Thirdly, the theoretical hypotheses presented for the mechanism understanding are introduced including earth degassing, stress-induced heat, crustal rock battery conversion, latent heat release due to radon decay as well as multi-spheres coupling effect. Finally, three key directions of future research on this topic are proposed:anomaly recognizing by remote sensing monitoring and data analysis for typical tectonic activity areas; anomaly mechanism understanding based on earthquake-related earth system responses; spatio-temporal correlation analysis of air-based, space-based and ground-based stereoscopic observations.

  8. Probing bias reduction to improve comparability of lint cotton water and moisture contents at moisture equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Karl Fischer Titration (KFT) reference method is specific for water in lint cotton and was designed for samples conditioned to moisture equilibrium, thus limiting its biases. There is a standard method for moisture content – weight loss – by oven drying (OD), just not for equilibrium moisture c...

  9. Passive microwave remote sensing of soil moisture - The effect of tilled row structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. R.; Newton, R. W.; Rouse, J. W., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The tilled row structure in agricultural fields is one of the important factors affecting observations of microwave emission from such fields. Measurements of this effect were performed with L-band and X-band radiometers mounted on a mobile truck on a bare 40 m x 45 m row tilled field; the soil moisture content during measurements ranged from 10 to 30% by dry weight. Results showed that the variations of the antenna temperatures with incident angle changed with the azimuth angle measured from the row direction. It is found that the observed difference between horizontally and vertically polarized antenna temperatures is due to the change in the local angle of field emission within the antenna field of view caused by the large-scale row structure.

  10. Investigation on Tensile Strength Ratio (TSR Specimen to Predict Moisture Sensitivity of Asphalt Pavements Mixture and Using Polymer to Reduce Moisture Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Aziz Hameed Al-Shaybani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Moisture damage of asphalt concrete is defined as losing the strength and Permanence caused by the active presence of moisture.The most common technique to reduce moisture damage is using modifiers with the asphalt binder or the aggregate.The goal of this study was to explore the effect of various modifiers of polymer on the moisture susceptibility mixture of asphaltic concrete pavement. Modifiers included in this research selected two kinds of polymers Crumb Rubber No 50 (CR No 50 and Methyl Methacrylates (MMA(which are available in the local markets in Iraq and have been used in three percentages for each type. These percentages are (5, 10 and 15% for (CR No 50 and (2.5, 5 and 7.5(% for (MMA.Each type of these polymers is blended with asphalt by wet process at constant blending times for a suitable range of temperatures. The experimental works showed that all polymers modified mixtures have indirect tensile strength higher than control asphalt mixtures, its about (2-15 %, dependent on different type of polymer and polymer concentration under predicted suitable blending time.Test results of indirect tensile strength indicated betterment in modifying the proprieties of mixture, the increased resistance mixture of asphalt concrete pavement versus moisture damage, and reduced the effect of water on asphalt concrete properties. The final result is the addition of (10% CR No 50 and (5% MMA to asphalt mixtures showed an improved mixture of asphalt concrete properties and produced strong mixtures for road construction.One model is predicted for tensile strength ratio [TSR]to estimate the effects of polymer modification on moisture susceptibility mixture of asphalt concrete.

  11. Mechanisms of deterioration of intermediate moisture food systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labuza, T. P.

    1972-01-01

    A study of shelf stability in intermediate moisture foods was made. Major efforts were made to control lipid oxidation and nonenzymatic browning. In order to determine means of preventing these reactions, model systems were developed having the same water activity content relationship of intermediate moisture foods. Models were based on a cellulose-lipid and protein-lipid system with glycerol added as the humectant. Experiments with both systems indicate that lipid oxidation is promoted significantly in the intermediate moisture range. The effect appeared to be related to increased mobility of either reactants or catalysts, since when the amount of water in the system reached a level where capillary condensation occurred and thus free water was present, the rates of oxidation increased. With added glycerol, which is water soluble and thus increases the amount of mobile phase, the increase in oxidation rate occurs at a lower relative humidity. The rates of oxidation were maximized at 61% RH and decreased again at 75% RH probably due to dilution. No significant non-enzymatic browning occurred in the protein-lipid systems. Prevention of oxidation by the use of metal chelating agents was enhanced in the cellulose system, whereas, with protein present, the lipid soluble chain terminating antioxidants (such as BHA) worked equally as well. Preliminary studies of foods adjusted to the intermediate moisture range bear out the results of oxidation in model systems. It can be concluded that for most fat containing intermediate moisture foods, rancidity will be the reaction most limiting stability.

  12. Response of deep soil moisture to land use and afforestation in the semi-arid Loess Plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Wei, Wei; Chen, Liding; Mo, Baoru

    2012-12-01

    SummarySoil moisture is an effective water source for plant growth in the semi-arid Loess Plateau of China. Characterizing the response of deep soil moisture to land use and afforestation is important for the sustainability of vegetation restoration in this region. In this paper, the dynamics of soil moisture were quantified to evaluate the effect of land use on soil moisture at a depth of 2 m. Specifically, the gravimetric soil moisture content was measured in the soil layer between 0 and 8 m for five land use types in the Longtan catchment of the western Loess Plateau. The land use types included traditional farmland, native grassland, and lands converted from traditional farmland (pasture grassland, shrubland and forestland). Results indicate that the deep soil moisture content decreased more than 35% after land use conversion, and a soil moisture deficit appeared in all types of land with introduced vegetation. The introduced vegetation decreased the soil moisture content to levels lower than the reference value representing no human impact in the entire 0-8 m soil profile. No significant differences appeared between different land use types and introduced vegetation covers, especially in deeper soil layers, regardless of which plant species were introduced. High planting density was found to be the main reason for the severe deficit of soil moisture. Landscape management activities such as tillage activities, micro-topography reconstruction, and fallowed farmland affected soil moisture in both shallow and deep soil layers. Tillage and micro-topography reconstruction can be used as effective countermeasures to reduce the soil moisture deficit due to their ability to increase soil moisture content. For sustainable vegetation restoration in a vulnerable semi-arid region, the plant density should be optimized with local soil moisture conditions and appropriate landscape management practices.

  13. Compact RFID Enabled Moisture Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. H. Khan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research proposes a novel, low-cost RFID tag sensor antenna implemented using commercially available Kodak photo-paper. The aim of this paper is to investigate the possibility of stable, RFID centric communication under varying moisture levels. Variation in the frequency response of the RFID tag in presence of moisture is used to detect different moisture levels. Combination of unique jaw shaped contours and T-matching network is used for impedance matching which results in compact size and minimal ink consumption. Proposed tag is 1.4 × 9.4 cm2 in size and shows optimum results for various moisture levels upto 45% in FCC band with a bore sight read range of 12.1 m.

  14. Neutron moisture monitoring (NMM) and moisture contents in the Green River, Utah, UMTRA disposal cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    This report provides the basis for the US Department of Energy's (DOE) request to discontinue neutron moisture monitoring (NMM) at the Green River, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) disposal cell and decommission the neutron access holes. After 3 years of monitoring the disposal cell, the DOE has determined that the NMM method is not suitable for determining changes in moisture content in the disposal cell. Existing tailings moisture contents in the disposal cell result in a low seepage flux. The combination of a low seepage flux and geochemical retardation by foundation materials underneath the disposal cell ensures that the proposed US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) groundwater protection standards will not be exceeded within the design life of the disposal cell. To assess the effectiveness of the NMM method for monitoring moisture contents In the disposal cell at Green River, the DOE subsequently conducted a field study and a review of historical and new literature. The literature review allowed the DOE to identify performance criteria for the NMM method. Findings of these studies suggest that: The NMM method is not sensitive to the low moisture contents found in the disposal cell.; there is an insufficient range of moisture contents in the disposal cell to develop a field calibration curve relating moisture content to neutron counts; it is not possible to collect NMM data from the disposal cell that meet data quality objectives for precision and accuracy developed from performance criteria described in the literature

  15. On-irrigator pasture soil moisture sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Adrian Eng-Choon; Richards, Sean; Platt, Ian; Woodhead, Ian

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we presented the development of a proximal soil moisture sensor that measured the soil moisture content of dairy pasture directly from the boom of an irrigator. The proposed sensor was capable of soil moisture measurements at an accuracy of  ±5% volumetric moisture content, and at meter scale ground area resolutions. The sensor adopted techniques from the ultra-wideband radar to enable measurements of ground reflection at resolutions that are smaller than the antenna beamwidth of the sensor. An experimental prototype was developed for field measurements. Extensive field measurements using the developed prototype were conducted on grass pasture at different ground conditions to validate the accuracy of the sensor in performing soil moisture measurements. (paper)

  16. Moisture measurement in the iron and steel industry: experience with nuclear moisture measurements in coke, and studies of infrared moisture measurement of iron ore mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beumer, J.A.; Wouters, M.

    1976-01-01

    In the heavy iron-making industry there are several processes for which it is necessary to measure on-line the moisture content of certain process materials, especially in the field of iron ore preparation and blast furnace practice. Two examples are given. (1) Experience with nuclear moisture-measurements in coke covers a period of ten years in which eight measuring systems have been installed in the weighing hoppers of blast furnaces. The standard deviation is about 0.7% moisture in the range 0 to 15% moisture. The way the method is used, the safety measures and the difficulties encountered, especially the effect on recalibration of neutron-absorbing materials in photomultipliers are described. (2) The application of infrared absorption to the study of moisture measurment or iron ore mixtures is described. With an ore mixture for pellets manufacture, a rather dark ore mixture, problems have arisen concerning the sensitivity. The reference and measuring wavelengths now in use are 2.51 and 2.95 μm. In this case the absorption of the energy is rather high. The results may be improved by using quartz optics instead of the normal Pyrex ones, as the cut-off wavelength of Pyrex is about 3 μm. Variations due to colour and specific surface have been studied. As the accuracy required is +- 0.1% moisture in the range 8 to 12% moisture, these variations need to be eliminated. (author)

  17. Assimilation of remote sensing observations into a continuous distributed hydrological model: impacts on the hydrologic cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiolo, Paola; Gabellani, Simone; Campo, Lorenzo; Cenci, Luca; Silvestro, Francesco; Delogu, Fabio; Boni, Giorgio; Rudari, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    The reliable estimation of hydrological variables (e.g. soil moisture, evapotranspiration, surface temperature) in space and time is of fundamental importance in operational hydrology to improve the forecast of the rainfall-runoff response of catchments and, consequently, flood predictions. Nowadays remote sensing can offer a chance to provide good space-time estimates of several hydrological variables and then improve hydrological model performances especially in environments with scarce in-situ data. This work investigates the impact of the assimilation of different remote sensing products on the hydrological cycle by using a continuous physically based distributed hydrological model. Three soil moisture products derived by ASCAT (Advanced SCATterometer) are used to update the model state variables. The satellite-derived products are assimilated into the hydrological model using different assimilation techniques: a simple nudging and the Ensemble Kalman Filter. Moreover two assimilation strategies are evaluated to assess the impact of assimilating the satellite products at model spatial resolution or at the satellite scale. The experiments are carried out for three Italian catchments on multi year period. The benefits on the model predictions of discharge, LST, evapotranspiration and soil moisture dynamics are tested and discussed.

  18. MEMS sensor technologies for human centred applications in healthcare, physical activities, safety and environmental sensing: a review on research activities in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuti, Gastone; Ricotti, Leonardo; Menciassi, Arianna; Dario, Paolo

    2015-03-17

    Over the past few decades the increased level of public awareness concerning healthcare, physical activities, safety and environmental sensing has created an emerging need for smart sensor technologies and monitoring devices able to sense, classify, and provide feedbacks to users' health status and physical activities, as well as to evaluate environmental and safety conditions in a pervasive, accurate and reliable fashion. Monitoring and precisely quantifying users' physical activity with inertial measurement unit-based devices, for instance, has also proven to be important in health management of patients affected by chronic diseases, e.g., Parkinson's disease, many of which are becoming highly prevalent in Italy and in the Western world. This review paper will focus on MEMS sensor technologies developed in Italy in the last three years describing research achievements for healthcare and physical activity, safety and environmental sensing, in addition to smart systems integration. Innovative and smart integrated solutions for sensing devices, pursued and implemented in Italian research centres, will be highlighted, together with specific applications of such technologies. Finally, the paper will depict the future perspective of sensor technologies and corresponding exploitation opportunities, again with a specific focus on Italy.

  19. MEMS Sensor Technologies for Human Centred Applications in Healthcare, Physical Activities, Safety and Environmental Sensing: A Review on Research Activities in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gastone Ciuti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades the increased level of public awareness concerning healthcare, physical activities, safety and environmental sensing has created an emerging need for smart sensor technologies and monitoring devices able to sense, classify, and provide feedbacks to users’ health status and physical activities, as well as to evaluate environmental and safety conditions in a pervasive, accurate and reliable fashion. Monitoring and precisely quantifying users’ physical activity with inertial measurement unit-based devices, for instance, has also proven to be important in health management of patients affected by chronic diseases, e.g., Parkinson’s disease, many of which are becoming highly prevalent in Italy and in the Western world. This review paper will focus on MEMS sensor technologies developed in Italy in the last three years describing research achievements for healthcare and physical activity, safety and environmental sensing, in addition to smart systems integration. Innovative and smart integrated solutions for sensing devices, pursued and implemented in Italian research centres, will be highlighted, together with specific applications of such technologies. Finally, the paper will depict the future perspective of sensor technologies and corresponding exploitation opportunities, again with a specific focus on Italy.

  20. Development of a neutron moisture gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, A.S.

    1979-01-01

    A neutron moisture gauge fabricated for measuring the moisture content of coke is described. It has an americium-beryllium source placed beside a boron coated neutron counter which is a slow neutron detector. The fast neutrons emitted by the radioactive source are slowed down by the hydrogen nuclei present in the material either as bound hydrogen or as a hydrogen of the water. Measure of the slowed down i.e. thermal neutrons (their density) is proportional to the total hydrogen content of the material. The instrument is installed as an ''on-line'' measuring device to estimate the moisture content of coke at the weighing hopper feeding the skip car. The accuracy of measurement is dependent on the moisture content, i.e. higher accuracy is obtained for higher moisture content. At low moisture content, the effect of the bound hydrogen other than that of the water on low moisture readings is pronounced. Effect of bulk density on the accuracy of measurement is not very significant as long as the coke size is constant. The error is in the range of +- 1.1%. (M.G.B.)

  1. The effects of knee direction, physical activity and age on knee joint position sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relph, Nicola; Herrington, Lee

    2016-06-01

    Previous research has suggested a decline in knee proprioception with age. Furthermore, regular participation in physical activity may improve proprioceptive ability. However, there is no large scale data on uninjured populations to confirm these theories. The aim of this study was to provide normative knee joint position data (JPS) from healthy participants aged 18-82years to evaluate the effects of age, physical activity and knee direction. A sample of 116 participants across five age groups was used. The main outcome measures were knee JPS absolute error scores into flexion and extension, Tegner activity levels and General Practitioner Physical Activity Questionnaire results. Absolute error scores in to knee flexion were 3.6°, 3.9°, 3.5°, 3.7° and 3.1° and knee extension were 2.7°, 2.5°, 2.9°, 3.4° and 3.9° for ages 15-29, 30-44, 45-59, 60-74 and 75 years old respectively. Knee extension and flexion absolute error scores were significantly different when age group data were pooled. There was a significant effect of age and activity level on joint position sense into knee extension. Age and lower Tegner scores were also negatively correlated to joint position sense into knee extension. The results provide some evidence for a decline in knee joint position sense with age. Further, active populations may have heightened static proprioception compared to inactive groups. Normative knee joint position sense data is provided and may be used by practitioners to identify patients with reduced proprioceptive ability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of sample moisture and bulk density on performance of the 241Am-Be source based prompt gamma rays neutron activation analysis setup. A Monte Carlo study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almisned, Ghada

    2010-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations were carried out using the dependence of gamma ray yield on the bulk density and moisture content for five different lengths of Portland cement samples in a thermal neutron capture based Prompt Gamma ray Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) setup for source inside moderator geometry using an 241 Am-Be neutron source. In this study, yields of 1.94 and 6.42 MeV prompt gamma rays from calcium in the five Portland cement samples were calculated as a function of sample bulk density and moisture content. The study showed a strong dependence of the 1.94 and 6.42 MeV gamma ray yield upon the sample bulk density but a weaker dependence upon sample moisture content. For an order of magnitude increase in the sample bulk density, an order of magnitude increase in the gamma rays yield was observed, i.e., a one-to-one correspondence. In case of gamma ray yield dependence upon sample moisture content, an order of magnitude increase in the moisture content of the sample resulted in about 16-17% increase in the yield of 1.94 and 6.42 MeV gamma rays from calcium. (author)

  3. Achieving Efficient Spectrum Usage in Passive and Active Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huaiyi

    Increasing demand for supporting more wireless services with higher performance and reliability within the frequency bands that are most conducive to operating cost-effective cellular and mobile broadband is aggravating current electromagnetic spectrum congestion. This situation motivates technology and management innovation to increase the efficiency of spectral use. If primary-secondary spectrum sharing can be shown possible without compromising (or while even improving) performance in an existing application, opportunities for efficiency may be realizable by making the freed spectrum available for commercial use. While both active and passive sensing systems are vitally important for many public good applications, opportunities for increasing the efficiency of spectrum use can be shown to exist for both systems. This dissertation explores methods and technologies for remote sensing systems that enhance spectral efficiency and enable dynamic spectrum access both within and outside traditionally allocated bands.

  4. Mathematical Modeling of Interacting Glucose-Sensing Mechanisms and Electrical Activity Underlying Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Riz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal L-cells sense glucose and other nutrients, and in response release glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1, peptide YY and other hormones with anti-diabetic and weight-reducing effects. The stimulus-secretion pathway in L-cells is still poorly understood, although it is known that GLP-1 secreting cells use sodium-glucose co-transporters (SGLT and ATP-sensitive K+-channels (K(ATP-channels to sense intestinal glucose levels. Electrical activity then transduces glucose sensing to Ca2+-stimulated exocytosis. This particular glucose-sensing arrangement with glucose triggering both a depolarizing SGLT current as well as leading to closure of the hyperpolarizing K(ATP current is of more general interest for our understanding of glucose-sensing cells. To dissect the interactions of these two glucose-sensing mechanisms, we build a mathematical model of electrical activity underlying GLP-1 secretion. Two sets of model parameters are presented: one set represents primary mouse colonic L-cells; the other set is based on data from the GLP-1 secreting GLUTag cell line. The model is then used to obtain insight into the differences in glucose-sensing between primary L-cells and GLUTag cells. Our results illuminate how the two glucose-sensing mechanisms interact, and suggest that the depolarizing effect of SGLT currents is modulated by K(ATP-channel activity. Based on our simulations, we propose that primary L-cells encode the glucose signal as changes in action potential amplitude, whereas GLUTag cells rely mainly on frequency modulation. The model should be useful for further basic, pharmacological and theoretical investigations of the cellular signals underlying endogenous GLP-1 and peptide YY release.

  5. Corrosion of Embedded Metals in Wood: An Overview of Recent Research with Implications for building moisture design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka

    2013-01-01

    ASHRAE Standard 160, Criteria for Moisture-Control Design Analysis in Buildings, specifies moisture design criteria in buildings to prevent moisture damage such as fungal activity and corrosion. While there has been much research on mold and decay fungi in wood buildings, it is often overlooked that wet wood is corrosive to the metal screws...

  6. Monitoring Forage Production of California Rangeland Using Remote Sensing Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H.; Jin, Y.; Dahlgren, R. A.; O'Geen, A. T.; Roche, L. M.; Smith, A. M.; Flavell, D.

    2016-12-01

    Pastures and rangeland cover more than 10 million hectares in California's coastal and inland foothill regions, providing feeds to livestock and important ecosystem services. Forage production in California has a large year-to-year variation due to large inter-annual and seasonal variabilities in precipitation and temperature. It also varies spatially due to the variability in climate and soils. Our goal is to develop a robust and cost-effective tool to map the near-real-time and historical forage productivity in California using remote sensing observations from Landsat and MODIS satellites. We used a Monteith's eco-physiological plant growth theory: the aboveground net primary production (ANPP) is determined by (i) the absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR) and the (ii) light use efficiency (LUE): ANPP = APAR * LUEmax * f(T) * f(SM), where LUEmax is the maximum LUE, and f(T) and f(SM) are the temperature and soil moisture constrains on LUE. APAR was estimated with Landsat and MODIS vegetation index (VI), and LUE was calibrated with a statewide point dataset of peak forage production measurements at 75 annual rangeland sites. A non-linear optimization was performed to derive maximum LUE and the parameters for temperature and soil moisture regulation on LUE by minimizing the differences between the estimated and measured ANPP. Our results showed the satellite-derived annual forage production estimates correlated well withcontemporaneous in-situ forage measurements and captured both the spatial and temporal productivity patterns of forage productivity well. This remote sensing algorithm can be further improved as new field measurements become available. This tool will have a great importance in maintaining a sustainable range industry by providing key knowledge for ranchers and the stakeholders to make managerial decisions.

  7. Multilayer moisture barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankow, Joel W; Jorgensen, Gary J; Terwilliger, Kent M; Glick, Stephen H; Isomaki, Nora; Harkonen, Kari; Turkulainen, Tommy

    2015-04-21

    A moisture barrier, device or product having a moisture barrier or a method of fabricating a moisture barrier having at least a polymer layer, and interfacial layer, and a barrier layer. The polymer layer may be fabricated from any suitable polymer including, but not limited to, fluoropolymers such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) or polyethylene naphthalate (PEN), or ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE). The interfacial layer may be formed by atomic layer deposition (ALD). In embodiments featuring an ALD interfacial layer, the deposited interfacial substance may be, but is not limited to, Al.sub.2O.sub.3, AlSiO.sub.x, TiO.sub.2, and an Al.sub.2O.sub.3/TiO.sub.2 laminate. The barrier layer associated with the interfacial layer may be deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The barrier layer may be a SiO.sub.xN.sub.y film.

  8. Heating-Rate-Triggered Carbon-Nanotube-based 3-Dimensional Conducting Networks for a Highly Sensitive Noncontact Sensing Device

    KAUST Repository

    Tai, Yanlong

    2016-01-28

    Recently, flexible and transparent conductive films (TCFs) are drawing more attention for their central role in future applications of flexible electronics. Here, we report the controllable fabrication of TCFs for moisture-sensing applications based on heating-rate-triggered, 3-dimensional porous conducting networks through drop casting lithography of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) ink. How ink formula and baking conditions influence the self-assembled microstructure of the TCFs is discussed. The sensor presents high-performance properties, including a reasonable sheet resistance (2.1 kohm/sq), a high visible-range transmittance (>69%, PET = 90%), and good stability when subjected to cyclic loading (>1000 cycles, better than indium tin oxide film) during processing, when formulation parameters are well optimized (weight ratio of SWCNT to PEDOT:PSS: 1:0.5, SWCNT concentration: 0.3 mg/ml, and heating rate: 36 °C/minute). Moreover, the benefits of these kinds of TCFs were verified through a fully transparent, highly sensitive, rapid response, noncontact moisture-sensing device (5 × 5 sensing pixels).

  9. Contributions of Precipitation and Soil Moisture Observations to the Skill of Soil Moisture Estimates in a Land Data Assimilation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichle, Rolf H.; Liu, Qing; Bindlish, Rajat; Cosh, Michael H.; Crow, Wade T.; deJeu, Richard; DeLannoy, Gabrielle J. M.; Huffman, George J.; Jackson, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    The contributions of precipitation and soil moisture observations to the skill of soil moisture estimates from a land data assimilation system are assessed. Relative to baseline estimates from the Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), the study investigates soil moisture skill derived from (i) model forcing corrections based on large-scale, gauge- and satellite-based precipitation observations and (ii) assimilation of surface soil moisture retrievals from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System (AMSR-E). Soil moisture skill is measured against in situ observations in the continental United States at 44 single-profile sites within the Soil Climate Analysis Network (SCAN) for which skillful AMSR-E retrievals are available and at four CalVal watersheds with high-quality distributed sensor networks that measure soil moisture at the scale of land model and satellite estimates. The average skill (in terms of the anomaly time series correlation coefficient R) of AMSR-E retrievals is R=0.39 versus SCAN and R=0.53 versus CalVal measurements. The skill of MERRA surface and root-zone soil moisture is R=0.42 and R=0.46, respectively, versus SCAN measurements, and MERRA surface moisture skill is R=0.56 versus CalVal measurements. Adding information from either precipitation observations or soil moisture retrievals increases surface soil moisture skill levels by IDDeltaR=0.06-0.08, and root zone soil moisture skill levels by DeltaR=0.05-0.07. Adding information from both sources increases surface soil moisture skill levels by DeltaR=0.13, and root zone soil moisture skill by DeltaR=0.11, demonstrating that precipitation corrections and assimilation of satellite soil moisture retrievals contribute similar and largely independent amounts of information.

  10. Mathematical modeling of microwave dried celery leaves and determination of the effective moisture diffusivities and activation energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilknur Alibas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Celery (Apium graveolens L. var. secalinum Alef leaves with 50±0.07 g weight and 91.75±0.15% humidity (~11.21 db were dried using 8 different microwave power densities ranging between 1.8-20 W g-1, until the humidity fell down to 8.95±0.23% (~0.1 db. Microwave drying processes were completed between 5.5 and 77 min depending on the microwave power densities. In this study, measured values were compared with predicted values obtained from twenty thin layer drying theoretical, semi-empirical and empirical equations with a new thin layer drying equation. Within applied microwave power density; models whose coefficient and correlation (R² values are highest were chosen as the best models. Weibull distribution model gave the most suitable predictions at all power density. At increasing microwave power densities, the effective moisture diffusivity values ranged from 1.595 10-10 to 6.377 10-12 m2 s-1. The activation energy was calculated using an exponential expression based on Arrhenius equation. The linear relationship between the drying rate constant and effective moisture diffusivity gave the best fit.

  11. Classroom Activities to Engage Students and Promote Critical Thinking about Genetic Regulation of Bacterial Quorum Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Aebli

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We developed an interactive activity to mimic bacterial quorum sensing, and a classroom worksheet to promote critical thinking about genetic regulation of the lux operon. The interactive quorum sensing activity engages students and provides a direct visualization of how population density functions to influence light production in bacteria. The worksheet activity consists of practice problems that require students to apply basic knowledge of the lux operon in order to make predictions about genetic complementation experiments, and students must evaluate how genetic mutations in the lux operon affect gene expression and overall phenotype. The worksheet promotes critical thinking and problem solving skills, and emphasizes the roles of diffusible signaling molecules, regulatory proteins, and structural proteins in quorum sensing.

  12. MOISTURE-BUFFERING CHARACTERISTICS OF BUILDING MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Cheol Choi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The humidity level of indoor air is an important factor influencing the air quality and energy consumption of buildings, as well as the durability of building components. Indoor humidity levels depend on several factors, such as moisture sources, air flow, and the adsorption/desorption properties of materials. The moisture-buffering characteristics of building materials that are in contact with indoor air may help moderate the variations of indoor humidity, especially in the summer and winter. In this study, the moisture adsorption/desorption properties of building materials were investigated experimentally and numerically. These properties can be used to characterize the ability of building materials to exchange moisture with the indoor environment. This study indicates that a building material surface resistivity was the main factor creating variations of moisture buffering.

  13. An Intercomparison of Vegetation Products from Satellite-based Observations used for Soil Moisture Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreugdenhil, Mariette; de Jeu, Richard; Wagner, Wolfgang; Dorigo, Wouter; Hahn, Sebastian; Bloeschl, Guenter

    2013-04-01

    Vegetation and its water content affect active and passive microwave soil moisture retrievals and need to be taken into account in such retrieval methodologies. This study compares the vegetation parameterisation that is used in the TU-Wien soil moisture retrieval algorithm to other vegetation products, such as the Vegetation Optical Depth (VOD), Net Primary Production (NPP) and Leaf Area Index (LAI). When only considering the retrieval algorithm for active microwaves, which was developed by the TU-Wien, the effect of vegetation on the backscattering coefficient is described by the so-called slope [1]. The slope is the first derivative of the backscattering coefficient in relation to the incidence angle. Soil surface backscatter normally decreases quite rapidly with the incidence angle over bare or sparsely vegetated soils, whereas the contribution of dense vegetation is fairly uniform over a large range of incidence angles. Consequently, the slope becomes less steep with increasing vegetation. Because the slope is a derivate of noisy backscatter measurements, it is characterised by an even higher level of noise. Therefore, it is averaged over several years assuming that the state of the vegetation doesn't change inter-annually. The slope is compared to three dynamic vegetation products over Australia, the VOD, NPP and LAI. The VOD was retrieved from AMSR-E passive microwave data using the VUA-NASA retrieval algorithm and provides information on vegetation with a global coverage of approximately every two days [2]. LAI is defined as half the developed area of photosynthetically active elements of the vegetation per unit horizontal ground area. In this study LAI is used from the Geoland2 products derived from SPOT Vegetation*. The NPP is the net rate at which plants build up carbon through photosynthesis and is a model-based estimate from the BiosEquil model [3, 4]. Results show that VOD and slope correspond reasonably well over vegetated areas, whereas in arid

  14. Land-atmosphere coupling and soil moisture memory contribute to long-term agricultural drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S.; Newman, M.; Lawrence, D. M.; Livneh, B.; Lombardozzi, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    We assessed the contribution of land-atmosphere coupling and soil moisture memory on long-term agricultural droughts in the US. We performed an ensemble of climate model simulations to study soil moisture dynamics under two atmospheric forcing scenarios: active and muted land-atmosphere coupling. Land-atmosphere coupling contributes to a 12% increase and 36% decrease in the decorrelation time scale of soil moisture anomalies in the US Great Plains and the Southwest, respectively. These differences in soil moisture memory affect the length and severity of modeled drought. Consequently, long-term droughts are 10% longer and 3% more severe in the Great Plains, and 15% shorter and 21% less severe in the Southwest. An analysis of Coupled Model Intercomparsion Project phase 5 data shows four fold uncertainty in soil moisture memory across models that strongly affects simulated long-term droughts and is potentially attributable to the differences in soil water storage capacity across models.

  15. Interior moisture design loads for residences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton TenWolde; Iain S. Walker

    2001-01-01

    This paper outlines a methodology to obtain design values for indoor boundary conditions for moisture design calculations for residences. This is part of a larger effort by ASHRAE Standard Project Committee 160P, Design Criteria for Moisture Control in Buildings, to formulate criteria for moisture design loads, analysis techniques, and material and building performance...

  16. An Overview of Production and Validation of the SMAP Passive Soil Moisture Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, S.; O'Neill, P.; Njoku, E.; Jackson, T.; Bindlish, R.

    2015-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission is an L-band mission scheduled for launch in Jan. 2015. The SMAP instruments consist of a radar and a radiometer to obtain complementary information from space for soil moisture and freeze/thaw state research and applications. By utilizing novel designs in antenna construction, retrieval algorithms, and acquisition hardware, SMAP provides a capability for global mapping of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state with unprecedented accuracy, resolution, and coverage. This improvement in hydrosphere state measurement is expected to advance our understanding of the processes that link the terrestrial water, energy and carbon cycles, improve our capability in flood prediction and drought monitoring, and enhance our skills in weather and climate forecast. For swath-based soil moisture measurement, SMAP generates three operational geophysical data products: (1) the radiometer-only soil moisture product (L2_SM_P) posted at 36-kilometer resolution, (2) the radar-only soil moisture product (L2_SM_A) posted at 3-kilometers resolution, and (3) the radar-radiometer combined soil moisture product (L2_SM_AP) posted at 9-kilometers resolution. Each product draws on the strengths of the underlying sensor(s) and plays a unique role in hydroclimatological and hydrometeorological applications. A full suite of SMAP data products is given in Table 1.

  17. Estimating and Up-Scaling Fuel Moisture and Leaf Dry Matter Content of a Temperate Humid Forest Using Multi Resolution Remote Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Adab

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation moisture and dry matter content are important indicators in predicting the behavior of fire and it is widely used in fire spread models. In this study, leaf fuel moisture content such as Live Fuel Moisture Content (LFMC, Leaf Relative Water Content (RWC, Dead Fuel Moisture Content (DFMC, and Leaf Dry Matter Content (LDMC (hereinafter known as moisture content indices (MCI were calculated in the field for different forest species at 32 sites in a temperate humid forest (Zaringol forest located in northeastern Iran. These data and several relevant vegetation-biophysical indices and atmospheric variables calculated using Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+ data with moderate spatial resolution (30 m were used to estimate MCI of the Zaringol forest using Artificial Neural Network (ANN and Multiple Linear Regression (MLR methods. The prediction of MCI using ANN showed that ETM+ predicted MCI slightly better (Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE of 6%–12% than MLR (MAPE between 8% and 17%. Once satisfactory results in estimating MCI were obtained by using ANN from ETM+ data, these data were then upscaled to estimate MCI using MODIS data for daily monitoring of leaf water and leaf dry matter content at 500 m spatial resolution. For MODIS derived LFMC, LDMC, RWC, and DLMC, the ANN produced a MAPE between 11% and 29% for the indices compared to MLR which produced an MAPE of 14%–33%. In conclusion, we suggest that upscaling is necessary for solving the scale discrepancy problems between the indicators and low spatial resolution MODIS data. The scaling up of MCI could be used for pre-fire alert system and thereby can detect fire prone areas in near real time for fire-fighting operations.

  18. Effectiveness of modified 1-hour air-oven moisture methods for determining popcorn moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two of the most commonly used approved grain moisture air-oven reference methods are the air oven method ASAE S352.2, which requires long heating time (72-h) for unground samples, and the AACC 44-15.02 air-oven method, which dries a ground sample for 1 hr, but there is specific moisture measurement ...

  19. Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) Radiometer Subband Calibration and Calibration Drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jinzheng; Piepmeier, Jeffrey R.; De Amici, Giovanni; Mohammed, Priscilla

    2016-01-01

    The SMAP is one of four first-tier missions recommended by the US National Research Council's Committee on Earth Science and Applications from Space (Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond, Space Studies Board, National Academies Press, 2007)]. The observatory was launched on Jan 31, 2015. The goal of the SMAP is to measure the global soil moisture and freeze/thaw from space. The L-band radiometer is the passive portion of the spaceborne instrument. It measures all four Stokes antenna temperatures and outputs counts. The Level 1B Brightness Temperature (L1B_TB) science algorithm converts radiometer counts to the Earths surface brightness temperature. The results are reported in the radiometer level 1B data product together with the calibrated antenna temperature (TA) and all of the corrections to the unwanted sources contribution. The calibrated L1B data product are required to satisfy the overall radiometer error budget of 1.3 K needed to meet the soil moisture requirement of 0.04 volumetric fraction uncertainty and the calibration drift requirement of no larger than 0.4 K per month.

  20. Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Radiometer Subband Calibration and Calibration Drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jinzheng; Piepmeier, Jeffrey R.; De Amici, Giovanni; Mohammed, Priscilla N.

    2016-01-01

    The SMAP is one of four first-tier missions recommended by the US National Research Council's Committee on Earth Science and Applications from Space (Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond, Space Studies Board, National Academies Press, 2007). The observatory was launched on Jan 31, 2015. The goal of the SMAP is to measure the global soil moisture and freeze/thaw from space. The L-band radiometer is the passive portion of the spaceborne instrument. It measures all four Stokes antenna temperatures and outputs counts. The Level 1B Brightness Temperature (L1B_TB) science algorithm converts radiometer counts to the Earths surface brightness temperature. The results are reported in the radiometer level 1B data product together with the calibrated antenna temperature (TA) and all of the corrections to the unwanted sources contribution. The calibrated L1B data product are required to satisfy the overall radiometer error budget of 1.3 K needed to meet the soil moisture requirement of 0.04 volumetric fraction uncertainty and the calibration drift requirement of no larger than 0.4 K per month.

  1. Digital radioisotope moisture-density meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychvarov, N.; Vankov, I.; Dimitrov, L.

    1982-01-01

    The primary information from the detectors of a combined radioisotope moisture-density meter is obtained as pulses, their counting rate being functionally dependent on the humidity per unit volume and the wet density. However, most practical cases demand information on the moisture per unit weight and the mass density of the dry skeleton. The paper describes how the proposed electronic circuit processes the input primary information to obtain the moisture in weight % and the mass density of the dry skeleton in g/cm 3 . (authors)

  2. Modeling soil moisture memory in savanna ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, S.; Miller, G. R.

    2011-12-01

    Antecedent soil conditions create an ecosystem's "memory" of past rainfall events. Such soil moisture memory effects may be observed over a range of timescales, from daily to yearly, and lead to feedbacks between hydrological and ecosystem processes. In this study, we modeled the soil moisture memory effect on savanna ecosystems in California, Arizona, and Africa, using a system dynamics model created to simulate the ecohydrological processes at the plot-scale. The model was carefully calibrated using soil moisture and evapotranspiration data collected at three study sites. The model was then used to simulate scenarios with various initial soil moisture conditions and antecedent precipitation regimes, in order to study the soil moisture memory effects on the evapotranspiration of understory and overstory species. Based on the model results, soil texture and antecedent precipitation regime impact the redistribution of water within soil layers, potentially causing deeper soil layers to influence the ecosystem for a longer time. Of all the study areas modeled, soil moisture memory of California savanna ecosystem site is replenished and dries out most rapidly. Thus soil moisture memory could not maintain the high rate evapotranspiration for more than a few days without incoming rainfall event. On the contrary, soil moisture memory of Arizona savanna ecosystem site lasts the longest time. The plants with different root depths respond to different memory effects; shallow-rooted species mainly respond to the soil moisture memory in the shallow soil. The growing season of grass is largely depended on the soil moisture memory of the top 25cm soil layer. Grass transpiration is sensitive to the antecedent precipitation events within daily to weekly timescale. Deep-rooted plants have different responses since these species can access to the deeper soil moisture memory with longer time duration Soil moisture memory does not have obvious impacts on the phenology of woody plants

  3. The microbial habitability of weathered volcanic glass inferred from continuous sensing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagshaw, Elizabeth A; Cockell, Charles S; Magan, Naresh; Wadham, Jemma L; Venugopalan, T; Sun, Tong; Mowlem, Matt; Croxford, Anthony J

    2011-09-01

    Basaltic glasses (hyaloclastite) are a widespread habitat for life in volcanic environments, yet their interior physical conditions are poorly characterized. We investigated the characteristics of exposed weathered basaltic glass from a surface outcrop in Iceland, using microprobes capable of continuous sensing, to determine whether the physical conditions in the rock interior are hospitable to microbial life. The material provided thermal protection from freeze-thaw and rapid temperature fluctuations, similar to data reported for other rock types. Water activity experiments showed that at moisture contents less than 13% wet weight, the glass and its weathering product, palagonite, had a water activity below levels suitable for bacterial growth. In pore spaces, however, these higher moisture conditions might be maintained for many days after a precipitation event. Gas exchange between the rock interior and exterior was rapid (< 10 min) when the rocks were dry, but when saturated with water, equilibration took many hours. During this period, we demonstrated the potential for low oxygen conditions within the rock caused by respiratory stimulation of the heterotrophic community within. These conditions might exist within subglacial environments during the formation of the rocks or in micro-environments in the interior of exposed rocks. The experiments showed that microbial communities at the site studied here could potentially be active for 39% of the year, if the depth of the community within the outcrop maintains a balance between access to liquid water and adequate protection from freezing. In the absence of precipitation, the interior of weathered basaltic glass is an extreme and life-limiting environment for microorganisms on Earth and other planets.

  4. Impact of moisture on survival of Aedes aegypti eggs and ovicidal activity of Metarhizium anisopliae under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Luz

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of relative humidity (43%, 75%, 86% and > 98% on Aedes aegypti eggs treated with Metarhizium anisopliae or water only was tested for up to a six months exposure at 25ºC. Survival of larvae inside eggs was clearly affected by the lowest humidity (43% tested, and eclosion diminished at all humidities after increasing periods of exposure. M. anisopliae showed to have a strong ovicidal activity only at humidity close to saturation. No difference of activity was found between conidia and hyphal bodies tested. This fungus affected larvae inside eggs and has potential as a control agent of this important vector in breeding sites with high moisture.

  5. Multisensor of Remotely Sensed Data for Characterizing Seismotectonic Activities in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Bakar, Rabieahtul; Azahari Razak, Khamarrul; Anuar Jamaludin, Tajul; Tongkul, Felix; Mohamad, Zakaria; Ramli, Zamri; Abd Manap, Mohamad; Rahman, Muhammad Zulkarnain Abdul

    2015-04-01

    Seismically induced events pose serious hazards yet are difficult to predict. Despite remarkable efforts of mapping, monitoring and modelling of such great events at regional or local scales, the understanding of the processes in the Earth's dynamic system remains elusive. Although Malaysia is in a relatively low seismic hazard zone, the current trend and pattern of seismotectonic activities triggered a series of fundamental study to better understand the relationship between the earthquakes, recent tectonics and seismically active fault zones. Several conventional mapping techniques have been intensively used but shown some limitations. Remote sensing is the preferable mean to quantify the seismic activity accurately in a larger area within a short period. Still, only few of such studies have been carried out in this subduction region. Characterization of seismotectonic activities from space in a tropical environment is very challenging given the complexity of its physiographic, climatic, geologic conditions and anthropogenic activities. There are many factors controlling the success rate of the implementation mainly due to the lack of historical earthquakes, geomorphological evidence, and proper identification of regional tectonic patterns. In this study, we aim at providing better insight to extract and characterize seismotectonic activities by integrating passive and active remotely-sensed data, geodetic data, historical records, GIS-based data analysis and in-situ measurements as well quantify them based on field investigation and expert knowledge. It is crucial to perform spatiotemporal analysis of its activities in the most seismically induced region in North-Western Sabah. A comprehensive geodatabase of seismotectonic events are developed and allowed us to analyse the spatiotemporal activities. A novelty of object-based image method for extracting tropical seismically active faults and related seismotectonic features are introduced and evaluated. We aim to

  6. Use of Neutron Probe to Quantify the Soil Moisture Flux in Layers of Cultivated Soil by Chickpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El- Gendy, R.W.

    2008-01-01

    This work aims to use the neutron moisture meter and the soil moisture retention curve to quantify the soil moisture flux in the soil profile of Nubarria soil in Egypt at 15, 30, 45, and 60-cm depths during the growth season of Chickpea. This method depends on the use of in situ θ measurements via neutron moisture meter and soil matric suction using model of the soil moisture retention curve at different soil depths, which can be determined in situ. Total hydraulic potential values at the different soil depths were calculated as a function (θ) using the derivative model. The gradient of hydraulic potential at any soil depth can be obtained by detecting of the hydraulic potential within the soil profile. The soil water fluxes at the different soil depths were calculated using In situ measured unsaturated hydraulic conductivity and the gradient of hydraulic potential, which correlated with soil moisture contents as measured by neutron probe. Values of hydraulic potentials after and before irrigation indicate that the direction of soil moisture movement was downward after irrigation and was different before next irrigation. Collecting active roots for water absorption of chickpea were defined from direction of soil water movement from up and down to a certain soil depth was 19 cm depth from the soil surface. Active rooting depth was 53 cm depth, which separates between evapotranspiration and gravity effects The soil water fluxes after and before the next irrigation of chickpea were 1.2453, 0.8613, 0.8197 and 0.6588 cm/hr and 0.0037, - 0.0270,- 0.1341, and 0.2545 cm/hr at 15, 30, 45 and 60 cm depths, respectively. The negative values at 30 and 45 cm depth before the next irrigation indicates there were up ward movement for soil water flux, where finding collecting active roots for water absorption of chickpea at 19 cm depth. Direction of soil water movement, soil water flux, collecting active roots for water absorption and active rooting depth can be determined using

  7. SMOS validation of soil moisture and ocen salinity (SMOS) soil moisture over watershed networks in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estimation of soil moisture at large scale has been performed using several satellite-based passive microwave sensors and a variety of retrieval methods. The most recent source of soil moisture is the European Space Agency Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission. A thorough validation must b...

  8. Evaluating new SMAP soil moisture for drought monitoring in the rangelands of the US High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velpuri, Naga Manohar; Senay, Gabriel B.; Morisette, Jeffrey T.

    2016-01-01

    Level 3 soil moisture datasets from the recently launched Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite are evaluated for drought monitoring in rangelands.Validation of SMAP soil moisture (SSM) with in situ and modeled estimates showed high level of agreement.SSM showed the highest correlation with surface soil moisture (0-5 cm) and a strong correlation to depths up to 20 cm.SSM showed a reliable and expected response of capturing seasonal dynamics in relation to precipitation, land surface temperature, and evapotranspiration.Further evaluation using multi-year SMAP datasets is necessary to quantify the full benefits and limitations for drought monitoring in rangelands.

  9. Demonstration of a Porous Tube Hydroponic System to Control Plant Moisture and Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreschel, T. W.; Hall, C. R.; Foster, T. E.

    2003-01-01

    Accurate remote detection of plant health indicators such as moisture, plant pigment concentrations, photosynthetic flux, and other biochemicals in canopies is a major goal in plant research. Influencing factors include complex interactions between wavelength dependent absorbing and scattering features from backgrounds as well as canopy biochemical and biophysical constituents. Accurately controlling these factors in outdoor field studies is difficult. Early testing of a porous tube plant culture system has indicated that plant biomass production, biomass partitioning, and leaf moisture of plants can be controlled by precisely managing the root water potential. Managing nutrient solution chemistry can also control plant pigments, biochemical concentrations, plant biomass production, and photosynthetic rates. A test bed was developed which utilized the porous tube technology with the intent of evaluating remote sensing systems, spectral analyses procedures, gas-exchange, and fluorescence measurements for their ability to detect small differences in plant water status. Spectral analysis was able to detect small differences in the mean leaf water content between the treatments. However these small differences were not detectable in the gas-exchange or fluorescence measurements.

  10. Efficient Active Sensing with Categorized Further Explorations for a Home Behavior-Monitoring Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenwei Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile robotics is a potential solution to home behavior monitoring for the elderly. For a mobile robot in the real world, there are several types of uncertainties for its perceptions, such as the ambiguity between a target object and the surrounding objects and occlusions by furniture. The problem could be more serious for a home behavior-monitoring system, which aims to accurately recognize the activity of a target person, in spite of these uncertainties. It detects irregularities and categorizes situations requiring further explorations, which strategically maximize the information needed for activity recognition while minimizing the costs. Two schemes of active sensing, based on two irregularity detections, namely, heuristic-based and template-matching-based irregularity detections, were implemented and examined for body contour-based activity recognition. Their time cost and accuracy in activity recognition were evaluated through experiments in both a controlled scenario and a home living scenario. Experiment results showed that the categorized further explorations guided the robot system to sense the target person actively. As a result, with the proposed approach, the robot system has achieved higher accuracy of activity recognition.

  11. Soil moisture memory at sub-monthly time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccoll, K. A.; Entekhabi, D.

    2017-12-01

    For soil moisture-climate feedbacks to occur, the soil moisture storage must have `memory' of past atmospheric anomalies. Quantifying soil moisture memory is, therefore, essential for mapping and characterizing land-atmosphere interactions globally. Most previous studies estimate soil moisture memory using metrics based on the autocorrelation function of the soil moisture time series (e.g., the e-folding autocorrelation time scale). This approach was first justified by Delworth and Manabe (1988) on the assumption that monthly soil moisture time series can be modelled as red noise. While this is a reasonable model for monthly soil moisture averages, at sub-monthly scales, the model is insufficient due to the highly non-Gaussian behavior of the precipitation forcing. Recent studies have shown that significant soil moisture-climate feedbacks appear to occur at sub-monthly time scales. Therefore, alternative metrics are required for defining and estimating soil moisture memory at these shorter time scales. In this study, we introduce metrics, based on the positive and negative increments of the soil moisture time series, that can be used to estimate soil moisture memory at sub-monthly time scales. The positive increments metric corresponds to a rapid drainage time scale. The negative increments metric represents a slower drying time scale that is most relevant to the study of land-atmosphere interactions. We show that autocorrelation-based metrics mix the two time scales, confounding physical interpretation. The new metrics are used to estimate soil moisture memory at sub-monthly scales from in-situ and satellite observations of soil moisture. Reference: Delworth, Thomas L., and Syukuro Manabe. "The Influence of Potential Evaporation on the Variabilities of Simulated Soil Wetness and Climate." Journal of Climate 1, no. 5 (May 1, 1988): 523-47. doi:10.1175/1520-0442(1988)0012.0.CO;2.

  12. Understanding moisture stress on light use efficiency across terrestrial ecosystems based on global flux and remote-sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulong Zhang; Conghe Song; Ge Sun; Lawrence E. Band; Asko Noormets; Quanfa Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Light use efficiency (LUE) is a key biophysical parameter characterizing the ability of plants to convert absorbed light to carbohydrate. However, the environmental regulations on LUE, especially moisture stress, are poorly understood, leading to large uncertainties in primary productivity estimated by LUE models. The objective of this study is to investigate the...

  13. Interrelation of satisfaction educational activity and sense of justice of students of pedagogical high school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S M Szinkovskaya

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Formation of sense of justice of students is caused not only objective factors, but also subjective among which essential value has satisfaction study. In article the analysis of satisfaction of students is given by educational activity and its interrelation with levels of sense of justice of students is shown.

  14. SYMBIOTIC SENSING: Exploring and Exploiting Cooperative Sensing in Heterogeneous Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Viet Duc, L Duc

    2016-01-01

    During the last several years we have witnessed the emergence of smartphone-based sensing applications that include activity recognition, urban sensing, social sensing, and health monitoring. In fact, most smartphones have various sensors, wireless communication interfaces, a large memory capacity,

  15. Investigation on Moisture and Indoor Environment in Eight Danish Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kasper Risgaard; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Nørgaard, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    then need to be ventilated actively either by natural or mechanical ventilation. Increased focus on energy reduction together with requirements for e.g. thermal comfort indoors may lead to reduced indoor air quality and moisture problems which in turn may cause mould problems. This paper describes...... an investigation of the indoor air quality, relative humidity and air change rate in eight Danish houses. The houses were selected as they are all having recurrent problems with condensation on the windows. The houses were built between 1930 and 2007. Some of them have been only slightly renovated where others......, to indoor air quality in terms of CO2 concentration, and to the use of the house in terms of the level of the relative humidity and indoor moisture excess. Furthermore, the moisture production in the houses was estimated and compared to values provided in the literature. A better indoor air quality...

  16. Indoor microbiota in severely moisture damaged homes and the impact of interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakash, Balamuralikrishna; Adams, Rachel I; Kirjavainen, Pirkka; Karvonen, Anne; Vepsäläinen, Asko; Valkonen, Maria; Järvi, Kati; Sulyok, Michael; Pekkanen, Juha; Hyvärinen, Anne; Täubel, Martin

    2017-10-13

    The limited understanding of microbial characteristics in moisture-damaged buildings impedes efforts to clarify which adverse health effects in the occupants are associated with the damage and to develop effective building intervention strategies. The objectives of this current study were (i) to characterize fungal and bacterial microbiota in house dust of severely moisture-damaged residences, (ii) to identify microbial taxa associated with moisture damage renovations, and (iii) to test whether the associations between the identified taxa and moisture damage are replicable in another cohort of homes. We applied bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal ITS amplicon sequencing complemented with quantitative PCR and chemical-analytical approaches to samples of house dust, and also performed traditional cultivation of bacteria and fungi from building material samples. Active microbial growth on building materials had significant though small influence on the house dust bacterial and fungal communities. Moisture damage interventions-including actual renovation of damaged homes and cases where families moved to another home-had only a subtle effect on bacterial community structure, seen as shifts in abundance weighted bacterial profiles after intervention. While bacterial and fungal species richness were reduced in homes that were renovated, they were not reduced for families that moved houses. Using different discriminant analysis tools, we were able identify taxa that were significantly reduced in relative abundance during renovation of moisture damage. For bacteria, the majority of candidates belonged to different families within the Actinomycetales order. Results for fungi were overall less consistent. A replication study in approximately 400 homes highlighted some of the identified taxa, confirming associations with observations of moisture damage and mold. The present study is one of the first studies to analyze changes in microbiota due to moisture damage interventions

  17. Stomatal conductance, canopy temperature, and leaf area index estimation using remote sensing and OBIA techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Panda; D.M. Amatya; G. Hoogenboom

    2014-01-01

    Remotely sensed images including LANDSAT, SPOT, NAIP orthoimagery, and LiDAR and relevant processing tools can be used to predict plant stomatal conductance (gs), leaf area index (LAI), and canopy temperature, vegetation density, albedo, and soil moisture using vegetation indices like normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) or soil adjusted...

  18. Hydropedological parameters limiting soil moisture regime floodplain ecosystems of south Moravia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Kubík

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil moisture regime of floodplain ecosystems in southern Moravia is considerably influenced and greatly changed by human activities. It can be changed negatively by water management engineering or positively by landscape revitalizations. The paper deals with problems of hydropedological characteristics (hydrolimits limiting soil moisture regime and solves effect of hydrological factors on soil moisture regime in the floodplain ecosystems. Attention is paid especially to water retention curves and to hydrolimits – wilting point and field capacity. They can be acquired either directly by slow laboratory assessment, derivation from the water retention curves or indirectly by calculation using pedotransfer functions (PTF. This indirect assessment uses hydrolimit dependency on better available soil physical parameters namely soil granularity, bulk density and humus content. The aim is to calculate PTF for wilting point and field capacity and to compare them with measured values. The paper documents suitableness utilization of PTF for the region of interest. The results of correlation and regression analysis for soil moisture and groundwater table are furthermore presented.

  19. Uncertainty of Deardorff’s soil moisture model based on continuous TDR measurements for sandy loam soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandyk Andrzej

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on soil moisture is indispensable for a range of hydrological models, since it exerts a considerable influence on runoff conditions. Proper tools are nowadays applied in order to gain in-sight into soil moisture status, especially of uppermost soil layers, which are prone to weather changes and land use practices. In order to establish relationships between meteorological conditions and topsoil moisture, a simple model would be required, characterized by low computational effort, simple structure and low number of identified and calibrated parameters. We demonstrated, that existing model for shallow soils, considering mass exchange between two layers (the upper and the lower, as well as with the atmosphere and subsoil, worked well for sandy loam with deep ground water table in Warsaw conurbation. GLUE (Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation linked with GSA (Global Sensitivity Analysis provided for final determination of parameter values and model confidence ranges. Including the uncertainty in a model structure, caused that the median soil moisture solution of the GLUE was shifted from the one optimal in deterministic sense. From the point of view of practical model application, the main shortcoming were the underestimated water exchange rates between the lower soil layer (ranging from the depth of 0.1 to 0.2 m below ground level and subsoil. General model quality was found to be satisfactory and promising for its utilization for establishing measures to regain retention in urbanized conditions.

  20. Soft Active Materials for Actuation, Sensing, and Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Rebecca Krone

    Future generations of robots, electronics, and assistive medical devices will include systems that are soft and elastically deformable, allowing them to adapt their morphology in unstructured environments. This will require soft active materials for actuation, circuitry, and sensing of deformation and contact pressure. The emerging field of soft robotics utilizes these soft active materials to mimic the inherent compliance of natural soft-bodied systems. As the elasticity of robot components increases, the challenges for functionality revert to basic questions of fabrication, materials, and design - whereas such aspects are far more developed for traditional rigid-bodied systems. This thesis will highlight preliminary materials and designs that address the need for soft actuators and sensors, as well as emerging fabrication techniques for manufacturing stretchable circuits and devices based on liquid-embedded elastomers.

  1. SMAP/Sentinel-1 L2 Radiometer/Radar 30-Second Scene 3 km EASE-Grid Soil Moisture V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Level-2 (L2) soil moisture product provides estimates of land surface conditions retrieved by both the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) radiometer during...

  2. SMOS/SMAP Synergy for SMAP Level 2 Soil Moisture Algorithm Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindlish, Rajat; Jackson, Thomas J.; Zhao, Tianjie; Cosh, Michael; Chan, Steven; O'Neill, Peggy; Njoku, Eni; Colliander, Andreas; Kerr, Yann

    2011-01-01

    Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite has been proposed to provide global measurements of soil moisture and land freeze/thaw state at 10 km and 3 km resolutions, respectively. SMAP would also provide a radiometer-only soil moisture product at 40-km spatial resolution. This product and the supporting brightness temperature observations are common to both SMAP and European Space Agency's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission. As a result, there are opportunities for synergies between the two missions. These include exploiting the data for calibration and validation and establishing longer term L-band brightness temperature and derived soil moisture products. In this investigation we will be using SMOS brightness temperature, ancillary data, and soil moisture products to develop and evaluate a candidate SMAP L2 passive soil moisture retrieval algorithm. This work will begin with evaluations based on the SMOS product grids and ancillary data sets and transition to those that will be used by SMAP. An important step in this analysis is reprocessing the multiple incidence angle observations provided by SMOS to a global brightness temperature product that simulates the constant 40 degree incidence angle observations that SMAP will provide. The reprocessed brightness temperature data provide a basis for evaluating different SMAP algorithm alternatives. Several algorithms are being considered for the SMAP radiometer-only soil moisture retrieval. In this first phase, we utilized only the Single Channel Algorithm (SCA), which is based on the radiative transfer equation and uses the channel that is most sensitive to soil moisture (H-pol). Brightness temperature is corrected sequentially for the effects of temperature, vegetation, roughness (dynamic ancillary data sets) and soil texture (static ancillary data set). European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) estimates of soil temperature for the top layer (as provided as part of the SMOS

  3. Faraday Rotation for SMOS Retrievals of Ocean Salinity and Soil Moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nimri, Salem; Le Vine, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Faraday rotation is a change in polarization as radiation propagates from the surface through the ionosphere to the sensor. At L-band (1.4 GHz) this change can be significant and can be important for the remote sensing of soil moisture and ocean salinity from space. Consequently, modern L-band radiometers (SMOS, Aquarius and SMOS) are polarimetric to measure Faraday rotation in situ so that a correction can be made. This is done using the ratio of the third and second Stokes parameters. In the case of SMOS this procedure has produced very noisy estimates. An alternate procedure is reported here in which the total electron content is estimated and averaged to reduce noise.

  4. CPAC optical moisture monitoring: Characterization of composition and physical effects on moisture determination Task 2A report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veltkamp, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    The impact of particle size and chemical composition variations on determination of tank simulant moisture from near infrared (NIR) optical spectra are presented. This work shows particle size and chemical variations will impact moisture predictions from NIR spectra. However, the prediction errors can be minimized if calibration models are built with samples containing these variations as interferents. Prior work showed the NIR spectral region (1100 to 2500 nm) could be used to predict moisture content of BY-104 tank simulant with a standard error less of approximately 0.5 wt%. Particle size will increase moisture prediction error if calibration-models do not include the same particle size ranges as unknown samples. A combined particle size model with 0-420 x10 -6 m, 420-841 x 10 -6 m, and 841 x 10 -6 m-2 mm diameter particles predicted 0.59, 0.34 nd 0.23 wt% errors respectively for samples containing only these size ranges and 0.80 wt% error for a samples with all particle size ranges. Chemical composition would also increase moisture prediction error if calibration model samples chemically differ from unknown samples. For a BY-104 simulant, increases in NaOH, NaAlO 2 , Na 2 SiO 3 , and Na 3 PO 4 produced moisture predictions that were lower than the actual moisture levels while increases in FE(NO 3 ) 3 , Ca(NO 3 ) 2 , and Mg (NO 3 ) 2 resulted in a higher than actual moisture prediction. Systematic changes in the NIR spectra could be observed for these families of materials. When all of the composition variations were included in a single model, the model had a moisture prediction error of 1.41 wt% as compared to a 2.96 wt% error without model changes. This work shows a calibration model based on a single set of tightly controlled experimental conditions will tend to have somewhat larger prediction errors when applied to samples collected with variations outside of such conditions

  5. Virtual sensors for active noise control in acoustic-structural coupled enclosures using structural sensing: robust virtual sensor design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Dunant; Cheng, Li; Su, Zhongqing

    2011-03-01

    The work was aimed to develop a robust virtual sensing design methodology for sensing and active control applications of vibro-acoustic systems. The proposed virtual sensor was designed to estimate a broadband acoustic interior sound pressure using structural sensors, with robustness against certain dynamic uncertainties occurring in an acoustic-structural coupled enclosure. A convex combination of Kalman sub-filters was used during the design, accommodating different sets of perturbed dynamic model of the vibro-acoustic enclosure. A minimax optimization problem was set up to determine an optimal convex combination of Kalman sub-filters, ensuring an optimal worst-case virtual sensing performance. The virtual sensing and active noise control performance was numerically investigated on a rectangular panel-cavity system. It was demonstrated that the proposed virtual sensor could accurately estimate the interior sound pressure, particularly the one dominated by cavity-controlled modes, by using a structural sensor. With such a virtual sensing technique, effective active noise control performance was also obtained even for the worst-case dynamics. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  6. Nematode survival in relation to soil moisture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, W.R.

    1973-01-01

    Established nematode populations are very persistent in the soil. It is known that they need sufficient soil moisture for movement, feeding and reproduction (fig. 5), and that there are adverse soil moisture conditions which they cannot survive. The influence of soil moisture on survival

  7. Moisture Monitoring at Area G, Technical Area 54, Los Alamos National Laboratory, 2016 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levitt, Daniel Glenn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Birdsell, Kay Hanson [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jennings, Terry L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); French, Sean B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-01-17

    Hydrological characterization and moisture monitoring activities provide data required for evaluating the transport of subsurface contaminants in the unsaturated and saturated zones beneath Area G, and for the Area G Performance Assessment and Composite Analysis. These activities have been ongoing at Area G, Technical Area 54 of the Los Alamos National Laboratory since waste disposal operations began in 1957. This report summarizes the hydrological characterization and moisture monitoring activities conducted at Area G. It includes moisture monitoring data collected from 1986 through 2016 from numerous boreholes and access tubes with neutron moisture meters, as well as data collected by automated dataloggers for water content measurement sensors installed in a waste disposal pit cover, and buried beneath the floor of a waste disposal pit. This report is an update of a nearly identical report by Levitt et al., (2015) that summarized data collected through early 2015; this report includes additional moisture monitoring data collected at Pit 31 and the Pit 38 extension through December, 2016. It also includes information from the Jennings and French (2009) moisture monitoring report and includes all data from Jennings and French (2009) and the Draft 2010 Addendum moisture monitoring report (Jennings and French, 2010). For the 2015 version of this report, all neutron logging data, including neutron probe calibrations, were investigated for quality and pedigree. Some data were recalculated using more defensible calibration data. Therefore, some water content profiles are different from those in the Jennings and French (2009) report. All of that information is repeated in this report for completeness. Monitoring and characterization data generally indicate that some areas of the Area G vadose zone are consistent with undisturbed conditions, with water contents of less than five percent by volume in the top two layers of the Bandelier tuff at Area G. These data also

  8. Analysis of organic carbon and moisture in Hanford single-shell tank waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toth, J.J.; Heasler, P.G.; Lerchen, M.E.; Hill, J.G.; Whitney, P.D.

    1995-05-01

    This report documents a revised analysis performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory involving the organic carbon laboratory measurement data for Hanford single-shell tanks (SSTs) obtained from a review of the laboratory analytical data. This activity has as its objective to provide a best-estimate, including confidence levels, of total organic carbon (TOC) and moisture in each of the 149 SSTs at Hanford. The TOC and moisture information presented in this report is useful as part of the criteria to identify SSTs for additional measurements, or monitoring for the Organic Safety Program. In April 1994, an initial study of the organic carbon in Hanford single-shell tanks was completed at PNL. That study reflected the estimates of TOC based on tank characterizations datasets that were available at the time. Also in that study, estimation of dry basis TOC was based on generalized assumptions pertaining to the moisture of the tank wastes. The new information pertaining to tank moisture and TOC data that has become available from the current study influences the best estimates of TOC in each of the SSTs. This investigation of tank TOC and moisture has resulted in improved estimates based on waste phase: saltcake, sludge, or liquid. This report details the assumptions and methodologies used to develop the estimates of TOC and moisture in each of the 149 SSTs at Hanford.

  9. Analysis of organic carbon and moisture in Hanford single-shell tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, J.J.; Heasler, P.G.; Lerchen, M.E.; Hill, J.G.; Whitney, P.D.

    1995-05-01

    This report documents a revised analysis performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory involving the organic carbon laboratory measurement data for Hanford single-shell tanks (SSTs) obtained from a review of the laboratory analytical data. This activity has as its objective to provide a best-estimate, including confidence levels, of total organic carbon (TOC) and moisture in each of the 149 SSTs at Hanford. The TOC and moisture information presented in this report is useful as part of the criteria to identify SSTs for additional measurements, or monitoring for the Organic Safety Program. In April 1994, an initial study of the organic carbon in Hanford single-shell tanks was completed at PNL. That study reflected the estimates of TOC based on tank characterizations datasets that were available at the time. Also in that study, estimation of dry basis TOC was based on generalized assumptions pertaining to the moisture of the tank wastes. The new information pertaining to tank moisture and TOC data that has become available from the current study influences the best estimates of TOC in each of the SSTs. This investigation of tank TOC and moisture has resulted in improved estimates based on waste phase: saltcake, sludge, or liquid. This report details the assumptions and methodologies used to develop the estimates of TOC and moisture in each of the 149 SSTs at Hanford

  10. Assessment of SMOS Soil Moisture Retrieval Parameters Using Tau-Omega Algorithms for Soil Moisture Deficit Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Prashant K.; Han, Dawei; Rico-Ramirez, Miguel A.; O'Neill, Peggy; Islam, Tanvir; Gupta, Manika

    2014-01-01

    Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) is the latest mission which provides flow of coarse resolution soil moisture data for land applications. However, the efficient retrieval of soil moisture for hydrological applications depends on optimally choosing the soil and vegetation parameters. The first stage of this work involves the evaluation of SMOS Level 2 products and then several approaches for soil moisture retrieval from SMOS brightness temperature are performed to estimate Soil Moisture Deficit (SMD). The most widely applied algorithm i.e. Single channel algorithm (SCA), based on tau-omega is used in this study for the soil moisture retrieval. In tau-omega, the soil moisture is retrieved using the Horizontal (H) polarisation following Hallikainen dielectric model, roughness parameters, Fresnel's equation and estimated Vegetation Optical Depth (tau). The roughness parameters are empirically calibrated using the numerical optimization techniques. Further to explore the improvement in retrieval models, modifications have been incorporated in the algorithms with respect to the sources of the parameters, which include effective temperatures derived from the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) downscaled using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)-NOAH Land Surface Model and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land surface temperature (LST) while the s is derived from MODIS Leaf Area Index (LAI). All the evaluations are performed against SMD, which is estimated using the Probability Distributed Model following a careful calibration and validation integrated with sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. The performance obtained after all those changes indicate that SCA-H using WRF-NOAH LSM downscaled ECMWF LST produces an improved performance for SMD estimation at a catchment scale.

  11. Geographic information systems, remote sensing, and spatial analysis activities in Texas, 2002-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, D.K.; Gary, R.H.; Wilson, Z.D.

    2007-01-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) technology has become an important tool for scientific investigation, resource management, and environmental planning. A GIS is a computer-aided system capable of collecting, storing, analyzing, and displaying spatially referenced digital data. GIS technology is particularly useful when analyzing a wide variety of spatial data such as with remote sensing and spatial analysis. Remote sensing involves collecting remotely sensed data, such as satellite imagery, aerial photography, or radar images, and analyzing the data to gather information or investigate trends about the environment or the Earth's surface. Spatial analysis combines remotely sensed, thematic, statistical, quantitative, and geographical data through overlay, modeling, and other analytical techniques to investigate specific research questions. It is the combination of data formats and analysis techniques that has made GIS an essential tool in scientific investigations. This document presents information about the technical capabilities and project activities of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Texas Water Science Center (TWSC) GIS Workgroup from 2002 through 2007.

  12. 7 CFR 868.307 - Moisture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Moisture. 868.307 Section 868.307 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD... Application of Standards § 868.307 Moisture. Water content in milled rice as determined by an FGIS approved...

  13. Space-time modeling of soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zijuan; Mohanty, Binayak P.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2017-11-01

    A physically derived space-time mathematical representation of the soil moisture field is carried out via the soil moisture balance equation driven by stochastic rainfall forcing. The model incorporates spatial diffusion and in its original version, it is shown to be unable to reproduce the relative fast decay in the spatial correlation functions observed in empirical data. This decay resulting from variations in local topography as well as in local soil and vegetation conditions is well reproduced via a jitter process acting multiplicatively over the space-time soil moisture field. The jitter is a multiplicative noise acting on the soil moisture dynamics with the objective to deflate its correlation structure at small spatial scales which are not embedded in the probabilistic structure of the rainfall process that drives the dynamics. These scales of order of several meters to several hundred meters are of great importance in ecohydrologic dynamics. Properties of space-time correlation functions and spectral densities of the model with jitter are explored analytically, and the influence of the jitter parameters, reflecting variabilities of soil moisture at different spatial and temporal scales, is investigated. A case study fitting the derived model to a soil moisture dataset is presented in detail.

  14. ANALISIS KADAR AIR DAN AKTIFITAS AIR KRITIKAL PRODUK SATA DARI MALAYSIA DAN IMPLIKASINYA PADA SIFAT-SIFAT PRODUK DAN UMUR SIMPANNYA [Analysis of Critical Moisture and Water Activity of Malaysian Sata and Its Implication to Product Characteristics and Shelf Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Hayati1

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Critical moisture and water activity of Sata. a Malaysian traditional food made of fish and young coconut meats, were analyzed for the first and second critical points of transition among the primary, secondary and tertiary bound water fractions in the Sata. It was found out that the first critical points of moisture content and water activity were M, of 5.09 % db (4.73 % wb and ar of 0.44 respectively. The second critical points were water content M5 of 19.38 % db(15.2 % wb and water activity as of 79 % respectively. The upper limit of he tertiary bound water (Mt was 75.3 % db (43.0 % wb. Sate sample in the primary bound water fraction (represented by moisture content at 5.0 % rib / 4.73 % wb, was stable in color and appearance, but slightly rancid due to molecular mobility of the liquid oil content The sample in the secondary bound water fraction (represented by moisture content of 15.0% db / 13.0% wb, has a color change to darker brown: and in the tertiary bound water fraction (represented by moisture of 30.5 % db / 23.4 % wb, mold growth appeared on the 10th day storage. The characteristics of the Malaysian Sate indicated an intermediate moisture food (IMF with water content of 37.5% wb, water activity of 0.9 and limited shelf tile to, few days at room temperature.

  15. Crop stress detection and classification using hyperspectral remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irby, Jon Trenton

    Agricultural production has observed many changes in technology over the last 20 years. Producers are able to utilize technologies such as site-specific applicators and remotely sensed data to assist with decision making for best management practices which can improve crop production and provide protection to the environment. It is known that plant stress can interfere with photosynthetic reactions within the plant and/or the physical structure of the plant. Common types of stress associated with agricultural crops include herbicide induced stress, nutrient stress, and drought stress from lack of water. Herbicide induced crop stress is not a new problem. However, with increased acreage being planting in varieties/hybrids that contain herbicide resistant traits, herbicide injury to non-target crops will continue to be problematic for producers. With rapid adoption of herbicide-tolerant cropping systems, it is likely that herbicide induced stress will continue to be a major concern. To date, commercially available herbicide-tolerant varieties/hybrids contain traits which allow herbicides like glyphosate and glufosinate-ammonium to be applied as a broadcast application during the growing season. Both glyphosate and glufosinate-ammonium are broad spectrum herbicides which have activity on a large number of plant species, including major crops like non-transgenic soybean, corn, and cotton. Therefore, it is possible for crop stress from herbicide applications to occur in neighboring fields that contain susceptible crop varieties/hybrids. Nutrient and moisture stress as well as stress caused by herbicide applications can interact to influence yields in agricultural fields. If remotely sensed data can be used to accurately identify specific levels of crop stress, it is possible that producers can use this information to better assist them in crop management to maximize yields and protect their investments. This research was conducted to evaluate classification of specific

  16. MUSICA MetOp/IASI {H2O,δD} pair retrieval simulations for validating tropospheric moisture pathways in atmospheric models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Matthias; Borger, Christian; Wiegele, Andreas; Hase, Frank; García, Omaira E.; Sepúlveda, Eliezer; Werner, Martin

    2017-02-01

    The project MUSICA (MUlti-platform remote Sensing of Isotopologues for investigating the Cycle of Atmospheric water) has shown that the sensor IASI aboard the satellite MetOp can measure the free tropospheric {H2O,δD} pair distribution twice per day on a quasi-global scale. Such data are very promising for investigating tropospheric moisture pathways, however, the complex data characteristics compromise their usage in the context of model evaluation studies. Here we present a tool that allows for simulating MUSICA MetOp/IASI {H2O,δD} pair remote sensing data for a given model atmosphere, thereby creating model data that have the remote sensing data characteristics assimilated. This model data can then be compared to the MUSICA data. The retrieval simulation method is based on the physical principles of radiative transfer and we show that the uncertainty of the simulations is within the uncertainty of the MUSICA MetOp/IASI products, i.e. the retrieval simulations are reliable enough. We demonstrate the working principle of the simulator by applying it to ECHAM5-wiso model data. The few case studies clearly reveal the large potential of the MUSICA MetOp/IASI {H2O,δD} data pairs for evaluating modelled moisture pathways. The tool is made freely available in form of MATLAB and Python routines and can be easily connected to any atmospheric water vapour isotopologue model.

  17. Optical transparency of paper as a function of moisture content with applications to moisture measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forughi, A F; Green, S I; Stoeber, B

    2016-02-01

    Accurate measurement of the moisture content of paper is essential in papermaking and is also important in some paper-based microfluidic devices. Traditional measurement techniques provide very limited spatiotemporal resolution and working range. This article presents a novel method for moisture content measurement whose operating principle is the strong correlation between the optical transparency of paper and its moisture content. Spectrographic and microscopic measurement techniques were employed to characterize the relation of moisture content and relative transparency of four types of paper: hardwood chemi-thermomechanical pulp paper, Northern bleached softwood kraft paper, unbleached softwood kraft paper, and General Electric(®) Whatman™ grade 1 chromatography paper. It was found that for all paper types, the paper transparency increased monotonically with the moisture content (as the ratio of the mass-of-water to the mass-of-dry-paper increased from 0% to 120%). This significant increase in relative transparency occurred due to the refractive index matching role of water in wet paper. It is further shown that mechanical loading of the paper has little impact on the relative transparency, for loadings that would be typical on a paper machine. The results of two transient water absorption experiments are presented that show the utility and accuracy of the technique.

  18. Moisture absorption and retention properties, and activity in alleviating skin photodamage of collagen polypeptide from marine fish skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Hu; Li, Bafang; Zhang, Zhaohui; Xue, Changhu; Yu, Guangli; Wang, Jingfeng; Bao, Yuming; Bu, Lin; Sun, Jiang; Peng, Zhe; Su, Shiwei

    2012-12-01

    Collagen polypeptides were prepared from cod skin. Moisture absorption and retention properties of collagen polypeptides were determined at different relative humidities. In addition, the protective effects of collagen polypeptide against UV-induced damage to mouse skin were evaluated. Collagen polypeptides had good moisture absorption and retention properties and could alleviate the damage induced by UV radiation. The action mechanisms of collagen polypeptide mainly involved enhancing immunity, reducing the loss of moisture and lipid, promoting anti-oxidative properties, inhibiting the increase of glycosaminoglycans, repairing the endogenous collagen and elastin protein fibres, and maintaining the ratio of type III to type I collagen. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Spatial downscaling of SMAP soil moisture using MODIS land surface temperature and NDVI during SMAPVEX15

    Science.gov (United States)

    The SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive) mission provides global surface soil moisture product at 36 km resolution from its L-band radiometer. While the coarse resolution is satisfactory to many applications there are also a lot of applications which would benefit from a higher resolution soil moistu...

  20. 4.4 Development of a 30-Year Soil Moisture Climatology for Situational Awareness and Public Health Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Zavodsky, Bradley T.; White, Kristopher D.; Bell, Jesse E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provided a brief background on the work being done at NASA SPoRT and the CDC to create a soil moisture climatology over the CONUS at high spatial resolution, and to provide a valuable source of soil moisture information to the CDC for monitoring conditions that could favor the development of Valley Fever. The soil moisture climatology has multi-faceted applications for both the NOAA/NWS situational awareness in the areas of drought and flooding, and for the Public Health community. SPoRT plans to increase its interaction with the drought monitoring and Public Health communities by enhancing this testbed soil moisture anomaly product. This soil moisture climatology run will also serve as a foundation for upgrading the real-time (currently southeastern CONUS) SPoRT-LIS to a full CONUS domain based on LIS version 7 and incorporating real-time GVF data from the Suomi-NPP Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (Vargas et al. 2013) into LIS-Noah. The upgraded SPoRT-LIS run will serve as a testbed proof-of-concept of a higher-resolution NLDAS-2 modeling member. The climatology run will be extended to near real-time using the NLDAS-2 meteorological forcing from 2011 to present. The fixed 1981-2010 climatology shall provide the soil moisture "normals" for the production of real-time soil moisture anomalies. SPoRT also envisions a web-mapping type of service in which an end-user could put in a request for either an historical or real-time soil moisture anomaly graph for a specified county (as exemplified by Figure 2) and/or for local and regional maps of soil moisture proxy percentiles. Finally, SPoRT seeks to assimilate satellite soil moisture data from the current Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS; Blankenship et al. 2014) and the recently-launched NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP; Entekhabi et al. 2010) missions, using the EnKF capability within LIS. The 9-km combined active radar and passive microwave retrieval product from SMAP (Das et al. 2011

  1. Nondestructive NMR technique for moisture determination in radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aumeier, S.; Gerald, R.E. II; Growney, E.; Nunez, L.; Kaminski, M.

    1998-01-01

    This progress report focuses on experimental and computational studies used to evaluate nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detecting, quantifying, and monitoring hydrogen and other magnetically active nuclei ( 3 H, 3 He, 239 Pu, 241 Pu) in Spent nuclear fuels and packaging materials. The detection of moisture by using a toroid cavity NMR imager has been demonstrated in SiO 2 and UO 2 systems. The total moisture was quantified by means of 1 H NMR detection of H 2 O with a sensitivity of 100 ppm. In addition, an MRI technique that was used to determine the moisture distribution also enabled investigators to discriminate between bulk and stationary water sorbed on the particles. This imaging feature is unavailable in any other nondestructive assay (NDA) technique. Following the initial success of this program, the NMR detector volume was scaled up from the original design by a factor of 2000. The capacity of this detector exceeds the size specified by DOE-STD-3013-96

  2. Quorum Sensing Inhibition and Structure–Activity Relationships of β-Keto Esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Forschner-Dancause

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditional therapeutics to treat bacterial infections have given rise to multi-drug resistant pathogens, which pose a major threat to human and animal health. In several pathogens, quorum sensing (QS—a cell-cell communication system in bacteria—controls the expression of genes responsible for pathogenesis, thus representing a novel target in the fight against bacterial infections. Based on the structure of the autoinducers responsible for QS activity and other QS inhibitors, we hypothesize that β-keto esters with aryl functionality could possess anti-QS activity. A panel of nineteen β-keto ester analogs was tested for the inhibition of bioluminescence (a QS-controlled phenotype in the marine pathogen Vibrio harveyi. Initial screening demonstrated the need of a phenyl ring at the C-3 position for antagonistic activity. Further additions to the phenyl ring with 4-substituted halo groups or a 3- or 4-substituted methoxy group resulted in the most active compounds with IC50 values ranging from 23 µM to 53 µM. The compounds additionally inhibit green fluorescent protein production by E. coli JB525. Evidence is presented that aryl β-keto esters may act as antagonists of bacterial quorum sensing by competing with N-acyl homoserine lactones for receptor binding. Expansion of the β-keto ester panel will enable us to obtain more insight into the structure–activity relationships needed to allow for the development of novel anti-virulence agents.

  3. 7 CFR 51.2561 - Average moisture content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Average moisture content. 51.2561 Section 51.2561... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Pistachio Nuts § 51.2561 Average moisture content. (a) Determining average moisture content of the lot is not a requirement of the grades, except when...

  4. Evaluation of Optimum Moisture Content for Composting of Beef Manure and Bedding Material Mixtures Using Oxygen Uptake Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunjong Kim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Moisture content influences physiological characteristics of microbes and physical structure of solid matrices during composting of animal manure. If moisture content is maintained at a proper level, aerobic microorganisms show more active oxygen consumption during composting due to increased microbial activity. In this study, optimum moisture levels for composting of two bedding materials (sawdust, rice hull and two different mixtures of bedding and beef manure (BS, Beef cattle manure+sawdust; BR, Beef cattle manure+rice hull were determined based on oxygen uptake rate measured by a pressure sensor method. A broad range of oxygen uptake rates (0.3 to 33.3 mg O2/g VS d were monitored as a function of moisture level and composting feedstock type. The maximum oxygen consumption of each material was observed near the saturated condition, which ranged from 75% to 98% of water holding capacity. The optimum moisture content of BS and BR were 70% and 57% on a wet basis, respectively. Although BS’s optimum moisture content was near saturated state, its free air space kept a favorable level (above 30% for aerobic composting due to the sawdust’s coarse particle size and bulking effect.

  5. Evaluation of Optimum Moisture Content for Composting of Beef Manure and Bedding Material Mixtures Using Oxygen Uptake Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunjong; Lee, Dong-Hyun; Won, Seunggun; Ahn, Heekwon

    2016-05-01

    Moisture content influences physiological characteristics of microbes and physical structure of solid matrices during composting of animal manure. If moisture content is maintained at a proper level, aerobic microorganisms show more active oxygen consumption during composting due to increased microbial activity. In this study, optimum moisture levels for composting of two bedding materials (sawdust, rice hull) and two different mixtures of bedding and beef manure (BS, Beef cattle manure+sawdust; BR, Beef cattle manure+rice hull) were determined based on oxygen uptake rate measured by a pressure sensor method. A broad range of oxygen uptake rates (0.3 to 33.3 mg O2/g VS d) were monitored as a function of moisture level and composting feedstock type. The maximum oxygen consumption of each material was observed near the saturated condition, which ranged from 75% to 98% of water holding capacity. The optimum moisture content of BS and BR were 70% and 57% on a wet basis, respectively. Although BS's optimum moisture content was near saturated state, its free air space kept a favorable level (above 30%) for aerobic composting due to the sawdust's coarse particle size and bulking effect.

  6. INTERACTIVE CHANGE DETECTION USING HIGH RESOLUTION REMOTE SENSING IMAGES BASED ON ACTIVE LEARNING WITH GAUSSIAN PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ru

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Although there have been many studies for change detection, the effective and efficient use of high resolution remote sensing images is still a problem. Conventional supervised methods need lots of annotations to classify the land cover categories and detect their changes. Besides, the training set in supervised methods often has lots of redundant samples without any essential information. In this study, we present a method for interactive change detection using high resolution remote sensing images with active learning to overcome the shortages of existing remote sensing image change detection techniques. In our method, there is no annotation of actual land cover category at the beginning. First, we find a certain number of the most representative objects in unsupervised way. Then, we can detect the change areas from multi-temporal high resolution remote sensing images by active learning with Gaussian processes in an interactive way gradually until the detection results do not change notably. The artificial labelling can be reduced substantially, and a desirable detection result can be obtained in a few iterations. The experiments on Geo-Eye1 and WorldView2 remote sensing images demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed method.

  7. Portraying Urban Functional Zones by Coupling Remote Sensing Imagery and Human Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Tu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Portraying urban functional zones provides useful insights into understanding complex urban systems and establishing rational urban planning. Although several studies have confirmed the efficacy of remote sensing imagery in urban studies, coupling remote sensing and new human sensing data like mobile phone positioning data to identify urban functional zones has still not been investigated. In this study, a new framework integrating remote sensing imagery and mobile phone positioning data was developed to analyze urban functional zones with landscape and human activity metrics. Landscapes metrics were calculated based on land cover from remote sensing images. Human activities were extracted from massive mobile phone positioning data. By integrating them, urban functional zones (urban center, sub-center, suburbs, urban buffer, transit region and ecological area were identified by a hierarchical clustering. Finally, gradient analysis in three typical transects was conducted to investigate the pattern of landscapes and human activities. Taking Shenzhen, China, as an example, the conducted experiment shows that the pattern of landscapes and human activities in the urban functional zones in Shenzhen does not totally conform to the classical urban theories. It demonstrates that the fusion of remote sensing imagery and human sensing data can characterize the complex urban spatial structure in Shenzhen well. Urban functional zones have the potential to act as bridges between the urban structure, human activity and urban planning policy, providing scientific support for rational urban planning and sustainable urban development policymaking.

  8. Moisture Management for High R-Value Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepage, R. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Schumacher, C. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Lukachko, A. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This report explains the moisture-related concerns for high R-value wall assemblies and discusses past Building America research work that informs this study. In this project, hygrothermal simulations were prepared for several common approaches to High R-value wall construction in six cities (Houston, Atlanta, Seattle, St. Louis, Chicago, and International Falls) representing a range of climate zones. The modeling program assessed the moisture durability of the wall assemblies based on three primary sources of moisture: construction moisture, air leakage condensation, and bulk water leakage; the report presents results of the study.

  9. Water dynamics of Ser-His-Glu-Cys-Asn powder and effects of moisture absorption on its chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Songyi; Xue, Peiyu; Yang, Shuailing; Li, Xingfang; Dong, Xiuping; Chen, Feng

    2017-08-01

    This study has elucidated moisture dynamics in the soybean peptide, Ser-His-Glu-Cys-Asn (SHECN) powder by using dynamic vapor sorption (DVS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). We also tried to investigate the effects of moisture absorption on the biological activity and chemical properties of SHECN with some effective methods such as mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). DVS results showed that the moisture absorption of SHECN could reach a maximum of 33%, and the SHECN powder after synthesis actually existed in a trihydrate state of SHECN.3H 2 O. Low-field NMR revealed that three water proportions including strong combined water, binding water and bulk water were involved in SHECN moisture absorption and absored water dominantly existed in the form of combined water. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MIR spectroscopy results indicated that moisture absorption could change the morphology and structure of SHECN. After moisture absorption at 50% and 75% relative humidity, 19 volatiles were identified by GC-MS analysis. Additionally, this study showed that a part of reductive groups in SHECN was oxidized and its antioxidant ability declined significantly (P moisture absorption. Water absorbed into SHECN powder can significantly change its microstructure and cause its activity to decrease. We must prevent SHECN from absorbing moisture during storage because the water can accelerate the oxidation of samples and promote microbial reactions. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Classification of Active Microwave and Passive Optical Data Based on Bayesian Theory and Mrf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, F.; Li, H. T.; Han, Y. S.; Gu, H. Y.

    2012-08-01

    A classifier based on Bayesian theory and Markov random field (MRF) is presented to classify the active microwave and passive optical remote sensing data, which have demonstrated their respective advantages in inversion of surface soil moisture content. In the method, the VV, VH polarization of ASAR and all the 7 TM bands are taken as the input of the classifier to get the class labels of each pixel of the images. And the model is validated for the necessities of integration of TM and ASAR, it shows that, the total precision of classification in this paper is 89.4%. Comparing with the classification with single TM, the accuracy increase 11.5%, illustrating that synthesis of active and passive optical remote sensing data is efficient and potential in classification.

  11. CLASSIFICATION OF ACTIVE MICROWAVE AND PASSIVE OPTICAL DATA BASED ON BAYESIAN THEORY AND MRF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Yu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A classifier based on Bayesian theory and Markov random field (MRF is presented to classify the active microwave and passive optical remote sensing data, which have demonstrated their respective advantages in inversion of surface soil moisture content. In the method, the VV, VH polarization of ASAR and all the 7 TM bands are taken as the input of the classifier to get the class labels of each pixel of the images. And the model is validated for the necessities of integration of TM and ASAR, it shows that, the total precision of classification in this paper is 89.4%. Comparing with the classification with single TM, the accuracy increase 11.5%, illustrating that synthesis of active and passive optical remote sensing data is efficient and potential in classification.

  12. Moisture monitoring and control system engineering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, K.E.; Fadeff, J.G.

    1995-01-01

    During the past 50 years, a wide variety of chemical compounds have been placed in the 149 single-shell tanks (SSTS) on the Hanford Site. A concern relating to chemical stability, chemical control, and safe storage of the waste is the potential for propagating reactions as a result of ferrocyanide-oxidizer and organic-oxidizer concentrations in the SSTS. Propagating reactions in fuel-nitrate mixtures are precluded if the amounts of fuel and moisture present in the waste are within specified limits. Because most credible ignition sources occur near the waste surface, the main emphasis of this study is toward monitoring and controlling moisture in the top 14 cm (5.5 in.) of waste. The purpose of this engineering study is to recommend a moisture monitoring and control system for use in SSTs containing sludge and saltcake. This study includes recommendations for: (1) monitoring and controlling moisture in SSTs; (2) the fundamental design criteria for a moisture monitoring and control system; and (3) criteria for the deployment of a moisture monitoring and control system in hanford Site SSTs. To support system recommendations, technical bases for selecting and using a moisture monitoring and control system are presented. Key functional requirements and a conceptual design are included to enhance system development and establish design criteria

  13. Skin moisturization mechanisms: new data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonté, F

    2011-05-01

    The main function of the skin is to protect the body against exogenous substances and excessive water loss. The skin barrier is located in the outermost layer of the skin, called the stratum corneum, which is composed of corneocytes, originating from the keratinocytes differentiation process, embedded in organized complex lipid domains. Moisturizing of the skin is recognized as the first anti-aging skin care. Skin moisturization is essential for its appearance, protection, complexion, softness and the reinforcement of its barrier properties against deleterious and exogenous environmental factors. The intrinsic water binding capacity of skin is not only due to the complex natural moisturizing factor present in corneocytes, but also to hyaluronic acid and a regulated water transport within the skin. Recent data shows that the water movements between the cells at the different levels of the epidermis are due to dedicated water and glycerol transport proteins named aquaporins. Their role in the skin moisturization is completed by corneodesmosomes and tight junctions. Water and pH are now shown to be of prime importance in the regulation of the epidermal enzymes linked to corneocytes desquamation and lipid synthesis. Furthermore, the level of moisturization of the skin is important in its protection against repeated exposure to various irritant agents or phenomena such as very frequent washing with strong tensioactive materials. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Empirical Soil Moisture Estimation with Spaceborne L-band Polarimetric Radars: Aquarius, SMAP, and PALSAR-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgin, M. S.; van Zyl, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    Traditionally, substantial ancillary data is needed to parametrize complex electromagnetic models to estimate soil moisture from polarimetric radar data. The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) baseline radar soil moisture retrieval algorithm uses a data cube approach, where a cube of radar backscatter values is calculated using sophisticated models. In this work, we utilize the empirical approach by Kim and van Zyl (2009) which is an optional SMAP radar soil moisture retrieval algorithm; it expresses radar backscatter of a vegetated scene as a linear function of soil moisture, hence eliminating the need for ancillary data. We use 2.5 years of L-band Aquarius radar and radiometer derived soil moisture data to determine two coefficients of a linear model function on a global scale. These coefficients are used to estimate soil moisture with 2.5 months of L-band SMAP and L-band PALSAR-2 data. The estimated soil moisture is compared with the SMAP Level 2 radiometer-only soil moisture product; the global unbiased RMSE of the SMAP derived soil moisture corresponds to 0.06-0.07 cm3/cm3. In this study, we leverage the three diverse L-band radar data sets to investigate the impact of pixel size and pixel heterogeneity on soil moisture estimation performance. Pixel sizes range from 100 km for Aquarius, over 3, 9, 36 km for SMAP, to 10m for PALSAR-2. Furthermore, we observe seasonal variation in the radar sensitivity to soil moisture which allows the identification and quantification of seasonally changing vegetation. Utilizing this information, we further improve the estimation performance. The research described in this paper is supported by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Copyright 2017. All rights reserved.

  15. Preliminary Evaluation of the SMAP Radiometer Soil Moisture Product over China Using In Situ Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayong Sun

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP satellite makes coincident global measurements of soil moisture using an L-band radar instrument and an L-band radiometer. It is crucial to evaluate the errors in the newest L-band SMAP satellite-derived soil moisture products, before they are routinely used in scientific research and applications. This study represents the first evaluation of the SMAP radiometer soil moisture product over China. In this paper, a preliminary evaluation was performed using sparse in situ measurements from 655 China Meteorological Administration (CMA monitoring stations between 1 April 2015 and 31 August 2016. The SMAP radiometer-derived soil moisture product was evaluated against two schemes of original soil moisture and the soil moisture anomaly in different geographical zones and land cover types. Four performance metrics, i.e., bias, root mean square error (RMSE, unbiased root mean square error (ubRMSE, and the correlation coefficient (R, were used in the accuracy evaluation. The results indicated that the SMAP radiometer-derived soil moisture product agreed relatively well with the in situ measurements, with ubRMSE values of 0.058 cm3·cm−3 and 0.039 cm3·cm−3 based on original data and anomaly data, respectively. The values of the SMAP radiometer-based soil moisture product were overestimated in wet areas, especially in the Southwest China, South China, Southeast China, East China, and Central China zones. The accuracies over croplands and in Northeast China were the worst. Soil moisture, surface roughness, and vegetation are crucial factors contributing to the error in the soil moisture product. Moreover, radio frequency interference contributes to the overestimation over the northern portion of the East China zone. This study provides guidelines for the application of the SMAP-derived soil moisture product in China and acts as a reference for improving the retrieval algorithm.

  16. The impact of soil moisture extremes and their spatiotemporal variability on Zambian maize yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Estes, L. D.; Vergopolan, N.

    2017-12-01

    Food security in sub-Saharan Africa is highly sensitive to climate variability. While it is well understood that extreme heat has substantial negative impacts on crop yield, the impacts of precipitation extremes, particularly over large spatial extents, are harder to quantify. There are three primary reasons for this difficulty, which are (1) lack of high quality, high resolution precipitation data, (2) rainfall data provide incomplete information on plant water availability, the variable that most directly affects crop performance, and (3) the type of rainfall extreme that most affects crop yields varies throughout the crop development stage. With respect to the first reason, the spatial and temporal variation of precipitation is much greater than that of temperature, yet the spatial resolution of rainfall data is typically even coarser than it is for temperature, particularly within Africa. Even if there were high-resolution rainfall data, the amount of water available to crops also depends on other physical factors that affect evapotranspiration, which are strongly influenced by heterogeneity in the land surface related to topography, soil properties, and land cover. In this context, soil moisture provides a better measure of crop water availability than rainfall. Furthermore, soil moisture has significantly different influences on crop yield depending on the crop's growth stage. The goal of this study is to understand how the spatiotemporal scales of soil moisture extremes interact with crops, more specifically, the timing and the spatial scales of extreme events like droughts and flooding. In this study, we simulate daily-1km soil moisture using HydroBlocks - a physically based land surface model - and compare it with precipitation and remote sensing derived maize yields between 2000 and 2016 in Zambia. We use a novel combination of the SCYM (scalable satellite-based yield mapper) method with DSSAT crop model, which is a mechanistic model responsive to water

  17. Moisture Sorption Behaviour and Mould Ecology of Trade Garri Sold in South Eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tochukwu Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Garri is a creamy white or yellow starchy grit produced by roasting to gelatinization and dryness of peeled, washed, mashed, and fermented dewatered cassava roots. It is the most important product of cassava in West and Central Africa. Mean moisture content of yellow and white garri was 11.11% and 10.81% within 24 hrs of sampling from the market, increasing to 17.27% and 16.14%, respectively, following 3 months of storage at room temperature. The water activity of samples varied from initial 0.587 to 0.934 following storage. Moisture sorption isotherms, determined by static gravimetric techniques at 20° and 30°C, showed temperature dependent BET Sigmoidal type II behaviour typical of carbohydrate rich foods but modulated very slightly by the content of palm oil. Equilibrium moisture content decreased with increase in temperature at constant water activity. A total of 10 fungal species belonging to the genera Mucor, Penicillium, Cephalosporium, Aspergillus, Scopulariopsis, Rhizopus, and Paecilomyces were identified, with range increasing with water activity of samples.

  18. Wageningen UR Unmanned Aerial Remote Sensing Facility - Overview of activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomeus, Harm; Keesstra, Saskia; Kooistra, Lammert; Suomalainen, Juha; Mucher, Sander; Kramer, Henk; Franke, Jappe

    2016-04-01

    To support environmental management there is an increasing need for timely, accurate and detailed information on our land. Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) are increasingly used to monitor agricultural crop development, habitat quality or urban heat efficiency. An important reason is that UAS technology is maturing quickly while the flexible capabilities of UAS fill a gap between satellite based and ground based geo-sensing systems. In 2012, different groups within Wageningen University and Research Centre have established an Unmanned Airborne Remote Sensing Facility. The objective of this facility is threefold: a) To develop innovation in the field of remote sensing science by providing a platform for dedicated and high-quality experiments; b) To support high quality UAS services by providing calibration facilities and disseminating processing procedures to the UAS user community; and c) To promote and test the use of UAS in a broad range of application fields like habitat monitoring, precision agriculture and land degradation assessment. The facility is hosted by the Laboratory of Geo-Information Science and Remote Sensing (GRS) and the Department of Soil Physics and Land Management (SLM) of Wageningen University together with the team Earth Informatics (EI) of Alterra. The added value of the Unmanned Aerial Remote Sensing Facility is that compared to for example satellite based remote sensing more dedicated science experiments can be prepared. This includes for example higher frequent observations in time (e.g., diurnal observations), observations of an object under different observation angles for characterization of BRDF and flexibility in use of camera's and sensors types. In this way, laboratory type of set ups can be tested in a field situation and effects of up-scaling can be tested. In the last years we developed and implemented different camera systems (e.g. a hyperspectral pushbroom system, and multispectral frame cameras) which we operated in projects all

  19. Quality Assurance of Rice and Paddy Moisture Measurements in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinhaneti, T.; Keawprasert, T.; Puuntharo, P.; Triarun, W.

    2017-10-01

    A bilateral comparison in moisture measurement between the National Institute of Metrology Thailand (NIMT) and the Central Bureau of Weights and Measures (CBWM) was organized for quality assuring of rice and paddy moisture measurement in Thailand. The bilateral comparison was conducted by using the same batch of sample and moisture meter as transfer device. It consisted of two parts: moisture measurement in rice and in paddy. A rice moisture meter belonging to CBWM and rice standards prepared at the nominal moisture content of 10 %, 12 %, 14 % and 16 % at NIMT, were used for rice moisture comparison, while a paddy moisture meter belonging to NIMT and paddy standards prepared at the nominal moisture content of 12 %, 14 %, 16 % and 18 % at CBWM, were used for paddy moisture comparison. Both laboratories measured the moisture content of a sample by using the standard method in ISO 712 and used that sample to calibrate a moisture meter by means of the method based on ISO 7700-1. Since the moisture content of the sample can change during the comparison, correction values in moisture content between the standard value and the reading value from the moisture meter are used as calibration results for the comparison evaluation. For the rice moisture comparison, differences in the correction value measured by the two laboratories vary from 0.18 % to 0.46 %, with their combined comparison uncertainty of 0.37 % (k= 2). The main contribution to the difference comes from the standard values from both laboratories differing from 0.27 % to 0.53 %, as the rice standard was found to drift in moisture content less than 0.05 %. Similarly to the rice moisture comparison, differences in the correction value for the paddy moisture measurement range from 0.08 % to 0.56 % with the combined comparison uncertainty of 0.38 % (k = 2), whereas the stability in moisture content of the paddy sample at NIMT was found to be within 0.12 %.

  20. Influence of drying conditions on the effective moisture diffusivity, energy of activation and energy consumption during the thin-layer drying of berberis fruit (Berberidaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghbashlo, Mortaza; Kianmehr, Mohammad H.; Samimi-Akhijahani, Hadi

    2008-01-01

    Berberis is known as a medicinal and ornamental plant in the world. Berberis fruit is used in medicine to cure liver, neck and stomach cancer, blood purification and mouth scent. Dried berberis fruit using new technology was preserved for relatively long time. Thin-layer drying simulation was used to obtain experiment data, using laboratory scale hot-air dryer of the static tray. Fick's second law was used as a major equation to calculate the moisture diffusivity with some simplification. The calculated value of moisture diffusivity varied from a minimum of 3.320 x 10 -10 to a maximum of 9 x 10 -9 m 2 /s and the value of energy activation from a minimum of 110.837 to a maximum of 130.61 kJ/mol of from 50 deg. C to 70 deg. C with drying air velocities of 0.5-2 m/s. The high value of the energy of activation for berberis fruit probably related to the tissue of berberis fruit and high moisture content (about 74.28%w.b), and intensive changes in D eff values for a different air temperature at constant air velocity. The input energy values and specific energy requirement for thin-drying of berberis fruit were found to be in the range of 0.643348-35.20032 (kWh) and 20.9355-1110.0700 (kWh/kg) from 50 deg. C to 70 deg. C with drying air velocities of 0.5-2 m/s, respectively

  1. Sense of moving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mark Schram; Grünbaum, Thor

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, we assume the existence of a sense of “movement activity” that arises when a person actively moves a body part. This sense is usually supposed to be part of sense of agency (SoA). The purpose of the chapter is to determine whether the already existing experimental paradigms can...

  2. Implementation of Active Thermal Control (ATC) for the Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaylov, Rebecca; Kwack, Eug; French, Richard; Dawson, Douglas; Hoffman, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Earth Observing Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) Mission is scheduled to launch in November 2014 into a 685 kilometer near-polar, sun-synchronous orbit. SMAP will provide comprehensive global mapping measurements of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state in order to enhance understanding of the processes that link the water, energy, and carbon cycles. The primary objectives of SMAP are to improve worldwide weather and flood forecasting, enhance climate prediction, and refine drought and agriculture monitoring during its three year mission. The SMAP instrument architecture incorporates an L-band radar and an L-band radiometer which share a common feed horn and parabolic mesh reflector. The instrument rotates about the nadir axis at approximately 15 revolutions per minute, thereby providing a conically scanning wide swath antenna beam that is capable of achieving global coverage within three days. In order to make the necessary precise surface emission measurements from space, the electronics and hardware associated with the radiometer must meet tight short-term (instantaneous and orbital) and long-term (monthly and mission) thermal stabilities. Maintaining these tight thermal stabilities is quite challenging because the sensitive electronics are located on a fast spinning platform that can either be in full sunlight or total eclipse, thus exposing them to a highly transient environment. A passive design approach was first adopted early in the design cycle as a low-cost solution. With careful thermal design efforts to cocoon and protect all sensitive components, all stability requirements