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Sample records for modified atmosphere package

  1. Biopreservation in modified atmosphere packaged vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bennik, M.H.J.

    1997-01-01


    Recent trends in food preservation are the use of mild preservation techniques, such as modified atmosphere (MA) packaging and refrigeration, to prolong the shelflife of foods without affecting the fresh character of the product. This has resulted in the development of a new generation of

  2. Biopreservation in modified atmosphere packaged vegetables.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bennik, M.H.J.

    1997-01-01

    Recent trends in food preservation are the use of mild preservation techniques, such as modified atmosphere (MA) packaging and refrigeration, to prolong the shelflife of foods without affecting the fresh character of the product. This has resulted in the development of a new generation of chill stor

  3. Effect of Activebag® Modified Atmosphere Packaging on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-11-30

    Nov 30, 2014 ... weight was 635g and modified atmosphere packaging had a remarkable effect on cumulative weight loss with ... utilizes unique antimicrobial materials that preserves ..... preservation by MAP storage observed in the present.

  4. Predominant enterobacteria on modified-atmosphere packaged meat and poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Säde, Elina; Murros, Anna; Björkroth, Johanna

    2013-06-01

    Enterobacteria on modified-atmosphere (MA) packaged meat (n = 54) and poultry (n = 32) products were enumerated, and 899 isolates were picked and ribotyped. For identification, 16S rRNA genes of representative strains were sequenced and analyzed. Altogether 54 (60%) of the samples contained enterobacteria >10(4) CFU/g. In 34% of the poultry samples, enterobacteria counts were >10(6) CFU/g suggesting that enterobacteria may contribute to spoilage of MA packaged poultry. The enterobacteria identified were predominantly Hafnia spp. (40%) and Serratia spp. (42%) with Hafnia alvei, Hafnia paralvei, Serratia fonticola, Serratia grimesii, Serratia liquefaciens, Serratia proteamaculans, and Serratia quinivorans being the species identified. In addition, 6% of the isolates were identified as Rahnella spp., 3% as Yersinia spp., and 1% as Buttiauxella spp. Percentage distributions of the predominant genera in different products showed that 89% of the Serratia spp. were from products packaged under a high-O2 MA containing CO2 (25-35%), whereas most (76%) isolates of Hafnia originated from anaerobically packaged red meat and poultry. These findings suggest that the gas mixture used for MA packaging influence the selection of enterobacteria growing on meat and poultry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. SHELF-LIFE OF REFRIGERATED SAUSAGE PACKAGED IN MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. De Filippo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Different lots of refrigerated sausage variously prepared and packaged under modified atmosphere were examined. The results of microbiological controls and sensory characteristic demonstrate that the shelf life of refrigerated sausage , produced using Leuconostoc carnosum 4010, as culture starter, and different levels of CO2, during the mixing step might be longer in comparison to control samples. In particular we had better colour and a good flavour until 7 days post production and lower level of contaminant flora. All lots were conforms to microbiological criteria for foodstuffs fixed by COMMISSION REGULATION (EC No 2073/2005 of 15 November 2005.

  6. EXTENDED COLD STORAGE OF WINTER PEARS BY MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE PACKAGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOISES ZUCOLOTO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of passive modified atmosphere packaging (MAP on the maintenance of fruit quality during the extended storage of ‘Rocha’ and ‘Packham’s Triumph’ pears. Fruit were packed in linear low density polyethylene (100 mm, with 6% BIF 1500 additive placed into perforated plastic boxes and kept at 0 ± 1 °C and 90 ± 5% RH for up to 180 days. MAP reduced weight loss by 14.8% for ‘Rocha’ and 11.5% for ‘Packham’s’ pears after 180 days in cold storage and retained the green color of the skin, which means that the yellowing visual perception was delayed in 60 and 90 days for ‘Rocha’ and ‘Packham’s’ pears, respectively. A strong softening was observed for ‘Packham’s’ pears after being kept for 150 days at 0° C followed by 5 days at room temperature, which did not limit the storage of both pear cultivars under modified atmosphere packaging. MAP created by linear low density polyethylene (100 mm, with 6% BIF 1500 additive extended in 30 days the cold storage for ‘Rocha’ and 60 days for ‘Packham’s’ pears.

  7. Effect of modified atmosphere packaging and addition of calcium hypochlorite on the atmosphere composition, colour and microbial quality of mushrooms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kuyper, L

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of modified atmosphere packaging in combination with the addition of calcium hypochlorite on the atmosphere composition, colour and microbial quality of mushrooms was investigated. A modified atmosphere which slowed down discolouration...

  8. Microbial communities on Australian modified atmosphere packaged Atlantic salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, S M; Tamplin, M L

    2012-05-01

    The role of specific spoilage organisms (SSO) in products such as Atlantic salmon has been well documented. However, little is known about what other micro-organisms are present and these organisms may indirectly influence spoilage by their interactions with the SS0. We used a combination of culture-based and DNA-based methods to explore the microbial communities found on Atlantic salmon fillets packed in a modified atmosphere of carbon dioxide and nitrogen. After 15 days the communities were dominated by Shewanella spp. or Carnobacterium spp. and a variety of other genera were present in smaller numbers. Variability in the microbial community composition in packages processed on the same day was also observed. This was mostly due to differences in the presence of minor members of the community including species from genera such as Iodobacter, Serratia, Morganella and Yersinia. The combination of culture-based and culture-independent methods provided greater insight into the development of microbial communities on Atlantic salmon than would have been possible using only one method. This work highlights the potential importance of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in fresh Atlantic salmon stored under modified atmosphere conditions.

  9. Quality of meat products packaged and stored under vacuum and modified atmosphere conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stasiewicz, M; Lipiński, K; Cierach, M

    2014-01-01

    .... Meat products were subjected to a sensory evaluation. The obtained results show that changes in the quality of meat products packaged under modified atmosphere are significantly influenced by the composition of the applied atmosphere...

  10. Fresh meat packaging: consumer acceptance of modified atmosphere packaging including carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebitus, Carola; Jensen, Helen H; Roosen, Jutta; Sebranek, Joseph G

    2013-01-01

    Consumers' perceptions and evaluations of meat quality attributes such as color and shelf life influence purchasing decisions, and these product attributes can be affected by the type of fresh meat packaging system. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) extends the shelf life of fresh meat and, with the inclusion of carbon monoxide (CO-MAP), achieves significant color stabilization. The objective of this study was to assess whether consumers would accept specific packaging technologies and what value consumers place on ground beef packaged under various atmospheres when their choices involved the attributes of color and shelf life. The study used nonhypothetical consumer choice experiments to determine the premiums that consumers are willing to pay for extended shelf life resulting from MAP and for the "cherry red" color in meat resulting from CO-MAP. The experimental design allowed determination of whether consumers would discount foods with MAP or CO-MAP when (i) they are given more detailed information about the technologies and (ii) they have different levels of individual knowledge and media exposure. The empirical analysis was conducted using multinomial logit models. Results indicate that consumers prefer an extension of shelf life as long as the applied technology is known and understood. Consumers had clear preferences for brighter (aerobic and CO) red color and were willing to pay $0.16/lb ($0.35/kg) for each level of change to the preferred color. More information on MAP for extending the shelf life and on CO-MAP for stabilizing color decreased consumers' willingness to pay. An increase in personal knowledge and media exposure influenced acceptance of CO-MAP negatively. The results provide quantitative measures of how packaging affects consumers' acceptance and willingness to pay for products. Such information can benefit food producers and retailers who make decisions about investing in new packaging methods.

  11. Use of modified atmosphere packaging to preserve mushroom quality during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Irene; Moro, Carlos; Lozano, Miguel; D'Arrigo, Matilde; Guillamón, Eva; García-Lafuente, Ana; Villares, Ana

    2011-09-01

    Mushrooms have attracted much attention due to their excellent nutritional and sensory properties. However, they are highly perishable and rapidly lose their organoleptic characteristics. Many methods have been employed for mushroom storage, such as packaging, blanching, canning, or freeze drying. Among them, modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) has been widely employed for preserving fresh mushrooms. MAP provides an affordable packaging system that partly avoids enzymatic browning, fermentation and other biochemical processes by maintaining a controlled gas atmosphere. Several factors, including optimum CO2 and O2 partial pressures, permeability, package material, thickness, or product weight, must be considered in order to design a suitable modified atmosphere package for mushrooms. Thus, different strategies are available to preserve mushroom quality after harvest. The article presents some promising patents on use of modified atmosphere packaging to preserve mushroom quality during storage.

  12. Influence of modified atmosphere packaging on meat quality parameters of turkey breast muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacha, Ines; Krischek, Carsten; Klein, Günter

    2014-01-01

    Poultry meat is often stored in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) or vacuum packaging to improve consumer acceptance and shelf life. The aim of this study was to determine how different packaging conditions influence meat quality. Therefore, in three independent experiments, turkey breast muscle cutlets were packaged either in vacuum or in different modified atmosphere mixtures (80% O2, 20% CO2 [MAP 1]; 80% N2, 20% CO2 [MAP 2]; and 20% O2, 20% CO2, 60% N2 [MAP 3]) and stored for 12 days at 3°C. Color, pH, electrical conductivity, total viable counts, and Pseudomonas species were determined on days 1, 4, 8, and 12 of storage. On the same days, samples were collected for analysis of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance and total volatile basic nitrogen concentrations. Sensory parameters and liquid loss were determined on days 4, 8, and 12. Vacuum-packaged meat had the highest liquid loss and lowest sensory results. MAP 1-packaged meat showed the highest sensory, redness, and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance values. MAP 2-packaged meat had lower sensory values. MAP 3-packaged meat had lower redness and sensory values, especially at the end of storage. The study showed an impact of the packaging condition on different quality parameters, with a small advantage for storage of turkey cutlets in high-oxygen packages.

  13. Factors affecting release of ethanol vapour in active modified atmosphere packaging systems for horticultural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weerawate Utto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The active modified atmosphere packaging (active MAP system , which provides interactive postharvest control , using ethanol vapour controlled release, is one of the current interests in the development of active packaging for horticultural products. A number of published research work have discussed the relationship between the effectiveness of ethanol vapour and its concentration in the package headspace, including its effect on postharvest decay and physiological controls. This is of importance because a controlled release system should release and maintain ethanol vapour at effective concentrations during the desired storage period. A balance among the mass transfer processes of ethanol vapour in the package results in ethanol vapour accumulation in the package headspace. Key factors affecting these processes include ethanol loading, packaging material, packaged product and storage environment (temperature and relative h umidity. This article reviews their influences and discusses future work required to better understand their influences on ethanol vapour release and accumulations in active MAP.

  14. Modified Atmosphere Packaging and Its Feasibility for Military Feeding Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-12-01

    vegetables, meats , and precooked ready-to-eat products without severe processing. lb. FOOD TYPES There are seemingly no limitations to the types of foods that...MAP packaging fresh meat , which extend the shelf life during shipping with a low oxygen gas mixture and then allow the storekeepers to prepare product ...mishandling at any point in production can make it unsafe for consumption. Cwnmon food spoilage microbes give off putrid odors and that is an indication that

  15. A Kinetic Model for Predicting the Relative Humidity in Modified Atmosphere Packaging and Its Application in Lentinula edodes Packages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-xin Lu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adjusting and controlling the relative humidity (RH inside package is crucial for ensuring the quality of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP of fresh produce. In this paper, an improved kinetic model for predicting the RH in MAP was developed. The model was based on heat exchange and gases mass transport phenomena across the package, gases heat convection inside the package, and mass and heat balances accounting for the respiration and transpiration behavior of fresh produce. Then the model was applied to predict the RH in MAP of fresh Lentinula edodes (one kind of Chinese mushroom. The model equations were solved numerically using Adams-Moulton method to predict the RH in model packages. In general, the model predictions agreed well with the experimental data, except that the model predictions were slightly high in the initial period. The effect of the initial gas composition on the RH in packages was notable. In MAP of lower oxygen and higher carbon dioxide concentrations, the ascending rate of the RH was reduced, and the RH inside packages was saturated slowly during storage. The influence of the initial gas composition on the temperature inside package was not much notable.

  16. Combined effects of gamma-irradiation and modified atmosphere packaging on quality of some spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkin, Celale; Mitrevski, Blagoj; Gunes, Gurbuz; Marriott, Philip J

    2014-07-01

    Thyme (Thymus vidgaris L.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) and cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) in ground form were packaged in either air or 100% N2 and γ-irradiated at 3 different irradiation levels (7kGy, 12kGy, 17kGy). Total viable bacterial count, yeast and mould count, colour, essential oil yield and essential oil composition were determined. Microbial load was not detectable after 12kGy irradiation of all samples. Irradiation resulted in significant changes in colour values of rosemary and black pepper. The discolouration of the irradiated black pepper was lower in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) compared to air packaging. Essential oil yield of irradiated black pepper and cumin was lower in air packaging compared to MAP. Gamma-irradiation generally decreased monoterpenes and increased oxygenated compounds, but the effect was lower in MAP. Overall, spices should be irradiated under an O2-free atmosphere to minimise quality deterioration.

  17. Changes of quality of Pleurotus ssp. carpophores in modified atmosphere packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sapata

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a general trend towards a continuous increase in fresh market sales of mushrooms and many methods have been researched to improve quality and shelf life during storage and marketing. As it is known, mushrooms are a very perishable commodity, with very high respiration rate and rapid quality deterioration, when kept at ambient temperature. In order to study the effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP on the quality of three species of oyster mushrooms, P. ostreatus, P. sajor-caju and P. eryngii, whole mushrooms were packaged with two polymeric low density polyethylene films – Vileda Freshmate (A and PE 52 LV Amcor (B, with passive modified atmosphere and stored at 4ºC. The quality and stability of MA packaged mushrooms were assessed, during storage, by package atmosphere composition (O2, CO2, soluble solid contents, weight loss, texture, surface colour and exudates measurements. It was verified that on the seventh day the P. ostreatus and P. sajor-caju carpophores presented identical quality, when packaged with the two films types, thereafter some decay was observed. Carpophores of P. eryngii had the same quality in the two film types at the end of the established storage.

  18. Predictive modelling for packaging design: equilibrium modified atmosphere packages of fresh-cut vegetables subjected to a simulated distribution chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacxsens, L; Devlieghere, F; Debevere, J

    2002-03-01

    The impact of temperature fluctuations in a simulated cold distribution chain, typical of commercial practice, was investigated on both the microbial and sensorial quality of equilibrium modified atmosphere (EMA) packaged minimally processed vegetables. The internal O2 concentration of the designed packages could be predicted for the different steps of the simulated distribution chain by applying an integrated mathematical system. The internal atmosphere in the packages remained in its aerobic range during storage in the chain due to the application of high permeable packaging films for O2 and CO2. Spoilage microorganisms were proliferating fast on minimally processed bell peppers and lettuce. Yeasts showed to be the shelf-life limiting group. Visual properties limited the sensorial shelf-life. Listeria monocytogenes was able to multiply on cucumber slices, survived on minimally processed lettuce and decreased in number on bell peppers due to the combination of low pH and refrigeration. Aeromonas caviae was multiplying on both cucumber slices and mixed lettuce, but was as well inhibited by the low pH of bell peppers. Storage temperature control was found to be of paramount importance for the microbial (spoilage and safety) and sensorial quality evaluation of EMA-packaged minimally processed vegetables.

  19. Evaluation of carbon monoxide treatment in modified atmosphere packaging or vacuum packaging to increase color stability of fresh beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasingh, P; Cornforth, D P; Carpenter, C E; Whittier, D

    2001-11-01

    Our goal was to obtain > 21 days red color stability for carbon monoxide (CO)-treated beef steaks in vacuum packaging (VP). In preliminary tests, pretreatment for 24 h in a 5% CO modified atmosphere package (MAP) was needed to maintain redness after re-packaging in VP. Pressure pretreatment with 5% CO for 2 h developed redness, but was impractical for large-scale application. Color stability and microbial load were then compared after treatment of steaks in 5% CO-MAP for 24 h, then VP; 100% CO-MAP for 1 h, then VP; steaks and ground beef in 0.5% CO-MAP; and steaks and ground beef in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) wrap. Steaks remained red for 5, 6, 8 and 10(6)cfu/cm(2)) at 5, 6, 7 and <2-weeks, respectively. Thus, extended color stability in VP was achieved by pretreatment with 5% CO for 24 h or 100% CO for 1 h.

  20. Quality of Meat ( from Male Fallow Deer ( Packaged and Stored under Vacuum and Modified Atmosphere Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Piaskowska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of vacuum and modified atmosphere (40% CO2+60% N2, MA packaging on the chemical composition, physicochemical properties and sensory attributes of chill-stored meat from 10 fallow deer (Dama dama bucks at 17 to 18 months of age. The animals were hunter-harvested in the forests of north-eastern Poland. During carcass dressing (48 to 54 h post mortem, both musculus longissimus muscles were cut out. Each muscle was divided into seven sections which were allocated to three groups: 0, A, and B. Samples 0 were immediately subjected to laboratory analyses. Samples A were vacuum-packaged, and samples B were packaged in MA. Packaged samples were stored for 7, 14, and 21 days at 2°C. The results of the present study showed that the evaluated packaging systems had no significant effect on the quality of fallow deer meat during chilled storage. However, vacuum-packaged meat samples were characterised by greater drip loss. Vacuum and MA packaging contributed to preserving the desired physicochemical properties and sensory attributes of meat during 21 days of storage. Regardless of the packaging method used, undesirable changes in the colour, water-holding capacity and juiciness of meat, accompanied by tenderness improvement, were observed during chilled storage.

  1. Extending the shelf-life of refrigerated green mussel (Perna viridis under modified atmosphere packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payap Masniyom

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP on the keeping quality of green mussel stored at 4C was investigated.Inhibition of the bacterial growth increased proportionally to the CO2 concentration in the packaging, and maximuminhibition was achieved with 100% CO2. Mussel stored under CO2-enriched atmosphere had lower total volatile base, trimethylamineand TCA-soluble peptide contents than those stored in air (P<0.05. However, the increase in exudate loss wasobserved for samples packaged in high-CO2 atmosphere, suggesting the denaturation of muscle proteins by carbonic acidformed. The odor and flavor acceptability of CO2-enriched packaged samples, particularly with 80 and 100% CO2, wasaccepted throughout the storage of 12 days, compared with six days for those stored in air. Therefore, MAP with 80% CO2,10% O2 and 10% N2 was chosen as the optimum condition for extending the shelf-life of green mussel. Packaging withinclusion of O2 should be considered to avoid the outbreak of strictly anaerobic toxin producing bacteria.

  2. Effect of Modified Atmosphere Packaging and Vacuum Packaging on Quality Characteristics of Low Grade Beef during Cold Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, S J; Jin, S K; Park, J H; Jung, S W; Lyu, H J

    2013-12-01

    Many studies have been carried out with respect to packaging methods and temperature conditions of beef. However, the effects of packaging methods and temperature conditions on the quality characteristics have not been extensively studied in low-grade beef. Low-grade beef samples were divided into 3 groups (C: ziplock bag packaging, T1: vacuum packaging, and T2: modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), CO2/N2 = 3:7) and samples were stored at 4°C for 21 days. The water-holding capacity (WHC) was significantly lower in T1 than in the other samples up to 14 days of storage. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and volatile basic nitrogen values were significantly lower in T1 and T2 than in C after 7 to 14 days of storage. The total bacterial counts were significantly lower in T1 and T2 than in C after 14 days of storage. In a sensory evaluation, tenderness and overall acceptability were significantly higher in T1 and T2 than in C at the end of the storage period (21 days). We propose that the MAP method can improve beef quality characteristics of low-grade beef during cold storage. However, the beneficial effects did not outweigh the cost increase to implement MAP.

  3. Where is MAP Going? A review and future potential of modified atmosphere packaging for meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillin, Kenneth W

    2008-09-01

    Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) is the removal and/or replacement of the atmosphere surrounding the product before sealing in vapor-barrier materials. While technically different, many forms of MAP are also case-ready packaging, where meat is cut and packaged at a centralized location for transport to and display at a retail store. Most of the shelf life properties of meat are extended by use of MAP, but anoxic forms of MAP without carbon monoxide (CO) do not provide bloomed red meat color and MAP with oxygen (O(2)) may promote oxidation of lipids and pigments. Advances in plastic materials and equipment have propelled advances in MAP, but other technological and logistical considerations are needed for successful MAP systems for raw chilled fresh meat. Current MAP options of air-permeable overwrapped trays in master packs, low O(2) formats of shrunk film vacuum packaging (VP) or MAP with carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and nitrogen (N(2)) and their peelable barrier film derivatives, and high O(2) MAP each have advantages and disadvantages. Packaging technology innovations and ingenuity will continue to provide MAP that is consumer oriented, product enhancing, environmentally responsive, and cost effective, but continued research and development by the scientific and industry sectors will be needed.

  4. Shelf-life extension of refrigerated Mediterranean mullet (Mullus surmuletus) using modified atmosphere packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pournis, Nikolaos; Papavergou, Aikaterini; Badeka, Anastasia; Kontominas, Michael G; Savvaidis, Ioannis N

    2005-10-01

    The present work evaluated the quality and freshness characteristics and the effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the shelf-life extension of refrigerated Mediterranean mullet using microbiological, biochemical, and sensory analyses. Fresh open sea red mullet (Mullus surmuletus) were packaged in four different atmospheres: M1, 10%/20%/70% (O2/ CO2/N2); M2, 10%/40%/50% (O2/CO2/N2); M3, 10%/60%/30% (O2/CO2/N2); identical fish samples were packaged in air. All fish were kept under refrigeration (4 +/- 0.5 degrees C) for 14 days. Of the three gas atmospheres, the 10%/40%/50% (M2) and 10%/ 60%/30% (M3) gas mixtures were the most effective for inhibiting growth of aerobic microflora in mullet samples until day 10 of refrigerated storage. H2S-producing bacteria and pseudomonads were part of the mullet microflora and their growth was partly inhibited under MAP conditions. Between these two bacterial groups, H2S-producing bacteria (including Shewanella putrefaciens) were dominant toward the end of the storage period, regardless of the packaging conditions. Brochothrix thermosphacta and lactic acid bacteria were found to be members of the final microbial flora of MAP and air-packaged mullet, whereas the Enterobacteriaceae population was lower than other bacterial groups. Of the chemical freshness indices determined, thiobarbituric acid values were variable in mullet samples irrespective of packaging conditions indicative of no specific oxidative rancidity trend. Based on sensorial data and aerobic plate count, trimethylamine nitrogen and total volatile basic nitrogen limit values in the range of ca. 15 to 23 and 52 to 60 mg N/100 g of fish muscle were obtained, respectively, for mullet packaged under modified atmosphere and air. Sensory analyses (odor and taste attributes) showed that the limit of sensorial acceptability was reached after ca. 6 days for the samples packaged in air, 8 days for the M1 and M3 samples, and after 10 days for the M2 samples. Respective

  5. Shelf life extension of whole Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus using modified atmosphere packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gornik, Sebastian G; Albalat, Amaya; Theethakaew, Chonchanok; Neil, Douglas M

    2013-11-01

    Once a nuisance by-catch, today the Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) is a valuable UK fisheries commodity. Unfortunately, the species is very susceptible to quality deterioration post harvest as it quickly develops black spots and also spoils rapidly due to bacterial growth. Treatment with chemicals can stop the blackening and carefully monitored cold storage can result in a sensory shelf life of up to 6.5 days. The high susceptibility to spoilage greatly restricts the extent to which N. norvegicus can be distributed to retailers and displayed for sale. The application of modified atmosphere (MA) could be extremely beneficial, allowing the chilled product to stay fresh for a long period of time, thus ensuring higher sales. In the present study, we identified a gas mix for the MA packaging (MAP) of whole N. norvegicus lobster into 200 g retail packs. Our results show that a shelf life extension to 13 days can be achieved when retail packs are stored in MAP at 1 °C. Effectiveness of the MAP was evaluated by using a newly developed QIM for MA-packaged whole N. norvegicus and also by analyzing bacterial plate counts. Changes in the microflora and effects of different storage temperatures on the quality of the MA packs are also presented. The main specific spoilage organism (SSO) of modified atmosphere packaged Norway lobster is Photobacterium phosphoreum.

  6. Growth and toxigenesis of C. botulinum type E in fishes packaged under modified atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, D A; Genigeorgis, C; Glover, J; Razavilar, V

    1990-05-01

    Modified atmosphere packaging of fresh fish is used to market high quality products in some European countries. The potential risk of C. botulinum growth in these extended shelf-life foods is still a concern; especially since toxigenesis may precede organoleptic spoilage. This paper will present toxigenic data from rockfish, salmon and sole muscle tissues which were inoculated with a pool of non-proteolytic C. botulinum type E at seven levels (10(-2)-10(4) spores/sample), and stored under vacuum and 100% CO2, at incubation temperatures between 30 and 4 degrees C, for up to 60 days. Factorial experimental design allowed predictive formulae to be developed able to describe the lag time prior to C. botulinum toxigenesis and the probability of one spore to initiate toxigenesis based upon the storage conditions. Accurate characterization of the microbial ecology of C. botulinum in modified atmosphere-packaged fish, will support safe exploitation of these packaging systems in the market place, and identify critical control points for potential product or process abuses.

  7. Regulation of metabolic changes in shredded cabbage by modified atmosphere packaging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Plestenjak, Andrej; Pozrl, Tomaz; Hribar, Janez; Unuk, Tatjana; Vidrih, Rajko

    2008-01-01

    .... The cabbage cultivar Fieldrocket was cut and packaged in glass jars and in polyethylene (PE) or polypropylene (PP) film. Several initial atmospheres were established within the packaged cut cabbage...

  8. Development of Multifunctional Active Film and Its Application in Modified Atmosphere Packaging of Shiitake Mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong Jiang; An, Duck Soon; Lee, Dong Sun

    2016-09-01

    Agar-based films with multiple functions (CO2 absorption, water vapor absorption, and antimicrobial activity) were developed, tested for their properties, and then applied to the packaging of fresh shiitake mushrooms as an insert label. The films were cast from an agar-based aqueous solution containing a dissolving plasticizer (glycerol), a CO2 absorbent (sodium carbonate [SC] alone or a combination of SC and sodium glycinate [SC-SG]), and a volatile antimicrobial agent (carvacrol [CRV]). The agar of the film matrix is designed to serve as a water vapor absorbent. The multifunctional films tended to have poor mechanical properties, with a hard texture and an opaque and yellowish color. The CO2 absorbent, either SC alone or SC-SG, affected CRV retention and release along with the CO2 and water vapor absorption behavior. Both films (SC-CRV and SC-SG-CRV films) showed good inhibitory effects against Pseudomonas fluorescens and Saccharomyces cerevisiae . SC-CRV film had a higher and faster CO2 absorption property, higher retention and extended release of CRV, and lower and slower water vapor absorption and was assessed to be better suited for use in shiitake mushroom packaging. The packaging in which the SC-CRV film with an appropriate amount of CRV was used as an insert label was able to generate the desired atmosphere and less moisture condensation inside the package, producing the best preservation of quality in terms of mushroom color, firmness, flavor score, and microbial counts after 6 days of storage at 10°C. A tailored modified atmosphere packaging system using multifunctional film would be useful in the preservation of CO2-sensitive fresh commodities.

  9. Recent Developments in Film and Gas Research in Modified Atmosphere Packaging of Fresh Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Meng, Xiangyong; Bhandari, Bhesh; Fang, Zhongxiang

    2016-10-01

    Due to the rise of consumer's awareness of fresh foods to health, in the past few years, the consumption of fresh and fresh-cut produces has increased sturdily. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) possesses a potential to become one of the most appropriate technologies for packaging fresh and fresh-cut produces. The MAP has advantages of extending the shelf-life, preserving or stabilizing the desired properties of fresh produces, and convenience in handing and distribution. The success of MAP-fresh foods depends on many factors including types of fresh foods, storage temperature and humidity, gas composition, and the characteristics of package materials. This paper reviews the recent developments highlighting the most critical factors of film and gas on the quality of MAP fresh foods. Although the innovations and development of food packaging technology will continue to promote the development of novel MAP, concentrated research and endeavors from scientists and engineers are still important to the development of MAP that focuses on consumers' requirements, enhancing product quality, environmental friendly design, and cost-effective application.

  10. Lactic acid bacteria in marinades used for modified atmosphere packaged broiler chicken meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundström, Hanna-Saara; Björkroth, Johanna

    2007-03-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in some marinades commonly used in Finland for modified atmosphere packaged poultry meat products were enumerated and identified to determine whether the marinades contained LAB species that cause meat spoilage. The concentrations of LAB in 51 marinade samples ranged from less than 100 to 8.0 x 10(5) CFU/ml. Seventeen of the samples produced LAB growth only after enrichment, and in five samples no growth was detected either by direct culturing or enrichment. Eighty-eight randomly selected isolates, 51 from the enumerated plates and 37 from enriched samples, were identified using a database of 16S and 23S rRNA gene HindIII restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns of over 300 type and references LAB strains as operational taxonomic units in numerical analyses. The predominating LAB in the enumerated samples was Lactobacillus plantarum (25 of 51 isolates). Eleven isolates were identified as Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei, and nine were Lactobacillus parabuchneri. None of these species are considered specific spoilage LAB in marinated modified atmosphere packaged poultry meat products nor have they been reported to dominate in unspoiled late-shelf-life products. These results indicate that even though marinades may contain high numbers of LAB, they are not necessarily sources of specific meat spoilage LAB. Therefore, risks associated with meat quality are not predicted by quantitative enumeration of LAB in marinades.

  11. Modified atmosphere packaging and vacuum packaging for long period chilled storage of dry-cured Iberian ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, V; Viguera, J; Sánchez, J; Peinado, J; Espárrago, F; Gutierrez, J I; Andrés, A I

    2010-04-01

    Dry-cured Iberian ham slices were stored under vacuum and under four different modified atmospheres (60/40=60%N(2)+40%CO(2); 70/30=70%N(2)+30%CO(2); 80/20=80%N(2)+20%CO(2); argon=70%argon+30%CO(2)) at 4+/-1 degrees C during 120 days. Gas composition, moisture content, pH, colour, pigment content, and lipid stability were measured, as well as sensory and microbial analysis were carried out throughout storage. A loss of intensity of red colour (a(*)-values) was observed during storage in ham slices (P0.05). Slices of ham packed in 40%CO(2) (60/40) and 30%CO(2) (70/30) showed lower a(*)-values than the rest of the batches after 60 days (P0.05). TBARs values showed an upward trend during the storage of packaged slices (P0.05) throughout storage under refrigeration and packed either in vacuum or in modified atmospheres. No safety problems were detected in relation to the microbial quality in any case.

  12. Microbiological and sensorial quality assessment of ready-to-cook seafood products packaged under modified atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speranza, B; Corbo, M R; Conte, A; Sinigaglia, M; Del Nobile, M A

    2009-01-01

    The effects of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) (30:40:30 O(2):CO(2):N(2) and 5:95 O(2):CO(2)) on the quality of 4 ready-to-cook seafood products were studied. In particular, the investigation was carried out on hake fillets, yellow gurnard fillets, chub mackerel fillets, and entire eviscerated cuttlefish. Quality assessment was based on microbiological and sensorial indices determination. Both packaging gas mixtures contributed to a considerable slowing down of the microbial and sensorial quality loss of the investigated seafood products. Results showed that sensorial quality was the subindex that limited their shelf life. In fact, based primarily on microbiological results, samples under MAP remained acceptable up to the end of storage (that is, 14 d), regardless of fish specie. On the other hand, results from sensory analyses showed that chub mackerel fillets in MAP were acceptable up to the 6th storage d, whilst hake fillets, yellow gurnard fillets, and entire cuttlefish became unacceptable after 10 to 11 d. However, compared to control samples, an increase in the sensorial shelf life of MAP samples (ranging from about 95% to 250%) was always recorded. Practical Application: Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) is an inexpensive and uncomplicated method of extending shelf life of packed seafood. It could gain great attention from the fish industrial sector due to the fact that MAP is a practical and economic technique, realizable by small technical expedients. Moreover, there is great attention from the food industry and retailers to react to the growing demand for convenience food, thus promoting an increase in the assortments of ready-to-cook seafood products.

  13. Modified atmosphere packaging extending the storage life of 'douradão' peach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Regina Radomille de Santana

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available 'Douradão' peach is a perishable product and when cold stored is subject to chilling injury. The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP and cold storage on quality and storage life of these peaches. Fruits were packed in polypropylene (PP trays and placed inside low density polyethylene (LDPE bags (30, 50, 60, 75 μm thickness with active modified atmosphere (10 kPa CO2 + 1.5kPa O2, balance N2. The control was made with peaches held in nonwrapped PP trays. Fruits were kept at 1 ± 1 °C and 90 ± 5% relative humidity (RH for 28 days and CO2 and O2 within packages was monitored every two days. After 14, 21 and 28 days, samples were withdrawn from MAP and kept in air at 25 ± 1 °C and 90 ± 5% RH for ripening. On the day of removal from the cold storage and after 4 days, peaches were evaluated for weight loss, decay incidence, flesh firmness, woolliness incidence, soluble solids content (SSC, titratable acidity (TA and juice content. The results showed that MAP had influence on reducing weight loss and prevented postharvest decay. MAP of 1-2 kPa O2 and 3-6 kPa CO2 at 1 °C (from 50 and 60 μm LDPE films were effective for keeping good quality of 'Douradão' peaches during 28 days of storage, the ripe fruits showed reduced incidence of woolliness, adequate juiciness and flesh firmness. Packages of 30 and 75 μm LDPE films were ineffective for reducing woolliness during cold storage. MAP fruits showed lower SSC and no relevant effect on TA. Control fruits did not present marketable conditions after 14 days of cold storage.

  14. A Mathematical Model of the Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP System for the Gas Transmission Rate of Fruit Produce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model to predict oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water vapour exchanges in non-perforated and micro-perforated modified atmosphere packaging films has successfully been proposed. The transmission rate of gases was measured for films with thickness of 0.03 and 0.05 mm, perforation diameters of 0.5 and 2.0 mm, and temperatures of 0, 10 and 20 °C. Under most conditions, the increase in temperature and perforation diameter increased the transmission rate of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water vapour, whereas the increase in film thickness decreased the transmission rate of the various gases. Validation of the proposed modified atmosphere packaging model was found to yield good prediction for gas concentrations and percentage losses in the mass of the produce after comparison with the experimental results of modified atmosphere packaging for tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum.

  15. Degradation Products of Adenine Nucleotide in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Stored in Ice and in Modified Atmosphere Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZOĞUL, Yeşim; Özoğul, Fatih

    2002-01-01

    The breakdown products of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) were separated using a rapid HPLC method. The K-value, Ki-value and H-value were also determined as a means of evaluating the quality of rainbow trout held in ice and modified atmosphere packaging comparing with sensory and microbiological analysis in terms of fresh fish quality. Results from the present research indicated that modified atmosphere did not extend the shelf life of trout but inhibited microbial growth compared to ice storag...

  16. Volatile organic compounds and Photobacterium phosphoreum associated with spoilage of modified-atmosphere-packaged raw pork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieminen, Timo T.; Dalgaard, Paw; Björkroth, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation of volatile organic compounds was monitored in association with sensory quality, bacterial concentrations and culture-independent microbial community analyses in raw pork loin and pork collar during storage under high-oxygen modified atmosphere at +4°C. Of the 48 volatile compounds....... According to the culture-dependent and culture-independent characterization of bacterial communities, Brochothrix thermosphacta, lactic acid bacteria (Carnobacterium, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Weissella) and Photobacterium spp. predominated in pork samples. Photobacterium spp., typically...... not associated with spoilage of meat, were detected also in 8 of the 11 retail packages of pork investigated subsequently. Eleven isolates from the pork samples were shown to belong to Photobacterium phosphoreum by phenotypic tests and sequencing of the 16S rRNA and gyrB gene fragments. Off-odors in pork samples...

  17. Shelf life evaluation of ricotta fresca sheep cheese in modified atmosphere packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Pala

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ricotta fresca cheese is the product of Sardinian dairy industry most exposed to microbial post-process contamination. Due to its technological characteristics, intrinsic parameters, pH (6.10-6.80 and water activity (0.974-0.991, it represents an excellent substrate for the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms, which are usually resident in cheese-making plants environments. Generally, ricotta fresca has a shelf life of 5-7 days. For this reason, at industrial level, modified atmosphere packaging (MAP is used to extend the durability of the product. However, few investigations have been conducted to validate the use of MAP in ricotta fresca. The aim of this work is to evaluate the shelf life of ricotta fresca under MAP. A total of 108 samples were collected from three Sardinian industrial cheese-making plants and analysed within 24 h after packaging and after 7, 14 and 21 days of refrigerated storage. Aerobic mesophilic bacteria, mesophilic and thermophilic cocci and lactobacilli, Enterobacteriaceae and E. coli, L. monocytogenes, Pseudomonas spp., Bacillus cereus, yeasts and moulds, and the chemicalphysical parameters and composition of the product were determined. At the end of the shelf life, Pseudomonas spp. and Enterobacteriaceae reached high concentrations, 5 to 7 and 3 to 6 log10 colony forming unit g–1, respectively. The presence of environmental contaminants indicates that the use of MAP without the appropriate implementation of prerequisite programmes is not sufficient to extend the durability of ricotta fresca. Gas mixture and packaging material should be selected only on the basis of scientific evidence of their effectiveness.

  18. Shelf-life of Halal fresh and minced beef meat packaged under modified atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Piras

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The shelf-life of Halal fresh cut and minced beef meat, packaged under modified atmosphere (MAP was evaluated. The microbial profile of the carcasses intended for cutting and mincing was investigated by detecting spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. Samples of diced meat (DM, marrowbones (MB, steaks (S and minced meat (MM were packaged in MAP (66.0% O2, 25.0% CO2 and 9.0% N2 and stored at +2 and +8°C. At 0, 7 and 14 days, gas composition of headspace was measured. Moreover, in all the samples colony count at 30°C, Enterobacteriaceae, lactic acid bacteria (LAB and Pseudomonas spp. were determined. The carcasses contamination was in compliance with the criteria fixed by EC Reg. 2073/2005. Gas composition of the headspace changed significantly during the storage, mainly at +8°C, where a significant decrease of O2 (until 0.1-0.6% and an increase of CO2 (until 81.0-89.0% were recorded. This could be related to the level of LAB and Pseudomonas spp. Less significant changes were observed at +2°C. At 7 days of storage colony count, mean values were higher than >107 CFU/g in the samples at +8°C, and also at 14 days at +2°C, presumably due to the high levels of Pseudomonas spp., that was dominant at the end of the test. Overall, the microbial mean counts were higher than those detected in similar products packaged under vacuum. In order to extend the shelf-life of the fresh meat and meat preparations, differentiated gas mixtures, and particularly a higher percentage of CO2, could be employed.

  19. Effect of 1-methylcyclopropene and modified atmosphere packaging on chilling injury, and antioxidative defensive mechanism of sweet pepper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) are chilling sensitive vegetable, and develop injury when stored at temperatures less than 7 C. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) (650 ppb) and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on chilling injuries of sweet pepper...

  20. Effect of oxygen level on the oxidative stability of two different retail pork products stored using modified atmosphere packaging (MAP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanos, Dimitrios; Ann Tørngren, Mari; Christensen, Mette;

    2016-01-01

    The characteristics and the oxidative stability of pork steaks and of pork mince were investigated during 2, 5 and 7 days of refrigerated storage using oxygen (O2) levels of 0%, 20%, 50% and 80% in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). Steaks stored during 7 days were not affected by an increase...

  1. Chitosan dipping or oregano oil treatments, singly or combined on modified atmosphere packaged chicken breast meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrou, S; Tsiraki, M; Giatrakou, V; Savvaidis, I N

    2012-06-01

    The present study examined the effect of natural antimicrobials: chitosan, oregano and their combination, on the shelf-life of modified atmosphere packaged chicken breast meat stored at 4°C. Treatments examined in the present study were the following: M (control samples stored under modified atmosphere packaging), M-O (samples treated with oregano oil 0.25% v/w, stored under MAP), M-CH (samples treated with chitosan 1.5% w/v, stored under MAP) and M-CH-O (treated with chitosan 1.5% w/v and oregano oil 0.25% v/w, stored under MAP). Treatment, M-CH-O, significantly affected mesophilic Total Plate Counts (TPC), lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Brochothrix thermosphacta, Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp., and yeasts-moulds during the storage period. Lipid oxidation (as determined by MDA values) of control and treated chicken samples was in general low and below 0.5 mg MDA/kg, showing no oxidative rancidity during the storage period. Addition of chitosan to the chicken samples produced higher (Poregano oil singly, and/or chitosan, by approximately 6 (M-O) and >15 (M-CH and M-CH-O) days. Interestingly, chitosan (M-CH) or chitosan-oregano (M-CH-O) treated chicken samples were sensorially acceptable during the entire refrigerated storage period of 21 days. It is noteworthy that the presence of chitosan in M-CH and M-CH-O samples did not negatively influence the taste of chicken samples, with M-CH samples receiving a higher score (compared to M-CH-O), probably as a result of a distinct and "spicy" lemon taste of chitosan, that was well received by the panelists. Based primarily on sensory data (taste attribute) M-CH and M-O treatments extended the shelf-life of chicken fillets by 6 days, while M-CH-O treatment resulted in a product with a shelf-life of 14 days, maintaining acceptable sensory characteristics.

  2. Preservation of different fig cultivars (Ficus carica L.) under modified atmosphere packaging during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, María del Carmen; Serradilla, Manuel Joaquín; Martín, Alberto; López Corrales, Margarita; Pereira, Cristina; Córdoba, María de Guía

    2016-04-01

    The effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the stability of 'Cuello Dama Blanco' (CDB), 'Cuello Dama Negro' (CDN) and 'San Antonio' (SA) figs during post-harvest cold storage was evaluated by using three different films with a diverse number of microperforations (diameter, ø = 100 µm): M10 (16 holes), M30 (five holes) and M50 (three holes). A macroperforated film was used as control (five holes, ø = 9 mm). Gas composition, weight loss, percentage disorder, microbial counts and physico-chemical parameters were monitored during cold storage for 21 days. Furthermore, sensory quality was also evaluated. MAP has allowed the extension of cold storage and distribution time for the three different cultivars of figs, minimising weight loss and delaying pathological disorders related to endosepsis, smut, and souring. Of the three cultivars, the M50 batch (one hole per 50 mm) showed the best efficiency in terms of physico-chemical quality and delay of post-harvest decay, although the M30 batch was also found to be suitable for delaying the post-harvest decay, especially for the CDB cultivar. MAP is a useful tool to extend the storability with optimal quality properties for CDN and SA during 21 days of cold storage and 14-17 days of cold storage for CDB. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Immature pea seeds: effect of storage under modified atmosphere packaging and sanitation with acidified sodium chlorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Elena; Venzke Klug, Tâmmila; Martínez-Sánchez, Ascensión; Artés-Hernandez, Francisco; Aguayo, Encarna; Artés, Francisco; Fernández, Juan A; Gómez, Perla A

    2017-10-01

    Appropriate sanitation is a priority for extending the shelf life and promoting the consumption of immature pea seeds, as processing accelerates quality deterioration and microbial growth. The combined effect of disinfection with acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) or sodium hypochlorite (SH) and packaging under a passive modified atmosphere (MAP) at 1 or 4 °C on quality was analysed. After 14 days, greenness and vitamin C had decreased, especially in the SH-disinfected samples. Total phenols and antioxidant capacity were not affected by disinfection. Proteins levels fell by around 27%, regardless of the sanitizer and storage temperature. Compared with the initial microbial load, samples stored at 1 °C showed an increase of 1 log CFU g(-1) in psychrophiles when treated with SH, whereas no increase of note occurred with ASC. In general, microbial counts were always below 3 log CFU g(-1) for all the treatments. Immature pea seeds could be stored for 14 days at 1-4 °C under MAP with only minor quality changes. Disinfection with ASC resulted in better sensory quality, higher content of vitamin C and lower psychrophile counts. More research is needed to analyse the effect of these treatments on other quality parameters. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Thyme oil vapour and modified atmosphere packaging reduce anthracnose incidence and maintain fruit quality in avocado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellamuthu, Periyar Selvam; Mafune, Mpho; Sivakumar, Dharini; Soundy, Puffy

    2013-09-01

    Postharvest application of prochloraz fungicide is commercially practiced to control anthracnose, a postharvest disease in avocado. Increasing consumer concern regarding food safety and demand for organically produced fruits make it necessary to search for natural environmentally friendly alternative products and processes for the fruit industry. A combination of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP; ∼8% CO₂, 2% O₂) plus thyme oil (TO) was evaluated on the incidence and severity of anthracnose, physiological disorders (grey pulp, vascular browning), fruit quality parameters (L*, h°, firmness, weight loss) and sensory parameters (taste, texture, flavour and overall acceptance), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) enzyme activity, total phenolic compounds, flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity in avocados ('Fuerte' and 'Hass' cultivars) held at 10 °C cold storage for 18 days and thereafter, ripened at 25 °C for 5-10 days. Stand-alone MAP, commercial treatment (prochloraz 0.05%) and untreated (control) fruit were included for comparison. MAP + TO treatment significantly (P anthracnose, grey pulp, vascular browning, weight loss and loss of fruit firmness, and showed acceptable taste, flavour, texture and higher overall acceptance, increased PAL activity, total phenolic compounds, flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity, after ripening at 25 °C followed by cold storage at 10 °C. This investigation recommends MAP + TO combination treatment as a suitable alternative to the currently adopted prochloraz application. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Improvement of the Quality and the Shelf Life of the High Oxygen Modified Atmosphere Packaged Veal by Superficial Spraying with Dihydroquercetin Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragoev, Stefan Georgiev; Staykov, Alexandar Stoyanov; Vassilev, Kiril Petrov; Balev, Dessislav Kostadinov; Vlahova-Vangelova, Dessislava Borislavova

    2014-01-01

    The improvement of quality and the shelf life of veal by combination of 80%O2/20%CO2 modified atmosphere packaging and superficial spraying with 0.02% dihydroquercetin solutions was studied. The control samples C, air packaged only, D, air packaged sprayed by 0.02% dihydroquercetin solution, MAP, modified atmosphere packaging only, BMAP, modified atmosphere packaging sprayed by 0.02% butylated hydroxytoluene solution, and DMAP, modified atmosphere packaging sprayed by 0.02% dihydroquercetin solution, were measured. The best results were obtained in modified atmosphere packaging sprayed by 0.02% dihydroquercetin solution. Comparisons with control samples were expressed as reduction in acid value with 27.72%, peroxide value with 64.74%, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) with 65.71%, and the pH with 6.18%. The acid and peroxide values, TBARS, and pH were decreased linearly in response when applying the combination of 80%O2/20%CO2 modified atmosphere packaging and superficial spraying with 0.02% dihydroquercetin solutions (P 0.05). According to results obtained it was concluded that 80%O2/20%CO2 modified atmosphere packaged veal stored at 0 ± 0.5°C after 0.02% dihydroquercetin solution treatment can preserve its quality and shelf life to 15 d postmortem.

  6. Improvement of the Quality and the Shelf Life of the High Oxygen Modified Atmosphere Packaged Veal by Superficial Spraying with Dihydroquercetin Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Georgiev Dragoev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The improvement of quality and the shelf life of veal by combination of 80%O2/20%CO2 modified atmosphere packaging and superficial spraying with 0.02% dihydroquercetin solutions was studied. The control samples C, air packaged only, D, air packaged sprayed by 0.02% dihydroquercetin solution, MAP, modified atmosphere packaging only, BMAP, modified atmosphere packaging sprayed by 0.02% butylated hydroxytoluene solution, and DMAP, modified atmosphere packaging sprayed by 0.02% dihydroquercetin solution, were measured. The best results were obtained in modified atmosphere packaging sprayed by 0.02% dihydroquercetin solution. Comparisons with control samples were expressed as reduction in acid value with 27.72%, peroxide value with 64.74%, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS with 65.71%, and the pH with 6.18%. The acid and peroxide values, TBARS, and pH were decreased linearly in response when applying the combination of 80%O2/20%CO2 modified atmosphere packaging and superficial spraying with 0.02% dihydroquercetin solutions (P0.05. According to results obtained it was concluded that 80%O2/20%CO2 modified atmosphere packaged veal stored at 0±0.5°C after 0.02% dihydroquercetin solution treatment can preserve its quality and shelf life to 15 d postmortem.

  7. Characterization and evaluation of the spoilage potential of Lactococcus piscium isolates from modified atmosphere packaged meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahkila, Riitta; Nieminen, Timo; Johansson, Per; Säde, Elina; Björkroth, Johanna

    2012-05-01

    A total of 222 psychrotrophic lactococci isolated from use-by day, modified atmosphere packaged (MAP) meat were identified to the species level by numerical analyses of EcoRI and ClaI ribopatterns and phylogenetic sequence analyses of 16S, rpoA and pheS genes. In addition, their meat spoilage potential was studied. The majority of the isolates (n=215) were identified as Lactococcus piscium, while seven isolates belonged to Lactococcus raffinolactis. L. piscium was shown to be adapted to growing in a variety of MAP meat products including broiler, turkey, pork, and minced meat from beef and pork, where they belonged to the predominating microbiota at the end of the storage. Numerical analyses of EcoRI and ClaI ribopatterns, and phylogenetic sequence analyses of rpoA and pheS genes were shown to be reliable tools in species level identification of meat lactococci. The spoilage potential of L. piscium was evaluated by inoculating representative isolates to MAP pork stored at 6 °C for 22 days. Development of spoilage population was monitored using a culture-independent T-RFLP approach. The sensory shelf life of pork inoculated with L. piscium was shortened compared to the uninoculated control. Alongside with the inoculated L. piscium isolates, Leuconostoc spp. present as initial contaminants in the samples thrived. This shows that even though lactococci were inoculated at higher levels compared to the natural microbiota, they did not occupy the niche and prevent the growth of other lactic acid bacteria. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Visible spectroscopy as a tool for the assessment of storage conditions of fresh pork packaged in modified atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanos, Dimitrios; Christensen, Mette; Ann Tørngren, Mari

    2016-01-01

    The storage conditions of fresh meat are known to impact its colour and microbial shelf life. In the present study, visible spectroscopy was evaluated as a method to assess meat storage conditions and its optimisation. Fresh pork steaks (longissimus thoracis et lumborum and semimembranosus) were...... placed in modified atmosphere packaging using gas mixtures containing 0, 40, 50, and 80% oxygen, and stored with or without light for up to 9days. Principal component analysis of visible reflectance spectra (400-700nm) showed that the colour of the different meat cuts was affected by presence of oxygen....... The study demonstrates the applicability of visible spectroscopy as a tool to assess the storage conditions of meat cuts packaged in modified atmosphere....

  9. Visible spectroscopy as a tool for the assessment of storage conditions of fresh pork packaged in modified atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanos, Dimitrios; Christensen, Mette; Tørngren, Mari Ann; Baron, Caroline P

    2016-03-01

    The storage conditions of fresh meat are known to impact its colour and microbial shelf life. In the present study, visible spectroscopy was evaluated as a method to assess meat storage conditions and its optimisation. Fresh pork steaks (longissimus thoracis et lumborum and semimembranosus) were placed in modified atmosphere packaging using gas mixtures containing 0, 40, 50, and 80% oxygen, and stored with or without light for up to 9days. Principal component analysis of visible reflectance spectra (400-700nm) showed that the colour of the different meat cuts was affected by presence of oxygen, illumination, and storage time. Differences in the oxygen levels did not contribute to the observed variance. Predictive models based on partial least squares regression-discriminant analysis exhibited high potency in the classification of the storage parameters of meat cuts packaged in modified atmosphere. The study demonstrates the applicability of visible spectroscopy as a tool to assess the storage conditions of meat cuts packaged in modified atmosphere.

  10. Comparison of modified atmosphere packaging and vacuum packaging for long period storage of dry-cured ham: effects on colour, texture and microbiological quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Esteban, Marta; Ansorena, Diana; Astiasarán, Iciar

    2004-05-01

    Slices of dry-cured hams (Biceps femoris muscle) were stored during 8 weeks under vacuum and modified atmospheres (100% N(2) and a mixture of 20% CO(2) and 80% N(2)) in order to study the modifications on colour, texture and microbial counts during that period. Lightness was found to be more stable when samples were stored with 20% CO(2) and 80% N(2) without statistical differences between vacuum and 100% N(2). A slight whiteness was observed in the vacuum packed samples. Yellowness increased during time in vacuum packed samples, although no differences were found among the three conditions at the end of the study. Redness values were not affected by time or by the packaging system. With regard to texture, values found for all samples were within the normal range for this type of products, although it was observed that modified atmosphere packaging preserved samples better from hardening than vacuum packaging. No safety problems were detected in relation to the microbial quality in any case. In general, no clear differences were found among the three packaging systems for colour, texture and microbial quality in the storage conditions studied.

  11. Influence of modified atmosphere packaging on the shelf life of prebaked pizza dough with and without preservative added.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Valle; Medina, Luis; Jordano, Rafael

    2003-04-01

    The possible effect of different modified atmospheres on the shelf life of prebaked pizza dough, with and without added calcium propionate, was investigated. Three packaging atmospheres were tested: 20% CO2: 80% N2, 50% CO2: 50% N2, 100% CO2, and air (control). Samples were examined daily for visible mold growth and analysed after 2, 8, 17 and 31 days throughout storage (15-20 degrees C and 54-65% relative humidity, RH) for changes in gaseous composition, pH and microbial populations (mesophilic aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and yeasts and molds). Microbiological results showed that molds had a greater sensitivity to CO2 than bacteria and yeasts. Products containing calcium propionate did not show mold growth throughout storage (31 days) when packaged in air or in CO2-enriched atmospheres (20, 50 and 100%). However, in pizza dough without preservative (calcium propionate), mold growth was evident after 7 days, except under 100% CO2 atmosphere (13 days) regardless of the packaging atmosphere. From these results we conclude that the addition of calcium propionate had more and decisive influence on the shelf life extension of prebaked pizza dough.

  12. Behavior of Listeria monocytogenes in Sliced Ready-to-Eat Meat Products Packaged under Vacuum or Modified Atmosphere Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez, Rosa Ana; Rendueles, Eugenia; Sanz, José Javier; Capita, Rosa; García-Fernández, Camino

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the behavior of Listeria monocytogenes in three types of sliced ready-to-eat meat products packaged under vacuum or modified atmosphere conditions and stored at three temperatures. Slices of about 25 g of chorizo (a fermented dry pork sausage), jamón (cured ham), and cecina (a salted, dried beef product) were inoculated with L. monocytogenes NCTC 11994. Slices were packaged in a vacuum or in a modified atmosphere (20% CO2, 80% N2). After packaging, samples were stored for 6 months at three temperatures: 3, 11, or 20°C. Microbiological analyses were performed after 0, 1, 7, 15, 30, 45, 90, and 180 days of storage. The type of meat product, the type of packaging, the temperature, and the day of storage all influenced microbial levels (P cecina samples, counts of L. monocytogenes increased from day 0 to day 1 of storage and then remained constant until day 90 of the study. These results may be of use for enhancing the safety of these ready-to-eat meat product types. Additional evaluation of the behavior of L. monocytogenes in cecina is needed.

  13. Effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with low and superatmospheric oxygen on the quality and antioxidant enzyme system of golden needle mushrooms (Flammulina velutipes) during postharvest storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Cheng T.; Wang, Chang T.; Cao, Y.P.; Nout, M.J.R.; Sun, B.G.; Liu, L.

    2011-01-01

    To quantify the effect of oxygen concentrations on the quality and antioxidant enzyme system of stored golden needle mushroom, modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with low and initial superatmospheric oxygen was applied during mushroom storage, and physiological changes associated with postharvest

  14. Bacterial microbiota profile in gills of modified atmosphere-packaged oysters stored at 4 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huibin; Wang, Meiying; Lin, Xiangzhi; Shi, Caihua; Liu, Zhiyu

    2017-02-01

    As filter-feeding bivalves, oysters can accumulate microorganisms into their gills, causing spoilage and potential safety issues. This study aims to investigate the changes in the gill microbiota of oysters packed under air and modified atmospheres (MAs, 50% CO2: 50% N2, 70% CO2: 30% O2, and 50% CO2: 50% O2) during storage at 4 °C. The diversity of bacterial microbiota in oyster gills was profiled through polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis on the 16S rRNA gene V3 region to describe the variation during the entire storage period. The DGGE profile revealed high bacterial diversity in the air- and MA-packaged oyster gills, and the spoilage bacterial microbiota varied in the MA-packaged oyster gills. Results indicated that CO2:O2 (70%:30%) was suitable for oyster MA packaging and that high bacterial loads in oyster gills need to be considered during storage. In addition, Lactobacillus and Lactococcus species were found to grow dominantly in fresh oyster gills under MA packaging, which supports the potential application of MA packaging for oyster storage.

  15. Influence of modified atmosphere packaging on volatile compounds and physicochemical and antioxidant attributes of fresh-cut pineapple (Ananas comosus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Calderón, Marta; Rojas-Graü, María Alejandra; Aguiló-Aguayo, Ingrid; Soliva-Fortuny, Robert; Martín-Belloso, Olga

    2010-04-28

    The effects of modified atmosphere packaging on volatile compound content and physicochemical and antioxidant attributes of Gold cultivar fresh-cut pineapples were assessed throughout storage at 5 degrees C. Fresh-cut pineapple pieces were packed under LO (low oxygen, 12% O(2), 1% CO(2)), AIR (20.9% O(2)) and HO (high oxygen, 38% O(2)) headspace atmospheres. Methyl butanoate, methyl 2-methylbutanoate, and methyl hexanoate were the most abundant volatiles regardless of the packaging atmosphere and days of storage; whereas most odor active volatiles were methyl and ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, 2,5-dimethyl-4-methoxy-3(2H)-furanone and ethyl hexanoate. Physicochemical attributes of pineapple did not significantly vary, whereas vitamin C content and total antioxidant capacity were lower for fresh-cut pineapple in HO (488 +/- 38 mg/100 mg(fw) and 54.4 +/- 5.7%, respectively) than for LO and AIR packages. Storage life of fresh-cut pineapple was limited to 14 days by volatile compounds losses and fermentation processes.

  16. Identification and growth dynamics of meat spoilage microorganisms in modified atmosphere packaged poultry meat by MALDI-TOF MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höll, Linda; Behr, Jürgen; Vogel, Rudi F

    2016-12-01

    Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) is widely used in food industry to extend the microbiological shelf-life of meat. Typically, poultry meat has been packaged in a CO2/N2 atmosphere (with residual low O2). Recently, some producers use high O2 MAP for poultry meat to empirically reach comparable shelf lifes. In this work, we compared spoilage microbiota of skinless chicken breast in high (80% O2, 20% CO2) and low O2 MAP (65% N2 and 35% CO2). Two batches of meat were incubated in each atmosphere for 14 days at 4 °C and 10 °C. Atmospheric composition of each pack and colony forming units (25 °C, 48 h, BHI agar) of poultry samples were determined at seven timepoints. Identification of spoilage organisms was carried out by MALDI-TOF MS. Brochothrix thermosphacta, Carnobacterium sp. and Pseudomonas sp. were the main organisms found after eight days at 4 °C and 10 °C in high O2 MAP. In low O2 MAP, the main spoilage microbiota was represented by species Hafnia alvei at 10 °C, and genera Carnobacterium sp., Serratia sp., and Yersinia sp. at 4 °C. High O2 MAP is suggested as preferential gas because were less detrimental and pathogens like Yersinia were not observed.

  17. Impact of the O2 concentrations on bacterial communities and quality of modified atmosphere packaged Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yun-Fang; Yang, Sheng-Ping; Xie, Jing; Xiong, Qing; Gao, Zhi-Li

    2013-12-01

    The importance of spoilage-related bacteria in fresh Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) under different modified atmospheres (MAs) at 4 °C and the effect of O2 were demonstrated in the current study. The changes of bacterial communities in MA-packed shrimp during cold storage were studied by a combined method of plate counts with isolation and identification. Three gas mixtures were applied: 80% CO2 /5% O2 /15% N2, 80% CO2 /10% O2 /10% N2 and 80% CO2 /20% O2, and unsealed packages of shrimp were used as the control. In addition, the TVB-N, pH, whiteness index, and sensory scores were also determined to evaluate the quality changes of shrimp. MA packaging effectively inhibited the increase of total psychrotrophic bacteria counts and H2 S-producing bacteria counts by about 1.7 and 2.1 log cycles, respectively. The growth of Gram-negative spoilage bacteria in shrimp, including Shewanella spp., Aeromonas spp., and Pseudomonas spp., was inhibited by MA packaging, but the growth rate of Gram-positive bacteria such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Brochothrix spp. were less affected by MA as effectively as Gram-negative bacteria. In comparison with the MA-packaged samples, the counts of H2 S producers in shrimp under a CO2 -enriched atmosphere with 20% O2 were slightly lower than the count in samples under an atmosphere with 5% O2 . However, MA with 20% O2 led to higher concentrations of TVB-N, and lower whiteness values and sensory scores. The shelf life of shrimp under 80% CO2 /10% O2 /10% N2 has been prolonged by > 6 d in comparison with the control according to the sensory scores.

  18. Polyphenols from halophytes and modified atmosphere packaging improve sensorial and biochemical markers of quality of common dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus) fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Concetta Maria; Bono, Gioacchino; Arena, Rosaria; Randazzo, Mariano; Manuguerra, Simona; Santulli, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Quality and shelf-life of whole and filleted Coryphaena hippurus, stored with modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and natural antioxidants from halophytes (HAL), were investigated. Fillets were divided into control, simply sealed in trays; MAP, preserved by modified atmosphere (45% CO2, 50% N2, 5% O2); and MAP-HAL, pretreated with antioxidants and preserved by MAP. Whole and filleted fish were stored at -1 ± 0.5°C for 18 days. The quality of the samples was analyzed at the time of packaging and after 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 days. The MAP and MAP-HAL groups maintained the best sensorial profile, pH, and drip loss with respect to the untreated fillets. Higher levels of total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) and oxidized proteins were observed in untreated samples with respect to the MAP and MAP-HAL groups. The principle component analysis revealed a different quality profile for untreated and MAP-treated fish.

  19. Deterioration and shelf-life extension of fish and fishery products by modified atmosphere packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payap Masniyom

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Fish and fishery products have been recognized as a nutrition source due to their high protein content. Moreover, theycontain considerable amount of unsaturated fatty acids, especially omega-3 fatty acids, which are regarded as preventivecompounds. However, shelf-life of seafood is limited by biochemical and microbiological changes. Modified atmospherepackaging (MAP is widely used for minimally processed fishery products including fresh meat for retarding microbial growthand enzymatic spoilage. CO2, O2, and N2 are most often used in MAP. CO2 enriched atmosphere inhibits the autolyticdegradation of fish muscle during storage. However, high levels of CO2 negatively affect product quality, especially by increasingdrip loss and altering texture. Development of satisfactory methods for shelf-life extension that ensure qualitymaintenance of products with minimum loss has drawn the attention of food technologists. The application of MAP andcombination process in seafood is a promising preservation method to extend the shelf-life of fish and fishery products.

  20. Influence of natural extracts on the shelf life of modified atmosphere-packaged pork patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, José M; Sineiro, Jorge; Amado, Isabel R; Franco, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    In this study four natural extracts from tea (TEA), grape (GRA), chestnut (CHE) and seaweed (SEA) with potential antioxidant activity were evaluated in pork patties. During 20 days of storage in modified atmosphere packs at 2°C, pH, colour, lipid oxidation and microbial spoilage parameters of raw minced porcine patties were examined and compared with a synthetic antioxidant (BHT) and control (CON) batch. Due to their higher polyphenol content, GRA and TEA extracts were the most effective antioxidants against lipid oxidation, also limiting colour deterioration. In addition, both natural extracts led to a decrease of total viable counts (TVC), lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Pseudomonas and psychotropic aerobic bacteria compared to the control. Among the four natural compounds tested, tea and grape extracts showed the most potential as alternatives to commercial antioxidants, for increasing the quality and extending the shelf-life of porcine patties.

  1. Effect of a bacteriophage cocktail in combination with modified atmosphere packaging in controlling Listeria monocytogenes on fresh-cut spinach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyacioglu O.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A Listeria monocytogenes-specific bacteriophage cocktail was evaluated for its activity against a nalidixic acid-resistant L. monocytogenes (Lm-NalR isolate on fresh-cut spinach stored under modified atmosphere packaging at various temperatures. Pieces (~2 × 2 cm2 of fresh spinach inoculated with 4.5 log CFU/cm2 Lm-NalR were sprayed with the phage cocktail (6.5 log plaque-forming units [PFU]/cm2 or a control. The samples were stored at 4°C or 10°C for up to 14 d in sealed packages filled with either atmospheric air (AA or modified atmosphere (MA. At 4°C under AA, the phages significantly (P ≤ 0.05 lowered the Lm-NalR populations on spinach, compared to control-treated inoculated samples, by 1.12 and 1.51 log CFU/cm2 after 1 and 14 d, respectively. At 4°C under MA, Lm-NalR was significantly reduced by 1.95 log CFU/cm2 compared to control leaves after both 1 and 14 d. At 10°C under AA, the phages significantly reduced Lm-NalR by 1.50 and 2.51 log CFU/cm2 after 1 and 14 d compared to the control. Again at 10°C under MA, the phages significantly reduced Lm-NalR by 1.71 and 3.24 log CFU/cm2 compared to control after 1 and 14 d, respectively. The results support the potential of lytic bacteriophages in effectively reducing populations of L. monocytogenes on freshcut leafy produce, under both AA and MA conditions.

  2. Using modified atmosphere packaging for storing ‘Van Dyke’ mango (Mangifera indica L. fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galvis Jesús Antonio

    2005-12-01

    ="Subtle Emphasis" />

    ‘Van Dyke’ mango fruits were harvested at physiological maturity and stored in active modified atmosphere conditions using different plastic packages (modified atmosphere packaging, MAP. Two-fruit-samples were placed in sealed caliber 2 and caliber 3 low density polyethylene packages (LDPE, using two initial atmosphere gas

  3. Effects of modified atmosphere and vacuum packaging on the growth of spoilage and inoculated pathogenic bacteria on fresh poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbaş, Z Y; Vural, H; Aytaç, S A

    1996-10-01

    Fresh chicken breast meats inoculated with Yersinia enterocolitica and Aeromonas hydrophila were packaged in glass jars either containing different compositions of modified atmospheres (MA) (100% CO2; 80% CO2/20% N2), or in vacuo or containing air, and were stored at 3 +/- 1 degrees C and 8 +/- 1 degrees C. The changes in gas composition as well as Y. enterocolitica, A. hydrophila, total aerobic bacterial, total psychotropic, Lactobacilli and Enterobacteriaceae counts were determined after 0, 1, 3, 7, 9, 11 and 14 days of storage. The results show that while the growth of Y. enterocolitica and A. hydrophila were retarded following MA storage, the pathogens were capable of growth in MA and vacuum storage at both temperatures, for the inoculation levels studied. For total aerobic bacterial counts, there were no differences between the values for chicken breast meats kept in different atmospheres. Being packaged in CO2 had the greatest inhibitory effect on the growth of psychotropic aerobic bacteria during the first 3 days. Lactic acid bacteria levels of samples stored in MA conditions and in vacuo increased rapidly when compared to those levels of samples stored in air. It was also found that the effect of MA storage increased at 3 +/- 1 degrees C.

  4. Effects of Technological Parameters and Fishing Ground on Quality Attributes of Thawed, Chilled Cod Fillets Stored in Modified Atmosphere Packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøknæs, Niels; Østerberg, Carsten; Sørensen, Rie

    2001-01-01

    Effects were studied of various technological parameters and fishing ground on quality attributes of thawed, chilled cod fillets stored in modified atmosphere packaging Frozen fillets of Baltic Sea and Barents Sea cod, representing two commercial fishing grounds, were used as raw material...... frozen storage is more appropriate for manufacturing of thawed chilled MAP cod fillets. During chill storage of thawed MAP Barents Sea fillets previously kept at -30degreesC for 15 weeks, significant growth of Photobacterium phosphoreum and production of trimethylamine were observed. Oil the contrary, P....... phosphoreum growth and trimethylamine production in thawed and chill-stored MAP Baltic Sea cod fillets were strongly inhibited after as little as 4 weeks of frozen storage at -30degreesC. Contents of trimethylamine oxide and NaCl were substantially higher in fillets of Barents Sea cod compared to fillets...

  5. Evolution of the indigenous microbiota in modified atmosphere packaged Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) identified by conventional and molecular methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, Begoña; Hernandez, Igor

    2013-10-15

    A combination of conventional methods and genetic identification (PCR sequencing) was used to study the dynamics of the bacterial population during the spoilage of modified atmosphere packaged (MAP) Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) fillets. The cultivable microflora in Atlantic horse mackerel samples packaged in a modified atmosphere (48% CO2, 50% N2 and 2% O2) at refrigeration temperature (6 °C) was measured on days 1, 5 and 7 using non-selective (Long and Hammer agar) and selective media (Kligler's iron agar, STAA and MRS). The microflora was genetically characterised using partial amplification of 16S rRNA gene sequences from 309 bacterial isolates obtained from Long and Hammer agar. At the end of the shelf life (5 days), the total viable counts (TVC) on Long and Hammer agar were not significantly different to the LAB counts on MRS agar (p>0.05). The molecular approach showed that Photobacterium, Arthrobacter, Chryseobacterium and Pseudoclavibacter (44.5% of total) dominated the microbial composition of the fish at the beginning of storage. However, Serratia, Shewanella and Yersinia dominated at the late spoilage stages (over 57.2% of the total). Carnobacterium was the most important species of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and was identified at the beginning and end of the storage period. Vibrio spp. was only found at the end of the shelf life. This research demonstrates that the microbial biodiversity in MAP Atlantic horse mackerel is enormous and the dominant species change over the storage time. The results presented here on the dominant communities in fish products will make it possible to accurately select the best preservation practices. © 2013.

  6. Bacterial community dynamics during cold storage of minced meat packaged under modified atmosphere and supplemented with different preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoops, J; Ruyters, S; Busschaert, P; Spaepen, R; Verreth, C; Claes, J; Lievens, B; Van Campenhout, L

    2015-06-01

    Since minced meat is very susceptible for microbial growth, characterisation of the bacterial community dynamics during storage is important to optimise preservation strategies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different production batches and the use of different preservatives on the composition of the bacterial community in minced meat during 9 days of cold storage under modified atmosphere (66% O2, 25% CO2 and 9% N2). To this end, both culture-dependent (viable aerobic and anaerobic counts) and culture-independent (454 pyrosequencing) analyses were performed. Initially, microbial counts of fresh minced meat showed microbial loads between 3.5 and 5.0 log cfu/g. The observed microbial diversity was relatively high, and the most abundant bacteria differed among the samples. During storage an increase of microbial counts coincided with a dramatic decrease in bacterial diversity. At the end of the storage period, most samples showed microbial counts above the spoilage level of 7 log cfu/g. A relatively similar bacterial community was obtained regardless of the manufacturing batch and the preservative used, with Lactobacillus algidus and Leuconostoc sp. as the most dominant microorganisms. This suggests that both bacteria played an important role in the spoilage of minced meat packaged under modified atmosphere. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of modified atmosphere and vacuum packaging on microbiological and chemical properties of rainbow trout (Oncorynchus mykiss) fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arashisar, Sükriye; Hisar, Olcay; Kaya, Mükerrem; Yanik, Telat

    2004-12-15

    Microbial (psychrotrophic, mesophilic aerobic bacteria and Enterobacteriacae counts), and chemical analysis [pH, total volatile bases nitrogen (TVB-N), lipid oxidation (Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance, TBARS)] of rainbow trout (Oncorynchus mykiss) fillets in air (control), vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with various gas mixtures conditions at 4+/-1 degrees C were determined. The gas mixtures evaluated were 100% CO2, 2.5% O2+7.5% N2+90% CO2 and 30% O2+30% N2+40% CO2. Psychrotrophic bacteria count was above 1 x 10(7) cfu/g on the 12th day in 100% CO2. However; mesophilic bacteria count was below 1 x 10(6) cfu/g at the end of the 14-day storage period. Enterobacteriaceae count was significantly lower in samples packaged with MAP. Lipid oxidation increased rapidly after 6 days of storage in the samples containing 30% O2. While minimum TBARS values were recorded in fillets containing 100% CO2 and vacuumed fillets, the lowest TVB-N values were obtained in fillets with 100% CO2.

  8. Modified atmosphere packaging for prevention of mold spoilage of bakery products with different pH and water activity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guynot, M E; Marín, S; Sanchis, V; Ramos, A J

    2003-10-01

    A sponge cake analog was used to study the influence of pH, water activity (aw), and carbon dioxide (CO2) levels on the growth of seven fungal species commonly causing bakery product spoilage (Eurotium amstelodami, Eurotium herbariorum, Eurotium repens, Eurotium rubrum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, and Penicillium corylophilum). A full factorial design was used. Water activity, CO2, and their interaction were the main factors significantly affecting fungal growth. Water activity at levels of 0.80 to 0.90 had a significant influence on fungal growth and determined the concentration of CO2 needed to prevent cake analog spoilage. At an aw level of 0.85, lag phases increased twofold when the level of CO2 in the headspace increased from 0 to 70%. In general, no fungal growth was observed for up to 28 days of incubation at 25 degrees C when samples were packaged with 100% CO2, regardless of the aw level. Partial least squares projection to latent structures regression was used to build a polynomial model to predict sponge cake shelf life on the basis of the lag phases of all seven species tested. The model developed explained quite well (R2 = 79%) the growth of almost all species, which responded similarly to changes in tested factors. The results of this study emphasize the importance of combining several hurdles, such as modified atmosphere packaging, aw, and pH, that have synergistic or additive effects on the inhibition of mold growth.

  9. Combined application of modified atmosphere packaging and superchilled storage to extend the shelf life of fresh cod (Gadus morhua) loins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T; Sveinsdóttir, K; Magnússon, H; Martinsdóttir, E

    2008-01-01

    Development of new technologies and preservation methods to offer conveniently packed fish with sufficient keeping quality is important to meet increasing demand for value-added fresh fish products on the market. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of combined application of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and superchilled storage on the shelf life of fresh cod loins. Fresh cod loins were packed in polystyrene boxes and in MA (CO(2)/N(2)/O(2): 50%/45%/5%) on day 3 postcatch and stored at chilled (1.5 degrees C) and superchilled (-0.9 degrees C) temperatures. Quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) and physical, chemical, and microbial analyses were carried out during the 21 d of storage. Superchilled storage alone compared with traditional chilled storage in polystyrene boxes increased the total shelf life (days from catch) of cod loins from 9 to 16 or 17 d. Chilled MA packaging increased the shelf life from 9 to 14 d and when MAP and superchilled storage were combined, a synergistic effect was observed and the shelf life was further extended to at least 21 d. It is noteworthy that the characteristic fresh and sweet taste can be maintained longer under such conditions. This could contribute to enhanced eating quality of fresh cod fillets for consumers in distant markets. However, MAP combined with superchilled storage resulted in different textural properties. Superchilled MA packed cod loins had more meaty texture compared to other sample groups after 7-d storage.

  10. Following changes in total number of mesophilic bacteria and torry meter readings in samples of fresh trout packaged in modified atmosphere and vacuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milijašević Milan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, food must be healthy, subjected to minimal processing, and attractively packaged, as the expectations of consumers are ever higher. Consumers are highly sensitive to the use of additives in the food industry. There is a constant demand for fresh food that does not contain any unnecessarily added chemicals. In order to prevent spoilage of food items, an efficient and intelligent concept for preserving freshness has been developed - packaging in a modified atmosphere. Changes in a certain composition of the atmosphere within the packaging have resulted in a longer shelf life and a satisfactory quality of the food articles. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP is well-known and has been applied in practice in the food processing industry for more than one century. The objective of these investigations was to determine the growth of the total number of mesophilic bacteria in the meat of trout packaged in a vacuum and a modified atmosphere and torry meter reading results due to changes in the dielectric characteristics of the skin that take place during the period of storage of the fresh fish. California trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss with an average weight of 293 g was used for the experimental part of the investigations. Four groups of fish samples were set up for the research. The first three groups of samples were packaged in a modified atmosphere with a different ratio of gases: Group I - 60%CO2+40%N2; Group II - 40%CO2+60%N2; Group III - 90%CO2+10%N2. Group IV comprised samples packaged in a vacuum. Investigations were carried out on days 0, 7, 14, and 21 of storage. The total number of mesophilic bacteria in the examined samples was determined according to the method ISO 4833. Measurements of changes in the dielectric characteristics of the fish skin were performed using a torry meter apparatus (The Torry Fish Freshness Meter. The results have shown that packaging of fresh trout in a modified atmosphere (60% CO2 + 40% N2 and 40% CO2 + 60% N2

  11. Recent advances in modified atmosphere packaging and edible coatings to maintain quality of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghidelli, Christian; Pérez-Gago, María B

    2016-07-28

    Processing of fruits and vegetables generates physiological stresses in the still living cut tissue, leading to quality deterioration and shorter shelf-life as compared with fresh intact produces. Several strategies can be implemented with the aim to reduce the rate of deterioration of fresh-cut commodities. Such strategies include low temperature maintenance from harvest to retail and the application of physical and chemical treatments such as modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with low O2 and high CO2 levels and antioxidant dips. Other technologies such as edible coatings with natural additives, new generation of coatings using nanotechnological solutions such as nanoparticles, nanoencapsulation, and multilayered systems, and non-conventional atmospheres such as the use of pressurized inert/noble gases and high levels of O2 have gained a lot of interest as a possibility to extend the shelf life of minimally processed fruits and vegetables. However, the high perishability of these products challenges in many cases their marketability by not achieving sufficient shelf life to survive the distribution system, requiring the combination of treatments to assure safety and quality. This review reports the recent advances in the use of MAP, edible coatings, and the combined effect of both technologies to extend the shelf life of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables.

  12. Effects of Modified Atmosphere Packaging, Food Life Extenders and Temperature on the Shelf Life of Ready-Made Dishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Jun; Maenishi, Takuya; Saito, Yuki; Masuda, Toshiro; Kadotani, Naoki; Kozakai, Hiroshi; Ito, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    The combined effect of several microbial control factors including gas barrier of containers, modified atmosphere packaging, food life extenders and storage temperature was discussed in order to determine the possibility for improving the shelf life for hamburger steak and deepfried chicken, representative ready-made dishes sold at convenience stores in Japan. Multiple measures including cold storage were effective in improving the shelf life of ready-made dishes. It was also suggested that storage tests for ready-made dishes should be conducted at 10℃, a practical temperature, to confirm the storable period, as well as at 15℃, an adequate abuse temperature, to confirm the effects of various microbial control factors. In the present study, the test group 4 (nitrogen + barrier containers + pH modifier) performed most favorably at both temperatures, indicating the efficacy of multiple means including "cold storage" in improving the shelf life (extending the consume-by date) of ready-made dishes. All strains isolated from the tested hamburger steak and deep-fried chicken were common food contaminant bacterial species.

  13. Effect of modified atmosphere and vacuum packaging on some quality characteristics and the shelf-life of "morcilla", a typical cooked blood sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachaldora, Aida; García, Gloria; Lorenzo, José M; García-Fontán, M Camino

    2013-02-01

    The effect of modified atmosphere and vacuum packaging on the shelf-life of "morcilla", a traditional cooked blood sausage, was investigated. A total of 99 "morcillas" were packaged under vacuum and in modified atmosphere using three different gas mixtures: 15:35:50/O(2):N(2):CO(2) (atmosphere 1), 60:40/N(2):CO(2) (atmosphere 2) and 40:60/N(2):CO(2) (atmosphere 3), and stored during 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks at 4 °C. Shelf life evaluation was based on pH, water activity (a(w)), colour (CIE L*, a*, b*, C* and h*), TBARS formation and microbial counts. The results indicated that, in general, storage time affected (P0.05) among packaging conditions. Based on the microbial counts, the shelf-life of "morcilla" would be greater than 8 weeks for all packaging conditions. Samples packaged with high CO(2) concentrations (40:60/N(2):CO(2)) showed the lowest values of TBARS at the end of storage.

  14. Biogenic amine formation and microbial spoilage in chilled garfish ( Belone belone belone ) - effect of modified atmosphere packaging and previous frozen storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Paw; Madsen, H.L.; Samieian, N.;

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Aims: To evaluate biogenic amine formation and microbial spoilage in fresh and thawed chilled garfish. Methods and Results: Storage trials were carried out with fresh and thawed garfish fillets at 0 or 5oC in air or in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP: 40% CO2 and 60% N2). During storage...

  15. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) impacts on organic Chinese red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruit on quality and active components over postharvest storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) impacts on market quality and actives preservation of organic Chinese red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruit over postharvest storage. Fruit were harvested, cooled, and sorted for uniform maturity and quality. Fruit were ...

  16. Effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with low and superatmospheric oxygen on the quality and antioxidant enzyme system of golden needle mushrooms (Flammulina velutipes) during postharvest storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Cheng T.; Wang, Chang T.; Cao, Y.P.; Nout, M.J.R.; Sun, B.G.; Liu, L.

    2011-01-01

    To quantify the effect of oxygen concentrations on the quality and antioxidant enzyme system of stored golden needle mushroom, modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with low and initial superatmospheric oxygen was applied during mushroom storage, and physiological changes associated with postharvest d

  17. Quality assessment of salted, modified atmosphere packaged rainbow trout under treatment with oregano essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrgotou, Nikoletta; Giatrakou, Vasiliki; Ntzimani, Athina; Savvaidis, Ioannis N

    2010-09-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of oregano essential oil (EO) on fresh salted, packaged (45%CO(2)/5%O(2)/50%N(2)) rainbow trout fillets and stored for a period of 21 d at 4 °C. Treatments included the following: M1 (control without added EO), M2 (EO 0.2%, v/w), and M3 (0.4%, v/w). Populations of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), H(2)S-producing bacteria (including Shewanella putrefaciens), Enterobacteriaceae, and Pseudomonas spp. reached higher final numbers in control (M1) than for M2 and M3 samples. Under treatments M2 and M3, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN) and trimethylamine nitrogen (TMAN) values were lower than for M1 samples, whereas lipid oxidation, as judged by determination of thiobarbituric acid values (TBA), did not occur during the refrigerated storage period. Interestingly, treatment M2 resulted in a shelf-life extension of 7 to 8 d for the fresh trout fillets, whereas treatment M3 proved unsuitable (due to strong odor) for trout fillet preservation, as determined by sensory evaluation. The use of an essential oil such as oregano oil in fresh fish preservation may be considered an alternative "natural" additive, enhancing the sensory characteristics and extending the shelf life of the product.

  18. Antimicrobial activities of spice extracts against pathogenic and spoilage bacteria in modified atmosphere packaged fresh pork and vacuum packaged ham slices stored at 4°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiyun; Kong, Baohua; Xiong, Youling L; Sun, Xu

    2009-04-01

    The antimicrobial activity of 14 spice extracts against four common meat spoilage and pathogenic bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Lactobacillus sake) was screened in cultured media (experiment 1). The results showed that individual extracts of clove, rosemary, cassia bark and liquorice contained strong antimicrobial activity, but the mixture of rosemary and liquorice extracts was the best inhibitor against all four types of microbes. Subsequently, mixed rosemary/liquorice extracts were spray-applied to inoculated fresh pork in modified atmosphere packaging (experiment 2) and to inoculated ham slices in vacuum packaging (experiment 3). The meat samples were stored at 4°C over a 28-day period and microbial growth was monitored regularly. The L. monocytogenes population on fresh pork by day 28 decreased 2.9, 3.1 and 3.6 logs, the MAB decreased 2.7, 2.9 and 3.1 logs, the Pseudomonas spp. count decreased 1.6, 2.1 and 2.6 logs and the total coliform count decreased 0.6, 0.8 and 1.2 logs, corresponding to 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0mg/ml of spray, respectively, when compared to control (P<0.05). The number of L. monocytogenes on ham slices decreased 2.5, 2.6 and 3.0 logs, the MAB plate counts decreased 2.9, 3.0 and 3.2 logs and the LAB counts decreased 2.4, 2.6 and 2.8 logs (P<0.05), respectively, after 28-days, by the same levels of mixed rosemary/liquorice extract treatments. The results demonstrated strong potential of mixed rosemary and liquorice as a natural preservative in fresh pork and ham products.

  19. Streptococcus parauberis associated with modified atmosphere packaged broiler meat products and air samples from a poultry meat processing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koort, Joanna; Coenye, Tom; Vandamme, Peter; Björkroth, Johanna

    2006-02-15

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from marinated or non-marinated, modified atmosphere packaged (MAP) broiler leg products and air samples of a large-scale broiler meat processing plant were identified and analyzed for their phenotypic properties. Previously, these strains had been found to be coccal LAB. However, the use of a 16 and 23S rRNA gene RFLP database had not resulted in species identification because none of the typically meat-associated LAB type strains had clustered together with these strains in the numerical analysis of the RFLP patterns. To establish the taxonomic position of these isolates, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, numerical analysis of ribopatterns, and DNA-DNA hybridization experiments were done. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of three isolates possessed the highest similarities (over 99%) with the sequence of S. parauberis type strain. However, in the numerical analysis of HindIII ribopatterns, the type strain did not cluster together with these isolates. Reassociation values between S. parauberis type or reference strain and the strains studied varied from 82 to 97%, confirming that these strains belong to S. parauberis. Unexpectedly, most of the broiler meat-originating strains studied for their phenotypical properties did not utilize lactose at all and the same strains fermented also galactose very weakly, properties considered atypical for S. parauberis. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of lactose negative S. parauberis strains and also the first report associating S. parauberis with broiler slaughter and meat products.

  20. Shelf life of reduced pork back-fat content sausages as affected by antimicrobial compounds and modified atmosphere packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastromatteo, Marianna; Incoronato, Anna Lucia; Conte, Amalia; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro

    2011-10-17

    The combined use of antimicrobial compounds and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on shelf life of reduced pork back-fat content sausages was investigated in this study. First, a pre-screening of different antimicrobial compounds and MAP was addressed. In particular, the consumer test was used as a tool to select the most pleasant antimicrobial compounds, whereas both sausage color and cell load of main spoilage microorganisms were used to choose optimal MAP. Afterwards, antimicrobial compounds (lemon alkott and thymol) and MAP (MAP1: 20% CO(2), 5% O(2), 75% N(2)) that had shown the best performance were used to run the shelf life tests. In order to assess the influence of the variables described beforehand on the shelf life of investigated sausages, the sensorial and microbiological (mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp., lactic acid bacteria and coccus-shaped lactic acid bacteria) quality was monitored during storage. Results recorded in this study suggested that Pseudomonas spp. were responsible for sausage unacceptability in all samples, except for thymol and thymol-MAP samples. For these samples, the sensorial quality was the limiting factor while the microbial growth did not limit the shelf life. In particular, for thymol and thymol-MAP samples a shelf life value of more than 5 days with respect to the other samples (2 days) was obtained.

  1. Reduction of the spoilage-related microflora in absorbent pads by silver nanotechnology during modified atmosphere packaging of beef meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Avelina; Picouet, Pierre; Lloret, Elsa

    2010-12-01

    Silver-based antibacterial hybrid materials have been developed by in situ reduction of silver nitrate (1%) adsorbed on cellulose fibers by thermal and UV treatments. Microscopy revealed that the silver nanoparticles were dispersed and regular in shape. Migrated silver ions achieved 60 ppm in beef meat exudates. The ability of the silver-loaded absorbent pads to lower microbial contamination of exuded fluids was studied during storage of beef meat in modified atmosphere packaging. Cellulose-silver hybrid materials reduced the levels of the major microbial groups (total aerobic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, Pseudomonas spp., and Enterobacteriaceae) present in the absorbent pads by an average of 1 log CFU/g during the entire storage period. The levels of total aerobic bacteria and Pseudomonas spp. were significantly reduced in the presence of silver ions, whereas lactic acid bacteria were less sensitive and not significantly affected. Enterobacteriaceae levels remained under the detection limit when silver was present. Neither the color of the meat nor the microbial loads were markedly affected by the presence of the silver-based antimicrobial hybrid materials.

  2. Changes in the microbiota of lamb packaged in a vacuum and in modified atmospheres during chilled storage analysed by high-throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Taojun; Zhao, Liang; Sun, Yanan; Ren, Fazheng; Chen, Shanbin; Zhang, Hao; Guo, Huiyuan

    2016-11-01

    Changes in the microbiota of lamb were investigated under vacuum packaging (VP) and under 20% CO2/80% N2 (LC), 60% CO2/40% N2 (MC), and 100% CO2 (HC) modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) during chilled storage. Viable counts were monitored, and the total microbial communities were assessed by high-throughput sequencing. The starting community had the highest microbial diversity, after which Lactococcus and Carnobacterium spp. outcompeted during the 28-day storage. The relative abundances of Brochothrix spp. in the LC atmosphere were much higher than those of the other groups on days 7 and 28. The bacterial inhibiting effect of the MAP environments on microbial growth was positively correlated with the CO2 concentration. The HC atmosphere inhibited microbial growth and delayed changes in the microbial community composition, extending the lamb's shelf life by approximately 7days compared with the VP atmosphere. Lamb packaged in the VP atmosphere had a more desirable colour but a higher weight loss than lamb packaged in the MAP atmospheres.

  3. Vida útil de fatias de manga armazenadas em embalagem com atmosfera modificada passiva Shelf life of mango slices stored under passive modified atmosphere packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Karine Rodrigues

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Fatias de manga fresca e osmoticamente desidratadas foram acondicionadas em bandejas de poliestireno expandido, recobertas com filme de polietileno de baixa densidade (PEBD e estocadas à temperatura de 5 °C com o objetivo de verificar o efeito da desidratação osmótica e da embalagem com atmosfera modificada passiva na vida útil das frutas. Amostras de manga fresca, acondicionadas nas condições do ar atmosférico, foram utilizadas como controle. As mangas foram avaliadas periodicamente quanto às suas características físico-químicas e microbiológicas, composição da atmosfera interna das embalagens, perda de peso e aceitação sensorial. O processo de desidratação osmótica e o acondicionamento das frutas com atmosfera modificada influíram positivamente na manutenção das características sensoriais e na qualidade microbiológica das fatias de manga. As fatias de manga fresca acondicionadas nas condições do ar atmosférico (FR AR e com atmosfera modificada (FR MAP apresentaram uma vida útil de apenas 8 e 14 dias, respectivamente, sendo limitada principalmente por sua aceitação sensorial e contaminação microbiológica. Já as frutas desidratadas osmoticamente e embaladas com atmosfera modificada (OD MAP apresentaram uma vida útil de 18 dias com boa aceitação sensorial durante toda a estocagem.Fresh and osmodehydrated mango slices were packaged in expanded polystyrene trays covered with low density polyethylene films (PEBD and stored at 5 °C aiming at verifying the effect of osmotic dehydration process and modified atmosphere packaging on the fruit shelf life. Fresh mango slices packaged under atmospheric conditions were used as control. The slices were evaluated periodically with respect to physicochemichal and microbiological characteristics, internal atmosphere composition of the packages, weight reduction, and sensory acceptance. The osmotic dehydration process and the modified atmosphere packaging had a positive

  4. Effect of different modified atmospheric packaging (MAP) gaseous combinations on Campylobacter and the shelf-life of chilled poultry fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, H; Valdramidis, V; Rotabakk, B T; Sivertsvik, M; McDowell, D; Bolton, D J

    2014-12-01

    Studies were undertaken to investigate the effect of different modified atmospheric packaging (MAP) gaseous combinations on Campylobacter and the natural microflora on poultry fillets. Skinless chicken fillets were stored in gaseous mixtures of 10%, 30%, 50%, 70% and 90% CO2 balanced with N2, 80:20% O2:N2 and 40:30:30% CO2:O2:N2 and control conditions (air) at 2 °C. Samples were analysed periodically for (previously inoculated) Campylobacter, total viable counts (TVC) (mesophiles), TVC (psychrophiles), Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) over 17 days of storage. The carbon dioxide solubility was determined by monitoring the changes in the headspace volume over time using a buoyancy technique and performing calculations based on volumetric measurements and the Henry's constant. Henry's constant was also used to estimate the oxygen solubility in the chicken fillets. The presence of O2 in the MAP gaseous mixtures increased the rate of Campylobacter decline on poultry fillets but in general the counts obtained in aerobic versus anaerobic packs were not significantly (P > 0.05) different. CO2 inhibited the growth of TVC, TEC, LAB and Pseudomonas but only at MAP gaseous combinations containing 50-90% CO2 where concentrations of up to 2000 ppm CO2 were recorded in the fillets after 5 days. Under these conditions a shelf-life in excess of 17 days at 2 °C was obtained. Although, dissolved O2, at levels of 33 ppm in 80:20% O2:N2 packs after 3 days, reduced Campylobacter, it also favoured the growth of the other microbes on the chicken. The optimum gaseous mixture for achieving the combined objectives of reducing Campylobacter and extending shelf was therefore 40:30:30 CO2:O2:N2, which achieved a shelf-life in excess of 14 days.

  5. New technologies to enhance quality and safety of table eggs: ultra-violet treatment and modified atmosphere packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédérique Pasquali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the effect of ultra-violet (UV treatment alone and in combination with 100% CO2 modified atmosphere packaging (MAP was evaluated both on the survival of naturally occurring bacteria, as well as on quality parameters of table eggs during 28 days of storage at 21°C. Table eggs were collected from the conveyor belt after the UV module, and placed on carton trays. A representative number of carton trays were packed in a high barrier multilayer pouch filled with 100% CO2. All eggs were stored at 21°C and analysed at 0, 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of storage. Eggs not treated with UV and not packed were also included. On the eggshells total colony count, total coliforms and faecal coliforms counts, as well as the detection of Salmonella spp. were investigated. Moreover, chemical-functional parameters such as weight loss, albumen pH and Haugh Unit (HU were evaluated. The total colony count on UV treated table eggs was approximately 1 log10 CFU/g lower than untreated eggs (2.27 vs 3.29 log10 CFU/g. During storage, CO2 packed eggs maintained the initial values of HU, whereas the albumen pH decreased up to 1.5-2 points in comparison to unpacked eggs. The UV treatment was effective in reducing the total colony count on the surface of table eggs. MAP showed a great potential in maintaining/enhance the technological properties of egg constituents (higher foam stability of the albumen for meringue preparation without significantly impacting on the microbial load of table eggs.

  6. Quality assessment of ice-stored tropical yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) and influence of vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbande, Adèle; Adenet, Sandra; Smith-Ravin, Juliette; Joffraud, Jean-Jacques; Rochefort, Katia; Leroi, Françoise

    2016-12-01

    Metagenomic, microbial, chemical and sensory analyses of Thunnus albacares from Martinique stored in ice (AIR - 0 °C), vacuum (VP - 4/8 °C) and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP - 4/8 °C) (70% CO2 - 30% O2) were carried out. The organoleptic rejection of AIR tuna was observed at day 13 when total bacterial counts equaled 10(6)-10(7) CFU g(-1). No extension of shelf-life was provided by VP and MAP. According to 16S rRNA gene sequence analyzed by Illumina MiSeq and PCR-TTGE, Rhodanobacter terrae was the main species of the freshly caught tuna. At the sensory rejection time, Brochothrix thermosphacta and Pseudomonas dominated the AIR products while B. thermosphacta alone or a mix of B. thermosphacta, Enterobacteriaceae and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) dominated the microbiota of MAP and VP products, respectively. The pH value remained stable in all trials, ranging from 5.77 to 5.97. Total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN) and trimethylamine (TMA-N) concentrations were weak and not significantly different between batches. Lipid oxidation increased in the samples containing O2 (MAP > AIR). The initial concentration of histamine was high (75-78 mg kg(-1)) and stable up to 8 days but then significantly decreased in all trials to reach 25-30 mg kg(-1), probably due to the presence of histamine-decomposing bacteria.

  7. Effect of Modified Atmosphere Packaging on Postharvest Quality of Mango cvs. Sindhri and Sufaid Chaunsa During Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Hafeez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP technology is gaining popularity worldwide for its potential of extending shelf life of fresh produce with better fruit quality. Effect of MAP (using Xtend® bags, was investigated on postharvest storage life and quality of mango cvs Sindhri and Sufaid Chaunsa stored at 11°C with 80-85% RH for 4 and 5 weeks respectively, in comparison with un-bagged (control fruit. Uniform physiological mature fruit of Sindhri and Sufaid Chaunsa were harvested from a commercial mango orchard along with 4-5 cm long pedicel and were de-sapped in 0.5% lime solution (to avoid sap burn injury. Later on fruit were given cold water fungicidal dip (Sportak @ 0.5ml/L, Active Ingredient: Prochloraz followed by hot water treatment (52°C; 5 min. After shade drying and pre-cooling (11°C; 10-12 hours, fruit were packed according to the treatment combination and stored at 11°C. Fruit of both varieties were removed after 2, 3 and 4 weeks of storage followed by ripening at 24±2°C with an additional removal after 5 weeks for Sufaid Chaunsa only. Fruit quality was evaluated for various bio-chemical, organoleptic and physical parameters at two stages of ripening (at removal day and at final ripening day. Fruit of both varieties stored in MAP exhibited better firmness and retained green colour as compared to un-bagged fruit. Quality of fruit subjected to postharvest fungicidal application and hot water treatments and stored under MAP at 11°C showed better peel colour development and less disease development. Moreover, storage durations and post storage ripening stages significantly affected fruit peel colour, textural softness and disease development. Further, cv. Sindhri showed better storage potential with lower disease incidence as compared to cv. Sufaid Chaunsa which warrants further studies on disease control aspects.

  8. Effect of Modified Atmosphere Packaging on Aril Physico-chemical and Microbial Properties of Two Pomegranate Cultivars (Punica granatum L. Grown in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedighe Tavasoli Talarposhti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Edible parts of pomegranate fruits are a rich source of bioactive compounds. The present research examines the effect of modified atmosphere packaging on the fruit physico-chemical and microbial properties of two commercial pomegranate cultivars grown in Iran. Materials and Methods: The arils were packaged and stored under four different atmospheres. All of the packaged samples were stored at 4 °C for 15 days. Results: The results revealed an increase in total acidity of all treatments. The highest total soluble solid (TSS was observed in ‘Yousef-Khani’­ stored in 10% O2 + 15% CO2, while ‘Malas-e-Saveh’ treated with 20% O2 + 5% CO2 showed the highest degree of TSS. The mean value of a* in ‘Malas-e-Saveh’ arils packed with normal and (15% O2 + 10% CO2 + 75% N2 atmosphere increased significantly. The L* showed a decrease in ‘Yousef-Khani’­. Total phenolic compounds gradually increased during storage. After storage, decreases in total anthocyanin contents ranged from 12 to 30% for ‘Yousef-Khani’­. The overall antioxidant activity of arils in ‘Yousef-Khani’ showed a 6-15% increase during storage. However, a reverse effect was observed for ‘Malas-e-Saveh’. The lowest microbial counts were recorded under the atmosphere containing 10 and 15% CO2. Conclusions: Packaging of ‘Malas-e-Saveh’ arils in 15% O2 + 10% CO2 and ‘Yousef-Khani’ in 15% O2 + 10% CO2 or 10% O2 + 15% CO2 is recommended to extend the shelf-life of ready-to-eat arils. Keywords: Pomegranate, Modified atmosphere, Phenolic compounds, Anthocyanin, Antioxidant activity

  9. Effect of a nano-silver coating on the quality of fresh turkey meat during storage after modified atmosphere or vacuum packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deus, D; Kehrenberg, C; Schaudien, D; Klein, G; Krischek, C

    2017-02-01

    Nano-silver is used in consumer products due to its antibacterial properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a nano-silver-coated film on the quality of turkey meat during vacuum-sealed and modified atmosphere packaging up to 12 days of storage. In the first part of the experiment, turkey breasts were packaged using either vacuum packaging or modified atmosphere packages (MAPs) and contained films with or without a nano-silver coating (control film). Parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity, color (lightness L*, redness a*), myoglobin redox forms, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), biogenic amines (BAs), total viable bacterial counts, Pseudomonas species counts, and Enterobacteriaceae species counts were evaluated on storage days 4, 8, and 12. In the second part of the study, the antimicrobial effect of a nano-silver-coated film on turkey breast was evaluated after inoculation with Escherichia coli (E. coli). Turkey meat packaged with the nano-silver film exhibited lower a* values on days 1 (3.15 ± 0.62), 4 (3.90 ± 0.68), and 8 (4.27 ± 0.76) compared to the packaged meat with the control film (3.41 ± 0.73, 4.35 ± 0.94, 4.85 ± 0.89, respectively), indicating special optical properties of nanoparticles. Concerning the BAs, silver packaged meat showed higher values of tyramine on day 12 (1274 ± 392 ng/g meat) and cadaverine on day 4 (1224 ± 435 ng/g meat) compared to the normal packaged products (647 ± 576 and 508 ± 314 ng/g meat, respectively). MAP meat revealed higher L* and TBARS values and lower microbial counts than the vacuum packaged products on all days. The MAP meat also showed lower a* results on days 4 and 8 and higher metmyoglobin (metMb) values on days 8 and 12 compared to th E: vacuum products. In the inoculation study, the microbial counts of the turkey meat were comparable between the two film types. The study showed that the nano-silver coating did not exhibit any advantageous

  10. Effects of modified atmosphere, associated with masterpack transport packaging, and refrigerated storage time on the quality characteristics of pork loin cuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra F. Rosa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the effects of modified atmosphere, associated with masterpack transport packaging, and refrigerated storage time on the quality characteristics of pork loin cuts. Cuts of pork loin were packaged in trays, covered with poly(vinyl chloride film. The trays were placed in a masterpack (MP, containing three gas compositions:  A 75% O2 : 25% CO2, B 50% O2 : 50% CO2 or C 100% CO2, and stored at 2 °C. Samples were taken after 1, 8, 15, and 22 days of storage, and evaluated for numerous shelf life traits. The development of Psychrotrophic aerobic bacteria and Pseudomonas spp. was found from the 15th day of storage. There was a significant treatment effect for some of the considered parameters, such as pH (P < 0.05 and color [L* (P < 0.07, a* (P < 0.07 and b* (P < 0.01]. There was a significant interaction (P < 0.01 for the TBARS values. It can be concluded, from the microbiological point of view, that the use of modified atmospheres containing 25% to 100% CO2 promotes the conservation of meat for up to 15 days of storage under refrigeration. From the point of view of color, atmospheres containing 75% O2 : 25% CO2 and 50% O2 : 50% CO2 ensure the color of packaged pork meat when stored at 2 °C for up to 15 days. From the point of view of lipid oxidation, packages with 100% CO2 are recommended for storage periods of more than 15 days, whereas those with 75% O2 : 25% CO2 are recommended for storage periods of up to 8 days.

  11. Effects of vacuum or modified atmosphere packaging in combination with irradiation for control of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudra, Li L; Sebranek, Joseph G; Dickson, James S; Mendonca, Aubrey F; Larson, Elaine M; Jackson-Davis, Armitra L; Lu, Zheng

    2011-12-01

    The efficacy of controlling Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef patties by combining irradiation with vacuum packaging or modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) was investigated. Fresh ground beef patties were inoculated with a five-strain cocktail of E. coli O157:H7 at 5 log CFU/g. Single patties, packaged with vacuum or high-CO(2) MAP (99.6% CO(2) plus 0.4% CO), were irradiated at 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 kGy. The D(10)-value for this pathogen was 0.47 ± 0.02 kGy in vacuum and 0.50 ± 0.02 kGy in MAP packaging. Irradiation with 1.5 kGy reduced E. coli O157:H7 by 3.0 to 3.3 log, while 0.5 and 1.0 kGy achieved reductions of 0.7 to 1.0, and 2.0 to 2.2 log, respectively. After irradiation, the numbers of survivors of this pathogen on beef patties in refrigerated storage (4°C) did not change significantly for 6 weeks. Temperature abuse (at 25°C) resulted in growth in vacuum-packaged patties treated with 0.5 and 1.5 kGy, but no growth in MAP packages. This study demonstrated that combining irradiation with MAP was similar in effectiveness to irradiation with vacuum packaging for control of E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef patties during refrigerated storage. However, high-CO(2) MAP appeared to be more effective after temperature abuse.

  12. Qualidade da alface crespa minimamente processada acondicionada em atmosfera modificada Quality of minimally processed crisp head lettuce packaged under modified atmosphere

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    Rosana Mendes Roversi

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available A alface Crespa (Lactuca sativa L.foi minimamente processada, tendo suas folhas destacadas e higienizadas, embalada em sacos plásticos de polietileno com modificação ativa da atmosfera dentro do pacote. Duas atmosferas foram aplicadas, variando-se o nível de CO2 em 10 e 15%, reduzindo nos dois casos o O2 a 5%. Após o acondicionamento, a alface foi imediatamente refrigerada. Comparou-se a qualidade da alface com e sem atmosfera modificada durante o armazenamento refrigerado. Monitoraram-se a variação da concentração de O2 e CO2 no interior das embalagens e a vida-útil da alface pela análise sensorial e microbiológica e a variação de sólidos solúveis. A influência da atmosfera modificada no crescimento de microrganismos e na variação de sólidos solúveis não foi relevante. Entretanto, essa tecnologia reduziu as taxas de respiração e, conseqüentemente, minimizou as perdas de qualidade sensorial da alface durante todo o armazenamento. A vida-útil da alface em atmosfera modificada foi estendida em até cinco dias além daquela alcançada pela alface acondicionada em atmosfera normal.The crisp head lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.was minimally processed, with the leaves being detached and cleaned, packaged in plastic bags made of polyethylene with modified atmosphere inside the bag. Two different atmospheres were applied: 10 and 15% of CO2, with the O2 level being reduced in both cases to 5%. After the packing, the lettuce was immediately refrigerated. The product quality with and without modified atmosphere was compared during the storage time. It was accompanied the changes in O2 and CO2 concentration inside the packaging and the product shelf life, through sensorial and microbiological analysis, and soluble solids variation. The influence of modified atmosphere in microorganisms grown and in soluble solids variation was not relevant. However this technology reduced the lettuce respiration rates and the quality sensorial loss

  13. Spoilage of light (PSE-like) and dark turkey meat under aerobic or modified atmosphere package: microbial indicators and their relationship with total volatile basic nitrogen

    OpenAIRE

    Fraqueza, Maria João Ramos; Ferreira, Marilia Catarina; Barreto, António Salvador

    2008-01-01

    Abstract 1. The aim of this work was to evaluate the shelf life of turkey meat from different colour categories (light (PSE-like), intermediate and dark), packaged under aerobic or modified atmosphere (MAP) conditions; also to establish a relationship between microbial quality and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), evaluating its capacity for shelf life determination. Breasts were selected according to Luminance (L*) and pH24: L ? 51 and pH < 5.8 for light colour, 43 < L < 51 f...

  14. Comparison of modified atmosphere packaging and vacuum packaging for long period storage of dry-cured ham: effects on colour, texture and microbiological quality

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Esteban, M. (Marta); Ansorena, D. (Diana); Astiasarán, I. (Iciar)

    2004-01-01

    Slices of dry-cured hams (Biceps femoris muscle) were stored during 8 weeks under vacuum and modified atmospheres (100% N2 and a mixture of 20% CO2 and 80% N2) in order to study the modifications on colour, texture and microbial counts during that period. Lightness was found to be more stable when samples were stored with 20% CO2 and 80% N2 without statistical differences between vacuum and 100% N2. A slight whiteness was observed in the vacuum packed samples. Yellowness increased during time...

  15. Effect of modified atmosphere and vacuum packaging on selected chemical parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss and carp (Cyprinus carpio cuts freshness

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    Babić Jelena A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of food packing in modified atmosphere is to extend its sustainability by preventing both biochemical processes and growth of spoilage bacteria. Gases or their mixtures which are mostly used in the modified atmosphere food packing technology are carbon-dioxide (CO2, oxygen (O2 and nitrogen (N2. The aim of our research was to examine the influence of packaging in modified atmosphere and vacuum on the total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N content and pH in muscle of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss and common carp (Cyprinus carpio, as well as to determine the most suitable gas mixtures for packing of these freshwater species. Three sample groups of trout and carp cuts were investigated. The first two groups were packaged in modified atmosphere with different gas ratios: 60%CO2+40%N2 (I group and 40%CO2+60%N2 (II group, whereas the samples from third, control group, (III group were vacuum packaged. During trials samples were stored in refrigerator at +3°C. Determination of TVB-N and pH was performed on 1st, 7th and 14th day of storage. The obtained results indicate that the investigated mixtures of gases and vacuum as well had a significant influence on the values of TVB-N in trout and carp cuts samples. The lowest increase in TVB-N was established in trout and carp cuts samples from the group I, whereas the highest increase was established in samples from group III. Statistical significant difference (p < 0,001 between the average values of TVB-N for trout (I group: 18,17 ± 0,93; II group: 20,90 ± 0,81 and III group: 36,18 ± 2,65 mg N/100 g and carp cuts (I group: 26,74 ± 1,48; II group: 30,02 ± 0,31 and III group: 35,10 ± 1,75 mg N/100 g was established on 14th day. The lowest pH value was established in samples packaged in modified atmosphere with 60% CO2 +40% N2 (I group. On 14th day of testing the obtained value was 6,15 ± 0,09 for trout and 5,94 ± 1,11 for carp samples. Increase in pH value in trout samples packed in

  16. Use of carbon monoxide combined with carbon dioxide for modified atmosphere packaging of pre- and postrigor fresh pork sausage to improve shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laury, Angela; Sebranek, Joseph G

    2007-04-01

    Fresh pre- and postrigor pork sausage patties were manufactured in the Iowa State University Meat Laboratory and packaged either in modified atmosphere (MAP) with 0.4% carbon monoxide (CO) and 99.6% carbon dioxide (CO2) or on foam trays overwrapped with oxygen-permeable film (OW). Packages were stored at 2 to 40C under fluorescent lights for up to 31 days. Aerobic, anaerobic, and psychrotrophic plate counts, raw and cooked color, purge, and lipid oxidation were measured during storage. Results indicated that both pork sausage products in MAP had lower aerobic and psychrotrophic counts and less lipid oxidation throughout storage (P sausage in MAP benefited more from the CO atmosphere in terms of raw color than the postrigor pork sausage in MAP. Cooked color of the prerigor pork sausage in MAP was significantly redder than cooked color of the postrigor pork sausage. Both pork sausage products in MAP were also lighter (L* value) than the OW patties for raw and cooked color. Therefore, the combination of CO and CO2 in MAP was beneficial in extending the shelf life of pre-and postrigor fresh pork sausage by reducing aerobic and psychrotrophic microbial growth and improving oxidative stability and color, compared to conventional OW packaging. However, increased purge, increased anaerobic growth, and changes in cooking behavior were also observed for the products in MAP during storage (P < 0.05).

  17. Revisão: alimentos frescos minimamente processados embalados em atmosfera modificada Review: fresh, minimally processed foods packaged under modified atmosphere

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    Joana Silva Santos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Os alimentos frescos, minimamente processados e embalados sob atmosfera modificada atraem os consumidores que procuram produtos frescos e saudáveis, e que, ao mesmo tempo, são fáceis de transportar e preparar. A atmosfera no interior das embalagens consiste numa mistura de gases que está otimizada para cada alimento, de modo a preservar as suas qualidades durante mais tempo. A manutenção da temperatura de refrigeração durante o processamento, o armazenamento, a distribuição e a comercialização é essencial, por causa da natureza perecível dos produtos frescos minimamente processados. Este trabalho discute o estado de arte dos alimentos frescos minimamente processados (frutas, vegetais, carnes e pescados embalados em atmosfera modificada, com uma descrição pormenorizada dos últimos desenvolvimentos nesse campo.Fresh, minimally processed foods packaged under modified atmospheres are attractive to consumers searching for fresh healthy products that are also easy to transport and prepare. The atmosphere inside the package is a blend of gases optimized for each type of food, such that the quality characteristics are preserved for longer. However, due to the perishable nature of minimally processed fresh foods, maintenance at refrigeration temperatures is essential during processing, storage, distribution and commercialization. This paper discusses the state of art of minimally processed fresh foods (fruit and vegetables, meat and fish packaged under modified atmosphere, with a detailed description of the latest developments in this field.

  18. Application of modified atmosphere packaging (gas flushing and active packaging) for extending the shelf life of Beauveria bassiana conidia at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limited shelf life has long been a major constraint to the development of fungus-based bioinsecticides (mycoinsecticides). Fungal spores comprising the active ingredients of most products typically lose viability within a few months when stored in conventional packaging at temperatures >30 deg C. Me...

  19. Spoilage of value-added, high-oxygen modified-atmosphere packaged raw beef steaks by Leuconostoc gasicomitatum and Leuconostoc gelidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vihavainen, Elina J; Björkroth, K Johanna

    2007-11-01

    Moisture-enhancing and marinating of meats are commonly used by the meat industry to add value to raw, retail products. Recently in Finland, certain value-added beef steak products have proven to be unusually susceptible to microbial spoilage leading to untoward quality deteriorations during producer-defined shelf-life. This study was conducted to evaluate the role of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the premature spoilage of value-added beef packaged under high-oxygen modified atmospheres. Spoilage was characterised by green discolouration and a buttery off-odour. The predominant LAB in eight packages of spoiled, marinated or moisture-enhanced beef steaks were identified by reference to a 16 and 23S rRNA gene restriction fragment length polymorphism pattern (ribotype) database. Leuconostoc gasicomitatum, Leuconostoc gelidum, Lactobacillus algidus, Lactobacillus sakei and Carnobacterium divergens were found to predominate in the LAB populations at numbers above 10(8) CFU/g. Inoculation of moisture-enhanced steaks with LAB strains and strain mixtures originating from the spoiled products demonstrated the spoilage potential of L. gasicomitatum and L. gelidum isolates. These two species produced green surface discolouration and buttery off-odours similar to these found in the spoiled, commercial products.

  20. Shelf life of ready to use peeled shrimps as affected by thymol essential oil and modified atmosphere packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastromatteo, Marianna; Danza, Alessandra; Conte, Amalia; Muratore, Giuseppe; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro

    2010-12-15

    In this work the influence of different packaging strategies on the shelf life of ready to use peeled shrimps was investigated. First, the effectiveness of the coating (Coat) and the active coating loaded with different concentrations of thymol (Coat-500, Coat-1000, and Coat-1500) on the quality loss of the investigated food product packaged in air was addressed; afterwards, the thymol concentration that had shown the best performance was used in combination with MAP (5% O(2); 95% CO(2)). Microbial cell load of main spoilage microorganisms, pH and sensorial quality were monitored during the refrigerated storage. Results of the first step suggested that the sole coating did not affect the microbial growth. A slight antimicrobial effect was obtained when the coating was loaded with thymol and a concentration dependence was also observed. Moreover, the active coating was effective in minimizing the sensory quality loss of the investigated product, it was particularly true at the lowest thymol concentration. In the second step, the thymol concentration (1000 ppm) that showed the strike balance between microbial and sensorial quality was chosen in combination with MAP. As expected, MAP significantly affected the growth of the mesophilic bacteria. In particular, a cell load reduction of about 2 log cycle for the samples under MAP respect to that in air was obtained. Moreover, the MAP packaging inhibited the growth of the Pseudomonas spp. and hydrogen sulphide-producing bacteria. The MAP alone was not able to improve the shelf life of the uncoated samples. In fact, no significant difference between the control samples packaged in air and MAP was observed. Whilst, the use of coating under MAP condition prolonged the shelf life of about 6 days with respect to the same samples packaged in air. Moreover, when the MAP was used in combination with thymol, a further shelf life prolongation with respect to the samples packaged in air was observed. In particular, a shelf life of

  1. Diversity of lactic acid bacteria from modified atmosphere packaged sliced cooked meat products at sell-by date assessed by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audenaert, Kris; D'Haene, Klaas; Messens, Kathy; Ruyssen, Tony; Vandamme, Peter; Huys, Geert

    2010-02-01

    The predominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) microbiota associated with three types of modified atmosphere packaged (MAP) sliced cooked meat products (i.e. ham, turkey and chicken) was analyzed at sell-by date using a combination of culturing and molecular population fingerprinting. Likewise routine analyses during industrial MAP production, meat samples were plated on the general heterotrophic Plate Count Agar (PCA) and on the LAB-specific de Man, Rogosa, Sharpe (MRS) agar under different temperature and atmosphere conditions. Subsequently, community DNA extracts were prepared from culturable bacterial fractions harvested from both media and used for PCR targeting the V3 hyper-variable region of the 16S rRNA gene followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR amplicons (PCR-DGGE). Irrespective of aerobic or anaerobic incubation conditions, V3-16S rDNA DGGE fingerprints of culturable fractions from PCA and MRS medium displayed a high level of similarity indicating that LAB constituted the most dominant group in the culturable bacterial community. Comparison of DGGE profiles of fractions grown at 20, 28 or 37 degrees C indicated that part of the culturable community consisted of psychrotrophs. Four DGGE bands were common among cooked ham, turkey and chicken products, suggesting that these represent the microbiota circulating in the plant where all three MAP product types were sliced and packaged. Based on band sequencing and band position analysis using LAB reference strains, these four bands could be assigned to Lactobacillus sakei and/or the closely related Lactobacillus fuchuensis, Lactobacillus curvatus, Carnobacterium divergens and Leuconostoc carnosum. In conclusion, the PCR-DGGE approach described in this study allows to discriminate, identify and monitor core and occasional LAB microbiota of MAP sliced cooked meat products and provides valuable complementary information to the current plating procedures routinely used in industrial plants.

  2. Extending the shelf life of flower bulbs and perennials in consumer packages by modiefied atmosphere packaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gude, H.; Dijkema, M.H.G.E.; Miller, C.T.

    2011-01-01

    The quality of flower bulbs and herbaceous perennials in consumer packages declines rapidly due to sprouting and drying out. The present study was undertaken to develop Modified Atmosphere Packages (MAP) with suitable filling materials for a prolonged shelf life of different species of flower bulbs

  3. 气调包装对百香果贮藏品质的影响%Effects of Modified Atmosphere Packaging on Quality of Passion Fruit during Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈美花; 熊拯; 庞庭才

    2016-01-01

    为探讨不同气调包装材料对百香果贮藏品质的影响,以‘紫香1号’百香果为试材,对其进行活性袋包装和普通聚乙烯袋包装两种处理,包装好后封口,并于温度(25±1)℃、相对湿度70%~80%的条件下贮藏;相同成熟度未进行包装的果实于相同条件下贮藏作为对照,监测贮藏期间百香果的质量损失率、可溶性固形物与可滴定酸含量、果皮的L*、a*、b*值、果皮缺陷指数及贮藏寿命。结果表明,与对照相比,两种气调包装均减缓了果实质量损失率的上升,延缓了果皮缺陷指数及其他与百香果后熟有关的物理化学变化,能延长贮藏寿命至少6 d;采用活性包装的百香果品质保持得更好,货架期更长。%This study aimed to investigate the influence of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with different materials on the quality of passion fruit during storage.‘Zixiang No.1’ passion fruits were packaged in two different types of packaging, namely active packaging with active bags and ordinary packaging with polyethene bags. Subsequently, the two packaging treatments were sealed and stored at (25±1) ℃ and 70%–80% relative humidity. The unpackaged fruits with the same maturity stored under the same conditions served as controls. During storage, weight loss, soluble solids content and titratable acidity, peelL*,a*, andb* value, peel defect index and storage life were monitored until the end of storage. Compared to controls, both MAPs slowed down the rate of weight loss and the changes in peel defect index and other physicochemical indexes associated with passion fruit ripening and hence prolonged the shelf life of passion fruit by at least 6 days. On the other hand, the active packaging was better than the ordinary one in maintaining the postharvest quality attributes of passion fruit and therefore extending its shelf life.

  4. Reduction of Salmonella on chicken breast fillets stored under aerobic or modified atmosphere packaging by the application of lytic bacteriophage preparation SalmoFreshTM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, Anuraj T; Nannapaneni, Rama; Kiess, Aaron; Sharma, Chander Shekhar

    2016-03-01

    The present study evaluated the efficacy of recently approved Salmonella lytic bacteriophage preparation (SalmoFresh™) in reducing Salmonella on chicken breast fillets, as a surface and dip application. The effectiveness of phage in combination with modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and the ability of phage preparation in reducing Salmonella on chicken breast fillets at room temperature was also evaluated. Chicken breast fillets inoculated with a cocktail of Salmonella Typhimurium, S. Heidelberg, and S. Enteritidis were treated with bacteriophage (10(9) PFU/mL) as either a dip or surface treatment. The dip-treated samples were stored at 4°C aerobically and the surface-treated samples were stored under aerobic and MAP conditions (95% CO2/5% O2) at 4°C for 7 d. Immersion of Salmonella-inoculated chicken breast fillets in bacteriophage solution reduced Salmonella (P chicken breast fillets when the samples were surface treated with phage and stored under MAP conditions. The Salmonella counts were reduced by 1.2, 1.1, and 1.2 log CFU/g on d 0, 1, and 7 of storage, respectively. Bacteriophage surface application on chicken breast fillets stored at room temperature reduced the Salmonella counts by 0.8, 0.9, and 0.4 log CFU/g after 0, 4, and 8 h, respectively, compared to the untreated positive control. These findings indicate that lytic phage preparation was effective in reducing Salmonella on chicken breast fillets stored under aerobic and modified atmosphere conditions.

  5. Effects of modified atmosphere packaging on ripening of 'Douradão' peach related to pectolytic enzymes activities and chilling injury symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Regina Radomille de Santana

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the effects of modified atmosphere packaging on inhibition of the development of chilling injury symptoms in 'Douradão' peach after cold storage and the possible involvement of cell wall enzymes. Fruits were harvested at the middle stadium of ripening, packed in polypropylene trays and placed inside low density polyethylene (LDPE bags (30, 50, 60 and 75 µm of thickness with active modified atmosphere (10 kPa CO2 + 1.5 kPa O2, balance N2. The following treatments were tested: Control: peaches held in nonwrapped trays; MA30: LDPE film - 30 µm; MA50: LDPE film - 50 µm; MA60: LDPE film - 60 µm and MA75: LDPE film - 75 µm. Fruits were kept at 1±1ºC and 90±5% relative humidity (RH for 28 days. After 14, 21 and 28 days, samples were withdrawn from MAP and kept in air at 25±1ºC and 90±5% RH for ripening. On the day of removal and after 4 days, peaches were evaluated for woolliness incidence, pectolytic enzymes activities. The respiratory rate and ethylene synthesis were monitored during 6 days of ripening. The results showed that MA50 and MA60 treatments had positive effect on the inhibition of the development of woolly texture and reduced pectin methylesterase activity on the ripe fruits, keeping good quality of 'Douradão' peach during 28 days of cold storage. The treatments Control, MA30 and MA75 showed higher woolliness incidence and did not present marketable conditions after 14 days of cold storage.

  6. Effects of modified atmosphere package on preservation of green walnut fruit%自发气调包装对核桃青果的保鲜效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马惠玲; 宋淑亚; 马艳萍; 刘繁聪; 李家政; 马昌坤

    2012-01-01

    In order to provide basis of a new simple effective technology for green walnut fruit storage, the effect of modified atmosphere package on refrigerated storage of the fruit was investigated. Green walnut fruit of variety Liaoning No.4 were stored under 0~1℃ with different packages of plastic film, I.e. Improved polyvinyl chloride (mPVC), modified polyethylene ( thn-PE, thk-PE) and complex treatment of 1-MCP fumigation plus mPVC to test the effect of modified atmosphere (MA) packages on gas concentrations in each bag, postharvest physiology as well as storability of the fruit. Results showed that among all packages tested thk-PE bags showed strongest MA-effect, which adjusted inner-bag O2 and CO2 volume fraction during storage to 10.1%~13.0%, 4.3%~6.5%, respectively. Both the respiration intensity and ethereal production rate of green walnut fruit showed two-peak type trend during the storage. MA package delayed appearance of each peak and significantly (/K0.01) decreased peak values. Soluble solids content of fruit from both treatment and control all increased during early storage phase and then decreased, but the decrease from each treatment occurred earlier than that from control. MA package significantly (p<0.01) reduced fruit weight loss and thk-PE bag had the best effect. MA packages also reduced the decay rate of fruit. Rotting index of fruit in thk-PE bag was 30.0% after 66 days storage and 68.6% after 95 days, which were significant (p<0.01) lower than that in other packages. Therefore, thk-PE bag can be selected as the suitable MA approach for the storage of green walnut fruit, which can keep 100% preservation rate of walnut after a storage period of about 95 days.%该文通过研究自发气调(MA)包装对核桃青果的冷藏效果,为生产上探寻简易、高效的新型核桃保鲜技术提供依据.以辽宁4号核桃青皮果实为材料,裸果为对照,进行了改良聚氯乙烯袋(mPVC)、改良聚乙烯袋(thn-PE、thk-PE)以及1-MCP处

  7. Almacenamiento de Trozos de Ñame (Dioscorea rotundata Poir en Atmósferas Modificadas Modified Atmosphere Packaging of Chunks Yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo D Andrade

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analizan las condiciones de conservación de trozos de ñame en empaques de películas poliméricas, bajo condiciones de atmósfera modificada. Se determina la tasa de respiración de trozos de ñame a temperatura de refrigeración (5 ± 1°C y temperatura ambiente (27 ± 1°C y se evalúan diferentes películas plásticas con atmosfera modificada. La tasa de respiración a temperatura de refrigeración fue de 2.9 ± 0.9 mlCO2/Kg-h (gráficamente y 3.2 ± 1.0 mlC0(2/Kg-h (analíticamente, y a temperatura ambiente de 20.1 ± 0.8 mlCO2/Kg-h (gráficamente y 22.4 ± 0.9 mlC0(2/Kg-h (analíticamente. El empacado en atmósfera modificada de los trozos de ñame mínimamente procesado, no resulta una buena alternativa, debido a que las condiciones de calidad del producto se ven afectadas, presentando un tiempo de vida útil corto entre 6-10 días.In this work storage conditions of chunks yam packed in polymer films with modified atmosphere are analyzed. Respiration rate of chunks yam at refrigeration temperature (5 ± 1°C and room temperature (27 ± 1°C and different films with modified atmosphere were evaluated. Respiration rate at refrigeration temperature was 2.9 ± 0.9 mlC0(2/Kg-h (graphically and 3.2 ± 1.0 mlC0(2/Kg-h (analytically, and room temperature of 20.1 ± 0.8 mlCO2/Kg-h (graphically and 22.4 ± 0.9 mlC0(2/Kg-h (analytically. Modified atmosphere packaging of minimally processed chunks yam is not a good alternative. This because the product quality is affected, with shelf life between 6 and10 days.

  8. Effects of intelligent modified atmosphere packaging on the quality of Carica papaya%活性气调包装对番木瓜品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯美玲; 段华伟; 胡长鹰

    2011-01-01

    研究了内含CO:吸附剂的活性气调包装时番木瓜综合品质的影响.与未加吸附剂的普通气调相比,活性气调包装能够降低番木瓜的氧气消耗率,推迟番木瓜果肉内多糖和还原糖的达峰时间,减少番木瓜的失水率,提高气调包装对番木瓜的保鲜效果,但对维生素C影响不显著.研究结果表明活性气调包装在番木瓜保鲜贮藏中具有一定的推广应用价值.%The effects of active modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with in-pack CO2 adsorbent upon papaya' s attributes were examined. Compared to routine MAP, the active MAP was able to depress the rate of oxygen consumption by papaya, delay the summit occurrence of sugar contents in pulp, reduce the weight loss of the fruit, and enhance the efficiency of MAP in the quality keeping of papaya. However,contents of vitamin C in papaya packaged by active MAP were observed changing in a similar way to that in MAP without CO2 adsorbent. These results indicated that the active MAP was of certain practical values in the postharvest storage of papaya fruit.

  9. Spoilage of light (PSE-like) and dark turkey meat under aerobic or modified atmosphere package: microbial indicators and their relationship with total volatile basic nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraqueza, M J; Ferreira, M C; Barreto, A S

    2008-01-01

    1. The aim of this work was to evaluate the shelf life of turkey meat from different colour categories (Pale, Soft and Exudative (PSE)-like), intermediate and dark), packaged under aerobic or modified atmosphere (MAP) conditions; also to establish a relationship between microbial quality and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), evaluating its capacity for shelf life determination. 2. Breasts were selected according to luminance (L*) and pH(24): L >/= 51 and pH 5.8 for dark colour. Sliced meat was packaged under aerobic or MAP conditions with 50% N(2) and 50% CO(2), then stored in the dark at 0 +/- 1 degrees C for periods of 12 or 25 d. Meat under aerobic conditions was evaluated for microbiological characteristics and TVB-N on d 0, 5 and 12. This evaluation was extended to include d 19 and 25 when samples were under MAP conditions. 3. The dark meat group after 12 d of storage in aerobiosis presented significantly higher plate counts of aerobic mesophilic, psychrotrophic micro-organisms and higher TVB-N than other meat colour categories. The shelf life of turkey meat under MAP was one week longer for intermediate and light colour meat (20 d) than for dark meat. TVB-N values of 20 to 30 mg NH(3)/100 g turkey meat correspond to advanced spoilage stages. We proposed 14 mg NH(3)/100 g as the limit of freshness acceptability for turkey meat. 4. TVB-N was an indicator of turkey meat microbial spoilage but was not a suitable early predictor for microbial spoilage and in particular for turkey meat stored under MAP conditions because counts of micro-organisms were moderately correlated (Pseudomonas spp. and Enterobacteriaceae) with this index, as they were inhibited by MAP gas mixture and storage temperature used in the present study.

  10. Study of the effect of post-packaging pasteurization and argon modified atmosphere packaging on the sensory quality and growth of endogenous microflora of a sliced cooked meat product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Fernando; Zamorano, Arturo Rivera; Posada-Izquierdo, Guiomar Denisse; García-Gimeno, Rosa María

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of post-packaging pasteurization on the sensory quality and growth of natural microorganisms during refrigerated storage (6 °C) of a cooked meat product considering two packaging atmospheres based on mixture of typical gases (CO(2)/N(2) (22/78%) and novel gases (CO(2)/Ar (17/83%)). Growth of lactic acid bacteria was significantly different between samples with and without post-packaging pasteurization, showing a growth rate >0.44 and equal to 0.28 log cfu/day, respectively. For samples with post-packaging pasteurization, atmosphere CO(2)/Ar resulted in a lower growth of lactic acid bacteria and a better sensory quality. Overall, samples without post-packaging pasteurization did not show a significant reduction of sensory quality during storage time (121 days) while samples with post-packaging pasteurization showed deterioration in their sensory quality. Further investigation is needed to obtain more definitive conclusions about the effect of post-packaging pasteurization and argon-based packaging atmospheres on cooked meat products.

  11. Effects of 1-Methylcyclopropene and Modified Atmosphere Packaging on the Antioxidant Capacity in Pepper “Kulai” during Low-Temperature Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Keat Tan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to simultaneously evaluate the effect of a postharvest treatment on the pepper's antioxidant content and its ability to retain its economical value during the postharvest period. The fruits were pretreated by modified atmosphere packaging (MAP with or without treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP before cold storage at 10°C. Changes in the levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants, including the total phenolic, ascorbic acid levels and the total glutathione level, as well as enzymatic antioxidants, including ascorbate peroxidase (APX, glutathione reductase (GR, and catalase (CAT, were determined. Both treatments successfully extended the shelf life of the fruit for up to 25 days, and a high level of antioxidant capacity was maintained throughout the storage period. However, 1-MCP treatment maintained the high antioxidant capacity for a longer period of time. The 1-MCP-treated peppers maintained high levels of phenolic content, a high reduced glutathione (GSH/oxidised glutathione (GSSG ratio, decreased levels of ascorbic acid and CAT activity, and increased levels of APX and GR compared with the peppers that were not treated with 1-MCP. The overall results suggested that a combination of 1-MCP and MAP was the most effective treatment for extending shelf life while retaining the nutritional benefits.

  12. Effect of rosemary essential oil and modified-atmosphere packaging (MAP on meat quality and survival of pathogens in poultry fillets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Kahraman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil (REO and modified-atmosphere packaging (MAP on the survival of certain pathogens (Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes in poultry fillets and on their meat quality during 7 days of refrigerated storage were investigated. Because REO at 0.05% and 0.1% had weak antibacterial activity and REO at 0.3%, 0.5% and 1.0% imparted unacceptable organoleptic properties, only REO at 0.2% was used to treat the poultry meat. The results showed that adding 0.2% REO to poultry fillets did not reduce the size of the population of S. Typhimurium and L. monocytogenes. However, REO treatment significantly decreased the L* (lightness value and increased the a* (redness value of stored fillets, and adding REO in combination with MAP reduced the level of lipid oxidation. In conclusion, in a suitable combination, REO can be applied to improve the quality of meat, but further studies should be conducted to determine the appropriate commercial level for different meat products.

  13. 水产品气调保鲜技术研究进展%Research advance in modified atmosphere packaging of aquatic products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    励建荣; 刘永吉; 李学鹏; 朱军莉; 傅玲琳; 李婷婷

    2010-01-01

    主要介绍了气调包装(Modified atmosphere packaging,MAP)保鲜技术在水产品中的应用及其研究现状.MAP技术能够通过抑制微生物的生长等机制延长水产品货架期.MAP混合气体中的CO2为抑菌的关键成份,O2也是重要成份.MAP水产品的品质和货架期取决于包装气体的成份及比例、储藏温度、原料种类及原料初始品质、混合气体的体积与包装物料的质量比(V/W)和包装材料等因素,其中储藏温度是关键因素.MAP水产品的腐败主要是一种或几种特定腐败菌(Specific Spoilage Organisms,SSOs)导致的;耐CO2的发光杆菌属(Photobacterium phosphoreum)为MAP鳕的特定腐败菌;嗜冷乳酸菌是多种MAP水产品的特定腐败菌.同样条件下,MAP水产品的品质和安全性优于真空包装和空气包装.

  14. Effect of potassium lactate and a potassium lactate-sodium diacetate blend on Listeria monocytogenes growth in modified atmosphere packaged sliced ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellefont, L A; Ross, T

    2007-10-01

    Two commercially available organic acid salts, potassium lactate (PURASAL HiPure P) and a potassium lactate-sodium diacetate blend (PURASAL Opti. Form PD 4), were assessed as potential inhibitors of Listeria monocytogenes growth in modified atmosphere packaged (MAP) sliced ham in challenge studies. The influence of the initial inoculation level of L. monocytogenes (10(1) or 10(3) CFU g(-1)) and storage temperature (4 or 8 degrees C) was also examined. The addition of either organic acid salt to MAP sliced ham strongly inhibited the growth of L. monocytogenes during the normal shelf life of the product under ideal refrigeration conditions (4 degrees C) and even under abusive temperature conditions (i.e., 8 degrees C). During the challenge studies and in the absence of either organic acid salt, L. monocytogenes numbers increased by 1000-fold after 20 days at 8 degrees C and 10-fold after 42 days at 4 degrees C. Both organic acid salt treatments were found to be listeriostatic rather than listericidal. The addition of either organic acid salt to the MAP ham also reduced the growth of indigenous microflora, i.e., aerobic microflora and lactic acid bacteria. The influence of these compounds on the risk of listeriosis in relation to product shelf life is discussed.

  15. Biogenic amine formation and microbial spoilage in chilled garfish (Belone belone belone)--effect of modified atmosphere packaging and previous frozen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgaard, P; Madsen, H L; Samieian, N; Emborg, J

    2006-07-01

    To evaluate biogenic amine formation and microbial spoilage in fresh and thawed chilled garfish. Storage trials were carried out with fresh and thawed garfish fillets at 0 or 5 degrees C in air or in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP: 40% CO2 and 60% N2). During storage, sensory, chemical and microbial changes were recorded and histamine formation by isolates from the spoilage microflora was evaluated at 5 degrees C. Photobacterium phosphoreum was responsible for histamine formation (>1000 ppm) in chilled fresh garfish. The use of MAP did not reduce the histamine formation. Strongly histamine-producing P. phosphoreum isolates formed 2080-4490 ppm at 5 degrees C, whereas below 60 ppm was formed by other P. phosphoreum isolates. Frozen storage inactivated P. phosphoreum and consequently reduced histamine formation in thawed garfish at 5 degrees C markedly. Photobacterium phosphoreum can produce above 1000 ppm of histamine in chilled fresh garfish stored both in air and in MAP. Freezing inactivates P. phosphoreum, extends shelf life and markedly reduces histamine formation in thawed MAP garfish during chilled storage. At 5 degrees C, more than 1000 ppm of histamine was formed in garfish; thus even when it is chilled this product represents a histamine fish-poisoning risk.

  16. The effects of ascorbic acid, taurine, carnosine and rosemary powder on colour and lipid stability of beef patties packaged in modified atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Escalante, A; Djenane, D; Torrescano, G; Beltrán, J A; Roncalés, P

    2001-08-01

    This research was aimed at evaluating the inhibition of oxidative changes of beef patties packaged in modified atmosphere (70% O(2)+20% CO(2)+10% N(2)) by natural antioxidants: ascorbic acid (500 ppm), taurine (50 mM), carnosine (50 mM), rosemary powder (1000 ppm) and their combinations with the first. Beef patties stored at 2±1°C for 20 days were evaluated for colour (L*, a*, b*, C* and H*), TBARS, metmyoglobin formation (% of total myoglobin), psychrotrophic microbial counts and sensory odour and discolouration. Rosemary, either alone or with ascorbic acid, was highly effective in inhibiting both metmyoglobin formation and lipid oxidation; sensory analysis was in agreement with these results. Ascorbic acid, ascorbic acid+taurine and ascorbic acid+carnosine treatments showed a limited inhibitory effect of myoglobin oxidation, while carnosine and carnosine+ascorbic acid were effective in inhibiting lipid oxidation. Taurine alone failed to exert any antioxidant effect. Principal components analysis confirmed these results.

  17. Effect of modified atmosphere packaging on the course of physical and chemical changes in chilled muscle tissue of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, V.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezek, F; Buchtová, H

    2012-01-01

    The effect of two types of modified atmosphere (MA1: 69% N2, 25% CO2, 5% O2, 1% CO; MA2: 70% N2, 30% CO2) on changes in physical and chemical parameters (pH, a(w)--water activity, TVBN - total volatile basic nitrogen, TMA - trimethylamine, FFA - free fatty acids, PV - peroxide value, TBA--thiobarbituric acid) in muscle tissues of the silver carp was monitored in the study. The samples were stored at temperatures +2 +/- 2 degrees C for 18 days. Changes in gas volumes (CO2 and O2) in MAs were also monitored. CO2 levels increased in MA1 but decreased in MA2. At the end of 18 days of storage, a significantly (P TVBN and TMA levels in samples packaged under the two types of MAs remained almost identical until day 9 of the experiment. Later, however, significantly (P TVBN as a suitable indicator of freshness, and TBA assay as a suitable indicator of the extent of oxidative processes.

  18. Effect of modified atmosphere packaging on the microbiological and sensory quality on a dry cured beef product: "Cecina de león".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Begoña; Martínez, Beatriz; González-Fernández, Consuelo; García-Cachán, M A Dolores; Rovira, Jordi; Jaime, Isabel

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the shelf-life of commercial "Cecina de León" (CL) packaged in vacuum (VP) and in CO(2)/N(2) atmospheres (20/80% CO(2)/N(2) and 80/20% CO(2)/N(2)). Packaged product was stored at 6°C, measuring microbiological, physico-chemical and sensory parameters during 210 days. The values obtained for mesophilic aerobic, anaerobic and psychrotrophic counts did not vary in both the vacuum and the gas packaged samples after 210 days of storage. Enterobacteria and enterococci were always below the detection limit, and in the gas-packaged CL, pseudomonad numbers were significantly inhibited. No changes were observed in the counts of the typical microflora of CL (Lactic Acid Bacteria, yeasts and moulds and Micrococcaceae) up to 210 days and no differences (p>0.05) were found between the counts in the VP and in the gas-packaged samples. A pronounced initial fading was observed in redness (a(∗)) within the first 15 days in the VP samples and within the second month in the gas-packaged samples attributed to the presence of white film on surface of CL portions. No differences were observed (p>0.05) in texture parameters evaluated between packaging methods during storage, and the values found are within the range for CL not packaged. The sensory properties of CL stored in 20/80% CO(2)/N(2) were slightly less acceptable than the samples packed under vacuum and under 80/20% CO(2)/N(2) at 210 days of storage. It is concluded that no clear advantage of the gas packaging was observed compared to the VP of "Cecina de León".

  19. The combined efficacy of carvacrol and modified atmosphere packaging on the survival of Salmonella, Campylobacter jejuni and lactic acid bacteria on turkey breast cutlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Divek V T; Kiess, Aaron; Nannapaneni, Rama; Schilling, Wes; Sharma, Chander Shekhar

    2015-08-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of carvacrol in combination with modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) in reducing Salmonella on turkey breast cutlets stored at 4 °C. In experiment I, carvacrol (0.5, 1, and 2% v/v) was applied as surface treatment and samples were stored under aerobic condition or as surface and dip treatments followed by storage in an environment of 100% carbon dioxide. The findings of the experiment I revealed the synergistic activity of carvacrol with carbon dioxide in reducing Salmonella when used as dip treatment compared to the surface treatment. In experiment II, turkey breast cutlets were dip treated with carvacrol (0.25, 0.5, and 1% v/v) for 30 s and stored under MAP (95% carbon dioxide and 5% oxygen) to evaluate the efficacy against Salmonella, Campylobacter jejuni and lactic acid bacteria on turkey breast cutlets. In experiment II, the combined application of carvacrol and MAP resulted in 1.0-2.0 log CFU/g reduction (P ≤ 0.05) of both Salmonella and Campylobacter on turkey breast cutlets for 7 d storage at 4 °C. MAP alone and in combination with carvacrol reduced lactic acid bacteria (P ≤ 0.05) on cutlets stored at 4 °C for 21 d period. There was no difference (P ≤ 0.05) in meat color among treatments and controls except for an increased paleness of meat (P ≤ 0.05) observed for the 1% carvacrol treated cutlets stored under MAP after 21 d of storage. The high concentration of carbon dioxide and carvacrol treatments did not cause any alteration in meat pH (P ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, carvacrol was effective at a low concentration of 0.25% (v/v) in reducing Salmonella and C. jejuni by ∼1.0 log CFU/g when stored under MAP.

  20. Modelling growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in fresh-cut lettuce submitted to commercial process conditions: chlorine washing and modified atmosphere packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada-Izquierdo, Guiomar D; Pérez-Rodríguez, Fernando; López-Gálvez, Francisco; Allende, Ana; Selma, María V; Gil, María I; Zurera, Gonzalo

    2013-04-01

    Fresh-cut iceberg lettuce inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 was submitted to chlorine washing (150 mg/mL) and modified atmosphere packaging on laboratory scale. Populations of E. coli O157:H7 were assessed in fresh-cut lettuce stored at 4, 8, 13 and 16 °C using 6-8 replicates in each analysis point in order to capture experimental variability. The pathogen was able to grow at temperatures ≥8 °C, although at low temperatures, growth data presented a high variability between replicates. Indeed, at 8 °C after 15 days, some replicates did not show growth while other replicates did present an increase. A growth primary model was fitted to the raw growth data to estimate lag time and maximum growth rate. The prediction and confidence bands for the fitted growth models were estimated based on Monte-Carlo method. The estimated maximum growth rates (log cfu/day) corresponded to 0.14 (95% CI: 0.06-0.31), 0.55 (95% CI: 0.17-1.20) and 1.43 (95% CI: 0.82-2.15) for 8, 13 and 16 °C, respectively. A square-root secondary model was satisfactorily derived from the estimated growth rates (R(2) > 0.80; Bf = 0.97; Af = 1.46). Predictive models and data obtained in this study are intended to improve quantitative risk assessment studies for E. coli O157:H7 in leafy green products. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Aumento da vida útil e microbiologia da carne suína embalada em atmosfera modificada Shelf life extension and microbiology of pork meat packaged in modified atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Borges Mano

    2002-01-01

    with either 1.0 L of air (100%, nitrogen (100%, 20/80 or 40/60 CO2/O2 and finally sealed. Samples were subdivided into two batches and stored in walk-in cold rooms at 1 and 7ºC. Samples were taken at different days of storage and pH and gas concentration (CO2/O2/N2 were determined. Likewise, total viable, lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Brochothrix thermosphacta and Pseudomonas were counted. Bacterial growth parameters were assessed using Gompertz equations. As expected, modified atmosphere packaging extended the pork meat shelf life. However, modified atmospheres enriched with CO2 and at 1ºC showed a greater effectiveness. The samples conserved in MAP enriched in CO2, as much to 7 as to 1ºC, maintained the constant pH during the period of storage. At 1 and 7ºC the lag phases and the duplication times of the total microbiota were progressively larger in the following order: air (100%, N2 (100%, 20/80 and 40/60 CO2/O2. In accordance with the results, it can be concluded that, by as much to 1 as to 7ºC, the use of the modified atmospheres slowed the growth of the spoilage bacteria of pork meat, favoring the extension of the useful life, mainly in the MAP enriched with CO2.

  2. Significant histamine formation in tuna (Thunnus albacares) at 2 degrees C--effect of vacuum- and modified atmosphere-packaging on psychrotolerant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emborg, Jette; Laursen, Birgit Groth; Dalgaard, Paw

    2005-06-15

    Occurrence and importance of psychrotolerant histamine producing bacteria in chilled fresh tuna were demonstrated in the present study. The objective was to evaluate microbial formation of histamine and biogenic amines in chilled fresh tuna from the Indian Ocean and stored either vacuum-packed (VP) or modified atmosphere-packed (MAP). Firstly, biogenic amines and the dominating microbiota were determined in VP tuna involved in an outbreak of histamine fish poisoning in Denmark. Secondly, the microbiota of fresh MAP tuna was evaluated at the time of processing in Sri Lanka and chemical, microbial and sensory changes were evaluated during storage at 1-3 degrees C. To explain the results obtained with naturally contaminated tuna the effect of VP and MAP on biogenic amine formation by psychrotolerant bacteria was evaluated in challenge tests at 2 degrees C and 10 degrees C. The VP tuna that caused histamine fish poisoning had a histamine concentration of >7000 mg/kg and this high concentration was most likely produced by psychrotolerant Morganella morganii-like bacteria or by Photobacterium phosphoreum. Similar psychrotolerant M. morganii-like bacteria dominated the spoilage microbiota of fresh MAP tuna with 60% CO2/40% N2 and formed >5000 mg/kg of histamine after 24 days at 1.7 degrees C. These psychrotolerant bacteria were biochemically similar to M. morganii subsp. morganii and their 16S rDNA (1495 bp) showed >98% sequence similarity to the type strain of this species. Toxic concentrations of histamine were produced at 2.1 degrees C in inoculated VP tuna by both the psychrotolerant M. morganii-like bacteria (7400+/-1050 mg/kg) and P. phosphoreum (4250+/-2050 mg/kg). Interestingly, MAP with 40% CO2/60% O2, in challenge tests, had a strong inhibitory effect on growth and histamine formation by both the psychrotolerant M. morganii-like bacteria and P. phosphoreum. In agreement with this, no formation of histamine was found in naturally contaminated fresh MAP tuna with

  3. Effects of vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging on shell life of salted pike eel (Muraenesox cinereus) fillets%气调和真空包装对腌制海鳗货架期的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章银良; 毛多斌

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the shelf life of salted pike eel packaged with air, vacuum and modified atmosphere at 25℃. The samples were divided into four treatments: packaged with air(the controir, M1), vacuum(M2), CO2/N2(40%/60%, M3) and CO2(M4), which were monitored the indexs of Total Volatile Base Nitrogen(TVB-N), Trimethylamine (TMA), pH value, Thiobarbiturie Acid-Reactive Substances(TBARS) and Total Viable Counts (TVC). The shelf life of salted pike eel was found to be 20 days with Modified-Atmosphere Packaging(MAP), 19 days with vacuum packaging(VP), 16 days with air packaging. Bacteria grew most quickly in salted pike eel packaged with air (M1), and the lowest counts of bacteria were found in the sample with MAP(M4). The formation of TVB-N increased with time of storage. The change of TMA-N value was similar to that of TVB-N. The sensory quality of salted pike eel in MAP groups was significantly (P<0.05) higher than that of the control group. The MAP and VP were more effective package for preservation of salted pike eel than other treatments, especially packaging with 100% CO2.%该文主要考察25℃下气调和真空包装对腌制海鳗货架期的影响.4个样品分别是M1:空气包装(对照),M2:真空包装,M3:CO2/N2,40%/60%,M4:100%CO2,以挥发性盐基氮,三甲胺,pH值,硫代巴比妥酸值,菌落总数和感官为指标.结果表明,气调包装的货架期为20 d,真空包装为19 d,对照为16 d.对照组细菌增加很快,而M4增加最慢.挥发性盐基氮和三甲胺都随着储存时间延长而增加,在气调包装下的感官质量明显好于对照组.气调和真空包装,特别是100%CO2包装是保藏腌制海鳗的最有效方法.

  4. Atmospheric Data Package for the Composite Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Ramsdell, James V.

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this data package is to summarize our conceptual understanding of atmospheric transport and deposition, describe how this understanding will be simplified for numerical simulation as part of the Composite Analysis (i.e., implementation model), and finally to provide the input parameters needed for the simulations.

  5. Effect of pomegranate (Punica granutum) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extracts on shelf-life for chilled Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) fillets in modified atmosphere packaging at 2 ºC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ünalan, U.; Dalgaard, Paw; Korel, F.

    2011-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of pomegranate extract (1% v/w) and rosemary extract (1% v/w) as natural preservatives as well as their combination (1% v/w) on shelf life extension of previously frozen and chilled Greenland halibut fillets in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP, 40%CO2/60%N2....... Among the chemical indices examined, TBA values of control samples exceeded the limit of 2 mg malondialdehyde (MDA)/kg (2.78 and 4.08 mg MDA/kg) on days 18 and 23 of storage, respectively, while TBA values for samples treated with extracts remained below the limit throughout the storage period. Final...

  6. 超高压技术结合气调包装保持冷藏带鱼品质%High hydrostatic pressure treatment combined with modified atmosphere package keeping quality characteristic ofTrichiurus lepturus during cold storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢晶; 杨茜; 张新林; 刘爱芳; 董韩博

    2015-01-01

    为探讨超高压结合气调包装对4℃冷藏带鱼品质的影响,该试验以超高压(290 MPa,6 min)前处理后4℃真空冷藏为对照,超高压(290 MPa,6 min)分别结合不同比例的气调包装体积分数为(60%CO2+40%N2、60%CO2+7%O2+33%N2、60%CO2+15%O2+25%N2、50%CO2+15%O2+35%N2)处理鲜带鱼并放置4℃冷藏。贮藏期间,以冷藏带鱼的感官评定(sensory evaluation,SE)、菌落总数(total plant count,TPC)、挥发性盐基氮(total volatile basic nitrogen, TVB-N)、硫代巴比妥酸(thiobarbituric acid,TBA)、肌动球蛋白溶出量(actomyosin content,AM)、肌动球蛋白的总巯基含量(total sulfhydryls content,TSH)为测定指标,研究不同气调包装对冷藏带鱼的保鲜效果。结果表明:通过菌落总数与TVB-N综合判定货架期可知,超高压处理鲜带鱼后真空贮藏仅延长冷藏带鱼货架期至11 d,超高压处理后气调贮藏各组:60%CO2+40%N2气调包装组可延长货架期至16d,60%CO2+7%O2+33%N2气调包装组可延长货架期至19d,60%CO2+15%O2+25%N2与50%CO2+15%O2+35%N2气调包装组可延长货架期至21d,是对照组货架期近2倍,说明超高压结合气调包装能有效抑制细菌总数增长和TVB-N产生。气调包装会加速超高压后带鱼肌动球蛋白和肌动球蛋白中总巯基含量的降低,且气调贮藏中高比例的O2对超高压处理后冷藏带鱼的脂肪氧化也有明显促进作用。因此综合考虑,超高压处理后结合60%CO2+7%O2+33%N2的气调包装在显著延长货架期的同时,仍可较好地保持冷藏带鱼原有鲜度。研究结果为冷藏带鱼的保鲜研究提供一定的理论参考。%s:The purpose of this paper was to study the effects of combined application of high hydrostatic pressure treatment and modified atmosphere packaging on the quality characteristics ofTrichiurus lepturus during cold storage at 4℃. The

  7. Modeling microbial spoilage and quality of gilthead seabream fillets: combined effect of osmotic pretreatment, modified atmosphere packaging, and nisin on shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsironi, Theofania N; Taoukis, Petros S

    2010-05-01

    The objective of the study was the kinetic modeling of the effect of storage temperature on the quality and shelf life of chilled fish, modified atmosphere-packed (MAP), and osmotically pretreated with the addition of nisin as antimicrobial agent. Fresh gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) fillets were osmotically treated with 50% high dextrose equivalent maltodextrin (DE 47) plus 5% NaCl. Water loss, solid gain, salt content, and water activity were monitored throughout treatment and treatment conditions were selected for the shelf life study. Untreated and osmotically pretreated slices with and without nisin (2 x 10(4) IU/100 g osmotic solution), packed in air or modified atmosphere (50% CO(2)-50% air), and stored at controlled isothermal conditions (0, 5, 10, and 15 degrees C) were studied. Quality assessment and modeling were based on growth of several microbial indices, total volatile nitrogen, trimethylamine nitrogen, lipid oxidation (TBARS), and sensory scoring. Temperature dependence of quality loss rates was modeled by the Arrhenius equation, validated under dynamic conditions. Pretreated samples showed improved quality stability during subsequent refrigerated storage, in terms of microbial growth, chemical changes, and organoleptic degradation. Osmotic pretreatment with the addition of nisin in combination with MAP was the most effective treatment resulting in significant shelf life extension of gilthead seabream fillets (48 days compared to 10 days for the control at 0 degrees C).

  8. 不同气调包装对核桃仁贮藏品质的影响%Effect of Different Modified Atmosphere Packaging on Storage Quality of Walnut Kernels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文涛; 蒋林惠; 陈琛; 肖红梅; 邱良焱

    2012-01-01

    将生核桃仁原料分别采用低O2高CO2的聚乙烯(PE)及复合材料(KNY17//CPE80)材料包装密封后,置于(2±1)℃冷库贮藏;以普通聚乙烯(PE)包装为对照,通过定期检测相关品质指标,研究不同气调方法对核桃仁的影响。结果表明:纳米包装和低O2高CO2的PE包装保鲜效果最好,两者均能显著抑制核桃仁过氧化值、酸价升高,保持良好外观品质,而且两种方法贮藏的生核桃仁加工成琥珀核桃仁后,经高温加速贮藏试验,过氧化值、酸价、羰基价都显著低于对照组。%Walnut kernels were sealed in polyethylene (PE) or KNY17//CPE80 (a composite material) bags for low-oxygen, high- carbon dioxide modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and then stored at (2 ± 1) ℃ for 180 days. The control samples were packaged in PE bags under normal atmospheric conditions. Meanwhile, non-MAP nano-material packaging was also studied. Relevant quality indicators were measured periodically during the storage period to investigate the effect of different modified atmosphere packaging on the quality of walnut kernels. The results showed that nano-material packaging and low-oxygen, high- carbon dioxide PE MAP had the best preservative effect on walnut kernels, significantly inhibited the increase of peroxide value (POV) and acid value (AV) in walnut kemels and maintained the good appearance of walnut kernels. Moreover, the POV, AV and carbonyl group value of amber walnuts from raw walnut kernels with both pre-storage treatments were significantly lower than those from the control group as demonstrated by high temperature accelerated storage tests.

  9. Significant histamine formation in tuna ( Thunnus albacares ) at 2 degrees C - effect of vacuum- and modified atmosphere-packaging on psychrotolerant bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emborg, Jette; Laursen, B. G.; Dalgaard, Paw

    2005-01-01

    and sensory changes were evaluated during storage at 1-3 degrees C. To explain the results obtained with naturally contaminated tuna the effect of VP and MAP on biogenic amine formation by psychrotolerant bacteria was evaluated in challenge tests at 2 degrees C and 10 degrees C. The VP tuna that caused......Occurrence and importance of psychrotolerant histamine producing bacteria in chilled fresh tuna were demonstrated in the present study. The objective was to evaluate microbial formation of histamine and biogenic amines in chilled fresh tuna from the Indian Ocean and stored either vacuum-packed (VP......) or modified atmosphere-packed (MAP). Firstly, biogenic amines and the dominating microbiota were determined in VP tuna involved in an outbreak of histamine fish poisoning in Denmark. Secondly, the microbiota of fresh MAP tuna was evaluated at the time of processing in Sri Lanka and chemical, microbial...

  10. Significant histamine formation in tuna ( Thunnus albacares ) at 2 degrees C - effect of vacuum- and modified atmosphere-packaging on psychrotolerant bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emborg, Jette; Laursen, B. G.; Dalgaard, Paw

    2005-01-01

    ) or modified atmosphere-packed (MAP). Firstly, biogenic amines and the dominating microbiota were determined in VP tuna involved in an outbreak of histamine fish poisoning in Denmark. Secondly, the microbiota of fresh MAP tuna was evaluated at the time of processing in Sri Lanka and chemical, microbial...... histamine fish poisoning had a histamine concentration of > 7000 mg/kg and this high concentration was most likely produced by psychrotolerant Morganella morganii-like bacteria or by Photobacterium phosphoreum. Similar psychrotolerant M. morganii-like bacteria dominated the spoilage microbiota of fresh MAP...... by both the psychrotolerant M morganii-like bacteria and P phosphoreum. In agreement with this, no formation of histamine was found in naturally contaminated fresh MAP tuna with 40% CO2/60% O-2 during 28 days of storage at 1.0 degrees C. To reduce current problems with histamine fish poisoning due to VP...

  11. Effect of Initial Headspace O2 Level on the Growth and Volatile Metabolite Production of Leuconostoc Mesenteriodes and the Microbial and Sensorial Quality of Modified Atmosphere Packaged Par-Fried French Fries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samapundo, Simbarashe; Mujuru, Felix Mugove; de Baenst, Ilse; Denon, Quenten; Devlieghere, Frank

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated the effect of residual O2 level (0% to 5%) on microbial growth and volatile metabolite production on par-fried French fries packaged in a modified atmosphere with 60% CO2 (rest N2 ) at 4 °C. The results obtained showed that the initial headspace (IH) O2 level had an effect on growth of Leuconostoc mesenteroides on French fry simulation agar, whereby growth was slightly faster under 5% O2 . In terms of quantity, ethanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, and dimethyl disulphide were the most significant volatile metabolites produced by L. mesenteroides. The production of ethanol by L. mesenteroides was highest on simulation agar packaged under low IH O2 levels (0% to 1%), indicating that the fermentative metabolism was induced under these conditions. In agreement with the results observed on the simulation medium, growth of native lactic acid bacteria was faster under an IH O2 level of 5%. In addition, ethanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, and dimethyl disulphide were also quantitatively the most important volatile metabolites. However, in contrast, greater quantities of ethanol and dimethyl disulphide were produced on par-fried French fries packaged under 5% O2 . This was attributed to the limited growth of the native flora on the par-fried French fries under residual O2 levels of 0% and 1%. Although some significant differences (P < 0.05) occurred between the French fries packaged in 0%, 1%, and 5 % residual O2 during storage, all products were considered to be acceptable for consumption. The results of this study can be used to optimize the shelf-life of packaged chill stored potato products.

  12. Armazenamento de melão 'Orange Flesh' minimamente processado sob atmosfera modificada Storage of 'Orange Flesh' mellons minimally processed and packaged under modified atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Elisabeth Torres Prado

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O aumento da demanda por produtos minimamente processados traz um grande desafio para a ciência e tecnologia de alimentos, considerando-se a escassez de informações sobre a manutenção da qualidade desses produtos. O armazenamento desses em condições adequadas é um ponto fundamental para o sucesso dessa tecnologia. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito da atmosfera modificada ativa na conservação do melão tipo Orange Flesh minimamente processado. Os frutos, após o processamento, foram embalados sob atmosfera modificada (AM Passiva- Controle, AM Ativa com 5% de CO2 e 5% de O2 e AM Ativa com 10% de CO2 e 2% de O2, armazenados em câmara fria (6 ± 1 ºC e UR 85 ± 5% durante 8 dias e as amostras retiradas para análises de pH, sólidos solúveis totais (SST, acidez total titulável (ATT, açúcares solúveis totais (AST, firmeza, pectina total (PT, pectina solúvel (PS, e as enzimas pectinametilesterase (PME e poligalacturonase (PG a cada 2 dias de armazenamento. A atmosfera modificada ativa pouco influenciou no comportamento das variáveis pH, acidez total titulável (ATT, firmeza e pectina total com relação á atmosfera modificada passiva. No entanto, menor solubilização de pectinas foi detectada nas amostras armazenadas sob atmosfera com 10% de CO2 e 2% de O2. Não foram detectadas atividades das enzimas pectinametilesterase e poligalacturonase nos tratamentos analisados.The increase of the demand for products minimally processed brings a great challenge for the food science and technology, considering the shortage of information about the maintenance of the quality of those products. The storage of those products in appropriate conditions is a fundamental point for the success of such technology. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the active modified atmosphere on the quality and conservation of the 'Orange Flesh' melons processed minimally. The fruits, after the processing, were wrapped under

  13. An Assessment of the Influence of the Industry Distribution Chain on the Oxygen Levels in Commercial Modified Atmosphere Packaged Cheddar Cheese Using Non-Destructive Oxygen Sensor Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A.M. O’ Callaghan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The establishment and control of oxygen levels in packs of oxygen-sensitive food products such as cheese is imperative in order to maintain product quality over a determined shelf life. Oxygen sensors quantify oxygen concentrations within packaging using a reversible optical measurement process, and this non-destructive nature ensures the entire supply chain can be monitored and can assist in pinpointing negative issues pertaining to product packaging. This study was carried out in a commercial cheese packaging plant and involved the insertion of 768 sensors into 384 flow-wrapped cheese packs (two sensors per pack that were flushed with 100% carbon dioxide prior to sealing. The cheese blocks were randomly assigned to two different storage groups to assess the effects of package quality, packaging process efficiency, and handling and distribution on package containment. Results demonstrated that oxygen levels increased in both experimental groups examined over the 30-day assessment period. The group subjected to a simulated industrial distribution route and handling procedures of commercial retailed cheese exhibited the highest level of oxygen detected on every day examined and experienced the highest rate of package failure. The study concluded that fluctuating storage conditions, product movement associated with distribution activities, and the possible presence of cheese-derived contaminants such as calcium lactate crystals were chief contributors to package failure.

  14. An Assessment of the Influence of the Industry Distribution Chain on the Oxygen Levels in Commercial Modified Atmosphere Packaged Cheddar Cheese Using Non-Destructive Oxygen Sensor Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O' Callaghan, Karen A M; Papkovsky, Dmitri B; Kerry, Joseph P

    2016-06-20

    The establishment and control of oxygen levels in packs of oxygen-sensitive food products such as cheese is imperative in order to maintain product quality over a determined shelf life. Oxygen sensors quantify oxygen concentrations within packaging using a reversible optical measurement process, and this non-destructive nature ensures the entire supply chain can be monitored and can assist in pinpointing negative issues pertaining to product packaging. This study was carried out in a commercial cheese packaging plant and involved the insertion of 768 sensors into 384 flow-wrapped cheese packs (two sensors per pack) that were flushed with 100% carbon dioxide prior to sealing. The cheese blocks were randomly assigned to two different storage groups to assess the effects of package quality, packaging process efficiency, and handling and distribution on package containment. Results demonstrated that oxygen levels increased in both experimental groups examined over the 30-day assessment period. The group subjected to a simulated industrial distribution route and handling procedures of commercial retailed cheese exhibited the highest level of oxygen detected on every day examined and experienced the highest rate of package failure. The study concluded that fluctuating storage conditions, product movement associated with distribution activities, and the possible presence of cheese-derived contaminants such as calcium lactate crystals were chief contributors to package failure.

  15. Integration of antimicrobial pectin-based edible coating and active modified atmosphere packaging to preserve the quality and microbial safety of fresh-cut persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb. cv. Rojo Brillante).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchís, Elena; Ghidelli, Christian; Sheth, Chirag C; Mateos, Milagros; Palou, Lluís; Pérez-Gago, María B

    2017-01-01

    The greatest hurdle to the commercial marketing of fresh-cut fruits is related to their higher susceptibility to enzymatic browning, tissue softening, and microbial growth. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of a pectin-based edible coating and low oxygen modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) to control enzymatic browning and reduce microbial growth of fresh-cut 'Rojo Brillante' persimmon. The survival of Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes artificially inoculated on fresh-cut fruit was also assessed. The pectin coating was amended with 500 IU mL(-1) nisin (NI) as antimicrobial agent and 10 g kg(-1) citric acid and 10 g kg(-1) calcium chloride as anti-browning and firming agents, respectively. Persimmon slices were dipped in the coating or in water (control) and packed under 5 kPa O2 (MAP) or in ambient atmosphere for up to 9 days at 5 °C. Microbial growth, package gas composition, colour, firmness, polyphenol oxidase activity, visual quality and overall sensory flavour of persimmon slices were measured during storage. Coating application combined with active MAP significantly reduced the CO2 emission and O2 consumption in the package. The coating was effective in reducing browning and also inhibited the growth of mesophilic aerobic bacteria. Coating also reduced the populations of E. coli, S. enteritidis and L. monocytogenes. The combination of the pectin-based edible coating and active MAP proved to be the most effective treatment to maintain the sensory and microbiological quality of persimmon slices for more than 9 days of storage. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. 真空、空气和气调包装对冷藏鱼糜制品品质的影响%Influence of vacuum packaging, air packaging and modified atmosphere packaging on the quality of refrigerated surimi-based product

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    励建荣; 刘永吉; 朱军莉; 张旭光; 傅俏; 赵羽; 周小敏; 李钰金

    2011-01-01

    为研究真空、空气和气调3种不同包装方式对冷藏鱼糜制品品质的影响,以鱼糜制品中的鱼丸为对象,通过测定鱼丸在(3±0.5)℃冷藏期间微生物的种类和数量、理化指标和感官指标的变化情况,评价真空包装(vacuum packaging,VP)、空气包装(Air)、气调包装(MI,50%CO2+50%N2;M2,75%CO2+25%N2)对鱼丸品质的影响.结果表明,空气包装和真空包装鱼丸中的优势腐败菌是微球菌属、明亮发光杆菌和乳酸菌属,其次是假单胞菌和酵母菌.75%CO2+25%N2和50%CO2+50%N2的气调包装鱼丸中主要的优势腐败菌是明亮发光杆菌和乳酸菌属,其次是微球菌属.与空气包装和真空包装相比,75%CO2+25%N2和50%CO2+50%N2的气调包装完全抑制了酵母菌、假单胞菌的生长.75%CO2+25%N2和50%CO2+50%N2的气调包装比真空包装和空气包装更有利于抑制鱼丸中微生物的生长和TVB-N值的增加,保持pH、白度和感官品质的稳定,延长鱼丸的货架期.在(3±0.5)℃冷藏条件下不同包装对鱼丸品质的保持效果好坏依次为M2,75%CO2+25%N2>M1,50%CO2+50%N2>VP>Air,其对应的货架期分别为49、42、21和14 d.%Influences of vacuum packaging ( VP), air packaging and modified atmosphere packaging ( Ml, 50% CO2 +50% N2 ;M2,75% CO2 +25% N2 )on the quality of surimi-based product fish balls were studied in refrigeration ( 3 ± 0.5 ) ℃ storage.Microbiological ( total viable counts, Micrococcus, Photobacterium phosphoreurn, lactic acid bacteria, Pseudomonas and Saccharornyces)analysis, chemical and physical indices (pH, TVB-N, whiteness, hardness, springiness and chewiness)test and sensory evaluation were performed.The microbiological analysis results showed that the dominant microbial floras of the fish balls were Micrococcus, Photobacterium phosphoreurn and lactic acid bacteria, and the secondary floras were Pseudornonas, Saccharomyces under air packaging or vacuum packaging.Photobacterium phosphoreum and

  17. Research on preservation effects of ozone treatment combined with modified atmosphere packaging of fresh-cut vegetable%臭氧协同气调包装对鲜切叶菜的保鲜作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华璐云; 雷桥; 谢晶

    2012-01-01

    采用臭氧水处理鲜切大白菜,并进行气调包装贮藏,通过正交实验法分析相关生理指标与保鲜效果,主要研究了4℃贮藏期间菌落总数、失重率、细胞膜透性、多酚氧化酶活性、VC含量和感官品质的变化。实验结果显示:臭氧水处理结合气调包装能有效控制微生物数量,保护了细胞膜透性及降低了VC含量的损失,并对多酚氧化酶有抑制作用,感官品质优良,可使鲜切白菜在4℃条件下保藏至20d以上。极差分析表明:优化的工艺参数为1.44mg/L的臭氧水处理5min协同5%O2/20%CO2/75%N2的气调包装。%Physiological indexes and preservation effects of fresh cut cabbage treated with ozone water combined with modified atmosphere packaging were studied.Analysis included total bacteria counts,weight loss rate,membrane permeability,PPO activity,VC content and sensory qualities during storage at 4℃.Results indicated that ozone treatment combined with modified atmosphere packaging was effective in controlling the total bacteria counts and protecting membrane permeability,and decreasing the loss of VC content and PPO activity.The shelf-life of fresh-cut cabbage was more than 20 days at 4℃ with better sensory qualities.The optimized preservation conditions by range analysis were as follows:treating fresh-cut cabbage with 1.44mg/L ozone for 5min and packing with 5% O2/20% CO2/75% N2.

  18. Studied on the Best Conditions of Fresh-cut Sweet Peppers Storage with Modified Atmosphere Packaging%气调包装保鲜鲜切甜椒最优条件的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高元元

    2012-01-01

    鲜切果蔬具有品质新鲜、食用方便、营养丰富等特点.其生产过程不进行剧烈的加热灭菌和杀酶防褐等处理,且产品包装时不是绝氧的,故产品是“新鲜”的.与原始性状的果蔬相比,它既新鲜洁净又方便省时,具有广阔的发展前途.为了提高鲜切甜椒的贮藏保鲜品质.根据包装袋厚度、温度和装载量三个因素设计正交试验表,通过感官评定、褐变指数、货架期实验得出气调包装保鲜鲜切甜椒的最佳组合.实验表明,最好的组合为0.02mmPE袋(30×40cm),5℃,200g装载量,使鲜切甜椒的货架期达到258h,为实验中的最高值.为鲜切甜椒气调包装保鲜提供了一种简便易行的方法,而且为气调包装在其它鲜切果蔬保鲜方面实现产业化开发应用提供理论和实践的依据.%Fresh-cut fruits and vegetables are charactered by good fresh quality and eating convenience with rich nutrition. Its production process doesn't carry on fierce heated up antiseptic and killed the enzyme to inhibit browning and so on, also when product packaging is not certainly the oxygen isolation, therefore the product is "fresh". Through the comparison with the original characters of fruits and vegetables, they were both fresh and facilitation time-saving, and had a broad development future. It was shown in this study that the quality of fresh-cut sweet peppers was enhanced by storing at PE films. The organoleptic evaluation, browning index and shelf life were evaluated. Through the experiment the best condition of modified atmosphere packaging was obtained which maintained freshness of fresh-cut sweet peppers. The experiment indicated that, the best condition was the 0.02mm PE film (30x40cm), 5℃, 200g packaging capacity. Fresh-cut sweet peppers' shelf-life to achieve 258h was maximum in experiment. The research provided one method which was simple and easy for fresh-cut sweet peppers' modified atmosphere packaging, and supplied the

  19. Effects of High Oxygen Modified Atmosphere Packaging and Vacuum Packaging on Water-Holding Capacity and Lipid Oxidation of Porcine Longissimus dorsi during Chilled Storage%高氧气调包装和真空包装对冷鲜肉贮藏过程中保水性和脂质氧化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁璐; 高峰; 周光宏

    2012-01-01

    研究高氧气调包装(80%氧气和20%二氧化碳)和真空包装对冷鲜猪肉保水性的影响。测定不同贮藏时间下的肉样汁液流失率、蒸煮损失、水分分布情况、MDA水平和磷脂酶Az活性,并对各指标之间进行相关性分析。结果表明:在贮藏前6d,高氧气调包装组的汁液流失率、蒸煮损失、MDA水平和磷脂酶Az活性均低于真空包装组;而在第9天时,高氧气调包装组的MDA水平和磷脂酶Az活性显著高于真空包装组(P〈0.05);MDA水平与汁液流失率、蒸煮损失、nz面积比例以及磷脂酶Az活性之间的相关性分别为0.642、-0.521、-0.987、0.786,均达到极显著水平(P〈0.01)。因此,在对冷鲜肉进行短时间贮藏时,高氧气调包装的冷鲜肉的保水性优于真空包装,不同的包装方式能够通过影响冷鲜肉的脂肪氧化水平和磷脂酶活性进而影响其保水性。%The effects of high-oxygen modified atmosphere packaging (80% O2 + 20% C02) and vacuum packaging on the water- holding capacity of porcine Longissimus dorsi were investigated. Drip loss, cooking loss, water distribution, MDA, phospholipase A2 activity were measured and their correlations were analyzed. Vacuum packaging could result in reduced water-holding capacity, and increased MDA content and phospholipase A2 activity on the 65 day. High-oxygen modified atmosphere packaging provided higher MDA content and phospholipase A2 activity than vacuum packaging on the 95 day. The correlation coefficients of MDA with drip loss, cooking loss and T22 area ratio were 0.642, -0.521, - 0.987 and 0.786, respectively. Therefore, high-oxygen modified atmosphere packaging is a better system than vacuum packaging and can provide longer shelf life. The better system can affect the water-holding capacity of pork by influencing lipid oxidation and phospholipase A2 activity.

  20. Effect of Modified Atmosphere Packaging on Microbiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    phrases: Modified atmosphere packaging, polypropylene, low density polyethylene ..... data from two packs pre treatment; mean separation by Duncan's Multiple Range Test at value 1%. ..... communities of lrltltiopia. ltlast Africa Medical. Journal ...

  1. The C-Cat Wordnet Package: An Open Source Package for modifying andapplying Wordnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, K; Huang, T; Buttler, D

    2011-09-16

    We present the C-Cat Wordnet package, an open source library for using and modifying Wordnet. The package includes four key features: an API for modifying Synsets; implementations of standard similarity metrics, implementations of well known Word Sense Disambiguation algorithms, and an implementation of the Castanet algorithm. The library is easily extendible and usable in many runtime environments. We demonstrate it's use on two standard Word Sense Disambiguation tasks and apply the Castanet algorithm to a corpus.

  2. Use of modified atmosphere in seafood preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcilene C. Heidmann Soccol

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Fish production has increased in Brazil, mainly the fresh-water aquaculture. However, refrigerated fish presents a relatively short shelf-life (approximately 12 days. In view of the increasing demand for fresh products, there is the need of shelf-life lengthening through a combination of methods in order to minimally expose the product to adverse conditions. The use of the modified atmosphere packaging presents the following advantages: lengthening of the products' shelf-life by 50 to 400%, reduction of economic losses, cost reductions by distributing the product over great distances with the need of fewer shipments and the supply of a better quality product. The purpose of this work was to review and discuss the major effects of the modified-atmosphere packaging, especially carbon dioxide (CO2, on seafood preservation, as well as on the survival and growth of seafood pathogenic organisms.A produção de pescado vem crescendo no Brasil, principalmente a piscicultura de água doce, porém o pescado refrigerado tem uma vida útil relativamente pequena, cerca de 12 dias, e a demanda de produtos frescos é crescente, havendo, portanto, a necessidade de aumentar a vida útil destes, através da utilização de processos combinados, que exponham o mínimo possível o produto a condições adversas. O uso de embalagens com atmosfera modificada têm como vantagens potenciais: aumento da vida útil de 50 a 400%; redução de perdas econômicas; distribuição dos produtos a longas distâncias e com poucas remessas, diminuindo os custos; além do fornecimento de produtos de qualidade. Esta revisão teve como objetivo discutir os efeitos da atmosfera modificada na conservação do pescado, principalmente CO2, sobre o crescimento e sobrevivência de patógenos de origem alimentar.

  3. Modified atmosphere packaging extending the storage life of 'douradão' peach Uso de atmosfera modificada para extender o período de estocagem de pêssegos 'douradão'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Regina Radomille de Santana

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available 'Douradão' peach is a perishable product and when cold stored is subject to chilling injury. The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP and cold storage on quality and storage life of these peaches. Fruits were packed in polypropylene (PP trays and placed inside low density polyethylene (LDPE bags (30, 50, 60, 75 μm thickness with active modified atmosphere (10 kPa CO2 + 1.5kPa O2, balance N2. The control was made with peaches held in nonwrapped PP trays. Fruits were kept at 1 ± 1 °C and 90 ± 5% relative humidity (RH for 28 days and CO2 and O2 within packages was monitored every two days. After 14, 21 and 28 days, samples were withdrawn from MAP and kept in air at 25 ± 1 °C and 90 ± 5% RH for ripening. On the day of removal from the cold storage and after 4 days, peaches were evaluated for weight loss, decay incidence, flesh firmness, woolliness incidence, soluble solids content (SSC, titratable acidity (TA and juice content. The results showed that MAP had influence on reducing weight loss and prevented postharvest decay. MAP of 1-2 kPa O2 and 3-6 kPa CO2 at 1 °C (from 50 and 60 μm LDPE films were effective for keeping good quality of 'Douradão' peaches during 28 days of storage, the ripe fruits showed reduced incidence of woolliness, adequate juiciness and flesh firmness. Packages of 30 and 75 μm LDPE films were ineffective for reducing woolliness during cold storage. MAP fruits showed lower SSC and no relevant effect on TA. Control fruits did not present marketable conditions after 14 days of cold storage.RESUMO O pêssego 'Douradão' é um produto perecível e quando armazenado sob refrigeração está sujeito à injúria pelo frio, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da embalagem de atmosfera modificada (AM na qualidade e na extensão da vida de estocagem destes pêssegos refrigerados. Os frutos foram acondicionados em bandejas de polipropileno (PP e colocados

  4. QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF EGGS PACKED UNDER MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Giampietro-Ganeco

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Eggs are perishable foods and lose quality quickly if not stored properly. From the moment of posture to the marketing of egg, quality loss occurs through gas exchange and water through the pores of the shell with the external environment and thus, studies involving modified atmosphere packaging are extremely important. The aim of the present study is to assess the internal quality of eggs packed under modified atmosphere and stored at room temperature. Six hundred and twelve fresh commercial eggs from 38-week old Hisex White laying hens were used. The present study was conducted in a completely randomized experimental design in a 4 x 4 + 1 factorial arrangement [vacuum, vacuum with oxygen gas (O2 absorbent, vacuum with oxygen gas (O2 and carbon dioxide (CO2 absorbents, vacuum with oxygen gas (O2 absorbent and carbon dioxide (CO2 gas generator; storage times (7, 14, 21 and 28 days, control group (fresh eggs], with three repetitions (12 eggs each. The following factors were assessed: weight maintenance during storage; Haugh unit; color and yolk index. The modified atmosphere packaging maintained the weight of the eggs during a period of 28 days. Vacuum packaging with O2 absorbent and CO2 gas generator was more efficient in maintenance of egg quality, based on the values ​​of Haugh unit and yolk index. The luminosity of the yolk was preserved during the 28 storage days in all of the packaging types used. The vacuum packaging with O2 gas absorbent and CO2 gas generator provide an increase in internal egg quality.

  5. 薄膜包装限气贮藏在李果实上的保鲜效果%Effects of Modified Atmosphere Packaging Storage on Fresh-keeping of Plum Fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡花丽; 李鹏霞; 王毓宁; 王炜

    2011-01-01

    The influence of different modified atmosphere packaging(MAP) on storage quality in ‘ Friar’ and ‘Angeleno’ plum stored at (0±0. 5) ℃ was investigated. The results showed that treatments with polyethylene film could inhibit respiratory rate and ethylene production, alleviate the reduction of firmness, soluble solids content (SSC) and titratable acid content (TA) , and reduce rot symptom of ‘Friar’ plum fruit in comparison with CK. Treatments of polyvinylchlorid (thickness 0. 03 mm) and polyethylene (thickness 0. 03 mm) films could reduce rot symptom of ‘Angeleno’ plum, while the treatment of polyvinylchlorid (thickness 0. 04 mm) aggravated rot symptom. Effect of the three types of MAP on respiratory rate, ethylene production and firmness of ‘Angeleno’ plum were not significant in comparison with CK. Effects of polyvinylchlorid (thickness 0. 04 mm) and polyethylene film (thickness 0. 03 mm) treatments on SSC of ‘Angeleno’ plum were not significant, but the SSC reduction was accelerated by polyvinylchlorid (thickness 0. 03 mm) , while this treatment could alleviate TA reduction of ‘Angeleno’ plum. Therefore, we believed polyethylene (thickness 0. 03 mm) package,namely combine the O2 (16. 0 ±0. 31) % and CO2 (4. 371 ±0. 17) % , was suitable for storage and freshness of ‘Friar’ plum. However, three types of MAP were not ideal for the storage of ‘ Angeleno’plum.%研究了不同薄膜气调包装(0.03 mm PVC、O.04 mm PVC和0.03 mm PE)对'黑宝石'和'安哥诺'李的保鲜效果.结果表明,与对照相比,PE薄膜气调处理可减弱'黑宝石'李果实的呼吸速率和乙烯释放量,缓解其硬度、可溶性固形物(SSC)和可滴定酸(TA)含量的下降,并减轻其腐烂症状.0.03 mm PVC和PE薄膜气调处理可降低'安哥诺'李的腐烂症状,而0.04 mm PVC包装处理加重了果实的腐烂;与对照相比,这3种薄膜气调包装对'安哥诺'李果实呼吸速率、乙烯释放量

  6. Establishment of growth probability model for Pseudomonas spp.in chilled pork with modified atmosphere package%气调包装冷却猪肉中假单胞菌生长概率模型的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱静; 董庆利; 程飞

    2012-01-01

    In order to extend the shelf life of chilled pock and to provide reference for the choice of atmosphere package, this study simulated the real production, and established the growth probability model of Pseudomonas spp. in chilled pork with atmosphere modified packaged at (4±1)℃. Logistic model was used to establish the growth/non-growth boundary of Pseudomonas spp. in different percentage of CO2. The disinfected pock was inoculated with Pseudomonas spp., which is one kind of specific spoilage organisms of the chilled pock. The results indicated that without CO2 or with low percentage of CO2, the growth probability of Pseudomonas spp. increased with the increase of percentage of C2or the initial inoculation. With high percentage of CO2, the growth probability of Pseudomonas spp. was low, and not sensitive to the percentage of O2, and initial inoculation. The Logistic model performed well, which determination coefficient (r2) of the model was higher than 0.85, the determination coefficient (R2) of observed data and predicted data were all higher than 0.95, and the predicted accuracy was higher than 93.3%. Four predicted conditions of the probability model were defined as "effective-safe", "effective-dangerous", "ineffective-safe", "ineffective-dangerous" in this paper, which were used to evaluate the validity of the model and to ensure the safe choice of the atmosphere condition. The results can provide technological references for the choice of atmosphere condition in the chilled pock production.%为了延长冷却猪肉的货架期,以及为其气调包装组分选择提供依据,该文模拟实际生产情况,将气调保鲜冷却猪肉中优势腐败菌之一的假单胞菌接种到灭菌肉上,在(4±1)℃下,运用Logistic方程构建不同气调CO2比例下假单胞菌的生长概率模型,建立生长/不生长边界曲线,研究气调保鲜冷却猪肉中假单胞菌的生长概率.研究表明,假单胞菌在无CO2或低CO2体积分数的情况下,O2

  7. Packaging design criteria modified fuel spacer burial box. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, P.F.

    1994-09-13

    Various Hanford facilities must transfer large radioactively contaminated items to burial/storage. Presently, there are eighteen Fuel Spacer Burial Boxes (FSBBs) available on the Hanford Site for transport of such items. Previously, the FSBBS were transported from a rail car to the burial trench via a drag-off operation. To allow for the lifting of the boxes into the burial trench, it will be necessary to improve the packagings lifting attachments and provide structural reinforcement. Additional safety improvements to the packaging system will be provided by the addition of a positive closure system and package ventilation. FSBBs that are modified in such a manner are referred to as Modified Fuel Spacer Burial Boxes (MFSBs). The criteria provided by this PDC will be used to demonstrate that the transfer of the MFSB will provide an equivalent degree of safety as would be provided by a package meeting offsite transportation requirements. This fulfills the onsite transportation safety requirements implemented in WHC-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping. A Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) will be prepared to evaluate the safety of the transfer operation. Approval of the SARP is required to authorize transfer. Criteria are also established to ensure burial requirements are met.

  8. Salted and dried Cod preserved by vacuum and modified atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Rodrigues

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Temperatures higher than 20ºC can boost the growth, on the salted and dried cod surface, of bacteria that present a red pigment (Rodrigues et al., 2003; Rodrigues et al., 2005. These organisms, besides the change of the food product appearance, also cause an unpleasant flavor and the product is rejected by the consumers, although does not cause any health concern. Currently, the export of salted and dried cod, to Africa, has increased and a great amount of product is rejected due to the high environmental temperature and the lack of a proper cold chain storage infrastructure. Vacuum packaging, and modified atmosphere packaging have been used for fresh and cooked seafood preservation, but, as far as the authors know, were never used to preserve salted and dried fish. In the present study it was observed the effect of vacuum packaging, packaging with 80%N2:20%CO2 and finally the addition of sodium metabisulfite on the salted and dried cod stored under temperature abuse (15ºC, 25ºC and 35ºC. Accordingly, packaging under vacum and, specially, packaging with 80%N2:20%CO2 successfuly increased the shellife of salted and dried cod . The addition of sodium metabisulfite has increased the shelflife of salted and dried cod preserved at 15ºC, but not of salted and dried cod preserved at 25ºC and 35ºC.

  9. The effects of thyme (Thymus vulgaris) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) essential oils on Brochothrix thermosphacta and on the shelf life of beef packaged in high-oxygen modified atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Agnieszka; Kalemba, Danuta; Krala, Lucjan; Piotrowska, Malgorzata; Czyzowska, Agata

    2012-10-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of thyme (29.4% thymol, 21.6% p-cymene) and rosemary essential oils (27.6% 1,8-cineole, 13.5% limonene, 13.0% β-pinene) against Brochothrix thermosphacta and to establish the feasibility of their use as components of modified atmosphere during beef refrigerated storage. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of thyme oil against B. thermosphacta is 0.05% and that of rosemary oil 0.5%. The MIC values are independent on strain and temperature of growth, however the bactericidal effects are strain dependent. The addition of any of oil at a concentration equal to 2MIC to the modified atmosphere (80% O(2)/20% CO(2)) does not significantly influence the microbial quality of meat. At the same time, such a concentration of the essential oils was considerably detrimental to the organoleptic factors.

  10. Sensory characteristics of 'Douradão' peaches submitted to modified atmosphere packaging Características sensoriais de pêssegos 'Douradão' armazenados sob atmosfera modificada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Regina Radomille de Santana

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The sensory, physical and chemical characteristics of 'Douradão' peaches cold stored in different modified atmosphere packaging (LDPE bags of 30, 50, 60, 75µm thickness were studied. After 14, 21 and 28 days of cold storage (1 ± 1 ºC and 90 ± 5% RH, samples were withdrawn from MAP and kept during 4 days in ambient air for ripening. Descriptive terminology and sensory profile of the peaches were developed by methodology based on the Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA. The assessors consensually defined the sensory descriptors, their respective reference materials and the descriptive evaluation ballot. Fourteen individuals were selected as judges based on their discrimination capacity and reproducibility. Seven descriptors were generated showing similarities and differences among the samples. The data were analysed by ANOVA, Tukey test and Principal Component Analysis (PCA. The atmospheres that developed inside the different packaging materials during cold storage differed significantly. The PCA showed that MA50 and MA60 treatments were more characterized by the fresh peach flavour, fresh appearance, juiciness and flesh firmness, and were effective for keeping good quality of 'Douradão' peaches during 28 d of cold storage. The Control and MA30 treatments were characterized by the mealiness, the MA75 treatment showed lower intensity for all attributes evaluated and they were ineffective to maintain good quality of the fruits during cold storage. Higher correlation coefficients (positive were found between fresh appearance and flesh firmness (0.95, fresh appearance and juiciness (0.97, ratio and intensity of fresh peach smell (0.81, as well as higher correlation coefficients (negative between Hue angle and intensity of yellow colour (-0.91, fresh appearance and mealiness (-0.92, juiciness and mealiness (-0.95, firmness and mealiness (-0.94.Foram avaliadas as características sensoriais, físicas e químicas de pêssegos 'Dourad

  11. 生鲜猪肉气调包装保鲜调理工艺优化%Optimization of Marinade Composition of Prepared Fresh Pork Packaged under Modified Atmosphere (MAP)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐静; 张迎阳; 吴海舟; 黎良浩; 章建浩

    2014-01-01

    以鲜猪肉为原料,以料酒、复合香辛料、食盐的添加为试验因素,采用响应曲面试验优化冷鲜猪肉气调包装调理工艺。结果表明:在冷鲜猪肉的调理过程中,不同香辛料及食盐能有效的调理产品的理化品质,并能有效的抑制产品的微生物增长;料酒、复合香辛料、食盐的添加对调理猪肉气调包装后的菌落总数、色差等理化品质有显著作用(P<0.05);通过响应曲面优化法优化调理工艺中,盐分的添加分别与料酒和复合香辛料的添加对产品微生物总量有显著交互作用(P<0.05);优化得到调理猪肉最优工艺为料酒添加量6.70%、复合香辛料添加量1.20%、食盐添加量1.29%。在此条件下得到产品菌落总数为4.312 lg(CFU/g),可用于低温生鲜猪肉的调理生产。%A marinade composed mainly of cooking wine, complex spices and salt was developed for prepared fresh pork packaged under modified atmosphere (MAP). The three ingredients were optimized by response surface methodology. The results showed that both spices and salt were able to improve the physical and chemical qualities of products and effectively inhibit microbial growth. Each of these three ingredients had a significant effect on total bacterial count, color and other properties of MAP prepared pork (P<0.05). The response surface analysis indicated that the interactions of salts with cooking wine and with complex spices had a significant effect on the total number of colonies (P<0.05). The optimal marinade consisted of 6.70%cooking wine, 1.20%complex spices and 1.29%salt. The total number of colonies was 4.312 lg(CFU/g) using this marinade, suggesting its applicability for the production of low-temperature prepared pork.

  12. Modified Atmosphere Packaging Combined with Ozonated Water-Ethanol Coalition Treatment for Keeping Chilled Fresh Pork Quality%臭氧水-乙醇联合预处理结合MAP保鲜冷鲜猪肉研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李益恩; 刘翔; 游敬刚; 陈功; 潘红梅; 郭洪祥; 柏红梅

    2014-01-01

    Effects of modified atmosphere packaging (80% CO2+20% O2)combined with ozonated water-ethanol treatment on keeping chilled fresh pork quality were studied. Chilled fresh pork were treated by ozonated water in 5,8,12,15,20ppm separately,and disinfected by ethanol (75%). After being treated by ozonated water-ethanol, it was showed that original bacteria count in chilled fresh pork was evidently reduced. TVB-N value was slowed pro-moting and sensory quality was well controlled. Based on the evaluation of effect of ozonated water-ethanol treat-ment potency on sensory quality, total bacteria count, TVB-N value, peroxide number and water holding capacity of the chilled fresh pork during MAP storage, it could be concluded that 12ppm ozonated water-ethanol(75%) coalition treatment was the best one for keeping the chilled fresh pork quality. Shelf life of the chilled fresh pork could be extended 7 to 13 days, compared with the untreated group(CK group).%本文研究了臭氧水-乙醇(75%)联合预处理结合气调包装(MAP,80% O2+20% CO2)[1]用于冷鲜猪肉的保鲜效果。通过以未经过臭氧水-乙醇(75%)预处理的MAP做对照组,试验研究了臭氧水-乙醇(75%)联合预处理:浓度分别为5ppm,8ppm,12ppm,15ppm,20ppm的臭氧水进行关键工序冲洗,联合乙醇(75%)进行入库前表面喷洒的不同组合方式对冷鲜猪肉气调保鲜期的影响。结果表明:臭氧水-乙醇(75%)预处理能有效减少冷鲜猪肉原始的带菌数,减缓贮藏期间细菌增殖速率和TVB-N值的增加速度,以及减缓MAP冷鲜猪肉感官品质的下降。综合分析臭氧水-乙醇(75%)联合预处理对冷鲜猪肉贮藏期间感官品质、肌肉持水力、菌落总数、TVB-N 值的影响,确定以12ppm臭氧水-乙醇(75%)联合预处理这一组合效果最好,与同条件单一乙醇(75%)预处理对照组比较,贮藏货架期延长7-13d。

  13. Low Temperature and Modified Atmosphere: Hurdles for Antibiotic Resistance Transfer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meervenne, Eva; Van Coillie, Els; Van Weyenberg, Stephanie; Boon, Nico; Herman, Lieve; Devlieghere, Frank

    2015-12-01

    Food is an important dissemination route for antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Factors used during food production and preservation may contribute to the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes, but research on this subject is scarce. In this study, the effect of temperature (7 to 37°C) and modified atmosphere packaging (air, 50% CO2-50% N2, and 100% N2) on antibiotic resistance transfer from Lactobacillus sakei subsp. sakei to Listeria monocytogenes was evaluated. Filter mating was performed on nonselective agar plates with high-density inocula. A more realistic setup was created by performing modified atmosphere experiments on cooked ham using high-density and low-density inocula. Plasmid transfer was observed between 10 and 37°C, with plasmid transfer also observed at 7°C during a prolonged incubation period. When high-density inocula were used, transconjugants were detected, both on agar plates and cooked ham, under the three atmospheres (air, 50% CO2-50% N2, and 100% N2) at 7°C. This yielded a median transfer ratio (number of transconjugants/number of recipients) with an order of magnitude of 10(-4) to 10(-6). With low-density inocula, transfer was only detected under the 100% N2 atmosphere after 10-day incubation at 7°C, yielding a transfer ratio of 10(-5). Under this condition, the highest bacterial density was obtained. The results indicate that low temperature and modified atmosphere packaging, two important hurdles in the food industry, do not necessarily prevent plasmid transfer from Lactobacillus sakei subsp. sakei to Listeria monocytogenes.

  14. Effects of packaging atmospheres on beef instrumental tenderness, fresh color stability, and internal cooked color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobbel, J P; Dikeman, M E; Hunt, M C; Milliken, G A

    2008-05-01

    Fresh meat color is a major factor influencing the purchase of meat products by consumers, whereas tenderness is the primary trait determining overall eating satisfaction of consumers. The objectives of this research were to determine the effects of packaging atmosphere on fresh beef color stability, cooked color, and tenderness. Longissimus lumborum muscles (n = 14 pairs) from USDA Select, A-maturity carcasses were assigned to either 14-d tenderness measurement or to display and then to 18-d [80% O(2), 20% CO(2) (HiO(2)) modified atmosphere packaging (MAP)] or 28-d [vacuum package (VP) and ultra low (ULO(2)) plus CO MAP blends] tenderness measurement. Loins were then fabricated on d 7 postmortem into 2.54-cm-thick steaks. Steaks 8 to 10 caudal to the first 7 steaks were bisected, assigned to a packaging treatment, and used for internal cooked color. One full steak was used for initial tenderness. Packaging treatments were as follows: vacuum-packaging (VP); 80% O(2), 20% CO(2) (HiO(2)); 0.4% CO, 35% CO(2), 64.6%N(2) (ULO(2)CO); 0.4% CO, 99.6% CO(2) (ULO(2)COCO(2)); 0.4% CO, 99.6% N(2) (ULO(2)CON(2)); or 0.4% CO, 99.6% Ar (ULO(2)COAr). Steaks packaged in HiO(2) MAP were in dark storage (2 degrees C) for 4 d, and all other steaks were in dark storage for 14 d. Steaks were displayed under fluorescent lighting (2,153 lx; 3,000 K) for 7 d, with instrumental color measured on d 0 and 7 of display. Trained color panelists (n = 10) assigned color scores. Steaks for Warner-Bratzler shear force and cooked color were cooked to 70 degrees C. Steaks packaged in the 4 ULO(2) MAP blends with CO had no change (P > 0.05) or increased (P HiO(2) MAP discolored faster (P 0.05) in Warner-Bratzler shear force on d 14 postmortem. Steaks packaged in HiO(2) MAP were less tender (P HiO(2) had the lowest (P HiO(2) MAP and equal or better tenderness. Packaging atmospheres altered the internal cooked color, with steaks packaged in HiO(2) MAP exhibiting premature browning.

  15. Effect of selected plant essential oils or their constituents and modified atmosphere packaging on the radiosensitivity of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella typhi in ground beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgis, M; Borsa, J; Millette, M; Salmieri, S; Lacroix, M

    2008-03-01

    Twenty-six different essential oils were tested for their efficiency to increase the relative radiosensitivity of Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhi in medium-fat ground beef (23% fat). Ground beef was inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 or Salmonella (10(6) CFU/g), and each essential oil or one of their main constituents was added separately at a concentration of 0.5% (wt/wt). Meat samples (10 g) were packed under air or under modified atmosphere and irradiated at doses from 0 to 1 kGy for the determination of the D10-value of E. coli O157:H7, and from 0 to 1.75 kGy for the determination of the D10-value of Salmonella Typhi. Depending on the compound tested, the relative radiation sensitivity increased from 1 to 3.57 for E. coli O157:H7 and from 1 to 3.26 for Salmonella Typhi. Addition of essential oils or their constituents before irradiation also reduced the irradiation dose needed to eliminate both pathogens. In the presence of Chinese cinnamon or Spanish oregano essential oils, the minimum doses required to eliminate the bacteria were reduced from 1.2 to 0.35 and from 1.4 to 0.5 for E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhi, respectively. Cinnamon, oregano, and mustard essential oils were the most effective radiosensitizers.

  16. Biological control of botrytis cinerea growth on apples stored in modified atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dock, Lise Lotte; Nielsen, Per Væggemose; Floros, John D.

    1998-01-01

    The combined effect of modified-atmosphere packaging and theapplication of a bacterial antagonist (Erwinia sp.) on Botrytiscinerea growth on apples (cv. 'Golden Delicious') was investigated.Inoculated apples were stored in polyethylene bags at 5 degrees C. Theinitial gas composition in each bag w...

  17. Characterization by culture-dependent and culture-1 independent methods of the 2 bacterial population of suckling-lamb packaged in different atmospheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oses, S.M.; Diez, A.M.; Melero, B.; Luning, P.A.; Jaime, I.; Rovira, J.

    2013-01-01

    This study offers insight into the dynamics of bacterial populations in fresh cuts of suckling lamb under four different atmospheric conditions: air (A), and three Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP) environments, 15%O2/30%CO2/55%N2 (C, commercial), 70%O2/30%CO2 (O), and 15%O2/85%CO2 (H) for 18

  18. Characterization by culture-dependent and culture-1 independent methods of the 2 bacterial population of suckling-lamb packaged in different atmospheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oses, S.M.; Diez, A.M.; Melero, B.; Luning, P.A.; Jaime, I.; Rovira, J.

    2013-01-01

    This study offers insight into the dynamics of bacterial populations in fresh cuts of suckling lamb under four different atmospheric conditions: air (A), and three Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP) environments, 15%O2/30%CO2/55%N2 (C, commercial), 70%O2/30%CO2 (O), and 15%O2/85%CO2 (H) for 18 days

  19. Use of Optical Oxygen Sensors in Non-Destructively Determining the Levels of Oxygen Present in Combined Vacuum and Modified Atmosphere Packaged Pre-Cooked Convenience-Style Foods and the Use of Ethanol Emitters to Extend Product Shelf-Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas W. Hempel

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available O2 sensors were used to non-destructively monitor O2 levels in commercially packed pre-cooked, convenience modified atmosphere packaging (MAP foods. A substantial level of O2 (>15% was present in packs resulting in a shorter than expected shelf-life, where the primary spoilage mechanism was found to be mould. Various combinations of vacuum (0–0.6 MPa and gas flush (0.02–0.03 MPa (30% CO2/70% N2 settings were assessed as treatments that result in the desired shelf-life (28 days. This was achieved using the combined treatment of vacuum 0.35 MPa and gas flush 0.02 MPa which resulted in a reduction of 6%–9% O2 in all three samples (battered sausages (BS, bacon slices (BA, and meat and potato pies (PP. Reduced O2 levels reflect the microbial quality of products, which has been successfully reduced. Duplicate samples of all product packs were produced using ethanol emitters (EE to see if shelf-life could be further extended. Results showed a further improvement in shelf-life to 35 days. Sensory analysis showed that ethanol flavour and aroma was not perceived by panellists in two of the three products assessed. This study demonstrates how smart packaging technologies, both intelligent and active, can be used to assist in the modification of conventional packaging systems in order to enhance product quality and safety and through the extension of product shelf-life.

  20. Marketability of ready-to-eat cactus pear as affected by temperature and modified atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cefola, Maria; Renna, Massimiliano; Pace, Bernardo

    2014-01-01

    In order to increase the diffusion of cactus pear fruits, in this study, the proper maturity index for peeling and processing them as ready-to-eat product was evaluated and characterized. Thereafter, the effects of different storage temperatures and modified atmosphere conditions on the marketability of ready-to-eat cactus pear were studied. The storage of ready-to-eat fruits at 4 °C in both passive (air) and semi-active (10 kPa O2 and 10 kPa CO2) modified atmosphere improved the marketability by 30%, whereas the storage at 8 °C caused a dangerous reduction in O2 partial pressure inside modified atmosphere packages, due to fruits' increased metabolic activity. A very low level of initial microbial growth was detected, while a severe increase in mesophilic and psychrophilic bacteria was shown in control samples at both temperatures during storage; an inhibitory effect of modified atmosphere on microbial growth was also observed. In conclusion, modified atmosphere improved only the marketability of fruits stored at 4 °C; whereas the storage at 8 °C resulted in deleterious effects on the ready-to-eat fruits, whether stored in air or in modified atmosphere.

  1. 冰温结合不同比例氧气气调对冷却肉的保鲜效果%Effect of modified atmosphere package with varying oxygen concentrations combined with controlled freezing-point storage on pork fresh-keeping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢晶; 李建雄; 潘迎捷

    2009-01-01

    试验研究了在冰温基础上结合不同含氧比例气调对冷却猪肉保鲜的影响,试验设置冰温、冷藏(4℃)、真空包装+冰温、20%CO_2+80%O_2(高氧)+冰温、20%CO_2+20%O_2+60%N_2(低氧)+冰温、20%CO_2+80%N_2(无氧)+冰温6个试验组,测定菌落总数、挥发性盐基氮、汁液流失率、保水能力和色差.结果表明:冰温条件下高氧和低氧的菌落总数24 d还未超过冷却肉卫生标准,且两组之间无显著差异(P>0.05);在整个贮藏期内高氧气调和低氧气调可以维持冷却肉的色泽在一个小的范围内变化;高氧气调和低氧气调8 d后汁液流失率显著高于单纯冰温和无氧气调(P<0.05),高氧气调12 d后汁液流失率显著高于低氧气调(P<0.05),同时高氧气调8 d后持水能力显著大于低氧气调(P<0.05).在冰温条件下,80%O_2和20%O_2都能长时间维护冷却肉的色泽,均能较好抑制微生物的增殖,但在汁液流失率、保水能力方面各有优势.%Effect of modified atmosphere packaging with varying oxygen concentrations combined controlled freezing-point storage on pork fresh-keeping was studied. By determining physicochemical parameters such as total plate count, total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N), drip loss, water holding capacity and color, the qualities of pork under controlled freezing-point storage, chill storage, vacuum package+controlled freezing-point storage, 20%CO_2+80%O_2 (high oxygen)+controlled freezing-point storage, 20%CO_2+20%O_2+60%N_2 (low oxygen)+controlled freezing-point storage and 20%CO_2+80%N_2(no oxygen)+controlled freezing-point storage were compared. It showed that total plate count under high oxygen and low oxygen did not exceed the hygiene standard of pork after twenty-four days, and there was no significant difference between them(P>0.05). High oxygen modified atmosphere package(MAP) and low oxygen MAP maintained the color better. The drip losses of high oxygen MAP and low oxygen MAP after eight

  2. Carbon Monoxide Modified Atmosphere Packaging Beef Shelf Life Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Ariani Basyamfar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The combination of O2, CO2, and low concentrations of CO in CO-MAP has repeatedly been shown to increase the shelf-life of red meat products. Concentrations of CO2 of 30% has been shown to slow microbial growth while O2 preserves the natural color of red meat. The addition of low concentrations of CO (<0.4% preserves the color stability of the meat while allowing for lower levels of O2 which reduces the oxidative spoilage of the product. Shelf-life extension of 5 to 10 days above traditional MAP has been seen with CO-MAP technologies. The addition of active/smart films such as antimicrobial films and/or the combination of irradiation further extends the shelf-life of red meat. Undetectable levels of E. coli at storage temperatures as high as 10oC at 28 days have been shown with CO-MAP and irradiation.

  3. Effect of ozone water combined with modified atmosphere packaging on preservation of fresh-cut Hang cabbage%臭氧水清洗结合气调包装对鲜切杭白菜保鲜效果的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷昊; 谢晶; 乔永祥; 张栓栓

    2017-01-01

    以1.8 mg/L臭氧水清洗的鲜切杭白菜为试验材料,研究不同气体组分的气调包装(CK为空气;A为5% O2+5% CO2+90% N2;B为5% O2+10% CO2+85% N2;C为10% O2+5% CO2+85% N2;D为10% O2+10% CO2+80% N2)对鲜切杭白菜保鲜效果的影响.结果表明:B组低氧高二氧化碳的包装能有效地抑制鲜切杭白菜上微生物的生长,保持其较好的感官品质,同时延缓VC、叶绿素及可溶性固形物含量的降低,防止杭白菜过快失水,有效地保证鲜切杭白菜的货架期在15 d以上.%Fresh-cut hang cabbage cleaned by 1.8 mg/L ozone water was selected as the experimental material, the effect of keeping fresh on fresh-cut Hang cabbage was studied by different gas composition modified atmosphere packages, such as CK for air, A for 5% O2+ 5% CO2 +90% N2, B for 5% O2+10% CO2+85% N2, C for 10% O2+5% CO2+85% N2, D for 10% O2+10% CO2+80% N2.It showed that the 5% O2+10% CO2+85% N2, low oxygen and high carbon dioxide packaging could effectively inhibit the growth of microorganisms, keep good sensory quality, and delayed the decreasing of vitamin C, chlorophyll and soluble solids content, prevented the cabbage excessive water loss, which effectively guaranteed the shelf life of fresh-cut Hang cabbage to more than 15 d.

  4. Effects of different packaging atmospheres and injection-enhancement on beef tenderness, sensory attributes, desmin degradation, and display color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobbel, J P; Dikeman, M E; Hunt, M C; Milliken, G A

    2008-10-01

    The objectives were to determine the effects of packaging atmosphere and injection-enhancement on tenderness, sensory traits, desmin degradation, and display color of different beef muscles. Longissimus lumborum (LL; n = 12 pairs), semitendinosus (ST; n = 12 pairs), and triceps brachii (TB; n = 24 pairs; 12 from the same carcasses as the LL and ST and 12 additional pairs) were obtained from the same USDA Select, A-maturity carcasses. On d 7 postmortem, each muscle from one side of the carcass was injection-enhanced, and each muscle from the other side was nonenhanced. Steaks 2.54-cm thick were cut from the muscles and packaged in vacuum packaging (VP), ultra-low oxygen with CO (ULO(2)CO; 0.4% CO/35% CO(2)/69.6% N(2)) modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), or high-oxygen MAP (HiO(2); 80% O(2)/20% CO(2)) and assigned to 14-d tenderness or display followed by 18- or 28-d tenderness measurement. Steaks packaged in HiO(2) MAP were in dark storage (2 degrees C) for 4 d and all other steaks for 14 d. Steaks for Warner-Bratzler shear force, sensory panel (n = 8 trained panelists), and desmin degradation were cooked to 70 degrees C. Steaks were displayed under fluorescent lighting (2,153 lx, 3,000 K) for 7 d. Trained color panelists (n = 10) assigned display color scores. Enhanced steaks had lower (P HiO(2) MAP. The LL and TB were more tender (P HiO(2) MAP were oxidative or rancid. Enhanced steaks had more (P 0.05) by packaging or enhancement. Enhanced steaks were darker (P HiO(2) MAP discolored faster (P HiO(2) MAP.

  5. Ray tracing and refraction in the modified US1976 atmosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werf, SY

    2003-01-01

    A new and flexible ray-tracing procedure for calculating astronomical refraction is outlined and applied to the US1976 standard atmosphere. This atmosphere is generalized to allow for a free choice of the temperature and pressure at sea level, and in this form it has been named the modified US1976

  6. Levels of glutathione and related enzymes in yellowtail fish muscle subjected to ice storage in a modified atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Shota; Song, Xing An; Sakaguchi, Morihiko; Sugawara, Tatsuya; Hirata, Takashi

    2011-09-01

    We investigated the effects of ice storage in a modified atmosphere on levels of glutathione (GSH) and its related enzyme activities, the metmyoglobin to total myoglobin ratio (metMb%), and the K value (a freshness index) of yellowtail fish muscle. GSH in ordinary muscle (fast skeletal muscle) as well as in dark muscle (slow skeletal muscle) stored in air decreased. GSH in those muscles was almost unchanged during storage when packaged with an oxygen absorber or with an oxygen absorber-CO(2) generator. Glutathione disulfide in each type of packaging remained at low concentrations during storage. The GSH peroxidase activities of ordinary muscle and of dark muscle after 7 d of storage in air were lower than when packaged with the oxygen absorber or with the oxygen absorber-CO(2) generator. The GSH reductase (GR) activities of ordinary muscle at the 4th and 7th day of storage when packaged with the oxygen absorber showed a tendency to be lower than when stored in air. The GR activity of dark muscle in each type of packaging method was unchanged during storage. The packaging method did not influence the K values of either the ordinary muscle or the dark muscle during storage. The metMb% of dark muscle when packaged with the oxygen absorber was lower than in the other types of packaging during storage. Therefore, packaging with the oxygen absorber is an effective method to prevent the loss of GSH in fish meat as well as to reduce the discoloration during storage. This study examined whether modified atmosphere packaging preserves the level of GSH, which is unstable to oxidative stress, in fish muscle. The use of an oxygen absorber for packaging can allow us to take in a sufficient amount of the bioactive compound from fish meat after storage as well as fresh fish. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Measurement of the Residual Gases O2 and CO2 in Meat Products Packed in Modified Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Čapla

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, consumers have increased demand for quality and food safety and also rising demand for natural foods without chemical additives. There are many ways to presserve freshness of these products, one of them is modified atmosphere packaging, which can mean elimination and/or replacement surrounding the product before closing it in package with a mixture of gases other than the original ambient air atmosphere. for replacement of atmosphere are generally used three types of gases such as carbon dioxide, oxygen and nitrogen. this type of packaging is often used for meat and meat products, which belongs to foods that are under normal conditions perishable and for increasing the shelf life of meat products are also used various other preservation methods or their combinations. Packaging of meat and meat products in modified atmosphere is usually made with a high content of carbon dioxide, which has good bacteriostatic and fungistatic effect and is also an effective mean for increasing the shelf life of packaged products during storage and sale.

  8. A Consummate Radiative Transfer Package for Studying the Atmosphere and Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, P.; Hu, Y.; Trepte, C. R.; Winker, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    We will present a radiative transfer package based on the successive order of scattering method. This code is capable to calculate the radiation field in turbid media, which can be either the atmosphere-land or atmosphere-ocean coupled systems. The outputs include all four Stokes parameters at arbitrary detector locations and viewing angles in the turbid medium. Both the elastic and inelastic scattering are implemented in the package. This radiative transfer tool has been used in various applications, for instance, generating an aerosol look-up table for atmospheric correction in ocean color remote sensing; retrieving water cloud size distribution using the polarized multi-angle measurements; simulating the OCO2 O2 A band radiance measurement, etc. Our radiative transfer package is a great tool to interpret and predict the measurements from the future polarimeters and multipolarization-state lidars for Earth observing missions.

  9. Inability of non-proteolytic Clostridium botulinum to grow in mussels inoculated via immersion and packaged in high oxygen atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Carter R; Doyle, Michael; Ma, Li

    2015-04-01

    A series of botulism challenge studies were conducted to determine if botulinum toxin would be produced in mussels (Mytilus edulis) inoculated with non-proteolytic Clostridium botulinum spores and held under modified atmosphere (MA) packaging conditions at normal (4 °C) and abusive (12 °C) temperatures. Spore mixtures of six strains of non-proteolytic C. botulinum were introduced into live mussels through immersion in a seawater solution with cultured algae. Mussels were packed in a commercial high-oxygen (60-65% O2) MA-package with a buffer, and also packed under a vacuum. Feeding live mussels cultured algae (10(4) cells/ml) with a C. botulinum spore suspension (10(3) spores/ml) in seawater at 4 °C for 6 h resulted in the uptake of spores into mussel tissue (500/g) and the mussel GI tract (100/g). Under all of the experimental conditions evaluated, none of the fresh mussels became toxic, even after spoilage and in the absence of oxygen. However, control samples using tuna or cooked mussel meats became toxic in the absence of oxygen. Botulinum toxin was not produced in fresh mussels packaged under the MA-packaging conditions evaluated, even at an abusive storage temperature (12 °C) for at least 12 days or at normal storage temperate (4 °C) for at least 21 days, which is beyond their shelf life.

  10. The effect of vacuum packaging and gaseous atmosphere on microbial growth in tripe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göktan, D; Tunçel, G; Unlütürk, A

    1988-01-01

    Changes in bacterial flora of tripe samples, stored at 4°C in air, vacuum packaged or in a CO(2)-enriched atmosphere were studied. Aerobic plate counts showed a rapid increase in samples stored in air reaching a level of 1·6 × 10(9)/g from an initial level of 9·0 × 10(3)/g. The aerobic bacterial population inhibited in both vacuum packed and CO(2)-enriched atmosphere storage. The shelf lives of samples stored in air, under vacuum packaging or in gas mixtures, were 4, 8 and 9 days, respectively. Enterobacteriaceae and anaerobic counts tended to be higher under vacuum storage than in a CO(2)-enriched atmosphere. The numbers of lactic acid-producing bacteria were generally found to be lower under vacuum storage than in gas mixtures.

  11. The influence of controlled atmosphere and vacuum packaging upon chilled pork keeping quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremiah, L E; Gibson, L L; Argnosa, G C

    1995-01-01

    A total of 48 pork loin section (1 kg) with normal inherent muscle quality were utilized to evaluate and compare the effects of a vacuum packaging system and a CO(2) controlled atmosphere packaging system on keeping quality of chilled pork stored at -1·5°C. Results indicated based upon appearance CO(2) packaged porl loin had a storage life of greated than 15 weeks and vacuum packaged pork loid had a storage life of slightly over 12 weeks. However, off-flavor development coinciding with lactic acid bacteria reaching maximum numbers presently restricts the actual storage life of pork loin stored at -1·5°C to 9 weeks in both packaging treatments. Therefore, if microbial contamination on the commercial product can be reduced significantly to prevent spoilage organisms, including lactics, from rapidly growing to maximum numbers, storage life of pork loin at -1·5°C can be extended sufficiently to accomodate all domestic and export applications using either vacuum or CO(2) packaging.

  12. Radiative transfer modeling through terrestrial atmosphere and ocean accounting for inelastic processes: Software package SCIATRAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanov, V. V.; Dinter, T.; Rozanov, A. V.; Wolanin, A.; Bracher, A.; Burrows, J. P.

    2017-06-01

    SCIATRAN is a comprehensive software package which is designed to model radiative transfer processes in the terrestrial atmosphere and ocean in the spectral range from the ultraviolet to the thermal infrared (0.18-40 μm). It accounts for multiple scattering processes, polarization, thermal emission and ocean-atmosphere coupling. The main goal of this paper is to present a recently developed version of SCIATRAN which takes into account accurately inelastic radiative processes in both the atmosphere and the ocean. In the scalar version of the coupled ocean-atmosphere radiative transfer solver presented by Rozanov et al. [61] we have implemented the simulation of the rotational Raman scattering, vibrational Raman scattering, chlorophyll and colored dissolved organic matter fluorescence. In this paper we discuss and explain the numerical methods used in SCIATRAN to solve the scalar radiative transfer equation including trans-spectral processes, and demonstrate how some selected radiative transfer problems are solved using the SCIATRAN package. In addition we present selected comparisons of SCIATRAN simulations with those published benchmark results, independent radiative transfer models, and various measurements from satellite, ground-based, and ship-borne instruments. The extended SCIATRAN software package along with a detailed User's Guide is made available for scientists and students, who are undertaking their own research typically at universities, via the web page of the Institute of Environmental Physics (IUP), University of Bremen: http://www.iup.physik.uni-bremen.de.

  13. Morphological and antibacterial properties of modified paper by PS nanocomposites for packaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Ahmed M; Kamel, S; El-Samahy, M A

    2013-10-15

    With the increasing sustainability trend with packaging materials, paper and polymer nanocomposites represent a novel class of packaging materials. This study evaluates the potential achievement of alternative sustainable materials as antibacterial packaging application. Paper sheet from rice straw coated with 5 or 10% polystyrene (PS) nanocomposites using titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) doped or undoped with sliver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) were prepared. The morphology of the uncoated and coated paper sheets was studied by SEM. The treated paper sheets were analyzed for their elemental composition using EDAX. The Barrier, air permeability, cob test, as well as mechanical properties and tensile strength were also evaluated. The inhibitory effect of modified paper sheets against Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida, and Staphylococcus were investigated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Packaging systems for animal origin food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The main task of food packaging is to protect the product during storage and transport against the action of biological, chemical and mechanical factors. The paper presents packaging systems for food of animal origin. Vacuum and modified atmosphere packagings were characterised together with novel types of packagings, referred to as intelligent packaging and active packaging. The aim of this paper was to present all advantages and disadvantages of packaging used for meat products. Such list enables to choose the optimal type of packaging for given assortment of food and specific conditions of the transport and storing.

  15. Effect of modified atmosphere applied to minimally processed radicchio (Cichorium intybus L. submitted to different sanitizing treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana de Moura Pereira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Stability of minimally processed radicchio (Cichorium intybus L. was evaluated under modified atmosphere (2% O2, 5% CO2, and 93% N2 on 3, 5, 7 and 10 days of storage at 5°C. The samples were hygienized in sodium hypochlorite or hydrogen peroxide solutions to identify the most effective sanitizing solution to remove microorganisms. Microbiological analysis was conducted to identify the presence of coliforms at 35°C and 45°C, mesophilic microorganisms, and yeast and mold. Physicochemical analyses of mass loss, pH, soluble solids, and total acidity were conducted. The color measurements were performed using a Portable Colorimeter model CR-400. The antioxidant activity was determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic methods. The sensory evaluation was carried out using a hedonic scale to test overall acceptance of the samples during storage. The sodium hypochlorite (150 mg.L-1 solution provided greater safety to the final product. The values of pH ranged from 6.17 to 6.25, total acidity from 0.405 to 0.435%, soluble solids from 0.5 to 0.6 °Brix, mass loss from 1.7 to 7.2%, and chlorophyll from 1.068 to 0.854 mg/100g. The antioxidant activity of radicchio did not show significant changes during the first 3 days of storage. The overall acceptance of the sample stored in the sealed package without modified atmosphere was 70%, while the fresh sample was obtained 77% of approval. Although the samples packaged under modified atmosphere had a higher acceptance score, the samples in sealed packages had satisfactory results during the nine days of storage. The use of modified atmosphere, combined with cooling and good manufacturing practices, was sufficient to prolong the life of minimally processed radicchio, Folha Larga cultivar, for up to ten days of storage.

  16. Modeling the impact of vapor thymol concentration, temperature and modified atmosphere condition on growth behavior of Salmonella spp. on raw shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella spp. is a microorganism of concern, on a global basis, for raw shrimp. This research modeled the impact of vapor thymol concentration (0, 0.8 and 1.6 mg/l), storage temperature (8, 12 and 16 degree C) and modified atmosphere packaging (0.04 and 59.5 percent CO2) against the growth behavio...

  17. Modified drug release using atmospheric pressure plasma deposited siloxane coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, D. P.; Maher, S.; Law, V. J.; Ardhaoui, M.; Stallard, C.; Keenan, A.

    2016-09-01

    This pilot study evaluates the potential of atmospheric plasma polymerised coatings to modify the rate of drug release from polymeric substrates. The antibiotic rifampicin was deposited in a prototype multi-layer drug delivery system, consisting of a nebulized layer of active drug between a base layer of TEOS deposited on a plastic substrate (polystyrene) and an overlying layer of plasma polymerised PDMS. The polymerised TEOS and PDMS layers were deposited using a helium atmospheric plasma jet system. Elution of rifampicin was measured using UV-VIS spectroscopy, in addition to a antimicrobial well diffusion assay with an established indicator organism. The multi-layered plasma deposited coatings significantly extended the duration of release of the rifampicin from 24 h for the uncoated polymer to 144 h for the coated polymer.

  18. Preparation, Characterization and Hot Storage Stability of Asphalt Modified by Waste Polyethylene Packaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changqing Fang; Ying Zhang; Qian yu; Xing Zhou; Dagang Guo; Ruien Yu; Min Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Waste polyethylene packaging (WPE) was used to modify asphalt,and hot storage stability of the modified asphalt was studied in this paper.The morphological change and component loss of WPE modified asphalt were characterized by fluorescence microscopy,Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR),differential scanning calorimetry (DSC),thermogravimetry (TG) and isolation testing.In addition,the mechanism of the hot storage stability of WPE modified asphalt was discussed.The results showed that the modification of asphalt with WPE was a physical process.It was found that the filament or partly network-like structure formed in the modified asphalt system was beneficial to improving the hot storage stability.Moreover,the addition of WPE resulted in a decrease in both the light components volatilization and the macromolecules decomposition of asphalt.It was demonstrated that when the content of WPE in matrix asphalt was less than 10 wt%,the service performances of modified asphalt could be better.

  19. Active Bilayer PE/PCL Films for Food Packaging Modified with Zinc Oxide and Casein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rešček

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the properties of active polymer food packaging bilayer polyethylene/polycaprolactone (PE/PCL films. Such packaging material consists of primary PE layer coated with thin film of PCL coating modified with active component (zinc oxide or zinc oxide/casein complex with intention to extend the shelf life of food and to maintain the quality and health safety. The influence of additives as active components on barrier, mechanical, thermal and antimicrobial properties of such materials was studied. The results show that, in comparison to the neat PE and PE/PCL films, some of PE/PCL bilayer films with additives exhibit improved barrier properties i.e. decreased water vapour permeability. Higher thermal stability of modified PE/PCL material is obtained due to a modified mechanism of thermal degradation. The samples with the additive nanoparticles homogeneously dispersed in the polymer matrix showed good mechanical properties. Addition of higher ZnO content contributes to the enhanced antibacterial activity of a material.

  20. PRESERVING THE QUALITY AND PROLONGATION THE SHELF-LIFE OF BEEF PACKED UNDER VACUUM OR MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE USING TERNARY ANTIOXIDANT BLEND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Stoyanov Staykov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Keeping the quality and prolongation the shelf-life of stored at 0  0.5ºC packed under vacuum or modified (80%О2/20%СО2 atmosphere beef m. semimembranosus sprayed with 0.02% solution, containing 10 g.l-1 dihydroquercetin from Siberian larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb, 5 g.l-1 rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis extract and 1 g.l-1 L-ascorbic acid was studied. The experiments were carried out with five samples: control - air packaged; vacuum packaged; vacuum packaged and treated with 0.02% ternary antioxidant blend; packaged under modified atmosphere (80%O2/20%CO2; and packaged under rich in oxygen modified atmosphere, after spaying with 0.02% ternary antioxidant blend. Samples were stored 28 days (to 32 d post mortem at 0  0.5ºC. The pre-treatment of beef with ternary antioxidant blend preserve the sensory scores and colour properties of beef, and inhibited total microbial growth, and development of Brochothrix termosphacta and pathogens to the end of storage (28 d at 0  0.5ºC, was found. The pre-treatment of beef with ternary antioxidant blend was not main factors which can affect the pH and free amino nitrogen changes in fresh beef. The pre-treatment of beef with 0.02% ternary antioxidant blend may be successfully used for preserving the quality and prolonging the shelf-life of beef m. semimembranosus packed under modified (80%О2/20%СО2 atmosphere. The shelf-life can extend with 75% compared to air packed meat, and with 7 days against only vacuum- or modified atmosphere packed beef.

  1. The Effects of Drying Methods, Packaging Atmosphere and Storage Time on Dried Pomegranate Aril Quality

    OpenAIRE

    GÖLÜKCÜ, Muharrem

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of drying methods, packaging atmosphere, and storage time in preserving the quality of dried pomegranate aril on total phenolic matter, total anthocyanin, antioxidant activity, and CIE L, a*, b*, C, h colour values. The highest contents of phenolic matter (5580 mg kg-1), anthocyanin (679.76 mg kg-1), antioxidant capacity (IC50, 26.16 mg g-1) and CIE a* colour value (10.73) were observed in freeze dried sample, followed by vacuum, convective, an...

  2. Effects of vacuum and modified atmosphere on textural parameters and structural proteins of cultured meagre (Argyrosomus regius) fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez, María I; Martínez, Tomás F; Cárdenas, Salvador; Suárez, María D

    2015-09-01

    The influence of two preservation strategies (vacuum package and modified atmosphere package) on the post-mortem changes of textural parameters, pH, water holding capacity, sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins, and collagen content of meagre (Argyrosomus regius) fillets was studied. Fillets were stored in a cold room in aerobic (control, C), vacuum (V) and modified atmosphere (MA) package. Samples were withdrawn at six sampling points throughout 15-day storage, and post-mortem changes were assessed. The textural parameters were significantly enhanced in V and MA compared to C. Both V and MA treatments reduced the intensity of a group of myofibrillar protein fractions (140-195 kDa) and increased insoluble collagen compared to C. Consequently, the post-mortem flesh softening in C was attributed to increased proteolysis in both intracellular and extracellular structural proteins. The preservation of the textural and biochemical characteristics of meagre fillets subjected to V and MA treatments makes these two treatments highly recommendable for the commercialization of meagre fillets. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Eating quality and health-promoting properties of two sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars stored in passive modified atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Isabel; Camats, Josep A; Comabella, Eva; Ortiz, Abel

    2015-03-01

    Two sweet cherry cultivars ('New Star' and 'Sweet Heart') were chosen to explore the impact of passive modified atmosphere packaging on the eating quality and health-promoting properties of fruit. Packaged and unpackaged fruits were stored at 0 ℃ for 15 or 30 days, followed by zero or three days at 20 ℃, after which the analyses were undertaken. In most cases, modified atmosphere packaging helped preserving higher firmness values and reducing the incidence of alterations and decay in both cultivars, but the effects on other physicochemical attributes were different for each cultivar. Partial least squares regression procedures were used to reveal relationships among the different variables assessed. Generally, fruits displaying higher antioxidant capacity were also characterised by higher values for firmness and titratable acidity, in turn related to better acceptability scores in both cultivars. However, the attributes contributing most to acceptability were different in each case. In 'New Star' fruit, acceptability was closely related to the perception of cherry flavour. In this cultivar, acetaldehyde content was related to the perception of off-flavours, while ethanol content was found to associate to soluble solids and to the perception of sweetness. In contrast, acceptability of 'Sweet Heart' fruit was related mainly to the perception of firmness and, to a lower extent, of sweetness.

  4. Growth/survival of Salmonella enteritidis on fresh poultry and fish stored under vacuum or modified atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nychas, G J; Tassou, C C

    1996-08-01

    The effect of vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging on the growth/survival of Salmonella enteritidis on fresh poultry and fish (Boops boops) is described. Salmonella enteritidis survived but did not grow significantly in all samples (poultry or fish) at 3 degrees C. At 10 degrees C the numbers of Salm. enteritidis increases rapidly in vacuum-packed samples and in samples flushed with 100% N2, 20% CO2/80% O2 of both types of proteinaceous food. Growth was also evident in fish and poultry flushed with 100% CO2; however the rate of growth was greater in fish samples rather than in poultry.

  5. Quality of fresh retail pork cuts stored in modified atmosphere under temperature conditions simulating export to distant markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, L M; Stiles, M E

    1994-01-01

    The effect of storage temperature on microbial and sensory quality of retail cuts of pork was determined on samples stored under temperature regimens designed to simulate conditions that could be encountered in accessing distant markets with retail-ready product. Samples were packaged in modified atmosphere with 100% CO(2) and export of retail-ready pork cuts to distant markets with a three-week time for delivery to market at -1·5°C can be achieved with one to two weeks of marketing time at retail market at 4 to 7°C.

  6. Lipid oxidation and color changes of goose meat stored under vacuum and modified atmosphere conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orkusz, A; Haraf, G; Okruszek, A; Werenska-Sudnik, M

    2017-03-01

    The objective of the work was to investigate the color and lipid oxidation changes of goose breast meat packaged in vacuum and modified atmosphere (MA) conditions consisting of 80% O2, 20% CO2, and stored in refrigerated conditions at 4°C. Color stability was monitored by determining total heme pigments concentration; relative concentration of myoglobin, oxymyoglobin, and metmyoglobin; parameters of color L*, a*, b*, and sensory evaluation of the surface color. Lipid stability was measured by determining thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The samples were examined in 24 h after slaughter (unpacked muscles) and on d 4, 7, 9, 11 of storage (muscles packed in vacuum and in MA). Through the time of storage, samples packed in MA had higher TBARS values in comparison to the meat packed in vacuum. For samples packed in two types of atmospheres, the total pigments concentration decreased gradually within 11 d of storage. It was observed that relative metmyoglobin concentration increased whereas relative oxymyoglobin concentration decreased in total heme pigments in the MA stored muscle. The relative concentration of all three myoglobin forms sample packed in vacuum remained unchanged. The color parameters (L*, a*, b*) did not change for 11 d of storage for the vacuum packed meat. The value of the color parameter a* decreased and the value of the color parameters L* and b* increased in the samples packaged in MA. The data prove that if you store goose meat in MA (consisting of 80% O2, 20% CO2) or vacuum, the unchanged surface color is preserved for 9 and 11 day, respectively.Vacuum appears to be a better method as regards the maintaining of lipid stability in goose meat. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  7. Microbial interaction in cooked cured meat products under vacuum or modified atmosphere at 4 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metaxopoulos, J; Mataragas, M; Drosinos, E H

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the antagonistic activity of two lactic acid strains against the spoilage microflora in cooked cured meat products, vacuum or modified atmosphere packed at 4 degrees C and to determine the inhibitory capacity of their bacteriocins. Frankfurter-type sausages and sliced cooked cured pork shoulder were inoculated with Leuconostoc mesenteroides L124 and Lactobacillus curvatus L442 or with their bacteriocins. The microbial, physico-chemical (pH, L- and D-lactate, acetate and ammonia) and colour changes were studied. Results under vacuum packaging showed that in the uninoculated samples of the pork product the spoilage microflora grew but in the inoculated ones the spoilage microorganisms (e.g. Brochothrix thermosphacta and enterococci) reduced during the storage. This observation was more pronounced in the samples with the addition of bacteriocins. In the frankfurter-type sausages the spoilage microflora did not grow in the uninoculated and inoculated samples. In the modified atmosphere enriched in CO2 the population of spoilage microflora remained at low levels in both products, indicating that CO2 has an effect on the spoilage microorganisms' growth. In the pork product the concentrations of acetate and d-lactate increased while L-lactate decreased, but in the frankfurter-type sausages increase of acetate and D-lactate was not observed. Lactic acid strains had an effect on the spoilage microflora growth but did not affect, negatively, the organoleptic properties of the products. These strains may be used as biopreservative cultures or their bacteriocins could be an important contribution to microbiological quality of meat products. Establishment of biopreservation as a method for extension of shelf life of meat products.

  8. Chemical and biochemical study of industrially produced San Simón da Costa smoked semi-hard cow's milk cheeses: Effects of storage under vacuum and different modified atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garabal, J I; Rodríguez-Alonso, P; Franco, D; Centeno, J A

    2010-05-01

    Two batches of smoked, semi-hard (ripened for 45 d) San Simón da Costa cow's milk cheeses with Protected Designation of Origin were used to investigate the chemical, biochemical, and sensorial parameters that may be affected by modified-atmosphere packaging. Cheeses were packaged for 45 d as follows: vacuum packaging, packaging in 100% N(2), packaging in a gas mixture of 20% CO(2)/80% N(2), and packaging in a gas mixture of 50% CO(2)/50% N(2). The San Simón da Costa cheeses were characterized by high contents of lactic, oxalic, and citric organic acids. The main free amino acids found were isoleucine, phenylalanine, serine, valine, lysine, and glutamic acid, and the most abundant volatile compounds included ethanol, diacetyl, 2-butanol, isopropyl alcohol, furfural, acetaldehyde, 2-butanone, acetone, and 2-methylfuran. Modified atmospheres appeared to alter the ripening processes by affecting lipolysis, as indicated by the lower concentrations of butyric and propionic acids compared with control cheeses. In addition, modified-atmosphere packaging altered the proteolysis processes, yielding higher amounts of branched-chain alcohols. The results revealed that storage under modified atmosphere contributes to the accumulation of several compounds probably derived from smoke, including aldehydes such as 2-furancarboxaldehyde (furfural), alcohols such as 2-methoxyphenol (guaiacol), ketones such as 2-cyclopenten-1-one, and esters such as methyl furancarboxylate, which were negatively correlated with flavor. Vacuum packaging was the most useful technique in terms of preserving the sensory quality of San Simón da Costa Protected Designation of Origin cheeses. Considering the current demands for packaged portions of food at the distribution and retail levels and the potential health risks associated with some smoke-derived compounds usually present in some smoked foods, the results obtained in this study may be of special interest to the cheese industry.

  9. Disinfection of fresh chicken breast fillets with in-package atmospheric cold plasma: effect of treatment voltage and time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of treatment voltage and time of in-package atmospheric cold plasma (ACP) were studied on ozone formation, microbiological quality, surface color, and pH of fresh chicken fillets. Samples were sealed in food trays in air, treated with a dielectric-barrier-discharge (DBD) ACP system, and stor...

  10. Clostridium botulinum Toxin Production in Relation to Spoilage of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) Packaged in Films of Varying Oxygen Permeabilities and with Different Atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Marilyn C; Ma, Li M; Doyle, Michael P

    2015-11-01

    Shelf life of fish packaged under modified atmosphere (MA) is extended, but within the United States, commercial application of MA with impermeable packaging films is restricted due to concerns that botulinum toxin production would precede spoilage when contaminated fish are held at abusive storage temperatures. Use of semipermeable packaging films has been advocated; however, previous studies are inconclusive in determining the oxygen transmission rate (OTR) of a film that is needed to achieve an acceptable margin of safety (i.e., toxin production occurs only after spoilage). This study was conducted to determine the influence of OTR (target OTRs of 3 to 15,000) on the development of spoilage volatiles and toxin in salmon inoculated with type E Clostridium botulinum and subjected to air, vacuum, or 75:25 CO2:N2 MA and storage temperatures of 4, 8, 12, or 16°C. The most dominant headspace volatile peak that was produced during spoilage of samples at 4, 8 or 12°C was a peak, having a Kovats retention index (KI) of 753, and at which external standards of 2- or 3-methyl 1-butanol also eluted. Under anaerobic conditions, both the aerobic microbial populations and the size of the KI 753 spoilage peak were less in inoculated samples compared with uninoculated samples. C. botulinum-inoculated samples that were stored at 12 or 16°C under conditions favorable for anaerobic growth were also characterized by a KI 688 peak. Using a previously developed model that related the percentage of elderly consumers who would prepare a sample having the KI 753 spoilage peak of a specific size, it was determined that for salmon packaged with 3 or 3,000 OTR films under any atmosphere and stored at 12 or 16°C, 2 to 61% of the consumers could potentially prepare toxin-contaminated samples. Hence, when abusive storage conditions are suspected, the fish should not be consumed.

  11. A chemometrics approach applied to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for monitoring the spoilage of fresh salmon (Salmo salar) stored under modified atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, C; Vasconcelos, H; de Almeida, José M M M

    2017-01-16

    The aim of this work was to investigate the potential of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to detect and predict the bacterial load of salmon fillets (Salmo salar) stored at 3, 8 and 30°C under three packaging conditions: air packaging (AP) and two modified atmospheres constituted by a mixture of 50%N2/40%CO2/10%O2 with lemon juice (MAPL) and without lemon juice (MAP). Fresh salmon samples were periodically examined for total viable counts (TVC), specific spoilage organisms (SSO) counts, pH, FTIR and sensory assessment of freshness. Principal components analysis (PCA) allowed identification of the wavenumbers potentially correlated with the spoilage process. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) of infrared spectral data was performed to support sensory data and to accurately identify samples freshness. The effect of the packaging atmospheres was assessed by microbial enumeration and LDA was used to determine sample packaging from the measured infrared spectra. It was verified that modified atmospheres can decrease significantly the bacterial load of fresh salmon. Lemon juice combined with MAP showed a more pronounced delay in the growth of Brochothrix thermosphacta, Photobacterium phosphoreum, psychrotrophs and H2S producers. Partial least squares regression (PLS-R) allowed estimates of TVC and psychrotrophs, lactic acid bacteria, molds and yeasts, Brochothrix thermosphacta, Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp. and H2S producer counts from the infrared spectral data. For TVC, the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) value was 0.78logcfug(-1) for an external set of samples. According to the results, FTIR can be used as a reliable, accurate and fast method for real time freshness evaluation of salmon fillets stored under different temperatures and packaging atmospheres.

  12. Modified-atmosphere storage under subatmospheric pressure and beef quality: II. Color, drip, cooking loss, sarcomere length, and tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smulders, F J M; Hiesberger, J; Hofbauer, P; Dögl, B; Dransfield, E

    2006-09-01

    Beef has a requirement for refrigerated storage up to 14 d to achieve adequate aging and a tender product. To achieve this aging with little spoilage and no surface drying, vacuum packaging is attractive, because it is inherently simple and offers a clear indication to the packer when the process has failed or there is risk of spoilage. However, there is increasing pressure on the meat industry to limit the use of packaging materials in view of their cost and the cost involved in their recovery and recycling. The purpose of this report was to evaluate an alternative storage system in containers using modified atmospheres at reduced pressure (approximately 25 kPa). The quality of the meat for both container- and vacuum-packed treatments was measured during chilled storage for up to 3 wk. Storage time had the most significant effect on quality characteristics, irrespective of the packaging method. Storage in containers under a 70%N2:30%CO2 gas mixture gave characteristics similar to beef stored under vacuum. Storage in containers under 100% CO2 produced less drip loss than under 70%N2:30%CO2, but generally container storage produced 3 times as much drip loss as vacuum packaging. Shear force of the LM was unaffected by the type of packaging, and at d 2 after slaughter (i.e., before the storage trial was begun), sarcomere lengths of muscles intended for container storage were similar to those destined for vacuum storage. During the packaging treatment, the comparison between the storage systems was always done within 1 animal using one carcass-half for container storage and the other half for vacuum packaging; all bulls were shackled from the left hindleg during bleeding. The majority of the muscles from the left sides had lower shear force values than those from the right sides at the earlier storage times (2 and 9 d after slaughter) but had similar values after longer storage (16 and 23 d after slaughter). This is the first report that shackling beef carcasses from

  13. Modified atmospheric conditions controlling fungal growth on cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    1997-01-01

    2 level, relative humidity and temperature) and the composition of the cheese. All fungal species commonly found on cheese, starter cultures as well as contaminants, were examined.The most important factors influencing fungal growth are temperature, water activity of the medium and the carbon......Effective control of fungal growth on cheese under storage conditions is of great concern for the dairy industry. Therefore we designed a research project together with the Danish dairy industry on modelling fungal growth on cheese as affected by the combined effect of storage conditions (O2 and CO...... a competitive advantage over other fungi in moist conditions with high carbon dioxide levels, such as inside a roquefort cheese or in gas tight grain storage. The key to success in food packaging is to recognise the food ecosystem, as it enables us to identify which micro...

  14. Influence of a Modified Atmosphere on the Induction and Activity of Respiratory Enzymes in Broccoli Florets during the Early Stage of Postharvest Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiao-Wen; Makino, Yoshio; Inoue, Jun; Maejima, Kensaku; Funayama-Noguchi, Sachiko; Yamada, Takeshi; Noguchi, Ko

    2017-10-04

    Modified atmosphere packaging and controlled atmosphere storage (hypoxia conditions) extend shelf lives of horticultural products by depressing the O2 uptake rate. We investigated the relationship between atmospheres and alternative oxidase (AOX) to cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activities (on the basis of oxygen isotope discrimination) and the relative amounts of two respiratory enzymes, AOX and COX, during the early stage of storage. Broccoli florets, with high O2 uptake rates, were stored under hypoxia and normoxia at 25 °C. O2 uptake rates, weight loss, and yellowing of broccoli florets were significantly lower when stored under hypoxia than when stored under normoxia. Significantly more AOX proteins were produced during storage under normoxia, but COX proteins were more consistent than those of AOX proteins. Hypoxia may depress the expression of AOX and prolong the shelf life. Oxygen isotope discrimination was elevated under hypoxia after 50.5 h. AOX production in broccoli was controlled more by changing atmospheres than by COX.

  15. Atmospheric pressure plasma produced inside a closed package by a dielectric barrier discharge in Ar/CO2 for bacterial inactivation of biological samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiper, Alina Silvia; Chen, Weifeng; Mejlholm, Ole

    2011-01-01

    The generation and evaluation of a dielectric barrier discharge produced inside a closed package made of a commercially available packaging film and filled with gas mixtures of Ar/CO2 at atmospheric pressure is reported. The discharge parameters were analysed by electrical measurements and optical...... times higher in the Ar/CO2 plasma compared with an Ar plasma. The efficiency of the produced plasma for the inactivation of bacteria on food inside the closed package was investigated....

  16. Characterisation of volatile profile and sensory analysis of fresh-cut "Radicchio di Chioggia" stored in air or modified atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzolino, Rosaria; Martignetti, Antonella; Pellicano, Mario Paolo; Stocchero, Matteo; Cefola, Maria; Pace, Bernardo; De Giulio, Beatrice

    2016-02-01

    The volatile profile of two hybrids of "Radicchio di Chioggia", Corelli and Botticelli, stored in air or passive modified atmosphere (MAP) during 12 days of cold storage, was monitored by solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) GC-MS. Botticelli samples were also subjected to sensory analysis. Totally, 61 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were identified in the headspace of radicchio samples. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that fresh product possessed a metabolic content similar to that of the MAP samples after 5 and 8 days of storage. Projection to latent structures by partial least squares (PLS) regression analysis showed the volatiles content of the samples varied depending only on the packaging conditions. Specifically, 12 metabolites describing the time evolution and explaining the effects of the different storage conditions were highlighted. Finally, a PCA analysis revealed that VOCs profile significantly correlated with sensory attributes.

  17. Freshness assessment of thawed and chilled cod fillets packed in modified atmosphere using near-infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøknæs, Niels; Jensen, K.N.; Andersen, Charlotte Møller;

    2002-01-01

    Near-infrared reflectance (NIR) spectra was recorded of 105 samples of cod mince prepared from chill stored thawed cod fillets of varying quality in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). Traditional chemical, physical, microbiological and sensory quality methods developed for assessing fresh fish...... of selected quality attributes as drip loss, water holding capacity and content of dimethylamine by NIR was evaluated. The results of the investigation were presented using multivariate modelling methods such as partial least- squares regression (PLSR) and discriminant partial least- squares regression (DPLSR......). Systematic differences in the NIR measurements on minced cod fillets were primarily due to the chill storage duration (days at 2 degreesC) on thawed-chilled MAP fillets. PLSR models based on wavelengths selected by a new Jack-knife method resulted in a correlation coefficient of 0.90 between measured...

  18. Effects of a(w) packaging time and atmosphere composition on aroma profile, biogenic amine content and microbiological features of dry fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabanelli, Giulia; Montanari, Chiara; Grazia, Luigi; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Gardini, Fausto

    2013-06-01

    The aim was to evaluate the effects of different water contents (corresponding to a(w) 0.940, 0.914, 0.895 and 0.875) of sausages at different times on the characteristics of typical Italian dry fermented sausages packaged under two different modified atmospheres (MAP) (100%N2 or 30%CO2/70%N2). During ripening and storage, samples were analyzed to evaluate pH and aw changes, microbial population, biogenic amine (BA) accumulation and aroma profile. The results showed that during storage under MAP several microbiological and enzymatic activities proceeded, leading to changes in aroma profile. In particular, higher hexanal concentrations in samples at lower aw and significant amounts of acetone, 2-butanone, ethanol and 2-butanol in samples at aw>0.900 were detected. Moreover, data showed modifications in BA content, such as higher accumulation in samples at aw>0.900 in MAP with 100%N2. This behavior depends, in first instance, on the aw of the sausages when packaged.

  19. Cenouras minimamente processadas em embalagens com atmosferas modificadas e tratadas com radiação gama: avaliação microbiológica, físico-química e química Minimally processed carrots in modified atmosphere packaging and gama irradiation treatment: microbiological, fisical-chemistry and chemistry evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keila S. Cople Lima

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available As cenouras são as principais fontes de origem vegetal em carotenóides provitamínicos A (a e o b-caroteno e podem ser transformados em vitamina A dentro do organismo animal. Segundo a Pesquisa de Orçamento Familiar realizada na região Sudeste do Brasil, no grupo de raízes e tubérculos, a cenoura é amplamente consumida. As cenouras minimamente processadas foram acondicionadas em embalagens com atmosferas modificadas de 5% O2/10% CO2 e 21% O2 (ar sintético, e tratadas com radiação ionizante gama, fonte de césio, nas doses de 0,25, 0,50, 0,75 e 1,00kGy. Os produtos após o emprego da radiação foram armazenados em refrigeração de 5°C durante 24 dias. Os diferentes tratamentos da cenoura e o grupo controle foram avaliados através das análises de pH, sólidos solúveis totais (SST, acidez total titulável (ATT e microbiologia. Os resultados de microbiologia evidenciaram que os produtos tratados com as doses de 0,50, 0,75 e 1,0kGy apresentaram redução de 3 a 4 ciclos logarítmicos na contagem total de mesófilos (CTM logo após a irradiação e uma vida-útil de 20 dias. Não foram detectados coliformes totais e E. coli até o 24º dia. Os patógenos B. cereus, Salmonella e Estafilococos coagulase positivos em 0,1g do produto, também não foram detectados. As contagens de bactérias láticas mantiveram-se menores que 100UFC/g. O processo de irradiação em baixas doses mostra-se promissor na manutenção da qualidade e apresenta-se como uma medida alternativa na redução de perdas pós-colheita.Carrots are the mains vegetable sources of carotenoids provitamin A (a and b-carotene which might be transformed into vitamin A in animal organism. According to the Family Budget Survey (FBS, 1991 carried out in the Brazilian Southeast, within the roots and tubers group, carrots are widely consumed. The minimally processed carrots were packaging with 5% O2/10% CO2 and 21% O2 (sintetic air, and g ionizing radiation treatments was carried

  20. Staling of wheat bread stored in modified atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Have; Hansen, A.

    2001-01-01

    demonstrated that storage of bread in MAP could be used to extend the microbial shelf-life without affecting the staling rate. The development of bread firmness during storage in 100% CO2 for 49 days was,found to be correlated to amylopectin retrogradation and to changes in the freezable water fraction...... containing 100% CO2 and in a mixture gas of 50% CO2 and 50% N-2, respectively. The control bread was packed in atmospheric air. No significant effects of MAP were found during storage of bread for 7 days at 20 degreesC compared to control bread. when changes in bread firmness and starch retrogradation...... measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used as parameters for the staling rates. Ira addition, no significant differences were obtained in firmness between bread stored in 100% CO,, and in the mixture gas of CO2 and N-2 after 7 and 14 days, respectively. The present study thus...

  1. The influence of vacuum packaging on microbiological status and sensory properties of fresh beef

    OpenAIRE

    Baltić, Tatjana; Borović, Branka; Spirić, Danka; Parunović, Nenad; Karan, Dragica; Mitrović, Radmila; Radičević, Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    The packaging method can significantly affect the shelf life of fresh meat, and consequently the microbiological status and sensory properties of the packaged meat. In our country, for extending the shelf life of meat and meat products, the vacuum-packaging and packaging in the modified atmosphere are usually used. Vacuum-packaging favours the growth of facultative anaerobic bacteria, including lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae and Brochothrix thermosphacta, as proven spoilage bacteria...

  2. The effect of oil-soluble rosemary extract, sodium erythorbate, their mixture, and packaging method on the quality of Turkey meatballs

    OpenAIRE

    Karpińska-Tymoszczyk, Mirosława

    2011-01-01

    The effect of oil-soluble rosemary extract, sodium erythorbate and a mixture of oil-soluble rosemary extract and sodium erythorbate and packaging method (vacuum packaging and modified atmosphere packaging) on the quality of cooked turkey meatballs stored at 4 °C was determined. The physicochemical, microbiological and sensory analyses were performed. Oil-soluble rosemary extract was found to be the most effectual antioxidant and vacuum more effective than modified atmosphere packaging in prev...

  3. Identification of lactic acid bacteria from spoilage associations of cooked and brined shrimps stored under modified atmosphere between 0 degrees C and 25 degrees C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Paw; Vancanneyt, M.; Vilalta, N.E.

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate spoilage and identify lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from spoilage associations of cooked and brined shrimps stored under modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) at 0, 5, 8, 15 and 25degreesC. Methods and Results: Bacterial isolates (102) from spoilage associations of cooked and brined...... to chemical changes in spoiled products. Carnobacterium divergens , a non-motile Carnobacterium sp. nov. and Lactobacillus curvatus were the LAB species observed in spoilage associations of products stored at 0degreesC, 5degreesC and 8degreesC. Conclusions: Enterococcus spp. and Carnobacterium spp. were...

  4. Modulation Transfer Function of a Gaussian Beam Based on the Generalized Modified Atmospheric Spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the modulation transfer function of a Gaussian beam propagating through a horizontal path in weak-fluctuation non-Kolmogorov turbulence. Mathematical expressions are obtained based on the generalized modified atmospheric spectrum, which includes the spectral power law value of non-Kolmogorov turbulence, the finite inner and outer scales of turbulence, and other optical parameters of the Gaussian beam. The numerical results indicate that the atmospheric turbulence would produce less negative effects on the wireless optical communication system with an increase in the inner scale of turbulence. Additionally, the increased outer scale of turbulence makes a Gaussian beam influenced more seriously by the atmospheric turbulence.

  5. The Use of Films as Suitable Packaging Materials for Minimally Processed Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    Freshly Peeled citrus products combine pectinase solution, vacuum infusion technology, and a mechanized line to produce pre- peeled orange and...PROCESSED FOODS: MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE PACKAGING, SOUS-VIDE, MICHOWAVEABLE FOODS nwvKrrvE POOD PRESERVATION, VENTED FOODS, ANTIBACTERIAL OXYGEN...Vented Foods Antibacterial Packaging Materials Oxygen Absorbers Moisture Absorbers Packaging Design and Environmental Concern/Awareness Edible Barrier

  6. Senescent spotting of banana peel is inhibited by modified atmosphere packaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choehom, R.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2004-01-01

    Banana fruit (Musa cavendishii [Musa acuminata] AA Group cv. Sucrier) were placed in trays and held at 29-30 degreesC. Covering the trays with 'Sun wrap' polyvinyl chloride film prevented the early senescent peel spotting, typical for this cultivar. Carbon dioxide and ethylene concentrations within

  7. Inhibition effects of vapor phase thymol and modified atmosphere against Salmonella spp. on raw shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella contamination of shrimp is a food safety concern in the U.S. and other countries. Natural antimicrobial compounds (e.g. essential oils) in vapor phase and modified atmosphere (MA) technology can inhibit the growth potential of Salmonella spp. However, each strategy has its limitations, wh...

  8. Specific inhibition of Photobacterium phosphoreum extends the shelf life of modified-atmosphere-packed cod fillets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Paw; Munoz, L.G.; Mejlholm, Ole

    1998-01-01

    Inhibition of the specific spoilage organism, Photobacterium phosphoreum, was studied in model substrates and in modified- atmosphere-packed cod fillets. The objective was to determine how inhibition of this organism influenced spoilage. The spoilage reactions limiting shelf life were studied rat...

  9. Novel epoxy-silicone thermolytic transparent packaging adhesives chemical modified by ZnO nanowires for HB LEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Ying, E-mail: yinghe@staff.shu.edu.c [Shanghai University, Department of Polymer Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering (China); Wang Junan [Shanghai University, Institute of Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering (China); Pei Changlong; Song Jizhong; Zhu Di; Chen Jie [Shanghai University, Department of Polymer Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering (China)

    2010-10-15

    A novel high transparent thermolytic epoxy-silicone for high-brightness light-emitting diode (HB-LED) is introduced, which was synthesized by polymerization using silicone matrix via diglycidyl ether bisphenol-A epoxy resin (DGEBA) as reinforcing agent, and filling ZnO nanowires to modify thermal conductivity and control refractive index of the hybrid material. The interactions of ZnO nanowires with polymers are mediated by the ligands attached to the nanoparticles. Thus, the ligands markedly influence the properties of ZnO nanowires/epoxy-silicone composites. The refractive indices of the prepared hybrid adhesives can be tuned by the ZnO nanowires from 1.4711 to 1.5605. Light transmittance can be increased by 20% from 80 to 95%. The thermal conductivity of the transparent packaging adhesives is 0.89-0.90 W/mK.

  10. Novel epoxy-silicone thermolytic transparent packaging adhesives chemical modified by ZnO nanowires for HB LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ying; Wang, Jun-An; Pei, Chang-Long; Song, Ji-Zhong; Zhu, Di; Chen, Jie

    2010-10-01

    A novel high transparent thermolytic epoxy-silicone for high-brightness light-emitting diode (HB-LED) is introduced, which was synthesized by polymerization using silicone matrix via diglycidyl ether bisphenol-A epoxy resin (DGEBA) as reinforcing agent, and filling ZnO nanowires to modify thermal conductivity and control refractive index of the hybrid material. The interactions of ZnO nanowires with polymers are mediated by the ligands attached to the nanoparticles. Thus, the ligands markedly influence the properties of ZnO nanowires/epoxy-silicone composites. The refractive indices of the prepared hybrid adhesives can be tuned by the ZnO nanowires from 1.4711 to 1.5605. Light transmittance can be increased by 20% from 80 to 95%. The thermal conductivity of the transparent packaging adhesives is 0.89-0.90 W/mK.

  11. Effect of high oxygen and high carbon dioxide atmosphere packaging on the microbial spoilage and shelf-life of fresh-cut honeydew melon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bao-Yu; Samapundo, Simbarashe; Pothakos, Vasileios; Sürengil, Göknur; Devlieghere, Frank

    2013-09-16

    This study evaluated the potential of modified atmospheres (MAs) combining high oxygen (O₂) and high carbon dioxide (CO₂) levels to extend the shelf-life of fresh-cut honeydew melon. Firstly, the effect of MA on the growth and volatile organic metabolite production of Candida sake, Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Leuconostoc gelidum, which had all been previously isolated from spoiled commercial fresh-cut honeydew melon, was evaluated separately on honeydew melon agar at 7 °C. Additionally, the effect of selected MAs on the microbial, physico-chemical and sensory quality of commercial fresh-cut honeydew melon cubes was evaluated at 7 °C. The results showed that MAs with high O₂ and high CO₂ levels greatly retarded the growth, CO₂ and volatile metabolite production (i.e. ethanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, ethyl acetate, phenylacetic acid, nonanal) of C. sake on honeydew melon agar; especially MAs consisting of 50% O₂+50% CO₂ and 70% O₂+30% CO₂. In contrast, the MAs evaluated only had a minor effect on the growth and volatile metabolite production of L. mesenteroides and L. gelidum. Overall, the effect of MAs on colour, juice leakage, juiciness, and firmness of fresh-cut honeydew melon was small during storage. Sensory preference was generally for fresh-cut honeydew melon cubes packaged in MA of 50% O₂+50% CO₂. These were still acceptable on day five of storage and had appreciably lower populations of yeasts and lactic acid bacteria, lower quantities of volatile organic compounds, but slightly stronger colour oxidation compared to honeydew melon that was packaged in air. Additionally, most of the samples packed in air had blown by day five due to the large quantity of CO₂ production during storage. Therefore, 50% O₂+50% CO₂ is a potential MA solution for extending the shelf-life of fresh-cut honeydew melon.

  12. Microbial control by packaging: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutter, Catherine Nettles

    2002-03-01

    Since early man first used a variety of natural containers to store and eat foods, significant developments in food packaging materials have provided the means to suppress microbial growth as well as protect foods from external microbial contamination. Throughout this progression, packaging materials have been developed specifically to prevent the deterioration of foods resulting from exposure to air, moisture, or pH changes associated with the food or the surrounding atmosphere. Both flexible and rigid packaging materials, alone or in combination with other preservation methods, have been developed to offer the necessary barrier, inactivation, and containment properties required for successful food packaging. Examples of flexible packaging used to inactivate microorganisms associated with foods include controlled atmosphere, vacuum, modified atmosphere, active, and edible packaging. Additionally, the combination of rigid packaging materials made from metal, glass, or plastic with heat provides the most effective and widely used method for inactivating microorganisms. As with all food products, it is necessary to integrate a HACCP-based program to assure quality throughout the packaging operation. In addition to packaging improvements, other novel technologies include the development of detectors for oxygen levels, bacterial toxins, and microbial growth, or the integration of time-temperature indicators for detection of improper handling or storage.

  13. Atmospheric-Pressure Cold Plasmas Used to Embed Bioactive Compounds in Matrix Material for Active Packaging of Fruits and Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Sulmer; Pedrow, Patrick; Powers, Joseph; Pitts, Marvin

    2009-10-01

    Active thin film packaging is a technology with the potential to provide consumers with new fruit and vegetable products-if the film can be applied without deactivating bioactive compounds.Atmospheric pressure cold plasma (APCP) processing can be used to activate monomer with concomitant deposition of an organic plasma polymerized matrix material and to immobilize a bioactive compound all at or below room temperature.Aims of this work include: 1) immobilize an antimicrobial in the matrix; 2) determine if the antimicrobial retains its functionality and 3) optimize the reactor design.The plasma zone will be obtained by increasing the voltage on an electrode structure until the electric field in the feed material (argon + monomer) yields electron avalanches. Results will be described using Red Delicious apples.Prospective matrix precursors are vanillin and cinnamic acid.A prospective bioactive compound is benzoic acid.

  14. In-package atmospheric pressure cold plasma treatment of cherry tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Nrusimha Nath; Keener, Kevin M; Bourke, Paula; Mosnier, Jean-Paul; Cullen, Patrick J

    2014-08-01

    Cold plasma is increasingly under research for decontamination of foods, especially fresh fruits and vegetables. The effect of cold plasma on food quality, however, remains under researched. This study investigates the effects of cold plasma generated within a sealed package from a dielectric barrier discharge on the physical quality parameters and respiration rates of cherry tomatoes. Respiration rates and weight loss were monitored continuously, while other parameters are reported at the end of storage period. Differences among weight loss, pH and firmness for control and treated cherry tomatoes were insignificant towards the end of storage life. Changes in respiration rates and colour of tomatoes were recorded as a function of treatment, which were not drastic. The results implicate that cold plasma could be employed as a means for decontamination of cherry tomatoes while retaining product quality.

  15. Radiation modified sago-blends and its potential for biodegradable packaging materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghazali, Z.; Idris, S.; Dahlan, K.Z. [Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research, Bangi, Kajang (Malaysia); Wongsuban, B.; Adzahan, N.M.; Ithnin, L. [Universiti Putra Malaysia, Faculty of Food Science and Biotechnology, Serdang (Malaysia)

    2002-03-01

    This paper describes work at MINT on the characterisation and development of sago blends as alternative biodegradable packaging materials. A study was undertaken to investigate the effect of formulation, mixing temperature and irradiation dosage on expansion of sago starch-polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and sago-polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) blends based foam. The foams were produced by microwaving irradiated hydrogels prepared by mixing sago starch with aqueous PVA or PVP. In the development of starch-based plastic, the effect of different composition and different irradiation dosage were studied to evaluate films with good tensile properties, elongation, gas permeability and water vapor transmission rate and also the biodegradability of the film using soil burial test. In another development, irradiation i.e. microwave, electron beam and gamma, has been investigated as a means of degrading the starch granules, which leads to an increase in the amount soluble materials leached. Results showed that irradiation caused an increase in leaching, and a concomitant drastic reduction in swelling volumes of starch granules. It is also showed that the strength of starch gels and viscosity decreased as the levels of irradiation was increased. The degraded starches will be incorporated as an ingredient in the fish cracker and characterized its properties. (author)

  16. Swarm intelligence for atmospheric compensation in free space optical communication-Modified shuffled frog leaping algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaokun; Cao, Jingtai; Zhao, Xiaohui; Liu, Wei

    2015-03-01

    A conventional adaptive optics (AO) system is widely used to compensate atmospheric turbulence in free space optical (FSO) communication systems, but wavefront measurements based on phase-conjugation principle are not desired under strong scintillation circumstances. In this study we propose a novel swarm intelligence optimization algorithm, which is called modified shuffled frog leaping algorithm (MSFL), to compensate the wavefront aberration. Simulation and experiments results show that MSFL algorithm performs well in the atmospheric compensation and it can increase the coupling efficiency in receiver terminal and significantly improve the performance of the FSO communication systems.

  17. INFLUENCE OF PACKAGING MATERIAL AND STORAGE TIME ON PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF SET YOGURT: A COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN MODIFIED BIODEGRADABLE POLY(LACTIC ACID AND POLYPROPYLENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAWADON PETCHWATTANA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The current paper investigates the influence of storage time and type of polymeric packaging material on the chemical, physical and microbiological properties of set yogurt. Firstly, poly(lactic acid (PLA was modified by using a core-shell rubber (CSR and an acrylic processing aid (PA to produce PLA with high toughness and good processability. Secondly, an appropriate PLA/PA/CSR composition was selected and fabricated to yogurt cup. The yogurt was stored in both modified PLA and polypropylene (PP packages to observe some physical, chemical and biological changes. Finally, the biodegradation test was made on both packages and compared with that cellulose. Experimental results revealed that adding 5wt% CSR gave PLA/PA as tough as PP. Types of packaging material and storage time did not change the color of yogurt. The number of lactic acid bacteria grew significantly after they had been incubated for 6 days. The bacterial viability decreased dramatically due to the increased acidity and the decreased pH. A positive impact on the viability of bacterial growth was found when yogurt was stored in modified PLA package. This made yogurt had more health benefits than stored in PP package. The biodegradation test results indicated that the modified PLA degraded at a rapid rate. It achieved approximately 50% biodegradation within 40 days which was comparable to the time required to degrade the cellulose, whereas PP was non-biodegradable over the period studied. In summary, substitution conventional PP by a novel modified PLA seems to be a better way for both the health and the environment benefits.

  18. Influence of packaging atmosphere on the formation of cholesterol oxides in [gamma]-irradiated egg powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebovics, V.K.; Gaal, O. (National Inst. of Food Hygiene and Nutrition, Budapest (Hungary)); Farkas, J.; Somogyi, L. (University of Horticulture and Food Industry, Budapest (Hungary))

    1993-09-01

    In the present work the influence of aerobic and anoxic conditions have been comparatively investigated to study the chemical changes of cholesterol in [gamma]-irradiated egg powder. The irradiation treatment was carried out with powdered egg packed under air and also under vacuum in polyethylene (PE) bags and in laminated, oxygen impermeable three-layer (polyester-aluminium-polyethylene) foil to dosage levels 2 and 4 kGy at room temperature. The cholesterol oxidation is demonstrated by thin-layer chromatograms. In the egg powder wrapped in Pe bags the predominant cholesterol derivatives -7-hydroxycholesterol isomers ([alpha] and [beta]) - accumulated in significant amounts (increasing with dose) while vacuum-packaging in laminated foil considerably suppressed the quantity of these products and prevented the formation of cholesterol 5[alpha], 6[alpha]-epoxide as well as 7-ketocholesterol. Little or no change was observed in non-irradiated (control) vacuum-packed egg powder stored at approximately 22[sup o]C for up to 5 months. Peroxide values showed changes parallel to the formation of COPs. (author).

  19. Technology-induced selection towards the spoilage microbiota of artisan-type cooked ham packed under modified atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilopoulos, Charalampos; De Maere, Hannelore; De Mey, Eveline; Paelinck, Hubert; De Vuyst, Luc; Leroy, Frédéric

    2010-02-01

    The microbiota associated with a highly-perishable Belgian artisan-type cooked ham was analyzed through plating and (GTG)(5)-fingerprinting of isolates throughout its processing chain. The raw tumbled meat was characterized by the presence of a versatile microbiota around 4.8 log(cfu g(-1)), consisting of lactic acid bacteria, staphylococci, Brochothrix thermosphacta, Gram-negative bacteria, and yeasts. Pasteurisation of the ham logs reduced bacterial counts below 2 log(cfu g(-1)) and subsequent manipulations selected for leuconostocs and carnobacteria. Also, B. thermosphacta and several Enterobacteriaceae were found at this stage. During storage in an intermediate high-care area for 2 days, a selection towards certain Enterobacteriaceae (Hafnia alvei, Enterobacter spp., and Pantoea agglomerans) and lactic acid bacteria (mainly vagococci and Streptococcus parauberis) was observed. B. thermosphacta, Leuconostoc carnosum and carnobacteria were also detected, but only after allowing bacterial outgrowth by incubating the meat logs at 7 degrees C for four weeks. After a mild post-pasteurisation process and subsequent handling, incubation of the meat logs at 7 degrees C for four weeks led to outgrowth of Enterobacteriaceae (mainly Enterobacter spp. and Serratia spp.). B. thermosphacta, and lactic acid bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis, Leuc. carnosum, and Carnobacterium maltaromaticum) were also found. After slicing and packaging under modified atmosphere, the microbiota of the refrigerated end-product consisted of leuconostocs, carnobacteria, and B. thermosphacta.

  20. Inactivation of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 and aerobic microorganisms in Romaine lettuce packaged in a commercial polyethylene terephthalate container using atmospheric cold plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of dielectric barrier discharge atmospheric cold plasma (DACP) treatment on the inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and aerobic microorganisms in Romaine lettuce packaged in a conventional commercial plastic container were evaluated during storage at 4 degrees C for 7 days. Effects ...

  1. Modified hydrotalcite-like compounds as active fillers of biodegradable polymers for drug release and food packaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Umberto; Nocchetti, Morena; Tammaro, Loredana; Vittoria, Vittoria

    2012-11-01

    This review treats the recent patents and related literature, mainly from the Authors laboratories, on biomedical and food packaging applications of nano-composites constituted of biodegradable polymers filled with micro or nano crystals of organically modified Layered Double Hydroxides of Hydrotalcite type. After a brief outline of the chemical and structural aspects of Hydrotalcite-like compounds (HTlc) and of their manipulation via intercalation of functional molecular anions to obtain materials for numerous, sometime unexpected applications, the review approaches the theme in three separated parts. Part 1 deals with the synthetic method used to prepare the pristine Mg-Al and Zn-Al HTlc and with the procedures of their functionalization with anti-inflammatory (diclofenac), antibacterial (chloramphenicol hemisuccinate), antifibrinolytic (tranexamic acid) drugs and with benzoates with antimicrobial activity. Procedures used to form (nano) composites of polycaprolactone, used as an example of biodegradable polymer, and functionalized HTlc are also reported. Part 2 discusses a patent and related papers on the preparation and biomedical use of a controlled delivery system of the above mentioned pharmacologically active substances. After an introduction dealing with the recent progress in the field of local drug delivery systems, the chemical and structural aspects of the patented system constituted of a biodegradable polymer and HTlc loaded with the active substances will be presented together with an extensive discussion of the drug release in physiological medium. Part 3 deals with a recent patent and related papers on chemical, structural and release property of antimicrobial species of polymeric films containing antimicrobial loaded HTlc able to act as active packaging for food products prolonging their shelf life.

  2. The effect of sage, sodium erythorbate and a mixture of sage and sodium erythorbate on the quality of turkey meatballs stored under vacuum and modified atmosphere conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpińska-Tymoszczyk, M

    2010-12-01

    1. The combined effect of sage (S), sodium erythorbate (SE), a mixture of sage and sodium erythorbate (MIX) and vacuum packaging (VP) and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the quality of cooked turkey meatballs stored at 4°C was investigated. The physicochemical properties (colour, MDA, AV, pH, water activity), microbiological quality characteristics (counts of mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria, fungi, coliforms and Clostridium sp.) and flavour attributes of meatballs were determined. 2. The values of the colour parameters L*, a* and b* were affected by the additives and packaging method. The colour of meatballs was better protected by sodium erythorbate than by sage or a mixture of sage and sodium erythorbate. The additives effectively stabilised lipids against oxidation and slowed down hydrolytic changes in turkey meatballs. Sage and a mixture of sage and sodium erythorbate showed stronger antioxidant properties than sodium erythorbate added alone. Products with additives were characterised by better sensory quality than control samples. Sage and MIX prevented the growth of mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria. All additives inhibited the growth of coliforms. 3. MAP was more effective than VP in maintaining the microbial and sensory quality stability of cooked turkey meatballs. However, VP appears to be a better method as regards the maintaining of lipid stability in turkey meatballs.

  3. Modified ensemble Kalman filter for nuclear accident atmospheric dispersion: prediction improved and source estimated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X L; Su, G F; Yuan, H Y; Chen, J G; Huang, Q Y

    2014-09-15

    Atmospheric dispersion models play an important role in nuclear power plant accident management. A reliable estimation of radioactive material distribution in short range (about 50 km) is in urgent need for population sheltering and evacuation planning. However, the meteorological data and the source term which greatly influence the accuracy of the atmospheric dispersion models are usually poorly known at the early phase of the emergency. In this study, a modified ensemble Kalman filter data assimilation method in conjunction with a Lagrangian puff-model is proposed to simultaneously improve the model prediction and reconstruct the source terms for short range atmospheric dispersion using the off-site environmental monitoring data. Four main uncertainty parameters are considered: source release rate, plume rise height, wind speed and wind direction. Twin experiments show that the method effectively improves the predicted concentration distribution, and the temporal profiles of source release rate and plume rise height are also successfully reconstructed. Moreover, the time lag in the response of ensemble Kalman filter is shortened. The method proposed here can be a useful tool not only in the nuclear power plant accident emergency management but also in other similar situation where hazardous material is released into the atmosphere.

  4. A Modified Linear-Mixing Method for Calculating Atmospheric Path Radiances of Aerosol Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, W. A.; Martonchik, J. V.; Kahn, R. A.; West, R. A.; Diner, D. J.

    1997-01-01

    The top-of-atmosphere (TOA) path radiance generated by an aerosol mixture can be synthesized by linearly adding the contributions of the individual aerosol components, weighted by their fractional optical depths. The method, known as linear mixing, is exact in the single-scattering limit. When multiple scattering is significant, the method reproduces the atmospheric path radiance of the mixture with less than 3% errors for weakly absorbing aerosols up to optical thickness of 0.5. However, when strongly absorbing aerosols are included in the mixture, the errors are much larger. This is due to neglecting the effect of multiple interactions between the aerosol components, especially when the values of the single-scattering albedos of these components are so different that the parameter e = the sum of f(sub i)[(bar)omega(sub i) - (bar)omega(sub mix)]/(bar)omega(sub i) is larger than approximately 0.1, where (bar)omega(sub i)and f(sub i) are the single-scattering albedo and the fractional abundance of the ith component, and (bar)omega(sub mix) is the effective single-scattering albedo of the Mixture. We describe an empirical, modified linear-mixing method which effectively accounts for the multiple interactions between aerosol components. The modified and standard methods are identical when epsilon = 0.0 and give similar results when epsilon is less than or equal to 0.05. For optical depths larger than approximately 0.5, or when epsilon is greater than 0.05, only the modified method can reproduce the radiances within 5% error for common aerosol types up to optical thickness of 2.0. Because this method facilitates efficient and accurate atmospheric path radiance calculations for mixtures of a wide variety of aerosol types, it will be used as part of the aerosol retrieval methodology for the Earth Observing System (EOS) multiangle imaging spectroradiometer (MISR), scheduled for launch into polar orbit in 1998.

  5. Conservação de melão rendilhado minimamente processado sob atmosfera modificada ativa Conservation of minimally processed net melon under active modified atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília de Arruda

    2004-03-01

    2 accumulation until 24% and O2 reduction until 0,4%. Inside PBC packaging the O2 concentration stabilized at 8% and CO2 about 4%, while inside PP packaging the gaseous concentration stabilized near 13% for O2 and 6% for CO2. In a general sense, physical-chemical and sensorial characteristics were not influenced by the treatments. The modified atmosphere packaging was efficient for the microorganism control. The melon without modified atmosphere packaging showed levels over 10(5 NMP/g, of mesophilics bacteria, wich pathogenic microorganisms risks and/or deteriorative microorganisms, after 9th storage day.

  6. Study of the shelf life of a dry fermented sausage "salchichon" made from raw material enriched in monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids and stored under modified atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Begoña; Martínez, Beatriz; Sánchez, María Josefa; Dolores García-Cachán, M A; Rovira, Jordi; Jaime, Isabel

    2007-05-01

    The microbiological, physico-chemical and sensory properties of salchichon with high unsaturated fat content, packed under vacuum and 20/80% CO(2)/N(2) modified atmosphere, were evaluated to determine its quality changes during storage under refrigeration. These sausages were manufactured with pork meat and pork backfat obtained from pigs fed with three different diets (control diet-CO, high oleic diet-HO and high linoleic diet-HL). In general, few significant differences were found in counts of different groups of microorganism between the three types of sausages and no difference between the packaging methods. A reduction in pH values was observed during storage and no great differences were determined by storage period on water activity (a(w)). Both parameters (pH and a(w)) presented similar results to those found in different Spanish sausages and other European dry fermented products. The sensory results denoted that sensory quality gradually decreased during storage under both packaging conditions (vacuum and 20/80% CO(2)/N(2)), so it is not advisable to store longer than 150days. On the other hand, fermented sausages with high content of unsaturated fatty acids had similar sensory properties to those of conventional sausages, and even a comparable sensory stability. In conclusion, the results showed healthier salchichons (HO and HL) similar to the traditional (CO) one could be manufactured and stored under refrigeration after slicing for a reasonable period, but the advantage of the gas mixture packaging (20/80% CO(2)/N(2)) versus vacuum packaging was not clear.

  7. Identification of lactic acid bacteria from spoilage associations of cooked and brined shrimps stored under modified atmosphere between 0 degrees C and 25 degrees C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Paw; Vancanneyt, M.; Vilalta, N.E.

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate spoilage and identify lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from spoilage associations of cooked and brined shrimps stored under modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) at 0, 5, 8, 15 and 25degreesC. Methods and Results: Bacterial isolates (102) from spoilage associations of cooked and brined...... MAP shrimps were characterized by phenotypic tests and identified as lactic acid bacteria (78 isolates), other Gram-positive bacteria (13 isolates) and Gram-negative bacteria (11 isolates). A selection of 48 LAB isolates were further characterized and identified by phenotypic tests and SDS...... to chemical changes in spoiled products. Carnobacterium divergens , a non-motile Carnobacterium sp. nov. and Lactobacillus curvatus were the LAB species observed in spoilage associations of products stored at 0degreesC, 5degreesC and 8degreesC. Conclusions: Enterococcus spp. and Carnobacterium spp. were...

  8. Thymus Vulgaris (Red Thyme) and Caryophyllus Aromaticus (Clove) Essential Oils to Control Spoilage Microorganisms in Pork Under Modified Atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, Serena; Mazzarrino, Giovanni; Rossi, Chiara; Serio, Annalisa; López, Clemencia Chaves; Celano, Gaetano Vitale; Paparella, Antonello

    2016-06-03

    In recent years, it has been confirmed that essential oils (EOs) exert antimicrobial activity as they are able to inhibit cell growth and inactivate microbial cells. The application of biopreservation strategies by means of EOs opens up interesting perspectives in the food industry, including meat production. The paper aims to evaluate the effects of Thymus vulgaris (red thyme) and Caryophyllus aromaticus (cloves) EOs on the development of the spoilage population of fresh pork packaged under modified atmosphere (MAP). In particular, the research was focused on Brochothrix thermosphacta, a specific spoilage microorganism of fresh meat packed in anaerobic conditions or under MAP. Amongst seven EOs, those that showed the highest antimicrobial activity on 5 B. thermosphacta strains in vitro were: cloves [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 0.6-2.5 mg/mL], savory (MIC 2.5-5.0 mg/mL), and red thyme (MIC 2.5 to 20 mg/mL). Red thyme and cloves EOs were selected for meat treatment, by increasing the dose at 20 and 40 mg/mL respectively, to take into account the matrix effect that can reduce EO availability. In spite of the minor efficacy observed in vitro, 40 mg/mL red thyme EO strongly limited the growth of B. thermosphacta in pork samples up to day 6 of storage [below 3.0 Log colony forming unit (CFU)/g, starting from 2.0 Log CFU/g at time 0], and exerted an antimicrobial effect also on the aerobic mesophilic count. Good results were obtained also with 20 mg/mL red thyme EO. The control of B. thermosphacta growth through EOs encourages research on alternative methods for extending the shelf life of fresh meat under MAP.

  9. Thymus Vulgaris (Red Thyme) and Caryophyllus Aromaticus (Clove) Essential Oils to Control Spoilage Microorganisms in Pork Under Modified Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Amato, Serena; Mazzarrino, Giovanni; Rossi, Chiara; Serio, Annalisa; López, Clemencia Chaves; Celano, Gaetano Vitale; Paparella, Antonello

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, it has been confirmed that essential oils (EOs) exert antimicrobial activity as they are able to inhibit cell growth and inactivate microbial cells. The application of biopreservation strategies by means of EOs opens up interesting perspectives in the food industry, including meat production. The paper aims to evaluate the effects of Thymus vulgaris (red thyme) and Caryophyllus aromaticus (cloves) EOs on the development of the spoilage population of fresh pork packaged under modified atmosphere (MAP). In particular, the research was focused on Brochothrix thermosphacta, a specific spoilage microorganism of fresh meat packed in anaerobic conditions or under MAP. Amongst seven EOs, those that showed the highest antimicrobial activity on 5 B. thermosphacta strains in vitro were: cloves [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 0.6-2.5 mg/mL], savory (MIC 2.5-5.0 mg/mL), and red thyme (MIC 2.5 to 20 mg/mL). Red thyme and cloves EOs were selected for meat treatment, by increasing the dose at 20 and 40 mg/mL respectively, to take into account the matrix effect that can reduce EO availability. In spite of the minor efficacy observed in vitro, 40 mg/mL red thyme EO strongly limited the growth of B. thermosphacta in pork samples up to day 6 of storage [below 3.0 Log colony forming unit (CFU)/g, starting from 2.0 Log CFU/g at time 0], and exerted an antimicrobial effect also on the aerobic mesophilic count. Good results were obtained also with 20 mg/mL red thyme EO. The control of B. thermosphacta growth through EOs encourages research on alternative methods for extending the shelf life of fresh meat under MAP. PMID:27853710

  10. Thymus vulgaris (red thyme and Caryophyllus aromaticus (clove essential oils to control spoilage microorganisms in pork under modified atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena D'Amato

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, it has been confirmed that essential oils (EOs exert antimicrobial activity as they are able to inhibit cell growth and inactivate microbial cells. The application of biopreservation strategies by means of EOs opens up interesting perspectives in the food industry, including meat production. The paper aims to evaluate the effects of Thymus vulgaris (red thyme and Caryophyllus aromaticus (cloves EOs on the development of the spoilage population of fresh pork packaged under modified atmosphere (MAP. In particular, the research was focused on Brochothrix thermosphacta, a specific spoilage microorganism of fresh meat packed in anaerobic conditions or under MAP. Amongst seven EOs, those that showed the highest antimicrobial activity on 5 B. thermosphacta strains in vitro were: cloves [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC 0.6-2.5 mg/mL], savory (MIC 2.5-5.0 mg/mL, and red thyme (MIC 2.5 to 20 mg/mL. Red thyme and cloves EOs were selected for meat treatment, by increasing the dose at 20 and 40 mg/mL respectively, to take into account the matrix effect that can reduce EO availability. In spite of the minor efficacy observed in vitro, 40 mg/mL red thyme EO strongly limited the growth of B. thermosphacta in pork samples up to day 6 of storage [below 3.0 Log colony forming unit (CFU/g, starting from 2.0 Log CFU/g at time 0], and exerted an antimicrobial effect also on the aerobic mesophilic count. Good results were obtained also with 20 mg/mL red thyme EO. The control of B. thermosphacta growth through EOs encourages research on alternative methods for extending the shelf life of fresh meat under MAP.

  11. An approach to study the corrosion behaviour of stainless steel containers for packaging of intermediate level radioactive waste during atmospheric storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padovani, C.G.; Wood, P. [Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (United Kingdom); Smart, N.R.; Winsley, R.J. [Serco Technical and Assurance Services (United Kingdom); Charles, A.; Albores-Silva, O. [Newcastle upon Tyne Univ. (United Kingdom); Krouse, D. [Industrial Research Limited (New Zealand)

    2009-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: In the UK, intermediate level radioactive waste (ILW) arising from the decommissioning of power stations and other nuclear installations is generally encapsulated in cement waste forms and packaged within stainless steel containers. The function of the waste package is to immobilise and physically contain the waste in a stable form and to allow its safe storage, transport, handling and eventual disposal in a geological disposal facility. Given such a function, it is important to ensure that the corrosion resistance of the waste container is sufficient to ensure its integrity for long times. This paper discusses the expected corrosion behaviour of ILW containers manufactured in stainless steel 304L and 316L within the current disposal concept, with specific focus on the behaviour of the material during atmospheric storage. In an indoor atmosphere, localised corrosion and stress corrosion cracking may develop on waste containers only if aggressive hygroscopic salts (e.g. MgCl{sub 2}) accumulate on the container surfaces in certain quantities and in certain humidity ranges. Experimental observation is being carried out in order to better identify conditions in which corrosion damage develops. This type of analysis, together with laboratory and field observation, is being used to identify suitable storage conditions for the packages. On the other hand, extrapolation of short-term data on pit depth in aggressive environments (e.g. marine atmospheres) suggests that penetration of the container walls by pitting over long-time scales is unlikely. Experimental observation and modelling are progressing in order to better understand the mechanistic aspects of propagation and to evaluate whether container penetration by pitting may occur over long timescales. Outstanding uncertainties (e.g. related to the effect of ionising radiation on the atmospheric corrosion behaviour of the packages) will also be outlined.

  12. Armazenamento de ameixas 'Laetitia' em atmosfera modificada Storage of 'Laetitia' plums under modified atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano André Steffens

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da atmosfera modificada (AM na manutenção da qualidade físico-química de ameixas da cultivar 'Laetitia'. Os tratamentos avaliados foram: armazenamento refrigerado (AR; 21,0kPa O2 + 0,03kPa CO2, AM [polietileno de baixa densidade (PEBD, 40µm sem perfuração], AM com adição de 10kPa de CO2 e AM com quatro perfurações de 2,0mm de diâmetro. Os tratamentos AM, AM com perfurações e AM com adição de CO2 proporcionaram as pressões parciais médias de 1,9kPa O2 + 15,2kPa CO2, 8,1kPa O2 + 9,6kPa CO2 e 4,1kPa O2 + 16,0kPa CO2, respectivamente. Ameixas armazenadas em AR apresentaram menores valores de firmeza de polpa e força para ruptura da casca, bem como coloração da epiderme mais vermelha e maior incidência de rachaduras na saída da câmara. A força para penetração da polpa e a resistência do fruto à compressão, na saída da câmara, foram maiores nos frutos armazenados em AM com perfuração, não havendo diferenças entre as condições de AM após quatro dias em condição ambiente. A acidez titulável foi mais elevada em todas as condições de AM, na saída da câmara. A incidência de podridões foi menor nos frutos armazenados em AM com perfurações. A taxa respiratória foi mais elevada nos frutos armazenados em AM na saída da câmara, mas não após quatro dias em condição ambiente. A incidência de degenerescência da polpa foi elevada em todos os tratamentos, porém menor em AR e AM com perfurações.This research was carried out to assess the effects of modified atmosphere packing (MAP conditions on physicochemical quality preservation of cv. 'Laetitia plums'. Fruit were cold stored (CS; 21.0kPa O2 + 0.03kPa CO2, MAP [fruit sealed in a low density polyethylene film (LDPE, 40µm, without perforation], MAP with the addition of CO2 (10kPa inside the package, and MAP with perforated film (diameter of perforations = 2.0mm. During cold storage, the treatments MAP, MAP with perforated

  13. Influence of modified atmosphere and ethylene levels on quality attributes of fresh tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Irene; Lafuente, María T; Hernández-Muñoz, Pilar; Gavara, Rafael

    2016-10-15

    Controlling storage atmosphere is a key factor for delaying postharvest fruit quality loss. The objective of this study is to evaluate its influence on physico-chemical, sensorial and nutritional quality attributes of two tomato fruit cultivars (Delizia and Pitenza) that respectively have a short- and long-storage life. To that end, the effect of two types of bags with different gas permeability, combined or not with an ethylene sorbent, on tomato organoleptic and nutritional properties were compared during fruit storage at 13°C. CO2 and O2 were critical factors for controlling tomato postharvest behaviour. Weight loss, firmness, color and visual quality were only affected by bag permeability just as total sugar content and acidity for Pitenza tomatoes. (trans)-2-Hexenal also appears to be related with CO2 and O2 levels. Lycopene, total phenols (TP) and ascorbic acid (AA) contents were also affected by the packaging form and the storage length. Ethylene removal in combination with MAP led to a higher content in TP and AA in the short-life tomato cultivar.

  14. Modified Atmosphere Systems and Shelf Life Extension of Fish and Fishery Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina A. Mireles DeWitt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This review aims at summarizing the findings of studies published over the past 15 years on the application of modified atmosphere (MA systems for shelf life extension of fish and fishery products. This review highlights the importance of CO2 in the preservation of seafood products, and underscores the benefits of combining MA technology with product storage in the superchilled temperature range. It is generally accepted that MA technology cannot improve product quality and should not be utilized as a substitute for good sanitation and strict temperature control. Benefits derived from application of MA, however, can significantly impact preservation of product quality and it subsequent shelf-life. For this reason, this review is the first of its kind to propose detailed handling and quality guidelines for fresh fish to realize the maximum benefit of MA technology.

  15. Modified Atmosphere Systems and Shelf Life Extension of Fish and Fishery Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Christina A Mireles; Oliveira, Alexandra C M

    2016-06-28

    This review aims at summarizing the findings of studies published over the past 15 years on the application of modified atmosphere (MA) systems for shelf life extension of fish and fishery products. This review highlights the importance of CO₂ in the preservation of seafood products, and underscores the benefits of combining MA technology with product storage in the superchilled temperature range. It is generally accepted that MA technology cannot improve product quality and should not be utilized as a substitute for good sanitation and strict temperature control. Benefits derived from application of MA, however, can significantly impact preservation of product quality and it subsequent shelf-life. For this reason, this review is the first of its kind to propose detailed handling and quality guidelines for fresh fish to realize the maximum benefit of MA technology.

  16. Growth of aligned ZnO nanowires via modified atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yuping; Li, Chengchen [Faculty of Science, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu, 212013 (China); Chen, Mingming, E-mail: andychain@live.cn [Faculty of Science, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu, 212013 (China); Yu, Xiao; Chang, Yunwei [Faculty of Science, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu, 212013 (China); Chen, Anqi [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Electronics & Information Technology, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Center (University Town), Guangzhou, 510006 (China); Zhu, Hai, E-mail: zhuhai5@mail.sysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Electronics & Information Technology, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Center (University Town), Guangzhou, 510006 (China); Tang, Zikang, E-mail: zktang@umac.mo [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Electronics & Information Technology, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Center (University Town), Guangzhou, 510006 (China); The Institute of Applied Physics and Materials Engineering, University of Macau, Avenida da Universidade, Taipa, Macau (China)

    2016-12-09

    In this work, we report the growth of high-quality aligned ZnO nanowires via a facile atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The CVD reactor chamber used was more complicated than a conventional one due to the quartz boats loaded with sources (ZnO/C) and substrates being inserted into a semi-open quartz tube, and then placed inside the CVD reactor. The semi-open quartz tube played a very important role in growing the ZnO nanowires, and demonstrated that the transportation properties of Zn and O vapor differ from those in the conventional CVD reactor chamber. Aligned ZnO nanowires were successfully obtained, though they were only found at substrates located upstream. The very high crystalline quality of the obtained ZnO nanowires was demonstrated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and room temperature photoluminescence investigations. Such ZnO nanowires with high crystalline quality may provide opportunities for the fabrication of ZnO-based nano-devices in future. - Highlights: • High-quality aligned ZnO nanowires were obtained via modified chemical vapor deposition under atmospheric pressure. • The semi-open quartz tube plays very important roles in growing ZnO nanowires. • The transportation properties of Zn and O vapor differ from those in the conventional CVD reactor chamber.

  17. Locating hazardous gas leaks in the atmosphere via modified genetic, MCMC and particle swarm optimization algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji; Zhang, Ru; Yan, Yuting; Dong, Xiaoqiang; Li, Jun Ming

    2017-05-01

    Hazardous gas leaks in the atmosphere can cause significant economic losses in addition to environmental hazards, such as fires and explosions. A three-stage hazardous gas leak source localization method was developed that uses movable and stationary gas concentration sensors. The method calculates a preliminary source inversion with a modified genetic algorithm (MGA) and has the potential to crossover with eliminated individuals from the population, following the selection of the best candidate. The method then determines a search zone using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling, utilizing a partial evaluation strategy. The leak source is then accurately localized using a modified guaranteed convergence particle swarm optimization algorithm with several bad-performing individuals, following selection of the most successful individual with dynamic updates. The first two stages are based on data collected by motionless sensors, and the last stage is based on data from movable robots with sensors. The measurement error adaptability and the effect of the leak source location were analyzed. The test results showed that this three-stage localization process can localize a leak source within 1.0 m of the source for different leak source locations, with measurement error standard deviation smaller than 2.0.

  18. In Situ Atmospheric Pressure Measurements in the Martian Southern Polar Region: Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor Meteorology Package on the Mars Polar Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Polkko, J.; Siili, T.; Crisp, D.

    1998-01-01

    Pressure observations are crucial for the success of the Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor (MVACS) Meteorology (MET) package onboard the Mars Polar Lander (MPL), due for launch early next year. The spacecraft is expected to land in December 1999 (L(sub s) = 256 degrees) at a high southern latitude (74 degrees - 78 degrees S). The nominal period of operation is 90 sols but may last up to 210 sols. The MVACS/MET experiment will provide the first in situ observations of atmospheric pressure, temperature, wind, and humidity in the southern hemisphere of Mars and in the polar regions. The martian atmosphere goes through a large-scale atmospheric pressure cycle due to the annual condensation/sublimation of the atmospheric CO2. Pressure also exhibits short period variations associated with dust storms, tides, and other atmospheric events. A series of pressure measurements can hence provide us with information on the large-scale state and dynamics of the atmosphere, including the CO2 and dust cycles as well as local weather phenomena. The measurements can also shed light on the shorter time scale phenomena (e.g., passage of dust devils) and hence be important in contributing to our understanding of mixing and transport of heat, dust, and water vapor.

  19. Cloud Package Selection for Academic Requirements using Multi Criteria Decision Making based Modified Ant Colony Optimization Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.Madhumathi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Quality of Service (QoS and user satisfaction are two of the major requirements considered by the current cloud service providers. In-order to incorporate these qualities in the cloud resource selection framework, user’s requirements must be clearly known. This paper presents an effective cloud package allocation technique that utilizes the user’s logs and fuzzy user inputs to identify the user requirements to perform optimal allocations. Since cloud packages are predefined and do not correspond to the direct user requirements, optimal package allocation is the only option. This process is carried out by Ant Colony Optimization (ACO. Due to the metaheuristic nature of ACO, the results obtained from this selection technique was found to be optimal and the results were obtained faster even with the usage of a large number of agents (ants. Experiments show that ACO provides optimal and fast allocations.

  20. Qualidade de mangas 'Tommy Atkins' armazenadas sob atmosfera modificada Quality of 'Tommy Atkins' mangoes stored under modified atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisangela Marques Jeronimo

    2007-08-01

    with and without potassium permanganate; conditioned fruits, in groups of 5, in carton boxes with cover, covered internally or not with low density polyethylene made with and without potassium permanganate. The fruits were stored under at 13 ± 1°C, 85-90% RH for 20 days and then transferred to 24,4 °C, 70% RH storage room. The evaluated variables were: loss of fresh mass, appearance, firmness of the pulp, soluble solids, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid. It was verified that the best treatment of modified atmosphere was individual packaging of the mango fruits in plastic trays, covered with plastic film of polivinil chloride (PVC of 14 µm. The potassium permanganate, in the form used in this study (sachet and impregnated in plastic film, did not affect the conservation of the fruits.

  1. Shelf-life of minimally processed cabbage treated with neutral electrolysed oxidising water and stored under equilibrium modified atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-López, Vicente M; Ragaert, Peter; Ryckeboer, Jaak; Jeyachchandran, Visvalingam; Debevere, Johan; Devlieghere, Frank

    2007-06-10

    Minimally processed vegetables (MPV) have a short shelf-life. Neutral electrolysed oxidising water (NEW) is a novel decontamination method. The objective of this study was to test the potential of NEW to extend the shelf-life of a MPV, namely shredded cabbage. Samples of shredded cabbage were immersed in NEW containing 40 mg/L of free chlorine or tap water (control) up to 5 min, and then stored under equilibrium modified atmosphere at 4 degrees C and 7 degrees C. Proliferation of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, psychrotrophic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria and yeasts were studied during the shelf-life. Also pH and sensorial quality of the samples as well as O(2) and CO(2) composition of the headspace of the bags was evaluated. From the microbial groups, only psychrotrophic counts decreased significantly (P<0.05) due to the effect of NEW, but the counts in treated samples and controls were similar after 3 days of storage at 4 degrees C and 7 degrees C. Packaging configurations kept O(2) concentration around 5% and prevented CO(2) accumulation. pH increased from 6.1-6.2 to 6.4 during the shelf-life. No microbial parameter reached unacceptable counts after 14 days at 4 degrees C and 8 days of storage at 7 degrees C. The shelf-life of controls stored at 4 degrees C was limited to 9 days by overall visual quality (OVQ), while samples treated with NEW remained acceptable during the 14 days of the experiment. The shelf-life of controls stored at 7 degrees C was limited to 6 days by OVQ and browning, while that of samples treated with NEW were limited to 9 days by OVQ, browning and dryness. According to these results, a shelf-life extension of at least 5 days and 3 days in samples stored respectively at 4 degrees C and 7 degrees C can be achieved by treating shredded cabbage with NEW. NEW seems to be a promising method to prolong the shelf-life of MPV.

  2. Characterization of Modified Tapioca Starch in Atmospheric Argon Plasma under Diverse Humidity by FTIR Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeyai, P.; Suphantharika, M.; Wongsagonsup, R.; Dangtip, S.

    2013-01-01

    Tapioca is economical crop grown in Thailand and continues to be one of the major sources of starch. Nowadays, tapioca starch has been widely used in industrial applications, however the native form of starch has limited the applications. Thus scientists try to modify the properties of starch for increasing the stability of the granules, pastes to low pH, heat, and shear during the food process. We modify the tapioca starch by plasma treatment under an argon atmosphere. The degree of modification is determined by following water content in the starch granules. The tablet samples of native starch are also prepared and compared with the plasma treated starch. Before plasma treatment, the starch tablets are stored under three different relative humilities (RH) including 11%, 68%, and 78%RH, respectively. The samples are characterized using FTIR spectroscopy associated with the degree of cross-linking. The results show that the water molecules are engulfed into the starch structure in two ways, a tight bond and a weak absorption of water molecules which is represented at two wave number of 1630 cm-1 and 3272 cm-1, respectively. The degree of cross-linking can be identified from the relative intensity of these two peaks with the C—O—H peak at 993 cm-1. The results show that the degree of cross-linking increase in the plasma treated starch. The degree of cross-linking of the treated starch with high relative humidity is less than that of the treated starch with low relative humidity.

  3. Antimicrobial effects of vapor phase thymol, modified atmosphere and their combination against Salmonella spp. on raw shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella contamination of raw shrimp is a food safety concern in the U.S. and other countries. This research evaluated the effects of vapor phase thymol, modified atmosphere (MA) and their combination against Salmonella spp. on raw shrimp. Growth profiles of a Salmonella spp. cocktail (6 strains),...

  4. High oxygen and high carbon dioxide modified atmospheres for shelf-life extension of minimally processed carrots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amanatidou, A.; Slump, R.A.; Gorris, L.G.M.; Smid, E.J.

    2000-01-01

    The impact of high O2 + high CO2 modified atmospheres (MA), on the preservation of minimally processed carrots was studied. A combination of 50% O2 + 30% CO2 prolonged the shelf life of sliced carrots compared to storage in air by 2 to 3 d. When the carrots received a pre-treatment with a 0.1%

  5. High oxygen and high carbon dioxide modified atmospheres for shelf-life extension of minimally processed carrots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amanatidou, A.; Slump, R.A.; Gorris, L.G.M.; Smid, E.J.

    2000-01-01

    The impact of high O2 + high CO2 modified atmospheres (MA), on the preservation of minimally processed carrots was studied. A combination of 50% O2 + 30% CO2 prolonged the shelf life of sliced carrots compared to storage in air by 2 to 3 d. When the carrots received a pre-treatment with a 0.1% citri

  6. Microbiological quality of maatjes herring stored in air and under modified atmosphere at 4 and 10 C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyhs, U.; Lahtinen, J.; Schelvis-Smit, A.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Microbiological and sensory changes of maatjes herring stored in air (experiment I) and under modified atmosphere (MAP) (experiments II and III) were evaluated during storage at 4 and 10 °C. Microbial (total and psychrotrophic viable bacteria, lactic acid bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae) counts and

  7. 100% N2 atmospheric-pressure microwave-line-plasma production with a modified waveguide structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Haruka; Tamura, Yuto; Itoh, Hitoshi; Sekine, Makoto; Hori, Masaru; Toyoda, Hirotaka

    2016-09-01

    Large-scale atmospheric pressure (AP) plasmas have been given much attention because of its high cost benefit and a variety of possibilities for industrial applications. Microwave discharge plasma using slot antenna is attractive due to its ability of high-density and stable plasma production, and we have developed a long-scale AP microwave plasma (AP microwave line plasma: AP-MLP) source using loop-structured waveguide and travelling wave and have reported spatially-uniform AP-MLP of 40 cm in length using Ar or He gas discharge. However, rare gas discharge is not always suitable for industrial applications because usage of large volume rare gas degrades the AP cost benefit. Furthermore, many industrial applications require chemically-reactive species and the AP-MLP using molecular gas will drastically increase the applications of the AP-MLP. In this study, we demonstrate 100% N2 discharge of the AP-MLP with a modified waveguide structure. Cross-sectional structure of the waveguide is improved to enhance the microwave electric field in the slot. 100% N2 plasma of 15 cm-long is successfully produced using CW microwave power of 2 kW. Low gas temperature of 1000 K is confirmed by optical emission spectroscopy, suggesting applications of the AP-MLP to low temperature processes. Part of this work is supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 25286079.

  8. Production of biogenic amines by lactic acid bacteria and enterobacteria isolated from fresh pork sausages packaged in different atmospheres and kept under refrigeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curiel, J A; Ruiz-Capillas, C; de Las Rivas, B; Carrascosa, A V; Jiménez-Colmenero, F; Muñoz, R

    2011-07-01

    The occurrence of in vitro amino acid activity in bacterial strains associated with fresh pork sausages packaged in different atmospheres and kept in refrigeration was studied. The presence of biogenic amines in decarboxylase broth was confirmed by ion-exchange chromatography and by the presence of the corresponding decarboxylase genes by PCR. From the 93 lactic acid bacteria and 100 enterobacteria strains analysed, the decarboxylase medium underestimates the number of biogenic amine-producer strains. 28% of the lactic acid bacteria produced tyramine and presented the tdc gene. All the tyramine-producer strains were molecularly identified as Carnobacterium divergens. Differences on the relative abundance of C. divergens were observed among the different packaging atmospheres assayed. After 28 days of storage, the presence of argon seems to inhibit C. divergens growth, while packing under vacuum seems to favour it. Among enterobacteria, putrescine was the amine more frequently produced (87%), followed by cadaverine (85%); agmatine and tyramine were only produced by 13 and 1%, respectively, of the strains analysed. Packing under vacuum or in an atmosphere containing nitrogen seems to inhibit the growth of enterobacteria which produce simultaneously putrescine, cadaverine, and agmatine. Contrarily, over-wrapping or packing in an atmosphere containing argon seems to favour the growth of agmatine producer-enterobacteria. The production of putrescine and cadaverine was associated with the presence of the corresponding amino acid decarboxylase genes. The biogenic amine-producer strains were included in a wide range of enterobacterial species, including Kluyvera intermedia, Enterobacter aerogenes, Yersinia kristensenii, Serratia grimesii, Serratia ficaria, Yersinia rodhei, Providencia vermicola and Obesumbacterium proteus.

  9. Influence of in-package cold plasma treatment on microbiological shelf life and appearance of fresh chicken breast fillets

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of in-package cold plasmas (CP) was studied on microbiological shelf life and surface lightness of fresh chicken fillets (pectoralis major) . chicken fillets were packaged in food trays in air or modified atmosphere (MA) gas (O2:CO2:N2 = 65:30:5) and stored at 4' after exposed to an in-pa...

  10. INVESTIGATION OF SANITARY-HYGIENIC CHARACTERISTICS OF MULTILAYER POLYMER FILMS USED FOR VACUUM PACKAGING MODIFIED BY NATIVE ANTIMICROBIAL COMPONENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. B. Fedotova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the research works related to investigation of sanitary-hygienic characteristics of multilayer polymer film materials where the inner layer contacting directly with food product is modified by native antimicrobial components.

  11. The effect of modified atmospheres on the survival of the eggs of four storage mite species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conyers, Simon T; Bell, Christopher H

    2003-01-01

    The results of a laboratory investigation into the effects of modified atmospheres (MA) on the eggs of mite pests of grain and cheese are presented. Four species of astigmatid mite were tested; Acarus farris (Oudemans). A. siro L., Lepidoglyphus destructor (Schrank) and Tyrophagus longior (Gervais). All are found in many habitats including grain and cheese stores. Three low oxygen (O2) MA mixtures were used, based on carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen (N2) or simulated burner gas (0.5 or 2% O2, 10% CO2, balance N2) plus 60% CO2 in air (8% O2). The mites were exposed at 15 degrees C and 80% r.h., a combination of conditions that occurs at the surface of stored grain during the autumn which promotes mite population growth. The exposure periods required to prevent egg hatch for each species in every mixture are given. Tyrophagus longior was the most tolerant species, followed by A. siro and A. farris, with L. destructor the most susceptible. Burner gas was the most effective mixture overall with 0.5% O2 but with an increase in the O2 level to 2% for all the mixtures, CO2 became the more effective control agent. With 60% CO2 in air some loss of efficacy was observed against the three most tolerant species and even more so for L. destructor. Sublethal exposures to MAs for at least 4 days in L. destructor, 6 days in A. farris and A. siro and 8 days for T. longior caused a delay in egg hatch.

  12. Thawed cod fillets spoil less rapidly than unfrozen fillets when stored under modified atmosphere at 2 C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldager, H.S.; Bøknæs, Niels; Østerberg, Carsten

    1998-01-01

    The effect of two months of frozen storage at -20 degrees C on the spoilage characteristics and shelf life of thawed and modified atmosphere packed (MAP) cod fillets stored at 2 degrees C was studied. Thawed MAP cod fillets were compared with fresh cod fillets stored in CO2-containing modified...... as reflected both in chemical analyses and sensory evaluation. In contrast to fresh MAP cod fillets no significant production of trimethylamine occurred and almost no amine odor and taste were detected during 20 days of chill storage of thawed MAP cod fillets. The use of frozen fillets as raw material not only...

  13. The use of oxygen scavengers to prevent the transient discolouration of ground beef packaged under controlled, oxygen-depleted atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, C O; McGinnis, J C

    1995-01-01

    Rates of O(2) absorption from air were determined for a type of commercial O(2) scavenger that is formulated for rapid O(2) absorption at chiller temperatures. Rates of O(2) absorption from N(2) atmospheres containing 600 ppm O(2) were determined for trays that each contained 350 g of ground beef. Packs with controlled atmospheres of N(2) that contained ground beef and O(2) scavengers were prepared, to determine the conditions under which the scavengers could prevent the transient discolouration of the meat which arises from its reaction with the residual O(2) initially present in pack atmospheres. The rates of O(2) absorption by individual scavengers varied from the average by ±50%. The rate of O(2) absorption declined with decreasing oxygen concentration, from an average value per scavenger of about 12 ml h(-1) when O(2) concentrations were between 20 and 10%. At O(2) concentrations absorption was directly proportioned to the O(2) concentration so that the O(2) concentration in an atmosphere in a gas-impermeable pouch declined exponentially with time. The absorption of O(2) by ground beef was similarly dependent on the O(2) concentration. At 2 °C, the transient discolouration of beef in atmospheres initially containing about 50 ppm O(2) was prevented by the presence of 17.5 scavengers per l of atmosphere. At -15 °C, discolouration was prevented by 5 scavengers per l. The findings indicate that the O(2) concentration in pack atmospheres has to be reduced below 10 ppm within 30 min at 2 °C, or 2 h at -1.5 °C if ground beef is not to transiently discolour. It is unlikely that the required rates of O(2) absorption could be obtained economically with currently available, commercial O(2) scavengers.

  14. Nano active air modified packaging of fresh-picked spinach%新鲜菠菜的纳米活性气调包装研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭玉花; 黄震; 滕立军; 杨传民

    2009-01-01

    The study was carried out by using own-blowing nano active air modified packaging films and choosing new-pick spinach to examine the effects to fresh-keeping. The tensile strength, air and moisture permeability of the films were examined. The sensory evaluation of the fresh-keeping effect was made. With the increase of molecular sieve content, weight loss of spinach and changes in soluble solids and respiration rate were examined. The results show that at ambient conditions, the fresh-keeping effect of Hβ-7 film is the best, the balance air concentration in air modified package was O2 content of 13.4%~13. 7% and CO2 content of 3.6~4. 2%, and fresh-keeping time can reach 5 days. In fresh-keeping cabinet, the fresh-keeping effect of Hβ-7 film is best, the balance air concentration in air modified package was O2 content of 19.8%~20.20% and CO2 content of 1.2%~1.4%, and fresh-keeping time can reach more than 10 days.%使用自行研制的纳米活性气调包装膜,选用新鲜采摘的菠菜,进行气调包装研究.测定保鲜膜的拉伸强度、透气率和透湿率,对菠菜包装的保鲜效果进行感官评价,研究随着分子筛含量的增加,菠菜失重率、可溶性固形物和呼吸强度的变化.结果表明:在室温下,Hβ-7保鲜膜的保鲜效果最好,气调保鲜包装的平衡气体浓度为O2含量13.4%~13.7%,CO2含量3.6%~4.2%.保鲜期可长达5 d;在保鲜柜中,Hβ-7保鲜膜的保鲜效果最好,气调保鲜包装的平衡气体浓度为O2含量19.8%~20.2%,CO2含量1.2%~1.4%,货架寿命可达10 d以上.

  15. Evaluation of a Modified Atmosphere Packaging System to Increase Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Shelf Life for Extended Military Supply Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    of separate add-on Apio broccoli product sets for Test Shipments 2 and 3. HaiYen Landry is acknowledged for her detailed review and extensive...than those for Group C and Group R cases, which were very similar. Initial product quality/condition varied between shipments  Broccoli Crowns... product case for all three test groups for one test item (e.g. broccoli ) to obtain the “Good-to-Serve” net case weights. When two individuals culled

  16. Using a Modified Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Scheme (MSPAS) to Simulate the Interaction between Land Surface Processes and Atmospheric Boundary Layer in Semi-Arid Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘树华; 乐旭; 胡非; 刘辉志

    2004-01-01

    This paper uses a Modified Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Scheme (MSPAS) to study the interaction between land surface and atmospheric boundary layer processes. The scheme is composed of two main parts:atmospheric boundary layer processes and land surface processes. Compared with SiB and BATS, which are famous for their detailed parameterizations of physical variables, this simplified model is more convenient and saves much more computation time. Though simple, the feasibility of the model is well proved in this paper. The numerical simulation results from MSPAS show good agreement with reality. The scheme is used to obtain reasonable simulations for diurnal variations of heat balance, potential temperature of boundary layer, and wind field, and spatial distributions of temperature, specific humidity, vertical velocity,turbulence kinetic energy, and turbulence exchange coefficient over desert and oasis. In addition, MSPAS is used to simulate the interaction between desert and oasis at night, and again it obtains reasonable results.This indicates that MSPAS can be used to study the interaction between land surface processes and the atmospheric boundary layer over various underlying surfaces and can be extended for regional climate and numerical weather prediction study.

  17. Irradiation and passive modified atmosphere on the post-harvest quality of guavas ‘Pedro Sato’. = Irradiação e atmosfera modificada passiva na qualidade pós-colheita de goiabas ‘Pedro Sato’ .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André José de Campos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gamma radiation associated with modified atmosphere on postharvest quality of guavas ‘Pedro Sato’. It was used guavas from the region of Vista Alegre do Alto/São Paulo/Brazil. After harvest, the fruits were immediately transported to the Fruit and Vegetables Laboratory from the Agroindustrial Management and Technology Department, Agronomic Sciences College - UNESP - Botucatu / SP, where they were kept at 10 ° C and 90-95% RH in cold storage, for 28 days. It was used the randomized design, with factorial scheme 5 x 5, three repetitions. The first factor consisted of the following effects: control 1 (without package or irradiation, control 2 (polystyrene package/PS + package low density polyethylene/LDPE and without irradiation, treatment 1 (PS + LDPE and 0.2 kGy , treatment 2 (PS + LDPE and 0.6 kGy and treatment 3 (PS + LDPE and 1.0 kGy. The second factor consisted of the evaluation periods: 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. The analyses were: firmness, soluble solids (SS, titratable acidity (TA, maturity index, pH, respiration rate. Concluded that high doses of irradiation promoted a negative effect on physical-chemical characteristics of guava ‘Pedro Sato’, verifying that only the lowest dose associated with modified atmosphere provided fruits with higher quality and acceptability, due to higher maturation rate and soluble solids obtained. Regarding the days of analysis, there were no positive effect of the treatments during storage, where only the early days promoted better values for the variables studied.

  18. Influence of good manufacturing practices on the shelf life of refrigerated fillets of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) packed in modified atmosphere and gamma-irradiated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Maria Lúcia Guerra; Mársico, Eliane Teixeira; Mano, Sérgio Borges; Teixeira, Claudia Emília; da Cruz Silva Canto, Anna Carolina Vilhena; de Carvalho Vital, Helio; Conte-Júnior, Carlos Adam

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of good manufacturing practices (GMP) on the shelf life of refrigerated fillets of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) packed in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and irradiated. In a first series of experiments, 120 tilapia fillets kept under controlled sanitary conditions were purchased from a fish market managed by a cooperative. A second lot totaling 200 tilapia fillets was obtained under controlled storage conditions from a pilot plant. The combined effects of MAP (40% CO2 and 60% N2) and irradiation (1.5 kGy) were investigated by monitoring physical and chemical (total volatile bases and pH), bacteriological (aerobic heterotrophic mesophilic and psychrophilic bacteria) and sensory (acceptance test) changes in the samples. The quality of samples decreased with storage time regardless of the treatment, remaining higher in fillets produced in the pilot plant in comparison with the commercially produced fillets. The observed shelf life of nonirradiated commercially produced fillets was only 3 days, compared to 8 days for those produced in the pilot plant, probably due to GMP in the latter. It was concluded that, even with a combination of proven conservation methods for meats, the adoption of good manufacturing practices still remains essential before, during, and after the filleting process in order to ensure the effectiveness of the entire treatment. PMID:24804034

  19. Combined effect of antagonistic yeast and modified atmosphere to control Penicillium expansum infection in sweet cherries cv. Ambrunés.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paiva, E; Serradilla, M J; Ruiz-Moyano, S; Córdoba, M G; Villalobos, M C; Casquete, R; Hernández, A

    2017-01-16

    Fruit decay caused by pathogenic moulds is a major concern in the postharvest quality and shelf life of fruit. Blue mould decay is caused by Penicillium expansum (P. expansum) and is one of the most important postharvest diseases in cherries (Prunus avium L.). Synthetic fungicides are the main medium used to control pathogenic moulds. However, alternative approaches are available for developing safer technologies to control postharvest disease. An integrated approach that combines biological control, using antagonistic yeasts and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with cold storage is a promising alternative to synthetic fungicide treatment. In this work, two microperforated films (M10 and M50) and two antagonistic yeast strains (Hanseniaspora opuntiae L479 and Metschnikowia pulcherrima L672) were evaluated for their effectiveness to control the development of P. expansum in wounded cherries stored at 1°C. Results showed that the microperforated films had fungistatic effects, particularly M50, due to the level of CO2 achieved (mean CO2 of 11.2kPa at 35days), and the decrease in disease severity. Antagonistic yeasts, particularly Metschnikowia pulcherrima L672, delayed the development of P. expansum and decreased disease incidence and severity. The combination of MAP and antagonistic yeasts was the most effective approach to control P. expansum, during cold storage.

  20. Current topics in active and intelligent food packaging for preservation of fresh foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Yuan; Lee, Seung Jae; Choi, Dong Soo; Hur, Sun Jin

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current packaging systems, e.g. active packaging and intelligent packaging, for various foods. Active packaging, such as modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), extends the shelf life of fresh produce, provides a high-quality product, reduces economic losses, including those caused by delay of ripening, and improves appearance. However, in active packaging, several variables must be considered, such as temperature control and different gas formulations with different product types and microorganisms. Active packaging refers to the incorporation of additive agents into packaging materials with the purpose of maintaining or extending food product quality and shelf life. Intelligent packaging is emerging as a potential advantage in food processing and is an especially useful tool for tracking product information and monitoring product conditions. Moreover, intelligent packaging facilitates data access and information exchange by altering conditions inside or outside the packaging and product. In spite of these advantages, few of these packaging systems are commercialized because of high cost, strict safety and hygiene regulations or limited consumer acceptance. Therefore more research is needed to develop cheaper, more easily applicable and effective packaging systems for various foods.

  1. DYNAMO: a Mars upper atmosphere package for investigating solar wind interaction and escape processes, and mapping Martian fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chassefiere, E.; Nagy, A.; Mandea, M.

    2004-01-01

    DYNAMO is a small multi-instrument payload aimed at characterizing current atmospheric escape, which is still poorly constrained, and improving gravity and magnetic field representations, in order to better understand the magnetic, geologic and thermal history of Mars. The internal structure...... and evolution of Mars is thought to have influenced climate evolution. The collapse of the primitive magnetosphere early in Mars history could have enhanced atmospheric escape and favored transition to the present and climate. These objectives are achieved by using a low periapsis orbit. DYNAMO has been...... proposed in response to the AO released in February 2002 for instruments to be flown as a complementary payload onboard the CNES Orbiter to Mars (MO-07), foreseen to be launched in 2007 in the framework of the French PREMIER Mars exploration program. MO-07 orbital phase 2b (with an elliptical orbit...

  2. DYNAMO: a Mars upper atmosphere package for investigating solar wind interaction and escape processes, and mapping Martian fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chassefiere, E.; Nagy, A.; Mandea, M.

    2004-01-01

    DYNAMO is a small multi-instrument payload aimed at characterizing current atmospheric escape, which is still poorly constrained, and improving gravity and magnetic field representations, in order to better understand the magnetic, geologic and thermal history of Mars. The internal structure....... Ultraviolet remote sensing is an essential complement to characterize high, tenuous, layers of the atmosphere. One Martian year of operation, with about 5,000 low passes, should allow DYNAMO to map in great detail the residual magnetic field, together with the gravity field. Additional data on the internal...... structure will be obtained by mapping the electric conductivity, sinergistically with the NETLANDER magnetic data. Three options have been recommended by the International Science and Technical Review Board (ISTRB), who met on July 1st and 2nd, 2002. One of them is centered on DYNAMO. The final choice...

  3. Effect of modified atmosphere and temperature abuse on the growth from spores and cereulide production of Bacillus weihenstephanensis in a cooked chilled meat sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsen, Line; Budde, Birgitte Bjørn; Koch, Anette Granly; Klingberg, Trine Danø

    2009-04-15

    The effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the germination and growth of toxin producing psychrotolerant Bacillus spp is not well described. A model agar system mimicking a cooked meat product was used in initial experiments. Incubation at refrigeration temperature of 8 degrees C for 5 weeks of 26 Bacillus weihenstephanensis including two emetic toxin (cereulide) producing strains showed that B. weihenstephanensis is sensitive to MAP containing CO2. The sensitivity to 20% CO2 was dependent on strain and oxygen level, being increased when oxygen was excluded from the MAP. Growth from spores was observed at the earliest within 2 weeks when 20% CO2 was combined with 2% O2 and in 3 weeks when combined with "0"% O2 (the remaining atmosphere was made up from N2). Results were validated in a cooked meat sausage model for two non-emetic and one emetic B. weihenstephanensis strain. The packaging film oxygen transfer rates (OTR) were 1.3 and 40 ml/m(2)/24 h and the atmospheres were 2% O2/20% CO2 and "0"% O2/20% CO2. Oxygen availability had a large impact on the growth from spores in the MAP meat sausage, only the most oxygen restricted condition (OTR of 1.3 ml/m(2)/24 h and "0"% O2/20 % CO2 inhibited growth of the three strains during 4 weeks storage at 8 degrees C. Cereulide production was undetectable during storage at 8 degrees C irrespective of choice of the MAP (quantified by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry). MAP storage at 8 degrees C for 1 and 3 weeks followed by opening of packages and temperature abuse for 1.5 h daily at 20 degrees C during 1 week resulted in increased cell counts and variable cereulide production in the meat sausage. A pre-history at 8 degrees C for 1 week in MAP with OTR of 1.3 or 40 ml/m(2)/24 h and 2% O2 resulted in cereulide concentrations of 0.816-1.353 microg/g meat sausage, while a pre-history under the most oxygen restricted condition (OTR of 1.3 ml/m(2)/24 h, "0"% O2/20 % CO2 resulted in minimal

  4. Physico Chemical Characteristics of High Performance Polymer Modified by Low and Atmospheric Pressure Plasma1

    OpenAIRE

    N Bhatnagar; Jha, S.; Bhowmik, S.; Gupta, G.; Moon, J.B.; Kim, C.G.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the effect of low pressure plasma and atmospheric-pressure plasma treatment on surface properties and adhesion characteristics of high performance polymer, Polyether Ether Ketone (PEEK) are investigated in terms of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The experimental results show that the PEEK surface treated by atmospheric pressure plasma lead to an increase in the polar component of the surf...

  5. Physico-chemical characteristics of high performance polymer modified by low and atmospheric pressure plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Nitu, Bhatnagar; Sangeeta, Jha; Shantanu, Bhowmik; Govind, Gupta; Moon, J.; Kim, C

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the effect of low pressure plasma and atmospheric-pressure plasma treatment on surface properties and adhesion characteristics of high performance polymer, Polyether Ether Ketone (PEEK) are investigated in terms of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The experimental results show that the PEEK surface treated by atmospheric pressure plasma lead to an increase in the polar component of the surf...

  6. Study of microbiological quality of controlled atmosphere packaged 'Ambrunés' sweet cherries and subsequent shelf-life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serradilla, Manuel Joaquín; Villalobos, María del Carmen; Hernández, Alejandro; Martín, Alberto; Lozano, Mercedes; Córdoba, María de Guía

    2013-08-16

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of different controlled atmospheres, containing 3% O2+10% CO2, 5% O2+10% CO2 and 8% O2+10% CO2, on changes in microbial population of 'Ambrunés' sweet cherries throughout storage during 30days and subsequent shelf-life, as well as to identify the main genera of yeast, mould, lactic acid bacteria, Staphylococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Enterobacteriaceae spp., and coliforms. The results indicated that controlled atmospheres with 5% O2+10% CO2 and 8% O2+10% CO2 were highly effective to control the growth of mesophilic aerobic bacteria, psychrotrophs, Pseudomonas spp., yeasts, and moulds after 15days of storage, showing, in the case of yeasts and moulds, counts that ranged between <1 and 1.75logCFU/g. The genera of yeasts, moulds, lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae spp., and coliforms identified were Aureobasidium spp., Penicillium spp., Leuconostoc spp., and Rahnella spp., respectively. In addition, the genera Staphylococcus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. were also identified. On the other hand, cherries of Stage 3 ripening presented the highest counts for all microbial groups.

  7. The effect of oil-soluble rosemary extract, sodium erythorbate, their mixture, and packaging method on the quality of Turkey meatballs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpińska-Tymoszczyk, Mirosława

    2013-06-01

    The effect of oil-soluble rosemary extract, sodium erythorbate and a mixture of oil-soluble rosemary extract and sodium erythorbate and packaging method (vacuum packaging and modified atmosphere packaging) on the quality of cooked turkey meatballs stored at 4 °C was determined. The physicochemical, microbiological and sensory analyses were performed. Oil-soluble rosemary extract was found to be the most effectual antioxidant and vacuum more effective than modified atmosphere packaging in preventing oxidative changes. Sodium erythorbate slowed down hydrolytic process and more effective in modified atmosphere packaged samples. A slighter change in the colour of turkey meatballs was noted during modified atmosphere storage. Microbial counts of mesophilic bacteria during storage were never higher than the spoilage limit (10(7) cfu/g). All additives reduced microbial population and better effect was achieved by the combination of modified atmosphere packaging and additives. Sensory analysis results indicated the significant advantages in using rosemary individually or with sodium erythorbate in retarding warmed-over-flavour development in cooked poultry product.

  8. Packaging fluency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocanu, Ana; Chrysochou, Polymeros; Bogomolova, Svetlana

    2011-01-01

    Research on packaging stresses the need for packaging design to read easily, presuming fast and accurate processing of product-related information. In this paper we define this property of packaging as “packaging fluency”. Based on the existing marketing and cognitive psychology literature...... on packaging design and processing fluency, our aim is to define and conceptualise packaging fluency. We stress the important role of packaging fluency since it is anticipated that a fluent package would influence the evaluative judgments for a product. We conclude this paper by setting the research agenda...

  9. Preincubation of Penicillium commune conidia under modified atmosphere conditions: Influence on growth potential as determined by an impedimetric method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haasum, Iben; Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    1996-01-01

    The combined effect of preincubation time, relative humidity (r.h.), headspace carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxygen (O2) on subsequent growth potential of conidia from Penicillium commune was studied using Response Surface Modelling (RSM). Native conidia were preincubated under modified atmosphere...... during the time of preincubation. This paper describes the first investigation of the combined effect of two significant environmental factors on the growth potential of conidia from P. commune. It is demonstrated that storage for more than 56 d in levels of CO2 below 20% results in sublethal injury...... of the conidia from P. commune, retarding growth by increasing lag times and decelerating growth rates....

  10. DBD atmospheric plasma-modified, electrospun, layer-by-layer polymeric scaffolds for L929 fibroblast cell cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surucu, Seda; Turkoglu Sasmazel, Hilal

    2016-01-01

    This paper reported a study related to atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) Ar + O2 and Ar + N2 plasma modifications to alter surface properties of 3D PCL/Chitosan/PCL layer-by-layer hybrid scaffolds and to improve mouse fibroblast (L929 ATCC CCL-1) cell attachment, proliferation, and growth. The scaffolds were fabricated using electrospinning technique and each layer was electrospun sequentially on top of the other. The surface modifications were performed with an atmospheric pressure DBD plasma under different gas flow rates (50, 60, 70, 80, 90, and 100 sccm) and for different modification times (0.5-7 min), and then the chemical and topographical characterizations of the modified samples were done by contact angle (CA) measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The samples modified with Ar + O2 plasma for 1 min under 70 cm(3)/min O2 flow rate (71.077° ± 3.578) showed a 18.83% decrease compare to unmodified samples' CA value (84.463° ± 3.864). Comparing with unmodified samples, the average fiber diameter values for plasma-modified samples by Ar + O2 (1 min 70 sccm) and Ar + N2 (40 s 70 sccm) increased 40.756 and 54.295%, respectively. Additionally, the average inter-fiber pore size values exhibited decrease of 37.699 and 48.463% for the same Ar + O2 and Ar + N2 plasma-modified samples, respectively, compare to unmodified samples. Biocompatibility performance was determined with MTT assay, fluorescence, Giemsa, and confocal imaging as well as SEM. The results showed that Ar + O2-based plasma modification increased the hydrophilicity and oxygen functionality of the surface, thus affecting the cell viability and proliferation on/within scaffolds.

  11. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Aerobic Microorganisms in Romaine Lettuce Packaged in a Commercial Polyethylene Terephthalate Container Using Atmospheric Cold Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Sea C; Roh, Si Hyeon; Boyd, Glenn; Sites, Joseph E; Uknalis, Joseph; Fan, Xuetong; Niemira, Brendan A

    2017-01-01

    The effects of dielectric barrier discharge atmospheric cold plasma (DACP) treatment on the inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and aerobic microorganisms in romaine lettuce packaged in a conventional commercial plastic container were evaluated during storage at 4°C for 7 days. Effects investigated included the color, carbon dioxide (CO2) generation, weight loss, and surface morphology of the lettuce during storage. Romaine lettuce pieces, with or without inoculation with a cocktail of three strains of E. coli O157:H7 (~6 log CFU/g of lettuce), were packaged in a polyethylene terephthalate commercial clamshell container and treated at 34.8 kV at 1.1 kHz for 5 min by using a DACP treatment system equipped with a pin-type high-voltage electrode. Romaine lettuce samples were analyzed for inactivation of E. coli O157:H7, total mesophilic aerobes, and yeasts and molds, color, CO2 generation, weight loss, and surface morphology during storage at 4°C for 7 days. The DACP treatment reduced the initial counts of E. coli O157:H7 and total aerobic microorganisms by ~1 log CFU/g, with negligible temperature change from 24.5 ± 1.4°C to 26.6 ± 1.7°C. The reductions in the numbers of E. coli O157:H7, total mesophilic aerobes, and yeasts and molds during storage were 0.8 to 1.5, 0.7 to 1.9, and 0.9 to 1.7 log CFU/g, respectively. DACP treatment, however, did not significantly affect the color, CO2 generation, weight, and surface morphology of lettuce during storage (P > 0.05). Some mesophilic aerobic bacteria were sublethally injured by DACP treatment. The results from this study demonstrate the potential of applying DACP as a postpackaging treatment to decontaminate lettuce contained in conventional plastic packages without altering color and leaf respiration during posttreatment cold storage.

  12. Physico Chemical Characteristics of High Performance Polymer Modified by Low and Atmospheric Pressure Plasma1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhatnagar, N.; Jha, S.; Bhowmik, S.; Gupta, G.; Moon, J.B.; Kim, C.G.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the effect of low pressure plasma and atmospheric-pressure plasma treatment on surface properties and adhesion characteristics of high performance polymer, Polyether Ether Ketone (PEEK) are investigated in terms of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron

  13. Avaliação da utilização de embalagem em atmosfera modificada sobre a conservação de sardinhas (Sardinella brasiliensis Evaluation of the use of modied atmosphere packaging in sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Junger Teodoro

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A vida útil dos alimentos perecíveis conservados em atmosfera normal é limitada principalmente pelo efeito do oxigênio atmosférico e o crescimento de microorganismos aeróbios produtores de alterações, que promovem mudanças de odor, sabor, cor e textura, conduzindo à perda da qualidade. A modificação da atmosfera prolonga significativamente a vida útil dos alimentos, quando comparados à refrigeração, podendo chegar a um aumento de três a quatro vezes. O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da embalagem de sardinhas (Sardinella brasiliensis em atmosfera modificada. As amostras foram divididas em 8 lotes, embaladas com aproximadamente 1,5 L de ar (100%, CO2 (100%, 50/50 CO2/O2 e vácuo e termo-seladas, sendo armazenadas por um período de 22 dias. A cada 2 dias as amostras foram avaliadas quanto ao pH, bases voláteis totais (BVT e contagens totais de microrganismos heterotróficos aeróbios mesófilos. Os valores de pH aumentaram durante o tempo de estocagem, com exceção das amostras armazenadas em 100 e 50% CO2. A evolução de BVT foi compatível com outros parâmetros, como pH e contagem de bactérias totais, sendo sua evolução mais lenta nas amostras em que ocorreu o uso de atmosfera modificada. Os microrganismos mesófilos, nas atmosferas enriquecidas com CO2, apresentaram fases de latência e tempos de duplicação maiores, quando comparados com os das amostras em que não foi aplicado o método. Sob o ponto de vista microbiológico, as embalagens enriquecidas com CO2 demonstraram ser o melhor método de conservação, como também os resultados de BVT se encontraram dentro dos limites de 30 mg.100 g -1 de acordo com o estabelecido pela RIISPOA8. Recomenda-se o uso da atmosfera de 100% de CO2 como forma de conservação da sardinha por apresentar melhores parâmetros de vida útil.The objective of the work was to evaluate the effect of sardines (Sardinella brasiliensis packaged in a modified atmosphere. The

  14. Role of packaging in the smorgasbord of action for sustainable food consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Coussy, Hélène; Guillard, Valérie; Guillaume, Carole; Gontard, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    In a context of food security concerns, reducing huge and worldwide food losses and waste (more than one third of food production) is the priority action to focus on. The paper aims at explaining at which levels packaging could be a key player for sustainable food consumption: (i) by improving food preservation, and therefore reducing food losses, by balancing cold chain issues with modified atmosphere packaging implementation which means to develop food requirements driven approaches to desi...

  15. Manejo do etileno em ameixas 'Laetitia' armazenadas sob atmosferas controlada e modificada ativa 'Laetitia' plums stored in controlled atmosphere and active modified atmosphere packing with ethylene management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Roseli Corrêa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de condições de atmosfera controlada (AC e atmosfera modificada (AM ativa (filme PEBD de 40 µm, com duas perfurações de 1,0 mm de diâmetro, associadas ao manejo do etileno, sobre a manutenção da qualidade em ameixas 'Laetitia'. Os tratamentos avaliados consistiram no armazenamento refrigerado (60 dias a 0,5±0,1ºC em: atmosfera refrigerada (AR; 21,0 kPa O2 + The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of controlled atmosphere (CA and active modified atmosphere packing (MAP [LDPE film (40 µm, with two perforations (diameter = 1.0 mm with ethylene management, on quality preservation of 'Laetitia' plums. The cold storage (60 days at 0.5±0.1ºC treatments evaluated were: stored atmosphere (SA; 21.0 kPa O2 + <0.03 kPa CO2; MAP; MAP + low ethylene (LE; CA; and CA + treatment with 1-MCP (1,0 µL L-1. The partial pressures of O2 + CO2 (kPa were 1.0 + 1.0and 2.5 + <0.1, in CA and MAP, respectively. Fruits stored in CA, regardless of ethylene removal, showed ripening delay compared to fruit in CS. However, the best preservation of flesh texture and titratable acidity was achieved in CA + 1-MCP. The incidences of decay, skin cracking and flesh browning were not different between treatments. Fruits stored in MAP + LE and CA + 1-MCP had lower of internal darkening and higher acceptability for color and taste compared to fruit stored in SA.

  16. 包装复合膜用松香改性水性聚氨酯胶粘剂%Waterborne Polyurethane Adhesive Modified by Rosin for Laminated Package Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭文杰; 傅和青; 黄洪; 陈焕钦

    2007-01-01

    The waterborne polyurethane adhesive was modified by rosin. Effects of the amounts of DMPA,rosin, and NCO / OH value on the properties of the emulsion were studied. The adhesive property of modified and unmodified polyurethane for laminated package films was compared. And the experimental results showed that the modified waterborne polyurethane adhesive meets the need of laminated package films.%利用松香改性水性聚氨酯胶粘剂,研究了二羟甲基丙酸(DMPA)用量、NCO/OH值、松香用量对乳液性能的影响,比较了改性前后该胶粘荆对多种塑料薄膜的粘接性能.实验结果表明改性后的胶粘剂对多种塑料薄膜具有较强的粘接能力.

  17. Armazenamento de morango sob atmosfera modificada e refrigeração Storage of strawberry under modified atmosphere and refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloísa Helena de Siqueira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, prolongar a vida pós-colheita de morangos, submetidos à atmosfera modificada ativa (2% O2 + 10% CO2 e 5% O2 + 5% CO2 e armazenados sob refrigeração (9 ± 1ºC e 99% UR por 10 dias. O experimento foi realizado no DCA/Ufla, em Lavras, MG. Diante dos resultados obtidos neste trabalho, pôde-se concluir que os morangos não sofreram influência da atmosfera modificada em relação aos frutos- controle, quanto aos parâmetros avaliados.The goal of this work was to draw out the shelf-life of strawberries, submitted to the active modified atmosphere (2% O2 + 10% CO2 and 5% O2 + 5% CO2 and stored under refrigeration (9 ± 1ºC and 99% UR by 10 days. The experiment was carried through in the DCA/Ufla, in Lavras, MG. With the results gotten in this work, it may be concluded that the strawberries did not suffer any influence of the modified atmosphere in relation to the controlled fruits, according to the evaluated parameters.

  18. Weather forecasting by insects: modified sexual behaviour in response to atmospheric pressure changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Ana Cristina; Peñaflor, Maria Fernanda Gomes Villalba; Nardi, Cristiane; Bezner-Kerr, Wayne; Guglielmo, Christopher G; Bento, José Maurício Simões; McNeil, Jeremy N

    2013-01-01

    Prevailing abiotic conditions may positively or negatively impact insects at both the individual and population levels. For example while moderate rainfall and wind velocity may provide conditions that favour development, as well as movement within and between habitats, high winds and heavy rains can significantly decrease life expectancy. There is some evidence that insects adjust their behaviours associated with flight, mating and foraging in response to changes in barometric pressure. We studied changes in different mating behaviours of three taxonomically unrelated insects, the curcurbit beetle, Diabrotica speciosa (Coleoptera), the true armyworm moth, Pseudaletia unipuncta (Lepidoptera) and the potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Hemiptera), when subjected to natural or experimentally manipulated changes in atmospheric pressure. In response to decreasing barometric pressure, male beetles exhibited decreased locomotory activity in a Y-tube olfactometer with female pheromone extracts. However, when placed in close proximity to females, they exhibited reduced courtship sequences and the precopulatory period. Under the same situations, females of the true armyworm and the potato aphid exhibited significantly reduced calling behaviour. Neither the movement of male beetles nor the calling of armyworm females differed between stable and increasing atmospheric pressure conditions. However, in the case of the armyworm there was a significant decrease in the incidence of mating under rising atmospheric conditions, suggesting an effect on male behaviour. When atmospheric pressure rose, very few M. euphorbiae oviparae called. This was similar to the situation observed under decreasing conditions, and consequently very little mating was observed in this species except under stable conditions. All species exhibited behavioural modifications, but there were interspecific differences related to size-related flight ability and the diel periodicity of mating activity. We

  19. Packaging fluency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocanu, Ana; Chrysochou, Polymeros; Bogomolova, Svetlana

    2011-01-01

    Research on packaging stresses the need for packaging design to read easily, presuming fast and accurate processing of product-related information. In this paper we define this property of packaging as “packaging fluency”. Based on the existing marketing and cognitive psychology literature on pac...

  20. Effects of packaging methods on shelf life of ratite meats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horbańczuk Olaf K.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the last years a growing demand for ratite meat, including ostrich, emu, and rhea has been observed in the world. Ratite meat is recognised as a dietetic product because of low level of fat, high share of PUFA, favourable n6/n3 ratio, and higher amounts of iron content in comparison with beef and chicken meat. The abundance of bioactive compounds, e.g. PUFA, makes ratite meat highly susceptible to oxidation processes. Moreover, pH over 6 creates favourable environment for fast microbial growth during storage conditions affecting its shelf life. However, availability of information on ratite meat shelf life among consumers and industry is still limited. Thus, the aim of the present review is to provide current information about the effect of ratite meat packaging type, i.e. air packaging, vacuum packaging with skin pack, modified atmosphere packaging (MAP, on its shelf life quality during storage, including technological and nutritional properties.

  1. Microstructure evolution and tribological properties of acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber surface modified by atmospheric plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ming-xue; Zhang, Zhao-xiang; Peng, Xu-dong; Lin, Xiu-zhou

    2017-09-01

    For the purpose of prolonging the service life for rubber sealing elements, the frictional behavior of acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) surface by dielectric barrier discharge plasma treatments was investigated in this paper. Surface microstructure and chemical composition were measured by atomic force microscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. Water contact angles of the modified rubber surface were also measured to evaluate the correlation between surface wettability and tribological properties. The results show that plasma treatments can improve the properties of the NBR against friction and wear effectively, the surface microstructure and roughness of plasma-modified NBR surface had an important influence on the surface tribological behavior, and the wear depth first decreased and then increased along with the change of plasma treatment time. It was found that the wettability of the modified surface was gradually improved, which was mainly due to the change of the chemical composition after the treatment. This study suggests that the plasma treatment could effectively improve the tribological properties of the NBR surface, and also provides information for developing wear-resistant NBR for industrial applications.

  2. Microelectronic packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Datta, M; Schultze, J Walter

    2004-01-01

    Microelectronic Packaging analyzes the massive impact of electrochemical technologies on various levels of microelectronic packaging. Traditionally, interconnections within a chip were considered outside the realm of packaging technologies, but this book emphasizes the importance of chip wiring as a key aspect of microelectronic packaging, and focuses on electrochemical processing as an enabler of advanced chip metallization.Divided into five parts, the book begins by outlining the basics of electrochemical processing, defining the microelectronic packaging hierarchy, and emphasizing the impac

  3. Growth Potential of Listeria Monocytogenes in Sliced Turkey Bresaola Packed in Modified Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosciani-Cunico, Elena; D’Amico, Stefano; Sfameni, Chiara; Bertasi, Barbara; Losio, Marina N.; Serraino, Andrea; Daminelli, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    According to EC Regulation No 2073/2005, for food business operators that produce ready-to-eat (RTE) product, it is crucial to be able to demonstrate if the product supports the growth of Listeria monocytogenes. The objective of the study was therefore to evaluate the behaviour of L. monocytogenes in sliced RTE turkey bresaola (made by cured turkey breast 4.5% NaCl, 1% sodium lactate, sodium nitrite 150 ppm and flavouring) during the shelf life of the product, simulating a contamination during the slicing operation. Considering a shelf life of 90 days, as defined by manufacturer, the packages of sliced bresaola were stored at 5°C for 7 days and at 8°C for the remaining storage time (83 days). L. monocytogenes count decreased during storage test from 1.43/1.98 log cfu/g in the three batches tested to 1.03 log cfu/g in one batch and to undetectable levels in the other two batches. The results show that the investigated product is unable to support the growth of L. monocytogenes. PMID:27800323

  4. Biological control of botrytis cinerea growth on apples stored in modified atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dock, Lise Lotte; Nielsen, Per Væggemose; Floros, John D.

    1998-01-01

    was set according to a centralcomposite experimental design involving five levels of O2 (1 to 15%)and CO2 (0 to 15%). Control samples under ambient conditions were alsoincluded. Without the antagonist, measurements of mold colony diameterover time showed that O2 had no effect on the growth of B. cinerea...... by about 6days at low levels of CO2. However, at high CO2 levels, O2 had noeffect. The strongest antagonistic effect was observed under ambientconditions. Overall, results showed that high CO2 atmospheres can slowthe growth of B. cinerea and that Erwinia sp. was an effectiveantagonist against B. cinerea...

  5. Computer program documentation modified version of the JA70 aerodynamic heating computer program H800 (MINIVER with a DISSPLA plot package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo, L.

    1980-01-01

    The changes, modifications, and inclusions which were adapted to the current version of the MINIVER program are discussed. Extensive modifications were made to various subroutines, and a new plot package added. This plot package is the Johnson Space Center DISSPLA Graphics System currently driven under an 1110 EXEC 8 configuration. User instructions on executing the MINIVER program are provided and the plot package is described.

  6. Measurement and Modeling of Respiration Rate of Tomato (Cultivar Roma) for Modified Atmosphere Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Palani; Moitra, Ranabir; Mukherjee, Souti

    2015-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the respiration rate of tomato at 10, 20 and 30 °C using closed respiration system. Oxygen depletion and carbon dioxide accumulation in the system containing tomato was monitored. Respiration rate was found to decrease with increasing CO2 and decreasing O2 concentration. Michaelis-Menten type model based on enzyme kinetics was evaluated using experimental data generated for predicting the respiration rate. The model parameters that obtained from the respiration rate at different O2 and CO2 concentration levels were used to fit the model against the storage temperatures. The fitting was fair (R2 = 0.923 to 0.970) when the respiration rate was expressed as O2 concentation. Since inhibition constant for CO2 concentration tended towards negetive, the model was modified as a function of O2 concentration only. The modified model was fitted to the experimental data and showed good agreement (R2 = 0.998) with experimentally estimated respiration rate.

  7. Food packaging history and innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, Sara J

    2009-09-23

    Food packaging has evolved from simply a container to hold food to something today that can play an active role in food quality. Many packages are still simply containers, but they have properties that have been developed to protect the food. These include barriers to oxygen, moisture, and flavors. Active packaging, or that which plays an active role in food quality, includes some microwave packaging as well as packaging that has absorbers built in to remove oxygen from the atmosphere surrounding the product or to provide antimicrobials to the surface of the food. Packaging has allowed access to many foods year-round that otherwise could not be preserved. It is interesting to note that some packages have actually allowed the creation of new categories in the supermarket. Examples include microwave popcorn and fresh-cut produce, which owe their existence to the unique packaging that has been developed.

  8. Micro-modified atmosphere storage of blueberries%蓝莓微气调贮藏技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡宋宋; 姜惠铁; 高海霞; 窦连登; 王宝刚

    2012-01-01

    Micro-modified atmosphere storage of blueberries was studied. Effects of different materials, the shelf life of blueberries by micro-modified atmosphere storage, and the changes of internal quality during storage were compared, and the storability of different varieties was discussed. Results showed that the effect of micro-modified atmosphere storage E was much better than other materials, and good fruit rate reached to 94% after 75 days' storage. There was no significant difference in internal quality of blueberries between harvest and storage, but sales under low temperature were needed to extend shelf life. Storability of "Bluecrop" was significantly higher than "Darrow" and "Elliott", and it was 14% and 20% higher after 60 days' storage, respectively. Conclusion: It could prolong the storage time for 30-45 days compared with other storage methods.%以蓝莓为试材,研究其微气调贮藏技术,比较不同微气调材料的贮藏效果,观察微气调贮藏后果实的货架期和贮藏期间果实内部品质的变化,并探讨品种的耐贮性。研究发现,微气调E的贮藏效果显著优于其他材料,贮藏75d好果率达94%,贮藏前后果实内部品质无显著性差异,但需低温销售延长贷架期;初步得出,蓝丰品种的耐贮性显著高于达柔、埃利奥特,贮藏60d好果率高出14%、20%。结论:应用微气调技术贮藏蓝莓可比其他方式延长贮藏期30~45d。

  9. Modified shape of the Eiffel Tower determined for an atmospheric boundary-layer wind profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidman, P. D.

    2009-06-01

    The design and construction of the Eiffel Tower was based, in part, on a uniform horizontal wind model giving 300 kg m-2 kinematic pressure acting on the surface of the tower. Eiffel received a patent for his method of construction that eliminates the need for diagonal trellis bars used to resist the moment of an oncoming wind. At the end of the 19th century boundary-layer theory, laminar or turbulent, was nonexistent. Now, however, models for atmospheric flow over rough landscapes are available, the simplest being a power-law distribution of velocity with height. In this paper we deduce the shape of the tower had Eiffel incorporated this information into the design and construction of his world famous tower. Moreover, we prove Eiffel's observation that the tower profile conforms to the moment distribution wrought by the wind.

  10. Qualidade e vida útil de pequi minimamente processado armazenado sob atmosfera modificada Quality and shelf life of fresh-cut peki stored under modified atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éllen Cristina de Souza

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar a eficiência do uso de atmosfera modificada passiva e ativa na manutenção da qualidade e prolongamento da vida útil de pequi minimamente processado armazenado a 5ºC, por 12 dias, através de avaliações fisiológicas, físicas, físico-químicas e químicas. Os pequis foram lavados em água corrente e sanificados antes e após a retirada da casca em solução de hipoclorito de sódio 200 mg.L-1 e 100 mg.L-1, por 15 e 5 minutos, respectivamente. Os pequis foram acondicionados em embalagem rígida de polipropileno (PP, da seguinte forma: coberta com tampa do mesmo polímero; envolta com filme de policloreto de vinila (PVC 0,014 mm; selada passiva e ativamente (3,2% O2 + 9,2% CO2 e (7,7% O2 + 3,9% CO2 com filme de polietileno (PE + PP 0,060 mm. Conclui-se que as embalagens rígidas seladas passiva e ativamente com filme de PE + PP 0,060 mm não são recomendadas para acondicionar pequi minimamente processado, em razão do nível de O2 estar próximo a 0%, no terceiro dia de armazenamento, o que compromete a sua qualidade. As embalagens rígidas de polipropileno com tampa do mesmo polímero e as envoltas com filme de PVC são as mais indicadas para pequi minimamente processado, visto que não propiciam condições de anaerobiose e nem alteraram expressivamente suas características físicas, físico-químicas e químicas, resultando em uma vida útil de 12 dias de armazenamento a 5 ± 1ºC e UR 90 ± 5%.The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of the use of passive and active modified atmosphere on the maintenance of quality and prolongation of the shelf life of fresh-cut peki fruit stored at 5ºC, for 12 days, through physiological, physical, physico-chemistry and chemistry evaluations. Peki fruit were washed with stream water and sanitized with sodium hypochlorite 200 and 100 mg.L-1, for 15 and 5 minutes, before and after peeling, respectively. Peki fruit were packed into rigid propylene package

  11. Changes in the microbiological and chemical characteristics of white bread during storage in paper packages modified with Ag/TiO2-SiO2, Ag/N-TiO2 or Au/TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Anca; Mihaly-Cozmuta, Leonard; Mihaly-Cozmuta, Anca; Nicula, Camelia; Ziemkowska, Wanda; Basiak, Dariusz; Danciu, Virginia; Vulpoi, Adriana; Baia, Lucian; Falup, Anca; Craciun, Grigore; Ciric, Alexandru; Begea, Mihaela; Kiss, Claudia; Vatuiu, Daniela

    2016-04-15

    Microbiological and chemical characteristics of white bread during storage in paper-packages modified with Ag/TiO2-SiO2, Ag/N-TiO2 or Au/TiO2 were investigated. The whiteness and the water retention of the modified packages were slightly superior to those exhibited by the reference sample, as the color of the composite was lighter. The water retention was very good especially for the Ag/TiO2-SiO2-paper. These improvements can be associated with the high specific surface area and with the low agglomeration tendency of Ag nanoparticles in comparison with the Au ones. The preservation activity of the composites for the bread storage is positively influenced by photoactivity and presence of nano-Ag. Packages Ag/TiO2-SiO2-paper and Ag/N-TiO2-paper can find their applicability for extending the shelf life of bread by 2 days as compared with the unmodified paper-package. No influence of the Au/TiO2 on the extending the shelf life of bread was observed.

  12. Vertical Wind Shear in Neptune's Atmosphere Explained with a Modified Thermal Wind Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollefson, Joshua; de Pater, Imke; Marcus, Philip; Luszcz-Cook, Statia H.; Sromovsky, Lawrence A.; Fry, Patrick M.; Fletcher, Leigh N.; Wong, Michael H.

    2016-10-01

    We present observations of Neptune taken in H-(1.4-1.8 μm) and K'-(2.0-2.4 μm) bands on the nights of July 3, 2013 and August 20, 2014 from the 10-m W.M. Keck II Telescope using NIRC2 coupled to the Adaptive Optics (AO) system. We track the positions of about 100 bright atmospheric features over a 4-5 hour window on each night to derive zonal velocities and wind profiles.Our results deviate from the smooth Voyager zonal wind profile from Sromovsky et al. (1993), often by 100-200 m/s, and often by 3-10 times their estimated uncertainties. Besides what appears to be a random dispersion, there is also a systematic deviation that is wavelength dependent. The H-band profile is best described with a 73-106 m/s shift towards the east for a retrograde flow from the Voyager profile at the equator. The K'-band profile is consistent with Voyager on both nights. Comparing K'/H intensity versus latitude and zonal velocity variation suggests equatorial H-band features are, on average, deeper and have greater eastward velocities than K'-band features. Assuming the average variations in the zonal wind profiles result from wind shear over 3-5 scale heights, we predict vertical wind shears between -1.0 and -2.2 m/(s x km) at the equator.The standard thermal wind equation and meridional thermal profile for Neptune given by Voyager/IRIS spectra predict wind shear of the wrong sign relative to the observations. We consider two effects that reconcile this inconsistency. First, we calculate the meridional temperature gradients at pressures outside the Voyager/IRIS sensitivity window required to match our predicted wind shears. Second, we generalize to a thermal wind equation that considers global methane variations and re-derive the temperature structure needed to match the observed wind shear. If methane is uniformly distributed or weakly-varying, the equator must be 2-15 K cooler than the mid latitudes below 1 bar. If methane is strongly-varying, the equator can be 2-3 K warmer than

  13. Cold Atmospheric Plasma Modified Electrospun Scaffolds with Embedded Microspheres for Improved Cartilage Regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhu

    Full Text Available Articular cartilage is prone to degeneration and possesses extremely poor self-healing capacity due to inherent low cell density and the absence of a vasculature network. Tissue engineered cartilage scaffolds show promise for cartilage repair. However, there still remains a lack of ideal biomimetic tissue scaffolds which effectively stimulate cartilage regeneration with appropriate functional properties. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop a novel biomimetic and bioactive electrospun cartilage substitute by integrating cold atmospheric plasma (CAP treatment with sustained growth factor delivery microspheres. Specifically, CAP was applied to a poly(ε-caprolactone electrospun scaffold with homogeneously distributed bioactive factors (transforming growth factor-β1 and bovine serum albumin loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid microspheres. We have shown that CAP treatment renders electrospun scaffolds more hydrophilic thus facilitating vitronectin adsorption. More importantly, our results demonstrate, for the first time, CAP and microspheres can synergistically enhance stem cell growth as well as improve chondrogenic differentiation of human marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (such as increased glycosaminoglycan, type II collagen, and total collagen production. Furthermore, CAP can substantially enhance 3D cell infiltration (over two-fold increase in infiltration depth after 1 day of culture in the scaffolds. By integrating CAP, sustained bioactive factor loaded microspheres, and electrospinning, we have fabricated a promising bioactive scaffold for cartilage regeneration.

  14. Effects of packaging techniques, freezing temperature and storage time on beef shelf life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Di Giacomo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP is well-known as a method to extend the shelf life of a variety of foods including fresh red meat (Luño et al., 2000. Atmospheres combine oxygen (O2, carbon dioxide (CO2, and nitrogen (N2 to maintain the quality of fresh red meat. CO2 is known for its inhibitory effect on microbial growth (Silliker and Wolfe, 1980; nevertheless atmospheres with high levels of CO2 (low O2 can cause meat discoloration (Silliker et al., 1977. In the present research physical characteristics and oxidative stability have been checked on Maremmana crossbreed Longissimus thoracis muscle after packaging under vacuum and in modified atmosphere and then storage at three temperatures for three different times.

  15. MEMS packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Hsu , Tai-Ran

    2004-01-01

    MEMS Packaging discusses the prevalent practices and enabling techniques in assembly, packaging and testing of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). The entire spectrum of assembly, packaging and testing of MEMS and microsystems, from essential enabling technologies to applications in key industries of life sciences, telecommunications and aerospace engineering is covered. Other topics included are bonding and sealing of microcomponents, process flow of MEMS and microsystems packaging, automated microassembly, and testing and design for testing.The Institution of Engineering and Technology is

  16. Atmospheric CO2 enrichment and drought stress modify root exudation of barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Olga C; Franzaring, Jürgen; Schmid, Iris; Müller, Matthias; Brohon, Nolwenn; Fangmeier, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    Rising CO2 concentrations associated with drought stress is likely to influence not only aboveground growth, but also belowground plant processes. Little is known about root exudation being influenced by elements of climate change. Therefore, this study wanted to clarify whether barley root exudation responds to drought and CO2 enrichment and whether this reaction differs between an old and a recently released malting barley cultivar. Barley plants were grown in pots filled with sand in controlled climate chambers at ambient (380 ppm) or elevated (550 ppm) atmospheric [CO2 ] and a normal or reduced water supply. Root exudation patterns were examined at the stem elongation growth stage and when the inflorescences emerged. At both dates, root exudates were analyzed for different compounds such as total free amino acids, proline, potassium, and some phytohormones. Elevated [CO2 ] decreased the concentrations in root exudates of some compounds such as total free amino acids, proline, and abscisic acid. Moreover, reduced water supply increased proline, potassium, electric conductivity, and hormone concentrations. In general, the modern cultivar showed higher concentrations of proline and abscisic acid than the old one, but the cultivars responded differentially under elevated CO2 . Plant developmental stage had also an impact on the root exudation patterns of barley. Generally, we observed significant effects of CO2 enrichment, watering levels, and, to a lesser extent, cultivar on root exudation. However, we did not find any mitigation of the adverse effects of drought by elevated CO2 . Understanding the multitude of relationships within the rhizosphere is an important aspect that has to be taken into consideration in the context of crop performance and carbon balance under conditions of climate change.

  17. Influence of short-term pre-aging in vacuum on physicochemical characteristics and consumer acceptability of modified atmosphere packed beef steaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łopacka Joanna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the physiochemical changes and consumer acceptability of meat packed in high oxygen modified atmosphere during 12 days of storage with and without pre-aging in vacuum for 7 days. Steak samples from forequarter muscles Infraspinatus and Supraspinatus were stored at 2°C and tested for colour, Warner–Bratzler shear force (WBSF, storage/cooking loss, and consumer acceptability. Overall consumer acceptability at the beginning of modified atmosphere display was higher for aged Infraspinatus samples, however at the end of display samples from both treatments were equally rated by consumers. No impact of aging was observed in terms of storage loss, while cooking loss was slightly affected by aging, resulting in higher losses in aged samples at the end of modified atmosphere storage. Inclusion of an aging process prior to modified atmosphere display improved the tenderness of Infraspinatus muscle at the 8th day of display and led to a considerable increase in redness of both muscles.

  18. Organic acids produced by lactic acid bacteria (Leuconostoc sp.) contribute to sensorial quality loss in modified-atmosphere-packed fresh-cut iceberg lettuce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paillart, M.J.M.; Vossen, van der J.M.B.M.; Lommen, E.; Levin, E.; Otma, E.C.; Snels, J.C.M.A.; Woltering, E.J.

    2016-01-01

    The shelf-life of fresh-cut lettuce packed in a modified atmosphere (MA) is determined by its "overall visual quality" (OVQ), being a measure of its general appearance based on colour and shape criteria. In addition to the OVQ, the development of off-flavour and acid off-smell reduces consumer ac

  19. Microbial spoilage and formation of biogenic amines in fresh and thawed modified atmosphere-packed salmon ( Salmo salar ) at 2 degrees C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emborg, Jette; Laursen, B.G.; Rathjen, T.

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the microbial spoilage, formation of biogenic amines and shelf life of chilled fresh and frozen/thawed salmon packed in a modified atmosphere and stored at 2 degrees C.Methods and Results: The dominating microflora, formation of biogenic amines and shelf life were studied in two...

  20. ROLE OF CANOPY-SCALE PHOTOCHEMISTRY IN MODIFYING BIOGENIC-ATMOSPHERE EXCHANGE OF REACTIVE TERPENE SPECIES: RESULTS FROM THE CELTIC FIELD STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A one-dimensional canopy model was used to quantify the impact of photochemistry in modifying biosphere-atmosphere exchange of trace gases. Canopy escape efficiencies, defined as the fraction of emission that escapes into the well-mixed boundary layer, were calculated for reactiv...

  1. Feasibility study of surface-modified carbon cloth electrodes using atmospheric pressure plasma jets for microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shih-Hang; Liou, Jyun-Sian; Liu, Jung-Liang; Chiu, Yi-Fan; Xu, Chang-Han; Chen, Bor-Yann; Chen, Jian-Zhang

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the surface and electrochemical properties of carbon cloth electrodes surface-modified by using atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJs) for applications involving microbial fuel cells (MFCs). APPJ treatment made the carbon cloth highly hydrophilic and did not introduce any observable cracks or flaws. MFCs configured with APPJ-treated carbon cloth electrodes exhibited electrochemical performance (maximum power density of 7.56 mW m-2) superior to that of MFCs configured with untreated carbon cloth electrodes (maximum power density of 2.38 mW m-2). This boost in performance can be attributed to the formation of abundant carboxyl and ammonium functional groups on the surface of APPJ-treated carbon cloth, which promoted the formation of anodic biofilms and the adhesion of bacteria, while facilitating the transfer of electrons from the bacteria to the electrodes. APPJ surface modification is non-toxic and environmentally friendly (no exogenous chemicals are required), which is particularly beneficial as the introduction of toxins might otherwise inhibit bacterial growth and metabolism. The APPJ surface modification process is rapid, cost-effective, and applicable to substrates covering a large area, making it ideal for the fabrication of large-scale MFCs and bioelectrochemical bioenergy devices.

  2. Smart Packaging Technologies and Their Application in Conventional Meat Packaging Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Michael N.; Kerry, Joseph P.

    Preservative packaging of meat and meat products should maintain acceptable appearance, odour and flavour and should delay the onset of microbial spoilage. Typically fresh red meats are placed on trays and over-wrapped with an oxygen permeable film or alternatively, meats are stored in modified atmosphere packages (MAP) containing high levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide (80% O2:20% CO2) (Georgala & Davidson, 1970). Cooked meats are usually stored in 70% N2:30% CO2 (Smiddy, Papkovsky, & Kerry, 2002). The function of oxygen in MAP is to maintain acceptable fresh meat colour and carbon dioxide inhibits the growth of spoilage bacteria (Seideman & Durland, 1984). Nitrogen is used as an inert filler gas either to reduce the proportions of the other gases or to maintain the pack shape (Bell & Bourke, 1996).

  3. Rapid detection of lipid oxidation in beef muscle packed under modified atmosphere by measuring volatile organic compounds using SIFT-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Alicia; Dryahina, Kseniya; Spaněl, Patrik; Flores, Mónica

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the use of a direct analysis technique (SIFT-MS) to measure the lipid oxidation process in beef meat packed under high oxygen atmosphere and compare it to conventional techniques such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis and TBARS values. Meat samples from two suppliers were selected and packaged under the same atmosphere conditions. The fatty acid content, the physicochemical (TBARS and volatile compounds) and sensory parameters were measured. The samples from supplier 2 had a highest content of PUFA and n6 fatty acids that was related with a highest oxidation during storage. SIFT-MS and SPME-GC-MS detected a significant increase for most of the volatiles compounds analyzed during storage especially, in aldehyde compounds. High correlation coefficients between TBARS values and linear aldehydes (C3-C7) measured by both techniques were obtained and this indicates that SIFT-MS can be used to monitor lipid oxidation changes.

  4. High-Q Wafer Level Package Based on Modified Tri-Layer Anodic Bonding and High Performance Getter and Its Evaluation for Micro Resonant Pressure Sensor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liying Wang; Xiaohui Du; Lingyun Wang; Zhanhao Xu; Chenying Zhang; Dandan Gu

    2017-01-01

    In order to achieve and maintain a high quality factor (high-Q) for the micro resonant pressure sensor, this paper presents a new wafer level package by adopting cross-layer anodic bonding technique of the glass/silicon/silica (GSS...

  5. Characterization and antimicrobial efficacy against E. coli of a helium/air plasma at atmospheric pressure created in a plastic package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, J.; Valdramidis, V. P.; Byrne, E.; Karatzas, K. A.; Cullen, P. J.; Keener, K. M.; Mosnier, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    A plasma source, sustained by the application of a floating high voltage (±15 kV) to parallel-plate electrodes at 50 Hz, has been achieved in a helium/air mixture at atmospheric pressure (P = 105 Pa) contained in a zip-locked plastic package placed in the electrode gap. Some of the physical and antimicrobial properties of this apparatus were established with a view to ascertain its performance as a prototype for the disinfection of fresh produce. The current-voltage (I-V) and charge-voltage (Q-V) characteristics of the system were measured as a function of gap distance d, in the range (3 × 103 ⩽ Pd ⩽ 1.0 × 104 Pa m). The electrical measurements showed this plasma source to exhibit the characteristic behaviour of a dielectric barrier discharge in the filamentary mode and its properties could be accurately interpreted by the two-capacitance in series model. The power consumed by the discharge and the reduced field strength were found to decrease quadratically from 12.0 W to 4.5 W and linearly from 140 Td to 50 Td, respectively, in the range studied. Emission spectra of the discharge were recorded on a relative intensity scale and the dominant spectral features could be assigned to strong vibrational bands in the 2+ and 1- systems of N2 and N_2^+ , respectively, with other weak signatures from the NO and OH radicals and the N+, He and O atomic species. Absolute spectral intensities were also recorded and interpreted by comparison with the non-equilibrium synthetic spectra generated by the computer code SPECAIR. At an inter-electrode gap of 0.04 m, this comparison yielded typical values for the electron, vibrational and translational (gas) temperatures of (4980 ± 100) K, (2700 ± 200) K and (300 ± 100) K, respectively and an electron density of 1.0 × 1017 m-3. A Boltzmann plot also provided a value of (3200 ± 200 K) for the vibrational temperature. The antimicrobial efficacy was assessed by studying the resistance of both Escherichia coli K12 its isogenic

  6. Antimicrobial effects of vapor phase thymol, modified atmosphere, and their combination against Salmonella spp. on raw shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Siyuan; Sheen, Shiowshuh; Pang, Yu-Hsin; Liu, LinShu; Yam, Kit L

    2013-05-01

    Salmonella contamination on raw shrimp is a big food safety concern in the United States currently. This research evaluated the inhibition effects of vapor phase thymol, modified atmosphere (MA), and their combination against Salmonella spp. on raw shrimp. Growth profiles of a Salmonella spp. cocktail (6 strains), inoculated onto the surface of raw shrimp, treated with vapor phase thymol at 3 levels (0, 0.8, and 1.6 mg/L), or MA (59.5% CO2 + 39.5% N2 + 1% O2 ), both alone and in combination, at 3 temperatures (8, 12, and 16 ºC), were determined. Lag time and maximum growth rate of Salmonella spp. under each treatment were obtained using Baranyi and Roberts models. Results indicated that both vapor phase thymol and MA treatments alone inhibited the growth potential of Salmonella spp. effectively, extending the lag time by 10% to 100% and reducing the maximum growth rate by 14% to 71% compared with controlled samples at experimental temperatures (8, 12, and 16 ºC). Combination treatments of vapor phase thymol and MA exhibited greater inhibition effectiveness than each individual treatment and a synergistic antimicrobial effectiveness could be observed on the lag time extension. To the maximum, at 12 ºC, lag time of Salmonella spp. was extended 59.6% more by the combination treatment of 0.8 mg/L thymol + MA (36.97 h) than those effects combined from 0.8 mg/L thymol treatment and MA treatment alone (23.16 h in total). This combination strategy could be potentially utilized for Salmonella inhibition during the long distance and temperature-abused raw shrimp import process.

  7. Modified-atmosphere storage under subatmospheric pressure and beef quality: II. Color, drip, cooking loss, sarcomere length, and tenderness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, F.J.M.; Hiesberger, J.; Hofbauer, P.; Dogl, B.; Dransfield, E.

    2006-01-01

    Beef has a requirement for refrigerated storage up to 14 d to achieve adequate aging and a tender product. To achieve this aging with little spoilage and no surface drying, vacuum packaging is attractive, because it is inherently simple and offers a clear indication to the packer when the process ha

  8. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2008-01-12

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package (also known as the "RH-TRU 72-B cask") and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: "...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." It further states: "...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8, "Deliberate Misconduct." Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, "Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material," certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, "Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance," regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a

  9. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2006-11-07

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: "...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." It further states: "...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8, "Deliberate Misconduct." Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, "Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material," certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, "Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance," regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to

  10. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are

  11. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2008-09-11

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the pplication." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are

  12. National Meat Case Study 2004: Product labeling information, branding, and packaging trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reicks, A L; Brooks, J C; Kelly, J M; Kuecker, W G; Boillot, K; Irion, R; Miller, M F

    2008-12-01

    Fresh meat retail cases in 104 supermarkets across 5 regions of the United States were audited for the use of packaging types and materials, branding, and cooking/nutritional information. Frequency means were separated for species of beef, ground beef, pork, chicken, turkey, lamb, and veal. Traditional polyvinyl chloride overwrap was used on 47.0% of packages in the fresh meat case nationwide and was the most frequent packaging type for beef, ground beef, pork, lamb, and veal. The use of modified atmosphere packaging was greatest (P products. The 3 most common tray colors in the fresh meat retail case on a national level were white (39.6%), yellow (22.4%), and black (11.5%). Foam trays were used in 72.6% of all packages in the retail meat case. In 2004, 60.2% of all packages were case-ready. Chicken (94.8%) and turkey (95.6%) products utilized case-ready packaging systems more (P products carried a national brand, 12.2% carried a store brand, and the remaining 37.7% of products in the fresh meat case in 2004 were not branded. Chicken was most (P products (48.1%). Chicken (20.4%) and turkey products (20.7%) were most (P products (55.7%) in the fresh meat case compared with any other species. On the national level, 6.1% of all packages reported in the fresh meat case in 2004 were value-added.

  13. Applicability of a microbial Time Temperature Indicator (TTI) for monitoring spoilage of modified atmosphere packed minced meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaikousi, Hariklia; Biliaderis, Costas G; Koutsoumanis, Konstantinos P

    2009-08-15

    The applicability of a microbial Time Temperature Indicator (TTI) prototype, based on the growth and metabolic activity of a Lactobacillus sakei strain developed in a previous study, in monitoring quality of modified atmosphere packed (MAP) minced beef was evaluated at conditions simulating the chill chain. At all storage temperatures examined (0, 5, 10, 15 degrees C), the results showed that lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were the dominant bacteria and can be used as a good spoilage index of MAP minced beef. The end of product's shelf life as revealed by the sensory evaluation coincided with a LAB population level of 7 log(10) CFU/g. For all temperatures tested, the growth of L. sakei in the TTI resembled closely the growth of LAB in the meat product, with similar temperature dependence of the micro(max) and thus similar activation energy values calculated as 111.90 and 106.90 kJ/mol, for the two systems, respectively. In addition, the end point of TTI colour change coincided with the time of sensory rejection point of the beef product during its storage under isothermal chilled temperature conditions. The estimated activation energy, E(alpha), values obtained for parameters related to the response of DeltaE (total colour change of the TTI) describing the kinetics of colour change of the TTI during isothermal storage (i.e. the maximum specific rate of DeltaEpsilon evolution curve, micro(DeltaEpsilon), and also the reciprocal of t(i), time at which half of the maximum DeltaEpsilon is reached), were 112.77 and 127.28 kJ/mol, respectively. Finally, the application of the microbial TTI in monitoring the quality deterioration of MAP minced beef due to spoilage was further evaluated under dynamic conditions of storage, using two separate low temperature periodic changing scenarios, resembling the actual conditions occurring in the distribution chill chain. The results showed that the end point of TTI, after storage at those fluctuating temperature conditions, was noted very

  14. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2007-12-13

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are

  15. Food losses, shelf life extension and environmental impact of a packaged cheesecake: A life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Michele Mario; Meleddu, Marta; Piga, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Packaging is associated with a high environmental impact. This is also the case in the food industry despite packaging being necessary for maintaining food quality, safety assurance and preventing food waste. The aim of the present study was to identify improvements in food packaging solutions able to minimize environmental externalities while maximizing the economic sustainability. To this end, the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology was applied to evaluate the environmental performance of new packaging solutions. The environmental impact of packaging and food losses and the balance between the two were examined in relation to a cheesecake that is normally packaged in low density polyethylene film and has a limited shelf life due to microbial growth. A shelf life extension was sought via application of the well-established modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) technique. Samples for MAP (N2/CO2: 70/30) were placed inside multilayer gas barrier trays, which were then wrapped with a multilayer gas and water barrier film (i.e. AerPack packaging); control batches were packaged in gas barrier recycled polyethylene terephthalate (XrPet) trays and wrapped with a XrPet film. Samples were then stored at 20°C and inspected at regular intervals for chemical-physical, microbiological and sensory parameters. Results show that the new packaging solution could considerably extend the shelf life of cheesecakes, thereby reducing food waste and decreasing the overall environmental impact. Moreover, the new packaging allows one to minimize transport costs and to generate economies of scale in manufacturing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Portobello Packaging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomas Grose

    2010-01-01

    ...-based foams. Bayer earned dual degrees in mechanical engineering and product design in 2007 and, with classmate Gavin Mclntyre, started the company Ecovative Design to market his creation. EcoCradle, the company's organic packaging material, was named one of the top inventions of 2009 by Popular Science. Its insulation material, Greensulate, got a ...

  17. High-Q Wafer Level Package Based on Modified Tri-Layer Anodic Bonding and High Performance Getter and Its Evaluation for Micro Resonant Pressure Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liying; Du, Xiaohui; Wang, Lingyun; Xu, Zhanhao; Zhang, Chenying; Gu, Dandan

    2017-03-16

    In order to achieve and maintain a high quality factor (high-Q) for the micro resonant pressure sensor, this paper presents a new wafer level package by adopting cross-layer anodic bonding technique of the glass/silicon/silica (GSS) stackable structure and integrated Ti getter. A double-layer structure similar to a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer is formed after the resonant layer and the pressure-sensitive layer are bonded by silicon direct bonding (SDB). In order to form good bonding quality between the pressure-sensitive layer and the glass cap layer, the cross-layer anodic bonding technique is proposed for vacuum package by sputtering Aluminum (Al) on the combination wafer of the pressure-sensitive layer and the resonant layer to achieve electrical interconnection. The model and the bonding effect of this technique are discussed. In addition, in order to enhance the performance of titanium (Ti) getter, the prepared and activation parameters of Ti getter under different sputtering conditions are optimized and discussed. Based on the optimized results, the Ti getter (thickness of 300 nm to 500 nm) is also deposited on the inside of the glass groove by magnetron sputtering to maintain stable quality factor (Q). The Q test of the built testing system shows that the number of resonators with a Q value of more than 10,000 accounts for more than 73% of the total. With an interval of 1.5 years, the Q value of the samples remains almost constant. It proves the proposed cross-layer anodic bonding and getter technique can realize high-Q resonant structure for long-term stable operation.

  18. High-Q Wafer Level Package Based on Modified Tri-Layer Anodic Bonding and High Performance Getter and Its Evaluation for Micro Resonant Pressure Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liying Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve and maintain a high quality factor (high-Q for the micro resonant pressure sensor, this paper presents a new wafer level package by adopting cross-layer anodic bonding technique of the glass/silicon/silica (GSS stackable structure and integrated Ti getter. A double-layer structure similar to a silicon-on-insulator (SOI wafer is formed after the resonant layer and the pressure-sensitive layer are bonded by silicon direct bonding (SDB. In order to form good bonding quality between the pressure-sensitive layer and the glass cap layer, the cross-layer anodic bonding technique is proposed for vacuum package by sputtering Aluminum (Al on the combination wafer of the pressure-sensitive layer and the resonant layer to achieve electrical interconnection. The model and the bonding effect of this technique are discussed. In addition, in order to enhance the performance of titanium (Ti getter, the prepared and activation parameters of Ti getter under different sputtering conditions are optimized and discussed. Based on the optimized results, the Ti getter (thickness of 300 nm to 500 nm is also deposited on the inside of the glass groove by magnetron sputtering to maintain stable quality factor (Q. The Q test of the built testing system shows that the number of resonators with a Q value of more than 10,000 accounts for more than 73% of the total. With an interval of 1.5 years, the Q value of the samples remains almost constant. It proves the proposed cross-layer anodic bonding and getter technique can realize high-Q resonant structure for long-term stable operation.

  19. Atmospheric cold plasma inactivation of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 and aerobic microorganisms in cold-stored romaine lettuce packaged in a commerical polyethylene terephthalate container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leafy greens continue to be a significant vector for foodborne pathogens, including Escherichia coli O157:H7. Dielectric barrier discharge atmospheric cold plasma (ACP) treatment is a promising method for microbial decontamination of produce. An important aspect of this technology is the potential f...

  20. Revisão: alimentos frescos minimamente processados embalados em atmosfera modificada Review: fresh, minimally processed foods packaged under modified atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Joana Silva Santos; Maria Beatriz Prior Pinto Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Os alimentos frescos, minimamente processados e embalados sob atmosfera modificada atraem os consumidores que procuram produtos frescos e saudáveis, e que, ao mesmo tempo, são fáceis de transportar e preparar. A atmosfera no interior das embalagens consiste numa mistura de gases que está otimizada para cada alimento, de modo a preservar as suas qualidades durante mais tempo. A manutenção da temperatura de refrigeração durante o processamento, o armazenamento, a distribuição e a comercializaçã...

  1. Effect of modified atmosphere packaging and water activity on growth of Eurotium amstelodami, E. chevalieri and E. herbariorum on a sponge cake analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abellana, M; Ramos, A J; Sanchis, V; Nielsen, P V

    2000-04-01

    The combined effects of water activity (aw), oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) levels on growth variables of three species of Eurotium (two isolates of each) on a sponge cake analogue were studied. The use of a multivariate statistical method (PLS) for the analysis of data showed that in general, the fungi had the same behaviour, according to their growth responses, to changes in the three tested factors. However, the maximal growth of E. herbariorum was somewhat more affected by the O2 level at lower CO2 levels. On the other hand, CO2, aw and the interaction between CO2 and O2 were found to be the most significant factors describing growth variables. In addition, the model found in this study had a good predictive power. There was a positive correlation between the CO2 concentration in the bags and the lag phase, and a negative correlation between the growth rate and maximum mycelial growth. In general, no isolates were able to growth when CO2 concentrations were higher than 60% under anaerobic conditions. At lower values of CO2, aw and O2 influenced growth variables. Low levels of O2 (0.02-0. 5%) did not affect the growth variables studied when levels of CO2 in the bags were high. However, when the CO2 concentration decreased, the different O2 levels had an influence on the growth variables, i. e., a small difference in the concentration of O2 can allow fungi to grow.

  2. Modified atmosphere packaging of fresh meats : sudden partial adaption caused an increase in sustainability of Dutch supply chains of fresh meats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoden Van Velzen, E.U.; Linnemann, A.R.

    2008-01-01

    In the past decade, a major transition evolved in the Dutch fresh meat industry with ramifications for the entire meat business. In 1995, more than 95% of all fresh meat products for consumers were either sold loose or packed in the traditional way, i.e. on a white styrofoam tray with stretch wrap.

  3. 翡翠贻贝气调保鲜包装研究%Study on the Modified Atmosphere Packaging of Green Mussels(Perna Viridis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐航; 程裕东; 雷桥; 曹婕

    2006-01-01

    采用涂布聚偏二氯乙烯的聚酯与聚乙烯复合薄膜袋(KPET/PE)气调包装翡翠贻贝,混合气体包括:CO2、O2和N2.选用5组气体配比(A:V(75%O2)/V(25%N2);B:V(50%O2)/V(50%N2);C:V(20%O2)/V(30%CO2)/V(50%N2);D:V(10%O2)/V(50%CO2)/V(40%N2);E:空气)进行包装并贮藏在5℃以下.在贮藏期间测定包装袋内气体浓度变化、需氧菌总数、TVBN和pH值,研究在不同气调比例包装条件下,翡翠贻贝的品质变化.实验结果表明:在贮藏温度为5℃条件下采用气调包装的样品,其需氧菌总数和TVBN等指标明显优于空气对照组.在5组气体比例中,以V(O2)∶V(CO2)∶V(N2)=10%∶50%∶40%的配气比例包装的保鲜效果最佳,其贮藏期比对照组空气包装延长3~8 d.

  4. Thawed chilled Barents Sea cod fillets in modified atmosphere packaging-application of multivariate data analysis to select key parameters in good manufacturing practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøknæs, Niels; Jensen, K.N.; Guldager, H.S.

    2002-01-01

    storage periods up to 21 d at 2 C were evaluated for thawed MAP Barents Sea cod fillets. Sensory, chemical, microbiological and physical quality attributes were evaluated and multivariate data analysis (principal component analysis and partial least- squares regression) applied for identification of key...... parameters in good manufacturing practice for this product. Frozen storage of up to 12 mo had no significant effect on quality attributes and shelf-life at 2degreesC was above 14 d irrespective of the time of frozen storage. As compared to a previous study with Baltic Sea, cod drip losses during chill...... storage was low for thawed MAP Barents Sea cod and this fish raw material seemed the more appropriate for production of thawed chilled MAP products. Frozen storage inactivation of the spoilage bacteria of Photobacterium phosphorcum was modest in Barnets Sea cod, possibly due to high trimethylamine oxide...

  5. Effects of Chitosan Concentration on Preservation of Strawberry in Modified Non-Woven Packages%壳聚糖浓度对改性无纺布草莓包装保鲜效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周园园; 舒祖菊; 马楠; 孙杨

    2016-01-01

    The non-woven (12.7 g/m2) was modified by coating chitosan of concentration 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0%respectively. The packaging bags were made from the modified and unmodified non-woven. The effects of chitosan concentration on the preservation of strawberries in packages were studied with the unmodified non-woven as the control group. The results showed that the modified non-woven bags had better preservation effect on strawberries compared with the unmodified at room temperature. The optimal was the modified non-woven with coating chitosan of 1.5%. During the storage period, strawberries experienced small sensory changes and low weight loss with the average hardness being 0.95 kg/cm2 and the average color difference being 6.995 NBS. Furthermore, soluble solid content was on the rise in the later period of storage.%以质量分数为1.0%,1.5%和2.0%的壳聚糖保鲜液对定量为12.7 g/m2的无纺布进行改性,研究不同质量分数壳聚糖改性的无纺布包装对草莓保鲜效果的影响。研究结果表明,在室温条件下,改性无纺布对草莓的保鲜效果均优于未改性无纺布的,其中,以质量分数为1.5%的壳聚糖保鲜液改性无纺布包装的草莓,其保鲜效果最好,在储藏期内,其感官变化较小,失重率较低,储藏3 d后的硬度为0.95 kg/cm2,色差平均值为6.995 NBS,可溶性固形物含量在贮藏后期呈现出上升趋势。

  6. Seafood Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    NASA's Technology Transfer Office at Stennis Space Center worked with a New Orleans seafood packaging company to develop a container to improve the shipping longevity of seafood, primarily frozen and fresh fish, while preserving the taste. A NASA engineer developed metalized heat resistant polybags with thermal foam liners using an enhanced version of the metalized mylar commonly known as 'space blanket material,' which was produced during the Apollo era.

  7. Improvement of mechanical properties of polylactic acid adhesion joints with bio-based adhesives by using air atmospheric plasma treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Jordá Vilaplana, Amparo; Sánchez Nacher, Lourdes; Fombuena Borrás, Vicent; García García, Daniel; Carbonell Verdú, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    The packaging industry generates a high volume of wastes; so that, there is a high demand of biodegradable materials, which do not damage the environment. Nowadays, there is an interesting consumption of polylactic acid (PLA) due to its biodegradable features. This work focuses on the improvement of mechanical properties of PLA adhesion joints for uses in the packaging industry. In order to achieve that purpose, atmospheric plasma treatment is used to selectively modify PLA surface properties...

  8. Quality, stability and radical scavenging activity of olive oils after Chétoui olives (Olea europaea L.) storage under modified atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Yahia, L; Baccouri, B; Ouni, Y; Hamdi, S

    2012-08-01

    At the industrial scale, the major source of olive oil deterioration is the poor handling of the raw material during the time separating harvesting from processing. The objective of this work was to verify the effect of modified atmospheres and cold storage in relation to quality parameters of the extracted oils. Olives (cv Chétoui) intended for oil extraction, were stored for 21 days at two different temperatures (ambient temperature 14 ± 2 °C and 5 °C) and under two different modified atmospheres 21% O₂ - 0% CO₂ and 2% O₂ - 5% CO₂. Oils quality was ascertained with analytical parameters: free fatty acids, peroxide value, K₂₃₂, K₂₇₀ as suggested by European regulation. Oxidative stability, total phenols content, radical scavenging activity and fatty acids composition were carried out in order to measure the hydrolytic and oxidative degradation of oils. Olive oils quality parameters were significantly affected by treatments with especially a beneficial effect on primary oxidation indicators and free acidity. Most efficient treatments, with regard to oils phenolic content and involved parameters, were 21% O₂ - 0% CO₂ at ambient temperature (636.25 mg ca/kg) and 2% O₂ - 5% CO₂ under 5 °C (637.50 mg ca/kg). Those two treatments improved individually oil samples phenolic content of 25% but not at the same storage period.

  9. 纳米Ti O2改性天然聚合物包装膜的研究进展%Research Progress on Natural Polymers Packaging Film Modified by Nano-TiO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申亚倩; 陈志周; 安永超; 于志彬

    2014-01-01

    纳米TiO2具有稳定性高、分散性好、光催化优良等性质,是一种新型的化工材料,被广泛应用于改性天然高聚物材料等方面。综述纳米TiO2改性蛋白质、淀粉、纤维素、壳聚糖等天然高聚物包装膜的效果及其改性机理,并从降低成本和提高综合性能两个方面对其进行了展望。%Nano-TiO2 with high stability,good dispersion,good photocatalytic properties,etc.,is a new chemical material,and is widely used in modified natural polymer materials and so on.The effect of nano-TiO2 modified protein,starch,cellulose,chitosan and other natural polymer packaging films and modification mecha-nism of nano TiO2 are reviewed.And it was carried out prospect from lower costs and improving the overall per-formance.

  10. 黑鳍生食金枪鱼解冻后不同气体比例气调包装的新鲜度变化%Freshness Changes of Thawed Bluefin Tuna Used for Raw Consumption during Storage in Modified Atmospheres with Different Gas Compositions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贡慧; 杨震; 史智佳; 刘梦; 李少鹏; 陈文华

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we examined the effect of modified atmosphere packaging on theK value, pH value and sensory quality of thawed bluefin tuna meat during storage at 4℃. The results showed that when the modified atmosphere was CO2:N2= 60:40 (V/V), the freshness of tuna meat was preserved for the longest period of time (96 h), with no obvious acidification. Under refrigeration conditions, theK value can reflect the sensory quality of blackfin tuna meat with respect to taste and flavor.%以黑鳍金枪鱼为对象,研究4℃条件下气调包装对其K值、pH值与感官品质的影响。结果表明:当气调包装的气体比例为CO2∶N2=60∶40(V/V)时,黑鳍金枪鱼保鲜时间最久,可达到96 h,且不会发生明显酸化;在冷藏条件下,K值可以从滋味、气味的角度很好地反映黑鳍金枪鱼的感官品质。

  11. Transformações bioquímicas de abacaxi minimamente processado armazenado sob atmosfera modificada Biochemical modifications of pineapple minimally processed under modified atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Elisabeth Torres Prado

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se estudo sobre a influência da atmosfera modificada com diferentes concentrações de gases durante o armazenamento de abacaxi cv. Smooth cayennne minimamente processado, por oito dias, à temperatura de 5ºC e 85% de UR. Foram realizadas análises de açúcares neutros, celulose, hemicelulose e poliuronídeos totais na parede celular. O abacaxi minimamente processado foi acondicionado sob duas Atmosferas Modificadas Ativas, uma com 5% de O2 e 5% de CO2 (AM1,outra com 2% de O2 e 10% de CO2 (AM2,e uma Atmosfera Modificada Passiva (Controle durante 8 dias de armazenamento. O uso de atmosferas modificadas ativas permitiu que o abacaxi minimamente processado sofresse menor degradação da parede celular com menor solubilização das hemiceluloses. Abacaxis minimamente processados e armazenados sob atmosfera modificada obtiveram uma vida de prateleira média de 6 dias, a 5º C.Pineapples minimally processed were, stored eight days (5ºC and 85% RH under passive and active atmosphere (MA. Neutral sugars, cellulose, hemicellulose, and total polyuronide analysis in cell wall were done. Two different active MA were tested: 5% of O2 + 5% of CO2 (MA1 and 2% of O2 + 10% of CO2 (MA2 and one passive MA (Control; during eight days of storage. Pineapples minimally processed stored under active modified atmosphere showed degradation of cell wall and less solubilization of hemicelluloses, besides being more effective in control of ethanol production and formation of off flavours. Pineapples minimally processed stored under modified atmosphere, showed life average of 6 days under refrigeration at 5ºC.

  12. Influence of lithium precursors and calcination atmospheres on graphene sheets-modified nano-Li4Ti5O12 anode material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Ting; Yuan, Tao; Zhang, Weimin; Ma, Jingjing; Zhang, Chunming; He, Yu-Shi; Liao, Xiao-Zhen; Ma, Zi-Feng

    2015-07-01

    The influence of Li precursors and calcination atmospheres on the reaction mechanisms, physical properties and electrochemical performance of graphene sheets (GS)-modified nano-Li4Ti5O12 (LTO/GS) has been systematically investigated. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and mass spectrometry (MS) results demonstrate the lithium precursor containing carboxyl anion such as lithium acetate (LiAc) and Li2CO3 interact with oxygen groups of graphene oxide (GO) by strong hydrogen bonds to restrict the morphology and the phase formation of products. We also notice from the thermogravimetry (TG) and MS results that the consumption of GS is proportional to oxygen content of lithium precursor. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and X-ray photoelectric spectroscopy (XPS) results indicate that the product calcined in reducing atmosphere possess smaller electrochemical polarization due to more reduced Ti3+ on the surface of the product. The LTO/GS sample with LiOH as Li precursor calcined in diluted hydrogen atmosphere show the best electrochemical performance with a capacity of 134.4 mAh g-1 at 10C discharge rate and very stable cycling life with a 98.6% capacity retention after 800 cycles at 40C rate. This study not only provides an optimization of Li precursor and calcination condition for LTO/GS anode material, but also guides any future one-step syntheses of lithium composite materials with GO participation.

  13. An expression analysis package for REDUCE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hulzen, J.A.; Hulshof, B.J.A.

    1982-01-01

    An expression analysis package for REDUCE 2 is presented. This package, completely written in Standard LISP, can be considered as an extension of the algebraic mode. It allows to interactively dismantled and/or modify the last output expression as it is desplayed or printed. An interface with the

  14. MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY AND SHELF LIFE OF FRESH PACKAGED TILAPIA FILLETS STORED UNDER DIFFERENT CHILL TEMPERATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odoli Cyprian

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus farmed in recirculation aquaculture system (RAS was filleted and packaged in 100% air and 50% CO2: 50% N2 modified atmosphere (MA prior to storage at 1˚C and -1˚C for up to 27 days. Fillets were sampled regularly and analysed for headspace gas composition, sensory and microbial changes. Shelf life varied with apparent relation to storage temperature, package atmosphere and microflora. Pseudomonads were reported as the main spoilage organisms in tilapia fillets during chilled storage conditions. Sensory analysis of cooked samples as well as microbial growth indicated fillets packaged in 100% air had a shelf life of 13-15 days during storage at 1˚C and 20 days at -1˚C. At the end of shelf life in 100% air packaged groups, TVC and pseudomonads counts reached log 7 colony-forming units g-1 in flesh. Whereas in 50% CO2: 50% N2 packaged fillets, the lag phase and generation time of bacteria was extended and recorded counts of < log 4 colony-forming units g-1 up to 27 days of storage at both 1˚C and -1˚C. However, 50% CO2 : 50% N2 conditions restricted fillets shelf life to 23 days based on sensorial changes mainly fillets colour characteristics.

  15. ATLAS software packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Rybkin, G

    2012-01-01

    Software packaging is indispensable part of build and prerequisite for deployment processes. Full ATLAS software stack consists of TDAQ, HLT, and Offline software. These software groups depend on some 80 external software packages. We present tools, package PackDist, developed and used to package all this software except for TDAQ project. PackDist is based on and driven by CMT, ATLAS software configuration and build tool, and consists of shell and Python scripts. The packaging unit used is CMT project. Each CMT project is packaged as several packages - platform dependent (one per platform available), source code excluding header files, other platform independent files, documentation, and debug information packages (the last two being built optionally). Packaging can be done recursively to package all the dependencies. The whole set of packages for one software release, distribution kit, also includes configuration packages and contains some 120 packages for one platform. Also packaged are physics analysis pro...

  16. Impacts of Different Plastic Packaging Materials on Beef Quality in the Modified Atmosphere Package%不同塑料包装材料对气调包装牛肉品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚益可; 雷桥; 欧杰

    2010-01-01

    以生鲜牛肉为包装对象,在4±1℃的贮藏过程中,定期对包装内的气体浓度、牛肉菌落总数、TVB-N值、脂肪氧化值(TBAHS)、高铁肌红蛋白含量(metMb%)、嫩度、弹性等指标进行检测分析,研究5种不同透气性能的塑料包装材料对气调包装(45%O2:30%CO2:25%N2)中牛肉的品质影响.结果表明:PE/PP/PET复合膜包装保鲜效果最好,牛肉可贮藏至16 d以上,PA/PP/PET复合膜、铝箔袋次之,PVC/PP、PE/PP复合膜不适用于牛肉气调包装.

  17. Evaluation of the role of Carnobacterium piscicola in spoilage of vacuum- and modified-atmosphere-packed cold-smoked salmon stored at 5 degrees C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paludan-Müller, Christine; Dalgaard, Paw; Huss, Hans Henrik

    1998-01-01

    The microflora on spoiled cold-smoked salmon often consists of a mixture of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Gram-negative bacteria. To elucidate the role of the different groups, a storage trial was carried out in which nisin and CO2 were used for the selective inhibition of the two bacterial groups...... the shelf-life to five or six weeks and limited the level of LAB to about 10(4)-10(6), 10(3)-10(6) and 10(2)-10(4) cfu/g, respectively. CO2-atmosphere+/-nisin inhibited the growth of Gram-negative bacteria, whereas nisin had no effect on these in vacuum packages. The Gram-negative flora on vacuum...... piscicola, which was found to account for 87% of the 255 LAB isolates characterized. Whole-cell-protein patterns analysed by SDS-PAGE confirmed the Carnobacterium species identification. The spoilage potential of C. piscicola isolates was further studied by inoculation of approx. 10(6) cfu/g in cold...

  18. Biodiversity and dynamics of the bacterial community of packaged king scallop (Pecten maximus) meat during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coton, M; Joffraud, J J; Mekhtiche, L; Leroi, F; Coton, E

    2013-09-01

    The microbial biodiversity and dynamics of king scallops meat and coral during cold storage (cold chain rupture: 1/3 storage time at 4 °C followed by 2/3 at 8 °C), was assessed by combining culture-dependant and -independent methods. Products were packaged as follows: aerobic, vacuum packed and 3 different CO2/N2 modified atmospheres and the impact of these conditions on the microbial communities was assessed. Results indicated that under air (current packaging condition), the dominant species corresponded to Brochothrix thermosphacta, Pseudomonas spp. and Shewanella spp. These species have regularly been associated in the literature with food (especially seafood), and product spoilage. Moellerella wisconsensis was the only species detected on VRBG medium, however, its impact on the food product is unclear. Packaging conditions influenced the ecosystem equilibrium and biodiversity. Except for day 8, the lowest counts for all studied flora were observed for modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) containing >80% CO2. Moreover, in these conditions, higher biodiversity by Temporal Temperature Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (TTGE) and the non-detection of specific flora (i.e. Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis) were observed. At day 8, scallops packaged using these conditions were still acceptable from a sensorial point of view (odour), although the initial load of the king scallop was high (total psychrotrophic flora reached 5.5 log CFU/g).

  19. Settlement of planulae of the Moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita onto hydrophilic polycarbonate plates modified by atmospheric plasma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaru, Akiko; Sasaki, Ryota; Miyahara, Hidekazu; Okino, Akitoshi; Ogawa, Nobuhiro; Hamasaki, Koji

    2014-01-01

    It has been reported that planula larvae of some jellyfish prefer artificial substrates for settlement. This research focused on the relationship between the settlement of planulae and the wettability of artificial substrate surfaces. We used atmospheric plasmas to change the wettability of the surfaces of polycarbonate (PC) plates because plasma treatment has no chemical side effects. The treatment made the surfaces hydrophilic, as evidenced by the decrease of contact angle from 85° to 35°. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the change of wettability of the PC plates could be attributed to N2, which was probably ionized in the air above the plates. Scanning electron microscopy revealed no difference in the surface morphology of the plates before and after plasma treatment. Results of bioassays using treated PC plates showed that planulae tended to preferentially settle on hydrophobic surfaces.

  20. Settlement of planulae of the Moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita onto hydrophilic polycarbonate plates modified by atmospheric plasma treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Tomaru

    Full Text Available It has been reported that planula larvae of some jellyfish prefer artificial substrates for settlement. This research focused on the relationship between the settlement of planulae and the wettability of artificial substrate surfaces. We used atmospheric plasmas to change the wettability of the surfaces of polycarbonate (PC plates because plasma treatment has no chemical side effects. The treatment made the surfaces hydrophilic, as evidenced by the decrease of contact angle from 85° to 35°. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the change of wettability of the PC plates could be attributed to N2, which was probably ionized in the air above the plates. Scanning electron microscopy revealed no difference in the surface morphology of the plates before and after plasma treatment. Results of bioassays using treated PC plates showed that planulae tended to preferentially settle on hydrophobic surfaces.

  1. Modified-Atmospheric Pressure-Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Identification of Friction Modifier Additives Oleamide and Ethoxylated Tallow Amines on Varied Metal Target Materials and Tribologically Stressed Steel Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widder, Lukas; Ristic, Andjelka; Brenner, Florian; Brenner, Josef; Hutter, Herbert

    2015-11-17

    For many tasks in failure and damage analysis of surfaces deteriorated in heavy tribological contact, the detailed characterization of used lubricants and their additives is essential. The objective of the presented work is to establish accessibility of tribostressed surfaces for direct characterization via modified atmospheric pressure-matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (m-AP-MALDI-MS). Special target holders were constructed to allow target samples of differing shape and form to fit into the desorption/ionization chamber. The best results of desorption and ionization on different target materials and varying roughnesses were achieved on smooth surfaces with low matrix/substrate interaction. M-AP-MALDI characterization of tribologically stressed steel surfaces after pin-on-disc sliding wear tests (SRV-tribotests) yielded positive identification of used friction modifier additives. Further structure elucidation by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and measurements of worn surfaces by time-of-flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) accompanied findings about additive behavior and deterioration during tribological contact. Using m-AP-MALDI for direct offline examinations of worn surfaces may set up a quick method for determination of additives used for lubrication and general characterization of a tribological system.

  2. Preparation of Modified PVA Biodegradable Packaging Materials by Borax and Urea%硼砂尿素复合改性聚乙烯醇制备可降解包装材料

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡安; 高桂枝; 朱伟; 刘飞; 王忠都

    2013-01-01

    The biodegradable packaging materials were prepared by a modified method.Firstly,the paste materials were prepared with 1.2 % borax,5 % urea and 0.16 % glycerin solute were dissolved into 6 % poly (vinyl alcohol) solution at temperature (80 ℃) and pH(8.0).Then the biodegradable packaging film were made from PTFE mould and dried at 100 ℃ for 1.5 ~ 2.0 h.After determination,the thickness of film was 0.050 mm,tension strength was 7.8 N/mm2,tensile strength was 1.2 N/mm2,breaking strength was 1.3 N/mm2,and elongation was 247.9 %.The material dissolution in the 4 % acetic acid was 2.09 mg/L,1.17 mg/L in the ethanol and the potassium permanganate index was 38.14 mg/L.The biodegradation experiment showed that the degradation rate of the packaging film was 88 % after degradation for 150 d.The sealing test indicated that the breaking strength of the sealed place was 55.6 N/mm2,and the packaging film could satisfy the production requirements.%硼砂、尿素复合改性聚乙烯醇实验表明:在6%聚乙烯醇溶液中加硼砂、尿素、甘油分别为聚乙烯醇质量的1.2%、5%、0.16%,在反应温度为80℃、pH=8的条件下制得糊状材料.再用聚四氟乙烯模具制成膜,膜经100℃烘干1.5~2h,得到厚度为0.050 mm可降解包装膜,该膜经测定:拉力强度7.8 N/mm2,拉伸强度1.2 N/mm2,断裂强度1.3 N/mm2,断裂伸长率247.9%.膜在4%乙酸中溶出度2.09 mg/L,乙醇溶出度1.17 mg/L,高锰酸钾指数38.14 mg/L.包装膜降解实验表明:膜累计降解150 d后,降解率达88%.膜封口试验表明:封口部位断裂强度55.6 N/mm2,符合生产使用要求.

  3. Analysis and Validation of a Predictive Model for Growth and Death of Aeromonas hydrophila under Modified Atmospheres at Refrigeration Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pin, Carmen; Velasco de Diego, Raquel; George, Susan; García de Fernando, Gonzalo D.; Baranyi, József

    2004-01-01

    Specific growth and death rates of Aeromonas hydrophila were measured in laboratory media under various combinations of temperature, pH, and percent CO2 and O2 in the atmosphere. Predictive models were developed from the data and validated by means of observations obtained from (i) seafood experiments set up for this purpose and (ii) the ComBase database (http://www.combase.cc; http://wyndmoor.arserrc.gov/combase/).Two main reasons were identified for the differences between the predicted and observed growth in food: they were the variability of the growth rates in food and the bias of the model predictions when applied to food environments. A statistical method is presented to quantitatively analyze these differences. The method was also used to extend the interpolation region of the model. In this extension, the concept of generalized Z values (C. Pin, G. García de Fernando, J. A. Ordóñez, and J. Baranyi, Food Microbiol. 18:539-545, 2001) played an important role. The extension depended partly on the density of the model-generating observations and partly on the accuracy of extrapolated predictions close to the boundary of the interpolation region. The boundary of the growth region of the organism was also estimated by means of experimental results for growth and death rates. PMID:15240265

  4. A modified cryostat for photo-electrical characterization of porous materials in controlled atmosphere at very low gas dosage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Cultrera

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We developed an integrated system for photo-electrical characterization of materials for sensing applications in strictly controlled environment conditions. The peculiar aspect of this setup is the capability of a fine-tuned gas dosage and a fast dynamic chamber pressure control, coupled with current and voltage sensing within a modified cryostat. To illustrate the capabilities of our system we have characterised both p+-type mesoporous silicon (meso-PS membranes and nano-crystalline mesoporous titanium dioxide (nc-TiO2 films. In particular, as a main topic is presented a well-resolved characterization of mesoporous silicon electrical conductivity changes induced by presence of ethanol. At low pore filling level adsorbate-shunted conduction is avoided, while dielectric screening effects on frozen doping centres are observable. Beside we presented observation of mesoporous titanium dioxide photo-conductivity as a function of different gas pressure reporting opposite effects of relatively low- and high-pressure regimes. High reproducibility provided by the system is discussed as a final remark.

  5. Gas permeability and thermal behavior of polypropylene films used for packaging minimally processed fresh-cut potatoes: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siracusa, Valentina; Blanco, Ignazio; Romani, Santina; Tylewicz, Urszula; Dalla Rosa, Marco

    2012-10-01

    This work reports an experimental study on the permeability and thermal behavior of commercial polypropylene (PP) film used for fresh-cut potatoes packaging. The permeability was tested using oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, mix of these 3 gases, normally used for modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and Air, to understand if it would be possible to extend the shelf life of this food product designed for the catering field in respect to the packaging behavior. The temperature influence on permeability data, from 5 to 40 °C, was analyzed, before and after 4, 8, 12, 15, and 20 d of food contact, pointing out the dependence between temperature and gas transmission rate (GTR), solubility (S), diffusion coefficient (D), and time lag (t(L)) parameters. The activation energies (E) of the permeation process were determined with the different gases used in the experiments. The thermal behavior of PP film was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TG) to well understand its thermal stability. Fourier transformed-infrared with attenuated total reflectance (FT-IR/ATR) spectroscopy was also performed in order to study the influence of the food contact on the chemical characteristics of the polymer film. The results obtained were discussed and compared each other. Studied samples showed, for all investigated gases, an increase of gas permeability and S values at higher temperature. Heat resistance classification among the sample as it is and stored in modified atmospheres was made. Finally all performed experiments have showed good polymer stability for the shelf-life storage potatoes under study. Study of packaging material was performed in a range of temperature, which can simulate the service condition to assess the suitability of a commercial polymer film for modified atmosphere packaging of fresh-cut potatoes minimally processed designed for catering purpose. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Qualidade de mandioquinha-salsa minimamente processada e armazenada sob atmosfera modificada Quality of fresh-cut peruvian carrot: use of modified atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela Elena Nunes

    2009-10-01

    para prolongar a vida útil de mandioquinhas-salsa minimamente processadas, preservando seus atributos de qualidade. Diante da avaliação sensorial realizada, a aparência e a cor das fatias de mandioquinha-salsa mantiveram-se aceitáveis para o consumo até o final do período de armazenamento.The aim of this research was to verify the effect of the passive and active modified atmosphere on the conservation of fresh-cut peruvian carrot, cv. Amarela de Senador Amaral, purchased from a commercial crop of Lavras, MG, Brazil. The roots were screened, washed with neutral detergent and rinsed in running water. Afterwards, they were immersed into a solution of 300mg L-1 sodium hypochlorite for 15 minutes and dried at room temperature. The roots were peeled and cut in slices of about 1cm of thickness and immersed into a solution of 50mg L-1 sodium hypochlorite for 10 minutes, drained in plastic sieves and packed. The trays containing the slices of Peruvian carrot were stored in a cold room (5±1°C and 98% RH for 15 days. The following analyses were performed every 3 days: : pH, titrable acidity, total soluble solids, firmness, L* and b* values, starch and sensorial evaluation (appearance and color. The experimental design was completely randomized (CRD in a 3 x 6 factorial scheme, with 3 sorts of atmospheres (passive; active with initial injection of the mixtures: 2% O2 + 10% CO2 e 5% O2 + 5% CO2 and 6 times of storage (0, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 days with 3 replicates. The average values of pH, titrable acidity, soluble solids and firmness found in this work were 6.79, 0.13% of malic acid, 4.04°Brix and 5.17 N, respectively. The active modified atmosphere (5% de O2 + 5% CO2 determined higher L* value to the fresh cut Peruvian carrots at the sixth and twelfth day of storage as compared with the active (2% of O2 + 10% CO2. The active modified atmosphere with 5% O2 + 5% CO2 determined higher b* values and starch contents to the slices of Peruvian carrots as compared with the

  7. Post harvest conservation of mangos ‘Tommy Atkins’ storaged under modified atmosphere/ Conservação pós-colheita de mangas ‘Tommy Atkins’ armazenadas sob atmosfera modificada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauber José de Castro Gava

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the post harvest conservation of mangos ‘Tommy Atkins’, during a storage, using different types of packings. The modified atmosphere corresponded to the following treatments: fruits conditioned individually in plastic trays, covered with plastic film of polivinila chloride (PVC of 14 µm, without and with sachet of potassium permanganate (10 g; fruits conditioned individually in polyethylene bag of low density 25 µm of simple wall addictived or not with potassium permanganate; conditioned fruits, in groups of 5, in carton boxes with cover, covered internally or no with low density polyethylene film addictived with potassium permanganate. The fruits were stored under storage room at 24,4 ºC, 70 % RH. The evaluated variables were: loss of fresh mass, appearance, firmness of the pulp, soluble solids, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid. It were verified that the best treatments of modified atmosphere were individual packaging of the mango fruits in plastic trays, covered with plastic film of polivinila chloride (PVC of 14 µm, without and with sachet of potassium permanganate. The potassium permanganate, in the form used in this study (sachet and impregnated in plastic film, did not interfere in the results obtained for the conservation of the fruits.O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a conservação pós-colheita de mangas ‘Tommy Atkins’, durante o armazenamento em condições de temperatura ambiente, utilizando diferentes tipos de embalagens. Os tratamentos foram: frutos acondicionados individualmente em bandejas de acetato transparente, revestidas com filme plástico de cloreto de polivinila (PVC esticável de 14 µm, sem e com sachê de permanganato de potássio, preparado utilizando-se vermiculita como substrato, impregnada com KMnO4 (10g / 500g de fruto; frutos acondicionados individualmente em sacos plásticos de polietileno de baixa densidade 25 µm de parede simples (PE

  8. A tool model for predicting atmospheric kinetics with sensitivity analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A package( a tool model) for program of predicting atmospheric chemical kinetics with sensitivity analysis is presented. The new direct method of calculating the first order sensitivity coefficients using sparse matrix technology to chemical kinetics is included in the tool model, it is only necessary to triangularize the matrix related to the Jacobian matrix of the model equation. The Gear type procedure is used to integrate amodel equation and its coupled auxiliary sensitivity coefficient equations. The FORTRAN subroutines of the model equation, the sensitivity coefficient equations, and their Jacobian analytical expressions are generated automatically from a chemical mechanism. The kinetic representation for the model equation and its sensitivity coefficient equations, and their Jacobian matrix is presented. Various FORTRAN subroutines in packages, such as SLODE, modified MA28, Gear package, with which the program runs in conjunction are recommended.The photo-oxidation of dimethyl disulfide is used for illustration.

  9. Produção de três espécies de cogumelos Pleurotus e avaliação da qualidade em atmosfera modificada Production of three species of Pleurotus mushrooms and quality evaluation in modified atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ramos

    2011-01-01

    maintain quality, minimal processing is reported to be an economical and effective method of extending the mushrooms shelf life. The purpose of this study was tested three species of the Pleurotus genus yield cultivated in wheat straw, in order to determine the most productive one and also evaluate the combined effects of modified atmosphere packaging on quality and shelf life of these packaged fresh mushrooms. The results indicate that P. ostreatus was the most productive, followed by P. sajor-caju and P. eryngii and the studied storage conditions improved P. eryngii quality.

  10. Atmosfera modificada e refrigeração para conservação pós-colheita de uva 'Niagara Rosada' Modified atmosphere and cold storage for postharvest conservation of 'Niagara Rosada' table grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Cia

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da atmosfera modificada na conservação pós-colheita da uva 'Niagara Rosada' armazenada sob refrigeração, em dois experimentos. No primeiro experimento avaliou-se o acondicionamento de cachos nas seguintes embalagens: papelão ondulado (testemunha; tereftalato de polietileno (PET; cloreto de polivinila (PVC 17 μm; polietileno linear de baixa densidade (PELBD 25 μm; e PELBD 50 μm. Em outro experimento, avaliaram-se os sistemas de acondicionamento: sacolas de plástico abertas (testemunha; polietileno de baixa densidade (PEBD 25 μm; PEBD 25 μm, com injeção de mistura gasosa (21% O2/5% CO2; PEBD 25 μm (21% O2/10% CO2; PEBD 25 μm (21% O2/20% CO2. Os cachos foram armazenados a 1±1°C e 90±5% de umidade relativa (UR por 28 dias, seguido de armazenamento em condições do ambiente (25±2°C e 80±5% UR. Os cachos foram avaliados quanto à perda de massa de matéria fresca, firmeza, cor das bagas, esbagoamento, sólidos solúveis totais (SST, acidez titulável (AT, relação SST/AT e incidência de podridões. O filme PELBD 50 μm, a partir do 14º dia a 1°C, seguido por mais três dias a 25°C, causou a fermentação dos cachos. As embalagens PELBD 25 μm, com ou sem injeção de mistura gasosa, e PVC 17 μm reduzem a perda de massa de matéria fresca dos cachos, mas não reduzem o esbagoamento e a incidência de podridões.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the modified atmosphere, on the storage life of 'Niagara Rosada' Table grape kept under refrigeration in two experiments. In the first one, grape clusters stored in different package materials were evaluated: corrugated cardboard boxes, polyethylene tereftalate (PET; 17-μm polyvinyl chloride (PVC; 25-μm low density linear polyethylene film (PELDB; and 50-μm PELDB. On a second assay, different packaging systems were evaluated: opened plastic bags; 25-μm low density polyethylene film (PEBD; 25-μm PEBD, with

  11. Shelf life of fresh foal meat under MAP, overwrap and vacuum packaging conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, José M; Gómez, María

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the physico-chemical properties, the microbial counts and the sensory properties' changes of foal steaks packed under various conditions. The experimental packaging systems were: (i) vacuum packaging (VP), (ii) overwrap packaging and (iii) two modified atmosphere packaging methods (MAP): high O₂ MAP (80% O₂+20% CO₂) and low O₂ MAP (30% O₂+70% CO₂). The meat was stored at 2 °C during 14 days and tested for pH, colour, lipid and protein oxidation, microbial counts and sensory assessment of odour, colour and appearance. Of the two MAP, overwrap and VP, both MAP were the most effective treatments for the inhibition of the total viable counts (TVC), Pseudomonas spp., psychrotrophic aerobic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae as well as moulds and yeast. According to the sensory evaluation, foal steaks packed under overwrap and MAP treatments resulted unacceptable after 7 days of storage, whereas the vacuum-packed meat was still acceptable. Moreover, the redness value decreased significantly (P<0.001) with all treatments during the storage time, except for the vacuum packs, which increased significantly (P<0.001). Finally, foal steaks from overwrap packaging and MAP conditions had a greater increase of TBAR'S values and carbonyl content during the storage time. High O₂ levels affected foal meat quality negatively, while anaerobic conditions extended the meat's shelf life up to 14 days.

  12. Retail colour stability of lamb meat is influenced by breed type, muscle, packaging and iron concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, R D; Kearney, G; Hopkins, D L; Jacob, R H

    2017-01-17

    The longissmus lumborum (LL) and semimembranosus (SM) muscles from 391 lamb carcasses, derived from various breed types, were used to investigate the effect of animal/muscle factors, packaging type [over-wrap (OW) or high oxygen modified atmosphere packaging (MAPO2)] and duration of display on redness of meat during simulated retail display. Using statistical models the time required (in days) for redness to reach a threshold value of 3.5 (below this is unacceptable) was predicted. High levels of iron in the SM, but not LL, reduced the time for redness to reach 3.5 by 2-2.6days in MAPO2 and 0.5-0.8days in OW. The greater the proportion of Merino breed type, the shorter was the time for redness to reach the value of 3.5, an effect consistent across muscles and packaging types. In summary, breed type, packaging format, muscle and muscle iron levels had a significant impact on colour stability of sheep meat in oxygen-available packaging systems.

  13. Quality of extra virgin olive oil affected by several packaging variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guil-Guerrero, J. L.; Urda-Romacho, J.

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the evolution of the quality index of three extra-virgin olive oil varieties (EVOO), stored according to different packaging variables for one year. The selected quality parameters were: acidity index, peroxide value (PV), K270 coefficient, fatty acid (FA) profile, carotenoids and chlorophylls. This study was carried out by monthly analyzing several bottled EVOO varieties - Picual, Hojiblanca and Arbequina- obtained during the present harvesting season. In addition, other Picual EVOO stored in a mill deposit, as well as bottled Picual EVOO from the previous harvesting season were analyzed monthly. The oils were packaged in dark and transparent glass bottles. The results showed that the acidity and K270 parameters increased slightly in all cases, while PV value changes were significant in EVOOs stored in transparent glass bottles. FA profiles were slightly modified throughout the storage period, although oleic acid slightly increased at the end of the analytical period, especially in the EVOO stored in deposits. Regarding pigment, chlorophylls losses were more noticeable than those related to carotenoid. According to the present results, the best packaging conditions for EVOO were deposits, followed by dark glass bottles. In addition, this study demonstrated that EVOO collected from the previous harvesting season and stored under nitrogen atmosphere could be packaged in glass bottles without appreciable quality changes, as compared with EVOO packaged in the same bottles and obtained during the current harvesting season. (Author) 28 refs.

  14. Biopreservation in modified atmosphere stored mungbean sprouts: the use of vegetable-associated bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacteria to control the growth of Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennik, M H; van Overbeek, W; Smid, E J; Gorris, L G

    1999-03-01

    Two bacteriocinogenic strains of Pediococcus parvulus and one bacteriocinogenic Enterococcus mundtii strain were evaluated for their potential to control the growth of Listeria monocytogenes on refrigerated, modified atmosphere (MA) stored mungbean sprouts. These three strains, which were isolated from minimally-processed vegetables, were shown to grow in culture broth at 4, 8, 15 and 30 degrees C. However, only Ent. mundtii was capable of bacteriocin production at 4-8 degrees C. Examination of the growth of these strains on agar under 1.5% O2 in combination with 0, 5, 20 or 50% CO2 revealed significantly higher maximum specific growth rates for Ent. mundtii than for Pediococcus parvulus at CO2 concentrations below 20%, which are relevant for MA-storage of vegetables. Enterococcus mundtii was subsequently evaluated for its ability to control the growth of L. monocytogenes on vegetable agar and fresh mungbean sprouts under 1.5% O2/20% CO2/78.5% N2 at 8 degrees C. The growth of L. monocytogenes was inhibited by bacteriocinogenic Ent. mundtii on sterile vegetable-medium but not on fresh produce. However, mundticin, the bacteriocin produced by Ent. mundtii, was found to have potential as a biopreservative agent for MA-stored mungbean sprouts when used in a washing step or a coating procedure.

  15. Characterization of microbial population of breba and main crops (Ficus carica) during cold storage: Influence of passive modified atmospheres (MAP) and antimicrobial extract application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, María Del Carmen; Serradilla, Manuel Joaquín; Martín, Alberto; Hernández-León, Alejandro; Ruíz-Moyano, Santiago; Córdoba, María de Guía

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the changes of bacterial and fungal population of breba fruits such as 'Banane' and 'San Antonio' as well as 'Cuello Dama Negro', 'Cuello Dama Blanco' and 'San Antonio' fig cultivars stored in passive modified atmospheres (MAP) by the use of three different microperforated films (M10 with 16 holes; M30 with five holes and M50 with three holes). Moreover the effects of the application of aqueous soy polyphenolic antimicrobial extract (APE), alone or combined with MAP, were also studied for 'Cuello Dama Negro' and 'Cuello Dama Blanco' fig cultivars. Bacteria and fungi isolates were identified by PCR-RFLP of 16S rRNA and ITS regions, respectively, and subsequently sequence of the different patterns obtained. The results indicated that Pseudomonas gessardii, Pantoea agglomerans and Enterobacter asburiae were the main species of bacteria found in all the treatments studied. The fungal species identified were Aureobasidium pulullans, Cladosporium cladosporioides and Alternaria alternata, which were found in a lower percentage in fruit stored in MAP and fruits treated with antimicrobial extracts, as this treatments allowed to reduce the microbial growth of moulds and yeasts. Thus, the application of treatments such as M30, M50 or the combination of MAP with antimicrobial extract was highly effective to control fruit spoilage in fig and breba crops. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of the combined effect of the irradiation process and packaging in different atmospheres on microbiological and sensory quality of beef (Longissimus dorsi) fresh chilled and frozen; Avaliacao do efeito combinado do processo de irradiacao e da embalagem em diferentes atmosferas na qualidade microbiologica e sensorial de carne bovina (Longissimus dorsi) fresca refrigerada e congelada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Maria Luz Garcia

    2001-07-01

    Meat, a nutritious food, allows the development of a wide variety of microorganisms which not only spoils it but offers risk to public health. Irradiation with medium doses can be efficiently use to control the presence of microorganisms in meat. Depending upon the dose, irradiation of meat can lead to formation of off-flavours, off odours and discoloration of meat packed with oxygen. These problems can probably be overcome using vacuum package or freezing temperatures. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of irradiation, vacuum packaging and temperature on the meat quality. Forty beef pieces (approx. 100g each) were packed under normal atmosphere, 40 were vacuum packed and 40 under N{sub 2} atmosphere. Half of each group was kept overnight under refrigeration and half was frozen. Refrigerated samples were irradiated with 0, 1, 1.5 and 2 kGy. Frozen samples were irradiated with 0, 1, 2 and 3 kGy. Number of microorganisms was significantly reduced (p<0.05) by de process. The temperature effect on the radioresistance of all microorganisms was not observed. Brochothrix thermosphacta was present in numbers of 10{sup 3} CFU/g in control samples and remained the same during all study and was detected only in refrigerated irradiated samples. Lactic acid bacteria were less affected by irradiation. Bacterial spores were found in both control and irradiated samples in low numbers (1-67 spores/g). Salmonella sp. and Staphylococcus sp. were not detected. The best combination of treatments to extend the shelf-life of refrigerated meat was vacuum packaging and an irradiation dose of 2 kGy. Nitrogen did not improve the color of irradiated meat. Refrigerated irradiated aerobically packaged meat was darker and less red than control samples. Frozen irradiated aerobically packaged meat was less red and lightener. The effectiveness of food irradiation is based on good quality of raw product. (author)

  17. Impact of high oxygen and vacuum retail ready packaging formats on lamb loin and topside eating quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Damian Conrad; Geesink, Geert; Alvarenga, Tharcilla I R C; Polkinghorne, Rod; Stark, Janet; Lee, Michael; Warner, Robyn

    2017-01-01

    Lamb steaks from semimembranosus (SM) and longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) muscles were allocated to three different packaging treatments - Darfresh® vacuum skin packaging (VSP), Darfresh® Bloom packaging (80% O2:20% CO2; Hi-Ox-DB) or high oxygen modified atmosphere packaging (80% O2:20% CO2; Hi-Ox-MAP) - and stored in simulated retail display for 5 or 10days and then subjected to consumer sensory and chemical analyses. Hi-Ox-MAP and Hi-Ox-DB samples had lower tenderness, flavor, juiciness and overall liking scores and higher TBARS values, compared to VSP. Hi-Ox-MAP samples deteriorated in juiciness and flavor between 5 and 10days. Hi-Ox-MAP LTL samples had a lower myofibrillar fragmentation index, consistent with reduced proteolysis, although desmin proteolysis and desmin and troponin-T cross-linking were not influenced by packaging. The LTL exhibited greater desmin degradation and reduced desmin cross-linking relative to the SM, supporting the higher tenderness scores in this muscle. Direct packaging of lamb into retail ready VSP may provide the sheepmeat industry with greater flexibility while increasing consumer satisfaction.

  18. Effect of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil combined with different packaging conditions to extend the shelf life of refrigerated beef meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirocchi, Veronica; Devlieghere, Frank; Peelman, Nanou; Sagratini, Gianni; Maggi, Filippo; Vittori, Sauro; Ragaert, Peter

    2017-04-15

    Rosemary essential oil (REO) contains bioactives having antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. This work investigated the effect of REO combined with modified atmosphere packaging conditions (MAP), in our case, aerobic, vacuum or high O2, to extend the shelf life of beef. Beef slices were wrapped in special three-layer sheets of packaging material, some with a coating of REO (active packaging, AP), and some without REO (non active packaging, NAP), and stored at 4°C for 20days. The use of REO proved efficacious in every storage condition, as seen in the lower counts of psychrotrophics, Brochothrix thermosphacta, Pseudomonas spp., and Enterobacteriaceae in AP meat compared to NAP meat. Sensory and colourimetric analyses showed that the best packaging conditions were high-O2 atmosphere in combination with REO. Based on microbiological data, shelf life of beef was 5-6days for AP samples packaged under aerobic conditions and 14-15days for AP samples in high-O2 conditions.

  19. ANTILISTERIAL ACTYVITY OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM GILTHEAD BREAMS AND SEA BASSES FILLETS PACKAGED MAP AGAINST PRIMITIVE STRAINS OF LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES

    OpenAIRE

    M. Barile; A. Mormile; R Mercogliano; N. Murru

    2011-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is the causative agent of listeriosis typically caused by ready-to-eat processed food that have a refrigerated shelf-life, but lightly preserved fish products also belong to a high-risk category. Aim of the work was to evaluate antimicrobial activity linked bacteriocin-producing of LAB isolated from gilthead breams and sea basses fillets packaged in modified atmospheres. Fifty-five LAB strains were screened against 21 strains of Listeria monocytogenes, 1 Listeria innocu...

  20. Modeling of power spectral density of modified von Karman atmospheric phase turbulence and acousto-optic chaos using scattered intensity profiles over discrete time intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Monish R.; Mohamed, Fathi H. A.

    2014-10-01

    In recent research, propagation of plane electromagnetic (EM) waves through a turbulent medium with modified von Karman phase characteristics was modeled and numerically simulated using transverse planar apertures representing narrow phase turbulence along the propagation path. The case for extended turbulence was also studied by repeating the planar phase screens multiple times over the propagation path and incorporating diffractive effects via a split-step algorithm. The goal of the research reported here is to examine two random phenomena: (a) atmospheric turbulence due to von Karman-type phase fluctuations, and (b) chaos generated in an acousto-optic (A-O) Bragg cell under hybrid feedback. The latter problem has been thoroughly examined for its nonlinear dynamics and applications in secure communications. However, the statistical characteristics (such as the power spectral density (PSD)) of the chaos have not been estimated in recent work. To that end, treating the chaos phenomena as a random process, the time waveforms of the chaos intensity and their spectra are numerically evaluated over a (large) number of time iterations. These spectra are then averaged to derive the equivalent PSD of the A-O chaos. For the turbulence problem, an optical beam passing through an input pinhole is propagated through a random phase screen (placed at different locations) to a desired distance (typically near-field) under different levels of turbulence strength. The resulting spatial intensity profile is then averaged and the process repeated over a (large) number of pre-specified time intervals. From this data, once again, the turbulence PSD is calculated via the Fourier spectra of the average intensity snapshots. The results for the two systems are compared.

  1. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-06-13

    This procedure provides instructions for assembling the CH Packaging Drum payload assembly, Standard Waste Box (SWB) assembly, Abnormal Operations and ICV and OCV Preshipment Leakage Rate Tests on the packaging seals, using a nondestructive Helium (He) Leak Test.

  2. Dual Use Packaging Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA seeks down-weighted packaging compatible with microwave preparation and perhaps high hydrostatic pressure processing. New packaging must satisfy NASA's 3-year...

  3. Merganser Download Package

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data download package contains an Esri 10.0 MXD, file geodatabase and copy of this FGDC metadata record. The data in this package are used in support of the...

  4. Comparative Packaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, Michele; Antonini, David

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes a comparative packaging study for use on long duration space missions. The topics include: 1) Purpose; 2) Deliverables; 3) Food Sample Selection; 4) Experimental Design Matrix; 5) Permeation Rate Comparison; and 6) Packaging Material Information.

  5. Materials for advanced packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, CP

    2008-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in advanced packaging in recent years. Several new packaging techniques have been developed and new packaging materials have been introduced. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the recent developments in this industry, particularly in the areas of microelectronics, optoelectronics, digital health, and bio-medical applications. The book discusses established techniques, as well as emerging technologies, in order to provide readers with the most up-to-date developments in advanced packaging.

  6. Packaging Printing Today

    OpenAIRE

    Bolanča, Stanislav; Majnarić, Igor; Golubović, Kristijan

    2015-01-01

    Printing packaging covers today about 50% of all the printing products. Among the printing products there are printing on labels, printing on flexible packaging, printing on folding boxes, printing on the boxes of corrugated board, printing on glass packaging, synthetic and metal ones. The mentioned packaging are printed in flexo printing technique, offset printing technique, intaglio halftone process, silk – screen printing, ink ball printing, digital printing and hybrid print...

  7. ATLAS software packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybkin, Grigory

    2012-12-01

    Software packaging is indispensable part of build and prerequisite for deployment processes. Full ATLAS software stack consists of TDAQ, HLT, and Offline software. These software groups depend on some 80 external software packages. We present tools, package PackDist, developed and used to package all this software except for TDAQ project. PackDist is based on and driven by CMT, ATLAS software configuration and build tool, and consists of shell and Python scripts. The packaging unit used is CMT project. Each CMT project is packaged as several packages—platform dependent (one per platform available), source code excluding header files, other platform independent files, documentation, and debug information packages (the last two being built optionally). Packaging can be done recursively to package all the dependencies. The whole set of packages for one software release, distribution kit, also includes configuration packages and contains some 120 packages for one platform. Also packaged are physics analysis projects (currently 6) used by particular physics groups on top of the full release. The tools provide an installation test for the full distribution kit. Packaging is done in two formats for use with the Pacman and RPM package managers. The tools are functional on the platforms supported by ATLAS—GNU/Linux and Mac OS X. The packaged software is used for software deployment on all ATLAS computing resources from the detector and trigger computing farms, collaboration laboratories computing centres, grid sites, to physicist laptops, and CERN VMFS and covers the use cases of running all applications as well as of software development.

  8. Central heating: package boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahan, E.

    1977-05-01

    Performance and cost data for electrical and fossil-fired package boilers currently available from manufacturers are provided. Performance characteristics investigated include: unit efficiency, rated capacity, and average expected lifetime of units. Costs are tabulated for equipment and installation of various package boilers. The information supplied in this report will simplify the process of selecting package boilers required for industrial, commercial, and residential applications.

  9. Active Packaging Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis J. Bastarrachea

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Active food packaging involves the packaging of foods with materials that provide an enhanced functionality, such as antimicrobial, antioxidant or biocatalytic functions. This can be achieved through the incorporation of active compounds into the matrix of the commonly used packaging materials, or by the application of coatings with the corresponding functionality through surface modification. The latter option offers the advantage of preserving the packaging materials’ bulk properties nearly intact. Herein, different coating technologies like embedding for controlled release, immobilization, layer-by-layer deposition, and photografting are explained and their potential application for active food packaging is explored and discussed.

  10. Edible packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjarasskul, Theeranun; Krochta, John M

    2010-01-01

    Research groups and the food and pharmaceutical industries recognize edible packaging as a useful alternative or addition to conventional packaging to reduce waste and to create novel applications for improving product stability, quality, safety, variety, and convenience for consumers. Recent studies have explored the ability of biopolymer-based food packaging materials to carry and control-release active compounds. As diverse edible packaging materials derived from various by-products or waste from food industry are being developed, the dry thermoplastic process is advancing rapidly as a feasible commercial edible packaging manufacturing process. The employment of nanocomposite concepts to edible packaging materials promises to improve barrier and mechanical properties and facilitate effective incorporation of bioactive ingredients and other designed functions. In addition to the need for a more fundamental understanding to enable design to desired specifications, edible packaging has to overcome challenges such as regulatory requirements, consumer acceptance, and scaling-up research concepts to commercial applications.

  11. Resilience Indicator Summaries and Resilience Scores CNMI Layer Package

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — ArcGIS layer package of relative classifications (low to high) for six resilience indicators and two anthropogenic stressors and a map of final relative resilience...

  12. Caracterização pós-colheita de mamão armazenado em atmosfera modificada Postharvest characterization of stored papaya in modified atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz F. G. Oliveira Jr.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Através deste trabalho objetivou-se avaliar a vida pós-colheita de mamão, estudando-se o efeito da atmosfera modificada e absorvedor de etileno na qualidade dos frutos em três diferentes formas de armazenamento: frutos com embalagem de polietileno de baixa densidade (PEBD e com absorvedor de etileno (CECA, frutos com embalagem de PEBD e sem absorvedor de etileno (CESA e controle com frutos sem embalagem de PEBD e sem absorvedor de etileno (SE. Durante o período de armazenamento e a cada três dias, realizaram-se as seguintes análises: sólidos solúveis totais (SST, acidez titulável (AT, a razão entre SST e AT, firmeza da polpa (F e análise sensorial, na qual foi avaliada a aceitação do produto para os atributos aroma, sabor, textura, cor da polpa e aparência. Os resultados obtidos mostraram, quanto à aceitabilidade, que os tratamentos diferiram entre si e também ao longo do período de armazenamento; para se armazenar mamões da cultivar Golden, a temperatura ambiente, é importante à utilização de embalagem de PEBD associada ao absorvedor de etileno, cujo efeito favoreceu a obtenção de frutos de qualidade, mantendo suas características físicas, químicas e sensoriais.This work aimed to evaluate the postharvest quality of papaya, studyng the effects of modified atmosphere and of ethylene absorbers on fruit quality with three different modes of storage: fruits covered with film of PEBD and ethylene absorbers (CECA, fruits covered with film of PEBD without addition of ethylene absorbers (CESA and, the control without film of PEBD and without addition of ethylene absorbers (SE. The following analyses were accomplished every 3 days during storage period: total soluble solid (TSS, titratable acidity (TA, the ratio between TSS and TA, pulp firmness and sensory analysis to evaluate the product approval according to attributes like aroma, taste, texture, color pulp and aspect. The obtained results showed differences in treatments

  13. Folhas de alface lisa (Lactuca sativa minimamente processadas armazenadas em atmosfera modificada: análises físicas, químicas e físico-químicas Minimally processed smooth lettuce leaves (Lactuca sativa stored at modified atmosphere: physica, chemical and physico-chemical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen M S Menezes

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Alfaces (Lactuca sativa cv. lisa, após seleção e pré-lavagem, foram lavadas com água clorada a 5ºC contendo 150ppm de cloro residual livre e pH ajustado para 6.0, enxagüadas e centrifugadas por 8 minutos a 2200rpm. Em seguida, foram acondicionadas em embalagens plásticas de nylon poli 5 camadas, sem e com atmosfera modificada (N2 contendo 20ppm de O2 e no máximo 20ppm umidade e estocadas a 4ºC. Durante 5 dias foram realizadas mensurações de pH, concentração de sólidos solúveis (graus Brix e análises de acidez (mL NaOH 0,1M/100g folhas de alface. Os produtos sofreram acidificação detectável pela diminuição do pH em ambas as atmosferas. O incremento da acidez foi mostrado, sendo os registros maiores para as amostras controle (sem atmosfera modificada, e não ocorreram variações de graus Brix. Os resultados fizeram concluir que avanços tecnológicos vêm sendo alcançados visando melhorar a qualidade e vida-de-prateleira do vegetal.Lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv. smooth, after being selected and washed, was cleaned with chlorine water at 5ºC, with 150ppm of free chlorine and pH adjusted to 6.0, rinsed and centrifuged for 8 minutes at 2200rpm. Right after, the lettuce leaves were packaged in plastic bags made of nylon poli 5 layers, with and without modified atmosphere (N2 having 20ppm of O2 and 20ppm of maximum moisture and stored at 4ºC. During 5 days there were pH, soluble solids concentration measurements and acid analysis (mL NaOH 0,1M/100g lettuce leaves. The products became acid, detectable by a pH decrease in both atmospheres. A raise in acidity was shown, being the highest marks for the control samples (without modified atmosphere and there was no soluble solids variation. Results have shown that technological progress is being reached aiming to improve the vegetable's quality and shelf life.

  14. Nitrogen atmosphere and natural antioxidants effect on muesli oxidation during long-time storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Klensporf-Pawlik

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of natural antioxidants from raspberry and black currant seeds and modified atmosphere packaging on muesli oxidative stability measured by monitoring volatile lipid oxidation products were evaluated. The effectiveness toward lipid oxidation was investigated during 10 months storage at ambient temperature. Both ethanolic extracts as well as nitrogen atmosphere influenced lipid oxidation rate in muesli measured by volatile compounds content. The most abundant lipid derived volatile compounds was hexanal. After storage, its concentration changed from 802 µg/kg to 9.8 mg/kg in muesli stored in air atmosphere, whereas in muesli stored in nitrogen atmosphere with raspberry seed extract addition it raised to 3.1 mg/kg. Although, both natural antioxidants rich in phenolic compounds, were effective towards lipid oxidation, the strongest inhibiting effect had modified atmosphere packaging. The addition of ethanolic extracts did not fortify its positive effect. Total concentration of volatile compounds in muesli after 10 months of storage was 19.6 mg/kg when stored in air and 13.7 and 11.8 mg/kg when stored with raspberry and black currant seeds extract addition respectively, while 9.8 mg/kg when stored in nitrogen atmosphere without antioxidants, and 9.7 and 9.9 mg/kg when stored with antioxidants mentioned above.

  15. Plasmids and packaging cell lines for use in phage display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Andrew M.

    2012-07-24

    The invention relates to a novel phagemid display system for packaging phagemid DNA into phagemid particles which completely avoids the use of helper phage. The system of the invention incorporates the use of bacterial packaging cell lines which have been transformed with helper plasmids containing all required phage proteins but not the packaging signals. The absence of packaging signals in these helper plasmids prevents their DNA from being packaged in the bacterial cell, which provides a number of significant advantages over the use of both standard and modified helper phage. Packaged phagemids expressing a protein or peptide of interest, in fusion with a phage coat protein such as g3p, are generated simply by transfecting phagemid into the packaging cell line.

  16. Development of bioactive food packaging materials using immobilised bacteriocins lacticin 3147 and nisaplin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scannell, A G; Hill, C; Ross, R P; Marx, S; Hartmeier, W; Elke; Arendt, K

    2000-09-25

    Immobilisation of the bacteriocins nisin and lacticin 3147 to packaging materials was investigated. Stability of both cellulose-based bioactive inserts and anti-microbial polyethylene/polyamide pouches was examined over time. Anti-microbial activity against the indicator strain Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis HP, in addition to Listeria innocua DPC 1770 and Staphylococcus aureus MMPR3 was observed for all bacteriocin-adsorbed materials. Activity retention of the inserts showed an initial decrease in the first week of storage but remained stable for the remaining 3 months of the trial. However, adsorption of lacticin 3147 to plastic film was unsuccessful, nisin bound well and the resulting film maintained its activity for 3-month period, both at room temperature and under refrigeration. When applied to food systems, the anti-microbial packaging reduced the population of lactic acid bacteria in sliced cheese and ham stored in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) at refrigeration temperatures, thus extending the shelf life. Nisin-adsorbed bioactive inserts reduced levels of Listeria innocua by > or = 2 log units in both products, and Staphylococcus aureus by approximately 1.5 log units in cheese, and approximately 2.8 log units in ham. Similar reductions were observed in cheese vacuum-packaged in nisin-adsorbed pouches.

  17. Armazenamento refrigerado de caquis 'Fuyu', sob atmosfera modificada com adsorção de etileno Cold storage of 'Fuyu' persimmons, under modified atmosphere with ethylene's adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Camargo Neves

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, avaliou-se a influência da embalagem de PEBD e da adsorção de etileno, em caquis 'Fuyu', na manutenção da qualidade comercial e na vida útil pós-colheita dos frutos, em 2 safras experimentais (1999-2000 e 2000-2001. Os frutos foram colhidos no estádio de maturação amarelo-alaranjado, na empresa KIWIS'TRIN Ltda - Farroupilha-RS, limpos, selecionados, pré-resfriados e acondicionados em embalagens de PEBD, com ou sem a adsorção de etileno. Na safra de 1999-2000, os frutos foram armazenados a granel, em embalagens de PEBD de 22 µm, com capacidade para 12 e 40 frutos, e de 33 µm, com capacidade para 12 frutos, sendo que metade das embalagens possuía o sachê adsorvedor. No laboratório de Biotecnologia de Alimentos, da UFPel/DCTA, foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis: Firmeza de polpa, sólidos solúveis totais (SST e acidez total titulável (ATT. Verificou-se que os frutos embalados em PEBD de 22 µm, com capacidade para 12 frutos, com e sem o sachê de adsorção, apresentaram maior firmeza de polpa, menores teores de sólidos solúveis totais e maiores níveis de acidez total titulável, sugerindo atraso na maturação. Na safra de 2000-2001, foram testados o armazenamento a granel e o armazenamento em embalagens de PEBD de 22 µm, com capacidade para 12; 18 e 24 frutos, com e sem a utilização de sachê. Observou-se que os frutos acondicionados nas embalagens de 22 µm de espessura para 12 frutos, com o sistema de adsorção de etileno, apresentaram maturação mais lenta, com excelente manutenção da qualidade organoléptica.It was tested the utilization of low-density polyethylene (LDPE packages and the use of ethylene adsorber, of persimmons cv. 'Fuyu', with the objective of improving commercial quality and the shelf-life of the fruits, in 2 experimental seasons (1999/2000 e 2000/2001. The fruits were harvested at the yellow-orange ripening stage in the company KIWIS'TRIN Ltda, in Farroupilha

  18. Development of antimicrobial films for microbiological control of packaged salad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muriel-Galet, Virginia; Cerisuelo, Josep P; López-Carballo, Gracia; Lara, Marta; Gavara, Rafael; Hernández-Muñoz, Pilar

    2012-07-02

    The aim of the present work was to characterize the antimicrobial efficiency of films consisting of PP/EVOH structures with oregano essential oil and citral. Both substances are known for their antimicrobial activity based on their interaction with the cell membrane. The films developed were used to pack minimally processed salads, combining modified atmosphere technology to extend shelf-life and active packaging technology to reduce possible microbiological risks. The antimicrobial activity of the films against the pathogenic microorganisms Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes and natural microflora was investigated "in vitro" and also on the food itself. The effect of release of the antimicrobial agent on the sensory characteristics of the salad was also studied. The results showed that antimicrobial activity reduced spoilage flora on the salad as well as inhibited the growth of pathogens in contaminated salads. This effect was greater against Gram-negative bacteria. Sensory studies showed that the package that was most effective and most accepted by customers was the one containing 5% oregano essential oil.

  19. Packaging for Sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Helen; Fitzpatrick, Leanne

    2012-01-01

    The packaging industry is under pressure from regulators, customers and other stakeholders to improve packaging’s sustainability by reducing its environmental and societal impacts. This is a considerable challenge because of the complex interactions between products and their packaging, and the many roles that packaging plays in the supply chain. Packaging for Sustainability is a concise and readable handbook for practitioners who are trying to implement sustainability strategies for packaging. Industry case studies are used throughout the book to illustrate possible applications and scenarios. Packaging for Sustainability draws on the expertise of researchers and industry practitioners to provide information on business benefits, environmental issues and priorities, environmental evaluation tools, design for environment, marketing strategies, and challenges for the future.

  20. CFD modeling to improve safe and efficient distribution of chlorine dioxide gas for packaging fresh produce

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficiency of the packaging system in inactivating food borne pathogens and prolonging the shelf life of fresh-cut produce is influenced by the design of the package apart from material and atmospheric conditions. Three different designs were considered to determine a specific package design ens...

  1. Grooming. Learning Activity Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Pamela

    This learning activity package on grooming for health workers is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics are…

  2. Packaging issues: avoiding delamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, R

    2005-10-01

    Manufacturers can minimise delamination occurrence by applying the appropriate packaging design and process features. The end user can minimise the impact of fibre tear and reduce subsequent delamination by careful package opening. The occasional inconvenient delamination is a small price to pay for the high level of sterility assurance that comes with the use of Tyvek.

  3. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.C. Weddle; R. Novotny; J. Cron

    1998-09-23

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''.

  4. CYPROS - Cybernetic Program Packages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Tyssø

    1980-10-01

    Full Text Available CYPROS is an interactive program system consisting of a number of special purpose packages for simulation, identification, parameter estimation and control system design. The programming language is standard FORTRAN IV and the system is implemented on a medium size computer system (Nord-10. The system is interactive and program control is obtained by the use of numeric terminals. Output is rapidly examined by extensive use of video colour graphics. The subroutines included in the packages are designed and documented according to standardization rules given by the SCL (Scandinavian Control Library organization. This simplifies the exchange of subroutines throughout the SCL system. Also, this makes the packages attractive for implementation by industrial users. In the simulation package, different integration methods are available and it can be easily used for off-line, as well as real time, simulation problems. The identification package consists of programs for single-input/single-output and multivariablc problems. Both transfer function models and state space models can be handled. Optimal test signals can be designed. The control package consists of programs based on multivariable time domain and frequency domain methods for analysis and design. In addition, there is a package for matrix and time series manipulation. CYPROS has been applied successfully to industrial problems of various kinds, and parts of the system have already been implemented on different computers in industry. This paper will, in some detail, describe the use and the contents of the packages and some examples of application will be discussed.

  5. User friendly packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    Most consumers have experienced occasional problems with opening packaging. Tomato sauce from the tinned mackerel splattered all over the kitchen counter, the unrelenting pickle jar lid, and the package of sliced ham that cannot be opened without a knife or a pair of scissors. The research project...

  6. Effect of different film packaging on microbial growth in minimally processed cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, A; Mangia, N P; Fadda, A; Barberis, A; Schirra, M; D'Aquino, S

    2013-01-01

    Microorganisms are natural contaminants of fresh produce and minimally processed products, and contamination arises from a number of sources, including the environment, postharvest handling and processing. Fresh-cut products are particularly susceptible to microbial contaminations because of the changes occurring in the tissues during processing. In package gas composition of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) in combination with low storage temperatures besides reducing physiological activity of packaged produce, can also delay pathogen growth. Present study investigated on the effect of MAPs, achieved with different plastic films, on microbial growth of minimally processed cactus pear (Opuntio ficus-indica) fruit. Five different plastic materials were used for packaging the manually peeled fruit. That is: a) polypropylene film (Termoplast MY 40 micron thickness, O2 transmission rate 300 cc/m2/24h); b) polyethylene film (Bolphane BHE, 11 micron thickness, O2 transmission rate 19000 cc/m2/24h); c) polypropylene laser-perforated films (Mach Packaging) with 8, 16 or 32 100-micron holes. Total aerobic psychrophilic, mesophilic microorganisms, Enterobacteriaceae, yeast, mould populations and in-package CO2, O2 and C2H4 were determined at each storage time. Different final gas compositions, ranging from 7.8 KPa to 17.1 KPa O2, and 12.7 KPa to 2.6 KPa CO2, were achieved with MY and micro perforated films, respectively. Differences were detected in the mesophilic, Enterobacteriaceae and yeast loads, while no difference was detected in psychrophilic microorganisms. At the end of storage, microbial load in fruits sealed with MY film was significantly lower than in those sealed with BHE and micro perforated films. Furthermore, fruits packed with micro-perforated films showed the highest microbial load. This occurrence may in part be related to in-package gas composition and in part to a continuous contamination of microorganisms through micro-holes.

  7. Advanced flip chip packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, Yi-Shao; Wong, CP

    2013-01-01

    Advanced Flip Chip Packaging presents past, present and future advances and trends in areas such as substrate technology, material development, and assembly processes. Flip chip packaging is now in widespread use in computing, communications, consumer and automotive electronics, and the demand for flip chip technology is continuing to grow in order to meet the need for products that offer better performance, are smaller, and are environmentally sustainable. This book also: Offers broad-ranging chapters with a focus on IC-package-system integration Provides viewpoints from leading industry executives and experts Details state-of-the-art achievements in process technologies and scientific research Presents a clear development history and touches on trends in the industry while also discussing up-to-date technology information Advanced Flip Chip Packaging is an ideal book for engineers, researchers, and graduate students interested in the field of flip chip packaging.

  8. Associação de atmosfera modificada e antioxidantes reduz o escurecimento de batatas 'Ágata' minimamente processadas Association of modified atmospheres and antioxidants reduce browning of minimally processed potatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia L.O. Pineli

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O escurecimento enzimático da batata minimamente processada reduz o valor comercial do produto. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar alterações químicas e físicas em batatas 'Ágata' minimamente processadas embaladas sob atmosfera modificada em associação com antioxidantes. Batatas 'Ágata' foram minimamente processadas como mini batatas e tratadas por imersão em soluções antioxidantes de ácido cítrico a 2%, ácido eritórbico a 3%, combinação de ácido cítrico a 2% e ácido eritórbico a 3%, e combinação de ácido cítrico a 3% e ácido eritórbico a 5% embaladas em filmes de nylon multicamadas. Os três primeiros tratamentos foram embalados sob atmosfera modificada passiva enquanto no último tratamento aplicou-se atmosfera modificada ativa com 10% CO2, 2% O2, 88% N2. Observou-se que o tratamento com aplicação de antioxidantes em associação com atmosfera modificada ativa apresentou índice de escurecimento 24% menor e atividade enzimática da PPO e da POD 92% e 73% menor, respectivamente, que a média dos demais tratamentos no nono dia de observação. Houve elevação nos teores de vitamina C total, observado principalmente em tratamentos que utilizaram ácido eritrórbico. Observou-se uma correlação entre a degradação do amido e o aumento nos teores de açúcares solúveis totais e da vitamina C total em alguns tratamentos. O tratamento com aplicação de antioxidantes em associação com atmosfera modificada ativa foi o mais efetivo na manutenção dos atributos de qualidade de batatas minimamente processadas.Enzymatic browning of minimally processed potatoes reduces the final price of the product. The present work was carried out aiming to evaluate chemical and physical characteristics in fresh-cut 'Ágata' potatoes stored under modified atmospheres and treated with antioxidants. Potatoes 'Ágata' were minimally processed as baby potatoes and treated with antioxidants solutions as follows: citric acid (2

  9. Avaliação da qualidade do abacaxi "Pérola" minimamente processado armazenado sob atmosfera modificada Evaluation of quality in fresh-cut 'Pérola' pineapple stored under modified atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Costa Bueno Santos

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho verificar o efeito da atmosfera modificada ativa sobre a qualidade do abacaxi minimamente processado. Assim, foram avaliadas as modificações físico-químicas, sensorial e microbiológica do abacaxi 'Pérola' minimamente processado submetido a diferentes atmosferas modificadas passiva e ativamente (controle - atmosfera modificada passiva; 5%O2 + 5%CO2 , 2%O2 + 10%CO2. A atmosfera com 2% O2 + 10% CO2 determinou menor perda de líquido drenado, embora tal perda tenha sido desprezível. A atmosfera modificada ativa preveniu o amaciamento do abacaxi minimamente processado, reduzindo a atividade da poligalacturonase e solubilização péctica. As variáveis pH e vitamina C não foram significativamente afetadas pela atmosfera modificada ativa. Maiores valores de sólidos solúveis totais (SST foram encontrados nos frutos sob atmosfera 5% O2 + 5% CO2 e no caso dos açúcares solúveis o tratamento com 2% O2 + 10% CO2 resultou em maiores teores. De acordo com análise sensorial, os frutos sob atmosfera modificada passiva se sobressaíram com relação ao sabor, aparência e cor. A análise microbiológica detectou valores insignificantes para fungos filamentosos, leveduras e coliformes a 35° e 45°C em todos os tratamentos. Conclui-se que o abacaxi 'Pérola' minimamente processado pode ser armazenado por 8 dias, a 5°C, sob atmosfera modificada passiva.The goal of this work was to verify the effect of active modified atmosphere on the quality of fresh-cut pineapple. Physical-chemical, sensory and microbiological changes of fresh-cut 'Pérola' pineapple treated with passive (control and active (5%O2 + 5%CO2; 2%O2 + 10%CO2 modified atmosphere were studied. The 2%O2 + 10%CO2 combination promoted the lowest loss of drained liquid, although they were negligible. Active modified atmosphere prevented the softening of fresh cut pineapples, reducing the poligalacturonase activity and pectin solubilization. The pH and ascorbic

  10. Validade comercial de filés de Tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus resfriados embalados em atmosfera modificada e irradiados Shelf life of refrigerated tilapia fillets (Oreochromis niloticus packed in modified atmosphere and irradiated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lúcia Guerra Monteiro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar os efeitos dos processos de irradiação (com dose de 1,5kGy e embalagem em atmosfera modificada (60% N2 e 40% CO2, aplicados isoladamente ou combinados, na extensão da validade comercial de filés de Tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus resfriados. Nos experimentos, foram utilizados 120 filés separados em lotes, de acordo com o tratamento: (T1 embalagem em ar (controle, (T2 embalagem em atmosfera modificada, (T3 embalagem em ar e irradiação, (T4 embalagem em atmosfera modificada e irradiação. Foram realizadas análises físico-químicas (BVT, TMA, pH, amônia e TBARS, bacteriológicas (contagem de bactérias heterotróficas, aeróbias, mesófilas e psicrotróficas e avaliação sensorial. Os resultados consistentemente indicaram uma redução progressiva da qualidade do produto com o tempo de armazenamento, a qual foi significativamente mais rápida nas amostras controle do que naquelas submetidas aos demais tratamentos, tendo sido observada uma extensão na validade comercial dos filés embalados em atmosfera modificada e/ou irradiados de 4 dias para aproximadamente duas semanas.This paper investigated the effects of modified atmosphere packing (60% N2 and 40% CO2 and irradiation (with a 1.5kGy dose either used alone or combined on the shelf life of fillets of refrigerated Nile Tilapia. A total of 120 fillets were used in the experiments in order to test four different treatments and included samples: packed in air (control, packed in modified atmosphere, packed in air and irradiated, and finally, packed in modified atmosphere and irradiated. Regular monitoring of physicochemical parameters (TVB, pH, ammonia and TBARS, bacteriological conditions (heterotrophic aerobic mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria and sensory acceptance were performed. The results consistently indicated an increasing deterioration of the fillets with time, however those treated with irradiation, modified atmosphere or

  11. Packaging Concerns/Techniques for Large Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews packaging challenges and options for electronic parts. The presentation includes information about non-hermetic packages, space challenges for packaging and complex package variations.

  12. PROSPECTS OF POLYMER PACKAGING MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Sedykh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main types of materials used in the manufacture of packaging. Analyzed trends in further development of packaging materials. Shows how to improve the quality of plastic packaging materials in today's market.

  13. Consumer response to packaging design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, Nigel D.; Herpen, van Erica; Lans, van der Ivo A.; Ligthart, Tom N.; Trijp, van Hans C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Building on theories of cue utilization, this paper investigates whether and how packaging sustainability influences consumer perceptions, inferences and attitudes towards packaged products. A framework is tested in an empirical study among 249 students using soup products varying in packaging

  14. Changes in the spoilage-related microbiota of beef during refrigerated storage under different packaging conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercolini, Danilo; Russo, Federica; Torrieri, Elena; Masi, Paolo; Villani, Francesco

    2006-07-01

    The microbial spoilage of beef was monitored during storage at 5 degrees C under three different conditions of modified-atmosphere packaging (MAP): (i) air (MAP1), (ii) 60% O2 and 40% CO2 (MAP2), and (iii) 20% O2 and 40% CO2 (MAP3). Pseudomonas, Enterobacteriaceae, Brochothrix thermosphacta, and lactic acid bacteria were monitored by viable counts and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis during 14 days of storage. Moreover, headspace gas composition, weight loss, and beef color change were also determined at each sampling time. Overall, MAP2 was shown to have the best protective effect, keeping the microbial loads and color change to acceptable levels in the first 7 days of refrigerated storage. The microbial colonies from the plate counts of each microbial group were identified by PCR-DGGE of the variable V6-V8 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Thirteen different genera and at least 17 different species were identified after sequencing of DGGE fragments that showed a wide diversity of spoilage-related bacteria taking turns during beef storage in the function of the packaging conditions. The countable species for each spoilage-related microbial group were different according to packaging conditions and times of storage. In fact, the DGGE profiles displayed significant changes during time and depending on the initial atmosphere used. The spoilage occurred between 7 and 14 days of storage, and the microbial species found in the spoiled meat varied according to the packaging conditions. Rahnella aquatilis, Rahnella spp., Pseudomonas spp., and Carnobacterium divergens were identified as acting during beef storage in air (MAP1). Pseudomonas spp. and Lactobacillus sakei were found in beef stored under MAP conditions with high oxygen content (MAP2), while Rahnella spp. and L. sakei were the main species found during storage using MAP3. The identification of the spoilage-related microbiota by molecular methods can help in the effective establishment of

  15. Packaging Printing Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Bolanča

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Printing packaging covers today about 50% of all the printing products. Among the printing products there are printing on labels, printing on flexible packaging, printing on folding boxes, printing on the boxes of corrugated board, printing on glass packaging, synthetic and metal ones. The mentioned packaging are printed in flexo printing technique, offset printing technique, intaglio halftone process, silk – screen printing, ink ball printing, digital printing and hybrid printing process. The possibilities of particular printing techniques for optimal production of the determined packaging were studied in the paper. The problem was viewed from the technological and economical aspect. The possible printing quality and the time necessary for the printing realization were taken as key parameters. An important segment of the production and the way of life is alocation value and it had also found its place in this paper. The events in the field of packaging printing in the whole world were analyzed. The trends of technique developments and the printing technology for packaging printing in near future were also discussed.

  16. Evaluation of the role of Carnobacterium piscicola in spoilage of vacuum- and modified-atmosphere-packed cold-smoked salmon stored at 5 degrees C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paludan-Müller, Christine; Dalgaard, Paw; Huss, Hans Henrik;

    1998-01-01

    -packed salmon was dominated by a Vibrio sp., resembling V. marinus, Enterobacteriaceae (Enterobacter agglomerans, Serratia liquefaciens and Rahnella aquatilis) and occasionally Aeromonas hydrophila. Irrespective of the addition of nisin and/or CO2- atmosphere, the LAB microflora was dominated by Carnobacterium...

  17. Hermeticity of electronic packages

    CERN Document Server

    Greenhouse, Hal; Romenesco, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    This is a book about the integrity of sealed packages to resist foreign gases and liquids penetrating the seal or an opening (crack) in the packageùespecially critical to the reliability and longevity of electronics. The author explains how to predict the reliability and the longevity of the packages based on leak rate measurements and the assumptions of impurities. Non-specialists in particular will benefit from the author's long involvement in the technology. Hermeticity is a subject that demands practical experience, and solving one problem does not necessarily give one the background to so

  18. Optoelectronic packaging: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carson, R.F.

    1993-09-01

    Optoelectronics and photonics hold great potential for high data-rate communication and computing. Wide using in computing applications was limited first by device technologies and now suffers due to the need for high-precision, mass-produced packaging. The use of phontons as a medium of communication and control implies a unique set of packaging constraints that was not present in traditional telecommunications applications. The state-of-the-art in optoelectronic packaging is now driven by microelectric techniques that have potential for low cost and high volume manufacturing.

  19. Hermeticity of electronic packages

    CERN Document Server

    Greenhouse, Hal

    2000-01-01

    This is a book about the integrity of sealed packages to resist foreign gases and liquids penetrating the seal or an opening (crack) in the package-especially critical to the reliability and longevity of electronics. The author explains how to predict the reliability and the longevity of the packages based on leak rate measurements and the assumptions of impurities. Non-specialists in particular will benefit from the author's long involvement in the technology. Hermeticity is a subject that demands practical experience, and solving one problem does not necessarily give one the background to so

  20. Recent innovations in edible and/or biodegradable packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbert, S; Cuq, B; Gontard, N

    1997-01-01

    Certain newly discovered characteristics of natural biopolymers should make them a choice material to be used for different types of wrappings and films. Edible and/or biodegradable packagings produced from agricultural origin macromolecules provide a supplementary and sometimes essential means to control physiological, microbiological, and physicochemical changes in food products. This is accomplished (i) by controlling mass transfers between food product and ambient atmosphere or between components in heterogeneous food product, and (iii) by modifying and controlling food surface conditions (pH, level of specific functional agents, slow release of flavour compounds), it should be stressed that the material characteristics (polysaccharide, protein, or lipid, plasticized or not, chemically modified or not, used alone or in combination) and the fabrication procedures (casting of a film-forming solution, thermoforming) must be adapted to each specific food product and usage condition (relative humidity, temperature). Some potential uses of these materials (e.g. wrapping of various fabricated foods; protection of fruits and vegetables by control of maturation; protection of meat and fish; control of internal moisture transfer in pizzas), which are hinged on film properties (e.g. organoleptic, mechanical, gas and solute barrier) are described with examples.

  1. THERMAL UPGRADING OF 9977 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL (RAM) TYPE B PACKAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, N.; Abramczyk, G.

    2012-03-26

    The 9977 package is a radioactive material package that was originally certified to ship Heat Sources and RTG contents up to 19 watts and it is now being reviewed to significantly expand its contents in support of additional DOE missions. Thermal upgrading will be accomplished by employing stacked 3013 containers, a 3013 aluminum spacer and an external aluminum sleeve for enhanced heat transfer. The 7th Addendum to the original 9977 package Safety Basis Report describing these modifications is under review for the DOE certification. The analyses described in this paper show that this well-designed and conservatively analyzed package can be upgraded to carry contents with decay heat up to 38 watts with some simple design modifications. The Model 9977 package has been designed as a replacement for the Department of Transportation (DOT) Fissile Specification 6M package. The 9977 package is a very versatile Type B package which is certified to transport and store a wide spectrum of radioactive materials. The package was analyzed quite conservatively to increase its usefulness and store different payload configurations. Its versatility is evident from several daughter packages such as the 9978 and H1700, and several addendums where the payloads have been modified to suit the Shipper's needs without additional testing.

  2. Dual Use Packaging Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA calculation that over a kg of packaging waste are generated per day for a 6 member crew. This represents over 1.5 metric tons of waste during a Mars mission....

  3. Materials for advanced packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, CP

    2017-01-01

    This second edition continues to be the most comprehensive review on the developments in advanced electronic packaging technologies, with a focus on materials and processing. Recognized experts in the field contribute to 22 updated and new chapters that provide comprehensive coverage on various 3D package architectures, novel bonding and joining techniques, wire bonding, wafer thinning techniques, organic substrates, and novel approaches to make electrical interconnects between integrated circuit and substrates. Various chapters also address advances in several key packaging materials, including: Lead-free solders Flip chip underfills Epoxy molding compounds Conductive adhesives Die attach adhesives/films Thermal interface materials (TIMS) Materials for fabricating embedded passives including capacitors, inductors, and resistors Materials and processing aspects on wafer-level chip scale package (CSP) and MicroElectroMechanical system (MEMS) Contributors also review new and emerging technologies such as Light ...

  4. FLEXIBLE FOOD PACKAGING LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains equipment to fabricate and test prototype packages of many types and sizes (e.g., bags, pouches, trays, cartons, etc.). This equipment can...

  5. London 2012 packaging guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    These guidelines are intended to provide supplemental advice to suppliers and licensees regarding the provisions of the LOCOG Sustainable Sourcing Code that relate to packaging design and materials selection.

  6. Lush Cosmetics packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, Frazer

    2014-01-01

    Frazer Hudson – Lush Cosmetics Packaging Commissioned by Suzie Hackney for Lush Cosmetics via illustration Agency - Debut Art - February 2014 I was approached in February 2014 via my London based Illustration agency Debut Art to create packaging illustration designs for the high street retailer and International cosmetics brand ‘Lush’. The illustrations would be used on an octagonal gift box set and be positioned amongst other bespoke gift box set designs within Lush Cosme...

  7. Galeri Matrix Generation Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-09-01

    The Galeri package defines a collection of serial and distributed linear algebra objects to be used for software verification and validation. Galeri is used in several of the examples of the Amesos, IFPACK and ML packages, and in the Trilinos tutorial, Didasko. Galeri can be used for the generation of linear system with known propeties and data distribution for convergence analysis of interative solvers of Krylov type and domain decomposition and multigrid preconditioners.

  8. Survival of lactic acid and chlorine dioxide treated Campylobacter jejuni under suboptimal conditions of pH, temperature and modified atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smigic, Nada; Rajkovic, Andreja; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris;

    2010-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni cells treated with lactic acid (LA, 3% lactic acid, pH 4.0, 2 min) or chlorine dioxide (ClO(2), 20 ppm, 2 min) were inoculated in Bolton broth (pH 6.0) and incubated under 80% O(2)/20% N(2), 80% CO(2)/20% N(2), air or micro-aerophilic (10% CO(2)/85% N(2)/5% O(2)) atmosphere, at 4 degrees C...

  9. Effect of curd freezing and packaging methods on the organic acid contents of goat cheeses during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Balkir

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Effects of freezing and packaging methods on organic acid content of goat cheese during 12 weeks of storage were determined. Goat cheese milk curds were divided into two batches; one of the batches was directly processed in to goat cheese while the other was frozen at -18 °C and stored for six months and processed into cheese after being thawed. Cheese samples were packed in three parts and stored at 4 °C refrigerated control sample and at -18 °C for six months frozen experimental samples. Cheese samples were packed in three different packaging methods: aerobic, vacuum or modified atmosphere. Citric, malic, fumaric, acetic, lactic, pyruvic and propionic acids were analyzed using HPLC method after 1st, 3rd, 6th, 9th and 12th week of storage period. Lactic acid was the main organic acids while pyruvic acid had the lowest content in all cheese samples. Citric and fumaric acid levels of frozen samples increased during storage whereas malic, acetic, pyruvic and propionic acid amounts were decreased compared to the beginning of storage. Packaging methods and freezing process also effected lactic acid levels statistically (p<0.05. Fumaric, acetic and lactic acid concentration of refrigerated samples were increased but citric, malic and propionic acids decreased during storage. Pyruvic acid level did not change significantly. It was determined that organic acid concentrations were effected by freezing process, storage time and packaging methods significantly (p<0.05.

  10. Applicability of an Arrhenius Model for the Combined Effect of Temperature and CO2 Packaging on the Spoilage Microflora of Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsoumanis, Konstantinos P.; Taoukis, Petros S.; Drosinos, Eleftherios H.; Nychas, George-John E.

    2000-01-01

    The temperature behavior of the natural microflora on the Mediterranean fish red mullet (Mullus barbatus) was examined as a case study. The growth of the spoilage bacteria Pseudomonas spp., Shewanella putrefaciens, Brochothrix thermosphacta, and lactic acid bacteria was modeled as a function of temperature and the concentration of carbon dioxide in modified atmosphere packaging. Combined models were developed and comparatively assessed based on polynomial, Belehradek, and Arrhenius equations. The activation energy parameter of the Arrhenius model, EA, was independent of the packaging atmosphere and ranged from 75 to 85 kJ/mol for the different bacteria, whereas the preexponential constant decreased exponentially with the packaging CO2 concentration. We evaluated the applicability of the models developed by using experimental bacterial growth rates obtained from 42 independent experiments performed with three Mediterranean fish species and growth rates predicted from the models under the same temperature and packaging conditions. The accuracy factor and bias factor were used as statistical tools for evaluation, and the developed Arrhenius model and the Belehradek model were judged satisfactory overall. PMID:10919817

  11. Status and prospects for phosphor-based white LED packaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zongyuan LIU; Sheng LIU; Kai WANG; Xiaobing LUO

    2009-01-01

    The status and prospects for high-power, phosphor-based white light-emitting diode (LED) pack-aging have been presented. A system view for packaging design is proposed to address packaging issues. Four aspects of packaging are reviewed: optical control, thermal management, reliability and cost. Phosphor materials play the most important role in light extraction and color control. The conformal coating method improves the spatial color distribution (SCD) of LEDs. High refractive index (RI) encapsulants with high transmittance and modified surface morphology can enhance light extraction. Multi-phosphor-based packaging can realize the control of correlated color temperature (CCT) with high color rendering index (CRI). Effective thermal management can dissipate heat rapidly and reduce thermal stress caused by the mismatch of the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). Chip-on-board (COB) technology with a multi-layer ceramic substrate is the most promising method for high-power LED packaging. Low junction temperature will improve the reliability and provide longer life. Advanced processes, precise fabrication and careful operation are essential for high reliability LEDs. Cost is one of the biggest obstacles for the penetration of white LEDs into the market for general illumination products. Mass production in terms of CoB, system in packaging (SIP), 3D packaging and wafer level packaging (WLP) can reduce the cost significantly, especially when chip cost is lowered by using a large wafer size.

  12. A modified impulse-response representation of the global near-surface air temperature and atmospheric concentration response to carbon dioxide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Richard J.; Nicholls, Zebedee R.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Allen, Myles R.

    2017-06-01

    Projections of the response to anthropogenic emission scenarios, evaluation of some greenhouse gas metrics, and estimates of the social cost of carbon often require a simple model that links emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) to atmospheric concentrations and global temperature changes. An essential requirement of such a model is to reproduce typical global surface temperature and atmospheric CO2 responses displayed by more complex Earth system models (ESMs) under a range of emission scenarios, as well as an ability to sample the range of ESM response in a transparent, accessible and reproducible form. Here we adapt the simple model of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 5th Assessment Report (IPCC AR5) to explicitly represent the state dependence of the CO2 airborne fraction. Our adapted model (FAIR) reproduces the range of behaviour shown in full and intermediate complexity ESMs under several idealised carbon pulse and exponential concentration increase experiments. We find that the inclusion of a linear increase in 100-year integrated airborne fraction with cumulative carbon uptake and global temperature change substantially improves the representation of the response of the climate system to CO2 on a range of timescales and under a range of experimental designs.

  13. RH Packaging Operations Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2003-09-17

    This procedure provides operating instructions for the RH-TRU 72-B Road Cask, Waste Shipping Package. In this document, ''Packaging'' refers to the assembly of components necessary to ensure compliance with the packaging requirements (not loaded with a payload). ''Package'' refers to a Type B packaging that, with its radioactive contents, is designed to retain the integrity of its containment and shielding when subject to the normal conditions of transport and hypothetical accident test conditions set forth in 10 CFR Part 71. Loading of the RH 72-B cask can be done two ways, on the RH cask trailer in the vertical position or by removing the cask from the trailer and loading it in a facility designed for remote-handling (RH). Before loading the 72-B cask, loading procedures and changes to the loading procedures for the 72-B cask must be sent to CBFO at sitedocuments@wipp.ws for approval.

  14. Packaging the MAMA module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, J. Dennis

    1994-10-01

    The MAMA (Mixed Arithmetic, Multiprocessing Array) module is being developed to evaluate new packaging technologies and processing paradigms for advanced military processing systems. The architecture supports a tight mix of signal, data,and I/O processing at GFLOP throughput rates. It is fabricated using only commercial-on-the-sehlf (COTS) chips and will provide a high level of durability. Its attributes are largely the result of two new interconnection and packaging technologies. Chip-in-board packaging is used to reduce local x-y communication delays and solder joints, while significantly improving board-level packaging density. A unique 3-D interconnection technology called a cross-over cell has been developed to reduce board-to-board communication delays, drive power, glue logic, and card-edge pin-outs. These technologies enable true 3-D structures that are form, fit and connector compatible with conventional line-replacable modules. The module's design rational, packaging technology, and basic architecture will be presented in this paper.

  15. Evaluation of Various Packaging Systems on the Activity of Antioxidant Enzyme, and Oxidation and Color Stabilities in Sliced Hanwoo (Korean Cattle Beef Loin during Chill Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Moon Kang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of various packaging systems, vacuum packaging (VACP, medium oxygen-modified atmosphere packaging (50% O2/20% CO2/30% N2, MOMAP, MOMAP combined with vacuum skin packaging (VSP-MOMAP, high oxygen-MAP (80% O2/20% CO2/0% N2, HOMAP, and HOMAP combined with VSP (VSP-HOMAP, on the activity of antioxidant enzyme, and oxidation and color stabilities in sliced Hanwoo (Korean cattle beef loin were investigated at 4°C for 14 d. Higher (p<0.05 superoxide dismutase activity and total reducing ability were maintained in VSP-MOMAP beef than in HOMAP beef. Lipid oxidation (2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS was significantly (p<0.05 retarded in MOMAP, VSP-MOMAP, and VSP-HOMAP beef compared with HOMAP beef. Production of nonheme iron content was lower (p<0.05 in VSP-MOMAP beef than in HOMAP beef. Red color (a* was kept higher (p<0.05 in VSP-MOMAP beef compared with MOMAP, HOMAP, and VSP-HOMAP beef. However, VACP beef was found to have the most positive effects on the antioxidant activity, oxidation and red color stabilities among the various packaged beef. These findings suggested that VSP-MOMAP was second to VACP in improving oxidation and color stabilities in sliced beef loin during chill storage.

  16. MMIC packaging with Waffleline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, R. W.; Ellis, T. T.; Schineller, E. R.

    1990-06-01

    The design principle of Waffleline, a patented MMIC packaging technology, is discussed, and several recent applications are described and illustrated with drawings, diagrams, and photographs. Standard Waffleline is a foil-covered waffle-iron-like grid with dielectric-coated signal and power wires running in the channels and foil-removed holes for mounting prepackaged chips or chip carriers. With spacing of 50 mils between center conductors, this material is applicable at frequencies up to 40 GHz; EHF devices require Waffleline with 25-mil spacing. Applications characterized include a subassembly for a man-transportable SHF satellite-communication terminal, a transmitter driver for a high-power TWT, and a 60-GHz receiver front end (including an integrated monolithic microstrip antenna, a low-noise amplifier, a mixer, and an IF amplifier in a 0.25-inch-thick 1.6-inch-diameter package). The high package density and relatively low cost of Waffleline are emphasized.

  17. Influence of in-package cold plasma treatment on microbiological shelf life and appearance of fresh chicken breast fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiamei; Zhuang, Hong; Hinton, Arthur; Zhang, Jianhao

    2016-12-01

    The effect of in-package cold plasmas (CP) was studied on microbiological shelf life and surface lightness of fresh chicken fillets (pectoralis major). Chicken fillets were packaged in food trays in air or modified atmosphere (MA) gas (O2:CO2:N2 = 65:30:5) and stored at 4 °C after exposed to an in-package cold plasma (80 kV for 180 s) treatment. Populations of mesophiles, psychrophiles, and pseudomonas spp. were measured as indicators for microbiological shelf life and CIELAB L(∗) values as an indicator for raw meat appearance. Results show that regardless of microbial type, there were no significant differences in microbial counts between the control and CP treated chicken fillets packed in air. However, in the MA packages, microbial counts were consistently lower than the non-treated control during refrigerated storage. Regardless of CP treatment, the microbial counts on the samples packed in air were much higher than in MA. They were more than 6 logs cfu/g in air compared to fewer than 4 logs cfu/g in MA after 7 d storage and fewer than 6 logs cfu/g after 14 d storage. Regardless of CP treatment and gas composition in package, there were no significant differences in the surface L(∗) value between the fillets pre-treatment and those after storage at 4 °C. These results demonstrate that the effects of in-package CP treatments on microbiological shelf life of fresh chicken fillets depend upon headspace composition in packages. When fresh chicken fillets are packed in air, CP treatment has no effect on microbiological shelf life. MA packages with high O2 and CO2 significantly extend shelf life and CP treatment with MA can at least double shelf life of fresh chicken meat (more than 14 days). Regardless of headspace composition, in-package CP does not have negative effects on chicken meat appearance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Packaging Solutions : Delivering customer value through Logistical Packaging: A Case Study at Stora Enso Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Shan, Kun; Julius, Joezer

    2015-01-01

    AbstractBackground;Despite of the significant role of packaging within logistics and supply chain management, packaging is infrequently studied as focal point in supply chain. Most of the previous logistics research studies tend to explain the integration between packaging and logistics through logistical packaging. In very rare cases, the studies mentioned about customer value. Therefore the major disadvantage of these studies is that, they didn’t consider logistical packaging and customer v...

  19. SPHINX experimenters information package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarick, T.A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Radiation Effects Experimentation Dept.

    1996-08-01

    This information package was prepared for both new and experienced users of the SPHINX (Short Pulse High Intensity Nanosecond X-radiator) flash X-Ray facility. It was compiled to help facilitate experiment design and preparation for both the experimenter(s) and the SPHINX operational staff. The major areas covered include: Recording Systems Capabilities,Recording System Cable Plant, Physical Dimensions of SPHINX and the SPHINX Test cell, SPHINX Operating Parameters and Modes, Dose Rate Map, Experiment Safety Approval Form, and a Feedback Questionnaire. This package will be updated as the SPHINX facilities and capabilities are enhanced.

  20. Caracterização química e física de batatas 'Ágata' minimamente processadas, embaladas sob diferentes atmosferas modificadas ativas Chemical and physical characterization of fresh-cut 'Ágata' potatoes packed under different active modified atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Lacerda Oliveira Pineli

    2005-10-01

    , polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase activity, firmness, total soluble solids, and titratable acidity. Storage under partial vacuum was the best treatment to control browning and to reduce polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase activities as well as to prevent reduction of total soluble solids, loss of firmness, accumulation of water inside the package and higher titratable acidity. Active modified atmospheres showed faster and sharper browning development, increase of firmness due to tubers dehydration, increase in total soluble solids and lower acidity development comparing with tubers stored under partial vacuum. Storage under partial vacuum showed the best results for maintaining the quality of fresh cut baby potatoes. However, other treatments to maintain firmness freshness, without the development of off-flavors and browning, should be evaluated.

  1. 果蔬气调包装(MAP)数学模型研究现状%Current Status of Research on Mathematical Models of Fruits and Vegetables Modified Atmosphere Packaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛娜; 刘晔

    2009-01-01

    对果蔬MAP包装的理论研究现状进行了系统的研究和分析.主要对呼吸模型、包装内外气体交换模型、湿度变化和贮藏寿命预测模型的国内外研究进展予以阐述,并分析了各个模型的优点和不足.为进一步研究MAP包装提供理论参考.

  2. 抗菌蛋白涂膜协同气调包装对牛肉品质的影响%Effect of antimicrobial protein coating combined with modified atmosphere packaging on the beef quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄志英; 雷桥; 潘家祯; 包建强; 张玉亭; 蒋硕; 寻倩男

    2014-01-01

    为了延长牛肉的货架期,该文研究了不同抗菌涂膜(分别添加200μL大蒜精油、50mg山梨酸钾、50mg乳酸链球菌素(Nisin)和100mg纳米二氧化钛的复合蛋白涂液)协同气调包装(45% O2/30% CO2/25% N2)对牛肉品质的影响.研究了贮藏期间牛肉菌落总数、pH、挥发性盐基氮(TVB-N)、汁液流失率、红度值(a*)、硫代巴比妥酸(TBA)及高铁肌红蛋白百分含量(metMb%)等指标变化,结果表明:添加50mg Nisin抗菌蛋白涂液对新鲜牛肉浸渍5min后,结合气调包装(45% O2/30 %CO2/25% N2),在(4±1)℃下贮藏20d后,牛肉菌落总数、pH、挥发性盐基氮(TVB-N)、汁液流失率、红度值(a*)、硫代巴比妥酸(TBA)及高铁肌红蛋白百分含量(metMb%)分别为5.91g(CFU/g)、6.15、14.37mg/100g、17.23%、19.01、0.270mg/100g、34.09%,各项指标符合国家鲜肉一级鲜度标准.

  3. STUDY ON THE PRESERVATION OF OCIMUM BASILICUM AT MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE PACKAGE DURING POSTHARVEST STORAGE%自发气调包装对罗勒采后保鲜效果的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张福平; 陈东康

    2009-01-01

    本文分析了自发气调包装对罗勒茎叶耐藏性及品质的影响.结果表明:罗勒茎叶在室温(20~28 ℃)、10 ℃、5 ℃条件下的贮藏寿命分别为2 d、3 d、5 d;而10 ℃气调包装和5 ℃气调包装的罗勒茎叶,其贮藏寿命分别为7 d、8 d.冷藏气调贮藏能够降低采后罗勒茎叶的水分散失,抑制呼吸速率,降低细胞膜相对透性,营养品质损失低于对照组.

  4. Correlations between Biogenic Amines and Parameters of Spoilage of Modified Atmosphere Packaged Chilled Pork%气调包装冷却肉生物胺及腐败特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田璐; 李苗云; 赵改名; 黄现青; 田玮; 柳艳霞

    2013-01-01

    将气调包装的冷却肉贮藏在5℃条件下,研究其生物胺与腐败指标之间的相关性,结果表明:各品质指标中,腐胺、尸胺和酪胺与pH值、挥发性盐基氮(TVBN)值、电导率和微生物数量都在0.01水平上显著相关,其中,腐胺、尸胺和酪胺与细菌总数的相关系数分别为0.899,0.911,0.957,而组胺、亚精胺和精胺与微生物数量等品质指标无显著相关性;尸胺是在产品腐败时或腐败后急剧增加,贮藏第21天时其含量达到8.23 mg/kg;腐胺在贮藏后期变化较大,但没有尸胺含量高,贮藏第21天达到4.70 mg/kg;酪胺是随着时间的延长而增加,由0.28 mg/kg增加到2.34 mg/kg,与微生物数量的变化基本一致.腐胺、尸胺和酪胺可作为判断冷却猪肉品质变化的重要指标,其含量的变化反映冷却猪肉的腐败进程.

  5. Effect of pomegranate (Punica granutum) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extracts on shelf-life for chilled Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) fillets in modified atmosphere packaging at 2 ºC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ünalan, U.; Dalgaard, Paw; Korel, F.

    2011-01-01

    ) at 2 °C. Parameters that were monitored were: microbiological (aerobic plate counts (APC), lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Lactobacillus spp., and Photobacterium phosphoreum), biochemical (pH, thio-barbituric acid (TBA), trimethylamine (TMA) and total-volatile-nitrogen (TVN)), and sensory (color, flavor...... and texture) attributes. For microbiological results, irrespective of treatments, APC reached levels ≥107 CFU/g during storage. The spoilage microflora of fillets in MAP was dominated by LAB, but the concentration of Lactobacillus was very low. During storage, P.phosphoreum was not detected in any sample...

  6. Effects of modified atmosphere packaging on changes of physiology and quality of pine nut at ambient temperature%气调包装对松籽常温贮藏生理和品质变化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鹏霞; 王炜; 梁丽松; 王贵禧

    2009-01-01

    以朝鲜红松带壳松籽和去壳松仁为试材,将其分别放在30 μm紫色聚氯乙烯袋、30 μm白色聚氯乙烯袋和40 μm白色聚乙烯袋中进行自发气调贮藏,研究了常温下(20~30℃)贮藏180 d期间松籽种仁的生理、品质和脂肪酸氧化变化.结果表明:与40 μm聚乙烯袋相比,30 μm紫色聚氯乙烯袋与30 μm白色聚氯乙烯袋可以形成相对低O_2高CO_2的贮藏条件,能有效降低带壳松籽和去壳松仁的呼吸速率和可溶性总糖的损耗,提高种仁的贮藏优品率;同时可以较好地防止总脂肪的降解,抑制酸价、过氧化值的升高和碘价的降低.综上所述,30 μm聚氯乙烯袋可以较好地保持松籽品质,相同气调包装贮藏下带壳松籽的贮藏品质优于去壳松仁.

  7. Effects of Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP) on Acid Value of Red Pine Nut at Room-temperature%常温下MAP对红松仁酸价的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王颖; 黄晓山; 王桂英

    2010-01-01

    研究常温下MAP对红松籽油酸价的影响,为松仁的科学贮藏提供技术参考.研究结果表明MAP可以较好地抑制松仁的酸败,有利于保持松仁的贮藏品质,其中充入100%N_2和100%CO_2气体的试样在贮藏期间其酸价的变化相对一致,效果相对其他充气方式较好,建议在常温贮藏中使用.

  8. High temperature corrosion of 9Cr-1Mo ferritic steel P91 modified, in oxidizing-carburizing atmospheres; Corrosion a temperatura alta del acero ferritico 9Cr-1Mo modificado P91, en atmosferas simuladas oxidantes-carburantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena-Ballesteros, D. Y.; Vazquez-Quintero, C.; Laverde-Catano, D.; Serna, G.

    2012-11-01

    High temperature corrosion in processing units of the chemical, petrochemical, and thermoelectric carbochemical is of high interest, due to the costs generated by sudden failures caused by deterioration in the mechanical properties of metals, being the carburization of the metallic matrix the most important corrosion mechanism resulting in loss of ductility and creep resistance. In this research a 9Cr-1Mo modified steel P91 was exposed to simulated atmospheres oxidant-fuel gas mixtures simultaneous in equilibrium of CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}O and H{sub 2}, similar to those produced in the refining industry, at temperatures between 550 and 750 degree centigrade. The microstructural evolution of the metal matrix was analyzed, also the growth, evolution and behavior of oxide layers and carburized, establishing the mechanism of deterioration of the material and the extent of damage for times exceeding 700 h of exposure. (Author) 21 refs.

  9. Quality of the fresh cut ‘Orange Flesh’ melon stored under modified atmosphere/ Qualidade do melão ‘Orange Flesh’ minimamente processado armazenado sob atmosfera modificada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Camargo Neves

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed at evaluate the effect of the fresh cut ‘Orange Flesh’ melon stored under modified atmosphere. The cubes of melons were sanitizationed with 100 mg L-1 of hypoclorite of sodium for one minute, washed, drained and wrapped with different concentrations of O2 and CO2 in plastic bags of polyethylene (Nylon Polished. They were appraised every other day for ten days as regards the firmness, total pectin, soluble pectin and activity of the polifenoloxidase and peroxidase. At the end of the conservation period, it was verified that melons sustained the firmest texture of the vegetable products under modified atmosphere, and the concentration of 5%O2 + 3% CO2 showed smaller content of total pectin and together with the concentration of 100% N2 the smallest content of soluble pectin, the polifenoloxidase activity was not verified as well as of the peroxidase.Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da atmosfera modificada na qualidade do melão‘Orange Flesh’minimamente processado. Os cubos de melões foram sanificados com 100 mg L-1 de hipoclorito de sódio por um minuto, lavados, drenados e embalados com diferentes concentrações de O2 e CO2 em sacos plásticos de polietileno (Nylon Poli. Foram avaliados a cada dois dias durante dez dias quanto a firmeza, pectina total, pectina solúvel e atividade da polifenoloxidase e peroxidase. Ao final do período de conservação, os produtos vegetais com modificação da atmosfera mantiveram a textura mais firme e a concentração de 5%O2 + 3% CO2 apresentaram menor teor de pectina total e juntamente com a concentração de 100% N2 o menor teor de pectina solúvel e não apresentaram atividades de polifenoloxidase e peroxidase.

  10. Evaluation of the response of polymeric gel modified MAGIC-f using a clinical brachytherapy source and Monte Carlo simulation with package PENELOPE; Avaliacao da resposta do gel polimerico MAGIC-f modificado utilizando uma fonte clinica de braquiterapia e simulacao Monte Carlo com o pacote PENELOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quevedo, Ana Luiza; Nicolucci, Patricia [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Fisica; Borges, Leandro F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Setor de Radioterapia

    2016-07-01

    In this work a comparison of experimental and simulated relative doses of a clinical brachytherapy source was performed. A 5 x 5 x 7 cm{sup 3} phantom with a modified MAGIC-f gel was irradiated using a clinical {sup 192}Ir source and read using Magnetic Resonance Imaging. The Monte Carlo simulation package PENELOPE was used to simulate the dose distributions of the same radiation source. The dose distributions were obtained in two planes perpendicular to the source: one passing through the source's center and the other at 0.5 cm away from the source's center. The higher differences found between experimental and computational distributions were 12.5% at a point 0.62 cm from the source for the central plane and 8.6% at 1.3 cm from the source to the plane 0.5 cm away from the source's center. Considering the high dose gradient of these dose distributions, the results obtained show that the modified MAGIC-f gel is promising for brachytherapy dosimetry. (author)

  11. Electro-Microfluidic Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, G. L.; Galambos, P. C.

    2002-06-01

    There are many examples of electro-microfluidic products that require cost effective packaging solutions. Industry has responded to a demand for products such as drop ejectors, chemical sensors, and biological sensors. Drop ejectors have consumer applications such as ink jet printing and scientific applications such as patterning self-assembled monolayers or ejecting picoliters of expensive analytes/reagents for chemical analysis. Drop ejectors can be used to perform chemical analysis, combinatorial chemistry, drug manufacture, drug discovery, drug delivery, and DNA sequencing. Chemical and biological micro-sensors can sniff the ambient environment for traces of dangerous materials such as explosives, toxins, or pathogens. Other biological sensors can be used to improve world health by providing timely diagnostics and applying corrective measures to the human body. Electro-microfluidic packaging can easily represent over fifty percent of the product cost and, as with Integrated Circuits (IC), the industry should evolve to standard packaging solutions. Standard packaging schemes will minimize cost and bring products to market sooner.

  12. The Swarm Magnetometry Package

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merayo, José M.G.; Jørgensen, John Leif; Friis-Christensen, Eigil

    2008-01-01

    The Swarm mission under the ESA's Living Planet Programme is planned for launch in 2010 and consists of a constellation of three satellites at LEO. The prime objective of Swarm is to measure the geomagnetic field with unprecedented accuracy in space and time. The magnetometry package consists...

  13. Waste disposal package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M.J.

    1985-06-19

    This is a claim for a waste disposal package including an inner or primary canister for containing hazardous and/or radioactive wastes. The primary canister is encapsulated by an outer or secondary barrier formed of a porous ceramic material to control ingress of water to the canister and the release rate of wastes upon breach on the canister. 4 figs.

  14. Metric Education Evaluation Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansky, Bob; And Others

    This document was developed out of a need for a complete, carefully designed set of evaluation instruments and procedures that might be applied in metric inservice programs across the nation. Components of this package were prepared in such a way as to permit local adaptation to the evaluation of a broad spectrum of metric education activities.…

  15. Geothermal Greenhouse Information Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, K. [P.E.; Boyd, T. [ed.

    1997-01-01

    This package of information is intended to provide a foundation of background information for developers of geothermal greenhouses. The material is divided into seven sections covering such issues as crop culture and prices, operating costs for greenhouses, heating system design, vendors and a list of other sources of information.

  16. Aquaculture Information Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K. [editors

    1998-01-01

    This package of information is intended to provide background to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements.

  17. Automatic Differentiation Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-03-01

    Sacado is an automatic differentiation package for C++ codes using operator overloading and C++ templating. Sacado provide forward, reverse, and Taylor polynomial automatic differentiation classes and utilities for incorporating these classes into C++ codes. Users can compute derivatives of computations arising in engineering and scientific applications, including nonlinear equation solving, time integration, sensitivity analysis, stability analysis, optimization and uncertainity quantification.

  18. Polymers in Waveguide Packaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiyi Zhang; G. Z.Xiao; Jiaren Liu; C. P. Grover

    2003-01-01

    Polymers were successfully used in the packaging of waveguide-based photonic components in the area of fiber-to-waveguide coupling, waveguide die attachment, strain relief, and waveguide encapsulation. The application results of these polymers were described in this paper.

  19. A novel packaging method with a dissolving CO(2) headspace combined with organic acids prolongs the shelf life of fresh salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmer, Bjørn Christian; Heiberg, Ragnhild; Eie, Thomas; Møretrø, Trond; Maugesten, Tove; Carlehøg, Mats; Langsrud, Solveig

    2009-07-31

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a novel packaging method for fresh fish and to determine its effect on the bacterial growth in fresh salmon. Fresh salmon was packed with a small amount of 100% CO(2) (gas/product ratio 0.2/1.0 v/v) and a brine solution containing various combinations of citric acid (3% w/w, pH 5), acetic acid (1% w/w, pH 5) and cinnamaldehyde (200 microg/ml). Total bacterial counts, counts of sulphur reducing bacteria, lactic acid bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae as well as the bacterial composition in the product after storage were determined. The combination of CO(2) and organic acids completely inhibited bacterial growth during 14 days of storage at 4 degrees C both in inoculation experiments and in experiments on salmon with natural background flora. CO(2), acetic acid and citric acid alone each inhibited the growth of total bacterial counts, lactic acid bacteria, sulphur reducing bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae, but effects were enhanced in combinations. The addition of cinnamaldehyde did not influence bacterial growth. Analysis of the bacterial flora of salmon inoculated with different spoilage bacteria showed that Photobacterium phosphoreum and Carnobacterium maltaromaticum remained the dominating species after inoculation while Yersinia aldovae, Aeromonas salmonicida and Shewanella putrefaciens were outcompeted by other species. In addition, lactic acid bacteria from the natural background flora grew to high numbers. Combinations of CO(2) and acetic acid reduced the relative abundance of P. phosphoreum. All CO(2) dissolved in the product, thereby creating a product with the outer appearance of a vacuum package. Further work is needed to determine consumer acceptability of acid concentrations and to implement the packaging method for industrial purposes. However, implication of this packaging method in the industry may lead to a new packaging technology, combining the advantages of vacuum packaging (low space requirement) and modified

  20. Developing a training package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minogue, Virginia; Donskoy, Anne-Laure

    2017-06-12

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to outline the development of a training package for service users and carers with an interest in NHS health and social care research. It demonstrates how the developers used their unique experience and expertise as service users and carers to inform their work. Design/methodology/approach Service users and carers, NHS Research and Development Forum working group members, supported by health professionals, identified a need for research training that was tailored to other service user and carer needs. After reviewing existing provision and drawing on their training and support experience, they developed a training package. Sessions from the training package were piloted, which evaluated positively. In trying to achieve programme accreditation and training roll-out beyond the pilots, the group encountered several challenges. Findings The training package development group formed good working relationships and a co-production model that proved sustainable. However, challenges were difficult to overcome owing to external factors and financial constraints. Practical implications Lessons learnt by the team are useful for other service users and carer groups working with health service professionals. Training for service users and carers should be designed to meet their needs; quality and consistency are also important. The relationships between service user and carer groups, and professionals are important to understanding joint working. Recognising and addressing challenges at the outset can help develop strategies to overcome challenges and ensure project success. Originality/value The training package was developed by service users and carers for other service users and carers. Their unique health research experience underpinned the group's values and training development.

  1. Conservação de pinha com uso de atmosfera modificada e refrigeração Conservation of Sweetsop using modified atmosphere and refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Polete Mizobutsi

    2012-12-01

    fruits were selected, washed, sanitized and stored in polystyrene trays with or without polyvinyl chloride and stored at 12 ºC and 25 ºC. The following characteristics were evaluated: color rind, firmness, fresh matter loss, soluble solids, titrable acidity, total sugars and starch. The fruits stored at 12 ºC with polyvinyl chloride kept the green coloration of the rind up to the 18th day, showing lower loss of fresh matter and rind firmness as well as lower content of the soluble solids and titrable acidity in relation to the fruits stored at 25 ºC. The use of the package associated to the temperature of 12 ºC allowed a safe period of 18 days under storage with appropriate maintenance of the physiochemical attributes. The fruits stored for 6 days at 25 ºC, with or without PVC, did not show desirable physicochemical characteristics.

  2. Packaging design criteria for the Hanford Ecorok Packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercado, M.S.

    1996-01-19

    The Hanford Ecorok Packaging (HEP) will be used to ship contaminated water purification filters from K Basins to the Central Waste Complex. This packaging design criteria documents the design of the HEP, its intended use, and the transportation safety criteria it is required to meet. This information will serve as a basis for the safety analysis report for packaging.

  3. Lakes Ecosystem Services Download Package

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data download package contains Esri 10.0 MXDs, file geodatabases and copy of this FGDC metadata record. The data in this package are used in support of the Lake...

  4. Efeito da atmosfera modificada ativa na qualidade do melão 'orange flesh' minimamente processado Effect of the active modified atmosphere in the quality of the melon tipo orange flesh processed minimally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Marta Machado Casado de Araújo

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O aumento da demanda por produtos minimamente processados traz um grande desafio para a ciência e tecnologia de alimentos, considerando-se a escassez de informações sobre a manutenção da qualidade desses produtos. O armazenamento destes em condições adequadas é um ponto fundamental para o sucesso dessa tecnologia. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito da atmosfera modificada ativa na qualidade e conservação do melão 'Orange Flesh' minimamente processado. Os frutos, após o processamento, foram embalados sob atmosfera modificada (AM passiva - controle, AM ativa com 5% de CO2 e 5% de O2 e AM ativa com 10% de CO2 e 2% de O2 , armazenados em câmara fria (6ºC ± 1ºC e UR 85% ± 5% durante 8 dias e as amostras retiradas para análises físicas, físico-químicas, químicas e sensoriais, a cada 2 dias de armazenamento. A atmosfera modificada ativa pouco influenciou no comportamento das variáveis pH, acidez total titulável, firmeza, pectina total e sabor com relação à atmosfera modificada passiva. Menor solubilização de pectinas foi detectada nas amostras armazenadas sob atmosfera com 10% de CO2 e 2% de O2. Os atributos de qualidade, sabor e textura não sofreram deteriorações durante os 8 dias de armazenamento, em todos os tratamentos, de acordo com a análise sensorial.The increase of the demand for products processed minimally brings a great challenge for the food science and technology, being considered the shortage of information about the maintenance of the quality of those products. The storage of these products in appropriate conditions is a fundamental point for the success of this technology. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the active modified atmosphere in the quality and conservation of the melon 'Orange Flesh' processed minimally. The fruits, after the processing were wrapped under modified atmosphere (passive AM control; active AM with 5% of CO2 and 5% of O2 and activate AM with 10

  5. Bacteriophage lambda DNA packaging: scanning for the terminal cohesive end site during packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiss, M; Widner, W

    1982-06-01

    Bacteriophage lambda packages the DNA of the related phage 21 poorly [Hohn, B. (1975) J. Mol. Biol. 98, 93--106]. To understand the nature of the packaging defect, the interaction of the cohesive end site (cos) specific for phage 21 (cos phi 21) with phage lambda terminase has been investigated. The ability of lambda terminase to cleave cos phi 21 was studied in vitro; lambda terminase cleaved cos phi 21 only 1% as well as it cleaved the phage lambda cohesive end site (cos lambda). In vitro packaging experiments showed that the lambda and 21 packaging specificities observed in vivo are also found in vitro. The cos cleavage reaction was modified so that competition experiments could be performed; these experiments showed that cos phi 21 was unable to bind lambda terminase, thus identifying the nature of the defect. Previous work [Feiss, M., Fisher, R. A., Siegele, D. A., Nichols, B. P. & Donelson, J. E. (1979) Virology 92, 56--67] has shown that the base pairs giving lambda or 21 packaging specificity are at the left end of the chromosome, outside the 22-base-pair symmetry region that includes the annealed cohesive ends. Therefore, terminase binding to cos requires interactions with base pairs to the Nu1 side of the cohesive end symmetry segment. The evidence supports the proposition that cos consists of adjacent sites for binding of terminase and for nicking by terminase. Because cos phi 21 can be cut by lambda terminase to terminate DNA packaging, it is proposed that the terminase that binds and nicks at the initial cos site is brought into contact with the terminal cos site by the packaging process. Terminase recognizes and nicks the cohesive end sequence of the terminal cos without requiring the binding site.

  6. Ensuring socially responsible packaging design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birgitte Geert; Widding, Sofie Hartvig

    "User‐friendly Packaging" aims to create a platform for developing more user‐friendly packaging. One intended outcome of the project is a guideline that industry can use in development efforts. The project also points the way for more extended collaboration between companies and design researchers. How...... can design research help industry in packaging innovation?...

  7. Sustainable Library Development Training Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peace Corps, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This Sustainable Library Development Training Package supports Peace Corps' Focus In/Train Up strategy, which was implemented following the 2010 Comprehensive Agency Assessment. Sustainable Library Development is a technical training package in Peace Corps programming within the Education sector. The training package addresses the Volunteer…

  8. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions, LLC

    2003-08-25

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the SARP and/or C of C shall govern. The C of C states: ''...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, ''Operating Procedures,'' of the application.'' It further states: ''...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, ''Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR {section} 71.11, ''Deliberate Misconduct.'' Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document details the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the RH-TRU 72-B packaging. This Program Guidance standardizes instructions for all users. Users shall follow these instructions. Following these instructions assures that operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARP. This document is available on the Internet at: ttp://www.ws/library/t2omi/t2omi.htm. Users are responsible for ensuring they are using the current

  9. Anticounterfeit packaging technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchir Y Shah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Packaging is the coordinated system that encloses and protects the dosage form. Counterfeit drugs are the major cause of morbidity, mortality, and failure of public interest in the healthcare system. High price and well-known brands make the pharma market most vulnerable, which accounts for top priority cardiovascular, obesity, and antihyperlipidemic drugs and drugs like sildenafil. Packaging includes overt and covert technologies like barcodes, holograms, sealing tapes, and radio frequency identification devices to preserve the integrity of the pharmaceutical product. But till date all the available techniques are synthetic and although provide considerable protection against counterfeiting, have certain limitations which can be overcome by the application of natural approaches and utilization of the principles of nanotechnology.

  10. Anticounterfeit packaging technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ruchir Y; Prajapati, Prajesh N; Agrawal, Y K

    2010-10-01

    Packaging is the coordinated system that encloses and protects the dosage form. Counterfeit drugs are the major cause of morbidity, mortality, and failure of public interest in the healthcare system. High price and well-known brands make the pharma market most vulnerable, which accounts for top priority cardiovascular, obesity, and antihyperlipidemic drugs and drugs like sildenafil. Packaging includes overt and covert technologies like barcodes, holograms, sealing tapes, and radio frequency identification devices to preserve the integrity of the pharmaceutical product. But till date all the available techniques are synthetic and although provide considerable protection against counterfeiting, have certain limitations which can be overcome by the application of natural approaches and utilization of the principles of nanotechnology.

  11. Effect of PVA-Based Coating Material Modified by Nano-SiO_2 on Properties of Film-forming Package%聚乙烯醇基涂膜材料纳米SiO_2改性对其成膜包装效能特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷艳雄; 尹月玲; 王佳媚; 靳国锋; 章建浩

    2012-01-01

    Due to the hydrophilic property,the application of poly vinyl alcohol(PVA) in food package is greatly limited.In this paper,the effect of PVA-based composite film modified by adding nano-SiO2 on packaging efficacy was evaluated by measuring vapor transmission rate,water-absorbing rate,transmittance,gas permeability and antibacterial capability.The results showed that vapor transmission rate(18.78 g/(m2·d)),water-absorbing rate(1.40%) of modified composite film decreased by 35.34%;O2 and CO2 penetration(0.055 g/(m2·d) and 0.174 g/(m2·d)) of modified composite film decreased by 17.91% and 18.31%,respectively,compared with those of PVA-based composite film without modification.Moreover,the antibacterial capability of PVA-based composite film was also improved after the modification with nano-SiO2.Therefore,modification with nano-SiO2 can significantly enhance the barrier performance,especially vapor barrier performance of PVA-based composite film,and consequently improve the application efficiency in food package.%采用纳米SiO2对聚乙烯醇(PVA)基复合涂膜包装材料进行改性,通过测定PVA基纳米复合涂膜材料的成膜透湿率、吸水率、透光率、透气性以及抑菌效果,研究纳米SiO2对其成膜包装效能特性的影响。结果表明:纳米SiO2改性PVA基复合膜的透湿率(18.78g/(m2.d))比未改性PVA基复合膜(27.39g/(m2.d))降低31.43%,吸水率(1.40%)降低了35.34%,透O2率(0.055g/(m2.d)和透CO2率(0.174g/(m2.d))分别降低了17.91%和18.31%,且复合膜的抑菌性能也得到提高。纳米SiO2改性可显著提高PVA基纳复合涂膜材料的阻隔性,尤其是阻湿阻水性等成膜包装效能特性,改善其食品保鲜包装的应用效果。

  12. Effect of packaging during storage time on retail display microbial population of beef strip loins from two different production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzardo, S; Woerner, D R; Geornaras, I; Hess, A M; Belk, K E

    2016-06-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate the influence of packaging during storage of strip loins (to simulate export shipment) from steers fattened on intensive grazing systems (Uruguay; UR) or on a high-concentrate diet (United States; US) on retail display life microbial growth. Four or 3 different packaging treatments were applied to UR and US strip loin roasts or steaks during 35 d of storage; treatments were applied 7 d following slaughter. After 35 d of storage, the samples were evaluated during simulated retail display for up to 6 d. In Exp. 1, the treatments were vacuum packaging (VP), low-oxygen modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with N and CO (MAP/CO), low-oxygen MAP with N plus CO and CO, and VP plus an application of peroxyacetic acid (VP/PAA). In Exp. 2, block 1, the treatments were VP, MAP/CO, and VP with ethyl--lauroyl--arginate HCl incorporated into the film as an antimicrobial agent (VP/AM). In Exp. 2, block 2, the treatments were VP, MAP/CO, MAP/CO, and VP/AM. For retail display, VP treatments were sliced and repackaged in PVC overwrap, and MAP treatments were actually PVC overwrap trays that were removed from a master bag with the prescribed gas treatment. Regardless of production system and packaging treatment, mesophilic and psychrotrophic counts of 6.9 to 7.8 and 6.7 to 7.7 log10 CFU/cm, respectively, were obtained at the end of retail display, except for US samples in Exp. 2 (5.5 to 6.3 log CFU/cm). No differences ( > 0.05) were detected for spp. counts among packaging treatments in US steaks at the end of the display time in Exp.1, whereas, for UR steaks, both MAP treatments had lower ( retail display for Exp. 2. At the end of display time and for Exp. 1, US steaks under MAP/CO had greater ( 0.05) among packaging were detected for UR steaks. Both MAP and VP/AM treatments in the US samples for Exp. 2 had lower ( 0.05) were found among packaging treatments for the UR samples. To maximize shelf life (storage and display life) of exported fresh

  13. Amdahl 470 Chip Package

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    In the late 70s the larger IBM computers were water cooled. Amdahl, an IBM competitor, invented an air cooling technology for it's computers. His company worked hard, developing a computer that was faster and less expensive than the IBM System/360 mainframe computer systems. This object contains an actual Amdahl series 470 computer logic chip with an air cooling device mounted on top. The package leads and cooling tower are gold-plated.

  14. Aquaculture information package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K.

    1998-08-01

    This package of information is intended to provide background information to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements. A bibliography containing 68 references is also included.

  15. The Ettention software package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahmen, Tim, E-mail: Tim.Dahmen@dfki.de [German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence GmbH (DFKI), 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Marsalek, Lukas [Eyen SE, Na Nivách 1043/16, 141 00 Praha 4 (Czech Republic); Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Marniok, Nico [Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Turoňová, Beata [Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); IMPRS-CS, Max-Planck Institute for Informatics, Campus E 1.4, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Bogachev, Sviatoslav [Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Trampert, Patrick; Nickels, Stefan [German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence GmbH (DFKI), 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Slusallek, Philipp [German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence GmbH (DFKI), 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    We present a novel software package for the problem “reconstruction from projections” in electron microscopy. The Ettention framework consists of a set of modular building-blocks for tomographic reconstruction algorithms. The well-known block iterative reconstruction method based on Kaczmarz algorithm is implemented using these building-blocks, including adaptations specific to electron tomography. Ettention simultaneously features (1) a modular, object-oriented software design, (2) optimized access to high-performance computing (HPC) platforms such as graphic processing units (GPU) or many-core architectures like Xeon Phi, and (3) accessibility to microscopy end-users via integration in the IMOD package and eTomo user interface. We also provide developers with a clean and well-structured application programming interface (API) that allows for extending the software easily and thus makes it an ideal platform for algorithmic research while hiding most of the technical details of high-performance computing. - Highlights: • Novel software package for “reconstruction from projections” in electron microscopy. • Support for high-resolution reconstructions on iterative reconstruction algorithms. • Support for CPU, GPU and Xeon Phi. • Integration in the IMOD software. • Platform for algorithm researchers: object oriented, modular design.

  16. Photoelectric-Charging-Enhanced MEMS Electret Energy Harvester with Vacuum Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seonwoo; Suzuki, Yuji

    2016-11-01

    A novel MEMS electret energy harvester charged with UV light after sealed in a vacuum package is proposed. By 265 nm UV irradiation, electrons are generated inside the package through the photoelectric effect. Uniform surface potential on sidewalls of the comb drives has been obtained. With a MEMS electret generator in a 60 Pa package, 2.28 μW has been obtained at 1 g and 740 Hz, which is 10 times higher than the output power at the atmospheric pressure.

  17. Plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This document describes the functional design of the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (Pu SPS). The objective of this system is to stabilize and package plutonium metals and oxides of greater than 50% wt, as well as other selected isotopes, in accordance with the requirements of the DOE standard for safe storage of these materials for 50 years. This system will support completion of stabilization and packaging campaigns of the inventory at a number of affected sites before the year 2002. The package will be standard for all sites and will provide a minimum of two uncontaminated, organics free confinement barriers for the packaged material.

  18. The Development of MEMS Device Packaging Technology using Proton Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyun, J. W.; Kim, E. H.; Kim, C. Y.; Lee, D. H.; Sa, S. H. [Dankuk Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) are the integration of mechanical elements, sensors, actuators, and electronics on a common silicon substrate through microfabrication technology. One of the major issues in MEMS is to obtain a reliable packaging. Since conventional packaging technologies for MEMS require high temperatures and high voltages, packaging failures are frequently involved. In order to realize a reliable packaging, we propose a novel packaging technology for MEMS devices using proton beams; proton beams lose their energies inside the irradiated matter and the maximum energy loss is placed at the Bragg peak. By bonding two materials using the locally deposited heat near the Bragg peak, the packaging damage can be minimized. The energies of the proton beam energies were chosen by the calculation of the stopping and range of ions in matter(SRIM) and the heat analysis was carried out by using the analysis system (ANSYS). For experiments, proton-beam irradiation was performed at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The energies were 8 {approx} 45 MeV and the currents were 1 {approx} 30 {mu}A. The experimental results show good agreements with the simulation results; melting were found inside the irradiated acrylic block at the corresponding Bragg peaks, and bondings were achieved at the interface between two aluminum plates. We believe that this technique has the potential application in the pyrex-silicon bonding for MEMS packaging.

  19. Applying and influence of polymer materials for packaging dairy beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Spasenija D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional food is positioned above the traditional, with the potential to improve human health. Thanks to very good physico-mechanical and barrier properties polymers became very popular in food industry as a packaging materials. Wild range of fermented dairy products could be packed in this packaging materials according to their’s inertness as well. Functional milk beverage was obtained from milk with 0,9% milk fat content by applying 10% v/v of kombucha’s inoculum cultivated on a black tea sweetened with sucrose. The beverage was packed in a different packaging materials: polyamid-polyethylen (PA/PE coextruded foil bags and polyprophylen (PP cups closed with aluminium (Al foil lids under atmospheric conditions (ATM. Beverages were storaged for 15 days at 4°C. The quality of kombucha inoculum, milk and obtained kombucha fermented milk beverage were analysed. Characterization of the packaging materials was done by investigating physico-mechanical, barrier and structural properties. The composition and changes in the headspace atmosphere, after production and during the storage, were analysed. The influence of packaging material properties and packaging conditions on the biochemical transformations of the milk’s components (the content of: lactose, L-lactic acid, D-galactose, ethanol, B1 and B2 vitamins influenced by kombucha starter were analysed as well. On the bases of the obtained results of characterisation of packaging materials, it can be concluded that PA/PE and PP materials are proper to be used for analysed beverage’s packaging. Also, there is no significant difference in content of components which were quantified, between analysed materials in correlation with the packed fermented milk beverage. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III-46009

  20. Armazenamento de pitangas sob atmosfera modificada e refrigeração: II - qualidade e conservação pós-colheita Storage of Suriname cherry under modified atmosphere and refrigeration: quality and postharvest conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ferreira dos Santos

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de atmosfera modificada (AM na conservação pós-colheita de pitangas colhidas nos estádios de maturação e início da pigmentação (IP, vermelho-alaranjado (VA e vermelho predominante (VP e armazenadas a 10 e a 14 ºC (90 ± 1%UR e condições ambientes (23± 2 ºC e 85 ± 2%UR. O uso de AM associada à refrigeração resultou em menores perdas de massa, incidência de fungo e enrugamento. A AM também permitiu um aumento de quatro dias na vida útil pós-colheita, mantendo a qualidade acima do limite de aceitação durante oito dias, para pitangas do estádio VA mantidas sob refrigeração. Em conjunto, pitangas colhidas no estádio de maturação vermelho-alaranjado apresentaram melhor potencial de armazenamento, quando mantidas sob atmosfera modificada a 10 ºC.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of modified atmosphere (MA on postharvest conservation of Suriname cherry harvested in the maturity stages: pigment initiation (PI, red-orangish (RO and predominant red (PR, and stored at 10, 14 ºC (90 ± 1% RH, and room temperature (23± 2 ºC and 85 ± 2% RH. The use of MA associated with refrigeration resulted in lower mass loss, fungi incidence, and fruit shrinkage. The MA also allowed a four-day increase in postharvest life, maintaining the general quality above acceptance limit during eight days, for Suriname cherries of RO maturity stage, kept under refrigeration. Collectively, Suriname cherries harvested at the maturity stage red-orangish presented the best storage potential, when kept under modified atmosphere at 10 ºC.

  1. Armazenamento de pitanga sob atmosfera modificada e refrigeração: I-transformações químicas em pós-colheita Storage of Suriname cherry under modified atmosphere and refrigeration: I - postharvest chemical changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ferreira dos Santos

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento teve como objetivo avaliar as transformações pós-colheita em pitangas colhidas nos estádios de maturação vermelho-alaranjado (VA e vermelho predominante (VP e mantidas sob atmosfera modificada (AM por filme de cloreto de polivinila (PVC, a 10 ± 0,5 ºC, 14 ± 0,5ºC e (90 ± 1%UR e a temperatura ambiente (23 ± 2°C e 85 ± 2%UR. O uso de AM associada à refrigeração permitiu manutenção dos sólidos solúveis, acidez titulável, dos açúcares solúveis totais e vitamina C, e também resultou em menor taxa de aumento nos carotenóides totais para frutos do estádio de maturação VA mantido a 10 e 14ºC. Em conjunto, pitangas colhidas no estádio vermelho-alaranjado foram as que apresentaram melhor manutenção das características intrínsecas durante oito dias de armazenamento sob atmosfera modificada a 10ºC.The aim of this experiment was to evaluate postharvest changes in Suriname Cherry harvested in the maturity stages red-orangish (RO and predominant red (PR, kept under modified atmosphere (MA by polyvinyl chloride film (PVC, at 10± 0.5 ºC, 14± 0.5 ºC, 90 ± 1% RH and room temperature (23 ± 2°C. The use of MA associated with refrigeration allowed the maintenance of total soluble solids, titratable acidity, soluble sugars, and vitamin C, and also resulted in lower increase rate in total carotenoids for fruits in the RO maturity stages kept at 10 e 14ºC. All together, Suriname Cherries harvested in red-orangish skin color were those that presented better maintenance of the intrinsic characteristics during 8 days storage under modified atmosphere at 10ºC.

  2. Effect of Lemongrass Essential Oil Vapors on Microbial Dynamics and Listeria monocytogenes Survival on Rocket and Melon Stored under Different Packaging Conditions and Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agni Hadjilouka

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of lemongrass essential oil vapors on the dynamics of surface microbiota and L. monocytogenes growth on rocket and melon under different packaging conditions and storage temperature. For that purpose, rocket and melon were placed on Expanded Polystyrene (EPS trays, sprayed with L. monocytogenes to a population of 4.5–5.0 log CFU·g−1, packaged using microperforated Oriented Polypropylene (OPP film in either air or Microperforated Active Modified Atmosphere (MAMA (initial atmosphere 5% O2, 10% CO2 including a Whatman paper containing the essential oil, without contact with the product, and stored at 0, 5, 10, and 15 °C. Application of lemongrass exhibited a bactericidal effect on enterococci and a fungistatic effect on yeast-mould populations but only during air storage of rocket. The former took place at all temperatures and the latter only at 10 and 15 °C. No effect on shelf life of both products was recorded. However, an important effect on the sensorial properties was observed; during the first 4–5 days of storage both products were organoleptically unacceptable. Regarding MAMA packaging, it affected only Pseudomonas spp. population resulting in a reduction of 1–2 log CFU·g−1 in both products.

  3. Packaging - Materials review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Matthias

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays, a large number of different electrochemical energy storage systems are known. In the last two decades the development was strongly driven by a continuously growing market of portable electronic devices (e.g. cellular phones, lap top computers, camcorders, cameras, tools). Current intensive efforts are under way to develop systems for automotive industry within the framework of electrically propelled mobility (e.g. hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, full electric vehicles) and also for the energy storage market (e.g. electrical grid stability, renewable energies). Besides the different systems (cell chemistries), electrochemical cells and batteries were developed and are offered in many shapes, sizes and designs, in order to meet performance and design requirements of the widespread applications. Proper packaging is thereby one important technological step for designing optimum, reliable and safe batteries for operation. In this contribution, current packaging approaches of cells and batteries together with the corresponding materials are discussed. The focus is laid on rechargeable systems for industrial applications (i.e. alkaline systems, lithium-ion, lead-acid). In principle, four different cell types (shapes) can be identified - button, cylindrical, prismatic and pouch. Cell size can be either in accordance with international (e.g. International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC) or other standards or can meet application-specific dimensions. Since cell housing or container, terminals and, if necessary, safety installations as inactive (non-reactive) materials reduce energy density of the battery, the development of low-weight packages is a challenging task. In addition to that, other requirements have to be fulfilled: mechanical stability and durability, sealing (e.g. high permeation barrier against humidity for lithium-ion technology), high packing efficiency, possible installation of safety devices (current interrupt device

  4. Packaging - Materials review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Matthias [Hoppecke Advanced Battery Technology GmbH, 08056 Zwickau (Germany)

    2014-06-16

    Nowadays, a large number of different electrochemical energy storage systems are known. In the last two decades the development was strongly driven by a continuously growing market of portable electronic devices (e.g. cellular phones, lap top computers, camcorders, cameras, tools). Current intensive efforts are under way to develop systems for automotive industry within the framework of electrically propelled mobility (e.g. hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, full electric vehicles) and also for the energy storage market (e.g. electrical grid stability, renewable energies). Besides the different systems (cell chemistries), electrochemical cells and batteries were developed and are offered in many shapes, sizes and designs, in order to meet performance and design requirements of the widespread applications. Proper packaging is thereby one important technological step for designing optimum, reliable and safe batteries for operation. In this contribution, current packaging approaches of cells and batteries together with the corresponding materials are discussed. The focus is laid on rechargeable systems for industrial applications (i.e. alkaline systems, lithium-ion, lead-acid). In principle, four different cell types (shapes) can be identified - button, cylindrical, prismatic and pouch. Cell size can be either in accordance with international (e.g. International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC) or other standards or can meet application-specific dimensions. Since cell housing or container, terminals and, if necessary, safety installations as inactive (non-reactive) materials reduce energy density of the battery, the development of low-weight packages is a challenging task. In addition to that, other requirements have to be fulfilled: mechanical stability and durability, sealing (e.g. high permeation barrier against humidity for lithium-ion technology), high packing efficiency, possible installation of safety devices (current interrupt device

  5. The effect of the packaging system and storage time on myofibrillar protein degradation and oxidation process in relation to beef tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moczkowska, Małgorzata; Półtorak, Andrzej; Montowska, Magdalena; Pospiech, Edward; Wierzbicka, Agnieszka

    2017-03-18

    This study investigated the impact of packaging systems on the degradation and oxidation of beef proteins regarding beef tenderness of longissimus lumborum (LL) and biceps femoris (BF) muscles stored in vacuum skin packaging (VSP), a modified atmosphere with high oxygen concentration (MAP), and combined of these two methods (VSP+MAP). A significant decrease in the Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) in VSP at D14 and D28 for LL was observed compared to BF. A significant effect of packaging system on troponin-T (Tn-T) and desmin degradation was shown (p≤0.001). A high concentration of oxygen in MAP and VSP+MAP affected protein oxidation, which was reflected in myosin oxidative cross-linking. An increase of WBSF values detected in steaks packed in VSP and VSP+MAP systems could be caused by the intensification of protein oxidation. Furthermore, BF was more susceptible to oxidation compared to LL. The VSP+MAP packaging system has resulted in the maintenance of a bright, red color, however has not improved the beef tenderness.

  6. Effect of packaging technology on microbiological and sensory quality of a cooked blood sausage, Morcela de Arroz, from Monchique region of Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, J A; Dionísio, L; Patarata, L; Matos, T J S

    2015-03-01

    Morcela de Arroz (MA), a popular Portuguese blood sausage, with high pH and water activity (aw), is traditionally commercialized without preservatives and unpacked. This study evaluated the best packaging solution to extend MA shelf life stored at 4±1°C for 44days: without packaging (WP), vacuum (VP) and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) (80% CO2; 20% N2). Mesophilic (MTVC), psychrotrophic (PTVC), lactic acid bacteria (LAB), pseudomonads, molds and yeasts, Enterobacteriaceae, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, sensory properties, pH, moisture and aw were studied. Moisture and aw decreased (p<0.05) in WP. pH decreased in WP and MAP during storage. MTVC and PTVC counts increased to values around 7logCFU/g at 44days of storage. LAB and Enterobacteriaceae counts were higher (p<0.05) in VP. Pseudomonads were inhibited (p<0.05) by MAP after 8days of storage. Sensory parameters were affected (p<0.05) by packaging and storage time. Globally, MAP performed better.

  7. New package for CMOS sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diot, Jean-Luc; Loo, Kum Weng; Moscicki, Jean-Pierre; Ng, Hun Shen; Tee, Tong Yan; Teysseyre, Jerome; Yap, Daniel

    2004-02-01

    Cost is the main drawback of existing packages for C-MOS sensors (mainly CLCC family). Alternative packages are thus developed world-wide. And in particular, S.T.Microelectronics has studied a low cost alternative packages based on QFN structure, still with a cavity. Intensive work was done to optimize the over-molding operation forming the cavity onto a metallic lead-frame (metallic lead-frame is a low cost substrate allowing very good mechanical definition of the final package). Material selection (thermo-set resin and glue for glass sealing) was done through standard reliability tests for cavity packages (Moisture Sensitivity Level 3 followed by temperature cycling, humidity storage and high temperature storage). As this package concept is new (without leads protruding the molded cavity), the effect of variation of package dimensions, as well as board lay-out design, are simulated on package life time (during temperature cycling, thermal mismatch between board and package leads to thermal fatigue of solder joints). These simulations are correlated with an experimental temperature cycling test with daisy-chain packages.

  8. Components of Adenovirus Genome Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahi, Yadvinder S.; Mittal, Suresh K.

    2016-01-01

    Adenoviruses (AdVs) are icosahedral viruses with double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genomes. Genome packaging in AdV is thought to be similar to that seen in dsDNA containing icosahedral bacteriophages and herpesviruses. Specific recognition of the AdV genome is mediated by a packaging domain located close to the left end of the viral genome and is mediated by the viral packaging machinery. Our understanding of the role of various components of the viral packaging machinery in AdV genome packaging has greatly advanced in recent years. Characterization of empty capsids assembled in the absence of one or more components involved in packaging, identification of the unique vertex, and demonstration of the role of IVa2, the putative packaging ATPase, in genome packaging have provided compelling evidence that AdVs follow a sequential assembly pathway. This review provides a detailed discussion on the functions of the various viral and cellular factors involved in AdV genome packaging. We conclude by briefly discussing the roles of the empty capsids, assembly intermediates, scaffolding proteins, portal vertex and DNA encapsidating enzymes in AdV assembly and packaging. PMID:27721809

  9. Submersible Packaging Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    Butyraldehyde E,K Aniline Hydrochloride E Butyric Acid V,E Fluid codes are defined in paragraph 40.2.1 and are listed in order of recommended use . 20...Furfuryl Alcohol E Ethyl Chloride E,B,N Gallic Acid V,FE Ethyl Chiorocarbonate V,F Gasoline BV,F Ethyl Chioroformate V,F Glycerine B,E Ethylene Chloride...This document describes packaging techniques that would allow sophisticated electronics to be used and transported reliably underwater. 20. DISTRIBUTION

  10. The PIDCalib package

    CERN Document Server

    Anderlini, Lucio; Jones, Christopher Rob; Malde, Sneha Sirirshkumar; Muller, Dominik; Ogilvy, Stephen; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Pearce, Alex; Polyakov, Ivan; Qian, Wenbin; Sciascia, Barbara; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Zhang, Yanxi

    2016-01-01

    The PIDCalib package is a tool, widely used within the LHCb Collaboration, which provides access to the calibration samples of electrons, muons, pions, kaons and protons. This note covers both theoretical aspects related to the measurement of the efficiency of particle identification requirements, and more technical issues such as the selection of the calibration samples, the background subtraction procedure, and the storage of the data sets in the new data-processing scheme adopted by the LHCb experiment during the second run of the LHC.

  11. TASC Graphics Software Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    RD-I55 861 TSC GRPHICS SOFTWRE PCKRGE(U) NLYTIC SCIENCES i/I RD 𔄀-t CORP RERDING MA M R TANG DEC 82 TR-1946-6U~~cLss AFG L-TR-gi-1388 Fi9629-89-C...extensions were made to allow TGSP to use color graphics. 2.1 INTERACTIVE TGSP NCAR was designed to be a general plot package for use with many different...plotting devices. It is designed to accept high level commands and generate an intermediate set of commands called metacode and to then use device

  12. Safety Analysis Report for packaging (onsite) steel waste package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOEHNKE, W.M.

    2000-07-13

    The steel waste package is used primarily for the shipment of remote-handled radioactive waste from the 324 Building to the 200 Area for interim storage. The steel waste package is authorized for shipment of transuranic isotopes. The maximum allowable radioactive material that is authorized is 500,000 Ci. This exceeds the highway route controlled quantity (3,000 A{sub 2}s) and is a type B packaging.

  13. Packaging material and flexible medical tubing containing thermally exfoliated graphite oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A packaging material or flexible medical tubing containing a modified graphite oxide material, which is a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 m.sup.2/g to 2600 m.sup.2/g.

  14. The effect of packaging methods on the quality of marinated shrimp during storage%不同气调包装对醉虾贮藏品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕飞; 张碧娜; 丁玉庭

    2013-01-01

    Effect of modified air packaging with 40% CO2 + 60% N2 or 100% CO2, vacuum packaging and air condition packaging on the total viable counts (TVC) , total volatile base nitrogen(TVB-N) , pH value, shear force, color and sensory evaluation of marinated shrimp was studied.As compared with vacuum packaging and air condition packaging, 40% CO2/60% N2 or 100% CO2 modified atmosphere packaging displayed better effects on maintaining the shrimp quality with lower TVC and TVB-N value, higher sensory score.The shear force and color changes were smaller than that of vacuum packaging and air condition packaging samples.But with the storage time increase, the volume of CO2 decreased obviously in 100% CO2 packaging and shrimp showed undesirability appearance.Therefore, it' s better to select 40% CO2 + 60% N2 packaging for marinated shrimp.%研究了40% CO2+60%N2和100% CO2的气调包装以及真空和空气包装4种包装方式对贮藏醉虾菌落总数、理化指标和感官指标的影响.结果表明:相对于真空和空气包装组,100% CO2或40% CO2+60% N2的气体包装,对醉虾的保鲜效果较好,其样品的菌落总数和挥发性盐基氮含量较低,质地和色泽变化较小,感官评分较高.但由于100% CO2包装随着贮藏时间的延长,气体收缩较明显导致产品包装外观不理想,40% CO2+60%N2的混合气体包装更适合于醉虾的贮藏.

  15. The Ettention software package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmen, Tim; Marsalek, Lukas; Marniok, Nico; Turoňová, Beata; Bogachev, Sviatoslav; Trampert, Patrick; Nickels, Stefan; Slusallek, Philipp

    2016-02-01

    We present a novel software package for the problem "reconstruction from projections" in electron microscopy. The Ettention framework consists of a set of modular building-blocks for tomographic reconstruction algorithms. The well-known block iterative reconstruction method based on Kaczmarz algorithm is implemented using these building-blocks, including adaptations specific to electron tomography. Ettention simultaneously features (1) a modular, object-oriented software design, (2) optimized access to high-performance computing (HPC) platforms such as graphic processing units (GPU) or many-core architectures like Xeon Phi, and (3) accessibility to microscopy end-users via integration in the IMOD package and eTomo user interface. We also provide developers with a clean and well-structured application programming interface (API) that allows for extending the software easily and thus makes it an ideal platform for algorithmic research while hiding most of the technical details of high-performance computing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-05-27

    This document provides the user with instructions for assembling a payload. All the steps in Subsections 1.2, Preparing 55-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.3, Preparing "Short" 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT); 1.4, Preparing "Tall" 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (HalfPACT only); 1.5, Preparing 100-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.6, Preparing Shielded Container Payload Assembly; 1.7, Preparing SWB Payload Assembly; and 1.8, Preparing TDOP Payload Assembly, must be completed, but may be performed in any order as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Transport trailer operations, package loading and unloading from transport trailers, hoisting and rigging activities such as ACGLF operations, equipment checkout and shutdown, and component inspection activities must be performed, but may be performed in any order and in parallel with other activities as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Steps involving OCA/ICV lid removal/installation and payload removal/loading may be performed in parallel if there are multiple operators working on the same packaging. Steps involving removal/installation of OCV/ICV upper and lower main O-rings must be performed in sequence, except as noted.

  17. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2008-09-11

    This document provides the user with instructions for assembling a payload. All the steps in Subsections 1.2, Preparing 55-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.3, Preparing "Short" 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT); 1.4, Preparing "Tall" 85-gallon Drum Payload Assembly (HalfPACT only); 1.5, Preparing 100-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.6, Preparing SWB Payload Assembly; and 1.7, Preparing TDOP Payload Assembly, must be completed, but may be performed in any order as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Transport trailer operations, package loading and unloading from transport trailers, hoisting and rigging activities such as ACGLF operations, equipment checkout and shutdown, and component inspection activities must be performed, but may be performed in any order and in parallel with other activities as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Steps involving OCA/ICV lid removal/installation and payload removal/loading may be performed in parallel if there are multiple operators working on the same packaging. Steps involving removal/installation of OCV/ICV upper and lower main O-rings must be performed in sequence.

  18. Signal processor packaging design

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarley, Paul L.; Phipps, Mickie A.

    1993-10-01

    The Signal Processor Packaging Design (SPPD) program was a technology development effort to demonstrate that a miniaturized, high throughput programmable processor could be fabricated to meet the stringent environment imposed by high speed kinetic energy guided interceptor and missile applications. This successful program culminated with the delivery of two very small processors, each about the size of a large pin grid array package. Rockwell International's Tactical Systems Division in Anaheim, California developed one of the processors, and the other was developed by Texas Instruments' (TI) Defense Systems and Electronics Group (DSEG) of Dallas, Texas. The SPPD program was sponsored by the Guided Interceptor Technology Branch of the Air Force Wright Laboratory's Armament Directorate (WL/MNSI) at Eglin AFB, Florida and funded by SDIO's Interceptor Technology Directorate (SDIO/TNC). These prototype processors were subjected to rigorous tests of their image processing capabilities, and both successfully demonstrated the ability to process 128 X 128 infrared images at a frame rate of over 100 Hz.

  19. Minimising protein oxidation in retail-packed minced beef using three-gas MA-packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanos, Dimitrios; Baussa Cano, Laura; Baron, Caroline P.;

    Minced beef is usually packed in high oxygen modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with a gas mixture consisting of 70-80% oxygen (O2) and 20-30% carbon dioxide (CO2). Unfortunately, this results in rubbery and less juicy beef patties with a more rancid flavour compared with fresh or nonoxygen packed...... beef. To establish whether three-gas MAP (O2, CO2 and N2), instead of two-gas MAP (O2 and CO2), would affect sensory attributes, shelf life, protein and lipid oxidation, minced beef was packed in MAP with either 40%, 50% or 80% O2 and 20% or 40% CO2 with N2 as filler gas. When comparing traditional MA....... However, this was not sensorially detectable in the first five days of storage. To maintain shelf life, packaging in 50% O2 + 40% CO2 + 10% N2 or 80% O2 + 20% CO2 is preferable, although this gas mixture will not prevent lipid or protein oxidation in the meat....

  20. Potential of polymeric materials for packaging; L'impiego dei materiali polimerici nell'imballaggio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanchi, M. [ENEA, Divisione Nuovi Materiali, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    Packaging preserves different kind of materials, from raw materials, and it plays an important role in the presentation of the products to the market, too. That's why packaging should be in charge of responding to marketing requirements by means of a proper design, effective colour choice and material, etc. Nowadays packaging is becoming more and more important in different fields. In Italy, it is a rapid growth of the packaging market and the companies involved are very competitive and efficient, in particular in some market segments. Concerning the application fields it can be asserted that packaging is mostly exploited in the food market which represents the 65% of the whole packaging market. Nearly all types of packaging use plastics as a part of their construction: lightness, chemical inertness, corrosion resistance, molding attitude, the good transparency to light, sound and mechanical insulation, etc. Focusing the attention to the horticultural market, growth in South of Italy in particular, examples of promising research fields to date are: developing of good barrier performance films; developing of suitable modified atmosphere packaging; developing of active plastic films, such as antimicrobic films or antioxidant films. The large amount of plastic films used for packaging create a large waste problem. This can be reduced by: optimising packaging design, avoiding the excessive use of plastics; improvising strength, moisture and heat stability per unit weight in order to reduce plastic waste volume; developing blend of plastics and bio-based polymer in order to increase the biodegradability of packaging after use. [Italian] L'imballaggio e' un prodotto adibito a contenere e a proteggere determinate merci, dalle materie prime ai prodotti finiti, a consentire la loro manipolazione e ad assicurare la loro presentazione. E' una realta' importante del mondo della produzione, delle strutture distributive e della vita quotidiana. Nell

  1. Effects of Plastic Box Modified Atmosphere Storage on the Antioxidant System of Fresh-cut Fuji Apple%箱式气调贮藏对鲜切富士苹果抗氧化系统的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜爱丽; 胡文忠; 代喆; 田密霞; 刘程惠

    2011-01-01

    以富士苹果为试材,研究了鲜切富士苹果在5℃的5%O2+5%CO:或5%02+10%CO2箱式气调贮藏条件下抗氧化系统的变化情况。每3d测定1次酶促防御系统的酶活性和非酶促防御系统的抗氧化物质的含量,并测定呼吸速率、腐烂率和褐交情况。结果表明:与对照相比,2种CO2浓度的箱武气调贮藏条件均可启动酶促防御系统,使过氧化物酶(POD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)和超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)的活性得到提高,同时也加速了非酶促防御系统抗氧化物质的消耗,降低了总酚和Vc含量以及贮藏中后期的还原型谷胱甘肽(GSH)含量。2种浓度的CO2处理可有效减慢呼吸速率,抑制腐烂的发生并有效降低褐变程度,其中5%0:+5%CO2更有利于鲜切富士苹果褐交的控制,而5%0,+10%CO2更有利于抑制腐烂。%In order to determine the effects of plastic box modified atmosphere storage on the antioxidant system of fresh-cut Fuji apple, the condition of 5% 02 +5% C02 and 5% 02 + 10% CO= atmosphere at 5℃ were established in this experiment. Meanwhile, the activity of enzymatic defense system, the concentration of non - enzyme antioxidants as well as respiration rate, rot rate and browning degree were measured every 3 d. The results indicated that two kinds of plastic box modified atmosphere with high CO2 were all able to start the enzymatic defense system. There- fore, not only the peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were increased, but the consumption of antioxidant in non-enzymatic defense system were also accelerate. The total phenolics, Vc and reduced glutathione (GSH) content were decreased. Moreover, 5 % 02 + 5 % CO2 and 5 % 02 +10 % C02 effectively slowed down the respiration rate, inhibited the occurrence of decay and reduced the degree of browning. Apples stored with 5 % 02 +5 % CO2 was better in

  2. Polylactide nanocomposites for packaging materials: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiastuti, Indah

    2016-02-01

    This review aims at highlighting on an attempt for improving the properties of polylactide (PLA) as packaging material by application of nanocomposite technology. PLA is attracting considerable interest because of more eco-friendliness from its origin as contrast to the petrochemical-based polymers and its biodegradability. Despite possessing good mechanical and optical properties, deterioration of the material properties in PLA materials during their service time could occur after prolonged exposure to humidity and high temperature condition. Limited gas barrier is another drawback of PLA material that should be overcome to satisfy the requirement for packaging application. To further extend the range of mechanical and thermal properties achievable, several attempts have been made in modifying the material such as blending with other polymers, use of plasticizing material and development of PLA nanocomposites. Nanocomposite is a fairly new type of composite that has emerged in which the reinforcing filler has nanometer scale dimensions (at least one dimension of the filler is less than 100 nm). In this review, the critical properties of PLA as packaging materials and its degradation mechanism are presented. This paper discusses the current effort and key research challenges in the development of nanocomposites based on biodegradable polymer matrices and nano-fillers. The PLA layered silicate nanocomposites where the filler platelets can be dispersed in the polymer at the nanometer scale owing to the specific filler surface modification, frequently exhibits remarkable improvements of mechanical strength, gas barrier and thermal stability.

  3. IN-PACKAGE CHEMISTRY ABSTRACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Thomas

    2005-07-14

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for Postclosure Waste Form Modeling'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173246]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as a function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model, which uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model, which is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials, and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed (CDSP) waste packages containing high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor diffusing into the waste package, and (2) seepage water entering the waste package as a liquid from the drift. (1) Vapor-Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H{sub 2}O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Liquid-Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package.

  4. Bioderadable Polymers in Food Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    P.A.Pawar

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a marked increase in the interest in use of biodegradable materials in packaging. The principal function of packaging is protection and preservation of food from external contamination. This function involves retardation of deterioration, extension of shelf life, and maintenance of quality and safety of packaged food. Biodegradable polymers are the one which fulfill all these functions without causing any threat to the environment. The belief is that biodegrada...

  5. Creating R Packages: A Tutorial

    OpenAIRE

    Leisch, Friedrich

    2008-01-01

    This tutorial gives a practical introduction to creating R packages. We discuss how object oriented programming and S formulas can be used to give R code the usual look and feel, how to start a package from a collection of R functions, and how to test the code once the package has been created. As running example we use functions for standard linear regression analysis which are developed from scratch.

  6. Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP): ATMX-500 Railcar nuclear packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, J.F. Peterson, J.B.; Edling, D.A.; Blauvelt, R.K.

    1977-07-08

    A Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) is described that makes available to all potential users the technical specifications and limits pertinent to the modification and use of the ATMX Railcars for which the Department of Transportation has issued Special Permit No. 5948. The SARP includes discussions of structural integrity, thermal resistance, radiation shielding and radiological safety, nuclear criticality safety, and quality control. Much of the information was previously published in a similar report. A complte physical and technical description of the package is presented. The packaging cnsists of a specially modified ATMX Series 500 Railcar loaded with DOT Specification steel drums or fiberglass coated plywood boxes. The results of the nuclear criticality safety analysis provide the maximum quantities of each fissile isotope which may be shipped as Fissile Class I in 30- and 55-gal drums. A limit of 5 g/ft/sup 3/ was established for wooden boxes. Design and development considerations regarding the packaging concept and modification of the ATMX-500 Railcar are presented. Tables, dimensional sketches, sequential photographs of the structural modifications, technical references, loading and shipping guidelines, and results of Mound Laboratory's experience in using this container are included. An internal review of this SARP was performed in compliance with the requirements of ERDA Manual Chapter 5201-Part V.

  7. Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP): ATMX-500 Railcar nuclear packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, J.F. Peterson, J.B.; Edling, D.A.; Blauvelt, R.K.

    1977-07-08

    A Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) is described that makes available to all potential users the technical specifications and limits pertinent to the modification and use of the ATMX Railcars for which the Department of Transportation has issued Special Permit No. 5948. The SARP includes discussions of structural integrity, thermal resistance, radiation shielding and radiological safety, nuclear criticality safety, and quality control. Much of the information was previously published in a similar report. A complte physical and technical description of the package is presented. The packaging cnsists of a specially modified ATMX Series 500 Railcar loaded with DOT Specification steel drums or fiberglass coated plywood boxes. The results of the nuclear criticality safety analysis provide the maximum quantities of each fissile isotope which may be shipped as Fissile Class I in 30- and 55-gal drums. A limit of 5 g/ft/sup 3/ was established for wooden boxes. Design and development considerations regarding the packaging concept and modification of the ATMX-500 Railcar are presented. Tables, dimensional sketches, sequential photographs of the structural modifications, technical references, loading and shipping guidelines, and results of Mound Laboratory's experience in using this container are included. An internal review of this SARP was performed in compliance with the requirements of ERDA Manual Chapter 5201-Part V.

  8. About the ZOOM minimization package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischler, M.; Sachs, D.; /Fermilab

    2004-11-01

    A new object-oriented Minimization package is available for distribution in the same manner as CLHEP. This package, designed for use in HEP applications, has all the capabilities of Minuit, but is a re-write from scratch, adhering to modern C++ design principles. A primary goal of this package is extensibility in several directions, so that its capabilities can be kept fresh with as little maintenance effort as possible. This package is distinguished by the priority that was assigned to C++ design issues, and the focus on producing an extensible system that will resist becoming obsolete.

  9. Controlled temperature grinding under modified atmosphere for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Raw almonds are composed mainly of fats (approx. 50%) and proteins (approx. ... The study involved the analysis of six different local cultivars based upon the main nutritional ... Keywords: Almonds; Food Processing Aspects; Lipid Oxidation

  10. Packaging Design Criteria for the Steel Waste Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOEHNKE, W.M.

    2000-10-19

    This packaging design criteria provides the criteria for the design, fabrication, safety evaluation, and use of the steel waste package (SWP) to transport remote-handled waste and special-case waste from the 324 facility to Central Waste Complex (CWC) for interim storage.

  11. Electronic equipment packaging technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ginsberg, Gerald L

    1992-01-01

    The last twenty years have seen major advances in the electronics industry. Perhaps the most significant aspect of these advances has been the significant role that electronic equipment plays in almost all product markets. Even though electronic equipment is used in a broad base of applications, many future applications have yet to be conceived. This versatility of electron­ ics has been brought about primarily by the significant advances that have been made in integrated circuit technology. The electronic product user is rarely aware of the integrated circuits within the equipment. However, the user is often very aware of the size, weight, mod­ ularity, maintainability, aesthetics, and human interface features of the product. In fact, these are aspects of the products that often are instrumental in deter­ mining its success or failure in the marketplace. Optimizing these and other product features is the primary role of Electronic Equipment Packaging Technology. As the electronics industry continues to pr...

  12. Tritium waste package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossmassler, Rich; Ciebiera, Lloyd; Tulipano, Francis J.; Vinson, Sylvester; Walters, R. Thomas

    1995-01-01

    A containment and waste package system for processing and shipping tritium xide waste received from a process gas includes an outer drum and an inner drum containing a disposable molecular sieve bed (DMSB) seated within outer drum. The DMSB includes an inlet diffuser assembly, an outlet diffuser assembly, and a hydrogen catalytic recombiner. The DMSB absorbs tritium oxide from the process gas and converts it to a solid form so that the tritium is contained during shipment to a disposal site. The DMSB is filled with type 4A molecular sieve pellets capable of adsorbing up to 1000 curies of tritium. The recombiner contains a sufficient amount of catalyst to cause any hydrogen add oxygen present in the process gas to recombine to form water vapor, which is then adsorbed onto the DMSB.

  13. VMSbase: an R-package for VMS and logbook data management and analysis in fisheries ecology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Russo

    Full Text Available VMSbase is an R package devised to manage, process and visualize information about fishing vessels activity (provided by the vessel monitoring system--VMS and catches/landings (as reported in the logbooks. VMSbase is primarily conceived to be user-friendly; to this end, a suite of state-of-the-art analyses is accessible via a graphical interface. In addition, the package uses a database platform allowing large datasets to be stored, managed and processed vey efficiently. Methodologies include data cleaning, that is removal of redundant or evidently erroneous records, and data enhancing, that is interpolation and merging with external data sources. In particular, VMSbase is able to estimate sea bottom depth for single VMS pings using an on-line connection to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA database. It also allows VMS pings to be assigned to whatever geographic partitioning has been selected by users. Standard analyses comprise: 1 métier identification (using a modified CLARA clustering approach on Logbook data or Artificial Neural Networks on VMS data; 2 linkage between VMS and Logbook records, with the former organized into fishing trips; 3 discrimination between steaming and fishing points; 4 computation of spatial effort with respect to user-selected grids; 5 calculation of standard fishing effort indicators within Data Collection Framework; 6 a variety of mapping tools, including an interface for Google viewer; 7 estimation of trawled area. Here we report a sample workflow for the accessory sample datasets (available with the package in order to explore the potentialities of VMSbase. In addition, the results of some performance tests on two large datasets (1×10(5 and 1×10(6 VMS signals, respectively are reported to inform about the time required for the analyses. The results, although merely illustrative, indicate that VMSbase can represent a step forward in extracting and enhancing information from VMS

  14. VMSbase: an R-package for VMS and logbook data management and analysis in fisheries ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Tommaso; D'Andrea, Lorenzo; Parisi, Antonio; Cataudella, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    VMSbase is an R package devised to manage, process and visualize information about fishing vessels activity (provided by the vessel monitoring system--VMS) and catches/landings (as reported in the logbooks). VMSbase is primarily conceived to be user-friendly; to this end, a suite of state-of-the-art analyses is accessible via a graphical interface. In addition, the package uses a database platform allowing large datasets to be stored, managed and processed vey efficiently. Methodologies include data cleaning, that is removal of redundant or evidently erroneous records, and data enhancing, that is interpolation and merging with external data sources. In particular, VMSbase is able to estimate sea bottom depth for single VMS pings using an on-line connection to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) database. It also allows VMS pings to be assigned to whatever geographic partitioning has been selected by users. Standard analyses comprise: 1) métier identification (using a modified CLARA clustering approach on Logbook data or Artificial Neural Networks on VMS data); 2) linkage between VMS and Logbook records, with the former organized into fishing trips; 3) discrimination between steaming and fishing points; 4) computation of spatial effort with respect to user-selected grids; 5) calculation of standard fishing effort indicators within Data Collection Framework; 6) a variety of mapping tools, including an interface for Google viewer; 7) estimation of trawled area. Here we report a sample workflow for the accessory sample datasets (available with the package) in order to explore the potentialities of VMSbase. In addition, the results of some performance tests on two large datasets (1×10(5) and 1×10(6) VMS signals, respectively) are reported to inform about the time required for the analyses. The results, although merely illustrative, indicate that VMSbase can represent a step forward in extracting and enhancing information from VMS/logbook data

  15. Monitoring of microbial metabolites and bacterial diversity in beef stored under different packaging conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercolini, Danilo; Ferrocino, Ilario; Nasi, Antonella; Ndagijimana, Maurice; Vernocchi, Pamela; La Storia, Antonietta; Laghi, Luca; Mauriello, Gianluigi; Guerzoni, M Elisabetta; Villani, Francesco

    2011-10-01

    Beef chops were stored at 4°C under different conditions: in air (A), modified-atmosphere packaging (MAP), vacuum packaging (V), or bacteriocin-activated antimicrobial packaging (AV). After 0 to 45 days of storage, analyses were performed to determine loads of spoilage microorganisms, microbial metabolites (by solid-phase microextraction [SPME]-gas chromatography [GC]-mass spectrometry [MS] and proton nuclear magnetic resonance [(1)H NMR]), and microbial diversity (by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis [DGGE] and pyrosequencing). The microbiological shelf life of meat increased with increasing selectivity of storage conditions. Culture-independent analysis by pyrosequencing of DNA extracted directly from meat showed that Brochothrix thermosphacta dominated during the early stages of storage in A and MAP, while Pseudomonas spp. took over during further storage in A. Many different bacteria, several of which are usually associated with soil rather than meat, were identified in V and AV; however, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) dominated during the late phases of storage, and Carnobacterium divergens was the most frequent microorganism in AV. Among the volatile metabolites, butanoic acid was associated with the growth of LAB under V and AV storage conditions, while acetoin was related to the other spoilage microbial groups and storage conditions. (1)H NMR analysis showed that storage in air was associated with decreases in lactate, glycogen, IMP, and ADP levels and with selective increases in levels of 3-methylindole, betaine, creatine, and other amino acids. The meat microbiota is significantly affected by storage conditions, and its changes during storage determine complex shifts in the metabolites produced, with a potential impact on meat quality.

  16. Improved shelf life of dried Beauveria bassiana blastospores using convective drying and active packaging processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarin, Gabriel Moura; Jackson, Mark A; Behle, Robert W; Kobori, Nilce N; Júnior, Ítalo Delalibera

    2016-10-01

    The yeast form (blastospore) of the dimorphic insect-pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana can be rapidly produced using liquid fermentation methods but is generally unable to survive rapid dehydration processes or storage under non-refrigerated conditions. In this study, we evaluated the influence of two convective drying methods, various modified atmosphere packaging systems, and storage temperatures on the desiccation tolerance, storage stability, and virulence of blastospores of B. bassiana ESALQ 1432. All blastospore formulations were dried to <5 % water content equivalent to aw < 0.3. The viability of B. bassiana blastospores after air drying and spray drying was greater than 80 %. Vacuum-packaged blastospores remained viable longer when stored at 4 °C compared with 28 °C with virtually no loss in viability over 9 months regardless the drying method. When both oxygen and moisture scavengers were added to sealed packages of dried blastospore formulations stored at 28 °C, viability was significantly prolonged for both air- and spray-dried blastospores. The addition of ascorbic acid during spray drying did not improve desiccation tolerance but enhanced cell stability (∼twofold higher half-life) when stored at 28 °C. After storage for 4 months at 28 °C, air-dried blastospores produced a lower LC80 and resulted in higher mortality to whitefly nymphs (Bemisia tabaci) when compared with spray-dried blastospores. These studies identified key storage conditions (low aw and oxygen availability) that improved blastospore storage stability at 28 °C and will facilitate the commercial development of blastospores-based bioinsecticides.

  17. Solar water heater design package

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Package describes commercial domestic-hot-water heater with roof or rack mounted solar collectors. System is adjustable to pre-existing gas or electric hot-water house units. Design package includes drawings, description of automatic control logic, evaluation measurements, possible design variations, list of materials and installation tools, and trouble-shooting guide and manual.

  18. Oral Hygiene. Learning Activity Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hime, Kirsten

    This learning activity package on oral hygiene is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics…

  19. 49 CFR 173.411 - Industrial packagings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Industrial packagings. 173.411 Section 173.411... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.411 Industrial packagings. (a) General. Each industrial packaging must comply with the requirements of this section which specifies packaging tests,...

  20. 19 CFR 191.13 - Packaging materials.