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Sample records for modified lithium borohydrides

  1. Modified borohydrides for reversible hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Au, Ming

    2005-08-29

    In attempt to develop lithium borohydrides as the reversible hydrogen storage materials with the high capacity, the feasibility to reduce dehydrogenation temperature of the lithium borohydride and moderate rehydrogenation condition has been explored. The commercial available lithium borohydride has been modified by ball milling with metal oxides and metal chlorides as the additives. The modified lithium borohydrides release 9 wt% hydrogen starting from 473K. The dehydrided modified lithium borohydrides absorb 7-9 wt% hydrogen at 873K and 7 MPa. The additive modification reduces dehydriding temperature from 673K to 473K and moderates rehydrogenation conditions to 923K and 15 MPa. XRD and SEM analysis discovered the formation of the intermediate compound TiB{sub 2} that may plays the key role in change the reaction path resulting the lower dehydriding temperature and reversibility. The reversible hydrogen storage capacity of the oxide modified lithium borohydrides decreases gradually during hydriding-dehydriding cycling due to the lost of the boron during dehydrogenation. But, it can be prevented by selecting the suitable additive, forming intermediate boron compounds and changing the reaction path. The additives reduce dehydriding temperature and improve the reversibility, it also reduces the hydrogen storage capacity. The best compromise can be reached by optimization of the additive loading and introducing new process other than ball milling.

  2. Experimental investigation on lithium borohydride hydrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goudon, J.P. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 5209 CNRS, Universite de Bourgogne, 9 avenue Alain Savary, BP 47870, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France); SNPE Materiaux Energetiques, Centre de Recherches du Bouchet, Laboratoire BCFB, 9 rue Lavoisier, 91710 Vert-le-Petit (France); Bernard, F. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 5209 CNRS, Universite de Bourgogne, 9 avenue Alain Savary, BP 47870, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France); Renouard, J.; Yvart, P. [SNPE Materiaux Energetiques, Centre de Recherches du Bouchet, Laboratoire BCFB, 9 rue Lavoisier, 91710 Vert-le-Petit (France)

    2010-10-15

    Lithium borohydride, one of the highest energy density chemical energy carriers, is considered as an attractive potential hydrogen storage material due to its high gravimetric hydrogen density (19.6%). Belonging to borohydride compounds, it presents a real issue to overcome aims fixed by the U.S. Department of Energy in the field of energy, and so crystallizes currently attention and effort to use this material for large scale civil and military applications. However, due to its important hygroscopicity, lithium borohydride is a hazardous material which requires specific handling conditions for industrial aspects. In order to understand much more the reaction mechanism involved between LiBH{sub 4} and the water vapor which leads to the native material dehydrogenation, several experimental techniques such as X-ray Photoelectrons Spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) or thermal analysis (TGA/DTA) were investigated. Indeed, depending on water stoichiometric coefficient, several reactions are suggested in literature but the lithium borohydride hydrolysis way reaction scheme is still uncertain. Investigations exhibited interesting results and, highlighted the formation of lithium metaborate dihydrate LiBO{sub 2},2H{sub 2}O as hydrolysis product via such a solid-gas reaction. (author)

  3. Fullerene mediated hydrogen release in lithium borohydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheicher, Ralph; Li, Sa; Jena, Puru

    2010-03-01

    Complex metal hydrides possess many properties which make them attractive as a storage medium for hydrogen, but typically, catalysts are required to lower the hydrogen desorption temperature and to facilitate hydrogen uptake in the form of a reversible reaction. The overwhelming focus in the search for catalyzing agents has been on compounds containing titanium, but the precise mechanism of their actions remains somewhat obscure. A recent experiment has now shown that fullerene (C60) can also act as catalysts for the hydrogen uptake and release in lithium borohydride (LiBH4). In an effort to understand the involved mechanism, we have employed density functional theory to carry out a detailed study of the interaction between this complex metal hydride and the carbon nanomaterial. Considering a step-wise reduction of the hydrogen content in LiBH4, we find that the presence of C60 can lead to a substantial reduction of the involved H-removal energies. This catalyzing effect is explained by us as a consequence of the interaction between the BHx^- part and the C60 entity.

  4. BIMETALLIC LITHIUM BOROHYDRIDES TOWARD REVERSIBLE HYDROGEN STORAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Au, M.

    2010-10-21

    Borohydrides such as LiBH{sub 4} have been studied as candidates for hydrogen storage because of their high hydrogen contents (18.4 wt% for LiBH{sub 4}). Limited success has been made in reducing the dehydrogenation temperature by adding reactants such as metals, metal oxides and metal halides. However, full rehydrogenation has not been realized because of multi-step decomposition processes and the stable intermediate species produced. It is suggested that adding second cation in LiBH{sub 4} may reduce the binding energy of B-H. The second cation may also provide the pathway for full rehydrogenation. In this work, several bimetallic borohydrides were synthesized using wet chemistry, high pressure reactive ball milling and sintering processes. The investigation found that the thermodynamic stability was reduced, but the full rehydrogenation is still a challenge. Although our experiments show the partial reversibility of the bimetallic borohydrides, it was not sustainable during dehydriding-rehydriding cycles because of the accumulation of hydrogen inert species.

  5. Structural studies of lithium zinc borohydride by neutron powder diffraction, Raman and NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravnsbaek, D.B. [Center for Materials Crystallography (CMC), Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, Langelandsgade 140, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Frommen, C. [Institute for Energy Technology, P.O. Box 40, N-2027 Kjeller (Norway); Reed, D. [School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Filinchuk, Y. [Center for Materials Crystallography (CMC), Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, Langelandsgade 140, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Swiss-Norwegian Beam Lines at ESRF, BP-220, 38043 Grenoble (France); Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences, Universite Catholique de Louvain, 1 Place L. Pasteur, B-1348, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Sorby, M.; Hauback, B.C. [Institute for Energy Technology, P.O. Box 40, N-2027 Kjeller (Norway); Jakobsen, H.J. [Instrument Centre for Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy and Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, Langelandsgade 140, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Book, D. [School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Besenbacher, F. [Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Skibsted, J. [Instrument Centre for Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy and Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, Langelandsgade 140, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Jensen, T.R., E-mail: trj@chem.au.dk [Center for Materials Crystallography (CMC), Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, Langelandsgade 140, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

    2011-09-15

    Research highlights: > Structural study of the first interpenetrated framework hydride, LiZn{sub 2}(BH{sub 4}){sub 5} > Determination of deuterium positions and revision of crystal structure by PND. > Raman spectroscopy confirms the presence of isolated [Zn{sub 2}(BD{sub 4}){sub 5}]-bar complex anions. > Determination of quadrupole coupling parameters and chemical shifts by {sup 11}B MAS NMR. - Abstract: The crystal structure of LiZn{sub 2}(BH{sub 4}){sub 5} is studied in detail using a combination of powder neutron diffraction (PND), Raman spectroscopy, and {sup 11}B MAS NMR spectroscopy on LiZn{sub 2}(BH{sub 4}){sub 5} and LiZn{sub 2}({sup 11}BD{sub 4}){sub 5}. The aim is to obtain detailed structural knowledge of the first interpenetrated framework hydride compound, LiZn{sub 2}(BD{sub 4}){sub 5} which consists of doubly interpenetrated 3D frameworks built from dinuclear complex ions [Zn{sub 2}(BD{sub 4}){sub 5}]{sup -} and lithium ions. The positions of the deuterium atoms are determined using Rietveld refinement of the PND data and the orientation of one of the four independent BD{sub 4}{sup -} groups is revised. The current data reveal that the structure of [Zn{sub 2}(BD{sub 4}){sub 5}]{sup -} is more regular than previously reported, as are also the coordinations around the Zn and Li atoms. Both Zn and Li atoms are found to coordinate to the BD{sub 4}{sup -} units via the tetrahedral edges. Some distortion of the angles within the BD{sub 4} units is observed, relative to the expected angles of 109.4 for the ideal tetrahedral coordination. Raman spectroscopy confirms bending and stretching modes from the expected terminal and bridging bidentate BH{sub 4}{sup -} and BD{sub 4}{sup -} units. The {sup 11}B MAS NMR spectrum of the satellite transitions resolves two distinct manifolds of spinning sidebands, which allows estimation of the {sup 11}B quadrupole coupling parameters and isotropic chemical shifts for the four distinct {sup 11}B sites of [Zn{sub 2}(BD

  6. In situ X-ray Raman spectroscopy study of the hydrogen sorption properties of lithium borohydride nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miedema, Piter S; Ngene, Peter; van der Eerden, Ad M J; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Weng, Tsu-Chien; Nordlund, Dennis; Au, Yuen S; de Groot, Frank M F

    2014-11-07

    Nanoconfined alkali metal borohydrides are promising materials for reversible hydrogen storage applications, but the characterization of hydrogen sorption in these materials is difficult. Here we show that with in situ X-ray Raman spectroscopy (XRS) we can track the relative amounts of intermediates and final products formed during de- and re-hydrogenation of nanoconfined lithium borohydride (LiBH4) and therefore we can possibly identify the de- and re-hydrogenation pathways. In the XRS of nanoconfined LiBH4 at different points in the de- and re-hydrogenation, we identified phases that lead to the conclusion that de- and re-hydrogenation pathways in nanoconfined LiBH4 are different from bulk LiBH4: intercalated lithium (LiCx), boron and lithium hydride were formed during de-hydrogenation, but as well Li2B12H12 was observed indicating that there is possibly some bulk LiBH4 present in the nanoconfined sample LiBH4-C as prepared. Surprisingly, XRS revealed that the de-hydrogenated products of the LiBH4-C nanocomposites can be partially rehydrogenated to about 90% of Li2B12H12 and 2-5% of LiBH4 at a mild condition of 1 bar H2 and 350 °C. This suggests that re-hydrogenation occurs via the formation of Li2B12H12. Our results show that XRS is an elegant technique that can be used for in and ex situ study of the hydrogen sorption properties of nanoconfined and bulk light-weight metal hydrides in energy storage applications.

  7. Synthesis of rock-salt type lithium borohydride and its peculiar Li+ ion conduction properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Miyazaki

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The high energy density and excellent cycle performance of lithium ion batteries makes them superior to all other secondary batteries and explains why they are widely used in portable devices. However, because organic liquid electrolytes have a higher operating voltage than aqueous solution, they are used in lithium ion batteries. This comes with the risk of fire due to their flammability. Solid electrolytes are being investigated to find an alternative to organic liquid. However, the nature of the solid-solid point contact at the interface between the electrolyte and electrode or between the electrolyte grains is such that high power density has proven difficult to attain. We develop a new method for the fabrication of a solid electrolyte using LiBH4, known for its super Li+ ion conduction without any grain boundary contribution. The modifications to the conduction pathway achieved by stabilizing the high pressure form of this material provided a new structure with some LiBH4, more suitable to the high rate condition. We synthesized the H.P. form of LiBH4 under ambient pressure by doping LiBH4 with the KI lattice by sintering. The formation of a KI - LiBH4 solid solution was confirmed both macroscopically and microscopically. The obtained sample was shown to be a pure Li+ conductor despite its small Li+ content. This conduction mechanism, where the light doping cation played a major role in ion conduction, was termed the “Parasitic Conduction Mechanism.” This mechanism made it possible to synthesize a new ion conductor and is expected to have enormous potential in the search for new battery materials.

  8. Development of high-performance cathode catalyst of polypyrrole modified carbon supported CoOOH for direct borohydride fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yan; Zhu, Cai; Chen, Kaijian; Wang, Juan; Qin, Haiying; Liu, Jiabin; Yan, Shuai; Yang, Ke; Li, Aiguo

    2017-01-01

    Polypyrrole modified carbon supported CoOOH electrocatalyst (CoOOH-PPy-C) is prepared by impregnation-chemical method, and the catalytic properties for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline media are investigated. The X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy results confirm the presence of the expected CoOOH. The electrochemical tests show that the CoOOH-PPy-C catalyst exhibits good electrocatalytic activity towards ORR. The direct borohydride fuel cell using CoOOH-PPy-C as the cathode catalyst demonstrates a good stability performance. There is only 4% decrease of the cell voltage after 80-h operation. The ORR occurs an average 4-electron transfer pathway on the CoOOH-PPy-C catalyst. The good catalytic activity towards ORR benefits from the Cosbnd N bond, which is identified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy test. X-ray absorption fine structure experiments further show that two nearest O atoms are substituted by two N atoms bonding to Co ion at a distance of 1.64 Å. The CoOOH-PPy-C exhibits better electrochemical properties than the Co(OH)2 counterpart even though the valence state of Co ion is +3 in CoOOH-PPy-C. Those results indicate that the bonding of Co ion with N atoms should be a key issue regardless the valence of Co ion.

  9. AB5-type Hydrogen Storage Alloy Modified with Ti/Zr Used as Anodic Materials in Borohydride Fuel Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lianbang WANG; Chunan MA; Xinbiao MAO; Yuanming SUN; Seijiro SUDA

    2005-01-01

    Fuel cell using borohydride as the fuel has received much attention. AB5-type hydrogen storage alloy used as the anodic material instead of noble metals has been investigated. In order to restrain the generation of hydrogen and enhance the utilization of borohydride, Ti/Zr metal powders has been added into the parent LmNi4.78Mn0.22 (where Lm is La-richened mischmetal) alloy (LNM) by ball milling and heat treatment methods. It is found that the addition of Ti/Zr metal powders lowers the electrochemical catalytic activity of the electrodes, at the same time, restrains the generation of hydrogen and enhances the utilization of the fuel. All the results show that the hydrogen generation rate or the utilization of the fuel is directly relative to the electrochemical catalytic activity or the discharge capability of the electrodes. The utilization of the fuel increases with discharge current density. It is very important to find a balance between the discharge capability and the utilization of the fuel.

  10. Modified natural graphite as anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y. P.; Jiang, C.; Wan, C.; Holze, R.

    A concentrated nitric acid solution was used as an oxidant to modify the electrochemical performance of natural graphite as anode material for lithium ion batteries. Results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance, thermogravimmetry, differential thermal analysis, high resolution electron microscopy, and measurement of the reversible capacity suggest that the surface structure of natural graphite was changed, a fresh dense layer of oxides was formed. Some structural imperfections were removed, and the stability of the graphite structure increased. These changes impede decomposition of electrolyte solvent molecules, co-intercalation of solvated lithium ions and movement of graphene planes along the a-axis direction. Concomitantly, more micropores were introduced, and thus, lithium intercalation and deintercalation were favored and more sites were provided for lithium storage. Consequently, the reversible capacity and the cycling behavior of the modified natural graphite were much improved by the oxidation. Obviously, the liquid-solid oxidation is advantageous in controlling the uniformity of the products.

  11. Metal borohydrides and derivatives - synthesis, structure and properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paskevicius, Mark; Jepsen, Lars H; Schouwink, Pascal; Černý, Radovan; Ravnsbæk, Dorthe B; Filinchuk, Yaroslav; Dornheim, Martin; Besenbacher, Flemming; Jensen, Torben R

    2017-03-06

    A wide variety of metal borohydrides, MBH4, have been discovered and characterized during the past decade, revealing an extremely rich chemistry including fascinating structural flexibility and a wide range of compositions and physical properties. Metal borohydrides receive increasing interest within the energy storage field due to their extremely high hydrogen density and possible uses in batteries as solid state ion conductors. Recently, new types of physical properties have been explored in lanthanide-bearing borohydrides related to solid state phosphors and magnetic refrigeration. Two major classes of metal borohydride derivatives have also been discovered: anion-substituted compounds where the complex borohydride anion, BH4(-), is replaced by another anion, i.e. a halide or amide ion; and metal borohydrides modified with neutral molecules, such as NH3, NH3BH3, N2H4, etc. Here, we review new synthetic strategies along with structural, physical and chemical properties for metal borohydrides, revealing a number of new trends correlating composition, structure, bonding and thermal properties. These new trends provide general knowledge and may contribute to the design and discovery of new metal borohydrides with tailored properties towards the rational design of novel functional materials. This review also demonstrates that there is still room for discovering new combinations of light elements including boron and hydrogen, leading to complex hydrides with extreme flexibility in composition, structure and properties.

  12. Novel Ammonium Metal Borohydrides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grinderslev, Jakob; Jepsen, Lars Haahr; Cerny, Radovan

    , it cannot store hydrogen reversibly. Recently, the first ammonium metal borohydride, NH4Ca(BH4)3 was published, which may be considered as substitution of K+ by NH4+ in KCa(BH4)3, due to the similar sizes of NH4+ and K+[1]. This compound successfully stabilizes NH4BH4. In the present work, a series of novel......, and the crystal structures and thermal decompositions are investigated. Mixtures of NH4BH4 - NaBH4 do not react, while solid solutions, K1-x(NH4)xBH4, are formed for NH4BH4 - KBH4. For the other composites, novel ammonium metal borohydrides are formed. Several of these structures have been solved from high...

  13. Surface-Modified Membrane as A Separator for Lithium-Ion Polymer Battery

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Young Kim; Dae Young Lim

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the fabrication of novel modified polyethylene (PE) membranes using plasma technology to create high-performance and cost-effective separator membranes for practical applications in lithium-ion polymer batteries. The modified PE membrane via plasma modification process plays a critical role in improving wettability and electrolyte retention, interfacial adhesion between separators and electrodes, and cycle performance of lithium-ion polymer batteries. This paper suggests ...

  14. Surface-Modified Membrane as A Separator for Lithium-Ion Polymer Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Young Kim

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the fabrication of novel modified polyethylene (PE membranes using plasma technology to create high-performance and cost-effective separator membranes for practical applications in lithium-ion polymer batteries. The modified PE membrane via plasma modification process plays a critical role in improving wettability and electrolyte retention, interfacial adhesion between separators and electrodes, and cycle performance of lithium-ion polymer batteries. This paper suggests that the performance of lithium-ion polymer batteries can be greatly enhanced by the plasma modification of commercial separators with proper functional materials for targeted application.

  15. Lithium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaskula, B.W.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, world lithium consumption was estimated to have been about 25 kt (25,000 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds, a 10-percent increase from 2010. U.S. consumption was estimated to have been about 2 kt (2,200 st) of contained lithium, a 100-percent increase from 2010. The United States was estimated to be the fourth-ranked consumer of lithium and remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. One company, Chemetall Foote Corp. (a subsidiary of Chemetall GmbH of Germany), produced lithium compounds from domestic brine resources near Silver Peak, NV.

  16. Poly(o-methoxyaniline modified electrode for detection of lithium ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber Antonio Lindino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the use of an electrode modified with poly(o-methoxyaniline for detecting lithium ions. These ions are present in drugs used for treating bipolar disorder and that requires periodical monitoring of the concentration of lithium in blood serum. Poly(o-methoxyaniline was obtained electrochemically by cyclic voltammetry on the surface of a gold electrode. The results showed that the electrode modified with a conducting polymer responded to lithium ions in the concentration range of 1 x 10-5 to 1 x 10-4 mol L-1 . The results also confirmed that the performance of the modified electrode was comparable to that of the standard method (atomic emission spectrophotometry.

  17. Poly({omicron}-methoxyaniline) modified electrode for detection of lithium ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindino, Cleber Antonio; Casagrande, Marcella; Peiter, Andreia; Ribeiro, Caroline [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana, Toledo, PR (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This paper reports the use of an electrode modified with poly({omicron}-methoxyaniline) for detecting lithium ions. These ions are present in drugs used for treating bipolar disorder and that requires periodical monitoring of the concentration of lithium in blood serum. Poly({omicron}-methoxyaniline) was obtained electrochemically by cyclic voltammetry on the surface of a gold electrode. The results showed that the electrode modified with a conducting polymer responded to lithium ions in the concentration range of 1 x 10{sup -5} to 1 x 10{sup -4} mol L{sup -1}. The results also confirmed that the performance of the modified electrode was comparable to that of the standard method (atomic emission spectrophotometry). (author)

  18. Modified carbon black materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostecki, Robert; Richardson, Thomas; Boesenberg, Ulrike; Pollak, Elad; Lux, Simon

    2016-06-14

    A lithium (Li) ion battery comprising a cathode, a separator, an organic electrolyte, an anode, and a carbon black conductive additive, wherein the carbon black has been heated treated in a CO.sub.2 gas environment at a temperature range of between 875-925 degrees Celsius for a time range of between 50 to 70 minutes to oxidize the carbon black and reduce an electrochemical reactivity of the carbon black towards the organic electrolyte.

  19. Lithium modified zeolite synthesis for conversion of biodiesel-derived glycerol to polyglycerol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayoub, Muhammad, E-mail: muhammad.ayoub@petronas.com.my [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750, Tronoh, Perak, Malaysia and School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 43000, Pinang (Malaysia); Abdullah, Ahmad Zuhairi, E-mail: chzuhairi@usm.my [School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 43000, Pinang (Malaysia); Inayat, Abrar, E-mail: abrar.inayat@petronas.com.my [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    Basic zeolite has received significant attention in the catalysis community. These zeolites modified with alkaline are the potential replacement for existing zeolite catalysts due to its unique features with added advantages. The present paper covers the preparation of lithium modified zeolite Y (Li-ZeY) and its activity for solvent free conversion of biodiesel-derived glycerol to polyglycerol via etherification process. The modified zeolite was well characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Nitrogen Adsorption. The SEM images showed that there was no change in morphology of modified zeolite structure after lithium modification. XRD patterns showed that the structure of zeolite was sustained after lithium modification. The surface properties of parent and modified zeolite was also observed N{sub 2} adsortion-desorption technique and found some changes in surface area and pore size. In addition, the basic strength of prepared materials was measured by Hammet indicators and found that basic strength of Li-ZeY was highly improved. This modified zeolite was found highly thermal stable and active heterogamous basic catalyst for conversion of solvent free glycerol to polyglycerol. This reaction was conducted at different temperatures and 260 °C was found most active temperature for this process for reaction time from 6 to 12 h over this basic catalyst in the absence of solvent.

  20. Manganese modified zeolite silicalite-1 as polysulphide sorbent in lithium sulphur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapornik, Vida; Novak Tusar, Natasa; Ristic, Alenka; Chellappan, Rajesh Kumar; Foix, Dominique; Dedryvère, Rémi; Gaberscek, Miran; Dominko, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Discharge/charge process of classical lithium sulphur battery proceeds through intermediate polysulphides which are soluble in classical electrolyte systems. Due to concentration gradient soluble polysulphides easily diffuse/migrate out from cathode composite forming non-uniform distribution of the sulphur within cathode. Eventually polysulphides can be completely reduced on the metallic lithium anode. In this work we compare the sorption properties of manganese modified zeolite silicalite-1 (MnS-1) with a cathode composite containing SBA-15 additive and a cathode composite without additive. Careful analysis using XPS and FIB microscopy equipped with EDX show improved retention of polysulphide species within cathode composite in the case of MnS-1 zeolite as an additive. Interestingly, the amount of sulphur species detected by XPS on the metallic lithium is very similar regardless on cathode composite we use. Finally, similar cycling behaviour can be observed if MnS-1 zeolite is used as an interlayer between composite cathode and separator.

  1. Perovskite alkali metal samarium borohydrides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kasper T; Jørgensen, Mathias; Fogh, Alexander S

    2017-01-01

    A new synthesis method of samarium borohydride, Sm(BH4)2, using tetrahydrofuran borane, THF-BH3, and samarium hydride, SmH2, has been demonstrated and verified. The synthesised Sm(BH4)2 was mechanochemically treated with MBH4, M = K, Rb, Cs. Initially, the formation of KSm(BH4)3 is observed while...... cycles of hydrogen release and uptake, the storage capacity was 1.0 wt% for KSm(BH4)3 and 0.84 wt% for RbSm(BH4)3 and CsSm(BH4)3.......A new synthesis method of samarium borohydride, Sm(BH4)2, using tetrahydrofuran borane, THF-BH3, and samarium hydride, SmH2, has been demonstrated and verified. The synthesised Sm(BH4)2 was mechanochemically treated with MBH4, M = K, Rb, Cs. Initially, the formation of KSm(BH4)3 is observed while...

  2. Lithium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lithium is used to treat and prevent episodes of mania (frenzied, abnormally excited mood) in people with bipolar disorder (manic-depressive disorder; a disease that causes episodes of depression, episodes of mania, and other abnormal ...

  3. Boehmite particle coating modified microporous polyethylene membrane: A promising separator for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chongwen; Tong, Hua; Luo, Chuanpeng; Yuan, Shuanglong; Chen, Guorong; Yang, Yunxia

    2017-04-01

    To exploit high-quality separators for lithium ion batteries, current research activities are mainly focused on the modification of microporous polyolefin membranes by coating them with inorganic particles to achieve comprehensive improvements in their thermal stability, electrochemical compatibility, and overcharge protection. Here, we report a separator made by coating boehmite (AlOOH) particles on microporous polyethylene (PE) membranes. Compared to the commercially applied coating materials, e.g., aluminum oxide (Al2O3), AlOOH allows for a substantial reduction in the coating thickness, while ensuring excellent thermal stability of the modified PE membrane. Our study shows that this is due to the formation of an interlocking interface structure that interconnects the PE membrane and AlOOH coating layer as soon as PE melts at about 140 °C, preventing the modified PE membrane from shrinking at subsequently elevated temperatures. The modified PE membrane exhibits suitable electrolyte wettability to facilitate ion transport through it. Thus, the lithium ion batteries employing it as a separator could attain substantially improved electrochemical performance. Furthermore, the AlOOH-coated PE separator was also found to provide an excellent overcharge protection.

  4. Diborane release and structure distortion in borohydrides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callini, Elsa; Borgschulte, Andreas; Ramirez-Cuesta, Anibal Javier; Züttel, Andreas

    2013-01-21

    Hydrogen desorption from borohydrides is often accompanied by the release of diborane. The amount of diborane released as a byproduct during the decomposition of borohydrides scales inversely with the borohydride stability, which in turn depends on the electronegativity of the corresponding cation. We present a model based on the difference between the symmetric and asymmetric assembly of B(2)H(6) units at the surface. The origin of this reaction is the degree of distortion of the BH(4)(-) anions in the bulk, hitherto depending on the degree of ionization of the cation. A practical measure of the distortion is the range in which the stretching vibration modes appear, which is the difference in the energy of the stretching vibrations of hydrogen atoms with maximum different bonding lengths (Badger's rule). We propose from this relation that the diborane released from the surface of the relatively unstable LiZn(2)(BH(4))(5) is formed from a recombination of BH(2)(δ+) and BH(4)(δ-) units. Ultra high vacuum mass spectroscopy measurements support the presented model and clarify the decomposition of stable borohydrides, such as LiBH(4). The sublimation of borohydrides in UHV competes with their decomposition.

  5. Sodium Borohydride/Hydrogen Peroxide Fuel Cells For Space Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, T. I.; Deelo, M. E.; Narayanan, S. R.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation examines Sodium Borohydride and Hydrogen Peroxide Fuel Cells as they are applied to space applications. The topics include: 1) Motivation; 2) The Sodium Borohydride Fuel Cell; 3) Sodium Borohydride Fuel Cell Test Stands; 4) Fuel Cell Comparisons; 5) MEA Performance; 6) Anode Polarization; and 7) Electrode Analysis. The benefits of hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant and benefits of sodium borohydride as a fuel are also addressed.

  6. PVDF-HFP/ether-modified polysiloxane membranes obtained via airbrush spraying as active separators for application in lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, S M; Jeschke, S; Vettikuzha, P; Wiemhöfer, H-D

    2015-08-04

    Improved hybrid polymer electrolyte membranes are introduced based on ether-modified polysiloxanes and poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) yielding a safe separator membrane, which is able to be sprayed directly onto lithium ion battery active materials, with an active role for enhanced ion transport.

  7. Conductivity and modulus formulation in lithium modified bismuth zinc borate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahiya, Sajjan; Punia, R.; Murugavel, S.; Maan, A. S.

    2016-05-01

    The conductivity and modulus formulation in lithium modified bismuth zinc borate glasses with compositions xLi2O-(50-x) Bi2O3-10ZnO-40B2O3 has been studied in the frequency range 0.1 Hz-1.5 × 105 Hz in the temperature range 573 K-693 K. The temperature and frequency dependent conductivity is found to obey Jonscher's universal power law for all the studied compositions, the dc conductivity (σdc), crossover frequency (ωH), and frequency exponent (s) have been estimated from the fitting of the experimental data of ac conductivity with Jonscher's universal power law. Enthalpy to dissociate the cation from its original site next to a charge compensating centre (Hf) and enthalpy of migration (Hm) have been estimated. It has been observed that number of charge carriers and ac conductivity in the lithium modified bismuth zinc borate glasses increases with increase in Li2O content. Further, the conduction mechanism in the glass sample with x = 0 may be due to overlapping large polaron tunneling, whereas, conduction mechanism in other studied glass samples more or less follows diffusion controlled relaxation model. The ac conductivity is scaled using σdc and ωH as the scaling parameter and is found that these are suitable scaling parameter for conductivity scaling. Non-Debye type relaxation is found prevalent in the studied glass system. Scaling of ac conductivity as well as electric modulus confirms the presence of different type of conduction mechanism in the glass samples with x = 0 and 5 from other studied samples. The activation energy of relaxation (ER) and dc conductivity (Edc) are almost equal, suggesting that polarons/ions have to overcome same barrier while relaxing and conducting.

  8. Synthesis and electrospinning carboxymethyl cellulose lithium (CMC-Li) modified 9,10-anthraquinone (AQ) high-rate lithium-ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Lei; Shao, Ziqiang; Liu, Minglong; Wang, Jianquan; Li, Pengfa; Zhao, Ming

    2014-02-15

    New cellulose derivative CMC-Li was synthesized, and nanometer CMC-Li fiber was applied to lithium-ion battery and coated with AQ by electrospinning. Under the protection of inert gas, modified AQ/carbon nanofibers (CNF)/Li nanometer composite material was obtained by carbonization in 280 °C as lithium battery anode materials for the first time. The morphologies and structures performance of materials were characterized by using IR, (1)H NMR, SEM, CV and EIS, respectively. Specific capacity was increased from 197 to 226.4 mAhg(-1) after modification for the first discharge at the rate of 2C. Irreversible reduction reaction peaks of modified material appeared between 1.5 and 1.7 V and the lowest oxidation reduction peak of the difference were 0.42 V, the polarization was weaker. Performance of cell with CMC-Li with the high degree of substitution (DS) was superior to that with low DS. Cellulose materials were applied to lithium battery to improve battery performance by electrospinning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Chitosan-supported Borohydride Reducing Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new chitosan-supported borohydride reducing reagent (CBER) was prepared by treatment of KBH4 with the resin of chitosan derivative, which was first synthesized fiom the reaction of cross-linked chitosan microsphere with glycidyl trimethylammonium chloride. CBER could reduce aromatic carbonyl compound to corresponding alcohol.

  10. Transition metal based borohydrides for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanthi, Chakram; Liu, Jianjun; Wei, Suhuai; Zhao, Yufeng

    2010-03-01

    Using ab-initio studies based on the density-functional theory, we have calculated binding energies per hydrogen molecule for decomposition reactions of transition metal borohydrides MHxB12H12 to MB12 structures, where M corresponds to Sc, Ti, or V. Depending on the valence of the transition metal, x can be 1, 2, or 3. Crystal structures considered for MB12 included both hypothetical and those found in the international crystallographic structural database. On the other hand, the crystal structure considered for MHxB12H12 belongs to C2/c (space group 15) structure as reported in a previous study [V. Ozolins et al. JACS, 131, 230 (2009)]. Among the structures investigated, Titanium-based metal borohydride structure has the lowest binding energy per hydrogen molecule relative to the cubic TiB12 structure (˜0.37 eV/H2). Our finding should be contrasted with the binding energy/H2 for simple metal based borohydrides (e.g., CaB12H12 ), which has a value of ˜ 1.5 eV/H2, suggesting that transition metals play a significant role in lowering the H2 binding energy in borohydrides.

  11. 改性钛酸锂的储锂和储钠性能%Lithium/Sodium Storage Properties of Modified Lithium Titanate Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹海林; 金翼; 王绥军; 项宏发

    2016-01-01

    The structures of six kinds of modified lithium titanate anode materials were investigated by X–ray diffraction, thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The electrochemical properties of the anode materials for lithium/sodium ion batteries were evaluated in coin cells. The results show that as anode material for lithium ion batteries, lithium titanate coated with amorphous carbon and carbon nanotube (CNT) exhibits higher reversible capacity/rate capability and superior cycling stability. Besides, nanosized lithium titanate exhibits a better cell performance for sodium storage, i.e., the lithium titanate particles with the size of < 100 nm deliver a reversible capacity of 155 mA h/g at 0.1C, and retains 118 mA h/g charging at 10C after 0.2C discharge.%通过粉末 X 射线衍射、热重、差示扫描量热与扫描电子显微镜考察了6种改性钛酸锂材料的微观结构特征,并组装成扣式电池考察它们作为锂离子电池与钠离子电池负极材料时的电化学特征。结果表明:作为锂离子电池负极材料,无定形碳和碳纳米管包覆钛酸锂具有更高的可逆容量、优异的循环性能和良好的倍率性能;而作为钠离子电池负极材料,纳米化钛酸锂材料具有更好的储钠性能;一次粒子小于100 nm的钛酸锂材料,以0.1C充放电时可逆容量为155 mA·h/g,以0.2C放电、10C充电时,容量仍保持在118 mA·h/g。

  12. Suppression of Lithium Dendrite Formation by Using LAGP-PEO (LiTFSI) Composite Solid Electrolyte and Lithium Metal Anode Modified by PEO (LiTFSI) in All-Solid-State Lithium Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunhua; Yang, Yifu; Liu, Xingjiang; Zhong, Hai; Xu, Han; Xu, Zhibin; Shao, Huixia; Ding, Fei

    2017-04-19

    The formation of lithium dendrites is suppressed using a Li1.5Al0.5Ge1.5(PO4)3-poly(ethylene oxide) (LAGP-PEO) composite solid electrolyte and a PEO (lithium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide) [PEO (LiTFSI)]-modified lithium metal anode in all-solid-state lithium batteries. The effects on the anode performance based on the PEO content in the composite solid electrolyte and the molecular weight of PEO used to modify the Li anode are studied. The structure, surface morphology, and stability of the composite solid electrolyte are examined by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and electrochemical tests. Results show that the presence of a PEO-500000(LiTFSI) film on a Li anode results in good mechanical properties and satisfactory interface contact features. The film can also prevent Li from reacting with LAGP. Furthermore, the formation of lithium dendrites can be effectively inhibited as the composite solid electrolyte is combined with the PEO film on the Li anode. The ratio of PEO in the composite solid electrolyte can be reduced to a low level of 1 wt %. PEO remains stable even at a high potential of 5.12 V (vs Li/Li(+)). The assembled Li-PEO (LiTFSI)/LAGP-PEO/LiMn0.8Fe0.2PO4 all-solid-state cell can deliver an initial discharge capacity of 160.8 mAh g(-1) and exhibit good cycling stability and rate performance at 50 °C.

  13. The Concept about the Regeneration of Spent Borohydrides and Used Catalysts from Green Electricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Hong Liu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the Brown-Schlesinger process is still regarded as the most common and mature method for the commercial production of sodium borohydride (NaBH4. However, the metallic sodium, currently produced from the electrolysis of molten NaCl that is mass-produced by evaporation of seawater or brine, is probably the most costly raw material. Recently, several reports have demonstrated the feasibility of utilizing green electricity such as offshore wind power to produce metallic sodium through electrolysis of seawater. Based on this concept, we have made improvements and modified our previously proposed life cycle of sodium borohydride (NaBH4 and ammonia borane (NH3BH3, in order to further reduce costs in the conventional Brown-Schlesinger process. In summary, the revision in the concept combining the regeneration of the spent borohydrides and the used catalysts with the green electricity is reflected in (1 that metallic sodium could be produced from NaCl of high purity obtained from the conversion of the byproduct in the synthesis of NH3BH3 to devoid the complicated purification procedures if produced from seawater; and (2 that the recycling and the regeneration processes of the spent NaBH4 and NH3BH3 as well as the used catalysts could be simultaneously carried out and combined with the proposed life cycle of borohydrides.

  14. Ballmilling of metal borohydrides for hydrogen storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Sanna

    2014-01-01

    is to hydrogenate simple compounds such as metalborides and hydrides with the intention of forming a new and more hydrogen rich borohydride. In contrast to mainstream research, the method of synthesis has been based on reactants that are expected to be found in the metal borohydride’s dehydrogenated state....... Specifically, the research undertaken targets CaB6 whose boron is in a octahedral network, or AlB2 whose boron is layered. These compounds were then reactive ball milled with alkali and alkaline earth metal under hydrogen pressure, with the intention of forming metal borohydrides. For CaB6, no clear sign...... Transform Infra-red Spectroscopy, Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Thermal Gravimetry, Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Mass Spectroscopy and lastly In Situ Powder X-ray diffraction measurements at l711 MAXLab....

  15. Confinement Effects for Lithium Borohydride: Comparing Silica and Carbon Scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwarno; Ngene, Peter; Nale, Angeloclaudio; Eggenhuisen, Tamara M; Oschatz, Martin; Embs, Jan Peter; Remhof, Arndt; de Jongh, Petra E

    2017-03-02

    LiBH4 is a promising material for hydrogen storage and as a solid-state electrolyte for Li ion batteries. Confining LiBH4 in porous scaffolds improves its hydrogen desorption kinetics, reversibility, and Li(+) conductivity, but little is known about the influence of the chemical nature of the scaffold. Here, quasielastic neutron scattering and calorimetric measurements were used to study support effects for LiBH4 confined in nanoporous silica and carbon scaffolds. Pore radii were varied from 8 Å to 20 nm, with increasing confinement effects observed with decreasing pore size. For similar pore sizes, the confinement effects were more pronounced for silica than for carbon scaffolds. The shift in the solid-solid phase transition temperature is much larger in silica than in carbon scaffolds with similar pore sizes. A LiBH4 layer near the pore walls shows profoundly different phase behavior than crystalline LiBH4. This layer thickness was 1.94 ± 0.13 nm for the silica and 1.41 ± 0.16 nm for the carbon scaffolds. Quasi-elastic neutron scattering confirmed that the fraction of LiBH4 with high hydrogen mobility is larger for the silica than for the carbon nanoscaffold. These results clearly show that in addition to the pore size the chemical nature of the scaffold also plays a significant role in determining the hydrogen mobility and interfacial layer thickness in nanoconfined metal hydrides.

  16. Confinement Effects for Lithium Borohydride: Comparing Silica and Carbon Scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    LiBH4 is a promising material for hydrogen storage and as a solid-state electrolyte for Li ion batteries. Confining LiBH4 in porous scaffolds improves its hydrogen desorption kinetics, reversibility, and Li+ conductivity, but little is known about the influence of the chemical nature of the scaffold. Here, quasielastic neutron scattering and calorimetric measurements were used to study support effects for LiBH4 confined in nanoporous silica and carbon scaffolds. Pore radii were varied from 8 Å to 20 nm, with increasing confinement effects observed with decreasing pore size. For similar pore sizes, the confinement effects were more pronounced for silica than for carbon scaffolds. The shift in the solid–solid phase transition temperature is much larger in silica than in carbon scaffolds with similar pore sizes. A LiBH4 layer near the pore walls shows profoundly different phase behavior than crystalline LiBH4. This layer thickness was 1.94 ± 0.13 nm for the silica and 1.41 ± 0.16 nm for the carbon scaffolds. Quasi-elastic neutron scattering confirmed that the fraction of LiBH4 with high hydrogen mobility is larger for the silica than for the carbon nanoscaffold. These results clearly show that in addition to the pore size the chemical nature of the scaffold also plays a significant role in determining the hydrogen mobility and interfacial layer thickness in nanoconfined metal hydrides. PMID:28286596

  17. High-power durability of LiCoO2 thin film electrode modified with amorphous lithium tungsten oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Tetsutaro; Matsuda, Yasutaka; Kuwata, Naoaki; Kawamura, Junichi

    2017-06-01

    To investigate electrochemical performances of an amorphous lithium tungsten oxide (LWO) layer, an amorphous LWO-modified LiCoO2 (LCO) thin film electrode is fabricated by pulsed laser deposition and is exposed under a humid environment. The amorphous LWO-modified LCO exhibits high capacity retention of 80% at a rapid charge-discharge rate of 20 C. Conversely, the bare LCO exhibits capacity retention of 0% at the rates of 20 C. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy demonstrates that the LWO-modified LCO maintains a low interfacial resistance after the cycling test compared with the bare LCO. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), scanning transmission microscopy (STEM), and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) indicate the presence of Li2CO3 on the surface of the bare LCO electrode and a thick degraded surface layer of CoO structure on the surface of LCO primary particle after electrochemical tests. XPS, STEM, and EELS indicate the presence of low amounts of Li2CO3 on the surface of the LWO-modified LCO, the LCO layer remains in a normal state, and LWO layer maintains the amorphous LWO state after the tests. Thus, the amorphous LWO protective layer contributes to suppressing the degradation of LCO and maintaining an amorphous LWO state with a lithium ion conductor, resulting in high-power durability.

  18. Bleaching of Wool with Sodium Borohydride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duygu Yilmazer, MSc.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available An untreated wool fabric was bleached both with sodium borohydride (SBH in the presence of sodium bisulphite (SBS solution and with a commercial H2O2 bleaching method. The concentration effects of SBH and SBS, bleaching time, pH and temperature on SBH bleaching process were investigated. Whiteness, yellowness and alkali solubility results were assessed for both bleaching methods. The results showed that whiteness degrees obtained with SBH bleaching was comparable with that of H2O2 bleaching method; whereas the alkali solubility values of the SBH bleaching was superior to the H2O2 bleaching.

  19. Quaternary ammonium borohydride adsorption in mesoporous silicate MCM-48

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolverton, Michael J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Daemen, Luke L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hartl, Monika A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Inorganic borohydrides have a high gravimetric hydrogen density but release H2 only under energetically unfavorable conditions. Surface chemistry may help in lowering thermodynamic barriers, but inclusion of inorganic borohydrides in porous silica materials has proved hitherto difficult or impossible. We show that borohydrides with a large organic cation are readily adsorbed inside mesoporous silicates, particularly after surface treatment. Thermal analysis reveals that the decomposition thermodynamics of tetraalkylammonium borohydrides are substantially affected by inclusion in MCM-48. Inelastic neutron scattering (INS) data show that the compounds adsorb on the silica surface. Evidence of pore loading is supplemented by DSC/TGA, XRD, FTIR, and BET isotherm measurements. Mass spectrometry shows significant hydrogen release at lower temperature from adsorbed borohydrides in comparison with the bulk borohydrides. INS data measured for partially decomposed samples indicates that the decomposition of the cation and anion is likely simultaneous. Additionally, these data confirm the formation of Si-H bonds on the silica surface upon decomposition of adsorbed tetramethylammonium borohydride.

  20. Textbook Errors, 136: The Reducing Action of Sodium Borohydride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, David

    1979-01-01

    This column generally relates errors which have been discovered in textbooks. The error discussed in this issue is the prevalence of erroneous ideas in organic chemistry textbooks, related to the chemistry of sodium borohydride. (Author/SA)

  1. Synthesis of halide- and solvent free metal borohydrides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grinderslev, Jakob; Møller, Kasper Trans; Richter, Bo

    Metal borohydrides have been extensively investigated over the last few years as potential hydrogen storage materials for mobile applications, due to their high gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen content, e.g. 18.5 wt% hydrogen in LiBH4.[1] Unfortunately the lightweight alkali metal borohydrides...... of the rare-earth metal borohydrides are found, all crystallizing in the α- and β-Y(BH4)3 structure (except for La(BH4)3). The synthesis pathway start with hydrogenation of the metal. The formed metal hydride is then activated by high energy ball milling to increase reactivity. The next step involves solvent...... have challenges due to their high desorption kinetics and limited reversibility at moderate conditions.[2],[3],[4] In this work, we present a new approach to synthesize halide- and solvent free metal borohydrides starting from the respective metal hydride. The synthetic strategy ensures that no metal...

  2. Synthesis and characterization of novel double-cation borohydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frommen, Christoph; Aliouane, Nadir; Deledda, Stefano; Fonneloep, Jon Erling; Grove, Hilde; Llamas-Jansa, Isabel; Lieutenant, Klaus; Sartori, Sabrina; Oestby, Heidi; Soerby, Magnus H.; HaubacK, Bjoern C. [Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller (Norway). Physics Dept.

    2010-07-01

    A systematic screening for the reaction of transition metal chlorides with alkali borohydrides was performed by mechano-chemical synthesis (ball-milling and cryo-milling). The reaction between LiBH{sub 4} and YCl{sub 3} produced yttrium borohydride Y(BH{sub 4}){sub 3} instead of the targeted LiY(BH{sub 4}){sub 4}. When using NaBH{sub 4}, no indication for the formation of crystalline mixed-metal borohydrides was observed for the chlorides of Ni, Ti, Cu, Rh and Cu. Anion substitution was observed instead which lead to a series of novel Na(BH{sub 4}){sub x}Cl{sub 1-X} type compounds, presumably accompanied by the formation of amorphous transition metal borides. Anion substitution in borohydrides may open up the path to synthesize new compounds with improved thermodynamic properties compared to the pure borohydrides. These findings demonstrate that the successful synthesis of mixed-metal borohydrides remains a challenging task. (orig.)

  3. Intrinsic borohydride fuel cell/battery hybrid power sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jian; Fang, Bin; Wang, Chunsheng; Currie, Kenneth [Center for Manufacturing Research, Department of Chemical Engineering, Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, TN 38505 (United States)

    2006-10-27

    The electrochemical oxidation behaviors of NaBH{sub 4} on Zn, Zn-MH, and MH (metal-hydride) electrodes were investigated, and an intrinsic direct borohydride fuel cell (DBFC)/battery hybrid power source using MH (or Zn-MH) as the anode and MnO{sub 2} as the cathode was tested. Borohydride cannot be effectively oxidized on Zn electrodes at the Zn oxidation potential because of the poor electrocatalytic ability of Zn for borohydride oxidation and the high overpotential, even though borohydride has the same oxidation potential of Zn in an alkaline solution. The borohydride can be electrochemically oxidized on Ni and MH electrodes through a 4e reaction at a high overpotential. Simply adding borohydride into an alkaline electrolyte of a Zn/air or MH/air battery can greatly increase the capacity, while an intrinsic DBFC/MH(or Zn)-MnO{sub 2} battery can deliver a higher peak power than regular DBFCs. (author)

  4. Reversibility of Al/Ti Modified LiBH4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanchard, Didier; Shi, Qing; Boothroyd, Chris;

    2009-01-01

    Lithium borohydride has a high reversible hydrogen storage capacity. For its practical use as an on-board hydrogen storage medium in mobile applications, the temperature and pressure conditions along with the kinetics of the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation cycles have to be improved. Lithium borohy...

  5. Study on the Effect of the Three-Dimensional Electrode in Degradation of Methylene Blue by Lithium Modified Rectorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the electrochemical degradation of methylene blue (MB wastewater in a synthetic solution using three-dimensional particle electrodes. The novel particle electrodes were fabricated in this work using the lithium modified rectorite (Li-REC. The adsorption property of the fabricated particle electrodes was studied in a series of experiments. The optimum electrochemical operating conditions of plate distance, cell voltage, and concentration of electrolyte were 2 cm, 9 V, and 0.06 mol L−1, respectively. It was also found that microwave irradiation can effectively improve the adsorption property and electrical property of the fabricated electrodes. In addition, the scanning electron microscope (SEM of the fabricated electrodes was investigated. The experimental results revealed the order of adsorption property and electrical property of the fabricated electrodes. So, fabricated electrodes are not only of low cost and mass produced, but also efficient to achieve decolorization of MB solution.

  6. Study on the Effect of the Three-Dimensional Electrode in Degradation of Methylene Blue by Lithium Modified Rectorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Ming, Yin'an; Du, Ying; Wang, Yingru; Wang, Ci'en

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the electrochemical degradation of methylene blue (MB) wastewater in a synthetic solution using three-dimensional particle electrodes. The novel particle electrodes were fabricated in this work using the lithium modified rectorite (Li-REC). The adsorption property of the fabricated particle electrodes was studied in a series of experiments. The optimum electrochemical operating conditions of plate distance, cell voltage, and concentration of electrolyte were 2 cm, 9 V, and 0.06 mol L(-1), respectively. It was also found that microwave irradiation can effectively improve the adsorption property and electrical property of the fabricated electrodes. In addition, the scanning electron microscope (SEM) of the fabricated electrodes was investigated. The experimental results revealed the order of adsorption property and electrical property of the fabricated electrodes. So, fabricated electrodes are not only of low cost and mass produced, but also efficient to achieve decolorization of MB solution.

  7. Serotonin Depletion Does not Modify the Short-Term Brain Hypometabolism and Hippocampal Neurodegeneration Induced by the Lithium-Pilocarpine Model of Status Epilepticus in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-García, Luis; Shiha, Ahmed Anis; Bascuñana, Pablo; de Cristóbal, Javier; Fernández de la Rosa, Rubén; Delgado, Mercedes; Pozo, Miguel A

    2016-05-01

    It has been reported that fluoxetine, a selective serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) reuptake inhibitor, has neuroprotective properties in the lithium-pilocarpine model of status epilepticus (SE) in rats. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of 5-HT depletion by short-term administration of p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA), a specific tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor, on the brain hypometabolism and neurodegeneration induced in the acute phase of this SE model. Our results show that 5-HT depletion did modify neither the brain basal metabolic activity nor the lithium-pilocarpine-induced hypometabolism when evaluated 3 days after the insult. In addition, hippocampal neurodegeneration and astrogliosis triggered by lithium-pilocarpine were not exacerbated by PCPA treatment. These findings point out that in the early latent phase of epileptogenesis, non-5-HT-mediated actions may contribute, at least in some extent, to the neuroprotective effects of fluoxetine in this model of SE.

  8. Facile synthesis of graphene oxide-modified lithium hydroxide for low-temperature chemical heat storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xixian; Huang, Hongyu; Wang, Zhihui; Kubota, Mitsuhiro; He, Zhaohong; Kobayashi, Noriyuki

    2016-01-01

    LiOH·H2O nanoparticles supported on graphene oxide (GO) were facilely synthesized by a hydrothermal process. The mean diameter of nanoparticles on the integrated graphene sheet was about 5-10 nm showed by SEM and TEM results. XRD results suggested that the nanoparticles are in good agreement with the data of LiOH·H2O. The as-prepared sample showed a greatly enhanced thermal energy storage density and exhibit higher rate of heat release than pure lithium hydroxide, and thermal conductivity of composites increased due to the introduction of nano carbon. LiOH·H2O/GO nanocomposites are novel chemical heat storage materials for potential highly efficient energy system.

  9. Facile synthesis of hydroxy-modified MOF-5 for improving the adsorption capacity of hydrogen by lithium doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Masaru; Hagi, Hayato; Shimojima, Atsushi; Okubo, Tatsuya

    2013-11-01

    A facile synthesis of partially hydroxy-modified MOF-5 and its improved H2-adsorption capacity by lithium doping are reported. The reaction of Zn(NO3)2·6H2O with a mixture of terephthalic acid (H2BDC) and 2-hydroxyterephthalic acid (H2BDC-OH) in DMF gave hydroxy-modified MOF-5 (MOF-5-OH-x), in which the molar fraction (x) of BDC-OH(2-) was up to 0.54 of the whole ligand. The MOF-5-OH-x frameworks had high BET surface areas (about 3300 m(2) g(-1)), which were comparable to that of MOF-5. We suggest that the MOF-5-OH-x frameworks are formed by the secondary growth of BDC(2-)-rich MOF-5 seed crystals, which are nucleated during the early stage of the reaction. Subsequent Li doping into MOF-5-OH-x results in increased H2 uptake at 77 K and 0.1 MPa from 1.23 to 1.39 wt.% and an increased isosteric heat of H2 adsorption from 5.1-4.2 kJ mol(-1) to 5.5-4.4 kJ mol(-1).

  10. Oscillatory instabilities in the electrooxidation of borohydride on platinum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Eduardo G.; Varela, Hamilton, E-mail: varela@iqsc.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica

    2014-03-15

    The borohydride ion has been pointed as a promising alternative fuel. Most of the investigation on its electrochemistry is devoted to the electrocatalytic aspects of its electrooxidation on platinum and gold surfaces. Besides the known kinetic limitations and intricate mechanism, our Group has recently found the occurrence of two regions of bi-stability and autocatalysis in the electrode potential during the open circuit interaction of borohydride and oxidized platinum surfaces. Following this previous contribution, the occurrence of more complicated phenomena is here presented: namely the presence of electrochemical oscillations during the electrooxidation of borohydride on platinum in alkaline media. Current oscillations were found to be associated to two distinct instability windows and characterized in the resistance-potential parameter plane. The dynamic features of such oscillations suggest the existence of distinct mechanisms according to the potential region. Previously published results obtained under non-oscillatory regime were used to give some hints on the surface chemistry behind the observed dynamics. (author)

  11. A comprehensive review of direct borohydride fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Jia; Choudhury, Nurul A.; Sahai, Yogeshwar [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, 2041 College Road, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    A direct borohydride fuel cell (DBFC) is a device that converts chemical energy stored in borohydride ion (BH{sub 4}{sup -}) and an oxidant directly into electricity by redox processes. Usually, a DBFC employs an alkaline solution of sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}) as fuel and oxygen or hydrogen peroxide as oxidant. DBFC has some attractive features such as high open circuit potential, ease of electro-oxidation of BH{sub 4}{sup -} on non-precious metals such as nickel, low operational temperature and high power density. The DBFC is a promising power system for portable applications. This article discusses prominent features of DBFC, reviews recent developments in DBFC research, and points out future directions in DBFC research. (author)

  12. Electrospun montmorillonite modified poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanocomposite separators for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Changjiang; Yang, Shuli; Zhao, Xinfei [College of Materials and Textile, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Du, Pingfan, E-mail: dupf@zstu.edu.cn [College of Materials and Textile, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Textile Materials and Manufacturing Technology (Ministry of Education), Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Xiong, Jie, E-mail: jxiong@zstu.edu.cn [College of Materials and Textile, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Textile Materials and Manufacturing Technology (Ministry of Education), Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • Composite separators of PVDF and MMT for lithium-ion batteries were electrospun. • Thermal dimensional stability and tensile property of composite separators get improved. • Presence of montmorillonite promotes electrical properties of PVDF fibrous separators. • Batteries consisting of PVDF/MMT-5% separator achieve the best performance. - Abstract: Composite separators of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) with different contents of montmorillonite (MMT) for Li-ion batteries have been fabricated by electrospinning. The morphology, function group, crystallinity, and mechanical properties of membranes were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier Transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and tensile test, respectively. Interlayer spacing of MMT in polymer was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). In addition, the results of electrochemical measurements suggest that PVDF/MMT-5% composite membrane has maximum ionic conductivity of 4.2 mS cm{sup −1}, minimum interfacial resistance of 97 Ω, and excellent electrochemical stability. The cell comprising PVDF/MMT-5% composite membrane shows higher capacity and more stable cycle performance than the one using commercial Celgard PP membrane.

  13. X-ray absorption spectroscopy investigation of structurally modified lithium niobate crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitova, Tonya

    2008-02-15

    The type and concentration of impurity centers in different valence states are crucial for tuning the photorefractive properties of doped Lithium Niobate (LN) crystals. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) is an appropriate tool for studying the local structure of impurity centers. XAS combined with absorption in UV/VIS/IR and High Resolution X-ray Emission Spectroscopy (HRXES) provide information about the valence state of the dopant ions in as-grown, reduced or oxidized doped LN crystals. Cu (Cu{sup 1+} and Cu{sup 2+}) and Fe (Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}) atoms are found in two different valence states, whereas there are indications for a third Mn valency, in addition to Mn{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 3+} in manganese-doped LN crystals. One of the charge compensation mechanisms during reduction of copper- doped LN crystals is outgassing of oxygen atoms. Cu ions in the reduced crystals have at least two different site symmetries: twofold (Cu{sup 1+}) and sixfold (Cu{sup 2+}) coordinated by O atoms. Fe and Mn atoms are coordinated by six O atoms. Cu and Fe ions are found to occupy only Li sites, whereas Mn ions are also incorporated into Li and Nb sites. The refractive index change in LN crystals irradiated with {sup 3}He{sup 2+} ions is caused by structurally disordered centers, where Nb atoms are displaced from normal crystallographic sites and Li or/and O vacancies are present. (orig.)

  14. Metal borohydrides and derivatives - synthesis, structure and properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paskevicius, Mark; Jepsen, Lars Haahr; Schouwink, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    review new synthetic strategies along with structural, physical and chemical properties for metal borohydrides, revealing a number of new trends correlating composition, structure, bonding and thermal properties. These new trends provide general knowledge and may contribute to the design and discovery...

  15. Magnesium Borohydride: From Hydrogen Storage to Magnesium Battery**

    OpenAIRE

    Mohtadi, Rana; Matsui, Masaki; Arthur, Timothy S; Hwang, Son-Jong

    2012-01-01

    Beyond hydrogen storage: The first example of reversible magnesium deposition/stripping onto/from an inorganic salt was seen for a magnesium borohydride electrolyte. High coulombic efficiency of up to 94 % was achieved in dimethoxyethane solvent. This Mg(BH_4)_2 electrolyte was utilized in a rechargeable magnesium battery.

  16. Magnesium borohydride: from hydrogen storage to magnesium battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtadi, Rana; Matsui, Masaki; Arthur, Timothy S; Hwang, Son-Jong

    2012-09-24

    Beyond hydrogen storage: The first example of reversible magnesium deposition/stripping onto/from an inorganic salt was seen for a magnesium borohydride electrolyte. High coulombic efficiency of up to 94 % was achieved in dimethoxyethane solvent. This Mg(BH(4))(2) electrolyte was utilized in a rechargeable magnesium battery.

  17. Preparation, characterization and application of modified macroporous carbon with Cosbnd N site for long-life lithium-sulfur battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, L. M.; He, F.; Cai, W. L.; Huang, J. X.; Liu, B. H.; Li, Z. P.

    2016-10-01

    A modified macroporous carbon (mMPC) containing Cosbnd Nx site is developed for sulfur retention to enhance cycleability of lithium-sulfur battery. Various nitrogen sites such as graphitic-N, pyrrolic-N, pyridinic-N, pyridinic-N oxide, and Cosbnd Nx are created during macropore formation. The sites without Co show limited polysulfide (PS) adsorption capability because nucleophilic N absorbs PS species via the weak interaction between N and Li in Nsbnd Lisbnd S bondage. The electrophilic Co(II) in Cosbnd Nx absorbs PS species via a strong interaction between S and Co in Ssbnd Co bond. The dual interaction of Cosbnd Nx site with Ssbnd Co and Nsbnd Lisbnd S bondages significantly enhances the PS adsorption. The resultant Li-S battery with the mMPC shows excellent cycleability, exhibiting a very low capacity degradation rate of 0.25 mAh g-1 per cycle after initial 20 cycles. A rate capacity as high as 660 mAh g-1 has been achieved after 300 cycles at 1 C charge-discharge rate.

  18. A polytriphenylamine-modified separator with reversible overcharge protection for 3.6 V-class lithium-ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, S.L.; Ai, X.P.; Yang, H.X.; Cao, Y.L. [Department of Chemistry, Hubei Key Lab. of Electrochemical Power Sources, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2009-04-01

    A polytriphenylamine (PTPAn)-modified separator was prepared simply by impregnating triphenylamine monomers into a commercial Celgard separator and in situ polymerizing the monomers into electroactive phase by oxidant ozone. This type of electroactive separator can transform from an insulating state to a conductive state at overcharged voltage of {proportional_to}3.7 V (vs. Li{sup +}/Li) and act as a self-actuating potential-switchable separator for overcharge protection of LiFePO{sub 4}/C Li-ion batteries. The experimental results demonstrated that this electroactive separator can reversibly control the cell's voltage at the safe value less than 4.15 V at high rate overcharge of 2C current without obvious negative impact on the normal charge-discharge performances of the commercial LiFePO{sub 4}/C batteries even at prolonged overcharge cycling, showing a potential application in 3.6 V-class lithium-ion batteries. (author)

  19. Influence of lithium precursors and calcination atmospheres on graphene sheets-modified nano-Li4Ti5O12 anode material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Ting; Yuan, Tao; Zhang, Weimin; Ma, Jingjing; Zhang, Chunming; He, Yu-Shi; Liao, Xiao-Zhen; Ma, Zi-Feng

    2015-07-01

    The influence of Li precursors and calcination atmospheres on the reaction mechanisms, physical properties and electrochemical performance of graphene sheets (GS)-modified nano-Li4Ti5O12 (LTO/GS) has been systematically investigated. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and mass spectrometry (MS) results demonstrate the lithium precursor containing carboxyl anion such as lithium acetate (LiAc) and Li2CO3 interact with oxygen groups of graphene oxide (GO) by strong hydrogen bonds to restrict the morphology and the phase formation of products. We also notice from the thermogravimetry (TG) and MS results that the consumption of GS is proportional to oxygen content of lithium precursor. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and X-ray photoelectric spectroscopy (XPS) results indicate that the product calcined in reducing atmosphere possess smaller electrochemical polarization due to more reduced Ti3+ on the surface of the product. The LTO/GS sample with LiOH as Li precursor calcined in diluted hydrogen atmosphere show the best electrochemical performance with a capacity of 134.4 mAh g-1 at 10C discharge rate and very stable cycling life with a 98.6% capacity retention after 800 cycles at 40C rate. This study not only provides an optimization of Li precursor and calcination condition for LTO/GS anode material, but also guides any future one-step syntheses of lithium composite materials with GO participation.

  20. The borohydride oxidation reaction on La-Ni-based hydrogen-storage alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschoalino, Waldemir J; Thompson, Stephen J; Russell, Andrea E; Ticianelli, Edson A

    2014-07-21

    This work provides insights into the processes involved in the borohydride oxidation reaction (BOR) in alkaline media on metal hydride alloys formed by LaNi(4.7)Sn(0.2)Cu(0.1) and LaNi(4.78)Al(0.22) with and without deposited Pt, Pd, and Au. The results confirm the occurrence of hydrolysis of the borohydride ions when the materials are exposed to BH(4)(-) and a continuous hydriding of the alloys during BH(4)(-) oxidation measurements at low current densities. The activity for the direct BOR is low in both bare metal hydride alloys, but the rate of the BH(4)(-) hydrolysis and the hydrogen-storage capacity are higher, while the rate of H diffusion is slower for bare LaNi(4.78) Al(0.22). The addition of Pt and Pd to both alloys results in an increase of the BH(4)(-) hydrolysis, but the H(2) formed is rapidly oxidized at the Pt-modified catalysts. In the case of Au modification, a small increase in the BH(4)(-) hydrolysis is observed as compared to the bare alloys. The presence of Au and Pd also leads to a reduction of the rates of alloy hydriding/de-hydriding. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Hydrogen Storage Properties of Lithium Aluminohydride modified by dopants and mechanochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosokawa, Keita [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Alkali metal aluminohydrides have high potential as solid hydrogen storage materials. They have been known for their irreversible dehydrogenation process below 100 atm until Bogdanovic et al [1, 2] succeeded in the re-hydrogenation of NaAlH4 below 70 atm. They achieved 4 wt.% H2 reversible capacity by doping NaAlH4 with Ti and/or Fe organo-metalic compounds as catalysts. This suggests that other alkali and, possibly alkaline earth metal aluminohydrides can be used for reversible hydrogen storage when modified by proper dopants. In this research, Zr27Ti9Ni38V5Mn16Cr5, LaNi4.85Sn0.15, Al3Ti, and PdCl2 were combined with LiAlH4 by ball-milling to study whether or not LiAlH4 is capable to both absorb and desorb hydrogen near ambient conditions. X-ray powder diffraction, differential thermal analysis, and scanning electron microscopy were employed for sample characterizations. All four compounds worked as catalysts in the dehydrogenation reactions of both LiAlH4 and Li3AlH6 by inducing the decomposition at lower temperature. However, none of them was applicable as catalyst in the reverse hydrogenation reaction at low to moderate hydrogen pressure.

  2. Hydrogen Storage Properties of Lithium Aluminohydride Modified by Dopants and Mechanochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosokawa, Keita [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Alkali metal aluminohydrides have high potential as solid hydrogen storage materials. They have been known for their irreversible dehydrogenation process below 100 atm until Bogdanovic et al [1, 2] succeeded in the re-hydrogenation of NaAlH4 below 70 atm. They achieved 4 wt.% H2 reversible capacity by doping NaAlH4 with Ti and/or Fe organo-metalic compounds as catalysts. This suggests that other alkali and, possibly alkaline earth metal aluminohydrides can be used for reversible hydrogen storage when modified by proper dopants. In this research, Zr27Ti9Ni38V5Mn16Cr5, LaNi4.85Sn0.15, Al3Ti, and PdCl2 were combined , LaNi4.85Sn0.15, Al3Ti, and PdCl2 were combined with LiAlH4 by ball-milling to study whether or not LiAlH4 is capable to both absorb and desorb hydrogen near ambient conditions. X-ray powder diffraction, differential thermal analysis, and scanning electron microscopy were employed for sample characterizations. All four compounds worked as catalysts in the dehydrogenation reactions of both LiAlH4 and Li3AlH6 by inducing the decomposition at lower temperature. However, none of them was applicable as catalyst in the reverse hydrogenation reaction at low to moderate hydrogen pressure.

  3. Hydrogen Storage Properties of Lithium Aluminohydride Modified by Dopants and Mechanochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosokawa, Ketia [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Alkali metal aluminohydrides have high potential as solid hydrogen storage materials. They have been known for their irreversible dehydrogenation process below 100 atm until Bogdanovic et al succeeded in the re-hydrogenation of NaAlH4 below 70 atm. They achieved 4 wt.% H2 reversible capacity by doping NaAlH4 with Ti and/or Fe organo-metallic compounds as catalysts. This suggests that other alkali and, possibly alkaline earth metal aluminohydrides can be used for reversible hydrogen storage when modified by proper dopants. In this research, Zr27Ti9Ni38V5Mn16Cr5, LaNi 4.85Sn0.15, Al3Ti, and PdCl2 were combined with LiAlH4 by ball-milling to study whether or not LiAlH4 is capable to both absorb and desorb hydrogen near ambient conditions. X-ray powder diffraction, differential thermal analysis, and scanning electron microscopy were employed for sample characterizations. All four compounds worked as catalysts in the dehydrogenation reactions of both LiAlH4 and Li3AlH6 by inducing the decomposition at lower temperature. However, none of them was applicable as catalyst in the reverse hydrogenation reaction at low to moderate hydrogen pressure.

  4. Metal Borohydrides synthesized from metal borides and metal hydrides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Sanna

    2014-01-01

    and Ca(BH4)2, respectively [3,4]. An attempt to synthesize alkali and alkaline earth metal borohydrides from various borides by ball milling under high hydrogen pressure is presented here. MgB2, AlB2 and CaB6 have been milled with MHx (M = Li, Na, Mg, Ca) at p(H2) = 110 bar for 24 hours. All samples were...

  5. Shielding efficiency of metal hydrides and borohydrides in fusion reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Singh Vishvanath P.; Badiger Nagappa M.; Gerward Leif

    2016-01-01

    Mass attenuation coefficients, mean free paths and exposure buildup factors have been used to characterize the shielding efficiency of metal hydrides and borohydrides, with high density of hydrogen. Gamma ray exposure buildup factors were computed using five-parameter geometric progression fitting at energies 0.015 MeV to15 MeV, and for penetration depths up to 40 mean free paths. Fast-neutron shielding efficiency has been characterized by the effective neu...

  6. Ammine Calcium and Strontium Borohydrides: Syntheses, Structures, and Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepsen, Lars H; Lee, Young-Su; Černý, Radovan; Sarusie, Ram S; Cho, Young Whan; Besenbacher, Flemming; Jensen, Torben R

    2015-10-26

    A new series of solvent- and halide-free ammine strontium metal borohydrides Sr(NH3 )n (BH4 )2 (n=1, 2, and 4) and further investigations of Ca(NH3 )n (BH4 )2 (n=1, 2, 4, and 6) are presented. Crystal structures have been determined by powder XRD and optimized by DFT calculations to evaluate the strength of the dihydrogen bonds. Sr(NH3 )(BH4 )2 (Pbcn) and Sr(NH3 )2 (BH4 )2 (Pnc2) are layered structures, whereas M(NH3 )4 (BH4 )2 (M=Ca and Sr; P21 /c) are molecular structures connected by dihydrogen bonds. Both series of compounds release NH3 gas upon thermal treatment if the partial pressure of ammonia is low. Therefore, the strength of the dihydrogen bonds, the structure of the compounds, and the NH3 /BH4 (-) ratio for M(NH3 )n (BH4 )m have little influence on the composition of the released gasses. The composition of the released gas depends mainly on the thermal stability of the ammine metal borohydride and the corresponding metal borohydride.

  7. Method of Manufacturing Micro-Disperse Particles of Sodium Borohydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravitz, Stanley H.; Hecht, Andrew M.; Sylwester. Alan P.; Bell, Nelson S.

    2008-09-23

    A compact solid source of hydrogen gas, where the gas is generated by contacting water with micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride in the presence of a catalyst, such as cobalt or ruthenium. The micro-disperse particles can have a substantially uniform diameter of 1-10 microns, and preferably about 3-5 microns. Ruthenium or cobalt catalytic nanoparticles can be incorporated in the micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride, which allows a rapid and complete reaction to occur without the problems associated with caking and scaling of the surface by the reactant product sodium metaborate. A closed loop water management system can be used to recycle wastewater from a PEM fuel cell to supply water for reacting with the micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride in a compact hydrogen gas generator. Capillary forces can wick water from a water reservoir into a packed bed of micro-disperse fuel particles, eliminating the need for using an active pump.

  8. Metal borohydride formation from aluminium boride and metal hydrides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Kasper T; Fogh, Alexander S; Paskevicius, Mark; Skibsted, Jørgen; Jensen, Torben R

    2016-10-05

    Metal borides are often decomposition products from metal borohydrides and thus play a role in the reverse reaction where hydrogen is absorbed. In this work, aluminium boride, AlB2, has been investigated as a boron source for the formation of borohydrides under hydrogen pressures of p(H2) = 100 or 600 bar at elevated temperatures (350 or 400 °C). The systems AlB2-MHx (M = Li, Na, Mg, Ca) have been investigated, producing LiBH4, NaBH4 and Ca(BH4)2, whereas the formation of Mg(BH4)2 was not observed at T = 400 °C and p(H2) = 600 bar. The formation of the metal borohydrides is confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy and the fraction of boron in AlB2 and M(BH4)x is determined quantitatively by (11)B MAS NMR. Hydrogenation for 12 h at T = 350-400 °C and p(H2) = 600 bar leads to the formation of substantial amounts of LiBH4 (38.6 mol%), NaBH4 (83.0 mol%) and Ca(BH4)2 (43.6 mol%).

  9. Synthesis of lithium silicates by the modified method of combustion. XRD and IR; Sintesis de silicatos de litio por el metodo modificado de combustion. DRX e IR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, D.; Bulbulian, S. [Instituto nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    The combustion method is fixed in exothermic reactions for producing ceramic compounds. The precursor solutions are mixtures of metal nitrates and the fuels. This method was modified using non-oxidant compounds as lithium hydroxide and silicide acid and urea as fuel. The precursors were heated during 5 minutes at temperatures between 250 C and 550 C allowing so the mixture combustion. The obtained ceramics were characterized by X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy. The sample pollution with carbonates was evaluated and it was found that the presence of these diminish according as increase the calcination temperature. (Author)

  10. Effect of Graphene Modified Cu Current Collector on the Performance of Li4Ti5O12 Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiangmin; Nie, Ping; Ding, Bing; Wu, Wenxin; Chang, Zhi; Wu, Yuting; Dou, Hui; Zhang, Xiaogang

    2016-11-16

    Interface design between current collector and electroactive materials plays a key role in the electrochemical process for lithium-ion batteries. Here, a thin graphene film has been successfully synthesized on the surface of Cu current collector by a large-scale low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) process. The modified Cu foil was used as a current collector to support spinel Li4Ti5O12 anode directly. Electrochemical test results demonstrated that graphene coating Cu foil could effectively improve overall Li storage performance of Li4Ti5O12 anode. Especially under high current rate (e.g., 10 C), the Li4Ti5O12 electrode using modified current collector maintained a favorable capacity, which is 32% higher than that electrode using bare current collector. In addition, cycling performance has been improved using the new type current collector. The enhanced performance can be attributed to the reduced internal resistance and improved charge transfer kinetics of graphene film by increasing electron collection and decreasing lithium ion interfacial diffusion. Furthermore, the graphene film adhered on the Cu foil surface could act as an effective protective film to avoid oxidization, which can effectively improve chemical stability of Cu current collector.

  11. Borohydride electro-oxidation by Ag-doped lanthanum chromites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Suresh Balaji; A Usha; V V Giridhar

    2014-05-01

    The electrocatalytic activity of Ag-doped lanthanum chromites electrode materials viz., LaCr0.4Ag0.6O3 and LaCr0.7Ag0.3O3 prepared by decomposing the precursor complex is studied. Pure LaCrO3 is synthesized by combustion route using oxalic acid as a fuel. The decomposition behaviour of the assynthesized powder obtained in the latter method is characterized by TGA-DTA and XRD. Both the precursor complex and the as-synthesized powder are calcined at 900°C for 7 and 10 h, respectively. XRD of the final product after calcinations indicated the formation of perovskite phase with minor amounts of impurity phases of component oxides in the Ag-doped lanthanum chromites and pure perovskite phase in the undoped one. The surface morphology of the perovskites is studied by SEM. The electrocatalytic activity of the perovskite powders for borohydride oxidation is studied by using cyclic voltammetry (CV) at a catalyst loading of 0.7 mgcm−2 for both Ag-doped and undoped LaCrO3 coated on glassy carbon substrate. Calibration plots are obtained by plotting the anodic peak current versus concentration of borohydride in the range of 20-100 mM. The sensitivities of the three perovskites towards borohydride oxidation indicated that LaCr0.4Ag0.6O3 is the best among all the perovskites studied giving a value of 1.395 A/mM.

  12. Sodium borohydride reduction of aromatic carboxylic acids via methyl esters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aamer Saeed; Zaman Ashraf

    2006-09-01

    A number of important aromatic carboxylic acids precursors, or intermediates in the syntheses of natural products, are converted into methyl esters and reduced to the corresponding primary alcohols using a sodium borohydride-THF-methanol system. The alcohols are obtained in 70-92% yields in 2-5 hours, in a pure state. This two-step procedure not only provides a better alternative to aluminum hydride reduction of acids but also allows the selective reduction of esters in presence of acids, amides, nitriles or nitro functions which are not affected under these conditions.

  13. Chitosan chemical hydrogel electrode binder for direct borohydride fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhury, Nurul A.; Sahai, Yogeshwar; Buchheit, Rudolph G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2011-01-15

    A novel and cost-effective electrode binder consisting of chitosan chemical hydrogel (CCH) is reported for direct borohydride fuel cells (DBFCs). The DBFCs have been assembled with Misch-metal-based AB{sub 5} alloy as anode, carbon-supported palladium (Pd/C) as cathode and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel membrane electrolyte (PHME) as well as Nafion {sup registered} -117 membrane electrolyte (NME) as separators. Operating in passive mode without using peristaltic pump and under ambient conditions of temperature as well as pressure, the DBFC exhibited a maximum peak power density of about 81 mW cm{sup -2}. (author)

  14. Study on catalyst for the sodium borohydride hydrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Shu-ming; JIANG; Li-jun; LIU; Xiao-peng; WANG; Shu-mao

    2005-01-01

    The effects of preparation methods, supports and active parts on both the activation and stability of catalyst for the sodium borohydride hydrolysis were studied, and the results showed that the activation and stability of the catalysts prepared by impregnation method is better than that prepared by chemical plating. Compared to exchange resin and activated alumina, the diatomite with high BET surface area and porosity is more suitable for as the catalyst's support. Co is much better than Ni when used as catalytic active part.

  15. Simple unprecedented conversion of phosphine oxides and sulfides to phosphine boranes using sodium borohydride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Kamalraj V; Gilheany, Declan G

    2012-01-21

    A variety of phosphine oxides and sulfides can be efficiently converted directly to the corresponding phosphine boranes using oxalyl chloride followed by sodium borohydride. Optically active P-stereogenic phosphine oxides can be converted stereospecifically to phosphine boranes with inversion of configuration by treatment with Meerwein's salt followed by sodium borohydride.

  16. Synthesis of lithium silicates generators of tritium by a modified method of combustion; Sintesis de silicatos de litio generadores de tritio por un metodo modificado de combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz G, D

    2003-07-01

    The ceramics of lithium have been proposed as generating materials of tritium through the following reaction: {sup 6} Li + {sup 1} n {yields} {sup 4} He + {sup 3} H . In previous works carried out by Pfeiffer and collaborators, the lithium silicates generators of tritium were prepared using the following methods: reactions of solid state, precipitation and sol-gel synthesis. Although those methods have advantages, it is required of heating at high temperatures (900 C during four hours) to be able to obtain the crystalline compounds. Those products found in these works were diverse crystallization forms of the lithium silicates and of SiO{sub 2}, such as, Li{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}, Li{sub 2}Si{sub 2}0{sub 5}, Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}, and quartz (SiO{sub 2}). The combustion method uses exothermic reactions to take place ceramic compounds. The precursor solutions are mixtures of the nitrate of metal oxidizer and the fuels (urea, glycine, carbohydrazide). However the reported method in the literature, it is not useful to prepare lithium silicates, for what was modified using non oxidizers compounds. The lithium hydroxide (LiOH) and the silicic acid (H{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}) they were the compounds non oxidizers used, and the urea (CH{sub 4}N{sub 2}O) it was the one fuel. They were carried out two series of experiments; inside the series 1 of experiments are varied the molar ratio of lithium hydroxide and urea (LiOH : H{sub 2}SiO{sub 3} = 1, 2 and 3, LiOH : CH{sub 4}N{sub 2}O = 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5) and the prepared mixtures were taken to one muffle previously preheated to a temperature of 450 C during 5 minutes. In the series 2 of experiments was studied the effect of the temperature and of the washed with distilled water in the prepared samples with the following molar ratios: LiOH : H{sub 2}SiO{sub 3} : CH{sub 4}N{sub 2}O = 1:1:3, 2:1:3, 3:1:3 and 3:1:6, those which were heated to temperatures from 450 C up to 750 C and were washed. The obtained samples were characterized by X

  17. Scalable plasticized polymer electrolytes reinforced with surface-modified sepiolite fillers - A feasibility study in lithium metal polymer batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía, Alberto; Devaraj, Shanmukaraj; Guzmán, Julio; Lopez del Amo, Juan Miguel; García, Nuria; Rojo, Teófilo; Armand, Michel; Tiemblo, Pilar

    2016-02-01

    Electrochemical properties of (polyethylene oxide) (PEO)/lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (LiTf)/ethylene carbonate (EC)/sepiolite extruded composite electrolytes were studied. Appreciable electrochemical stability of 4.5 V at 70 °C was observed for polymer composite membranes with D-α-tocopherol-polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate-coated sepiolite fillers. Lithium plating/stripping analysis indicated no evidence of dendrite formation with good interfacial properties which were further confirmed by postmortem analysis of the cells. Solid state NMR studies show the presence of two Li+ population in the membranes. The feasibility of these electrolytes has been shown with LiFePO4 cathode materials. Initial discharge capacity of 142 mAh/g was observed remaining at 110 mAh/g after 25 cycles with a coulombic efficiency of 96%. The upscaling of these polymers can be easily achieved by extrusion technique and the capacity can be improved by varying the cathode architecture.

  18. Mesoporous carbon-coated LiFePO4 nanocrystals co-modified with graphene and Mg2+ doping as superior cathode materials for lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Xu, Binghui; Liu, Tiefeng; Liu, Peng; Guo, Chenfeng; Wang, Shuo; Wang, Qiuming; Xiong, Zhigang; Wang, Dianlong; Zhao, X S

    2014-01-21

    In this work, mesoporous carbon-coated LiFePO4 nanocrystals further co-modified with graphene and Mg(2+) doping (G/LFMP) were synthesized by a modified rheological phase method to improve the speed of lithium storage as well as cycling stability. The mesoporous structure of LiFePO4 nanocrystals was designed and realized by introducing the bead milling technique, which assisted in forming sucrose-pyrolytic carbon nanoparticles as the template for generating mesopores. For comparison purposes, samples modified only with graphene (G/LFP) or Mg(2+) doping (LFMP) as well as pure LiFePO4 (LFP) were also prepared and investigated. Microscopic observation and nitrogen sorption analysis have revealed the mesoporous morphologies of the as-prepared composites. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Rietveld refinement data demonstrated that the Mg-doped LiFePO4 is a single olivine-type phase and well crystallized with shortened Fe-O and P-O bonds and a lengthened Li-O bond, resulting in an enhanced Li(+) diffusion velocity. Electrochemical properties have also been investigated after assembling coin cells with the as-prepared composites as the cathode active materials. Remarkably, the G/LFMP composite has exhibited the best electrochemical properties, including fast lithium storage performance and excellent cycle stability. That is because the modification of graphene provided active sites for nuclei, restricted the in situ crystallite growth, increased the electronic conductivity and reduced the interface reaction current density, while, Mg(2+) doping improved the intrinsically electronic and ionic transfer properties of LFP crystals. Moreover, in the G/LFMP composite, the graphene component plays the role of "cushion" as it could quickly realize capacity response, buffering the impact to LFMP under the conditions of high-rate charging or discharging, which results in a pre-eminent rate capability and cycling stability.

  19. Direct borohydride fuel cell using Ni-based composite anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Jia; Sahai, Yogeshwar; Buchheit, Rudolph G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, 2041 College Rd., Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2010-08-01

    In this study, nickel-based composite anode catalysts consisting of Ni with either Pd on carbon or Pt on carbon (the ratio of Ni:Pd or Ni:Pt being 25:1) were prepared for use in direct borohydride fuel cells (DBFCs). Cathode catalysts used were 1 mg cm{sup -2} Pt/C or Pd electrodeposited on activated carbon cloth. The oxidants were oxygen, oxygen in air, or acidified hydrogen peroxide. Alkaline solution of sodium borohydride was used as fuel in the cell. High power performance has been achieved by DBFC using non-precious metal, Ni-based composite anodes with relatively low anodic loading (e.g., 270 mW cm{sup -2} for NaBH{sub 4}/O{sub 2} fuel cell at 60 C, 665 mW cm{sup -2} for NaBH{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} fuel cell at 60 C). Effects of temperature, oxidant, and anode catalyst loading on the DBFC performance were investigated. The cell was operated for about 100 h and its performance stability was recorded. (author)

  20. Life time test in direct borohydride fuel cell system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamard, Romain [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (CEA), LITEN-DTNM-LCH, 17 av. des martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Laboratoire de Catalyse en Chimie Organique LACCO UMR6503, 40 av. du Recteur Pineau, 86022 Poitiers (France); Salomon, Jeremie; Martinent-Beaumont, Audrey [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (CEA), LITEN-DTNM-LCH, 17 av. des martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Coutanceau, Christophe [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Laboratoire de Catalyse en Chimie Organique LACCO UMR6503, 40 av. du Recteur Pineau, 86022 Poitiers (France)

    2009-09-05

    The electric performances of direct borohydride fuel cells (DBFCs) are evaluated in terms of power density and life time with respect to the NaBH{sub 4} concentration. A DBFC constituted of an anionic membrane, a 0.6 mg{sub Pt} cm{sup -2} anode and a commercial non-platinum based cathode led to performances as high as 200 mW cm{sup -2} at room temperature and with natural convection of air. Electrochemical life time test at 0.55 mA cm{sup -2} with a 5 M NaBH{sub 4}/1 M NaOH solution shows a voltage diminution of 1 mV h{sup -1} and a drastic drop of performances after 250 h. The life time is twice longer with 2 M NaBH{sub 4}/1 M NaOH solution (450 h) and the voltage decrease is 0.5 mV h{sup -1}. Analyses of the components after life time tests indicate that voltage loss is mainly due to the degradation of the cathode performance. Crystallisation of carbonate and borate is observed at the cathode side, although the anionic membrane displays low permeability to borohydride. (author)

  1. In situ infrared (FTIR) study of the borohydride oxidation reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Concha, B. Molina; Chatenet, M. [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Physico-chimie, des Materiaux et des Interfaces (LEPMI), UMR 5631 CNRS/Grenoble-INP/UJF, 1130 Rue de la Piscine, BP75, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Coutanceau, C.; Hahn, F. [Laboratoire de Catalyse en Chimie Organique (LACCO), UMR 6503 CNRS, Universite de Poitiers, 40 Av. du, Recteur Pineau, 86000 Poitiers (France)

    2009-01-15

    The direct borohydride fuel cell (DBFC) is an interesting alternative for the electrochemical power generation at lower temperatures due to its high anode theoretical specific capacity (5 A h g{sup -1}). However, the borohydride oxidation reaction (BOR) is a very complex eight-electron reaction, influenced by the nature of the electrode material (catalytic or not with respect to BH{sub 4}{sup -} hydrolysis), the [BH{sub 4}{sup -}][OH{sup -}] ratio and the temperature. In order to understand the BOR mechanism, we performed in situ infrared reflectance spectroscopy measurements (SPAIRS technique) in 1 M NaOH/1 M NaBH{sub 4} with the aim to study intermediate reactions occurring on a gold electrode (a poor BH{sub 4}{sup -} hydrolysis catalyst). We monitored several bands in B-H (1184 cm{sup -1}) and B-O bond regions (1326 and 1415 cm{sup -1}), appearing sequentially with increasing electrode polarisation. Thanks to these experimental findings, we propose possible initial elementary steps for the BOR. (author)

  2. Study of carbamate-modified disiloxane in porous PVDF-HFP membranes: new electrolytes/separators for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschke, Steffen; Mutke, Monika; Jiang, Zhongxiang; Alt, Burkhard; Wiemhöfer, Hans-Dieter

    2014-06-23

    A gel electrolyte membrane is obtained through the absorption of a carbamate-modified liquid disiloxane-containing lithium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide (LiTFSI) by using macroporous poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) membranes. The porous membranes are prepared by means of a phase inversion technique. The resulting gel electrolyte membrane is studied by using differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and microscope mapping through coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) confocal microscopy and impedance spectroscopy. The ionic conductivity of the gel electrolyte is 10(-4) S cm(-1) at 20 °C. FTIR spectroscopy reveals interactions between LiTFSI and the carbonyl moiety of the disiloxane. No interactions between LiTFSI and PVDF-HFP or between disiloxane and PVDF-HFP are detected by FTIR spectroscopy. Furthermore, the distribution of the α and β/γ phases of PVDF-HFP and the homogeneous distribution of disiloxane/LiTFSI in the gel electrolyte membranes are examined by FTIR mapping. CARS confocal microscopy is used to image the three-dimensional interconnectivity, which reveals a reticulated structure of macrovoids in the porous PVDF-HFP framework. Owing to properties such as electrochemical and thermal stability of the disiloxane-based liquid electrolyte and the mechanical stability of the porous PVDF-HFP membrane, the gel electrolyte membranes presented herein are promising candidates for applications as electrolytes/separators in lithium-ion batteries.

  3. One-step synthesis Fe{sub 3}N surface-modified Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with excellent lithium storage ability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yabin [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Institute of Chemical Power Sources, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Yan, Yuerong [Department of Science and Technology, Jiaozuo Teachers College, Jiaozuo 454000 (China); Ming, Hai, E-mail: lunaticmh@163.com [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Institute of Chemical Power Sources, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Zheng, Junwei, E-mail: jwzheng@suda.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Institute of Chemical Power Sources, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China)

    2014-06-01

    The Fe{sub 3}N modified Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with an excellent performance in lithium-ion batteries were prepared via a one-step and an efficient method. The layer of Fe{sub 3}N could significantly decrease the variation of volume and enhance the conductivity of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} simultaneously during the reaction of lithium ions in the charge-discharge process. There are two main advantages of this material: (1) their size distribution, ranging from 100 to 500 nm and (2) the fact that these particles are connected with each other by the Fe{sub 3}N layer. These two features allow such material to exhibit a high reversible capacity of 739 and 620 mA h g{sup −1} after each 60 cycles at the current density of 50 and 200 mA g{sup −1}, respectively. More importantly, since its introduction, this new concept of coating metal oxides with a layer of metal nitride to form core-shell structured metal oxide@metal nitride can be widely applied in the fields of catalysis, electrochemistry, energy, environmental and materials science with improved performance.

  4. A transfer function type of simplified electrochemical model with modified boundary conditions and Padé approximation for Li-ion battery: Part 1. lithium concentration estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shifei; Jiang, Lei; Yin, Chengliang; Wu, Hongjie; Zhang, Xi

    2017-06-01

    To guarantee the safety, high efficiency and long lifetime for lithium-ion battery, an advanced battery management system requires a physics-meaningful yet computationally efficient battery model. The pseudo-two dimensional (P2D) electrochemical model can provide physical information about the lithium concentration and potential distributions across the cell dimension. However, the extensive computation burden caused by the temporal and spatial discretization limits its real-time application. In this research, we propose a new simplified electrochemical model (SEM) by modifying the boundary conditions for electrolyte diffusion equations, which significantly facilitates the analytical solving process. Then to obtain a reduced order transfer function, the Padé approximation method is adopted to simplify the derived transcendental impedance solution. The proposed model with the reduced order transfer function can be briefly computable and preserve physical meanings through the presence of parameters such as the solid/electrolyte diffusion coefficients (Ds&De) and particle radius. The simulation illustrates that the proposed simplified model maintains high accuracy for electrolyte phase concentration (Ce) predictions, saying 0.8% and 0.24% modeling error respectively, when compared to the rigorous model under 1C-rate pulse charge/discharge and urban dynamometer driving schedule (UDDS) profiles. Meanwhile, this simplified model yields significantly reduced computational burden, which benefits its real-time application.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of LiMgyMn2–yO4 cathode materials by a modified Pechini process for lithium batteries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Subramania; N Angayarkanni; A R Sathiya Priya; R Gangadharan; T Vasudevan

    2005-12-01

    Cubic spinels of composition, LiMgyMn2–yO4, with = 0.0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2, were synthesized by a modified Pechini process using polyethylene glycol and citric acid. The phase formation and/or crystallization of the precursors were studied by thermal analysis. Products were characterized by X-ray diffraction and SEM analysis. Coin cells were fabricated with lithium as the anode and LiMgyMn2–yO4 as the cathode in an electrolyte of 1 M LiPF6 in a 1 : 1 (v/v) mixture of EC and DEC. The charge–discharge studies were performed and the results were compared with materials prepared by a solid state thermal method.

  6. Synthesis of Borohydride and Catalytic Dehydrogenation by Hydrogel Based Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boynuegri, Tugba Akkas; Karabulut, Ahmet F.; Guru, Metin

    2016-08-01

    This paper deals with the synthesis of calcium borohydride (Ca(BH4)2) as hydrogen storage material. Calcium chloride salt (CaCl2), magnesium hydride (MgH2), and boron oxide (B2O3) were used as reactants in the mechanochemical synthesis of Ca(BH4)2. The mechanochemical reaction was carried out by means of Spex type ball milling without applying high pressure and temperature. Parametric studies have been established at different reaction times and for different amounts of reactants at a constant ball to powder ratio (BPR) 4:1. The best combination was determined by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) analysis. According to the FT-IR analysis, reaction time, the first reaction parameter, was found as 1600 min. After the reaction time was fixed at 1600 min, the difference of the B-H peak areas was dependent on the amount of reactant MgH2 that was investigated. The amount of the reactant (MgH2), the second reaction parameter, was measured to be 2.85 times more than the stoichiometric amount of MgH2. According to our previous studies, BPR was selected as 4:1 for all experiments. Samples were prepared in a glove box under argon atmosphere but the time that elapsed for FT-IR analysis highly affected B-H bonds. B-H peak areas clearly decreased with time because of negative effect of ambient atmosphere. A catalyst was prepared by absorbing cobalt fluoride (CoF2) in poly (acrylamide-co-acrylic acid) hydrogel matrices type and its catalytic dehydrogenation performance that has been characterized by the catalytic reaction of sodium borohydride's known hydrogen capacity in an alkaline medium. The metal amount of hydrogel catalyst was determined as 135.82 mg Co by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). The specific dehydrogenation capacity of the Co active compound in the catalyst thanks to catalytic dehydrogenation of commercial sodium borohydride was measured as 1.66 mL H2/mg Co.

  7. Ammine-Stabilized Transition-Metal Borohydrides of Iron, Cobalt, and Chromium: Synthesis and Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roedern, Elsa; Jensen, Torben R

    2015-11-02

    Iron and cobalt borohydrides stabilized by ammonia (NH3), [Fe(NH3)6](BH4)2 and [Co(NH3)6](BH4)2, were synthesized along with a solid solution, [Co(NH3)6](BH4)(2-x)Cl(x) (x ∼ 1), and a bimetallic compound, [Fe(NH3)6](Li2(BH4)4). The compounds were prepared by new low-temperature, solvent-based synthesis methods, using dimethyl sulfide or liquid NH3, which allow for the removal of inert metal halides. The crystal structures were determined from synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction (SR-PXD) data. [M(NH3)6](BH4)2 (M = Fe, Co) and [Co(NH3)6](BH4)(2-x)Cl(x) crystallize in the cubic crystal system, where the transition metals are octahedrally coordinated by NH3. Polymeric chains of lithium coordinated by four bridging BH4(-) anions are found in [Fe(NH3)6](Li2(BH4)4). The new compounds have high hydrogen densities of ∼14 wt % H2 and ∼140 g H2/L and release a mixture of hydrogen and NH3 gas at low temperatures, T < 80 °C. The decomposition mechanisms of the prepared compounds along with the composites [Fe(NH3)6](BH4)2·nNH3BH3 (n = 2, 4, 6) were studied by thermal analysis and in situ SR-PXD.

  8. Shielding efficiency of metal hydrides and borohydrides in fusion reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Vishvanath P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mass attenuation coefficients, mean free paths and exposure buildup factors have been used to characterize the shielding efficiency of metal hydrides and borohydrides, with high density of hydrogen. Gamma ray exposure buildup factors were computed using five-parameter geometric progression fitting at energies 0.015 MeV to15 MeV, and for penetration depths up to 40 mean free paths. Fast-neutron shielding efficiency has been characterized by the effective neutron removal cross-section. It is shown that ZrH2 and VH2 are very good shielding materials for gamma rays and fast neutrons due to their suitable combination of low- and high-Z elements. The present work should be useful for the selection and design of blankets and shielding, and for dose evaluation for components in fusion reactors.

  9. Complex metal borohydrides: multifunctional materials for energy storage and conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtadi, Rana; Remhof, Arndt; Jena, Puru

    2016-09-07

    With the limited supply of fossil fuels and their adverse effect on the climate and the environment, it has become a global priority to seek alternate sources of energy that are clean, abundant, and sustainable. While sources such as solar, wind, and hydrogen can meet the world's energy demand, considerable challenges remain to find materials that can store and/or convert energy efficiently. This topical review focuses on one such class of materials, namely, multi-functional complex metal borohydrides that not only have the ability to store sufficient amount of hydrogen to meet the needs of the transportation industry, but also can be used for a new generation of metal ion batteries and solar cells. We discuss the material challenges in all these areas and review the progress that has been made to address them, the issues that still need to be resolved and the outlook for the future.

  10. Complex metal borohydrides: multifunctional materials for energy storage and conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtadi, Rana; Remhof, Arndt; Jena, Puru

    2016-09-01

    With the limited supply of fossil fuels and their adverse effect on the climate and the environment, it has become a global priority to seek alternate sources of energy that are clean, abundant, and sustainable. While sources such as solar, wind, and hydrogen can meet the world’s energy demand, considerable challenges remain to find materials that can store and/or convert energy efficiently. This topical review focuses on one such class of materials, namely, multi-functional complex metal borohydrides that not only have the ability to store sufficient amount of hydrogen to meet the needs of the transportation industry, but also can be used for a new generation of metal ion batteries and solar cells. We discuss the material challenges in all these areas and review the progress that has been made to address them, the issues that still need to be resolved and the outlook for the future.

  11. Reduction of Aldehydes and Ketones with Potassium Borohydride as Reductant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗慧谋; 李毅群

    2005-01-01

    A series of aldehydes and ketones were reduced by potassium borohydride in an ionic liquid/water ([bmim]PF6/H2O) biphasic system to afford corresponding alcohol with high purity in excellent yields. The ionic liquid/water biphasic system could promote the chemoselectivity and the substituents such as nitro group and chlorine remained intact. Aromatic ketones were not as active as aromatic aldhydes and cyclic ketones owing to their higher steric hindrance. The ionic liquid could be recycled and reused. This protocol has notable advantages of no need of phase transfer catalyst and organic solvents, mild conditions, simple operation, short reaction time, ease work-up, high yields and recycling of the ionic liquid.

  12. Recent Progress in Metal Borohydrides for Hydrogen Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig M. Jensen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The prerequisite for widespread use of hydrogen as an energy carrier is the development of new materials that can safely store it at high gravimetric and volumetric densities. Metal borohydrides M(BH4n (n is the valence of metal M, in particular, have high hydrogen density, and are therefore regarded as one such potential hydrogen storage material. For fuel cell vehicles, the goal for on-board storage systems is to achieve reversible store at high density but moderate temperature and hydrogen pressure. To this end, a large amount of effort has been devoted to improvements in their thermodynamic and kinetic aspects. This review provides an overview of recent research activity on various M(BH4n, with a focus on the fundamental dehydrogenation and rehydrogenation properties and on providing guidance for material design in terms of tailoring thermodynamics and promoting kinetics for hydrogen storage.

  13. Nanoconfinement in activated mesoporous carbon of calcium borohydride for improved reversible hydrogen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comănescu, Cezar; Capurso, Giovanni; Maddalena, Amedeo

    2012-09-28

    Mesoporous carbon frameworks were synthesized using the soft-template method. Ca(BH(4))(2) was incorporated into activated mesoporous carbon by the incipient wetness method. The activation of mesoporous carbon was necessary to optimize the surface area and pore size. Thermal programmed absorption measurements showed that the confinement of this borohydride into carbon nanoscaffolds improved its reversible capacity (relative to the reactive portion) and performance of hydrogen storage compared to unsupported borohydride. Hydrogen release from the supported hydride started at a temperature as low as 100 °C and the dehydrogenation rate was fast compared to the bulk borohydride. In addition, the hydrogen pressure necessary to regenerate the borohydride from the dehydrogenation products was reduced.

  14. Simple unprecedented conversion of phosphine oxides and sulfides to phosphine boranes using sodium borohydride

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    A variety of phosphine oxides and sulfides can be efficiently converted directly to the corresponding phosphine boranes using oxalyl chloride followed by sodium borohydride. Optically active P-stereogenic phosphine oxides can be converted stereospecifically to phosphine boranes with inversion of configuration by treatment with Meerwein's salt followed by sodium borohydride.

  15. Three-dimensional nanostructured Ni-Cu foams for borohydride oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, D. M. F.; Eugénio, S.; Cardoso, D. S. P.; Šljukić, B.; Montemor, M. F.

    2015-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) nanostructured nickel-copper (Ni-Cu) foams have been prepared by electrodeposition using a dynamic hydrogen template. These 3D materials were tested as electrodes for the borohydride oxidation reaction (BOR) in alkaline media for possible application as anodes of direct borohydride fuel cells. Their activity in BOR was studied using cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, and chronopotentiometry and main reaction parameters and electrodes' stability were evaluated.

  16. The crystal chemistry of inorganic metal borohydrides and their relation to metal oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Černý, Radovan; Schouwink, Pascal

    2015-12-01

    The crystal structures of inorganic homoleptic metal borohydrides are analysed with respect to their structural prototypes found amongst metal oxides in the inorganic databases such as Pearson's Crystal Data [Villars & Cenzual (2015). Pearson's Crystal Data. Crystal Structure Database for Inorganic Compounds, Release 2014/2015, ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio, USA]. The coordination polyhedra around the cations and the borohydride anion are determined, and constitute the basis of the structural systematics underlying metal borohydride chemistry in various frameworks and variants of ionic packing, including complex anions and the packing of neutral molecules in the crystal. Underlying nets are determined by topology analysis using the program TOPOS [Blatov (2006). IUCr CompComm. Newsl. 7, 4-38]. It is found that the Pauling rules for ionic crystals apply to all non-molecular borohydride crystal structures, and that the latter can often be derived by simple deformation of the close-packed anionic lattices c.c.p. and h.c.p., by partially removing anions and filling tetrahedral or octahedral sites. The deviation from an ideal close packing is facilitated in metal borohydrides with respect to the oxide due to geometrical and electronic considerations of the BH4(-) anion (tetrahedral shape, polarizability). This review on crystal chemistry of borohydrides and their similarity to oxides is a contribution which should serve materials engineers as a roadmap to design new materials, synthetic chemists in their search for promising compounds to be prepared, and materials scientists in understanding the properties of novel materials.

  17. Magnetic and electrical properties of oxygen stabilized nickel nanofibers prepared by the borohydride reduction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivas, V. [Department of Physics and Meteorology, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur West Bengal 721 302 India (India)], E-mail: veeturi@phy.iitkgp.ernet.in; Barik, S.K.; Bodo, Bhaskarjyoti [Department of Physics and Meteorology, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur West Bengal 721 302 India (India); Karmakar, Debjani; Chandrasekhar Rao, T.V. [Technical Physics and Prototype Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay 400085 India (India)

    2008-03-15

    Fine nickel fibers have been synthesized by chemical reduction of nickel ions in aqueous medium with sodium borohydride. The thermal stability and relevant properties of these fibers, as-prepared as well as air-annealed, have been investigated by structural, magnetic and electrical measurements. As-prepared samples appear to have a novel crystal structure due to the presence of interstitial oxygen. Upon annealing in air, the fcc-Ni phase emerges out initially and develops into a nanocomposite subsequently by retaining its fiber-like structure in nano phase. The as-prepared sample is observed to be weakly magnetic at room temperature, but attains surprisingly high magnetization values at low temperatures. This is attributed to the modified spin structure, presumably due to the presence of interstitial oxygen in the lattice. Development of a weakly ferromagnetic and electrically conducting phase upon annealing in air is attributed to the formation of the fcc-Ni phase. The structural phase transformations corroborate well with magnetic and electrical measurements.

  18. Hydrogen generation from sodium borohydride solution using a ruthenium supported on graphite catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Yan; Dai, Hong-Bin; Ma, Lai-Peng; Wang, Ping; Cheng, Hui-Ming [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2010-04-15

    The catalyst with high activity and durability plays a crucial role in the hydrogen generation systems for the portable fuel cell generators. In the present study, a ruthenium supported on graphite catalyst (Ru/G) for hydrogen generation from sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}) solution is prepared by a modified impregnation method. This is done by surface pretreatment with NH{sub 2} functionalization via silanization, followed by adsorption of Ru (III) ion onto the surface, and then reduced by a reducing agent. The obtained catalyst is characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Very uniform Ru nanoparticles with sizes of about 10 nm are chemically bonded on the graphite surface. The hydrolysis kinetics measurements show that the concentrations of NaBH{sub 4} and NaOH all exert considerable influence on the catalytic activity of Ru/G catalyst towards the hydrolysis reaction of NaBH{sub 4}. A hydrogen generation rate of 32.3 L min{sup -1} g{sup -1} (Ru) in a 10 wt.% NaBH{sub 4} + 5 wt.% NaOH solution has been achieved, which is comparable to other noble catalysts that have been reported. (author)

  19. Carbon nanostructures modified LiFePO4 cathodes for lithium ion battery applications: optimized porosity and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Lama; Singh Lalia, Boor; Hashaikeh, Raed

    2016-12-01

    Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) battery cathode was fabricated without using any metallic current collector and polymeric binder. Carbon nanostructures (CNS) were used as microbinders for LiFePO4 particles and at the same time as a 3D current collector. A facile and cost effective method of fabricating composite cathodes of CNS and LiFePO4 was developed. Thick electrodes with high loading of active material (20-25 mg cm-2) were obtained that are almost 2-3 folds higher than commercial electrodes. SEM images confirm that the 3D CNS conductive network encapsulated the LiFePO4 particles homogenously facilitating the charge transfer at the electrode-CNS interface. The composition, scan rate and porosity of the paper-like cathode were sequentially varied and their influence was systematically monitored by means of linear sweep cyclic voltammetry and AC electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Addition of CNS improved the electrode’s bulk electronic conductivity, mechanical integrity, surface area and double layer capacitance, yet compromised the charge transfer resistance at the electrode-electrolyte interface. Based on a range of the tested binder-free electrodes, this study proposes that electrodes with 20 wt% CNS having 49 ± 2.5% porosity had realized best improvements of two folds and four folds in the electronic conductivity and diffusion coefficient, respectively.

  20. Dehydrogenation in lithium borohydride/conventional metal hydride composite based on a mutual catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, X.B.; Shi, Qing; Vegge, Tejs;

    2009-01-01

    The dehydrogenation of LiBH4 ball-milled with hydrogenated 40Ti–15Mn–15Cr–30V alloy was investigated. It was found that there is a mutual catalysis between the two hydrides, lowering the temperature of hydrogen release from both hydrides. In the case of 1h milled LiBH4/40Ti–15Mn–15Cr–30V...... with a mass ratio of 1:4, the peak temperatures of 40Ti–15Mn–15Cr–30V and LiBH4 were decreased to 195 and 390°C, respectively, which are 77 and 50°C lower than the respective hydride on its own....

  1. Iodide substitution in lithium borohydride, LiBH{sub 4}-LiI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rude, Line H., E-mail: line@inano.au.dk [Center for Materials Crystallography, Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center and Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, Langelandsgade 140, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Groppo, Elena, E-mail: elena.groppo@unito.it [Dipartimento di Chimica I.F.M. and NIS, Universita di Torino, Torino (Italy); Arnbjerg, Lene M., E-mail: lenem@chem.au.dk [Center for Materials Crystallography, Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center and Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, Langelandsgade 140, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Ravnsbaek, Dorthe B., E-mail: inadr@inano.au.dk [Center for Materials Crystallography, Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center and Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, Langelandsgade 140, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Malmkjaer, Regitze A., E-mail: regitze.aagaard.malmkjaer@post.au.dk [Center for Materials Crystallography, Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center and Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, Langelandsgade 140, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Filinchuk, Yaroslav, E-mail: Yaroslav.Filinchuk@uclouvain.be [Center for Materials Crystallography, Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center and Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, Langelandsgade 140, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Swiss-Norwegian Beam Lines at ESRF, BP-220, 38043 Grenoble (France); Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Place L. Pasteur 1, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Baricco, Marcello, E-mail: marcello.baricco@unito.it [Dipartimento di Chimica I.F.M. and NIS, Universita di Torino, Torino (Italy); Besenbacher, Flemming, E-mail: fbe@inano.au.dk [Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Jensen, Torben R., E-mail: trj@chem.au.dk [Center for Materials Crystallography, Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center and Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, Langelandsgade 140, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

    2011-08-18

    Graphical abstract: Highlights: > Anion substitution in LiBH{sub 4}. > Structure and properties of two LiBH{sub 4}-LiI solid solutions. > Stability upon heating and over time. > Hydrogen storage properties of LiBH{sub 4}-LiI. - Abstract: The new concept, anion substitution, is explored for possible improvement of hydrogen storage properties in the system LiBH{sub 4}-LiI. The structural chemistry and the substitution mechanism are analyzed using Rietveld refinement of in situ synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction (SR-PXD) data, attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Sieverts measurements. Anion substitution is observed as formation of two solid solutions of Li(BH{sub 4}){sub 1-x}I{sub x}, which merge into one upon heating. The solid solutions have hexagonal structures (space group P6{sub 3}mc) similar to the structures of h-LiBH{sub 4} and {beta}-LiI. The solid solutions have iodide contents in the range {approx}0-62 mol% and are stable from below room temperature to the melting point at 330 deg. C. Thus the stability of the solid solutions is higher as compared to that of the orthorhombic and hexagonal polymorphs of LiBH{sub 4} and {alpha}- and {beta}-LiI. Furthermore, the rehydrogenation properties of the iodide substituted solid solution Li(BH{sub 4}){sub 1-x}I{sub x}, measured by the Sieverts method, are improved as compared to those of LiBH{sub 4}. After four cycles of hydrogen release and uptake the Li(BH{sub 4}){sub 1-x}I{sub x} solid solution maintains 68% of the calculated hydrogen storage capacity in contrast to LiBH{sub 4}, which maintains only 25% of the storage capacity after two cycles under identical conditions.

  2. Sodium borohydride removes aldehyde inhibitors for enhancing biohydrogen fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Richen; Cheng, Jun; Ding, Lingkan; Song, Wenlu; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2015-12-01

    To enhance biohydrogen production from glucose and xylose in the presence of aldehyde inhibitors, reducing agent (i.e., sodium borohydride) was in situ added for effective detoxification. The detoxification efficiencies of furfural (96.7%) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF, 91.7%) with 30mM NaBH4 were much higher than those of vanillin (77.3%) and syringaldehyde (69.3%). Biohydrogen fermentation was completely inhibited without detoxification, probably because of the consumption of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) by inhibitors reduction (R-CHO+2NADH→R-CH2OH+2NAD(+)). Addition of 30mM NaBH4 provided the reducing power necessary for inhibitors reduction (4R-CHO+NaBH4+2H2O→4R-CH2OH+NaBO2). The recovered reducing power in fermentation resulted in 99.3% recovery of the hydrogen yield and 64.6% recovery of peak production rate. Metabolite production and carbon conversion after detoxification significantly increased to 63.7mM and 81.9%, respectively.

  3. UV-assisted synthesis of surface modified mesoporous TiO2/G microspheres and its electrochemical performances in lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiaoling; Zeng, Min; Li, Jing; Li, Fuyun

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional mesoporous TiO2/graphene (TiO2/G) microspheres have been successfully synthesized through a simple UV-assisted method of reduced graphene oxide with hydrazine. The as-made surface modified mesoporous TiO2/G microspheres possess large surface area and exhibit a high initial discharge capacity of 220 mAh g-1 and retain 84% (∼185 mAh g-1) of reversible capacity over 100 cycles at a rate of 0.2C. In addition, TiO2/G microspheres display improved cyclic performance, excellent rate capability and enhanced electrical conductivity, which are superior to the bare TiO2 microspheres. Furthermore, TiO2/G microspheres can achieve a reversible capacity of 141 mAh g-1 upon 100 cycles even at the 1C rate. We believe that the mesoporous TiO2/G microspheres are expected to be a promising high performance anode material for the next generation lithium ion batteries.

  4. Aluminum chloride for accelerating hydrogen generation from sodium borohydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, U. B.; Akdim, O.; Miele, P.

    The present research paper reports preliminary results about the utilization of anhydrous aluminum chloride (AlCl 3) for accelerating hydrogen generation through hydrolysis of aqueous solution of sodium borohydride (NaBH 4) at 80 °C. To the best of our knowledge, AlCl 3 has never been considered for that reaction although many transition metal salts had already been assessed. AlCl 3 reactivity was compared to those of AlCl 3·6H 2O, AlF 3, CoCl 2, RuCl 3 and NiCl 2. With AlCl 3 and a NaBH 4 solution having a gravimetric hydrogen storage capacity (GHSC) of 2.9 wt.%, almost 100% hydrogen was generated in few seconds, i.e., with a hydrogen generation rate (HGR) of 354 L min -1 g -1(Al). This HGR is one of the highest rates ever reported. Higher HGRs were obtained by mixing AlCl 3 with CoCl2, RuCl 3 or NiCl 2. For example, the system RuCl 3:AlCl 3 (50:50 mass proportion) showed a HGR > 1000 L min -1 g -1(Ru:Al). The hydrolysis by-products (once dried) were identified (by XRD, IR and elemental analysis) as being Al(OH) 3, NaCl and Na 2B(OH) 4Cl and it was observed that even in situ formed Al(OH) 3 has catalytic abilities with HGRs of 5 L min -1 g -1(Al). All of these preliminary results are discussed, which concludes that AlCl 3 has a potential as accelerator for single-use NaBH 4-based storage system.

  5. Lithium Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Lithium has been commonly used for the treatment of several mood disorders particularly bipolar disorder in the last 60 years. Increased intake and decreased excretion of lithium are the main causes for the development of lithium intoxication. The influence of lithium intoxication on body is evaluated as two different groups; reversible or irreversible. Irreversible damage is usually related with the length of time passed as intoxicated. Acute lithium intoxication could occur when an overdose of lithium is received mistakenly or for the purpose of suicide. Patients may sometimes take an overdose of lithium for self-medication resulting in acute intoxication during chronic, while others could develop chronic lithium intoxication during a steady dose treatment due to a problem in excretion of drug. In such situations, it is crucial to be aware of risk factors, to recognize early clinical symptoms and to conduct a proper medical monitoring. In order to justify or exclude the diagnosis, quantitative evaluation of lithium in blood and toxicologic screening is necessary. Following the monitoring schedules strictly and urgent intervention in case of intoxication would definitely reduce mortality and sequela related with lithium intoxication. In this article, the etiology, frequency, definition, clinical features and treatment approaches to the lithium intoxication have been briefly reviewed.

  6. Removal of molecular adsorbates on gold nanoparticles using sodium borohydride in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansar, Siyam M; Ameer, Fathima S; Hu, Wenfang; Zou, Shengli; Pittman, Charles U; Zhang, Dongmao

    2013-03-13

    The mechanism of sodium borohydride removal of organothiols from gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was studied using an experimental investigation and computational modeling. Organothiols and other AuNP surface adsorbates such as thiophene, adenine, rhodamine, small anions (Br(-) and I(-)), and a polymer (PVP, poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone)) can all be rapidly and completely removed from the AuNP surfaces. A computational study showed that hydride derived from sodium borohydride has a higher binding affinity to AuNPs than organothiols. Thus, it can displace organothiols and all the other adsorbates tested from AuNPs. Sodium borohydride may be used as a hazard-free, general-purpose detergent that should find utility in a variety of AuNP applications including catalysis, biosensing, surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy, and AuNP recycle and reuse.

  7. Freeze-drying synthesis of three-dimensional porous LiFePO4 modified with well-dispersed nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Yingke; Song, Yijie

    2017-04-01

    The three-dimensional porous LiFePO4 modified with uniformly dispersed nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes has been successfully prepared by a freeze-drying method. The morphology and structure of the porous composites are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and the electrochemical performances are evaluated using the constant current charge/discharge tests, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes are uniformly dispersed inside the porous LiFePO4 to construct a superior three-dimensional conductive network, which remarkably increases the electronic conductivity and accelerates the diffusion of lithium ion. The porous composite displays high specific capacity, good rate capability and excellent cycling stability, rendering it a promising positive electrode material for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  8. Nanoconfined LiBH4 as a Fast Lithium Ion Conductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanchard, Didier; Nale, Angeloclaudio; Sveinbjörnsson, Dadi Þorsteinn

    2015-01-01

    is associated with a fraction of the confined borohydride that shows no phase transition, and most likely located close to the interface with the SiO2 pore walls. These results point to a new strategy to design low-temperature ion conducting solids for application in all solid-state lithium ion batteries, which......Designing new functional materials is crucial for the development of efficient energy storage and conversion devices such as all solid-state batteries. LiBH 4 is a promising solid electrolyte for Li-ion batteries. It displays high lithium mobility, although only above 110 °C at which a transition...

  9. Hydrogen, lithium, and lithium hydride production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Sam W.; Spencer, Larry S.; Phillips, Michael R.; Powell, G. Louis; Campbell, Peggy J.

    2017-06-20

    A method is provided for extracting hydrogen from lithium hydride. The method includes (a) heating lithium hydride to form liquid-phase lithium hydride; (b) extracting hydrogen from the liquid-phase lithium hydride, leaving residual liquid-phase lithium metal; (c) hydriding the residual liquid-phase lithium metal to form refined lithium hydride; and repeating steps (a) and (b) on the refined lithium hydride.

  10. Modified solid-state reaction synthesized cathode lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) from different phosphate sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Keqiang; Li, Wenjuan; Wang, Qingfei; Wei, Suying; Guo, Zhanhu

    2012-05-01

    A modified solid-state method was used to prepare LiFePO4. With the aid of deionized water, a mixture containing Fe2O3, NH4H2PO4 (or (NH4)2HPO4), LiOH, glucose and oxalic acid was prepared into fluffy powders, which were heated in a carbon-coated crucible at 700 degrees C for 3 hours to synthesize LiFePO4 without any inert gas flow. For the first time, the roles of NH4H2PO4 and (NH4)2HPO4 on the preparation of LiFePO4 were systematically investigated. The obtained samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), revealing that the crystallinity of the LiFePO4 sample prepared from NH4H2PO4 is superior to that prepared from (NH4)2HPO4 and the particle size of the sample prepared from NH4H2PO4 is smaller than that prepared from (NH4)2HPO4. The specific capacity, cycle property and rate capabilities were also compared between the as-prepared LiFePO4 samples. A better electrochemical performance was observed in the sample prepared from NH4H2PO4.

  11. Hydrogen, lithium, and lithium hydride production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sam W; Spencer, Larry S; Phillips, Michael R; Powell, G. Louis; Campbell, Peggy J

    2014-03-25

    A method of producing high purity lithium metal is provided, where gaseous-phase lithium metal is extracted from lithium hydride and condensed to form solid high purity lithium metal. The high purity lithium metal may be hydrided to provide high purity lithium hydride.

  12. Lithium Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baird-Gunning, Jonathan; Lea-Henry, Tom; Hoegberg, Lotte C G

    2017-01-01

    is required. The cause of lithium poisoning influences treatment and 3 patterns are described: acute, acute-on-chronic, and chronic. Chronic poisoning is the most common etiology, is usually unintentional, and results from lithium intake exceeding elimination. This is most commonly due to impaired kidney...... function caused by volume depletion from lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus or intercurrent illnesses and is also drug-induced. Lithium poisoning can affect multiple organs; however, the primary site of toxicity is the central nervous system and clinical manifestations vary from asymptomatic...... supratherapeutic drug concentrations to clinical toxicity such as confusion, ataxia, or seizures. Lithium poisoning has a low mortality rate; however, chronic lithium poisoning can require a prolonged hospital length of stay from impaired mobility and cognition and associated nosocomial complications. Persistent...

  13. A Microwave-Assisted Reduction of Cyclohexanone Using Solid-State-Supported Sodium Borohydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lori L.; Kittredge, Kevin W.

    2005-01-01

    The reduction of carbonyl groups by sodium borohydride though is a well-known reaction in most organic lab texts, a difficulty for an instructor adopting this reaction in a student lab is that it is too long. Using a microwave assisted organic synthesis solves this difficulty and one such reaction, which is the microwave-assisted reduction of…

  14. Exploiting hydrophobic borohydride-rich ionic liquids as faster-igniting rocket fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianlin; Qi, Xiujuan; Huang, Shi; Jiang, Linhai; Li, Jianling; Tang, Chenglong; Zhang, Qinghua

    2016-02-01

    A family of hydrophobic borohydride-rich ionic liquids was developed, which exhibited the shortest ignition delay times of 1.7 milliseconds and the lowest viscosity (10 mPa s) of hypergolic ionic fluids, demonstrating their great potential as faster-igniting rocket fuels to replace toxic hydrazine derivatives in liquid bipropellant formulations.

  15. Self-Printing on Graphitic Nanosheets with Metal Borohydride Nanodots for Hydrogen Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongtao; Ding, Xiaoli; Zhang, Qingan

    2016-08-01

    Although the synthesis of borohydride nanostructures is sufficiently established for advancement of hydrogen storage, obtaining ultrasmall (sub-10 nm) metal borohydride nanocrystals with excellent dispersibility is extremely challenging because of their high surface energy, exceedingly strong reducibility/hydrophilicity and complicated composition. Here, we demonstrate a mechanical-force-driven self-printing process that enables monodispersed (~6 nm) NaBH4 nanodots to uniformly anchor onto freshly-exfoliated graphitic nanosheets (GNs). Both mechanical-forces and borohydride interaction with GNs stimulate NaBH4 clusters intercalation/absorption into the graphite interlayers acting as a ‘pen’ for writing, which is accomplished by exfoliating GNs with the ‘printed’ borohydrides. These nano-NaBH4@GNs exhibit favorable thermodynamics (decrease in ∆H of ~45%), rapid kinetics (a greater than six-fold increase) and stable de-/re-hydrogenation that retains a high capacity (up to ~5 wt% for NaBH4) compared with those of micro-NaBH4. Our results are helpful in the scalable fabrication of zero-dimensional complex hydrides on two-dimensional supports with enhanced hydrogen storage for potential applications.

  16. A Guided-Inquiry Approach to the Sodium Borohydride Reduction and Grignard Reaction of Carbonyl Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Robert E.

    2007-01-01

    The guided-inquiry approach is applied to the reactions of sodium borohydride and phenyl magnesium bromide with benzaldehyde, benzophenone, benzoic anhydride, and ethyl benzoate. Each team of four students receives four unknowns. Students identify the unknowns and their reaction products by using the physical state of the unknown, an…

  17. Lithium nephrotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Jobson Lopes de; Silva Júnior, Geraldo Bezerra da; Abreu, Krasnalhia Lívia Soares de; Rocha, Natália de Albuquerque; Franco, Luiz Fernando Leonavicius G; Araújo, Sônia Maria Holanda Almeida; Daher, Elizabeth de Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Lithium has been widely used in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Its renal toxicity includes impaired urinary concentrating ability and natriuresis, renal tubular acidosis, tubulointerstitial nephritis progressing to chronic kidney disease and hypercalcemia. The most common adverse effect is nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, which affects 20-40% of patients within weeks of lithium initiation. Chronic nephropathy correlates with duration of lithium therapy. Early detection of renal dysfunction should be achieved by rigorous monitoring of patients and close collaboration between psychiatrists and nephrologists. Recent experimental and clinical studies begin to clarify the mechanisms by which lithium induces changes in renal function. The aim of this study was to review the pathogenesis, clinical presentation, histopathological aspects and treatment of lithium-induced nephrotoxicity.

  18. [Lithium nephropathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarczyk, Ireneusz; Sułowicz, Władysław

    2013-01-01

    Lithium salts are the first-line drug therapy in the treatment of uni- and bipolar disorder since the sixties of the twentieth century. In the mid-70s, the first information about their nephrotoxicity appeared. Lithium salts have a narrow therapeutic index. Side effects during treatment are polyuria, polydipsia and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Accidental intoxication can cause acute renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy while receiving long-term lithium salt can lead to the development of chronic kidney disease. The renal biopsy changes revealed a type of chronic tubulointerstitial nephropathy. The imaging studies revealed the presence of numerous symmetric microcysts. Care of the patient receiving lithium should include regular determination of serum creatinine, creatinine clearance and monitoring of urine volume. In case of deterioration of renal function reducing the dose should be considered.

  19. Synthesis and thermal decomposition behaviors of magnesium borohydride ammoniates with controllable composition as hydrogen storage materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanjing; Liu, Yongfeng; Li, You; Gao, Mingxia; Pan, Hongge

    2013-02-01

    An ammonia-redistribution strategy for synthesizing metal borohydride ammoniates with controllable coordination number of NH(3) was proposed, and a series of magnesium borohydride ammoniates were easily synthesized by a mechanochemical reaction between Mg(BH(4))(2) and its hexaammoniate. A strong dependence of the dehydrogenation temperature and purity of the released hydrogen upon heating on the coordination number of NH(3) was elaborated for Mg(BH(4))(2)·xNH(3) owing to the change in the molar ratio of H(δ+) and H(δ-), the charge distribution on H(δ+) and H(δ-), and the strength of the coordinate bond N:→Mg(2+). The monoammoniate of magnesium borohydride (Mg(BH(4))(2)·NH(3)) was obtained for the first time. It can release 6.5% pure hydrogen within 50 minutes at 180 °C. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Evaluation of anode (electro)catalytic materials for the direct borohydride fuel cell: Methods and benchmarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olu, Pierre-Yves; Job, Nathalie; Chatenet, Marian

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, different methods are discussed for the evaluation of the potential of a given catalyst, in view of an application as a direct borohydride fuel cell DBFC anode material. Characterizations results in DBFC configuration are notably analyzed at the light of important experimental variables which influence the performances of the DBFC. However, in many practical DBFC-oriented studies, these various experimental variables prevent one to isolate the influence of the anode catalyst on the cell performances. Thus, the electrochemical three-electrode cell is a widely-employed and useful tool to isolate the DBFC anode catalyst and to investigate its electrocatalytic activity towards the borohydride oxidation reaction (BOR) in the absence of other limitations. This article reviews selected results for different types of catalysts in electrochemical cell containing a sodium borohydride alkaline electrolyte. In particular, propositions of common experimental conditions and benchmarks are given for practical evaluation of the electrocatalytic activity towards the BOR in three-electrode cell configuration. The major issue of gaseous hydrogen generation and escape upon DBFC operation is also addressed through a comprehensive review of various results depending on the anode composition. At last, preliminary concerns are raised about the stability of potential anode catalysts upon DBFC operation.

  1. Tailoring the properties of ammine metal borohydrides for solid-state hydrogen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepsen, Lars H; Ley, Morten B; Filinchuk, Yaroslav; Besenbacher, Flemming; Jensen, Torben R

    2015-04-24

    A series of halide-free ammine manganese borohydrides, Mn(BH4 )2 ⋅nNH3 , n=1, 2, 3, and 6, a new bimetallic compound Li2 Mn(BH4 )4 ⋅6NH3 , and the first ammine metal borohydride solid solution Mg1-x Mnx (BH4 )2 ⋅6NH3 are presented. Four new crystal structures have been determined by synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction and the thermal decomposition is systematically investigated for all the new compounds. The solid-gas reaction between Mn(BH4 )2 and NH3 provides Mn(BH4 )2 ⋅6NH3 . The number of NH3 per Mn has been varied by mechanochemical treatment of Mn(BH4 )2 ⋅6NH3 -Mn(BH4 )2 mixtures giving rise to increased hydrogen purity for n/m≤1 for M(BH4 )m ⋅nNH3 . The structures of Mg(BH4 )2 ⋅3NH3 and Li2 Mg(BH4 )4 ⋅6NH3 have been revisited and new structural models are presented. Finally, we demonstrate that ammonia destabilizes metal borohydrides with low electronegativity of the metal (χp ∼1.6) are generally stabilized.

  2. Direct borohydride fuel cell: Main issues met by the membrane-electrodes-assembly and potential solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Umit B.

    The direct borohydride fuel cell (DBFC) is a fuel cell for which there is consensus about its promising commercial future as a portable power system. However, its development faces three main issues: the borohydride hydrolysis (issue 1) and crossover (issue 2), and the cost (issue 3). These issues are encountered by the membrane-electrodes-assembly. By a discussion around these three issues, the present paper reviews the experimental aspects. The discussion stresses on the opportunities of improvements and reviews the potential solutions that are proposed in the open literature. For each issue, the best solution seems to be a combination of improvements. The issue 1 may be solved thanks to a gold-based anode catalyst and an optimized fuel. The solution to the issue 2 may be a more efficient membrane combined with an optimized fuel and an inactive-towards-borohydride cathode catalyst like MnO 2. Regarding the issue 3, cheaper materials and better fuel use efficiency are the keys. The DBFC is still in a development phase with a small number of years of R&D invested and it appears that there are real improvement opportunities on the path of the DBFC marketing.

  3. Navy Lithium Battery Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    lithium -sulfur dioxide (Li-SO2), lithium - thionyl chloride (Li- SOCL2), and lithium -sulfuryl chloride (Li-S02CL2...and 1980’s with active primary cells: Lithium -sulfur dioxide (Li-SO2) Lithium - thionyl chloride (Li-SOCL2) Lithium -sulfuryl chloride (Li-S0 CL ) 2 2...DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. NAVY LITHIUM BATTERY SAFETY John Dow1 and Chris Batchelor2 Naval

  4. Lithium Resources and Production: Critical Assessment and Global Projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve H. Mohr

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper critically assesses if accessible lithium resources are sufficient for expanded demand due to lithium battery electric vehicles. The ultimately recoverable resources (URR of lithium globally were estimated at between 19.3 (Case 1 and 55.0 (Case 3 Mt Li; Best Estimate (BE was 23.6 Mt Li. The Mohr 2010 model was modified to project lithium supply. The Case 1 URR scenario indicates sufficient lithium for a 77% maximum penetration of lithium battery electric vehicles in 2080 whereas supply is adequate to beyond 2200 in the Case 3 URR scenario. Global lithium demand approached a maximum of 857 kt Li/y, with a 100% penetration of lithium vehicles, 3.5 people per car and 10 billion population.

  5. Halide-stabilized LiBH4, a room-temperature lithium fast-ion conductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Hideki; Matsuo, Motoaki; Takamura, Hitoshi; Ando, Mariko; Noda, Yasuto; Karahashi, Taiki; Orimo, Shin-ichi

    2009-01-28

    Solid state lithium conductors are attracting much attention for their potential applications to solid-state batteries and supercapacitors of high energy density to overcome safety issues and irreversible capacity loss of the currently commercialized ones. Recently, we discovered a new class of lithium super ionic conductors based on lithium borohydride (LiBH(4)). LiBH(4) was found to have conductivity as high as 10(-2) Scm(-1) accompanied by orthorhombic to hexagonal phase transition above 115 degrees C. Polarization to the lithium metal electrode was shown to be extremely low, providing a versatile anode interface for the battery application. However, the high transition temperature of the superionic phase has limited its applications. Here we show that a chemical modification of LiBH(4) can stabilize the superionic phase even below room temperature. By doping of lithium halides, high conductivity can be obtained at room temperature. Both XRD and NMR confirmed room-temperature stabilization of superionic phase for LiI-doped LiBH(4). The electrochemical measurements showed a great advantage of this material as an extremely lightweight lithium electrolyte for batteries of high energy density. This material will open alternative opportunities for the development of solid ionic conductors other than previously known lithium conductors.

  6. Improving Ionic Conductivity and Lithium-Ion Transference Number in Lithium-Ion Battery Separators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahn, Raphael; Lagadec, Marie Francine; Hess, Michael; Wood, Vanessa

    2016-12-07

    The microstructure of lithium-ion battery separators plays an important role in separator performance; however, here we show that a geometrical analysis falls short in predicting the lithium-ion transport in the electrolyte-filled pore space. By systematically modifying the surface chemistry of a commercial polyethylene separator while keeping its microstructure unchanged, we demonstrate that surface chemistry, which alters separator-electrolyte interactions, influences ionic conductivity and lithium-ion transference number. Changes in separator surface chemistry, particularly those that increase lithium-ion transference numbers can reduce voltage drops across the separator and improve C-rate capability.

  7. Nano-Composite Cathodes for High Performance Lithium Ion Microbatteries Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TPL Inc. proposes to develop a novel, high performance, nanostructured cathode material for lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries. The proposed approach will modify lithium...

  8. Rational design of high-rate lithium zinc titanate anode electrode by modifying Cu current collector with graphene and Au nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinxi; Wang, Lijuan; Li, Chengfei; Chen, Baokuan; Zhao, Qiang; Zhang, Guoqing

    2016-03-01

    Lithium zinc titanate (Li2ZnTi3O8) is a desirable anode material for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) due to its low cost, non-toxicity and high safety. However, the low electronic conductivity and not perfect rate capability hinder the commercial application of Li2ZnTi3O8. Here, a facile and effective strategy is developed to fabricate the Li2ZnTi3O8 electrode using the Cu foil with grown graphene and deposited Au nanoparticles as the current collector. The graphene and Au nanoparticles greatly enhance the electrical conductivity of the current collector. The structured Cu current collector has rough interface which can strengthen the adhesion between the Li2ZnTi3O8 active material layer and the current collector, providing an excellent electron transport network and reducing the internal resistance of LIBs. The Li2ZnTi3O8 material supported on the unique structured Cu current collector demonstrates outstanding Li+ storage properties with the reversible capacity of 172.2 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles at high current density of 4 A g-1. Even at 6 A g-1, 148.4 mAh g-1 can be delivered. The improved rate capability of the structured Li2ZnTi3O8 electrode makes it a promising anode candidate for high performance LIBs.

  9. Preparation method of Ni@Pt/C nanocatalyst affects the performance of direct borohydride-hydrogen peroxide fuel cell: Improved power density and increased catalytic oxidation of borohydride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Mir Ghasem; Mahmoodi, Raana

    2017-08-15

    The Ni@Pt/C electrocatalysts were synthesized using two different methods: with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and without SDS. The metal loading in synthesized nanocatalysts was 20wt% and the molar ratio of Ni: Pt was 1:1. The structural characterizations of Ni@Pt/C electrocatalysts were investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). The electrocatalytic activity of Ni@Pt/C electrocatalysts toward BH4(-) oxidation in alkaline medium was studied by means of cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronopotentiometry (CP), chronoamperometry (CA) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results showed that Ni@Pt/C electrocatalyst synthesized without SDS has superior catalytic activity toward borohydride oxidation (22016.92AgPt(-1)) in comparison with a catalyst prepared in the presence of SDS (17766.15AgPt(-1)) in NaBH4 0.1M at 25°C. The Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) used in fuel cell set-up was fabricated with catalyst-coated membrane (CCM) technique. The effect of Ni@Pt/C catalysts prepared with two methods as anode catalyst on the performance of direct borohydride-hydrogen peroxide fuel cell was studied. The maximum power density was obtained using Ni@Pt/C catalyst synthesized without SDS at 60°C, 1M NaBH4 and 2M H2O2 (133.38mWcm(-2)). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A Self-Supported Direct Borohydride-Hydrogen Peroxide Fuel Cell System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok K. Shukla

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A self-supported direct borohydride-hydrogen peroxide fuel cell system with internal manifolds and an auxiliary control unit is reported. The system, while operating under ambient conditions, delivers a peak power of 40 W with about 2 W to run the auxiliary control unit. A critical cause and effect analysis, on the data for single cells and stack, suggests the optimum concentrations of fuel and oxidant to be 8 wt. % NaBH4 and 2 M H2O2, respectively in extending the operating time of the system. Such a fuel cell system is ideally suited for submersible and aerospace applications where anaerobic conditions prevail.

  11. Alkali metal – yttrium borohydrides: The link between coordination of small and large rare-earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadikin, Yolanda [Department of Quantum Matter Physics, Laboratory of Crystallography, University of Geneva, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 24, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Stare, Katarina [Department of Quantum Matter Physics, Laboratory of Crystallography, University of Geneva, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 24, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, University of Ljubljana, Aškerjeva 5, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Schouwink, Pascal [Department of Quantum Matter Physics, Laboratory of Crystallography, University of Geneva, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 24, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Brix Ley, Morten; Jensen, Torben R. [Center for Materials Crystallography (CMC), Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), and Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, Langelandsgade 140, DK-8000 Århus C (Denmark); Meden, Anton [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, University of Ljubljana, Aškerjeva 5, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Černý, Radovan, E-mail: radovan.cerny@unige.ch [Department of Quantum Matter Physics, Laboratory of Crystallography, University of Geneva, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 24, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland)

    2015-05-15

    The system Li–A–Y–BH{sub 4} (A=K, Rb, Cs) is found to contain five new compounds and four further ones known from previous work on the homoleptic borohydrides. Crystal structures have been solved and refined from synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction, thermal stability of new compounds have been investigated and ionic conductivity measured for selected samples. Significant coordination flexibility for Y{sup 3+} is revealed, which allows the formation of both octahedral frameworks and tetrahedral complex anions with the tetrahydroborate anion BH{sub 4} both as a linker and terminal ligand. Bi- and trimetallic cubic double-perovskites c-A{sub 3}Y(BH{sub 4}){sub 6} or c-A{sub 2}LiY(BH{sub 4}){sub 6} (A=Rb, Cs) form in all the investigated systems, with the exception of the Li–K–Y system. The compounds with the stoichiometry AY(BH{sub 4}){sub 4} crystallize in all investigated systems with a great variety of structure types which find their analog amongst metal oxides. In-situ formation of a new borohydride – closo-borane is observed during decomposition of all double perovskites. - Graphical abstract: The system Li–A–Y–BH{sub 4} (A=K, Rb, Cs) is found to contain five novel compounds and four further ones previously reported. Significant coordination flexibility of Y{sup 3+} is revealed, which can be employed to form both octahedral frameworks and tetrahedral complex anions, very different structural topologies. Versatility is also manifested in three different simultaneously occurring coordination modes of borohydrides for one metal cation, as proposed by DFT optimization of the monoclinic KY(BH{sub 4}){sub 4} structural model observed by powder diffraction. - Highlights: • The system Li-A-Y-BH{sub 4} (A=K, Rb, Cs) contains nine compounds in total. • Y{sup 3+} forms octahedral frameworks and tetrahedral complex anions. • Bi- and trimetallic double-perovskites crystallize in most systems. • Various AY(BH{sub 4}){sub 4} crystallize with

  12. Lithium in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaskula, B.W.

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, estimated world lithium consumption was about 28 kt (31,000 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds, an 8 percent increase from that of 2011. Estimated U.S. consumption was about 2 kt (2,200 st) of contained lithium, the same as that of 2011. The United States was thought to rank fourth in consumption of lithium and remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. One company, Rockwood Lithium Inc., produced lithium compounds from domestic brine resources near Silver Peak, NV.

  13. Electrolytic method for the production of lithium using a lithium-amalgam electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F.; Krikorian, Oscar H.; Homsy, Robert V.

    1979-01-01

    A method for recovering lithium from its molten amalgam by electrolysis of the amalgam in an electrolytic cell containing as a molten electrolyte a fused-salt consisting essentially of a mixture of two or more alkali metal halides, preferably alkali metal halides selected from lithium iodide, lithium chloride, potassium iodide and potassium chloride. A particularly suitable molten electrolyte is a fused-salt consisting essentially of a mixture of at least three components obtained by modifying an eutectic mixture of LiI-KI by the addition of a minor amount of one or more alkali metal halides. The lithium-amalgam fused-salt cell may be used in an electrolytic system for recovering lithium from an aqueous solution of a lithium compound, wherein electrolysis of the aqueous solution in an aqueous cell in the presence of a mercury cathode produces a lithium amalgam. The present method is particularly useful for the regeneration of lithium from the aqueous reaction products of a lithium-water-air battery.

  14. Spectroscopic study of surface enhanced Raman scattering of caffeine on borohydride-reduced silver colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaomin; Gu, Huaimin; Shen, Gaoshan; Dong, Xiao; Kang, Jian

    2010-06-01

    The surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of caffeine on borohydride-reduced silver colloids system under different aqueous solution environment has been studied in this paper. The relative intensity of SERS of caffeine significantly varies with different concentrations of sodium chloride and silver particles. However, at too high or too low concentration of sodium chloride and silver particle, the enhancement of SERS spectra is not evident. The SERS spectra of caffeine suggest that the contribution of the charge transfer mechanism to SERS may be dominant. The chloride ions can significantly enhance the efficiency of SERS, while the enhancement is selective, as the efficiency in charge transfer enhancement is higher than in electromagnetic enhancement. Therefore, it can be concluded that the active site of chloride ion locates on the bond between the caffeine and the silver surface. In addition, the SERS spectra of caffeine on borohydride-reduced and citrate-reduced silver colloids are different, which may be due to different states caffeine adsorbed on silver surface under different silver colloids.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of Pa(IV), Np(IV), and Pu(IV) borohydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, R.H.; Edelstein, N.M.

    1979-12-01

    The actinide borohydrides of Pa, Np, and Pu have been prepared and some of their physical and optical properties measured. X-ray powder diffraction photographs of Pa(BH/sub 4/)/sub 4/ have shown that it is isostructural to Th(BH/sub 4/)/sub 4/ and U(BH/sub 4/)/sub 4/. Np(BH/sub 4/)/sub 4/ and Pu(BH/sub 4/)/sub 4/ are much more volatile than the borohydrides of Th, Pa, and U and are liquids at room temperature. Results from low-temperature single-crystal x-ray diffraction investigation of Np(BH/sub 4/)/sub 4/ show that its structure is very similar to Zr(BH/sub 4/)/sub 4/. With the data from low-temperature infrared and Raman spectra, a normal coordinate analysis on Np(BH/sub 4/)/sub 4/ and Np(BD/sub 4/)/sub 4/ has been completed. EPR experiments on Np(BH/sub 4/)/sub 4//Zr(BH/sub 4/)/sub 4/ and Np(BD/sub 4/)/sub 4//Zr(BD/sub 4/)/sub 4/ have characterized the ground electronic state. 5 figures.

  16. Poly (vinyl alcohol) hydrogel membrane as electrolyte for direct borohydride fuel cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N A Choudhury; S K Prashant; S Pitchumani; P Sridhar; A K Shukla

    2009-09-01

    A direct borohydride fuel cell (DBFC) employing a poly (vinyl alcohol) hydrogel membrane electrolyte (PHME) is reported. The DBFC employs an AB5 Misch metal alloy as anode and a goldplated stainless steel mesh as cathode in conjunction with aqueous alkaline solution of sodium borohydride as fuel and aqueous acidified solution of hydrogen peroxide as oxidant. Room temperature performances of the PHME-based DBFC in respect of peak power outputs; ex-situ cross-over of oxidant, fuel, anolyte and catholyte across the membrane electrolytes; utilization efficiencies of fuel and oxidant, as also cell performance durability are compared with a similar DBFC employing a Nafion®-117 membrane electrolyte (NME). Peak power densities of ∼30 and ∼40 mW cm-2 are observed for the DBFCs with PHME and NME, respectively. The crossover of NaBH4 across both the membranes has been found to be very low. The utilization efficiencies of NaBH4 and H2O2 are found to be ∼24 and ∼59%, respectively for the PHME-based DBFC; ∼18 and ∼62%, respectively for the NME-based DBFC. The PHME and NME-based DBFCs exhibit operational cell potentials of ∼ 1.2 and ∼ 1.4 V, respectively at a load current density of 10 mA cm-2 for ∼100 h.

  17. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Co-Ru Alloy Particle Catalysts for Hydrogen Generation from Sodium Borohydride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Kurtinaitienė

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the synthesis of μm and sub-μm-sized Co, Ru, and Co-Ru alloy species by hydrothermal approach in the aqueous alkaline solutions (pH ≥ 13 containing CoCl2 and/or RuCl3, sodium citrate, and hydrazine hydrate and a study of their catalytic properties for hydrogen generation by hydrolysis of sodium borohydride solution. This way provides a simple platform for fabrication of the ball-shaped Co-Ru alloy catalysts containing up to 12 wt% Ru. Note that bimetallic Co-Ru alloy bowls containing even 7 at.% Ru have demonstrated catalytic properties that are comparable with the ones of pure Ru particles fabricated by the same method. This result is of great importance in view of the preparation of cost-efficient catalysts for hydrogen generation from borohydrides. The morphology and composition of fabricated catalyst particles have been characterized using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray diffraction, and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry.

  18. A new family of metal borohydride guanidinate complexes: Synthesis, structures and hydrogen-storage properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hui; Zhou, Xiuquan; Rodriguez, Efrain E.; Zhou, Wei; Udovic, Terrence J.; Yildirim, Taner; Rush, John J.

    2016-10-01

    We report on a new class of complex hydrides: borohydride guanidinate complexes (MBH4·nCN3H5, M=Li, Mg, and Ca). They can be prepared via facile solid-state synthesis routes. Their crystal structures were successfully determined using a combination of X-ray diffraction, first-principles calculations and neutron vibrational spectroscopy. Among these compounds, Mg(BH4)2·6CN3H5 is composed of large complex Mg[CN3H5]62+ cations and surrounding BH4- ions, while Ca(BH4)2·2CN3H5 possesses layers of corner-sharing Ca[BH4]4(CN3H5)2 octahedra. Our dehydrogenation results show that ≈10 wt% hydrogen can be released from MBH4·nCN3H5 (M=Li, Mg, and Ca) at moderate temperatures with minimal ammonia and diborane contamination thanks to the synergistic effect of C-N bonds from guanidine and hydridic H from borohydrides leading to a weakening of the N-H bonds, thus impeding ammonia gas liberation. Further tuning the dehydrogenation with different cation species indicates that Mg(BH4)2·nCN3H5 can exhibit the optimum properties with nearly thermally neutral dehydrogenation and very high purity hydrogen release.

  19. Description of tritium release from lithium titanate at constant temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, L.; Lagos, S.; Jimenez, J.; Saravia, E. [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile)

    1998-03-01

    Lithium Titanate Ceramics have been prepared by the solid-state route, pebbles and pellets were fabricated by extrusion and their microstructure was characterized in our laboratories. The ceramic material was irradiated in the La Reina Reactor, RECH-1. A study of post-irradiation annealing test, was performed measuring Tritium release from the Lithium Titanate at constant temperature. The Bertone`s method modified by R. Verrall is used to determine the parameters of Tritium release from Lithium Titanate. (author)

  20. Composite lithium metal anode by melt infusion of lithium into a 3D conducting scaffold with lithiophilic coating

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Zheng; Lin, Dingchang; Zhao, Jie; Lu, Zhenda; Liu, Yayuan; Liu, Chong; Lu, Yingying; Wang, Haotian; Yan, Kai; Tao, Xinyong; Cui, Yi

    2016-01-01

    This research paper presents a novel strategy for the fabrication of metal–scaffold composite materials. Particularly, molten lithium metal is infused into a surface-modified three-dimensional matrix with a “lithiophilic” coating. The resulting lithium–scaffold composite was used as battery anodes and exhibited superior performance compared with bare lithium metal anodes. Whereas the emphasis of this study is on lithium anodes, our present work opens up a direction for realization of other me...

  1. Synthesis of surface modified LiFePO{sub 4} cathode material via polyol technique for high rate lithium secondary battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivakumar, M., E-mail: susiva73@yahoo.co.in; Muruganantham, R.; Subadevi, R.

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • NiO coating on LiFePO{sub 4} via polyol technique may be the first attempt. • Surface coating using NiO on LiFePO{sub 4} did not affect its orthorhombic olivine structure. • Surface modification using NiO on LiFePO{sub 4} delivers the discharge capacity of 164 mAh g{sup −1} at 0.1 C rate. - Abstract: The NiO-coated LiFePO{sub 4} composite cathode materials were prepared by simple tailored polyol technique, which has orthorhombic olivine structure without NiO phase. It delivers the reverse capacity of 164 mAh g{sup −1} at 0.1 C at ambient temperature. The material exhibits stable reverse capacity for several cycles even for the higher C-rates. Increasing the rate, the reverse capacity is almost stable over several cycles. Furthermore, at a high rate viz., 10, 20 and 30 C, the discharge capacity has been observed for the optimized NiO-coated LFP as 135, 120 and 69 mAh g{sup −1}, which demonstrates the excellent rate performance that can be useful for high power lithium secondary battery.

  2. Lithium-associated hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siyam, Fadi F; Deshmukh, Sanaa; Garcia-Touza, Mariana

    2013-08-01

    Goiters and hypothyroidism are well-known patient complications of the use of lithium for treatment of bipolar disease. However, the occurrence of lithium-induced hyperthyroidism is a more rare event. Many times, the condition can be confused with a flare of mania. Monitoring through serial biochemical measurement of thyroid function is critical in patients taking lithium. Hyperthyroidism induced by lithium is a condition that generally can be controlled medically without the patient having to discontinue lithium therapy, although in some circumstances, discontinuation of lithium therapy may be indicated. We report on a patient case of lithium-associated hyperthyroidism that resolved after discontinuation of the medication.

  3. Reductive amination of aldehydes and ketones using sodium borohydride in the presence of silica chloride under solvent-free conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heshmatollah; Alinezhad; Mahmood; Tajbakhsh; Neda; Hamidi

    2010-01-01

    A simple and convenient procedure for the preparation of amines from aldehydes and ketones with sodium borohydride activated by silica chloride as a catalyst under solvent-free conditions is described.A variety of aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes,ketones and amines when mixed with NaBH_4/silica chloride at room temperature,afforded excellent yield of the corresponding amines.

  4. Solid-state Asymmetric Reduction of (S)-1, l'-Bi-2-naphtholAcetylferrocene Molecular Compound with Sodium Borohydride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG, Ji-Ben; DU, Hai-Feng; DING, Kui-Ling

    2001-01-01

    A novel molecular crystal formed between enanteopure 1,l'bi-2-naphthoi and acetylferrocene has been prepared andcharacterized in this communication. The examination on itsreducton with soditma borohydride showed that the asymnetric inducton was observed in the solid state but not in the solution phase. The asymmetric induction in the solid-state reaction may be attributed to the chiral microenviromnent ofmolecular crystal.

  5. Density functional theory based screening of ternary alkali-transition metal borohydrides: A computational material design project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hummelshøj, Jens Strabo; Landis, David; Voss, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    We present a computational screening study of ternary metal borohydrides for reversible hydrogen storage based on density functional theory. We investigate the stability and decomposition of alloys containing 1 alkali metal atom, Li, Na, or K (M1); and 1 alkali, alkaline earth or 3d/4d transition...

  6. Al3Li4(BH4)13: a complex double-cation borohydride with a new structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, Inge; Domènech Ferrer, Roger; Dunsch, Lothar; Filinchuk, Yaroslav; Cerný, Radovan; Hagemann, Hans; D'Anna, Vincenza; Lawson Daku, Latévi Max; Schultz, Ludwig; Gutfleisch, Oliver

    2010-08-02

    The new double-cation Al-Li-borohydride is an attractive candidate material for hydrogen storage due to a very low hydrogen desorption temperature (approximately 70 degrees C) combined with a high hydrogen density (17.2 wt%). It was synthesised by high-energy ball milling of AlCl(3) and LiBH(4). The structure of the compound was determined from image-plate synchrotron powder diffraction supported by DFT calculations. The material shows a unique 3D framework structure within the borohydrides (space group=P-43n, a=11.3640(3) A). The unexpected composition Al(3)Li(4)(BH(4))(13) can be rationalized on the basis of a complex cation [(BH(4))Li(4)](3+) and a complex anion [Al(BH(4))(4)](-). The refinements from synchrotron powder diffraction of different samples revealed the presence of limited amounts of chloride ions replacing the borohydride on one site. In situ Raman spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry (TG) and thermal desorption measurements were used to study the decomposition pathway of the compound. Al-Li-borohydride decomposes at approximately 70 degrees C, forming LiBH(4). The high mass loss of about 20 % during the decomposition indicates the release of not only hydrogen but also diborane.

  7. 硼氢化钾分析方法改进%Improvement on analytical method for potassium borohydride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨裴; 范国强; 白莹; 郭永欣; 厉文豪

    2012-01-01

    There are disadvantages for the use of the orignial chemical industry standard (HG/T 3584?999 Potassium Borohydride ) to determine the content of potassium borohydride, such as: 1 )The addition of potassium iodide reagent (5 g) is too much resulting in wasting;2 )The sampling weight of potassium borohydride ig 0.2 g,accurately up to 0.000 2 g,but the determined content of potassium borohydride will be decreased when the sampling weight is larger.In allusion to above problems,the original potassium borohydride determination method(HG/T 3584?999 Potassium Borohydride)was improved: 1 )The potassium iodide addition ig reduced to 2.5 g from 5 g so as to save the reagent consumption;2)According to the potassium borohydride's deoxidization characteristics, the sampling weight is limited within a specific range.Experiment results were satisfied.%采用原化工行业标准(HG/T 3584-1999《硼氢化钾》)测定硼氢化钾主含量时存在以下弊端:1)碘化钾试剂加入量过多(5 g),浪费试剂;2)硼氢化钾称样量为0.2 g,精确到0.0002g,但当称样量较大时,测定的硼氢化钾含量会降低.针对以上问题,对原硼氢化钾测定方法(HG/T 3584- 1999《硼氢化钾》)进行了改进:1)将碘化钾加入量由5 g减少到2.5 g,节省了碘化钾试剂用量;2)根据硼氢化钾的还原特性,将硼氢化钾的称样量限制在特定范围.实验结果令人满意.

  8. Composite Gel Polymer Electrolyte Based on Poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) with Modified Aluminum-Doped Lithium Lanthanum Titanate (A-LLTO) for High-Performance Lithium Rechargeable Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Hang T T; Ngo, Duc Tung; Kalubarme, Ramchandra S; Cao, Guozhong; Park, Choong-Nyeon; Park, Chan-Jin

    2016-08-17

    A composite gel polymer electrolyte (CGPE) based on poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) polymer that includes Al-doped Li0.33La0.56TiO3 (A-LLTO) particles covered with a modified SiO2 (m-SiO2) layer was fabricated through a simple solution-casting method followed by activation in a liquid electrolyte. The obtained CGPE possessed high ionic conductivity, a large electrochemical stability window, and interfacial stability-all superior to that of the pure gel polymer electrolyte (GPE). In addition, under a highly polarized condition, the CGPE effectively suppressed the growth of Li dendrites due to the improved hardness of the GPE by the addition of inorganic A-LLTO/m-SiO2 particles. Accordingly, the Li-ion polymer and Li-O2 cells employing the CGPE exhibited remarkably improved cyclability compared to cells without CGPE. In particular, the CGPE as a protection layer for the Li metal electrode in a Li-O2 cell was effective in blocking the contamination of the Li electrode by oxygen gas or impurities diffused from the cathode side while suppressing the Li dendrites.

  9. Synthesis of the lithium metatitanate, Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}, by the modified combustion method; Sintesis del metatitanato de litio, Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}, por el metodo modificado de combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, D.; Bulbulian, S. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Pfeiffer, H. [IIM-UNAM, A.P. 70-360, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: sb@nuclear.inin.mx

    2005-07-01

    A modified combustion method to obtain Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} it was used, a compound to be used in fusion reactors like tritium generator material. To obtain Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} were proven different molar ratios of lithium hydroxide (LiOH), titanium oxide (TiO{sub 2}) and urea (CO(NH{sub 2}){sub 2}), as well as different heating temperatures (550, 650 and 750 C). The characterization of the products it was carried out using X-ray diffraction, Scanning electron microscopy and Thermal gravimetric analysis. The sample prepared with a molar ratio Li: Ti: urea = 2.75: 1: 3 was the one that presented as only product the Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}. The particle size and the morphology found in the Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}, showed similar particle size and morphology to the TiO{sub 2} used as precursor. (Author)

  10. Magnesium Ethylenediamine Borohydride as Solid-State Electrolyte for Magnesium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roedern, Elsa; Kühnel, Ruben-Simon; Remhof, Arndt; Battaglia, Corsin

    2017-01-01

    Solid-state magnesium ion conductors with exceptionally high ionic conductivity at low temperatures, 5 × 10−8 Scm−1 at 30 °C and 6 × 10−5 Scm−1 at 70 °C, are prepared by mechanochemical reaction of magnesium borohydride and ethylenediamine. The coordination complexes are crystalline, support cycling in a potential window of 1.2 V, and allow magnesium plating/stripping. While the electrochemical stability, limited by the ethylenediamine ligand, must be improved to reach competitive energy densities, our results demonstrate that partially chelated Mg2+ complexes represent a promising platform for the development of an all-solid-state magnesium battery. PMID:28387305

  11. A cobalt polypyrrole composite catalyzed cathode for the direct borohydride fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, H. Y.; Liu, Z. X.; Yin, W. X.; Zhu, J. K.; Li, Z. P.

    A cobalt polypyrrole carbon (Co-PPY-C) composite has been attempted for use as a cathode catalyst in a direct borohydride fuel cell (DBFC). A Co-PPY-C composite has been fabricated in laboratory and characterized by the field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, as well as X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. Fabricated Co-PPY-C catalyst demonstrates good short-term durability and activity which are comparable to those obtained from the Pt/C catalyst. A maximum power density of 65 mW cm -2 has been achieved at ambient conditions. This research concludes that metallo-organic coordination compounds would be potential candidates for use as cathode catalysts in the DBFC.

  12. Synthesis, Structure, and Reactivity of Co(II) and Ni(II) PCP Pincer Borohydride Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugesan, Sathiyamoorthy; Stöger, Berthold; Weil, Matthias; Veiros, Luis F; Kirchner, Karl

    2015-04-13

    The 15e square-planar complexes [Co(PCP(Me)-iPr)Cl] (2a) and [Co(PCP-tBu)Cl] (2b), respectively, react readily with NaBH4 to afford complexes [Co(PCP(Me)-iPr)(η(2)-BH4)] (4a) and [Co(PCP-tBu)(η(2)-BH4)] (4b) in high yields, as confirmed by IR spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography, and elemental analysis. The borohydride ligand is symmetrically bound to the cobalt center in η(2)-fashion. These compounds are paramagnetic with effective magnetic moments of 2.0(1) and 2.1(1) μB consistent with a d(7) low-spin system corresponding to one unpaired electron. None of these complexes reacted with CO2 to give formate complexes. For structural and reactivity comparisons, we prepared the analogous Ni(II) borohydride complex [Ni(PCP(Me)-iPr)(η(2)-BH4)] (5) via two different synthetic routes. One utilizes [Ni(PCP(Me)-iPr)Cl] (3) and NaBH4, the second one makes use of the hydride complex [Ni(PCP(Me)-iPr)H] (6) and BH3·THF. In both cases, 5 is obtained in high yields. In contrast to 4a and 4b, the borohydride ligand is asymmetrically bound to the nickel center but still in an η(2)-mode. [Ni(PCP(Me)-iPr)(η(2)-BH4)] (5) loses readily BH3 at elevated temperatures in the presence of NEt3 to form 6. Complexes 5 and 6 are both diamagnetic and were characterized by a combination of (1)H, (13)C{(1)H}, and (31)P{(1)H} NMR, IR spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. Additionally, the structure of these compounds was established by X-ray crystallography. Complexes 5 and 6 react with CO2 to give the formate complex [Ni(PCP(Me)-iPr)(OC(C=O)H] (7). The extrusion of BH3 from [Co(PCP(Me)-iPr)(η(2)-BH4)] (4a) and [Ni(PCP(Me)-iPr)(η(2)-BH4)] (5) with the aid of NH3 to yield the respective hydride complexes [Co(PCP(Me)-iPr)H] and [Ni(PCP(Me)-iPr)H] (6) and BH3NH3 was investigated by DFT calculations showing that formation of the Ni hydride is thermodynamically favorable, whereas the formation of the Co(II) hydride, in agreement with the experiment, is unfavorable. The electronic structures and

  13. Preparation and application of sodium borohydride composites for portable hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300160 (China); Department of Environmental Engineering and Biotechnology, Myongji University, Yongin, Kyonggi-Do 449728 (Korea); Kim, H. [Department of Environmental Engineering and Biotechnology, Myongji University, Yongin, Kyonggi-Do 449728 (Korea)

    2010-02-15

    Novel composites consisting of cobalt-boron (CoB) catalyst and sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}) implantation in polymers (polyethylene glycol (PEG) or sodium alginate) were prepared for portable hydrogen production. The CoB catalyst was synthesized by the reduction of cobalt salt in NaBH{sub 4} solution followed by heat treatment in nitrogen atmosphere. The catalyst was embedded in PEG gel or alginate beads and NaBH{sub 4} was directly added in PEG-dimethylformamide (DMF) gel and adsorbed in alginate beads. It is noted that the composites prepared are stable in dry air and can be easily used for hydrogen production. A rate of hydrogen production of 750 ml min{sup -1} g{sup -1} was reached when simply putting the composites into pure water. The humidified pure hydrogen can be used conveniently for fuel cells. (author)

  14. Synthesis, Structure, and Reactivity of Co(II) and Ni(II) PCP Pincer Borohydride Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The 15e square-planar complexes [Co(PCPMe-iPr)Cl] (2a) and [Co(PCP-tBu)Cl] (2b), respectively, react readily with NaBH4 to afford complexes [Co(PCPMe-iPr)(η2-BH4)] (4a) and [Co(PCP-tBu)(η2-BH4)] (4b) in high yields, as confirmed by IR spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography, and elemental analysis. The borohydride ligand is symmetrically bound to the cobalt center in η2-fashion. These compounds are paramagnetic with effective magnetic moments of 2.0(1) and 2.1(1) μB consistent with a d7 low-spin system corresponding to one unpaired electron. None of these complexes reacted with CO2 to give formate complexes. For structural and reactivity comparisons, we prepared the analogous Ni(II) borohydride complex [Ni(PCPMe-iPr)(η2-BH4)] (5) via two different synthetic routes. One utilizes [Ni(PCPMe-iPr)Cl] (3) and NaBH4, the second one makes use of the hydride complex [Ni(PCPMe-iPr)H] (6) and BH3·THF. In both cases, 5 is obtained in high yields. In contrast to 4a and 4b, the borohydride ligand is asymmetrically bound to the nickel center but still in an η2-mode. [Ni(PCPMe-iPr)(η2-BH4)] (5) loses readily BH3 at elevated temperatures in the presence of NEt3 to form 6. Complexes 5 and 6 are both diamagnetic and were characterized by a combination of 1H, 13C{1H}, and 31P{1H} NMR, IR spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. Additionally, the structure of these compounds was established by X-ray crystallography. Complexes 5 and 6 react with CO2 to give the formate complex [Ni(PCPMe-iPr)(OC(C=O)H] (7). The extrusion of BH3 from [Co(PCPMe-iPr)(η2-BH4)] (4a) and [Ni(PCPMe-iPr)(η2-BH4)] (5) with the aid of NH3 to yield the respective hydride complexes [Co(PCPMe-iPr)H] and [Ni(PCPMe-iPr)H] (6) and BH3NH3 was investigated by DFT calculations showing that formation of the Ni hydride is thermodynamically favorable, whereas the formation of the Co(II) hydride, in agreement with the experiment, is unfavorable. The electronic structures and the bonding of the borohydride ligand in [Co

  15. Hydrogen generation and storage from hydrolysis of sodium borohydride in batch reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, A.M.F.R.; Falcao, D.S. [Departamento de Eng. Quimica, Centro de Estudos de Fenomenos de Transporte, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Silva, R.A.; Rangel, C.M. [Instituto Nacional de Engenharia e Tecnologia e Inovacao, Paco do Lumiar 22, 1649-038 (Portugal)

    2006-08-15

    The catalytic hydrolysis of alkaline sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}) solution was studied using a non-noble; nickel-based powered catalyst exhibiting strong activity even after long time storage. This easy-to-prepare catalyst showed an enhanced activity after being recovered from previous use. The effects of temperature, NaBH{sub 4} concentration, NaOH concentration and pressure on the hydrogen generation rate were investigated. Particular importance has the effect of pressure, since the maximum reached pressure of hydrogen is always substantially lower than predictions (considering 100% conversion) due to solubility effects. The solubility of hydrogen is greatly enhanced by the rising pressure during reaction, leading to storage of hydrogen in the liquid phase. This effect can induce new ways of using this type of catalyst and reactor for the construction of hydrogen generators and even containers for portable and in situ applications. (author)

  16. Lithium Circuit Test Section Design and Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfroy, Thomas; Garber, Anne; Martin, James

    2006-01-01

    The Early Flight Fission - Test Facilities (EFF-TF) team has designed and built an actively pumped lithium flow circuit. Modifications were made to a circuit originally designed for NaK to enable the use of lithium that included application specific instrumentation and hardware. Component scale freeze/thaw tests were conducted to both gain experience with handling and behavior of lithium in solid and liquid form and to supply anchor data for a Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) model that was modified to include the physics for freeze/thaw transitions. Void formation was investigated. The basic circuit components include: reactor segment, lithium to gas heat exchanger, electromagnetic (EM) liquid metal pump, load/drain reservoir, expansion reservoir, instrumentation, and trace heaters. This paper discusses the overall system design and build and the component testing findings.

  17. COMPARISON OF SODIUM AND POTASSIUM CARBONATES AS LITHIUM ZIRCONATE MODIFIERS FOR HIGH-TEMPERATURE CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM BIOMASS-DERIVED SYNTHESIS GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olstad, J.L.; Phillips, S.D.

    2009-01-01

    The process of gasifi cation converts biomass into synthesis gas (syngas), which can be used to produce biofuels. Solid-phase sorbents were investigated for the removal of CO2 from a N2/CO2 gas stream using a CO2 concentration similar to that found in a biomass gasifi cation process. During the gasifying process, large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) are created along with the syngas. The produced CO2 must be removed before the syngas can be used for fuel synthesis and to avoid the possible formation of unwanted byproducts. A thermogravimetric analyzer was used to test the CO2 absorption rates of sorbents composed of lithium zirconate (Li2ZrO3), as well as mixtures of Li2ZrO3 with potassium carbonate (K2CO3) and sodium carbonate (Na2CO3). The experimental results show that Li2ZrO3 has a low absorption rate, but sorbents containing combinations of Li2ZrO3 and the K2CO3 and Na2CO3 additives have high uptake rates. Using different proportions of K2CO3 and Na2CO3 produces varying uptake rates, so an optimization experiment was performed to obtain an improved sorbent. The CO2 absorption and regeneration stability of the solid-phase sorbents were also examined. A sorbent composed of Li2ZrO3 and 12.1 weight % Na2CO3 was shown to be stable, based on the consistent CO2 uptake rates. Sorbents prepared with Li2ZrO3, 17.6 weight % K2CO3 and 18.1 weight % Na2CO3 showed instability during regeneration cycles in air at 800 °C. Sorbent stability improved during regeneration cycles at 700 °C. Further testing of the Li2ZrO3 sorbent under actual syngas conditions, including higher pressure and composition, should be done. Once the optimum sorbent has been found, a suitable support will be needed to use the sorbent in an actual reactor.

  18. Surface modified microporous membrane as the separator of lithium ion batteries%聚烯烃型隔膜的表面亲液改性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨振萍; 吴月浩; 边清泉

    2013-01-01

    Modified polyolefin microporous membrane was prepared as the separator for Li-ion batteries by surface radiation coating of methoxy poly (ethylene oxide) acrylate ester.The modified membrane can be well wetted by liquid electrolyte.The ion conductivity of the membrane is easily achieved by absorbing the liquid electrolyte due to the high amphoteric character surface.With the modified membrane as a separator,the graphite/cathode cell exhibited a good capacity retention.It is also found that the Li-ion cell fabricated in this manner not only has stable capacity retention,but also show good high-rate performance.%为提高锂离子电池聚烯烃多孔膜的亲电液性,增加其离子导电性能,采用辐射聚合甲氧基聚氧化乙烯丙烯酸酯对聚烯烃隔膜进行表面改性.改性后的隔膜对高极性电解液具有良好的湿润性.由于对电解液更高的吸附作用,通过吸附更多的液态电解液,使膜更易传导锂离子.改性膜作为隔膜制备的碳/正极材料锂离子电池不仅具有优良的容量保持性,也具有良好的倍率放电性能.

  19. Synthesis and Electrochemical Studies on LiCoVO_4 Surface Modified with La_2O_3 for Lithium-ion Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    George; Ting-Kuo; FEY; P.Muralidharan; Yung-da; CHO

    2007-01-01

    1 Results An inverse spinel LiCoVO4 cathode material was synthesized by a citric acid-urea polymeric method, calcined at 773 K for 5 h. The synthesized LiCoVO4 sample was surface modified with various wt.% of La2O3 by a polymeric process, calcined at 873 K for 2 h. The samples were characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM, and TEM techniques. XRD patterns exposed that single-phase crystallinity occurred when they were heated at 773 K for 5 h in air. For the La2O3 coated samples, there was no evident signal corre...

  20. PEDOT modified LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 with enhanced electrochemical performance for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xizheng; Li, Huiqiao; Li, De; Ishida, Masayoshi; Zhou, Haoshen

    2013-12-01

    Layered LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 was modified by poly(3,4-dioxyethylenethiophene) PEDOT via a facile method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and infrared spectroscopy (IR). PEDOT modified samples exhibited both improved rate and cycle performance compared with the pristine LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2. At a charge/discharge current of 1500 mA g-1, the discharge capacity was improved from 44.3 to 73.9 mAh g-1. The sample with 2 wt% and heat treated at 300 °C showed the optimized electrochemical performance. Galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) results indicated that the battery polarization of coated samples have been suppressed obviously because the PEDOT layer facilitated the electron transfer at the interface of electrode and electrolyte.

  1. 3D amorphous carbon and graphene co-modified LiFePO4 composite derived from polyol process as electrode for high power lithium-ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guan Wu; Ran Ran; Bote Zhao; Yujing Sha; Chao Su; Yingke Zhou; Zongping Shao

    2014-01-01

    Amorphous carbon and graphene co-modified LiFePO4 nanocomposite has been synthesized via a facile polyol process in connection with a following thermal treatment. Various characterization techniques, including XRD, M ¨ossbauer spectra, Raman spectra, SEM, TEM, BET, O2-TPO, galvano charge-discharge, CV and EIS were applied to investigate the phase composition, carbon content, morphological structure and electrochemical performance of the synthesized samples. The effect of introducing way of carbon sources on the properties and performance of LiFePO4/C/graphene composite was paid special attention. Under optimized synthetic conditions, highly crystalized olivine-type LiFePO4 was successfully obtained with electron conductive Fe2P and FeP as the main impurity phases. SEM and TEM analyses demonstrated the graphene sheets were randomly distributed inside the sample to create an open structured LiFePO4 with respect to graphene, while the glucose-derived carbon mainly coated over LiFePO4 particles which effectively connected the graphene sheets and LiFePO4 particles to result in a more efficient charge transfer process. As a result, favorable electrochemical performance was achieved. The performance of the amorphous carbon-graphene co-modified LiFePO4 was further progressively improved upon cycling in the first 200 cycles to reach a reversible specific capacity as high as 97 mAh·g-1 at 10 C rate.

  2. Lithium and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... best live chat Live Help Fact Sheets Share Lithium and Pregnancy Saturday, 20 September 2014 In every ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to lithium may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  3. Enhanced electrochemical performance of multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified Li{sub 2}FeSiO{sub 4}/C cathode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Gang [College of Mechanical and Material Engineering, Three Gorges University, 8 Daxue Road, Yichang 443002 (China); Zhang, Lu-Lu, E-mail: luluzhang924@gmail.com [College of Mechanical and Material Engineering, Three Gorges University, 8 Daxue Road, Yichang 443002 (China); Yang, Xue-Lin, E-mail: xlyang@ctgu.edu.cn [College of Mechanical and Material Engineering, Three Gorges University, 8 Daxue Road, Yichang 443002 (China); Duan, Song [College of Mechanical and Material Engineering, Three Gorges University, 8 Daxue Road, Yichang 443002 (China); Liang, Gan [Department of Physics, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, TX 77341 (United States); Huang, Yun-Hui [State Key Laboratory of Materials Processing and Die and Mould Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)

    2013-09-05

    Graphical abstract: The multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) modified Li{sub 2}FeSiO{sub 4}/C composite is synthesized via a citric acid-based sol–gel method. The as-prepared Li{sub 2}FeSiO{sub 4}/C/MWCNTs electrode displays a remarkably enhanced high-rate performance and cycling stability because of the effective conducting network between the MWCNTs and the Li{sub 2}FeSiO{sub 4}/C particles. Highlights: •Nano-Li{sub 2}FeSiO{sub 4}/C/MWCNTs composite was successfully synthesized via a citric acid-based sol–gel method. •High conducting network were attained for Li{sub 2}FeSiO{sub 4}/C/MWCNTs. •The Li{sub 2}FeSiO{sub 4}/C/MWCNTs electrode can extract more than 1 mol Li{sup +} at 0.1 C. •The as-prepared Li{sub 2}FeSiO{sub 4}/C/MWCNTs electrode displays a remarkably enhanced high-rate performance and cycling stability. -- Abstract: The multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) modified Li{sub 2}FeSiO{sub 4}/C composite is synthesized via a citric acid-based sol–gel method, and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, galvanostatic charge/discharge measurements, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) tests. The Li{sup +} diffusion coefficient in Li{sub 2}FeSiO{sub 4}/C/MWCNTs is larger than that in Li{sub 2}FeSiO{sub 4}/C. Compared with Li{sub 2}FeSiO{sub 4}/C, Li{sub 2}FeSiO{sub 4}/C/MWCNTs electrode can extract more than 1 mol Li{sup +} and exhibit better electrochemical performance with a high discharge capacity of 206.8 mA h g{sup −1} in the second cycle, especially, an excellent high-rate capacity and cycle stability. The enhanced electrochemical performance is attributed to the reduced particle size and the high conducting network between the MWCNTs and the Li{sub 2}FeSiO{sub 4}/C particles.

  4. Lithium batteries; Les accumulateurs au lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This workshop on lithium batteries is divided into 4 sections dealing with: the design and safety aspects, the cycling, the lithium intercalation and its modeling, and the electrolytes. These 4 sections represent 19 papers and are completed by a poster session which corresponds to 17 additional papers. (J.S.)

  5. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Kim, Jeom-Soo; Johnson, Christopher S.

    2008-01-01

    An uncycled electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula Li.sub.(2+2x)/(2+x)M'.sub.2x/(2+x)M.sub.(2-2x)/(2+x)O.sub.2-.delta., in which 0.ltoreq.xbatteries containing the electrodes.

  6. Performance study of direct borohydride fuel cells employing polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel membrane and nickel-based anode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, J.; Choudhury, N.A.; Sahai, Y.; Buchheit, R.G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    A direct borohydride fuel cell (DBFC) employing a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel membrane and a nickel-based composite anode is reported. Carbon-supported platinum and sputtered gold have been employed as cathode catalysts. Oxygen, air and acidified hydrogen peroxide have been used as oxidants in the DBFC. Performance of the PVA hydrogel membrane-based DBFC was tested at different temperatures and compared with similar DBFCs employing Nafion registered membrane electrolytes under identical conditions. The borohydride-oxygen fuel cell employing PVA hydrogel membrane yielded a maximum peak power density of 242 mW cm{sup -2} at 60 C. The peak power densities of the PVA hydrogel membrane-based DBFCs were comparable or a little higher than those using Nafion registered 212 membranes at 60 C. The fuel efficiency of borohydride-oxygen fuel cell based on PVA hydrogel membrane and Ni-based composite anode was found to be between 32 and 41%. The cell was operated for more than 100 h and its performance stability was recorded. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Probing molecular dynamics of metal borohydrides on the surface of mesoporous scaffolds by multinuclear high resolution solid state NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Son-Jong, E-mail: Sonjong@cheme.caltech.edu [Division of Chemistry and Chemical Eng., California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Lee, Hyun-Sook [High Temperature Energy Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); To, Magnus [Division of Chemistry and Chemical Eng., California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Lee, Young-Su; Cho, Young Whan [High Temperature Energy Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hyungkeun; Kim, Chul [Department of Chemistry, Hannam University, Daejeon 305-811 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-05

    Graphical abstract: In situ variable temperature multinuclear solid state NMR allows to probe surface wetting, diffusivity, and confinement of metal borohydrides into nanopores. - Abstract: Understanding of surface interactions between borohydride molecules and the surfaces of porous supports have gained growing attention for successful development of nano-confinement engineering. By use of in situ variable temperature (VT) magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR, molecular mobility changes of LiBH{sub 4} crystalline solid has been investigated in the presence of silica based and carbonaceous surfaces. Spin–spin J-coupling of {sup 1}H–{sup 11}B in LiBH{sub 4} was monitored in series of VT NMR spectra to probe translational mobility of LiBH{sub 4} that appeared to be greatly enhanced upon surface contact. Such enhanced diffusivity was found to be effective in the formation of solid solution and co-confinement with other metal borohydrides. Co-confinement of LiBH{sub 4}–Ca(BH{sub 4}){sub 2} mixture was demonstrated at temperature as low as 100 °C, much lower than the reported bulk eutectic melting temperature. The discovery adds a novel property of LiBH{sub 4} that has been proven to be highly versatile in many energy related applications.

  8. First-principles study of a double-cation alkali metal borohydride LiK(BH{sub 4}){sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao Xiaobing; Yu Weiyang; Tang Biyu [Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials and Application Technology of the Ministry of Education, Department of Physics, Xiangtan University, Hunan Province, 411105 (China)], E-mail: tangbiyu@gxu.edu.cn

    2008-11-05

    Metal borohydrides have been attracting great interest as potential candidates for use as advanced hydrogen storage materials because of their high gravimetric hydrogen densities. In the present study, first-principles calculations have been performed for the newly reported dual-cation alkali metal borohydride LiK(BH{sub 4}){sub 2}, using density functional theory (DFT) within the generalized gradient approximation and the projected augmented wave method. LiK(BH{sub 4}){sub 2} is found to have an orthorhombic structure in the space group Pnma (No 62) with nearly ideal tetrahedral shape. It is an insulating material having a DFT-calculated wide band gap of 6.08 eV. Analysis of the electronic structure shows an ionic interaction between metal cations and (BH{sub 4}){sup -} and the covalent B-H interaction within the (BH{sub 4}){sup -} tetrahedron. The enthalpy of the formation reaction from primary elements is calculated and found to be -449.8 kJ mol{sup -1}. The decomposition temperature (T{sub dec}) of LiK(BH{sub 4}){sub 2} lies between those of LiBH{sub 4} and KBH{sub 4}, which suggests that the hydrogen decomposition temperature of metal borohydrides can be precisely adjusted by the appropriate combination of cations.

  9. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of atomic motion in borohydride-based materials: Fast anion reorientations and cation diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skripov, A.V., E-mail: skripov@imp.uran.ru; Soloninin, A.V.; Babanova, O.A.; Skoryunov, R.V.

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • Solid solutions LiBH{sub 4}–LiI: extremely fast BH{sub 4} reorientations down to low T. • LiLa(BH{sub 4}){sub 3}Cl: Li-ion diffusive jumps and BH{sub 4} reorientations at the same frequency scale. • Dramatic acceleration of B{sub 12}H{sub 12} reorientations in the disordered phase of Na{sub 2}B{sub 12}H{sub 12}. • Fast Na-ion diffusion in the disordered phase of Na{sub 2}B{sub 12}H{sub 12}. - Abstract: Two basic types of thermally activated atomic jump motion are known to exist in solid borohydrides and the related systems: the reorientations of complex anions ([BH{sub 4}]{sup −}, [B{sub 12}H{sub 12}]{sup 2−}) and the translational diffusion of metal cations or complex anions. This paper reviews recent progress in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of these jump processes in complex hydrides, such as solid solutions of halide anions in borohydrides, bimetallic borohydrides and borohydride–chlorides, borohydride–amides, and B{sub 12}H{sub 12}-based compounds. The emphasis is put on the systems showing fast-ion conductivity. For these systems, we discuss a possible relation between the reorientational motion of complex anions and the translational motion of metal cations.

  10. Lithium use in batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    Lithium has a number of uses but one of the most valuable is as a component of high energy-density rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Because of concerns over carbon dioxide footprint and increasing hydrocarbon fuel cost (reduced supply), lithium may become even more important in large batteries for powering all-electric and hybrid vehicles. It would take 1.4 to 3.0 kilograms of lithium equivalent (7.5 to 16.0 kilograms of lithium carbonate) to support a 40-mile trip in an electric vehicle before requiring recharge. This could create a large demand for lithium. Estimates of future lithium demand vary, based on numerous variables. Some of those variables include the potential for recycling, widespread public acceptance of electric vehicles, or the possibility of incentives for converting to lithium-ion-powered engines. Increased electric usage could cause electricity prices to increase. Because of reduced demand, hydrocarbon fuel prices would likely decrease, making hydrocarbon fuel more desirable. In 2009, 13 percent of worldwide lithium reserves, expressed in terms of contained lithium, were reported to be within hard rock mineral deposits, and 87 percent, within brine deposits. Most of the lithium recovered from brine came from Chile, with smaller amounts from China, Argentina, and the United States. Chile also has lithium mineral reserves, as does Australia. Another source of lithium is from recycled batteries. When lithium-ion batteries begin to power vehicles, it is expected that battery recycling rates will increase because vehicle battery recycling systems can be used to produce new lithium-ion batteries.

  11. Highly volatile magnesium complexes with the aminodiboranate anion, a new chelating borohydride. Synthesis and characterization of Mg(H(3)BNMe(2)BH(3))(2) and related compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do Young; Girolami, Gregory S

    2010-06-07

    Remarkably volatile magnesium complexes have been prepared with the modified borohydride ligand N,N-dimethylaminodiboranate, H(3)BNMe(2)BH(3)(-). The homoleptic complex Mg(H(3)BNMe(2)BH(3))(2), its monoadducts with tetrahydrofuran and 1,2-dimethoxyethane, and the mixed ligand complex (C(5)Me(5))Mg(H(3)BNMe(2)BH(3))(thf) have been prepared. The homoleptic complex Mg(H(3)BNMe(2)BH(3))(2) has a vapor pressure of 800 mTorr at 25 degrees C, which makes it the most volatile magnesium complex known. Crystal structures and NMR data are reported for all complexes. The compounds are potentially useful as chemical vapor deposition precursors to MgB(2) and MgO, and as hydrogen storage materials.

  12. Structure determination of ultra dense magnesium borohydride: A first-principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jing; Duan, Defang; Jin, Xilian; Bao, Kuo; Liu, Bingbing; Cui, Tian

    2013-06-01

    Magnesium borohydride (Mg(BH4)2) is one of the potential hydrogen storage materials. Recently, two experiments [Y. Filinchuk, B. Richter, T. R. Jensen, V. Dmitriev, D. Chernyshov, and H. Hagemann, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 50, 11162 (2011);, 10.1002/anie.201100675 L. George, V. Drozd, and S. K. Saxena, J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 486 (2009), 10.1021/jp807842t] found that α-Mg(BH4)2 can irreversibly be transformed to an ultra dense δ-Mg(BH4)2 under high pressure. Its volumetric hydrogen content at ambient pressure (147 g/cm3) exceeds twice of DOE's (U.S. Department of Energy) target (70 g/cm3) and that of α-Mg(BH4)2 (117 g/cm3) by 20%. In this study, the experimentally proposed P42nm structure of δ-phase has been found to be dynamically unstable. A new Fddd structure has been reported as a good candidate of δ-phase instead. Its enthalpy from 0 to 12 GPa is much lower than P42nm structure and the simulated X-ray diffraction spectrum is in satisfied agreement with previous experiments. In addition, the previously proposed P-3m1 structure, which is denser than Fddd, is found to be a candidate of ɛ-phase due to the agreement of Raman shifts.

  13. The Performance of a Direct Borohydride/Peroxide Fuel Cell Using Graphite Felts as Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng-Yi Lee

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A direct borohydride/peroxide fuel cell (DBPFC generates electrical power by recirculating liquid anolyte and catholyte between the stack and reservoirs, which is similar to the operation of flow batteries. To enhance the accessibility of the catalyst layer to the liquid anolyte/catholyte, graphite felts are employed as the porous diffusion layer of a single-cell DBPFC instead of carbon paper/cloth. The effects of the type of anode alkaline solution and operating conditions, including flow rate and temperature of the anolyte/catholyte, on DBPFC performance are investigated and discussed. The durability of the DBPFC is also evaluated by galvanostatic discharge at 0.1 A∙cm−2 for over 50 h. The results of this preliminary study show that a DBPFC with porous graphite electrodes can provide a maximum power density of 0.24 W∙cm−2 at 0.8 V. The performance of the DBPFC drops slightly after 50 h of operation; however, the discharge capacity shows no significant decrease.

  14. Structure determination of ultra dense magnesium borohydride: a first-principles study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jing; Duan, Defang; Jin, Xilian; Bao, Kuo; Liu, Bingbing; Cui, Tian

    2013-06-07

    Magnesium borohydride (Mg(BH4)2) is one of the potential hydrogen storage materials. Recently, two experiments [Y. Filinchuk, B. Richter, T. R. Jensen, V. Dmitriev, D. Chernyshov, and H. Hagemann, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 50, 11162 (2011); L. George, V. Drozd, and S. K. Saxena, J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 486 (2009)] found that α-Mg(BH4)2 can irreversibly be transformed to an ultra dense δ-Mg(BH4)2 under high pressure. Its volumetric hydrogen content at ambient pressure (147 g/cm(3)) exceeds twice of DOE's (U.S. Department of Energy) target (70 g/cm(3)) and that of α-Mg(BH4)2 (117 g/cm(3)) by 20%. In this study, the experimentally proposed P4(2)nm structure of δ-phase has been found to be dynamically unstable. A new Fddd structure has been reported as a good candidate of δ-phase instead. Its enthalpy from 0 to 12 GPa is much lower than P4(2)nm structure and the simulated X-ray diffraction spectrum is in satisfied agreement with previous experiments. In addition, the previously proposed P-3m1 structure, which is denser than Fddd, is found to be a candidate of ε-phase due to the agreement of Raman shifts.

  15. Effects of acid accelerators on hydrogen generation from solid sodium borohydride using small scale devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murugesan, Sankaran; Subramanian, Vaidyanathan (Ravi) [Department of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557 (United States)

    2009-02-01

    This work describes hydrogen generation using a heterogeneous chemical system for small scale portable applications. Hydrogen generation using acidified water and solid sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}) is presented. The effects of two modes of contacts - (1) a flow through type and (2) a diffusion type - contact in a 5 mm{sup 3} device are discussed. The effects of contacting several mineral and benign acids with NaBH{sub 4} are compared by monitoring hydrogen yield. Among the mineral acids examined, HCl generates a maximum hydrogen yield of 97% of the theoretical yield at 3N concentration. The benign acids are required in higher concentration compared to mineral acids. Formic acid produces 87% of the hydrogen yield at 12N. The products of the reaction have been characterized using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. A combination of acid strength, porosity of the interface, and solubility of the byproducts contributes to the different hydrogen yields in the presence of various acids. (author)

  16. Electroless Nickel-Based Catalyst for Diffusion Limited Hydrogen Generation through Hydrolysis of Borohydride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon P. Anderson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Catalysts based on electroless nickel and bi-metallic nickel-molybdenum nanoparticles were synthesized for the hydrolysis of sodium borohydride for hydrogen generation. The catalysts were synthesized by polymer-stabilized Pd nanoparticle-catalyzation and activation of Al2O3 substrate and electroless Ni or Ni-Mo plating of the substrate for selected time lengths. Catalytic activity of the synthesized catalysts was tested for the hydrolyzation of alkaline-stabilized NaBH4 solution for hydrogen generation. The effects of electroless plating time lengths, temperature and NaBH4 concentration on hydrogen generation rates were analyzed and discussed. Compositional analysis and surface morphology were carried out for nano-metallized Al2O3 using Scanning Electron Micrographs (SEM and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Microanalysis (EDAX. The as-plated polymer-stabilized electroless nickel catalyst plated for 10 min and unstirred in the hydrolysis reaction exhibited appreciable catalytic activity for hydrolysis of NaBH4. For a zero-order reaction assumption, activation energy of hydrogen generation using the catalyst was estimated at 104.6 kJ/mol. Suggestions are provided for further work needed prior to using the catalyst for portable hydrogen generation from aqueous alkaline-stabilized NaBH4 solution for fuel cells.

  17. Fundamental study of reduction graphene oxide by sodium borohydride for gas sensor application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muda, M. R.; Ramli, Muhammad M.; Isa, Siti S. Mat; Jamlos, M. F.; Murad, S. A. Z.; Norhanisah, Z.; Isa, M. Mohamad; Kasjoo, S. R.; Ahmad, N.; Nor, N. I. M.; Khalid, N.

    2017-03-01

    The efficient reduction of graphene oxide (rGO) was performed using Sodium Borohydride (NaBH4). These reduction approaches remove the majority of the oxygen-containing functional groups at the basal plane and surface of graphene oxide sheets. Structural and physiochemical properties of the GO were investigated with help of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), and Ultraviolet-Visible-Near infrared (UV-Vis-NIR). The effects of the chemical reduction on a GO surface were analyzed using a Semiconductor Parameter Analyzer (SPA) in order to obtain the electrical resistance measurement. It was found that the resistance of reduced graphene oxide was greatly reduced when compared to the condition of before reduction process. Then, the formation of uniform thin film of rGO sheets was produced using vacuum filtration method in order to fabricate a gas sensor. In this project, plastic was used as a substrate. The sensor was then being exposed to NO2 gas at room temperature in order to demonstrate the sensing ability of rGO.

  18. Effects of hydrazine addition on gas evolution and performance of the direct borohydride fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, H. Y.; Liu, Z. X.; Yin, W. X.; Zhu, J. K.; Li, Z. P.

    A fuel cell configuration using alkaline NaBH 4-N 2H 4 solutions as the fuel is suggested. Gas evolution behaviors and cell performances of alkaline NaBH 4-N 2H 4 solutions on different catalysts have been studied. It is found that gas evolution behaviors are influenced by the applied anodic catalysts and the concentration of NaBH 4 and N 2H 4. NaBH 4 is mainly electro-oxidized on Pd but N 2H 4 is mainly electro-oxidized on Ni and surface-treated Zr-Ni alloy when using NaBH 4-N 2H 4 solutions as the fuel and a composite of Pd, Ni and surface-treated Zr-Ni alloy as the anodic catalyst. The cyclic voltammetry results show that electrochemical oxidation potential of NaBH 4 is higher than that of N 2H 4. Adding hydrazine into alkaline sodium borohydride solutions can suppress gas evolution and improve the cell performance of the DBFC. The performances of fuel cells using NaBH 4-N 2H 4 solutions are comparable to that of fuel cell using N 2H 4 solution.

  19. Ultrahigh figure-of-merit for hydrogen generation from sodium borohydride using ternary metal catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lunghao; Ceccato, R.; Raj, R.

    We report further increase in the figure-of-merit (FOM) for hydrogen generation from NaBH 4 than reported in an earlier paper [1], where a sub-nanometer layer of metal catalysts are deposited on carbon nanotube paper (CNT paper) that has been functionalized with polymer-derived silicon carbonitride (SiCN) ceramic film. Ternary, Ru-Pd-Pt, instead of the binary Pd-Pt catalyst used earlier, together with a thinner CNT paper is shown to increase the figure-of-merit by up to a factor of six, putting is above any other known catalyst for hydrogen generation from NaBH 4. The catalysts are prepared by first impregnating the functionalized CNT-paper with solutions of the metal salts, followed by reduction in a sodium borohydride solution. The reaction mechanism and the catalyst efficiency are described in terms of an electric charge transfer, whereby the negative charge on the BH 4 - ion is exchanged with hydrogen via the electronically conducting SiCN/CNT substrate [1].

  20. Hydrogen generation from methanolysis of sodium borohydride over Co/Al2O3 catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongyan Xu; Lin Zhao; Ping Dai; Shengfu Ji

    2012-01-01

    Co/Al2O3 catalyst is prepared with an impregnation-chemical reduction method and used to catalyze the methanolysis of sodium borohydride (NaBH4) for hydrogen generation.At solution temperature of 0℃,the methanolysis reaction can be effectively accelerated using Co/Al2O3 catalyst and provide a desirable hydrogen generation rate,which makes it suitable for apphcations under the circumstance of low environmental temperature.The byproduct of methanolysis reaction is analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR).The characterization results indicate that methanol can be easily recovered after methanolysis reaction by hydrolysis of the methanolysis byproduct,NaB(OCH3)4.The catalytic activity of Co/Al2O3 towards NaBH4 methanolysis can be further improved by appropriate calcination treatment.The catalytic methanolysis kinetics and catalyst reusability are also studied over the Co/Al2O3 catalyst calcined at the optimized temperature.

  1. Agile Thermal Management STT-RX, Modified Magnesium Hydride and Calcium Borohydride for High-Capacity Thermal Energy Storage (PREPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Hydrogen Storage: A Review.” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy , 32, pp. 1121-1140. [8] Nagano, S., T. Kitajima, K. Yoshida, Y. Kazao, Y... International Journal of Hydrogen Energy , 35, pp. 4569-4575. [11] Varin, R.A., T. Czujko, and Z.S. Wronski (2009). “Nanomaterials for Solid

  2. Lithium associated autoimmune thyroiditis.

    OpenAIRE

    Shimizu, M; Hirokawa, M.; T. Manabe; Shimozuma, K; Sonoo, H; Harada, T.

    1997-01-01

    A case of autoimmune thyroiditis after long term treatment with lithium is described in a 29 year old Japanese woman with manic depression. Positive serum antithyroglobulin and antimicrosomal antibodies, diffuse goitre, and microscopic chronic thyroiditis, as well as the clinical history of long term lithium treatment were suggestive of lithium associated autoimmune thyroiditis. Microscopically, there was a mild degree of interstitial fibrosis and a moderate degree of lymphocytic infiltration...

  3. Alkali free hydrolysis of sodium borohydride for hydrogen generation under pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, M.J.F.; Pinto, A.M.F.R. [Centro de Estudos de Fenomenos de Transporte, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias s/n, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Gales, L. [Instituto de Biologia Molecular e Celular, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 823, 4150-180 Porto and Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas Abel Salazar, Largo Prof. Abel Salazar 2, 4099-003 Porto (Portugal); Fernandes, V.R.; Rangel, C.M. [Laboratorio Nacional de Energia e Geologia - LNEG, Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Unit Estrada do Paco do Lumiar 22, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2010-09-15

    The present study is related with the production of hydrogen gas (H{sub 2}), at elevated pressures and with high gravimetric storage density, to supply a PEM fuel cell on-demand. To achieve this goal, solid sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}) was mixed with a proper amount of a powder reused nickel-ruthenium based catalyst (Ni-Ru based/NaBH{sub 4}: 0.2 and 0.4 g/g; {approx}150 times reused) inside the bottom of a batch reactor. Then, a stoichiometric amount of pure liquid water (H{sub 2}O/NaBH{sub 4}: 2-8 mol/mol) was added and the catalyzed NaBH{sub 4} hydrolysis evolved, in the absence of an alkali inhibitor. In this way, this research work is designated alkali free hydrolysis of NaBH{sub 4} for H{sub 2} generation. This type of hydrolysis is excellent from an environmental point of view because it does not involve strongly caustic solutions. Experiments were performed in three batch reactors with internal volumes 646, 369 and 229 cm{sup 3}, and having different bottom geometries (flat and conical shapes). The H{sub 2} generated was a function of the added water and completion was achieved with H{sub 2}O/NaBH{sub 4} = 8 mol/mol. The results show that hydrogen yields and rates increase remarkably increasing both system temperature and pressure. Reactor bottom shape influences deeply H{sub 2} generation: the conical bottom shape greatly enhances the rate and practically eliminates the reaction induction time. Our system of compressed hydrogen generation up to 1.26 MPa shows 6.3 wt% and 70 kg m{sup -3}, respectively, for gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen storage capacities (materials-only basis) and therefore is a viable hydrogen storage candidate for portable applications. (author)

  4. An extremely rapid, convenient and mild coal desulfurization new process: Sodium borohydride reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhiling; Sun, Tonghua; Jia, Jinping [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2010-09-15

    The present work describes the desulfurization of coal using mildly reductive method. Both a Yanzhou and a Yanshan coal (referred to as YZ and YS coal, respectively), were treated in an aqueous media employing sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}) as reducing agent, which is a well known hydrogen storage. Reaction variables investigated include concentration of reductant, time, pH of initial media, temperature, stirring rate and particle size. The calorific values and ignition temperatures of the coal samples before and after treatment were determined. Results show that the total sulfur removal improved with the increase in the concentration of NaBH{sub 4}, shaking rate and temperature and with the decrease in the particle size. Meanwhile, decreasing the particle size from - 250 to - 109 {mu}m increased the organic sulfur removal by more than six times for either of the coal samples. Considering economic rationality and operational convenience, the desulfurization conditions determined were 1.6 mM of NaBH{sub 4} concentration, - 109 {mu}m of particle size, neutral pH of initial media, 1 min of treated time, 100 rpm of shaking rate, 30 C of temperature. This led to 23.8% and 59.0% reduction in the pyritic, 70.4% and 100% reduction in the sulfate, and 11.0% and 15.0% reduction in the organic sulfur, giving 31.3% and 40.8% reduction in the total sulfur for the YZ coal and the YS coal, respectively. Moreover, this resulted in the increase in the calorific values by 3.4-6.9% and the decrease in the ignition temperatures by 2-21 C for the coal samples. The desulfurization method described here is extremely rapid, convenient, inexpensive and mild, and therefore, has considerable technological interest. (author)

  5. Formation of borohydride-reduced nickel–boron coatings on various steel substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitry, V., E-mail: veronique.vitry@umons.ac.be; Delaunois, F.

    2015-12-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Electroless nickel–boron was deposited on various steel substrates. • Initiation time is influenced by nickel content and microstructure of the substrate. • Morphology of the coating varies during plating. • Morphological evolution coincides with slower plating. - Abstract: Electroless nickel–boron coatings are widely used in industrial on various substrates: ferrous and non-ferrous alloys mainly but also in some cases non-metallic materials. However, their growth process is still not fully understood and the influence of the nature of the substrate on this process is completely unknown. The formation of electroless nickel–boron was observed on five ferrous alloys: a mild steel, a high carbon unalloyed steel, a cryogenic steel (that contains 9 wt.% nickel), an austenitic stainless steel and an austeno-ferritic (duplex) stainless steel. Nickel–boron films were prepared by electroless deposition, using sodium borohydride as a reducing agent. Samples were immersed in a plating bath for times ranging from 5 s to 60 min. The influence of the nature of the substrate on the initial deposition of the coatings was investigated in detail: the initiation mechanism was identified for all substrates and it was found to be related to catalytic oxidation of the reducing agent rather than to a displacement process. The delay before initiation was influenced by the nickel content of the coating and by a high number of grain boundaries. In all cases, the plating rate varied with plating time, with a slower period during the first 10 min that corresponds to morphological modification of the coating.

  6. Lithium nephrotoxicity revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünfeld, Jean-Pierre; Rossier, Bernard C

    2009-05-01

    Lithium is widely used to treat bipolar disorder. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is the most common adverse effect of lithium and occurs in up to 40% of patients. Renal lithium toxicity is characterized by increased water and sodium diuresis, which can result in mild dehydration, hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis and renal tubular acidosis. The concentrating defect and natriuretic effect develop within weeks of lithium initiation. After years of lithium exposure, full-blown nephropathy can develop, which is characterized by decreased glomerular filtration rate and chronic kidney disease. Here, we review the clinical and experimental evidence that the principal cell of the collecting duct is the primary target for the nephrotoxic effects of lithium, and that these effects are characterized by dysregulation of aquaporin 2. This dysregulation is believed to occur as a result of the accumulation of cytotoxic concentrations of lithium, which enters via the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) on the apical membrane and leads to the inhibition of signaling pathways that involve glycogen synthase kinase type 3beta. Experimental and clinical evidence demonstrates the efficacy of the ENaC inhibitor amiloride for the treatment of lithium-induced NDI; however, whether this agent can prevent the long-term adverse effects of lithium is not yet known.

  7. Cathode material for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2013-07-23

    A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide material and is prepared by mixing in a solid state an intermediate molybdenum composite transition metal oxide and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain the lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide cathode material.

  8. Capacity enhancement of aqueous borohydride fuels for hydrogen storage in liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, David; Neiner, Doinita [U.S. Borax Inc., Rio Tinto, Greenwood Village, CO (United States); Bowden, Mark [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Whittemore, Sean; Holladay, Jamie [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Huang, Zhenguo [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia); Autrey, Tom [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • Adjusting ratio of Q = Na/B will maximize H{sub 2} storage capacity of liquid carrier. • Mixtures of hydrolysis products are desirable to maximize solubility. • 6.5 wt.% hydrogen and remains liquid from beginning to end. - Abstract: In this work we demonstrate enhanced hydrogen storage capacities through increased solubility of sodium borate product species in aqueous media achieved by adjusting the sodium (NaOH) to boron (B(OH){sub 3}) ratio, i.e., M/B, to obtain a distribution of polyborate anions. For a 1:1 mol ratio of NaOH to B(OH){sub 3}, M/B = 1, the ratio of the hydrolysis product formed from NaBH{sub 4} hydrolysis, the sole borate species formed and observed by {sup 11}B NMR is sodium metaborate, NaB(OH){sub 4}. When the ratio is 1:3 NaOH to B(OH){sub 3}, M/B = 0.33, a mixture of borate anions is formed and observed as a broad peak in the {sup 11}B NMR spectrum. The complex polyborate mixture yields a metastable solution that is difficult to crystallize. Given the enhanced solubility of the polyborate mixture formed when M/B = 0.33 it should follow that the hydrolysis of sodium octahydrotriborate, NaB{sub 3}H{sub 8}, can provide a greater storage capacity of hydrogen for fuel cell applications compared to sodium borohydride while maintaining a single phase. Accordingly, the hydrolysis of a 23 wt.% NaB{sub 3}H{sub 8} solution in water yields a solution having the same complex polyborate mixture as formed by mixing a 1:3 M ratio of NaOH and B(OH){sub 3} and releases >8 eq of H{sub 2}. By optimizing the M/B ratio a complex mixture of soluble products, including B{sub 3}O{sub 3}(OH){sub 5}{sup 2−}, B{sub 4}O{sub 5}(OH){sub 4}{sup 2−}, B{sub 3}O{sub 3}(OH){sub 4}{sup −}, B{sub 5}O{sub 6}(OH){sub 4}{sup −} and B(OH){sub 3}, can be maintained as a single liquid phase throughout the hydrogen release process. Consequently, hydrolysis of NaB{sub 3}H{sub 8} can provide a 40% increase in H{sub 2} storage density compared to the hydrolysis

  9. Improving SERS Detection of Bacillus thuringiensis Using Silver Nanoparticles Reduced with Hydroxylamine and with Citrate Capped Borohydride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilsamar Félix-Rivera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of techniques that could be useful in fields other than biological warfare agents countermeasures such as medical diagnostics, industrial microbiology, and environmental applications have become a very important subject of research. Raman spectroscopy can be used in near field or at long distances from the sample to obtain fingerprinting information of chemical composition of microorganisms. In this research, biochemical components of the cell wall and endospores of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt were identified by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS spectroscopy using silver (Ag nanoparticles (NPs reduced by hydroxylamine and borohydride capped with sodium citrate. Activation of “hot spots”, aggregation and surface charge modification of the NPs, was studied and optimized to obtain signal enhancements from Bt by SERS. Slight aggregation of the NPs as well as surface charge modification to a more acidic ambient was induced using small-size borohydride-reduced NPs in the form of metallic suspensions aimed at increasing the Ag NP-Bt interactions. Hydroxylamine-reduced NPs required slight aggregation and no pH modifications in order to obtain high spectral quality results in bringing out SERS signatures of Bt.

  10. Optimized hydrogen generation in a semicontinuous sodium borohydride hydrolysis reactor for a 60 W-scale fuel cell stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzac, G. M.; Fernández, A.; Justo, A.; Sarmiento, B.; Jiménez, M. A.; Jiménez, M. M.

    Catalyzed hydrolysis of sodium borohydride (SBH) is a promising method for the hydrogen supply of fuel cells. In this study a system for controlled production of hydrogen from aqueous sodium borohydride (SBH) solutions has been designed and built. This simple and low cost system operates under controlled addition of stabilized SBH solutions (fuel solutions) to a supported CoB catalyst. The system works at constant temperature delivering hydrogen at 1 L min -1 constant rate to match a 60-W polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). For optimization of the system, several experimental conditions were changed and their effect was investigated. A simple model based only on thermodynamic considerations was proposed to optimize system parameters at constant temperature and hydrogen evolution rate. It was found that, for a given SBH concentration, the use of the adequate fuel addition rate can maximize the total conversion and therefore the gravimetric storage capacity. The hydrogen storage capacity was as high as 3.5 wt% for 19 wt% SBH solution at 90% fuel conversion and an operation temperature of 60 °C. It has been demonstrated that these optimized values can also be achieved for a wide range of hydrogen generation rates. Studies on the durability of the catalyst showed that a regeneration step is needed to restore the catalytic activity before reusing.

  11. Grain Boundary Engineering of Lithium-Ion-Conducting Lithium Lanthanum Titanate for Lithium-Air Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Titanate for Lithium-Air Batteries by Victoria L Blair, Claire V Weiss Brennan, and Joseph M Marsico Approved for public...TR-7584 ● JAN 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Grain Boundary Engineering of Lithium-Ion- Conducting Lithium Lanthanum Titanate for Lithium... Titanate for Lithium-Air Batteries 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Victoria L Blair, Claire V

  12. Organic derivatives of Mg(BH4)2 as precursors towards MgB2 and novel inorganic mixed-cation borohydrides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, W; Jaroń, T; Dobrowolski, M A; Dobrzycki, Ł; Cyrański, M K; Grochala, W

    2016-09-28

    A series of organic derivatives of magnesium borohydride, including Mg(BH4)2·1.5DME (DME = 1,2-dimethoxyethane) and Mg(BH4)2·3THF (THF = tetrahydrofuran) solvates and three mixed-cation borohydrides, [Cat]2[Mg(BH4)4], [Cat] = [Me4N], [nBu4N], [Ph4P], have been characterized. The phosphonium derivative has been tested as a precursor for synthesis of inorganic mixed-metal borohydrides of magnesium, Mx[Mg(BH4)2+x], M = Li-Cs, via a metathetic method. The synthetic procedure has yielded two new derivatives of heavier alkali metals M3Mg(BH4)5 (M = Rb, Cs) mixed with amorphous Mg(BH4)2. Thermal decomposition has been studied for both the organic and inorganic magnesium borohydride derivatives. Amorphous MgB2 has been detected among the products of the thermal decomposition of the solvates studied, together with organic and inorganic impurities.

  13. Temperature-mediated phase transformation, pore geometry and pore hysteresis transformation of borohydride derived in-born porous zirconium hydroxide nanopowders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Nadiya B.; Nayak, Bibhuti B.

    2016-05-01

    Development of in-born porous nature of zirconium hydroxide nanopowders through a facile hydrogen (H2) gas-bubbles assisted borohydride synthesis route using sodium borohydride (NaBH4) and novel information on the temperature-mediated phase transformation, pore geometry as well as pore hysteresis transformation of in-born porous zirconium hydroxide nanopowders with the help of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) isotherm and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) images are the main theme of this research work. Without any surfactants or pore forming agents, the borohydride derived amorphous nature of porous powders was stable up to 500 °C and then the seed crystals start to develop within the loose amorphous matrix and trapping the inter-particulate voids, which led to develop the porous nature of tetragonal zirconium oxide at 600 °C and further sustain this porous nature as well as tetragonal phase of zirconium oxide up to 800 °C. The novel hydrogen (H2) gas-bubbles assisted borohydride synthesis route led to develop thermally stable porous zirconium hydroxide/oxide nanopowders with an adequate pore size, pore volume, and surface area and thus these porous materials are further suggested for promising use in different areas of applications.

  14. Water co-adsorption and electric field effects on borohydride structures on Os(1 1 1) by first-principles calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escaño, Mary Clare Sison, E-mail: mcescano@u-fukui.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Fukui, 3-9-1 Bunkyo, Fukui 910-8507 (Japan); Arevalo, Ryan Lacdao [Department of Precision Science and Technology and Applied Physics, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Gyenge, Elod [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z3 (Canada); Kasai, Hideaki [Department of Precision Science and Technology and Applied Physics, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: ► Difference in Pt, Os electronic structures lead to different borohydride structures. ► Promotion of B–H bond breaking on Os due to water effects. ► Control of borohydride structure on Os catalyst using electric field. -- Abstract: Periodic density functional theory calculations are performed to investigate the nature of the BH{sub 4ad} and its interaction with H{sub 2}O{sub ad} in the presence of homogenous electric field. We observed a significant charge polarity of BH{sub 4ad} on Os(1 1 1) and such property could explain the electrostatic interaction with water monomer (H{sub ad}) with its HOH plane parallel to the surface. This interaction changes the BH{sub ad} molecular structure to BH{sub 3ad} + H{sub ad}. In the presence of homogenous electric field, the water co-adsorption effect is reduced due to the stabilization of H{sub 2}O{sub ad} on the surface and the deviation of the O–H bond from the plane, decreasing the electrostatic interaction between BH{sub 4ad} and H{sub 2}O{sub ad}. These fundamental findings imply accessible control of borohydride structures on an electrode surface, which could be relevant for direct borohydride fuel cell (DBFC) and reversible hydrogen storage/release applications.

  15. Studies on the crystalline lens. XXI. Bidirectional carrier-mediated transport of lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinsey, V.E. (Oakland Univ., Rochester, MI); McLean, I.W.

    1974-10-01

    Movement of lithium both into and out of cultured rabbit lenses occurs by processes that obey Michaelis-Menten kinetics as well as by a nonsaturable process. The parameters describing the kinetics of transport are evaluated on the basis of a modified version of a pump-leak hypothesis that was shown previously to account for the fluxes of other alkali metal cations. Potassium is a potent competitive inhibitor of the carrier-mediated transport of lithium into the lens. Lithium weakly inhibits the influx of potassium by a noncompetitive process. The observation that lithium is a weak inhibitor of potassium transport (Ki = 70 mM) while having a moderate affinity for its carrier (Km = 4.0 mM) suggests that more than one site may be responsible for the transport of potassium and lithium into the lens. Active transport of lithium out of the lens does not appear to involve the sodium pump, since the rate of sodium efflux is unaffected by lithium. Both influx and efflux of lithium are inhibited by ouabain (10/sup -5/ M) but not by amiloride (10/sup -4/ M) or oxytocin (20 milliunits per milliliter). Lithium displaces proportionate amounts of sodium and potassium from intracellular fluid when lenses are cultured in the presence of this cation. The nonsaturable exchange of lithium is independent of observed differences in electric potential, indicating that lithium does not permeate the lenticular membranes by simple diffusion of lithium ions, but rather as a complex with either a free anion or a carrier within the membrane. The affinity of lithium for the carrier is essentially equal to that of cesium and much lower than that for rubidium, whereas the kd of both lithium and rubidium is much higher than that for cesium. These differences indicate that a common pathway cannot be responsible for the discrimination between cations by both the pump and the leak.

  16. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil; Kang, Sun-Ho

    2010-06-08

    An uncycled preconditioned electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula xLi.sub.2-yH.sub.yO.xM'O.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.1-zH.sub.zMO.sub.2 in which 0lithium metal ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. The xLi.sub.2-yH.sub.y.xM'O.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.1-zH.sub.zMO.sub.2 material is prepared by preconditioning a precursor lithium metal oxide (i.e., xLi.sub.2M'O.sub.3.(1-x)LiMO.sub.2) with a proton-containing medium with a pH<7.0 containing an inorganic acid. Methods of preparing the electrodes are disclosed, as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

  17. Lithium literature review: lithium's properties and interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeppson, D.W.; Ballif, J.L.; Yuan, W.W.; Chou, B.E.

    1978-04-01

    The lithium literature has been reviewed to provide a better understanding of the effects of lithium spills that might occur in magnetic fusion energy (MFE) facilities. Lithium may be used as a breeding blanket and reactor coolant in these facilities. Physical and chemical properties of lithium as well as the chemical interactions of lithium with various gases, metals and non-metals have been identified. A preliminary assessment of lithium-concrete reactions has been completed using differential thermal analysis. Suggestions are given for future studies in areas where literature is lacking or limited.

  18. Electronic structure of nickel(II) and zinc(II) borohydrides from spectroscopic measurements and computational modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrochers, Patrick J; Sutton, Christopher A; Abrams, Micah L; Ye, Shengfa; Neese, Frank; Telser, Joshua; Ozarowski, Andrew; Krzystek, J

    2012-03-05

    The previously reported Ni(II) complex, Tp*Ni(κ(3)-BH(4)) (Tp* = hydrotris(3,5-dimethylpyrazolyl)borate anion), which has an S = 1 spin ground state, was studied by high-frequency and -field electron paramagnetic resonance (HFEPR) spectroscopy as a solid powder at low temperature, by UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy in the solid state and in solution at room temperature, and by paramagnetic (11)B NMR. HFEPR provided its spin Hamiltonian parameters: D = 1.91(1) cm(-1), E = 0.285(8) cm(-1), g = [2.170(4), 2.161(3), 2.133(3)]. Similar, but not identical parameters were obtained for its borodeuteride analogue. The previously unreported complex, Tp*Zn(κ(2)-BH(4)), was prepared, and IR and NMR spectroscopy allowed its comparison with analogous closed shell borohydride complexes. Ligand-field theory was used to model the electronic transitions in the Ni(II) complex successfully, although it was less successful at reproducing the zero-field splitting (zfs) parameters. Advanced computational methods, both density functional theory (DFT) and ab initio wave function based approaches, were applied to these Tp*MBH(4) complexes to better understand the interaction between these metals and borohydride ion. DFT successfully reproduced bonding geometries and vibrational behavior of the complexes, although it was less successful for the spin Hamiltonian parameters of the open shell Ni(II) complex. These were instead best described using ab initio methods. The origin of the zfs in Tp*Ni(κ(3)-BH(4)) is described and shows that the relatively small magnitude of D results from several spin-orbit coupling (SOC) interactions of large magnitude, but with opposite sign. Spin-spin coupling (SSC) is also shown to be significant, a point that is not always appreciated in transition metal complexes. Overall, a picture of bonding and electronic structure in open and closed shell late transition metal borohydrides is provided, which has implications for the use of these complexes in catalysis and

  19. Capacity enhancement of aqueous borohydride fuels for hydrogen storage in liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, David [U.S. Borax Inc., Rio Tinto, CO (United States); Neiner, Doinita [U.S. Borax Inc., Rio Tinto, CO (United States); Bowden, Mark [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Whittemore, Sean [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Holladay, Jamie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Huang, Zhenguo [Univ. of Wollongong, NSW (Australia); Autrey, Tom [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    In this work we demonstrate enhanced hydrogen storage capacities through increased solubility of sodium borate product species in aqueous media achieved by adjusting the sodium (NaOH) to boron (B(OH)3) ratio, i.e., M/B, to obtain a distribution of polyborate anions. For a 1:1 mole ratio of NaOH to B(OH)3, M/B = 1, the ratio of the hydrolysis product formed from NaBH4 hydrolysis, the sole borate species formed and observed by 11B NMR is sodium metaborate, NaB(OH)4. When the ratio is 1:3 NaOH to B(OH)3, M/B = 0.33, a mixture of borate anions is formed and observed as a broad peak in the 11B NMR spectrum. The complex polyborate mixture yields a metastable solution that is difficult to crystallize. Given the enhanced solubility of the polyborate mixture formed when M/B = 0.33 it should follow that the hydrolysis of sodium octahydrotriborate, NaB3H8, can provide a greater storage capacity of hydrogen for fuel cell applications compared to sodium borohydride while maintaining a single phase. Accordingly, the hydrolysis of a 23 wt% NaB3H8 solution in water yields a solution having the same complex polyborate mixture as formed by mixing a 1:3 molar ratio of NaOH and B(OH)3 and releases >8 eq of H2. By optimizing the M/B ratio a complex mixture of soluble products, including B3O3(OH)52-, B4O5(OH)42-, B3O3(OH)4-, B5O6(OH)4- and B(OH)3, can be maintained as a single liquid phase throughout the hydrogen release process. Consequently, hydrolysis of NaB3H8 can provide a 40% increase in H2 storage density compared to the hydrolysis of NaBH4 given the decreased solubility of sodium metaborate. The authors would like to thank Jim Sisco and Paul Osenar of

  20. Lithium Sulfuryl Chloride Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primary batteries , Electrochemistry, Ionic current, Electrolytes, Cathodes(Electrolytic cell), Anodes(Electrolytic cell), Thionyl chloride ...Phosphorus compounds, Electrical conductivity, Calibration, Solutions(Mixtures), Electrical resistance, Performance tests, Solvents, Lithium compounds

  1. New lithium gas sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuntonov, K. [Nanoshell Materials R and D GmbH, Primoschgasse 3, 9020 Klagenfurt (Austria)], E-mail: k.chuntonov@nanoshell.at; Setina, J. [Institute of Metals and Technology, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2008-05-08

    Solid solutions of lithium in Ag and Cu in the form of balls, wires, or strips are convenient sources for depositing lithium films as getters on the walls of vacuum vessels. Measurement of the O{sub 2}, CO and CO{sub 2} sorption characteristics have shown that these films - e.g. those generated electrothermally from Ag/Li solid solutions - excel the best getters of the Ba-film type or the high porosity getters based on Ti, V and Zr alloys. It has been found that tight lithium films passivate as a sorption depth of approximately 100 A is reached. Methods for further improvement of the sorption behavior of lithium coatings are discussed.

  2. Solid-state lithium battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

    2014-11-04

    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

  3. Lithium and Thyroid Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Lut Tamam; Emel Kulan; Nurgul Ozpoyraz

    2003-01-01

    Lithium is a mood stabilizator drug which has been used in the treatment of many mental disorders including bipolar disorders, cyclothymia, recurrent depression, and schizoaffective disorder for the last 50 years. Clinical and experimental studies have shown that patients under lithium treatment could develop thyroid disorders in a range from single disorder in TSH response to severe mxyedema. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(2.000): 99-114

  4. Lithium and Thyroid Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lut Tamam

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Lithium is a mood stabilizator drug which has been used in the treatment of many mental disorders including bipolar disorders, cyclothymia, recurrent depression, and schizoaffective disorder for the last 50 years. Clinical and experimental studies have shown that patients under lithium treatment could develop thyroid disorders in a range from single disorder in TSH response to severe mxyedema. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(2.000: 99-114

  5. Lithium battery management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Thomas J [Waukesha, WI

    2012-05-08

    Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

  6. Antihypertensive therapy in patients on chronic lithium treatment for bipolar disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisogni, Valeria; Rossitto, Giacomo; Reghin, Francesco; Padrini, Roberto; Rossi, Gian Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Bipolar disorders are chronic conditions treated with lithium, which exerts deleterious effects on the kidney, among which nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, tubular acidosis and ultimately chronic kidney disease. Conversely, drugs that alter renal function can modify its serum levels and lead to the potentially fatal lithium intoxication. A search in the main library databases from 1975 to 2015 to identify interactions between antihypertensive drugs and lithium using the Population Intervention Comparison Outcome strategy provided only 30 reports of lithium intoxication. A regression analysis showed that the severity of lithium intoxication was significantly predicted by female, age, and use of certain classes of antihypertensive agents. A model including certain albeit not all diuretics and/or inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system, but not age, serum lithium or creatinine levels at baseline and/or on admission to the hospital, predicted lithium toxicity. The true incidence of lithium intoxication is unknown but probably low, albeit underestimated. Nonetheless, in patients treated with lithium, monitoring of the serum lithium levels and clinical conditions is mandatory after the introduction of antihypertensive drugs, as diuretics and renin-aldosterone system inhibitors.

  7. Lithium isotope effect accompanying electrochemical intercalation of lithium into graphite

    CERN Document Server

    Yanase, S; Oi, T

    2003-01-01

    Lithium has been electrochemically intercalated from a 1:2 (v/v) mixed solution of ethylene carbonate (EC) and methylethyl carbonate (MEC) containing 1 M LiClO sub 4 into graphite, and the lithium isotope fractionation accompanying the intercalation was observed. The lighter isotope was preferentially fractionated into graphite. The single-stage lithium isotope separation factor ranged from 1.007 to 1.025 at 25 C and depended little on the mole ratio of lithium to carbon of the lithium-graphite intercalation compounds (Li-GIC) formed. The separation factor increased with the relative content of lithium. This dependence seems consistent with the existence of an equilibrium isotope effect between the solvated lithium ion in the EC/MEC electrolyte solution and the lithium in graphite, and with the formation of a solid electrolyte interfaces on graphite at the early stage of intercalation. (orig.)

  8. Microscale Interface Synthesis of Ni-B Amorphous Nanoparticles from NiSO4 by Sodium Borohydride Reduction in Microreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Peng, Jinhui; Meng, Binfang; Li, Wei; Liu, Bingguo; Luo, Huilong

    2016-09-01

    Amorphous nanoparticles have attracted a large amount of interest due to their superior catalytic activity and unique selectivity. The Ni-B amorphous nanoparticles were synthesized from aqueous reduction of NiSO4 by sodium borohydride in microscale interface at room temperature. The size, morphology, elemental compositions, and the chemical composition on the surface of Ni-B amorphous nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). All the results showed that the synthesized particles are Ni-B amorphous nanoparticles with uniform in size distribution and having good dispersion. The mean particle diameter of Ni-B amorphous nanoparticles was around 9 nm. The present work provides an alternative synthesis route for the Ni-B amorphous nanoparticles.

  9. Hydrogen Outgassing from Lithium Hydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinh, L N; Schildbach, M A; Smith, R A; Balazs1, B; McLean II, W

    2006-04-20

    Lithium hydride is a nuclear material with a great affinity for moisture. As a result of exposure to water vapor during machining, transportation, storage and assembly, a corrosion layer (oxide and/or hydroxide) always forms on the surface of lithium hydride resulting in the release of hydrogen gas. Thermodynamically, lithium hydride, lithium oxide and lithium hydroxide are all stable. However, lithium hydroxides formed near the lithium hydride substrate (interface hydroxide) and near the sample/vacuum interface (surface hydroxide) are much less thermally stable than their bulk counterpart. In a dry environment, the interface/surface hydroxides slowly degenerate over many years/decades at room temperature into lithium oxide, releasing water vapor and ultimately hydrogen gas through reaction of the water vapor with the lithium hydride substrate. This outgassing can potentially cause metal hydriding and/or compatibility issues elsewhere in the device. In this chapter, the morphology and the chemistry of the corrosion layer grown on lithium hydride (and in some cases, its isotopic cousin, lithium deuteride) as a result of exposure to moisture are investigated. The hydrogen outgassing processes associated with the formation and subsequent degeneration of this corrosion layer are described. Experimental techniques to measure the hydrogen outgassing kinetics from lithium hydride and methods employing the measured kinetics to predict hydrogen outgassing as a function of time and temperature are presented. Finally, practical procedures to mitigate the problem of hydrogen outgassing from lithium hydride are discussed.

  10. New insights on the mechanism of palladium-catalyzed hydrolysis of sodium borohydride from 11B NMR measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guella, G; Zanchetta, C; Patton, B; Miotello, A

    2006-08-31

    To gain insight on the mechanistic aspects of the palladium-catalyzed hydrolysis of NaBH(4) in alkaline media, the kinetics of the reaction has been investigated by (11)B NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) measurements taken at different times during the reaction course. Working with BH(4)(-) concentration in the range 0.05-0.1 M and with a [substrate]/[catalyst] molar ratio of 0.03-0.11, hydrolysis has been found to follow a first-order kinetic dependence from concentration of both the substrate and the catalyst (Pd/C 10 wt %). We followed the reaction of NaBH(4) and its perdeuterated analogue NaBD(4) in H(2)O, in D(2)O and H(2)O/D(2)O mixtures. When the process was carried out in D(2)O, deuterium incorporation in BH(4)(-) afforded BH(4)(-)(n)D(n)(-) (n = 1, 2, 3, 4) species, and a competition between hydrolysis and hydrogen/deuterium exchange processes was observed. By fitting the kinetics NMR data by nonlinear least-squares regression techniques, the rate constants of the elementary steps involved in the palladium-catalyzed borohydride hydrolysis have been evaluated. Such a regression analysis was performed on a reaction scheme wherein the starting reactant BH(4)(-) is allowed both to reversibly exchange hydrogen with deuterium atoms of D(2)O and to irreversibly hydrolyze into borohydroxy species B(OD)(4)(-). In contrast to acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of sodium borohydride, our results indicate that in the palladium-catalyzed process the rate constants of the exchange processes are higher than those of the corresponding hydrolysis reactions.

  11. Fixing the Big Bang Theory's Lithium Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-02-01

    ) successfully predicts a lower abundance of the beryllium isotope which eventually decays into lithium relative to the classical Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution (solid lines), without changing the predicted abundances of deuterium or helium. [Hou et al. 2017]Questioning StatisticsHou and collaborators questioned a key assumption in Big Bang nucleosynthesis theory: that the nuclei involved in the process are all in thermodynamic equilibrium, and their velocities which determine the thermonuclear reaction rates are described by the classical Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution.But do nuclei still obey this classical distribution in the extremely complex, fast-expanding Big Bang hot plasma? Hou and collaborators propose that the lithium nuclei dont, and that they must instead be described by a slightly modified version of the classical distribution, accounted for using whats known as non-extensive statistics.The authors show that using the modified velocity distributions described by these statistics, they can successfully predict the observed primordial abundances of deuterium, helium, and lithium simultaneously. If this solution to the cosmological lithium problem is correct, the Big Bang theory is now one step closer to fully describing the formation of our universe.CitationS. Q. Hou et al 2017 ApJ 834 165. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/834/2/165

  12. Electric batteries. Lithium batteries; Piles electrique. Piles au lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarrazin, Ch. [Delegation Generale pour l' Armement, DGA/DRET, 75 - Paris (France)

    2002-05-01

    Lithium has the most negative potential and the highest mass capacity of all solid anode materials. It is the metal that allows to reach the highest mass energies in batteries when associated to a high potential cathode. The search for high performance cathodes has led to many different types of lithium batteries (transition metal oxides or sulfides, halogenides, oxi-halogenides, carbon, organic compounds etc..). These batteries can have a solid cathode (Li/CuO, Li/MnO{sub 2}, Li/CF{sub x}, etc..), or a liquid cathode (Li/SOCl{sub 2}, Li/SO{sub 2}, etc..) and in some cases they can have also a solid electrolyte, but not all types of lithium battery led to important industrial fabrication. The increasing use of lithium batteries is linked with the development of portable equipments for which, the compactness of the energy source is a key point. This article examines only the lithium batteries that have been the object of a significant industrial fabrication: lithium-sulfur dioxide, lithium-thionyl chloride, lithium-manganese dioxide, lithium-copper oxide, lithium-carbon fluoride, lithium-iron disulfide, other types of lithium batteries. (J.S.)

  13. Lithium: for harnessing renewable energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Dwight; Jaskula, Brian W.

    2014-01-01

    Lithium, which has the chemical symbol Li and an atomic number of 3, is the first metal in the periodic table. Lithium has many uses, the most prominent being in batteries for cell phones, laptops, and electric and hybrid vehicles. Worldwide sources of lithium are broken down by ore-deposit type as follows: closed-basin brines, 58%; pegmatites and related granites, 26%; lithium-enriched clays, 7%; oilfield brines, 3%; geothermal brines, 3%; and lithium-enriched zeolites, 3% (2013 statistics). There are over 39 million tons of lithium resources worldwide. Of this resource, the USGS estimates there to be approximately 13 million tons of current economically recoverable lithium reserves. To help predict where future lithium supplies might be located, USGS scientists study how and where identified resources are concentrated in the Earth’s crust, and they use that knowledge to assess the likelihood that undiscovered resources also exist.

  14. Lithium nephropathy: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Raphael Reis Pereira-Silva; Debora Esperancini-Tebar

    2014-01-01

    Although widely used in the management of bipolar disorder, lithium may cause adverse kidney effects. The importance of the present study is to report the case of a 59-year-old woman who was under regular treatment with lithium for bipolar disorder and whose imaging studies demonstrated the presence of multiple renal microcysts, suggesting lithium nephropathy as main diagnostic hypothesis.

  15. Lithium nephropathy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Reis Pereira-Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although widely used in the management of bipolar disorder, lithium may cause adverse kidney effects. The importance of the present study is to report the case of a 59-year-old woman who was under regular treatment with lithium for bipolar disorder and whose imaging studies demonstrated the presence of multiple renal microcysts, suggesting lithium nephropathy as main diagnostic hypothesis.

  16. 化学镀制备锡-锌-镍合金锂离子电池阳极材料%Electroless Deposition of Sn-Zn-Ni Alloy Film for Anodic Materials of Lithium Ion Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李峰; 张世超

    2012-01-01

    Sn-Zn-Ni ternary alloy film was prepared on copper foil and foam copper respectively by a modified electroless plating process* which used both of sodium borohydride and sodium hypophosphite as reducing agents and was combined with alkaline tin disproportionating reaction. X-ray diffraction (XRD) . Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) , and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) were used to characterize the phases, morphology and composition of the films respectively on both copper foil and copper foam. The EDS results show that the elements,such as Sn, Zn and Ni can be found in the coating. By optimizing, the mass fraction of zinc in the coating can reach 25 %. A three-dimensional porous foam copper used as substrate to deposit Sn-Zn-Ni ternary alloy film, and then the film is coated with glucose-derived carbon-rich polysaccharide by a hydrothermal approach. When it is used as anode materials in lithium ion batteries, the reversible lithium storage capacity of more than 400 mA ? H " g"1 can be after 10 cycles.%应用经过改进的化学镀工艺,即:采用硼氢化钠、次磷酸钠同时作为还原剂,结合锡的碱性歧化反应,分别在铜箔及泡沫铜上制备Sn-Zn-Ni三元合金镀层.用X射线衍射仪(XRD)、扫描电子显微镜(SEM)、X射线能量衍射谱(EDS)分析镀层的结构与组成.结果表明:镀层中含有锡、锌、镍三种元素;优化沉积条件,镀层中锌的质量分数可达25%.采用三维多孔泡沫铜为基体,制备化学镀层并对其进行水热葡萄糖碳包覆处理.作为锂离子电池阳极材料,充放电循环10周,放电容量仍可保持在400mA·h·g-1以上.

  17. Dissolution behavior of lithium compounds in ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Furukawa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to exchange the components which received irradiation damage during the operation at the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility, the adhered lithium, which is partially converted to lithium compounds such as lithium oxide and lithium hydroxide, should be removed from the components. In this study, the dissolution experiments of lithium compounds (lithium nitride, lithium hydroxide, and lithium oxide were performed in a candidate solvent, allowing the clarification of time and temperature dependence. Based on the results, a cleaning procedure for adhered lithium on the inner surface of the components was proposed.

  18. Density Optimization of Lithium Lanthanum Titanate Ceramics for Lightweight Lithium-Air Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Density Optimization of Lithium Lanthanum Titanate Ceramics for Lightweight Lithium -Air Batteries by Claire Weiss Brennan, Victoria Blair...Ground, MD 21005-5069 ARL-TR-7145 November 2014 Density Optimization of Lithium Lanthanum Titanate Ceramics for Lightweight Lithium -Air...COVERED (From - To) 1 June–31 August 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Density Optimization of Lithium Lanthanum Titanate Ceramics for Lightweight Lithium

  19. Synthesis, structure and properties of bimetallic sodium rare-earth (RE) borohydrides, NaRE(BH4)4, RE = Ce, Pr, Er or Gd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payandeh GharibDoust, SeyedHosein; Ravnsbæk, Dorthe B; Černý, Radovan; Jensen, Torben R

    2017-09-26

    Formation, stability and properties of new metal borohydrides within RE(BH4)3-NaBH4, RE = Ce, Pr, Er or Gd is investigated. Three new bimetallic sodium rare-earth borohydrides, NaCe(BH4)4, NaPr(BH4)4 and NaEr(BH4)4 are formed based on an addition reaction between NaBH4 and halide free rare-earth metal borohydrides RE(BH4)3, RE = Ce, Pr, Er. All the new compounds crystallize in the orthorhombic crystal system. NaCe(BH4)4 has unit cell parameters of a = 6.8028(5), b = 17.5181(13), c = 7.2841(5) Å and space group Pbcn. NaPr(BH4)4 is isostructural to NaCe(BH4)4 with unit cell parameters of a = 6.7617(2), b = 17.4678(7), c = 7.2522(3) Å. NaEr(BH4)4 crystallizes in space group Cmcm with unit cell parameters of a = 8.5379(2), b = 12.1570(4), c = 9.1652(3) Å. The structural relationships, also to the known RE(BH4)3, are discussed in detail and related to the stability and synthesis conditions. Heat treatment of NaBH4-Gd(BH4)3 mixture forms an unstable amorphous phase, which decomposes after one day at RT. NaCe(BH4)4 and NaPr(BH4)4 show reversible hydrogen storage capacity of 1.65 and 1.04 wt% in the fourth H2 release, whereas that of NaEr(BH4)4 continuously decreases. This is mainly assigned to formation of metal hydrides and possibly slower formation of sodium borohydride. The dehydrogenated state clearly contains rare-earth metal borides, which stabilize boron in the dehydrogenated state.

  20. Efficient and simple protocol employing borohydride systems to design a selective osthol-zirconium (OST-Zr library from potential natural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhakrishnan Viswanathan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available “Drug likeness” of a molecule is the prime criterion for a molecule to exhibit the desired pharmaceutical activity. A pharmacophore, which describes molecular features that are necessary for molecular recognition of a ligand by a biological macromolecule, is well altered by the Structure Activity Relationship (SAR guidelines through Hydrophobic Lipophilic Balance (HLB demonstrated by the system. The tailoring is best accomplished by organic functional group interconversion on a potent natural product via a variety of synthetic methodologies available to date. Metal borohydrides (MBH4 in particular are promising compounds as they can potentially serve varying HLB systems. The reagent acts on the substrate to cause reduction, hydroboration, or a combination of both outcomes for the purpose of rearrangement and fragmentation. Indeed, Zr(BH44 is expected to be more active and selective as a reducing agent compared to NaBH4. This study aims at evaluating zirconium borohydride (Zr(BH44 in tetrahydrofuran (THF as a reducing system to realize a more selective, meaningful and combinatorial osthol (OST library from potential natural products and attempt to alternate preparation of the same in THF from known metal borohydrides, limiting reduction of the metal center versus metathesis. 

  1. Characterisation of silver nanoparticles produced by three different methods based on Borohydride reducing agent

    OpenAIRE

    Hani Ramli Roslinda; Soon Chin Fhong; Mohd Rus Anika Zafiah

    2016-01-01

    This work reports the preparation and characterisation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) through chemical reduction method with three different procedures denote as modified Mulfinger’s Method, Mulfinger’s Method and Malina’s Method. The yellow colloidal solution were characterised and analysed using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). FESEM and EDS analyses confirmed that the formation of AgNPs in Malina’s Me...

  2. Characterisation of silver nanoparticles produced by three different methods based on Borohydride reducing agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani Ramli Roslinda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the preparation and characterisation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs through chemical reduction method with three different procedures denote as modified Mulfinger’s Method, Mulfinger’s Method and Malina’s Method. The yellow colloidal solution were characterised and analysed using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM, Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD. FESEM and EDS analyses confirmed that the formation of AgNPs in Malina’s Method with highest yield of silver (Ag, 67.39 % weight as compared to Mulfinger’s and modified Mulfinger’s Method. The peaks in XRD pattern for Malina’s Method are in good agreement with face-centered-cubic form of metallic silver while modified Mulfinger’s Method and Mulfinger’s Method XRD pattern suggest the halite/sodium chlorate and silver chlorate peaks respectively. Malina’s Method is found to be a suitable method to study AgNPs.

  3. Lithium Polymer Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-01

    formation of the galvanic cell , lithium foil approximately 150 µm thick and with an area of 0.785 cm2 was placed on top of the pressed electrolyte/cathode...pellet. The entire galvanic cell fabricated in this configuration was hermetically sealed and under pressure. A Tenney environmental chamber was

  4. Growth and decomposition of Lithium and Lithium hydride on Nickel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engbæk, Jakob; Nielsen, Gunver; Nielsen, Jane Hvolbæk

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we have investigated the deposition, structure and decomposition of lithium and lithium-hydride films on a nickel substrate. Using surface sensitive techniques it was possible to quantify the deposited Li amount, and to optimize the deposition procedure for synthesizing lithium......-hydride films. By only making thin films of LiH it is possible to study the stability of these hydride layers and compare it directly with the stability of pure Li without having any transport phenomena or adsorbed oxygen to obscure the results. The desorption of metallic lithium takes place at a lower...... temperature than the decomposition of the lithium-hydride, confirming the high stability and sintering problems of lithium-hydride making the storage potential a challenge. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  5. Hydrogen Sorption in Erbium Borohydride Composite Mixtures with LiBH4 and/or LiH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Heere

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Rare earth (RE metal borohydrides have recently been receiving attention as possible hydrogen storage materials and solid-state Li-ion conductors. In this paper, the decomposition and reabsorption of Er(BH43 in composite mixtures with LiBH4 and/or LiH were investigated. The composite of 3LiBH4 + Er(BH43 + 3LiH has a theoretical hydrogen storage capacity of 9 wt %, nevertheless, only 6 wt % hydrogen are accessible due to the formation of thermally stable LiH. Hydrogen sorption measurements in a Sieverts-type apparatus revealed that during three desorption-absorption cycles of 3LiBH4 + Er(BH43 + 3LiH, the composite desorbed 4.2, 3.7 and 3.5 wt % H for the first, second and third cycle, respectively, and thus showed good rehydrogenation behavior. In situ synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction (SR-PXD after ball milling of Er(BH43 + 6LiH resulted in the formation of LiBH4, revealing that metathesis reactions occurred during milling in these systems. Impedance spectroscopy of absorbed Er(BH43 + 6LiH showed an exceptional high hysteresis of 40–60 K for the transition between the high and low temperature phases of LiBH4, indicating that the high temperature phase of LiBH4 is stabilized in the composite.

  6. Hydrolysis and regeneration of sodium borohydride (NaBH4) - A combination of hydrogen production and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W.; Ouyang, L. Z.; Liu, J. W.; Yao, X. D.; Wang, H.; Liu, Z. W.; Zhu, M.

    2017-08-01

    Sodium borohydride (NaBH4) hydrolysis is a promising approach for hydrogen generation, but it is limited by high costs, low efficiency of recycling the by-product, and a lack of effective gravimetric storage methods. Here we demonstrate the regeneration of NaBH4 by ball milling the by-product, NaBO2·2H2O or NaBO2·4H2O, with MgH2 at room temperature and atmospheric pressure without any further post-treatment. Record yields of NaBH4 at 90.0% for NaBO2·2H2O and 88.3% for NaBO2·4H2O are achieved. This process also produces hydrogen from the splitting of coordinate water in hydrated sodium metaborate. This compensates the need for extra hydrogen for generating MgH2. Accordingly, we conclude that our unique approach realizes an efficient and cost-effective closed loop system for hydrogen production and storage.

  7. Silver nanoparticles-containing dual-function hydrogels based on a guar gum-sodium borohydride system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lei; Nadeau, Ben; An, Xingye; Cheng, Dong; Long, Zhu; Ni, Yonghao

    2016-01-01

    Dual-function hydrogels, possessing both stimuli-responsive and self-healing properties, have recently attracted attention of both chemists and materials scientists. Here we report a new paradigm using natural polymer (guar gum, GG) and sodium borohydride (NaBH4), for the preparation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)-containing smart hydrogels in a simple, fast and economical way. NaBH4 performs as a reducing agent for AgNPs synthesis using silver nitrate (AgNO3) as the precursor. Meanwhile, sodium metaborate (NaBO2) (from NaBH4) behaves as a cross-linking agent between GG molecular chains. The AgNPs/GG hydrogels with excellent viscoelastic properties can be obtained within 3 min at room temperature without the addition of other cross-linkers. The resultant AgNPs/GG hydrogels are flowable and injectable, and they possess excellent pH/thermal responsive properties. Additionally, they exhibit rapid self-healing capacity. This work introduces a facile and scale-up way to prepare a class of hydrogels that can have great potential to biomedical and other industrial applications. PMID:27819289

  8. Quaternized polymeric microgels as metal free catalyst for H2 production from the methanolysis of sodium borohydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahiner, Nurettin; Sengel, Sultan Butun

    2016-12-01

    Polymeric microgels derived from tris(2-amino ethyl)amine (TAEA) and glycerol diglycidyl ether as p(TAEA-co-GDE) via microemulsion polymerization techniques are protonated by 0.5 M HCl treatment as p(TAEA-co-GDE)-HCl). These microgels are then exposed to anion exchange reactions with differ ionic liquid forming salts, such as potassium thiocyanate (PTC), sodium dicyanamide (SDCA), ammonium hexafluorophosphate (AHFP), and sodium tetrafluoroborate (STFB) in aqueous medium for the preparation of p(TAEA-co-GDE) based ionic liquid colloidal microgels. These anions exchanged p(TAEA-co-GDE) ionic liquid colloids (ILCs) are directly used as catalyst for hydrogen (H2) generation from the methanol solution of sodium borohydride (NaBH4). Various parameters affecting the H2 production rate such as the catalyst types, NaBH4 amount, and the temperature are investigated. It is found that the methanolysis of NaBH4 catalyzed by p(TAEA-co-GDE)-HCl obeys the first order reaction kinetic. The activation energy, enthalpy and entropy of the protonated p(TAEA-co-GDE) microgels are calculated and found as the 30.37 kJ mol-1, 27.96 kJ mol-1, and -148.08 J mol-1 K-1, respectively. Furthermore, the hydrogen generation rate of 3018 mL min-1 g-1 catalyzed by p(TAEA-co-GDE)-HCl catalyst is attained.

  9. Low-cost method for sodium borohydride regeneration and the energy efficiency of its hydrolysis and regeneration process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, L. Z.; Zhong, H.; Li, Z. M.; Cao, Z. J.; Wang, H.; Liu, J. W.; Zhu, X. K.; Zhu, M.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrolysis of sodium borohydride (NaBH4) is one of the most attractive methods for energy generation of mobile systems used as hydrogen source because of the high gravimetric density and controllable hydrogen generation of NaBH4. However, regeneration of NaBH4 is a key issue that remains to be solved, and the energy efficiency of NaBH4 is unknown. In the present study, the energy efficiency of NaBH4 hydrolysis and the entire process of sodium metaborate (NaBO2) regeneration via reaction with magnesium hydride (MgH2) is determined through thermodynamics calculations. The maximum energy efficiency is 49.91%, indicating that NaBH4 generation by reaction between MgH2 and NaBO2 during ball milling is feasible. An inexpensive high-energy ball milling method is employed to regenerate NaBH4 by reaction of NaBO2 with magnesium-lanthanum hydrides (H-Mg3La). Products after ball milling are characterized through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction measurements. In the reaction of NaBO2 with H-Mg3La, MgH2 reacts with NaBO2 and then lanthanum hydride (LaH3) reacts with NaBO2 to produce NaBH4.

  10. Modeling the performance of an ideal NaBH4-H2O2 direct borohydride fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroman, Richard O.; Jackson, Gregory S.

    2014-02-01

    A 2D direct borohydride fuel cell (DBFC) model has been developed to explore the prospective performance of this technology, for a cell with fast selective electrocatalysts and a selective membrane. In the modeled DBFC, a Nafion membrane in the Na+ form separates flow channels with aqueous fuel (0.1-0.5 M NaBH4/4 M NaOH) and oxidizer (4 M H2O2/4 M H2SO4). Electrochemical reactions occur on catalyst-coated channel walls. The electrocatalysts are selective for complete BH4- oxidation and H2O2 reduction, the reactions have fast forward rate constants, and only Na+ and H2O cross the membrane. The model captures interfacial charge transfer reactions and complex transport in the flow channels and membrane. Results show that current density and voltage efficiency vary by >50% from inlet to outlet due to concentration boundary layer development. The BH4- concentration boundary layer limits peak power density, despite migration and fuel utilizations below 10%. Power density increases with BH4- inlet concentration and fuel flow rate, but at the expense of lower fuel utilization. Water crosses the membrane up to 14 times its production rate at the anode. Low fuel utilization and water imbalance suggest the importance of system designs with reactant recirculation and water recovery.

  11. Combined X-ray and Raman Studies on the Effect of Cobalt Additives on the Decomposition of Magnesium Borohydride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Zavorotynska

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium borohydride (Mg(BH42 is one of the most promising hydrogen storage materials. Its kinetics of hydrogen desorption, reversibility, and complex reaction pathways during decomposition and rehydrogenation, however, present a challenge, which has been often addressed by using transition metal compounds as additives. In this work the decomposition of Mg(BH42 ball-milled with CoCl2 and CoF2 additives, was studied by means of a combination of several in-situ techniques. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy were used to follow the phase transitions and decomposition of Mg(BH42. By comparison with pure milled Mg(BH42, the temperature for the γ → ε phase transition in the samples with CoF2 or CoCl2 additives was reduced by 10–45 °C. In-situ Raman measurements showed the formation of a decomposition phase with vibrations at 2513, 2411 and 766 cm−1 in the sample with CoF2. Simultaneous X-ray absorption measurements at the Co K-edge revealed that the additives chemically transformed to other species. CoF2 slowly reacted upon heating till ~290 °C, whereas CoCl2 transformed drastically at ~180 °C.

  12. Voltage hysteresis of lithium ion batteries caused by mechanical stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bo; Song, Yicheng; Zhang, Qinglin; Pan, Jie; Cheng, Yang-Tse; Zhang, Junqian

    2016-02-14

    The crucial role of mechanical stress in voltage hysteresis of lithium ion batteries in charge-discharge cycles is investigated theoretically and experimentally. A modified Butler-Volmer equation of electrochemical kinetics is proposed to account for the influence of mechanical stresses on electrochemical reactions in lithium ion battery electrodes. It is found that the compressive stress in the surface layer of active materials impedes lithium intercalation, and therefore, an extra electrical overpotential is needed to overcome the reaction barrier induced by the stress. The theoretical formulation has produced a linear dependence of the height of voltage hysteresis on the hydrostatic stress difference between lithiation and delithiation, under both open-circuit conditions and galvanostatic operation. Predictions of the electrical overpotential from theoretical equations agree well with the experimental data for thin film silicon electrodes.

  13. Lithium clearance in chronic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Leyssac, P P

    1989-01-01

    1. Lithium clearance measurements were made in 72 patients with chronic nephropathy of different aetiology and moderate to severely reduced renal function. 2. Lithium clearance was strictly correlated with glomerular filtration rate, and there was no suggestion of distal tubular reabsorption...... of lithium or influence of osmotic diuresis. 3. Fractional reabsorption of lithium was reduced in most patients with glomerular filtration rates below 25 ml/min. 4. Calculated fractional distal reabsorption of sodium was reduced in most patients with glomerular filtration rates below 50 ml/min. 5. Lithium...... that lithium clearance may be a measure of the delivery of sodium and water from the renal proximal tubule. With this assumption it was found that adjustment of the sodium excretion in chronic nephropathy initially takes place in the distal parts of the nephron (loop of Henle, distal tubule and collecting duct...

  14. Experimental lithium system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolowith, R.; Berg, J.D.; Miller, W.C.

    1985-04-01

    A full-scale mockup of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility lithium system was built at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL). This isothermal mockup, called the Experimental Lithium System (ELS), was prototypic of FMIT, excluding the accelerator and dump heat exchanger. This 3.8 m/sup 3/ lithium test loop achieved over 16,000 hours of safe and reliable operation. An extensive test program demonstrated satisfactory performance of the system components, including the HEDL-supplied electromagnetic lithium pump, the lithium jet target, the purification and characterization hardware, as well as the auxiliary argon and vacuum systems. Experience with the test loop provided important information on system operation, performance, and reliability. This report presents a complete overview of the entire Experimental Lithium System test program and also includes a summary of such areas as instrumentation, coolant chemistry, vapor/aerosol transport, and corrosion.

  15. Separators for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.C.Li; H.P.Zhang; Y.P.Wu

    2007-01-01

    1 Results A separator for rechargeable batteries is a microporous membrane placed between electrodes of opposite polarity, keeping them apart to prevent electrical short circuits and at the same time allowing rapid transport of lithium ions that are needed to complete the circuit during the passage of current in an electrochemical cell, and thus plays a key role in determining the performance of the lithium ion battery. Here provides a comprehensive overview of various types of separators for lithium io...

  16. Lithium-Associated Kidney Microcysts

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer Tuazon; David Casalino; Ehteshamuddin Syed; Daniel Batlle

    2008-01-01

    Long-term lithium therapy is associated with impairment in concentrating ability and, occasionally, progression to advanced chronic kidney disease from tubulointerstitial nephropathy. Biopsy findings in patients with lithium-induced chronic tubulointerstitial nephropathy include tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis interspersed with tubular cysts and dilatations. Recent studies have shown that cysts are seen in 33––62.5% of the patients undergoing lithium therapy. MR imaging is highly ca...

  17. Membranes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junbo Hou

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed.

  18. Membranes in lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min; Hou, Junbo

    2012-07-04

    Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed.

  19. Grain boundary modification to suppress lithium penetration through garnet-type solid electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongahally Basappa, Rajendra; Ito, Tomoko; Morimura, Takao; Bekarevich, Raman; Mitsuishi, Kazutaka; Yamada, Hirotoshi

    2017-09-01

    Garnet-type solid electrolytes are one of key materials to enable practical usage of lithium metal anode for high-energy-density batteries. However, it suffers from lithium growth in pellets on charging, which causes short circuit. In this study, grain boundaries of Li6.5La3Zr1.5Ta0.5O12 (LLZT) pellets are modified with Li2CO3 and LiOH to investigate the influence of the microstructure of grain boundaries on lithium growth and to study the mechanism of the lithium growth. In spite of similar properties (relative density of ca. 96% and total ionic conductivity of 7 × 10-4 S cm-1 at 25 °C), the obtained pellets exhibit different tolerance on the short circuit. The LLZT pellets prepared from LiOH-modified LLZT powders exhibit rather high critical current density of 0.6 mA cm-2, at which short circuit occurs. On the other hand, the LLZT pellets without grain boundary modification short-circuited at 0.15 mA cm-2. Microstructural analyses by means of SEM, STEM and EIS suggest that lithium grows through interconnected open voids, and reveal that surface layers such as Li2CO3 and LiOH are not only plug voids but also facilitate the sintering of LLZT to suppress the lithium growth. The results indicate a strategy towards short-circuit-free lithium metal batteries.

  20. New lithium gas sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuntonov, K. [NanoShell Consulting, Zalman Shneour 16, 32544 Haifa (Israel)], E-mail: konstantin@chuntonov.com; Ivanov, A.; Permikin, D. [Ural State University, Lenin Avenue 51, 620083 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2009-03-05

    A theory of gas sorption by lithium solid solutions, which is based on a simple diffusion model, has been applied to the processes of gettering residual gases in small sealed-off chambers of a MEMS-cavity type. The analysis of kinetics of the process leads to the conclusion that under certain conditions, which are formulated in the form of a criterial inequality G > 1, there is no further need of outside means for pumping down the microchambers before sealing-off. A vacuum inside the microchamber is created and further maintained for a long time at a constant level due to gas sorption by the getter material itself. The huge sorption capacity of lithium solid solutions is able to increase the lifetime of evacuated MEMS devices by more than one order of magnitude and to extend it to 20 years.

  1. Lithium - induced tardive dystonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakrabarti S

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Tardive dystonia is an uncommon form of chronic dystonia, which usually develops on exposure to neuroleptics. Tardive dystonia (Tdt following lithium therapy has not been previously reported. The case of 38 year old man with bipolar affective disorder who developed tardive dystonia while on maintenance lithium treatment is described. Presentation of Tdt in this patient was fairly characteristic although there was no suggestion of recent neuroleptic exposure. Tdt known to have poor treatment response, responded very well to clozapine, a novel anti-psychotic, in this case. To conclude, Tdt may develop on exposure to drugs other than neuroleptics. An adequate trial to clozapine can prove to be a useful treatment option.

  2. Optimized lithium oxyhalide cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilroy, W. P.; Schlaikjer, C.; Polsonetti, P.; Jones, M.

    1993-04-01

    Lithium thionyl chloride cells were optimized with respect to electrolyte and carbon cathode composition. Wound 'C-size' cells with various mixtures of Chevron acetylene black with Ketjenblack EC-300J and containing various concentrations of LiAlCl4 and derivatives, LiGaCl4, and mixtures of SOCl2 and SO2Cl2 were evaluated as a function of discharge rate, temperature, and storage condition.

  3. New lithium gas sorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuntonov, K. [Nanoshell Materials R and D GmbH, Primoschgasse 3, 9020 Klagenfurt (Austria)], E-mail: konstantin@chuntonov.com; Setina, J. [Institute of Metals and Technology, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Ivanov, A.; Permikin, D. [Ural State University, Lenin Avenue 51, 620083 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2008-07-28

    The kinetics of lithium evaporation from Ag-Li wire has been studied experimentally in the temperature interval 520-630 deg. C. The initial stage of the process takes place in the kinetic regime and finishes with the formation of a thin layer of silver on the surface of the alloy. Then the process moves to the diffusion region where the evaporation flow and the mass of the deposited film can be described quantitatively with the help of simple analytical expressions.

  4. Lithium ion sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Prabir K.; Greenway, Wayne G.; Grote, Dave P.; Kwan, Joe W.; Lidia, Steven M.; Seidl, Peter A.; Waldron, William L.

    2014-01-01

    A 10.9 cm diameter lithium alumino-silicate ion source has been chosen as a source of ˜100mA lithium ion current for the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX-II) at LBNL. Research and development was carried out on lithium alumino-silicate ion sources prior to NDCX-II source fabrication. Space-charge-limited emission with the current density exceeding 1 mA/cm2 was measured with 0.64 cm diameter lithium alumino-silicate ion sources at 1275 °C. The beam current density is less for the first 10.9 cm diameter NDCX-II source, and it may be due to an issue of surface coverage. The lifetime of a thin coated (on a tungsten substrate) source is varied, roughly 40-50 h, when pulsed at 0.05 Hz and with pulse length of 6μs each, i.e., a duty factor of 3×10-7, at an operating temperature of 1250-1275 °C. The 10.9 cm diameter source lifetime is likely the same as of a 0.64 cm source, but the lifetime of a source with a 2 mm diameter (without a tungsten substrate) is 10-15 h with a duty factor of 1 (DC extraction). The lifetime variation is dependent on the amount of deposition of β-eucryptite mass, and the surface temperature. The amount of mass deposition does not significantly alter the current density. More ion source work is needed to improve the large source performance.

  5. Lithium ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Prabir K., E-mail: pkroy@lbl.gov [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California CA-94720 (United States); Greenway, Wayne G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California CA-94720 (United States); Grote, Dave P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory LLC, CA-94550 (United States); Kwan, Joe W.; Lidia, Steven M.; Seidl, Peter A.; Waldron, William L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California CA-94720 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    A 10.9 cm diameter lithium alumino-silicate ion source has been chosen as a source of ∼100mA lithium ion current for the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX-II) at LBNL. Research and development was carried out on lithium alumino-silicate ion sources prior to NDCX-II source fabrication. Space-charge-limited emission with the current density exceeding 1 mA/cm{sup 2} was measured with 0.64 cm diameter lithium alumino-silicate ion sources at 1275 °C. The beam current density is less for the first 10.9 cm diameter NDCX-II source, and it may be due to an issue of surface coverage. The lifetime of a thin coated (on a tungsten substrate) source is varied, roughly 40–50 h, when pulsed at 0.05 Hz and with pulse length of 6μs each, i.e., a duty factor of 3×10{sup −7}, at an operating temperature of 1250–1275 °C. The 10.9 cm diameter source lifetime is likely the same as of a 0.64 cm source, but the lifetime of a source with a 2 mm diameter (without a tungsten substrate) is 10–15 h with a duty factor of 1 (DC extraction). The lifetime variation is dependent on the amount of deposition of β-eucryptite mass, and the surface temperature. The amount of mass deposition does not significantly alter the current density. More ion source work is needed to improve the large source performance.

  6. The influence of LiH on the rehydrogenation behavior of halide free rare earth (RE) borohydrides (RE = Pr, Er).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heere, Michael; Payandeh GharibDoust, Seyed Hosein; Frommen, Christoph; Humphries, Terry D; Ley, Morten B; Sørby, Magnus H; Jensen, Torben R; Hauback, Bjørn C

    2016-09-21

    Rare earth (RE) metal borohydrides are receiving immense consideration as possible hydrogen storage materials and solid-state Li-ion conductors. In this study, halide free Er(BH4)3 and Pr(BH4)3 have been successfully synthesized for the first time by the combination of mechanochemical milling and/or wet chemistry. Rietveld refinement of Er(BH4)3 confirmed the formation of two different Er(BH4)3 polymorphs: α-Er(BH4)3 with space group Pa3[combining macron], a = 10.76796(5) Å, and β-Er(BH4)3 in Pm3[combining macron]m with a = 5.4664(1) Å. A variety of Pr(BH4)3 phases were found after extraction with diethyl ether: α-Pr(BH4)3 in Pa3[combining macron] with a = 11.2465(1) Å, β-Pr(BH4)3 in Pm3[combining macron]m with a = 5.716(2) Å and LiPr(BH4)3Cl in I4[combining macron]3m, a = 11.5468(3) Å. Almost phase pure α-Pr(BH4)3 in Pa3[combining macron] with a = 11.2473(2) Å was also synthesized. The thermal decomposition of Er(BH4)3 and Pr(BH4)3 proceeded without the formation of crystalline products. Rehydrogenation, as such, was not successful. However, addition of LiH promoted the rehydrogenation of RE hydride phases and LiBH4 from the decomposed RE(BH4)3 samples.

  7. Metabolic Side Effects of Lithium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cagdas Eker

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Lithium is an alkaline ion being used since 19th century. After its widespread use in psychiatric disorders, observed side effects caused skepticism about its therapeutic efficacy. Despite several disadvantages, lithium is one of the indispensible drugs used in affective disorders, especially in bipolar disorder. It became a necessity for physicians to recognize its side effects since lithium is still accepted as a gold standard in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Adverse effects of chronic administration of lithium on several organ systems are widely known. In this article metabolic effects of lithium on thyroid and parathyroid glands, body mass index and kidneys will be discussed along with their mechanisms, clinical findings, possible risk factors and treatment. One of the most common side effect of lithium is hypothyroidism. It has the same clinical and biochemical properties as primary hypothyroidism and observed as subclinical hypothyroidism in the first place. Hypothyroidism, even its subclinical form, may be associated with non-response or inadequate response and is indicated as a risk factor for development of rapid cycling bipolar disorder. Therefore, hypothyroidism should be screened no matter how severe it is and should be treated with thyroid hormone in the presence of clinical hypothyroidism. Weight gain due to lithium administration disturbs the compliance to treatment and negatively affects the course of the illness. Increased risk for diabetes, hypertension, ischemic heart disease and stroke because of weight gain constitute other centers of problem. Indeed, it is of importance to determine the risk factors before treatment, to follow up the weight, to re-organize nutritional habits and to schedule exercises. Another frequent problematic side effect of lithium treatment is renal dysfunction which clinically present as nephrogenic diabetes insipidus with the common symptoms of polyuria and polydipsia. Nephrogenic diabetes

  8. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Lithium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Tina; Damkier, Per; Petersen, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Serum lithium is monitored to ensure levels within the narrow therapeutic window. This study examines the interlaboratory variation and inaccuracy of lithium monitoring in Denmark. METHODS: In 16 samples consisting of (1) control materials (n = 4), (2) pooled patient serum (n = 5......), and (3) serum from individual patients (n = 7), lithium was measured in 19 laboratories using 20 different instruments. The lithium concentrations were targeted by a reference laboratory. Ion-selective electrode (n = 5), reflective spectrophotometric (RSM, n = 5), and spectrophotometric (n = 10) methods...... of >12%. Seven of these instruments had a systematic positive or negative bias and more so at lower lithium concentrations. Three poorly calibrated instruments were found in the ion-selective electrode group, 3 in the spectrophotometric group, and 2 in the RSM group. The instruments using reflectance...

  9. Cold-starting portable microenergy system. Autonomous fuel cell system using sodium borohydride as an energy source; Kaltstartfaehiges portables Mikroenergiesystem. Autarkes BZ-System mit Natriumborhydrid als Energietraeger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groos, Ulf; Koch, Wolfgang [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    A project consortium led by Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme ISE developed an autonomous micro energy system (AMES) with an output of 100 W{sub el} as a charging station for applications in emergency medicine. The system is designed for a wide temperature range of -15 to +50 degC during startup, operation, and shutoff. The cold starting fuel cell system is in accordance with current standards and is suited for serial production. It can be operated with common hydrogen stores, e.g. gas flasks or metal hydrides, or else with a specially developed hydrogen generator based on sodium borohydride. (orig.)

  10. Lithium Reserve Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    the high temperature stability of 2M LiAsF6/MF electrolyte solutions. It was found that the addition of small amounts of LiBF4 to these solutions...greatly increased their high temperature storage capabilities. It was determined that the LiBF4 was effective only when lithium metal was also present in...the solution. LiBF4 was able to stabilize solutions prepared with grades of LiAsF6 obtained from other vendors but to a much lesser degree.

  11. Highly dispersed Pd nanoparticles on chemically modified graphene with aminophenyl groups for formic acid oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Su-Dong; Shen, Cheng-Min; Tong, Hao; He, Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Gang; Gao, Hong-Jun

    2011-11-01

    A novel electrode material based on chemically modified graphene (CMG) with aminophenyl groups is covalently functionalized by a nucleophilic ring-opening reaction between the epoxy groups of graphene oxide and the aminophenyl groups of p-phenylenediamine. Palladium nanoparticles with an average diameter of 4.2 nm are deposited on the CMG by a liquid-phase borohydride reduction. The electrocatalytic activity and stability of the Pd/CMG composite towards formic acid oxidation are found to be higher than those of reduced graphene oxide and commercial carbon materials such as Vulcan XC-72 supported Pd electrocatalysts.

  12. First One-step Enantioselective Reduction of á-Haloacetophenones into Styrene Oxides using Sodium Borohydride in Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing-wei; XU Li-wen; XIA Chun-gu

    2004-01-01

    The synthesis of enantiomerically enriched epoxides especially styrene oxides is an interesting challenge1,2 since they are often valuable building blocks for various fine chemical products and pharmaceuticals such as (a)2-, (a)3-, and á1-adrenergic receptor agonists3, 4. In recent years,there has been a flood of papers describing the synthetical methods of the chiral non-racemic epoxides5,6. Here we firstly developed a green, simple and potential epoxidation system by enantioselective reduction of a-haloacetophenones using NaBH4 in water.The procedure of the unexpected epoxidation was firstly found accidentally in the study of L-proline-catalyzed asymmetric reduction of aldehydes, ketones in water. In that time, we observed not only reductive product a-bromophenethyl alcohol but also a small quantity of styrene oxide after three hour reduction of a-bromoacephenone in water. It is impossible to produce the epoxide in the reduction when THF acts as solvent. Then we optimized the reaction conditions and extended reaction time to 5 hr until we obtained the epoxide as a major product.Encouraged by the front results, we tried a-CD as a chiral inducement and catalyst. Cyclodextrins (CDs), a cyclic oligosaccharide composed of several D-glucose units with an a-1, 4 linkage (6, 7, 8for á-, (a)-, (a)-CD, respectively), have been recognized as versatile enzyme mimics since every one molecule of them possesses a hydrophilic outside, which can dissolve in water, and a hydrophobic cavity, which provides an apolar matrix, described as "micro heterogeneous enwronment"7. All the experiments were carried out in water under room temperature. The procedure is a green, simple and potential, although the optically active styrene oxides are obtained in only moderate ees. and yields.When á-bromoacephenone and Sodium Borohydride (1.2 equiv, to ketone) reacts in water using 150mol% (a)-CD as catalyst, a 41% chemical yield and 45% optical yield of the corresponding epoxide were obtained

  13. RING-OPENING POLYMERIZAION OF 2,2-DIMETHYLTRIMETHYLENE CARBONATE INITIATED BY IN SITU GENERATED, TETRAHYDROSALEN STABLIZED YTTRIUM BOROHYDRIDE COMPLEX AND RANDOM COPOLYMERIZATION WITH ε-CAPROLACTONE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Huang; Jian-fang Yu; Han-jian Yu; Wei-lin Sun; Zhi-quan Shen

    2011-01-01

    The poly(2,2-dimethyltrimethylene carbonate) (PDTC) with one hydroxyl and one formate tenninal fimctions was synthesized by in situ generated, tetrahydrosalen stabilized yttrium borohydride complex. The influences of monomer/initiator molar ratio, temperature and reaction time on polymerization of DTC were investigated. Under the condition: [DTC]/[I] = 500, 55℃, toluene: 0.5 mL, DTC: 0.6 g, PDTC with Mn = 15600 and PDI = 2.15 was obtained.Through 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR analyses, the structure of PDTC was characterized and a coordination-insertion mechanism was proposed. In addition, the random copolymerization of DTC and caprolactone (CL) initiated by rare-earth borohydride compound was studied. The microstructure of PDTC-co-PCL includes four diads: DTC-CL, CL-CL, DTC-DTC and CLDTC, which were determined by the specific signals in 1H-NMR spectra. Based on the typical signals of the formate (δ=8.08) and hydroxyl (δ = 3.34) end groups of PDTC-co-PCL, a mechanism involving DTC monomer inserts before CL during the initiation process was presumed. Furthermore, the thermal properties of amorphous copolymer were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results support the random structure of PDTC-co-PCL.

  14. A lithium superionic conductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaya, Noriaki; Homma, Kenji; Yamakawa, Yuichiro; Hirayama, Masaaki; Kanno, Ryoji; Yonemura, Masao; Kamiyama, Takashi; Kato, Yuki; Hama, Shigenori; Kawamoto, Koji; Mitsui, Akio

    2011-07-31

    Batteries are a key technology in modern society. They are used to power electric and hybrid electric vehicles and to store wind and solar energy in smart grids. Electrochemical devices with high energy and power densities can currently be powered only by batteries with organic liquid electrolytes. However, such batteries require relatively stringent safety precautions, making large-scale systems very complicated and expensive. The application of solid electrolytes is currently limited because they attain practically useful conductivities (10(-2) S cm(-1)) only at 50-80 °C, which is one order of magnitude lower than those of organic liquid electrolytes. Here, we report a lithium superionic conductor, Li(10)GeP(2)S(12) that has a new three-dimensional framework structure. It exhibits an extremely high lithium ionic conductivity of 12 mS cm(-1) at room temperature. This represents the highest conductivity achieved in a solid electrolyte, exceeding even those of liquid organic electrolytes. This new solid-state battery electrolyte has many advantages in terms of device fabrication (facile shaping, patterning and integration), stability (non-volatile), safety (non-explosive) and excellent electrochemical properties (high conductivity and wide potential window).

  15. Lithium metal doped electrodes for lithium-ion rechargeable chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gao; Battaglia, Vince; Wang, Lei

    2016-09-13

    An embodiment of the invention combines the superior performance of a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) or polyethyleneoxide (POE) binder, the strong binding force of a styrene-butadiene (SBR) binder, and a source of lithium ions in the form of solid lithium metal powder (SLMP) to form an electrode system that has improved performance as compared to PVDF/SBR binder based electrodes. This invention will provide a new way to achieve improved results at a much reduced cost.

  16. Selectively accelerated lithium ion transport to silicon anodes via an organogel binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Chihyun; Cho, Yoon-Gyo; Kang, Na-Ri; Ko, Younghoon; Lee, Ungju; Ahn, Dongjoon; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Young-Jin; Song, Hyun-Kon

    2015-12-01

    Silicon, a promising high-capacity anode material of lithium ion batteries, suffers from its volume expansion leading to pulverization and low conductivities, showing capacity decay during cycling and low capacities at fast charging and discharging. In addition to popular active-material-modifying strategies, building lithium-ion-rich environments around silicon surface is helpful in enhancing unsatisfactory performances of silicon anodes. In this work, we accelerated lithium ion transport to silicon surface by using an organogel binder to utilize the electroactivity of silicon in a more efficient way. The cyanoethyl polymer (PVA-CN), characterized by high lithium ion transference number as well as appropriate elastic modulus with strong adhesion, enhanced cycle stability of silicon anodes with high coulombic efficiency even at high temperature (60 °C) as well as at fast charging/discharging rates.

  17. Preparation, characterization, and electrochemical properties of lithium vanadium oxide nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuo Shujuan [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Anhui Key Laboratory of Functional Molecular Solids, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241000 (China); Shao Mingwang, E-mail: mwshao@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Zhou Qing; Liao Fan [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China)

    2011-07-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > The lithium ions can easily move between the layers of lithium vanadium oxide. > It can highly increase the electron transfer between the electrode and dopamine. > The reversibility of electrochemical process was significantly improved. - Abstract: Highly uniform lithium vanadium oxide nanoribbons were successfully prepared in large quantities using a facile hydrothermal approach without employing any surfactants or templates. The as-prepared products were up to hundreds of micrometers in length, about 200 nm in width, and 20 nm in thickness. These nanoribbons and nafion composite were employed to modify glassy carbon electrode, which displayed excellent electrochemical sensitivity and rapid response in detecting dopamine in phosphate buffer solution. Lithium ions can greatly increase the electron transfer between the electrode and biological materials, and significantly increase the reversibility of electrochemical process. A linear relationship between the concentrations of dopamine and its oxidation peak currents was obtained. The linear range for the detection of dopamine was 2.0 x 10{sup -6} to 1.0 x 10{sup -4} M with a detection limit of 1.0 x 10{sup -7} M. In addition, the good reproducibility and long-term stability of the sensor make it valuable for further application.

  18. Electromagnetic properties of manganese-zinc ferrite with lithium substitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Fazio, E. [LAFMACEL, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Paseo Colon 850 (1063), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bercoff, P.G., E-mail: bercoff@famaf.unc.edu.ar [FAMAF, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, IFEG-Conicet, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Jacobo, S.E. [LAFMACEL, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Paseo Colon 850 (1063), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-11-15

    Polycrystalline manganese-zinc ferrite with lithium substitution of composition Li{sub 0.5x}Mn{sub 0.4}Zn{sub 0.6-x}Fe{sub 2+0.5x}O{sub 4} (0.0{<=}x{<=}0.4) was prepared by the usual ceramic method. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that the samples have a spinel structure and are of single phase for some values of Li content. Lithium doping considerably modifies saturation magnetization since its value increases from 57.5 emu/g for x=0.0 to 82.9 emu/g for x=0.4. Lithium inclusion increases the real permeability (over 1 MHz) while the natural resonance frequency shifts to lower values as the fraction of Li increases. These ferrites show good electromagnetic properties as absorbers in the microwave range of 1 MHz - 1 GHz. - Highlights: > Li-doped manganese-zinc ferrites were successfully prepared by the usual ceramic method. > Lithium doping enhances saturation magnetization and increases real permeability (over 1 MHz). > Natural resonance frequency shifts to lower values as fraction of Li increases. > These ferrites show good electromagnetic properties as absorbers in the microwave range of 1 MHz-1 GHz.

  19. Optimizing lithium dosing in hemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnason, N H; Munkner, R; Kampmann, J P

    2006-01-01

    We studied a 62-year-old female hemodialysis patient during initiation and maintenance of lithium carbonate therapy. Three different methods were applied to estimate the regimen: a scenario based on volume of distribution (V(d)), a scenario based on glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and a scenario...... estimates. Furthermore, the maintenance dose estimated from the central compartment (V1) led to plasma concentrations within the therapeutic range. Thus, a regimen where 12.2 mmol lithium was given after each hemodialysis session resulted in stable between-dialysis plasma lithium concentrations...... in this patient with no residual kidney function. We did not observe adverse effects related to this regimen, which was monitored from 18 days to 8 months of therapy, and the patient experienced relief from her severe depressive disorder. In conclusion, dialysis patients may be treated with lithium administrated...

  20. Does lithium protect against dementia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Forman, Julie Lyng; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether treatment with lithium in patients with mania or bipolar disorder is associated with a decreased rate of subsequent dementia. METHODS: Linkage of register data on prescribed lithium in all patients discharged from psychiatric health care service with a diagnosis...... exposed to lithium (50.4%), 1,781 to anticonvulsants (36.7%), 4,280 to antidepressants (88.1%), and 3,901 to antipsychotics (80.3%) during the study period. A total of 216 patients received a diagnosis of dementia during follow-up (103.6/10,000 person-years). During the period following the second...... prescription of lithium, the rate of dementia was decreased compared to the period following the first prescription. In contrast, the rates of dementia during multiple prescription periods with anticonvulsants, antidepressants, or antipsychotics, respectively, were not significantly decreased compared...

  1. Rechargeable Lithium Metal Cell Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — PSI proposes to develop a rechargeable lithium metal cell with energy density >400Wh/kg. This represents a >70% increase as compared to similarly constructed...

  2. Rotational Mixing and Lithium Depletion

    CERN Document Server

    Pinsonneault, M H

    2010-01-01

    I review basic observational features in Population I stars which strongly implicate rotation as a mixing agent; these include dispersion at fixed temperature in coeval populations and main sequence lithium depletion for a range of masses at a rate which decays with time. New developments related to the possible suppression of mixing at late ages, close binary mergers and their lithium signature, and an alternate origin for dispersion in young cool stars tied to radius anomalies observed in active young stars are discussed. I highlight uncertainties in models of Population II lithium depletion and dispersion related to the treatment of angular momentum loss. Finally, the origins of rotation are tied to conditions in the pre-main sequence, and there is thus some evidence that enviroment and planet formation could impact stellar rotational properties. This may be related to recent observational evidence for cluster to cluster variations in lithium depletion and a connection between the presence of planets and s...

  3. Lithium Abundance of Metal-poor Stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua-Wei Zhang; Gang Zhao

    2003-01-01

    High-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra have been obtained for 32 metal-poor stars. The equivalent widths of Li λ6708A were measured and the lithium abundances were derived. The average lithium abundance of 21 stars on the lithium plateau is 2.33±0.02 dex. The Lithium plateau exhibits a marginal trend along metallicity, dA(Li)/d[Fe/H] = 0.12±0.06, and no clear trend with the effective temperature. The trend indicates that the abundance of lithium plateau may not be primordial and that a part of the lithium was produced in Galactic Chemical Evolution (GCE).

  4. Lithium compensation for full cell operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jie; Zheng, Jianming; Chen, Xilin; Lu, Dongping; Liu, Jun; Jiguang, Jiguang

    2016-05-17

    Disclosed herein are embodiments of a lithium-ion battery system comprising an anode, an anode current collector, and a layer of lithium metal in contact with the current collector, but not in contact with the anode. The lithium compensation layer dissolves into the electrolyte to compensate for the loss of lithium ions during usage of the full cell. The specific placement of the lithium compensation layer, such that there is no direct physical contact between the lithium compensation layer and the anode, provides certain advantages.

  5. Lithium isotope separation by laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arisawa, T.; Maruyama, Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Shiba, K.

    1982-01-01

    A lithium isotope separation was performed using a laser isotope separation method. It was found that the lithium atoms with a natural isotopic abundance enhanced its /sup 6/Li concentration up to over 90% by tuning the laser wavelength to the /sup 2/Psub(1/2) of /sup 6/Li. Too high power, however, leads to a loss of enrichment due to the power broadening effect which was analysed by the equation of motion of density matrices.

  6. Air breathing lithium power cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Joseph C.

    2014-07-15

    A cell suitable for use in a battery according to one embodiment includes a catalytic oxygen cathode; a stabilized zirconia electrolyte for selective oxygen anion transport; a molten salt electrolyte; and a lithium-based anode. A cell suitable for use in a battery according to another embodiment includes a catalytic oxygen cathode; an electrolyte; a membrane selective to molecular oxygen; and a lithium-based anode.

  7. The lithium air battery fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Imanishi, Nobuyuki; Bruce, Peter G

    2014-01-01

    Lithium air rechargeable batteries are the best candidate for a power source for electric vehicles, because of their high specific energy density. In this book, the history, scientific background, status and prospects of the lithium air system are introduced by specialists in the field. This book will contain the basics, current statuses, and prospects for new technologies. This book is ideal for those interested in electrochemistry, energy storage, and materials science.

  8. Kleptomania, mood disorder and lithium

    OpenAIRE

    Fábio Lopes Rocha; Maria Elizabete Guimarães Rocha

    1992-01-01

    Kleptomania has been found in association with major depression in a fairly large number of reports in recent years. We describe a patient with concurrent DSM-III-R Bipolar Mood Disorder and Kleptomania, whose symptoms remitted completely, apparently in response to lithium therapy, which raised the possibility that pharmacological treatment may benefit kleptomania. Further studies are needed to establish the possible relationship between kleptomania, mood disorders and lithium therapy.

  9. Kleptomania, mood disorder and lithium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Lopes Rocha

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Kleptomania has been found in association with major depression in a fairly large number of reports in recent years. We describe a patient with concurrent DSM-III-R Bipolar Mood Disorder and Kleptomania, whose symptoms remitted completely, apparently in response to lithium therapy, which raised the possibility that pharmacological treatment may benefit kleptomania. Further studies are needed to establish the possible relationship between kleptomania, mood disorders and lithium therapy.

  10. Modeling the Lithium Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerfield, John

    2013-01-01

    The lithium ion battery will be a reliable electrical resource for many years to come. A simple model of the lithium ions motion due to changes in concentration and voltage is presented. The battery chosen has LiCoO[subscript 2] as the cathode, LiPF[subscript 6] as the electrolyte, and LiC[subscript 6] as the anode. The concentration gradient and…

  11. Modeling the Lithium Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerfield, John

    2013-01-01

    The lithium ion battery will be a reliable electrical resource for many years to come. A simple model of the lithium ions motion due to changes in concentration and voltage is presented. The battery chosen has LiCoO[subscript 2] as the cathode, LiPF[subscript 6] as the electrolyte, and LiC[subscript 6] as the anode. The concentration gradient and…

  12. Extracorporeal Treatment for Lithium Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decker, Brian S; Goldfarb, David S; Dargan, Paul I

    2015-01-01

    The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning Workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments in poisoning. Here, the EXTRIP workgroup presents its recommendations for lithium poisoning. After a systematic literature search, clinical and toxico......The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning Workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments in poisoning. Here, the EXTRIP workgroup presents its recommendations for lithium poisoning. After a systematic literature search, clinical...... extraction of patient-level data. The workgroup concluded that lithium is dialyzable (Level of evidence=A) and made the following recommendations: Extracorporeal treatment is recommended in severe lithium poisoning (1D). Extracorporeal treatment is recommended if kidney function is impaired and the [Li...... treatment (1D), but continuous RRT is an acceptable alternative (1D). The workgroup supported the use of extracorporeal treatment in severe lithium poisoning. Clinical decisions on when to use extracorporeal treatment should take into account the [Li(+)], kidney function, pattern of lithium toxicity...

  13. Synthesis, structure and gas-phase reactivity of the mixed silver hydride borohydride nanocluster [Ag3(μ3-H)(μ3-BH4)L(Ph)3]BF4 (L(Ph) = bis(diphenylphosphino)methane).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavras, Athanasios; Ariafard, Alireza; Khairallah, George N; White, Jonathan M; Mulder, Roger J; Canty, Allan J; O'Hair, Richard A J

    2015-11-21

    Borohydrides react with silver salts to give products that span multiple scales ranging from discrete mononuclear compounds through to silver nanoparticles and colloids. The cluster cations [Ag3(H)(BH4)L3](+) are observed upon electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of solutions containing sodium borohydride, silver(I) tetrafluoroborate and bis(dimethylphosphino)methane (L(Me)) or bis(diphenylphosphino)methane (L(Ph)). By adding NaBH4 to an acetonitrile solution of AgBF4 and L(Ph), cooled to ca. -10 °C, we have been able to isolate the first mixed silver hydride borohydride nanocluster, [Ag3(μ3-H)(μ3-BH4)L(Ph)3]BF4, and structurally characterise it via X-ray crystallography. Combined gas-phase experiments (L(Me) and L(Ph)) and DFT calculations (L(Me)) reveal how loss of a ligand from the cationic complexes [Ag3(H)(BH4)L3](+) provides a change in geometry that facilitates subsequent loss of BH3 to produce the dihydride clusters, [Ag3(H)2Ln](+) (n = 1 and 2). Together with the results of previous studies (Girod et al., Chem. - Eur. J., 2014, 20, 16626), this provides a direct link between mixed silver hydride/borohydride nanoclusters, silver hydride nanoclusters, and silver nanoclusters.

  14. The mechanism of unexpected reduction of dimethyl pyridine-2,3-dicarboxylate to 1,2,3,4-tetrahydrofuro[3,4-b]-pyridin-5(7H)-one with sodium borohydride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Bo Tang; Qing Jian Zhang; De Quan Yu

    2012-01-01

    An unexpected reduction of dimethyl pyridine-2,3-dicarboxylate to 1,2,3,4-tetrahydrofuro[3,4-b]pyridin-5(7H)-one with sodium borohydride in ethanol and tetrahydrofuran,respectively,is described,a hypothetic mechanism for the unusual reductive product is proposed.

  15. Aqueous lithium air batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visco, Steven J.; Nimon, Yevgeniy S.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.; Petrov, Alexei; Goncharenko, Nikolay

    2017-05-23

    Aqueous Li/Air secondary battery cells are configurable to achieve high energy density and prolonged cycle life. The cells include a protected a lithium metal or alloy anode and an aqueous catholyte in a cathode compartment. The aqueous catholyte comprises an evaporative-loss resistant and/or polyprotic active compound or active agent that partakes in the discharge reaction and effectuates cathode capacity for discharge in the acidic region. This leads to improved performance including one or more of increased specific energy, improved stability on open circuit, and prolonged cycle life, as well as various methods, including a method of operating an aqueous Li/Air cell to simultaneously achieve improved energy density and prolonged cycle life.

  16. Metal-Borohydride-Modified Zr(BH4 )4 ⋅8 NH3 : Low-Temperature Dehydrogenation Yielding Highly Pure Hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianmei; Ouyang, Liuzhang; Gu, Qinfen; Yu, Xuebin; Zhu, Min

    2015-10-12

    Due to its high hydrogen density (14.8 wt %) and low dehydrogenation peak temperature (130 °C), Zr(BH4 )4 ⋅8 NH3 is considered to be one of the most promising hydrogen-storage materials. To further decrease its dehydrogenation temperature and suppress its ammonia release, a strategy of introducing LiBH4 and Mg(BH4 )2 was applied to this system. Zr(BH4 )4 ⋅8 NH3 -4 LiBH4 and Zr(BH4 )4 ⋅8 NH3 -2 Mg(BH4 )2 composites showed main dehydrogenation peaks centered at 81 and 106 °C as well as high hydrogen purities of 99.3 and 99.8 mol % H2 , respectively. Isothermal measurements showed that 6.6 wt % (within 60 min) and 5.5 wt % (within 360 min) of hydrogen were released at 100 °C from Zr(BH4 )4 ⋅8 NH3 -4 LiBH4 and Zr(BH4 )4 ⋅8 NH3 -2 Mg(BH4 )2 , respectively. The lower dehydrogenation temperatures and improved hydrogen purities could be attributed to the formation of the diammoniate of diborane for Zr(BH4 )4 ⋅8 NH3 -4 LiBH4 , and the partial transfer of NH3 groups from Zr(BH4 )4 ⋅8 NH3 to Mg(BH4 )2 for Zr(BH4 )4 ⋅8 NH3 -2 Mg(BH4 )2 , which result in balanced numbers of BH4 and NH3 groups and a more active H(δ+) ⋅⋅⋅(-δ) H interaction. These advanced dehydrogenation properties make these two composites promising candidates as hydrogen-storage materials. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Wetting properties of liquid lithium on lithium compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krat, S.A., E-mail: stepan.krat@gmail.com [Center for Plasma Material Interactions, Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana (United States); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow (Russian Federation); Popkov, A.S. [Center for Plasma Material Interactions, Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana (United States); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gasparyan, Yu. M.; Pisarev, A.A. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow (Russian Federation); Fiflis, Peter; Szott, Matthew; Christenson, Michael; Kalathiparambil, Kishor; Ruzic, David N. [Center for Plasma Material Interactions, Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Contact angles of liquid lithium and Li{sub 3}N, Li{sub 2}O, Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} were measured. • Liquid lithium wets lithium compounds at relatively low temperatures: Li{sub 3}N at 257 °C, Li{sub 2}O at 259 °C, Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} at 323 °C. • Li wets Li{sub 2}O and Li{sub 3}N better than previously measured fusion-relevant materials (W, Mo, Ta, TZM, stainless steel). • Li wets Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} better than most previously measured fusion-relevant materials (W, Mo, Ta). - Abstract: Liquid metal plasma facing components (LMPFC) have shown a potential to supplant solid plasma facing components materials in the high heat flux regions of magnetic confinement fusion reactors due to the reduction or elimination of concerns over melting, wall damage, and erosion. To design a workable LMPFC, one must understand how liquid metal interacts with solid underlying structures. Wetting is an important factor in such interaction, several designs of LMPFC require liquid metal to wet the underlying solid structures. The wetting of lithium compounds (lithium nitride, oxide, and carbonate) by 200 °C liquid lithium at various surface temperature from 230 to 330 °C was studied by means of contact angle measurements. Wetting temperatures, defined as the temperature above which the contact angle is less than 90°, were measured. The wetting temperature was 257 °C for nitride, 259 °C for oxide, and 323 °C for carbonate. Surface tensions of solid lithium compounds were calculated from the contact angle measurements.

  18. Chronic Microdose Lithium Treatment Prevented Memory Loss and Neurohistopathological Changes in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marielza Andrade Nunes

    Full Text Available The use of lithium is well established in bipolar disorders and the benefits are being demonstrated in neurodegenerative disorders. Recently, our group showed that treatment with microdose lithium stabilized the cognitive deficits observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD patients. In order to verify the lithium microdose potential in preventing the disease development, the aim of this work was to verify the effects of chronic treatment with microdose lithium given before and after the appearance of symptoms in a mouse model of a disease similar to AD. Transgenic mice (Cg-Tg(PDGFB-APPSwInd20Lms/2J and their non-transgenic litter mate genetic controls were treated with lithium carbonate (0.25mg/Kg/day in drinking water for 16 or 8 months starting at two and ten months of age, respectively [corrected]. Similar groups were treated with water. At the end of treatments, both lithium treated transgenic groups and non-transgenic mice showed no memory disruption, different from what was observed in the water treated transgenic group. Transgenic mice treated with lithium since two months of age showed decreased number of senile plaques, no neuronal loss in cortex and hippocampus and increased BDNF density in cortex, when compared to non-treated transgenic mice. It is suitable to conclude that these data support the use of microdose lithium in the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease, once the neurohistopathological characteristics of the disease were modified and the memory of transgenic animals was maintained.

  19. Grain Boundary Engineering of Lithium-Ion-Conducting Lithium Lanthanum Titanate for Lithium-Air Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    release; distribution is unlimited. 1 1. Introduction Lithium (Li)-ion batteries are currently one of the leading energy storage device technologies...phase) were submerged in concentrated LiCl solution. The LiCl solution was made by dissolving lithium carbonate (LiCO3) into hydrogen chloride until...Direct correlations between fracture toughness and grain boundary segregation behavior in ytterbium- doped magnesium aluminate spinel. Scripta

  20. Technological route of hydrogen generation from sodium borohydride%一种硼氢化钠水解制氢的技术路线

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方朝君; 闫常峰; 郭常青

    2011-01-01

    硼氢化钠催化水解制氢是一项实用、环保、可行的制氢技术.直接应用固态的硼氢化钠或与催化剂的混合物制氢比使用其溶液制氢更便捷、安全.本文设计了小型制氢反应器,使用NaBH4和乙酸钴粉末的混合物作初始反应物.研究了初始反应温度、供水速率和NaBH4与乙酸钴的混合比对产氢特性的影响.实验结果表明,反应区外围使用冷却水时,可将反应温度波动控制在6~8℃,这有利于降低氢气流速的峰值和保持相对稳定的氢气流.当催化剂的混合量大于4%时,氢气的转化率可达95%以上.%Hydrogen production by hydrolysis of sodium borohydride by means of metal catalyst is a practical, environment-friendly and feasible approach. Especially, using the solid state sodium borohydride or its mixture directly is simpler and safer than using its solution. The present work was focused on the design of a small scale generator suitable for H2 generation from the mixture powders of sodium borohydride and cobalt acetate as catalyst precursor at a reasonable temperature and at high generation efficiency. The initial temperature, flow rate of water, mixture ratio and product composition were investigated experimentally. It was found that the process temperature measured directly by a thermocouple fluctuated in a small range of 6~8 ℃, which could decrease the peak value of H2 generation rate and obtain a steady hydrogen flow. A high H2 generation efficiency > 95% was achieved under the mixture ratio with the catalyst being more than 4%. The catalyst cobalt acetate was formed in-situ and evenly distributed.

  1. High performance discharges in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment with liquid lithium wallsa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, J. C.; Bell, R. E.; Boyle, D. P.; Esposti, B.; Kaita, R.; Kozub, T.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Lucia, M.; Maingi, R.; Majeski, R.; Merino, E.; Punjabi-Vinoth, S.; Tchilingurian, G.; Capece, A.; Koel, B.; Roszell, J.; Biewer, T. M.; Gray, T. K.; Kubota, S.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Widmann, K.; Tritz, K.

    2015-05-01

    The first-ever successful operation of a tokamak with a large area (40% of the total plasma surface area) liquid lithium wall has been achieved in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX). These results were obtained with a new, electron beam-based lithium evaporation system, which can deposit a lithium coating on the limiting wall of LTX in a five-minute period. Preliminary analyses of diamagnetic and other data for discharges operated with a liquid lithium wall indicate that confinement times increased by 10× compared to discharges with helium-dispersed solid lithium coatings. Ohmic energy confinement times with fresh lithium walls, solid and liquid, exceed several relevant empirical scaling expressions. Spectroscopic analysis of the discharges indicates that oxygen levels in the discharges limited on liquid lithium walls were significantly reduced compared to discharges limited on solid lithium walls. Tokamak operations with a full liquid lithium wall (85% of the total plasma surface area) have recently started.

  2. Multi-layered, chemically bonded lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narula, Chaitanya Kumar; Nanda, Jagjit; Bischoff, Brian L; Bhave, Ramesh R

    2014-05-13

    Disclosed are multilayer, porous, thin-layered lithium-ion batteries that include an inorganic separator as a thin layer that is chemically bonded to surfaces of positive and negative electrode layers. Thus, in such disclosed lithium-ion batteries, the electrodes and separator are made to form non-discrete (i.e., integral) thin layers. Also disclosed are methods of fabricating integrally connected, thin, multilayer lithium batteries including lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries.

  3. Multi-layered, chemically bonded lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Chaitanya Kumar; Nanda, Jagjit; Bischoff, Brian L; Bhave, Ramesh R

    2014-05-13

    Disclosed are multilayer, porous, thin-layered lithium-ion batteries that include an inorganic separator as a thin layer that is chemically bonded to surfaces of positive and negative electrode layers. Thus, in such disclosed lithium-ion batteries, the electrodes and separator are made to form non-discrete (i.e., integral) thin layers. Also disclosed are methods of fabricating integrally connected, thin, multilayer lithium batteries including lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries.

  4. Sealed Primary Lithium-Inorganic Electrolyte Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-02-01

    Battery , Thionyl Chloride , Lithium , Lithium Aluminum Chloride , Hermetic Lithium Battery , D Cell, Voltage-Delay, Shelf Life, High Energy Density Battery ... lithium - thionyl chloride , inorganic electrclyte system is one of the highest energy density systems known to date (1-4). The cells contain an Li anoae, a...However, this is not tne case with te thionyl chloride system. A completely discharged battery , while sitting on

  5. Lithium Ion Battery Anode Aging Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Agubra

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Degradation mechanisms such as lithium plating, growth of the passivated surface film layer on the electrodes and loss of both recyclable lithium ions and electrode material adversely affect the longevity of the lithium ion battery. The anode electrode is very vulnerable to these degradation mechanisms. In this paper, the most common aging mechanisms occurring at the anode during the operation of the lithium battery, as well as some approaches for minimizing the degradation are reviewed.

  6. Lithium Ion Battery Anode Aging Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Agubra; Jeffrey Fergus

    2013-01-01

    Degradation mechanisms such as lithium plating, growth of the passivated surface film layer on the electrodes and loss of both recyclable lithium ions and electrode material adversely affect the longevity of the lithium ion battery. The anode electrode is very vulnerable to these degradation mechanisms. In this paper, the most common aging mechanisms occurring at the anode during the operation of the lithium battery, as well as some approaches for minimizing the degradation are reviewed.

  7. Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucht, Brett L. [Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2014-12-12

    We have been investigating three primary areas related to lithium ion battery electrolytes. First, we have been investigating the thermal stability of novel electrolytes for lithium ion batteries, in particular borate based salts. Second, we have been investigating novel additives to improve the calendar life of lithium ion batteries. Third, we have been investigating the thermal decomposition reactions of electrolytes for lithium-oxygen batteries.

  8. Mesoporous cobalt oxide for largely improved lithium storage properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mai Xia Ma

    2012-01-01

    We report the microstructure,application for lithium-ion batteries of mesoporous Co3O4 prepared by modified KIT-6 template method.The sample was characterized by XRD,TEM,HRTEM and nitrogen adsorption.Their electrochemical behaviors as electrode reactants for lithium ion batteries were evaluated by cyclic voltammograms and static charge-discharge.A direct comparison of electrochemical behaviors between mesoporous nanostructure and bulk reflects interesting "nanostructure effect",which is reasonably discussed in terms of how the 3D nanostructures of Co3O4 materials function in tuning their electrochemistry.The results demonstrate that further improvement of electrochemical performance in transition metal-oxide-based anode materials can be realized via the design of multiporous nanostructured materials.

  9. Lithium. Effects on excitable cell membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeger, Egbert Johan

    1974-01-01

    LITHIUM: Effects on excitable cell membranes. Lithium salts have been used in the treatment of manic-depressive psychosis for many years but their mechanism of action is not well understood. Many workers assume that the action of lithium on catecholamine metabolism and/or on electrolyte distribution

  10. Phase transition in a rechargeable lithium battery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreyer, W.; Gaberscek, M.; Guhlke, C.; Huth, R.; Jamnik, J.

    We discuss the lithium storage process within a single-particle cathode of a lithium-ion battery. The single storage particle consists of a crystal lattice whose interstitial lattice sites may be empty or reversibly filled with lithium atoms. The resulting evolution equations describe diffusion with

  11. 77 FR 28259 - Mailings of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... quantity, size, watt hours, and whether the cells or batteries are packed in equipment, with equipment, or... 111 Mailings of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Postal... batteries and devices containing lithium batteries. This prohibition also extends to the mailing of lithium...

  12. Phase transition in a rechargeable lithium battery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreyer, W.; Gaberscek, M.; Guhlke, C.; Huth, R.; Jamnik, J.

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the lithium storage process within a single-particle cathode of a lithium-ion battery. The single storage particle consists of a crystal lattice whose interstitial lattice sites may be empty or reversibly filled with lithium atoms. The resulting evolution equations describe diffusion with

  13. Anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar; Meduri, Praveen; Sumanasekera, Gamini

    2014-12-30

    An anode material for lithium-ion batteries is provided that comprises an elongated core structure capable of forming an alloy with lithium; and a plurality of nanostructures placed on a surface of the core structure, with each nanostructure being capable of forming an alloy with lithium and spaced at a predetermined distance from adjacent nanostructures.

  14. Phase transition in a rechargeable lithium battery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreyer, W.; Gaberscek, M.; Guhlke, C.; Huth, R.; Jamnik, J.

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the lithium storage process within a single-particle cathode of a lithium-ion battery. The single storage particle consists of a crystal lattice whose interstitial lattice sites may be empty or reversibly filled with lithium atoms. The resulting evolution equations describe diffusion with

  15. Electrochemical Characteristics of LaNi4.5Al0.5 Alloy Used as Anodic Catalyst in a Direct Borohydride Fuel Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lianbang Wang; Guobin Wu; Zhenzhen Yang; Yunfang Gao; Xinbiao Mao; Chun'an Ma

    2011-01-01

    Fuel cells using borohydride as the fuel have received much attention because of high energy density and theoretical working potential. In this work, LaNi4.5Al0.5 hydrogen storage alloy used as the anodic material has been investigated. It was found that the increasing; operation temperature was helpful to the open-circuit potential, the discharge potential and the power density, but showed a negative effect on the utilization of the fuel due to the accelerated hydrogen evolution. The high KOH concentration was favorable for high-rate discharge capability. The adsorption and transformation of hydrogen on LaNi4.5Al0.5 alloy electrode has been observed, but its contribution to the discharge capability during a high-rate discharge was small.

  16. Application of microgels as polymer supports for organic synthesis: preparation of a small phthalide library, a scavenger, and a borohydride reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimomura, Osamu; Clapham, Bruce; Spanka, Carsten; Mahajan, Suresh; Janda, Kim D

    2002-01-01

    Microgel polymers containing a series of functional groups have been prepared. These microgels were composed of cross-linked poly(styrene) and were prepared by radical polymerization in solution. The microgel polymers exhibit good solubility in an array of different organic solvents, and in addition, they can be efficiently precipitated by the addition of methanol and isolated by filtration. A nine-member phthalide library was synthesized using an aminomethyl-functionalized microgel 5. To further demonstrate the versatility of these microgel polymers, tris(2-aminoethyl)amino microgel 11 was examined as a scavenger reagent to remove unreacted isocyanate after a urea synthesis. Finally, a microgel-supported ammonium borohydride reagent 14 was successfully prepared and used as a reducing agent. Notable features of these microgels are that in all applications the progress of the reaction could be monitored by standard NMR techniques and their preparation is performed using common glassware and techniques found in all organic laboratories.

  17. Toward a lithium-"air" battery: the effect of CO2 on the chemistry of a lithium-oxygen cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyung-Kyu; Lim, Hee-Dae; Park, Kyu-Young; Seo, Dong-Hwa; Gwon, Hyeokjo; Hong, Jihyun; Goddard, William A; Kim, Hyungjun; Kang, Kisuk

    2013-07-03

    Lithium-oxygen chemistry offers the highest energy density for a rechargeable system as a "lithium-air battery". Most studies of lithium-air batteries have focused on demonstrating battery operations in pure oxygen conditions; such a battery should technically be described as a "lithium-dioxygen battery". Consequently, the next step for the lithium-"air" battery is to understand how the reaction chemistry is affected by the constituents of ambient air. Among the components of air, CO2 is of particular interest because of its high solubility in organic solvents and it can react actively with O2(-•), which is the key intermediate species in Li-O2 battery reactions. In this work, we investigated the reaction mechanisms in the Li-O2/CO2 cell under various electrolyte conditions using quantum mechanical simulations combined with experimental verification. Our most important finding is that the subtle balance among various reaction pathways influencing the potential energy surfaces can be modified by the electrolyte solvation effect. Thus, a low dielectric electrolyte tends to primarily form Li2O2, while a high dielectric electrolyte is effective in electrochemically activating CO2, yielding only Li2CO3. Most surprisingly, we further discovered that a high dielectric medium such as DMSO can result in the reversible reaction of Li2CO3 over multiple cycles. We believe that the current mechanistic understanding of the chemistry of CO2 in a Li-air cell and the interplay of CO2 with electrolyte solvation will provide an important guideline for developing Li-air batteries. Furthermore, the possibility for a rechargeable Li-O2/CO2 battery based on Li2CO3 may have merits in enhancing cyclability by minimizing side reactions.

  18. Space-charge at the lithium-lithium chloride interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamnik, J.; Gaberscek, M.; Meden, A.; Pejovnik, S.

    1991-06-01

    The electrical properties of the passive layer formed on lithium as the product of the corrosion reaction in thionyl chloride are discussed. The passive layer is regarded as a thin layer of an ionic crystal placed between two party blocking electrodes (i.e., lithium and liquid electrolyte). After a short review of thermodynamic properties of the system, a model for description of the electric properties of the static space-charge regions is presented. On this basis, a comment on and partial reinterpretation of impedance measurements of the passive layer is given. The suggested approach leads to the conclusion that the quality of Li/SOCl2 batteries decisively depends on the properties of the lithium passive layer interface. Finally, experiments to confirm the model are suggested.

  19. Lithium batteries in Japan; Les batteries lithium au Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guyomard, D.; Mercier, A.; Tarascon, J.M.

    2000-04-01

    This document is a mission report about the development of lithium batteries research in Japan. The mission took place between November 29 and December 3, 1999 and was organized by the Science and Technology Service of the French embassy in Tokyo. The organizations shown during the mission were: ETL, NEDO/LIBES, the Kyoto university, Yuasa, Hitachi, Matsushita, Japan Storage, Sanyo and Sony. The mission has shown that the government program is clearly backward. The Japanese research on battery materials remains important. The leaders of the lithium-ion technology are Sony, first, and then Hitachi and Sanyo. Applications of lithium-ion batteries are developing for small electric-powered vehicles. (J.S.)

  20. Lithium-Associated Kidney Microcysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Tuazon

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term lithium therapy is associated with impairment in concentrating ability and, occasionally, progression to advanced chronic kidney disease from tubulointerstitial nephropathy. Biopsy findings in patients with lithium-induced chronic tubulointerstitial nephropathy include tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis interspersed with tubular cysts and dilatations. Recent studies have shown that cysts are seen in 33––62.5% of the patients undergoing lithium therapy. MR imaging is highly capable of defining renal morphological features and has been demonstrated to be superior to US and CT scan for the visualization of small renal cysts. The microcysts are found in both cortex and medulla, particularly in the regions with extensive atrophy and fibrosis, and can be multiple and bilateral. They tend to be sparse and do not normally exceed 1–2 mm in diameter. The renal microcysts in the image here reported are subtle, but consistent with lithium-induced chronic nephropathy. An MRI of the kidneys provides noninvasive evidence that strengthens the diagnosis of lithium-induced nephropathy.

  1. Lithium-associated kidney microcysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuazon, Jennifer; Casalino, David; Syed, Ehteshamuddin; Batlle, Daniel

    2008-08-31

    Long-term lithium therapy is associated with impairment in concentrating ability and, occasionally, progression to advanced chronic kidney disease from tubulointerstitial nephropathy. Biopsy findings in patients with lithium-induced chronic tubulointerstitial nephropathy include tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis interspersed with tubular cysts and dilatations. Recent studies have shown that cysts are seen in 33-62.5% of the patients undergoing lithium therapy. MR imaging is highly capable of defining renal morphological features and has been demonstrated to be superior to US and CT scan for the visualization of small renal cysts. The microcysts are found in both cortex and medulla, particularly in the regions with extensive atrophy and fibrosis, and can be multiple and bilateral. They tend to be sparse and do not normally exceed 1-2 mm in diameter. The renal microcysts in the image here reported are subtle, but consistent with lithium-induced chronic nephropathy. An MRI of the kidneys provides noninvasive evidence that strengthens the diagnosis of lithium-induced nephropathy.

  2. Lithium as a blanket coolant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, W.M.

    1977-01-01

    Recent re-assessment of tokamak reactors which move towards smaller size and lower required field strength (higher beta)/sup 2/ change the picture as regards the magnitude of MHD effects on flow resistance for lithium coolant. Perhaps the most important consequence of this as regards use of this coolant is that of clear acceptability of such effects when the flow is predominantly transverse to the magnetic field. This permits defining a blanket that consists entirely of round tubes containing the circulated lithium with voids between the tubes. Required thermal-hydraulic calculations are then on bases which are well established, especially in view of recent results dealing with perturbations of ducts and magnetic fields. Mitigation of MHD effects is feasible through tapering of tube wall thickness or use of insulated layers, but their use was not mandatory for the assumed conditions. Blanket configurations utilizing flowing lithium in round tubes immersed in static lithium may be suitable, but calculational methods do not now exist for this situation. Use of boiling potassium or cesium appears to be prohibitive in terms of vapor flow area when temperature levels are consistent with stainless steel. Liquid sodium, in addition to not being a breeding material, requires higher velocity than lithium for the same heat removal.

  3. Electrolytes for lithium and lithium-ion batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Jow, T Richard; Borodin, Oleg; Ue, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Electrolytes for Lithium and Lithium-ion Batteries provides a comprehensive overview of the scientific understanding and technological development of electrolyte materials in the last?several years. This book covers key electrolytes such as LiPF6 salt in mixed-carbonate solvents with additives for the state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries as well as new electrolyte materials developed recently that lay the foundation for future advances.?This book also reviews the characterization of electrolyte materials for their transport properties, structures, phase relationships, stabilities, and impurities.

  4. Research on lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, I. R.; Goledzinowski, M.; Dore, R.

    1993-12-01

    Research was conducted on two types of lithium batteries. The first is a rechargeable Li-SO2 system using an all-inorganic electrolyte. A Li/liquid cathode system was chosen to obtain a relatively high discharge rate capability over the +20 to -30 C range. The fabrication and cycling performance of research cells are described, including the preparation and physical properties of porous polytetra fluoroethylene bonded carbon electrodes. Since the low temperature performance of the standard electrolyte was unsatisfactory, studies of electrolytes containing mixed salts were made. Raman spectroscopy was used to study the species present in these electrolytes and to identify discharge products. Infrared spectroscopy was used to measure electrolyte impurities. Film growth on the LiCl was also monitored. The second battery is a Li-thionyl chloride nonrechargeable system. Research cells were fabricated containing cobalt phthalo cyanine in the carbon cathode. The cathode was heat treated at different temperatures and the effect on cell discharge rate and capacity evaluated. Commercially obtained cells were used in an investigation of a way to identify substandard cells. The study also involved electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cell discharging at various rates. The results are discussed in terms of LiCl passivation.

  5. Modified cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermaas, Willem F J.

    2014-06-17

    Disclosed is a modified photoautotrophic bacterium comprising genes of interest that are modified in terms of their expression and/or coding region sequence, wherein modification of the genes of interest increases production of a desired product in the bacterium relative to the amount of the desired product production in a photoautotrophic bacterium that is not modified with respect to the genes of interest.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of atomic layer deposited titanium nitride thin films on lithium titanate spinel powder as a lithium-ion battery anode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Mark Q.; Wheeler, M. Clayton [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Maine, 5737 Jenness Hall, Orono, ME 04469 (United States); Trebukhova, Svetlana A.; Ravdel, Boris; DiCarlo, Joseph [Yardney Technical Products/Lithion Inc., Pawcatuck, CT 06379 (United States); Tripp, Carl P. [Laboratory for Surface Science and Technology (LASST), 5708 ESRB-Barrows, Orono, ME 04469 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469 (United States); DeSisto, William J. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Maine, 5737 Jenness Hall, Orono, ME 04469 (United States); Laboratory for Surface Science and Technology (LASST), 5708 ESRB-Barrows, Orono, ME 04469 (United States)

    2007-02-25

    Lithium titanate spinel (Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}, or LTS) is receiving consideration as a nanopowder anode material for use in lithium-ion batteries. LTS has more positive working potential than traditional graphite anodes, and it does not react with electrolyte components. However, the main drawback of LTS powder is its poor interparticle electronic conductance that reduces the high-rate ability of the electrode. To improve this we have coated the surface of the LTS powder with a titanium nitride layer by atomic layer deposition (ALD). In situ infrared spectroscopy studies were conducted to confirm the attachment of the titanium precursor. The nitrogen content of films was measured by total nitrogen content testing. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrographs confirmed the formation of a thin titanium nitride film around LTS particles by ALD. Finally, lithium cells with electrodes made of original and modified LTS nanopowders were assembled and tested. (author)

  7. Composite electrodes for lithium batteries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackney, S. A.; Johnson, C. S.; Kahaian, A. J.; Kepler, K. D.; Shao-Horn, Y.; Thackeray, M. M.; Vaughey, J. T.

    1999-02-03

    The stability of composite positive and negative electrodes for rechargeable lithium batteries is discussed. Positive electrodes with spinel-type structures that are derived from orthorhombic-LiMnO{sub 2} and layered-MnO{sub 2} are significantly more stable than standard spinel Li[Mn{sub 2}]O{sub 4} electrodes when cycled electrochemically over both the 4-V and 3-V plateaus in lithium cells. Transmission electron microscope data of cycled electrodes have indicated that a composite domain structure accounts for this greater electrochemical stability. The performance of composite Cu{sub x}Sn materials as alternative negative electrodes to amorphous SnO{sub x} electrodes for lithium-ion batteries is discussed in terms of the importance of the concentration of the electrochemically inactive copper component in the electrode.

  8. Lithium clearance in chronic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Leyssac, P P

    1989-01-01

    1. Lithium clearance measurements were made in 72 patients with chronic nephropathy of different aetiology and moderate to severely reduced renal function. 2. Lithium clearance was strictly correlated with glomerular filtration rate, and there was no suggestion of distal tubular reabsorption...... clearance data were independent of whether renal disease was of primarily glomerular or tubular origin and, further, were not influenced by long-term conventional antihypertensive treatment. 6. It is concluded that, even with a reduced kidney function, the data are compatible with the suggestion...... that lithium clearance may be a measure of the delivery of sodium and water from the renal proximal tubule. With this assumption it was found that adjustment of the sodium excretion in chronic nephropathy initially takes place in the distal parts of the nephron (loop of Henle, distal tubule and collecting duct...

  9. Lithium synthesis in microquasar accretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iocco, Fabio; Pato, Miguel

    2012-07-13

    We study the synthesis of lithium isotopes in the hot tori formed around stellar mass black holes by accretion of the companion star. We find that sizable amounts of both stable isotopes 6Li and 7Li can be produced, the exact figures varying with the characteristics of the torus and reaching as much as 10(-2) M⊙ for each isotope. This mass output is enough to contaminate the entire Galaxy at a level comparable with the original, pregalactic amount of lithium and to overcome other sources such as cosmic-ray spallation or stellar nucleosynthesis.

  10. Optimizing lithium dosing in hemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnason, N H; Munkner, R; Kampmann, J P;

    2006-01-01

    We studied a 62-year-old female hemodialysis patient during initiation and maintenance of lithium carbonate therapy. Three different methods were applied to estimate the regimen: a scenario based on volume of distribution (V(d)), a scenario based on glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and a scenario...... in this patient with no residual kidney function. We did not observe adverse effects related to this regimen, which was monitored from 18 days to 8 months of therapy, and the patient experienced relief from her severe depressive disorder. In conclusion, dialysis patients may be treated with lithium administrated...

  11. Lithium nephropathy: unique sonographic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Salvo, Donald N; Park, Joseph; Laing, Faye C

    2012-04-01

    This case series describes a unique sonographic appearance consisting of numerous microcysts and punctate echogenic foci seen on renal sonograms of 10 adult patients receiving chronic lithium therapy. Clinically, chronic renal insufficiency was present in 6 and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in 2. Sonography showed numerous microcysts and punctate echogenic foci. Computed tomography in 5 patients confirmed microcysts and microcalcifications, which were fewer in number than on sonography. Magnetic resonance imaging in 2 patients confirmed microcysts in each case. Renal biopsy in 1 patient showed chronic interstitial nephritis, microcysts, and tubular dilatation. The diagnosis of lithium nephropathy should be considered when sonography shows these findings.

  12. Predictors of excellent response to lithium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Hellmund, Gunnar; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify sociodemographic and clinical predictors of excellent response, that is, 'cure' of future affective episodes, to lithium in monotherapy. We used nationwide registers to identify all patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder in psychiatric hospital settings...... who were prescribed lithium from 1995 to 2006 in Denmark (N=3762). Excellent lithium responders were defined as patients who after a stabilization lithium start-up period of 6 months, continued lithium in monotherapy without getting hospitalized. The rate of excellent response to lithium...... in monotherapy was 8.9% [95% confidence interval (CI): 7.9-9.9] at 5-year follow-up and 5.4% (95% CI: 4.4-6.3) at 10-year follow-up. The rate of nonresponse to lithium monotherapy was significantly increased for female patients [hazards ratio (HR)=1.12, 95% CI: 1.04-1.21) and for patients with a depressive index...

  13. Surface protected lithium-metal-oxide electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Kang, Sun-Ho

    2016-04-05

    A lithium-metal-oxide positive electrode having a layered or spinel structure for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell and battery is disclosed comprising electrode particles that are protected at the surface from undesirable effects, such as electrolyte oxidation, oxygen loss or dissolution by one or more lithium-metal-polyanionic compounds, such as a lithium-metal-phosphate or a lithium-metal-silicate material that can act as a solid electrolyte at or above the operating potential of the lithium-metal-oxide electrode. The surface protection significantly enhances the surface stability, rate capability and cycling stability of the lithium-metal-oxide electrodes, particularly when charged to high potentials.

  14. Solid solution lithium alloy cermet anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Thomas J.

    2013-07-09

    A metal-ceramic composite ("cermet") has been produced by a chemical reaction between a lithium compound and another metal. The cermet has advantageous physical properties, high surface area relative to lithium metal or its alloys, and is easily formed into a desired shape. An example is the formation of a lithium-magnesium nitride cermet by reaction of lithium nitride with magnesium. The reaction results in magnesium nitride grains coated with a layer of lithium. The nitride is inert when used in a battery. It supports the metal in a high surface area form, while stabilizing the electrode with respect to dendrite formation. By using an excess of magnesium metal in the reaction process, a cermet of magnesium nitride is produced, coated with a lithium-magnesium alloy of any desired composition. This alloy inhibits dendrite formation by causing lithium deposited on its surface to diffuse under a chemical potential into the bulk of the alloy.

  15. 49 CFR 173.185 - Lithium cells and batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lithium cells and batteries. 173.185 Section 173... Class 7 § 173.185 Lithium cells and batteries. (a) Cells and batteries. A lithium cell or battery, including a lithium polymer cell or battery and a lithium-ion cell or battery, must conform to all of...

  16. Review and Outlook of China’s Lithium Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>In 2011 China’s lithium carbonate output was about 30000 tonnes. In 2012, China’s lithium carbonate output (including battery grade lithium carbonate) was 35000 tonnes, up by 17% on Y-o-Y basis. (1) Capacity of Ganfeng Lithium expanded considerably The company enjoys obvious technological advantages, its organic lithium deep processing

  17. Lithium to back photovoltaic; Le lithium au service du photovoltaique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2006-01-15

    Lithium-ion batteries have valuable assets to be an alternative to lead batteries for the storage of solar energy: they age 5 times less quickly, they do not require maintenance and they show a good charge-discharge cycling with no sensitivity to cycle interruptions. (A.C.)

  18. Synthesis of Lithium Fluoride from Spent Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela S. Suarez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Lithium (Li is considered a strategic element whose use has significantly expanded. Its current high demand is due to its use in lithium ion batteries for portable electronic devices, whose manufacture and market are extensively growing every day. These days there is a great concern about the final disposal of these batteries. Therefore, the possibility of developing new methodologies to recycle their components is of great importance, both commercially and environmentally. This paper presents results regarding important operational variables for the dissolution of the lithium and cobalt mixed-oxide (LiCoO2 cathodes from spent lithium ion batteries (LIBs with hydrofluoric acid. The recovery and synthesis of Co and Li compounds were also investigated. The dissolution parameters studied were: temperature, reaction time, solid-liquid ratio, stirring speed, and concentration of HF. The investigated recovery parameters included: pH, temperature, and time with and without stirring. The final precipitation of lithium fluoride was also examined. The results indicate that an increase in the HF concentration, temperature, and reaction time favors the leaching reaction of the LiCoO2. Dissolutions were close to 60%, at 75 °C and 120 min with a HF concentration of 25% (v/v. The recovery of Co and Li were 98% and 80%, respectively, with purities higher than 94%. Co and Li compounds, such as Co3O4 and LiF, were synthesized. Furthermore, it was possible to almost completely eliminate the F− ions as CaF2.

  19. Lithium attenuated the behavioral despair induced by acute neurogenic stress through blockade of opioid receptors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaloo, Pegah; Sadeghi, Banafshe; Ostadhadi, Sattar; Norouzi-Javidan, Abbas; Haj-Mirzaian, Arya; Zolfagharie, Samira; Dehpour, Ahmad-Reza

    2016-10-01

    Major depressive disorder is disease with high rate of morbidity and mortality. Stressful events lead to depression and they can be used as a model of depression in rodents. In this study we aimed to investigate whether lithium modifies the stressed-induced depression through blockade of opioid receptors in mice. We used foot shock stress as stressor and forced swimming test (FST), tail suspension test (TST) and open field test (OFT) to evaluation the behavioral responses in mice. We also used naltrexone hydrochloride (as opioid receptor antagonist), and morphine (as opioid receptor agonist). Our results displayed that foot-shock stress significantly increased the immobility time in TST and FST but it could not change the locomotor behavior in OFT. When we combined the low concentrations of lithium and naltrexone a significant reduction in immobility time was seen in the FST and TST in comparison with control foot-shock stressed group administered saline only. Despite the fact that our data showed low concentrations of lithium, when administered independently did not significantly affect the immobility time. Also our data indicated that concurrent administration of lithium and naltrexone had no effect on open field test. Further we demonstrated that simultaneous administration of morphine and lithium reverses the antidepressant like effect of active doses of lithium. Our data acclaimed that we lithium can augment stressed-induced depression and opioid pathways are involved in this action.

  20. Lithium-free transition metal monoxides for positive electrodes in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sung-Kyun; Kim, Hyunchul; Cho, Min Gee; Cho, Sung-Pyo; Lee, Byungju; Kim, Hyungsub; Park, Young-Uk; Hong, Jihyun; Park, Kyu-Young; Yoon, Gabin; Seong, Won Mo; Cho, Yongbeom; Oh, Myoung Hwan; Kim, Haegyeom; Gwon, Hyeokjo; Hwang, Insang; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Yoon, Won-Sub; Kang, Kisuk

    2017-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries based on intercalation compounds have dominated the advanced portable energy storage market. The positive electrode materials in these batteries belong to a material group of lithium-conducting crystals that contain redox-active transition metal and lithium. Materials without lithium-conducting paths or lithium-free compounds could be rarely used as positive electrodes due to the incapability of reversible lithium intercalation or the necessity of using metallic lithium as negative electrodes. These constraints have significantly limited the choice of materials and retarded the development of new positive electrodes in lithium-ion batteries. Here, we demonstrate that lithium-free transition metal monoxides that do not contain lithium-conducting paths in their crystal structure can be converted into high-capacity positive electrodes in the electrochemical cell by initially decorating the monoxide surface with nanosized lithium fluoride. This unusual electrochemical behaviour is attributed to a surface conversion reaction mechanism in contrast with the classic lithium intercalation reaction. Our findings will offer a potential new path in the design of positive electrode materials in lithium-ion batteries.

  1. Gelled Electrolytes For Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Attia, Alan; Halpert, Gerald

    1993-01-01

    Gelled polymer electrolyte consists of polyacrylonitrile (PAN), LiBF4, and propylene carbonate (PC). Thin films of electrolyte found to exhibit stable bulk conductivities of order of 10 to the negative 3rd power S/cm at room temperature. Used in thinfilm rechargeable lithium batteries having energy densities near 150 W h/kg.

  2. Interfacial reactions in lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Rachid; Ma, Zi-Feng; Amine, Khalil

    2017-08-01

    The lithium-ion battery was first commercially introduced by Sony Corporation in 1991 using LiCoO2 as the cathode material and mesocarbon microbeads (MCMBs) as the anode material. After continuous research and development for 25 years, lithium-ion batteries have been the dominant energy storage device for modern portable electronics, as well as for emerging applications for electric vehicles and smart grids. It is clear that the success of lithium-ion technologies is rooted to the existence of a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) that kinetically suppresses parasitic reactions between the lithiated graphitic anodes and the carbonate-based non-aqueous electrolytes. Recently, major attention has been paid to the importance of a similar passivation/protection layer on the surface of cathode materials, aiming for a rational design of high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries with extended cycle/calendar life. In this article, the physical model of the SEI, as well as recent research efforts to understand the nature and role of the SEI are summarized, and future perspectives on this important research field will also be presented.

  3. Systematic Effect for an Ultralong Cycle Lithium-Sulfur Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feng; Ye, Yusheng; Chen, Renjie; Qian, Ji; Zhao, Teng; Li, Li; Li, Wenhui

    2015-11-11

    Rechargeable lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries are attractive candidates for energy storage devices because they have five times the theoretical energy storage of state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries. The main problems plaguing Li-S batteries are poor cycle life and limited rate capability, caused by the insulating nature of S and the shuttle effect associated with the dissolution of intermediate lithium polysulfides. Here, we report the use of biocell-inspired polydopamine (PD) as a coating agent on both the cathode and separator to address these problems (the "systematic effects"). The PD-modified cathode and separator play key roles in facilitating ion diffusion and keeping the cathode structure stable, leading to uniform lithium deposition and a solid electrolyte interphase. As a result, an ultralong cycle performance of more than 3000 cycles, with a capacity fade of only 0.018% per cycle, was achieved at 2 C. It is believed that the systematic modification of the cathode and separator for Li-S batteries is a new strategy for practical applications.

  4. Primary lithium cell life studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capulli, John; Donley, Sam; Deligiannis, Frank; Shen, David

    1990-01-01

    One solution for providing a truly independent power source is to package, within the critical subsystem element, a primary battery that can remain dormant for time periods as long as the mission life, which can be 10-15 years, maximum. When primary power from the spacecraft solar array/battery system is interrupted, the backup battery system, which is connected through a diode to the power input line, would automatically support the load to avoid a power interruption to the critical load for a time period long enough to ensure that ground control could access the satellite and correct the anomaly by sending appropriate commands to the spacecraft. Critical subsystems identified for the application are telemetry and command circuits, volatile computer memory, attitude control circuits, and some critical payloads. Due to volume packaging and weight restrictions that exist on most spacecraft, coupled with the long storage periods required, lithium cell technology was selected for the backup power source. Because of the high energy density (200-400 Wh/kg), long shelf life, and load capability, soluble cathode primary lithium technology was chosen. The most important lithium cell properties that require detail characterization for this application are capacity loss, shelf life, and the voltage delay mechanism. These are functions of storage time and temperature. During storage, a passive film builds up on the lithium electrode. The film protects the lithium electrode from progressive capacity decay but requires time to break down when a load is applied. This phenomenon results in a depressed voltage during the period of film breakdown which can last from fractions of a second to minutes.

  5. Effect of lithium therapy on glomerular filtration rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decina, P; Oliver, J A; Sciacca, R R; Colt, E; Fieve, R R

    1983-08-01

    Patients taking lithium had a slightly higher serum creatinine concentration than controls. Creatinine concentration was independent of lithium level or therapy length, suggesting that lithium decreases glomerular filtration but that this effect is small, noncumulative, and of marginal clinical significance.

  6. Control of Internal and External Short Circuits in Lithium Ion and Lithium Batteries Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has identified needs for compact high-energy-density primary and secondary batteries. Lithium and Lithium Ion cells, respectively, are meeting these needs for...

  7. Repression of a lithium pump as a consequence of lithium ingestion by manic-depressive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, H L; Kassir, S; Dunner, D L; Fieve, R R

    1977-10-20

    The lithium pump in human erythrocyte membranes, which is responsible for extrusion of lithium against a concentration gradient, has been found to be reversibly repressed during periods of lithium carbonate administration. The pump activity of patients prior to lithium therapy is not different from controls. The onset of repression may require several days to several weeks and occurs at specific individual threshold levels of lithium carbonate dosage. Reactivation of the lithium pump occurs sometime after the dosage is discontinued. We postulate that repression of the lithium pump results from systemically available factors which alter membrane structure, and suggest that is such changes also occur in the central nervous system, they may provide insight into one means by which lithium produces its psychotropic affects.

  8. Research and development of foreign submarine sodium borohydride hydrolysis hydrogen generation%国外潜艇硼氢化钠水解制氢的研究与进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏伟; 李大鹏; 张晓东

    2012-01-01

    叙述了国外潜艇AIP装置硼氢化钠水解制氢的研究与进展,介绍了硼氢化钠溶液水解制氢方法、水解反应催化剂,描述了潜艇硼氢化钠水解制氢系统、管式和一体式硼氢化钠水解制氢反应器的组成与工作,分析了制氢器反应区内的两相流动现象、反应区体积和换热-冷凝器传热面积要求,以及制氢器内液滴的分离、固体颗粒的沉淀和悬浮物的过滤、制氢器的动态特性等问题.%Research and development of foreign submarine AIP sodium borohydride hydrolysis hydrogen generation is stated in this paper. Method and catalyzer of sodium borohydride hydrolysis hydrogen generation are introduced. Submarine system of sodium borohydride hydrolysis hydrogen generation, constitution and working of tubular and integrative reactors of sodium borohydride hydrolysis hydrogen generation are described. Two-phase flow phenomena, requirements of reactor volume and heat-transfer surface of heat-exchanger-condenser, separation of liquid dribbles, precipitin of solid grains and filtration of suspending particles in the hydrogen generator, as well as dynamic characteristic of hydrogen generator are analyzed.

  9. Lithium kan anvendes til patienter i hæmodialyse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kancir, Anne Sophie Pinholt; Viftrup, Jens Emil; Pedersen, Erling Bjerregaard

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-induced nephropathy is a known complication of lithium treatment in bipolar disorder. Treatment with lithium should be discontinued, if there is evidence of lithium-induced nephropathy. However, lithium can be given to patients with end-stage-renal-disease on haemodialysis treatment......, if there is no other way to control the bipolar disorder. We report one patient who was successfully treated with lithium in parallel with haemodialysis....

  10. Repression and reactivation of lithium efflux from erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodnick, P J; Meltzer, H L; Dunner, D L; Fieve, R R

    1979-10-01

    Efflux of lithium from human erythrocytes was studied in patients before, during, and after discontinuation of administration of lithium carbonate. Onset of lithium-induced repression of efflux took approximately 10 days and was significantly shorter in patients who had had lithium therapy previously. Reactivation took a longer period of time--approximately 2 week--and was found to be related to duration of lithium therapy. Theoretical pathways of lithium flow through membranes are discussed.

  11. [Lithium can be given to patients on haemodialysis treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kancir, Anne Sophie Pinholt; Viftrup, Jens Emil; Pedersen, Erling Bjerregaard

    2015-01-26

    Lithium-induced nephropathy is a known complication of lithium treatment in bipolar disorder. Treatment with lithium should be discontinued, if there is evidence of lithium-induced nephropathy. However, lithium can be given to patients with end-stage-renal-disease on haemodialysis treatment, if there is no other way to control the bipolar disorder. We report one patient who was successfully treated with lithium in parallel with haemodialysis.

  12. Explosion of lithium-thionyl-chloride battery due to presence of lithium nitride

    OpenAIRE

    Hennesø, E.; Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2015-01-01

    An explosion of a lithium–thionyl-chloride (Li–SOCl2) battery during production (assembly) leads to serious worker injury. The accident cell batch had been in a dry-air intermediate storage room for months before being readied with thionyl chloride electrolyte. Metallic lithium can react with atmospheric nitrogen to produce lithium nitride. Nodules of lithium nitride were found to be present on the lithium foil in other cells of the accident batch. The investigation attributed the explosion t...

  13. High catalytic activity of anatase titanium dioxide for decomposition of electrolyte solution in lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; He, Yan-Bing; Lv, Wei; Zhang, Chen; Du, Hongda; Li, Baohua; Yang, Quan-Hong; Kang, Feiyu

    2014-12-01

    It has been indicated that anatase TiO2 is a promising anode material for lithium ion power battery from many previous researches. Whereas, in this work, we find that the anatase TiO2, when used as an anode for lithium ion battery, has high catalytic activity to initiate the decarboxylation reaction of electrolyte solution, resulting in the large generation of sole gaseous component, CO2. The ROLi species and the new phase of flake-like Li2TiF6 material are the main reaction products between anatase TiO2 and LiPF6 based electrolyte solution. This work provides important and urgent information that the surface chemistry of anatase TiO2 used as the anode material of lithium ion battery must be modified to suppress its catalytic activity for the decomposition of solvents.

  14. Easy and versatile functionalization of lithium niobate wafers by hydrophobic trichlorosilanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennes, Jonathan; Ballandras, Sylvain [Institut FEMTO-ST, CNRS, Universite de Franche-Comte, 32 Avenue de l' Observatoire, F-24044 Besancon Cedex (France); Cherioux, Frederic [Institut FEMTO-ST, CNRS, Universite de Franche-Comte, 32 Avenue de l' Observatoire, F-24044 Besancon Cedex (France)], E-mail: frederic.cherioux@femto-st.fr

    2008-12-30

    The functionalization of lithium niobate surface has been successfully obtained by the grafting of trichloro-organosilane derivatives thanks to liquid phase silanization or micro-contact printing. This functionalization has been proved by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The data show that the stability of the self-assembled monolayer (SAM) film on the trichloro(1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyl)silane-modified lithium niobate surface is largely due to the formation of a siloxy-niobate (-Si-O-Nb-) bond via a condensation reaction between -Si-Cl and niobate hydroxide (-NbOH). The extremely hydrophobic and stable SAM on lithium niobate could have useful applications in acoustic droplet handling and more generally surface acoustic waves (SAW) device preparation for lab-on-chip devices.

  15. Easy and versatile functionalization of lithium niobate wafers by hydrophobic trichlorosilanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennès, Jonathan; Ballandras, Sylvain; Chérioux, Frédéric

    2008-12-01

    The functionalization of lithium niobate surface has been successfully obtained by the grafting of trichloro-organosilane derivatives thanks to liquid phase silanization or micro-contact printing. This functionalization has been proved by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The data show that the stability of the self-assembled monolayer (SAM) film on the trichloro(1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyl)silane-modified lithium niobate surface is largely due to the formation of a siloxy-niobate (-Si-O-Nb-) bond via a condensation reaction between -Si-Cl and niobate hydroxide (-NbOH). The extremely hydrophobic and stable SAM on lithium niobate could have useful applications in acoustic droplet handling and more generally surface acoustic waves (SAW) device preparation for lab-on-chip devices.

  16. Structural and electronic modifications induced by lithium insertion in Sn-based oxide glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Florent; Morato, Françoise; Chouvin, Jérôme; Aldon, Laurent; Lippens, Pierre Emmanuel; Fourcade, Josette Olivier; Jumas, Jean-Claude; Simon, Bernard; Biensan, Philippe

    The irreversible mechanisms of lithium insertion in amorphous tin composite oxides SnB 0.6P 0.4O 2.9 have been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and 119Sn Mössbauer spectroscopy. The determination of the Lamb-Mössbauer factor has allowed us to evaluate the relative numbers of different tin atoms (Sn II, Sn 0). We show that insertion of lithium reduces the Sn II into Sn 0 atoms, which form nanoparticles of active species. The lithium ions act as glass modifiers, breaking the bonds within MOM' (M, M'=B, P, Sn) bridges and forming non-bridging MO δ- bonds.

  17. A computational study on novel carbon-based lithium materials for hydrogen storage and the role of carbon in destabilizing complex metal hydrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghouri, Mohammed Minhaj

    materials with varying amounts of hydrogen. A detailed analysis of the heats of reactions of these materials using different reaction schemes is performed and based on the promising thermodynamic and gravimetric storage density, LiC4Be2H5 is divulged as a promising novel carbon based lithium material. In the later part, this dissertation performs a detailed study on the effect of carbon when it is used as a dopant in four different well known complex hydrides, lithium beryllium hydride (Li2BeH4), lithium borohydride (LiBH4), lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH 4) and sodium borohydride (NaBH4). Initially, the unit cells of the crystal structure are fully resolved using the plane-wave pseudopotential implementation of DFT. The supercells of each of these are then constructed and optimized. Varying amounts of carbon is introduced as impurity in these crystals in different sites such as the top, subsurface and the bulk of the crystal lattice. Using the electronic structure calculations, it is established that (i) C-Be-H, C-B-H or C-Al-H compounds are formed respectively in the cases of Li2BeH4, LiBH4 and LiAlH4 when carbon is doped in them; (ii) and carbon dopant causes a decrease in the bond strengths of Be-H, B-H and Al-H in respective cases. This reduction in the bond strengths combined with the fact that there is a decrease in the ionic interaction between the cation and the anionic hydride units of these complex hydrides causes a destabilization effect.

  18. Lithium in drinking water and suicide mortality: The interplay with lithium prescriptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helbich, M; Leitner, M; Kapusta, N

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known about the effects of lithium intake through drinking water on suicide. This intake originates either from natural rock and soil elution and/or accumulation of lithium-based pharmaceuticals in ground water. Aims To examine the interplay between natural lithium in drinking w

  19. Lithium- Sensitive Store-Operated Ca2+ Entry in the Regulation of FGF23 Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingbing Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Lithium, a widely used drug for the treatment of mood disorders, has previously been shown to stimulate the release of fibroblast growth factor FGF23, a powerful regulator of 1,25(OH2D3 formation and mineral metabolism. The cellular mechanisms involved have remained elusive. Lithium has been shown to modify Ca2+ signaling. In a wide variety of cells, Ca2+ entry is accomplished by the pore-forming Ca2+ channel subunit Orai1 and its regulator STIM, which stimulates Orai following Ca2+ depletion of intracellular stores. Transcription factors promoting Orai1 expression include NF-κB. The present study thus explored whether the effect of lithium on FGF23 involves and requires Ca2+ entry. Methods: Experiments were performed in UMR106 osteoblastic cells and immortalized primary osteoblasts (IPO. FGF23 and Orai1 transcript levels were estimated from qRT-PCR, cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i from Fura2 fluorescence and store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE from an increase in [Ca2+]i following store depletion by inhibition of the sarcoendoplasmatic Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA with thapsigargin (1 µM. Results: SOCE in UMR106 cells was enhanced by lithium treatment, an effect abrogated by Orai1 inhibitor 2-APB (50 µM. FGF23 transcript levels were increased by lithium and inhibited by Orai1 inhibitors 2-APB (50 µM and YM58483 (100 nM as well as NF-κB inhibitors wogonin (100 µM and withaferin A (500 nM. Moreover, Orai1 transcript levels were up-regulated by lithium, an effect attenuated by wogonin and withaferin A. Conclusion: Lithium stimulates FGF23 release at least in part by NF-κB dependent up-regulation of Orai1 transcription and store operated Ca2+ entry.

  20. Lithium and neuroprotection: translational evidence and implications for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diniz BS

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Breno Satler Diniz,1 Rodrigo Machado-Vieira,2,3 Orestes Vicente Forlenza2 1Department of Mental Health, National Institute of Science and Technology – Molecular Medicine, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil; 2Laboratory of Neuroscience (LIM-27, Department and Institute of Psychiatry, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil; 3Experimental Therapeutics and Pathophysiology Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD, USA Abstract: In the last two decades, a growing body of evidence has shown that lithium has several neuroprotective effects. Several neurobiological mechanisms have been proposed to underlie these clinical effects. Evidence from preclinical studies suggests that neuroprotection induced by lithium is mainly related to its potent inhibition of the enzyme glycogen synthase kinase-3ß (GSK-3ß and its downstream effects, ie, reduction of both tau protein phosphorylation and amyloid-ß42 production. Additional neuroprotective effects include increased neurotrophic support, reduced proinflammatory status, and decreased oxidative stress. More recently, neuroimaging studies in humans have demonstrated that chronic use is associated with cortical thickening, higher volume of the hippocampus and amygdala, and neuronal viability in bipolar patients on lithium treatment. In line with this evidence, observational and case registry studies have shown that chronic lithium intake is associated with a reduced risk of Alzheimer's disease in subjects with bipolar disorder. Evidence from recent clinical trials in patients with mild cognitive impairment suggests that chronic lithium treatment at subtherapeutic doses can reduce cerebral spinal fluid phosphorylated tau protein. Overall, convergent lines of evidence point to the potential of lithium as an agent with disease modifying properties in Alzheimer’s disease. However, additional long-term studies are necessary to confirm its efficacy and safety for these

  1. Lithium in Stellar Atmospheres: Observations and Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubimkov, L. S.

    2016-09-01

    Of all the light elements, lithium is the most sensitive indicator of stellar evolution. This review discusses current data on the abundance of lithium in the atmospheres of A-, F-, G-, and K-stars of different types, as well as the consistency of these data with theoretical predictions. The variety of observed Li abundances is illustrated by the following objects in different stages of evolution: (1) Old stars in the galactic halo, which have a lithium abundance logɛ(Li)=2.2 (the "lithium plateau") that appears to be 0.5 dex lower than the primordial abundance predicted by cosmological models. (2) Young stars in the galactic disk, which have been used to estimate the contemporary initial lithium abundance logɛ(Li)=3.2±0.1 for stars in the Main sequence. Possible sources of lithium enrichment in the interstellar medium during evolution of the galaxy are discussed. (3) Evolving FGK dwarfs in the galactic disk, which have lower logɛ(Li) for lower effective temperature T eff and mass M. The "lithium dip" near T eff ~6600 K in the distribution of logɛ(Li) with respect to T eff in old clusters is discussed. (4) FGK giants and supergiants, of which most have no lithium at all. This phenomenon is consistent with rotating star model calculations. (5) Lithium rich cold giants with logɛ(Li) ≥ 2.0, which form a small, enigmatic group. Theoretical models with rotation can explain the existence of these stars only in the case of low initial rotation velocities V 0 synthesis of lithium (capture of a giant planet is an alternative). (6) Magnetic Ap-stars, where lithium is concentrated in spots located at the magnetic poles. There the lithium abundance reaches logɛ(Li)=6. Discrepancies between observations and theory are noted for almost all the stars discussed in this review.

  2. Liquid electrolytes for lithium and lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomgren, George E.

    A number of advances in electrolytes have occurred in the past 4 years, which have contributed to increased safety, wider temperature range of operation, better cycling and other enhancements to lithium-ion batteries. The changes to basic electrolyte solutions that have occurred to accomplish these advances are discussed in detail. The solvent components that have led to better low-temperature operation are also considered. Also, additives that have resulted in better structure of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) are presented as well as proposed methods of operation of these additives. Other additives that have lessened the flammability of the electrolyte when exposed to air and also caused lowering of the heat of reaction with the oxidized positive electrode are discussed. Finally, additives that act to open current-interrupter devices by releasing a gas under overcharge conditions and those that act to cycle between electrodes to alleviate overcharging are presented. As a class, these new electrolytes are often called "functional electrolytes". Possibilities for further progress in this most important area are presented. Another area of active work in the recent past has been the reemergence of ambient-temperature molten salt electrolytes applied to alkali metal and lithium-ion batteries. This revival of an older field is due to the discovery of new salt types that have a higher voltage window (particularly to positive potentials) and also have greatly increased hydrolytic stability compared to previous ionic liquids. While practical batteries have not yet emerged from these studies, the increase in the number of active researchers and publications in the area demonstrates the interest and potentialities of the field. Progress in the field is briefly reviewed. Finally, recent results on the mechanisms for capacity loss on shelf and cycling in lithium-ion cells are reviewed. Progress towards further market penetration by lithium-ion cells hinges on improved

  3. A lithium-oxygen battery based on lithium superoxide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jun; Lee, Yun Jung; Luo, Xiangyi; Lau, Kah Chun; Wen, Jianguo; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Zhai, Dengyun; Miller, Dean; Jeong, Yo-Sub; Park, Jin-Bum; Curtiss, Larry A.; Amine, Khalil

    2016-01-11

    Although the superoxide of lithium (LiO2) is believed to be a key intermediate in Li-O2 batteries leading to the formation of lithium peroxide, LiO2 has never been observed in its pure state. In this work, we provide evidence that use of a cathode based on a reduced graphene oxide with Ir nanoparticles in a Li-O2 battery results in a LiO2 discharge product formed by single electron transfer without further electron transfer or disproportionation to form Li2O2. High energy X-ray diffraction (HE-XRD) patterns indicates the presence of crystalline LiO2 with no evidence of Li2O2 or Li2O. The HEXRD studies as a function of time also show that LiO2 can be stable in its crystalline form after one week of aging in the presence of electrolyte. The results provide evidence that LiO2 is stable enough that it can be repeatedly charged and discharged with a very low charge potential (~3.2 V) and may open the avenue for a lithium superoxide-based battery.

  4. Lithium Metal Anodes for Rechargeable Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Wu [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Jiulin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ. (China); Ding, Fei [Tianjin Inst. of Power Sources (China); Chen, Xilin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Nasybulin, Eduard N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhang, Yaohui [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Harbin Inst. of Technology (China); Zhang, Jiguang [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-10-29

    Rechargeable lithium metal batteries have much higher energy density than those of lithium ion batteries using graphite anode. Unfortunately, uncontrollable dendritic lithium growth inherent in these batteries (upon repeated charge/discharge cycling) and limited Coulombic efficiency during lithium deposition/striping has prevented their practical application over the past 40 years. With the emerging of post Li-ion batteries, safe and efficient operation of lithium metal anode has become an enabling technology which may determine the fate of several promising candidates for the next generation of energy storage systems, including rechargeable Li-air battery, Li-S battery, and Li metal battery which utilize lithium intercalation compounds as cathode. In this work, various factors which affect the morphology and Coulombic efficiency of lithium anode will be analyzed. Technologies used to characterize the morphology of lithium deposition and the results obtained by modeling of lithium dendrite growth will also be reviewed. At last, recent development in this filed and urgent need in this field will also be discussed.

  5. Lithium-ion batteries fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yuping

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-Ion Batteries: Fundamentals and Applications offers a comprehensive treatment of the principles, background, design, production, and use of lithium-ion batteries. Based on a solid foundation of long-term research work, this authoritative monograph:Introduces the underlying theory and history of lithium-ion batteriesDescribes the key components of lithium-ion batteries, including negative and positive electrode materials, electrolytes, and separatorsDiscusses electronic conductive agents, binders, solvents for slurry preparation, positive thermal coefficient (PTC) materials, current col

  6. Permselective graphene oxide membrane for highly stable and anti-self-discharge lithium-sulfur batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jia-Qi; Zhuang, Ting-Zhou; Zhang, Qiang; Peng, Hong-Jie; Chen, Cheng-Meng; Wei, Fei

    2015-03-24

    Lithium-sulfur batteries hold great promise for serving as next generation high energy density batteries. However, the shuttle of polysulfide induces rapid capacity degradation and poor cycling stability of lithium-sulfur cells. Herein, we proposed a unique lithium-sulfur battery configuration with an ultrathin graphene oxide (GO) membrane for high stability. The oxygen electronegative atoms modified GO into a polar plane, and the carboxyl groups acted as ion-hopping sites of positively charged species (Li(+)) and rejected the transportation of negatively charged species (Sn(2-)) due to the electrostatic interactions. Such electrostatic repulsion and physical inhibition largely decreased the transference of polysulfides across the GO membrane in the lithium-sulfur system. Consequently, the GO membrane with highly tunable functionalization properties, high mechanical strength, low electric conductivity, and facile fabrication procedure is an effective permselective separator system in lithium-sulfur batteries. By the incorporation of a permselective GO membrane, the cyclic capacity decay rate is also reduced from 0.49 to 0.23%/cycle. As the GO membrane blocks the diffusion of polysulfides through the membrane, it is also with advantages of anti-self-discharge properties.

  7. Ammine magnesium borohydride complex as a new material for hydrogen storage: structure and properties of Mg(BH4)2.2NH3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloveichik, Grigorii; Her, Jae-Hyuk; Stephens, Peter W; Gao, Yan; Rijssenbeek, Job; Andrus, Matt; Zhao, J-C

    2008-05-19

    The ammonia complex of magnesium borohydride Mg(BH4)2.2NH3 (I), which contains 16.0 wt % hydrogen, is a potentially promising material for hydrogen storage. This complex was synthesized by thermal decomposition of a hexaaammine complex Mg(BH4)2.6NH3 (II), which crystallizes in the cubic space group Fm3 m with unit cell parameter a=10.82(1) A and is isostructural to Mg(NH3) 6Cl2. We solved the structure of I that crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pcab with unit cell parameters a=17.4872(4) A, b=9.4132(2) A, c=8.7304(2) A, and Z=8. This structure is built from individual pseudotetrahedral molecules Mg(BH4)2.2NH3 containing one bidentate BH4 group and one tridentate BH4 group that pack into a layered crystal structure mediated by N-H...H-B dihydrogen bonds. Complex I decomposes endothermically starting at 150 degrees C, with a maximum hydrogen release rate at 205 degrees C, which makes it competitive with ammonia borane BH 3NH3 as a hydrogen storage material.

  8. Sodium Borohydride Reduction of Aqueous Silver-Iron-Nickel Solutions: a Chemical Route to Synthesis of Low Thermal Expansion-High Conductivity Ag-Invar Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, E. A.; Stolk, J.; Hafford, L.; Gross, M.

    2009-07-01

    Thermal management is a critical concern in the design and performance of electronics systems. If heat extraction and thermal expansion are not properly addressed, the thermal mismatch among dissimilar materials may give rise to high thermal stresses or interfacial shear strains, and ultimately to premature system failure. In this article, we present a chemical synthesis process that yields Ag-Invar (64Fe-36Ni) alloys with a range of attractive properties for thermal management applications. Sodium borohydride reduction of an aqueous Ag-Fe-Ni metal salt solution produces nanocrystalline powders, and conventional powder processing converts this powder to fine-grained alloys. The samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, thermomechanical analysis, and electrical conductivity measurements; thermal conductivity is estimated using the Wiedemann-Franz law. Sintering of Ag-Fe-Ni powders leads to the formation of two-phase silver-Invar alloys with low coefficients of thermal expansion (CTEs) and relatively high electrical conductivities. A sample of 50Ag-50Invar exhibits a CTE of 8.76 μm/(m· °C) and an estimated thermal conductivity of 236 W/(m·K). The Ag-Invar alloys offer thermodynamic stability and tailorable properties, and they may help address the need for improved packaging materials.

  9. Preparation and Growth of N-Doped Hollow Carbon Nanospheres and Their Application as Catalyst Support in Direct Borohydride Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuanzhen; Dong, Shujuan; Li, Sai; Liu, Yongning; Yan, Wei

    2015-05-01

    N-doped hollow carbon nanospheres (HCNSs) were prepared by electric arc discharge method in N2 atmosphere. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) analysis shows that their nitrogen content reaches up to 4.9 atom%. Both the low thermal conductivity of N2 and the doping of nitrogen atom make carbon unit bend to form hollow nanosphere structure. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray diffusion (XRD) analysis prove the presence of detected defects and a poor crystallinity on the HCNSs shell. Moreover, annealing treatment of HCNSs was carried out at 1100 degrees C/10 h and 1400 degrees C/2 h to research their fracture extension. It is found that HCNSs could grow into closed-tubes even with a shell at high annealing temperature. HCNSs were applied in direct borohydride fuel cell (DBFC) to evaluate their catalytic performance. The electrochemical results show that pure HCNSs doesn't have any catalysis effect, but they can greatly promote the catalytic performance of CoO, and the largest polarization current density of which achieves 1.845 A x cm(-2) at -0.7 V (vs. Hg/HgO electrode).

  10. Experimental study on the formation and growth of electroless nickel-boron coatings from borohydride-reduced bath on mild steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitry, Veronique, E-mail: veronique.vitry@umons.ac.be [Service de Metallurgie, Universite de Mons, Rue de l' Epargne 56, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Sens, Adeline [Service de Metallurgie, Universite de Mons, Rue de l' Epargne 56, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Kanta, Abdoul-Fatah [Service de Sciences des Materiaux, Universite de Mons, Rue de l' Epargne 56, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Delaunois, Fabienne [Service de Metallurgie, Universite de Mons, Rue de l' Epargne 56, 7000 Mons (Belgium)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Initiation mechanism of electroless Ni-B on St-37 steel has been identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different phases of the plating process were observed and identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Influence of chemical heterogeneity on coating morphology was revealed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Batch replenishment of the plating bath induces new germination phase. - Abstract: Quality and homogeneity of electroless nickel-boron coatings are very important for applications in corrosion and electronics and are completely dependent on the formation of the deposit. The growth and formation process of electroless nickel-boron was investigated by immersing mild steel (St-37) samples in an un-replenished bath for various periods of time (from 5 s to 1 h). The coatings obtained at the different stages of the process were then characterized: thickness was measured by SEM, morphology was observed, weight gain was recorded and top composition of the coatings was obtained from XPS. Three main phases were identified during the coating formation and links between plating time, instantaneous deposition rate, chemistry of last formed deposit and morphology were established. The mechanism for initial deposition on steel substrate for borohydride-reduced electroless nickel bath was also observed. Those results were confronted with chemistry evolution in the unreplenished plating bath during the process. This allowed getting insight about phenomena occurring in the plating bath and their influence on coating formation.

  11. New Synthesis of Pt-Ru Nanoparticles on Surface Modified Carbon Vulcane XC-72 as an Effective Catalyst for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmad; Nozad; Golikand; Sajjad; Sadaghat; Sharehjini; Mohammad; Yari

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Pt-Ru nanoparticles are synthesised on the surface oxidized carbon Vulcane XC-72 as catalyst support by chemically anchoring Pt and Ru onto the surface of modified carbon vulcane XC-72 (by refluxing in 70% HNO3 at 120 ℃ for 12 h to introduce surface functional groups) .The nanoparticles of Pt and Ru are synthesized by reduction of H2PtCl6 and K4Ru(CN)6 with sodium borohydride in a 5.5 buffer solution of sodium citrate,the complexation of citrate with metal ions is beneficial to the formati...

  12. Lithium-Air Cell Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.; Dobley, Arthur; Seymour, Frasier W.

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-air (Li-air) primary batteries have a theoretical specific capacity of 11,400 Wh/kg, the highest of any common metal-air system. NASA is developing Li-air technology for a Mobile Oxygen Concentrator for Spacecraft Emergencies, an application which requires an extremely lightweight primary battery that can discharge over 24 hours continuously. Several vendors were funded through the NASA SBIR program to develop Li-air technology to fulfill the requirements of this application. New catalysts and carbon cathode structures were developed to enhance the oxygen reduction reaction and increase surface area to improve cell performance. Techniques to stabilize the lithium metal anode surface were explored. Experimental results for prototype laboratory cells are given. Projections are made for the performance of hypothetical cells constructed from the materials that were developed.

  13. Lithium interaction with carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nalimova, V.A. [Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation). Khimicheskij Fakul`tet; Sklovsky, D.E. [Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation). Khimicheskij Fakul`tet; Bondarenko, G.N. [Topcheiv Institute of Petrochemical Synthesis, Leninsky Prospekt, 29, Moscow (Russian Federation); Alvergnat-Gaucher, H. [CRMD, CNRS, Universite d`Orleans, 1B rue de la Ferollerie, 45071, Orleans Cedex 02 (France); Bonnamy, S. [CRMD, CNRS, Universite d`Orleans, 1B rue de la Ferollerie, 45071, Orleans Cedex 02 (France); Beguin, F. [CRMD, CNRS, Universite d`Orleans, 1B rue de la Ferollerie, 45071, Orleans Cedex 02 (France)

    1997-05-01

    Lithium interaction with catalytic carbon nanotubes under high-pressure conditions was studied. A large amount of Li (2Li/C) reacted with the carbon nanotubes forming an intercalation compound (I{sub c}{proportional_to}4.1 A) which follows from X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy data. We cannot exclude also the possibility of insertion of a part of Li into the channel of the nanotubes. (orig.)

  14. Primary nucleation of lithium carbonate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuzhu SUN; Xingfu SONG; Jin WANG; Yan LUO; Jianguo YU

    2009-01-01

    A set of laser apparatus was used to explore the induction period and the primary nucleation of lithium carbonate. Results show that the induction period increases with the decrease of supersaturation, temperature and stirring speed. Through the classical theory of primary nucleation, many important properties involved in primary nucleation under different conditions were obtained quantitatively, including the interfacial tension between solid and liquid, contact angle, critical nucleus size, critical nuleation free energy etc.

  15. Lithium battery safety and reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Samuel C.

    Lithium batteries have been used in a variety of applications for a number of years. As their use continues to grow, particularly in the consumer market, a greater emphasis needs to be placed on safety and reliability. There is a useful technique which can help to design cells and batteries having a greater degree of safety and higher reliability. This technique, known as fault tree analysis, can also be useful in determining the cause of unsafe behavior and poor reliability in existing designs.

  16. Electroencephalographic characteristics of lithium hydroxybutyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saratikov, A S; Zamoshchina, T A

    1986-10-01

    Lithium hydroxybutyrate influence on excitability, functional mobility and frequency range power of the cortex electrograms, midbrain reticular formation, posterior hypothalamus caudate nucleus, dorsal hippocampus, basolateral amygdala and medial thalamus in rabbits has been investigated. It has been shown that the drug suppresses the non-specific activating systems of the midbrain and posterior hypothalamus, intensifies work of the caudatocortical inhibitory mechanisms and the forebrain limbic formations (the hippocampus and amygdala).

  17. High energy density lithium batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Aifantis, Katerina E; Kumar, R Vasant

    2010-01-01

    Cell phones, portable computers and other electronic devices crucially depend on reliable, compact yet powerful batteries. Therefore, intensive research is devoted to improving performance and reducing failure rates. Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries promise significant advancement and high application potential for hybrid vehicles, biomedical devices, and everyday appliances. This monograph provides special focus on the methods and approaches for enhancing the performance of next-generation batteries through the use of nanotechnology. Deeper understanding of the mechanisms and strategies is

  18. Lithium ion storage between graphenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Yue

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, we investigate the storage of lithium ions between two parallel graphene sheets using the continuous approximation and the 6-12 Lennard-Jones potential. The continuous approximation assumes that the carbon atoms can be replaced by a uniform distribution across the surface of the graphene sheets so that the total interaction potential can be approximated by performing surface integrations. The number of ion layers determines the major storage characteristics of the battery, and our results show three distinct ionic configurations, namely single, double, and triple ion forming layers between graphenes. The number densities of lithium ions between the two graphenes are estimated from existing semi-empirical molecular orbital calculations, and the graphene sheets giving rise to the triple ion layers admit the largest storage capacity at all temperatures, followed by a marginal decrease of storage capacity for the case of double ion layers. These two configurations exceed the maximum theoretical storage capacity of graphite. Further, on taking into account the charge-discharge property, the double ion layers are the most preferable choice for enhanced lithium storage. Although the single ion layer provides the least charge storage, it turns out to be the most stable configuration at all temperatures. One application of the present study is for the design of future high energy density alkali batteries using graphene sheets as anodes for which an analytical formulation might greatly facilitate rapid computational results.

  19. EADS-Astrium Lithium Technology Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattesco, P.

    2008-09-01

    The Lithium-ion battery has been perceived ten years ago by EADS Astrium as a very promising technology in terms of technical, industrial and cost aspects for satellite platforms with respect to NiCd and NiH2 technologies. In 2008, lithium technology is the baseline for all new spacecrafts, whatever the missions.For telecommunication satellite, since 2003, more than 18 Lithium batteries for Eurostar E3000 platform have been fully tested and integrated (with SAFT VES140S Lithium cells) up to now. 6 E3000 satellites are in orbit equipped with Lithium batteries with more than 4 years in orbit for the first E3000 satellite equipped with Lithium-ion batteries. 7 others E3000 satellites with lithium batteries are currently at various stage of production.For LEO missions (THEOS, PLEIADES…), ABSL batteries with Sony 18650 HC lithium cells will replace, on the latest LEO platform the NiCd technology. The same technology change has been also successfully done previously for scientific missions: since June 2003 for Mars Express and November 2005 for Venus Express.Associated expected system improvements (weight reduction of the battery system, easiest on ground and launch pad management, highest available energy during launch, ….) driven by specific lithium-ion technology features are today demonstrated and in orbit behaviours are as expected [1], [13].The paper will give an overview of experience of EADS-Astrium on lithium battery technology with the description (design, management, architecture) of lithium batteries used on board LEO and GEO satellites. It will give also a picture of the effort done the last ten years to reach this level of experience (test characterisation, simulation…).

  20. Manufacturing of Protected Lithium Electrodes for Advanced Lithium-Air, Lithium-Water & Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visco, Steven J

    2015-11-30

    The global demand for rechargeable batteries is large and growing rapidly. Assuming the adoption of electric vehicles continues to increase, the need for smaller, lighter, and less expensive batteries will become even more pressing. In this vein, PolyPlus Battery Company has developed ultra-light high performance batteries based on its proprietary protected lithium electrode (PLE) technology. The Company’s Lithium-Air and Lithium-Seawater batteries have already demonstrated world record performance (verified by third party testing), and we are developing advanced lithium-sulfur batteries which have the potential deliver high performance at low cost. In this program PolyPlus Battery Company teamed with Corning Incorporated to transition the PLE technology from bench top fabrication using manual tooling to a pre- commercial semi-automated pilot line. At the inception of this program PolyPlus worked with a Tier 1 battery manufacturing engineering firm to design and build the first-of-its-kind pilot line for PLE production. The pilot line was shipped and installed in Berkeley, California several months after the start of the program. PolyPlus spent the next two years working with and optimizing the pilot line and now produces all of its PLEs on this line. The optimization process successfully increased the yield, throughput, and quality of PLEs produced on the pilot line. The Corning team focused on fabrication and scale-up of the ceramic membranes that are key to the PLE technology. PolyPlus next demonstrated that it could take Corning membranes through the pilot line process to produce state-of-the-art protected lithium electrodes. In the latter part of the program the Corning team developed alternative membranes targeted for the large rechargeable battery market. PolyPlus is now in discussions with several potential customers for its advanced PLE-enabled batteries, and is building relationships and infrastructure for the transition into manufacturing. It is likely

  1. Exploring non-standard stellar physics with lithium depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Garrett

    2017-01-01

    Standard models of stellar evolution generally rely on the assumption that the structure and evolution of stars are uniquely determined by their mass, composition, and age. This assumption is now known to be too simplistic, as there remain numerous features of the observed cluster and field stellar pattern which cannot be explained by standard stellar theory. One such discrepancy pertains to the evolving abundances of the light element lithium, which shows significant dispersions between stars of equal mass and age on the pre-main sequence, in defiance of standard predictions. Lithium is rapidly destroyed by proton capture in the deep interiors of stars, and consequently the Li abundance observed in a star's convective envelope encodes information about the evolution of the temperature of its interior, and about the history of material exchanged between the surface and hot central regions. This makes Li an extremely sensitive diagnostic of stellar physics. Identifying the ways in which standard lithium predictions differ from the observed pattern gives us a crucial laboratory for understanding how non-standard physical effects are influencing stellar structure and evolution. In this talk, I will argue that starspots, correlated with rotation, are the underlying driver of dispersion in lithium abundance on the pre-main sequence. Starspots are ubiquitously found on young, active stars, and may cover up to 50% of their surfaces. By modifying an existing stellar evolution code to account for spot effects on both the surface boundary conditions and the transport of energy in the interior, I will show that heavy spot coverage systematically increases the radii of the fastest spinning young stars. This effect cools their interiors, leading to a reduce rate of lithium destruction on the pre-main sequence. This insight demonstrates that stars of equal mass and age can have different stellar parameters, and holds important consequences for measuring the masses and ages of

  2. RECOVERY OF LITHIUM FROM WASTE MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JITKA JANDOVÁ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, processes based on roasting-leaching-crystallization steps and condensation-precipitation steps for Li2CO3 separation from spent Li/MnO2 batteries and lithium-containing wastewaters were developed and verified on a laboratory scale. Spent Li/MnO2 batteries were roasted under reduced pressure at 650°C, which split the castings and deactivated the batteries by reduction of LiMnO2 and MnO2 with residual lithium metal and graphite to form MnO and Li2CO3. The resultant lithium carbonate was selectively solubilised in water with manganese remaining in the leach residue. Li2CO3 of 99.5 % purity was obtained after evaporation of 95 % water. Processing of lithium-containing alkaline wastewaters from the production of liquid rubber comprises condensation up to lithium concentration of 12-13 g/l Li and a two-step precipitation of lithium carbonate using CO2 as a precipitation agent. Sparingly soluble Li2CO3 was produced in the second step at 95°C, whilst most impurities remain in the solution. Obtained lithium carbonate products contained on average more than 99.5 % Li2CO3. The lithium precipitation efficiency was about 90 %.

  3. Ionic conduction of lithium hydride single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilipenko, G.I.; Oparin, D.V.; Zhuravlev, N.A.; Gavrilov, F.F.

    1987-09-01

    Using the electrical-conductivity- and NMR-measurement- methods, the ionic-conduction mechanism is established in stoichiometric lithium hydride single crystals. The activation energies of migration of anion- and cation-vacancies and the formation of Schottky-pair defects are determined. They assume that the mechanisms of self-diffusion and conductivity are different in lithium hydride.

  4. Patterns and clinical outcomes of lithium treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilting, I.

    2008-01-01

    Patterns and consequences of lithium use’. In chapter 2.1 we studied lithium use patterns in out-patients within the last decade. In line with the increase in alternatives and the Dutch guidelines, we observed an increase in use of atypical antipsychotics and valproic acid and a decrease in use tric

  5. Lithium use and the risk of fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilting, Ingeborg; de Vries, Frank; Thio, Brahm M. K. S.; Cooper, Cyrus; Heerdink, Eibert R.; Leutkens, Hubert G. M.; Nolen, Willem A.; Egberts, Antoine C. G.; van Staa, Tjeerd P.

    A recent study reported a decreased risk of fractures among lithium users. We conducted a case-control study within the UK General Practice Research Database, comparing never, ever, current, recent and past lithium use in 231,778 fracture cases to matched controls. In addition, the risk of fractures

  6. Atomic lithium vapor laser isotope separation

    CERN Document Server

    Olivares, I E

    2002-01-01

    An atomic vapor laser isotope separation in lithium was performed using tunable diode lasers. The method permits also the separation of the isotopes between the sup 6 LiD sub 2 and the sup 7 LiD sub 1 lines using a self-made mass separator which includes a magnetic sector and an ion beam designed for lithium. (Author)

  7. A Study on Hazard of Lithium and Lithium-ion Batteries%锂电池和锂离子电池的危险性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新蕊; 古积博

    2013-01-01

    With increasing application,lithium and lithium-ion batteries show hazards during usage,storage, disposal and waste.To evaluate the thermal stability of lithium and lithium-ion batteries,their electrolytes were assessed by Chemical Thermodynamic and Energy Release(CHETAH)and measured by a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC), since they sometimes caused fires and accidents.Moreover,thermal reactivity of lithium,silver oxide and alkaline batteries were analyzed by using a modified closed pressure vessel test (MCPVT).As a result,lithium battery is more hazardous than the other batteries.The sensitiveness to mechanical stimuli,such as a fall hammer,of lithium battery was also much higher than other batteries.The explosive power,which was evaluated by a ballistic mortar,of lithium coin battery was higher than those of other batteries.%随着锂和锂离子电池应用的不断增加,在其使用、储存、处理和废弃过程中也呈现出越来越多的危险性。锂和锂离子电池的电解质是可燃物质,会引起火灾,其热稳定性分别由CHETAH和DSC评估和测定。另外,锂电池、氧化银电池和碱性电池的热稳定性通过在一个改性的密闭压力容器中测定(MCPVT)。结果表明锂电池比其它电池的危险性更大。锂电池对力学冲击(如落锤试验)的敏感度高于其它电池。其爆炸威力(如对弹道冲击)也高于其它电池。

  8. Influence of surface coating on structure and properties of metallic lithium anode for rechargeable Li-O2 battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Q.; Wang, Q.; Ma, Q.; Song, Q.; Chen, Q.

    2017-07-01

    Amorphous lithium phosphorous oxynitride film was coated directly on pre-treated lithium metal as anode of lithium air battery by radio-frequency sputtering technique from a Li3PO4 target. The structure and composition of modified anode was analyzed before and after charge/discharge test in a lithium-air battery, which comprises 0.5M LiNO3/TEGDME as the electrolyte and super P carbon as cathode. Batteries were galvanostatically discharged by an Arbin BT-2000 battery tester between open current voltage and 2.15V vs. Li+/Li at various current regimes ranging from 0.1–0.4mA/cm2. Compared with fresh lithium, LIPON-coated anode exhibited better electrochemical performance. Good charging efficiency of 90% at a narrower voltage gap with high ionic conductivity of 9.4×10−5S/cm was achieved through optimizing lithium pre-treated conditions, sputtering N2 flows and suitable solute for electrolyte. (Author)

  9. Lithium-Induced Downbeat Nystagmus and Horizontal Gaze Palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jesper Skovlund; Landschoff Lassen, Lisbeth; Wegener, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of lithium-induced downbeat nystagmus and horizontal gaze palsy in a 62-year-old woman who was treated for a bipolar affective disorder with lithium carbonate for one month. At presentation serum lithium was within therapeutic range. No alternative causes of the ocular motility...... disturbances were found, and the patient improved significantly as lithium carbonate was discontinued....

  10. Steady-state pharmacokinetics of lithium carbonate in healthy subjects.

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, R.

    1988-01-01

    1. The pharmacokinetics of lithium in six healthy volunteers stabilised on lithium were investigated and appropriate pharmacokinetic parameters calculated. 2. The results illustrate important differences in single and multiple dose lithium pharmacokinetics; the implications for minimising lithium-induced renal damage are discussed.

  11. Reactivity of lithium exposed graphite surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harilal, S.S., E-mail: sharilal@purdue.edu [Purdue University, School of Nuclear Engineering, 400 Central Dr., West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Allain, J.P.; Hassanein, A. [Purdue University, School of Nuclear Engineering, 400 Central Dr., West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Hendricks, M.R. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Nieto-Perez, M. [CICATA-IPN, Cerro Blanco 141 Cimatario, Queretaro QRO 76090 (Mexico)

    2009-07-30

    Lithium as a plasma-facing component has many attractive features in fusion devices. We investigated chemical properties of the lithiated graphite surfaces during deposition using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and low-energy ion scattering spectroscopy. In this study we try to address some of the known issues during lithium deposition, viz., the chemical state of lithium on graphite substrate, oxide layer formation mechanisms, Li passivation effects over time, and chemical change during exposure of the sample to ambient air. X-ray photoelectron studies indicate changes in the chemical composition with various thickness of lithium on graphite during deposition. An oxide layer formation is noticed during lithium deposition even though all the experiments were performed in ultrahigh vacuum. The metal oxide is immediately transformed into carbonate when the deposited sample is exposed to air.

  12. A lithium deposition system for tokamak devices*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziul, Christopher; Majeski, Richard; Kaita, Robert; Hoffman, Daniel; Timberlake, John; Card, David

    2002-11-01

    The production of a lithium deposition system using commercially available components is discussed. This system is intended to provide a fresh lithium wall coating between discharges in a tokamak. For this purpose, a film 100-200 Å thick is sufficient to ensure that the plasma interacts solely with the lithium. A test system consisting of a lithium evaporator and a deposition monitor has been designed and constructed to investigate deposition rates and coverage. A Thermionics 3kW e-gun is used to rapidly evaporate small amounts of solid lithium. An Inficon XTM/2 quartz deposition monitor then measures deposition rate at varying distances, positions and angles relative to the e-gun crucible. Initial results from the test system will be presented. *Supported by US DOE contract #DE-AC02-76CH-03073

  13. Module of lithium divertor for KTM tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyublinski, I., E-mail: yublinski@yandex.ru [FSUE ' Red Star' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Vertkov, A.; Evtikhin, V.; Balakirev, V.; Ionov, D.; Zharkov, M. [FSUE ' Red Star' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Tazhibayeva, I. [IAE NNC RK, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan); Mirnov, S. [TRINITI, Troitsk, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Khomiakov, S.; Mitin, D. [OJSC Dollezhal Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Mazzitelli, G. [ENEA RC Frascati (Italy); Agostini, P. [ENEA RC Brasimone (Italy)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Problems of PFE degradation, tritium accumulation and plasma pollution can be overcome by the use of liquid lithium-metal with low Z. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Capillary-porous system (CPS) - new material in which liquid lithium fill a solid matrix from porous material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lithium divertor module for KTM tokamak is under development. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lithium filled tungsten felt is offered as the base plasma facing material of divertor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results of this project addresses to the progress in the field of fusion neutrons source and fusion energy source creation. - Abstract: Activity on projects of ITER and DEMO reactors has shown that solution of problems of divertor target plates and other plasma facing elements (PFEs) based on the solid plasma facing materials cause serious difficulties. Problems of PFE degradation, tritium accumulation and plasma pollution can be overcome by the use of liquid lithium-metal with low Z. Application of lithium will allow to create a self-renewal and MHD stable liquid metal surface of the in-vessel devices possessing practically unlimited service life; to reduce power flux due to intensive re-irradiation on lithium atoms in plasma periphery that will essentially facilitate a problem of heat removal from PFE; to reduce Z{sub eff} of plasma to minimally possible level close to 1; to exclude tritium accumulation, that is provided with absence of dust products and an opportunity of the active control of the tritium contents in liquid lithium. Realization of these advantages is based on use of so-called lithium capillary-porous system (CPS) - new material in which liquid lithium fill a solid matrix from porous material. The progress in development of lithium technology and also activity in lithium experiments in the tokamaks TFTR, T-11M, T-10, FTU, NSTX, HT-7 and stellarator TJ II permits of solving the problems in development of

  14. A safe lithium mimetic for bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nisha; Halliday, Amy C; Thomas, Justyn M; Kuznetsova, Olga V; Baldwin, Rhiannon; Woon, Esther C Y; Aley, Parvinder K; Antoniadou, Ivi; Sharp, Trevor; Vasudevan, Sridhar R; Churchill, Grant C

    2013-01-01

    Lithium is the most effective mood stabilizer for the treatment of bipolar disorder, but it is toxic at only twice the therapeutic dosage and has many undesirable side effects. It is likely that a small molecule could be found with lithium-like efficacy but without toxicity through target-based drug discovery; however, therapeutic target of lithium remains equivocal. Inositol monophosphatase is a possible target but no bioavailable inhibitors exist. Here we report that the antioxidant ebselen inhibits inositol monophosphatase and induces lithium-like effects on mouse behaviour, which are reversed with inositol, consistent with a mechanism involving inhibition of inositol recycling. Ebselen is part of the National Institutes of Health Clinical Collection, a chemical library of bioavailable drugs considered clinically safe but without proven use. Therefore, ebselen represents a lithium mimetic with the potential both to validate inositol monophosphatase inhibition as a treatment for bipolar disorder and to serve as a treatment itself.

  15. A preliminary deposit model for lithium brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Dwight; Munk, LeeAnn; Jochens, Hillary; Hynek, Scott; Labay, Keith A.

    2013-01-01

    This report is part of an effort by the U.S. Geological Survey to update existing mineral deposit models and to develop new ones. The global transition away from hydrocarbons toward energy alternatives increases demand for many scarce metals. Among these is lithium, a key component of lithium-ion batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles. Lithium brine deposits account for about three-fourths of the world’s lithium production. Updating an earlier deposit model, we emphasize geologic information that might directly or indirectly help in exploration for lithium brine deposits, or for assessing regions for mineral resource potential. Special attention is given to the best-known deposit in the world—Clayton Valley, Nevada, and to the giant Salar de Atacama, Chile.

  16. Novel lithium iron phosphate materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovic, Jelena

    2011-06-15

    Conventional energy sources are diminishing and non-renewable, take million years to form and cause environmental degradation. In the 21st century, we have to aim at achieving sustainable, environmentally friendly and cheap energy supply by employing renewable energy technologies associated with portable energy storage devices. Lithium-ion batteries can repeatedly generate clean energy from stored materials and convert reversely electric into chemical energy. The performance of lithium-ion batteries depends intimately on the properties of their materials. Presently used battery electrodes are expensive to be produced; they offer limited energy storage possibility and are unsafe to be used in larger dimensions restraining the diversity of application, especially in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs). This thesis presents a major progress in the development of LiFePO4 as a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. Using simple procedure, a completely novel morphology has been synthesized (mesocrystals of LiFePO4) and excellent electrochemical behavior was recorded (nanostructured LiFePO4). The newly developed reactions for synthesis of LiFePO4 are single-step processes and are taking place in an autoclave at significantly lower temperature (200 deg. C) compared to the conventional solid-state method (multi-step and up to 800 deg. C). The use of inexpensive environmentally benign precursors offers a green manufacturing approach for a large scale production. These newly developed experimental procedures can also be extended to other phospho-olivine materials, such as LiCoPO4 and LiMnPO4. The material with the best electrochemical behavior (nanostructured LiFePO4 with carbon coating) was able to deliver a stable 94% of the theoretically known capacity.

  17. Research and development of lithium batteries in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Dao-zhi

    Basic research work on lithium cells in China was initiated in 1965, and a variety of primary cells has been developed and introduced to the market. Lithium-iodine (1978), lithium-thionyl chloride (1977), lithium-sulfur dioxide (1979) and lithium-manganese dioxide (1980) cells, and lithium thermal batteries (1982) have been successfully manufactured and have found wide application. In this paper, the development and the state-of-the-art of various lithium battery systems in China are presented and the present applications and future markets are discussed.

  18. High conducting oxide--sulfide composite lithium superionic conductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Chengdu; Rangasamy, Ezhiylmurugan; Dudney, Nancy J.; Keum, Jong Kahk; Rondinone, Adam Justin

    2017-01-17

    A solid electrolyte for a lithium-sulfur battery includes particles of a lithium ion conducting oxide composition embedded within a lithium ion conducting sulfide composition. The lithium ion conducting oxide composition can be Li.sub.7La.sub.3Zr.sub.2O.sub.12 (LLZO). The lithium ion conducting sulfide composition can be .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 (LPS). A lithium ion battery and a method of making a solid electrolyte for a lithium ion battery are also disclosed.

  19. Advanced Micro/Nanostructures for Lithium Metal Anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Li, Nian-Wu; Cheng, Xin-Bing; Yin, Ya-Xia; Zhang, Qiang; Guo, Yu-Guo

    2017-03-01

    Owning to their very high theoretical capacity, lithium metal anodes are expected to fuel the extensive practical applications in portable electronics and electric vehicles. However, unstable solid electrolyte interphase and lithium dendrite growth during lithium plating/stripping induce poor safety, low Coulombic efficiency, and short span life of lithium metal batteries. Lately, varies of micro/nanostructured lithium metal anodes are proposed to address these issues in lithium metal batteries. With the unique surface, pore, and connecting structures of different nanomaterials, lithium plating/stripping processes have been regulated. Thus the electrochemical properties and lithium morphologies have been significantly improved. These micro/nanostructured lithium metal anodes shed new light on the future applications for lithium metal batteries.

  20. Stable Lithium Deposition Generated from Ceramic-Cross-Linked Gel Polymer Electrolytes for Lithium Anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Chih-Hao; Hsiao, Yang-Hung; Hsu, Chun-Han; Kuo, Ping-Lin

    2016-06-22

    In this work, a composite gel electrolyte comprising ceramic cross-linker and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) matrix is shown to have superior resistance to lithium dendrite growth and be applicable to gel polymer lithium batteries. In contrast to pristine gel electrolyte, these nanocomposite gel electrolytes show good compatibility with liquid electrolytes, wider electrochemical window, and a superior rate and cycling performance. These silica cross-linkers allow the PEO to form the lithium ion pathway and reduce anion mobility. Therefore, the gel not only features lower polarization and interfacial resistance, but also suppresses electrolyte decomposition and lithium corrosion. Further, these nanocomposite gel electrolytes increase the lithium transference number to 0.5, and exhibit superior electrochemical stability up to 5.0 V. Moreover, the lithium cells feature long-term stability and a Coulombic efficiency that can reach 97% after 100 cycles. The SEM image of the lithium metal surface after the cycling test shows that the composite gel electrolyte with 20% silica cross-linker forms a uniform passivation layer on the lithium surface. Accordingly, these features allow this gel polymer electrolyte with ceramic cross-linker to function as a high-performance lithium-ionic conductor and reliable separator for lithium metal batteries.

  1. Lithium batteries. Citations from the NTIS data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavagnaro, D. M.

    1980-07-01

    Federally funded research on design, development, components, testing corrosion, electrolytes, sealing, hazards of lithium cells are presented. Batteries studied include lithium organic cells, lithium sulfur cells, lithium water air cells, and lithium nickel fluoride cells. Applications cover use in spacecraft, electric vehicles, off peak energy storage, and forklift trucks. This updated bibliography contains 151 citations, 57 of which are new entries to the previous edition.

  2. Studies of rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yi

    The studies of rechargeable lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries are included in this thesis. In the first part of this thesis, a linear sweep voltammetry method to study polysulfide transport through separators is presented. Shuttle of polysulfide from the sulfur cathode to lithium metal anode in rechargeable Li-S batteries is a critical issue hindering cycling efficiency and life. Several approaches have been developed to minimize it including polysulfide-blocking separators; there is a need for measuring polysulfide transport through separators. We have developed a linear sweep voltammetry method to measure the anodic (oxidization) current of polysulfides crossed separators, which can be used as a quantitative measurement of the polysulfide transport through separators. The electrochemical oxidation of polysulfide is diffusion controlled. The electrical charge in Coulombs produced by the oxidation of polysulfide is linearly related to the concentration of polysulfide within a certain range (≤ 0.5 M). Separators with a high porosity (large pore size) show high anodic currents, resulting in fast capacity degradation and low Coulombic efficiencies in Li-S cells. These results demonstrate this method can be used to correlate the polysulfide transport through separators with the separator structure and battery performance, therefore provide guidance for developing new separators for Li-S batteries. The second part includes a study on improving cycling performance of Li/polysulfide batteries by applying a functional polymer on carbon current collector. Significant capacity decay over cycling in Li-S batteries is a major impediment for their practical applications. Polysulfides Li2S x (3 life. We have examined a polyvinylpyrrolidone-modified carbon paper (CP-PVP) current collector in Li/polysulfide cells. PVP is soluble in the electrolyte solvent, but shows strong affinity with lithium polysulfides. The retention of polysulfides in the CP-PVP current collector is improved

  3. Ag/g-C3N4 catalyst with superior catalytic performance for the degradation of dyes: a borohydride-generated superoxide radical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yongsheng; Huang, Ting; Zhang, Lili; Zhu, Junwu; Wang, Xin

    2015-08-01

    A straightforward approach is developed for fabrication of a visible-light-driven Ag/g-C3N4 catalyst. Morphological observation shows that the g-C3N4 sheets are decorated with highly dispersed Ag nanoparticles having an average size of 5.6 nm. The photocatalytic activity measurements demonstrate that the photocatalytic degradation rates of methyl orange (MO), methylene blue (MB), and neutral dark yellow GL (NDY-GL) over Ag/g-C3N4-4 can reach up to 98.2, 99.3 and 99.6% in the presence of borohydride ions (BH4-) only with 8, 45, and 16 min visible light irradiation, respectively. The significant enhancement in photoactivity of the catalyst is mainly attributed to the high dispersity and smaller size of Ag nanoparticles, the strong surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect of metallic Ag nanoparticles, the efficient separation of photogenerated charge carriers, the additional superoxide radicals (O&z.rad;-2) generated from the reduction of dissolved oxygen in the presence of BH4- and the synergistic effect of Ag nanoparticles and g-C3N4.A straightforward approach is developed for fabrication of a visible-light-driven Ag/g-C3N4 catalyst. Morphological observation shows that the g-C3N4 sheets are decorated with highly dispersed Ag nanoparticles having an average size of 5.6 nm. The photocatalytic activity measurements demonstrate that the photocatalytic degradation rates of methyl orange (MO), methylene blue (MB), and neutral dark yellow GL (NDY-GL) over Ag/g-C3N4-4 can reach up to 98.2, 99.3 and 99.6% in the presence of borohydride ions (BH4-) only with 8, 45, and 16 min visible light irradiation, respectively. The significant enhancement in photoactivity of the catalyst is mainly attributed to the high dispersity and smaller size of Ag nanoparticles, the strong surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect of metallic Ag nanoparticles, the efficient separation of photogenerated charge carriers, the additional superoxide radicals (O&z.rad;-2) generated from the reduction of

  4. Influence of laser-generated surface structures on electrochemical performance of lithium cobalt oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, R.; Proell, J.; Ulrich, S.; Przybylski, M.; Seifert, H. J.; Pfleging, W.

    2012-03-01

    The further development of energy storage devices especially of lithium-ion batteries plays an important role in the ongoing miniaturization process towards lightweight, flexible mobile devices. To improve mechanical stability and to increase the power density of electrode materials while maintaining the same footprint area, a three-dimensional battery design is necessary. In this study different designs of three-dimensional cathode materials are investigated with respect to the electrochemical performance. Lithium cobalt oxide is considered as a standard cathode material, since it has been in use since the first commercialization of lithium-ion batteries. Various electrode designs were manufactured in lithium cobalt oxide electrodes via laser micro-structuring. Laser ablation experiments in ambient air were performed to obtain hierarchical and high aspect surface structures. Laser structuring using mask techniques as well as the formation of self-organized conical surface structures were studied in detail. In the latter case a density of larger than twenty million microstructures per square centimeter was obtained with a significant increase of active surface area. Laser annealing was applied for the control of the average grain size and the adjustment of a crystalline phase which exhibits electrochemical capacities in the range of the practical capacity known for lithium cobalt oxide. An investigation of cycling stability with respect to annealing parameters such as annealing time and temperature was performed using a diode laser operating at 940 nm. Information on the phase and crystalline structure were obtained using Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The electrochemical performance of the laser modified cathodes was studied via cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic testing using a lithium anode and a standard liquid electrolyte.

  5. Structural studies of lead lithium borate glasses doped with silver oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, João; Freire, Cristina; Hussain, N. Sooraj

    2012-02-01

    Silver oxide doped lead lithium borate (LLB) glasses have been prepared and characterized. Structural and composition characterization were accessed by XRD, FTIR, Raman, SEM and EDS. Results from FTIR and Raman spectra indicate that Ag 2O acts as a network modifier even at small quantities by converting three coordinated to four coordinated boron atoms. Other physical properties, such as density, molar volume and optical basicity are also evaluated. Furthermore, they are also affected by the silver oxide composition.

  6. Dead lithium phase investigation of Sn-Zn alloy as anode materials for lithium ion battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG ZhaoWen; HU SheJun; HOU XianHua; RU Qiang; YU HongWen; ZHAO LingZhi; LI WeiShan

    2009-01-01

    In this work, based on First-principle plane wave pseudo-potential method, we have carried out an in-depth study on the possible dead lithium phase of Sn-Zn alloy as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. Through investigation, we found that the phases LixSn4Zn4(x = 2, 4, 6, 8) contributed to reversible capacity, while the phases LixSn4Zns-(x-4)(x = 4.74, 7.72) led to capacity loss due to high formation energy, namely, they were the dead lithium phases during the charge/discharge process. And we come up with a new idea that stable lithium alloy phase with high lithiation formation energy (dead lithium phase) can also result in high loss of active lithium ion, besides the traditional expression that the formation of solid electrolyte interface film leads to high capacity loss.

  7. Mechanism of lithium insertion into NiSi2 anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Zhongsheng; JI Shijun; SUN Juncai; TIAN Feng; TIAN Rujin; XIE Jingying

    2006-01-01

    As a promising high capacity anode material for lithium ion batteries, the lithium insertion performance and possible insertion mechanism of binary alloy of NiSi2 were discussed. The initial lithium insertion of crystal NiSi2 can reach up to 600 mAh·g-1 , but large irreversible capacity occurrs simultaneously for serious structure transformation and the irreversible phase forms. XRD and XPS were employed to detect the crystal structure and composition changes produced by lithium insertion. The lithium insertion-extraction behavior of NiSi2 electrode is similar to that of silicon after the first discharge. The structure stability seems related to the non-stoichimometric Ni-Si compound formed by lithium insertion into NiSi2.

  8. Lithium plating in lithium-ion batteries investigated by voltage relaxation and in situ neutron diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Lüders, Christian; Zinth, Veronika; Erhard, Simon V.; Osswald, Patrick J.; Hofmann, Michael; Gilles, Ralph; Jossen, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    In this work, lithium plating is investigated by means of voltage relaxation and in situ neutron diffraction in commercial lithium-ion batteries. We can directly correlate the voltage curve after the lithium plating with the ongoing phase transformation from LiC12 to LiC6 according to the neutron diffraction data during the relaxation. Above a threshold current of C/2 at a temperature of -2 °C, lithium plating increases dramatically. The results indicate that the intercalation rate of deposited lithium seems to be constant, independent of the deposited amount. It can be observed that the amount of plating correlates with the charging rate, whereas a charging current of C/2 leads to a deposited amount of lithium of 5.5% of the charge capacity and a current of 1C to 9.0%.

  9. Novel polymer electrolyte from poly(carbonate-ether) and lithium tetrafluoroborate for lithium-oxygen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qi; Gao, Yonggang; Zhao, Qiang; Li, Ji; Wang, Xianhong; Wang, Fosong

    2013-11-01

    Novel polymer electrolyte based on low-molecular weight poly(carbonate-ether) and lithium tetrafluoroborate has been prepared and used in lithium-oxygen battery for the first time, the electrolyte with approximate 17% of LiBF4 showed ionic conductivity of 1.57 mS cm-1. Infrared spectra analysis indicates that obvious interaction between the lithium ions and partial oxygen atoms in the host polymer exists, and the lithium salt and the host polymer have good miscibility. The lithium-oxygen battery from this polymer electrolyte shows similar cyclic stability to traditional liquid electrolyte observed by FT-IR, AFM and electrochemical measurements, which may provide a new choice for fabrication of all-solid-state high-capacity rechargeable lithium-oxygen battery with better safety.

  10. Lithium-mediated protection against ethanol neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Luo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Lithium has long been used as a mood stabilizer in the treatment of manic-depressive (bipolar disorder. Recent studies suggest that lithium has neuroprotective properties and may be useful in the treatment of acute brain injuries such as ischemia and chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. One of the most important neuroprotective properties of lithium is its anti-apoptotic action. Ethanol is a neuroteratogen and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD are caused by maternal ethanol exposure during pregnancy. FASD is the leading cause of mental retardation. Ethanol exposure causes neuroapoptosis in the developing brain. Ethanol-induced loss of neurons in the central nervous system underlies many of the behavioral deficits observed in FASD. Excessive alcohol consumption is also associated with Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome and neurodegeneration in the adult brain. Recent in vivo and in vitro studies indicate that lithium is able to ameliorate ethanol-induced neuroapoptosis. Lithium is an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3 which has recently been identified as a mediator of ethanol neurotoxicity. Lithium’s neuroprotection may be mediated by its inhibition of GSK3. In addition, lithium also affects many other signaling proteins and pathways that regulate neuronal survival and differentiation. This review discusses the recent evidence of lithium-mediated protection against ethanol neurotoxicity and potential underlying mechanisms.

  11. A Sensitive Surface-enhanced Raman Scattering Method for Determination of Melamine with Aptamer-modified Nanosilver Probe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温桂清; 周莲平; 李廷盛; 梁爱惠; 蒋治良

    2012-01-01

    The small nanosilver was prepared by the sodium borohydride procedure. The aptamer was used to modify nanosilver to obtain a nanosilver-aptamer (AgssDNA) SERS probe for the determination of melamine. In pH 6.6 phosphate buffer solution and in the presence of NaCI, the AgssDNA probe specifically combined with melamine to release nanosilver particles that were aggregated to nanosilver clusters, which exhibited SERS effect at 240 cm-1. When melamine concentration increased, the nanosilver clusters increased, and the SERS intensity at 240 cm-1 in- creased. The increased SERS intensity AI240cm, is linear to melamine concentration in the range of 6.3--403.6 μg.L 1, with a detection limit of 1.2 μg L 1. This assay was applied to determination of melamine in milk, with sat- isfactory results. Keywords melamine, apatmer-modified nanosilver, aggregation, surface-enhanced Raman scattering

  12. 77 FR 2437 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation, Model GVI Airplane; Rechargeable Lithium...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ...; Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Rechargeable Lithium- Battery Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation... have a novel or unusual design feature associated with the installation of rechargeable lithium batteries and rechargeable lithium-battery systems. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not...

  13. Lipid peroxidation, antioxidant activities and stress protein (HSP72/73, GRP94) expression in kidney and liver of rats under lithium treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nciri, Riadh; Allagui, Mohamed Salah; Bourogaa, Ezzedine; Saoudi, Monji; Murat, Jean-Claude; Croute, Françoise; Elfeki, Abdelfettah

    2012-03-01

    The present work was aimed at studying the effects of a subchronic lithium treatment on rat liver and kidneys, paying attention to the relationship between lithium toxicity, oxidative stress, and stress protein expression. Male rats were submitted to lithium treatment by adding 2 g of lithium carbonate/kg of food for different durations up to 1 month. This treatment led to serum concentrations ranging from 0.5 mM (day 7) to 1.34 mM (day 28) and renal insufficiency highlighted by an increase of blood creatinine and urea levels and a decrease of urea excretion. Lithium treatment was found to trigger an oxidative stress both in kidney and liver, leading to an increase of lipid peroxidation level (TBARS) and of superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. Conversely, glutathione peroxidase activity was reduced. Constitutive HSP73 (heat shock protein 73) expression was not modified by lithium treatment, whereas inducible HSP72 was down-regulated in kidney. GRP94 (glucose regulated protein 94) appeared as two isoforms of 92 and 98 kDa: the 98-kDa protein being overexpressed in kidney by lithium treatment whereas 92-kDa protein was underexpressed both in kidney and liver.

  14. The Role of Lithium Carbonate and Lithium Citrate in Regulating Urinary Citrate Level and Preventing Nephrolithiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiaobo; Aggarwal, Piyush; Li, Xiaoming; Oakman, Crystale; Wang, Zhiping; Rodriguez, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Urinary Citrate is an inhibitor of Calcium oxalate stone formation. It is reabsorbed in the proximal kidney through sodium dicarboxylate co-transporters (NaDC-1, NaDC-3) present in the renal tubular epithelium. Lithium (Li) is a known potent inhibitor of these transporters. We investigated the effect of lithium carbonate (LiC) and lithium citrate (LiCit) in regulating urinary citrate levels and preventing nephrolithiasis (NL) in the rat model. Experimental approach: We...

  15. Highly Efficient Inversion of the C-3 Configuration in 1,2-O-Isopropylidenefuranose Derivatives by an Adapted Swern Oxidation/Sodium Borohydride Reduction Protocol in One Pot

    OpenAIRE

    Silvano Cruz-Gregorio; Luis Hernández; Mónica Vargas; Leticia Quintero; Fernando Sartillo-Piscil

    2005-01-01

    One pot Swern oxidation-sodium borohydride reduction of 1,2-O-isopropylidenefuranose derivatives having the D-gluco or Dxylo configurations led to the corresponding stereoisomers resulting from the stereoselective inversion of C-3. This method is a simple adaptation to the traditional procedure that consists in quenching the Swern oxidation at -60 ºC with a mixture of H2O/EtOH (1:4), in which NaBH4 is dissolved. Thus, the inversion of the configuration at C-3 of 1,2-O-isopropylidenefuranose d...

  16. The preliminary design of bearings for the control system of a high-temperature lithium-cooled nuclear reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacobucci, H. G.; Waldron, W. D.; Walowit, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    The design of bearings for the control system of a fast reactor concept is presented. The bearings are required to operate at temperatures up to 2200 F in one of two fluids, lithium or argon. Basic bearing types are the same regardless of the fluid. Crowned cylindrical journals were selected for radially loaded bearings and modified spherical bearings were selected for bearings under combined thrust and radial loads. Graphite and aluminum oxide are the materials selected for the argon atmosphere bearings while cermet compositions (carbides or nitrides bonded with refractory metals) were selected for the lithium lubricated bearings. Mounting of components is by shrink fit or by axial clamping utilizing differential thermal expansion.

  17. Atom interferometry experiments with lithium. Accurate measurement of the electric polarizability; Experiences d'interferometrie atomique avec le lithium. Mesure de precision de la polarisabilite electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miffre, A

    2005-06-15

    Atom interferometers are very sensitive tools to make precise measurements of physical quantities. This study presents a measurement of the static electric polarizability of lithium by atom interferometry. Our result, {alpha} = (24.33 {+-} 0.16)*10{sup -30} m{sup 3}, improves by a factor 3 the most accurate measurements of this quantity. This work describes the tuning and the operation of a Mach-Zehnder atom interferometer in detail. The two interfering arms are separated by the elastic diffraction of the atomic wave by a laser standing wave, almost resonant with the first resonance transition of lithium atom. A set of experimental techniques, often complicated to implement, is necessary to build the experimental set-up. After a detailed study of the atom source (a supersonic beam of lithium seeded in argon), we present our experimental atom signals which exhibit a very high fringe visibility, up to 84.5 % for first order diffraction. A wide variety of signals has been observed by diffraction of the bosonic isotope at higher diffraction orders and by diffraction of the fermionic less abundant isotope. The quality of these signals is then used to do very accurate phase measurements. A first experiment investigates how the atom interferometer signals are modified by a magnetic field gradient. An absolute measurement of lithium atom electric polarizability is then achieved by applying a static electric field on one of the two interfering arms, separated by only 90 micrometers. The construction of such a capacitor, its alignment in the experimental set-up and its operation are fully detailed.We obtain a very accurate phase measurement of the induced Lo Surdo - Stark phase shift (0.07 % precision). For this first measurement, the final uncertainty on the electric polarizability of lithium is only 0.66 %, and is dominated by the uncertainty on the atom beam mean velocity, so that a further reduction of the uncertainty can be expected. (author)

  18. The Lithium Vapor Box Divertor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldston, Robert; Hakim, Ammar; Hammett, Gregory; Jaworski, Michael; Myers, Rachel; Schwartz, Jacob

    2015-11-01

    Projections of scrape-off layer width to a demonstration power plant suggest an immense parallel heat flux, of order 12 GW/m2, which will necessitate nearly fully detached operation. Building on earlier work by Nagayama et al. and by Ono et al., we propose to use a series of differentially pumped boxes filled with lithium vapor to isolate the buffering vapor from the main plasma chamber, allowing stable detachment. This powerful differential pumping is only available for condensable vapors, not conventional gases. We demonstrate the properties of such a system through conservation laws for vapor mass and enthalpy, and then include plasma entrainment and ultimately an estimate of radiated power. We find that full detachment should be achievable with little leakage of lithium to the main plasma chamber. We also present progress towards solving the Navier-Stokes equation numerically for the chain of vapor boxes, including self-consistent wall boundary conditions and fully-developed shocks, as well as concepts for an initial experimental demonstration-of-concept. This work supported by DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  19. Study of the primordial lithium abundance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Lithium isotopes have attracted an intense interest because the abundance of both 6Li and 6Li from big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) is one of the puzzles in nuclear astrophysics. Many investigations of both astrophysical observation and nucleosynthesis calculation have been carried out to solve the puzzle, but it is not solved yet. Several nuclear reactions involving lithium have been indirectly measured at China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing. The Standard BBN (SBBN) network calculations are then performed to investigate the primordial Lithium abundance. The result shows that these nuclear reactions have minimal effect on the SBBN abundances of 6Li and 7Li.

  20. New aluminium alloys with high lithium content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schemme, K.; Velten, B.

    1989-06-01

    Since the early 80's there have been made great efforts to replace the high strength aluminium alloys for the aircraft and space industry by a new generation of aluminium-lithium alloys. The attractivity of this kind of alloys could be increased by a further reduction of their density, caused by an increasing lithium content (/ge/ 5 wt.% Li). Therefore binary high-lithium containing alloys with low density are produced and metallografically investigated. A survey of their strength and wear behavior is given by using tensile tests and pin abrasing tests. (orig.).

  1. Lithium induced hidradenitis suppurativa and acne conglobata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aithal Vijay

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Lithium is known to cause a variety of dermatological problems, common ones being acneiform eruptions, folliculitis and psoriasis including its pustular form. Hidradenitis suppurativa and acne conglobata are lesser known side effects, with only three reports so far. We report a patient, who had bipolar affective disorder, was on lithium for a long duration and developed hidradenitis suppurativa and acne conglobata during therapy, which subsequently decreased once lithium was stopped. We describe this case for its rarity and analyze its pathogenesis.

  2. Ionic Liquids in Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balducci, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are among the most widespread energy storage devices in our society. In order to introduce these devices in new key applications such as transportation, however, their safety and their operative temperature range need to be significantly improved. These improvements can be obtained only by developing new electrolytes. Ionic liquids are presently considered among the most attractive electrolytes for the development of advanced and safer lithium-ion batteries. In this manuscript, the use of various types of ionic liquids, e.g. aprotic and protic, in lithium-ion batteries is considered. The advantages and the limits associated to the use of these innovative electrolytes are critically analysed.

  3. Lithium batteries advanced technologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Scrosati, Bruno; Schalkwijk, Walter A van; Hassoun, Jusef

    2013-01-01

    Explains the current state of the science and points the way to technological advances First developed in the late 1980s, lithium-ion batteries now power everything from tablet computers to power tools to electric cars. Despite tremendous progress in the last two decades in the engineering and manufacturing of lithium-ion batteries, they are currently unable to meet the energy and power demands of many new and emerging devices. This book sets the stage for the development of a new generation of higher-energy density, rechargeable lithium-ion batteries by advancing battery chemistry and ident

  4. Lithium-ion batteries advances and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pistoia, Gianfranco

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-Ion Batteries features an in-depth description of different lithium-ion applications, including important features such as safety and reliability. This title acquaints readers with the numerous and often consumer-oriented applications of this widespread battery type. Lithium-Ion Batteries also explores the concepts of nanostructured materials, as well as the importance of battery management systems. This handbook is an invaluable resource for electrochemical engineers and battery and fuel cell experts everywhere, from research institutions and universities to a worldwi

  5. Lithium Toxicity and Neurologic Effects: Probable Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome Resulting from Lithium Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osamede Edokpolo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We present the case of a patient who developed lithium toxicity with normal therapeutic levels, as a result of pharmacokinetic interaction with Valsartan, and probable Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome from the ensuing lithium toxicity. Case Presentation. A 59-year old black male with bipolar disorder maintained on lithium and fluphenazine therapy presented with a 2 week history of worsening confusion, tremor, and gait abnormality. He recently had his dose of Valsartan increased. At presentation, patient had signs of autonomic instability, he was confused, dehydrated, and had rigidity of upper extremities. Significant labs on admission were lithium level-1.2, elevated CK-6008, leukocytosis WBC-22, and renal impairment; Creatinine-4.1, BUN-35, HCO3-20.1, and blood glucose 145. CT/MRI brain showed old cerebral infarcts, and there was no evidence of an infective process. Lithium and fluphenazine were discontinued, his lithium levels gradually decreased, and he improved with supportive treatment including rehydration and correction of electrolyte imbalance. Conclusions. This case illustrates that lithium toxicity can occur within therapeutic levels, and the neurotoxic effect of lithium can include Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome. Clinicians should be aware of the risk associated with drug interactions with lithium.

  6. Modified Ureterosigmoidostomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective To introduce an operation procedure and evaluate the coutinence diversion results of the modified ureterosigmoidostomy after radical cystectomy. Methods Fourteen cases of bladder cancer or prostate carcinoma were operated on with modified Sigma pouch from Feb, 1998 to Dec, 1999. A longitudinal incision about 25 cm on the sigmoid uall was done to form a low pressure pouch. The vertex of the new pouch was fixed to sacrum. Both ends of ureters were anastomosed side to side and to form a big nipple and inserted into the top of pouch for 2 to 3 centimeters. Results It took about sixty five minutes to create a new low pressure pouch after radical cystectomy. Early complication of was found in two cases postoperatively, and cured with temporary colonostomy. Hydronephrosis and hypokalemia in one patient were cured by percutaneous anterograde ureter dilatation with balloon and oral replacement of potassium salt. All patients displayed urinary continence. No symptomatic renal infection or hypercholoraemic acidosis occurred. Conclusion Modified ureterosigmoidostomy is a safe procedure of urinary diversion and provides a big volume, low intravesical pressure pouch. The patients are free from the troublesome urine-bag, intermittert catheterization , and upper urinary tracts are protected effectively. The quality of life is satisfied.

  7. Lithium-Based High Energy Density Flow Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); West, William C. (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention implement a lithium-based high energy density flow battery. In one embodiment, a lithium-based high energy density flow battery includes a first anodic conductive solution that includes a lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex dissolved in a solvent, a second cathodic conductive solution that includes a cathodic complex dissolved in a solvent, a solid lithium ion conductor disposed so as to separate the first solution from the second solution, such that the first conductive solution, the second conductive solution, and the solid lithium ionic conductor define a circuit, where when the circuit is closed, lithium from the lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex in the first conductive solution dissociates from the lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex, migrates through the solid lithium ionic conductor, and associates with the cathodic complex of the second conductive solution, and a current is generated.

  8. LITHIUM TOXICITY IN ELDERLY-A CASE REPORT AND DISCUSSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana D. Arnaoudova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The therapeutic effect of Lithium as a mono therapy or as an augmenting agent in a variety of medical and psychiatric disorders is under doubt. However, lithium is associated with a number of adverse effects. Method and objective: A review of the literature on lithium use in older adults and a case report presentation. Summary of results: The literature, concerning current uses of Lithium in older patients, especially for patients with neurologic or cognitive impairments is limited due to the lack of well-designed, large clinical trials. Elderly patients are at higher risk to develop neurotoxicity in the course of lithium therapy. We present a case of 66 years old female patient, suffering bipolar disorder, who developed lithium toxicity and was admitted at the gerontopsychiatric department due to a confusional state, tremor and gait abnormality. Lithium toxicity was suspected when sufficient information about previous medical history of lithium therapy has been obtained. Lithium level found to be 1.69mmol/L. The patient has developed intoxication during maintenance therapy with a lithium dosage which had been unchanged for months. Conclusion: Elderly patients require lower doses of Lithium to achieve similar serum concentrations as those in younger adults. Neurotoxicity could be suspected at serum lithium levels which are considered therapeutic in younger adults. When prescribing lithium agents in elderly we should consider age-related changes in pharmacokinetics. The best way to prevent lithium toxicity is to control the serum concentration regularly during therapy.

  9. pH-sensitive membranes for lithium separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolinska, Katarzyna [Wroclaw University of Technology, Department of Polymer and Carbon Materials, Wrocław (Poland); Bryjak, Marek, E-mail: marek.bryjak@pwr.wroc.pl [Wroclaw University of Technology, Department of Polymer and Carbon Materials, Wrocław (Poland); Wolska, Joanna [Wroclaw University of Technology, Department of Polymer and Carbon Materials, Wrocław (Poland); Kujawski, Wojciech [Nicolaus Copernicus University, Membrane Separation Processes Research Group, Torun (Poland)

    2014-12-15

    Dielectric barrier discharge plasma was used to modify track etched poly(ethylene terephthalate) membranes followed by grafting of poly(acrylic acid) and copolymers of acrylic acid and di(ethylene glycol)methyl ether methacrylate. The evaluation by IR and XPS spectroscopies showed that both polymers were successfully grafted to the porous membranes. Determination of permeate fluxes pointed the membranes to have excellent responses to pH changes when grafting yield was not so high. When grafting exceeded 0.1 mg cm{sup −2} stimuli response gel-filled membranes were formed that could be used for transport of alkaline ions. The best permselectivity was observed for poly(ethylene terephthalate) membranes grafted with 1:2 copolymer of acrylic acid and di(ethylene glycol)methyl ether methacrylate. The dialysis was more effectively facilitated for lithium than for potassium or sodium salts at solution of pH = 5.5. - Highlights: • Preparation of pore-filled stimuli response membranes that facilitate transport of alkaline salts. • pH controlled transport of alkaline salts. • Facilitation of lithium transport over sodium and potassium.

  10. Interstitial capillary changes in lithium nephropathy: effects of antihypertensive treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skyum, Helle; Marcussen, Niels; Nielsen, Steen Horne; Christensen, Sten

    2004-10-01

    Histopathological changes were investigated in the tubulointerstitium and in the capillaries of male Wistar rats with lithium-induced nephropathy using stereological methods. Two antihypertensive drugs with opposite effects on the renin-angiotensin system, an ACE inhibitor (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor) and a thiazide diuretic, modified the nephropathy. Generally, there was a significant positive correlation between the reduction in GFR (glomerular filtration rate) and the reduction in the volume of intact tubular structures and interstitial capillaries. A significant negative correlation was seen between the reduction in GFR and the increase in tubulocapillary distance and the absolute volume of interstitial connective tissue, respectively. Treatment with perindopril, and to some extent hydrochlorothiazide, reversed the rise in systolic blood pressure associated with lithium-induced nephropathy but did not affect the progression to terminal uraemia, the structural renal changes or the mortality. In conclusion, severe tubular and capillary changes are seen in this model of chronic renal failure. Tubular atrophy is associated with a decrease in interstitial capillaries and with an increase in the tubulocapillary distance. Systemic hypertension or activation of the renin-angiotensin system may not be important factors for the progression to terminal renal failure.

  11. Improving hydrogen storage capacity of MOF by functionalization of the organic linker with lithium atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klontzas, Emmanouel; Mavrandonakis, Andreas; Tylianakis, Emmanuel; Froudakis, George E

    2008-06-01

    A combination of quantum and classical calculations have been performed in order to investigate hydrogen storage in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) modified by lithium alkoxide groups. Ab initio calculations showed that the interaction energies between the hydrogen molecules and this functional group are up to three times larger compared with unmodified MOF. This trend was verified by grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations in various thermodynamic conditions. The gravimetric capacity of the Li-modified MOFs reached the value of 10 wt % at 77 K and 100 bar, while our results are very promising at room temperature, too, with 4.5 wt %.

  12. INTRA AND EXTRA ERYTHROCYTE LITHIUM ION CONCENTRATION RATIOS IN MANIC PATIENTS1

    OpenAIRE

    Sampath, G.; Rama Rao, B. S. Sridhara; Channabasavanna, S.M.; Subash, M

    1980-01-01

    SUMMARY In a study RBC-Plasma lithium ratios in manic patients treated with lithium we found that lithium responders had higher lithium ratios than lithium non-responders. There was, however, no cut off value which could differentiate lithium responders from non-responders.

  13. Catastrophic event modeling. [lithium thionyl chloride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, H. A.

    1981-01-01

    A mathematical model for the catastrophic failures (venting or explosion of the cell) in lithium thionyl chloride batteries is presented. The phenomenology of the various processes leading to cell failure is reviewed.

  14. Lithium batteries: Status, prospects and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrosati, Bruno; Garche, Jürgen

    Lithium batteries are characterized by high specific energy, high efficiency and long life. These unique properties have made lithium batteries the power sources of choice for the consumer electronics market with a production of the order of billions of units per year. These batteries are also expected to find a prominent role as ideal electrochemical storage systems in renewable energy plants, as well as power systems for sustainable vehicles, such as hybrid and electric vehicles. However, scaling up the lithium battery technology for these applications is still problematic since issues such as safety, costs, wide operational temperature and materials availability, are still to be resolved. This review focuses first on the present status of lithium battery technology, then on its near future development and finally it examines important new directions aimed at achieving quantum jumps in energy and power content.

  15. Quantum and isotope effects in lithium metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackland, Graeme J.; Dunuwille, Mihindra; Martinez-Canales, Miguel; Loa, Ingo; Zhang, Rong; Sinogeikin, Stanislav; Cai, Weizhao; Deemyad, Shanti

    2017-06-01

    The crystal structure of elements at zero pressure and temperature is the most fundamental information in condensed matter physics. For decades it has been believed that lithium, the simplest metallic element, has a complicated ground-state crystal structure. Using synchrotron x-ray diffraction in diamond anvil cells and multiscale simulations with density functional theory and molecular dynamics, we show that the previously accepted martensitic ground state is metastable. The actual ground state is face-centered cubic (fcc). We find that isotopes of lithium, under similar thermal paths, exhibit a considerable difference in martensitic transition temperature. Lithium exhibits nuclear quantum mechanical effects, serving as a metallic intermediate between helium, with its quantum effect-dominated structures, and the higher-mass elements. By disentangling the quantum kinetic complexities, we prove that fcc lithium is the ground state, and we synthesize it by decompression.

  16. Protection of lithium metal surfaces using chlorosilanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchioni, Filippo; Star, Kurt; Menke, Erik; Buffeteau, Thierry; Servant, Laurent; Dunn, Bruce; Wudl, Fred

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, we present a new approach for protecting metallic lithium surfaces based on a reaction between the thin native layer of lithium hydroxide present on the surface and various chlorosilane derivatives. The chemical composition of the resulting layer and the chemistry involved in layer formation were analyzed by polarization modulated infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Spectroscopy shows the disappearance of surface hydroxide groups and the appearance of silicon and chloride on the lithium surface. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) show that this surface treatment protects the lithium from certain gas-phase reactions and is ionically conductive.

  17. Lithium May Fend off Alzheimer's Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Helen Pilcher; 夏红

    2004-01-01

    @@ Lithium, a common treatment for manic depression, might also help to stave off②Alzheimer's disease. Patients who take the drug to stabilize their mood disorder are less likely to succumb to dementia③, a study reveals.

  18. NSTX Plasma Response to Lithium Coated Divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.W. Kugel, M.G. Bell, J.P. Allain, R.E. Bell, S. Ding, S.P. Gerhardt, M.A. Jaworski, R. Kaita, J. Kallman, S.M. Kaye, B.P. LeBlanc, R. Maingi, R. Majeski, R. Maqueda, D.K. Mansfield, D. Mueller, R. Nygren, S.F. Paul, R. Raman, A.L. Roquemore, S.A. Sabbagh, H. Schneider, C.H. Skinner, V.A. Soukhanovskii, C.N. Taylor, J.R. Timberlak, W.R. Wampler, L.E. Zakharov, S.J. Zweben, and the NSTX Research Team

    2011-01-21

    NSTX experiments have explored lithium evaporated on a graphite divertor and other plasma facing components in both L- and H- mode confinement regimes heated by high-power neutral beams. Improvements in plasma performance have followed these lithium depositions, including a reduction and eventual elimination of the HeGDC time between discharges, reduced edge neutral density, reduced plasma density, particularly in the edge and the SOL, increased pedestal electron and ion temperature, improved energy confinement and the suppression of ELMs in the H-mode. However, with improvements in confinement and suppression of ELMs, there was a significant secular increase in the effective ion charge Zeff and the radiated power in H-mode plasmas as a result of increases in the carbon and medium-Z metallic impurities. Lithium itself remained at a very low level in the plasma core, <0.1%. Initial results are reported from operation with a Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) recently installed.

  19. The Lithium Battery: assessing the neurocognitive profile of lithium in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, Gin S; McAulay, Claire; Gershon, Samuel; Gessler, Danielle; Fritz, Kristina; Das, Pritha; Outhred, Tim

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the neurocognitive effects of lithium in bipolar disorder to inform clinical and research approaches for further investigation. Key words pertaining to neurocognition in bipolar disorder and lithium treatment were used to search recognized databases to identify relevant literature. The authors also retrieved gray literature (e.g., book chapters) known to them and examined pertinent articles from bibliographies. A limited number of studies have examined the effects of lithium on neurocognition in bipolar disorder and, although in some domains a consistent picture emerges, in many domains the findings are mixed. Lithium administration appears to reshape key components of neurocognition - in particular, psychomotor speed, verbal memory, and verbal fluency. Notably, it has a sophisticated neurocognitive profile, such that while lithium impairs neurocognition across some domains, it seemingly preserves others - possibly those vulnerable to the effects of bipolar disorder. Furthermore, its effects are likely to be direct and indirect (via mood, for example) and cumulative with duration of treatment. Disentangling the components of neurocognition modulated by lithium in the context of a fluctuating and complex illness such as bipolar disorder is a significant challenge but one that therefore demands a stratified and systematic approach, such as that provided by the Lithium Battery. In order to delineate the effects of lithium therapy on neurocognition in bipolar disorder within both research and clinical practice, a greater understanding and measurement of the relatively stable neurocognitive components is needed to examine those that indeed change with lithium treatment. In order to achieve this, we propose a Lithium Battery-Clinical and a Lithium Battery-Research that can be applied to these respective settings. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Self-standing elastomeric composites based on lithium ferrites and their dielectric behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soreto Teixeira, S.; Graça, M. P. F.; Costa, L. C. [I3N and Physics Department, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Dionisio, M. [REQUIMTE, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Ilcíkova, M.; Mosnacek, J.; Spitalsky, Z. [Polymer Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, Bratislava (Slovakia); Krupa, I. [Polymer Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, Bratislava (Slovakia); Center for Advanced Materials, Qatar University, P.O. Box 2713, Doha (Qatar)

    2014-12-14

    Lithium ferrite (LiFe{sub 5}O{sub 8}) is an attractive material for technological applications due to its physical properties, which are significantly dependent on the preparation method and raw materials. In this work, LiFe{sub 5}O{sub 8} crystallites were obtained by controlled heat-treatment process at 1100 °C, of a homogeneous mixture of Li{sub 2}O-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders, prepared by wet ball-milling and using lithium and iron nitrates as raw materials. The main goal was the preparation of a flexible and self-standing tick composite film by embedding lithium ferrite particles in a polymeric matrix, taking advantage of the good mechanical properties of the polymer and of the electrical and dielectric properties of the ferrite. The selected polymer matrix was styrene-b-isoprene-b-styrene copolymer. To prepare the composites, the lithium ferrite particles were chemically modified in order to functionalize their surface. To analyse the influence of the particles surface modification, different composites were made, with modified and unmodified particles. The structure of the obtained composites was studied by FTIR, XRD, TGA, and DSC techniques. The dielectric properties were analysed, in the frequency range between 10 Hz and 1 MHz and in function of temperature in the range between −73 °C and 127 °C. These properties were related with the structure and concentration of the particles in the matrix network. The composites with the modified particles present higher dielectric constant, maintaining values of loss tangent sufficiently low (<10{sup −2}) that can be considered interesting for technological applications.

  1. Effect of lithium or aluminum substitution on the characteristics of graphite for anode of lithium ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Huajun; LI Xinhai; WANG Zhixing; PENG Wenjie; GUO Yongxing

    2003-01-01

    Modification of graphite for anode of lithium ion batteries is investigated. Results of X-ray diffraction shows lithium and aluminum exists as Li compound (CH3COOLi@2H2O) and Al compound (AlD3) in the graphite, respectiovely.The Bmnauer-Emmer-Teller (BET) surface area of the modified graphite increases. According to the electrochemical measurements of Li/C cell and prototype Li-ion batteries, the Li-doped graphite has large reversible capacity of 312.2mA@h/g, low irreversible capacity of 52.9 mA@h/g, and high initial coulombic efficiency of 85.51%. The 063448 size prototype battery with Li-doped graphite anode has large discharge capacity of 845 mA@h and good cycling performance. The initial charge/discharge characteristic of Al-doped graphite is close to those of undoped graphite, but the prototype battery with Al-doped anode shows the best cycling performance with capacity retention ratio of 94.06% at the 200th cycle.

  2. Design and simulation of lithium rechargeable batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, C.M.

    1995-08-01

    Lithium -based rechargeable batteries that utilize insertion electrodes are being considered for electric-vehicle applications because of their high energy density and inherent reversibility. General mathematical models are developed that apply to a wide range of lithium-based systems, including the recently commercialized lithium-ion cell. The modeling approach is macroscopic, using porous electrode theory to treat the composite insertion electrodes and concentrated solution theory to describe the transport processes in the solution phase. The insertion process itself is treated with a charge-transfer process at the surface obeying Butler-Volmer kinetics, followed by diffusion of the lithium ion into the host structure. These models are used to explore the phenomena that occur inside of lithium cells under conditions of discharge, charge, and during periods of relaxation. Also, in order to understand the phenomena that limit the high-rate discharge of these systems, we focus on the modeling of a particular system with well-characterized material properties and system parameters. The system chosen is a lithium-ion cell produced by Bellcore in Red Bank, NJ, consisting of a lithium-carbon negative electrode, a plasticized polymer electrolyte, and a lithium-manganese-oxide spinel positive electrode. This battery is being marketed for consumer electronic applications. The system is characterized experimentally in terms of its transport and thermodynamic properties, followed by detailed comparisons of simulation results with experimental discharge curves. Next, the optimization of this system for particular applications is explored based on Ragone plots of the specific energy versus average specific power provided by various designs.

  3. A Cable-Shaped Lithium Sulfur Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xin; Weng, Wei; Ren, Jing; Peng, Huisheng

    2016-01-20

    A carbon nanostructured hybrid fiber is developed by integrating mesoporous carbon and graphene oxide into aligned carbon nanotubes. This hybrid fiber is used as a 1D cathode to fabricate a new cable-shaped lithium-sulfur battery. The fiber cathode exhibits a decent specific capacity and lifespan, which makes the cable-shaped lithium-sulfur battery rank far ahead of other fiber-shaped batteries.

  4. Lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eustatia-Rutten, C F; Tamsma, J T; Meinders, A E

    2001-03-01

    Two patients with severe lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus are described. Although it is known lithium can cause diabetes insipidus, one should be especially alert in psychiatric patients, as the main defence mechanisms thirst and drinking behaviour may not function adequately in these patients. The major form of therapy in both patients consisted of drinking, a thiazide diuretic, as well as a protein and sodium restricted diet.

  5. Polymer Electrolytes for Lithium/Sulfur Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The Nam Long Doan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This review evaluates the characteristics and advantages of employing polymer electrolytes in lithium/sulfur (Li/S batteries. The main highlights of this study constitute detailed information on the advanced developments for solid polymer electrolytes and gel polymer electrolytes, used in the lithium/sulfur battery. This includes an in-depth analysis conducted on the preparation and electrochemical characteristics of the Li/S batteries based on these polymer electrolytes.

  6. Principles and applications of lithium secondary batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Jung-Ki

    2012-01-01

    Lithium secondary batteries have been key to mobile electronics since 1990. Large-format batteries typically for electric vehicles and energystorage systems are attracting much attention due to current energy and environmental issues. Lithium batteries are expected to play a centralrole in boosting green technologies. Therefore, a large number of scientists and engineers are carrying out research and development onlithium secondary batteries.The book is written in a straightforward fashion suitable for undergraduate and graduate students, as well as scientists, and engineer

  7. Hydrogen storage properties of rare earth (RE) borohydrides (RE = La, Er) in composite mixtures with LiBH{sub 4} and LiH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frommen, Christoph; Heere, Michael [Institute for Energy Technology, Physics Department, P.O. Box 40, NO-2027 Kjeller (Norway); Riktor, Marit D. [Institute for Energy Technology, Physics Department, P.O. Box 40, NO-2027 Kjeller (Norway); SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, Forskningsveien 1, NO-0314 Oslo (Norway); Sørby, Magnus H. [Institute for Energy Technology, Physics Department, P.O. Box 40, NO-2027 Kjeller (Norway); Hauback, Bjørn C., E-mail: bjorn.hauback@ife.no [Institute for Energy Technology, Physics Department, P.O. Box 40, NO-2027 Kjeller (Norway)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • 6LiBH{sub 4}–RECl{sub 3}–3LiH composites (RE = La, Er) studied for the first time. • Drastically reduced decomposition temperature (300 {sup o}C) compared to LiBH{sub 4} (>400 °C). • Partial reversibility for 6LiBH{sub 4}–LaCl{sub 3}–3LiH: (19% at 340 °C, 10 MPa). • Excellent reversibility for 6LiBH{sub 4}–ErCl{sub 3}–3LiH: (80% at 340 °C, 10 MPa). • Reversibility comparable to that obtained for pure LiBH{sub 4} (76% at 600 °C and 15.5 MPa). - Abstract: Mixtures of 6LiBH{sub 4}–RECl{sub 3}–3LiH (RE = La, Er) have been produced by mechanochemical milling and their structure, thermal decomposition and reversibility have been studied. Hydrogen desorption starts around 300 °C in both composites. Heating to 400 °C yields LaB{sub 6}, ErB{sub 4} and REH{sub 2+δ} as major decomposition products. LiBH{sub 4} is destabilized by REH{sub 2+δ} formed through decomposition of the parent borohydrides LiLa(BH{sub 4}){sub 3}Cl and Er(BH{sub 4}){sub 3}, respectively, and its hydrogen release temperature is reduced by 100 °C as compared to pure ball-milled LiBH{sub 4}. The lanthanum-containing composite releases 4.2 wt.% H between 300 and 350 °C and shows a limited reversibility of ∼20% (340 °C, 10 MPa) probably due to hydrogen uptake by some amorphous boron-containing phases. For 6LiBH{sub 4}–ErCl{sub 3}–3LiH about 3 wt.% H is evolved up to 400 °C. Desorption against 0.5 MPa backpressure results in an increased reversibility (∼80%) as compared to vacuum (∼66%). Rehydrogenation (340 °C, 10 MPa) shows the formation of ErH{sub 3} and LiBH{sub 4} at drastically reduced conditions compared to pure LiBH{sub 4} (>400 °C, >10 MPa)

  8. Rechargeable Thin-film Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, J. B.; Gruzalski, G. R.; Dudney, N. J.; Luck, C. F.; Yu, Xiaohua

    1993-08-01

    Rechargeable thin film batteries consisting of lithium metal anodes, an amorphous inorganic electrolyte, and cathodes of lithium intercalation compounds have recently been developed. The batteries, which are typically less than 6 {mu}m thick, can be fabricated to any specified size, large or small, onto a variety of substrates including ceramics, semiconductors, and plastics. The cells that have been investigated include Li TiS{sub 2}, Li V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and Li Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, with open circuit voltages at full charge of about 2.5, 3.6, and 4.2, respectively. The development of these batteries would not have been possible without the discovery of a new thin film lithium electrolyte, lithium phosphorus oxynitride, that is stable in contact with metallic lithium at these potentials. Deposited by rf magnetron sputtering of Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} in N{sub 2}, this material has a typical composition of Li{sub 2.9}PO{sub 3.3}N{sub 0.46} and a conductivity at 25{degrees}C of 2 {mu}S/cm. The maximum practical current density obtained from the thin film cells is limited to about 100 {mu}A/cm{sup 2} due to a low diffusivity of Li{sup +} ions in the cathodes. In this work, the authors present a short review of their work on rechargeable thin film lithium batteries.

  9. Lithium brines: A global perspective: Chapter 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk, LeeAnn; Hynek, Scott; Bradley, Dwight C.; Boutt, David; Labay, Keith A.; Jochens, Hillary; Verplanck, Philip L.; Hitzman, Murray W.

    2016-01-01

    Lithium is a critical and technologically important element that has widespread use, particularly in batteries for hybrid cars and portable electronic devices. Global demand for lithium has been on the rise since the mid-1900s and is projected to continue to increase. Lithium is found in three main deposit types: (1) pegmatites, (2) continental brines, and (3) hydrothermally altered clays. Continental brines provide approximately three-fourths of the world’s Li production due to their relatively low production cost. The Li-rich brine systems addressed here share six common characteristics that provide clues to deposit genesis while also serving as exploration guidelines. These are as follows: (1) arid climate; (2) closed basin containing a salar (salt crust), a salt lake, or both; (3) associated igneous and/or geothermal activity; (4) tectonically driven subsidence; (5) suitable lithium sources; and (6) sufficient time to concentrate brine. Two detailed case studies of Li-rich brines are presented; one on the longest produced lithium brine at Clayton Valley, Nevada, and the other on the world’s largest producing lithium brine at the Salar de Atacama, Chile.

  10. Origami lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zeming; Ma, Teng; Tang, Rui; Cheng, Qian; Wang, Xu; Krishnaraju, Deepakshyam; Panat, Rahul; Chan, Candace K; Yu, Hongyu; Jiang, Hanqing

    2014-01-01

    There are significant challenges in developing deformable devices at the system level that contain integrated, deformable energy storage devices. Here we demonstrate an origami lithium-ion battery that can be deformed at an unprecedented high level, including folding, bending and twisting. Deformability at the system level is enabled using rigid origami, which prescribes a crease pattern such that the materials making the origami pattern do not experience large strain. The origami battery is fabricated through slurry coating of electrodes onto paper current collectors and packaging in standard materials, followed by folding using the Miura pattern. The resulting origami battery achieves significant linear and areal deformability, large twistability and bendability. The strategy described here represents the fusion of the art of origami, materials science and functional energy storage devices, and could provide a paradigm shift for architecture and design of flexible and curvilinear electronics with exceptional mechanical characteristics and functionalities.

  11. The cosmological lithium problem revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertulani, C. A.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Shubhchintak

    2016-07-01

    After a brief review of the cosmological lithium problem, we report a few recent attempts to find theoretical solutions by our group at Texas A&M University (Commerce & College Station). We will discuss our studies on the theoretical description of electron screening, the possible existence of parallel universes of dark matter, and the use of non-extensive statistics during the Big Bang nucleosynthesis epoch. Last but not least, we discuss possible solutions within nuclear physics realm. The impact of recent measurements of relevant nuclear reaction cross sections for the Big Bang nucleosynthesis based on indirect methods is also assessed. Although our attempts may not able to explain the observed discrepancies between theory and observations, they suggest theoretical developments that can be useful also for stellar nucleosynthesis.

  12. Predissociation dynamics of lithium iodide

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, H; Stienkemeier, F; Bogomolov, A S; Baklanov, A V; Reich, D M; Skomorowski, W; Koch, C P; Mudrich, M

    2015-01-01

    The predissociation dynamics of lithium iodide (LiI) in the first excited A-state is investigated for molecules in the gas phase and embedded in helium nanodroplets, using femtosecond pump-probe photoionization spectroscopy. In the gas phase, the transient Li+ and LiI+ ion signals feature damped oscillations due to the excitation and decay of a vibrational wave packet. Based on high-level ab initio calculations of the electronic structure of LiI and simulations of the wave packet dynamics, the exponential signal decay is found to result from predissociation predominantly at the lowest avoided X-A potential curve crossing, for which we infer a coupling constant V=650(20) reciprocal cm. The lack of a pump-probe delay dependence for the case of LiI embedded in helium nanodroplets indicates fast droplet-induced relaxation of the vibrational excitation.

  13. Predissociation dynamics of lithium iodide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, H.; Vangerow, J. von; Stienkemeier, F.; Mudrich, M., E-mail: mudrich@physik.uni-freiburg.de [Physikalisches Institut, Universität Freiburg, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Bogomolov, A. S. [Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Baklanov, A. V. [Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Reich, D. M.; Skomorowski, W.; Koch, C. P. [Theoretische Physik, Universität Kassel, Heinrich-Plett-Str. 40, 34132 Kassel (Germany)

    2015-01-28

    The predissociation dynamics of lithium iodide (LiI) in the first excited A-state is investigated for molecules in the gas phase and embedded in helium nanodroplets, using femtosecond pump-probe photoionization spectroscopy. In the gas phase, the transient Li{sup +} and LiI{sup +} ion signals feature damped oscillations due to the excitation and decay of a vibrational wave packet. Based on high-level ab initio calculations of the electronic structure of LiI and simulations of the wave packet dynamics, the exponential signal decay is found to result from predissociation predominantly at the lowest avoided X-A potential curve crossing, for which we infer a coupling constant V{sub XA} = 650(20) cm{sup −1}. The lack of a pump-probe delay dependence for the case of LiI embedded in helium nanodroplets indicates fast droplet-induced relaxation of the vibrational excitation.

  14. The Cosmological Lithium Problem Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Bertulani, C A; Shubhchintak,

    2016-01-01

    After a brief review of the cosmological lithium problem, we report a few recent attempts to find theoretical solutions by our group at Texas A&M University (Commerce & College Station). We will discuss our studies on the theoretical description of electron screening, the possible existence of parallel universes of dark matter, and the use of non-extensive statistics during the Big Bang nucleosynthesis epoch. Last but not least, we discuss possible solutions within nuclear physics realm. The impact of recent measurements of relevant nuclear reaction cross sections for the Big Bang nucleosynthesis based on indirect methods is also assessed. Although our attempts may not able to explain the observed discrepancies between theory and observations, they suggest theoretical developments that can be useful also for stellar nucleosynthesis.

  15. Electrode for a lithium cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Vaughey, John T.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2008-10-14

    This invention relates to a positive electrode for an electrochemical cell or battery, and to an electrochemical cell or battery; the invention relates more specifically to a positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell or battery when the electrode is used therein. The positive electrode includes a composite metal oxide containing AgV.sub.3O.sub.8 as one component and one or more other components consisting of LiV.sub.3O.sub.8, Ag.sub.2V.sub.4O.sub.11, MnO.sub.2, CF.sub.x, AgF or Ag.sub.2O to increase the energy density of the cell, optionally in the presence of silver powder and/or silver foil to assist in current collection at the electrode and to improve the power capability of the cell or battery.

  16. A novel method to determine lithium battery state of charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milewits, M. [SPT, Rosharon, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Methods for determining the remaining life of a special class of high performance batteries used in the down-hole oil service markets were discussed. Lithium thionyl chloride (LTC) batteries meet the stringent conditions of having high volumetric energy density, of operating in a wide temperature range and in confining environments. The remaining discharge capacity of an LTC battery was determined by altering the anode electrode construction to give an indication of depth of discharge upon application of a defined load at ambient temperatures. This approach makes use of cells with specially modified anode structures and a test method for these cells prior to intended re-use. The test can be performed using an inexpensive DC circuit. 3 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  17. Mechanical, elastic and thermodynamic properties of crystalline lithium silicides

    CERN Document Server

    Schwalbe, Sebastian; Trepte, Kai; Biedermann, Franziska; Mertens, Florian; Kortus, Jens

    2016-01-01

    We investigate crystalline thermodynamic stable lithium silicides phases (LixSiy) with density functional theory (DFT) and a force-field method based on modified embedded atoms (MEAM) and compare our results with experimental data. This work presents a fast and accurate framework to calculate thermodynamic properties of crystal structures with large unit cells with MEAM based on molecular dynamics (MD). Mechanical properties like the bulk modulus and the elastic constants are evaluated in addition to thermodynamic properties including the phonon density of states, the vibrational free energy and the isochoric/isobaric specific heat capacity for Li, Li12Si7, Li7Si3, Li13Si4, Li15Si4, Li21Si5, Li17Si4, Li22Si5 and Si. For a selected phase (Li13Si4) we study the effect of a temperature dependent phonon density of states and its effect on the isobaric heat capacity.

  18. Lithium prophylaxis during pregnancy and the postpartum period in women with lithium-responsive bipolar I disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Gianluca; Albert, Umberto; Di Salvo, Gabriele; Scatà, Manuela; Todros, Tullia; Maina, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of lithium prophylaxis during the peripartum period in women with lithium-responsive bipolar I disorder. Seventeen lithium-treated patients were selected and underwent preconception counseling that included both a psychiatric and an obstetric evaluation. Treatment was continued with flexible-doses of lithium combined with supportive psychotherapy throughout the pregnancy and the postpartum period. The results support the prophylaxis efficacy of lithium in lithium-responder bipolar women who have a high risk of severe peripartum recurrences.

  19. Kinetics of aluminum lithium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletcher, Ben A.

    2009-12-01

    Aluminum lithium alloys are increasingly used in aerospace for their high strength-to-weight ratio. Additions of lithium, up to 4.2 wt% decrease the alloy density while increasing the modulus and yield strength. The metastable, second phase Al3Li or delta' is intriguing, as it remains spherical and coherent with the matrix phase, alpha, well into the overaged condition. Small interfacial strain energy allows these precipitates to remain spherical for volume fractions (VV ) of delta' less than 0.3, making this alloy system ideal for investigation of late-stage coarsening phenomena. Experimental characterization of three binary Al-Li alloys are presented as a critical test of diffusion screening theory and multi-particle diffusion simulations. Quantitative transmission electron microscopy is used to image the precipitates directly using the centered dark-field technique. Images are analyzed autonomously within a novel Matlab function that determines the center and size of each precipitate. Particle size distribution, particle growth kinetics, and maximum particle size are used to track the precipitate growth and correlate with the predictions of screening theory and multi-particle diffusion simulations. This project is the first extensive study of Al-Li alloys, in over 25 years, applying modern transmission electron microscopy and image analysis techniques. Previous studies sampled but a single alloy composition, and measured far fewer precipitates. This study investigates 3 alloys with volume fractions of the delta precipitates, VV =0.1-0.27, aged at 225C for 1 to 10 days. More than 1000 precipitates were sampled per aging time, creating more statistically significant data. Experimental results are used to test the predictions based on diffusion screening theory and multi-particle aging simulations. (Full text of this dissertation may be available via the University of Florida Libraries web site. Please check http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/etd.html)

  20. Polymer/Transitonal Metal Oxides Nanocomposites as Cathode Materials for Rechargeable Lithium/Lithium lon Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Kang Wu

    2000-01-01

    The synthesis and properties of polymer/transition metal oxides nanocomposite material were reviewed.The new nanocomposite material(PPY)0.5/MoO3 prepared by a new method is described.The application of the nanocomposite materials as cathode material in rechargeable lithium/lithium ion batteries was explored.

  1. Selective Recovery of Lithium from Cathode Materials of Spent Lithium Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Akitoshi; Ankei, Naoki; Nishihama, Syouhei; Yoshizuka, Kazuharu

    2016-10-01

    Selective recovery of lithium from four kinds of cathode materials, manganese-type, cobalt-type, nickel-type, and ternary-type, of spent lithium ion battery was investigated. In all cathode materials, leaching of lithium was improved by adding sodium persulfate (Na2S2O8) as an oxidant in the leaching solution, while the leaching of other metal ions (manganese, cobalt, and nickel) was significantly suppressed. Optimum leaching conditions, such as pH, temperature, amount of Na2S2O8, and solid/liquid ratio, for the selective leaching of lithium were determined for all cathode materials. Recovery of lithium from the leachate as lithium carbonate (Li2CO3) was then successfully achieved by adding sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) to the leachate. Optimum recovery conditions, such as pH, temperature, and amount of Na2CO3, for the recovery of lithium as Li2CO3 were determined for all cases. Purification of Li2CO3 was achieved by lixiviation in all systems, with purities of the Li2CO3 higher than 99.4%, which is almost satisfactory for the battery-grade purity of lithium.

  2. Magnesium oxide doping reduces acoustic wave attenuation in lithium metatantalate and lithium metaniobate crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, W.; Damon, R.; Kedzie, R.; Kestigian, M.; Smith, A.; Worley, J.

    1970-01-01

    Single crystals of lithium metatantalate and lithium metaniobate, grown from melts having different stoichiometries and different amounts of magnesium oxide, show that doping lowers temperature-independent portion of attenuation of acoustic waves. Doped crystals possess optical properties well suited for electro-optical and photoelastic applications.

  3. The lithium-ion accumulators in Japan; Les accumulateurs lithium-ion au Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzari, O

    2006-07-15

    This document takes stock on the different technologies of lithium based batteries developed in Japan as the materials used to produce their different elements. The today tendencies of the japanese researches are discussed. The applications of the lithium-ion are presented. A list of the main public and private laboratories in the domain and the research programs is provided. (A.L.B.)

  4. Analysis on technological conditions and optimization approach of Schlesinger process for sodium borohydride production%Schlesinger法合成硼氢化钠工艺条件及优化途径

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯殿保; 李海民; 党亚

    2014-01-01

    目前工业化合成硼氢化钠的工艺有Schlesinger法和Bayer法,而Schlesinger法是工业化合成硼氢化钠应用最广的工艺,其关键步骤为氢化钠和硼酸三甲酯的合成。本文一方面从氢化钠的合成、硼酸三甲酯的合成及硼氢化钠的合成3个方面详细论述了Schlesinger法合成工艺进展情况;并指出目前方法存在的问题,如采用油液分散金属钠法合成的氢化钠活性差,制约了氢化钠的应用,硼酸三甲酯工业合成过程中过多使用浓硫酸造成环境严重污染。另一方面对 Schlesinger 法工艺改进提出了几点设想,如企业全流程合成硼氢化钠可节约外购成本和仓储成本;硼酸三甲酯的合成取代浓硫酸的应用,提纯采用盐析的方法均可以减轻环境污染;硼氢化钠水解过程中采用稀液碱溶液代替淡水,可避免硼氢化钠水解,提高产品收率。%Currently,Schlesinger process and Bayer process are both industrial synthesis process of sodium borohydride. The Brown-Schlesinger process is the major process in use today for making sodium borohydride. The key steps of the process are the production of sodium hydride and trimethyl borate. The synthesis process of sodium hydride,trimethyl borate and sodium borohydride are reviewed. The existing problems are commented,such as sodium hydride prepared in mineral oil is poor in activity,serious environmental pollution caused by excessive use of concentrated sulfuric acid in industrial production of trimethyl borate. Some directions for further study are given. Integration of the process steps from start to finish will impact the bottom line cost. Synthesis of trimethyl borate instead of using sulfuric acid and purification by the salting out method can both reduce environmental pollution. In the process of sodium borohydride hydrolysis use of liquid dilute alkali solution instead of fresh water can avoid sodium borohydride hydrolysis and improve

  5. Laser-adjusted three-dimensional Li-Mn-O cathode architectures for secondary lithium-ion cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pröll, J.; Kohler, R.; Torge, M.; Bruns, M.; Przybylski, M.; Ulrich, S.; Seifert, H. J.; Pfleging, W.

    2012-03-01

    Three-dimensional cathode architectures for rechargeable lithium-ion cells can provide better Li-ion diffusion due to larger electrochemical active surface area and therefore, may stabilize the cycling behaviour of an electrochemical cell. This features show great importance when aiming for long-life batteries, e.g. in stationary or portable power devices. In this study, lithium manganese oxide thin films were used as cathode material with the goal to stabilize their cycling behavior and to counter degradation effects which come up within the lithium manganese oxide system. Firstly, appropriate laser ablation parameters were selected in order to achieve defined three-dimensional structures with features sizes down to micro- and sub-micrometer scale by using mask imaging technique. Laser annealing was also applied onto the laser structured material in a second step in order to form an electrochemically active phase. Process development led to a laser annealing strategy for a flexible adjustment of crystallinity and grain size. Laser annealing was realized using a high power diode laser system operating at a wavelength of 940 nm. Information on the surface composition, chemistry and topography as well as studies on the crystalline phase of the material were obtained by using Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The electrochemical activity of the laser modified lithium manganese oxide cathodes was explored by cyclic voltammetry measurements and galvanostatic testing by using a lithium anode and standard liquid electrolyte.

  6. Vacuum distillation refining of crude lithium (Ⅰ)——Thermodynamics on separating impurities from lithium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈为亮; 杨斌; 柴立元; 闵小波; 戴永年; 于霞; 张传福

    2001-01-01

    Thermodynamics on vacuum refining process of the crude lithium has been studied by using separation coefficients of impurities in the crude lithium and vapor-liquid equilibrium composition diagrams of Li-i binary alloy (i stands for an impurity) at different temperatures. Behaviors of impurities in the vacuum distillation process have been examined.The results show that fractional vacuum distillation should be taken to obtain metal lithium with high purity more than 99.99 % Li, in which metal K, Na and partial Mg are volatilized at lower temperature of 673~873 K. Lithium is distilled from the residual liquid containing other impurities, such as Ca, Mg, Al, Si, Fe and Ni at higher temperature of 873~1 073 K and the chamber pressure is less than the critical pressure of lithium.

  7. Molecular dynamic simulations of the lithium coordination environment in phosphate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ALAM,TODD M.; LIANG,JIANJIE; CYGAN,RANDALL T.

    2000-06-07

    A molecular dynamics (MD) study of the lithium ultraphosphate glass series, xLi{sub 2}O{center_dot}(1{minus}x)P{sub 2}O{sub 5} (0 {le} x < 0.5) was used to investigate the changes in the Li environment with increasing modifier concentration. The results from the MD simulations indicate that no major structural variations in the Li coordination environment are observed. Changes in the type of oxygen coordinated to the modifier are observed and correlate with the T{sub g} minimum. Additionally, changes in the number of shared phosphorus vertices are observed with increasing modifier concentration, in support of recent models involving the role of the modifier in the extended range structure of phosphate glasses. Empirical calculations of the {sup 6}Li NMR chemical shifts directly from the MD simulation structures is also reported and compared to recent experimental solid-state NMR results.

  8. Structural and morphological studies of manganese-based cathode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalska, M., E-mail: monika.michalska83@gmail.com [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wólczyńska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Lipińska, L. [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wólczyńska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Sikora, A. [Electrotechnical Institute, Division of Electrotechnology and Materials Science, M. Skłodowskiej-Curie 55/61, 50-369 Wrocław (Poland); Ziółkowska, D.; Korona, K.P. [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Hoża 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Andrzejczuk, M. [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Material Science and Engineering, Wołoska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-05-25

    Highlights: • Manganese cathode nanomaterials were successfully obtained by modified sol–gel method. • Crystallinity of the powders was confirmed by various structural method. • AFM and Raman spectroscopy showed that LiMnPO{sub 4} is promising material for LIBs. - Abstract: Nanocrystalline powders: lithium-manganese oxide (LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}) of spinel and lithium-manganese phosphate (LiMnPO{sub 4}) of olivine structure were synthesized by a modified sol–gel method. In this synthesizing process, lithium and manganese salts and complexing agent were used as reactants. The obtained powders were characterized by a number of methods: X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy. The mean sizes of crystallites were about 30 nm for LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} and 60 nm for LiMnPO{sub 4} nanoparticles. The influence of crystallographic structure on the stability of two manganese compounds was studied. The correlation between the structural and morphological results of spinel LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} and olivine LiMnPO{sub 4} properties was examined for the first time in this work.

  9. Chloride-Reinforced Carbon Nanofiber Host as Effective Polysulfide Traps in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lei; Zhuang, Houlong L; Zhang, Kaihang; Cooper, Valentino R; Li, Qi; Lu, Yingying

    2016-12-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is one of the most promising alternatives for the current state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries due to its high theoretical energy density and low production cost from the use of sulfur. However, the commercialization of Li-S batteries has been so far limited to the cyclability and the retention of active sulfur materials. Using co-electrospinning and physical vapor deposition procedures, we created a class of chloride-carbon nanofiber composites, and studied their effectiveness on polysulfides sequestration. By trapping sulfur reduction products in the modified cathode through both chemical and physical confinements, these chloride-coated cathodes are shown to remarkably suppress the polysulfide dissolution and shuttling between lithium and sulfur electrodes. From adsorption experiments and theoretical calculations, it is shown that not only the sulfide-adsorption effect but also the diffusivity in the vicinity of these chlorides materials plays an important role on the reversibility of sulfur-based cathode upon repeated cycles. Balancing the adsorption and diffusion effects of these nonconductive materials could lead to the enhanced cycling performance of an Li-S cell. Electrochemical analyses over hundreds of cycles indicate that cells containing indium chloride-modified carbon nanofiber outperform cells with other halogenated salts, delivering an average specific capacity of above 1200 mAh g(-1) at 0.2 C.

  10. Lithium Depletion in Fully Convective Pre-Main Sequence Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Bildsten, L; Matzner, C D; Ushomirsky, G; Bildsten, Lars; Brown, Edward F.; Matzner, Christopher D.; Ushomirsky, Greg

    1996-01-01

    We present an analytic calculation of the thermonuclear depletion of lithium in contracting, fully convective, pre-main sequence stars of mass M 0.08 M_sun) and for constraining the masses of lithium depleted stars.

  11. Starting lithium prophylaxis early v. late in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: No study has investigated when preventive treatment with lithium should be initiated in bipolar disorder. AIMS: To compare response rates among patients with bipolar disorder starting treatment with lithium early v. late. METHOD: Nationwide registers were used to identify all patients...... with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder in psychiatric hospital settings who were prescribed lithium during the period 1995-2012 in Denmark (n = 4714). Lithium responders were defined as patients who, following a stabilisation lithium start-up period of 6 months, continued lithium monotherapy without being admitted......-response to lithium compared with the rate for patients starting lithium later (adjusted analyses: first v. later contact: Pbipolar disorder: Plithium treatment early...

  12. Lithium Resources for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, S.; Gruber, P.; Medina, P.; Keolian, G.; Everson, M. P.; Wallington, T.

    2011-12-01

    Lithium is an important industrial compound and the principal component of high energy-density batteries. Because it is the lightest solid element, these batteries are widely used in consumer electronics and are expected to be the basis for battery electric vehicles (BEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) for the 21st century. In view of the large incremental demand for lithium that will result from expanded use of various types of EVs, long-term estimates of lithium demand and supply are advisable. For GDP growth rates of 2 to 3% and battery recycling rates of 90 to 100%, total demand for lithium for all markets is expected to be a maximum of 19.6 million tonnes through 2100. This includes 3.2 million tonnes for industrial compounds, 3.6 million tonnes for consumer electronics, and 12.8 million tonnes for EVs. Lithium-bearing mineral deposits that might supply this demand contain an estimated resource of approximately 39 million tonnes, although many of these deposits have not been adequately evaluated. These lithium-bearing mineral deposits are of two main types, non-marine playa-brine deposits and igneous deposits. Playa-brine deposits have the greatest immediate resource potential (estimated at 66% of global resources) and include the Salar de Atacama (Chile), the source of almost half of current world lithium production, as well as Zabuye (China/Tibet) and Hombre Muerto (Argentina). Additional important playa-brine lithium resources include Rincon (Argentina), Qaidam (China), Silver Peak (USA) and Uyuni (Bolivia), which together account for about 35% of the estimated global lithium resource. Information on the size and continuity of brine-bearing aquifers in many of these deposits is limited, and differences in chemical composition of brines from deposit to deposit require different extraction processes and yield different product mixes of lithium, boron, potassium and other elements. Numerous other brines in playas

  13. Syndrome of Irreversible Lithium-Effectuated NeuroToxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luísa Silva

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Lithium has a narrow therapeutic window. Frequent monitoring of both serum levels and clinical signs of toxicity is warranted because toxicity may be present even when concentrations are within the therapeutic range. We report the case of a man with lithium poisoning, with persistent neurologic signs and symptoms even after removal of lithium from circulation – a diagnosis of syndrome of irreversible lithium-effectuated neurotoxicity (SILENT was made.

  14. Performance of Lithium Polymer Cells with Polyacrylonitrile based Electrolyte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perera, Kumudu; Skaarup, Steen; West, Keld

    2006-01-01

    The performance of lithium polymer cells fabricated with Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) based electrolytes was studied using cycling voltammetry and continuous charge discharge cycling. The electrolytes consisted of PAN, ethylene carbonate (EC), propylene carbonate (PC) and lithium trifluoromethanesulfo......The performance of lithium polymer cells fabricated with Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) based electrolytes was studied using cycling voltammetry and continuous charge discharge cycling. The electrolytes consisted of PAN, ethylene carbonate (EC), propylene carbonate (PC) and lithium...

  15. Lithium based alloy-thionyl chloride cells for applications at temperatures to 200 C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, P.; Marincic, N.; Epstein, J.; Lindsey, A.

    A long-life lithium battery for industrial applications at temperatures up to 200 C was developed by combining Li-based alloy anodes with oxyhalide electrolytes. Cathodes were fabricated by rolling the blend of polycarbonomonofluoride, a conductive carbon additive, and a binder, while anodes were fabricated as those used in oxyhalide cells, incorporating a modified anode current collector designed to prevent the formation of 'lithium islands' at the end of discharge; nonwoven glass fiber separators were pretreated to remove excessive binders and lubricants. Various active electrode surface areas were combined with a corresponding thickness of electrodes and separators, matched in capacity. Tests of the high-rate electrode structure, using Li-Mg alloy anode in conjunction with thionyl chloride electrolyte, have demonstrated that the battery with this anode can be used under abusive conditions such as short circuit and external heating (at 175 C). Raising the operating temperature to 200 C did require some modifications of regular cell hardware.

  16. Exothermic behaviors of mechanically abused lithium-ion batteries with dibenzylamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yang; Noelle, Daniel J.; Wang, Meng; Le, Anh V.; Yoon, Hyojung; Zhang, Minghao; Meng, Ying Shirley; Qiao, Yu

    2016-09-01

    A thermal-runaway retardant (TRR) of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), dibenzylamine (DBA), is investigated. In a TRR-modified LIB, DBA can be encapsulated in packages made of inert materials. When the LIB is subjected to mechanical abuse, the packages would be broken apart and the TRR is released. In nail penetration and impact tests, addition of 4 wt% DBA reduces the temperature increase of fully charged LIR-2450 cells by nearly 50%. The influence of TRR packages on the cycling performance of LIBs is negligible. The working mechanism of DBA is associated with the decrease in electrolyte conductivity, the increase in charge transfer resistance, and the reduction in lithium ion (Li+) transference numbers.

  17. SBIR reports on the chemistry of lithium battery technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilroy, W. P.

    1989-11-01

    The following contents are included: Identification of an Improved Mixed Solvent Electrolyte for a Lithium Secondary Battery; Catalyzed Cathodes for Lithium-Thionyl Chloride Batteries; Improved Lithium/Thionyl Chloride Cells Using New Electrolyte Salts; Development of Calcium Primary Cells With Improved Anode Stability and Energy Density.

  18. Lithium in older patients: treatment patterns and somatic adverse effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Melick, E.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Lithium has been used in psychiatry for over 60 years and is still one of the first-line treatments in bipolar disorder. It is also used as augmentation to antidepressants in treatment resistant depression. Age-dependent changes in lithium pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics may influence lithium

  19. Superacid-Based Lithium Salts For Polymer Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Prakash, Surya; Shen, David H.; Surampudi, Subbarao; Olah, George

    1995-01-01

    Solid polymer electrolytes exhibiting high lithium-ion conductivities made by incorporating salts of superacids into thin films of polyethylene oxide (PEO). These and other solid-polymer electrolytes candidates for use in rechargeable lithium-based electrochemical cells. Increases in room-temperature lithium-ion conductivities of solid electrolytes desirable because they increase achievable power and energy densities.

  20. 75 FR 9147 - Hazardous Materials: Transportation of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ...-AE44 Hazardous Materials: Transportation of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials... associated with the air transport of lithium cells and batteries. PHMSA and FAA will hold a public meeting on... they will be attending the Lithium Battery Public Meeting and wait to be escorted to the...

  1. lectrolytic deposition of lithium into calcium phosphate coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Jiawei; Groot, de Klaas; Blitterswijk, van Clemens; Boer, de Jan

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Lithium ions stimulate the Wnt signaling pathway and the authors previously demonstrated that lithium enhances the proliferation of tissue cultured human mesenchymal stem cells. The aim of this study was to prepare and characterize a calcium phosphate/lithium coating by means of electrol

  2. Starting lithium prophylaxis early v. late in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2014-09-01

    No study has investigated when preventive treatment with lithium should be initiated in bipolar disorder. To compare response rates among patients with bipolar disorder starting treatment with lithium early v. late. Nationwide registers were used to identify all patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder in psychiatric hospital settings who were prescribed lithium during the period 1995-2012 in Denmark (n = 4714). Lithium responders were defined as patients who, following a stabilisation lithium start-up period of 6 months, continued lithium monotherapy without being admitted to hospital. Early v. late intervention was defined in two ways: (a) start of lithium following first contact; and (b) start of lithium following a diagnosis of a single manic/mixed episode. Regardless of the definition used, patients who started lithium early had significantly decreased rates of non-response to lithium compared with the rate for patients starting lithium later (adjusted analyses: first v. later contact: Pbipolar disorder: Plithium treatment early following first psychiatric contact or a single manic/mixed episode is associated with increased probability of lithium response. Royal College of Psychiatrists.

  3. 21 CFR 862.3560 - Lithium test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... as manic-depressive illness (bipolar disorder). (b) Classification. Class II. ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lithium test system. 862.3560 Section 862.3560....3560 Lithium test system. (a) Identification. A lithium test system is a device intended to measure...

  4. Lithium air batteries having ether-based electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, Khalil; Curtiss, Larry A.; Lu, Jun; Lau, Kah Chun; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Sun, Yang-Kook

    2016-10-25

    A lithium-air battery includes a cathode including a porous active carbon material, a separator, an anode including lithium, and an electrolyte including a lithium salt and polyalkylene glycol ether, where the porous active carbon material is free of a metal-based catalyst.

  5. Secondary electron emission from lithium and lithium compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capece, A. M.; Patino, M. I.; Raitses, Y.; Koel, B. E.

    2016-07-01

    In this work, measurements of electron-induced secondary electron emission (SEE) yields of lithium as a function of composition are presented. The results are particularly relevant for magnetic fusion devices such as tokamaks, field-reversed configurations, and stellarators that consider Li as a plasma-facing material for improved plasma confinement. SEE can reduce the sheath potential at the wall and cool electrons at the plasma edge, resulting in large power losses. These effects become significant as the SEE coefficient, γe, approaches one, making it imperative to maintain a low yield surface. This work demonstrates that the yield from Li strongly depends on chemical composition and substantially increases after exposure to oxygen and water vapor. The total yield was measured using a retarding field analyzer in ultrahigh vacuum for primary electron energies of 20-600 eV. The effect of Li composition was determined by introducing controlled amounts of O2 and H2O vapor while monitoring film composition with Auger electron spectroscopy and temperature programmed desorption. The results show that the energy at which γe = 1 decreases with oxygen content and is 145 eV for a Li film that is 17% oxidized and drops to less than 25 eV for a fully oxidized film. This work has important implications for laboratory plasmas operating under realistic vacuum conditions in which oxidation significantly alters the electron emission properties of Li walls.

  6. Lithium conducting ionic liquids based on lithium borate salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zygadlo-Monikowska, E.; Florjanczyk, Z.; Sluzewska, K.; Ostrowska, J.; Langwald, N.; Tomaszewska, A. [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, ul. Noakowskiego 3, 00-664 Warsaw (Poland)

    2010-09-15

    The simple reaction of trialkoxyborates with butyllithium resulted in the obtaining of new lithium borate salts: Li{l_brace}[CH{sub 3}(OCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}){sub n}O]{sub 3}BC{sub 4}H{sub 9}{r_brace}, containing oxyethylene substituents (EO) of n=1, 2, 3 and 7. Salts of n {>=} 2 show properties of room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) of low glass transition temperature, T{sub g} of the order from -70 to -80 C. The ionic conductivity of the salts depends on the number of EO units, the highest conductivity is shown by the salt with n = 3; in bulk its ambient temperature conductivity is 2 x 10{sup -5} S cm{sup -1} and in solution in cyclic propylene sulfite or EC/PC mixture, conductivity increases by an order of magnitude. Solid polymer electrolytes with borate salts over a wide concentration range, from 10 to 90 mol.% were obtained and characterized. Three types of polymeric matrices: poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC) and two copolymers of acrylonitrile and butyl acrylate p(AN-BuA) were used in them as polymer matrices. It has been found that for systems of low salt concentration (10 mol.%) the best conducting properties were shown by solid polymer electrolytes with PEO, whereas for systems of high salt concentration, of the polymer-in-salt type, good results were achieved for PTMC as polymer matrix. (author)

  7. Nanostructured lithium sulfide materials for lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Kyu; Lee, Yun Jung; Sun, Yang-Kook

    2016-08-01

    Upon the maturation and saturation of Li-ion battery technologies, the demand for the development of energy storage systems with higher energy densities has surged to meet the needs of key markets such as electric vehicles. Among the many next generation high-energy storage options, the Lisbnd S battery system is considered particularly close to mass commercialization because of its low cost and the natural abundance of sulfur. In this review, we focus on nanostructured Li2S materials for Lisbnd S batteries. Due to a lithium source in its molecular structure, Li2S can be coupled with various Li-free anode materials, thereby giving it the potential to surmount many of the problems related with a Li-metal anode. The hurdles that impede the full utilization of Li2S materials include its high activation barrier and the low electrical conductivity of bulk Li2S particles. Various strategies that can be used to assist the activation process and facilitate electrical transport are analyzed. To provide insight into the opportunities specific to Li2S materials, we highlight some major advances and results that have been achieved in the development of metal Li-free full cells and all-solid-state cells based on Li2S cathodes.

  8. Lithium in drinking water and thyroid function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broberg, Karin; Concha, Gabriela; Engström, Karin; Lindvall, Magnus; Grandér, Margareta; Vahter, Marie

    2011-06-01

    High concentrations of lithium in drinking water were previously discovered in the Argentinean Andes Mountains. Lithium is used worldwide for treatment of bipolar disorder and treatment-resistant depression. One known side effect is altered thyroid function. We assessed associations between exposure to lithium from drinking water and other environmental sources and thyroid function. Women (n=202) were recruited in four Andean villages in northern Argentina. Lithium exposure was assessed based on concentrations in spot urine samples, measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Thyroid function was evaluated by plasma free thyroxine (T4) and pituitary gland thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), analyzed by routine immunometric methods. The median urinary lithium concentration was 3,910 μg/L (5th, 95th percentiles, 270 μg/L, 10,400 μg/L). Median plasma concentrations (5th, 95th percentiles) of T4 and TSH were 17 pmol/L (13 pmol/L, 21 pmol/L) and 1.9 mIU/L, (0.68 mIU/L, 4.9 mIU/L), respectively. Urine lithium was inversely associated with T4 [β for a 1,000-μg/L increase=-0.19; 95% confidence interval (CI), -0.31 to -0.068; p=0.002] and positively associated with TSH (β=0.096; 95% CI, 0.033 to 0.16; p=0.003). Both associations persisted after adjustment (for T4, β=-0.17; 95% CI, -0.32 to -0.015; p=0.032; for TSH: β=0.089; 95% CI, 0.024 to 0.15; p=0.007). Urine selenium was positively associated with T4 (adjusted T4 for a 1 μg/L increase: β=0.041; 95% CI, 0.012 to 0.071; p=0.006). Exposure to lithium via drinking water and other environmental sources may affect thyroid function, consistent with known side effects of medical treatment with lithium. This stresses the need to screen for lithium in all drinking water sources.

  9. Preparation of lithium ion-sieve and utilizing in recovery of lithium from seawater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu WANG; Changgong MENG; Wei MA

    2009-01-01

    Lithium is one of the most important light metals, which is widely used as raw materials for large-capacity rechargeable batteries, light aircraft alloys and nuclear fusion fuel. Seawater, which contains 250 billion tons of lithium in total, has thus recently been noticed as a possible resource of lithium. While, since the aver-age concentration of lithium in seawater is quite low (0.17mg.L-1), enriching it to an adequate high density becomes the primary step for industrial applications. The adsorption method is the most prospective technology for increasing the concentration of lithium in liquid. Among the adsorbents for lithium, the ion-sieve is a kind of special absorbent which has high selectivity for Li+, especially the spinel manganese oxides (SMO), which among the series of ion-sieves, has become the most promising adsorption material for lithium. In this study, the SMO ion-sieve was prepared by a coprecipitation method. The preparation conditions were discussed and the sample characters were analyzed. Recovery of Li+ from seawater were studied in batch experiments using prepared ion-sieve, and the effect of solution pH and the uptake rates were also investigated in different Li+ solutions.

  10. Direct observation of lithium polysulfides in lithium-sulfur batteries using operando X-ray diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conder, Joanna; Bouchet, Renaud; Trabesinger, Sigita; Marino, Cyril; Gubler, Lorenz; Villevieille, Claire

    2017-06-01

    In the on going quest towards lithium-battery chemistries beyond the lithium-ion technology, the lithium-sulfur system is emerging as one of the most promising candidates. The major outstanding challenge on the route to commercialization is controlling the so-called polysulfide shuttle, which is responsible for the poor cycling efficiency of the current generation of lithium-sulfur batteries. However, the mechanistic understanding of the reactions underlying the polysulfide shuttle is still incomplete. Here we report the direct observation of lithium polysulfides in a lithium-sulfur cell during operation by means of operando X-ray diffraction. We identify signatures of polysulfides adsorbed on the surface of a glass-fibre separator and monitor their evolution during cycling. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the adsorption of the polysulfides onto SiO2 can be harnessed for buffering the polysulfide redox shuttle. The use of fumed silica as an electrolyte additive therefore significantly improves the specific charge and Coulombic efficiency of lithium-sulfur batteries.

  11. Performances of a lithium-carbon ``lithium ion``battery for electric powered vehicle; Performances d`un accumulateur au lithium-carbone ``Lithium Ion`` pour vehicule electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broussely, M.; Planchat, J.P.; Rigobert, G.; Virey, D.; Sarre, G. [SAFT, Advanced and Industrial Battery Group, 86 - Poitiers (France)

    1996-12-31

    The lithium battery, also called `lithium-carbon` or `lithium ion`, is today the most promising candidate that can reach the expected minimum traction performances of electric powered vehicles. Thanks to a more than 20 years experience on lithium generators and to a specific research program on lithium batteries, the SAFT company has developed a 100 Ah electrochemical system, and full-scale prototypes have been manufactured for this application. These prototypes use the Li{sub x}NiO{sub 2} lithiated graphite electrochemical pair and were tested in terms of their electrical performances. Energy characteristics of 125 Wh/kg and 265 Wh/dm{sup 3} could be obtained. The possibility of supplying a power greater than 200 W/kg, even at low temperature (-10 deg. C) has been demonstrated with these elements. A full battery set of about 20 kWh was built and its evaluation is in progress. It comprises the electronic control systems for the optimum power management during charge and output. (J.S.) 9 refs.

  12. Evaporated lithium surface coatings in NSTX.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakharov, L. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Gates, D. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Menard, J. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Maingi, R. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Schneider, H. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Mueller, D. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Wampler, William R.; Roquemore, A. L. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Kallman, Jeffrey K. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Sabbagh, S. (Columbia University, New York, NY); LeBlanc, B. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Raman, R. (University of Washington, Seattle, WA); Ono, M. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Wilgren, J. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Allain, J.P. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Timberlake, J. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Stevenson, T. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Ross, P. W. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Majeski, R. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Kugel, Henry W. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Skinner, C. H. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Gerhardt, S. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Paul, S. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Bell, R. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Kaye, S. M. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Kaita, R. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Soukhanovskii, V. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA); Bell, Michael G. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Mansfield, D. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ)

    2008-08-01

    Two lithium evaporators were used to evaporate more than 100 g of lithium on to the NSTX lower divertor region. Prior to each discharge, the evaporators were withdrawn behind shutters, where they also remained during the subsequent HeGDC applied for periods up to 9.5 min. After the HeGDC, the shutters were opened and the LITERs were reinserted to deposit lithium on the lower divertor target for 10 min, at rates of 10-70 mg/min, prior to the next discharge. The major improvements in plasma performance from these lithium depositions include: (1) plasma density reduction as a result of lithium deposition; (2) suppression of ELMs; (3) improvement of energy confinement in a low-triangularity shape; (4) improvement in plasma performance for standard, high-triangularity discharges; (5) reduction of the required HeGDC time between discharges; (6) increased pedestal electron and ion temperature; (7) reduced SOL plasma density; and (8) reduced edge neutral density.

  13. Evaporated Lithium Surface Coatings in NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugel, H. W. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Mansfield, D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Maingi, Rajesh [ORNL; Bell, M. G. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Bell, R. E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Allain, J. P. [Purdue University; Gates, D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Gerhardt, S. P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Kaita, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Kallman, J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Kaye, S. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); LeBlanc, B. P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Majeski, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Menard, J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Mueller, D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Ono, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Paul, S. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Raman, R. [University of Washington, Seattle; Roquemore, A. L. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Ross, P. W. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Sabbagh, S. A. [Columbia University; Schneider, H. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Skinner, C. H. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Soukhanovskii, V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Stevenson, T. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Timberlake, J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Wampler, W. R. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Wilgen, John B [ORNL; Zakharov, L. E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL)

    2009-01-01

    Two lithium evaporators were used to evaporate more than 100 g of lithium on to the NSTX lower divertor region. Prior to each discharge, the evaporators were withdrawn behind shutters, where they also remained during the subsequent HeGDC applied for periods up to 9.5 min. After the HeGDC, the shutters were opened and the LITERs were reinserted to deposit lithium on the lower divertor target for 10 min, at rates of 10-70 mg/min, prior to the next discharge. The major improvements in plasma performance from these lithium depositions include: (1) plasma density reduction as a result of lithium deposition; (2) suppression of ELMs; (3) improvement of energy confinement in a low-triangularity shape; (4) improvement in plasma performance for standard, high-triangularity discharges: (5) reduction of the required HeGDC time between discharges; (6) increased pedestal electron and ion temperature; (7) reduced SOL plasma density; and (8) reduced edge neutral density. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

  14. Porous cubes constructed by cobalt oxide nanocrystals with graphene sheet coatings for enhanced lithium storage properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Hongbo; Guo, Yuanyuan; Ding, Xianguang; Wang, Huangwen; Zhang, Yufei; Wu, Xinglong; Jiang, Jiang; Zheng, Junwei; Yang, Yonggang; Gu, Hongwei

    2016-03-01

    In this manuscript, graphene-encapsulated porous cobalt oxide cubes (Co3O4@G) are fabricated through a facile precipitation reaction with subsequent calcination and a self-assembly process. The synthesized porous Co3O4 cubes anchored in the conductive graphene network can realize superior electrical conductivity, withstand volume variation upon prolonged cycling and shorten the diffusion path of lithium ions. When evaluated as anode materials, the Co3O4@G electrode shows excellent electrochemical properties in terms of both stable cycling performance and good rate capabilities. For example, a reversible discharge capacity of 980 mA h g-1 is delivered after 80 cycles at a current density of 200 mA g-1. Introducing a conductive graphene network to modify other metal oxides with poor electric conductivity and large volume excursions is of great interest in the development of lithium ion battery technologies.In this manuscript, graphene-encapsulated porous cobalt oxide cubes (Co3O4@G) are fabricated through a facile precipitation reaction with subsequent calcination and a self-assembly process. The synthesized porous Co3O4 cubes anchored in the conductive graphene network can realize superior electrical conductivity, withstand volume variation upon prolonged cycling and shorten the diffusion path of lithium ions. When evaluated as anode materials, the Co3O4@G electrode shows excellent electrochemical properties in terms of both stable cycling performance and good rate capabilities. For example, a reversible discharge capacity of 980 mA h g-1 is delivered after 80 cycles at a current density of 200 mA g-1. Introducing a conductive graphene network to modify other metal oxides with poor electric conductivity and large volume excursions is of great interest in the development of lithium ion battery technologies. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr01024e

  15. Lithium toxicity in a neonate owing to false elevation of blood lithium levels caused by contamination in a lithium heparin container: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Zainab; Athiraman, Naveen K; Clark, Simon J

    2016-08-01

    Lithium toxicity in a neonate can occur owing to antenatal exposure as a result of maternal treatment for psychiatric illnesses. False elevation of lithium levels has been reported in the paediatric population when the sample was mistakenly collected in a lithium heparin container. A term, male infant was born to a mother who was on lithium treatment for a psychiatric illness. On day 1, the infant was jittery, had a poor suck with difficulties in establishing feeds. Blood taken from the infant approximately 8 hours after birth demonstrated a lithium level of 4.9 mmol/L (adult toxic level w1.5 mmol/L). However, the sample for lithium levels was sent in a lithium heparin container and the probability of false elevation was considered. He was closely monitored in the neonatal intensive care unit and his hydration was optimised with intravenous fluids. Clinically, he remained well and commenced feeding, and his jitteriness had decreased the following day. A repeat blood lithium level, collected in a gel container, was only 0.4 mmol/L. The initially raised lithium level was owing to contamination from the lithium heparin container.

  16. EFFECTS OF THE LITHIUM – CONTAINING SORBENT ON TERMS OF BEHAVIORAL REACTIONS UNDER CHRONIC ALCOHOL INTOXICATION MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kotlyarova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lithium preparations are widely used for stabilize mood in case of bipolar affective disorder. Currently neuroprotective and neuroregenerative effects of lithium are of interest as in case of acute brain injury, also in chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as dementia, alcoholism, Alzheimer disease, etc. [1–5]. In clinical practice use of lithium preparations is limited due to difficult adjustment of drug dosage, necessity of monitoring its concentration in blood, side effects development as a result of accumulation of lithium in a body. For the purpose of improvement of pharmacologic properties lithium is combined with other agents (for example modifying sorbent thus it can produce longer-term and more harmless (less side reactions effect in the long view. Lithium immobilization on sorption basis will allow to use sorbent as detoxicant and carrying agent of drugs to body. The purpose of the work is studying the effect of the lithium – containing sorbent on terms of behavioral reactions under chronic alcohol intoxication model.Materials and methods. During the work we used nonlinear mice – males, which weight 25–30 g (180 animals. Chronic alcohol intoxication was precipitated via 40% proof spirit injections (oral supplementation in quantity of 3 g/kg during 2 weeks, additionally mice drunk 5% proof spirit from drinking bowl. Each experimental group consisted of 10 animals. Study drugs were inserted inside while ethanol injecting. Control animals were inserted 0,9% salin solution. Emotional state of animals was assessed through forced swim test, short – term memory assessment was performed through conditioned passive avoidance reflex. Effect of chronic alcohol intoxication on the parameters of conditioned reflex activity was measured every 7 days.Results. It was found that the investigated lithium-containing sorbent increases: the number of mice are trained passive avoidance reflex, remembering percent of electric shock

  17. Lithium ratio in bipolar patients in Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Hashemi

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lithium is transferred into the intracellular space mainly via sodium-lithium counter transport pathway. This pathway is under genetic control and acts variably in different ethnic groups. With respect to possible genetic differences in our target population compared to other populations, this study was designed to obtain knowledge on mean lithium ratio (LR in this population so as to provide a benchmark for adjusting appropriate dosage of prescribed oral lithium and plasma concentration of lithium in clinical practice. METHODS: In this study, 47 (26 male and 21 female patients with bipolar disorders treated by lithium alone or in combination with other drugs at least for 2 weeks were selected by simple random sampling. Venous blood samples of selected patients were obtained and plasma and RBC lithium concentrations were measured. Finally, LR was determined using the atomic absorption method. RESULTS: Mean value of LR in the entire target population and in the group treated with lithium alone was 44.4 ± 23.22% and 58.52 ± 14%, respectively. In patients concomitantly treated with lithium and neuroleptic drugs, LR was significantly lower than that in all patients. LR in females was higher than that in males. LR in the group treated with lithium alone was significantly higher than figures reported in Europeans and Americans patients. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that bipolar patients in this geographical zone of Iran should probably be treated with smaller doses of lithium to achieve optimal intracellular therapeutic levels of lithium, compared to levels regarded as therapeutic for Europeans and Americans. KEY WORDS: Iranian race, lithium ratio, intracellular lithium level, plasma lithium level.

  18. Technology roadmap for lithium ion batteries 2030; Technologie-Roadmap Lithium-Ionen-Batterien 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thielmann, Axel; Isenmann, Ralf; Wietschel, Martin [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The technology roadmap for lithium ion batteries 2030 presents a graphical representation of the cell components, cell types and cell characteristics of lithium ion batteries and their connection with the surrounding technology field from today through 2030. This is a farsighted orientation on the way into the future and an implementation of the ''Roadmap: Batterieforschung Deutschland'' of the BMBF (Federal Ministry of Education and Science). The developments in lithium ion batteries are identified through 2030 form today's expert view in battery development and neighbouring areas. (orig.)

  19. Heteroaromatic-based electrolytes for lithium and lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Gang; Abraham, Daniel P.

    2017-04-18

    The present invention provides an electrolyte for lithium and/or lithium-ion batteries comprising a lithium salt in a liquid carrier comprising heteroaromatic compound including a five-membered or six-membered heteroaromatic ring moiety selected from the group consisting of a furan, a pyrazine, a triazine, a pyrrole, and a thiophene, the heteroaromatic ring moiety bearing least one carboxylic ester or carboxylic anhydride substituent bound to at least one carbon atom of the heteroaromatic ring. Preferred heteroaromatic ring moieties include pyridine compounds, pyrazine compounds, pyrrole compounds, furan compounds, and thiophene compounds.

  20. Lithium-air batteries, method for making lithium-air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajda, Stefan; Curtiss, Larry A.; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil; Tyo, Eric C.

    2016-11-15

    The invention provides a method for generating Li.sub.2O.sub.2 or composites of it, the method uses mixing lithium ions with oxygen ions in the presence of a catalyst. The catalyst comprises a plurality of metal clusters, their alloys and mixtures, each cluster consisting of between 3 and 18 metal atoms. The invention also describes a lithium-air battery which uses a lithium metal anode, and a cathode opposing the anode. The cathode supports metal clusters, each cluster consisting of size selected clusters, taken from a range of between approximately 3 and approximately 18 metal atoms, and an electrolyte positioned between the anode and the cathode.

  1. Lithium Ion Electrolytes and Lithium Ion Cells With Good Low Temperature Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    There is provided in one embodiment of the invention an electrolyte for use in a lithium ion electrochemical cell. The electrolyte comprises a mixture of an ethylene carbonate (EC), an ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), an ester cosolvent, and a lithium salt. The ester cosolvent comprises methyl propionate (MP), ethyl propionate (EP), methyl butyrate (MB), ethyl butyrate (EB), propyl butyrate (PB), or butyl butyrate (BB). The electrochemical cell operates in a temperature range of from about -60 C to about 60 C. In another embodiment there is provided a lithium ion electrochemical cell using the electrolyte of the invention.

  2. Reduced Dimensionality Lithium Niobate Microsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichenfield, Matt [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The following report describes work performed under the LDRD program at Sandia National Laboratories October 2014 and September 2016. The work presented demonstrates the ability of Sandia Labs to develop state-of-the-art photonic devices based on thin film lithium niobate (LiNbO3 ). Section 1 provides an introduction to integrated LiNbO3 devices and motivation for developing thin film nonlinear optical systems. Section 2 describes the design, fabrication, and photonic performance of thin film optical microdisks fabricated from bulk LiNbO3 using a bulk implantation method developed at Sandia. Sections 3 and 4 describe the development of similar thin film LiNbO3 structures fabricated from LiNbO3 on insulator (LNOI) substrates and our demonstration of optical frequency conversion with state-of-the-art efficiency. Finally, Section 5 describes similar microdisk resonators fabricated from LNOI wafers with a buried metal layer, in which we demonstrate electro-optic modulation.

  3. Safety considerations for fabricating lithium battery packs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesla, J. J.

    1986-09-01

    Lithium cell safety is a major issue with both manufacturers and end users. Most manufacturers have taken great strides to develop the safest cells possible while still maintaining performance characteristics. The combining of lithium cells for higher voltages, currents, and capacities requires the fabricator of lithium battery packs to be knowledgable about the specific electrochemical system being used. Relatively high rate, spirally wound (large surface area) sulfur oxychloride cells systems, such as Li/Thionyl or Sulfuryl chloride are considered. Prior to the start of a design of a battery pack, a review of the characterization studies for the cells should be conducted. The approach for fabricating a battery pack might vary with cell size.

  4. Lithium-aluminum-magnesium electrode composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melendres, Carlos A.; Siegel, Stanley

    1978-01-01

    A negative electrode composition is presented for use in a secondary, high-temperature electrochemical cell. The cell also includes a molten salt electrolyte of alkali metal halides or alkaline earth metal halides and a positive electrode including a chalcogen or a metal chalcogenide as the active electrode material. The negative electrode composition includes up to 50 atom percent lithium as the active electrode constituent and a magnesium-aluminum alloy as a structural matrix. Various binary and ternary intermetallic phases of lithium, magnesium, and aluminum are formed but the electrode composition in both its charged and discharged state remains substantially free of the alpha lithium-aluminum phase and exhibits good structural integrity.

  5. Inelastic collisions of excited lithium molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberry, Mark; Marhatta, Ramesh; Stewart, Brian

    2010-03-01

    Energy transfer and reactions during molecular collisions are fundamental processes in astronomy and chemistry. The H2 + H system has been well studied, and theoretical calculations are now becoming feasible for an excited lithium dimer colliding with a ground state lithium atom, increasing interest in corresponding experimental measurements. Our laboratory observes laser-induced fluorescence spectra from lithium vapor in a heat pipe oven. Our recent switch from a modest diode laser to a pulsed dye laser gives us new access to a variety of highly excited molecular states. Here we report our progress in measuring absolute level-to-level rate constants and collision-induced dissociation for molecular states of this system.

  6. Electrochemical stiffness in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavassol, Hadi; Jones, Elizabeth M. C.; Sottos, Nancy R.; Gewirth, Andrew A.

    2016-11-01

    Although lithium-ion batteries are ubiquitous in portable electronics, increased charge rate and discharge power are required for more demanding applications such as electric vehicles. The high-rate exchange of lithium ions required for more power and faster charging generates significant stresses and strains in the electrodes that ultimately lead to performance degradation. To date, electrochemically induced stresses and strains in battery electrodes have been studied only individually. Here, a new technique is developed to probe the chemomechanical response of electrodes by calculating the electrochemical stiffness via coordinated in situ stress and strain measurements. We show that dramatic changes in electrochemical stiffness occur due to the formation of different graphite-lithium intercalation compounds during cycling. Our analysis reveals that stress scales proportionally with the lithiation/delithiation rate and strain scales proportionally with capacity (and inversely with rate). Electrochemical stiffness measurements provide new insights into the origin of rate-dependent chemomechanical degradation and the evaluation of advanced battery electrodes.

  7. Characterization of lithium phosphorous oxynitride thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Xiaohua; Bates, J.B.; Jellison, G.E. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Electrical and electrochemical properties of an amorphous thin-film lithium electrolyte, lithium phosphorous oxynitride (Lipon), have been studied with emphasis on the stability window vs Li metal and the behavior of the Li/Lipon interface. Ion conductivity of Lipon exhibits Arrhenius behavior at {minus}26 to +140 C, with a conductivity of 1.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}6}S/cm at 25 C and an activity energy of 0.50 {plus_minus} 0.01 eV. A stability window of 5.5 V was observed with respect to a Li{sup +}/Li reference, and no detectable reaction or degradation was evident at the Li/Lipon interface upon lithium cycling.

  8. Scale-up of lithium rechargeable batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, A. G.; Giwa, C. O.; Lee, J. C.; Bowles, P.; Gilmour, A.; Allan, J.

    Small-size lithium rechargeable cells in an envelope format were reported at the 20th International Power Sources Symposium [1,2]. This design offers the possibility of making cells using much lighter packing than cells with metal cans. The prismatic format allows good packing in rectangular boxes. Hence they offer the potential for high gravimetric and volumetric energy densities. The cells have now been developed to a size sufficient to form components of a large battery, built to power Army man-portable equipment. Lithium-ion cells have been manufactured using lithium cobalt oxide cathodes and other cathode materials are under investigation. Individual cells up to the 3 A h size have been successfully cycled, with further development possible. A 24 V battery has been constructed and its performance and prospects are described.

  9. Efficient Electrolytes for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natarajan eAngulakshmi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This review article mainly encompasses on the state-of-the-art electrolytes for lithium–sulfur batteries. Different strategies have been employed to address the issues of lithium-sulfur batteries across the world. One among them is identification of electrolytes and optimization of their properties for the applications in lithium-sulfur batteries. The electrolytes for lithium-sulfur batteries are broadly classified as (i non-aqueous liquid electrolytes, (ii ionic liquids, (iii solid polymer and (iv glass-ceramic electrolytes. This article presents the properties, advantages and limitations of each type of electrolytes. Also the importance of electrolyte additives on the electrochemical performance of Li-S cells is discussed.

  10. Lithium Ion Batteries in Electric Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, Ahmad A.

    2016-05-16

    This research focuses on the technical issues that are critical to the adoption of high-energy-producing lithium Ion batteries. In addition to high energy density / high power density, this publication considers performance requirements that are necessary to assure lithium ion technology as the battery format of choice for electrified vehicles. Presentation of prime topics includes: long calendar life (greater than 10 years); sufficient cycle life; reliable operation under hot and cold temperatures; safe performance under extreme conditions; end-of-life recycling. To achieve aggressive fuel economy standards, carmakers are developing technologies to reduce fuel consumption, including hybridization and electrification. Cost and affordability factors will be determined by these relevant technical issues which will provide for the successful implementation of lithium ion batteries for application in future generations of electrified vehicles.

  11. Complex impedance studies of lithium iodine batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, C.L.; Skarstad, P.M. (Promeon Division Medtronic, Inc. Minneapolis, MN (US))

    1990-08-01

    Complex impedance spectra of conductivity cells containing iodine/poly-2-vinylpyridine cathode material were taken by two- and four-probe techniques. The impedance spectra contain a current-independent bulk resistance in series with a current-dependent interfacial resistance. The current-dependent interfacial resistance has the characteristics expected of a charge-transfer resistance. Moreover, electronically blocked (lithium/lithium iodide) electrodes give the same result as non-blocked (stainless steel) electrodes. This is exactly what would be expected if the medium were an ionic conductor. Complex impedance spectra of lithium/iodine batteries show additional structure, as might be expected, but are consistent with results from the conductivity cells.

  12. An extreme Population II dwarf without lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, L.M.; Thorburn, J.A.; Welty, D.E. (Yerkes Observatory, Williams Bay, WI (USA) Chicago, University, IL (USA))

    1991-06-01

    G186 - 26 is an apparently normal, Population II dwarf with Fe/H = {minus} 2.9 and Te = 6220 K. A high-dispersion spectrogram of this extreme halo star recorded at the Li I 6707 line shows no detectable surface lithium, at an abundance upper limit N(Li) = 12 + log (Li/H) not greater than 1.23. In comparison with the uniform lithium abundance N(Li) of about 2.17 found previously in 11 other halo dwarfs with Fe/H less than about {minus}2.6, the minimum deficiency of surface lithium in G 186 {minus} 26 therefore exceeds a factor of 8. 19 refs.

  13. Rechargeable thin-film lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, J.B.; Gruzalski, G.R.; Dudney, N.J.; Luck, C.F.; Yu, Xiaohua

    1993-08-01

    Rechargeable thin-film batteries consisting of lithium metal anodes, an amorphous inorganic electrolyte, and cathodes of lithium intercalation compounds have recently been developed. The batteries, which are typically less than 6-{mu}m thick, can be fabricated to any specified size, large or small, onto a variety of substrates including ceramics, semiconductors, and plastics. The cells that have been investigated include Li-TiS{sub 2}, Li-V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and Li-Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, with open circuit voltages at full charge of about 2.5, 3.6, and 4.2, respectively. The development of these batteries would not have been possible without the discovery of a new thin-film lithium electrolyte, lithium phosphorus oxynitride, that is stable in contact with metallic lithium at these potentials. Deposited by rf magnetron sputtering of Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} in N{sub 2}, this material has a typical composition of Li{sub 2.9}PO{sub 3.3}N{sub 0.46} and a conductivity at 25{degrees}C of 2 {mu}S/cm. The maximum practical current density obtained from the thin-film cells is limited to about 100 {mu}A/cm{sup 2} due to a low diffusivity of Li{sup +} ions in the cathodes. In this work, the authors present a short review of their work on rechargeable thin-film lithium batteries.

  14. Lithium safety and tolerability in mood disorders: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Aprahamian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background : Lithium is a first-line treatment for bipolar disorder in all phases, also indicated as add-on drug for unipolar depression and suicide prevention. This study encompasses a broad critical review on the safety and tolerability of lithium for mood disorders. Methods : A computerized search for English written human studies was made in MEDLINE, using the keywords “lithium” and “mood disorders”, starting from July 1993 through July 2013 (n = 416. This initial search aimed to select clinical trials, prospective data, and controlled design studies of lithium treatment for mood disorders reporting adverse effects (n = 36. The final selection yielded 91 studies. Results : The most common general side effects in patients on lithium treatment were thirst, frequent urination, dry mouth, weight gain, fatigue and cognitive complaints. Lithium users showed a high prevalence of hypothyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, and decrease in urinary concentration ability. Reduction of glomerular filtration rate in patients using lithium was also observed, but in a lesser extent. The evidence of teratogenicity associated with lithium use is not well established. Anti-inflammatory non-steroidal drugs, thiazide diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and alprazolam may increase serum lithium and the consequent risk for intoxication. Discussion : Short-term lithium treatment is associated with mild side effects. Medium and long-term lithium treatment, however, might have effects on target organs which may be prevented by periodical monitoring. Overall, lithium is still a safe option for the treatment of mood disorders.

  15. Brain oscillations in bipolar disorder and lithium-induced changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atagün, Murat İlhan

    2016-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) studies in patients with bipolar disorder have revealed lower amplitudes in brain oscillations. The aim of this review is to describe lithium-induced EEG changes in bipolar disorder and to discuss potential underlying factors. A literature survey about lithium-induced EEG changes in bipolar disorder was performed. Lithium consistently enhances magnitudes of brain oscillations in slow frequencies (delta and theta) in both resting-state EEG studies as well as event-related oscillations studies. Enhancement of magnitudes of beta oscillations is specific to event-related oscillations. Correlation between serum lithium levels and brain oscillations has been reported. Lithium-induced changes in brain oscillations might correspond to lithium-induced alterations in neurotransmitters, signaling cascades, plasticity, brain structure, or biophysical properties of lithium. Therefore, lithium-induced changes in brain oscillations could be promising biomarkers to assess the molecular mechanisms leading to variability in efficacy. Since the variability of lithium response in bipolar disorder is due to the genetic differences in the mechanisms involving lithium, it would be highly promising to assess the lithium-induced EEG changes as biomarkers in genetic studies.

  16. Hazards of lithium thionyl chloride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    Two different topics which only relate in that they are pertinent to lithium thionyl chloride battery safety are discussed. The first topic is a hazards analysis of a system (risk assessment), a formal approach that is used in nuclear engineering, predicting oil spills, etc. It is a formalized approach for obtaining assessment of the degree of risk associated with the use of any particular system. The second topic is a small piece of chemistry related to the explosions that can occur with lithium thionyl chloride systems. After the two topics are presented, a discussion is generated among the Workshop participants.

  17. Recycling cobalt from spent lithium ion battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-dong XIA; Xiao-qian XIE; Yao-wu SHI; Yong-ping LEI; Fu GUO

    2008-01-01

    Spent lithium ion battery is a useful resource of cobalt. In this paper, cobalt was recovered by a chemical process based upon the analysis of the structure and com-position of the lithium ion battery. X-ray diffraction results show that cobalt oxalate and cobaltous sulfate have been obtained in two different processes. Compared with the cobaltous oxalate process, the cobaltous sulfate process was characterized by less chemical substance input and a cobalt recovery rate of as much as 88%. A combination of these two processes in the recycling industry may win in the aspects of compact process and high recovery rate.

  18. Lithium hydride - A space age shielding material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, F. H.

    1974-01-01

    Men and materials performing in the environment of an operating nuclear reactor require shielding from the escaping neutron particles and gamma rays. For efficient shielding from gamma rays, dense, high atomic number elements such as iron, lead, or tungsten are required, whereas light, low atomic number elements such as hydrogen, lithium, or beryllium are required for efficient neutron shielding. The use of lithium hydride (LiH) as a highly efficient neutron-shielding material is considered. It contains, combined into a single, stable compound, two of the elements most effective in attenuating and absorbing neutrons.

  19. Positronium Formation in Positron-Lithium Scattering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程勇军; 周雅君; 刘芳

    2011-01-01

    The positronium formation process in positron scattering with atomic lithium is investigated using the coupledchannel optical method.The cross sections of positronium formation into the n =1 and n =2 levels from 2 to 60 e V are reported.The present results show reasonable agreement with the available experimental measurements and theoretical calculations.%The positronium formation process in positron scattering with atomic lithium is investigated using the coupled-channel optical method. The cross sections of positronium formation into the n = 1 and n = 2 levels from 2 to 60 e V are reported. The present results show reasonable agreement with the available experimental measurements and theoretical calculations.

  20. Electrolytic orthoborate salts for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, Charles Austen; Xu, Wu

    2008-01-01

    Orthoborate salts suitable for use as electrolytes in lithium batteries and methods for making the electrolyte salts are provided. The electrolytic salts have one of the formulae (I). In this formula anionic orthoborate groups are capped with two bidentate chelating groups, Y1 and Y2. Certain preferred chelating groups are dibasic acid residues, most preferably oxalyl, malonyl and succinyl, disulfonic acid residues, sulfoacetic acid residues and halo-substituted alkylenes. The salts are soluble in non-aqueous solvents and polymeric gels and are useful components of lithium batteries in electrochemical devices.