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Sample records for moderate reflux esophagitis

  1. Gastroesophageal reflux after esophageal surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Osamu; Yokoi, Hideki; Maebeya, Shinji

    1989-01-01

    By means of esophageal transit scintigram using 99m Tc-DTPA, 15 patients (13 esophageal carcinomas and 2 cardia carcinomas) were studied, in whom esophagogastric anastomosis was done according to the posterior invagination anastomosis technique we had devised. In all 8 patients with anastomosis at cervical region, gastroesophageal reflux was not seen on both scintigrams before and after meals, and the average pressure gradient of high pressure zone at anastomosis was 39.8 cmH 2 O. In 2 of 7 patients with intrathoracic anastomosis, the scintigram before meals showed severe reflux. and the endoscopic findings showed diffuse and moderate erosion in the esophageal mucosa. The average pressure gradient across the anastomosis was 6.5 cmH 2 O. In these 2 patients, the new fornix with a sharp angle of His was not formed. In the remaining 5 patients with intrathoracic anastomosis, reflux was not seen on the scintigram before meals. However, in 2 of them, the scintigram after meal and endoscopic examination revealed mild reflux and mild esophagitis respectively. Furthermore in one patient very mild reflux was observed only on the scintigram after meals but the endoscopic findings showed the normal esophageal mucosa. In these 5 patients, the average pressure gradient across the anastomosis was 17.0 cmH 2 O, which was significantly higher (p<0.01) than that in 2 patients with severe reflux and was significantly lower (p<0.01) than the mean value of high pressure zone in 8 patients with cervical anastomosis. In conclusion, it is presumed that the formation of a large fornix enough to store food and a sharp angle of His are important factors in maintaining an anti-reflux mechanism. The esophageal transit scintigram was proved to be an excellent technique in detecting and evaluating quantitatively gastroesophageal reflux. (author)

  2. Reflux esophagitis revisited: Prospective analysis of radiologic accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, D.J.; Gelfand, D.W.; Wu, W.C.

    1981-01-01

    A prospective radiologic-endoscopic study of the esophagogastric region in 266 patients, including 206 normals and 60 with esophagitis, is reported. The endoscopic classification grading severity of esophagitis was grade 1-normal; grades 2. 3. and 4-mild, moderate, and severe esophagitis, respectively. Radiology detected 22% of patient with mild esophagitis, 83% with moderate esophagitis, and 95% with severe esophagitis. Although hiatal hernia was present in 40% of normals and 89% with esophagitis, absence of radiographic hiatal hernia excluded esophagitis with 95% accuracy. The implications of this study regarding the role of radiology in evaluating patient with suspected reflux esophagitis are discussed. (orig.) [de

  3. [Esophageal motor function of gastroesophageal reflux disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Tian, Yuan; Ding, Yan

    2010-08-01

    To study the relationship between esophageal motor functional disorder [decreased lower esophageal sphincter pressure (LESP)and ineffective motility (IEM)] and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Totally 89 patients with GERD were enrolled in this study. All of them underwent 24-hour pH monitoring with dual-channel probe and stationary esophageal manometry. In addition, 77 of these patients underwent upper endoscopy. IEM and LES, 10 mmHg were common disturbances in patients with GERD (54% and 48%, respectively). The number of the acid reflux events of distal esophagus and prevalence of moderate or severe erosive esophagitis (EE) were significantly higher in patients with low LESP and IEM than patients without low LESP ( Pesophagus was significantly correlated with the severity of esophagitis, distal esophagus amplitude, and LESP, while no such correlation was found between IEM and degree of esophageal acid exposure or esophagitis. The pathophysiology of GERD is probably multifactorial. Lower LESP or IEM is not a independent pathophysiological factor for GERD. However,one single factor is insufficient to explain all the pathogenic mechanism of GERD.

  4. Pediatric GERD (Gastro-Esophageal Reflux Disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Pediatric GERD (Gastro-Esophageal Reflux Disease) Pediatric GERD (Gastro-Esophageal ... What symptoms are displayed by a child with GERD? While GER and EER in children often cause ...

  5. Gastro-esophageal reflux time parameters and esophagitis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baulieu, F.; Baulieu, J.; Maurage, C.; Casset, D.; Itti, R.

    1985-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the correlation between the reflux timing and the presence of esophagitis, an inconstant but serious complication of gastro-esophageal reflux (GER). The hypothesis was that reflux occurring late after meal can be incriminated more than early reflux in esophagitis genesis. 32 children with GER (mean age = 10.5 months, 2 to 30 months) had esophagoscopy and scintigraphy in the same week. The children were classified in two groups according to esophagoscopy: group 1 (n = 18) no esophagitis, group 2 (n = 14) esophaqgitis. The scintigraphy involved the ingestion of 0.5 mCi Tc-99m sulfur colloid milk mixture, followed by esophageal and gastric activity recording (one image per minute for 1 hour). The reflux was assessed from contrast enhanced images and esophageal time activity curves. Reflux intensity was quantitated by reflux index (Re). Mean reflux time was calculated as the mean esophageal activity peaks time (t-bar). Finally a composite parameter was calculated as the mean reflux time weighted by the relative intensity of each reflux peak (t-barw). Re was not found to be different between the two groups. t-bar was significantly higher in group 2: t-bar = 29.6 +- 3.0 mn (mean +- SD) than in group 1: t-bar = 24.5 +- 6.8 mn; rho <0.02. The difference between the two groups was enhanced by intensity weighting: group 1: t-barw = 16.6 +- 6.3 mn, group 2: t-barw = 33.5 +- 7.1 mn rho <0.001. t-barw value was not correlated to esophagitis grade. These results suggest that late reflux is more likely responsible of esophagitis

  6. Esophageal motility abnormalities in gastroesophageal reflux disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinucci, Irene; de Bortoli, Nicola; Giacchino, Maria; Bodini, Giorgia; Marabotto, Elisa; Marchi, Santino; Savarino, Vincenzo; Savarino, Edoardo

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal motility abnormalities are among the main factors implicated in the pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease. The recent introduction in clinical and research practice of novel esophageal testing has markedly improved our understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease, allowing a better management of patients with this disorder. In this context, the present article intends to provide an overview of the current literature about esophageal motility dysfunctions in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Esophageal manometry, by recording intraluminal pressure, represents the gold standard to diagnose esophageal motility abnormalities. In particular, using novel techniques, such as high resolution manometry with or without concurrent intraluminal impedance monitoring, transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxations, hypotensive LES, ineffective esophageal peristalsis and bolus transit abnormalities have been better defined and strongly implicated in gastroesophageal reflux disease development. Overall, recent findings suggest that esophageal motility abnormalities are increasingly prevalent with increasing severity of reflux disease, from non-erosive reflux disease to erosive reflux disease and Barrett’s esophagus. Characterizing esophageal dysmotility among different subgroups of patients with reflux disease may represent a fundamental approach to properly diagnose these patients and, thus, to set up the best therapeutic management. Currently, surgery represents the only reliable way to restore the esophagogastric junction integrity and to reduce transient LES relaxations that are considered to be the predominant mechanism by which gastric contents can enter the esophagus. On that ground, more in depth future studies assessing the pathogenetic role of dysmotility in patients with reflux disease are warranted. PMID:24868489

  7. Reflux esophagitis and gastroesophageal reflux disease: a cross-sectional study of gastroesophageal reflux disease patients by age group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora Filho Rowilson

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between the intensity of acid reflux and severity of esophageal tissue damage in a cross-sectional study of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD. Seventy-eight patients with were selected in accordance with the strict 24-hour ambulatory esophageal pHmetry (24h-pHM criteria and distributed into three age groups: Group A: 14 - 24 years of age. Group B: 25 - 54; and Group C: 55 - 64. The 24h-pHM was carried out in accordance with DeMeester standardization, and the Savary-Miller classification for the diagnosis of reflux esophagitis was used. The groups were similar in 24h-pHM parameters (p > 0.05, having above normal values. For the study group as a whole, there was no correlation between age group and intensity of acid reflux, and there was no correlation between intensity of acid reflux and severity of esophageal tissue damage. However, when the same patients were sub-grouped in accordance with the depth of their epithelial injury and then distributed into age groups, there was a significant difference in esophagitis without epithelial discontinuity. Younger patients had less epithelial damage than older patients. Additionally, although there was a significant progression from the least severe to the moderate stages of epithelial damage among the age groups, there was no apparent difference among the age groups in the distribution between the moderate stages and most severe stages. The findings support the conclusion that the protective response of individuals to acid reflux varies widely. Continued aggression by acid reflux appears to lead to the exhaustion of individual mechanisms of epithelial protection in some patients, but not others, regardless of age or duration of the disease. Therefore, the diagnosis and follow-up of GERD should include both measurements of the quantity of refluxed acid and an assessment of the damage to the esophageal epithelium.

  8. Gastroesophageal scintigraphy and endoscopy in the diagnosis of esophageal reflux and esophagitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fung, W.P.; Van der Schaaf, A.; Grieve, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    The value of gastroesophageal (G/E) scintigraphy in the diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux was assessed in 51 subjects, who presented with heartburn and had endoscopic evidence of reflux esophagitis. G/E scintigraphy was done using /sup 99m/Tc sulfur-colloid in acidified orange juice. The G/E reflux index was calculated according to previous reports. The mean (+/- SD) G/E reflux index in 18 patients with severe esophagitis and 30 patients with moderate esophagitis were 1.6% (+/- 1.5) and 3.2% (+/- 5.0), respectively. The mean G/E reflux index in 14 control subjects was 2.4% (+/- 1.1). There was no significant difference between the esophagitis and control groups. Furthermore, if 4% was taken as upper limit of normal, this will include almost all the esophagitis patients and controls. It is concluded that the G/E reflux index based on G/E scintigraphy is of little value in the diagnosis of G/E reflux

  9. Gastroesophageal scintigraphy and endoscopy in the diagnosis of esophageal reflux and esophagitis

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    Fung, W.P.; Van der Schaaf, A.; Grieve, J.C.

    1985-04-01

    The value of gastroesophageal (G/E) scintigraphy in the diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux was assessed in 51 subjects, who presented with heartburn and had endoscopic evidence of reflux esophagitis. G/E scintigraphy was done using /sup 99m/Tc sulfur-colloid in acidified orange juice. The G/E reflux index was calculated according to previous reports. The mean (+/- SD) G/E reflux index in 18 patients with severe esophagitis and 30 patients with moderate esophagitis were 1.6% (+/- 1.5) and 3.2% (+/- 5.0), respectively. The mean G/E reflux index in 14 control subjects was 2.4% (+/- 1.1). There was no significant difference between the esophagitis and control groups. Furthermore, if 4% was taken as upper limit of normal, this will include almost all the esophagitis patients and controls. It is concluded that the G/E reflux index based on G/E scintigraphy is of little value in the diagnosis of G/E reflux.

  10. Quantitation of esophageal transit and gastroesophageal reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malmud, L.S.; Fisher, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    Scintigraphic techniques are the only quantitative methods for the evaluation of esophageal transit and gastroesophageal reflux. By comparison, other techniques are not quantitative and are either indirect, inconvenient, or less sensitive. Methods, such as perfusion techniques, which measure flow, require the introduction of a tube assembly into the gastrointestinal tract with the possible introduction of artifacts into the measurements due to the indwelling tubes. Earlier authors using radionuclide markers, introduced a method for measuring gastric emptying which was both tubeless and quantitative in comparison to other techniques. More recently, a number of scintigraphic methods have been introduced for the quantitation of esophageal transit and clearance, the detection and quantitation of gastroesophageal reflux, the measurement of gastric emptying using a mixed solid-liquid meal, and the quantitation of enterogastric reflux. This chapter reviews current techniques for the evaluation of esophageal transit and gastroesophageal reflux

  11. Esophageal abnormalities in gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Marc S; Carucci, Laura R

    2018-06-01

    Fluoroscopic esophagography is a widely available, safe, and inexpensive test for detecting gastroesophageal reflux disease. In this article, we review the technique for performing a high-quality esophagram, including upright, double-contrast views of the esophagus and cardia with high-density barium; prone, single-contrast views of the esophagus with low-density barium; and evaluation of gastroesophageal reflux. We then discuss the radiographic findings associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease, including esophageal dysmotility, reflux esophagitis, peptic strictures, and Barrett's esophagus. Finally, we consider the differential diagnosis for the various radiographic findings associated with this condition. When carefully performed and interpreted, the esophagram is a useful test for evaluating gastroesophageal reflux disease and its complications.

  12. Gastro-Esophageal Reflux in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rybak

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Gastro-esophageal reflux (GER is common in infants and children and has a varied clinical presentation: from infants with innocent regurgitation to infants and children with severe esophageal and extra-esophageal complications that define pathological gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD. Although the pathophysiology is similar to that of adults, symptoms of GERD in infants and children are often distinct from classic ones such as heartburn. The passage of gastric contents into the esophagus is a normal phenomenon occurring many times a day both in adults and children, but, in infants, several factors contribute to exacerbate this phenomenon, including a liquid milk-based diet, recumbent position and both structural and functional immaturity of the gastro-esophageal junction. This article focuses on the presentation, diagnosis and treatment of GERD that occurs in infants and children, based on available and current guidelines.

  13. Gastro-Esophageal Reflux in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybak, Anna; Pesce, Marcella; Thapar, Nikhil; Borrelli, Osvaldo

    2017-08-01

    Gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) is common in infants and children and has a varied clinical presentation: from infants with innocent regurgitation to infants and children with severe esophageal and extra-esophageal complications that define pathological gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). Although the pathophysiology is similar to that of adults, symptoms of GERD in infants and children are often distinct from classic ones such as heartburn. The passage of gastric contents into the esophagus is a normal phenomenon occurring many times a day both in adults and children, but, in infants, several factors contribute to exacerbate this phenomenon, including a liquid milk-based diet, recumbent position and both structural and functional immaturity of the gastro-esophageal junction. This article focuses on the presentation, diagnosis and treatment of GERD that occurs in infants and children, based on available and current guidelines.

  14. Gastroesophageal reflux after esophageal surgery. Evaluation by means of esophageal transit scintigram

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    Nishimura, Osamu; Yokoi, Hideki; Maebeya, Shinji and others

    1989-04-01

    By means of esophageal transit scintigram using /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA, 15 patients (13 esophageal carcinomas and 2 cardia carcinomas) were studied, in whom esophagogastric anastomosis was done according to the posterior invagination anastomosis technique we had devised. In all 8 patients with anastomosis at cervical region, gastroesophageal reflux was not seen on both scintigrams before and after meals, and the average pressure gradient of high pressure zone at anastomosis was 39.8 cmH/sub 2/O. In 2 of 7 patients with intrathoracic anastomosis, the scintigram before meals showed severe reflux. and the endoscopic findings showed diffuse and moderate erosion in the esophageal mucosa. The average pressure gradient across the anastomosis was 6.5 cmH/sub 2/O. In these 2 patients, the new fornix with a sharp angle of His was not formed. In the remaining 5 patients with intrathoracic anastomosis, reflux was not seen on the scintigram before meals. However, in 2 of them, the scintigram after meal and endoscopic examination revealed mild reflux and mild esophagitis respectively. Furthermore in one patient very mild reflux was observed only on the scintigram after meals but the endoscopic findings showed the normal esophageal mucosa. In these 5 patients, the average pressure gradient across the anastomosis was 17.0 cmH/sub 2/O, which was significantly higher (p<0.01) than that in 2 patients with severe reflux and was significantly lower (p<0.01) than the mean value of high pressure zone in 8 patients with cervical anastomosis. In conclusion, it is presumed that the formation of a large fornix enough to store food and a sharp angle of His are important factors in maintaining an anti-reflux mechanism. The esophageal transit scintigram was proved to be an excellent technique in detecting and evaluating quantitatively gastroesophageal reflux. (author).

  15. The Role of Esophageal PH-metri Test on Gastro-Esophageal Reflux Disease Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Setyawati, Katharina; Abdullah, Murdani; Syam, Ari Fahrial; Fauzi, Achmad; Makmun, Dadang; Simadibrata, Marcellus; Manan, Chudahman; Rani, Abdul Aziz

    2008-01-01

    Gastro-esophageal reflux disease is a pathological condition of esophagus which is caused by gastric content reflux into esophagus. There is an increased prevalence of gastro-esophageal reflux disease. The roles of esophageal pH-metry in clinical application include looking for abnormal acid exposure on esophagus with no abnormality found in endoscopy; evaluating patients following the anti-reflux surgery who are being suspected for abnormal esophageal reflux; evaluating patients with normal ...

  16. Esophageal Sphincter Device for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganz, Robert A.; Peters, Jeffrey H.; Horgan, Santiago; Bemelman, Willem A.; Dunst, Christy M.; Edmundowicz, Steven A.; Lipham, John C.; Luketich, James D.; Melvin, W. Scott; Oelschlager, Brant K.; Schlack-Haerer, Steven C.; Smith, C. Daniel; Smith, Christopher C.; Dunn, Dan; Taiganides, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease who have a partial response to proton-pump inhibitors often seek alternative therapy. We evaluated the safety and effectiveness of a new magnetic device to augment the lower esophageal sphincter. METHODS We prospectively assessed 100 patients

  17. Radiological evaluation of esophageal motility and gastroesophageal reflux disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schima, W.; Pokieser, P.; Schober, E.

    1995-01-01

    Radiological evaluation of esophageal motility and the lower esophageal sphincter has gained increased attention in recent years. Videofluoroscopic investigation of esophageal motor function is superior to static film radiography, as repeated analysis of the videotaped recordings is possible. With emphasis on radiological techniques, normal esophagel physiology and motility and a variety of esophageal motor disorders are discussed in this review paper. Radiological evaluation of gastroesophageal reflux and reflux esophagitis is described. Clinical and radiological findings in esophageal motility disorders and gastroesophageal reflux disease and the radiological efficacy compared to that of manometry and pH-metry are discussed. (orig.) [de

  18. [Association between acid reflux and esophageal dysmotility in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Zhi-hui; Feng, Li; Wen, Mao-yao; Liu, Jian-rong; Yang, Li

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the association between esophageal motility and acid reflux in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). A total of 94 patients with typical reflux symptoms such as heartburn, regurgitation and chest pain, whose score (Sc) of reflux diagnostic questionnaire (RDQ) was greater than or equal to 12 were enrolled in the study. Each participant was evaluated by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, high resolution manometry (HRM) of esophagus and 24 h esophageal pH monitoring. The participants were divided into groups of reflux esophagitis (RE) and non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) on the basis of endoscopy findings. The 24 h esophageal pH monitoring categorized participants into physiologic reflux (pH) and pathologic reflux (pH+). The characteristics of esophageal motility and acid reflux were compared between the two groups of participants. Lower but non-significant differences (P > 0.05) were found in pressure of lower esophageal sphincter (LESP), length of lower esophageal sphincter (LESL), esophageal contraction amplitude (CA), distal contractile integral (DCI) and effective peristalsis proportion (EPP) in the participants in the RE group compared with those in the NERD group. Participants in the RE group had significantly higher prevalence of reduced LESP (63.0% vs. 31.7%, P 0.05). RE is closely associated with acid reflux and hiatus hernia. Esophageal dysmotility is more likely to appear in patients with pH+. The interaction of acid reflux and esophageal dysmotility may play a role in GERD.

  19. Association between esophageal dysmotility and gastroesophaeal reflux on barium studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Craig [Department of Radiology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Levine, Marc S. [Department of Radiology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)]. E-mail: marc.levine@uphs.upenn.edu; Rubesin, Stephen E. [Department of Radiology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Laufer, Igor [Department of Radiology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Redfern, Gina [Department of Radiology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Katzka, David A. [Department of Medicine, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2006-07-15

    Objective: To determine whether there is an association between abnormal primary peristalsis in the esophagus and gastroesophageal reflux (GER) on barium studies. Methods: A computerized search of radiologic reports revealed 151 patients with esophageal dysmotility (characterized by intermittently decreased or absent peristalsis in the esophagus on upper gastrointestinal tract examinations) who fulfilled our study's entry criteria. These 151 patients were stratified into two groups depending on whether this dysmotility was associated with nonperistaltic contractions (NPCs): 92 patients had no NPCs (Dysmotility and No NPCs Group) and 59 had NPCs (Dysmotility and NPCs Group). An age-matched control group of 92 patients with normal motility was also generated from the radiologic reports. The reports were also reviewed for the presence and degree of GER and other complications of GER. The frequency and degree of GER were tabulated for each group, and the data were analyzed using a Pearson chi square test to determine if significant differences were present in the frequency and degree of GER or other findings among the groups. Results: The frequency of GER was significantly higher in patients with abnormal peristalsis and no NPCs than in controls (p = 0.02). When GER was stratified based on the degree of reflux, the frequency of moderate-to-marked GER was significantly higher in patients with abnormal peristalsis and no NPCs than in patients with abnormal peristalsis and NPCs (p = 0.01) or in controls (p = 0.0031). The frequency of reflux esophagitis also was significantly higher in patients with abnormal peristalsis and no NPCs than in controls (p = 0.04). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that patients with esophageal dysmotility characterized by intermittently decreased or absent peristalsis without NPCs have a significantly higher frequency and degree of GER than patients with normal motility. The presence of this specific form of esophageal dysmotility on

  20. Impaired Upper Esophageal Sphincter Reflexes in Patients with Supra-Esophageal Reflux Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaei, Arash; Venu, Mukund; Naini, Sohrab Rahimi; Gonzaga, Jason; Lang, Ivan; Massey, Benson; Jadcherla, Sudarshan; Shaker, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Normal responses of the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) and esophageal body to liquid reflux events prevent esophagopharyngeal reflux and its complications, but abnormal responses have not been characterized. We investigated whether patients with supra-esophageal reflux disease (SERD) have impaired UES and esophageal body responses to simulated reflux events. Methods We performed a prospective study of 25 patients with SERD (19–82 y old, 13 female) and complaints of regurgitation and supra-esophageal manifestations of reflux. We also included 10 patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD; 32–60 y old, 7 female) without troublesome regurgitation and supra-esophageal symptoms and 24 healthy asymptomatic individuals (controls; 19–49 y old, 13 female). UES and esophageal body pressure responses, along with luminal distribution of infusate during esophageal rapid and slow infusion of air or liquid, were monitored by concurrent high-resolution manometry and intraluminal impedance. Results A significantly smaller proportion of patients with SERD had UES contractile reflexes in response to slow esophageal infusion of acid than controls or patients with GERD. Only patients with SERD had abnormal UES relaxation responses to rapid distension with saline. Diminished esophageal peristaltic contractions resulted in esophageal stasis in patients with GERD or SERD. Conclusions Patients with SERD and complaints of regurgitation have impaired UES and esophageal responses to simulated liquid reflux events. These patterns could predispose them to esophagopharyngeal reflux. PMID:26188682

  1. Two cases of esophageal eosinophilia: eosinophilic esophagitis or gastro-esophageal reflux disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Yilmaz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE and gastro-esophageal reflux disease are among the major causes of isolated esophageal eosinophilia. Isolated esophageal eosinophilia meeting criteria for EoE may respond to proton pump inhibitor (PPI treatment. This entity is termed proton pumps inhibitor responsive esophageal eosinophilia (PPI-REE. Gastro-esophageal reflux is thought to comprise a subgroup of patients with PPI-REE. According to the latest guidelines, PPI responsiveness distinguishes people with PPI-REE from patients having EoE (non-responders. In this report, two unusual cases with findings belonging to both EoE and PPI-REE are discussed with known and unknown facts.

  2. Sucralfate maintenance therapy in reflux esophagitis. Sucralfate Investigational Working Team

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tytgat, G. N.; Koelz, H. R.; Vosmaer, G. D.

    1995-01-01

    to prove in a double-blind placebo-controlled multinational trial the effects of sucralfate suspension 2 g BID and placebo in the prevention of recurrent reflux esophagitis. One hundred and eighty-four patients from 16 centers with reflux esophagitis Savary grade 1 and 2 were initially healed with

  3. Laparoscopic surgery for gastro-esophageal acid reflux disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijven, Marlies P.; Gisbertz, Suzanne S.; van Berge Henegouwen, Mark I.

    2014-01-01

    Gastro-esophageal reflux disease is a troublesome disease for many patients, severely affecting their quality of life. Choice of treatment depends on a combination of patient characteristics and preferences, esophageal motility and damage of reflux, symptom severity and symptom correlation to acid

  4. Out-patient radiology in gastro-esophageal reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessi, G.; Risi, D.; Accordino, M.E.; Meli, C.; Iascone, C.

    1987-01-01

    A retrospective analysis is reported of 131 symptomatic patients for gastro-esophageal reflux, comparing the radiological diagnosis to endoscopic, manometric and pH-metric results. A low incidence of x-ray examination is found. The role of radiology in gastro-esophageal reflux is considered and discussed

  5. Mitochondrial dysfunction in children with reflux esophagitis

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    A. A. Ziganshina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate cellular energy metabolism in children with pathological gastroesophageal reflux, by determining the levels of free and bound carnitine in dry blood spot specimens and lactate and pyruvate in plasma.Characterization of children and methods. A total of 49 patients from the Diagnostic Department, Republican Children’s Clinical Hospital, Ministry of Health of the Republic of Tatarstan, were examined. A study group included 29 patients diagnosed as having reflux esophagitis. A control group consisted of 20 somatically healthy children without signs of gastrointestinal tract diseases. The investigators determined the levels of lactate and pyruvate in plasma by the Umbreit method and those of free and bound carnitine in the dried blood spot specimens by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.Results. There were significant changes in the lactate-to-pyruvate ratio in children with reflux esophagitis accompanied by motility disorders. The values of free carnitine were higher than normal in 41% of the study group representatives. The mean values of lactate, pyruvate, and carnitines were within the acceptable range in the examined groups with significantly high values in the children with pathological gastroesophageal reflux.Conclusion. Gastrointestinal tract motility disorders are an indication for the detection of  energy-deficient diathesis in children and the early correction with energy-rich medications that will potentially affect the rate of recurrences and the severity of clinical manifestations of the disease. 

  6. Esophageal transit scintigraphy and structured questionnaire in patients with systemic sclerosis with endoscopically proven reflux esophagitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Kenichi; Inaki, Anri; Hiramatsu, Takashi; Hasegawa, Minoru; Fujimoto, Manabu; Takehara, Kazuhiko; Kinuya, Seigo

    2009-01-01

    Esophageal complications are common in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). The relationship between gastroesophageal reflux (GER) symptoms and dysmotility was examined in endoscopically confirmed patients suspected of having reflux esophagitis. A total of 32 patients with limited and diffuse type SSc (lSSc, dSSc) were examined based on a structured questionnaire score (QS) of GER symptoms, retention fraction of esophageal scintigraphy at 90 s (R 90 ) and gastric emptying time. The QS was significantly higher in the reflux esophagitis group than in the non-esophagitis group (5.4±3.5, 1.4±2.9, P=0.003). When the non-esophagitis group was further divided into lSSc and dSSc groups, R 90 was higher in the reflux esophagitis group (31±18%) and the non-esophagitis group with dSSc (34±32%) than in the non-esophagitis group with lSSc (8±3%, P=0.02). Both high R 90 ≥15% and QS≥4 indicated reflux esophagitis. Conversely, both normal R 90 and QS indicated no reflux esophagitis. A combination of esophageal scintigraphy and structured questionnaire demonstrated different aspects of esophageal dysfunction, namely dysmotility and GER. Patients with high QS and dysmotility may be indicated for further evaluation including endoscopic examination and medical treatment.(author)

  7. Effects of lesogaberan on reflux and lower esophageal sphincter function in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeckxstaens, Guy E.; Beaumont, Hanneke; Mertens, Veerle; Denison, Hans; Ruth, Magnus; Adler, John; Silberg, Debra G.; Sifrim, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations (TLESRs) are a major mechanism behind reflux. This study assessed the effects of lesogaberan (AZD3355), a novel gamma-aminobutyric acid type B receptor agonist, on reflux and lower esophageal sphincter (LES) function when used as

  8. Scintigraphic diagnosis of the gastro-esophageal reflux

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    Pfluecke, F.; Krueger, M.; Reinke, R.; Groth, P. (Rostock Univ. (German Democratic Republic). Radiologische Klinik)

    1982-09-01

    Patients with peptic esophagitis or typical complaints with respect to reflux without esophagitis and control persons (n = 68) were comparatively examined for gastroesophageal reflux by means of scintigraphy (after administration of test solutions labelled with /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA or after intravenous application of /sup 99m/Tc-pertechnetate) and by means of continuous intraesophageal p/sub H/ measurement. The scintigraphic test of the reflux was successful for very few patients only with reflux disease and a reflux detectable by measuring the p/sub H/. The application of pentagastrin failed in improving the scintigraphic detection of the reflux. The cause of the unsuccessful scintigraphic evidence for the majority of the reflux patients seems to be the relatively small reflux volume.

  9. Scintigraphic diagnosis of the gastro-esophageal reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfluecke, F.; Krueger, M.; Reinke, R.; Groth, P.

    1982-01-01

    Patients with peptic esophagitis or typical complaints with respect to reflux without esophagitis and control persons (n = 68) were comparatively examined for gastroesophageal reflux by means of scintigraphy (after administration of test solutions labelled with /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA or after intravenous application of /sup 99m/Tc-pertechnetate) and by means of continuous intraesophageal p/sub H/ measurement. The scintigraphic test of the reflux was successful for very few patients only with reflux disease and a reflux detectable by measuring the p/sub H/. The application of pentagastrin failed in improving the scintigraphic detection of the reflux. The cause of the unsuccessful scintigraphic evidence for the majority of the reflux patients seems to be the relatively small reflux volume

  10. Novel therapeutics for gastro-esophageal reflux symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbib, Frank; Simon, Mireille

    2012-09-01

    Approximately 20-30% of patients with gastro-esophageal reflux symptoms report inadequate symptom relief while on proton-pump inhibitor therapy. The mechanisms involved are failure of the antireflux barrier (transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations), high proximal extent of the refluxate, esophageal hypersensitivity and impaired mucosal integrity. Persisting acid or nonacid reflux can be demonstrated in 40-50% of cases, suggesting that there is room for antireflux therapy in these patients. New antireflux compounds have been shown to decrease the occurrence of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations. The most promising classes of compounds are GABA type B agonists and metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 antagonists, which can reduce both reflux episodes and symptoms, but the development of these compounds has been abandoned for either safety issues or lack of efficacy. Esophageal hypersensitivity and impaired mucosal integrity may prove to be relevant therapeutic targets in the future.

  11. Does surgery correct esophageal motor dysfunction in gastroesophageal reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, C.O.; Pope, C.E.; Gannan, R.M.; Allen, F.D.; Velasco, N.; Hill, L.D.

    1981-01-01

    The high incidence of dysphagia in patients with symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux (GER) but no evidence of peptic stricture suggests esophageal motor dysfunction. Conventional methods for detecting dysfunction (radiologic and manometric examinations) often fail to detect abnormality in these patients. Radionuclide transit (RT), a new method for detecting esophageal motor dysfunction, was used to prospectively assess function in 29 patients with symptomatic GER uncomplicated by stricture before and three months after antireflux surgery (HILL). The preoperative incidence of dysphagia and esophageal dysfunction was 73% and 52%, respectively. During operation (Hill repair), intraoperative measurement of the lower esophageal sphincter pressure was performed and the LESP raised to levels between 45 and 55 mmHg. The preoperative lower esophageal sphincter pressure was raised from a mean of 8.6 mmHg, to mean of 18.5 mmHg after operation. No patient has free reflux after operation. Postoperative studies on 20 patients demonstrated persistence of all preoperative esophageal dysfunction despite loss of dysphagia. RT has demonstrated a disorder of esophageal motor function in 52% of patients with symptomatic GER that may be responsible for impaired esophageal clearance. This abnormality is not contraindication to surgery. The results indicate that construction of an effective barrier to reflex corrects symptoms of reflux, even in the presence of impaired esophageal transit. Radionuclide transit is a safe noninvasive test for assessment of esophageal function

  12. Does surgery correct esophageal motor dysfunction in gastroesophageal reflux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, C.O.; Pope, C.E.; Gannan, R.M.; Allen, F.D.; Velasco, N.; Hill, L.D.

    1981-09-01

    The high incidence of dysphagia in patients with symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux (GER) but no evidence of peptic stricture suggests esophageal motor dysfunction. Conventional methods for detecting dysfunction (radiologic and manometric examinations) often fail to detect abnormality in these patients. Radionuclide transit (RT), a new method for detecting esophageal motor dysfunction, was used to prospectively assess function in 29 patients with symptomatic GER uncomplicated by stricture before and three months after antireflux surgery (HILL). The preoperative incidence of dysphagia and esophageal dysfunction was 73% and 52%, respectively. During operation (Hill repair), intraoperative measurement of the lower esophageal sphincter pressure was performed and the LESP raised to levels between 45 and 55 mmHg. The preoperative lower esophageal sphincter pressure was raised from a mean of 8.6 mmHg, to mean of 18.5 mmHg after operation. No patient has free reflux after operation. Postoperative studies on 20 patients demonstrated persistence of all preoperative esophageal dysfunction despite loss of dysphagia. RT has demonstrated a disorder of esophageal motor function in 52% of patients with symptomatic GER that may be responsible for impaired esophageal clearance. This abnormality is not contraindication to surgery. The results indicate that construction of an effective barrier to reflex corrects symptoms of reflux, even in the presence of impaired esophageal transit. Radionuclide transit is a safe noninvasive test for assessment of esophageal function.

  13. Failure to respond to physiologic challenge characterizes esophageal motility in erosive gastro-esophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daum, C; Sweis, R; Kaufman, E; Fuellemann, A; Anggiansah, A; Fried, M; Fox, M

    2011-06-01

    Non-specific esophageal dysmotility with impaired clearance is often present in patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD), especially those with erosive disease; however the physio-mechanic basis of esophageal dysfunction is not well defined. Retrospective assessment of patients with erosive reflux disease (ERD; n=20) and endoscopy negative reflux disease (ENRD; n=20) with pathologic acid exposure on pH studies (>4.2% time/24 h) and also healthy controls (n=20) studied by high resolution manometry. Esophageal motility in response to liquid and solid bolus swallows and multiple water swallows (MWS) was analyzed. Peristaltic dysfunction was defined as failed peristalsis, spasm, weak or poorly coordinated esophageal contraction (>3cm break in 30 mmHg isocontour). Peristaltic dysfunction was present in 33% of water swallows in controls, 56% ENRD and 76% ERD respectively (Preflux events and increase exposure to gastric refluxate. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Impact of gastro-esophageal reflux on mucin mRNA expression in the esophageal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Roon, Aafke H C; Mayne, George C; Wijnhoven, Bas P L; Watson, David I; Leong, Mary P; Neijman, Gabriëlle E; Michael, Michael Z; McKay, Andrew R; Astill, David; Hussey, Damian J

    2008-08-01

    Changes in the expression of mucin genes in the esophageal mucosa associated with uncomplicated gastro-esophageal reflux disease have not been evaluated even though such changes could be associated with reflux-induced mucosal damage. We therefore sought to identify reflux-induced changes in mucin gene expression using a cell line and biopsies from the esophageal mucosa in patients with and without reflux. MUC-1, MUC-3, MUC-4, and MUC-5AC gene expressions were investigated in the HET-1A cell line following exposure to acid (pH 4) and/or bile (120 muM of a bile salt milieu), and in esophageal mucosal biopsies from controls, subjects with non-erosive gastro-esophageal reflux, and subjects with reflux associated with ulcerative esophagitis (erosive). The mucosal biopsies were also evaluated for IL-6 mRNA expression (inflammatory marker) and CK-14 mRNA expression (mucosal basal cell layer marker). Gene expression was determined using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis. In the cell line studies, there were differences in mRNA levels for all of the evaluated mucins following treatment with either acid or the acid and bile combination. In the studies which evaluated tissue specimens, IL-6 and CK-14 mRNA levels increased according to degree of reflux pathology. The expression of MUC-1 and MUC-4 in mucosa from patients with erosive reflux was lower than in subjects without reflux and in patients with non-erosive reflux, whereas the expression of MUC-3 and MUC-5AC was increased (although these differences did not reach significance at p reflux groups. The correlation between IL-6 and MUC-3 was significant within the control and erosive reflux groups, and the correlation between MUC-1 and MUC-5AC was significant within the erosive reflux group. The results of this study suggest that the profile of mucin expression in the esophageal mucosa is influenced by the pH and composition of the gastro-esophageal reflux. Further work should explore the

  15. Protective Effect of ECQ on Rat Reflux Esophagitis Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyeon-Soon; Han, Jeong Hoon; Jeong, Jun Yeong; Sohn, Uy Dong

    2012-12-01

    This study was designed to determine the protective effect of Rumex Aquaticus Herba extracts containing quercetin-3-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (ECQ) on experimental reflux esophagitis. Reflux esophagitis was induced by surgical procedure. The rats were divided into seven groups, namely normal group, control group, ECQ (1, 3, 10, 30 mg/kg) group and omeprazole (30 mg/kg) group. ECQ and omeprazole groups received intraduodenal administration. The Rats were starved for 24 hours before the experiments, but were freely allowed to drink water. ECQ group attenuated the gross esophagitis significantly compared to that treated with omeprazole in a dose-dependent manner. ECQ decreased the volume of gastric juice and increased the gastric pH, which are similar to those of omeprazole group. In addition, ECQ inhibited the acid output effectively in reflux esophagitis. Significantly increased amounts of malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and the mucosal depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) were observed in the reflux esophagitis. ECQ administration attenuated the decrement of the GSH levels and affected the MDA levels and MPO activity. These results suggest that the ECQ has a protective effect which may be attributed to its multiple effects including anti-secretory, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory actions on reflux esophagitis in rats.

  16. Radioisotope esophageal transit test. A new technique for esophageal emptying and gastroesophageal reflux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazono, K.; Fukuda, K.; Toyonaga, A. (Kurume Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1982-06-01

    A new technique employed sup(99m)Tc-MAA for the study of esophageal dysfunction and its clinical implication were evaluated in the patients with achalasia, progressive systemic sclerosis, reflux esophagitis and 10 normal controls. To investigate esophageal emptying and gastroesophageal reflux, a homogeneous bolus of sup(99m)Tc-MAA in 15ml of water was swallowed in the upright and supine positions under the collimeter of a gamma camera linked to nuclear medicine data analyser (Shimazu Scinti Pack 1200). This radionuclide transit study made a quantitative evaluation of the esophageal dysfunction possible in all cases. Comparing the conventional esophageal function test procedures, this test is a safe, noninvasive and more physiological and sensitive in detecting abnormal esophageal emptying and gastroesophageal reflux.

  17. The relationship between helicobacter pylori infection and gastro-esophageal reflux disease

    OpenAIRE

    Batool M Mahdi

    2011-01-01

    Background : Gastro-esophageal reflux disease is a common condition, affecting 25%-40% of the population. Increasing attention has been paid to the relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and reflux esophagitis. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between CagA+ H. pylori and endoscopically proven gastro-esophageal reflux disease. Patients and Methods: The study group included 60 hospital patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease between 2007 and 2009 ...

  18. WHAT IS THE REAL IMPAIRMENT ON ESOPHAGEAL MOTILITY IN PATIENTS WITH GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela FALCÃO

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Context Impairment of esophageal motility is a common finding in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD as reduced lower esophageal sphincter (LES basal pressure. A very low LES pressure might facilitate the occurrence of more gastroesophageal reflux whereas abnormal esophageal peristalsis may contribute to impaired esophageal clearance after reflux. Objective Evaluate the esophageal motor function of the lower esophageal sphincter and esophageal body in the various forms of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Methods The manometrics records of 268 patients, who had evaluation of the esophageal motility as part of the diagnostic gastroesophageal reflux disease were split into four groups, as follows: 33 patients who had no esophagitis; 92 patients who had erosive esophagitis; 101 patients who had short Barrett's esophagus and 42 patients who had long Barrett's esophagus. Results The group who had long Barrett's esophagus showed smaller mean LES pressure and higher percentage of marked LES hypotonia; in the distal segment of the esophageal body the this group showed higher percentage of marked hypocontractility of the distal segment (<30 mm Hg; this same group showed higher percentage of esophageal motility disorders. Conclusions The most intense esophageal motility disorders and lower pressure of lower esophageal sphincter were noted in the group with long Barrett's esophagus. Those with reflux esophagitis and short Barrett's esophagus had esophageal motility impairment, intermediate among patients with esophagitis and long Barrett's esophagus. Patients with typical symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux but without esophagitis by endoscopy study showed no impairment of esophageal motility.

  19. Acid Secretion and Its Relationship to Esophageal Reflux Symptom in Patients with Subtotal Gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyun Jin; Choi, Myung-Gyu; Park, Jae Myung; Song, Kyo Young; Yoo, Han Mo

    2018-03-01

    Esophageal reflux symptom has been reported as common in patients with subtotal gastrectomy. Management of postoperative esophageal reflux symptom is not satisfactory. The aim of this study is to investigate prevalence of esophageal reflux symptom after subtotal gastrectomy and assess factors affecting esophageal reflux symptom in subtotal gastrectomy patients. We prospectively enrolled 100 consecutive patients with subtotal gastrectomy who were regularly followed up by endoscopic examination. Acid secretory capacity was assessed by measuring messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of H + /K + -adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) via real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in biopsy specimens. In total, 47 % of patients had typical esophageal reflux symptom, where heartburn or regurgitation was experienced at least weekly. Age, sex, body mass index, and type of reconstruction did not differ between esophageal reflux and non-esophageal-reflux groups. The esophageal reflux group had longer duration from time of operation until study (median 5.0 versus 3.6 years; P = 0.017). Hill grade for gastroesophageal (GE) flap valve was higher in the esophageal reflux group than in the non-esophageal-reflux group (P = 0.027). H + /K + -ATPase mRNA expression was higher in the esophageal reflux group than in the non-esophageal-reflux group [3967.6 (± 7583.7) versus 896.2 (± 1456.0); P = 0.006]. Multivariate analysis revealed that postoperative duration, H + /K + -ATPase mRNA expression level, and GE flap valve disruption were significantly associated with esophageal reflux symptom development. Esophageal reflux symptom is common in patients after subtotal gastrectomy, possibly because of anti-reflux-barrier impairment and preservation of acid secretory capacity following surgery. Optimal acid suppression may be helpful in managing postoperative esophageal reflux symptom.

  20. What is the real impairment on esophageal motility in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcão, Angela; Nasi, Ary; Brandão, Jeovana; Sallum, Rubens; Cecconello, Ivan

    2013-04-01

    Impairment of esophageal motility is a common finding in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) as reduced lower esophageal sphincter (LES) basal pressure. A very low LES pressure might facilitate the occurrence of more gastroesophageal reflux whereas abnormal esophageal peristalsis may contribute to impaired esophageal clearance after reflux. Evaluate the esophageal motor function of the lower esophageal sphincter and esophageal body in the various forms of gastroesophageal reflux disease. The manometrics records of 268 patients, who had evaluation of the esophageal motility as part of the diagnostic gastroesophageal reflux disease were split into four groups, as follows: 33 patients who had no esophagitis; 92 patients who had erosive esophagitis; 101 patients who had short Barrett's esophagus and 42 patients who had long Barrett's esophagus. The group who had long Barrett's esophagus showed smaller mean LES pressure and higher percentage of marked LES hypotonia; in the distal segment of the esophageal body the this group showed higher percentage of marked hypocontractility of the distal segment (disorders. The most intense esophageal motility disorders and lower pressure of lower esophageal sphincter were noted in the group with long Barrett's esophagus. Those with reflux esophagitis and short Barrett's esophagus had esophageal motility impairment, intermediate among patients with esophagitis and long Barrett's esophagus. Patients with typical symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux but without esophagitis by endoscopy study showed no impairment of esophageal motility.

  1. Predictive value of routine esophageal high-resolution manometry for gastro-esophageal reflux disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoeij, F. B.; Smout, A. J.; Bredenoord, A. J.

    2015-01-01

    Using conventional manometry, gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) was associated with a reduced lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure and impaired peristalsis. However, with a large overlap between GERD patients and controls, these findings are of limited clinical relevance. It is uncertain

  2. Follow-up of a cohort of children and adolescents with gastro-esophageal reflux disease who were free of reflux esophagitis at initial diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruigómez, Ana; Lundborg, Per; Johansson, Saga; Wallander, Mari-Ann; García Rodríguez, Luis A

    2010-08-01

    Few studies have examined the incidence of complications from gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) in children and adolescents in primary care. Here we aimed to describe the natural history of GERD in a pediatric population with no reflux esophagitis at initial diagnosis, assessing diagnoses of new esophageal complications and extra-esophageal conditions. We used The Health Improvement Network UK primary care database (which includes data on more than 2 million patients) to identify individuals aged 1-17 years with a first diagnosis of gastro-esophageal reflux or heartburn in the period 2000-2005, via a computerized search followed by a manual review of the patient records. This search identified 1242 individuals with an incident diagnosis of GERD but no record of esophagitis. This cohort was followed-up to detect new diagnoses of esophageal complications and extra-esophageal conditions. During a mean follow-up period of almost 4 years, 40 children and adolescents had a confirmed new diagnosis of reflux esophagitis (incidence: 10.9 per 1000 person-years). No cases of Barrett's esophagus, esophageal stricture or esophageal ulcer were reported. Individuals with GERD had double the risk of an extra-esophageal condition such as asthma, pneumonia, cough or chest pain compared with children and adolescents with no diagnosis of GERD. Children and adolescents with GERD may be at risk of developing reflux esophagitis and a range of other extra-esophageal conditions, but more severe esophageal complications are rare.

  3. Classification of esophageal motor findings in gastro-esophageal reflux disease: Conclusions from an international consensus group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, C P; Roman, S; Bredenoord, A J; Fox, M; Keller, J; Pandolfino, J E; Sifrim, D; Tatum, R; Yadlapati, R; Savarino, E

    2017-12-01

    High-resolution manometry (HRM) has resulted in new revelations regarding the pathophysiology of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). The impact of new HRM motor paradigms on reflux burden needs further definition, leading to a modern approach to motor testing in GERD. Focused literature searches were conducted, evaluating pathophysiology of GERD with emphasis on HRM. The results were discussed with an international group of experts to develop a consensus on the role of HRM in GERD. A proposed classification system for esophageal motor abnormalities associated with GERD was generated. Physiologic gastro-esophageal reflux is inherent in all humans, resulting from transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxations that allow venting of gastric air in the form of a belch. In pathological gastro-esophageal reflux, transient LES relaxations are accompanied by reflux of gastric contents. Structural disruption of the esophagogastric junction (EGJ) barrier, and incomplete clearance of the refluxate can contribute to abnormally high esophageal reflux burden that defines GERD. Esophageal HRM localizes the LES for pH and pH-impedance probe placement, and assesses esophageal body peristaltic performance prior to invasive antireflux therapies and antireflux surgery. Furthermore, HRM can assess EGJ and esophageal body mechanisms contributing to reflux, and exclude conditions that mimic GERD. Structural and motor EGJ and esophageal processes contribute to the pathophysiology of GERD. A classification scheme is proposed incorporating EGJ and esophageal motor findings, and contraction reserve on provocative tests during HRM. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Motility abnormalities in esophageal body in GERD: are they truly related to reflux?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciriza de los Ríos, C; García Menéndez, L; Díez Hernández, A; Fernández Eroles, A L; Vega Fernández, A; Enguix Armada, A

    2005-03-01

    Esophageal motility abnormalities have been observed in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. The aim of the present study was to determine if esophageal motor disorders in patients with a positive response to the omeprazole test are related to the existence of reflux or they are concomitant findings. A 24-hour pH monitoring and a stationary manometry were performed on 128 patients: 49 of them had normal manometry, 31 hypotensive lower esophageal sphincter, 29 motor disorder in esophageal body, and 19 hypotensive lower esophageal sphincter and motor disorder in esophageal body. We found an association between the presence of abnormal reflux and motor disorder in esophageal body (chi test; P esophageal motility was the disorder most strongly related to reflux, whereas the hypercontractile disorders were not clearly attributed to it. Esophageal manometric abnormalities should be considered cautiously before considering a motor disorder as a consequence of abnormal reflux.

  5. Clinical efficacy of sucralfate in reflux esophagitis. Comparison with cimetidine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tytgat, G. N.

    1987-01-01

    Sucralfate has been evaluated in reflux esophagitis, based on its protective adherence to denuded surfaces, its bile salt-binding properties, and its cytoprotective properties. Histamine (H2)-receptor blockers are currently considered the standard therapy. The goal of this study was to compare the

  6. The association between reflux esophagitis and airway hyper-reactivity in patients with gastro-esophageal reflux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Karbasi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The association of gastro-esophageal reflux (GER with a wide variety of pulmonary disorders was recognized. We aimed to evaluate the effect of GER-induced esophagitis on airway hyper-reactivity (AHR in patients and the response to treatment. Materials and Methods: In this cohort study, 30 patients attending the gastrointestinal clinic of a university hospital with acid reflux symptoms were included. All patients were evaluated endoscopically and divided into case group with esophagitis and control group without any evidence of esophagitis. Spirometry and methacholine test were done in all patients before and after treatment of GER with pantoprazole 40 mg daily for six months. Results: There was a significant difference in the rate of positive methacholine test between the cases (40% and the controls (6.7% prior to anti-acid therapy (P < 0.0001. After six months of treatment, the frequency of positive methacholine test diminished from 40 to 13.3% in the case group (P < 0.05 but did not change in the controls (P = 0.15. Conclusion: The presence of esophagitis due to GER would increase the AHR and treatment with pantoperazole would decrease AHR in patients with proved esophagitis and no previous history of asthma after six months.

  7. De novo MEIS2 mutation causes syndromic developmental delay with persistent gastro-esophageal reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Atsushi; Isidor, Bertrand; Piloquet, Hugues; Corre, Pierre; Okamoto, Nobuhiko; Nakashima, Mitsuko; Tsurusaki, Yoshinori; Saitsu, Hirotomo; Miyake, Noriko; Matsumoto, Naomichi

    2016-09-01

    MEIS2 aberrations are considered to be the cause of intellectual disability, cleft palate and cardiac septal defect, as MEIS2 copy number variation is often observed with these phenotypes. To our knowledge, only one nucleotide-level change-specifically, an in-frame MEIS2 deletion-has so far been reported. Here, we report a female patient with a de novo nonsense mutation (c.611C>G, p.Ser204*) in MEIS2. She showed severe intellectual disability, moderate motor/verbal developmental delay, cleft palate, cardiac septal defect, hypermetropia, severe feeding difficulties with gastro-esophageal reflux and constipation. By reviewing this patient and previous patients with MEIS2 point mutations, we found that feeding difficulty with gastro-esophageal reflux appears to be one of the core clinical features of MEIS2 haploinsufficiency, in addition to intellectual disability, cleft palate and cardiac septal defect.

  8. Esophageal mucosal breaks in gastroesophageal reflux disease partially responsive to proton pump inhibitor therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Nicholas J; Denison, Hans; Björck, Karin; Silberg, Debra G

    2013-04-01

    Approximately 20-30% of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) do not experience complete symptom resolution during proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of esophageal mucosal breaks among patients who have a partial response to PPI therapy. This was an analysis of data from a phase 2b clinical trial carried out to assess the efficacy and safety of a reflux inhibitor, lesogaberan (AZD3355), as an add-on to PPI therapy in this patient population (clinicaltrials.gov reference: NCT01005251). A total of 661 patients with persistent GERD symptoms who had received a minimum of 4 weeks of PPI therapy were included in the study. The prevalence of esophageal mucosal breaks was assessed according to (i) the most recent endoscopy results from within the previous 24 months, if available ("historical" endoscopies), and (ii) the results of endoscopies performed at study baseline ("baseline" endoscopies). Baseline endoscopies were not carried out in patients who had a historical endoscopy showing an absence of esophageal mucosal breaks. Historical endoscopy results were available for 244 patients, of whom 48 (19.7%) had esophageal mucosal breaks. Baseline endoscopies were carried out in 465 patients, of whom 146 (31.4%) had esophageal mucosal breaks. Sensitivity analyses showed a prevalence of esophageal mucosal breaks of 20-30%. In both the historical and baseline endoscopies, most esophageal mucosal breaks were Los Angeles grades A or B. In patients with GERD symptoms partially responsive to PPI therapy, mild-to-moderate severity esophageal mucosal breaks are common (prevalence 20-30%), and may contribute to symptom etiology.

  9. Influence of gastric emptying on gastro-esophageal reflux: a combined pH-impedance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourcerol, G; Benanni, Y; Boueyre, E; Leroi, A M; Ducrotte, P

    2013-10-01

    The involvement of delayed gastric emptying (GE) in the pathophysiology of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) remains debated and has been to date only assessed using esophageal pH-metry that only detects acidic reflux. We therefore investigated whether delay in GE could impact on liquid, mixed, and gas reflux detected using combined esophageal pH-impedance recording. Thirty consecutive patients were explored with GE and esophageal pH-impedance measurement in the workup of typical symptoms of GERD. Gastric emptying was assessed using the (13) C-octanoic acid breath test and an ambulatory esophageal pH-impedance recording was performed off proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) for 24 h. Gastric emptying was normal in 17 patients and delayed in 13 patients. Delay in GE increased the daily number of liquid/mixed reflux events detected by combined esophageal pH-impedance monitoring, but had no effect of esophageal acid exposure or gas reflux. This translated in increased number of postprandial reflux events, with a longer bolus clearance time and increased esophageal proximal extension. In patient with delayed GE, symptomatic reflux had a higher proximal extension and a longer bolus clearance time compared to symptomatic reflux events from patients with normal GE. Delay in GE increases daily and postprandial liquid/mixed reflux events. Reflux characteristics differently trigger symptoms in patients with normal and delayed GE, and may impact on the therapeutic strategy. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. APPLICATION OF AMINO ACID MIXTURE AGAINST ESOPHAGEAL REFLUX IN CHILDREN WITH COW MILK ALLERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Vishneva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The esophageal reflux is quite often accompanied by cow milk allergy in infants. For that matter, the authors recommend to examin all infants with esophageal reflux to be sure if they have allergy or not. The authors represent diagnostic methods for both disorders. Besides the authors represent the results of the research work on effectiveness of amino acid mix for cmatreatment which they used in patients with esophageal reflux.Key words: allergy to the protein of the cow milk, esophageal reflux, amino acid mixture, children.

  11. An updated review on gastro-esophageal reflux in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Hauser, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive guidelines for the diagnosis and management of gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) and GER disease (GERD) were developed by the European and North American Societies for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition. GERD is reflux associated with troublesome symptoms or complications. The recognition of GER and GERD is relevant to implement best management practices. A conservative management is indicated in infants with uncomplicated physiologic reflux. Children with GERD may benefit from further evaluation and treatment. Since the publications of the European and North American Societies for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition guidelines in 2009, no important novelties in drug treatment have been reported. Innovations are mainly restricted to the management of regurgitation in infants. During the last 5 years, pros and cons of multichannel intraluminal impedance have been highlighted. However, overall 'not much has changed' in the diagnosis and management of GER and GERD in infants and children.

  12. [Esophageal complications of gastroesophageal reflux disease: consequences or defensive reactions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Örs Péter; Bognár, Laura; Papp, András; Vereczkei, András

    2017-05-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease affects more than 10% of the adult population. Most patients can be effectively treated with lifestyle changes and adequate acid-reducing therapy. However, about 10% of the patients remain symptomatic despite treatment and severe complications may develop. Interestingly, some of these complications seem to be a sort of defensive mechanism that may either alleviate the patient's symptoms or prevent developing further complications. In Barrett's esophagus, which can be unambigously considered as a complication of gastroesophageal reflux disease, reflux symptoms ruining the quality of life may significantly improve, since the metaplastic Barrett epithelium is much more resistent to gastric acid, than the normal epithelial lining of the esophagus. Furthermore, the motility disorders (hypertensive lower esophageal sphincter, achalasia, cricopharyngeal achalasia) and structural changes (Schatzki's ring, esophageal stricture, subglottic trachea stenosis), which develop as a complication of reflux may help to prevent aspiration that can cause new complaints and may lead to further complications. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(20): 763-769.

  13. Gastroesophageal reflux disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peptic esophagitis; Reflux esophagitis; GERD; Heartburn - chronic; Dyspepsia - GERD ... into the esophagus. This is called reflux or gastroesophageal reflux. Reflux may cause symptoms. Harsh stomach acids can ...

  14. Hyperinsulinemia Promotes Esophageal Cancer Development in a Surgically-Induced Duodeno-Esophageal Reflux Murine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diletta Arcidiacono

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Hyperinsulinemia could have a role in the growing incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC and its pre-cancerous lesion, Barrett’s Esophagus, a possible consequence of Gastro-Esophageal Reflux Disease. Obesity is known to mediate esophageal carcinogenesis through different mechanisms including insulin-resistance leading to hyperinsulinemia, which may mediate cancer progression via the insulin/insulin-like growth factor axis. We used the hyperinsulinemic non-obese FVB/N (Friend leukemia virus B strain MKR (muscle (M-IGF1R-lysine (K-arginine (R mouse model to evaluate the exclusive role of hyperinsulinemia in the pathogenesis of EAC related to duodeno-esophageal reflux. FVB/N wild-type (WT and MKR mice underwent jejunum-esophageal anastomosis side—to end with the exclusion of the stomach. Thirty weeks after surgery, the esophagus was processed for histological, immunological and insulin/Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1 signal transduction analyses. Most of the WT mice (63.1% developed dysplasia, whereas most of the MKR mice (74.3% developed squamous cell and adenosquamous carcinomas, both expressing Human Epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2. Hyperinsulinemia significantly increased esophageal cancer incidence in the presence of duodenal-reflux. Insulin receptor (IR and IGF1 receptor (IGF1R were overexpressed in the hyperinsulinemic condition. IGF1R, through ERK1/2 mitogenic pattern activation, seems to be involved in cancer onset. Hyperinsulinemia-induced IGF1R and HER2 up-regulation could also increase the possibility of forming of IGF1R/HER2 heterodimers to support cell growth/proliferation/progression in esophageal carcinogenesis.

  15. Hyperinsulinemia Promotes Esophageal Cancer Development in a Surgically-Induced Duodeno-Esophageal Reflux Murine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcidiacono, Diletta; Dedja, Arben; Giacometti, Cinzia; Fassan, Matteo; Nucci, Daniele; Francia, Simona; Fabris, Federico; Zaramella, Alice; Gallagher, Emily J; Cassaro, Mauro; Rugge, Massimo; LeRoith, Derek; Alberti, Alfredo; Realdon, Stefano

    2018-04-14

    Hyperinsulinemia could have a role in the growing incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and its pre-cancerous lesion, Barrett's Esophagus, a possible consequence of Gastro-Esophageal Reflux Disease. Obesity is known to mediate esophageal carcinogenesis through different mechanisms including insulin-resistance leading to hyperinsulinemia, which may mediate cancer progression via the insulin/insulin-like growth factor axis. We used the hyperinsulinemic non-obese FVB/N (Friend leukemia virus B strain) MKR (muscle (M)-IGF1R-lysine (K)-arginine (R) mouse model to evaluate the exclusive role of hyperinsulinemia in the pathogenesis of EAC related to duodeno-esophageal reflux. FVB/N wild-type (WT) and MKR mice underwent jejunum-esophageal anastomosis side-to end with the exclusion of the stomach. Thirty weeks after surgery, the esophagus was processed for histological, immunological and insulin/Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) signal transduction analyses. Most of the WT mice (63.1%) developed dysplasia, whereas most of the MKR mice (74.3%) developed squamous cell and adenosquamous carcinomas, both expressing Human Epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Hyperinsulinemia significantly increased esophageal cancer incidence in the presence of duodenal-reflux. Insulin receptor (IR) and IGF1 receptor (IGF1R) were overexpressed in the hyperinsulinemic condition. IGF1R, through ERK1/2 mitogenic pattern activation, seems to be involved in cancer onset. Hyperinsulinemia-induced IGF1R and HER2 up-regulation could also increase the possibility of forming of IGF1R/HER2 heterodimers to support cell growth/proliferation/progression in esophageal carcinogenesis.

  16. Laparoscopic surgery for gastro-esophageal acid reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schijven, Marlies P; Gisbertz, Suzanne S; van Berge Henegouwen, Mark I

    2014-02-01

    Gastro-esophageal reflux disease is a troublesome disease for many patients, severely affecting their quality of life. Choice of treatment depends on a combination of patient characteristics and preferences, esophageal motility and damage of reflux, symptom severity and symptom correlation to acid reflux and physician preferences. Success of treatment depends on tailoring treatment modalities to the individual patient and adequate selection of treatment choice. PubMed, Embase, The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) were searched for systematic reviews with an abstract, publication date within the last five years, in humans only, on key terms (laparosc* OR laparoscopy*) AND (fundoplication OR reflux* OR GORD OR GERD OR nissen OR toupet) NOT (achal* OR pediat*). Last search was performed on July 23nd and in total 54 articles were evaluated as relevant from this search. The laparoscopic Toupet fundoplication is the therapy of choice for normal-weight GERD patients qualifying for laparoscopic surgery. No better pharmaceutical, endoluminal or surgical alternatives are present to date. No firm conclusion can be stated on its cost-effectiveness. Results have to be awaited comparing the laparoscopic 180-degree anterior fundoplication with the Toupet fundoplication to be a possible better surgical alternative. Division of the short gastric vessels is not to be recommended, nor is the use of a bougie or a mesh in the vast majority of GERD patients undergoing surgery. The use of a robot is not recommended. Anti-reflux surgery is to be considered expert surgery, but there is no clear consensus what is to be called an 'expert surgeon'. As for setting, ambulatory settings seem promising although high-level evidence is lacking. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Time esophageal pH < 4 overestimates the prevalence of pathologic esophageal reflux in subjects with gastroesophageal reflux disease treated with proton pump inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sloan Sheldon

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A Stanford University study reported that in asymptomatic GERD patients who were being treated with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI, 50% had pathologic esophageal acid exposure. Aim We considered the possibility that the high prevalence of pathologic esophageal reflux might simply have resulted from calculating acidity as time pH Methods We calculated integrated acidity and time pH Results The prevalence of pathologic 24-hour esophageal reflux in both studies was significantly higher when measured as time pH Conclusion In GERD subjects treated with a PPI, measuring time esophageal pH

  18. Histologic definition of gastro-esophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasoma, Parakrama T

    2013-07-01

    To review recent data supporting the development of new histology-based definitions of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). Three precisely definable columnar epithelial types--cardiac, oxyntocardiac and intestinal--may be interposed between esophageal squamous epithelium and gastric oxyntic (acid secreting) mucosa. This enables definition of a new histologic concept: the squamo-oxyntic gap. The squamo-oxyntic gap is zero or very small in autopsies performed on patients without evidence of GERD. The gap progressively increases in length with the severity of GERD, indicating that the squamo-oxyntic gap is a marker for chronic GERD. The distal part of the gap lines gastric-type rugal folds and, therefore, is distal to the present endoscopic definition of the gastro-esophageal junction. I contend that this distal gap segment (which has esophageal submucosal glands) is actually the dilated distal esophagus; this is the pathologic correlate of destruction of the abdominal segment of the lower esophageal sphincter. The dilated distal esophagus is mistaken for 'gastric cardia' by present endoscopic definitions. I believe that these data support the adoption of novel histologic definitions of GERD as follows: the presence of any squamo-oxyntic gap defines GERD; the length of the gap is a measure of severity of chronic GERD; and the presence of intestinal metaplasia in the gap defines Barrett esophagus and cancer risk.

  19. Radioisotope monitoring of gastro-esophageal reflux in patients with achalasia cardiae after surgical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Dinh Ha; Szilvasi, J.

    1994-01-01

    Results of a radioisotope method of the gastro-esophageal reflux are presented in patients with achalasia cardiae after different types of surgical treatment. Both Belsey-Mark and modified Nissen techniques are effective in preventing spontaneous gastroesophageal reflux, however 2 patients after Nissen fundoplication demonstrated gastro-esophageal reflux provoked by abdominal compression. This simple, noninvasive and physiologic method is an appropriate diagnostic tool for evaluating the efficiency of different anti reflux surgical techniques and is recommended for follow-up studies of patients after gastro-esophageal surgical intervention. (N.T.). 8 refs., 1 fig

  20. The effects of sleeve gastectomy on gastro-esophageal reflux and gastro-esophageal motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Jamal O; Wan, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Sleeve gastrectomy is an increasingly performed bariatric procedure associated with low morbidity and good short to medium term effects on weight loss and comorbid conditions. Studies assessing the prevalence of post-operative gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD), show sleeve gastrectomy may provoke de novo GERD symptoms or worsening of pre-existing GERD. Pathophysiological mechanisms of GERD after sleeve gastrectomy include a hypotensive lower esophageal sphincter, increased gastro-esophageal pressure gradient and intra-thoracic migration of the remnant stomach. A reduction in the compliance of the gastric remnant may provoke an increase in transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations. Time-resolved MRI suggests relative gastric stasis in the proximal remnant and increased emptying from the antrum. A lack of standardisation of technique, along with heterogeneity of studies assessing GERD may explain the wide variability in reported results. Simultaneous and careful repair of an associated hiatus hernia may result in a reduction in the prevalence of post-operative GERD.

  1. Characteristics of gastroesophageal reflux in symptomatic patients with and without excessive esophageal acid exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredenoord, Albert J.; Weusten, Bas L. A. M.; Timmer, Robin; Smout, Andŕe J. P. M.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In some patients with a physiological esophageal acid exposure, an association between reflux episodes and symptoms can be demonstrated. Besides acidity, other factors such as proximal extent may determine whether a reflux episode is perceived or not. We aimed to investigate the reflux

  2. Esophageal motility pattern and gastro-esophageal reflux in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadel, Abil Ali; Mostafa, Mohamed; Younis, Ahmed; Haleem, Magdy

    2012-01-01

    The association of esophageal motility and gastroesophageal reflux symptoms with respiratory symptoms is not well established in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this work is to study the abnormalities of esophageal function in COPD patients and study its relation to smoking index, body mass index and indices of hyperinflation. This study included 40 male COPD patients and 10 healthy controls. The patients and controls were subjected to spirometry, body plethysmography, esophageal manometry and 24hr pH-metry. Upper gastrointestinal symptoms were found in 55% of patients, hypotensive upper esophageal sphincter pressure in 65% of patients and hypotensive lower esophageal sphincter pressure in 52.5% of patients. Pathological acid reflux was found in 35% of patients. The severity of GERD increased with increased age, smoking index and body mass index, pesophageal motility disorders in COPD patients, LESP and UESP were significantly negatively correlated to indices of hyperinflation. There was a high prevalence of GERD in COPD patents especially elderly, severe stage of COPD, high smoking index and high body mass index (BMI).

  3. Acid and non-acid reflux patterns in patients with erosive esophagitis and non-erosive reflux disease (NERD): a study using intraluminal impedance monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conchillo, José M.; Schwartz, Matthijs P.; Selimah, Mohamed; Samsom, Melvin; Sifrim, Daniel; Smout, André J.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) and erosive esophagitis (EE) are the most common phenotypic presentations of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). AIM: To assess acid and non-acid reflux patterns in patients with EE and NERD using combined esophageal pH-impedance monitoring. METHODS:

  4. Acid and non-acid reflux patterns in patients with erosive esophagitis and non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) : A study using intraluminal impedance monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conchillo, Jose M.; Schwartz, Matthijs P.; Selimah, Mohamed; Samsom, Melvin; Sifrim, Daniel; Smout, Andre J.

    Background Non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) and erosive esophagitis (EE) are the most common phenotypic presentations of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Aim To assess acid and non-acid reflux patterns in patients with EE and NERD using combined esophageal pH-impedance monitoring. Methods A

  5. Does the Use of Pacifier Affect Gastro-Esophageal Reflux in Preterm Infants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvaglia, Luigi; Martini, Silvia; Corrado, Maria Francesca; Mariani, Elisa; Legnani, Elena; Bosi, Isabella; Faldella, Giacomo; Aceti, Arianna

    2016-05-01

    This crossover study showed that non-nutritive sucking, provided with a pacifier in 30 preterm infants, had no effect on acid and nonacid gastro-esophageal reflux evaluated by esophageal pH-impedance, and thus may be reasonably used in preterm neonates with symptoms of gastro-esophageal reflux. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02023216. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Acid reflux directly causes sleep disturbances in rat with chronic esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Kenichi; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Tsukahara, Takuya; Yamagami, Hirokazu; Tanigawa, Tetsuya; Shiba, Masatsugu; Tominaga, Kazunari; Watanabe, Toshio; Urade, Yoshihiro; Arakawa, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is strongly associated with sleep disturbances. Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy improves subjective but not objective sleep parameters in patients with GERD. This study aimed to investigate the association between GERD and sleep, and the effect of PPI on sleep by using a rat model of chronic acid reflux esophagitis. Acid reflux esophagitis was induced by ligating the transitional region between the forestomach and the glandular portion and then wrapping the duodenum near the pylorus. Rats underwent surgery for implantation of electrodes for electroencephalogram and electromyogram recordings, and they were transferred to a soundproof recording chamber. Polygraphic recordings were scored by using 10-s epochs for wake, rapid eye movement sleep, and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. To examine the role of acid reflux, rats were subcutaneously administered a PPI, omeprazole, at a dose of 20 mg/kg once daily. Rats with reflux esophagitis presented with several erosions, ulcers, and mucosal thickening with basal hyperplasia and marked inflammatory infiltration. The reflux esophagitis group showed a 34.0% increase in wake (232.2±11.4 min and 173.3±7.4 min in the reflux esophagitis and control groups, respectively; preflux esophagitis, and this effect was not observed when the PPI was withdrawn. Acid reflux directly causes sleep disturbances in rats with chronic esophagitis.

  7. Gastro esophageal reflux: an over investigated entity in neonates and infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Zahid Anwar; Ahmad, Sarfraz; Sheikh, Muhammad Younus

    2010-12-01

    To determine the outcome of clinically suspected gastro esophageal reflux in neonates and infants. To find a protocol for evaluation of these patients in order to reduce unnecessary radiation to neonates and infants. Fifty three neonates and infants of up to 1 year of age with clinical suspicion of gastro esophageal reflux (GER) were referred for Upper gastro intestinal barium studies. This retrospective descriptive case study was carried out over a period of one year starting from October, 2006 to September, 2007. Positive cases were followed for another one year to see the final outcome. The neonate and infants of upto one year of age, referred from Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), Paediatric ward and Out Patient Department (OPD) were included in this study. Out of 53 cases 32 were positive for G.E.R and no reflux could be identified in rest of the patients. Out of these positive cases only 4 had massive or severe G.E.R. These patients were prescribed conservative and medical treatment and were advised to follow up in the O.P.D where on subsequent follow ups the medical treatment was stopped as there were no further complaints .These patients showed normal weight gain on subsequent O.P.D visits. Other positive cases only had mild to moderate G.E.R and they were managed conservatively. These patients showed normal weight gain on subsequent O.P.D visits with complete resolution of symptoms. Regurgitation or gastro esophageal reflux is a common finding in the first 3 months of life (especially in preterm infants) and usually resolves by 6-12 months of age and should not be over investigated.

  8. Esophageal Mucosal Impedance Pattern is Distinct in Patients With Extraesophageal Reflux Symptoms and Pathologic Acid Reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitt, Robert T; Lal, Pooja; Yuksel, Elif Saritas; Ates, Fehmi; Slaughter, James C; Garrett, C Gaelyn; Higginbotham, Tina; Vaezi, Michael F

    2017-05-01

    Current diagnostic tests for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) do not consistently measure chronicity of reflux. Mucosal impedance (MI) is a minimally invasive measurement to assess esophageal conductivity changes due to GERD. We aimed to investigate MI pattern in patients with symptoms of extraesophageal reflux (EER) in a prospective longitudinal cohort study. Patients with potential symptoms of EER undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) with wireless pH monitoring were studied. Participants included those with erosive esophagitis (E+), normal EGD/abnormal pH (E-/pH+), and normal EGD/normal pH (E-/pH-). MI was measured from the site of injury in patients with E+, as well as at 2, 5, and 10 cm above the squamocolumnar junction (SCJ) in all participants. Forty-one patients with symptoms of EER were studied. MI measurements at 2 cm above the SCJ were significantly (P = 0.04) different among the three groups, with MI lowest for E+ and greatest for E-/pH- patients. Although not statistically significant, there is a graded increase in median (interquartile range) MI axially along the esophagus at 5 cm (P = 0.20) and at 10 cm (P = 0.27) above the SCJ, with those with reflux (E+ and E-/pH+) having a lower MI than those without. Patients with symptoms of EER and evidence of acid reflux have an MI lower than those without at 2 cm above the SCJ, with a trend at 5 cm and 10 cm as well. MI may be a tool to assess presence of GERD in patients presenting with EER symptoms. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Predictive value of routine esophageal high-resolution manometry for gastro-esophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoeij, F B; Smout, A J; Bredenoord, A J

    2015-07-01

    Using conventional manometry, gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) was associated with a reduced lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure and impaired peristalsis. However, with a large overlap between GERD patients and controls, these findings are of limited clinical relevance. It is uncertain whether the more detailed information of high-resolution manometry (HRM) can discriminate GERD patients. Therefore, we aimed to determine to which extent HRM findings can predict GERD. HRM measurements in 69 patients with GERD and 40 healthy subjects were compared and the predictive value of HRM for the diagnosis of GERD was explored. GERD patients had a significantly lower contraction amplitude (55 vs 64 mmHg; p = 0.045) and basal LES pressure (10 vs 13.2 mmHg; p = 0.034) than healthy controls. GERD patients more often had a hiatal hernia than healthy subjects (30% vs 7%; p = 0.005). Patients with reflux esophagitis had a lower DCI than patients without reflux esophagitis (558 vs 782 mmHg cm s; p = 0.045). No significant difference was seen in contractile front velocity, distal latency, number of peristaltic breaks, residual LES pressure and LES length. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, both esophagogastric junction type I (OR 4.971; 95% CI 1.33-18.59; p = 0.017) and mean wave amplitude (OR 0.95; 95% CI 0.90-0.98; p = 0.013) were found to be independent predictors of GERD. However, the sensitivity and specificity of these findings were low. Hiatal hernia, low contraction amplitude and LES pressure are associated with GERD, but do not predict the disease with sufficient accuracy. Routine esophageal HRM can therefore not be used to distinguish GERD patients from healthy subjects. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Alginate antacid (Gaviscon DA) chewable tablets reduce esophageal acid exposure in Chinese patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease and heartburn symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yao Zong; Fang, Jing Yuan; Zou, Duo Wu; Levinson, Nigel; Jenner, Bartosz; Wilkinson, Joanne

    2016-11-01

    To assess the efficacy of Gaviscon Double Action (DA) alginate antacid chewable tablets for reducing esophageal acid exposure in Chinese patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Altogether 44 patients reporting moderate to severe heartburn symptoms underwent two pH monitoring visits. The treatment sequence was randomized to patients received DA alginate antacid or placebo at one visit and the alternate treatment 7 days later. After a standardized reflux-provoking meal, patients took four tablets of DA alginate antacid or placebo. Esophageal pH was measured for 4 h post-dosing using an electrode positioned 5 cm above the lower esophageal sphincter. The primary end-point was the percentage of 4-h post-dosing period with pH acid reflux episodes (pH reflux time and DeMeester scores. All 44 patients completed the study and provided data for analysis. With DA alginate antacid, the mean percentage time with pH acid exposure without serious clinically relevant health risks. These findings suggest DA alginate antacid tablets are appropriate for treating acid reflux in Chinese GERD patients with heartburn symptoms. © 2016 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. Classification of esophageal motor findings in gastro-esophageal reflux disease: Conclusions from an international consensus group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gyawali, C. P.; Roman, S.; Bredenoord, A. J.; Fox, M.; Keller, J.; Pandolfino, J. E.; Sifrim, D.; Tatum, R.; Yadlapati, R.; Savarino, E.; Azpiroz, Fernando; Babaei, Arash; Bhatia, Shobna; Boeckxstaens, Guy; Bor, Serhat; Carlson, Dustin; Castell, Donald; Cicala, Michele; Clarke, John; de Bortoli, Nicola; Drug, Vasile; Frazzoni, Marzio; Holloway, Richard; Kahrilas, Peter; Kandulski, Arne; Katz, Phil; Katzka, David; Mittal, Ravinder; Mion, Francois; Novais, Luis; Patel, Amit; Penagini, Roberto; Ribolsi, Mentore; Richter, Joel; Salvador, Renato; Savarino, Vincenzo; Serra, Jordi; Schnoll-Sussman, Felice; Smout, Andre; Soffer, Edy; Sweis, Rami; Tack, Jan; Tolone, Salvatore; Tutuian, Radu; Vaezi, Michael; Vela, Marcelo; Woodland, Philip; Wu, Justin; Xiao, Yinglian; Zerbib, Frank

    2017-01-01

    BackgroundHigh-resolution manometry (HRM) has resulted in new revelations regarding the pathophysiology of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). The impact of new HRM motor paradigms on reflux burden needs further definition, leading to a modern approach to motor testing in GERD. MethodsFocused

  12. Pulmonary function impairment after trachea-esophageal fistula: a minor role for gastro-esophageal reflux disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peetsold, M.G.; Heij, H.A.; Nagelkerke, A.F.; Deurloo, J.A.; Gemke, R.J.B.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Long-term impairment of pulmonary function in trachea-esophageal fistula (TEF) patients is, at least in part, commonly ascribed to gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). The objective of this study was to examine the independent effects of the underlying condition and GERD on

  13. Pulmonary Function Impairment After Trachea-Esophageal Fistula: A Minor Role for Gastro-Esophageal Reflux Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peetsold, M. G.; Heij, H. A.; Nagelkerke, A. F.; Deurloo, J. A.; Gemke, R. J. B. J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Long-term impairment of pulmonary function in trachea-esophageal fistula (TEF) patients is, at least in part, commonly ascribed to gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). The objective of this study was to examine the independent effects of the underlying condition and GERD on

  14. Gender difference in gastro-esophageal reflux diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asanuma, Kiyotaka; Iijima, Katsunori; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2016-02-07

    The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has risen sharply in western countries over the past 4 decades. This type of cancer is considered to follow a transitional process that goes from gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) to Barrett's esophagus (BE, a metaplastic condition of the distal esophagus), a precursor lesion and ultimately adenocarcinoma. This spectrum of GERD is strongly predominant in males due to an unidentified mechanism. Several epidemiologic studies have described that the prevalence of GERD, BE and EAC in women is closely related to reproductive status, which suggests a possible association with the estrogen level. Recently, we revealed in an in vivo study that the inactivation of mast cells by the anti-inflammatory function of estrogen may account for the gender difference in the GERD spectrum. Other studies have described the contribution of female steroid hormones to the gender difference in these diseases. Estrogen is reported to modulate the metabolism of fat, and obesity is a main risk factor of GERDs. Moreover, estrogen could confer esophageal epithelial resistance to causative refluxate. These functions of estrogen might explain the approximately 20-year delay in the incidence of BE and the subsequent development of EAC in women compared to men, and this effect may be responsible for the male predominance. However, some observational studies demonstrated that hormone replacement therapy exerts controversial effects in GERD patients. Nevertheless, the estrogen-related endocrine milieu may prevent disease progression toward carcinogenesis in GERD patients. The development of innovative alternatives to conventional acid suppressors may become possible by clarifying the mechanisms of estrogen.

  15. Dynamic measurements of reflux for quantifying gastroesophageal reflux in patients with prolonged esophageal transit time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gratz, K.F.; Creutzig, H.; Schmiedt, W.; Oelert, H.; Hundeshagen, H.; Medizinische Hochschule Hannover

    1985-01-01

    A combination of a radionuclide transit test and a dynamic gastroesophageal scan was evaluated in normal volunteers, in patients with achalasia treated by pneumatic dilatation (n=34) or Heller myotomy (n=21). Interpretation of 31 of 57 examinations done with usual scintiscan was not possible because of too high esophageal tracer retention. Only one case could not be interpreted with the modified technique. Gastroesophageal reflux was detected and quantified in this manner in 8 patients, 6 more than with the usual scintiscan. 7 of these 8 patients have had Heller procedure, 1 patient even combined with fundoplasty. (orig.) [de

  16. Dynamic measurements of reflux for quantifying gastroesophageal reflux in patients with prolonged esophageal transit time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gratz, K.F.; Creutzig, H.; Schmiedt, W.; Oelert, H.; Hundeshagen, H.

    1985-05-01

    A combination of a radionuclide transit test and a dynamic gastroesophageal scan was evaluated in normal volunteers, in patients with achalasia treated by pneumatic dilatation (n=34) or Heller myotomy (n=21). Interpretation of 31 of 57 examinations done with usual scintiscan was not possible because of too high esophageal tracer retention. Only one case could not be interpreted with the modified technique. Gastroesophageal reflux was detected and quantified in this manner in 8 patients, 6 more than with the usual scintiscan. 7 of these 8 patients have had Heller procedure, 1 patient even combined with fundoplasty.

  17. Hypersensitivity to acid is associated with impaired esophageal mucosal integrity in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease with and without esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijenborg, Pim W; Smout, André J P M; Verseijden, Caroline; van Veen, Henk A; Verheij, Joanne; de Jonge, Wouter J; Bredenoord, Albert J

    2014-08-01

    Increased esophageal sensitivity and impaired mucosal integrity have both been described in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease, but the relationship between hypersensitivity and mucosal integrity is unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate acid sensitivity in patients with erosive and nonerosive reflux disease and control subjects to determine the relation with functional esophageal mucosal integrity changes as well as to investigate cellular mechanisms of impaired mucosal integrity in these patients. In this prospective experimental study, 12 patients with nonerosive reflux disease, 12 patients with esophagitis grade A or B, and 11 healthy control subjects underwent an acid perfusion test and upper endoscopy. Mucosal integrity was measured during endoscopy by electrical tissue impedance spectroscopy and biopsy specimens were analyzed in Ussing chambers for transepithelial electrical resistance, transepithelial permeability and gene expression of tight junction proteins and filaggrin. Patients with nonerosive reflux disease and esophagitis were more sensitive to acid perfusion compared with control subjects, having a shorter time to perception of heartburn and higher perceived intensity of heartburn. In reflux patients, enhanced acid sensitivity was associated with impairment of in vivo and vitro esophageal mucosal integrity. Mucosal integrity was significantly impaired in patients with esophagitis, displaying higher transepithelial permeability and lower extracellular impedance. Although no significant differences in the expression of tight junction proteins were found in biopsies among patient groups, mucosal integrity parameters in reflux patients correlated negatively with the expression of filaggrin. In conclusion, sensitivity to acid is enhanced in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease, irrespective of the presence of erosions, and is associated with impaired esophageal mucosal integrity. Mucosal integrity of the esophagus

  18. The diagnosis of gastro-esophageal reflux disease cannot be made with barium esophagograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, C M G; Smout, A J P M; Bredenoord, A J

    2015-02-01

    For over 50 years, barium studies have been used to diagnose gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD), but the value of this test is controversial. Our study aimed to determine if barium esophagograms can be used to diagnose GERD. Barium esophagograms and pH-impedance measurement were performed in 20 subjects with reflux symptoms. pH-impedance measurements were used as gold standard for the diagnosis of GERD. Gastro-esophageal reflux measured with the barium study was defined as a positive outcome. 50% of patients presented gastro-esophageal reflux on the barium esophagogram. No significant differences were observed in acid exposure time between subjects with (median: 7.4%; interquartile range, IQR: 8.4%) or without reflux at barium esophagography (median: 5.95%; IQR: 13.05%; p > 0.05). Nor did we find differences in median proximal extent of reflux measured with impedance monitoring between patients with a positive (median: 6.7%; IQR: 1.95%) and negative barium study (median: 7.1%; IQR: 0.68%; p > 0.05). Patients with reflux on barium esophagogram did not have a positive symptom association probability more often than those who did not have reflux at barium esophagography. Lastly, there were no differences in numbers of acid, weakly acidic or total reflux episodes between those with positive or negative barium esophagogram (p > 0.05). No correlations were found between the maximum proximal extent of gastro-esophageal reflux during esophagography and pH-impedance parameters. Presence or absence of gastro-esophageal reflux during barium esophagography does not correlate with incidence or extent of reflux observed during 24-h pH-impedance monitoring and is not of value for the diagnosis of GERD. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Gastro-esophageal reflux disease and exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Truls S; Marott, Jacob L; Vestbo, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that gastro-esophageal reflux disease is a risk factor for exacerbations in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS: Among 9622 participants in the Copenhagen City Heart Study, we identified 1259 individuals with COPD...... applied a multivariable Cox regression analysis with adjustment for well-established risk factors associated with COPD exacerbations or gastro-esophageal reflux disease, including COPD severity, and symptoms. RESULTS: Individuals with COPD and gastro-esophageal reflux disease had more chronic bronchitis...... and information on gastro-esophageal reflux disease and the regular use of acid inhibitory treatment. These individuals were followed for 5 years with regard to medically treated COPD exacerbations, which we defined as a short course treatment with oral corticosteroids alone or in combination with antibiotics. We...

  20. Exhaled breath concentrations of acetic acid vapour in gastro-esophageal reflux disease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dryahina, Kseniya; Pospíšilová, Veronika; Sovová, Kristýna; Shestivska, Violetta; Kubišta, Jiří; Spesyvyi, Anatolii; Pehal, F.; Turzíková, J.; Votruba, J.; Španěl, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3 (2014), 037109 ISSN 1752-7155 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : SIFT-MS * gastro-esophageal reflux * acetic acid Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.631, year: 2014

  1. Acid reflux directly causes sleep disturbances in rat with chronic esophagitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Nakahara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD is strongly associated with sleep disturbances. Proton pump inhibitor (PPI therapy improves subjective but not objective sleep parameters in patients with GERD. This study aimed to investigate the association between GERD and sleep, and the effect of PPI on sleep by using a rat model of chronic acid reflux esophagitis. METHODS: Acid reflux esophagitis was induced by ligating the transitional region between the forestomach and the glandular portion and then wrapping the duodenum near the pylorus. Rats underwent surgery for implantation of electrodes for electroencephalogram and electromyogram recordings, and they were transferred to a soundproof recording chamber. Polygraphic recordings were scored by using 10-s epochs for wake, rapid eye movement sleep, and non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep. To examine the role of acid reflux, rats were subcutaneously administered a PPI, omeprazole, at a dose of 20 mg/kg once daily. RESULTS: Rats with reflux esophagitis presented with several erosions, ulcers, and mucosal thickening with basal hyperplasia and marked inflammatory infiltration. The reflux esophagitis group showed a 34.0% increase in wake (232.2±11.4 min and 173.3±7.4 min in the reflux esophagitis and control groups, respectively; p<0.01 accompanied by a reduction in NREM sleep during light period, an increase in sleep fragmentation, and more frequent stage transitions. The use of omeprazole significantly improved sleep disturbances caused by reflux esophagitis, and this effect was not observed when the PPI was withdrawn. CONCLUSIONS: Acid reflux directly causes sleep disturbances in rats with chronic esophagitis.

  2. Gastro-esophageal reflux disease and exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingebrigtsen, Truls S; Marott, Jacob L; Vestbo, Jørgen; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Hallas, Jesper; Lange, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that gastro-esophageal reflux disease is a risk factor for exacerbations in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Among 9622 participants in the Copenhagen City Heart Study, we identified 1259 individuals with COPD and information on gastro-esophageal reflux disease and the regular use of acid inhibitory treatment. These individuals were followed for 5 years with regard to medically treated COPD exacerbations, which we defined as a short course treatment with oral corticosteroids alone or in combination with antibiotics. We applied a multivariable Cox regression analysis with adjustment for well-established risk factors associated with COPD exacerbations or gastro-esophageal reflux disease, including COPD severity, and symptoms. Individuals with COPD and gastro-esophageal reflux disease had more chronic bronchitis (31 vs 21%, P = 0.004), more breathlessness (39 vs 22%, P gastro-esophageal reflux disease. Among individuals with COPD and gastro-esophageal reflux disease, those who did not use acid inhibitory treatment regularly had an increased risk of COPD exacerbations during follow-up, hazards ratio (HR): HR = 2.7 (1.3-5.4, P = 0.006). Individuals with gastro-esophageal reflux disease, using acid inhibitory treatment regularly did not have an increased risk of exacerbations, HR = 1.2 (0.6-2.7, P = 0.63). Gastro-esophageal reflux disease was associated with an increased risk of medically treated exacerbations of COPD, but only in those individuals who did not use acid inhibitory treatment regularly. © 2014 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  3. Distal Esophageal Duplication Cyst with Gastro-Esophageal Reflux Disease: A Rare Association and a Management Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Iftikhar Ahmad; Al Nuaimi, Asma; Al Hamoudi, Basma; Al Naqbi, Khalid; Bilal, Mohammad

    2016-02-01

    Esophageal duplication cysts are rare congenital abnormalities of the foregut and may be associated with other conditions. Association of esophageal duplication with Gastro-Esophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) has not been reported in children. We are reporting a case of a 16 months baby who had antenatal diagnosis of diaphragmatic hernia. Postnatal CTchest, however, suggested a distal esophageal duplication cyst and a contrast esophagogram showed grade-IV GER. A thoracoscopy in another hospital excluded esophageal duplication at that time. Later, he presented with hematemesis in our department and was re-evaluated. Repeat CTconfirmed a persistent 2.5 x 1.3 cm cyst in distal esophagus. Upper GI endoscopy suggested grade-II esophagitis with a wide patent gastro-esophageal junction. The child was treated with left thoracotomy, excision of the duplication cyst and thoracic fundoplication. He had an uneventful post-operative recovery and is doing well at 6 months follow-up.

  4. The relationship between helicobacter pylori infection and gastro-esophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Batool M

    2011-03-01

    Gastro-esophageal reflux disease is a common condition, affecting 25%-40% of the population. Increasing attention has been paid to the relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and reflux esophagitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between CagA+ H. pylori and endoscopically proven gastro-esophageal reflux disease. The study group included 60 hospital patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease between 2007 and 2009 as compared with 30 healthy patients from a control group that was age and sex matched. Helicobacter pylori CagA+ was identified by an immunological test (Immunochromatography test) (ACON, USA). Helicobacter pyloriCagA+ was present in 42/60 (70%) of the patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease and in 11/30 (36.6%) patients in the control group (p=0.002). The Odds ratio = 0.8004 with 95% Confidence Interval = from 0.3188 to 2.0094. The relative risk=1.35 that indicates an association between Helicobacter pylori and disease. The presence of Helicobacter pylori is significantly increased in patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease as compared with the control group.

  5. Pattern of food intolerance in patients with gastro-esophageal reflux symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caselli, Michele; Lo Cascio, Natalina; Rabitti, Stefano; Eusebi, Leonardo H; Zeni, Elena; Soavi, Cecilia; Cassol, Francesca; Zuliani, Giovanni; Zagari, Rocco M

    2017-12-01

    Many food items have been involved in gastro-esophageal reflux disease pathogenesis and dietary modification has been proposed as first-line treatment. Test-based exclusion diets have shown to significantly reduce reflux symptoms. We aimed to assess the patterns of food intolerance in a series of patients with typical gastro-esophageal reflux symptoms (GERS). We retrospectively evaluated all patients with typical reflux symptoms, attending the Centre Study Association on Food Intolerance and Nutrition of Ferrara from January 2010 to October 2015, who resulted positive to at least one food item at the Leucocytotoxic Test. The presence and severity of typical GERS (heartburn and/or acid regurgitation) were assessed using the Gastro-esophageal Reflux Disease Impact Scale (GIS) questionnaire. Only individuals with a GIS Score of at least 5 points were included. Almost all patients (91.1%) were intolerant to at least 5 food items. The most frequent food intolerance (more than 33% of patients) were found for milk (55.4%), lettuce (46.4%), coffee (43.7%), brewer's yeast (42.9%), pork (42.9%), tuna (37.5%), rice (35.7%), sole (34.8%), asparagus (34.8%) and eggs (33.9%). Nine different clusters of food intolerance were detected. Patients with typical gastro-esophageal reflux symptoms seem to have intolerance to multiple food items, some of which (lettuce, brewer's yeast, tuna, rice, sole and asparagus) have not yet been associated to gastro-esophageal reflux disease.

  6. Prospective randomized controlled trial of an injectable esophageal prosthesis versus a sham procedure for endoscopic treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fockens, P.; Cohen, L.; Edmundowicz, S.A.; Binmoeller, K.; Rothstein, R.I.; Smith, D.; Lin, E.; Nickl, N.; Overholt, B.; Kahrilas, P.J.; Vakil, N.; Abdel Aziz Hassan, A.M.; Lehman, G.A.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to assess whether endoscopic implantation of an injectable esophageal prosthesis, the Gatekeeper Reflux Repair System (GK), is a safe and effective therapy for controlling gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). A prospective, randomized, sham-controlled, single-blinded,

  7. Esophageal motor disease and reflux patterns in patients with advanced pulmonary disease undergoing lung transplant evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seccombe, J; Mirza, F; Hachem, R; Gyawali, C P

    2013-08-01

    Advanced pulmonary disorders are linked to esophageal hypomotility and reflux disease. However, characterization of esophageal function using high resolution manometry (HRM) and ambulatory pH monitoring, segregation by pulmonary pathology, and comparison to traditional reflux disease are all limited in the literature. Over a 4 year period, 73 patients (55.2 ± 1.3 years, 44F) were identified who underwent esophageal function testing as part of lung transplant evaluation for advanced pulmonary disease (interstitial lung disease, ILD = 47, obstructive lung disease, OLD = 24, other = 2). Proportions of patients with motor dysfunction (≥ 80% failed sequences = severe hypomotility) and/or abnormal reflux parameters (acid exposure time, AET ≥ 4%) were determined, and compared to a cohort of 1081 patients (48.4 ± 0.4 years, 613F) referred for esophageal function testing prior to antireflux surgery (ARS). The proportion of esophageal body hypomotility was significantly higher within advanced pulmonary disease categories (35.6%), particularly ILD (44.7%), compared to ARS patients (12.1%, P esophageal motor pattern or reflux evidence. Interstitial lung disease has a highly significant association with esophageal body hypomotility. Consequently, prevalence of abnormal esophageal acid exposure is high, but implications for post lung transplant chronic rejection remain unclear. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Gastroesophageal reflux activates the NF-κB pathway and impairs esophageal barrier function in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yu; Chen, Hao; Hu, Yuhui; Djukic, Zorka; Tevebaugh, Whitney; Shaheen, Nicholas J.; Orlando, Roy C.; Hu, Jianguo

    2013-01-01

    The barrier function of the esophageal epithelium is a major defense against gastroesophageal reflux disease. Previous studies have shown that reflux damage is reflected in a decrease in transepithelial electrical resistance associated with tight junction alterations in the esophageal epithelium. To develop novel therapies, it is critical to understand the molecular mechanisms whereby contact with a refluxate impairs esophageal barrier function. In this study, surgical models of duodenal and mixed reflux were developed in mice. Mouse esophageal epithelium was analyzed by gene microarray. Gene set enrichment analysis showed upregulation of inflammation-related gene sets and the NF-κB pathway due to reflux. Significance analysis of microarrays revealed upregulation of NF-κB target genes. Overexpression of NF-κB subunits (p50 and p65) and NF-κB target genes (matrix metalloproteinases-3 and -9, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8) confirmed activation of the NF-κB pathway in the esophageal epithelium. In addition, real-time PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemical staining also showed downregulation and mislocalization of claudins-1 and -4. In a second animal experiment, treatment with an NF-κB inhibitor, BAY 11-7085 (20 mg·kg−1·day−1 ip for 10 days), counteracted the effects of duodenal and mixed reflux on epithelial resistance and NF-κB-regulated cytokines. We conclude that gastroesophageal reflux activates the NF-κB pathway and impairs esophageal barrier function in mice and that targeting the NF-κB pathway may strengthen esophageal barrier function against reflux. PMID:23639809

  9. [Gastro-esophageal Reflux Disease and malignant progression--equal risk for men and women?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pech, O

    2015-08-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is highly prevalent in the Western world. Patients with GERD have a 10 fold increased risk to develop a Barrett's esophagus. Patients with Barrett's esophagus have a higher risk for an esophageal adenocarcinoma. Men have more severe reflux with a higher grade of inflammation and acid reflux. This seems to be the reason why men develop a Barrett's esophagus more frequently--the risk is approximately 2 to 3 fold and the risk for an esophageal adenocarcinoma is even 3 to 6 times higher. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. [Gastro-Esophageal Reflux Disease and Malignant Progression - Equal Risk for Men and Women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pech, O

    2016-12-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is highly prevalent in the Western world. Patients with GERD have a 10-fold increased risk to develop a Barrett's esophagus. Patients with Barrett's esophagus have a higher risk for an esophageal adenocarcinoma. Men have more severe reflux with a higher grade of inflammation and acid reflux. This seems to be the reason why men develop a Barrett's esophagus more frequently - the risk is approximately 2-3-fold and the risk for an esophageal adenocarcinoma is even 3-6 times higher. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. The prevalence of gastro-esophageal reflux disease and esophageal dysmotility in Chinese patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Hobson, Anthony Robert; Shang, Zhan Min; Pei, Yan Xiang; Gao, Yan; Wang, Jian Xin; Huang, Wan Nong

    2015-02-19

    The cause of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) remains unknown, yet gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) is highly prevalent in this population. GERD prevalence was studied, and esophageal function tests (EFT) were assessed in Chinese IPF patients. We prospectively studied 69 IPF patients who undertook both stationary High Resolution esophageal Manometry/Impedance (HRiM) and 24-hour esophageal Multi-Channel Intraluminal Impedance with pH Recordings (MII/pH). Patients were divided into GERD+ and GERD- groups according to pH results. Controls were HRiM treated healthy volunteers, and patients without IPF received HRiM and MII/pH diagnosed with GERD. 69 IPF patients, 62 healthy volunteers, and 88 IPF negative GERD patients were selected. GERD prevalence in IPF was 43/69 (62.3%), and 58.1% of patients presented with at least one typical symptom. Symptoms had a sensitivity of 58.1%, a specificity of 61.6%, a positive predictive value of 71.4% and a negative predictive of 47.1%. Compared with healthy volunteers, IPF patients had significantly decreased lower esophageal sphincter pressure (LESP), upper esophageal sphincter pressure (UESP) and complete bolus transit rate (CBTR). By contrast, IPF patients had increased total bolus transit time and prevalence of weak peristalsis. MII/pH showed that one third of IPF patients had abnormal distal and proximal reflux, especially non-acid reflux. Compared with GERD patients without IPF, GERD patients with IPF had significantly decreased CBTR and UESP with increased bolus exposure time. GERD prevalence in IPF was high, but symptoms alone were an unreliable predictor of reflux. IPF patients had lower LESP and UESP, impaired esophageal peristalsis and bolus clearance function with more proximal reflux events.

  12. Scintigraphic Evaluation of Esophageal Motility and Gastroesophageal Reflux in Patients Presenting with Upper Respiratory Tract Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amalachandran, Jaykanth; Simon, Shelley; Elangoven, Indirani; Jain, Avani; Sivathapandi, Thangalakshmi

    2018-01-01

    Purpose of Study: The purpose is to evaluate the findings and utility of esophageal transit scintigraphy (ETS) and gastroesophageal reflux scintigraphy (GES) in patients presenting with upper respiratory tract (URT) symptoms suspected to be due to gastroesophageal reflux (GER) disease. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients aged between 19 and 60 years underwent nasopharyngolaryngoscopy (NPL), ETS, and GES. Correlation between GER, esophageal motility, and NPL was evaluated. Inclusion criteria include patients with recurrent URT symptoms such as chronic dry cough/hoarseness of voice and itching/foreign body sensation in throat. Those with typical gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms of GER, URT symptoms relieved by antibiotics, surgical intervention in abdomen, cardiac/hepatobiliary diseases, etc. were excluded from the study. Results: Significant correlation was found between GER and NPL in 28/30 patients. More the grade of reflux, more severe was the NPL findings. Two patients with Grade II reflux had normal NPL suggesting structural inflammatory changes due to acidic pH of refluxate which have not yet manifested or symptoms could be due to nonacid refluxate. Incidence of esophageal motility disorder was statistically significant in patients with GER disease (GERD). Patients who had symptoms, but no demonstrable GER showed delayed ET in supine position suggesting the presence of esophageal motility disorder even before GERD. Conclusion: GES demonstrated GER in patients presenting with URT symptoms without typical GI symptoms. ETS showed coexistence of esophageal motility disorder in most patients presenting with URT symptoms even without an associated reflux disease. We hypothesize that primary abnormal esophageal motility leads to delayed esophageal clearance and consequently to URT symptoms. Addition of ETS to GES is easily feasible with no significant additional cost, time, or radiation burden. PMID:29430111

  13. Pathophysiology of gastro-esophageal reflux disease: a role for mucosa integrity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré, R

    2013-10-01

    Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) is very prevalent and has a high burden on health security system costs. Nevertheless, pathophysiology is complex and not well-understood. Several mechanisms have been proposed: decreased salivation, impaired esophageal clearance, decreased lower esophageal sphincter pressure resting tone, presence of hiatal hernia, increased number of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations (TLESRs), increased acid, and pepsin secretion, pyloric incompetence provoking duodeno-gastro-esophageal reflux of bile acids and trypsin. Independent of the relevance of each mechanism, the ultimate phenomenon is that mucosal epithelium is exposed for a longer time to agents as acid and pepsin or is in contact to luminal agents not commonly present in gastric refluxate as trypsin or bile acids. This leads to a visible damage of the epithelium (erosive esophagitis -EE) or impairing mucosal integrity without any sign of macroscopic alteration as occurs in non-erosive reflux disease (NERD). Luminal factors are not the only responsible for such impairment; more recent data indicate that endogenous factors may also play a role. This review will update the most recent findings on the putative pathophysiological mechanisms and specially will focus on the role of esophageal mucosal integrity in GERD. Methodologies used for the evaluation of mucosal integrity, its relevance in EE and NERD, its involvement in symptoms perception and the effect of luminal and endogenous factors will be discussed. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The gastric accommodation response to meal intake determines the occurrence of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations and reflux events in patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, A; Altan, E; Tack, J

    2014-04-01

    Gastro-esophageal reflux (GER), the retrograde flow of gastric contents into the esophagus is a physiologic phenomenon, which can evoke symptoms and/or lesions in the esophagus (=gastro-esophageal reflux disease or GERD). Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) reduce gastric acidity; however, as they are unable to control transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations (TLESRs), the main mechanism for reflux in GERD, they do not abolish reflux. TLESRs occur predominantly in the postprandial period, and they are believed to be triggered by gastric distention. Gastric accommodation (GA) is the physiologic response to gastric distention and serves to prevent a rise in gastric wall tension during food intake. We aimed to study the relationship between GA and TLESRs, as they both are triggered by gastric distention. We studied 12 GERD patients (average age 37 years [range 18-62], 7m/5f) and nine healthy volunteers (average age 27 years [range 22-36], 2m/7f) using high resolution manometry-impedance measurement before and after a mixed meal challenge. We determined the number of TLESRs (with or without reflux) and measured pre- and postprandial IGP. The change in IGP between the pre- and postprandial period (ΔIGP) is used as surrogate for GA. We also measured LES pressure before and after the meal and calculated the change (ΔLESp). There were no statistical differences between pre- and postprandial IGP in GERD and healthy volunteers and similarly, there was no significant difference between pre- and postprandial LES pressures in GERD patients and healthy volunteers. The number of TLESRs (with or without reflux) was similar in GERD and healthy volunteers. More importantly, we did observe a negative correlation between ΔIGP and the number of TLESRs, irrespective of whether they were associated with reflux or not, in the GERD patients (without reflux r = -0.67, p = 0.017; with reflux r = -0.81, p = 0.0014). The same observations were found in healthy volunteers, where ΔIGP and

  15. Esophageal chemical clearance and baseline impedance values in patients with chronic autoimmune atrophic gastritis and gastro-esophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenca, Andrea; de Bortoli, Nicola; Mauro, Aurelio; Frazzoni, Marzio; Savarino, Edoardo; Massironi, Sara; Russo, Salvatore; Bertani, Lorenzo; Marchi, Santino; Penagini, Roberto

    2017-09-01

    The factors influencing new markers of gastro-esophageal reflux disease detected by impedance-pH monitoring - mean nocturnal baseline impedance (MNBI) and post-reflux swallow-induced peristaltic wave (PSPW) index - need to be evaluated. To compare endoscopy-negative heartburn with chronic autoimmune atrophic gastritis (CAAG). 24 patients with CAAG, 25 with non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) and 25 with functional heartburn (FH) were included. In all patients the main impedance-pH monitoring parameters were calculated. CAAG and NERD patients had a number of reflux events (non-acid ones being more common among the former group) which was higher than that found in FH (p3000Ohm), CAAG (>2000Ohm) and NERD (reflux based on the high number of reflux events and confirmed by low values of MNBI and PSPW index. MNBI is a strong marker of acid/non-acid reflux-induced mucosal damage, whereas the PSPW index can reliably discriminate patients with reflux from those with FH, independently of the acidity of refluxate. Copyright © 2017 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Gaviscon and domperidon responsive apnea episodes associated with gastro-esophageal reflux disease in twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Huseyin; Eren, Abdulkadir; Kara, Semra

    2015-01-01

    The possible pathophysiology of the relationship between gastro-esophageal reflux disease and apnea of prematurity has been widely investigated. Various physiological protective reflex responses provide a plausible biological link between gastro-esophageal reflux and apnea of prematurity. It is uncertain whether or not there is a causal relationship between the two diseases. PATIENT'S FINDINGS: Twins were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit due to feeding problems. Physical examination was normal except for reticulated, blueviolet skin changes. Short apneic attacks occurred on the first day in twin 1 and on the second day in twin 2, and these were initially treated by stimulation and increased ambient O2 concentration. Then, we conducted methylxanthine and continuous positive airway pressure treatment. Laboratory and radiological analysis were normal. As gastro-esophageal reflux disease was thought to be the causes of the treatment-refractory apnea, therapy with gaviscon and domperidon was begun for both cases. Apneic attacks did not recur after gaviscon and domperidon therapy. Pharmacological therapy for gastro-esophageal reflux disease has not definitively been shown to be effective in improving symptoms and hence, should be reserved especially for infants with treatment refractory apnea episodes suspected as being gastro-esophageal reflux in premature infants.

  17. Reflux episodes and esophageal impedance levels in patients with typical and atypical symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Bi Xing; Jiang, Liu Qin; Lin, Lin; Wang, Ying; Wang, Meifeng

    2017-01-01

    Abstract To determine the relationship between baseline impedance levels and gastroesophageal reflux, we retrospectively enrolled 110 patients (54 men and 56 female; mean age, 51 ± 14 years) with suspected gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) who underwent 24-h multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH monitoring. Patients were stratified according to symptom (typical or atypical) and reflux types (acid reflux, nonacid reflux [NAR], or no abnormal reflux). Mean nocturnal baseline impedance (MNBI) were measured 3 cm (distal esophagus) and 17 cm (proximal esophagus) above the lower esophageal sphincter. Median distal esophageal MNBI was lower in the acid reflux group (1244 Ω; 647–1969 Ω) than in the NAR (2586 Ω; 1368–3666 Ω) or no abnormal reflux groups (3082 Ω; 2495–4472 Ω; all P < .05). Distal MNBI were negatively correlated with DeMeester score and acid exposure time. Atypical symptoms were more frequently associated with NAR than typical symptoms (P < .01). Among patients with positive symptom-association probability (SAP) for NAR, median proximal MNBI tended to be lower in patients with typical symptoms (median, 3013 Ω; IQR, 2535–3410 Ω) than in those with atypical symptoms (median, 3386 Ω; IQR, 3044–3730 Ω, P = .05). Thus, atypical GERD symptoms were more likely to be associated with NAR. The mucosal integrity of the proximal esophagus might be relatively impaired in GERD patients with typical symptoms for NAR. PMID:28906377

  18. Hypersensitivity to acid is associated with impaired esophageal mucosal integrity in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease with and without esophagitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijenborg, Pim W.; Smout, André J. P. M.; Verseijden, Caroline; van Veen, Henk A.; Verheij, Joanne; de Jonge, Wouter J.; Bredenoord, Albert J.

    2014-01-01

    Increased esophageal sensitivity and impaired mucosal integrity have both been described in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease, but the relationship between hypersensitivity and mucosal integrity is unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate acid sensitivity in patients with

  19. High-resolution esophageal pressure topography is superior to conventional sleeve manometry for the detection of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations associated with a reflux event

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohof, W. O. A.; Boeckxstaens, G. E. E.; Hirsch, D. P.

    2011-01-01

    Transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations (TLESRs) are the main mechanism underlying gastro-esophageal reflux and are detected during manometric studies using well defined criteria. Recently, high-resolution esophageal pressure topography (HREPT) has been introduced and is now considered as

  20. Colonic fermentation influences lower esophageal sphincter function in gastroesophageal reflux disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piche, Thierry; des Varannes, Stanislas Bruley; Sacher-Huvelin, Sylvie

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Colonic fermentation of carbohydrates is known to influence gastric and esophageal motility in healthy subjects. This study investigated the effects of colonic fermentation induced by oral administration of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) in patients with gastroesophageal reflux...... were monitored. RESULTS: Compared with placebo, FOS led to a significant increase in the number of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations (TLESRs) and reflux episodes, esophageal acid exposure, and the symptom score for GERD. The integrated plasma response of GLP-1 was significantly higher...... after FOS than placebo. CONCLUSIONS: Colonic fermentation of indigestible carbohydrates increases the rate of TLESRs, the number of acid reflux episodes, and the symptoms of GERD. Although different mechanisms are likely to be involved, excess release of GLP-1 may account, at least in part...

  1. Frequency, types and complications of barrett's esophagus in patients with symptoms of gastro-esophageal reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, A.L.; Sadiq, S.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This study was carried out to evaluate the frequency, types and complications of Barrett's esophagus in symptomatic gastro-esophageal reflux patients. Subjects: A total of 100 patients of gastro-esophageal reflux were studied to evaluate the frequency, types and complications of Barrett's esophagus. Endoscopic biopsies were taken and examined with H and E and various special stains like PAS, Alcian blue/PAS, high iron diamine/ Alcian blue and Giemsa stains. Results: Of 100 cases studied, 32 were found to have Barrett's esophagus on microscopy. The remaining 68 cases showed low and high grade changes of gastro-esophageal reflux. Conclusion: In comparison with studies from western countries, Barrett's esophagus was found to be relatively more common in our population. However, the frequency of complications like ulcer, stricture, dysplasia and adenocarcinoma was lesser. (author)

  2. Esophageal Dysmotility, Gastro-esophageal Reflux Disease, and Lung Transplantation: What Is the Evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Richard K

    2015-12-01

    Lung transplantation is an effective and life-prolonging therapy for patients with advanced lung disease (ALD). However, long-term patient survival following lung transplantation is primarily limited by development of an inflammatory and fibrotic process involving the lung allograft known as bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). Although the precise cause of BOS remains uncertain and is likely multifactorial, chronic aspiration of gastro-duodenal contents is one possible contributing factor. Multiple small, cross-sectional studies performed over the past two decades have reported a high prevalence of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) and esophageal dysmotility in the ALD population and several investigations suggest the prevalence may increase following lung transplantation. More recent studies evaluating the direct effect of gastro-duodenal contents on airways have demonstrated a possible biologic link between GERD and BOS. Despite the recent advances in our understanding of BOS, further investigations are needed to establish GERD as a causative factor in its development. This review will discuss the existing literature that has identified an association of GERD with ALD and post-transplant populations, with a focus on recent advances in the field.

  3. GPR84 and TREM-1 signaling contribute to the pathogenesis of reflux esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Aziz, Heba; Schneider, Mathias; Neuhuber, Winfried; Kassem, Abdel Meguid; Khailah, Saleem; Müller, Jürgen; Gamaleldeen, Hadeel; Khairy, Ahmed; Khayyal, Mohamed T; Shcherbakova, Anastasiia; Efferth, Thomas; Ulrich-Merzenich, Gudrun

    2015-11-24

    Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) is one of the most common disorders in gastroenterology. Patients present with or without increased acid exposure indicating a non-uniform etiology. Thus the common treatment with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) fails to control symptoms in up to 40% of patients.To further elucidate the pathophysiology of the condition and explore new treatment targets, transcriptomics, proteomics and histological methods were applied to a surgically induced sub-chronic reflux esophagitis model in Wistar rats after treatment with either omeprazole (PPI) or STW5, a herbal preparation shown to ameliorate esophagitis without affecting refluxate pH. The normal human esophageal squamous cellline HET-1A and human endoscopic biopsies were used to confirm our findings to the G-protein coupled receptor (GPR) 84 in human tissue.Both treatments reduced reflux-induced macroscopic and microscopic lesions of the esophagi as well as known pro-inflammatory cytokines. Proteomic and transcriptomic analyses identified CINC1-3, MIP-1/3α, MIG, RANTES and IL-1β as prominent mediators in GERD. Most regulated cyto-/chemokines are linked to the TREM-1 signaling pathway. The fatty acid receptor GPR84 was up-regulated in esophagitis but significantly decreased in treated groups, a finding supported by Western blot and immunohistochemistry in both rat tissue and HET-1A cells. GPR84 was also found to be significantly up-regulated in patients with grade B reflux esophagitis.The expression of GPR84 in esophageal tissue and its potential involvement in GERD are reported for the first time. IL-8 (CINC1-3) and the TREM-1 signaling pathway are proposed, besides GPR84, to play an important role in the pathogenesis of GERD.

  4. Nickel sensitization in patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanghellini, Vincenzo; Tosetti, Cesare; Benedetto, Edoardo; Condoluci, Mario; De Bastiani, Rudi; Cogliandro, Rosanna; Mastronuzzi, Tecla; De Polo, Manuela; Di Mita, Francesco; Napoli, Luigi; Ubaldi, Enzo; Nebiacolombo, Cristina; Cottone, Carmelo; Grattagliano, Ignazio; Zamparella, Maria; Baldi, Elisabetta; Sanna, Guido

    2016-04-01

    Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) leads to frequent medical visits, and available therapies fail in up to 40% of patients. Food allergies may be involved in GERD pathogenesis; however, allergens other than food have received little attention. Nickel allergy is common in the general population and some high-nickel foods are associated with GERD. However, the potential relationship between nickel allergy and GERD remains unaddressed. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of nickel sensitization in patients with and without GERD and to compare clinical and demographic features. This prospective, multicenter study included 210 adult GERD patients and 140 patients without GERD who presented at the general practitioner. All GERD patients had undergone treatment with proton pump inhibitors and upper digestive endoscopy within the previous five years. Demographic and clinical data were collected by questionnaire and patients underwent a nickel patch allergy test. Patients with and without GERD presented similar characteristics, with the exception of nickel sensitization, which was significantly more prevalent among GERD patients than controls (39.5% vs. 16.4%; p = 0.001). Nickel-positive GERD patients were more frequently female (90.4% vs. 65.4%, p = 0.003) and asthmatic (18.1% vs. 4.7%; p = 0.038), compared to nickel-negative GERD patients. At six-month follow-up, most of the patients, with or without nickel sensitization, reported improved symptoms without differences in drug prescription. Nickel sensitization is particularly prevalent in GERD patients seen in general practice. Whether allergies other than food allergy play a role in GERD remains to be elucidated.

  5. Orally administered L-arginine and glycine are highly effective against acid reflux esophagitis in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahama, Kenji; Nishio, Hikaru; Yamato, Masanori; Takeuchi, Koji

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Reflux esophagitis is caused mainly by excessive exposure of the mucosa to gastric contents. In the present study, we examined the effect of several amino acids on acid reflux esophagitis in rats. Material/Methods After 18 h of fasting, acid reflux esophagitis was induced by ligating both the pylorus and the transitional region between the forestomach and the corpus under ether anesthesia, and the animals were killed 4 h later. The severity of esophagitis was reduced by the oral administration of omeprazole, a proton pump inhibitor, or pepstatin, a specific pepsin inhibitor. Results The development of esophageal lesions was dose-dependently prevented by L-arginine and glycine, given intragastrically (i.g.) after the ligation, with complete inhibition obtained at 250 mg/kg and 750 mg/kg, respectively, and these effects were not influenced by the prior s.c. administration of indomethacin or L-NAME. By contrast, both L-alanine and L-glutamine given i.g. after the ligation aggravated these lesions in a dose-dependent manner. These amino acids had no effect on acid secretion but increased the pH of the gastric contents to 1.8~2.3 due to their buffering action. Conclusions The results confirmed an essential role for acid and pepsin in the pathogenesis of acid reflux esophagitis in the rat model and further suggested that various amino acids affect the severity of esophagitis in different ways, due to yet unidentified mechanisms; L-alanine and L-glutamine exert a deleterious effect on the esophagitis, while L-arginine and glycine are highly protective, independent of endogenous prostaglandins and nitric oxide. PMID:22207112

  6. Association of Visceral Fat Area, Smoking, and Alcohol Consumption with Reflux Esophagitis and Barrett's Esophagus in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juntaro Matsuzaki

    Full Text Available Central obesity has been suggested as a risk factor for gastroesophageal reflux disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of visceral fat area and other lifestyle factors with reflux esophagitis or Barrett's esophagus in Japanese population.Individuals who received thorough medical examinations including the measurement of visceral fat area by abdominal computed tomography were enrolled. Factors associated with the presence of reflux esophagitis, the severity of reflux esophagitis, or the presence of Barrett's esophagus were determined using multivariable logistic regression models.A total of 2608 individuals were eligible for the analyses. Visceral fat area was associated with the presence of reflux esophagitis both in men (odds ratio, 1.21 per 50 cm2; 95% confident interval, 1.01 to 1.46 and women (odds ratio, 2.31 per 50 cm2; 95% confident interval, 1.57 to 3.40. Current smoking and serum levels of triglyceride were also associated with the presence of reflux esophagitis in men. However, significant association between visceral fat area and the severity of reflux esophagitis or the presence of Barrett's esophagus was not shown. In men, excessive alcohol consumption on a drinking day, but not the frequency of alcohol drinking, was associated with both the severity of reflux esophagitis (odds ratio, 2.13; 95% confident interval, 1.03 to 4.41 and the presence of Barrett's esophagus (odds ratio, 1.71; 95% confident interval, 1.14 to 2.56.Visceral fat area was independently associated with the presence of reflux esophagitis, but not with the presence of Barrett's esophagus. On the other hand, quantity of alcohol consumption could play a role in the development of severe reflux esophagitis and Barrett's esophagus in Japanese population.

  7. Radiological evaluation of esophageal motility and gastroesophageal reflux disease; Funktionsstoerungen des Oesophagus. Radiologische Diagnostik

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    Schima, W. [Abt. Roentgen fuer Konservative Faecher, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria); Pokieser, P. [Abt. Roentgen fuer Chirurgische Faecher, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria); Schober, E. [Abt. Roentgen fuer Konservative Faecher, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria)

    1995-10-01

    Radiological evaluation of esophageal motility and the lower esophageal sphincter has gained increased attention in recent years. Videofluoroscopic investigation of esophageal motor function is superior to static film radiography, as repeated analysis of the videotaped recordings is possible. With emphasis on radiological techniques, normal esophagel physiology and motility and a variety of esophageal motor disorders are discussed in this review paper. Radiological evaluation of gastroesophageal reflux and reflux esophagitis is described. Clinical and radiological findings in esophageal motility disorders and gastroesophageal reflux disease and the radiological efficacy compared to that of manometry and pH-metry are discussed. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die radiologische Untersuchung des Oesophagus kann nicht nur strukturelle Veraenderungen, sondern auch funktionelle Stoerungen mit einer hohen Treffsicherheit nachweisen. Die Videokinematographie ist hierbei der konventionellen Roentgenuntersuchung aufgrund der Moeglichkeit der wiederholten Analyse ueberlegen. Ziel der vorliegenden Uebersicht ist es, prinzipiell das radiologische Erscheinungsbild der normalen Funktion sowie diagnostische Kriterien fuer verschiedene Motilitaetsstoerungen zu demonstrieren. Weiterhin werden auch die verschiedenen Moeglichkeiten der radiologischen Refluxpruefung zur Untersuchung der Funktion des gastrooesophagealen Sphinkters verglichen und deren Wert diskutiert. Die Pruefung der Funktion von Oesophagus und gastrooesophagealem Sphinkter als ein integraler Bestandteil der Roentgenuntersuchung der Speiseroehre verbessert deren Treffsicherheit, wodurch die radiologische Untersuchung die primaere diagnostische Methode bei Patienten mit Schluckstoerungen darstellt. (orig.)

  8. Proton pump inhibitor resistance, the real challenge in gastro-esophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicala, Michele; Emerenziani, Sara; Guarino, Michele Pier Luca; Ribolsi, Mentore

    2013-10-21

    Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases. Although proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) represent the mainstay of treatment both for healing erosive esophagitis and for symptom relief, several studies have shown that up to 40% of GERD patients reported either partial or complete lack of response of their symptoms to a standard PPI dose once daily. Several mechanisms have been proposed as involved in PPIs resistance, including ineffective control of gastric acid secretion, esophageal hypersensitivity, ultrastructural and functional changes in the esophageal epithelium. The diagnostic evaluation of a refractory GERD patients should include an accurate clinical evaluation, upper endoscopy, esophageal manometry and ambulatory pH-impedance monitoring, which allows to discriminate non-erosive reflux disease patients from those presenting esophageal hypersensitivity or functional heartburn. Treatment has been primarily based on doubling the PPI dose or switching to another PPI. Patients with proven disease, not responding to PPI twice daily, are eligible for anti-reflux surgery.

  9. Lower pH values of weakly acidic refluxes as determinants of heartburn perception in gastroesophageal reflux disease patients with normal esophageal acid exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bortoli, N; Martinucci, I; Savarino, E; Franchi, R; Bertani, L; Russo, S; Ceccarelli, L; Costa, F; Bellini, M; Blandizzi, C; Savarino, V; Marchi, S

    2016-01-01

    Multichannel impedance pH monitoring has shown that weakly acidic refluxes are able to generate heartburn. However, data on the role of different pH values, ranging between 4 and 7, in the generation of them are lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether different pH values of weakly acidic refluxes play a differential role in provoking reflux symptoms in endoscopy-negative patients with physiological esophageal acid exposure time and positive symptom index and symptom association probability for weakly acidic refluxes. One hundred and forty-three consecutive patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease, nonresponders to proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), were allowed a washout from PPIs before undergoing: upper endoscopy, esophageal manometry, and multichannel impedance pH monitoring. In patients with both symptom index and symptom association probability positive for weakly acidic reflux, each weakly acidic reflux was evaluated considering exact pH value, extension, physical characteristics, and correlation with heartburn. Forty-five patients with normal acid exposure time and positive symptom association probability for weakly acidic reflux were identified. The number of refluxes not heartburn related was higher than those heartburn related. In all distal and proximal liquid refluxes, as well as in distal mixed refluxes, the mean pH value of reflux events associated with heartburn was significantly lower than that not associated. This condition was not confirmed for proximal mixed refluxes. Overall, a low pH of weakly acidic reflux represents a determinant factor in provoking heartburn. This observation contributes to better understand the pathophysiology of symptoms generated by weakly acidic refluxes, paving the way toward the search for different therapeutic approaches to this peculiar condition of esophageal hypersensitivity. © 2014 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  10. Ambulatory reflux monitoring for diagnosis of gastro-esophageal reflux disease: Update of the Porto consensus and recommendations from an international consensus group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, S; Gyawali, C P; Savarino, E; Yadlapati, R; Zerbib, F; Wu, J; Vela, M; Tutuian, R; Tatum, R; Sifrim, D; Keller, J; Fox, M; Pandolfino, J E; Bredenoord, A J

    2017-10-01

    An international group of experts evaluated and revised recommendations for ambulatory reflux monitoring for the diagnosis of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). Literature search was focused on indications and technical recommendations for GERD testing and phenotypes definitions. Statements were proposed and discussed during several structured meetings. Reflux testing should be performed after cessation of acid suppressive medication in patients with a low likelihood of GERD. In this setting, testing can be either catheter-based or wireless pH-monitoring or pH-impedance monitoring. In patients with a high probability of GERD (esophagitis grade C and D, histology proven Barrett's mucosa >1 cm, peptic stricture, previous positive pH monitoring) and persistent symptoms, pH-impedance monitoring should be performed on treatment. Recommendations are provided for data acquisition and analysis. Esophageal acid exposure is considered as pathological if acid exposure time (AET) is greater than 6% on pH testing. Number of reflux episodes and baseline impedance are exploratory metrics that may complement AET. Positive symptom reflux association is defined as symptom index (SI) >50% or symptom association probability (SAP) >95%. A positive symptom-reflux association in the absence of pathological AET defines hypersensitivity to reflux. The consensus group determined that grade C or D esophagitis, peptic stricture, histology proven Barrett's mucosa >1 cm, and esophageal acid exposure greater >6% are sufficient to define pathological GERD. Further testing should be considered when none of these criteria are fulfilled. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Recent effectiveness of proton pump inhibitors for severe reflux esophagitis: the first multicenter prospective study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Hideki; Matsuhashi, Nobuyuki; Sakaguchi, Masahiro; Inoue, Syuji; Nakada, Koji; Higuchi, Kazuhide; Haruma, Ken; Joh, Takashi

    2015-11-01

    Proton pump inhibitors are the first-line treatment for reflux esophagitis. Because severe reflux esophagitis has very low prevalence in Japan, little is known about the effectiveness of proton pump inhibitors in these patients. This prospective multicenter study assessed the effectiveness of proton pump inhibitors for severe reflux esophagitis in Japan. Patients with modified Los Angeles grade C or D reflux esophagitis were treated with daily omeprazole (10 or 20 mg), lansoprazole (15 or 30 mg), or rabeprazole (10, 20, or 40 mg) for 8 weeks. Healing was assessed endoscopically, with questionnaires administered before and after treatment to measure the extent of reflux and dyspepsia symptoms. Factors affecting healing rates, including patient characteristics and endoscopic findings, were analyzed. Of the 115 patients enrolled, 64 with grade C and 19 with grade D reflux esophagitis completed the study. The healing rate was 67.5% (56/83), with 15 of the other 27 patients (55.6%) improving to grade A or B. No patient characteristic or endoscopic comorbidity was significantly associated with healing rate. Reflux and dyspepsia symptoms improved significantly with treatment. The low healing rate suggests the need of endoscopic examination to assess healing of reflux esophagitis at the end of therapy. (UMIN000005271).

  12. Polymorphisms of the FOXF1 and MHC locus genes in individuals undergoing esophageal acid reflux assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, C; Liu, W F; Bel, R D; Chan, K; Miller, L; Brown, M C; Chen, Z; Cheng, D; Patel, D; Xu, W; Darling, G E; Liu, G

    2017-02-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) may lead to Barrett's esophagus (BE). Previously, a large genome-wide association study found two germline markers to be associated with BE, FOXF1 rs9936833 (C allele) and MHC rs9257809 (A allele). This study evaluated whether these two polymorphisms are associated with gastroesphageal acid reflux as measured by 24-hour pH testing. Patients with acid reflux symptoms referred for esophageal manometry and 24-hour pH monitoring at University Health Network (Toronto, ON) were enrolled. DNA extracted from blood was genotyped using a Taqman Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assay. DeMeester scores of ≥14.7 or prior evidence of reflux esophagitis on endoscopy defined individuals with esophageal acid reflux. Logistic regression analysis, adjusted for clinical risk factors, was used to calculate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for each polymorphism in relation to the presence of acid reflux. Of 182 patients, the median age was 50 years and 62% were female; 95 (52%) met the definition of GERD. In the multivariable analysis, both FOXF1 rs9936833 (OR = 1.82; 95%CI: 1.12-2.96; P = 0.02) and MHC rs9257809 (OR = 9.36; 95%CI: 2.92-29.99; P acid reflux. When both polymorphisms were placed in the same model, the adjusted ORs were 2.10 (95%CI: 1.24-3.53; P = 0.005) and 10.95 (95%CI: 3.32-36.09; P acid reflux suggests a potential pathophysiologic mechanism for the role of genetic influences in BE development. © 2016 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  13. Combination therapy of sucralfate and ranitidine, compared with sucralfate monotherapy, in patients with peptic reflux esophagitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeijden, J. R.; Tytgat, G. N.; Schotborgh, R. H.; Dekker, W.; vd Boomgaard, D. M.; van Olffen, G. H.; Schrijver, M.; Vosmaer, G. D.; Dekkers, C. P.

    1992-01-01

    A double-blind, multicenter, randomized study was performed in 75 patients with endoscopically documented reflux esophagitis. Patients were randomly given 1 g sucralfate four times a day or the combination of sucralfate three times a day and 300 mg ranitidine after dinnertime. Endoscopy was

  14. Sucralfate versus cimetidine in reflux esophagitis. A single-blind multicenter study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hameeteman, W.; v d Boomgaard, D. M.; Dekker, W.; Schrijver, M.; Wesdorp, I. C.; Tytgat, G. N.

    1987-01-01

    A single-blind randomized multicenter study was performed in 42 patients with endoscopically documented reflux esophagitis. Patients were randomly given 400 mg cimetidine q.i.d. or a suspension of 1 g sucralfate q.i.d. for a period of 8 weeks. Forty patients were evaluated after 8 weeks. Symptomatic

  15. The diagnosis of gastro-esophageal reflux disease cannot be made with barium esophagograms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saleh, C. M. G.; Smout, A. J. P. M.; Bredenoord, A. J.

    2015-01-01

    For over 50 years, barium studies have been used to diagnose gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD), but the value of this test is controversial. Our study aimed to determine if barium esophagograms can be used to diagnose GERD. Barium esophagograms and pH-impedance measurement were performed in 20

  16. Reflux perception and the esophageal mucosal barrier in gastroesophageal reflux disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijenborg, P.W.

    2016-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is one of the most common disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Heartburn, regurgitation and chest pain are the key symptoms. Patients with reflux symptoms often have more than average reflux of acidic contents in the esophagus. However, frequently there is

  17. Acid suppression increases rates of Barrett's esophagus and esophageal injury in the presence of duodenal reflux.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: The contribution of gastric acid to the toxicity of alkaline duodenal refluxate on the esophageal mucosa is unclear. This study compared the effect of duodenal refluxate when acid was present, decreased by proton pump inhibitors (PPI), or absent. METHODS: We randomized 136 Sprague-Dawley rats into 4 groups: group 1 (n = 33) were controls; group 2 (n = 34) underwent esophagoduodenostomy promoting "combined reflux"; group 3 (n = 34) underwent esophagoduodenostomy and PPI treatment to decrease acid reflux; and group 4, the \\'gastrectomy\\' group (n = 35) underwent esophagoduodenostomy and total gastrectomy to eliminate acid in the refluxate. Esophaguses were examined for inflammatory, Barrett\\'s, and other histologic changes, and expression of proliferative markers Ki-67, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). RESULTS: In all reflux groups, the incidence of Barrett\\'s mucosa was greater when acid was suppressed (group C, 62%; group D, 71%) than when not suppressed (group B, 27%; P = 0.004 and P < .001). Erosions were more frequent in the PPI and gastrectomy groups than in the combined reflux group. Edema (wet weight) and ulceration was more frequent in the gastrectomy than in the combined reflux group. Acute inflammatory changes were infrequent in the PPI group (8%) compared with the combined reflux (94%) or gastrectomy (100%) groups, but chronic inflammation persisted in 100% of the PPI group. EGFR levels were greater in the PPI compared with the combined reflux group (P = .04). Ki-67, PCNA, and combined marker scores were greater in the gastrectomy compared with the combined reflux group (P = .006, P = .14, and P < .001). CONCLUSION: Gastric acid suppression in the presence of duodenal refluxate caused increased rates of inflammatory changes, intestinal metaplasia, and molecular proliferative activity. PPIs suppressed acute inflammatory changes only, whereas chronic inflammatory changes persisted.

  18. Gastroesophageal reflux symptoms not responding to proton pump inhibitor: GERD, NERD, NARD, esophageal hypersensitivity or dyspepsia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashashati, Mohammad; Hejazi, Reza A; Andrews, Christopher N; Storr, Martin A

    2014-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is a common gastrointestinal process that can generate symptoms of heartburn and chest pain. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are the gold standard for the treatment of GER; however, a substantial group of GER patients fail to respond to PPIs. In the past, it was believed that acid reflux into the esophagus causes all, or at least the majority, of symptoms attributed to GER, with both erosive esophagitis and nonerosive outcomes. However, with modern testing techniques it has been shown that, in addition to acid reflux, the reflux of nonacid gastric and duodenal contents into the esophagus may also induce GER symptoms. It remains unknown how weakly acidic or alkaline refluxate with a pH similar to a normal diet induces GER symptoms. Esophageal hypersensitivity or functional dyspepsia with superimposed heartburn may be other mechanisms of symptom generation, often completely unrelated to GER. Detailed studies investigating the pathophysiology of esophageal hypersensitivity are not conclusive, and definitions of the various disease states may overlap and are often confusing. The authors aim to clarify the pathophysiology, definition, diagnostic techniques and medical treatment of patients with heartburn symptoms who fail PPI therapy. PMID:24719900

  19. Gastroesophageal reflux leads to esophageal cancer in a surgical model with mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xiaoxin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Esophago-gastroduodenal anastomosis with rats mimics the development of human Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma by introducing mixed reflux of gastric and duodenal contents into the esophagus. However, use of this rat model for mechanistic and chemopreventive studies is limited due to lack of genetically modified rat strains. Therefore, a mouse model of esophageal adenocarcinoma is needed. Methods We performed reflux surgery on wild-type, p53A135V transgenic, and INK4a/Arf+/- mice of A/J strain. Some mice were also treated with omeprazole (1,400 ppm in diet, iron (50 mg/kg/m, i.p., or gastrectomy plus iron. Mouse esophagi were harvested at 20, 40 or 80 weeks after surgery for histopathological analysis. Results At week 20, we observed metaplasia in wild-type mice (5%, 1/20 and p53A135V mice (5.3%, 1/19. At week 40, metaplasia was found in wild-type mice (16.2%, 6/37, p53A135V mice (4.8%, 2/42, and wild-type mice also receiving gastrectomy and iron (6.7%, 1/15. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma developed in INK4a/Arf+/- mice (7.1%, 1/14, and wild-type mice receiving gastrectomy and iron (21.4%, 3/14. Among 13 wild-type mice which were given iron from week 40 to 80, twelve (92.3% developed squamous cell carcinoma at week 80. None of these mice developed esophageal adenocarcinoma. Conclusion Surgically induced gastroesophageal reflux produced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, but not esophageal adenocarcinoma, in mice. Dominant negative p53 mutation, heterozygous loss of INK4a/Arf, antacid treatment, iron supplementation, or gastrectomy failed to promote esophageal adenocarcinoma in these mice. Further studies are needed in order to develop a mouse model of esophageal adenocarcinoma.

  20. Gastro-esophageal reflux disease and obesity, where is the link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerenziani, Sara; Rescio, Maria Paola; Guarino, Michele Pier Luca; Cicala, Michele

    2013-10-21

    The confluence between the increased prevalence of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) and of obesity has generated great interest in the association between these two conditions. Several studies have addressed the potential relationship between GERD and obesity, but the exact mechanism by which obesity causes reflux disease still remains to be clearly defined. A commonly suggested pathogenetic pathway is the increased abdominal pressure which relaxes the lower esophageal sphincter, thus exposing the esophageal mucosal to gastric content. Apart from the mechanical pressure, visceral fat is metabolically active and it has been strongly associated with serum levels of adipo-cytokines including interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor α, which may play a role in GERD or consequent carcinogenesis. This summary is aimed to explore the potential mechanisms responsible for the association between GERD and obesity, and to better understand the possible role of weight loss as a therapeutic approach for GERD.

  1. Pathological bolus exposure may define gastro-esophageal reflux better than pathological acid exposure in patients with globus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinn, Dong Hyun; Kim, Beom Jin; Son, Hee Jung; Kim, Jae J; Rhee, Jong Chul; Rhee, Poong-Lyul

    2012-01-01

    Conventionally, pathological acid exposure (PAE), defined by acid reflux only, is used to identify gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). However, weak acid reflux or non-acid reflux also induces reflux symptoms. Defining abnormal reflux based on all reflux episodes may better identify GERD and would be more useful among patients with atypical GERD symptoms, such as globus. Impedance-pHmetry results of 31 globus patients, off acid suppressants, were analysed. A median of 24 episodes of reflux were observed. Of the reflux episodes, 54% were non-acid reflux and 50% reached the proximal extent. PAE was observed in 6 patients (19%). For 5 patients (16%) without PAE, there was evidence of increased bolus exposure compared to normal controls (an intraesophageal bolus exposure for more than 1.4% of the recording time, defined as pathological bolus exposure, PBE). When GERD was defined by PAE or esophagitis, the prevalence of GERD was 29%. When GERD was defined by PBE, PAE or esophagitis, the prevalence was 42%. PBE identified 13% of the patients who otherwise would have been missed. A significant proportion of patients without PAE had evidence of PBE. PBE may be a more useful definition for identifying patients with abnormal increase in reflux in patients with globus. Further studies are warranted.

  2. The role of baseline impedance as a marker of mucosal integrity in children with gastro esophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilic, Denisa; Hankel, Saskia; Koerner-Rettberg, Cordula; Hamelmann, Eckard; Schmidt-Choudhury, Anjona

    2013-07-01

    Diagnosis of gastro esophageal reflux disease (GERD) in children is challenging. 24-h-pH-multichannel-intraluminal-impedance measurement (pH-MII) is the best diagnostic tool to display gastro esophageal reflux whereas esophageal endoscopy indicates mucosal lesions. The aim of this study was to compare esophageal endoscopy results with reflux parameters such as acid exposure time (reflux index RI), bolus exposure time (bolus index BI), baseline impedance level (BIL) detected by pH-MII in children with suspected GERD. Analysis of data from 285 children (38 infants) referred to our hospital with suspected GERD. Division into three 'reflux esophagitis' (RE)-stages depending on the severity of endoscopic and histological findings and comparison with reflux parameters in these stages. Further categorization into four groups based on the pH-MII-results. Children with high-grade esophagitis had a significantly lower BIL; otherwise there was no significant association between elevated reflux parameters and esophagitis. Pathological pH-MII results (RI and BI) were associated with lower BIL in the distal impedance channel. The BIL was significantly lower in infants compared to children >1 year regardless of the RI or BI. The main difference between these groups regarding reflux parameters was a longer BI and a higher number of retrograde bolus movements. Pathologic pH-MII results are not predictive for an erosive esophagitis and vice versa. Therefore, these two procedures cannot replace each other. A lower BIL is associated with esophagitis ≥ LA-grade B and may be caused by longer acid but also by longer bolus exposure and thus may be another useful parameter in GERD monitoring.

  3. A study of pathophysiological factors associated with gastro-esophageal reflux disease in twins discordant for gastro-esophageal reflux symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovino, P; Mohammed, I; Anggiansah, A; Anggiansah, R; Cherkas, L F; Spector, T D; Trudgill, N J

    2013-08-01

    Differences in lower esophageal sphincter (LES) and peristaltic function and in transient LES relaxations (TLESR) have been described in patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). However, some of these differences may be the result of chronic GERD rather than being an underlying contributory factor. Twins discordant for GERD symptoms, i.e., only one twin had GERD symptoms, underwent standard LES and esophageal body manometry, and then using a sleeve sensor prolonged LES and pH monitoring, 30 min before and 60 min after a 250 mL 1200 kcal lipid meal. Eight monozygotic and 24 dizygotic female twins were studied. Although there was no difference in preprandial LES pressure (symptomatic 13.2 ± 7.1 mmHg vs asymptomatic 15.1 ± 6.2 mmHg, P = 0.4), LES pressure fell further postprandially in symptomatic twins (LES pressure area under the curve 465 ± 126 vs 331 ± 141 mmHg h, P reflux episodes in symptomatic twins occurred due to low LES pressure or deep inspiration/strain and 0/17 in asymptomatic twins (P = 0.01). There was no difference between symptomatic and asymptomatic twins in: peristaltic amplitude, ineffective esophageal body motility, hiatus hernia prevalence, or LES length. There was also no difference in TLESR frequency preprandially (symptomatic median 1(range 0-2) vs asymptomatic 0(0-2), P = 0.08) or postprandially (2.5(1-8) vs 3(1-6), P = 0.81). Twins with GERD symptoms had lower postprandial LES pressure and given the close genetic link between the twins, it is possible that such differences are caused by GERD. Acid reflux episodes associated with a hypotensive LES were seen in symptomatic, but not in asymptomatic twins. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The diagnostic value of pepsin detection in saliva for gastro-esophageal reflux disease: a preliminary study from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xing; Wang, Feng; Hu, Zhiwei; Wu, Jimin; Wang, Zhonggao; Yan, Chao; Zhang, Chao; Tang, Juan

    2017-10-17

    None of current diagnostic methods has been proven to be a reliable tool for gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). Pepsin in saliva has been proposed as a promising diagnostic biomarker for gastro-esophageal reflux. We aimed to determine the diagnostic value of salivary pepsin detection for GERD. Two hundred and fifty patients with symptoms suggestive of GERD and 35 asymptomatic healthy volunteers provided saliva on morning waking, after lunch and dinner for pepsin determination using the Peptest lateral flow device. All patients underwent 24-h multichannel intraluminal impedance pH (24-h MII-pH) monitoring and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Based on 24-h MII-pH and endoscopy study, patients were defined as GERD (abnormal MII-pH results and/or reflux esophagitis) and non-GERD otherwise. Patients with GERD had a higher prevalence of pepsin in saliva and higher pepsin concentration than patients with non-GERD and healthy controls (P < 0.001 for all). The pepsin test had a sensitivity of 73% and a specificity of 88.3% for diagnosing GERD using the optimal cut-off value of 76 ng/mL. Postprandial saliva samples collected when the symptoms occurred had a more powerful ability to identify GERD. Salivary pepsin test had moderate diagnostic value for GERD. It may be a promising tool to replace the use of currently invasive tools with advantages of non-invasive, easy to perform and cost effective. ChiCTR-DDD-16009506 (date of registration: October 20, 2016).

  5. The selective metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 antagonist mavoglurant (AFQ056) reduces the incidence of reflux episodes in dogs and patients with moderate to severe gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouzade-Dominguez, M-L; Pezous, N; David, O J; Tutuian, R; Bruley des Varannes, S; Tack, J; Malfertheiner, P; Allescher, H-D; Ufer, M; Rühl, A

    2017-08-01

    Transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations (TLESRs) induced by gastric distension are modulated by the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) that influences the vagal reflex loop. We therefore aimed to examine the effects of the selective mGluR5 antagonist mavoglurant (AFQ056) on the number of TLESRs in dogs and reflux episodes in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). In a dog model, the number of meal-induced TLESRs was determined after intravenous (0.03, 0.1, 0.3, and 1 mg kg -1 ) and oral (1, 3, and 10 mg kg -1 ) doses of mavoglurant with reference to vehicle. In a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, three-period crossover study, the incidence of meal-induced reflux episodes was assessed by esophageal impedance monitoring after single, oral doses of mavoglurant (50 and 400 mg) or baclofen (40 mg) in 30 patients with moderate to severe GERD. In dogs, mavoglurant reduced the number of TLESRs after intravenous and oral administration. In patients with GERD, the incidence of postprandial reflux episodes was significantly lower at a dose of 400 mg mavoglurant (-37.5% ; 90% confidence interval [CI]: -57.8, -17.2), whereas there was no significant difference at 50 mg of mavoglurant compared to placebo. A significantly lower incidence of reflux episodes was also noted with the active comparator baclofen (-50.3%; 90% CI: -66.2, -34.3), thereby validating this study. These data suggest a potential clinical benefit of mGluR5 antagonists such as mavoglurant in patients with GERD, particularly in those with persisting symptoms despite treatment with proton pump inhibitors. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The efficacy of the upright position on gastro-esophageal reflux and reflux-related respiratory symptoms in infants with chronic respiratory symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Woo Jin; Yang, Hyeon Jong; Min, Taek Ki; Jeon, You Hoon; Lee, Hae Won; Lee, Jun Sung; Pyun, Bok Yang

    2012-01-01

    Gastro-esophageal reflux (GER), particularly non-acid reflux, is common in infants and is a known cause of chronic respiratory symptoms in infancy. Recent guidelines recommended empirical acid suppression therapy and the head-up position in patients with suspected GER. However, the efficacy of the upright position in relieving GER and reflux-related respiratory symptoms in infants is unclear. We conducted this study to investigate the efficacy of the upright position on GER and reflux-related respiratory symptoms in infants with chronic respiratory symptoms. Thirty-two infants (21 male; median age, 5 months; range, 0 to 19 months) with unexplained chronic respiratory symptoms underwent multi-channel intraluminal esophageal impedance and pH monitoring. We retrospectively compared the frequencies of GER and reflux-related symptoms according to body position. A mean of 3.30 episodes of reflux per hour was detected. Overall, refluxes were more frequent during the postprandial period than the emptying period (3.77 vs. 2.79 episodes/hour, respectively; P=0.01). Although there was no significant difference in the total refluxes per hour between the upright and recumbent positions (6.12 vs. 3.77 episodes, P=0.10), reflux-related respiratory symptoms per reflux were significantly fewer in infants kept in an upright position than in a recumbent position during the postprandial period (3.07% vs. 14.75%, P=0.016). Non-acid reflux was the predominant type of reflux in infants, regardless of body position or meal time. The upright position may reduce reflux-related respiratory symptoms, rather than reflux frequency. Thus, it may be a useful non-pharmacological treatment for infantile GER disease resistant to acid suppressants.

  7. Gastroesophageal reflux disease and eosinophilic esophagitis in infants and children. A study of esophageal pH, multiple intraluminal impedance and endoscopic ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalby, Kasper; Nielsen, Rasmus; Kruse-Andersen, Søren

    2010-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in childhood share aspects of symptomatology. In order to characterize EE and GERD in infants and children with symptoms of GERD we performed a prospective investigation including prolonged esophageal pH measurement, multiple...

  8. An expert panel-based study on recognition of gastro-esophageal reflux in difficult esophageal pH-impedance tracings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, M. J.; Loots, C. M.; van Wijk, M. P.; Bredenoord, A. J.; Benninga, M. A.; Smout, A. J. P. M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite existing criteria for scoring gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) in esophageal multichannel pH-impedance measurement (pH-I) tracings, inter- and intra-rater variability is large and agreement with automated analysis is poor. To identify parameters of difficult to analyze pH-I patterns and

  9. Reflux esophagitis triggered after Helicobacter pylori eradication: a noteworthy demerit of eradication therapy among the Japanese?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsunori eIijima

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the February 2013 Revision of Insured Medical Treatment, bacterial eradication for all Helicobacter pylori-positive individuals in Japan was covered under the insurance scheme. However, reflux esophagitis is believed to occur in approximately 10% of Japanese patients who undergo eradication therapy. Hence, the risk of reflux esophagitis among such cases should be carefully considered, particularly in the treatment for H. pylori-positive patients who are otherwise healthy. The eradication of Helicobacter pylori in cases of H. pylori-positive gastritis markedly suppresses gastric inflammation, and inhibits gastric mucosal atrophy and its progression to intestinal metaplasia. In a long-term follow-up study (10-20 years, eradication treatment was found to reduce the risk of subsequent gastric cancer. However, the fact that eradication-induced reflux esophagitis could increase the long-term risk of Barrett’s esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma should also be considered in the Japanese population. Appropriate treatment with proton pump inhibitors should be taken into consideration for patients undergoing eradication therapy in clinical practice.

  10. Morphofunctional State of Esophageal Mucosa in Patients with Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Depending on the Nutritional Status of Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.D. Fadieienko

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We have studied morphofunctional state of esophageal mucosa in 57 patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD with normal (body mass index (BMI — 18.5–24.9 kg/m2 and excessive (BMI over 25 kg/m2 body weight. A histologic and morphometric study of esophageal mucosa, immunohistochemical analysis of the expression of apoptosis marker CD95 and inflammatory marker cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 were carried out. In reflux esophagitis, most characteristic are changes in multilayered epithelium — hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis, proliferation of basal cells and acanthosis. At that, significant differences in morphometric characteristics of patients with normal BMI and overweight were not found. The development of reflux esophagitis was associated with violations of pro-apoptotic ability of esophageal mucosa cells and increased expression of COX-2, most significant in patients with high BMI. Detected disorders may determine the mechanisms of complicated course of GERD in these patients.

  11. Treatment of gastro-esophageal reflux disease: the new kids to block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondeau, K

    2010-08-01

    Refractory gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD), defined as persistent symptoms despite proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy, is an increasingly prevalent condition and is becoming a major challenge for the clinician. Since non-acidic reflux may be associated with symptoms persisting during PPI treatment, the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), the most important barrier protecting against reflux, has become an important target for the treatment of (refractory) GERD. Preclinical research has identified several receptors that are involved in the control of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations (TLESRs), the predominant mechanism of both acid and non-acidic reflux events, and several drugs have now been tested in humans. The GABA(B) agonist baclofen has demonstrated to effectively reduce the rate of TLESRs and the amount of reflux in both GERD patients and healthy volunteers. Nevertheless, the occurrence of central side effects limits its clinical use for the treatment of GERD. Several analogues are being developed to overcome this limitation and have shown promising results. Additionally, metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) receptor antagonists have shown to reduce both acid and non-acidic reflux in GERD patients and several molecules are currently being evaluated. Although CB(1) antagonists have been shown to reduce TLESRs, they are also associated with central side effects, limiting their clinical applicability. Despite the identification of several potentially interesting drugs, the main challenge for the future remains the reduction of central side effects. Moreover, future studies will need to demonstrate the efficacy of these treatments in patients with refractory GERD.

  12. Experimental pulmonary fibrosis in rats with chronic gastric acid reflux esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazu, Rintaro; Aoki, Shigehisa; Kuratomi, Yuichiro

    2015-10-01

    To elucidate the association between gastric acid reflux and respiratory diseases by studying the histological changes of the lower airway in rats with chronic acid reflux esophagitis. An experimental rat model of chronic acid reflux esophagitis was surgically created. The lower airways of these rats were histologically observed for more than 50 weeks. Although there were no histological changes which induced gastric acid reflux at 10 weeks after surgery, thickening of the basal laminae and the proliferation of the collagenous fibers were observed in the alveolar epithelium at 20 weeks after surgery. At 50 weeks after surgery, the collagenous fibers obliterated the pulmonary alveoli and bronchial lumen. These findings observed in the GERD rats are similar to the pathological findings of human pulmonary fibrosis. In this study, we reported pathological changes in the lower airways of GERD rat models observed for more than 50 weeks. These results suggest that gastric acid reflux may be one of the pathogenic or exacerbating factors of pulmonary fibrosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Patterns of diet-related practices and prevalence of gastro-esophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaillzadeh, A; Keshteli, A H; Feizi, A; Zaribaf, F; Feinle-Bisset, C; Adibi, P

    2013-10-01

    No studies have evaluated associations between patterns of diet-related practices as determined by latent class analysis (LCA) and gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). We aimed to assess this relationship in a large sample of Iranian adults. In a cross-sectional study in 4763 adults, diet-related practices were assessed in four domains, 'meal pattern', 'eating rate', 'intra-meal fluid intake', and 'meal-to-sleep interval', using a pretested questionnaire. LCA was applied to identify classes of diet-related practices. We defined GERD as the presence of heartburn sometimes, often or always. The prevalence of GERD in the study population was 23.5% (n = 1120). We identified two distinct classes of meal patterns: 'regular' and 'irregular', three classes of eating rates: 'moderate', 'moderate-to-slow', and 'moderate-to-fast', two major classes of fluid ingestion with meals: 'moderate' and 'much intra-meal drinking', and two classes regarding the interval between meals and sleeping: 'short' and 'long meal-to-sleep' interval. After adjustment for potential confounders, subjects with 'irregular meal pattern' had higher odds of GERD compared with subjects with 'regular meal pattern' (OR: 1.21; 1.00-1.46). However, when taking into account BMI, the association disappeared. 'Long meal-to-sleep interval' was inversely associated with GERD compared with 'short meal-to-sleep interval' (OR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.57-0.95). 'Eating rate' and 'intra-meal fluid intake' were not significantly associated with GERD. Our data suggest certain associations between dietary patterns and GERD. These findings warrant evaluation in prospective studies to establish the potential value of modifications in dietary behaviors for the management of GERD. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. A study of dysphagia symptoms and esophageal body function in children undergoing anti-reflux surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Omari, T.; Connor, F.; McCall, L.; Ferris, L.; Ellison, S.; Hanson, B.; Abu-Assi, R.; Khurana, S.; Moore, D.

    2018-01-01

    Background: The role of high-resolution esophageal impedance manometry (HRIM) for establishing risk for dysphagia after anti-reflux surgery is unclear. We conducted a prospective study of children with primary gastroesophageal reflux (GER) disease, for whom symptoms of dysphagia were determined pre-operatively and then post-operatively and we examined for features that may predict post-operative dysphagia. Methods: Thirteen children (aged 6.8–15.5 years) undergoing work-up prior to 360 o Niss...

  15. Esophageal intraluminal baseline impedance is associated with severity of acid reflux and epithelial structural abnormalities in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Chanjuan; Duan, Liping; Wang, Kun; Xu, Zhijie; Ge, Ying; Yang, Changqing; Han, Yajing

    2013-05-01

    The esophageal intraluminal baseline impedance may be used to evaluate the status of mucosa integrity. Esophageal acid exposure decreases the baseline impedance. We aimed to compare baseline impedance in patients with various reflux events and with different acid-related parameters, and investigate the relationships between epithelial histopathologic abnormalities and baseline impedance. A total of 229 GERD patients and 34 controls underwent 24-h multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH monitoring (MII-pH monitoring), gastroendoscopy, and completed a GERD questionnaire (GerdQ). We quantified epithelial intercellular spaces (ICSs) and expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins by histologic techniques. Mean baseline values in reflux esophagitis (RE) (1752 ± 1018 Ω) and non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) (2640 ± 1143 Ω) were significantly lower than in controls (3360 ± 1258 Ω; p acid reflux group (2510 ± 1239 Ω) and mixed acid/weakly acidic reflux group (2393 ± 1009 Ω) were much lower than in controls (3360 ± 1258 Ω; p = 0.020 and p acid exposure time (AET) (r = -0.41, p acid reflux events and with longer AET have low baseline impedance. Baseline values are correlated with esophageal mucosal histopathologic changes such as dilated ICS and TJ alteration.

  16. Esophageal dysphagia and reflux symptoms before and after oral IQoro(R) training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hägg, Mary; Tibbling, Lita; Franzén, Thomas

    2015-06-28

    To examine whether muscle training with an oral IQoro(R) screen (IQS) improves esophageal dysphagia and reflux symptoms. A total of 43 adult patients (21 women and 22 men) were consecutively referred to a swallowing center for the treatment and investigation of long-lasting nonstenotic esophageal dysphagia. Hiatal hernia was confirmed by radiologic examination in 21 patients before enrollment in the study (group A; median age 52 years, range: 19-85 years). No hiatal hernia was detected by radiologic examination in the remaining 22 patients (group B; median age 57 years, range: 22-85 years). Before and after training with an oral IQS for 6-8 mo, the patients were evaluated using a symptom questionnaire (esophageal dysphagia and acid chest symptoms; score 0-3), visual analogue scale (ability to swallow food: score 0-100), lip force test (≥ 15 N), velopharyngeal closure test (≥ 10 s), orofacial motor tests, and an oral sensory test. Another twelve patients (median age 53 years, range: 22-68 years) with hiatal hernia were evaluated using oral IQS traction maneuvers with pressure recordings of the upper esophageal sphincter and hiatus canal as assessed by high-resolution manometry. Esophageal dysphagia was present in all 43 patients at entry, and 98% of patients showed improvement after IQS training [mean score (range): 2.5 (1-3) vs 0.9 (0-2), P dysphagia and reflux symptoms in adults, likely due to improved hiatal competence.

  17. Value of esophagus cinescintigraphy in adult patients (study of esophageal transit and detection of gastroesophageal reflux. Investigation of 52 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasquier, J.; Sauvan, R.; Dupin, B.; Guidicelli, R.; Fuentes, P.; Reboud, E.

    1985-01-01

    Using scintigraphic techniques oesophageal transit was studied in 47 patients and gastro-oesophageal reflux was evaluated in 41 patients. The comparison of these investigations with oesophageal manometry, acid reflux test and endoscopy emphasized the value of the simple and noninvasive scintigraphic methods. Radionuclide oesophageal transit detected a higher incidence of esophageal motor abnormality than the other methods. Gastroesophageal (GE) scintiscanning detected GE reflux accurately, rapidly and with greater sensitivity than the other diagnostic techniques.

  18. Value of esophagus cinescintigraphy in adult patients (study of esophageal transit and detection of gastroesophageal reflux). Investigation of 52 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasquier, J.; Sauvan, R.; Dupin, B.; Guidicelli, R.; Fuentes, P.; Reboud, E.

    1985-01-01

    Using scintigraphic techniques oesophageal transit was studied in 47 patients and gastro-oesophageal reflux was evaluated in 41 patients. The comparison of these investigations with oesophageal manometry, acid reflux test and endoscopy emphasized the value of the simple and noninvasive scintigraphic methods. Radionuclide oesophageal transit detected a higher incidence of esophageal motor abnormality than the other methods. Gastroesophageal (GE) scintiscanning detected GE reflux accurately, rapidly and with greater sensitivity than the other diagnostic techniques [fr

  19. Nonerosive gastroesophageal reflux disease and mild degree of esophagitis: Comparison of symptoms endoscopic, manometric and pH-metric patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grande Michele

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our aim in the present study was to compare patients presenting with gastroesophageal reflux disease in the presence or absence of mild-grade esophagitis (grade I or II according to the Savary-Miller classification. Methods Between 2005 and 2007, 215 patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (67 with reflux associated with grade I or II esophagitis and 148 without esophagitis were evaluated at the Department of Surgery, University Hospital Tor Vergata, Rome, and were included in the present study. The evaluations consisted of clinical interviews, endoscopy of the high digestive tract, esophageal manometry and pH monitoring. Results There was no significant difference between the two groups with regard to age, sex or symptoms. The incidence of heartburn associated with noncardiac chest pain was greater in the esophagitis group than in the dysphagia group. The incidence of hiatal hernia was similar in both groups. Although the motor pattern was similar in both groups, the length of the abdominal esophagus was greater in patients without esophagitis (1.6 cm vs 1.1 cm; P  Conclusions Gastroesophageal reflux without esophagitis must be regarded not as a milder form of the disease but as part of a single disease. Furthermore, these patients often demonstrate lower rates of symptom improvement after antireflux treatment in comparison with patients with erosive esophagitis. Therefore, further trials to assess the treatment algorithm for these patients are warranted.

  20. Esophageal Functional Changes in Obstructive Sleep Apnea/Hypopnea Syndrome and Their Impact on Laryngopharyngeal Reflux Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Qu

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: OSAHS patients experience esophageal functional changes, and linear correlations were found between the changed esophageal functional parameters and reflux indicators, which might be the reason that LPR showed a high comorbidity with OSAHS and why the severity of the two diseases is correlated.

  1. Gastroesophageal reflux symptoms are not sufficient to guide esophageal function testing in lung transplant candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, S; Zheng, J; Wood, R K; Shimpi, R A; Hartwig, M G; Chow, S-C; Leiman, D A

    2018-05-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease and esophageal dysmotility are prevalent in patients with advanced lung disease and are associated with graft dysfunction following lung transplantation. As a result, many transplant centers perform esophageal function testing as part of the wait-listing process but guidelines for testing in this population are lacking. The aim of this study is to describe whether symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux correlate with abnormal results on pH-metry and high-resolution manometry and can be used to identify those who require testing. We performed a retrospective cohort study of 226 lung transplant candidates referred for high-resolution manometry and pH-metry over a 12-month period in 2015. Demographic data, results of a standard symptom questionnaire and details of esophageal function testing were obtained. Associations between the presence of symptoms and test results were analyzed using Fisher's exact tests and multivariable logistic regression. The most common lung disease diagnosis was interstitial lung disease (N = 131, 58%). Abnormal pH-metry was seen in 116 (51%) patients and the presence of symptoms was significantly associated with an abnormal study (p advanced lung disease, symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux increase the likelihood of elevated acid exposure on pH-metry but were not associated with dysmotility. Given the proportion of asymptomatic patients with abnormal studies and associated post-transplant risks, a practice of universal high-resolution manometry and pH-metry testing in this population is justifiable.

  2. Regenerative medicine in the treatment of gastro-esophageal reflux disease and laryngo-pharyngeal reflux. From research to cure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragona, S E; Mereghetti, G; Bianchetti, M; Mangiavillano, B; Zurlo, T; Lotti, J; La Mantia, I; França, K; Lotti, T

    We present our observational study on 40 patients treated with the medical device containing sodium hyaluronic acid and magnesium alginate, performing a lubricating and hydrating action. This device is in the form of a gel, with topical action to contrast gastroesophageal reflux and to exert a mechanical role of protection of the mucosal tissues (mouth-pharyngo-esophageal mucosa and gastric mucose.). Forty patients were recruited aged between 22- and 72-years-old with painful dyspeptic Gastro Esophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) symptomatology in acute or in clinical phase (25 patients) and with pharyngolaryngo- tracheal symptomatology (15 patients). Patients were divided into two clinical groups: Group A was treated with the medical device, while Group B with conventional treatments without the medical device. Subjects of both groups were also treated with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). Follow-up was at 10, 20 and 30 days and patients were evaluated for reduction of their subjective symptoms, reduction of symptomatic and occasional therapies, reduction of inflammatory process or disappearance of epithelial lesions of the examined mucosa, healing process. The reduction of subjective symptoms was observed at 10 days in the patient with food bolus (disappearance after 5 days) and in patients with a reduction of 70%. A relevant reduction in the use of symptomatic drugs was noted. Our data are relevant considering symptom relief (heartburn, reflux and dyspepsia). New scenarios for the treatment of inflammatory diseases of the digestive and respiratory tract mucosa are at the horizon. Interdisciplinary translational research brings to the development of novel medical devices (as the one described in this study) with a high safety profile, and extremely active on the inflammation-repair-regeneration complex of different tissues and organs.

  3. Effects of omeprazole and cisapride treatment in Japanese asthmatics with reflux esophagitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuya Fujimori

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In the United States and Europe, gastroesophageal reflux (GER is receiving attention as a potential cause of bronchial asthma. Few Japanese case reports have described this relationship. Therefore, we investigated the effect of omeprazole and cisapride on pulmonary function tests, blood gases and home peak expiratory flow rates (PEFR in six Japanese outpatients with asthma and proven GER. After 8 weeks of treatment, reflux esophagitis had improved in all patients. However, the parameters of pulmonary function showed no change other than a significant post- treatment increase in home PEFR (4.4-27.7% in three patients. These results suggest that anti-reflux (omeprazole and cisapride treatment will produce small improvements in the PEFR in some Japanese asthmatics with GER.

  4. Comparison of Esophageal Function Tests in Chinese Patients with Functional Heartburn and Reflux Hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Gao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the differences in the results of esophageal function tests for functional heartburn (FH and reflux hypersensitivity (RH. Methods. Patients with FH and RH and healthy volunteers (HVs from the Department of Gastroenterology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital and Beijing Chao-Yang hospital, who underwent high-resolution manometry and impedance (HRIM, and 24-hour multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH recording (MII/pH between 2014 and 2016, were enrolled in this study. Results. 36 HV, 147 FH patients, and 91 RH patients were enrolled. The postreflux swallow-induced peristaltic wave index (PSPW index and mean nocturnal baseline impedance (MNBI values were significantly lower in RH than in FH and HV. The ineffective esophageal motility (IEM, fragmented peristalsis rates, total bolus exposure, proximal total reflux events, and distal total reflux events were significantly greater in RH than in FH and HV. Conclusions. Compared to HV and FH patients, RH patients exhibited greater IEM and fragmented peristalsis rates, a greater total bolus exposure, more proximal total and distal total reflux events, and reduced chemical clearance and mucosal integrity. By using the above described parameters, HRIM and MII/pH assays could be used to correctly classify RH and FH and hence allow physicians to provide adequate relief from associated symptoms.

  5. COMBINED 24-HOURS ESOPHAGEAL PH MONITORING AND MULTICHANNEL INTRALUMINAL IMPEDANCE FOR COMPARISON OF GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX IN CHILDREN WITH TYPICAL VERSUS ATYPICAL SYMPTOMS OF GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Seyed Mohsen; Taghavi, Seyed Alireza; Javaherizadeh, Hazhir; Nasri, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    - Gastroesophageal reflux disease is the most common esophageal disorder in pediatrics. - The aim of this study was to compare reflux parameters of typical and atypical symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease using 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring and multichannel intraluminal impedance in pediatric population. - In this prospective study, 43 patients aged less than 18 year with suspected gastroesophageal reflux disease were enrolled. The patients were divided into two groups based on the main presenting symptoms (typical versus atypical). Twenty four-hour pH monitoring and multichannel intraluminal impedance were performed in all the patients for comparing these two group regarding association of symptoms and reflux. Number of refluxes, pH related reflux, total reflux time, reflux more than 5 minutes, longest time of the reflux, lowest pH at reflux, reflux index were recorded and compared. Data comparison was done using SPSS. - The mean age of the patients was 5.7±3.4 years and 65.1% were male. Out of 43 patients 24 cases had typical symptoms and 19 had atypical symptoms. The mean reflux events detected by multichannel intraluminal impedance was more than mean reflux events detected by pH monitoring (308.4±115.8 vs 69.7±66.6) with P value of 0.037, which is statistically significant. The mean symptom index and symptom association probability were 35.01% ± 20.78% and 86.42% ± 25.79%, respectively in multichannel intraluminal impedance versus 12.73% ± 12.48% and 45.16% ± 42.29% in pH monitoring (P value reflux was 46.26±47.16 and 30.9±22.09 for atypical and typical symptoms respectively. The mean symptom index was 18.12% ± 13.101% and 8.30% ± 10.301% in atypical and typical symptoms respectively (P=0.034). Bolus clearance was longer in atypical symptoms compared typical symptoms(Preflux was found in children with atypical symptoms of reflux. Longer duration of bolus clearance was found in group with atypical symptoms of reflux.

  6. Association of esophageal inflammation, obesity and gastroesophageal reflux disease: from FDG PET/CT perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Wen Wu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD is associated with bothersome symptoms and neoplastic progression into Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma. We aim to determine the correlation between GERD, esophageal inflammation and obesity with 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT. METHODS: We studied 458 subjects who underwent a comprehensive health check-up, which included an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, FDG PET/CT and complete anthropometric measures. GERD symptoms were evaluated with Reflux Disease Questionnaire. Endoscopically erosive esophagitis was scored using the Los Angeles classification system. Inflammatory activity, represented by standardized uptake values (SUVmax of FDG at pre-determined locations of esophagus, stomach and duodenum, were compared. Association between erosive esophagitis, FDG activity and anthropometric evaluation, including body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue volumes were analyzed. RESULTS: Subjects with erosive esophagitis (n = 178, 38.9% had significantly higher SUVmax at middle esophagus (2.69±0.74 vs. 2.41±0.57, P<.001 and esophagogastric junction (3.10±0.89 vs. 2.38±0.57, P<.001, marginally higher at upper esophageal sphincter (2.29±0.42 vs. 2.21±0.48, P = .062, but not in stomach or duodenum. The severity of erosive esophagitis correlated with SUVmax and subjects with Barrett's esophagus had the highest SUVmax at middle esophagus and esophagogastric junction. Heartburn positively correlated with higher SUVmax at middle oesophagus (r = .262, P = .003. Using multivariate regression analyses, age (P = .027, total cholesterol level (P = .003, alcohol drinking (P = .03, subcutaneous adipose tissue (P<.001, BMI (P<.001 and waist circumference (P<.001 were independently associated with higher SUVmax at respective esophageal locations. CONCLUSIONS: Esophageal

  7. Use of radioisotopic esophageal transit in the assessment of patients with symptoms of reflux and non-specific esophageal motor disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iascone, C; Di Giulio, E; Maffi, C; Ruperto, M

    2004-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to assess the esophageal clearance of a radioisotopic bolus in patients with symptoms of reflux and evaluate the impact of manometric abnormalities on scintigraphic esophageal transit. Esophageal clearance was assessed in a supine position and indicated by the retained radioactivity in the esophagus at 10, 20, 30 and 40 s after the ingestion of a liquid bolus labeled with 2 mCi 99 mTc-SC. The study included 214 consecutive patients with symptoms of reflux and 11 normal controls. The results were compared to the motility findings detected on manometry performed on a separate occasion. Esophageal manometry was normal in 93 patients. Nonspecific esophageal motor disorders were identified in 121 patients and were classified into: 'predominantly nonpropagated activity', 'predominantly low-amplitude peristaltic contractions' and 'miscellaneous disorders' diagnosed in 27, 47 and 47 patients, respectively. The radionuclide clearance was significantly delayed in the overall group of patients compared with that of normal controls (P motor disorders compared with patients with reflux symptoms and 'normal manometry' (P disorders'. Radioisotopic esophageal clearance abnormalities are frequently observed in patients with reflux symptoms and are more likely to be associated to hypomotility disorders, i.e. nonpropagated motor activity or low-amplitude contractions.

  8. Extra-Esophageal Pepsin from Stomach Refluxate Promoted Tonsil Hypertrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Hyun Kim

    Full Text Available Gastroesophageal reflux is associated with numerous pathologic conditions of the upper aerodigestive tract. Gastric pepsin within reflux contributes to immunologic reactions in the tonsil. In this study, we aimed to find the relationships between pepsin and tonsillar hypertrophy.We explored the notion whether tonsillar hypertrophy was due to pepsin-mediated gastric reflux in tonsil hypertrophy. Fifty-four children with tonsil hypertrophy and 30 adults with tonsillitis were recruited before surgical treatment. Blood and tonsil tissues from each patient were harvested for analysis of changes in lymphocyte and macrophage numbers coupled with histological and biochemical analysis. Pepsin was expressed at different levels in tonsil tissues from each tonsillar hypertrophy. Pepsin-positive cells were found in the crypt epithelium, surrounding the lymphoid follicle with developing fibrosis, and also surrounding the lymphoid follicle that faced the crypt. And also, pepsin staining was well correlated with damaged tonsillar squamous epithelium and TGF-β1 and iNOS expression in the tonsil section. In addition, pepsin and TGF-β1-positive cells were co-localized with CD68-positive cells in the crypt and surrounding germinal centers. In comparison of macrophage responsiveness to pepsin, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs were noticeably larger in the presence of activated pepsin in the child group. Furthermore, CD11c and CD163-positive cells were significantly increased by activated pepsin. However, this was not seen for the culture of PBMNCs from the adult group.The lymphocytes and monocytes are in a highly proliferative state in the tonsillar hypertrophy and associated with increased expression of pro-inflammatory factors as a result of exposure to stomach reflux pepsin.

  9. [Gastro-esophageal reflux and chronic respiratory diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirou, S; Germaud, P; Bruley des Varannes, S; Magnan, A; Blanc, F-X

    2015-12-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) frequently occurs in association with chronic respiratory diseases although the casual link is not always clear. Several pathophysiological and experimental factors are considered to support a role for GERD in respiratory disease. Conversely, respiratory diseases and bronchodilator treatment can themselves exacerbate GERD. When cough or severe asthma is being investigated, GERD does not need to be systematically looked for and a therapeutic test with proton pump inhibitors is not always recommended. pH impedance monitoring is now the reference diagnostic tool to detect non acid reflux, a form of reflux for which proton pump inhibitor treatment is ineffective. Recent data have shown a potential role of GERD in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and bronchiolitis obliterans following lung transplantation, leading to discussions about the place of surgery in this context. However, studies using pH impedance monitoring are still needed to better understand and manage the association between GERD and chronic respiratory diseases. Copyright © 2015 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Dental and oropharyngeal lesions in rats with chronic acid reflux esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazu, Rintaro; Yamamoto, Mihoko; Minesaki, Akimichi; Kuratomi, Yuichiro

    2018-06-01

    In this study, we evaluated pathological changes in the tooth and pharynx of GERD rats to elucidate the association between gastric acid reflux and oral and pharyngeal diseases. An experimental rat model of chronic acid reflux esophagitis was surgically created. The oral cavities were observed histologically every 2 weeks until 20 weeks after surgery. At 10 weeks after surgery, molar crown heights in GERD rats were shorter than that in control rats, and inflammatory cell infiltration by gastric acid reflux was found in the periodontal mucosa of GERD rats. Furthermore, dental erosion progressed in GERD rats at 20 weeks after surgery, and enamel erosion and dentin exposure were observed. During the same period, inflammatory cell infiltration was observed in the mucosa of the posterior part of the tongue. These findings suggest that gastric acid reflux may be one of the exacerbating factors of dental erosion, periodontitis and glossitis. We investigated oral changes in an experimental rat model of GERD and observed development of dental erosion, periodontitis and glossitis. Our findings suggested chronic gastric acid reflux may be involved in the pathogenesis of oral disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Patients with established gastro-esophageal reflux disease might benefit from Helicobacter pylori eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschos, John M; Kouklakis, George; Vradelis, Stergios; Zezos, Petros; Pitiakoudis, Michael; Chatzopoulos, Dimitrios; Zavos, Christos; Kountouras, Jannis

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) eradication in selected H. pylori -positive patients with a primary diagnosis of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) by using the 3-h postprandial esophageal pH monitoring. We recruited patients with erosive esophagitis at endoscopy and H. pylori infection at histology, successfully cured following eradication therapy; the selected H. pylori -positive patients had weekly reflux symptoms for at least six months and endoscopically established Grade A or B esophagitis. Twenty-nine eligible patients were initially subjected to esophageal manometry and ambulatory 3-h postprandial esophageal pH monitoring. All patients received H. pylori triple eradication therapy accompanied by successful H. pylori eradication. After successful eradication of H. pylori (confirmed by 13 C urea breath test), a second manometry and 3-h postprandial esophageal pH monitoring were introduced to assess the results of eradication therapy, after a 3-month post-treatment period. All 29 selected H. pylori -positive patients became negative due to successful H. pylori eradication, evaluated by 13 C urea breath test after a 4-week post-treatment period. Post-eradication, 62.1% patients showed similar manometric pattern at baseline; 17.2% showed improvement; 17.2% normalization; and 3.4% deterioration of the manometric patterns. The DeMeester symptom scoring in the 3-h postprandial ambulatory esophageal pH monitoring was improved after eradication of H. pylori (median 47.47 vs. 22.00, Wilcoxon's singed rank; P=0.016). On comparing the pH monitoring studies for each patient at baseline and post-eradication period, 82.8% patients showed improvement and 17.2% deterioration of the DeMeester score. By using 3-h postprandial esophageal pH monitoring, this study showed, for the first time, that H. pylori eradication may positively influence GERD symptoms. Large-scale controlled relative studies are warranted to

  12. Inflammation-Related Carcinogenesis and Prevention in Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Using Rat Duodenoesophageal Reflux Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimura, Takashi; Oyama, Katsunobu; Sasaki, Shozo; Nishijima, Koji; Miyashita, Tomoharu; Ohta, Tetsuo; Koichi, Miwa; Takanori, Hattori

    2011-01-01

    Development from chronic inflammation to Barrett's adenocarcinoma is known as one of the inflammation-related carcinogenesis routes. Gastroesophageal reflux disease induces regurgitant esophagitis, and esophageal mucosa is usually regenerated by squamous epithelium, but sometimes and somewhere replaced with metaplastic columnar epithelium. Specialized columnar epithelium, so-called Barrett's epithelium (BE), is a risk factor for dysplasia and adenocarcinoma in esophagus. Several experiments using rodent model inducing duodenogastroesophageal reflux or duodenoesophageal reflux revealed that columnar epithelium, first emerging at the proliferative zone, progresses to dysplasia and finally adenocarcinoma, and exogenous carcinogen is not necessary for cancer development. It is demonstrated that duodenal juice rather than gastric juice is essential to develop esophageal adenocarcinoma in not only rodent experiments, but also clinical studies. Antireflux surgery and chemoprevention by proton pump inhibitors, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, green tea, retinoic acid and thioproline showed preventive effects on the development of Barrett's adenocarcinoma in rodent models, but it remains controversial whether antireflux surgery could regress BE and prevent esophageal cancer in clinical observation. The Chemoprevention for Barrett's Esophagus Trial (CBET), a phase IIb, multicenter, randomized, double-masked study using celecoxib in patients with Barrett's dysplasia failed to prove to prevent progression of dysplasia to cancer. The AspECT (Aspirin Esomeprazole Chemoprevention Trial), a large multicenter phase III randomized trial to evaluate the effects of esomeprazole and/or aspirin on the rate of progression to high-grade dysplasia or adenocarcinoma in patients with BE is now ongoing

  13. Inflammation-Related Carcinogenesis and Prevention in Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Using Rat Duodenoesophageal Reflux Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimura, Takashi, E-mail: tphuji@staff.kanazawa-u.ac.jp; Oyama, Katsunobu; Sasaki, Shozo; Nishijima, Koji; Miyashita, Tomoharu; Ohta, Tetsuo [Gastroenterologic Surgery, Kanazawa University Hospital, Kanazawa, Japan, 13-1 Takaramachi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-8641 (Japan); Koichi, Miwa [Houju Memorial Hospital, Nomi, Japan, 11-71 Midorigaoka, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1226 (Japan); Takanori, Hattori [Division of Molecular and Diagnostic Pathology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Japan, Seta Tsukinowa-cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan)

    2011-08-10

    Development from chronic inflammation to Barrett's adenocarcinoma is known as one of the inflammation-related carcinogenesis routes. Gastroesophageal reflux disease induces regurgitant esophagitis, and esophageal mucosa is usually regenerated by squamous epithelium, but sometimes and somewhere replaced with metaplastic columnar epithelium. Specialized columnar epithelium, so-called Barrett's epithelium (BE), is a risk factor for dysplasia and adenocarcinoma in esophagus. Several experiments using rodent model inducing duodenogastroesophageal reflux or duodenoesophageal reflux revealed that columnar epithelium, first emerging at the proliferative zone, progresses to dysplasia and finally adenocarcinoma, and exogenous carcinogen is not necessary for cancer development. It is demonstrated that duodenal juice rather than gastric juice is essential to develop esophageal adenocarcinoma in not only rodent experiments, but also clinical studies. Antireflux surgery and chemoprevention by proton pump inhibitors, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, green tea, retinoic acid and thioproline showed preventive effects on the development of Barrett's adenocarcinoma in rodent models, but it remains controversial whether antireflux surgery could regress BE and prevent esophageal cancer in clinical observation. The Chemoprevention for Barrett's Esophagus Trial (CBET), a phase IIb, multicenter, randomized, double-masked study using celecoxib in patients with Barrett's dysplasia failed to prove to prevent progression of dysplasia to cancer. The AspECT (Aspirin Esomeprazole Chemoprevention Trial), a large multicenter phase III randomized trial to evaluate the effects of esomeprazole and/or aspirin on the rate of progression to high-grade dysplasia or adenocarcinoma in patients with BE is now ongoing.

  14. Role of non-acid gastro-esophageal reflux in children with respiratory symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenzeri, Letizia; Quitadamo, Paolo; Tambucci, Renato; Ummarino, Dario; Poziello, Antonio; Miele, Erasmo; Staiano, Annamaria

    2017-05-01

    Respiratory symptoms are a possible atypical clinical picture of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). However, a significant number of patients with GERD-related respiratory symptoms do not report improvement despite aggressive acid-suppressive therapy. Some of these refractory cases may be due to the recently appreciated entity of non-acid or weakly acidic reflux. The aim of our study is to assess the pH-impedance features of GER inducing airway symptoms, compared with GER inducing typical gastro-intestinal (GI) symptoms. We prospectively enrolled infants and children with GERD-related respiratory symptoms from January 2015 to December 2015. Age- and sex-matched patients with GERD-related GI symptoms were enrolled as comparison group. The overall number, the acidity pattern, and the height of reflux episodes were compared between the two groups. Forty patients (M/F: 20/20; mean age: 58.3 months) were enrolled in the study group and 40 in the comparison group. The mean acid exposure index was 7.9% within the study group and 15.9% within the comparison group (p:0.026). Children with respiratory symptoms versus children with GI symptoms had a mean of 40.8 acid reflux episodes versus 62.4 (p:0.001), a mean of 2.2 weakly acid reflux episodes versus 20.1 (p:0.002), and a mean of 22.1 weakly alkaline reflux episodes versus 10.2 (P 1 year with GERD-related respiratory symptoms showed a significantly higher number of weakly alkaline refluxes than children with GERD-related GI symptoms. This supports the hypothesis that respiratory symptoms are less related to acidity than GI symptoms. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2017;52:669-674. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The Relationship of the Post-reflux Swallow-induced Peristaltic Wave Index and Esophageal Baseline Impedance with Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young Kyu; Lee, Joon Seong; Lee, Tae Hee; Hong, Su Jin; Park, Sang Joon; Jeon, Seong Ran; Kim, Hyun Gun; Kim, Jin-Oh

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims The post-reflux swallow-induced peristaltic wave (PSPW) index and esophageal baseline impedance (BI) are novel impedance parameters used to evaluate esophageal chemical clearance and mucosal integrity. However, their relationship with reflux symptoms is not known. We aim to evaluate the correlations of PSPW index and esophageal BI with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms. Methods We performed a retrospective review of multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH (MII-pH) tracings in patients with suspected GERD. Reflux symptoms were also analyzed from checklists using ordinal scales. The PSPW index and esophageal BIs in 6 spots (z1–z6) were measured. Bivariate (Spearman) correlation was used to analyze the relationship between the PSPW index or esophageal BI, and the degree of GERD symptoms measured. Results The MII-pH records of 143 patients were analyzed. The PSPW index was significantly lower in patients who had heartburn and negatively correlated with the degree of heartburn (r = −0.186, P < 0.05). On the contrary, the PSPW index was not significantly correlated with the degree of dysphagia (r = −0.013, P = 0.874). Distal esophageal BI was not significantly correlated with heartburn, but negatively correlated with the degree of dysphagia (z3: r = −0.328, z4: r = −0.361, z5: r = −0.316, z6: r = −0.273; P < 0.05). Conclusions These findings suggest that delayed chemical clearance of the esophagus may induce heartburn, but that it is not related to dysphagia. However, a lack of esophageal mucosal integrity may be related to dysphagia. PMID:28044052

  16. The influence of BANXIAXIEXIN decoction and its analogous preparations on neurotensin (NT) in rat models with reflux esophagitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaoni; Gao Yanqing; Si Yinchu; Niu Xin

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the mechanism of BANXIAXIEXIN TANG Decoction and its analogous preparations in treatment of reflux esophagitis. Methods: 60 rat models with duodenogastroesophageal reflux were divided into 4 equal numbered groups; control group, BANXIAXIEXIN TANG group, SHENGJIANGXIEXIN TANG group, GANCAOXIEXIN TANG group. The contents of NT in hypothalamus, ileum and plasma were measured by radioimmunoassay in all these models and the relationship between NT concentration and degree of esophageal mucosa injury in the control group was analysed. Results: BANXIAXIEXIN Decoction and its analogous preparations could reduce the degree of the esophageal mucosa injury significantly (p<0.01). Compared with the control group: the hypothalamus content of NT in SHENGJIANGXIEXIN TANG group was significantly lowered (p<0.05), the ileum content of NT in BANXIAXIEXIN TANG group was significantly lowered (p<0.01), the plasma contents of NT in both groups were significantly lowered (p<0.05) as well. There was positive correlation (r=0.442, p<0.01) between content of NT in ileum and degree of the esophageal mucosa injury in control group. Conclusion: NT may play an important role in the development reflux esophagitis. Regulating the synthesis and secretion of NT may be one of the mechanisms of BANXIAXIEXIN Decoction and its analogus preparations in treatment of reflux esophagitis

  17. ESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE, PEPTIC ULCER AND HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION – A PROSPECTIVE, CONTROLLED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Skok

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. A possible association of esophageal reflux disease with peptic ulcer, Helicobacter pylori infection or the results of eradication, has not been elucidated. It is an alarming fact that in developed countries the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma, which is associated with reflux disease, is increasing.Aim. The aim of the study was to establish the prevalence of esophageal reflux disease after eradication of H. pylori infection in patients with hemorrhaging and nonhemorrhaging peptic ulcer of stomach or duodenum.Patients and methods. Study was approved in 1998 by the Slovenian Medical Ethics Committee (No. 90/09/98. Prospective, controlled and randomized, carried out between 1998– 2000.The study included 80 patients (50 male and 30 female, av. age 57.5 years, SD ± 17.1, range 22–80 years in which endoscopy confirmed hemorrhage from peptic ulcer of stomach or duodenum and HP infection. The control group was made up of 80 patients (50 male and 30 female, av. age 56.8 years, SD ± 16.8, range 19–80 years with peptic ulcer of stomach or duodenum and H.pylori infection in the same period of time. In all cases the recommended drug combinations were used in the treatment of the infection: a proton pump inhibitor, omeprazol (4 weeks, and combination of antibiotics, claritromycin and metronidazole or with regard to the antibiogram (1 week. The therapeutic success was ascertained endoscopically four weeks after inclusion in the study. Infection eradication was confirmed by the rapid urease test and histologic investigation of the gastric mucosa. One year later, in the course of follow-up, in patients with endoscopic investigations, 24-hour pH-metry or fiberoptic spectrophotometric bilirubin determination, bilimetry, we tried to establish signs of esophageal reflux disease.Results. Four weeks after inclusion in the study the success of infection eradication was 92.5% in the study group while in the control group reached 91.25%, p > 0

  18. Effect of Low-Dose Aspirin on Chronic Acid Reflux Esophagitis in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Takahiro; Yano, Fumiaki; Omura, Nobuo; Tsuboi, Kazuto; Hoshino, Masato; Yamamoto, Se Ryung; Akimoto, Shunsuke; Kashiwagi, Hideyuki; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

    2018-01-01

    Clinical role of low-dose aspirin (LDA) in pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease is by far controversial. This can be attributed to the paucity of basic research detailing the mechanism of LDA-induced esophageal mucosal injury (EI) on underlying chronic acid reflux esophagitis (RE). The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of LDA on chronic RE in rats. Esophagitis was induced in 8-week-old male Wistar rats by ligating the border between forestomach and glandular portion with a 2-0 silk tie and covering the duodenum with a small piece of 18-Fr Nélaton catheter. Seventy-eight chronic RE rat models were divided into five treatment groups, consisting of orally administered vehicle (controls), and aspirin doses of 2, 5, 50 or 100 mg/kg once daily for 28 days. EI was assessed by gross area of macroscopic mucosal injury, severity grade of esophagitis and microscopic depth of infiltration by inflammatory cells. Area of esophagitis in animals with aspirin dose of 100 mg/kg/day showed a 36.5% increase compared with controls, although it failed to achieve statistical significance (p = 0.812). Additionally, the rate of severe EI was increased in animals with aspirin dose of 100 mg/kg/day as compared with controls (p aspirin (100 mg/kg/day) contributed in exacerbating preexisting EI. LDA (2 and 5 mg/kg/day), on the other hand, did not affect chronic RE in this model. LDA seems to be safe for use in patients with chronic RE.

  19. Does CPAP treatment lead to gastroesophageal reflux in patients with moderate and severe OSA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcelik, Hatice; Kayar, Yusuf; Danalioglu, Ahmet; Arabaci, Elif; Uysal, Omer; Yakar, Fatih; Kart, Levent

    2017-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) leads to upper respiratory tract obstruction, causing increased abdominal-gastric pressure and decreased lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure and thus gastroesophageal reflux (GER). Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is known to be an effective method for OSA treatment, but its effect on GER is still controversial. There are a very few studies investigating CPAP and GER relationship and performed based on pre- and post-treatment objective parameters of GER in patients with OSA. The study investigated the effect of CPAP treatment in patients with moderate and severe OSA without GER complaints on pre- and post-treatment objective GER parameters. The study included 25 patients with respiratory disturbance indices >15 without reflux symptoms who had undergone polysomnography at sleep laboratory. Age, sex, body mass index (BMI), waist, and neck circumference of the patients were documented. DeMeester score, LES pressure, and polysomnography parameters were evaluated pre- and post-CPAP. The results were statistically evaluated, and p value CPAP phase, mean sphincter pressure was 22.2 ± 1.2 (range 8-73), and mean DeMeester score was 18 ± 15.5 (range 0.2-57). At the post-CPAP, mean sphincter pressure was 22.9 ± 1.6 (range 9-95), and mean DeMeester score was 16.3 ± 14.8 (range 0.2-55). No significant difference (p > 0.05) was found comparing pre-CPAP and post-CPAP measurements. Objective criteria show that CPAP treatment does not cause reflux in patients with OSA. Unlike studies reported in the literature, this conclusion has been reached by pre- and post-CPAP assessments.

  20. Efficacy of pectin solution for preventing gastro-esophageal reflux events in patients with percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Kyoichi; Furuta, Kenji; Aimi, Masahito; Fukazawa, Kousuke; Shimura, Shino; Ohara, Shunji; Nakata, Shuji; Inoue, Yukiko; Ryuko, Kanji; Ishine, Junichi; Katoh, Kyoko; Hirata, Toshiaki; Ohhata, Shuzo; Katoh, Setsushi; Moriyama, Mika; Sumikawa, Masuko; Sanpei, Mari; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of pectin solution, which increases the viscosity of liquid nutrient, for prevention of gastro-esophageal reflux in comparison with half-solid nutrient. The subjects were 10 elderly patients undergoing percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding. Twenty-four-hour esophageal multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH testing was performed during intake of half-solid nutrient and a combination of pectin solution and liquid nutrient. During 4 h after delivery, there was no significant difference in the total number of gastro-esophageal reflux events between the feeding of the half-solid nutrient and the combination of pectin solution and liquid nutrient (5.7 ± 1.2 vs 5.3 ± 1.0/4 h). Acidic reflux after delivery of the half-solid nutrient was significantly more frequent than that after delivery of the combination of pectin solution and liquid nutrient (80.7% vs 60.4%, p = 0.018). The incidence of gastro-esophageal reflux reaching the upper portion of the esophagus tended to be higher during delivery of the half-solid nutrient than during delivery of the combination of pectin solution and liquid nutrient (47.4% vs 34.0%, p = 0.153). In conclusion, the usage of pectin solution combined with liquid nutrient is effective for preventing acidic gastro-esophageal reflux and gastro-esophageal reflux reaching the upper portion of the esophagus.

  1. Single isotopic probe for gastro-esophageal reflux diagnosis in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurel, G.; Le Moing, G.; Mensch, B.

    1987-03-01

    Gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) in children has been implicated in various recurring respiratory diseases. Several techniques including oesophageal pH testing and scintigraphy have been devised to detect and quantify GER Limitations have been found for each test: short duration with gamma-camera and restricted acceptability of the pH probe by children. A single isotopic probe was designed for a non-invasive screening test of GER in infants. This device was checked by comparison with oesophageal scintigraphy using a gamma camera. Only 1 discrepancy was detected in 19 reflux episodes. This method, using a relatively inexpensive detector and data acquisition module, seems to be well accepted by children, and may be associated with a pH probe for GER diagnosis.

  2. Single isotopic probe for gastro-esophageal reflux diagnosis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurel, G.; Le Moing, G.; Mensch, B.

    1987-01-01

    Gastro-esophageal reflux (G.E.R.) in children has been implicated in various recurring respiratory diseases. Several techniques including oesophageal pH testing and scintigraphy have been devised to detect and quantify G.E.R. Limitations have been found for each test: short duration with gamma-camera and restricted acceptability of the pH probe by children. A single isotopic probe was designed for a non-invasive screening test of G.E.R. in infants. This device was checked by comparison with oesophageal scintigraphy using a gamma camera. Only 1 discrepancy was detected in 19 reflux episodes. This method, using a relatively inexpensive detector and data acquisition module, seems to be well accepted by children, and may be associated with a pH probe for GER diagnosis. (orig.)

  3. Relationship Between Salivary Pepsin Concentration and Esophageal Mucosal Integrity in Patients With Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Wen; Sifrim, Daniel; Xie, Chenxi; Chen, Minhu; Xiao, Ying-Lian

    2017-10-30

    Increased salivary pepsin could indicate an increase in gastro-esophageal reflux, however, previous studies failed to demonstrate a correlation between salivary pepsin concentrations and 24-hour esophageal acid exposure. This study aims to detect the salivary pepsin and to evaluate the relationship between salivary pepsin concentrations and intercellular spaces (IS) in different gastroesophageal reflux disease phenotypes in patients. A total of 45 patients and 11 healthy volunteers were included in this study. All subjects underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, 24-hour ambulatory multichannel impedance-pH (MII-pH) monitoring, and salivary sampling at 3-time points during the 24-hour MII-pH monitoring. IS were measured by transmission electron microscopy, and salivary pepsin concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The IS measurements were greater in the esophagitis (EE), non-erosive reflux disease (NERD), and hypersensitive esophagus (HO) groups than in the functional heartburn (FH) and healthy volunteer groups, and significant differences were indicated. Patients with NERD and HO had higher average pepsin concentrations compared with FH patients. A weak correlation was determined between IS and salivary pepsin among patients with NERD ( r = 0.669, P = 0.035). We confirmed the presence of a higher level of salivary pepsin in patients with NERD than in patients with FH. Salivary pepsin concentrations correlated with severity of mucosal integrity impairment in the NERD group. We suggest that in patients with NERD, low levels of salivary pepsin can help identify patients with FH, in addition the higher the pepsin concentration, the more likely the severity of dilated IS.

  4. Laparoscopic Nissen (total) versus anterior 180° fundoplication for gastro-esophageal reflux disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xing; Wu, Ji-Min; Hu, Zhi-Wei; Wang, Feng; Wang, Zhong-Gao; Zhang, Chao; Yan, Chao; Chen, Mei-Ping

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication (LNF) has been the gold standard for the surgical management of Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). Laparoscopic anterior 180° fundoplication (180° LAF) is reported to reduce the incidence of postoperative complications while obtaining similar control of reflux. The present meta-analysis was conducted to confirm the value of the 2 techniques. Methods: PubMed, Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, Springerlink, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure Platform databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing LNF and 180° LAF. Data regarding the benefits and adverse results of 2 techniques were extracted and compared using a meta-analysis. Results: Six eligible RCTs comparing LNF (n = 266) and 180° LAF (n = 265) were identified. There were no significant differences between LNF and 180° LAF with regard to operating time, perioperative complications, length of hospital stay, patient satisfaction, willingness to undergo surgery again, quality of life, postoperative heartburn, proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use, postoperative DeMeester scores, postoperative lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure, postoperative gas-bloating, unable to belch, diarrhea, or overall reoperation. LNF was associated with a higher prevalence of postoperative dysphagia compared with 180° LAF, while 180° LAF was followed by more reoperation for recurrent reflux symptoms. Conclusion: LNF and 180° LAF are equally effective in controlling reflux symptoms and obtain a comparable prevalence of patient satisfaction. 180° LAF can reduce the incidence of postoperative dysphagia while this is offset by a higher risk of reoperation for recurrent symptoms. The risk of recurrent symptoms should need to be balanced against the risk of dysphagia when surgeons choose surgical procedures for each individual with GERD. PMID:28906412

  5. Experimental human pain models in gastro-esophageal reflux disease and unexplained chest pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Asbj(φ)rn Mohr Drewes; Lars Arendt-Nielsen; Peter Funch-Jensen; Hans Gregersen

    2006-01-01

    Methods related to experimental human pain research aim at activating different nociceptors, evoke pain from different organs and activate specific pathways and mechanisms. The different possibilities for using mechanical, electrical, thermal and chemical methods in visceral pain research are discussed with emphasis of combinations (e.g., the multimodal approach). The methods have been used widely in assessment of pain mechanisms in the esophagus and have contributed to our understanding of the symptoms reported in these patients. Hence abnormal activation and plastic changes of central pain pathways seem to play a major role in the symptoms in some patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease and in patients with functional chest pain of esophageal origin. These findings may lead to an alternative approach for treatment in patients that does not respond to conventional medical or surgical therapy.

  6. Experimental human pain models in gastro-esophageal reflux disease and unexplained chest pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Funch-Jensen, Peter; Gregersen, Hans

    2006-01-01

    Methods related to experimental human pain research aim at activating different nociceptors, evoke pain from different organs and activate specific pathways and mechanisms. The different possibilities for using mechanical, electrical, thermal and chemical methods in visceral pain research are discussed with emphasis of combinations (e.g., the multimodal approach). The methods have been used widely in assessment of pain mechanisms in the esophagus and have contributed to our understanding of the symptoms reported in these patients. Hence abnormal activation and plastic changes of central pain pathways seem to play a major role in the symptoms in some patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease and in patients with functional chest pain of esophageal origin. These findings may lead to an alternative approach for treatment in patients that does not respond to conventional medical or surgical therapy. PMID:16718803

  7. Ilaprazole for the treatment of gastro-esophageal reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savarino, Edoardo; Ottonello, Andrea; Martinucci, Irene; Dulbecco, Pietro; Savarino, Vincenzo

    2016-10-01

    Despite the undoubted benefit of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), they have several shortcomings, such as a slow onset of action and a remarkable inter-individual variability, that limit the complete success of these drugs. Recently, a new PPI, ilaprazole, has been developed and used in GERD patients. The present review provides an update on the following points: current knowledge of GERD mechanisms; limitations of actual therapies; pharmacokinetic profile and metabolism of ilaprazole; initial studies on the therapeutic efficacy of ilaprazole in GERD. Compared with all other approved PPIs, ilaprazole has shown an extended plasma half-life, a metabolism not significantly influenced by CYP2C19 genetic polymorphism and similar safety. This characteristics account for a low inter-individual variability, particularly in Asian populations, a higher suppression of gastric acid secretion, a more rapid acid control and consequent quicker symptom relief and a better effect on nocturnal acidity. However, clinical investigations assessing the efficacy of ilaprazole in the management of GERD are lacking and therefore the potential improvements achievable with ilaprazole in the current standard of care for acid-suppressing treatment must be confirmed in large and randomly controlled clinical trials enrolling patients with both erosive and non-erosive reflux disease.

  8. Decreased n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio reduces chronic reflux esophagitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jing-Jing; Tang, Du-Peng; Xie, Jing-Jing; Yang, Li-Yong; Zhuang, Ze-Hao

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the effect of dietary ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs on chronic reflux esophagitis (RE) and lipid peroxidation. Rat RE model were established and then fed on a diet contained different n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios (1:1.5, 5:1, 10:1) or received pure n-6 PUFA diet for 14 days. Esophageal pathological changes were evaluated using macroscopic examination and hematoxyline-eosin staining. IL-1β, IL-8, and TNFα mRNA and protein levels of were determined using RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were determined using ELISA. The severity of esophagitis was lowest in the PUFA(1:1.5) group (P<0.05). IL-1β, IL-8, and TNFα mRNA and protein and MDA levels were significantly increased in model groups with the increasing n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios. SOD levels were significantly decreased in all RE PUFA groups (P<0.05). Esophageal injury and lipid peroxidation appeared to be ameliorated by increased n-3 PUFAs intake. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Gastroesophageal scintigraphy to assess the severity of gastroesophageal reflux disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menin, R.A.; Malmud, L.S.; Petersen, R.P.; Maier, W.P.; Fisher, R.S.

    1980-01-01

    Thirty-six (36) patients with symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux were studied. Symptoms of heartburn, regurgitation, and dysphagia were scored as to their severity and compared to quantitative tests of gastroesophageal reflux. Patients were studied with the acid reflux test, fiberoptic endoscopy, exophageal mucosal biopsy with a pinch forceps, esophageal manometry, and radioisotopic gastroesophgeal scintigraphy. Symptoms were scored according to an arbitrary grading system as mild, moderate, or severe. There were significant correlations between symptoms scores and both the degree of endoscopic esophagitis and the gastroesophageal reflux indices as measured by the radioisotopic scintiscan, but not with the degree of histologic esophagitis or lower esophageal sphincter pressure. Review of the findings suggest the following profile for patients who might require antireflux surgery: severe symptoms; presence of endoscopic esophagitis; resting lower esophageal sphincter pressure below 10 mmHg; and gastroesophageal reflux index above 10%

  10. Angiotensin IV and the human esophageal mucosa: An exploratory study in healthy subjects and gastroesophageal reflux disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkman, Eleonora; Edebo, Anders; Fändriks, Lars; Casselbrant, Anna

    2015-09-01

    The human esophageal mucosa expresses various components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), e.g. the main effector peptide angiotensin II (AngII). The aim of this study was to investigate the esophageal presence of angiotensin III (AngIII) and angiotensin IV (AngIV) forming enzymes and the AngIV receptor (AT4R). The aim was also to study the actions of AngIV and to look for aberrations in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Esophageal biopsies were collected from healthy volunteers (n: 19) and individuals with erosive reflux disease (n: 14). Gene transcripts and protein expression of aminopeptidase A, -B and -M, and the AT4R were investigated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR), western blot (WB) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). The functional impact of AngIV was examined in an Ussing chamber. Aminopeptidase A, -B and -M and the AT4R were expressed in the esophageal epithelium. The AT4R was less prominent in certain areas in the mucosa of reflux patients. AngIV influenced the esophageal epithelial ion transport. The impact was lower in patients with GERD. The AT4R and formation enzymes of AngIII and AngIV are present in the human esophageal epithelium. Moreover, the present results suggest that AngIV exert regulatory impact on the epithelium and that RAS is involved in mucosal aberrations associated with GERD. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Sucralfate versus cimetidine in the treatment of reflux esophagitis, with special reference to the esophageal motor function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorgensen, F.; Elsborg, L.

    1991-01-01

    Sixty patients entered a double-blind clinical trial comparing the effect of 1 g of sucralfate granulate given four times daily and cimetidine, 400 mg twice daily. Twenty-six patients treated with sucralfate and 26 treated with cimetidine were examined with short-term pH monitoring before and after 12 weeks of treatment. Thirty patients, 19 treated with cimetidine and 11 treated with sucralfate, had esophageal motility studied by a radionuclide test before and after 12 weeks of treatment. The efficacy of the treatments was judged by symptoms and endoscopic response after 4, 8, and 12 weeks of treatment. The endpoint healing rate was approximately 60% in both groups and symptoms were relieved in half of the patients in both groups (difference not significant). The effect of the treatments on pH and number of spikes reflected the different pharmacodynamic profiles of the drugs, whereas the mean transit time (MTT) was not changed by the treatments. The residual activity after radionuclide transit in the sitting position was significantly increased after treatment with cimetidine. The data support the hypothesis that primary dysmotility might be involved in the pathogenesis of reflux esophagitis in about 33% of the patients. Possibilities for a combination therapy with sucralfate and cimetidine are stressed

  12. Sucralfate versus cimetidine in the treatment of reflux esophagitis, with special reference to the esophageal motor function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorgensen, F.; Elsborg, L. (Department of Internal Medicine and Gastroenterology B, Frederiksberg University Hospital of Copenhagen (Denmark))

    1991-08-08

    Sixty patients entered a double-blind clinical trial comparing the effect of 1 g of sucralfate granulate given four times daily and cimetidine, 400 mg twice daily. Twenty-six patients treated with sucralfate and 26 treated with cimetidine were examined with short-term pH monitoring before and after 12 weeks of treatment. Thirty patients, 19 treated with cimetidine and 11 treated with sucralfate, had esophageal motility studied by a radionuclide test before and after 12 weeks of treatment. The efficacy of the treatments was judged by symptoms and endoscopic response after 4, 8, and 12 weeks of treatment. The endpoint healing rate was approximately 60% in both groups and symptoms were relieved in half of the patients in both groups (difference not significant). The effect of the treatments on pH and number of spikes reflected the different pharmacodynamic profiles of the drugs, whereas the mean transit time (MTT) was not changed by the treatments. The residual activity after radionuclide transit in the sitting position was significantly increased after treatment with cimetidine. The data support the hypothesis that primary dysmotility might be involved in the pathogenesis of reflux esophagitis in about 33% of the patients. Possibilities for a combination therapy with sucralfate and cimetidine are stressed.

  13. A randomized, comparative study of three doses of AZD0865 and esomeprazole for healing of reflux esophagitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahrilas, Peter J; Dent, John; Lauritsen, Karsten

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: AZD0865 belongs to a new class of acid-suppressing agents with rapid onset of action and potent acid inhibition. We evaluated its effectiveness for healing reflux esophagitis. METHODS: One thousand five hundred twenty-one patients with Los Angeles A-D esophagitis and heartburn......, especially at the 75-mg dose. CONCLUSIONS: AZD0865 25, 50, and 75 mg provided similar efficacy to esomeprazole 40 mg in terms of esophagitis healing and heartburn control. These findings suggest that increasing the degree of acid inhibition beyond that already achieved by esomeprazole 40 mg (or AZD0865 25 mg...

  14. Scintigraphic scoring system for grading severity of gastro-esophageal reflux on 99mTc sulfur colloid gastro-esophageal reflux scintigraphy: A prospective study of 39 cases with pre and post treatment assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puranik, Ameya D; Nair, Gopinathan; Aggarwal, Rajiv; Bandyopadhyay, Abhijit; Shinto, Ajit; Zade, Anand

    2013-04-01

    The study aimed at developing a scoring system for scintigraphic grading of gastro-esophageal reflux (GER), on gastro-esophageal reflux scintigraphy (GERS) and comparison of clinical and scintigraphic scores, pre- and post-treatment. A total of 39 cases with clinically symptomatic GER underwent 99mTc sulfur colloid GERS; scores were assigned based on the clinical and scintigraphic parameters. Post domperidone GERS was performed after completion of treatment. Follow up GERS was performed and clinical and scintigraphic parameters were compared with baseline parameters. Paired t-test on pre and post domperidone treatment clinical scores showed that the decline in post-treatment scores was highly significant, with P value reflux and also for following children post-treatment.

  15. Gastroesophageal reflux, esophageal function, gastric emptying, and the relationship to dysphagia before and after antireflux surgery in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loots, Clara; van Herwaarden, Maud Y.; Benninga, Marc A.; Vanderzee, David C.; van Wijk, Michiel P.; Omari, Taher I.

    2013-01-01

    To assess gastroesophageal reflux (GER), esophageal motility, and gastric emptying in children before and after laparoscopic fundoplication and to identify functional measures associated with postoperative dysphagia. Combined impedance-manometry, 24-hour pH-impedance, and gastric-emptying breath

  16. The gastro-esophageal reflux barrier: biophysical analysis on 3D models of anatomy from magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, S; Fox, M R; Curcic, J; Schwizer, W; Pal, A

    2012-07-01

    The function and structure of the gastro-esophageal junction (GEJ) determine its efficacy as a reflux barrier. This study presents a novel methodology for the quantitative assessment of GEJ and proximal gastric morphology from magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Based on this data we propose a new conceptualization of the hypothesis that a flap valve mechanism contributes to reflux protection. 3D models of the GEJ and proximal stomach were reconstructed from MR images in 12 healthy volunteers during respiration and on eating a test meal to maximum satiation. A rotating plane analysis measured the gastro-esophageal insertion angle and span of contact. An ellipsoid fit provided quantitative assessment of gastric shape and orientation relative to a fixed anatomical reference point. Position of the esophageal insertion on the 'gastric ellipse' was noted. An ellipsoid-cylinder model was designed to analyze the relationships among parameters describing the GEJ morphology. The insertion angle became more acute on expiration, but did not change with meal ingestion. In contrast the span of contact did not vary with respiration, but increased with gastric filling. Changes in gastric morphology with distension further augmented the span of gastro-esophageal contact in almost 70% of the studies. Novel MR imaging and biophysical analysis of the GEJ and proximal stomach provide a quantitative description of structures contributing to the reflux barrier. Changes in these parameters during respiration and on eating support the hypothesis that structural components of a functional 'flap valve' like mechanism contribute to reflux protection. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Radial distribution of dilated intercellular spaces of the esophageal squamous epithelium in patients with reflux disease exhibiting discrete endoscopic lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vieth, M; Fiocca, R; Haringsma, J; Delarive, J; Wiesel, PH; Tam, W; Tytgat, GNJ; Dent, J; Edebo, A; Lundell, L; Stolte, M

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Dilatation of intercellular spaces of the esophageal squamous epithelium has been suggested as a marker of early acid reflux-induced damage. This change is a potentially useful addition to histomorphological changes that represent so called minimal endoscopic lesions. We have assessed

  18. Differences in the risk factors of reflux esophagitis according to age in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, C H; Kim, K O; Baek, I H; Choi, M H; Jang, H J; Kae, S H; Kim, J B; Baik, G H; Shin, W G; Kim, K H; Kim, H Y

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease in Korea has been believed to be low, but the incidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease in Korea is expected to increase because of the longer life expectancy and more ingestion of westernized food. The aim of this study was to report differences in the risk factors of reflux esophagitis (RE) according to age in Korea. We prospectively recruited the subjects who had RE among those who visited a health promotion center for upper gastrointestinal cancer surveillance at Hallym Medical Center (five institutions) between January 2008 and February 2009. The enrolled study participants comprised 742 subjects with RE and 1484 healthy controls. The independent risk factors of RE in young and adult group were male sex, smoking, coffee, body mass index ≥ 25, hiatal hernia, and Helicobacter pylori negativity. The risk factors of RE in elderly group were smoking, coffee, and hiatal hernia. The risk factors for RE according to age group were found to differ. In elderly group, Helicobacter pylori infection was not a significant protective factor contrary to young and adult groups. © 2012 Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  19. Management of failure after surgery for gastro-esophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronnier, C; Degrandi, O; Collet, D

    2018-04-01

    Surgical treatment of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (ST-GERD) is well-codified and offers an alternative to long-term medical treatment with a better efficacy for short and long-term outcomes. However, failure of ST-GERD is observed in 2-20% of patients; management is challenging and not standardized. The aim of this study is to analyze the causes of failure and to provide a treatment algorithm. The clinical aspects of ST-GERD failure are variable including persistent reflux, dysphagia or permanent discomfort leading to an important degradation of the quality of life. A morphological and functional pre-therapeutic evaluation is necessary to: (i) determine whether the symptoms are due to recurrence of reflux or to an error in initial indication and (ii) to understand the cause of the failure. The most frequent causes of failure of ST-GERD include errors in the initial indication, which often only need medical treatment, and surgical technical errors, for which surgical redo surgery can be difficult. Multidisciplinary management is necessary in order to offer the best-adapted treatment. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  20. Frequency distribution of gastro esophageal reflux disease in inhalation injury: A historical cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbasi, Ashraf; Aliannejad, Rasoul; Ghanei, Mostafa; Sanamy, Mehran Noory; Alaeddini, Farshid; Harandi, Ali Amini

    2015-07-01

    There is no data on the prevalence and the association of gastro esophageal reflux disease (GERD) with toxic fume inhalation. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the frequency distribution of GERD symptoms among the individuals with mild respiratory disorder due to the past history of toxic fume exposure to sulfur mustard (SM). In a historical cohort study, subjects were randomly selected from 7000 patients in a database of all those who had a history of previous exposure to a single high dose of SM gas during war. The control group was randomly selected from adjacent neighbors of the patients, and two healthy male subjects were chosen per patient. In this study, we used the validated Persian translation of Mayo Gastroesophageal Reflux Questionnaire to assess the frequency distribution of reflux disease. Relative frequency of GERD symptoms, was found to be significantly higher in the inhalation injury patients with an odds ratio of 8.30 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.73-14.55), and after adjustment for cigarette smoking, tea consumption, age, and body mass index, aspirin and chronic cough the odds ratio was found to be 4.41 (95% CI: 1.61-12.07). The most important finding of our study was the major GERD symptoms (heartburn and/or acid regurgitation once or more per week) among the individuals with the past history of exposure to SM toxic gas is substantially higher (4.4-fold) than normal populations.

  1. Liquid-containing Refluxes and Acid Refluxes May Be Less Frequent in the Japanese Population Than in Other Populations: Normal Values of 24-hour Esophageal Impedance and pH Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Osamu; Kohata, Yukie; Kawami, Noriyuki; Iida, Hiroshi; Kawada, Akiyo; Hosaka, Hiroko; Shimoyama, Yasuyuki; Kuribayashi, Shiko; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Iwakiri, Katsuhiko; Inamori, Masahiko; Kusano, Motoyasu; Hongo, Micho

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Twenty-four-hour esophageal impedance and pH monitoring allows detection of all types of reflux episodes and is considered the best technique for identifying gastroesophageal refluxes. However, normative data for the Japanese population are lacking. This multicenter study aimed to establish the normal range of 24-hour esophageal impedance and pH data both in the distal and the proximal esophagus in Japanese subjects. Methods Forty-two healthy volunteers (25 men and 17 women) with a mean ± standard deviation age of 33.3 ± 12.4 years (range: 22–72 years) underwent a combined 24-hour esophageal impedance and pH monitoring. According to the physical and pH properties, distal or proximal esophageal reflux events were categorized. Results Median 45 reflux events occurred in 24 hours, and the 95th percentile was 85 events. Unlike previous reports, liquid-containing reflux events are median 25/24 hours with the 95th percentile of 62/24 hours. Acidic reflux events were median 11/24 hours with the 95th percentile of 39/24 hours. Non-acidic gas reflux events were median 15/24 hours with the 95th percentile of 39/24 hours. Proximal reflux events accounted for 80% of the total reflux events and were mainly non-acidic gas refluxes. About 19% of liquid and mixed refluxes reached the proximal esophagus. Conclusions Unlike previous studies, liquid-containing and acidic reflux events may be less frequent in the Japanese population. Non-acidic gas reflux events may be frequent and a cause of frequent proximal reflux events. This study provides important normative data for 24-hour impedance and pH monitoring in both the distal and the proximal esophagus in the Japanese population. PMID:27247103

  2. 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase (ABAT: genetic and pharmacological evidence for an involvement in gastro esophageal reflux disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Jirholt

    Full Text Available Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD is partly caused by genetic factors. The underlying susceptibility genes are currently unknown, with the exception of COL3A1. We used three independent GERD patient cohorts to identify GERD susceptibility genes. Thirty-six families, demonstrating dominant transmission of GERD were subjected to whole genome microsatellite genotyping and linkage analysis. Five linked regions were identified. Two families shared a linked region (LOD 3.9 and 2.0 on chromosome 16. We used two additional independent GERD patient cohorts, one consisting of 219 trios (affected child with parents and the other an adult GERD case control cohort consisting of 256 cases and 485 controls, to validate individual genes in the linked region through association analysis. Sixty six single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers distributed over the nine genes present in the linked region were genotyped in the independent GERD trio cohort. Transmission disequilibrium test analysis followed by multiple testing adjustments revealed a significant genetic association for one SNP located in an intron of the gene 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase (ABAT (P(adj = 0.027. This association did not replicate in the adult case-control cohort, possibly due to the differences in ethnicity between the cohorts. Finally, using the selective ABAT inhibitor vigabatrin (γ-vinyl GABA in a dog study, we were able to show a reduction of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations (TLESRs by 57.3 ± 11.4 % (p = 0.007 and the reflux events from 3.1 ± 0.4 to 0.8 ± 0.4 (p = 0.007. Our results demonstrate the direct involvement of ABAT in pathways affecting lower esophageal sphincter (LES control and identifies ABAT as a genetic risk factor for GERD.

  3. 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase (ABAT): genetic and pharmacological evidence for an involvement in gastro esophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirholt, Johan; Asling, Bengt; Hammond, Paul; Davidson, Geoffrey; Knutsson, Mikael; Walentinsson, Anna; Jensen, Jörgen M; Lehmann, Anders; Agreus, Lars; Lagerström-Fermer, Maria

    2011-04-28

    Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) is partly caused by genetic factors. The underlying susceptibility genes are currently unknown, with the exception of COL3A1. We used three independent GERD patient cohorts to identify GERD susceptibility genes. Thirty-six families, demonstrating dominant transmission of GERD were subjected to whole genome microsatellite genotyping and linkage analysis. Five linked regions were identified. Two families shared a linked region (LOD 3.9 and 2.0) on chromosome 16. We used two additional independent GERD patient cohorts, one consisting of 219 trios (affected child with parents) and the other an adult GERD case control cohort consisting of 256 cases and 485 controls, to validate individual genes in the linked region through association analysis. Sixty six single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers distributed over the nine genes present in the linked region were genotyped in the independent GERD trio cohort. Transmission disequilibrium test analysis followed by multiple testing adjustments revealed a significant genetic association for one SNP located in an intron of the gene 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase (ABAT) (P(adj) = 0.027). This association did not replicate in the adult case-control cohort, possibly due to the differences in ethnicity between the cohorts. Finally, using the selective ABAT inhibitor vigabatrin (γ-vinyl GABA) in a dog study, we were able to show a reduction of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations (TLESRs) by 57.3 ± 11.4 % (p = 0.007) and the reflux events from 3.1 ± 0.4 to 0.8 ± 0.4 (p = 0.007). Our results demonstrate the direct involvement of ABAT in pathways affecting lower esophageal sphincter (LES) control and identifies ABAT as a genetic risk factor for GERD.

  4. Efficacy of a potassium-competitive acid blocker for improving symptoms in patients with reflux esophagitis, non-erosive reflux disease, and functional dyspepsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaoka, Daisuke; Nagahara, Akihito; Hojo, Mariko; Matsumoto, Kenshi; Ueyama, Hiroya; Matsumoto, Kohei; Izumi, Kentaro; Takeda, Tsutomu; Komori, Hiroyuki; Akazawa, Yoichi; Shimada, Yuji; Osada, Taro; Watanabe, Sumio

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of a potassium-competitive acid blocker (PCAB) named vonoprazan (VPZ) for improving symptoms in patients with reflux esophagitis (RE), non-erosive reflux disease (NERD), and functional dyspepsia (FD). A hospital-based, retrospective study of outpatients in our department (Department of Gastroenterology, University of Juntendo, Tokyo, Japan) between March 2015 and August 2016 was performed. The patients who were experiencing heartburn, acid regurgitation, gastric pain, and/or a heavy feeling in the stomach of at least moderate severity at baseline were treated with 20 mg VPZ once daily for 4 weeks. The patients completed the global overall symptom (GOS) scale to determine their symptom severity at baseline and after the 4 week treatment period. The proportions of patients with RE, NERD, and FD achieving improvement of their symptoms, defined as a GOS scale score of 1 ('no problem') or 2 ('minimal problem'), were evaluated. During 4 weeks of VPZ therapy, changes in the gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) score, which was defined as the total points for heartburn and acid regurgitation on the GOS scale in patients with RE and NERD, and in the FD score, which was defined as the total points for gastric pain and a heavy feeling in the stomach on the GOS scale in patients with FD, were also evaluated. A total of 88 eligible cases were included in the present study, comprising 20 patients with RE, 25 patients with NERD, and 43 patients with FD. The rates of symptomatic improvement in patients with RE, NERD, and FD were 75.0, 60.0, and 48.8%, respectively. For the patients who were first administered VPZ, the rates of symptomatic improvement were 90.9, 66.7, and 58.8% in patients with RE, NERD, and FD, respectively. For those patients who were resistant to 8 weeks of proton pump inhibitor therapy, the rates of symptomatic improvement were 55.6, 53.8, and 42.3% in patients with RE, NERD, and FD, respectively

  5. Once-daily omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate heals severe refractory reflux esophagitis with morning or nighttime dosing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbelo, Diana M; Enders, Felicity T; Romero, Yvonne; Francis, Dawn L; Achem, Sami R; Dabade, Tushar S; Crowell, Michael D; Geno, Debra M; DeJesus, Ramona S; Namasivayam, Vikneswaran; Adamson, Steven C; Arora, Amindra S; Majka, Andrew J; Alexander, Jeffrey A; Murray, Joseph A; Lohse, Matthew; Diehl, Nancy N; Fredericksen, Mary; Jung, Kee Wook; Houston, Margaret S; O'Neil, Angela E; Katzka, David A

    2015-01-01

    Morning dose or twice-daily proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use is often prescribed to heal severe reflux esophagitis. Compare the effect of single dose morning (control arm) versus nighttime (experimental arm) omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate (Zegerid(®)) (IR-OME) on esophagitis and gastroesophageal reflux symptoms. Adult outpatients with Los Angeles grade C or D esophagitis were allocated to open-label 40 mg IR-OME once a day for 8 weeks in a prospective, randomized, parallel design, single center study. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and validated self-report symptom questionnaires were completed at baseline and follow-up. Intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses were performed. Ninety-two of 128 (72 %) eligible subjects participated [64 (70 %) male, mean age 58 (range 19-86), median BMI 29 (range 21-51), 58 C:34 D]. Overall, 81 (88 %) subjects healed [n = 70 (76 %)] or improved [n = 11 (12 %)] erosions. There was no significant difference (morning vs. night) in mucosal healing [81 vs. 71 %, (p = 0.44)] or symptom resolution [heartburn (77 vs. 65 %, p = 0.12), acid regurgitation (82 vs. 73 %, p = 0.28)]. Prevalence of newly identified Barrett's esophagus was 14 % with half diagnosed only after treatment. Once-daily IR-OME (taken morning or night) effectively heals severe reflux esophagitis and improves GERD symptoms. Results support the clinical practice recommendation to repeat EGD after 8 weeks PPI therapy in severe esophagitis patients to assure healing and exclude Barrett's esophagus.

  6. Sporadic ganglioneuromatosis of esophagogastric junction in a patient with gastro-esophageal reflux disorder and intestinal metaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siderits, Richard; Hanna, Iman; Baig, Zahid; Godyn, Janusz-J

    2006-12-28

    A 58-year-old female with a recurrent history of upper abdominal pain and intermittent dysphagia underwent endoscopic evaluation that demonstrated an irregular and nodular esophago-gastric (EG) junction and grade I erosive esophagitis. Biopsies showed prominent intestinal metaplasia of Barrett's type without dysplasia, chronic inflammation and multiple aggregates of large cells within the mucosal lamina propria, some with spindle shaped nuclei. Immunohistochemistry stains for keratins AE-1/AE-3 were negative, while S-100 and NSE were positive. This, together with routine stains, was diagnostic for mucosal ganglioneuromatosis. The background of chronic inflammation with intestinal type metaplasia was consistent with long-term reflux esophagitis. No evidence of achalasia was seen. Biopsies of gastric antrum and fundus were unremarkable, without ganglioneural proliferation. Colonoscopy was unremarkable. No genetic syndromes were identified in the patient including familial adenomatous polyposis and multiple endocrine neoplasia type IIb (MEN IIb). Iansoprazole (Prevacid) was started by oral administration each day with partial relief of symptoms. Subsequent esophagogastroscopy repeated at 4 mo showed normal appearing EG junction. Esophageal manometry revealed a mild non-specific lower esophageal motility disorder. Mild motor dysfunction is seen with gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) and we feel that the demonstration of localized ganglioneuromatosis was not likely related etiologically. In the absence of findings that might suggest neural hypertrophy, such as achalasia, the nodular mucosal irregularity seen with this instance of ganglioneuromatosis may, however, have exacerbated the patient's reflux.

  7. A "Light Meal" Three Hours Preoperatively Decreases the Incidence of Gastro-Esophageal Reflux in Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savvas, Ioannis; Raptopoulos, Dimitrios; Rallis, Timoleon

    Emerging evidence from veterinary and medical clinical research shows that reducing preoperative fasting time may reduce the incidence of gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) intraoperatively. In order to evaluate the effect of two different preoperative fasting times on the incidence of GER during general anesthesia, 120 dogs were randomly assigned to two groups: administration of canned food 3 h before premedication (group C3, n = 60) and administration of canned food 10 h before premedication (group C10, n = 60). The animals were premedicated with propionyl-promazine. Anesthesia was induced with thiopental sodium and maintained with halothane. A pH electrode was introduced into the esophagus, and the esophageal pH was constantly monitored. Esophageal pH of less than 4 or greater than 7.5 was taken as an indication of GER. Three of the 60 dogs of group C3 and 12 of the 60 dogs of group C10 experienced a GER episode, the difference being statistically significant (P = .025). Feeding the dog 3 h before anesthesia at a half daily rate reduces significantly the incidence of GER during anesthesia, compared to the administration of the same amount and type of food 10 h before anesthesia. The administration of a half daily dose of an ordinary canine diet may be useful in clinical practice.

  8. Esophageal intraluminal baseline impedance differentiates gastroesophageal reflux disease from functional heartburn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandulski, Arne; Weigt, Jochen; Caro, Carlos; Jechorek, Doerthe; Wex, Thomas; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Mucosal integrity can be assessed in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) by measuring intraluminal baseline impedance (BI). However, it is not clear whether BI is abnormal in patients with functional heartburn (FH), or can be used to distinguish them from patients with GERD. We compared differences in BI between patients with FH vs GERD. We performed a prospective study of 52 patients (16 men; mean age, 55 y; range, 23-78 y) seen at a tertiary university hospital from February 2009 through December 2012. Thirty-five patients had GERD (19 had nonerosive reflux disease [NERD], 16 had erosive reflux disease [ERD]) and 17 had FH. All patients discontinued proton pump inhibitor therapy and then underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy and multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH monitoring. BI was assessed at 3, 5, 7, 9, 15, and 17 cm proximal to the lower esophageal sphincter in recumbent patients. Biopsy specimens were taken from 3 cm above the gastroesophageal junction; histology analysis was performed to identify and semiquantitatively score (scale, 0-3) dilated intercellular spaces. Baseline impedance in the distal esophagus was significantly lower in patients with NERD or erosive reflux disease (ERD) than FH (P = .0006). At a cut-off value of less than 2100 Ω, BI measurements identified patients with GERD with 78% sensitivity and 71% specificity, with positive and negative predictive values of 75%. Also in the proximal esophagus, reduced levels of BI levels were found only in patients with ERD. There were negative correlations between level of BI and acid exposure time (r = -0.45; P = .0008), number of acidic reflux episodes (r = -0.45; P = .001), and proximal extent (r = -0.40; P = .004). Biopsy specimens from patients with NERD or ERD had significant increases in dilation of intercellular spaces, compared with those from patients with FH; there was an inverse association between dilated intercellular spaces and BI in the distal esophagus

  9. An expert panel-based study on recognition of gastro-esophageal reflux in difficult esophageal pH-impedance tracings.

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    Smits, M J; Loots, C M; van Wijk, M P; Bredenoord, A J; Benninga, M A; Smout, A J P M

    2015-05-01

    Despite existing criteria for scoring gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) in esophageal multichannel pH-impedance measurement (pH-I) tracings, inter- and intra-rater variability is large and agreement with automated analysis is poor. To identify parameters of difficult to analyze pH-I patterns and combine these into a statistical model that can identify GER episodes with an international consensus as gold standard. Twenty-one experts from 10 countries were asked to mark GER presence for adult and pediatric pH-I patterns in an online pre-assessment. During a consensus meeting, experts voted on patterns not reaching majority consensus (>70% agreement). Agreement was calculated between raters, between consensus and individual raters, and between consensus and software generated automated analysis. With eight selected parameters, multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to describe an algorithm sensitive and specific for detection of GER. Majority consensus was reached for 35/79 episodes in the online pre-assessment (interrater κ = 0.332). Mean agreement between pre-assessment scores and final consensus was moderate (κ = 0.466). Combining eight pH-I parameters did not result in a statistically significant model able to identify presence of GER. Recognizing a pattern as retrograde is the best indicator of GER, with 100% sensitivity and 81% specificity with expert consensus as gold standard. Agreement between experts scoring difficult impedance patterns for presence or absence of GER is poor. Combining several characteristics into a statistical model did not improve diagnostic accuracy. Only the parameter 'retrograde propagation pattern' is an indicator of GER in difficult pH-I patterns. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Diagnostic value of combined esophageal multi-channel intraluminal impedance and pH monitoring for gastroesophageal reflux in critically ill patients

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    Yi JIN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To compare the diagnostic value of using 24-hour combined esophageal multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH monitoring (MII-pH in the diagnosis of gastro-esophageal reflux (GER and pH monitoring alone in critically ill patients. Methods  A prospective observational study was performed including 116 critically ill adult patients admitted to ICU of Peking Haidian Hospital from Jul. 2013 to Dec. 2014. All the patients underwent 24-hour combined MⅡ-pH monitoring. GER episodes were recorded and its pH was recorded (acidic, weakly acidic and weakly alkaline and its composition was recorded (liquid, mixed and gas reflux. The results of the MⅡ-pH and the pH were monitored and compared. The demographic characteristics and clinical information were recorded. Results  MⅡ-pH was monitored for 5024 episodes of GER in 115 of 116(99.1% patients, with a mean of 43.28±3.96 episodes per patient (median, 34 episodes; range, 0-196 episodes. The pH monitoring detected 1868 episodes (100% acid in only 54 of 116(46.6% patients, with a mean of 7.66±1.65 episodes per patient (median, 0 episodes; range, 0-81 episodes. The number of episode of all reflux and liquid reflux diagnosed by pH monitoring alone was less than those diagnosed by MⅡ-pH monitoring (P=0.000, and there was no correlation in the episodes number of all reflux and liquid reflux between the two techniques (r=0.119, 0.231. Only a moderate correlation was found in the number of episodes of acidic reflux between the two techniques (r=0.656. Conclusion  MⅡ-pH monitoring is more sensitive than pH monitoring alone for establishing the diagnosis of GER. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.05.12

  11. [Therapeutic effects of the integrated acupuncture and Chinese herbal medicine on reflux esophagitis].

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    Zhang, Wan; Li, Bolin; Sun, Jianhui; Wang, Zhikun; Zhang, Nana; Shi, Fang; Pei, Lin

    2017-07-12

    To compare the differences in the clinical therapeutic effects on reflux esophagitis among the combined therapy of huazhuo jiedu jiangni decoction (the decoction for resolving the turbid, detoxification and reducing the pathologic upward qi in short) and acupuncture, omeprazole and Chinese herbal medicine. Ninety patients were randomized into 3 groups, 4 cases of them were dropped off. Finally, there were 29 cases in the combined therapy group with acupuncture and the decoction, 29 cases in the western medication group and 28 cases in the Chinese herbal medicine group in the statistical analysis. In the combined therapy group with acupuncture and the decoction, the decoction was prescribed recurrence rate. The therapeutic effects are better than the simple application of either Chinese herbal medicine or omeprazole. for oral administration. Additionally, acupuncture was applied to Neiguan (PC 6), Zusanli (ST 36), Zhongwan (CV 12), Ganshu (BL 18), Danshu (BL 19) and Taichong (LR 3). The decoction was applied one dose a day and acupuncture was once a day. In the western medication group, omeprazole capsules, 20 mg were prescribed for oral administration, twice a day. In the Chinese herbal medicine group, the decoction was simply applied. The treatment was 8 weeks in the 3 groups and the follow-up visit was 6 months. The score of reflux disorder questionnaire (RDQ) and the changes in esophageal mucosa under gastroscope were observed before and after treatment; the clinical therapeutic effects and recurrence rate were evaluated in the 3 groups. In 4 and 8 weeks of treatment, RDQ scores in the 3 groups were all reduced as compared with those before treatment (all P herbal medicine was lower than that in the western medication group ( P herbal medicine was lower than those in the western medication group and the Chinese herbal medicine group (both P herbal medicine group (all P <0.05). The combined therapy of huazhuo jiedu jiangni decoction and acupuncture achieve the

  12. The effect of n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids on acute reflux esophagitis in rats.

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    Zhuang, Ze-Hao; Xie, Jing-Jing; Wei, Jing-Jing; Tang, Du-Peng; Yang, Li-Yong

    2016-10-04

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) play various roles in inflammation. However, the effect of PUFAs in the development of reflux esophagitis (RE) is unclear. This study is to investigate the potential effect of n-3/n-6 PUFAs on acute RE in rats along with the underlying protective mechanisms. Forty Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10 in each group). RE model was established by pyloric clip and section ligation. Fish oil- and soybean oil-based fatty emulsion (n-3 and n-6 groups), or normal saline (control and sham operation groups) was injected intraperitoneally 2 h prior to surgery and 24 h postoperatively (2 mL/kg, respectively). The expressions of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, IL-6 and myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) in esophageal tissues were evaluated by Western blot and immunohistochemistry after 72 h. The malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) expression in the esophageal tissues were determined to assess the oxidative stress. The mildest macroscopic/microscopic esophagitis was found in the n-3 group (P < 0.05). The expression of IL-1β, IL-8, IL-6 and MyD88 were increased in all RE groups, while the lowest and highest expression were found in n-3 and n-6 group, respectively (P < 0.05). The MDA levels were increased in all groups (P < 0.05), in an ascending trend from n-3, n-6 groups to control group. The lowest and highest SOD levels were found in the control and n-3 group, respectively (P < 0.05). n-3 PUFAs may reduce acute RE in rats, which may be due to inhibition of the MyD88-NF-kB pathway and limit oxidative damage.

  13. Clinical usefulness of adherence to gastro-esophageal reflux disease guideline by Spanish gastroenterologists.

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    Mearin, Fermín; Ponce, Julio; Ponce, Marta; Balboa, Agustín; González, Miguel A; Zapardiel, Javier

    2012-09-21

    To investigate usefulness of adherence to gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) guideline established by the Spanish Association of Gastroenterology. Prospective, observational and multicentre study of 301 patients with typical symptoms of GERD who should be managed in accordance with guidelines and were attended by gastroenterologists in daily practice. Patients (aged > 18 years) were eligible for inclusion if they had typical symptoms of GERD (heartburn and/or acid regurgitation) as the major complaint in the presence or absence of accompanying atypical symptoms, such as dyspeptic symptoms and/or supraesophageal symptoms. Diagnostic and therapeutic decisions should be made based on specific recommendations of the Spanish clinical practice guideline for GERD which is a widely disseminated and well known instrument among Spanish in digestive disease specialists. Endoscopy was indicated in 123 (41%) patients: 50 with alarm symptoms, 32 with age > 50 years without alarm symptom. Seventy-two patients (58.5%) had esophagitis (grade A, 23, grade B, 28, grade C, 18, grade D, 3). In the presence of alarm symptoms, endoscopy was indicated consistently with recommendations in 98% of cases. However, in the absence of alarm symptoms, endoscopy was indicated in 33% of patients > 50 years (not recommended by the guideline). Adherence for proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) therapy was 80%, but doses prescribed were lower (half) in 5% of cases and higher (double) in 15%. Adherence regarding duration of PPI therapy was 69%; duration was shorter than recommended in 1% (4 wk in esophagitis grades C-D) or longer in 30% (8 wk in esophagitis grades A-B or in patients without endoscopy). Treatment response was higher when PPI doses were consistent with guidelines, although differences were not significant (95% vs 85%). GERD guideline compliance was quite good although endoscopy was over indicated in patients > 50 years without alarm symptoms; PPIs were prescribed at higher doses and longer

  14. An old dietary regimen as a new lifestyle change for Gastro esophageal reflux disease: A pilot study.

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    Randhawa, Mohammad Akram; Mahfouz, Salah Al-Din Mahmoud; Selim, Noor Ahmed; Yar, Taley; Gillessen, Anton

    2015-09-01

    Treatment of gastro esophageal reflux disease (GERD) is becoming a challenge for medical profession. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are commonly recommended but many disadvantages of these drugs are being reported, particularly when used for long term. Transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations (TLESRs) are important cause of acid reflux. Gastric distention in upper stomach is the strongest stimulus for generation of TLESRs and is aggravated by intake of food in between meals. In an earlier cases report, two meals a day with intake of only fluids in between was suggested as a remedy for GERD. Present pilot study was conducted on 20 patients with endoscopically proven reflux esophagitis (Los Angles Grade a, b or c), who followed our advice to take meal twice a day with consumption of only soft drinks (fruit juices, tea, coffee, water, etc) in between and no medication for two weeks. On 14th day 15 patients (75%) were free of reflux symptoms, 2 (10%) had partial improvement and 3 (15%) reported no difference. It is concluded that two meals a day with intake of only fluids in between, whenever the patient feels hungry or thirsty, is a useful dietary regimen for the management of GERD. Further investigations are needed to confirm the benefits of this physiological lifestyle change.

  15. Gastroesophageal reflux disease after peroral endoscopic myotomy: Analysis of clinical, procedural and functional factors, associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease and esophagitis.

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    Familiari, Pietro; Greco, Santi; Gigante, Giovanni; Calì, Anna; Boškoski, Ivo; Onder, Graziano; Perri, Vincenzo; Costamagna, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) does not include any antireflux procedure, resulting in a certain risk of iatrogenic gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the incidence of iatrogenic GERD after POEM and identify preoperative, perioperative and postoperative factors associated with GERD. All patients treated at a single center who had a complete GERD evaluation after POEM were included in the study. Demographics, preoperative and follow-up data, results of functional studies and procedural data were collected and analyzed. A total of 103 patients (mean age 46.6 years, 47 males) were included. Postoperative altered esophageal acid exposure was attested in 52 patients (50.5%). A total of 19 patients (18.4%) had heartburn and 21 had esophagitis (20.4%). Overall, a clinically relevant GERD (altered esophageal acid exposure, associated with heartburn and/or esophagitis) was diagnosed in 30 patients (29.1%). Correlation between the severity of esophageal acid exposure with heartburn and esophagitis after POEM was found. Patients with heartburn had a lower postoperative 4-second integrated relaxation pressure compared to patients without symptoms (7.6 ± 3.8 mmHg vs 10.01 ± 4.4 mmHg, p<0.05). No correlations were identified with patient sex, age, postoperative body mass index, esophageal shape (sigmoid vs non sigmoid), lower esophageal sphincter pressure, length of myotomy, previous therapies and type of achalasia at high-resolution manometry. Preoperative, perioperative or postoperative factors minimally correlated with GERD after POEM. Clinically relevant GERD was identified in less than one-third of patients, but all patients were well controlled with medical therapy. © 2015 The Authors Digestive Endoscopy © 2015 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  16. Laparoscopic Collis gastroplasty and Dor fundoplication for reflux esophagitis complicated by a penetrating ulcer and shortened esophagus: a case report.

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    Yano, Fumiaki; Omura, Nobuo; Tsuboi, Kazuto; Nakada, Koji; Kashiwagi, Hideyuki; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

    2007-08-01

    The patient was a 72-year-old man, who was referred to us at the beginning of July 2005 with a chief complaint of difficulty with swallowing. After a thorough medical examination, the patient was diagnosed with a penetrating ulcer due to reflux esophagitis, lower esophageal stricture, Barrett esophagus, and shortened esophagus. After administration of a proton pump inhibitor and 2 sessions of endoscopic dilatation, esophagitis was cured and the stricture was eliminated. Subsequently, Collis gastroplasty and Dor fundoplication, which seemed appropriate to certainly avoid injuring communication with the mediastinum created by the penetrating ulcer and provide radical cure, were performed laparoscopically. The patient made a good postoperative progress, was discharged on the 11th hospital day, and is now being followed up on an outpatient basis. There have been no signs of recurrence of esophagitis, and the penetrating ulcer was cured. To our knowledge, this is the first report of simultaneous laparoscopic Collis gastroplasty and Dor fundoplication in the English literature.

  17. Efficacy of On-Demand Therapy Using 20-mg Vonoprazan for Mild Reflux Esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umezawa, Mariko; Kawami, Noriyuki; Hoshino, Shintaro; Hoshikawa, Yoshimasa; Koizumi, Eriko; Takenouchi, Nana; Hanada, Yuriko; Kaise, Mitsuru; Iwakiri, Katsuhiko

    2018-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of on-demand therapy using 20-mg vonoprazan for mild reflux esophagitis (RE). On-demand therapy by taking one 20-mg tablet of vonoprazan only when reflux symptoms occurred was performed for 24 weeks using 30 patients with mild RE who were receiving maintenance therapy with proton pomp inhibitors (PPIs). The presence or absence of RE, degree of overall satisfaction with the treatment, score of symptoms, and fasting gastrin level before breakfast were examined before and after on-demand therapy. The number of tablets taken during the 24-week period was also noted. One of the 30 patients dropped out of on-demand therapy 1 week after its initiation. Remission was maintained in 25 (86.2%) of the 29 patients (all 10 [100%] Los Angeles classification grade A patients and 15 (78.9%) of the 19 grade B patients). However, 4 grade B patients exhibited grade B relapse. There were no differences in the degree of overall satisfaction, score of symptoms or the gastrin level between PPI and on-demand therapies. The number of vonoprazan tablets taken during the observation period was 33 tablets (median)/24 weeks. On-demand therapy using 20-mg vonoprazan tablets is an effective alternative maintenance therapy for mild RE. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. The natural history of gastro-esophageal reflux disease: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savarino, E; de Bortoli, N; De Cassan, C; Della Coletta, M; Bartolo, O; Furnari, M; Ottonello, A; Marabotto, E; Bodini, G; Savarino, V

    2017-02-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common disorder of the upper gastrointestinal tract which is typically characterized by heartburn and acid regurgitation. These symptoms are widespread in the community and range from 2.5% to more than 25%. Economic analyses showed an increase in direct and indirect costs related to the diagnosis, treatment and surveillance of GERD and its complications. The aim of this review is to provide current information regarding the natural history of GERD, taking into account the evolution of its definition and the worldwide gradual change of its epidemiology. Present knowledge shows that there are two main forms of GERD, that is erosive reflux disease (ERD) and non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) and the latter comprises the majority of patients (up to 70%). The major complication of GERD is the development of Barrett esophagus, which is considered as a pre-cancerous lesion. Although data from medical literature on the natural history of this disease are limited and mainly retrospective, they seem to indicate that both NERD and mild esophagitis tend to remain as such with time and the progression from NERD to ERD, from mild to severe ERD and from ERD to Barrett's esophagus may occur in a small proportion of patients, ranging from 0 to 30%, 10 to 22% and 1 to 13% of cases, respectively. It is necessary to stress that these data are strongly influenced by the use of powerful antisecretory drugs (PPIs). Further studies are needed to better elucidate this matter and overcome the present limitations represented by the lack of large prospective longitudinal investigations, absence of homogeneous definitions of the various forms of GERD, influence of different treatments, clear exclusion of patients with functional disorders of the esophagus. © 2016 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  19. Effects of Platycodin D on Reflux Esophagitis due to Modulation of Antioxidant Defense Systems

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    Su-Yeon Cho

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. The effects of platycodin D (PD pretreatment were examined in reflux esophagitis (RE induced rats. Methods. Sham, control, and omeprazole (OMP group were pretreated with distilled water or OMP as a reference, respectively, and PD pretreated groups were given 3 different PD doses once a day for 7 days. One hour after last pretreatment, RE was induced by ligation of the forestomach and pylorus. At 8 h after operation, all animals were sacrificed. Results. PD showed significant dose-dependent reduction of gastric secretion, myeloperoxidase activity, and RE lesion areas of esophagus and stomach mucosa. There was a reduction of lipid peroxidation in 2 doses of PD groups and elevation of antioxidant enzyme activity in all PD groups. Gastric hexose and sialic acid were significantly increased in PD groups, while collagen was reduced. Plasma histamine levels were significantly reduced in all PD groups, but not in the OMP group. Total invasive lesion sizes of esophagus and gastric fundus were significantly decreased in all PD groups. Thicknesses in esophagus of all PD groups were significantly decreased and thicknesses of funds were significantly increased except lowest PD dose. Conclusions. Therapeutic effects of PD on the esophageal and gastric lesions were shown in RE induced rats dose-dependently. The PD pretreatment had significant antioxidant effects with regulation of histamine levels. This study provides useful information regarding the effectiveness of the drug for RE and further novel drug discovery using natural herbal products.

  20. Esophageal chemical clearance is impaired in gastro-esophageal reflux disease--a 24-h impedance-pH monitoring assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazzoni, M; Manta, R; Mirante, V G; Conigliaro, R; Frazzoni, L; Melotti, G

    2013-05-01

    Impedance-pH monitoring allows assessment of retrograde and antegrade intra-esophageal movement of fluids and gas. Reflux is followed by volume clearance and chemical clearance, elicited by secondary and swallow-induced peristalsis, respectively. We aimed to assess whether chemical clearance is impaired in gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). Blinded retrospective review of impedance-pH tracings from patients with erosive reflux disease (ERD) and non-erosive reflux disease (NERD), and from proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-refractory patients before and after laparoscopic fundoplication. The number of refluxes followed within 30 s by swallow-induced peristaltic waves was divided by the number of total refluxes to obtain a parameter representing chemical clearance namely the postreflux swallow-induced peristaltic wave (PSPW) index. The PSPW index was significantly lower in 31 ERD (15%) and in 44 NERD (33%) off-PPI patients than in 30 controls (75%), as well as in 18 ERD (16%) and in 48 NERD (31%) on-PPI patients than in 26 on-PPI functional heartburn (FH) cases (67%) (P < 0.05 for all comparisons). In 29 PPI-refractory patients, the median PSPW index was unaltered by otherwise effective antireflux surgery (20% postoperatively, 21% preoperatively). The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values of the PSPW index in identifying GERD patients were 97%, 89%, 96%, and 93%. Impairment of chemical clearance is a primary pathophysiological mechanism specific to GERD: it is unaffected by medical/surgical therapy, is not found in FH, and is more pronounced in ERD than in NERD. Using the PSPW index could improve the diagnostic efficacy of impedance-pH monitoring. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Laparoscopic fundoplication for gastro-esophageal reflux disease: An 8 year experience

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    Balsara K

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background :Laparoscopic fundoplication (LF has become the operation of choice for patients who need surgery for gastro esophageal reflux disease (GERD. Several studies have shown that the long-term results with surgery for GERD are better than medical therapy. In this retrospective study, we outline our experience with LF over an 8 year period. We analyzed factors that would affect the results of surgery and help in a better selection of patients for the operation. Materials and Methods :From 1999 to 2007, 107 patients underwent a LF. Eighty five patients had surgery for GERD and form the basis of this article. The other 22 patients had paraesophageal hernias and were excluded from the study. Pre-operative evaluation consisted of endoscopy, a barium study, esophageal manometry and 24h pH monitoring. Patients were followed up every 3rd month for the 1st year, twice in the 2nd year and then annually. Follow up was by personal interview or telephonic conversation. At the last follow up the results of surgery were graded as good or poor as per a scoring system. Those with a poor result were evaluated and re-operation advised when an anatomical problem caused the poor result. Subjective, objective and technical variables were analyzed which could affect the outcome of surgery. Results :In 84 patients, the operation was completed by laparoscopic access. One patient with bleeding was converted to open surgery. There were 5 intra-operative complications; 3 pnemothoracis, 1 esophageal perforation and 1 gastric fundus perforation. There was no mortality. Two patients underwent re-operation, 1 for delayed gastric emptying and 1 for dysphagia. Seventy four patients have been followed up from 7 months to 8 years. Eleven have been lost to follow up. Fifty seven patients (77% have had a good result from surgery. Seventeen (23% had a poor result; of these there were 4 wrap failures, 1 delayed gastric emptying and 1 excessive gas bloat as the cause. In 11

  2. Cough reflex sensitivity does not correlate with the esophageal sensitivity to acid in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duricek, Martin; Nosakova, Lenka; Zatko, Tomas; Pecova, Renata; Hyrdel, Rudolf; Banovcin, Peter

    2018-03-27

    The sensitization of cough reflex observed in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is attributed to activation of vagal C-fibers innervating the esophagus by acid, while the heartburn in GERD is mediated by esophageal acid sensitive C-fibers derived from (dorsal root ganglia) DRG. Here we explored the relationship between cough reflex sensitivity (CRS) and esophageal sensitivity to acid. We evaluated CRS to capsaicin inhalation and esophageal sensitivity to acid (intensity of heartburn evoked by esophageal infusions of acid pH = 3, 2 and 1) in patients with GERD and chronic heartburn before and 3 months after proton pump inhibitor (PPI) treatment. There was no correlation between CRS and esophageal sensitivity to acid at any pH tested. PPI treatment substantially reduced esophageal sensitivity to acid but did not affect CRS. We conclude that a simple direct relationship between CRS and esophageal sensitivity to acid is unlikely. The results indicate that spinal and vagal afferent pathways from the esophagus are probably influenced separately in subjects with GERD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Acid sensitization of esophageal mucosal afferents: implication for symptom perception in patients across the gastroesophageal reflux disease spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczesniak, Michal Marcin; Fuentealba, Sergio Enrique; Cook, Ian J

    2013-01-01

    Sensitization of esophageal chemoreceptors, either directly by intermittent acid exposure or indirectly through esophagitis-associated inflammatory mediators, is likely to be the mechanism underlying the perception of heartburn. To compare basal esophageal sensitivity with electrical stimulation and acid, and to compare the degree of acid-induced sensitization in controls and in patient groups across the entire spectrum of gastroesophageal reflux disease: erosive oesophagitis (EO), nonerosive reflux disease (NERD), and functional heartburn (FH). Esophageal sensory and pain thresholds to electrical stimulation were measured before, 30, and 60 minutes after an intraesophageal infusion of saline or HCl. Patients received a 30-minute infusion of 0.15 M HCl and controls were randomized to receive either HCl (n = 11) or saline (n = 10). After electrical sensory threshold testing, participants received another 30-minute infusion of HCl to determine whether sensitivity to acid is increased by prior acid exposure All patient groups had higher basal sensory thresholds than healthy controls (controls, 13 ± 1.4 mA; FH, 20 ± 5.1 mA; NERD, 21 ± 5.1 mA; EO, 23 ± 5.4 mA; P acid exposure reduced sensory thresholds to electrical stimulation in FH and NERD patients (P acid sensitivity during the first HCl infusion was comparable between all patient groups and controls. The secondary infusion caused increased discomfort in all participants (P acid-induced sensitization to HCl was significantly elevated in the patient groups ( P acid infusion sensitizes it to subsequent electrical and chemical stimulation. (2) The acid-related sensitization is greater in gastroesophageal reflux disease than in controls and may influence in part symptom perception in this population. (3) Acid-related sensitization within the gastroesophageal reflux disease population is not dependant on mucosal inflammation.

  4. The role of gastroesophageal reflux in relation to symptom onset in patients with proton pump inhibitor-refractory nonerosive reflux disease accompanied by an underlying esophageal motor disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izawa, Shinya; Funaki, Yasushi; Iida, Akihito; Tokudome, Kentaro; Tamura, Yasuhiro; Ogasawara, Naotaka; Sasaki, Makoto; Kasugai, Kunio

    2014-01-01

    The symptom improvement rate is low with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in nonerosive reflux disease (NERD). The underlying pathogenic mechanism is complex. Esophageal motility disorders (EMDs) are thought to be a factor, but their prevalence, type, symptoms and the role played by gastroesophageal reflux (GER) in symptom onset have not been fully investigated. To investigate the role of GER in symptom onset in PPI-refractory NERD patients with EMDs. This study comprised 76 patients with PPI-refractory NERD. Manometry was performed during PPI treatment and patients were divided into an EMD group and normal motility (non-EMD) group. Then, multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH monitoring was performed and medical interviews were conducted. Nineteen patients (25%) had an EMD. Data were compared between 17 patients, excluding 2 with achalasia and 57 non-EMD patients. No significant differences were observed between groups in 24-hour intraesophageal pH <4 holding time (HT), mean number of GER episodes or mean number of proximal reflux episodes. The reflux-related symptom index (≥50%) showed a relationship between reflux and symptoms in 70.5% of EMD patients and 75% of non-EMD patients. In the EMD group, the score for FSSG (Frequency Scale for the Symptoms of GERD) question (Q)10 was significantly correlated with the number of GER episodes (r = 0.58, p = 0.02) and the number of proximal reflux episodes (r = 0.63, p = 0.02). In addition, the score for Q9 tended to be correlated with the number of GER episodes (r = 0.44, p = 0.06). Our results suggest that some PPI-refractory NERD patients have EMDs, and that GER plays a role in symptom onset.

  5. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Rhei Rhizoma and Coptidis Rhizoma Mixture on Reflux Esophagitis in Rats

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    O Jun Kwon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of the combined extract of Rhei rhizoma and Coptidis rhizoma (RC-mix in experimental model of acute reflux esophagitis. The antioxidant activity was assessed by in vitro 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS assays. RC-mix was given at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight 2 h prior to induction of reflux esophagitis (RE. After 5 h, the effects of RC-mix treated rats were compared with those of normal and control rats. The representative flavonoid contents of RC-mix, such as sennoside A, epiberberine, coptisine, palmatine, and berberine, were detected using HPLC. The elevated esophageal mucosa damage was markedly ameliorated by RC-mix treatment in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the administration of RC-mix reduced the increase of serum reactive oxygen species (ROS and peroxynitrite (ONOO−. The improvement of superoxide dismutase (SOD and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 levels were marked in the group given RC-mix. Moreover, the elevation of inflammatory mediators and cytokines by nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB activation in control rats decreased by RC-mix pretreatment. These results indicate that RC-mix treatment reduces the pathological states of esophagitis via regulating NF-κB mediated inflammation related to oxidative stress.

  6. Esophageal mucosal integrity improves after laparoscopic antireflux surgery in children with gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauritz, Femke A; Rinsma, Nicolaas F; van Heurn, Ernest L W; Sloots, Cornelius E J; Siersema, Peter D; Houwen, Roderick H J; van der Zee, David C; Masclee, Ad A M; Conchillo, José M; Van Herwaarden-Lindeboom, Maud Y A

    2017-07-01

    Esophageal intraluminal baseline impedance reflects the conductivity of the esophageal mucosa and may be an instrument for in vivo evaluation of mucosal integrity in children with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Laparoscopic antireflux surgery (LARS) is a well-established treatment option for children with proton pump inhibitory (PPI) therapy resistant GERD. The effect of LARS in children on baseline impedance has not been studied in detail. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of LARS on baseline impedance in children with GERD. This is a prospective, multicenter, nationwide cohort study (Dutch national trial registry: NTR2934) including 25 patients [12 males, median age 6 (range 2-18) years] with PPI-resistant GERD scheduled to undergo LARS. Twenty-four hour multichannel intraluminal impedance pH monitoring (MII-pH monitoring) was performed before and 3 months after LARS. Baseline impedance was evaluated during consecutive 2-h intervals in the 24-h tracings. LARS reduced acid exposure time from 8.5 % (6.0-16.2 %) to 0.8 % (0.2-2.8 %), p < 0.001. Distal baseline impedance increased after LARS from 2445 Ω (1147-3277 Ω) to 3792 Ω (3087-4700 Ω), p < 0.001. Preoperative baseline impedance strongly correlated with acid exposure time (r -0.76, p < 0.001); however, no association between symptomatic outcome and baseline impedance was identified. LARS significantly increased baseline impedance likely reflecting recovery of mucosal integrity. As the change in baseline impedance was not associated with the clinical outcome of LARS, other factors besides mucosal integrity may contribute to symptom perception in children with GERD.

  7. Transoral incisionless fundoplication for gastro-esophageal reflux disease: Techniques and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testoni, Pier Alberto; Mazzoleni, Giorgia; Testoni, Sabrina Gloria Giulia

    2016-05-06

    Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a very common disorder that results primarily from the loss of an effective antireflux barrier, which forms a mechanical obstacle to the retrograde movement of gastric content. GERD can be currently treated by medical therapy, surgical or endoscopic transoral intervention. Medical therapy is the most common approach, though concerns have been increasingly raised in recent years about the potential side effects of continuous long-term medication, drug intolerance or unresponsiveness, and the need for high dosages for long periods to treat symptoms or prevent recurrences. Surgery too may in some cases have consequences such as long-lasting dysphagia, flatulence, inability to belch or vomit, diarrhea, or functional dyspepsia related to delayed gastric emptying. In the last few years, transoral incisionless fundoplication (TIF) has proved an effective and promising therapeutic option as an alternative to medical and surgical therapy. This review describes the steps of the TIF technique, using the EsophyX(®) device and the MUSE(TM) system. Complications and their management are described in detail, and the recent literature regarding the outcomes is reviewed. TIF reconfigures the tissue to obtain a full-thickness gastro-esophageal valve from inside the stomach, by serosa-to-serosa plications which include the muscle layers. To date the procedure has achieved lasting improvement of GERD symptoms (up to six years), cessation or reduction of proton pump inhibitor medication in about 75% of patients, and improvement of functional findings, measured by either pH or impedance monitoring.

  8. Indications of 24-h esophageal pH monitoring, capsule pH monitoring, combined pH monitoring with multichannel impedance, esophageal manometry, radiology and scintigraphy in gastroesophageal reflux disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardar, Rukiye; Keskin, Muharrem

    2017-12-01

    Ambulatory esophageal pH monitoring is an essential method in patients exhibiting signs of non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) to make an objective diagnosis. Intra-esophageal pH monitoring is important in patients who are non-responsive to medications and in those with extraesophageal symptoms, particularly in NERD, before surgical interventions. With the help of the wireless capsule pH monitoring, measurements can be made under more physiological conditions as well as longer recordings can be performed because the investigation can be better tolerated by patients. Ambulatory esophageal pH monitoring can be detected within normal limits in 17%-31.4% of the patients with endoscopic esophagitis; therefore, normal pH monitoring cannot exclude the diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Multi-channel intraluminal impedance pH (MII-pH) technology have been developed and currently the most sensitive tool to evaluate patients with both typical and atypical reflux symptoms. The sensitivity of a pH catheter test is 58% for the detection of acid reflux compared with MII-pH monitoring; further, its sensitivity is 28% for the detection of weak acid reflux compared with MII-pH monitoring. By adding impedance to pH catheter in patients with reflux symptoms, particularly in those receiving PPIs, it has been demonstrated that higher rates of diagnoses and symptom analyses can be obtained than those using only pH catheter. Esophageal manometry is used in the evaluation of patients with functional dysphagia and unexplained noncardiac chest pain and prior to antireflux surgery. The use of esophageal manometry is suitable for the detection of esophageal motor patterns and extreme motor abnormalities (e.g., achalasia and extreme hypomotility). Esophageal manometry and ambulatory pH monitoring are often used in assessments prior to laparoscopic antireflux surgery and in patients with reflux symptoms refractory to medical treatment. Although the esophageal motility is

  9. Fiber-enriched diet helps to control symptoms and improves esophageal motility in patients with non-erosive gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, Sergey; Isakov, Vasily; Konovalova, Mariya

    2018-06-07

    To investigate the effect of dietary fiber on symptoms and esophageal function testing parameters in non-erosive gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) (NERD) patients. Thirty-six NERD patients with low (gastroesophageal refluxes (GER) decreased from 67.9 ± 17.7 to 42.4 ± 13.5 ( P reflux time decreased from 10.6 ± 12.0 min to 5.3 ± 3.7 min ( P gastroesophageal refluxes, and a decrease of heartburn frequency per week in NERD.

  10. Microscopic esophagitis distinguishes patients with non-erosive reflux disease from those with functional heartburn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savarino, Edoardo; Zentilin, Patrizia; Mastracci, Luca; Dulbecco, Pietro; Marabotto, Elisa; Gemignani, Lorenzo; Bruzzone, Luca; de Bortoli, Nicola; Frigo, Anna Chiara; Fiocca, Roberto; Savarino, Vincenzo

    2013-04-01

    Microscopic esophagitis (ME) is common in patients with non-erosive reflux disease (NERD), and dilation of intercellular spaces (DIS) has been regarded as the potential main mechanism of symptom generation. We aimed to compare these histological abnormalities in healthy volunteers (HVs) and patients with erosive esophagitis (EE), NERD, and functional heartburn (FH). Consecutive patients with heartburn prospectively underwent upper endoscopy and impedance-pH off-therapy. Twenty EE patients and fifty-seven endoscopy-negative patients (NERD), subclassified as 22 with pH-POS (positive for abnormal acid exposure), 20 with hypersensitive esophagus (HE; normal acid/symptom association probability [SAP]+ or symptom index [SI]+), and 15 with FH (normal acid/SAP-/SI-/ proton pump inhibitor [PPI] test-), were enrolled. Twenty HVs were also included. In each patient/control, multiple specimens (n = 5) were taken from the distal esophagus and histological alterations were evaluated. ME was diagnosed when the global histological score was >0.35. The prevalence of ME was higher (p < 0.0001) in EE (95 %), pH-POS (77 %), and HE (65 %) NERD patients than in FH patients (13 %) and HVs (15 %). Also, basal cell hyperplasia (p < 0.0023), DIS (p < 0.0001), and papillae elongation (p < 0.0002) showed similar rates of prevalence in the above populations (p < 0.0001). ME, including each histological lesion, had similar low frequencies in FH and HVs (p = 0.9990). Considering the histological abnormalities together, they permitted us to clearly differentiate EE and NERD from FH and HVs (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.0001, respectively). The lack of ME in the esophageal distal biopsies of FH patients indicates a limited role of these histological abnormalities in symptom generation in them. ME can be considered as an accurate and reliable diagnostic marker for distinguishing FH patients from GERD patients and has the potential to be used to guide the correct therapy.

  11. The value of early wireless esophageal pH monitoring in diagnosing functional heartburn in refractory gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Young; Choi, Myung-Gyu; Baeg, Meonggi; Lim, Chul-Hyun; Kim, Jinsu; Cho, Yukyung; Park, Jaemyung; Lee, Inseok; Kim, Sangwoo; Choi, Kyuyong

    2013-10-01

    It is difficult to differentiate functional heartburn from proton pump inhibitor (PPI) failure. The aims of this study were to assess the role of early wireless esophageal pH monitoring in patients referred with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and to identify differences in the clinical spectrum among GERD subtypes. We enrolled consecutive referred patients with suspected GERD. After endoscopy on the first visit, all underwent wireless esophageal pH monitoring when off the PPI. Two hundred thirty patients were enrolled. These patients were classified into a reflux esophagitis group (20, 8.7 %) and a normal endoscopic findings group (210, 91.3 %). Among the 210 patients in the normal endoscopic findings group, 63 (27.4 %) were diagnosed with pathological reflux, 35 (15.2 %) with hypersensitive esophagus, 87 (37.8 %) with normal acid exposure with negative symptom association, and 25 (10.9 %) with test failure. These groups did not differ in age, body mass index, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, symptom severity, quality of life, presence of atypical symptoms, overlap with irritable bowel syndrome, and the frequency of somatization, depression, and anxiety. PPI responses were evaluated in 135 patients. Fifty patients (37.0 %) were not responsive to the 4-week treatment; 26 (19.3 %) were diagnosed with refractory non-erosive gastroesophageal disease, and 24 (17.8 %) with functional heartburn. The demographics and clinical and psychological characteristics did not differ between the two groups. Demographic characteristics and symptom patterns alone cannot differentiate functional heartburn from various subtypes of GERD. Wireless esophageal pH monitoring should be considered for the initial evaluation of GERD in the tertiary referral setting.

  12. Correlation between hypersensitivity induced by esophageal acid infusion and the baseline impedance level in patients with suspected gastroesophageal reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, A Young; Shin, Cheol Min; Kim, Nayoung; Yoon, Hyuk; Park, Young Soo; Lee, Dong Ho

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the relevance between the pH parameters and baseline impedance level or esophageal hypomotility in patients with suspected gastroesophageal reflux. The recordings of 51 patients with heartburn, acid regurgitation, globus or noncardiac chest pain were analyzed. Evaluation included a 24-h multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH test while on off-proton pump inhibitor therapy over 1 week, high-resolution manometry and Bernstein test. Mean baseline impedance level at the most distal portion of the impedance channel was assessed manually. Esophageal hypomotility was evaluated using transitional zone defect (TZD) and distal break (DB) length measurement. In the study subjects (n = 51), 6 had a DeMeester score of more than 14.7 and 14 had a positive symptom index. The Bernstein test was positive in ten patients. The baseline impedance level was inversely correlated with the acid exposure time % (r = -0.660, P reflux and weakly acid reflux time % measured by impedance monitoring showed a weak correlation with TZD + DB length (r = 0.327 and 0.324, P = 0.019 and 0.020, respectively). Although a positive Bernstein test has no relevance for the acid exposure time or acid-related symptoms as represented by the DeMeester score or symptom index, the baseline impedance level was significantly lower in patients with a positive Bernstein test than in those with a negative one (2,628.4 ± 862.7 vs. 1,752.2 ± 611.1 Ω, P = 0.004). A lower baseline impedance level is closely related to increased esophageal acid exposure. Hypersensitivity induced by esophageal acid infusion might be attributed to acid-induced mucosal changes of the esophagus.

  13. Scintigraphic scoring system for grading severity of gastro-esophageal reflux on 99mTc sulfur colloid gastro-esophageal reflux scintigraphy: a prospective study of 39 cases with pre and post treatment assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puranik, Ameya D.; Nair, Gopinathan; Bandyopadhyay, Abhijit; Shinto, Ajit; Zade, Anand; Aggarwal, Rajiv

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed at developing a scoring system for scintigraphic grading of gastro-esophageal reflux (GER), on gastro-esophageal reflux scintigraphy (GERS) and comparison of clinical and scintigraphic scores, pre- and post-treatment. A total of 39 cases with clinically symptomatic GER underwent 99m Tc sulfur colloid GERS; scores were assigned based on the clinical and scintigraphic parameters. Post domperidone GERS was performed after completion of treatment. Follow up GERS was performed and clinical and scintigraphic parameters were compared with baseline parameters. Paired t-test on pre and post domperidone treatment clinical scores showed that the decline in post-treatment scores was highly significant, with P value < 0.001. The scintigraphic scoring system had a sensitivity of 93.9% in assessing treatment response to domperidone, specificity of 83.3% i.e., 83.3% of children with no decline in scintigraphic scores show no clinical response to Domperidone. The scintigraphic scoring system had a positive predictive value of 96.9% and a negative predictive value of 71.4%. GERS with its quantitative parameters is a good investigation for assessing the severity of reflux and also for following children post-treatment. (author)

  14. Anesthetic management of the SRS™ Endoscopic Stapling System for gastro-esophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topuz, Ufuk; Umutoglu, Tarik; Bakan, Mefkur; Ozturk, Erdogan

    2013-01-14

    The SRS(TM) Endoscopic Stapling System (Medigus, Tel Aviv, Israel) is a new tool capable of creating a totally endoscopic fundoplication, combined with an endoscope, endoscopic ultrasound and a surgical stapler. SRS(TM) endoscopic stapling for gastro-esophageal reflux disease is a minimally invasive, outpatient procedure, which requires general anesthesia with positive-pressure ventilation. Keeping the patient on positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) may minimize the pressure gradient between the esophagus and the mediastinum, as well as help to prevent air from leaking around the screws and causing pneumomediastinum. In addition, in patients with hiatal hernia, higher PEEP levels may be required to increase intra-thoracic pressure and to force the stomach to slide into the abdomen for ease of endoscopy. We advise smoother emergence from anesthesia, taking precautions for retching, postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), while coughing and gagging during extubation and PONV may affect the success of the procedure. Total intravenous anesthesia with propofol and remifentanil seems to be a good choice for these reasons.

  15. The role of combined 24-h multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH monitoring in the evaluation of children with gastrointestinal symptoms suggesting gastro-esophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojsak, I; Ivković, L; Trbojević, T; Pavić, I; Jadrešin, O; Mišak, Z; Kolaček, S

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the role of multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH (pH-MII) monitoring in the diagnosis of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) in children who presented with gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in comparison with the results of pH-metry alone and endoscopy. All children who underwent pH-MII monitoring due to GI symptoms, suggestive of GERD, from October 2013 to October 2015 in Children's Hospital Zagreb, were retrospectively enrolled in the study. The cohort was divided into three groups according to age - group 1: children Gastro-esophageal reflux disease was determined in 44 of 133 patients (33.1%) by pH-MII and only in 21 of 133 patients (15.8%) by pH-metry alone. Endoscopy was performed in 77 (57.9%) children and esophagitis was found in 32/77 (41.6%). The finding of esophagitis significantly correlated with the number of total reflux episodes (coef. 0.42, p reflux episodes detected by pH-MII; but, no correlation was found to reflux episodes detected by pH-metry alone (coef. 0.21, p = 0.07). Compared with pH-metry alone, pH-MII performed significantly better in the detection of GERD in all age groups. On the basis of our data, pH-MII had a strong correlation with endoscopically confirmed esophagitis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Gastroesophageal scintigraphy to assess the severity of gastroesophageal reflux disease. [/sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menin, R.A.; Malmud, L.S.; Petersen, R.P.; Maier, W.P.; Fisher, R.S.

    1980-01-01

    Thirty-six (36) patients with symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux were studied. Symptoms of heartburn, regurgitation, and dysphagia were scored as to their severity and compared to quantitative tests of gastroesophageal reflux. Patients were studied with the acid reflux test, fiberoptic endoscopy, exophageal mucosal biopsy with a pinch forceps, esophageal manometry, and radioisotopic gastroesophgeal scintigraphy. Symptoms were scored according to an arbitrary grading system as mild, moderate, or severe. There were significant correlations between symptoms scores and both the degree of endoscopic esophagitis and the gastroesophageal reflux indices as measured by the radioisotopic scintiscan, but not with the degree of histologic esophagitis or lower esophageal sphincter pressure. Review of the findings suggest the following profile for patients who might require antireflux surgery: severe symptoms; presence of endoscopic esophagitis; resting lower esophageal sphincter pressure below 10 mmHg; and gastroesophageal reflux index above 10%.

  17. Comparative study of two modes of gastroesophageal reflux measuring: conventional esophageal pH monitoring and wireless pH monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimon Sobhi Azzam

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Esophageal pH monitoring is considered to be the gold standard for the diagnosis of gastroesophageal acid reflux. However, this method is very troublesome and considerably limits the patient's routine activities. Wireless pH monitoring was developed to avoid these restrictions. OBJECTIVE: To compare the first 24 hours of the conventional and wireless pH monitoring, positioned 3 cm above the lower esophageal sphincter, in relation to: the occurrence of relevant technical failures, the ability to detect reflux and the ability to correlate the clinical symptoms to reflux. METHODS: Twenty-five patients referred for esophageal pH monitoring and with typical symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease were studied prospectively, underwent clinical interview, endoscopy, esophageal manometry and were submitted, with a simultaneous initial period, to 24-hour catheter pH monitoring and 48-hour wireless pH monitoring. RESULTS: Early capsule detachment occurred in one (4% case and there were no technical failures with the catheter pH monitoring (P = 0.463. Percentages of reflux time (total, upright and supine were higher with the wireless pH monitoring (P < 0.05. Pathological gastroesophageal reflux occurred in 16 (64% patients submitted to catheter and in 19 (76% to the capsule (P = 0.355. The symptom index was positive in 12 (48% patients with catheter pH monitoring and in 13 (52% with wireless pH monitoring (P = 0.777. CONCLUSIONS: 1 No significant differences were reported between the two methods of pH monitoring (capsule vs catheter, in regard to relevant technical failures; 2 Wireless pH monitoring detected higher percentages of reflux time than the conventional pH-metry; 3 The two methods of pH monitoring were comparable in diagnosis of pathological gastroesophageal reflux and comparable in correlating the clinical symptoms with the gastroesophageal reflux.

  18. Association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T-A1298C polymorphisms with risk for esophageal adenocarcinoma, Barrett's esophagus, and reflux esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekiz, F; Ormeci, N; Coban, S; Karabulut, H G; Aktas, B; Tukun, A; Tuncali, T; Yüksel, O; Alkış, N

    2012-07-01

    Incidence of the esophagus adenocarcinoma has been dramatically increasing in Western countries since the last decade. Gastroesophageal reflux disease and Barrett's esophagus are risk factors for adenocarcinoma. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) genes play a key role not only in folate metabolism but also in esophagus, stomach, pancreatic carcinoma, and acute leukemias. Studies have suggested that genetic polymorphisms of MTHFR (C677T) may clarify the causes and events involved in esophageal carcinogenesis. In this study, we evaluated MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms, and vitamin B12, folate, and plasma homocystein levels in patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), Barrett's esophagus (BE), chronic esophagitis, and healthy controls (n = 26, n = 14, n = 30, and n = 30, respectively). The mean age of patients in the EAC and BE groups was significantly higher compared with the control group (P homocystein, and B12 levels among the groups. MTHFR gene polymorphisms and folate deficiency are not predictors of early esophageal carcinoma. However, further studies using larger series of patients are needed to evaluate the effect of genetic polymorphisms in the folate metabolic pathway and to clarify the role of folate deficiency and folate metabolism in the development of esophagus adenocarcinoma. © 2011 Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  19. Esophageal scintigraphy and pH monitoring in adults with gastroesophageal reflux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jouin, H.; Chamouard, P.; Baumann, R. and others

    1987-10-01

    Thirty-seven adults with gastroesophageal reflux were explored by oesophageal scintigraphy and pH monitoring (three hours postprandial). Scintigraphy was less frequently positive than pH test in gastroesophageal reflux (81% versus 57%) with a significant difference. It is suggested that postprandial pH monitoring is reliable in the initial assessment of symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux.

  20. Esophageal scintigraphy and pH monitoring in adults with gastroesophageal reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouin, H.; Chamouard, P.; Baumann, R.

    1987-01-01

    Thirty-seven adults with gastroesophageal reflux were explored by oesophageal scintigraphy and pH monitoring (three hours postprandial). Scintigraphy was less frequently positive than pH test in gastroesophageal reflux (81% versus 57%) with a significant difference. It is suggested that postprandial pH monitoring is reliable in the initial assessment of symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux [fr

  1. Test-based exclusion diets in gastro-esophageal reflux disease patients: a randomized controlled pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caselli, Michele; Zuliani, Giovanni; Cassol, Francesca; Fusetti, Nadia; Zeni, Elena; Lo Cascio, Natalina; Soavi, Cecilia; Gullini, Sergio

    2014-12-07

    To investigate the clinical response of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms to exclusion diets based on food intolerance tests. A double blind, randomized, controlled pilot trial was performed in 38 GERD patients partially or completely non-responders to proton pump inhibitors (PPI) treatment. Fasting blood samples from each patients were obtained; leukocytotoxic test was performed by incubating the blood with a panel of 60 food items to be tested. The reaction of leukocytes (rounding, vacuolization, lack of movement, flattening, fragmentation or disintegration of cell wall) was then evaluated by optical microscopy and rated as follows: level 0 = negative, level 1 = slightly positive, level 2 = moderately positive, and level 3 = highly positive. A "true" diet excluding food items inducing moderate-severe reactions, and a "control" diet including them was developed for each patient. Then, twenty patients received the "true" diet and 18 the "control" diet; after one month (T1) symptoms severity was scored by the GERD impact scale (GIS). Hence, patients in the "control" group were switched to the "true" diet, and symptom severity was re-assessed after three months (T2). At baseline (T0) the mean GIS global score was 6.68 (range: 5-12) with no difference between "true" and control group (6.6 ± 1.19 vs 6.7 ± 1.7). All patients reacted moderately/severely to at least 1 food (range: 5-19), with a significantly greater number of food substances inducing reaction in controls compared with the "true" diet group (11.6 vs 7.0, P < 0.001). Food items more frequently involved were milk, lettuce, brewer's yeast, pork, coffee, rice, sole asparagus, and tuna, followed by eggs, tomato, grain, shrimps, and chemical yeast. At T1 both groups displayed a reduction of GIS score ("true" group 3.3 ± 1.7, -50%, P = 0.001; control group 4.9 ± 2.8, -26.9%, P = 0.02), although the GIS score was significantly lower in "true" vs "control" group (P = 0.04). At T2, after the diet

  2. Effectiveness of Nissen fundoplication versus anterior and posterior partial fundoplications for treatment of gastro-esophageal reflux disease: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall-Webb, Matthew; Peters, Micah D J; Bright, Tim; Watson, David I

    2018-05-01

    The objective of this review is to determine the relative effectiveness of Nissen fundoplication compared to anterior and posterior partial fundoplication in controlling the symptoms of gastro-esophageal reflux disease and reducing their side effect profile in adults.The specific questions posed by this review are: what is the effectiveness of Nissen fundoplication in comparison to anterior partial fundoplication (90 degree, 120 degree and 180 degree) and posterior 270 degree fundoplication in terms of symptom control of gastro-esophageal reflux disease, and what are the side effects of these surgical interventions?

  3. Typical and atypical symptoms of gastro esophageal reflux disease: Does Helicobacter pylori infection matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, Laurino; Ciccaglione, Antonio Francesco; Marzio, Leonardo

    2015-11-06

    To analyze whether the presence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection could affect the quality of symptoms in gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) patients. one hundred and forty-four consecutive patients referred to our Unit for suspected GERD were recruited for the study. All patients underwent esophageal pH-metric recording. For those with a positive test, C13 urea breath test was then performed to assess the H. pylori status. GERD patients were stratified according to the quality of their symptoms and classified as typical, if affected by heartburn and regurgitation, and atypical if complaining of chest pain, respiratory and ears, nose, and throat features. H. pylori-negative patients were also asked whether they had a previous diagnosis of H. pylori infection. If a positive response was given, on the basis of the time period after successful eradication, patients were considered as "eradicated" (E) if H. pylori eradication occurred more than six months earlier or "recently eradicated" if the therapy had been administered within the last six months. Patients without history of infection were identified as "negative" (N). χ (2) test was performed by combining the clinical aspects with the H. pylori status. one hundred and twenty-nine of the 144 patients, including 44 H. pylori-positive and 85 H. pylori-negative (41 negative, 21 recently eradicated, 23 eradicated more than 6 mo before), were eligible for the analysis. No difference has been found between H. pylori status and either the number of reflux episodes (138 ± 23 vs 146 ± 36, respectively, P = 0.2, not significant) or the percentage of time with pH values < 4 (6.8 ± 1.2 vs 7.4 ± 2.1, respectively, P = 0.3, not significant). The distribution of symptoms was as follows: 13 typical (30%) and 31 atypical (70%) among the 44 H. pylori-positive cases; 44 typical (52%) and 41 atypical (48%) among the 85 H. pylori-negative cases, (P = 0.017 vs H. pylori+; OR = 2.55, 95%CI: 1.17-5.55). Furthermore

  4. Gastro-esophageal reflux disease among type-2 diabetes mellitus patients in a rural area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher S. Suwita

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the most neglected complications of diabetes mellitus (DM is gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD which arises from autonomic neuropathy and diabetic gastropathy related to the extent of DM. This study was done to find prevalence of GERD in DM patients with GERD-questionnaire (GERDQ, dietary factor proportion, and their association with other GERD risk factor in rural area. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in Puskesmas Pelaihari from August to September 2013. Subjects with DM aged ≥ 18 were selected consecutively from both newly and previously diagnosed patients with exclusion criteria: pregnancy, in proton-pump inhibitor therapy, and had other metabolic disease(s. DM was diagnosed with ADA criteria, while GERD was diagnosed in patients with score of ≥ 8 of Indonesian GERDQ. Results: There were 30 subjects (29.7% with GERD among 101 patients with DM and dietary factors found in GERD patients were spicy diet (90%, high-fat food (90%, irritative beverages (87%, and irritative diet (23%. Only female gender was associated with GERD vs non-GERD in DM patients (87% vs 68%, p = 0.048. Meanwhile, duration of DM (2 [0-13] vs 2 [0-19], p = 0.976, obesity (37% vs 38%, p = 0.897, age (53.2±10.5 vs 54.7 ± 9.3, p = 0.481, and uncontrolled diabetes (90% vs 94%, p = 0.421 were not associated with the GERD among DM patients.Conclusion: Prevalence of GERD in DM is somewhat high in this study. Female group with DM needs to be screened for GERD as early as possible.

  5. The gastro-esophageal reflux disease questionnaire using Indonesian language: A language validation survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcellus Simadibrata

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aims of this study were to test the usefulness of the Gastro-esophageal Reflux Disease Questionnaire (GERDQ in the diagnosis of GERD, to validate the GERDQ written in Indonesian language, and to evaluate the reliability of the GERDQ for use in Indonesian-speaking GERD patients (Virginia study.Methods: This was a prospective survey of 40 patients diagnosed with GERD, based on an endoscopic examination, in 3 cities in Indonesia (Jakarta, Bandung, and Surabaya from 15 January to 15 May 2009. Patients were asked to complete the GERDQ, and the validity and reliability of the questionnaire were assessed.Results: The percentages of respondents who reported symptoms lasting 4–7 days were as follows: 68% had a burning sensation behind the breastbone (heartburn; 65% had stomach content (fluid move upwards to the throat or mouth (regurgitation; 70% had a pain in the centre of the upper abdomen; 58% had nausea; 63% had difficulty sleeping because of the heartburn and/or regurgitation; and 63% took additional medication for heartburn and/or regurgitation. Cronbach’s alpha was 0.83, indicating that all of the questions in the Indonesian-language GERDQ are valid and reliable for Indonesian GERD patients.Conclusions: This study achieved the primary objectives and showed that the GERDQ is valid and reliable for use with Indonesian-speaking GERD patients. The results were consistent with those of the DIAMOND study, which showed that the GERDQ can be used to diagnose GERD on the basis of the reported symptoms. (Med J Indones 2011; 20:125-30Keyword: GERD, GERDQ, Reliability test, Validity test, Virginia study

  6. Overdiagnosis of gastro-esophageal reflux disease and underdiagnosis of functional dyspepsia in a USA community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleyer, C; Bittner, H; Locke, G R; Choung, R S; Zinsmeister, A R; Schleck, C D; Herrick, L M; Talley, N J

    2014-08-01

    There is symptom overlap between gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) and functional dyspepsia (FD). We aimed to test the hypothesis that FD cases are now more likely mislabeled as GERD. In subjects from Olmsted County, MN seen at Mayo Clinic: (i) Investigation of GERD and FD diagnosis rates between 1985 and 2009. (ii) Assessment of survey-based upper gastrointestinal symptoms between 1988 and 2009. (iii) Analysis of patients reporting GERD and/or FD symptoms and subsequently receiving a consistent diagnosis of GERD and/or FD during a medical encounter. (iv) Assess the association between PPI use and GERD and/or FD symptoms and between actual diagnoses received. (i) Yearly GERD diagnosis rates rose between 1985 and 2009 (325-1866 per 100 000). FD diagnosis rates rose from 45 in 1985, to 964 in 1999 but decreased to 452 per 100 000 in 2009. (ii) Reported GERD symptoms did not significantly change between three survey waves in the years 1988-2009 (p = 0.052), whereas FD symptoms slightly increased (p = 0.01). (iii) 62.9% of subjects reporting GERD symptoms received a GERD diagnosis, however only 12.5% of subjects reporting FD symptoms received a FD diagnosis. (iv) PPI use was associated with documented GERD diagnosis (p < 0.001), however there was no significant association between GERD symptoms and PPI use (p = 0.078). We have found evidence supporting a systematic bias away from diagnosing FD, favoring a GERD diagnosis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Dexlansoprazole for Heartburn Relief in Adolescents with Symptomatic, Nonerosive Gastro-esophageal Reflux Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Benjamin D; Pilmer, Betsy; Kierkuś, Jaroslaw; Hunt, Barbara; Perez, Maria Claudia; Gremse, David

    2017-11-01

    Proton pump inhibitors are commonly used to treat gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) and nonerosive GERD (NERD) in adolescents and adults. Despite the efficacy of available medications, many patients have persisting symptoms, indicating a need for more effective agents. To assess the safety and efficacy of dexlansoprazole dual delayed-release capsules in adolescents for treatment of symptomatic NERD. A phase 2, open-label, multicenter study was conducted in adolescents aged 12-17 years. After a 21-day screening period, adolescents with endoscopically confirmed NERD received a daily dose of 30-mg dexlansoprazole for 4 weeks. The primary endpoint was treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) experienced by ≥5% of patients. The secondary endpoint was the percentage of days with neither daytime nor nighttime heartburn. Heartburn symptoms and severity were recorded daily in patient electronic diaries and independently assessed by the investigator, along with patient-reported quality of life, at the beginning and end of the study. Diarrhea and headache were the only TEAEs reported by ≥5% of patients. Dexlansoprazole-treated patients (N = 104) reported a median 47.3% of days with neither daytime nor nighttime heartburn. Symptoms such as epigastric pain, acid regurgitation, and heartburn improved in severity for 73-80% of patients. Pediatric Gastroesophageal Symptom and Quality of Life Questionnaire-Adolescents-Short Form symptom and impact subscale scores (scaled 1-5) each decreased by an average of 0.7 units at week 4. Use of 30-mg dexlansoprazole in adolescent NERD was generally well tolerated and had beneficial effects on improving heartburn symptoms and quality of life. This study has the ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01642602.

  8. Manometric Changes to the Lower Esophageal Sphincter After Magnetic Sphincter Augmentation in Patients With Chronic Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Heather F; Louie, Brian E; Farivar, Alexander S; Wilshire, Candice; Aye, Ralph W

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the manometric changes, function, and impact of magnetic sphincter augmentation (MSA) on the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). Implantation of a MSA around the gastroesophageal junction has been shown to be a safe and effective therapy for gastroesophageal reflux disease, but its effect on the LES has not been elucidated. Retrospective case control study (n = 121) evaluating manometric changes after MSA. Inclusion criteria consisted of a confirmed diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease by an abnormal esophageal pH study (body mass index <35 kg/m, hiatal hernia <3 cm, and absence of endoscopic Barrett disease). Manometric changes, pH testing, and proton pump inhibitor use were assessed preoperatively and 6 and 12 months after MSA. MSA was associated with an overall increase in the median LES resting pressure (18 pre-MSA vs 23 mm Hg post-MSA; P = 0.0003), residual pressure (4 vs 9 mm Hg; P < 0.0001), and distal esophageal contraction amplitude (80 vs 90 mm Hg; P = 0.02). The percent peristalsis remained unaltered (94% vs 87%; P = 0.71).Overall, patients with a manometrically defective LES were restored 67% of the time to a normal sphincter with MSA. Those with a structurally defective or severely defective LES improved to a normal LES in 77% and 56% of patients, respectively. Only 18% of patients with a normal preoperative manometric LES deteriorated to a lower category. MSA results in significant manometric improvement of the LES without apparent deleterious effects on the esophageal body. A manometrically defective LES can be restored to normal sphincter, whereas a normal LES remains stable.

  9. Pathophysiology and management of gastroesophageal reflux disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohof, W. O. A.; Hirsch, D. P.; Boeckxstaens, G. E. E.

    2009-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux is a physiological phenomenon but becomes pathological if troublesome symptoms and/or complications occur. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) has different phenotypes ranging from non-erosive reflux disease (NERD), through reflux esophagitis and Barrett's esophagus, and

  10. The differences in esophageal motility and its clinical significance between the patients with typical and atypical symptoms of non-erosive reflux disease

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    Ling LIN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To study the characteristics of esophageal motility in the patients with different symptoms of nonerosive reflux disease (non-erosive reflux disease, NERD. Methods  Eighty-six patients with NERD who visited the Department of Gastroenterology in our hospital from August 2012 to December 2014 were selected. They were all evaluated with upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and high resolution esophageal manometry. Those who had neither definite esophageal mucosal erosion nor Barrett's esophagus at endoscopy were diagnosed as NERD. According to the presence or absence of typical acid reflux and/or heartburn symptoms, patients with NERD were divided into two groups: the typical symptom group (47 cases, and the atypical symptom group (39 cases. High resolution measurement of esophageal pressure was used to evaluate the differences in esophageal dynamic characteristics between patients with different symptoms of NERD. The final results were analyzed with t test and chi-square test. Results  Compared with atypical symptom group, both the resting pressure (20.68±1.64mmHg vs 15.79±1.21mmHg respectively, P0.05. Conclusion  There is a difference in esophageal motility characteristics between the patients with typical and atypical symptoms of NERD, and the main differences are changes in the resting pressure and residual pressure of LES. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.12.12

  11. Esophageal Motility and Rikkunshito Treatment for Proton Pump Inhibitor-Refractory Nonerosive Reflux Disease: A Prospective, Uncontrolled, Open-Label Pilot Study Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odaka, Takeo; Yamato, Shigeru; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2017-01-01

    Only a few reports focused on esophageal motility in patients with proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-refractory nonerosive reflux disease (NERD) and there has been no established strategy for treatment. To clarify the characteristics of esophageal motility in patients with PPI-refractory NERD, we evaluated esophageal function using combined multichannel intraluminal impedance and esophageal manometry (MII-EM). In addition, we evaluated the efficacy of rikkunshito (RKT), which is a gastrointestinal prokinetic agent. Thirty patients with NERD were enrolled and underwent MII-EM. After 8 weeks of RKT (7.5 g/d) treatment, MII-EM was repeated on patients with PPI-refractory NERD. Symptoms were assessed by the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale. In patients with PPI-refractory NERD, measures of complete bolus transit, peristaltic contractions, and residual pressure of the lower esophageal sphincter during swallowing deviated from the standard values and esophageal clearance was found to be deteriorated. RKT significantly improved the peristaltic contractions ( P esophageal sphincter ( P disorders of esophageal and lower esophageal sphincter motility that were improved by RKT. Further studies examining esophageal motor activity of RKT in PPI-refractory NERD are required. University hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN) Clinical Trial Registry identifier: UMIN000003092.

  12. Predictors of low compliance with treatment in the patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease

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    S. V. Tikhonov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a widespread pathology requiring a long-term initial and maintaining therapy. Identification of the risk factors of low compliance of the patient with the treatment of the gastroesophageal reflux disease may be helpful in optimization of the patient - the doctor contact and thus may improve the compliance. The paper describes the predictors of low compliance that may be disclosed in the period of primary contact with the patients with gastroesophagial reflux pathology.

  13. Efficacy of different doses of cimetidine in the treatment of reflux esophagitis. A review of three large, double-blind, controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tytgat, G. N.; Nicolai, J. J.; Reman, F. C.

    1990-01-01

    Four different cimetidine dosage regimens--800 mg u.i.d. HS or nocte, 800 mg u.i.d. dinnertime, 400 mg q.i.d., and 800 mg b.i.d.--were investigated for the treatment of reflux esophagitis in three independent large-scale, double-blind, controlled multicenter trials in which more than 1100 patients

  14. Expression of Proteinase-activated Receptor-2 in the Esophageal Mucosa of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Patients: A Histomorphologic and Immunohistochemical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Rehim, Dalia M; Fath El-Bab, Hanaa K; Kamal, Enas M

    2015-10-01

    Data are limited regarding the role of proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) in the esophageal mucosa in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) patients. Our aim was to study PAR-2 expression and its relationship with different GERD-related clinical and pathologic parameters. Histomorphologic alterations in eosophageal mucosa in nonerosive reflux disease (NERD) and erosive reflux disease (ERD) were also, evaluated. Endoscopic biopsies of the esophageal mucosa were obtained from 94 GERD patients and 20 participants for histopathologic analysis and PAR-2 immunohistochemical staining. The present study demonstrated significantly higher PAR-2 expression in GERD patients compared with control, whereas no significant differences were seen between NERD and ERD groups. PAR-2 expression significantly correlated with histologic score (r=0.572, Pstudy provides evidence for the major role of PAR-2 in the pathogenesis of GERD and GERD-associated mucosal alterations.

  15. Gastroesophageal reflux disease - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peptic esophagitis - children; Reflux esophagitis - children; GERD - children; Heartburn - chronic - children; Dyspepsia - GERD - children ... GERD. Certain factors can lead to GERD in children, including: Birth defects, such as hiatal hernia , a ...

  16. O esôfago curto e o refluxo distal são fatores de risco para o refluxo proximal? Short length of the esophagus and distal reflux are risk factors for proximal esophageal reflux?

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    Humberto Oliveira Serra

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: Não está claro se pacientes que apresentam refluxo gastroesofágico distal têm maior risco de apresentar também refluxo proximal. O senso comum sugere que um episódio de refluxo poderia chegar mais facilmente à faringe em pacientes que tivessem menor distância a percorrer entre o esfíncter inferior do esôfago e o superior. OBJETIVO: Investigar se o esôfago curto e a presença de refluxo esofágico distal são fatores de risco para refluxo proximal nos pacientes com sintomas respiratórios. MÉTODO: Cento e sete pacientes foram avaliados prospectivamente por meio de entrevista, esofagoscopia, manometria e pHmetria. Utilizaram-se o teste t de Student, o de correlação de Spearman, o do Qui-quadrado e odds-ratio. O nível de significância foi 0,05. RESULTADOS: Os sintomas que motivaram a investigação da doença do refluxo gastroesofágico foram: tosse 43 (40,2%; pigarro 25 (23,4%, globo faríngeo 23 (21,5% e rouquidão 16 (14,9%. No estudo endoscópico 22 apresentaram esofagite e 14 hérnia de hiato. Na avaliação manométrica 11 (10,8% apresentaram hipotonia do esfíncter inferior. A média do comprimento do esôfago foi 24,3 (± 1,9 cm, variando de 20 a 30 cm. Na avaliação pHmétrica 23 (21,5% apresentaram refluxo distal patológico e 12 (11,2% refluxo proximal. CONCLUSÕES: O comprimento do esôfago não esteve associado com a presença de refluxo proximal. Pacientes que apresentaram refluxo gatroesofágico distal, independente do comprimento do esôfago, tiveram risco aumentado de 4,6 vezes para apresentarem refluxo proximal.BACKGROUND: It is not clear whether patients suffering from distal esophageal reflux also present high risk to proximal esophageal reflux. Common sense suggests that reflux would more easily reach the pharynx in patients who have a smaller distance between the lower esophageal sphincter and the upper one and, thus, short esophagus. AIM: To Investigate if short esophageal length and presence of

  17. Comparison of Stretta procedure and toupet fundoplication for gastroesophageal reflux disease-related extra-esophageal symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chao; Liang, Wei-Tao; Wang, Zhong-Gao; Hu, Zhi-Wei; Wu, Ji-Min; Zhang, Chao; Chen, Mei-Ping

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare the outcomes between the Stretta procedure and laparoscopic toupet fundoplication (LTF) in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)-related extra-esophageal symptoms. METHODS: From January 2011 to February 2012, a total of 98 patients diagnosed with GERD-related extra-esophageal symptoms who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled in this study. All patients who either underwent the Stretta procedure or LTF treatment have now completed the 3-year follow-up. Primary outcome measures, including frequency and severity of extra-esophageal symptoms, proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use, satisfaction, and postoperative complications, were assessed. The results of the Stretta procedure and LTF therapy were analyzed and compared. RESULTS: There were 47 patients in the Stretta group and 51 patients in the LTF group. Ninety patients were available at the 3-year follow-up. The total of the frequency and severity scores for every symptom improved in both groups (P 0.05). However, the score for globus hysterics was different between the Stretta group and the LTF group (4.9 ± 2.24 vs 3.2 ± 2.63, P < 0.05). After the Stretta procedure and LTF treatment, 29 and 33 patients in each group achieved PPI therapy independence (61.7% vs 64.7%, P = 0.835). The patients in the LTF group were more satisfied with their quality of life than those in the Stretta procedure group (P < 0.05). Most complications resolved without intervention within two weeks; however, two patients in the LTF group still suffered from severe dysphagia 2 wk after the operation, and it improved after bougie dilation treatment in both patients. CONCLUSION: The Stretta procedure and LTF were both safe and effective for the control of GERD-related extra-esophageal symptoms and the reduction of PPI use. PMID:26668513

  18. Comparison of Stretta procedure and toupet fundoplication for gastroesophageal reflux disease-related extra-esophageal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chao; Liang, Wei-Tao; Wang, Zhong-Gao; Hu, Zhi-Wei; Wu, Ji-Min; Zhang, Chao; Chen, Mei-Ping

    2015-12-07

    To compare the outcomes between the Stretta procedure and laparoscopic toupet fundoplication (LTF) in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)-related extra-esophageal symptoms. From January 2011 to February 2012, a total of 98 patients diagnosed with GERD-related extra-esophageal symptoms who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled in this study. All patients who either underwent the Stretta procedure or LTF treatment have now completed the 3-year follow-up. Primary outcome measures, including frequency and severity of extra-esophageal symptoms, proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use, satisfaction, and postoperative complications, were assessed. The results of the Stretta procedure and LTF therapy were analyzed and compared. There were 47 patients in the Stretta group and 51 patients in the LTF group. Ninety patients were available at the 3-year follow-up. The total of the frequency and severity scores for every symptom improved in both groups (P 0.05). However, the score for globus hysterics was different between the Stretta group and the LTF group (4.9 ± 2.24 vs 3.2 ± 2.63, P < 0.05). After the Stretta procedure and LTF treatment, 29 and 33 patients in each group achieved PPI therapy independence (61.7% vs 64.7%, P = 0.835). The patients in the LTF group were more satisfied with their quality of life than those in the Stretta procedure group (P < 0.05). Most complications resolved without intervention within two weeks; however, two patients in the LTF group still suffered from severe dysphagia 2 wk after the operation, and it improved after bougie dilation treatment in both patients. The Stretta procedure and LTF were both safe and effective for the control of GERD-related extra-esophageal symptoms and the reduction of PPI use.

  19. Esophageal scintigraphy (milk scans) in infants and children with gastroesophageal reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyman, S.

    1982-01-01

    Sequential swallows were evaluated in 31 infants and children having radionculide studies to assess gastroesophageal reflux, gastric emptying, and aspiration. Abnormal patterns were observed in 11 patients, suggesting that the swallowing phase may add useful information to the study

  20. Effect of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy on gastro-esophageal reflux in mechanically-ventilated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douzinas, Emmanuel E; Tsapalos, Andreas; Dimitrakopoulos, Antonios; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia; Rapidis, Alexandros D; Roussos, Charis

    2006-01-07

    To investigate the effect of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) on gastroesophageal reflux (GER) in mechanically-ventilated patients. In a prospective, randomized, controlled study 36 patients with recurrent or persistent ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and GER > 6% were divided into PEG group (n = 16) or non-PEG group (n = 20). Another 11 ventilated patients without reflux (GER Patients were strictly followed up for semi-recumbent position and control of gastric nutrient residue. A significant decrease of median (range) reflux was observed in PEG group from 7.8 (6.2 - 15.6) at baseline to 2.7 (0 - 10.4) on d 7 post-gastrostomy (P position and absence of nutrient gastric residue reduces the gastroesophageal reflux in ventilated patients.

  1. Prevalence and Spectrum of Gastro Esophageal Reflux Disease in Bronchial Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rameschandra, Sahoo; Acharya, Vishak; Kunal; Vishwanath, Tantry; Ramkrishna, Anand; Acharya, Preetam

    2015-10-01

    There exists a complex interplay between asthma and gastroesophageal reflux disease. Both these diseases are known to aggravate each other and amelioration of one is necessary for the control of the other. There is a paucity of studies in Indian population on this subject. To evaluate the clinical features and the endoscopic findings of the upper gastrointestinal tract in patients with bronchial asthma. Study was conducted at KMC group of hospitals, Mangalore in the Department of chest medicine in association with Department of gastroenterology. Subjects included 50 cases of bronchial asthma and controls were 58 non asthmatic patients with allergic rhinitis and chronic urticaria. All patients were queried about presence or absence of symptoms of upper gastro intestinal tract disorders by gastro oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) questionnaire and all the included patients underwent upper gastro intestinal endoscopy. The study showed that symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux were significantly more in asthmatics (52%) as compared to the controls (28%). The common presenting features of gastroesophageal reflux in asthmatics were heartburn (40%) retrosternal pain (24%), nocturnal cough (18%), dyspepsia (16%) and regurgitation (14%) and the above symptoms were significantly more common in asthmatics as compared to controls. Gastroesophageal reflux disease was found to be significantly more common in the asthmatics (58%) as compared to the control group where it was present in 32.75% of the subjects. Clinical or endoscopic evidence of any upper gastrointestinal disorder was found in 68% of the asthmatics as compared to 37.93% of the controls. This difference was found to be statistically significant. The study showed that gastroesophageal reflux disease was significantly more in asthmatics as compared to the controls. Upper gastrointestinal symptoms were more common in asthmatics as against controls. Clinical or endoscopic evidence of upper gastrointestinal disorder and

  2. Extra-esophageal presentation of gastroesophageal reflux disease: new understanding in a new era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinucci, Irene; Albano, Eleonora; Marchi, Santino; Blandizzi, Corrado

    2017-09-01

    Associations of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) with extraesophageal manifestations, such as chronic cough, asthma, and laryngitis, are reported frequently, and there is a strong evidence of biological plausibility in support of this relationship. On the other hand, extraesophageal reflux disease (EERD) is usually multifactorial in nature with reflux being just one of the several potential contributing cofactors. Moreover, the accuracy of currently available diagnostic tests for EERD is suboptimal, and therefore the causal relationship between GERD and EERD remains far from being conclusively proven. In addition, there is a general paucity of data supporting a beneficial effect of anti-reflux treatments on symptoms of patients with suspected EERD. Therefore, diagnostic as well as therapeutic management of EERD remains largely empirical. Current guidelines suggest an initial empiric trial of proton pump inhibitors in patients without alarm features, who present also typical GERD symptoms. For those patients who improve with PPIs, GERD is presumed to be the etiology. In patients with refractory reflux, combined impedance/pH monitoring might provide the single best strategy for evaluating reflux symptoms. In this context, as symptoms ascribable to GERD may depend on other causes, investigations that excludes GERD can help to redirect the diagnostic and treatment efforts to other pathological conditions. The present review intends to discuss the current state of knowledge regarding the challenging diagnostic and therapeutic management of patients with suspected EERD, emphasizing the points of strengths and limitations of currently available diagnostic options, and to provide an update on major diagnostic innovations in this area.

  3. Does treatment of gastro-esophageal reflux disease with omeprazole decrease allergic rhinitis symptoms?

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    Afshin Shirkani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Allergic rhinitis is the most common type of allergic disease among population. Its accurate treatment is very important for cutting of allergic march. On the other hand, gasteroesophageal reflux disease (GERD is one of the most common gastrointestinal problems among allergic patients mainly asthmatic cases. It might conflict treatment. Despite of asthma, a few studies have been conducted on the impact of GERD treatment on allergic rhinitis symptoms. In this study, we assessed GERD treatment and its effects on improving of allergic rhinitis patients with GERD. Materials and Methods: In a prospective cross-sectional study, March - September 2012, 103 consecutive patients with persistent moderate to severe seasonal allergic rhinitis enrolled. For allergic rhinitis patients with GERD 20 mg omeperazole once daily for 6 weeks prescribed, empirically. Conventional allergy treatment continued and finally the allergic rhinitis symptoms were assessed clinically and recorded before, 5th, 10th and 30th days of omeprazole treatment period. Results: Our study included 103 patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis who were divided into GERD (n=33, 38% and non-GERD (n=70, 68% groups with the mean age 28 and 25.7 years, respectively. The first group developed significant improvement for GERD symptoms on days 5, 10 and 30 after beginning of therapy (P=0.03. No association was found between GERD treatment and relief of allergic symptoms or TNSS improvement (P>0.05. Data analyzed by Epi info (ver 7 and SPSS software (ver 11.5, and by Chi squeare test and paired T test. P lower than 0.05 was considered as significant. Conclusion: This study showed no significant association between empirical treatment of GERD and improvement of allergic symptoms in patients with allergic rhinitis. However, further studies with a larger sample size might be needed.

  4. Delayed-release oral suspension of omeprazole for the treatment of erosive esophagitis and gastroesophageal reflux disease in pediatric patients: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Monzani

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Alice Monzani, Giuseppina Oderda1Department of Pediatrics, Università del Piemonte Orientale, Novara, ItalyAbstract: Omeprazole is a proton-pump inhibitor indicated for gastroesophageal reflux disease and erosive esophagitis treatment in children. The aim of this review was to evaluate the efficacy of delayed-release oral suspension of omeprazole in childhood esophagitis, in terms of symptom relief, reduction in reflux index and/or intragastric acidity, and endoscopic and/or histological healing. We systematically searched PubMed, Cochrane and EMBASE (1990 to 2009 and identified 59 potentially relevant articles, but only 12 articles were suitable to be included in our analysis. All the studies evaluated symptom relief and reported a median relief rate of 80.4% (range 35%–100%. Five studies reported a significant reduction of the esophageal reflux index within normal limits (<7% in all children, and 4 studies a significant reduction of intra-gastric acidity. The endoscopic healing rate, reported by 9 studies, was 84% after 8-week treatment and 95% after 12-week treatment, the latter being significantly higher than the histological healing rate (49%. In conclusion, omeprazole given at a dose ranging from 0.3 to 3.5 mg/kg once daily (median 1 mg/kg once daily for at least 12 weeks is highly effective in childhood esophagitis.Keywords: proton pump inhibitors, children, ranitidine, H2-blockers

  5. Background factors of reflux esophagitis and non-erosive reflux disease: a cross-sectional study of 10,837 subjects in Japan.

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    Chihiro Minatsuki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the high prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD, its risk factors are still a subject of controversy. This is probably due to inadequate distinction between reflux esophagitis (RE and non-erosive reflux disease (NERD, and is also due to inadequate evaluation of adjacent stomach. Our aim is therefore to define background factors of RE and NERD independently, based on the evaluation of Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric atrophy. METHODS: We analyzed 10,837 healthy Japanese subjects (6,332 men and 4,505 women, aged 20-87 years who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. RE was diagnosed as the presence of mucosal break, and NERD was diagnosed as the presence of heartburn and/or acid regurgitation in RE-free subjects. Using GERD-free subjects as control, background factors for RE and NERD were separately analyzed using logistic regression to evaluate standardized coefficients (SC, odds ratio (OR, and p-value. RESULTS: Of the 10,837 study subjects, we diagnosed 733 (6.8% as RE and 1,722 (15.9% as NERD. For RE, male gender (SC = 0.557, OR = 1.75, HP non-infection (SC = 0.552, OR = 1.74, higher pepsinogen I/II ratio (SC = 0.496, OR = 1.64, higher BMI (SC = 0.464, OR = 1.60, alcohol drinking (SC = 0.161, OR = 1.17, older age (SC = 0.148, OR = 1.16, and smoking (SC = 0.129, OR = 1.14 are positively correlated factors. For NERD, HP infection (SC = 0.106, OR = 1.11, female gender (SC = 0.099, OR = 1.10, younger age (SC = 0.099, OR = 1.10, higher pepsinogen I/II ratio (SC = 0.099, OR = 1.10, smoking (SC = 0.080, OR = 1.08, higher BMI (SC = 0.078, OR = 1.08, and alcohol drinking (SC = 0.076, OR = 1.08 are positively correlated factors. Prevalence of RE in subjects with chronic HP infection and successful HP eradication denotes significant difference (2.3% and 8.8%; p<0.0001, whereas that of NERD shows no difference (18.2% and 20.8%; p = 0.064. CONCLUSIONS: Significantly associated factors of NERD are considerably

  6. Laparoscopic anterior versus posterior fundoplication for gastro-esophageal reflux disease: a meta-analysis and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Muhammed Ashraf; Subramanya, Manjunath S; Hossain, Md Belal; Yunus, Rossita Mohamad; Khan, Shahjahan; Memon, Breda

    2015-04-01

    Although laparoscopic posterior fundoplication (LPF) i.e., Nissen or Toupet have the proven efficacy for controlling gastro-esophageal reflux surgically, there remain problems with postoperative dysphagia and gas bloat syndrome. To decrease some of these postoperative complications, laparoscopic anterior fundoplication (LAF) was introduced. The aim of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis and systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to investigate the merits and drawbacks of LPF versus LAF for the treatment of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). A search of Medline, Embase, Science Citation Index, Current Contents, PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and the Cochrane Database identified all RCTs comparing different types of LPF and LAF published in the English Language between 1990 and 2013. The meta-analysis was prepared in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement. Data was extracted and analyzed on ten variables which include dysphagia score, heartburn rate, redo operative rate, operative time, overall complications, rate of conversion to open, Visick grading of satisfaction, overall satisfaction, length of hospital stay, and postoperative 24-h pH scores. Nine trials totaling 840 patients (anterior = 425, posterior = 415) were analyzed. There was a significant reduction in the odds ratio for dysphagia in the LAF group compared to the LPF group. Conversely, significant reduction in the odds ratio for heartburn was observed for LPF compared to LAF. Comparable effects were noted for both groups for other variables which include redo surgery, operating time, overall complications, conversion rate, Visick's grading, patients' satisfaction, length of hospital stay, and postoperative 24-h pH scores. Based on this meta-analysis, LPF compared to LAF is associated with significant reduction in heartburn at the expense of higher dysphagia rate on a short- and medium-term basis. We therefore

  7. Effects of antidepressants in patients with functional esophageal disorders or gastroesophageal reflux disease: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijenborg, Pim W.; de Schepper, Heiko S.; Smout, André J. P. M.; Bredenoord, Albert J.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with functional esophageal disorders present with symptoms of chest pain, heartburn, dysphagia, or globus in the absence of any structural abnormality. Visceral hypersensitivity is a feature of these functional disorders, and might be modulated by antidepressant therapy. We evaluated

  8. Gastro-esophageal reflux disease symptoms and demographic factors as a pre-screening tool for Barrett's esophagus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxue Liu

    Full Text Available Barrett's esophagus (BE occurs as consequence of reflux and is a risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma. The current "gold-standard" for diagnosing BE is endoscopy which remains prohibitively expensive and impractical as a population screening tool. We aimed to develop a pre-screening tool to aid decision making for diagnostic referrals.A prospective (training cohort of 1603 patients attending for endoscopy was used for identification of risk factors to develop a risk prediction model. Factors associated with BE in the univariate analysis were selected to develop prediction models that were validated in an independent, external cohort of 477 non-BE patients referred for endoscopy with symptoms of reflux or dyspepsia. Two prediction models were developed separately for columnar lined epithelium (CLE of any length and using a stricter definition of intestinal metaplasia (IM with segments ≥ 2 cm with areas under the ROC curves (AUC of 0.72 (95%CI: 0.67-0.77 and 0.81 (95%CI: 0.76-0.86, respectively. The two prediction models included demographics (age, sex, symptoms (heartburn, acid reflux, chest pain, abdominal pain and medication for "stomach" symptoms. These two models were validated in the independent cohort with AUCs of 0.61 (95%CI: 0.54-0.68 and 0.64 (95%CI: 0.52-0.77 for CLE and IM ≥ 2 cm, respectively.We have identified and validated two prediction models for CLE and IM ≥ 2 cm. Both models have fair prediction accuracies and can select out around 20% of individuals unlikely to benefit from investigation for Barrett's esophagus. Such prediction models have the potential to generate useful cost-savings for BE screening among the symptomatic population.

  9. Effect of GutsyGum(tm), A Novel Gum, on Subjective Ratings of Gastro Esophageal Reflux Following A Refluxogenic Meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel; Sam, Cecilia H Y; Green, Tim; Wood, Simon

    2015-06-01

    Chewing gum alleviates symptoms of gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) following a refluxogenic meal. GutsyGum(tm), a chewing gum developed to alleviate the symptoms of GER contains calcium carbonate, with a proprietary blend of licorice extract, papain, and apple cider vinegar (GiGs®). The efficacy of GutsyGum(tm) was determined in alleviating the symptoms of GER after a refluxogenic meal compared to placebo gum. This double-blind, placebo-controlled-crossover trial with a one-week washout between treatments had 24 participants with a history of GER consume a refluxogenic meal and then chew GutsyGum(tm) or placebo gum. Participants completed GER symptom questionnaires, consisting of symptom based 10 cm Visual Analogue Scales, immediately following the meal and then at regular intervals out to four hours postmeal. Adjusted mean ± SEM heartburn score (15-min postmeal to 240 min) was significantly lower in GutsyGum(tm) than in placebo gum treatment (0.81 ± 0.20 vs. 1.45 ± 0.20 cm; p = 0.034). Mean acid reflux score was significantly lower in GutsyGum(tm) than in placebo treatment (0.72 ± 0.19 vs. 1.46 ± 0.19 cm; p = 0.013). There were no significant differences for any of the secondary outcomes. However, pain approached significance with less pain reported in GutsyGum(tm) versus placebo treatment (0.4 ± 0.2 vs. 0.9 ± 0.2 cm; p = 0.081). Although nausea (p = 0.114) and belching (p = 0.154) were lower following GutsyGum(tm), the difference was not statistically significant. GutsyGum(tm) is more effective than a placebo gum in alleviating primary symptoms of heartburn and acid reflux (Clinical Trial Registration: ACTRN12612000973819).

  10. Gastro-esophageal reflux disease symptoms and demographic factors as a pre-screening tool for Barrett's esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinxue; Wong, Angela; Kadri, Sudarshan R; Corovic, Andrej; O'Donovan, Maria; Lao-Sirieix, Pierre; Lovat, Laurence B; Burnham, Rodney W; Fitzgerald, Rebecca C

    2014-01-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) occurs as consequence of reflux and is a risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma. The current "gold-standard" for diagnosing BE is endoscopy which remains prohibitively expensive and impractical as a population screening tool. We aimed to develop a pre-screening tool to aid decision making for diagnostic referrals. A prospective (training) cohort of 1603 patients attending for endoscopy was used for identification of risk factors to develop a risk prediction model. Factors associated with BE in the univariate analysis were selected to develop prediction models that were validated in an independent, external cohort of 477 non-BE patients referred for endoscopy with symptoms of reflux or dyspepsia. Two prediction models were developed separately for columnar lined epithelium (CLE) of any length and using a stricter definition of intestinal metaplasia (IM) with segments ≥ 2 cm with areas under the ROC curves (AUC) of 0.72 (95%CI: 0.67-0.77) and 0.81 (95%CI: 0.76-0.86), respectively. The two prediction models included demographics (age, sex), symptoms (heartburn, acid reflux, chest pain, abdominal pain) and medication for "stomach" symptoms. These two models were validated in the independent cohort with AUCs of 0.61 (95%CI: 0.54-0.68) and 0.64 (95%CI: 0.52-0.77) for CLE and IM ≥ 2 cm, respectively. We have identified and validated two prediction models for CLE and IM ≥ 2 cm. Both models have fair prediction accuracies and can select out around 20% of individuals unlikely to benefit from investigation for Barrett's esophagus. Such prediction models have the potential to generate useful cost-savings for BE screening among the symptomatic population.

  11. Columnar metaplasia in a surgical mouse model of gastro-esophageal reflux disease is not derived from bone marrow-derived cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikou, Susumu; Aida, Junko; Takubo, Kaiyo; Yamagata, Yukinori; Seto, Yasuyuki; Kaminishi, Michio; Nomura, Sachiyo

    2013-09-01

    The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma has increased in the last 25 years. Columnar metaplasia in Barrett's mucosa is assumed to be a precancerous lesion for esophageal adenocarcinoma. However, the induction process of Barrett's mucosa is still unknown. To analyze the induction of esophageal columnar metaplasia, we established a mouse gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) model with associated development of columnar metaplasia in the esophagus. C57BL/6 mice received side-to-side anastomosis of the esophagogastric junction with the jejunum, and mice were killed 10, 20, and 40 weeks after operation. To analyze the contribution of bone marrow-derived cells to columnar metaplasia in this surgical GERD model, some mice were transplanted with GFP-marked bone marrow after the operation. Seventy-three percent of the mice (16/22) showed thickened mucosa in esophagus and 41% of mice (9/22) developed columnar metaplasia 40 weeks after the operation with a mortality rate of 4%. Bone marrow-derived cells were not detected in columnar metaplastic epithelia. However, scattered epithelial cells in the thickened squamous epithelia in regions of esophagitis did show bone marrow derivation. The results demonstrate that reflux induced by esophago-jejunostomy in mice leads to the development of columnar metaplasia in the esophagus. However, bone marrow-derived cells do not contribute directly to columnar metaplasia in this mouse model. © 2013 Japanese Cancer Association.

  12. Gastroesophageal reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malmud, L.S.; Vitti, R.A.; Fisher, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    This paper deals with detection and quantification of gastroesophageal reflux. Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) generally refers to a symptom complex consisting of heartburn, regurgitation, and chest pain, the latter of which is often confused with pain of cardiac origin. Gastroesophageal reflux occurs when gastric or duodenal contents enter the esophagus. This phenomenon of symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux has been attributed to a variety of anatomic abnormalities, including loss of the acute cardioesophageal Angle of Hiss, widening of the diaphragmatic hiatus, loss of a normal gastric rosette formed by apposition of the gastric mucosal folds, disruption of the phrenoesophageal ligament, and conversion of the distal paraesophageal pressure from an intra-abdominal to an intrathoracic level. Lower esophageal sphincter (LES) dysfunction has been suggested as a major determinant of gastroesophageal competence. Quantitative scintigraphic studies of gastroesophageal reflux suggest that the LES pressure is the important determinant of gastroesophageal reflux, although some investigators have failed to confirm this role of the LES in gastroesophageal competence

  13. Primary and secondary esophageal contractions in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.G. Aben-Athar

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available We studied the primary and secondary esophageal peristalsis in 36 patients with heartburn and acid regurgitation and in 14 asymptomatic volunteers. Primary peristalsis was elicited by ten swallows of a 5-mL bolus of water and secondary peristalsis was elicited by intra-esophageal infusion of 5, 10, and 15 mL water, 0.1 N hydrochloric acid and air. Esophageal contractions were measured by an 8-lumen manometric catheter assembly incorporating a 6-cm sleeve device. Contractions were registered at 3, 9, and 15 cm from the upper margin of the sleeve and the infusion was done through a side hole located at 12 cm. Twenty patients had normal endoscopic esophageal examination, 10 with normal (group I and 10 with abnormal pH-metric examination (group II, and 16 had esophagitis (group III. The amplitude of contractions after swallows was lower (97.8 ± 10.0 mmHg in the distal esophagus of group III patients than in controls (142.3 ± 14.0 mmHg. Patients of group III had fewer secondary contractions (water: 25% of infusion than patients of the other groups and controls (67% of infusion. Patients of group III also had a lower amplitude of secondary peristalsis in the distal esophagus (water: 70.1 ± 9.6 mmHg than controls (129.2 ± 18.2 mmHg. We conclude that patients with esophagitis have an impairment of primary and secondary peristalsis in the distal esophagus.

  14. Endoscopic augmentation of the lower esophageal sphincter for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease: Multicenter study of the gatekeeper reflux repair system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fockens, P.; Bruno, M. J.; Gabbrielli, A.; Odegaard, S.; Hatlebakk, J.; Allescher, H. D.; Rösch, T.; Rhodes, M.; Bastid, C.; Rey, J.; Boyer, J.; Muehldorffer, S.; van den Hombergh, U.; Costamagna, G.

    2004-01-01

    Background and Study Aims: The safety and effectiveness of the Gatekeeper Reflux Repair System (Medtronic Europe, Tolochenaz, Switzerland) in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) was evaluated. This new, reversible treatment modality involves the endoscopic introduction of

  15. The Effects of Switching to Vonoprazan, a Novel Potassium-Competitive Acid Blocker, on Gastric Acidity and Reflux Patterns in Patients with Erosive Esophagitis Refractory to Proton Pump Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Hiroshi; Kanamori, Atsushi; Kano, Chise; Hashimura, Hiroki; Matsumoto, Kei; Tsujimae, Masahiro; Yoshizaki, Tetsuya; Momose, Kenji; Obata, Daisuke; Eguchi, Takaaki; Fujita, Mikio; Okada, Akihiko

    2017-01-01

    The effects of vonoprazan and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in patients with reflux esophagitis (RE) have not yet been compared using multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH (MII-pH). A total of 8 patients with persistent gastric mucosal injury, despite completing an 8-week standard PPI therapy, were enrolled in the study. While they were on standard PPI therapy, the baseline values of reflux parameters, holding time ratio (HTR) of gastric pH >4, and esophageal pH 4 HTR was observed, from 26.5 to 78.0% (p = 0.029). A reduction in esophageal pH acid clearance time and the total number of reflux events, including acid and proximal reflux events, were significantly reduced. Vonoprazan may be a better therapy for the treatment of patients with PPI-refractory RE. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Combination therapy of sucralfate and cimetidine, compared with sucralfate monotherapy, in patients with peptic reflux esophagitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotborgh, R. H.; Hameeteman, W.; Dekker, W.; van de Boomgaard, D. M.; van Olffen, G. H.; Schrijver, M.; Vosmaer, G. D.; Tytgat, G. N.

    1989-01-01

    A double-blind multicenter, randomized study was performed in 70 patients with endoscopically documented reflex esophagitis. Patients were randomly given 1 g sucralfate four times a day or the combination of sucralfate 1 g three times a day and 400 mg cimetidine at night. After healing of the

  17. Diagnosis and treatment of gastroesophageal reflux in patients with esophageal atresia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H.L.J. Bergmeijer (Jan Hein)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractIn the last two decades, surgical treatment of children born with esophageal atresia has become a standard procedure. Postoperative mortality- now negligible in those born at term without other severe anomalies- mainly relates to patients with associated severe congenital cardiac

  18. Comparative clinical evaluation on herbal formulation Pepsil, Safoof-e-Katira and Omeprazole in gastro esophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toseef, Muhammad Umar; Saeed, Aftab; Mohi-Ud-Din, Ejaz; Usmanghani, Khan; Nazar, Halima; Nawaz, Allah; Ahmad, Irshad; Siddiqui, Faheem Ahmed

    2015-05-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the role of Unani herbal drugs Pepsil and Safoof-e-katira on the gastro esophageal reflux disease (GERD). This was multicentre randomized case control study conducted at Matab Hakeem Muhammad Noor-ud-din, Burewala; Aziz Muhammad din Medical and Surgical Centre, Burewala and Shifa-ul-mulk Memorial Hospital, Hamdard University Karachi. The patients were selected according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. In test group-1 the male female ratio was 40%, 60%; test group-2 was 42%, 58% and in control group was 44%, 56% respectively. The observed symptoms in the study were increased appetite (TG-1-95%, TG-2-95% and CG-89%), difficulty in swallowing (TG-1-93%, TG-2-96% and TC-94%), belching/burping (TG-1-97%, TG-2-97% and CG-95%), vomiting (TG-1-90%, TG-2-96% and CG-89%), heart burn (TG-1-100%, TG-2-100% and CG-98%), palpitation (TG-1-100%, TG-2-100% and CG-97%), epigastric pain (TG-1-97%, TG-2-97% and CG-90%), abdominal cramps (TG-1-97%, TG-2-98% and CG-95%), tenesmus (TG-1-100%, TG-2-100% and CG-97%), flatulence (TG-1-100%, TG-2-75% and CG-95%), wakeup during sleep (TG-1-94%, TG-2-87% and CG-94%). The p-value of the results of the symptoms was 0.000 except flatulence where the value was 0.001. The statistical results of the study prescribed that all the drugs studied (Pepsil, Safoof-e-katira and Omeprazole) are highly significant. The herbal coded drug Pepsil showed no side effects and unani herbal drug safoof-e-katira showed minimum result of 75% in the patients while Omeprazole resulted with some side effects. In the result it can be concluded that the herbal coded drug Pepsil is a potent herbal drug for gastro esophageal reflux disease.

  19. Mechanisms of Reflux Perception in Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredenoord, Albert J.

    2012-01-01

    Patients with reflux symptoms often do not have excessive esophageal acid exposure, and patients with severe gastroesophageal reflux often do not have reflux symptoms. Understanding why different types of reflux induce symptoms in different patients is vital for addressing therapeutic gaps in the

  20. Gastroesophageal reflux in relation to adenocarcinomas of the esophagus: a pooled analysis from the Barrett's and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Consortium (BEACON.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B Cook

    Full Text Available Previous studies have evidenced an association between gastroesophageal reflux and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA. It is unknown to what extent these associations vary by population, age, sex, body mass index, and cigarette smoking, or whether duration and frequency of symptoms interact in predicting risk. The Barrett's and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Consortium (BEACON allowed an in-depth assessment of these issues.Detailed information on heartburn and regurgitation symptoms and covariates were available from five BEACON case-control studies of EA and esophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma (EGJA. We conducted single-study multivariable logistic regressions followed by random-effects meta-analysis. Stratified analyses, meta-regressions, and sensitivity analyses were also conducted.Five studies provided 1,128 EA cases, 1,229 EGJA cases, and 4,057 controls for analysis. All summary estimates indicated positive, significant associations between heartburn/regurgitation symptoms and EA. Increasing heartburn duration was associated with increasing EA risk; odds ratios were 2.80, 3.85, and 6.24 for symptom durations of <10 years, 10 to <20 years, and ≥20 years. Associations with EGJA were slighter weaker, but still statistically significant for those with the highest exposure. Both frequency and duration of heartburn/regurgitation symptoms were independently associated with higher risk. We observed similar strengths of associations when stratified by age, sex, cigarette smoking, and body mass index.This analysis indicates that the association between heartburn/regurgitation symptoms and EA is strong, increases with increased duration and/or frequency, and is consistent across major risk factors. Weaker associations for EGJA suggest that this cancer site has a dissimilar pathogenesis or represents a mixed population of patients.

  1. Not All Children with Cystic Fibrosis Have Abnormal Esophageal Neutralization during Chemical Clearance of Acid Reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodley, Frederick W; Moore-Clingenpeel, Melissa; Machado, Rodrigo Strehl; Nemastil, Christopher J; Jadcherla, Sudarshan R; Hayes, Don; Kopp, Benjamin T; Kaul, Ajay; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Mousa, Hayat

    2017-09-01

    Acid neutralization during chemical clearance is significantly prolonged in children with cystic fibrosis, compared to symptomatic children without cystic fibrosis. The absence of available reference values impeded identification of abnormal findings within individual patients with and without cystic fibrosis. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that significantly more children with cystic fibrosis have acid neutralization durations during chemical clearance that fall outside the physiological range. Published reference value for acid neutralization duration during chemical clearance (determined using combined impedance/pH monitoring) was used to assess esophageal acid neutralization efficiency during chemical clearance in 16 children with cystic fibrosis (3 to chemical clearance exceeded the upper end of the physiological range in 9 of 16 (56.3%) children with and in 3 of 16 (18.8%) children without cystic fibrosis ( p =0.0412). The likelihood ratio for duration indicated that children with cystic fibrosis are 2.1-times more likely to have abnormal acid neutralization during chemical clearance, and children with abnormal acid neutralization during chemical clearance are 1.5-times more likely to have cystic fibrosis. Significantly more (but not all) children with cystic fibrosis have abnormally prolonged esophageal clearance of acid. Children with cystic fibrosis are more likely to have abnormal acid neutralization during chemical clearance. Additional studies involving larger sample sizes are needed to address the importance of genotype, esophageal motility, composition and volume of saliva, and gastric acidity on acid neutralization efficiency in cystic fibrosis children.

  2. Infant Reflux: Diagnosis and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and children, endoscopy is usually done under general anesthesia. Treatment Infant reflux usually clears up by itself. ... Has evidence of an inflamed esophagus Has chronic asthma and reflux Surgery Rarely, the lower esophageal sphincter ...

  3. The novel, peripherally restricted GABAB receptor agonist lesogaberan (AZD3355) inhibits acid reflux and reduces esophageal acid exposure as measured with 24-h pHmetry in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brändén, Lena; Fredriksson, Anita; Harring, Emelie; Jensen, Jörgen; Lehmann, Anders

    2010-05-25

    While patients with symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease generally respond well to proton pump inhibitors, 20-30% continue to experience troublesome symptoms. In such cases, agents that target transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation may be useful as add-on therapy to proton pump inhibitors. The GABAB receptor agonist baclofen inhibits transient LES relaxation but it is not an ideal agent due to central nervous system activity. Lesogaberan (AZD3355) is a peripherally restricted GABAB receptor agonist with limited central nervous system activity that inhibits transient LES relaxation in dogs. In the present study, the comparative effects of lesogaberan (7 micromol/kg) and baclofen (2.8 micromol/kg) on reflux were studied in dogs using 24-h pHmetry. Drugs (or vehicle control) were administered orally prior to the first meal of the day, and the number of reflux episodes (pH or = 5 s) and acid exposure time were computed for the 24-h monitoring period. The mean (S.E.M.) number of reflux episodes/24 h was 4.6 (0.4) and 6.4 (0.6) for lesogaberan and baclofen, respectively, versus 10.7 (0.5) for control (PAcid exposure time was 51.2 (4.5) min for control versus 23.6 (3.8) min for lesogaberan (Pacid reflux in dogs, with comparable efficacy to baclofen. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Flexible Spectral Imaging Color Enhancement and Probe-based Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy in Minimal Change Esophageal Reflux Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittayanon, Rapat; Aumkaew, Surasak; Rerknimitr, Rungsun; Wisedopas, Naruemon; Kullavanijaya, Pinit

    2016-07-25

    Although flexible spectral imaging color enhancement (FICE) can facilitate the diagnosis of minimal change esophageal reflux disease (MERD), the complicated diagnostic criteria cause suboptimal inter-observer agreement. Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) yields good diagnostic results but its inter-observer agreement has never been explored. This study compares the diagnostic value of magnifying FICE and probe-based CLE (pCLE) for MERD and evaluates the inter-observer agreement of both techniques. Thirty-six patients with suspected MERD and 18 asymptomatic controls were recruited. Magnifying FICE was used for evaluation of distal esophagus. pCLE counted the number of intrapapillary capillary loops (IPCLs) using more than five IPCLs in 500×500 micron area as a criterion for MERD diagnosis. The validity scores and interobserever agreement of both FICE and pCLE were assessed. For FICE vs. pCLE, the accuracy was 79% vs. 87%, sensitivity 94% vs. 97%, specificity 50% vs. 66%, positive predictive value 79% vs. 85%, and negative predictive value 82% vs. 92%. Interobserver agreement of FICE was fair to substantial, whereas pCLE had substantial to almost perfect agreement. Both FICE and pCLE have good operating characteristics and can facilitate the MERD diagnosis. However, among different observers, pCLE is more consistent on MERD diagnosis.

  5. Breathing training on lower esophageal sphincter as a complementary treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, M; Sabatino, L; Moffa, A; Capuano, F; Luccarelli, V; Vitali, M; Ribolsi, M; Cicala, M; Salvinelli, F

    2016-11-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) represents one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders, but is still a challenge to cure. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are currently the GERD's standard treatment, although not successful in all patients; some concerns have been raised regarding their long term consumption. Recently, some studies showed the benefits of inspiratory muscle training in increasing the lower esophageal sphincter pressure in patients affected by GERD, thereby reducing their symptoms. Relevant published studies were searched in Pubmed, Google Scholar, Ovid or Medical Subject Headings using the following keywords: "GERD" and physiotherapy", "GERD" and "exercise", "GERD" and "breathing", "GERD and "training". At the end of our selection process, four publications have been included for systematic review. All of them were prospective controlled studies, mainly based on the training of the diaphragm muscle. GERD symptoms, pH-manometry values and PPIs usage were assessed. Among the non-surgical, non-pharmacological treatment modalities, the breathing training on diaphragm could play an important role in selected patients to manage the symptoms of GERD.

  6. [Prevalence of symptoms and risk factors of the gastro esophageal reflux disease at school students of the Republic of Tyva].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsinskaya, V L

    2014-01-01

    For the purpose of the analysis of risk factors of formation of a gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in children's population of the Republic of Tyva examination of school students of Kyzyl is conducted. 2185 pupils (1746 schoolchildren of radical and 439 schoolchildren of the alien population) took part in research. Inspection included an interview by means of the questionnaire developed on the basis of a questionnaire of Mayo Clinic; clinical examination, somatometry and somatometry typing. 203 schoolchildren with complaints to heartburn the fibroesophagogastroduodenoscopy is carried out. Complaints to heartburn showed 11,8% of schoolchildren of radical and 16,6% of pupils of the alien population (p = 0,01). Weekly heartburn was noted by 1,4% of Tuvinians and 2,3% of pupils of the alien population. School students with complaints to heartburn in most cases have no endoscopic signs of damage of a gullet: esophagitis is revealed only at 1% surveyed. The risk of emergence of GERD is higher at the high school age, at the burdened heredity, early artificial feeding, existence of food allergy; the insufficient use of products with the high maintenance of a protein. Risk factors are also disharmonious physical development (high growth and excess body weight), the brahimorphious type of a constitution and accessory to macrosomatotype.

  7. Zonulin is not increased in the cardiac and esophageal mucosa of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wex, Thomas; Mönkemüller, Klaus; Kuester, Doerthe; Fry, Lucia; Kandulski, Arne; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2009-06-01

    Human Zonulin, related to the Zonula occludens toxin of Vibrio cholerae, regulates intestinal permeability and is induced in inflammatory disorders of the lower GI tract. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is associated with an impairment of epithelial barrier function. Here, we studied expression of zonulin in the gastroesophageal mucosa of 58 patients with typical reflux symptoms and 27 asymptomatic controls. During endoscopy, multiple biopsies from gastroesophageal mucosa were obtained for routine histopathology (Helicobacter pylori-status, inflammation) and gene expression analysis (immunohistochemistry, ELISA). Patients with GERD presented with typical histopathological alterations like elongation of papillae (P=0.015), basal cell hyperplasia (PZonulin was found to be expressed ubiquitously in gastroesophageal mucosa. Mucosal levels in controls ranged between 2.2 and 3.7 ng/microg total protein. Mean values were significantly higher in antrum (3.3+/-1.7 ng/microg) than cardia (2.7+/-1.2n g/microg) and esophagus (2.2+/-1.3 ng/microg) (Pzonulin expression in gastroesophageal mucosa. In conclusion, despite its established role for intestinal permeability, Zonulin seems not to be involved in the regulation of epithelial barrier function in relation to GERD.

  8. Comparison of outcomes twelve years after antireflux surgery or omeprazole maintenance therapy for reflux esophagitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundell, Lars; Miettinen, Pekka; Myrvold, Helge E

    2009-01-01

    with esophagitis enrolled from outpatient clinics in Nordic countries. Of the 155 patients randomly assigned to each arm of the study, 154 received omeprazole (1 withdrew before therapy began), and 144 received surgery (11 withdrew before surgery). In patients who remained in remission after treatment, post....... Heartburn and regurgitation were significantly more common in patients given omeprazole, whereas dysphagia, rectal flatulence, and the inability to belch or vomit were significantly more common in surgical patients. The therapies were otherwise well-tolerated. CONCLUSIONS: As long-term therapeutic...

  9. Proton pump inhibitors for the treatment of patients with erosive esophagitis and gastroesophageal reflux disease: current evidence and safety of dexlansoprazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mermelstein J

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Joseph Mermelstein,1 Alanna Chait Mermelstein,2 Maxwell M Chait,3 1Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai Beth Israel/Icahn School of Medicine, 2Department of Psychiatry, New York Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medicine, 3Department of Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Gastroesophageal reflux disease is the most common upper gastroenterology disorder in the US. It is associated with a variety of complications and significantly impacts quality of life. Proton pump inhibitors are the most effective treatment. Dexlansoprazole modified release (MR is a proton pump inhibitor that employs a novel release formulation that prolongs its absorption and allows for more flexibility in dosing. Dexlansoprazole MR can be dosed without regard to food intake or time of day, and once-daily dosing may replace twice-daily dosing of other agents. Dexlansoprazole MR is effective for healing and maintenance of erosive esophagitis, and for the treatment of nonerosive disease, including nocturnal gastroesophageal reflux disease. Dexlansoprazole MR is safe and well tolerated, and can improve quality of life. Keywords: dexlansoprazole, proton pump inhibitors, gastroesophageal reflux disease, erosive esophagitis

  10. Study of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in patients with mild-to-moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamble, Nitish L; Khan, Naushad A; Kumar, Naresh; Nayak, Hemanta K; Daga, Mradul K

    2013-04-01

    To study the incidence and pattern of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) in patients with mild-to-moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) using dual-probe 24-h oesophageal pH recording. This was a prospective study of 50 patients with mild-to-moderate stage COPD based on the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) guidelines. A detailed history of illness along with spirometry was done in all patients. In the study group, reflux symptoms were measured using a validated scoring system. All the patients underwent oesophageal manometry and dual-probe 24-h oesophageal pH recording. Symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux were present in 38 patients. Twenty-four-hour oesophageal pH monitoring revealed pathological reflux in 31 out of 38 symptomatic and 8 out of 12 asymptomatic patients. The overall rate of GORD was 78% in our study. Only distal GORD was observed in 11 (28.9%), and both distal and proximal GORD was observed in 20 (52.6%) out of the 38 symptomatic subjects. In the remaining 12 asymptomatic patients, eight had GORD. Distal GORD was present in six (50%) patients, and two (16.6%) had both distal and proximal GORD in this group. Isolated proximal GORD was not observed in any patient. There is an increased occurrence of GORD in patients with even mild-to-moderate COPD. © 2013 The Authors. Respirology © 2013 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  11. PPI therapy is equally effective in well-defined non-erosive reflux disease and in reflux esophagitis: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijenborg, P. W.; Cremonini, F.; Smout, A. J. P. M.; Bredenoord, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Symptomatic response to proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy in patients with non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) is often reported as lower than in patients with erosive reflux disease (ERD). However, the definition of NERD differs across clinical trials. This meta-analysis aims to estimate

  12. New insights in gastroesophageal reflux, esophageal function and gastric emptying in relation to dysphagia before and after anti-reflux surgery in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, M. J.; Loots, C. M.; Benninga, M. A.; Omari, T. I.; van Wijk, M. P.

    2013-01-01

    In children with gastroesophageal reflux (GER) disease refractory to pharmacological therapies, anti-reflux surgery (fundoplication) may be a treatment of last resort. The applicability of fundoplication has been hampered by the inability to predict which patient may benefit from surgery and which

  13. Management of esophageal disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, L.D.; Mercer, C.D.; McCallum, R.W.; Kozarek, R.

    1987-01-01

    This book integrates gastroenterology and thoracic surgery to detail the comprehensive management of esophageal disease. It describes radiologic and functional evaluation of the esophagus, endoscopy, medical and surgical treatments, and results and also covers gastroesophageal reflux disease, tumors motility, esophageal replacement, intubation, esophageal diverticula, caustic esophageal injury. It presents Dr. Hill's surgical procedures in detail.

  14. The value of esophageal histology in the diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease in patients with heartburn and normal endoscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tytgat, Guido N. J.

    2008-01-01

    Histologic markers of reflux-induced mucosal injury are demonstrable in patients with nonerosive gastroesophageal reflux disease (neGERD). They include papillary elongation, basal cell hyperplasia, and dilation of intercellular spaces, especially of the prickle layer. These abnormalities are

  15. Gastro-esophageal reflux and antisecretory drugs use among patients with chronic autoimmune atrophic gastritis: a study with pH-impedance monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenca, A; Massironi, S; Pugliese, D; Consonni, D; Mauro, A; Cavalcoli, F; Franchina, M; Spampatti, M; Conte, D; Penagini, R

    2016-02-01

    Patients with chronic autoimmune atrophic gastritis (CAAG) often refer digestive symptoms and are prescribed antisecretory medications. Aims were to investigate: (i) gastro-esophageal reflux (GER), (ii) psychopathological profile, (iii) frequency of use and clinical benefit of antisecretory drugs. Prospective observational study on 41 CAAG patients who underwent: 24 h multichannel intra-luminal impedance-pH (MII-pH) monitoring off-therapy, standardized medical interview and psychological questionnaire (i.e., SCL-90R). The medical interview was repeated at least 1 month after MII-pH in patients who were using antisecretory drugs. Statistical analysis was performed calculating median (10th-90th percentiles) and risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence interval. Median intra-gastric pH was 6.2 (4.6-7.0). One patient had acid reflux (AC) associated with symptoms, five had increased total reflux number and four had symptoms associated to non-acid reflux (NA) (patients referred as 'GER positive'). Using patients 'GER negative' with normal SCL-90R as reference, the RR of being symptomatic in patients GER positive was 2.1 (1.1-4.1) if SCL-90R was normal and 0.9 (0.5-1.7) if it was altered (difference in RR significant being p = 0.04). Seventeen/28 (61%) symptomatic patients were on antisecretory drugs, which were stopped in 16 of them according to results of MII-pH and clinical evaluation after 574 days (48-796) showed that symptoms were unchanged. In patients with CAAG (i) AC reflux rarely occurred whereas increased NA reflux was not infrequent both being related to symptoms in some patients, (ii) psychopathological profile has a role in symptoms' occurrence, (iii) antisecretory drugs were generally inappropriately used and clinically ineffective. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Effect of nortriptyline on brain responses to painful esophageal acid infusion in patients with non-erosive reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcelini, C M; Tomiozzo, J C; Farré, R; Van Oudenhove, L; Callegari-Jacques, S M; Ribeiro, M; Madalosso, B H; Fornari, F

    2014-02-01

    Non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) patients generally present with heartburn as the main symptom. Antidepressants might help to relieve heartburn by acting on the esophagus-brain axis. We aimed to assess the effect of nortriptyline on behavioral and brain responses to painful esophageal acid infusion in NERD patients evaluated with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In a randomized double-blind crossover design, 20 NERD patients off proton pump inhibitors (36.1 ± 9.3 years, 75% women) were assigned to 21 days of nortriptyline and placebo, in counterbalanced order, with a 21 days washout period in between both treatment periods. Changes in acid-induced brain response on fMRI and heartburn perception were assessed and at the end of each treatment. Nortriptyline significantly reduced the acid-induced brain response in prefrontal cortex (median [IQR]: -1.9 [-4.5 to -0.1] vs -0.3 [-2.5 to 2.3]; p = 0.050), caudate (-3.0 [-5.1 to -0.01] vs 0.48 [-1.9 to 3.1]; p = 0.029), insula (-2.4 [-4.8 to -0.6] vs -0.2 [-1.5 to 1.5]; p = 0.029), cingulate (-4.2 [-8.8 to -0.1] vs -0.6 [-1.8 to 3.0]; p = 0.017), and hippocampus (-2.7 [-6.0 to 0.5] vs -0.04 [-2.3 to 1.9]; p = 0.006) in comparison with placebo. However, there was no significant difference between nortriptyline and placebo in clinical outcomes and side effects. Nortriptyline decreased the brain response to esophageal acid infusion more markedly than placebo, but without clinical significance. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Laparoscopic Nissen (total) versus anterior 180° fundoplication for gastro-esophageal reflux disease: A meta-analysis and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xing; Wu, Ji-Min; Hu, Zhi-Wei; Wang, Feng; Wang, Zhong-Gao; Zhang, Chao; Yan, Chao; Chen, Mei-Ping

    2017-09-01

    Laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication (LNF) has been the gold standard for the surgical management of Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). Laparoscopic anterior 180° fundoplication (180° LAF) is reported to reduce the incidence of postoperative complications while obtaining similar control of reflux. The present meta-analysis was conducted to confirm the value of the 2 techniques. PubMed, Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, Springerlink, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure Platform databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing LNF and 180° LAF. Data regarding the benefits and adverse results of 2 techniques were extracted and compared using a meta-analysis. Six eligible RCTs comparing LNF (n = 266) and 180° LAF (n = 265) were identified. There were no significant differences between LNF and 180° LAF with regard to operating time, perioperative complications, length of hospital stay, patient satisfaction, willingness to undergo surgery again, quality of life, postoperative heartburn, proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use, postoperative DeMeester scores, postoperative lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure, postoperative gas-bloating, unable to belch, diarrhea, or overall reoperation. LNF was associated with a higher prevalence of postoperative dysphagia compared with 180° LAF, while 180° LAF was followed by more reoperation for recurrent reflux symptoms. LNF and 180° LAF are equally effective in controlling reflux symptoms and obtain a comparable prevalence of patient satisfaction. 180° LAF can reduce the incidence of postoperative dysphagia while this is offset by a higher risk of reoperation for recurrent symptoms. The risk of recurrent symptoms should need to be balanced against the risk of dysphagia when surgeons choose surgical procedures for each individual with GERD.

  18. Risk of lung cancer in patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease: a population-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Kuei Hsu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This large-scale, controlled cohort study estimated the risks of lung cancer in patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD in Taiwan. We conducted this population-based study using data from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan during the period from 1997 to 2010. Patients with GERD were diagnosed using endoscopy, and controls were matched to patients with GERD at a ratio of 1:4. We identified 15,412 patients with GERD and 60,957 controls. Compared with the controls, the patients with GERD had higher rates of osteoporosis, diabetes mellitus, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia, bronchiectasis, depression, anxiety, hypertension, dyslipidemia, chronic liver disease, congestive heart failure, atrial fibrillation, stroke, chronic kidney disease, and coronary artery disease (all P < .05. A total of 85 patients had lung cancer among patients with GERD during the follow-up of 42,555 person-years, and the rate of lung cancer was 0.0020 per person-year. By contrast, 232 patients had lung cancer among patients without GERD during the follow-up of 175,319 person-years, and the rate of lung cancer was 0.0013 per person-year. By using stepwise Cox regression model, the overall incidence of lung cancer remained significantly higher in the patients with GERD than in the controls (hazard ratio, 1.53; 95% CI [1.19–1.98]. The cumulative incidence of lung cancer was higher in the patients with GERD than in the controls (P = .0012. In conclusion, our large population-based cohort study provides evidence that GERD may increase the risk of lung cancer in Asians.

  19. Prevalence of gastro-esophageal reflux disease and its risk factors in a community-based population in southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Yun; Leena, Kondarapassery Balakumaran; Plymoth, Amelie; Hergens, Maria-Pia; Yin, Li; Shenoy, Kotacherry Trivikrama; Ye, Weimin

    2016-03-15

    The prevalence of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) varies widely around the world. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of GERD in a general population of southern India. An interview-based observational study was carried out in southern India during 2010 and early 2011 using a GERD questionnaire (GerdQ). In total 1072 participants were enrolled using a multi-stage cluster sampling method. Presence of GERD was defined as a score of ≥ 8. Logistic regression models were used to derive odds ratios (ORs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). The prevalence of GERD was 22.2 % (238/1072) in southern India, and was more common among older subjects and men. Overweight and obese subjects had a dose-dependent increased risk of GERD, compared to those with body mass index less than 25 (multivariate-adjusted OR = 1.4, 95 % CI 1.0-2.0; OR = 2.3, 95 % CI 1.3-4.1, respectively). People residing in urban community were more vulnerable to GERD than those in rural community (multivariate-adjusted OR = 1.8, 95 % CI 1.3-2.5). Similarly, those with a lower educational level appeared to have an increased risk of GERD. Further, those with a habit of pan masala chewing were more likely to develop GERD compared with those abstained from the habit (multivariate-adjusted OR = 2.0, 95 % CI 1.2-3.2). GERD is highly prevalent in southern India. Increasing age and BMI, an urban environment, lower educational level, and pan masala chewing appear to be risk factors of GERD symptoms for the studied population.

  20. Prevalence of eosinophilic esophagitis in patients with gastroesophageal reflux symptoms: A cross-sectional study from a tertiary care hospital in North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruah, Bhaskarjyoti; Kumar, Tarun; Das, Prasenjit; Thakur, Bhaskar; Sreenivas, Vishnubatla; Ahuja, Vineet; Gupta, Siddhartha Datta; Makharia, Govind K

    2017-09-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is being recognized increasingly all over the globe; Indian data is however sparse. We screened patients with symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) for presence of EoE in them. Consecutive patients with symptoms suggestive of GERD underwent gastroduodenoscopy and esophageal biopsies, obtained from both the upper esophagus (5 cm below the upper esophageal sphincter) and lower esophagus (5 cm above gastroesophageal junction), as well as from any other endoscopically visible abnormal mucosa. Demographic and clinical characteristics, endoscopic findings, peripheral blood eosinophilic count, and history of use of proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) were analyzed. Stool examination was done to rule out parasitoids. EoE was diagnosed if number of mucosal eosinophil infiltrate was >20 per high-power field. In the latter, Warthin-Starry stain was performed to rule out presence of H elicobacter pylori. Of 190 consecutive patients with symptoms of GERD screened, esophageal biopsies were available in 185 cases. Of them, 6 had EoE, suggesting a prevalence of 3.2% among patients with GERD. On univariate analysis, history of allergy, non-response to PPI, and absolute eosinophil counts and on multivariable analysis, history of allergy and no response to PPIs were significant predictors of EoE. Presence of EOE did not correlate with severity of reflux symptoms. In this hospital-based study from northern part of India, prevalence of EoE in patients with GERD was 3.2%. EoE should be considered as a diagnostic possibility, especially in those with history of allergy, no-response to PPI, and absolute eosinophil count of ≥250/cumm.

  1. Silent gastro-esophageal reflux in children presenting with recurrent lower respiratory tract infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, E.J.; Bharathi Dasan, J.; Kumar, R.; Chanderashekher, N.; Tripathi, M.; Kabra, S.K.; Malhotra, A.; Kumar, A.; Menon, S.

    2002-01-01

    Introduction: Paediatric respiratory tract infections are one of the most common reasons for physician visits and hospitalisation, and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The socioeconomic impact of these recurrent infections is staggering. Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) has long been associated with pulmonary symptoms and diseases. Aims: The present retrospective analysis was undertaken to find out the incidence of GER in children suffering from recurrent lower respiratory tract infections without any typical gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms of GER. Materials and Methods: A total of 297 children with a mean age of 2.7 years and range 9-months to 8 years were evaluated. All studies were performed using a dose of 100-200 micro Curie (3.7-7.4MBq) of Tc99m-sulphur colloid, which was administered via a nasogastric tube into the stomach in younger children. Adequate intragastric volume was ensured by instilling water of 50-ml volume for children less than 6 months and 100-ml volume for children between 6-12 months of age. The nasogastric tube was removed with the patient held in erect position and a small volume of water was pushed to avoid any contamination. In older children the isotope was administered in a capsule and was swallowed with 150-300 ml of water. Results: Of the total 297 children, 111(37%) children had GER on scintigraphy. Conclusion: There is a high incidence of silent GER in children suffering from recurrent lower respiratory tract infections. Scintiscanning can be used as a screening modality in these children

  2. [Gastric and duodenal secretory and motor-evacuatory activity in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease associated with different types of reflux].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhulay, G S; Sekareva, E V

    2016-01-01

    To estimate esophageal and gastric pH values on an empty stomach and after stimulation of gastric secretion and gastric and duodenal motor-evacuatory activity in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) associated with pathological refluxes, such as gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and duodenogastroesophageal reflux (DGER). The observational cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate and compare the parameters of intraesophageal and intragastric pH metry and peripheral electrogastroenterography in 103 GERD patients with endoscopically positive distal reflux esophagitis in GER and DGER. The patients with GERD developed pathological esophageal refluxes (both GER and DGER) in various degrees of impaired gastric production, from anacidity to hyperacidity. The patients with predominant DGER were found to have gastric hyperacidity and normal acidity slightly less frequently than those with predominant GER. The patients with GERD developing in the presence of predominant GER had moderate gastric stasis with discoordinated antroduodenal propulsion resulting from hypomotor dyskinesia of the stomach and duodenum. When DGER was predominant in the patients with GERD, the signs of gastric stasis and duodenal hyperkinesia were concurrent with discoordinated antroduodenal and duodenojejunal propulsion. The specific features of the esophagogastroduodenal secretory and motor evacuatory disorders found create conditions for the pathological refluxes into the esophagus, which differ in the composition of refluxate.

  3. Prevalence of gastro-esophageal reflux disease in patients with difficult to control asthma and effect of proton pump inhibitor therapy on asthma symptoms, reflux symptoms, pulmonary function and requirement for asthma medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandur, V; Murugesh, M; Banait, V; Rathi, P M; Bhatia, S J; Joshi, J M; Kate, A

    2014-01-01

    The hypothesis that GER can trigger or exacerbate asthma is supported by several clinical trials that have shown amelioration in asthma symptoms and/or an improvement in pulmonary function after antireflux therapy. To investigate the prevalence of GER in patients with difficult to control asthma and to determine the effect of omeprazole on asthma symptoms, reflux symptoms, pulmonary function and on the requirement of asthma medications. Patients with difficult to control asthma were recruited into the study. All patients underwent esophageal manometry and 24 hour esophageal pH monitoring. Pulmonary function tests were done before and after treatment. The severity of asthma and reflux was assessed by a 1 week pulmonary symptom score(PSS) and reflux symptom score(RSS) respectively before and after treatment. Those who had an abnormal pH study (pH 5% of the time) underwent anti-GER treatment with lifestyle changes, and a proton pump inhibitor (omeprazole 40 mg, bid) for 3 months. Asthma medications were added or deleted based on severity of asthma. Out of 250 asthmatic patients screened, forty patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Twenty eight of 40 patients(70%) were diagnosed to have GERD. Of the patients 28 with GER, 8 patients(28.5%) had no reflux symptoms. On 24 hr pH metry, the percentage time pH reflux symptom score(RSS) improved from 22.39 ± 14.99 to 1.04 ± 1.07, pulmonary symptom score(PSS) improved from 27.14 ± 7.49 to 13.82 ± 4.21 and night time asthma symptom score(NASS) improved from 6.71 ± 1.80 to 3.04 ± 1.23 (p-value <0.0001). After treatment, FEV1 and PEFR increased from 1.38 ± 0.57 and 4.14 ± 1.97 to 1.47 ± 0.54 and 5.56 ± 1.72, respectively (p-value 0.00114). PPI therapy improves nocturnal asthma symptoms, daytime asthma symptoms, pulmonary function and decreases requirement of asthma medications in these patients.

  4. Gastroesophageal scintigraphy for diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, Michiomi; Aoki, Nobuhiko; Imura, Souichi; Eguchi, Hiroyuki; Tamamoto, Humihiko [Tokyo Metropolitan Otsuka Hospital (Japan)

    1995-06-01

    {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA is a sensitive technique for the detection of gastro-esophageal reflux in children. Forty-eight children with gastro-esophageal reflux are scored by the results of the time activity curve of gastro-esophageal scintiscanning and the 24 hr esophageal pH tests. The score of gastro-esophageal scintiscanning is compared with the 24 hr esophageal pH score. There is a correlation in the score between the gastro-esophageal scintiscanning and the 24 hr esophageal pH test. (author).

  5. Gastroesophageal scintigraphy for diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Michiomi; Aoki, Nobuhiko; Imura, Souichi; Eguchi, Hiroyuki; Tamamoto, Humihiko

    1995-01-01

    99m Tc-DTPA is a sensitive technique for the detection of gastro-esophageal reflux in children. Forty-eight children with gastro-esophageal reflux are scored by the results of the time activity curve of gastro-esophageal scintiscanning and the 24 hr esophageal pH tests. The score of gastro-esophageal scintiscanning is compared with the 24 hr esophageal pH score. There is a correlation in the score between the gastro-esophageal scintiscanning and the 24 hr esophageal pH test. (author)

  6. Dietary habits and obesity indices in patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease: a comparative cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Omid; Shahraki, Mansour; Bahari, Ali; Shahraki, Touran

    2017-11-28

    Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) is suggested to be associated with some socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. Although the roles of some factors such as obesity are well documented, evidence on the impact of other factors such as dietary habits are still inconclusive. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between socio-demographic and lifestyle factors with GERD in participants referred to a teaching hospital in Zahedan, South-East of Iran. This comparative cross-sectional study was conducted during 2014-2015. All patients completed a structured questionnaire regarding information on socio-demographic status, lifestyle factors and dietary habits. Anthropometric indices including body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were used to determine general and central obesity, respectively. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 22. Value of p obesity (OR = 1.77, 95%CI = 1.11, 2.81), central obesity (OR = 2.09, 95%CI = 1.46,3.01) and consumption of citrus fruits between meals (OR = 1.69, 95%CI = 1.04, 2.73) were associated with higher odds of GERD, while higher educational level (OR = 0.53, 95%CI = 0.36,0.77) and regular physical activity ≥2 h/week (OR = 0.53, 95%CI = 0.30, 0.94) were associated with lower odds of GERD. In the adjusted model, central obesity (OR = 1.88, 95%CI = 1.18, 3.01) and consumption of citrus fruits between meals (OR = 2.22, 95%CI = 1.30, 3.81) were positively associated with odds of GERD, while higher educational level (OR = 0.55, 95%CI = 0.33, 0.91) was associated with decreased odds of GERD. According to the results of the current study, central obesity as determined by WC and citrus fruit intake were independent factors associated with GERD. Therefore, lifestyle modification might have a positive effect in the treatment of GERD in an urban population of Iran.

  7. Effects of Different Ratio of n-6/n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on the PI3K/Akt Pathway in Rats with Reflux Esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jia-Yuan; Chen, Zhi-Yao; Zhang, Tao; Tang, Du-Peng; Jiang, Xiao-Yin; Zhuang, Ze-Hao

    2017-01-30

    BACKGROUND We designed this study to investigate the influence of different ratios of n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid in the diet of reflux esophagitis (RE) rats' and the effect on the PI3K/Akt pathway. MATERIAL AND METHODS RE rats were randomly divided into a sham group and modeling groups of different concentrations of n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA): 12:1 group, 10:1 group, 5:1 group, and 1:1 group. RT-PCR and Western-blot were used to detect the expression of PI3K, Akt, p-Akt, NF-κBp50, and NF-κBp65 proteins in esophageal tissue. RESULTS In the n-6/n-3 PUFAs groups the expression of PI3K, Akt, p-Akt, nf-κbp50, and NF-κBp65 mRNA decreased with the decrease in n-6/n-3 ratios in the diet. The lowest expression of each indicator occurred in the 1:1 n-6/n-3 group compared with other n-6/n-3 groups, the difference was statistically significant (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS The inhibition of n-3 PUFAs in the development of esophageal inflammation in rats with RE was attributed to the function of PI3K/Akt-NF-κB signaling pathway.

  8. Additive Effects of Rebamipide Plus Proton Pump Inhibitors on the Expression of Tight Junction Proteins in a Rat Model of Gastro-Esophageal Reflux Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gweon, Tae-Geun; Park, Jong-Hyung; Kim, Byung-Wook; Choi, Yang Kyu; Kim, Joon Sung; Park, Sung Min; Kim, Chang Whan; Kim, Hyung-Gil; Chung, Jun-Won

    2018-01-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of rebamipide on tight junction proteins in the esophageal mucosa in a rat model of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). GERD was created in rats by tying the proximal stomach. The rats were divided into a control group, a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) group, and a PPI plus rebamipide (PPI+R) group. Pantoprazole (5 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally to the PPI and PPI+R groups. An additional dose of rebamipide (100 mg/kg) was administered orally to the PPI+R group. Mucosal erosions, epithelial thickness, and leukocyte infiltration into the esophageal mucosa were measured in isolated esophagi 14 days after the procedure. A Western blot analysis was conducted to measure the expression of claudin-1, -3, and -4. The mean surface area of mucosal erosions, epithelial thickness, and leukocyte infiltration were lower in the PPI group and the PPI+R group than in the control group. Western blot analysis revealed that the expression of claudin-3 and -4 was significantly higher in the PPI+R group than in the control group. Rebamipide may exert an additive effect in combination with PPI to modify the tight junction proteins of the esophageal mucosa in a rat model of GERD. This treatment might be associated with the relief of GERD symptoms.

  9. Genetics of Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    disease of the esophagus that affects at least 4 in 10,000 persons.1 Although symptomatically resembling gastroe - sophageal reflux disease, EE is...clinically defined as esophageal eosinophilia (>_15 intraepithelial eosinophils per high-powered field) in the absence of abnormal acid reflux disease...that distinguish eosin- ophilic esophagitis (EoE) from other inflammatory disorders, including gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). As the prev

  10. Food and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surdea-Blaga, Teodora; Negrutiu, Dana E; Palage, Mariana; Dumitrascu, Dan L

    2017-05-15

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a chronic condition with a high prevalence in western countries. Transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation episodes and a decreased lower esophageal sphincter pressure are the main mechanisms involved. Currently used drugs are efficient on reflux symptoms, but only as long as they are administered, because they do not modify the reflux barrier. Certain nutrients or foods are generally considered to increase the frequency of gastroesophageal reflux symptoms, therefore physicians recommend changes in diet and some patients avoid bothering foods. This review summarizes current knowledge regarding food and gastroesophageal reflux. For example, fat intake increases the perception of reflux symptoms. Regular coffee and chocolate induce gastroesophageal reflux and increase the lower esophageal exposure to acid. Spicy foods might induce heartburn, but the exact mechanism is not known. Beer and wine induce gastroesophageal reflux, mainly in the first hour after intake. For other foods, like fried food or carbonated beverages data on gastroesophageal reflux is scarce. Similarly, there is few data about the type of diet and gastroesophageal reflux. Mediterranean diet and a very low carbohydrate diet protect against reflux. Regarding diet-related practices, consistent data showed that a "short-meal-to-sleep interval" favors reflux episodes, therefore some authors recommend that dinner should be at least four hours before bedtime. All these recommendations should consider patient's weight, because several meta-analysis showed a positive association between increased body mass index and gastroesophageal reflux disease. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. Dose-Finding Study of Omeprazole on Gastric pH in Neonates with Gastro-Esophageal Acid Reflux Using a Bayesian Sequential Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentia Kaguelidou

    Full Text Available Proton pump inhibitors are frequently administered on clinical symptoms in neonates but benefit remains controversial. Clinical trials validating omeprazole dosage in neonates are limited. The objective of this trial was to determine the minimum effective dose (MED of omeprazole to treat pathological acid reflux in neonates using reflux index as surrogate marker.Double blind dose-finding trial with continual reassessment method of individual dose administration using a Bayesian approach, aiming to select drug dose as close as possible to the predefined target level of efficacy (with a credibility interval of 95%.Neonatal Intensive Care unit of the Robert Debré University Hospital in Paris, France.Neonates with a postmenstrual age ≥ 35 weeks and a pathologic 24-hour intra-esophageal pH monitoring defined by a reflux index ≥ 5% over 24 hours were considered for participation. Recruitment was stratified to 3 groups according to gestational age at birth.Five preselected doses of oral omeprazole from 1 to 3 mg/kg/day.Primary outcome, measured at 35 weeks postmenstrual age or more, was a reflux index <5% during the 24-h pH monitoring registered 72±24 hours after omeprazole initiation.Fifty-four neonates with a reflux index ranging from 5.06 to 27.7% were included. Median age was 37.5 days and median postmenstrual age was 36 weeks. In neonates born at less than 32 weeks of GA (n = 30, the MED was 2.5mg/kg/day with an estimated mean posterior probability of success of 97.7% (95% credibility interval: 90.3-99.7%. The MED was 1mg/kg/day for neonates born at more than 32 GA (n = 24.Omeprazole is extensively prescribed on clinical symptoms but efficacy is not demonstrated while safety concerns do exist. When treatment is required, the daily dose needs to be validated in preterm and term neonates. Optimal doses of omeprazole to increase gastric pH and decrease reflux index below 5% over 24 hours, determined using an adaptive Bayesian design differ

  12. Dose-Finding Study of Omeprazole on Gastric pH in Neonates with Gastro-Esophageal Acid Reflux Using a Bayesian Sequential Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaguelidou, Florentia; Alberti, Corinne; Biran, Valerie; Bourdon, Olivier; Farnoux, Caroline; Zohar, Sarah; Jacqz-Aigrain, Evelyne

    2016-01-01

    Proton pump inhibitors are frequently administered on clinical symptoms in neonates but benefit remains controversial. Clinical trials validating omeprazole dosage in neonates are limited. The objective of this trial was to determine the minimum effective dose (MED) of omeprazole to treat pathological acid reflux in neonates using reflux index as surrogate marker. Double blind dose-finding trial with continual reassessment method of individual dose administration using a Bayesian approach, aiming to select drug dose as close as possible to the predefined target level of efficacy (with a credibility interval of 95%). Neonatal Intensive Care unit of the Robert Debré University Hospital in Paris, France. Neonates with a postmenstrual age ≥ 35 weeks and a pathologic 24-hour intra-esophageal pH monitoring defined by a reflux index ≥ 5% over 24 hours were considered for participation. Recruitment was stratified to 3 groups according to gestational age at birth. Five preselected doses of oral omeprazole from 1 to 3 mg/kg/day. Primary outcome, measured at 35 weeks postmenstrual age or more, was a reflux index reflux index ranging from 5.06 to 27.7% were included. Median age was 37.5 days and median postmenstrual age was 36 weeks. In neonates born at less than 32 weeks of GA (n = 30), the MED was 2.5mg/kg/day with an estimated mean posterior probability of success of 97.7% (95% credibility interval: 90.3-99.7%). The MED was 1mg/kg/day for neonates born at more than 32 GA (n = 24). Omeprazole is extensively prescribed on clinical symptoms but efficacy is not demonstrated while safety concerns do exist. When treatment is required, the daily dose needs to be validated in preterm and term neonates. Optimal doses of omeprazole to increase gastric pH and decrease reflux index below 5% over 24 hours, determined using an adaptive Bayesian design differ among neonates. Both gestational and postnatal ages account for these differences but their differential impact on omeprazole

  13. No association of coffee consumption with gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer, reflux esophagitis, and non-erosive reflux disease: a cross-sectional study of 8,013 healthy subjects in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamoto, Takeshi; Yamamichi, Nobutake; Kodashima, Shinya; Takahashi, Yu; Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Oka, Masashi; Mitsushima, Toru; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Probably due to caffeine-induced gastric acid secretion, negative effects of coffee upon various upper-gastrointestinal diseases have been precariously accepted, despite the inadequate epidemiological evidence. Our aim is to evaluate the effect of coffee consumption on four major acid-related diseases: gastric ulcer (GU), duodenal ulcer (DU), reflux esophagitis (RE), and non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) based on the large-scale multivariate analysis. Of the 9,517 healthy adults, GU, DU, and RE were diagnosed by endoscopy, and NERD was diagnosed by the symptoms of heartburn and regurgitation without esophageal erosion. Associations between coffee consumption and the four disorders were evaluated, together with age, gender, body mass index (BMI), Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection status, pepsinogen I/II ratio, smoking, and alcohol. We further performed meta-analysis using the random effects model to redefine the relationship between coffee intake and peptic ulcer disease. The eligible 8,013 study subjects comprised of 5,451 coffee drinkers and 2,562 non-coffee drinkers. By univariate analysis, age, BMI, pepsinogen I/II ratio, smoking, and alcohol showed significant associations with coffee consumption. By multiple logistic regression analysis, positively correlated factors with significance were HP infection, current smoking, BMI, and pepsinogen I/II ratio for GU; HP infection, pepsinogen I/II ratio, and current smoking for DU; HP non-infection, male, BMI, pepsinogen I/II ratio, smoking, age, and alcohol for RE; younger age, smoking, and female for NERD. The meta-analyses could detect any association of coffee consumption with neither GU nor DU. In conclusion, there are no significant relationship between coffee consumption and the four major acid-related upper gastrointestinal disorders.

  14. Dynamic esophageal scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilley, J.J.; Malmud, L.S.; Fisher, R.S.; Applegate, G.; DeVegvar, M.L.

    1982-01-01

    Esophageal scintigraphy was developed in order to quantitatively evaluate esophageal transit in patients with a variety of esophageal disorders. The study is performed with orally administered technetium-99m sulfur colloid in water, using a gamma camera on-line to a digital computer. Esophageal transit is expressed as the percent emptying for each of the first 15-sec intervals for 10 min after an initial swallow and at 15-sec intervals after serial swallows. Esophageal transit is significantly decreased in patients with motor disorders of the esophagus, compared to normal controls. In patients with reflux esophagitis, esophageal transit was abnormal when the reflux disease was accompanied by abnormal motor function. The technique we describe is the first quantitative test of esophageal function; it is a useful, sensitive, scintigraphic technique for evaluation of esophageal transit

  15. Radiologic studies on gastroesophageal reflux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Seung Gi; Kim, Kun Sang; Park, Soo Soung [College of Medicine, Chung Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1980-12-15

    Gastroesophageal reflux is generally recognized as the preponderant factor in the causation of the most cases of esophagitis and the accompanying symptom of pyrosis. In has been known that free gastroesophageal reflux is infrequent phenomenon but we observed gastroesophageal reflux during U. G. I. examination in 111 cases among 152 patients (73.3%) who had various gastrointestinal symptoms. Gastroesophageal reflux was most frequently induced in supine LAO position. The next frequent positions are erect position, RAO and supine position.

  16. Animal model of acid-reflux esophagitis: pathogenic roles of acid/pepsin, prostaglandins, and amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Koji; Nagahama, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Esophagitis was induced in rats within 3 h by ligating both the pylorus and transitional region between the forestomach and glandular portion under ether anesthesia. This esophageal injury was prevented by the administration of acid suppressants and antipepsin drug and aggravated by exogenous pepsin. Damage was also aggravated by pretreatment with indomethacin and the selective COX-1 but not COX-2 inhibitor, whereas PGE2 showed a biphasic effect depending on the dose; a protection at low doses, and an aggravation at high doses, with both being mediated by EP1 receptors. Various amino acids also affected this esophagitis in different ways; L-alanine and L-glutamine had a deleterious effect, while L-arginine and glycine were highly protective, both due to yet unidentified mechanisms. It is assumed that acid/pepsin plays a major pathogenic role in this model of esophagitis; PGs derived from COX-1 are involved in mucosal defense of the esophagus; and some amino acids are protective against esophagitis. These findings also suggest a novel therapeutic approach in the treatment of esophagitis, in addition to acid suppressant therapy. The model introduced may be useful to test the protective effects of drugs on esophagitis and investigate the mucosal defense mechanism in the esophagus.

  17. Role of lifestyle modifications for patients with laryngeal granuloma caused by gastro-esophageal reflux: comparison between conservative treatment and the surgical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Rika; Tsunoda, Koichi; Ueha, Rumi; Fujimaki, Yoko; Nito, Takaharu; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2017-03-01

    It is considered that a regimen combining pharmacologic management and lifestyle modifications is the most effective treatment for laryngeal granulomas caused by GER. This study compared the results of the combination therapy and surgery to determine the best treatment of laryngeal granuloma caused by gastro-esophageal reflux in 51 patients. Prospective study. In the conservative treatment group, the CR rate was 89.7% and recurrence rate was 2.6%, while the lesions remained in patients (7.7%). This study compared the CR and recurrence rates between conservative treatment and surgery for granuloma. The results showed that the laryngeal granuloma recurrence rate was significantly lower with the conservative treatment regimen compared with surgery (p = .0016).

  18. A novel once daily microparticulate dosage form comprising lansoprazole to prevent nocturnal acid breakthrough in the case of gastro-esophageal reflux disease: preparation, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alai, Milind; Lin, Wen Jen

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to formulate and evaluate the lansoprazole (LPZ)-loaded microparticles to prevent nocturnal acid breakthrough in the case of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). The microparticulate delivery system was prepared by solvent evaporation method using Eudragit RS100 as a matrix polymer followed by enteric coated with Eudragit S100 and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate HP55 using spray drying method. The enteric coated microparticles were stable in gastric pH condition. In vivo pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies in male Wistar rats demonstrated that enteric coated microparticles sustained release of LPZ and promoted ulcer healing activity. In other words, the microparticulate dosage form provided effective drug concentration for a longer period as compared to conventional extended release dosage form, and showed sufficient anti-acid secretion activity to treat acid related disorders including the enrichment of nocturnal acid breakthrough event based on a once daily administration.

  19. Management of dental erosion induced by gastro-esophageal reflux disorder with direct composite veneering aided by a flexible splint matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chockattu, Sherin Jose; Deepak, Byathnal Suryakant; Sood, Anubhav; Niranjan, Nandini T; Jayasheel, Arun; Goud, Mallikarjun K

    2018-02-01

    Dental erosion is frequently overlooked in clinical practice. The management of erosion-induced damage to the dentition is often delayed, such that extensive occlusal rehabilitation is required. These cases can be diagnosed by a careful clinical examination and a thorough review of the patient's medical history and/or lifestyle habits. This case report presents the diagnosis, categorization, and management of a case of gastro-esophageal reflux disease-induced palatal erosion of the maxillary teeth. The early management of such cases is of utmost importance to delay or prevent the progression of damage both to the dentition and to occlusal stability. Non-invasive adhesively bonded restorations aid in achieving this goal.

  20. Novel ion exchange resin-based combination drug-delivery system for treatment of gastro esophageal reflux diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangesh Ramesh Bhalekar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study involves preparation and characterization of a combination tablet of ranitidine in immediate release form and domperidone in sustained release form, using ion exchange resins. Ranitidine lowers acid secretion, while domperidone release over a prolonged period improves gastric motility thus justifying this combination in gastro esophageal reflux diseases (GERD and ensuring patient compliance. Drug loading was carried out by batch method & resinates were characterized using FTIR, XRPD. Resinates were formulated as a combination tablet and evaluated for tablet properties & in vitro drug release. Resinates provided sustained release of domperidone and immediate release of ranitidine. IR and X-ray studies indicate complexation of drug and resin along with monomolecular distribution of drugs in amorphous form in the resin matrix. The tablets of resinate combination showed good tablet properties. In-vitro drug release gave desired release profiles and ex-vivo drug absorption studies carried out by placing everted rat intestine in dissolution medium indicated statistically significant similarity in absorption from test and marketed formulation. The novelty of this study is that the retardation in release of domperidone from resinates is achieved by presence of weak resin in the formulation.O presente estudo envolve a preparação e a caracterização de associação do comprimido de ranitidina de liberação imediata e domperidona de liberação prolongada, utilizando resinas de troca iônica. A ranitidina diminui a secreção ácida, enquanto a liberação prolongada de domperidona melhora a motilidade gástica, justificando, dessa forma, a associação em doenças de refluxo gastroesofágico (DRGE e garantindo a adesão do paciente. A carga de fármaco foi efetuada pelo método em batelada e os resinatos, caracterizados utilizando-se FTIR e XRPD. Os resinatos foram formulados como comprimido da associação e avaliados com rela

  1. How useful is esophageal high resolution manometry in diagnosing gastroesophageal junction disruption: causes affecting this disruption and its relationship with manometric alterations and gastroesophageal reflux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanza Ciriza-de-los-Ríos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: High-resolution manometry (HRM is a breakthrough in the morphological study of the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ and its degrees of disruption. Objectives: a Assessment of risk factors involved in the disruption of the GEJ in patients with gastroesophageal reflux (GER symptoms; b the relationship between the type of GEJ and GER demonstrated by 24 hours pH-monitoring; and c identification of the alterations in the manometric parameters related to the morphology of the GEJ. Methods: One hundred and fifteen patients with symptoms of GER studied with HRM and classified by the type of GEJ (type I: Normal; type II: Sliding; type III: Hiatal hernia. Twenty four hour pH-monitoring without proton pump inhibitors was performed in all of them. Epidemiological aspects, manometric parameters (Chicago 2012 classification and the pH-monitoring results were evaluated. Results: Age (OR 1.033 [1.006-1.060]; p = 0.16, BMI (OR 1.097 [1.022-1.176]; p = 0. 01 and abdominal perimeter (OR 1.034 [1.005-1.063]; p = 0.0215 were independent risk factors for the GEJ type III (area under the curve 0.70. Disruption of the GEJ was associated with a lower resting pressure (p = 0.006, greater length (p < 0.001 and greater esophageal shortening (p < 0.001. Abnormal acidic reflux was found in the total period (p = 0.015, standing (p = 0.022 and supine (p = 0.001 in patients with GEJ type II and III with respect to type I. Conclusions: Increased age, overweight and central obesity pose a higher risk of GEJ type III (hiatal hernia. The greater disruption of the GEJ is associated with lower resting pressure, esophageal shortening, and higher acid exposure in the pH-monitoring.

  2. Esofagite por refluxo e laringite por refluxo: Estágios clínicos diferentes da mesma doença? Reflux esophagitys and reflux laryngitis: Different stages of the same disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano B. Gavazzoni

    mechanisms of gastric content. Otolaryngology manifestations of GRD are oropharynx globus, dysphonia, oropharyngeal pirosis, dysfagia, chronic cough. The research intends to evaluate the otolaryngology symptoms of reflux in patients with surgical indication of hiatal hernia and compare the patients’ complaints. Study design: prospective clinical randomized. Material and method: The patients were divided in two groups. Group A, with 18 patients admitted in the General Surgery Service with surgical treatment indication for esophagitys, degrees III and IV and group B, with 40 patients of the Otolaryngology Service with reflux laryngitis complaints. Patients were submitted to a protocol, videolaryngoscopy and upper endoscopy (UE. Obtained data were tabulated and compared to the literature. Results: Symptoms referred by the patients of group B were the same of the group A, but dysphonia, cough, oropharynx pirosis were more prevalent in group B. The laryngoscopic evaluation of group B has shown more altered findings than group A. Altered UE were more prevalent in patients of the group A. Considering the results it is possible to verify that the degree of esophageal disease has no correlation with laryngeal disease. Conclusion: The comparison among the two groups allowed concluding that, despite the similarity of the clinical picture and fisiopatology, the gastroesophageal reflux and the laryngeal reflux must not be considered different stages of the same disease.

  3. Effects of the body mass index (BMI) on the surgical outcomes of laparoscopic fundoplication for gastro-esophageal reflux disease: a propensity score-matched analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Masato; Omura, Nobuo; Yano, Fumiaki; Tsuboi, Kazuto; Yamamoto, Se Ryung; Akimoto, Shunsuke; Masuda, Takahiro; Kashiwagi, Hideyuki; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

    2018-02-01

    In the present study, we examined how the body mass index (BMI) affected the outcomes of laparoscopic fundoplication for GERD in patients, whose backgrounds were matched in a propensity score-matched analysis. We divided the patients into two groups (BMI esophageal hiatal hernia, acid exposure time, and degree of reflux esophagitis. In total, 105 subjects were extracted in each group. The surgical outcomes and postoperative outcomes of patients with BMI <25 kg/m 2 (Group A) and those with BMI ≥25 kg/m 2 (Group B) were compared and examined. There were no differences in the surgical procedure, intraoperative complications, or estimated blood loss (p = 0.876, p = 0.516, p = 0.438, respectively); however, the operative time was significantly prolonged in Group B (p = 0.003). The rate of postoperative recurrence in Group A was 17% (15/87 patients), while that in Group B was 11% (12/91 patients), and did not differ to a statistically significant extent (p = 0.533). Although the operative time for GERD in obese patients was prolonged in comparison with non-obese patients, there was no difference in the rate of postoperative recurrence.

  4. Omeprazole-Domperidone Fixed Dose Combination vs Omeprazole Monotherapy: A Phase 4, Open-Label, Comparative, Parallel Randomized Controlled Study in Mild to Moderate Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KY Marakhouski

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the efficacy and safety of omeprazole-domperidone combination vs omeprazole monotherapy in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD. Methods: In a comparative, randomized controlled, phase 4 study, outpatients with GERD were randomly allocated to either group 1 (omeprazole 20 mg + domperidone 30 mg or group 2 (omeprazole 20 mg in an equal ratio; 2 capsules daily in the morning were administered for 8 weeks. Results: Sixty patients were enrolled. Esophagitis reversal was observed in 92% patients in group 1 vs 65.2% in group 2. Approximately, 83.3% patients in group 1 vs 43.3% patients in group 2 demonstrated full cupping of reflux symptoms at 8 weeks. Combined therapy resulted in significantly longer period of heartburn-free days (23 vs 12 days on omeprazole. There were no safety concerns. Conclusions: Omeprazole-domperidone combination was more effective than omeprazole alone in providing complete cupping of reflux symptoms and healing of esophagitis in patients with GERD. Both the treatments were well tolerated with few reports of adverse events. Trial registration: This trial is registered with http://clinicaltrials.gov , number NCT02140073.

  5. Is the Routine Use of Impedance Analysis for the Diagnosis of Gastro-Esophageal Reflux Disease More Expensive than Conventional pH Monitoring? Cost Analysis of Two Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törer, Nurkan; Aytaç, Özgür

    2017-06-01

    Conventional 24-h pH monitoring is the gold standard for the diagnosis of non-erosive, non-acidic gastro-esophageal reflux disease. Multichannel Intraluminal Impedance (MII) analysis markedly improves diagnostic accuracy of non-erosive, non-acidic gastro-esophageal reflux disease. However, MII catheters are more expensive than standard catheters. This study aimed to determine the rates of acid or non-acid reflux and by making a retrospective projection, to predict the costs of two algorithms. We retrospectively reviewed the medical data of 102 patients who presented to our hospital with suspected non-erosive GERD and underwent 24 h impedance/pH-monitoring. Demographic characteristics, Demeester scores, number of reflux episodes, and results of impedance analysis were recorded. According to these data, cost was calculated either for the scenario in which impedance measurement was performed solely or following a negative conventional pH monitoring. Thirty-seven of all 102 patients (36.3 %) had a Demeester score greater than 14.7. These patients were assigned as group 1 (acid reflux). The impedance analysis of the remaining 65 patients detected 34 patients (33.3 %) to have more than 50 reflux episodes over a period of 24 h and assigned as Group 2, and 31 patients (30.4 %) had no reflux (group 3). The cost of the single- step algorithm using MII catheter was calculated as $15,300, while the total cost of two-step scenario would have been predicted as $16,890. Our study showed that an initial conventional pH monitoring can make the diagnosis of GERD in only one third of the patients with suspected non-erosive GERD. In nearly two-thirds of patients, however, repeated procedures and use of impedance catheters are needed. It is clear that this algorithm has certain drawbacks with regard to cost, patient comfort, and workforce loss.

  6. Radioisotope esophageal transit test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazono, Kazuhiro; Fukuda, Kazuo; Toyonaga, Atsushi

    1982-01-01

    A new technique employed sup(99m)Tc-MAA for the study of esophageal dysfunction and its clinical implication were evaluated in the patients with achalasia, progressive systemic sclerosis, reflux esophagitis and 10 normal controls. To investigate esophageal emptying and gastroesophageal reflux, a homogeneous bolus of sup(99m)Tc-MAA in 15ml of water was swallowed in the upright and supine positions under the collimeter of a gamma camera linked to nuclear medicine data analyser (Shimazu Scinti Pack 1200). This radionuclide transit studies made a quantitative evaluation of the esophageal dysfunction possible in all cases. Comparing the conventional esophageal function test procedures, this test is a safe, noninvasive and more physiological and sensitive in detecting abnormal esophageal emptying and gastroesophageal reflux. (author)

  7. Gastroesophageal reflux disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kault, B.; Halvorsen, T.; Petersen, H.; Grette, K.; Myrvold, H.E.

    1986-01-01

    Radionucleotide scintigraphy and esophagoscopy with biopsy were carried out in 101 patients with symptoms strongly suggestive of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) disease. GER was visualized by scintigraphy in 86.1% of the patients. Endoscopic and histologic esophagitis were found in 68.1% and 58.4% of the patients, respectively, whereas both examinations taken together showed evidence of esophagitis in 82%. Histologic evidence of esophagitis was found in nearly all patients with severe endoscopic changes, and in 43.7% of the patients with no endoscopic abnormality. Scintigraphic reflux was demonstrated more frequently (p<0.05) in the patients with severe endoscopic esophagitis (97.5%) than in those with no or only mild endoscopic changes (78.6%). Scintigraphic reflux was found in 91.5% and 78.5% of the patients with and without histologic evidence of esophagitis (p=0.07). 15 of the 18 patients (83.3%) without endoscopic and histologic abnormalities in the esophagus had scintigraphic evidence of reflux. The present study strongly supports the clinical significance of scintigraphy in GER disease and confirms that esophageal biopsy specimens increase the sensitivity of endoscopic evaluation

  8. Clinical trial: esomeprazole for moderate-to-severe nighttime heartburn and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease-related sleep disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D; Crawley, J A; Hwang, C; Brown, K

    2010-07-01

    Nighttime heartburn, common among patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD), is associated with substantial clinical effects. GERD-related sleep disturbances are underappreciated and undertreated. To evaluate the efficacy of esomeprazole on GERD-related nighttime heartburn and associated sleep disturbances. In this multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, patients with moderate-to-severe nighttime heartburn and GERD-related sleep disturbances (endoscopies not required) received esomeprazole 20 mg or placebo each morning for 4 weeks. Heartburn symptoms and GERD-related sleep disturbances were evaluated using the validated Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and validated Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire. The analysis included 262 patients (esomeprazole, n = 137; placebo, n = 125). Significantly more patients receiving esomeprazole achieved nighttime heartburn relief (primary end point) than those receiving placebo (34.3% vs. 10.4%; P heartburn and GERD-related sleep disturbances, improving heartburn symptoms, sleep quality, work productivity and functionality.

  9. Causes of, and Therapeutic Approaches for, Proton Pump Inhibitor-Resistant Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Kinoshita, Yoshikazu; Ishihara, Shunji

    2008-01-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are the most widely used drugs for treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease. However, approximately 20% of patients with reflux esophagitis and 40% of those with nonerosive reflux diseases complain of troublesome symptoms, even during treatment with PPIs. In patients with reflux esophagitis, dose escalation and co-administration with a histamine ...

  10. Nocturnal Gastroesophageal Reflux Revisited by Impedance-pH Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondeau, Kathleen; Mertens, Veerle; Tack, Jan; Sifrim, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims Impedance-pH monitoring allows detailed characterization of gastroesophageal reflux and esophageal activity associated with reflux. We assessed the characteristics of nocturnal reflux and esophageal activity preceding and following reflux. Methods Impedance-pH tracings from 11 healthy subjects and 76 patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease off acid-suppressive therapy were analyzed. Characteristics of nocturnal supine reflux, time distribution and esophageal activity seen on impedance at 2 minute intervals preceding and following reflux were described. Results Patients had more nocturnal reflux events than healthy subjects (8 [4-12] vs 2 [1-5], P = 0.002), with lower proportion of weakly acidic reflux (57% [35-78] vs 80% [60-100], P = 0.044). Nocturnal reflux was mainly liquid (80%) and reached the proximal esophagus more often in patients (6% vs 0%, P = 0.047). Acid reflux predominated in the first 2 hours (66%) and weakly acidic reflux in the last 3 hours (70%) of the night. Most nocturnal reflux was preceded by aboral flows and cleared by short lasting volume clearance. In patients, prolonged chemical clearance was associated with less esophageal activity. Conclusions Nocturnal weakly acidic reflux is as common as acid reflux in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease, and predominates later in the night. Impedance-pH can predict prolonged chemical clearance after nocturnal acid reflux. PMID:21602991

  11. Proton pump inhibitor monotherapy and the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, S; Cui, Z; Zhou, M; Li, R; Li, H; Zhang, S; Ba, Y; Cheng, G

    2017-02-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are commonly used as potent gastric acid secretion antagonists for gastro-esophageal disorders and their overall safety in patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) is considered to be good and they are well-tolerated. However, recent studies have suggested that PPIs may be a potential independent risk factor for cardiovascular adverse events. The aim of our meta-analysis was to examine the association between PPI monotherapy and cardiovascular events in patients with GERD. A literature search involved examination of relevant databases up to July 2015 including PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and ClinicalTrial.gov, as well as selected randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting cardiovascular events with PPI exposure in GERD patients. In addition, the pooled risk ratio (RR) and heterogeneity were assessed based on a fixed effects model of the meta-analysis and the I 2 statistic, respectively. Seventeen RCTs covering 7540 patients were selected. The pooled data suggested that the use of PPIs was associated with a 70% increased cardiovascular risk (RR=1.70, 95% CI: [1.13-2.56], P=.01, I 2 =0%). Furthermore, higher risks of adverse cardiovascular events in the omeprazole subgroup (RR=3.17, 95% CI: [1.43-7.03], P=.004, I 2 =25%) and long-term treatment subgroup (RR=2.33, 95% CI: [1.33-4.08], P=.003, I 2 =0%) were found. PPI monotherapy can be a risk factor for cardiovascular adverse events. Omeprazole could significantly increase the risk of cardiovascular events and, so, should be used carefully. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Measurement of esophago-gastric junction cross-sectional area and distensibility by an endolumenal functional lumen imaging probe for the diagnosis of gastro-esophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, E; Sweis, R; Anggiansah, A; Wong, T; Telakis, E; Knowles, K; Wright, J; Fox, M

    2013-11-01

    Measurement of esophago-gastric junction (EGJ) cross-sectional area (CSA) and distensibility by an Endolumenal Functional Lumen Imaging Probe (EndoFLIP®) may distinguish between gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) patients and healthy volunteers (HV). We aimed to assess the agreement of EndoFLIP® measurements with clinical and physiologic diagnosis of GERD. Twenty-one HV and 18 patients with typical GERD symptoms were studied. After gastroscopy, EGJ CSA, and distensibility were measured by EndoFLIP®. Forty-eight hour esophageal pH monitoring was then performed by a wireless system. The ability of EndoFLIP® to discriminate GERD patient and HVs was assessed. Planned secondary analysis then assessed whether EGJ CSA and distensibility were increased in individuals with pathologic acid exposure. Healthy volunteers were younger and had lower body mass index (BMI; both p < 0.001). Pathologic acid exposure was present in 3/21 (14%) HVs and 9/18 (50%) patients (p = 0.126). At 30 mL EndoFLIP® bag volume, EGJ CSA was higher (p = 0.058) and EGJ distensibility was lower (p = 0.020) in HVs than patients. Secondary analysis showed that EGJ measurements were similar in participants with and without pathologic acid exposure (CSA 98 mm² vs 107 mm²; p = 0.789, distensibility; p = 0.704). An inverse association between BMI and CSA (R² = 0.2758, p = 0.001) and distensibility (R² = 0.2005, p = 0.005) was present. Endolumenal Functional Lumen Imaging Probe is not useful for GERD diagnosis because EGJ CSA and distensibility do not distinguish between HVs and GERD patients defined by clinical presentation or pH measurement. This unexpected result may be due to an important, confounding interaction of obesity. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Pathophysiology of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smout, A. J. P. M.

    2003-01-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD), defined as symptoms or mucosal damage caused by reflux of gastric contents into the esophageal body, is a multifactorial disorder. Malfunctioning of the anti-reflux barrier at the esophagogastric junction, consisting of the right diaphragmatic crus and the

  14. Preliminary study of clinical staging of moderately advanced and advanced thoracic esophageal carcinoma treated by non-surgical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shuchai; Li Ren; Li Juan; Qiu Rong; Han Chun; Wan Jun

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical staging of moderately advanced and advanced thoracic esophageal carcinoma by evaluating the prognosis and provide criteria for individual treatment. Methods: The authors retrospectively analyzed 500 patients with moderately advanced and advanced thoracic esophageal carcinoma treated by radiotherapy alone. According to the primary lesion length by barium meal X-ray film, the invasion range and the relation between location and the surrounding organs by CT scans the disease category was classified by a 6 stage method and a 4 stage method. With the primary lesion divide into T1, T2a, T2b, T3a, T3b and T4 incorporating the locregional lymph node metastasis, a 6 stage system was obtained, I, IIa , IIb, IIIa, IIIb and IV. The results of this as compared with those of 4 stage system, the following data were finally arrived at. Results: Among the 500 cases, there were T1 23, T2a 111, T2b 157, T3a 84, T3b 82 and T4 43. The survival rates of these six categories showed significant differences (χ 2 =63.32, P 2 =56.29, P 2 =94.29, P 2 =83.48, P<0.05). Conclusions: Both the 6 stage and 4 stage systems are adaptable to predict prognosis of moderately advanced and advanced esophageal carcinoma treated by radiotherapy alone. For simplicity and convenience, the 4 stage classification is recommended. (authors)

  15. Radiological evaluation of the patency of duodenal-esophageal anastomosis during a long postoperative follow-up: effectiveness of an alkaline reflux model in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavazzola L

    2011-08-01

    examination period. The different contrast media used were able to demonstrate this outcome shortly after the first phase of injection. Necropsies corroborated the radiological findings.Conclusion: Regardless of the contrast agent used, contrasted radiography revealed that side-to-side duodenal-esophageal anastomosis in rats allowed patent communication during long-term postoperative follow-up.Keywords: gastroesophageal reflux, esophagus, adenocarcinoma, experimental neoplasm

  16. Development and gamma scintigraphy evaluation of gastro retentive calcium ion-based oral formulation: an innovative approach for the management of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Braj Gaurav; Khanna, Kushagra; Kumar, Neeraj; Nishad, Dhruv K; Basu, Mitra; Bhatnagar, Aseem

    2017-11-01

    Calcium chloride is an essential calcium channel agonist which plays an important role in the contraction of muscles by triggering calcium channel. First time hypothesized about its role in the treatment of GER (gastro-esophageal reflux) and vomiting disorder due to its local action. There are two objectives covered in this study as first, the development and optimization of floating formulation of calcium chloride and another objective was to evaluate optimized formulation through gamma scintigraphy in human subjects. Gastro retentive formulation of calcium chloride was prepared by direct compression method. Thirteen tablet formulations were designed with the help of sodium chloride, HPMC-K4M, and carbopol-934 along with effervescing agent sodium bicarbonate and citric acid. Formulation (F8) fitted best for Korsmeyer-Peppas equation with an R 2 value of 0.993. The optimized formulation was radiolabelled with 99m Tc-99 m pertechnetate for its evaluation by gamma scintigraphy. Gastric retention (6 h) was evaluated by gamma scintigraphy in healthy human subjects and efficacy of present formulation confirmed in GER positive human subjects. Gamma scintigraphy results indicated its usefulness in order to manage GERD. Stability studies of the developed formulation were carried out as per ICH guidelines for region IV and found out to be stable for 24 months.

  17. Association between respiratory events and nocturnal gastroesophageal reflux events in patients with coexisting obstructive sleep apnea and gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaimchariyatam, Nattapong; Tantipornsinchai, Warangkana; Desudchit, Tayard; Gonlachanvit, Sutep

    2016-06-01

    Literature has addressed the increased prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Significant improvement of GERD has been found after OSA treatment. However, precise mechanisms underlying this correlation remain unclear. We examined the association between nocturnal gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and sleep events in patients with coexisting OSA and GERD. A case-crossover study among 12 patients with coexisting moderate-severe OSA and GERD was conducted. Participants underwent simultaneous polysomnography and esophageal impedance and pH monitoring. GER subtypes (ie, acid reflux, non-acid reflux) were defined as outcomes. Respective control time points were selected in all eligible control periods. Each sleep event was assessed individually. Estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were analyzed. A p-value of reflux and 28 non-acid reflux. Arousals and awakenings were significantly associated with subsequent GER events. The OR for GER following an arousal was 2.31 (95% CI 1.39-3.68; p  0.05). Both awakening and arousal appear to precipitate any subtype of GER events in patients with coexisting GERD and moderate to severe OSA. However, GER events were significantly less likely to occur after other respiratory events and did not appear to cause sleep-related events. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Does Impaired Gallbladder Function Contribute to the Development of Barrett's Esophagus and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nassr, Ayman O

    2011-06-01

    Esophageal adenocarcinoma is aetiologically associated with gastro-esophageal reflux, but the mechanisms responsible for the metaplasia-dysplasia sequence are unknown. Bile components are implicated. Impaired gallbladder function may contribute to duodenogastric reflux (DGR) and harmful GERD.

  19. Treatment of Post-Stent Gastroesophageal Reflux by Anti-Reflux Z-Stent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, Roger Philip; Kew, Jacqueline; Byrne, Peter D.

    2000-01-01

    Severe symptoms of heartburn and retrosternal pain consistent with gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) developed in a patient following placement of a conventional self-expanding 16-24-mm-diameter x 12-cm-long esophageal stent across the gastroesophageal junction to treat an obstructing esophageal carcinoma. A second 18-mm-diameter x 10-cm-long esophageal stent with anti-reflux valve was deployed coaxially and reduced symptomatic GER immediately. Improvement was sustained at 4-month follow-up. An anti-reflux stent can be successfully used to treat significant symptomatic GER after conventional stenting

  20. A meta-analysis of long follow-up outcomes of laparoscopic Nissen (total) versus Toupet (270°) fundoplication for gastro-esophageal reflux disease based on randomized controlled trials in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xing; Hu, Zhiwei; Yan, Chao; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Zhonggao; Wu, Jimin

    2016-08-02

    Laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication (LNF) is the most common surgical procedure for the surgical management of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). Laparoscopic Toupet fundoplication (LTF) has been reported to have a lower prevalence of postoperative complications yet still obtain a similar level of reflux control. We conducted a meta-analysis to confirm the value of LNF and LTF. PubMed, Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library and Springerlink were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing LNF and LTF. Data regarding the benefits and adverse results of two techniques were extracted and compared using a meta-analysis. Eight eligible RCTs comparing LNF (n = 625) and LTF (n = 567) were identified. There were no significant differences between LNF and LTF with regard to hospitalization duration, perioperative complications, patient satisfaction, postoperative heartburn, regurgitation, postoperative DeMeester scores, or esophagites. A shorter operative time and higher postoperative lower esophageal sphincter pressure were associated with LNF. Prevalence of postoperative dysphagia, gas-bloating, inability to belch, dilatation for dysphagia and reoperation were higher after LNF, but subgroup analyses showed that differences with respect to dysphagia between LNF and LTF disappeared over time. Subgroup analyses did not support "tailored therapy" according to preoperative esophageal motility. LNF and LTF have equivalently good control of GERD and result in a similar prevalence of patient satisfaction. Based on current evidence, it is not rational or advisable to abandon LNF when choosing a surgical procedure for GERD.

  1. Assessment of Gastroesophageal Reflux in Children(2-12 Month Based on Clinical Findings and Ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Jassemi Zergani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gastroesophageal reflux is a common gastrointestinal disorder among infants, which can cause complications, such as esophagitis and Barrett's esophagus if its diagnosis and treatment are delayed. On the other hand, similarity of Gastro esophageal Reflux symptoms with symptoms of other childhood diseases makes its diagnosis and treatment difficult. So a proper tool for early screening and diagnostic test is essential. Methods: This study was conducted on 221 infants(2 to 12 months with initial symptoms of gastro esophageal reflux(frequent vomiting, restlessness after feeding, no weight gain, coughing repeatedly and refusing to eat that referred to pediatric Clinic of Rajai Hospital in Tonekabon. Data was collected with demographic and infant gastro esophageal reflux questionnaire by use of the information in records and interview with parents. Then the samples were examined via sonography for gastroesophagial reflux. Results: After initial screening based on infants gastro esophageal reflux tool, gastro esophageal reflux by ultrasound was positive in 63/3% of infants. The mean esophageal diameter was (20/73±2/54mm in infants with gastro esophageal reflux and (23/71±2/35mm in infants without gastro esophageal reflux. Conclusion: Due to the similarity of gastro esophageal Reflux symptoms with clinical symptoms of other childhood diseases, use of an initial screening measurement for early assessment of gastro esophageal reflux in infants is necessary. Moreover, appropriate, available and low costs diagnostic method with little complication seems essential such as ultrasonography for confirm diagnosis and early treatment.

  2. Efeito da acidificação esofágica na obstrução brônquica de pacientes asmáticos com refluxo gastroesofágico The effect of esophageal acidification on bronchial obstruction in asthmatics with gastroesophageal reflux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carla Sousa de Araujo

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A relação entre asma e refluxo gastroesofágico permanece pouco compreendida. O reflexo vagal e a microaspiração estão entre os mecanismos propostos para explicar a piora da asma pelo refluxo gastroesofágico. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o volume expirado forçado no primeiro segundo após a acidificação esofágica. MÉTODO: O estudo investigou os efeitos da infusão ácida em treze voluntários portadores de asma moderada e refluxo gastroesofágico. Foram realizadas espirometrias antes e depois da inserção esofágica de uma sonda nasogástrica 8F e um cateter de pHmetria. Outras medidas de volume expirado forçado no primeiro segundo foram realizadas depois de quinze minutos de infusão de solução salina no ponto médio entre o esfíncter esofágico superior e o inferior, e depois de quinze minutos da acidificação esofágica, a cada cinco minutos mantida a acidificação, até a obtenção de um valor estável (variação BACKGROUND: The relationship between asthma and gastroesophageal reflux is, as yet, not completely understood. Among the mechanisms thought to be responsible for gastroesophageal reflux-related worsening of asthma symptoms are the vagovagal reflex and microaspiration. OBJECTIVE: To assess forced expiratory volume in one second after acid infusion. METHOD: This study investigated the effect of acid infusion in 13 volunteers with moderate asthma and gastroesophageal reflux. Spirometry was performed before and after insertion of an 8F nasogastric tube and a pH meter. After 15 minutes of saline solution infusion into the midpoint between the upper esophageal sphincter and lower esophageal sphincter, and again after 15 minutes of esophageal acidification (with hydrochloric acid of the same area, forced expiratory volume in one second was reassessed. Acidification was repeated every 5 minutes until forced expiratory volume in one second values stabilized (variation: < 5%. RESULTS: Mean forced expiratory volume in

  3. Gastroesophageal reflux disease-related symptom recurrence in patients discontinuing proton pump inhibitors for Bravo wireless esophageal pH monitoring study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Schey

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD are treated with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs. Those that do not achieve symptom relief, or non-responders, usually undergo esophageal pH monitoring off PPIs in order to confirm the presence of GERD. Aims: To assess the efficacy of the reverse-PPI trial in evaluating the presence of GERD or its recurrence rates, as well as to identify a correlation between the symptom recurrence rates and GERD severity determined by 48-hour Bravo esophageal pH-monitor testing. Methods: A final total of 205 patients that underwent the 48-hour Bravo esophageal pH-monitoring study were retrospectively included. Patients discontinued PPI usage for at least 7 days prior to testing, and completed symptom questionnaires during the 2-day test. The Bravo test was considered positive if the percentage of time with esophageal pH 4.4%. Results: A total of 363 patients underwent 48-hour Bravo testing and of those patients, 205 were eligible for the study. Ninety-two patients reported symptoms as being «same/better» and 113 as being «worse» after stopping PPIs. Of the 92 patients with improved symptoms, 44 (48% had documented acid reflux during the Bravo study, compared with 65 of 113 (58% patients with worsening symptoms that also complained of acid reflux. Of the 109 patients found to have confirmed GERD upon pH monitoring, 65 (59.6% reported a worsening of symptoms, compared with 48 of 96 (50.0% patients without GERD (p = 0.043. Main symptoms stated to be worse included heartburn, chest pain, regurgitation, nausea, and belching (p  7 days (p = 0.042 Conclusion: Symptom exacerbation following PPI cessation for at least 7 days correlated with acid reflux severity assessed by Bravo testing. Patients off PPIs for 7 days had a higher likelihood of experiencing worsening symptoms, compared with those off PPIs for more than 7 days. These findings suggest that when PPIs are held for 7 days or less prior to

  4. Laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication mainly reduces the volume of acid reflux and potentially improves mucosal integrity up to the middle esophagus in neurologically impaired children detected by esophageal combined pH-multichannel intraluminal impedance measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukahori, Suguru; Yagi, Minoru; Ishii, Shinji; Asagiri, Kimio; Saikusa, Nobuyuki; Hashizume, Naoki; Yoshida, Motomu; Masui, Daisuke; Sakamoto, Saki; Tsuruhisa, Shihori; Kurahachi, Tomohiro; Tanaka, Yoshiaki

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate detailed changes of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in children before and after laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication (LNF) utilizing esophageal combined pH-multichannel intraluminal impedance (pH/MII) measurements. Thirteen patients with neurological impairment, who received laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication (LNF) owing to refractory pathological GERD, were enrolled in this study. 24h pH/MII was conducted in all patients before and one year after LNF. Each parameter of the pH/MII was evaluated and compared each other. Both the mean pH index and bolus exposure index after LNF were significantly lower than those before LNF. The mean numbers of total and nonacid reflux episodes after LNF were significantly lower than those before LNF. The mean numbers of total, acid and nonacid proximal reflux episodes after LNF were significantly lower than those before LNF. The mean baseline impedance values from Z3 to Z6 after LNF were significantly higher than those before LNF. The present study provides new insights into the effects of LNF in pediatric patients, which prevents mainly acid reflux episodes from rising to the proximal esophagus, and is expected to improve the mucosal integrity up to the middle esophagus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Radiofrequency energy delivery to the lower esophageal sphincter improves gastroesophageal reflux patient-reported outcomes in failed laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noar, Mark; Squires, Patrick; Khan, Sulman

    2017-07-01

    Patients with uncontrollable gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) often undergo laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication (LNF); however, long-term there are often recurring symptoms and need for continuous medication use. Refractory LNF patients may receive radiofrequency energy delivery to the lower esophageal sphincter (Stretta) to ameliorate symptoms and medication requirements. The aim was to assess and compare long-term patient-reported outcomes of Stretta in refractory patients with and without previous LNF. We prospectively assessed and compared patient-reported outcomes in 18 refractory LNF patients and 81 standard refractory GERD patients that all underwent Stretta during 10-year follow-up. Patient-reported outcomes measured were GERD-HRQL (health-related quality of life), patient satisfaction scores, and daily medication requirements. The refractory LNF subset demonstrated median improvements in GERD-HRQL, satisfaction, and medication use at all follow-up time points ≥6 months to 10 years, which was significant from a baseline of both on- and off-medications (p  0.05) after Stretta. At 10 years, no significant differences were noted between refractory LNF and standard Stretta subsets regarding medication use (p = 0.088), patient satisfaction (p = 0.573), and GERD-HRQL (p = 0.075). Stretta procedures were completed without difficulty or significant intraoperative or long-term adverse events. Within a small cohort of refractory LNF patients, Stretta resulted in sustained improvement over 10 years with equivalent outcomes to non-LNF standard Stretta patients. Refractory LNF patients are a subpopulation that may be safely, effectively, and robustly aided by Stretta with fewer complications compared to redo of Nissen or chronic medication use.

  6. Greater loss of productivity among Japanese workers with gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms that persist vs resolve on medical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, H; Matsuzaki, J; Masaoka, T; Inadomi, J M

    2014-06-01

    Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) impairs quality of life; however, the association between GERD and work productivity has not been well investigated in Japan. This study was designed to compare the impact of GERD on productivity between Japanese workers with GERD symptoms that persisted vs resolved on medical therapy. A cross-sectional Web-based survey was conducted in workers. The impact of GERD on work and daily productivity was evaluated using a Web-reported Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire for patients with GERD and a GERD symptom severity Questionnaire. Demographic information, clinical history, and satisfaction with GERD medication were also ascertained. A total of 20 000 subjects were invited to the survey. After the exclusion of patients with a history of gastrointestinal (GI) malignancy, peptic ulcer, upper GI surgery, and unemployment, 650 participants were included in the analysis. Participants with persistent GERD symptoms reported a significantly greater losses of work productivity (11.4 ± 13.4 h/week), absenteeism (0.7 ± 3.1 h/week), presenteeism (10.7 ± 12.6 h/week), costs (20 100 ± 26 800 JPY/week), and lower daily productivity (71.3% [95% confidence interval, 69.0-73.7]) than those whose symptoms were alleviated with medications. The level of dissatisfaction with GERD medications among participants with persistent GERD symptoms was significantly correlated with loss of work and daily productivity (p < 0.001). GERD places a significant burden on work and daily productivity despite medical therapy. Ineffective GERD therapy is associated with greater productivity loss. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Sleeve Gastrectomy Combined with the Simplified Hill Repair in the Treatment of Morbid Obesity and Gastro-esophageal Reflux Disease: Preliminary Results in 14 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gero, Daniel; Ribeiro-Parenti, Lara; Arapis, Konstantinos; Marmuse, Jean-Pierre

    2017-04-01

    Our aim is to report our initial experience with a novel technique which addresses morbid obesity and gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) simultaneously by combination of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) and simplified laparoscopic Hill repair (sLHR). Retrospective analysis of LSG+sLHR patients >5 months postoperatively includes demographics, GERD status, proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) use, body mass index (BMI), excess BMI loss (EBMIL), complications and GERD-Health Related Quality of Life (GERD-HRQL) questionnaire. LSG+sLHR surgical technique: posterior cruroplasty,  standard LSG, fixation of the esophagogastric junction to the median arcuate ligament. Fourteen patients underwent LSG+sLHR [12 women and 2 men, mean (range) age 47 years (27-57), BMI 41 kg/m 2 (35-65)]. Five patients had previous gastric banding (GB). All had symptomatic GERD confirmed by gastroscopy and/or upper-gastrointestinal contrast study, two with chronic cough, 10 took PPI daily. Twelve had hiatus hernia and two patulous cardia at surgical exploration. Associated interventions were three GB removals and one cholecystectomy. Postoperative complication was one surgical site infection. Follow-up of all patients at median 12.5 months (5-17) is as follows: symptomatic GERD 3/14 patients, chronic cough 0/14, daily PPI use in 1/14, mean EBMIL 68% (17-120), satisfaction 93%, mean GERD-HRQL score 3,28/50 (0-15), with 4 patients 0/50, occasional bloatedness in 2 patients and dysphagia not reported. The novel technique which combines LSG with sLHR is feasible, safe and can be associated with GB removal. Preliminary results showed patient satisfaction, high remission rate of preexisting GERD, decrease in PPI use and unimpaired weight loss. Further evaluation is necessary in a controlled and staged manner to establish the technique's real effectiveness.

  8. Influence of exercise testing in gastroesophageal reflux in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes-Filho, Antonio Moreira; Moraes-Filho, Joaquim Prado Pinto; Nasi, Ary; Eisig, Jaime Natan; Rodrigues, Tomas Navarro; Barbutti, Ricardo Correa; Campos, Josemberg Marins; Chinzon, Decio

    2014-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a worldwide prevalent condition that exhibits a large variety of signs and symptoms of esophageal or extra-esophageal nature and can be related to the esophagic adenocarcinoma. In the last few years, greater importance has been given to the influence of physical exercises on it. Some recent investigations, though showing conflicting results, point to an exacerbation of gastroesophageal reflux during physical exercises. To evaluate the influence of physical activities in patients presenting with erosive and non erosive disease by ergometric stress testing and influence of the lower esophageal sphincter tonus and body mass index during this situation. Twenty-nine patients with erosive disease (group I) and 10 patients with non-erosive disease (group II) were prospectively evaluated. All the patients were submitted to clinical evaluation, followed by upper digestive endoscopy, manometry and 24 h esophageal pH monitoring. An ergometric testing was performed 1 h before removing the esophageal pH probe. During the ergometric stress testing, the following variables were analyzed: test efficacy, maximum oxygen uptake, acid reflux duration, gastroesophageal reflux symptoms, influence of the lower esophageal sphincter tonus and influence of body mass index in the occurrence of gastroesophageal reflux during these physical stress. Maximum oxigen consumption or VO 2 max, showed significant correlation when it was 70% or higher only in the erosive disease group, evaluating the patients with or without acid reflux during the ergometric testing (p=0,032). The other considered variables didn't show significant correlations between gastroesophageal reflux and physical activity (p>0,05). 1) Highly intensive physical activity can predispose the occurrence of gastroesophageal reflux episodes in gastroesophageal reflux disease patients with erosive disease; 2) light or short sessions of physical activity have no influence on reflux, regardless of body

  9. Combined therapy in gastro-esophageal reflux disease of term neonates resistant to conservative therapy and monotherapy: a clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peymaneh Alizadeh Taheri

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD is one of the most common problems in neonates. The main clinical manifestations of neonatal GERD are frequent regurgitation or vomiting associated with irritability, crying, anorexia or feeding refusal, failure to thrive, arching of the back and sleep disturbance.Aims: As no study has compared metoclopramide plus ranitidine with metoclopramide plus omeprazole in the management of neonatal GERD resistant to conservative and monotherapy, this study was carried out.Study design: This study was a randomized clinical trial of term neonates with GERD resistant to conservative and monotherapy admitted to the neonatal ward of Bahrami Children Hospital during 2013-2015. Totally, 116 term neonates (mean age 10.53 ± 8.17 days; girls 50.9% were randomly assigned to a double blind trial with either oral omeprazole plus metoclopramide (group A or oral ranitidine plus metoclopramide (group B. The changes of the symptoms and signs were recorded after one week and one month.Results: There was no significant difference in demographic and baseline characteristics between the two groups. The response rate of “omeprazole plus metoclopramide” was significantly higher than “ranitidine plus metoclopramide” (93.74% ± 7.28% vs. 75.43% ± 23.24%, p = 0.028. All clinical manifestations recovered significantly in group A while the response rate of irritability and wheezing was not significant in group B (primary outcome. There were no side effects in either group after one week and one month of treatment (secondary outcome.Conclusions: The response rate was > 70% in each group, but it was significantly higher in group A (> 90%. Combination of each acid suppressant with metoclopramide led to higher response rate in comparison with monotherapy used before intervention.

  10. Correlation of Gastroesophageal reflux disease Assessment Symptom Questionnaire to impedance-pH measurements in children

    OpenAIRE

    Prachuapthunyachart, Sittichoke; Jarasvaraparn, Chaowapong; Gremse, David A

    2017-01-01

    Background: Esophageal multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH monitoring has become one of the preferred tests to correlate observed reflux-like behaviors with esophageal reflux events. The Gastroesophageal reflux disease Assessment Symptom Questionnaire is a validated tool used to distinguish infants with gastroesophageal reflux disease from healthy children. The aim of this study was to determine whether the Gastroesophageal reflux disease Assessment Symptom Questionnaire composite symptom ...

  11. Esophageal Motility and Rikkunshito Treatment for Proton Pump Inhibitor-Refractory Nonerosive Reflux Disease: A Prospective, Uncontrolled, Open-Label Pilot Study Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Odaka, MD, PhD

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: In the pilot study, patients with PPI-refractory NERD had disorders of esophageal and lower esophageal sphincter motility that were improved by RKT. Further studies examining esophageal motor activity of RKT in PPI-refractory NERD are required. University hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN Clinical Trial Registry identifier: UMIN000003092.

  12. Esophageal dysfunction as a cause of angina pectoris ("linked angina"): does it exist?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam, H. G.; Dekker, W.; Kan, G.; van Berg Henegouwen, G. P.; Smout, A. J.

    1994-01-01

    PURPOSE: The differentiation between cardiac and esophageal causes of retrosternal chest pain is notoriously difficult. Theoretically, cardiac and esophageal causes may coexist. It has also been reported that gastroesophageal reflux and esophageal motor abnormalities may elicit myocardial ischemia

  13. Scintigraphic evaluation of gastroesophageal reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malmud, L.S.; Fisher, R.S.

    1983-01-01

    When patients have symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux disease, their symptoms usually respond to conventional therapeutic measures. In some patients, however, the symptoms may persist despite the application of standard treatment regimens. It is in these instances that the clinician may employ extensive diagnostic tests to determine the cause of the patient's complaints. Because the introduction of gastroesophageal scintigraphy, a number of other techniques were employed to evaluate gastroesophageal reflux. These include barium esophagography, barium cineesophagography; endoscopy; esophageal mucosal biopsy; esophageal manometry; the acid-clearance test; and acid-reflux testing. Each of the nonscintigraphic techniques has a limitation either in its sensitivity or in the requirement for endogastric intubation. In addition, with the exception of the scintigraphic method, none of the tests permits quantitation of reflux

  14. Challenges of correlating pH change with relief of clinical symptoms in gastro esophageal reflux disease: a phase III, randomized study of Zegerid versus Losec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Dave; Ng Kwet Shing, Richard; Jones, Deborah; Gruss, Hans-Jurgen; Reguła, Jarosław

    2015-01-01

    Zegerid (on demand immediate-release omeprazole and sodium bicarbonate combination therapy) has demonstrated earlier absorption and more rapid pH change compared with Losec (standard enteric coated omeprazole), suggesting more rapid clinical relief of heartburn. This Phase III, multicenter, double-blind, double-dummy, randomized study assessed the clinical superiority of Zegerid versus Losec for rapid relief of heartburn associated with gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). Patients with a history of frequent (2 3 days/week) uncomplicated GERD, were randomized to receive Zegerid (20 mg) or Losec (20 mg) with corresponding placebo. Study medication was self-administered on the first episode of heartburn, and could be taken for up to 3 days within a 14 day study period. Heartburn severity was self assessed up to 180 minutes post dose (9 point Likert scale). Primary endpoint was median time to sustained response (≥3 point reduction in heartburn severity for ≥45 minutes). Of patients randomized to Zegerid (N=122) or Losec (N=117), 228/239 had recorded ≥1 evaluable heartburn episodes and were included in the modified intent-to-treat population. No significant between-group differences were observed for median time to sustained response (60.0 vs. 52.2 minutes, Zegerid [N=117] and Losec [N=111], respectively), sustained partial response (both, 37.5 minutes) and sustained total relief (both, 105 minutes). Significantly more patients treated with Zegerid reached sustained total relief within 0-30 minutes post dose in all analysis sets (p<0.05). Both treatments were well tolerated and did not raise any safety concerns. Superiority of Zegerid over Losec for rapid heartburn relief was not demonstrated; both treatments were equally effective however the rapid onset of action of Losec was unexpected. Factors, including aspects of study design may have contributed to this. This study supports previously reported difficulty in correlating intra-gastric pH change with

  15. Challenges of correlating pH change with relief of clinical symptoms in gastro esophageal reflux disease: a phase III, randomized study of Zegerid versus Losec.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Walker

    Full Text Available Zegerid (on demand immediate-release omeprazole and sodium bicarbonate combination therapy has demonstrated earlier absorption and more rapid pH change compared with Losec (standard enteric coated omeprazole, suggesting more rapid clinical relief of heartburn. This Phase III, multicenter, double-blind, double-dummy, randomized study assessed the clinical superiority of Zegerid versus Losec for rapid relief of heartburn associated with gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD.Patients with a history of frequent (2 3 days/week uncomplicated GERD, were randomized to receive Zegerid (20 mg or Losec (20 mg with corresponding placebo. Study medication was self-administered on the first episode of heartburn, and could be taken for up to 3 days within a 14 day study period. Heartburn severity was self assessed up to 180 minutes post dose (9 point Likert scale. Primary endpoint was median time to sustained response (≥3 point reduction in heartburn severity for ≥45 minutes.Of patients randomized to Zegerid (N=122 or Losec (N=117, 228/239 had recorded ≥1 evaluable heartburn episodes and were included in the modified intent-to-treat population. No significant between-group differences were observed for median time to sustained response (60.0 vs. 52.2 minutes, Zegerid [N=117] and Losec [N=111], respectively, sustained partial response (both, 37.5 minutes and sustained total relief (both, 105 minutes. Significantly more patients treated with Zegerid reached sustained total relief within 0-30 minutes post dose in all analysis sets (p<0.05. Both treatments were well tolerated and did not raise any safety concerns.Superiority of Zegerid over Losec for rapid heartburn relief was not demonstrated; both treatments were equally effective however the rapid onset of action of Losec was unexpected. Factors, including aspects of study design may have contributed to this. This study supports previously reported difficulty in correlating intra-gastric pH change with

  16. Indications and interpretation of esophageal function testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, C Prakash; de Bortoli, Nicola; Clarke, John; Marinelli, Carla; Tolone, Salvatore; Roman, Sabine; Savarino, Edoardo

    2018-05-12

    Esophageal symptoms are common, and can arise from mucosal, motor, functional, and neoplastic processes, among others. Judicious use of diagnostic testing can help define the etiology of symptoms and can direct management. Endoscopy, esophageal high-resolution manometry (HRM), ambulatory pH or pH-impedance manometry, and barium radiography are commonly used for esophageal function testing; functional lumen imaging probe is an emerging option. Recent consensus guidelines have provided direction in using test findings toward defining mechanisms of esophageal symptoms. The Chicago Classification describes hierarchical steps in diagnosing esophageal motility disorders. The Lyon Consensus characterizes conclusive evidence on esophageal testing for a diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and establishes a motor classification of GERD. Taking these recent advances into consideration, our discussion focuses primarily on the indications, technique, equipment, and interpretation of esophageal HRM and ambulatory reflux monitoring in the evaluation of esophageal symptoms, and describes indications for alternative esophageal tests. © 2018 New York Academy of Sciences.

  17. Refractory esophageal strictures: what to do when dilation fails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeckel, P.G. van; Siersema, P.D.

    2015-01-01

    OPINION STATEMENT: Benign esophageal strictures arise from a diversity of causes, for example esophagogastric reflux, esophageal resection, radiation therapy, ablative therapy, or the ingestion of a corrosive substance. Most strictures can be treated successfully with endoscopic dilation using

  18. Advances in esophageal motor disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smout, André Jpm

    2008-07-01

    Esophageal motor disorders, often leading to dysphagia and chest pain, continue to pose diagnostic and therapeutic problems. In the past 12 months important new information regarding esophageal motor disorders was published. This information will be reviewed in this paper. A number of studies have addressed the issue of heterogeneity in achalasia, the best defined esophageal motility disorder. The spastic esophageal motility disorders nutcracker esophagus and diffuse esophageal spasm may coexist with gastroesophageal reflux disease, which has consequences for the management of patients with these disorders. The entity labelled ineffective esophageal motility is associated with reflux esophagitis, but also with morbid obesity. For the detection of disordered transit caused by ineffective esophageal motility, application of intraluminal impedance monitoring in conjunction with manometry leads to improved diagnosis. New data on the effect of Nissen fundoplication on esophageal motility were published during the last year. Recent knowledge on the heterogeneity of achalasia and the association of spastic esophageal motor disorders and ineffective motility with reflux disease will help the clinician in the management of patients with these disorders.

  19. Enterogastric reflux detection with technetium-99m IDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, A.; Pavia, J.; Loomena, F.; Abello, R.; Herranz, R.; Setoain, J.

    1985-01-01

    A Tc-99m IDA scan was performed in a patient with severe alkaline esophagitis subsequent to a Billroth I gastroenterostomy. The scan showed enterogastric reflux simultaneously with gastroesophageal reflux of bile. The study was recorded in a computer and the reflux quantitated

  20. Functional Esophageal Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Qasim; Fass, Ronnie; Gyawali, C Prakash; Miwa, Hiroto; Pandolfino, John E; Zerbib, Frank

    2016-02-15

    Functional esophageal disorders consist of a disease category that present with esophageal symptoms (heartburn, chest pain, dysphagia, globus) not explained by mechanical obstruction (stricture, tumor, eosinophilic esophagitis), major motor disorders (achalasia, EGJ outflow obstruction, absent contractility, distal esophageal spasm, jackhammer esophagus), or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). While mechanisms responsible are unclear, it is theorized that visceral hypersensitivity and hypervigilance play an important role in symptom generation, in the context of normal or borderline function. Treatments directed at improving borderline motor dysfunction or reducing reflux burden to sub-normal levels have limited success in symptom improvement. In contrast, strategies focused on modulating peripheral triggering and central perception are mechanistically viable and clinically meaningful. However, outcome data from these treatment options are limited. Future research needs to focus on understanding mechanisms underlying visceral hypersensitivity and hypervigilance so that appropriate targets and therapies can be developed. Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Clinical characteristics and psychosocial impact of different reflux time in gastroesophageal reflux disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiann-Hwa; Wen, Shu-Hui; Hsu, Ching-Sheng; Yi, Chih-Hsun; Liu, Tso-Tsai; Chen, Chien-Lin; Wang, Chia-Chi

    2017-02-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is an emerging disease, and can impair quality of life and sleep. This study aimed to investigate whether GERD patients with different timings of reflux symptoms have different clinical characteristics. This study prospectively enrolled individuals who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy during a health checkup. Each participant completed all questionnaires including Reflux Disease Questionnaire, Nighttime GERD questionnaire, Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index, Taiwanese Depression Questionnaire, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Combined reflux was defined as the timing of reflux symptoms occurring at both daytime and nighttime. A total of 2604 participants were enrolled. Of them, 651 symptomatic GERD patients, according to the Reflux Disease Questionnaire score, were recruited for final analysis. Of them, 224 (34.4%) had erosive esophagitis on endoscopy. According to the timing of reflux symptoms, 184 (28.3%) were assigned to the daytime reflux group, 71 (10.9%) to the nighttime reflux group, and 396 (60.8%) to the combined reflux group. In post hoc analysis, the combined reflux group had a significantly higher Reflux Disease Questionnaire score than the daytime reflux group (p reflux groups had higher body mass index and longer duration (> 12 years) of education than the daytime reflux group (p reflux of have more troublesome symptoms than those with daytime reflux. GERD patients with different timings of reflux symptoms have different clinical characteristics in terms of body mass index and duration of education, but not in terms of esophageal inflammation, quality of sleep, and psychosocial status. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Esophageal microbiome in eosinophilic esophagitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Kirk Harris

    Full Text Available The microbiome has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of allergic and inflammatory diseases. The mucosa affected by eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE is composed of a stratified squamous epithelia and contains intraepithelial eosinophils. To date, no studies have identified the esophageal microbiome in patients with EoE or the impact of treatment on these organisms. The aim of this study was to identify the esophageal microbiome in EoE and determine whether treatments change this profile. We hypothesized that clinically relevant alterations in bacterial populations are present in different forms of esophagitis.In this prospective study, secretions from the esophageal mucosa were collected from children and adults with EoE, Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD and normal mucosa using the Esophageal String Test (EST. Bacterial load was determined using quantitative PCR. Bacterial communities, determined by 16S rRNA gene amplification and 454 pyrosequencing, were compared between health and disease.Samples from a total of 70 children and adult subjects were examined. Bacterial load was increased in both EoE and GERD relative to normal subjects. In subjects with EoE, load was increased regardless of treatment status or degree of mucosal eosinophilia compared with normal. Haemophilus was significantly increased in untreated EoE subjects as compared with normal subjects. Streptococcus was decreased in GERD subjects on proton pump inhibition as compared with normal subjects.Diseases associated with mucosal eosinophilia are characterized by a different microbiome from that found in the normal mucosa. Microbiota may contribute to esophageal inflammation in EoE and GERD.

  3. Three cases of radiation esophagitis controlled with proton pump inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Ryuji; Saito, Ryuichi; Miyazaki, Toshiyuki [Kumamoto Red Cross Hospital (Japan)

    2002-04-01

    Radiation esophagitis sometimes interrupts the radiation therapy due to swallowing pain and dysplasia. We experienced three cases of radiation-induced esophagitis controlled with proton pump inhibitor (PPI). These cases suggested etiologic relationship radiation esophagitis and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). We should consider PPI as treatment option for radiation esophagitis. (author)

  4. Characteristics of symptomatic reflux episodes in Japanese proton pump inhibitor-refractory non-erosive reflux disease patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Kenichiro; Koike, Tomoyuki; Iijima, Katsunori; Saito, Masahiro; Kikuchi, Hiroki; Hatta, Waku; Ara, Nobuyuki; Uno, Kaname; Asano, Naoki; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To clarify the pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms in non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) patients. METHODS: Thirty-five NERD patients with persistent symptoms, despite taking rabeprazole 10 mg twice daily for at least 8 wk, were included in this study. All patients underwent 24 h combined impedance - pH on rabeprazole. The symptom index (SI) was considered to be positive if ≥ 50%, and proximal reflux episodes were determined when reflux reached 15 cm above the proximal margin of the lower esophageal sphincter. RESULTS: In 14 (40%) SI-positive patients, with liquid weakly acid reflux, the occurrence rate of reflux symptoms was significantly more frequent in proximal reflux episodes (46.7%) than in distal ones (5.7%) (P acid reflux, there were no significant differences in the occurrence rate of reflux symptoms between proximal reflux episodes (38.5%) and distal ones (20.5%) (NS). With mixed liquid-gas weakly acid reflux, the occurrence rate of reflux symptoms in proximal reflux episodes was significantly more frequent (31.0%) than in distal reflux ones (3.3%) (P acid reflux, there were no significant differences in the occurrence rate of reflux symptoms between proximal reflux episodes (29.4%) and distal ones (14.3%) (NS). CONCLUSION: The proximal extent of weakly acidic liquid and mixed liquid-gas reflux is a major factor associated with reflux perception in SI-positive patients on proton pump inhibitor therapy. PMID:26715820

  5. Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita with moderately severe dysphagia due to esophageal strictures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Tu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA is a chronic, autoimmune condition involving the skin and mucous membranes. Symptomatic mucosal involvement is rare, but can impact on quality of life, due to esophageal strictures and dysphagia. We report a case involving a 60-year-old male presenting with bullous skin lesions on areas of friction on his hands, feet and mouth. Milia were visible on some healed areas. Biopsy showed a subepidermal vesicle. Direct immunofluorescence showed intense linear junctional IgG and C3 at the dermo-epidermal junction. Serological tests also supported the diagnosis of EBA. Screening tests for underlying malignancies were negative. Despite treatment with systemic steroids, the patient developed increasing dysphagia, requiring further investigation with esophagoscopy and a barium swallow. Confirmation of extensive esophageal stricturing prompted adjustment of medications including an increase in systemic steroids and addition of azathioprine. Currently, the patient′s disease remains under control, with improvement in all his symptoms and return of anti-basement membrane antibody levels to normal, whilst he remains on azathioprine 150 mg daily and prednisolone 5 mg daily. This case highlights the fact that the treatment of a given patient with EBA depends on severity of disease and co-morbid symptoms. Newer immunoglobulin and biological therapies have shown promise in treatment resistant disease. Considering that long-term immunosuppressants or biologicals will be required, potential side effects of the drugs should be considered. If further deterioration occurs in this patient, cyclosporin A or intravenous immunoglobulin (IV Ig will be considered. Vigilance for associated co-morbidities, especially malignancies, should always be maintained.

  6. Esophageal scintigraphy: Applications and limitations in the study of esophageal disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, M.K.; Byrne, P.J.; Keeling, P.; Hennessy, T.P.

    1988-01-01

    This study examines the scintigraphic transit pattern in a variety of esophageal disorders. Scintigraphy was performed with a semi solid bolus and the patient in an upright position. Condensed esophageal images were obtained from which we derived the esophageal transit time. The pattern of bolus transit was graded by the duration of transit and by the presence of hold up or retrograde motion. Scintigrams were performed in 11 volunteers and 88 patients whose esophageal function had been confirmed by conventional gastroesophageal techniques. Esophageal disorders examined included achalasia, scleroderma, esophageal carcinoma, Barrett esophagus, and reflux esophagitis. We also examined the effects of gastroesophageal surgery on esophageal function. Transit times distinguished grossly abnormal esophageal function from normal but did not distinguish between different esophageal disorders. Graded transit patterns were a more sensitive indicator of esophageal function and permitted some differentiation between esophageal disorders and allowed evaluation of the effects of gastroesophageal surgery. (orig.)

  7. Esophageal scintigraphy: Applications and limitations in the study of esophageal disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, M.K.; Byrne, P.J.; Keeling, P.; Hennessy, T.P.

    1988-06-01

    This study examines the scintigraphic transit pattern in a variety of esophageal disorders. Scintigraphy was performed with a semi solid bolus and the patient in an upright position. Condensed esophageal images were obtained from which we derived the esophageal transit time. The pattern of bolus transit was graded by the duration of transit and by the presence of hold up or retrograde motion. Scintigrams were performed in 11 volunteers and 88 patients whose esophageal function had been confirmed by conventional gastroesophageal techniques. Esophageal disorders examined included achalasia, scleroderma, esophageal carcinoma, Barrett esophagus, and reflux esophagitis. We also examined the effects of gastroesophageal surgery on esophageal function. Transit times distinguished grossly abnormal esophageal function from normal but did not distinguish between different esophageal disorders. Graded transit patterns were a more sensitive indicator of esophageal function and permitted some differentiation between esophageal disorders and allowed evaluation of the effects of gastroesophageal surgery.

  8. 埃索美拉唑联合硫糖铝混悬液治疗反流性食管炎临床观察%Clinical observation of Esomeprazole combined with Sucralfate suspension in the treatment of reflux esophagitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡先进; 周贵兵(通讯作者); 顾文芬

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe clinical curative effects on reflux esophagitis patients after Esomeprazole and Sucralfate suspension. Methods:Divided the 62 patients diagnosed as RE by gastroscopy into two groups:treatment group and control group, they al received oral Esomeprazole 40mg,twice a day,Mosapride dispersible tablets 5mg, three times; treatment group received additional oral Sucralfate suspension 10ml,four times a day,lasting for 4 weeks. Results the clinical symptoms and gastroscopy results of two groups were significantly improved,the treatment group was better than control group(P<0.05). Conclusion Esomeprazole combined with Sucralfate suspension in the treatment of reflux esophagitis worked wel,safe and effective.%  目的观察埃索美拉唑联合硫糖铝混悬液治疗反流性食管炎临床疗效观察。方法62例经胃镜检查确诊为反流性食管炎的患者随机分为治疗组和对照组,两组均口服埃索美拉唑40 mg,2次/每天,莫沙必利分散片5 mg,3次/每天;治疗组联合硫糖铝混悬液口服10 ml/次,4次/d,治疗4周。结果治疗后两组患者临床症状及胃镜结果均明显好转,治疗组优于对照组(P<0.05)。结论埃索美拉唑联合硫糖铝混悬液治疗反流性食管炎有良好的协同作同,安全有效。

  9. Acid reflux episodes sensitize the esophagus to perception of weakly acidic and mixed reflux in non-erosive reflux disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerenziani, S; Ribolsi, M; Guarino, M P L; Balestrieri, P; Altomare, A; Rescio, M P; Cicala, M

    2014-01-01

    Non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) patients are more sensitive than erosive esophagitis patients to weakly acidic reflux and to the presence of gas in the refluxate. Intra-esophageal acid perfusion sensitizes esophageal receptors to mechanical and chemical stimuli. To establish whether acid sensitization plays a role in the perception of weakly acidic and mixed reflux episodes, 29 NERD patients, responders and 14 non-responders to proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), underwent pH-impedance monitoring. Non-responders repeated the study while on PPIs. To assess the effect of acid exposure on symptom perception, the time period with pH below 4 was measured in 15- and 30-minute time-windows preceding the onset of each reflux episode. Considering weakly acidic and mixed refluxes, both in responder and non-responder patients (off PPIs), the symptomatic refluxes were preceded by a significantly higher cumulative acid exposure than the asymptomatic refluxes. In all patients, following acid reflux, the percentage of symptomatic weakly acidic reflux episodes was significantly higher than that of asymptomatic refluxes. Non-responder patients, off-treatment, were characterized by a lower proportion of weakly acidic reflux and mixed reflux episodes. In the non-responder patients on PPI, only mixed and weakly symptomatic reflux episodes were preceded by a higher cumulative acid exposure. In NERD patients, spontaneous acid reflux enhances subsequent reflux perception, regardless of acidity or liquid/mixed composition of episodes; in non-responder patients on PPIs, only the perception of mixed and weakly acidic reflux episodes seems to be mediated by a preceding acid exposure. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Acid perfusion test in gastroesophageal reflux disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaul, B.; Petersen, H.; Grette, K.; Myrvold, H.E.

    1986-01-01

    An acid perfusion test, isotope scanning, endoscopy, and esophageal biopsy were performed in 101 patients with symptoms strongly suggestive of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) disease. A positive acid perfusion test within 30 min (APT) and within 5 min (TAPT) was found in 70.2% and 37.6% of the patients, respectively. A positive APT was found significantly more often in patients with than without endoscopic esophagitis, whereas a positive TAPT was found significantly more often in patients with severe symptoms than in patients with moderate symptoms, and in a significantly higher proportion of patients with than without GER by scintigraphy. Neither the APT nor the TAPT showed any dependency on the presence of histologic esophagitis. Most (97%) patients with a negative acid perfusion test, in addition to typical symptoms, also presented with scintigraphic, endoscopic, or histologic evidence of GER disease. Although it shows that the acid perfusion test, particularly when early positive, may serve as a weak predictor of the severity of GER disease, the present study gives little support to the test's clinical usefulness.

  11. Increased prandial air swallowing and postprandial gas-liquid reflux among patients refractory to proton pump inhibitor therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravi, Ivana; Woodland, Philip; Gill, Ravinder S.; Al-Zinaty, Mohannad; Bredenoord, Albert J.; Sifrim, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Many patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) have persistent reflux despite treatment with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). Mixed gas-liquid reflux events are more likely to be perceived as symptomatic. We used esophageal impedance monitoring to investigate whether esophageal gas is

  12. Mechanisms of acid reflux and how refluxed Acid extends proximally in patients with non-erosive reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Hirohito; Iwakiri, Katsuhiko; Kawami, Noriyuki; Tanaka, Yuriko; Sakamoto, Choitsu

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms that cause acid reflux in patients with non-erosive reflux disease (NERD), including those that determine how acid extends proximally, are not yet clear. Concurrent esophageal manometry and pH monitoring were performed for 3 h after a meal in 13 patients with NERD, 12 with mild reflux esophagitis (RE), and 13 healthy subjects (HS). Transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation (TLESR) was the major mechanism of acid reflux in all three groups. LES pressure did not differ between the groups. At 2 cm above the LES, there were no differences between the three groups in the number of TLESR-related acid reflux episodes, rate of TLESRs and rate of acid reflux during TLESR. However, at 7 cm above the LES, the rate of acid reflux during TLESRs was significantly higher in patients with NERD (mean ± SEM 42.3 ± 4.8) than in those with mild RE (28.0 ± 3.8) and HS (10.8 ± 2.5). TLESRs are the sole motor events underlying acid reflux episodes in patients with NERD. Acid extends proximally more readily in patients with NERD than in HS and those with mild RE.

  13. Air swallowing, belching, and reflux in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredenoord, Albert J.; Weusten, Bas L. A. M.; Timmer, Robin; Smout, André J. P. M.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Belching and gastroesophageal reflux share a common physiological mechanism. The aim of this study was to investigate whether air swallowing leads to both belching and reflux. METHODS: Esophageal impedance, pH, and pressure were measured during two 20-min recording periods in 12 controls

  14. Inhaled Beta Agonist Bronchodilator Does Not Affect Trans-diaphragmatic Pressure Gradient but Decreases Lower Esophageal Sphincter Retention Pressure in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Grande, Leonardo M; Herbella, Fernando A M; Bigatao, Amilcar M; Jardim, Jose R; Patti, Marco G

    2016-10-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients have a high incidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) whose pathophysiology seems to be linked to an increased trans-diaphragmatic pressure gradient and not to a defective esophagogastric barrier. Inhaled beta agonist bronchodilators are a common therapy used by patients with COPD. This drug knowingly not only leads to a decrease in the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) resting pressure, favoring GERD, but also may improve ventilatory parameters, therefore preventing GERD. This study aims to evaluate the effect of inhaled beta agonist bronchodilators on the trans-diaphragmatic pressure gradient and the esophagogastric barrier. We studied 21 patients (mean age 67 years, 57 % males) with COPD and GERD. All patients underwent high-resolution manometry and esophageal pH monitoring. Abdominal and thoracic pressure, trans-diaphragmatic pressure gradient (abdominal-thoracic pressure), and the LES retention pressure (LES basal pressure-transdiaphragmatic gradient) were measured before and 5 min after inhaling beta agonist bronchodilators. The administration of inhaled beta agonist bronchodilators leads to the following: (a) a simultaneous increase in abdominal and thoracic pressure not affecting the trans-diaphragmatic pressure gradient and (b) a decrease in the LES resting pressure with a reduction of the LES retention pressure. In conclusion, inhaled beta agonist bronchodilators not only increase the thoracic pressure but also lead to an increased abdominal pressure favoring GERD by affecting the esophagogastric barrier.

  15. Association Between Nocturnal Acid Reflux and Sleep Disturbance in Patients With Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Jui-Sheng; Lei, Wei-Yi; Yi, Chih-Hsun; Liu, Tso-Tsai; Chen, Chien-Lin

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate whether there is a direct association between subjective sleep quality and esophageal acid reflux in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. We enrolled patients with classic reflux symptoms for endoscopy and ambulatory pH monitoring. The severity of esophageal mucosal injury was assessed by upper endoscopy. Distal esophageal acid exposure was determined by ambulatory 24-hour pH monitoring. Sleep disturbance was assessed by using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. In total, 103 patients (53 patients without sleep dysfunction and 50 patients with sleep dysfunction) were studied. Erosive esophagitis was found more in patients with sleep disturbance than in those without sleep disturbance (45% versus 31%, P = 0.04). Abnormal esophageal pH was found more in patients with dysfunction (22%) than in patients without sleep dysfunction (5.7%, P = 0.03). Recumbent acid contact time (%) was greater in patients with sleep disturbance than in those without sleep disturbance (3.7 ± 2.4 versus 1.9 ± 0.9, P = 0.04). Sleep quality score positively correlated with acid contact time (r = 0.32, P = 0.02), prolonged reflux events (r = 0.45, P = 0.008) and longer reflux event (r = 0.28, P = 0.03) during recumbent period. Patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease along with sleep dysfunction are characterized with greater nocturnal acid reflux and more erosive esophagitis. Our study suggests that increased nocturnal acid reflux may play a role in inducing sleep disturbance in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Copyright © 2016 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Gastroesophageal reflux in children: radionuclide gastroesophagography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumhagen, J.D.; Rudd, T.G.; Christie, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    Sixty-five symptomatic infants and children underwent radionuclide gastroesophagography, acid reflux testing, and barium esophagography with water-siphon testing to evaluate the clinical efficacy of the scintigraphic technique in detecting gastroesophageal reflux. After ingesting /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid in fruit juice, patients rested beneath the gamma camera for 30 to 60 min while esophageal activity was monitored continuously. By using the acid reflux test as a standard of comparison, the senstivity of radionuclide gastroesophagography was 75%. Because of its physiologic nature, low radiation exposure, and convenience, radionuclide gastroesophagography warrants further evaluation as a screening test for gastroesophageal reflux

  17. Understanding the sensory irregularities of esophageal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Adam D; Brock, Christina; Frøkjaer, Jens Brøndum; Gregersen, Hans; Khan, Sheeba; Lelic, Dina; Lottrup, Christian; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr

    2016-08-01

    Symptoms relating to esophageal sensory abnormalities can be encountered in the clinical environment. Such sensory abnormalities may be present in demonstrable disease, such as erosive esophagitis, and in the ostensibly normal esophagus, such as non-erosive reflux disease or functional chest pain. In this review, the authors discuss esophageal sensation and the esophageal pain system. In addition, the authors provide a primer concerning the techniques that are available for investigating the autonomic nervous system, neuroimaging and neurophysiology of esophageal sensory function. Such technological advances, whilst not readily available in the clinic may facilitate the stratification and individualization of therapy in disorders of esophageal sensation in the future.

  18. Sex and Gender Differences in Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Sun; Kim, Nayoung; Kim, Gwang Ha

    2016-01-01

    It is important to understand sex and gender-related differences in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) because gender-related biologic factors might lead to better prevention and therapy. Non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) affects more women than men. GERD symptoms are more frequent in patients with NERD than in those with reflux esophagitis. However, men suffer pathologic diseases such as reflux esophagitis, Barrett’s esophagus (BE), and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) more frequently than women. The prevalence of reflux esophagitis is significantly increased with age in women, especially after their 50s. The mean age of EAC incidence in women is higher than in men, suggesting a role of estrogen in delaying the onset of BE and EAC. In a chronic rat reflux esophagitis model, nitric oxide was found to be an aggravating factor of esophageal injury in a male-predominant way. In addition, the expression of esophageal occludin, a tight junction protein that plays an important role in the esophageal defense mechanism, was up-regulated in women. This explains the male predominance of reflux esophagitis and delayed incidence of BE or EAC in women. Moreover, the symptoms such as heartburn, regurgitation, and extra-esophageal symptoms have been more frequently reported by women than by men, suggesting that sex and gender play a role in symptom perception. Differential sensitivity with augmented symptoms in women might have diagnostic and therapeutic influence. Furthermore, recent studies have suggested that hormone replacement therapy has a protective effect against esophageal cancer. However, an anti-inflammatory role of estrogen remains compelling, which means further study is necessary in this area. PMID:27703114

  19. Bile Reflux

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the upper part of your small intestine (duodenum). Bile reflux into the stomach Bile and food mix ... properly, and bile washes back into the stomach. Bile reflux into the esophagus Bile and stomach acid ...

  20. Surgery for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in the Morbidly Obese Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Meredith C; Farrell, Timothy M

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) has mirrored the increase in obesity, and GERD is now recognized as an obesity-related comorbidity. There is growing evidence that obesity, specifically central obesity, is associated with the complications of chronic reflux, including erosive esophagitis, Barrett's esophagus, and esophageal adenocarcinoma. While fundoplication is effective in creating a competent gastroesophageal junction and controlling reflux in most patients, it is less effective in morbidly obese patients. In these patients a bariatric operation has the ability to correct both the obesity and the abnormal reflux. The Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is the preferred procedure.

  1. [Esophageal motor disorders in cirrhotic patients with esophageal varices non-submitted to endoscopic treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Priscila Pollo; Lemme, Eponina Maria de Oliveira; Coelho, Henrique Sérgio Moraes

    2005-01-01

    The hepatic cirrhosis has as one of the main morbid-mortality causes, the portal hypertension with the development of esophageal varices, the possibility of a digestive hemorrhage and worsening of hepatic insufficiency. It is important to identify causal predictive or aggravating factors and if possible to prevent them. In the last years, it has been observed the association of esophageal motor disorders and gastro-esophageal reflux in cirrhotic patients with esophageal varices. To study the prevalence of the esophageal motility disorders and among them, the ineffective esophageal motility, in patients with hepatic cirrhosis and esophageal varices, without previous endoscopic therapeutic and the predictive factors. Prospectively, it has been evaluate 74 patients suffering from liver cirrhosis and esophagic varices, without previous endoscopic treatment. All of them were submitted to a clinical protocol, esophageal manometry and 55 patients also held the ambulatory esophageal pHmetry. Esophageal motility disorders have been found in 44 patients (60%). The most prevalent was the ineffective esophageal motility, observed in 28%. The abnormal reflux disease was diagnosed through the pHmetry in 35% of the patients. There were no correlation between the manometrical abnormality in general and the ineffective esophageal motility in particular and the esophageal or gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms, the abnormal reflux, the disease seriousness, the ascites presence and the gauge of the varices. The majority of cirrhotic patients with non-treated esophageal varices present esophageal motor disorders. No predictive factor was found. The clinical relevance of these findings need more researches in the scope to define the real meaning of theses abnormalities.

  2. Transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation and esophageal motor response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Joachim H; Küper, Markus A; Königsrainer, Alfred; Brücher, Björn L D M

    2010-04-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux is caused by transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations (TLESRs) in healthy individuals and in most patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Refluxate is normally propelled by pharyngeally induced swallowing events, but TLESRs may also be accompanied by retrograde esophageal motor responses (EMRs). These contractions have not previously been investigated and their effect on esophageal clearance is not known. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of EMRs after TLESR in healthy individuals and GERD patients and to develop an animal model for further investigation of EMRs. The frequency of TLESRs and esophageal body contractions after TLESRs was assessed using ambulatory manometry in five healthy individuals and five GERD patients. An animal model was developed for reproducible provocation of TLESRs and subsequent EMRs. Patients with GERD have significantly more TLESRs than healthy individuals. However, post-TLESR EMRs were not more frequent in the GERD group. All post-TLESR EMRs presented as simultaneous contractions of the esophagus. The feline model allowed reproducible initiation of the esophageal motor response after TLESR, showing that EMRs can be induced by external mechanoreceptor stimulation simultaneously with LES relaxation. This experimental design imitates the conditions after fundoplication in humans. The study demonstrated that GERD patients have significantly more TLESRs in comparison with healthy individuals, but these were only incidental to EMRs. Further research is needed to improve our understanding of esophageal motility disorders. The animal model presented offers a feasible tool for investigating TLESR-induced esophageal motility.

  3. Role of diagnostic tests in esophageal evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverstein, B.D.; Pope, C.E. II

    1980-01-01

    In the evaluation of esophageal disease, the appropriate question must be asked before the correct tests can be selected. Reflux can be demonstrated by radiologic methods, pH testing or radioisotopic techniques. Esophageal mucosal damage is best evaluated by x-ray, endoscopy, or biopsy. Chest pain is demonstrated by acid infusion or by manometry. Two algorithms are presented for the evaluation of chest pain and reflux symptoms

  4. Cytoprotective effects of hydrogen sulfide in novel rat models of non-erosive esophagitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Zayachkivska

    Full Text Available Non-erosive esophagitis is a chronic inflammatory condition of the esophagus and is a form of gastroesophageal reflux disease. There are limited treatment options for non-erosive esophagitis, and it often progresses to Barrett's esophagus and esophageal carcinoma. Hydrogen sulfide has been demonstrated to be a critical mediator of gastric and intestinal mucosal protection and repair. However, roles for H2S in esophageal mucosal defence, inflammation and responses to injury have not been reported. We therefore examined the effects of endogenous and exogenous H2S in rat models of non-erosive esophagitis. Mild- and moderate-severity non-erosive esophagitis was induced in rats through supplementation of drinking water with fructose, plus or minus exposure to water-immersion stress. The effects of inhibitors of H2S synthesis or of an H2S donor on severity of esophagitis was then examined, along with changes in serum levels of a pro- and an anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-17 and IL-10, respectively. Exposure to water-immersion stress after consumption of the fructose-supplemented water for 28 days resulted in submucosal esophageal edema and neutrophil infiltration and the development of lesions in the muscular lamina and basal cell hyperplasia. Inhibition of H2S synthesis resulted in significant exacerbation of inflammation and injury. Serum levels of IL-17 were significantly elevated, while serum IL-10 levels were reduced. Treatment with an H2S donor significantly reduced the severity of esophageal injury and inflammation and normalized the serum cytokine levels. The rat models used in this study provide novel tools for studying non-erosive esophagitis with a range of severity. H2S contributes significantly to mucosal defence in the esophagus, and H2S donors may have therapeutic value in treating esophageal inflammation and injury.

  5. Esophageal acid sensitivity and mucosal integrity in patients with functional heartburn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijenborg, P. W.; Smout, A. J. P. M.; Bredenoord, A. J.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with functional heartburn (FH) experience troublesome heartburn that is not related to gastroesophageal reflux. The etiology of the heartburn sensation in FH patients is unknown. In patients with reflux disease, esophageal hypersensitivity seems associated with impaired mucosal integrity.

  6. Refractory gastroesophageal reflux disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Charumathi Raghu; Triadafilopoulos, George

    2015-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition that develops when the reflux of stomach contents into the esophagus causes troublesome symptoms, esophageal injury, and/or complications. Use of proton pump inhibitors (PPI) remains the standard therapy for GERD and is effective in most patients. Those whose symptoms are refractory to PPIs should be evaluated further and other treatment options should be considered, according to individual patient characteristics. Response to PPIs could be total (no symptoms), partial (residual breakthrough symptoms), or absent (no change in symptoms). Patients experiencing complete response do not usually need further management. Patients with partial response can be treated surgically or by using emerging endoscopic therapies. Patients who exhibit no response to PPI need further evaluation to rule out other causes. PMID:25274499

  7. Esophageal motor disorders: recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Ibrahim; Mittal, Ravinder K

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this article is to highlight literature published during the last year in the context of previous knowledge. A number of novel techniques - high-resolution manometry, esophageal electrical impedance and intra-luminal ultrasound imaging - have improved our understanding of esophageal function in health and disease. Several studies address the function of longitudinal muscle layer of the esophagus in normal subjects and patients with motor disorders of the esophagus. Esophageal electrical impedance recordings reveal abnormal transit in patients with diffuse esophageal spasm, achalasia and patients with normal manometry. Loss of the mammalian Sprouty2 gene leads to enteric neuronal hyperplasia and esophageal achalasia. Several studies showed excellent long-term results of medical and surgical treatment of achalasia of the esophagus. For the first time, mechanisms of gastroesophageal reflux in critically ill mechanically ventilated patients are reported. Novel pharmacologic strategies in the treatment of reflux disease are highlighted. Several novel techniques, perfected during recent years, have improved our understanding of esophageal function and dysfunction. A number of important observations, reviewed here, provide important insight into the pathogenesis of esophageal motor disorders and treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease.

  8. Idiopathic gastroesophageal reflux disease in an adult horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Shannon J; Johnson, Philip J; David, Andrew; Cook, Cristi Reeves

    2004-06-15

    Chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease was diagnosed in a 22-year-old female Tennessee Walking Horse that had signs of bruxism and ptyalism. Esophageal ulceration was detected via endoscopy. Compared with the damage to the proximal portions of the esophagus, the severity of the ulceration increased toward the gastroesophageal junction. Esophageal ulceration attributable to chronic gastric acid reflux is usually secondary to pyloric outflow obstruction in horses. In the horse of this report, there was no evidence of either a chronic pyloric or duodenal obstruction that could have resulted in esophageal ulceration. Esophageal ulceration in this horse was attributed to gastroesophageal reflux disease, a common condition in humans in which the underlying abnormality is functional incompetence of the gastroesophageal junction. Treatment is directed at decreasing gastric acidity and protecting the ulcerated mucosa. In the horse of this report, treatment was unsuccessful and the horse was euthanatized; a physical cause of gastroesophageal reflux disease was not identified during an extensive postmortem examination.

  9. Esophageal trachealization: A feature of eosinophilic esophagitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlHussaini, Abdulrahman A; Semaan, Toufic; ElHag, Imad A

    2009-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is an inflammatory condition characterized by intense eosinophilic infiltration of the esophagus. EE is frequently misdiagnosed as gastroesophageal reflux disease. Here, we present a child with EE and a characteristic endoscopic finding, r inged esophagus . An 11-year-old Saudi boy presented with dysphagia for 1 year. He had experienced an intermittent sensation of solid food sticking in his chest, which was relieved by drinking liquids. A barium swallow excluded anatomical causes of dysphagia, but revealed multiple-ringed esophagus. Endoscopy showed a furrowing and trachealizing appearance of the entire esophagus. Hisologically, extensive eosinophilic infiltration was a feature in biopsies obtained from the esophagus. The child responded well to a 2-month course of inhaled fluticasone. Symptoms recurred 3 months after discontinuation of therapy, which necessitated resumption of inhaled fluticasone. The endoscopic appearance of multiple esophageal rings should raise suspicion of EE and be confirmed by esophageal biopsies. (author)

  10. Physiology and pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Dean J; Murayama, Kenric M

    2015-06-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is one of the most common problems treated by primary care physicians. Almost 20% of the population in the United States experiences occasional regurgitation, heartburn, or retrosternal pain because of GERD. Reflux disease is complex, and the physiology and pathogenesis are still incompletely understood. However, abnormalities of any one or a combination of the three physiologic processes, namely, esophageal motility, lower esophageal sphincter function, and gastric motility or emptying, can lead to GERD. There are many diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to GERD today, but more studies are needed to better understand this complex disease process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation and the related esophageal motor activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seung Hyo; Hong, Su Jin

    2012-03-01

    Transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation (TLESR) is defined as LES relaxation without a swallow. TLESRs are observed in both of the normal individuals and the patients with gastroesophageal reflux disorder (GERD). However, TLESR is widely considered as the major mechanism of the GERD. The new equipments such as high resolution manometry and impedance pH study is helped to understand of TLESR and the related esophageal motor activities. The strong longitudinal muscle contraction was observed during development of TLESR. Most of TLESRs are terminated by TLESR related motor events such as primary peristalsis and secondary contractions. The majority of TLESRs are associated with gastroesophageal reflux. Upper esophageal sphincter (UES) contraction is mainly associated with liquid reflux during recumbent position and UES relaxation predominantly related with air reflux during upright position. The frequency of TLESR in GERD patients seems to be not different compared to normal individuals, but the refluxate of GERD patients tend to be more acidic during TLESR.

  12. Avaliação dos danos do DNA na mucosa esofágica e sangue periférico de portadores da doença do refluxo gastroesofágico Evaluation of DNA damage in the esophageal mucosa and peripheral blood of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilene Lúcia Bertolozzo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: A doença do refluxo gastroesofágico é a afecção digestiva de maior prevalência. Os portadores podem apresentar na evolução algumas complicações, sendo o esôfago de Barrett a de maior importância, tendo em vista seu potencial de malignidade. Todavia os processos inflamatórios do trato gastrointestinal podem apresentar degeneração maligna. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar os possíveis danos do DNA em portadores de esofagite de refluxo gastroesofágico de vários graus e verificar a aplicação do ensaio Cometa na detecção dos mesmos. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 25 pacientes distribuídos em quatro grupos: controle (n=5, esofagite leve (n=8, esofagite severa (n=5 e câncer (n=7. O ensaio Cometa foi realizado no sangue periférico (linfócitos e biópsia do terço distal do esôfago. RESULTADOS: O ensaio Cometa detectou danos no DNA nos pacientes com esofagite leve e severa (sangue periférico e biópsia, sendo que na esofagite severa a intensidade dos danos foi maior (pBACKGROUND: The gastroesophageal reflux disease is the most prevalent digestive disorder. Patients with it may present some complications during its development, and Barrett's esophagus is the most important in view of its potential malignancy. However, the inflammatory processes of the gastrointestinal tract may show malignant degeneration. AIM: To assess possible DNA damage in patients with gastroesophageal reflux esophagitis of various degrees and to evaluate the application of the Comet assay in its detection. METHODS: Twenty-five patients were studied. They were divided into four groups: control (n=5, mild esophagitis (n=8, severe esophagitis (n=5 and cancer (n=7. The Comet assay was performed on peripheral blood cells (lymphocytes and biopsy of the distal esophagus. RESULTS: The Comet assay detected DNA damage in patients with mild and severe esophagitis (peripheral blood and biopsy, and damage intensity was greater in severe esophagitis (p<0,05. DNA damage in

  13. Gastroesophageal reflux disease: Update on inflammation and symptom perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altomare, Annamaria; Guarino, Michele Pier Luca; Cocca, Silvia; Emerenziani, Sara; Cicala, Michele

    2013-10-21

    Although gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common disorder in Western countries, with a significant impact on quality of life and healthcare costs, the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of symptoms remain to be fully elucidated. GERD symptoms and complications may result from a multifactorial mechanism, in which acid and acid-pepsin are the important noxious factors involved. Prolonged contact of the esophageal mucosa with the refluxed content, probably caused by a defective anti-reflux barrier and luminal clearance mechanisms, would appear to be responsible for macroscopically detectable injury to the esophageal squamous epithelium. Receptors on acid-sensitive nerve endings may play a role in nociception and esophageal sensitivity, as suggested in animal models of chronic acid exposure. Meanwhile, specific cytokine and chemokine profiles would appear to underlie the various esophageal phenotypes of GERD, explaining, in part, the genesis of esophagitis in a subset of patients. Despite these findings, which show a significant production of inflammatory mediators and neurotransmitters in the pathogenesis of GERD, the relationship between the hypersensitivity and esophageal inflammation is not clear. Moreover, the large majority of GERD patients (up to 70%) do not develop esophageal erosions, a variant of the condition called non-erosive reflux disease. This summary aims to explore the inflammatory pathway involved in GERD pathogenesis, to better understand the possible distinction between erosive and non-erosive reflux disease patients and to provide new therapeutic approaches.

  14. Dental approach to erosive tooth wear in gastroesophageal reflux ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The duration of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD), the frequency of reflux, the pH and type of acid, and the quality and quantity of saliva affect the severity of dental erosion due to GERD. Objective: To summarize the diagnostic protocol and treatment of dental erosion due to GERD. Methods: A Medline ...

  15. Prevalence of and impact of pantoprazole on nocturnal heartburn and associated sleep complaints in patients with erosive esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindt, S; Imschoot, J; Tack, J

    2011-11-01

    Studies in the United States have revealed that gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) patients often suffer from nocturnal symptoms, sleep disturbance, and impaired quality of life. In a large subset of patients, these symptoms persist in spite of acid suppressive therapy. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of heartburn and associated sleep complaints and the response to standard medical therapy with pantoprazole in primary and secondary care esophagitis patients in Belgium. Questionnaires were provided to consecutive patients presenting to primary and secondary care physicians with esophagitis. The questionnaire evaluated the presence of typical reflux symptoms, alarm symptoms, risk factors, and sleep quality impairment as a result of reflux episodes. Results are shown as mean ± standard deviation and compared by Student's t-test or chi-square test. A total of 4061 primary and 5261 secondary care patients (50% female, mean age 53 ± 0.2 years, body mass index of 25.7 ± 0.1 kg/m(2) ) were recruited. Eighty-four percent of patients reported sleep disturbance attributable to nighttime reflux, including typical nighttime supine reflux symptoms (72%), difficulties to fall asleep (39%), waking up during the night (45%), morning fatigue (35%), and reflux symptoms when waking up in the morning (47%). Mild, moderate, or severe nighttime heartburn were reported by, respectively, 30, 35, and 12%, and these numbers were 26, 28, and 6% for nighttime regurgitation. Alcohol (19%), smoking (22%), higher esophagitis grades (grades 2, 3, and 4 in, respectively, 31, 7, and, 7%), alarm symptoms (27%), and more severe heartburn and regurgitation during daytime were all significantly associated with all dimensions of sleep disturbance (P heartburn and regurgitation in, respectively, 75 and 83%. The majority of patients presenting with reflux symptoms and esophagitis in primary or secondary care experience nighttime heartburn and regurgitation, and sleep

  16. The effect of dietary carbohydrate on gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Keng-Liang; Kuo, Chung-Mou; Yao, Chih-Chien; Tai, Wei-Chen; Chuah, Seng-Kee; Lim, Chee-Sang; Chiu, Yi-Chun

    2018-01-12

    Acid changes in gastroesophageal reflux with vary component in the food have less been studied, especially carbohydrate. We plan to clarify the effect of different carbohydrate density on low esophageal acid and reflux symptoms of patients with gastroesophgeal reflux disease. Twelve patients (52 ± 12 years old; five female) with gastroesophageal reflux disease were recruited for the prospective crossover study. Each patient was invited for panendoscope, manometry and 24 h pH monitor. The two formulated liquid meal, test meal A: 500 ml liquid meal (containing 84.8 g carbohydrate) and B: same volume liquid meal (but 178.8 g carbohydrate) were randomized supplied as lunch or dinner. Reflux symptoms were recorded. There are significant statistic differences in more Johnson-DeMeester score (p = 0.019), total reflux time (%) (p = 0.028), number of reflux periods (p = 0.026) and longest reflux (p = 0.015) after high carbohydrate diet than low carbohydrate. Total reflux time and number of long reflux periods more than 5 min are significant more after high carbohydrate diet. More acid reflux symptoms are found after high carbohydrate diet. High carbohydrate diet could induce more acid reflux in low esophagus and more reflux symptoms in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Esophageal hypermotility: cause or effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespin, O M; Tatum, R P; Yates, R B; Sahin, M; Coskun, K; Martin, A V; Wright, A; Oelschlager, B K; Pellegrini, C A

    2016-07-01

    Nutcracker esophagus (NE), Jackhammer esophagus (JHE), distal esophageal spasm (DES), and hypertensive lower esophageal sphincter (HTLES) are defined by esophageal manometric findings. Some patients with these esophageal motility disorders also have abnormal gastroesophageal reflux. It is unclear to what extent these patients' symptoms are caused by the motility disorder, the acid reflux, or both. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication (LNF) on esophageal motility disorders, gastroesophageal reflux, and patient symptoms. Between 2007 and 2013, we performed high-resolution esophageal manometry on 3400 patients, and 221 patients were found to have a spastic esophageal motility disorder. The medical records of these patients were reviewed to determine the manometric abnormality, presence of gastroesophageal symptoms, and amount of esophageal acid exposure. In those patients that underwent LNF, we compared pre- and postoperative esophageal motility, gastroesophageal symptom severity, and esophageal acid exposure. Of the 221 patients with spastic motility disorders, 77 had NE, 2 had JHE, 30 had DES, and 112 had HTLES. The most frequently reported primary and secondary symptoms among all patients were: heartburn and/or regurgitation, 69.2%; respiratory, 39.8%; dysphagia, 35.7%; and chest pain, 22.6%. Of the 221 patients, 192 underwent 24-hour pH monitoring, and 103 demonstrated abnormal distal esophageal acid exposure. Abnormal 24-hour pH monitoring was detected in 62% of patients with heartburn and regurgitation, 49% of patients with respiratory symptoms, 36.8 % of patients with dysphagia, and 32.6% of patients with chest pain. Sixty-six of the 103 patients with abnormal 24-hour pH monitoring underwent LNF. Thirty-eight (13NE, 2JHE, 6 DES, and 17 HTLES) of these 66 patients had a minimum of 6-month postoperative follow-up that included clinical evaluation, esophageal manometry, and 24-hour pH monitoring

  18. Exploring the physiologic role of human gastroesophageal reflux by analyzing time‐series data from 24‐h gastric and esophageal pH recordings

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Luo; Mu, John C.; Sloan, Sheldon; Miner, Philip B.; Gardner, Jerry D.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Our previous finding of a fractal pattern for gastric pH and esophageal pH plus the statistical association of sequential pH values for up to 2 h led to our hypothesis that the fractal pattern encodes information regarding gastric acidity and that depending on the value of gastric acidity, the esophagus can signal the stomach to alter gastric acidity by influencing gastric secretion of acid or bicarbonate. Under our hypothesis values of gastric pH should provide information regarding...

  19. Asthma symptoms improvement in moderate persistent asthma patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD: the role of proton-pump inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus D. Susanto

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate effect of proton pump inhibitor (esomeprazole on asthma symptoms, use of inhaled bronchodilator and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR in moderate persistent asthma with gastroesofageal refluks disease (GERD. This randomized single blind, controlled clinical trial study was conducted at Persahabatan Hospital, Jakarta from July 2004 until October 2005. Samples were moderate persistent asthma patients with GERD. GERD is diagnosed GERD symptoms and proof of oesophagitis from endoscopy and or histapatologic examination from oesophagus biopsy. Phase 1:2 week run-in period patient received inhaled budesonide 2x200 ug/day. Phase 2: patient randomised to receive inhaled budesonide 2 x 400 ug/day with esomeprazole 40 mg/day or without esomeprazole (control group for 8 weeks. Phase 3: 4 week wash out period, patient receive inhaled budesonide 2 x 200 ug/day. Diary cards were assessed at run-in periode, after treatment 4 weeks, 8 weeks and wash out. There were 32 patients (23 female and 9 male completed the study. Mean total asthma symptoms score daily were significantly decreased on esomeprazole vs without esomeprazole after 8 weeks (-2.29 vs -0.90; p < 0.05. Mean use of inhaled bronchodilator was significantly decreased on esomeprazole vs without esomeprazole after 8 weeks (-1.09 vs -0.42; p < 0.05. Morning and evening PEFR improved higher on esomeprazole than without esomeprazol but were not significantly difference. In conclusion, administration esomeprazole 40 mg daily improved asthma symptoms and lower the use of inhaled bronchodilator in moderate persistent asthma patients with GERD. (Med J Indones 2008; 17: 169-74Keywords: Asthma symptoms, inhaled bronchodilator, moderate persistent asthma, GERD, esomeprazole

  20. Clinical value of wireless pH-monitoring of gastro-esophageal reflux in children before and after proton pump inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boström, Michaela; Thorsson, Ola; Toth, Ervin; Agardh, Daniel

    2014-12-24

    Wireless pH-monitoring is an accurate method for diagnosing adults with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of the Bravo capsule on children investigated for GERD in terms of safety, tolerability and feasibility before and after administration of proton pump inhibitors. A Bravo capsule was inserted during upper endoscopy under general anaesthesia or deep sedation with propofol. 48-hour pH-metry was performed in 106 children (50 males, 56 females) at the median age of 11 years (range 17 months-18 years). On the second day of investigation, proton pump inhibitor (PPI) was given at a mean dose of 1.6 mg/kg (SD ±0.6 mg). The definition of GERD was set to a reflux index (RI) of ≥5% and DeMeester score (DMS) ≥14.7. Application of the capsule was successful in 103 of the 106 children (97.2%) and interpretable in 99 of these 103 (96.1%). 49 of the children with interpretable results (49.5%) had GERD according to RI, while 51 (56.7%) had GERD according to DMS. After PPI was given on day 2, RI decreased from a median of 4.9% (range 0.3-63.4%) to 2.2% (0-58.0%), while DMS decreased from a median of 17.6 (range 2.2-207.6) to 8.2 (0.3-178.6), respectively (p < 0.0001). No severe adverse events were reported. Wireless pH-metry is a safe and tolerable method when investigating children for GERD. PPI given on the second day of assessment provides additional information on response to treatment suggesting that pH-metry preferably should be extended to 48 hours.

  1. Gastroesophageal reflux disease and vocal disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Coelho de Arruda Henry

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a chronic disease in which gastroduodenal contents reflux into the esophagus. The clinical picture of gastroesophageal reflux disease is usually composed by heartburn and regurgitation (typical manifestations. Atypical manifestations (vocal disturbances and asthma may also be complaint. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the clinical, endoscopic, manometric and pHmetric aspects of patients suffering from gastroesophageal reflux disease associated with vocal disturbances. METHODS: Fifty patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease were studied, including 25 with vocal disturbances (group 1 - G1 and 25 without these symptoms (group 2 - G2. All patients were submitted to endoscopy, manometry and esophageal pHmetry (2 probes. The group 1 patients were submitted to videolaryngoscopy. RESULTS: Endoscopic findings: non-erosive reflux disease was observed in 95% of G1 patients and 88% of G2. Videolaryngoscopy: vocal fold congestion, asymmetry, nodules and polyps were observed in G1 patients. Manometric findings: pressure in the lower esophageal sphincter (mm Hg: 11.6 ± 5.2 in G1 and 14.0 ± 6.2 in G2 (P = 0.14; pressure in the upper esophageal sphincter (mm Hg: 58.4 ± 15.9 in G1 and 69.5 ± 30.7 in the controls. pHmetric findings: De Meester index: 34.0 ± 20.9 in G1 and 15.4 ± 9.4 in G2 (P<0.001; number of reflux episodes in distal probe: 43.0 ± 20.4 in G1 and 26.4 ± 17.2 in G2 (P = 0.003; percentage of time with esophageal pH value lower than 4 units (distal sensor: 9.0% ± 6.4% in G1 and 3.4% ± 2.1% in G2 (P<0.001; number of reflux episodes in proximal probe: 7.5 ± 10.9 in G1 and 5.3 ± 5.7 in G2 (P = 0.38; percentage of time with esophageal pH values lower than 4 units (Proximal probe: 1.2 ± 2.7 in G1 and 0.5 ± 0.7 in G2 (P = 0.21. CONCLUSIONS: 1 The clinical, endoscopic, and manometric findings observed in patients with vocal disturbance do not differ from those without these symptoms; 2 gastroesophageal

  2. The Role of Esophageal Hypersensitivity in Functional Esophageal Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Adam D; Ruffle, James K; Aziz, Qasim

    2017-02-01

    The Rome IV diagnostic criteria delineates 5 functional esophageal disorders which include functional chest pain, functional heartburn, reflux hypersensitivity, globus, and functional dysphagia. These are a heterogenous group of disorders which, despite having characteristic symptom profiles attributable to esophageal pathology, fail to demonstrate any structural, motility or inflammatory abnormalities on standard clinical testing. These disorders are associated with a marked reduction in patient quality of life, not least considerable healthcare resources. Furthermore, the pathophysiology of these disorders is incompletely understood. In this narrative review we provide the reader with an introductory primer to the structure and function of esophageal perception, including nociception that forms the basis of the putative mechanisms that may give rise to symptoms in functional esophageal disorders. We also discuss the provocative techniques and outcome measures by which esophageal hypersensitivity can be established.

  3. Gastroesophageal reflux disease and Barrett's Esophagus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergman, J. J. G. H. M.

    2005-01-01

    Several articles have been published during the last year that may affect the management of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and/or Barrett's esophagus in the near future. A new method of measuring esophageal pH has been introduced that does not require an indwelling transnasal

  4. The acid perfusion test in gastroesophageal reflux disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, B.; Petersen, H.; Grette, K.; Myrvold, H.E.

    1986-01-01

    An acid perfusion test, isotope scanning, endoscopy, and esophageal biopsy were performed in 101 patients with symptoms strongly suggestive of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) disease. A positive acid perfusion test within 30 min (APT) and within 5 min (TAPT) was found in 70.2% and 37.6% of the patients, respectively. A positive APT was found significantly more often in patients with than without endoscopic esophagitis, whereas a positive TAPT was found significantly more often in patients with severe symptoms than in patients with moderate symptoms, and in a significantly higher proportion of patients with than without GER by scintigraphy. Neither the APT nor the TAPT showed any dependency on the presence of histologic esophagitis. Most (97%) patients with a negative acid perfusion test, in addition to typical symptoms, also presented with scintigraphic, endoscopic, or histologic evidence of GER disease. Although it shows that the acid perfusion test, particularly when early positive, may serve as a weak predictor of the severity of GER disease, the present study gives little support to the test's clinical usefulness

  5. Esophageal motility disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannig, C.; Rummeny, E.; Wuttge-Hannig, A.

    2007-01-01

    For the better understanding of esophageal motility, the muscle texture and the distribution of skeletal and smooth muscle fibers in the esophagus are of crucial importance. Esophageal physiology will be shortly mentioned as far as necessary for a comprehensive understanding of peristaltic disturbances. Besides the pure depiction of morphologic criteria, a complete esophageal study has to include an analysis of the motility. New diagnostic tools with reduced radiation for dynamic imaging (digital fluoroscopy, videofluoroscopy) at 4-30 frames/s are available. Radiomanometry is a combination of a functional pressure measurement and a simultaneous dynamic morphologic analysis. Esophageal motility disorders are subdivided by radiologic and manometric criteria into primary, secondary, and nonclassifiable forms. Primary motility disorders of the esophagus are achalasia, diffuse esophageal spasm, nutcracker esophagus, and the hypertonic lower esophageal sphincter. The secondary motility disorders include pseudoachalasia, reflux-associated motility disorders, functionally caused impactions, Boerhaave's syndrome, Chagas' disease, scleroderma, and presbyesophagus. The nonclassificable motility disorders (NEMD) are a very heterogeneous collective. (orig.) [de

  6. [Effect of nasogastric tube on esophageal mucosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barinagarrementeria, R; Blancas Valencia, J M; Teramoto Matsubara, O; de la Garza González, S

    1991-01-01

    We studied 30 patients. 20 were males and 10 females. Mean age was 48 year old. Esophageal disease was not present neither gastro-esophageal reflux. Biopsy was taken between 24 hours and 25 days after nasogastric tube (NG) was put into place. Endoscopic findings were: hyperemic mucosa, submucosal hemorrhage, clots, erosions and ulcers near Esophago-gastric junction. Intraepithelial edema, vessel congestion, polymorphonuclear infiltration, fibrin thrombosis of submucosal vessels, ischemia, epithelial regeneration and ulcer were common histologic findings. All endoscopic and histologic alterations were related to the length of time of NG tube contact with the esophageal mucosa. We concluded that NG tube damages the esophageal mucosa by two mechanisms: a) Local irritation that favors b) gastric reflux by decreasing lower esophageal sphincter pressure.

  7. Mosapride for gastroesophageal reflux disease in neurologically impaired patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komura, Makoto; Kanamori, Yutaka; Tanaka, Yujiro; Kodaka, Tetsuro; Sugiyama, Masahiko; Terawaki, Kan; Suzuki, Kan; Iwanaka, Tadashi

    2017-03-01

    The prokinetic agent cisapride is effective for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in infants and children, but is no longer used for this purpose because of safety concerns. Therefore, other pharmacological agents need to be investigated for efficacy in GERD treatment. In this study, we examined the effectiveness and safety of mosapride for the treatment of neurologically impaired children and adolescents with GERD. Mosapride (0.3 mg/kg/day) was administered to 11 neurologically impaired patients with GERD (five male; median age, 12.3 years). Esophageal acid exposure was measured using esophageal pH monitoring before and at >5 days after the start of mosapride treatment. The pressure and length of the lower esophageal sphincter were compared before and after mosapride treatment. In the 11 patients, median reflux index (percentage of the total monitoring period during which recorded pH was reflux (range, 0.5-2.1 min/reflux) before and 0.7 min/reflux (range, 0.4-1.2 min/reflux) after treatment with mosapride (P = 0.02). The median number of reflux episodes before (219) and after (122) drug treatment did not differ significantly. The decreased reflux index in neurologically impaired patients with GERD is due to mosapride, therefore mosapride may be a candidate for GERD treatment. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  8. Respiratory repercussions of gastroesophageal reflux and Cine-esophagogastroscintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillemeteau, C.; Saudubray, F. (Hopital des Enfants, 33 - Bordeaux (France)); Guillet, J. (Hopital Pellegrin, 33 - Bordeaux (France))

    1985-04-01

    Asthma and recurrent bronchopneumopathies in children are often associated with gastroesophageal reflux. Cine-esogastroscintigraphy is proposed for demonstrating reflux and establishing its direct or indirect responsibility in respiratory disease. 133 patients aged 5 months to 16 years were studied. Reflux was found in 65.5% of cases, either severe (44.4% of cases) or minor (21.1%). Episodes of reflux produced respiratory manifestations in 7% of patients. Inhalation of refluxed material was proved in 3% by demonstration of pulmonary contamination. Sensitivity of cine-esophagogastroscintigraphy is comparable to that of esophageal pH measurement for detection of reflux. It does not require positioning of a probe in the esophageal lumen. It provides quantitative parameters on esophageal transit, reflux and gastric voiding, and demonstrates pulmonary contamination. It is easy to perform and can be readily included in an outpatient clinic workup. Its sensitivity and reliability make it a useful tool for evaluation of therapeutic efficiency. The interlocking of various physiopathologic factors contributes to the polymorphism of respiratory manifestations of reflux.

  9. Respiratory repercussions of gastroesophageal reflux and cine-esophagogastroscintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillemeteau, C.; Saudubray, F. (Hopital des Enfants, 33 - Bordeaux (France)); Guillet, J. (Hopital Pellegrin, 33 - Bordeaux (France))

    1984-10-01

    Asthma and recurrent bronchopneumopathies in children are often associated with gastroesophageal reflux. Cine-esophagogastroscintigraphy is proposed for demonstrating reflux and establishing its direct or indirect responsibility in respiratory disease. 133 patients aged 5 months to 16 years were studied. Reflux was found in 65.5% of cases, either severe (44.4% of cases) or minor (21.1%). Episodes of reflux produced respiratory manifestations in 7% of patients. Inhalation of refluxed material was proved in 3% by demonstration of pulmonary contamination. Sensitivity of cine-esophagogastroscintigraphy is comparable to that of esophageal pH measurement for detection of reflux. It does not require positioning of a probe in the esophageal lumen. It provides quantitative parameters on esophageal transit, reflux and gastric voiding, and demonstrates pulmonary contamination. It is easy to perform and can be readily included in an outpatient clinic workup. Its sensitivity and reliability make it a useful tool for evaluation of therapeutic efficiency. The interlocking of various physiopathologic factors contributes to the polymorphism of respiratory manifestations of reflux.

  10. Respiratory repercussions of gastroesophageal reflux and cine-esophagogastroscintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillemeteau, C.; Saudubray, F.; Guillet, J.

    1984-01-01

    Asthma and recurrent bronchopneumopathies in children are often associated with gastroesophageal reflux. Cine-esogastroscintigraphy is proposed for demonstrating reflux and establishing its direct or indirect responsibility in respiratory disease. 133 patients aged 5 months to 16 years were studied. Reflux was found in 65.5% of cases, either severe (44.4% of cases) or minor (21.1%). Episodes of reflux produced respiratory manifestations in 7% of patients. Inhalation of refluxed material was proved in 3% by demonstration of pulmonary contamination. Sensitivity of cine-esophagogastroscintigraphy is comparable to that of esophageal pH measurement for detection of reflux. It does not require positioning of a probe in the esophageal lumen. It provides quantitative parameters on esophageal transit, reflux and gastric voiding, and demonstrates pulmonary contamination. It is easy to perform and can be readily included in an outpatient clinic workup. Its sensitivity and reliability make it a useful tool for evaluation of therapeutic efficiency. The interlocking of various physiopathologic factors contributes to the polymorphism of respiratory manifestations of reflux [fr

  11. Respiratory repercussions of gastroesophageal reflux and cine-esophagogastroscintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillemeteau, C.; Saudubray, F.; Guillet, J.

    1985-01-01

    Asthma and recurrent bronchopneumopathies in children are often associated with gastroesophageal reflux. Cine-esogastroscintigraphy is proposed for demonstrating reflux and establishing its direct or indirect responsibility in respiratory disease. 133 patients aged 5 months to 16 years were studied. Reflux was found in 65.5% of cases, either severe (44.4% of cases) or minor (21.1%). Episodes of reflux produced respiratory manifestations in 7% of patients. Inhalation of refluxed material was proved in 3% by demonstration of pulmonary contamination. Sensitivity of cine-esophagogastroscintigraphy is comparable to that of esophageal pH measurement for detection of reflux. It does not require positioning of a probe in the esophageal lumen. It provides quantitative parameters on esophageal transit, reflux and gastric voiding, and demonstrates pulmonary contamination. It is easy to perform and can be readily included in an outpatient clinic workup. Its sensitivity and reliability make it a useful tool for evaluation of therapeutic efficiency. The interlocking of various physiopathologic factors contributes to the polymorphism of respiratory manifestations of reflux [fr

  12. Development and validation of the brief esophageal dysphagia questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taft, T H; Riehl, M; Sodikoff, J B; Kahrilas, P J; Keefer, L; Doerfler, B; Pandolfino, J E

    2016-12-01

    Esophageal dysphagia is common in gastroenterology practice and has multiple etiologies. A complication for some patients with dysphagia is food impaction. A valid and reliable questionnaire to rapidly evaluate esophageal dysphagia and impaction symptoms can aid the gastroenterologist in gathering information to inform treatment approach and further evaluation, including endoscopy. 1638 patients participated over two study phases. 744 participants completed the Brief Esophageal Dysphagia Questionnaire (BEDQ) for phase 1; 869 completed the BEDQ, Visceral Sensitivity Index, Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Questionnaire, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale for phase 2. Demographic and clinical data were obtained via the electronic medical record. The BEDQ was evaluated for internal consistency, split-half reliability, ceiling and floor effects, and construct validity. The BEDQ demonstrated excellent internal consistency, reliability, and construct validity. The symptom frequency and severity scales scored above the standard acceptable cutoffs for reliability while the impaction subscale yielded poor internal consistency and split-half reliability; thus the impaction items were deemed qualifiers only and removed from the total score. No significant ceiling or floor effects were found with the exception of 1 item, and inter-item correlations fell within accepted ranges. Construct validity was supported by moderate yet significant correlations with other measures. The predictive ability of the BEDQ was small but significant. The BEDQ represents a rapid, reliable, and valid assessment tool for esophageal dysphagia with food impaction for clinical practice that differentiates between patients with major motor dysfunction and mechanical obstruction. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Eosinophilic esophagitis: manometric and pHmetric findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Maria Cardoso Monnerat

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Eosinophilic esophagitis is an entity characterized by an esophageal inflammatory infiltrate of eosinophils, manifested by dysphagia, intermittent food impactions and symptoms similar to gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD, that predominantly affects young adults. There may be association of eosinophilic esophagitis with GERD, and motor abnormalities have been described. OBJECTIVE: The main objectives of this study are to describe the findings at esophageal manometry and pH monitoring in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 20 patients with a diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis, submitted to esophageal manometry and 24h pH monitoring. Were analysed the manometric changes and the presence of abnormal reflux on pH monitoring. RESULTS: Twenty patients (15 men, 5 women had a mean age of 29 years. Motility disorders were found in 25% (5/20 patients with ineffective esophageal motility being the most common finding. pH monitoring revealed abnormal reflux on 25%, without any relationship with manometric findings. CONCLUSIONS: Manometric abnormalities were observed in 25% of patients and abnormal reflux on pH monitoring also in 25%. This study showed no relationship between abnormal reflux and the presence of manometric changes.

  14. The relationship between the numbers of reflux episodes with anatomic changes of the esophagus in children under one year with gastroesophageal reflux disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HamidrezaTalari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Gastroesophageal reflux is the most common gastrointestinal disorder in the neonatal period, and the main reason for it is the lack of development in the first months of an infant's digestive system and it gets improved with the aging of baby and development of the digestive system. Some studies have shown that there is a relationship between characteristics of anatomic and esophageal reflux. This study aimed to determine the relationship between the characteristics and frequency of reflux in infants under one year old with gastroesophageal reflux disease. This study is a cross-sectional study that was conducted in 2015 in the hospital of martyr Beheshti. In this study, a group of 120 children with reflux in three age groups less than one month, 1-6 months and 6-12 months were choses and the relationship between reflux episodes with esophagus anatomic characteristics, including distal esophagus distention, Hiss angle, internal angle and length of esophagus were examined. The data were analyzed using the SPSS software and the relationship between the characteristics was compared with the number of reflux in three groups. According to the results, the frequency of reflux and extent of distention of the distal esophageal, Hiss angle, Internal Gastro esophageal angle and length of the esophagus, there was a statistically significant correlation (P <0.001. The correlation between reflux episodes and four parameters, are respectively, 0/95, 0/97, 0/71 and -0/79/. Also there was a direct relation between the frequency of reflux and extent of distention of the distal esophageal, Hiss angle, Internal Gastro esophageal angle and an inverse relation with length of the esophagus. The correlation between the frequency of reflux and esophageal characteristics in separation between all three age groups showed a statistically significant relationship exists between anatomical esophageal characteristics and reflux frequency. Based on the results of this study it

  15. Acute Necrotizing Esophagitis Followed by Duodenal Necrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Hierro, Piedad Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    Acute Necrotizing Esophagitis is an uncommon pathology, characterized by endoscopic finding of diffuse black coloration in esophageal mucosa and histological presence of necrosis in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The first case of acute necrotizing esophagitis followed by duodenal necrosis, in 81 years old woman with a positive history of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertension, and usual intake of Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory drugs, is reported. Although its etiology remains unknown, the duodenal necrosis suggests that ischemia could be the main cause given that the branches off the celiac axis provide common blood supply to the distal esophageal and duodenal tissue. The massive gastroesophagic reflux and NSAID intake could be involved. PMID:27957030

  16. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and Alkaline Reflux: the Mechanisms of the Development and Therapeutic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.D. Zviahintseva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD — a pathology, which occupies a leading place among all acid-related diseases. The main mechanism of GERD is a violation of the motor-evacuation function of the stomach — slowing gastric emptying and duodenogastric reflux. Slow gastric emptying contributes to more frequent reflux, and the presence of duodenal contents in refluxate — alkaline reflux — is aggressive for the esophageal mucosa (EM. This is due to the presence of bile acids, lysolecithin and pancreatic enzymes in the esophageal refluxate. A long existing contact of aggressive factors in the stomach and the esophagus leads to the development of inflammatory and destructive lesions of the mucous membrane of these organs. According to many researchers, bile acids play a key role in the pathogenesis of the damaging effects on the EM. Drug correction of GERD with alkaline reflux includes, along with the administration of proton pump inhibitors, prokinetics (itopride hydrochloride and ursodeoxycholic acid preparations.

  17. How reflux causes symptoms: reflux perception in gastroesophageal reflux disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijenborg, Pim W.; Bredenoord, Albert J.

    2013-01-01

    In gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms arise due to reflux of gastric content into the oesophagus. However, the relation between magnitude and onset of reflux and symptom generation in GERD patients is far from simple; gastroesophageal reflux occurs several times a day in everyone and

  18. Gastroesophageal reflux disease. Scintigraphic, endoscopic and histologic considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kault, B.; Halvorsen, T.; Petersen, H.; Grette, K.; Myrvold, H.E.

    1986-01-01

    Radionucleotide scintigraphy and esophagoscopy with biopsy were carried out in 101 patients with symptoms strongly suggestive of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) disease. GER was visualized by scintigraphy in 86.1% of the patients. Endoscopic and histologic esophagitis were found in 68.1% and 58.4% of the patients, respectively, whereas both examinations taken together showed evidence of esophagitis in 82%. Histologic evidence of esophagitis was found in nearly all patients with severe endoscopic changes, and in 43.7% of the patients with no endoscopic abnormality. Scintigraphic reflux was demonstrated more frequently in the patients with severe endoscopic esophagitis (97.5%) than in those with no or only mild endoscopic changes (78.6%). Scintigraphic reflux was found in 91.5% and 78.5% of the patients with and without histologic evidence of esophagitis. 15 of the 18 patients (83.3%) without endoscopic and histologic abnormalities in the esophagus had scintigraphic evidence of reflux. The present study strongly supports the clinical significance of scintigraphy in GER disease and confirms that esophageal biopsy specimens increase the sensitivity of endoscopic evaluation. 31 refs.

  19. Current Advances in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Nonerosive Reflux Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Lin Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonerosive reflux disease (NERD is a distinct pattern of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD. It is defined as a subcategory of GERD characterized by troublesome reflux-related symptoms in the absence of esophageal mucosal erosions/breaks at conventional endoscopy. In clinical practice, patients with reflux symptoms and negative endoscopic findings are markedly heterogeneous. The potential explanations for the symptom generation in NERD include microscopic inflammation, visceral hypersensitivity (stress and sleep, and sustained esophageal contractions. The use of 24-hour esophageal impedance and pH monitoring gives further insight into reflux characteristics and symptom association relevant to NERD. The treatment choice of NERD still relies on acid-suppression therapy. Initially, patients can be treated by a proton pump inhibitor (PPI; standard dose, once daily for 2–4 weeks. If initial treatment fails to elicit adequate symptom control, increasing the PPI dose (standard dose PPI twice daily is recommended. In patients with poor response to appropriate PPI treatment, 24-hour esophageal impedance and pH monitoring is indicated to differentiate acid-reflux-related NERD, weakly acid-reflux-related NERD (hypersensitive esophagus, nonacid-reflux-related NERD, and functional heartburn. The response is less effective in NERD as compared with erosive esophagitis.

  20. Diagnosis and treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badillo, Raul; Francis, Dawn

    2014-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common disease with a prevalence as high as 10%-20% in the western world. The disease can manifest in various symptoms which can be grouped into typical, atypical and extra-esophageal symptoms. Those with the highest specificity for GERD are acid regurgitation and heartburn. In the absence of alarm symptoms, these symptoms can allow one to make a presumptive diagnosis and initiate empiric therapy. In certain situations, further diagnostic testing is needed to confirm the diagnosis as well as to assess for complications or alternate causes for the symptoms. GERD complications include erosive esophagitis, peptic stricture, Barrett’s esophagus, esophageal adenocarcinoma and pulmonary disease. Management of GERD may involve lifestyle modification, medical therapy and surgical therapy. Lifestyle modifications including weight loss and/or head of bed elevation have been shown to improve esophageal pH and/or GERD symptoms. Medical therapy involves acid suppression which can be achieved with antacids, histamine-receptor antagonists or proton-pump inhibitors. Whereas most patients can be effectively managed with medical therapy, others may go on to require anti-reflux surgery after undergoing a proper pre-operative evaluation. The purpose of this review is to discuss the current approach to the diagnosis and treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease. PMID:25133039

  1. Volume, distribution and acidity of gastric secretion on and off proton pump inhibitor treatment: a randomized double-blind controlled study in patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steingoetter, Andreas; Sauter, Matthias; Curcic, Jelena; Liu, Dian; Menne, Dieter; Fried, Michael; Fox, Mark; Schwizer, Werner

    2015-09-02

    Postprandial accumulation of gastric secretions in the proximal stomach above the meal adjacent to the esophagogastric junction (EGJ), referred to as the 'acid pocket', has been proposed as a pathophysiological factor in gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) and as a target for GERD treatment. This study assessed the effect of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy on the volume, distribution and acidity of gastric secretions in GERD and healthy subjects (HS). A randomized, double blind, cross-over study in 12 HS and 12 GERD patients pre-treated with 40 mg pantoprazole (PPI) or placebo b.i.d. was performed. Postprandial secretion volume (SV), formation of a secretion layer and contact between the layer and the EGJ were quantified by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Multi-channel pH-monitoring assessed intragastric pH. A distinct layer of undiluted acid secretion was present on top of gastric contents in almost all participants on and off high-dose acid suppression. PPI reduced SV (193 ml to 100 ml, in HS, 227 ml to 94 ml in GERD; p < 0.01) and thickness of the acid layer (26 mm to 7 mm, 36 mm to 9 mm respectively, p < 0.01). No differences in secretion volume or layer thickness were observed between groups; however, off treatment, contact time between the secretion layer and EGJ was 2.6 times longer in GERD compared to HS (p = 0.012). This was not the case on PPI. MRI can visualize and quantify the volume and distribution dynamics of gastric secretions that form a layer in the proximal stomach after ingestion of a liquid meal. The secretion volume and the secretion layer on top of gastric contents is similar in GERD patients and HS; however contact between the layer of undiluted secretion and the EGJ is prolonged in patients. High dose PPI reduced secretion volume by about 50% and reduced contact time between secretion and EGJ towards normal levels. NCT01212614.

  2. Vesicoureteral Reflux

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the ureter if a child’s valve doesn’t work properly. The doctor provides the treatment using general anesthesia and a child can usually go home the same day. Secondary vesicoureteral reflux Doctors treat secondary VUR after finding the exact cause of the condition . Treatment may include surgery to ...

  3. The Changing Face of Esophageal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Melhado

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The two main histological esophageal cancer types, adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, differ in incidence, geographic distribution, ethnic pattern and etiology. This article focuses on epidemiology with particular reference to geographic and temporal variations in incidence, along with a review of the evidence supporting environmental and genetic factors involved in esophageal carcinogenesis. Squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus remains predominantly a disease of the developing world. In contrast, esophageal adenocarcinoma is mainly a disease of western developed societies, associated with obesity and gastro-esophageal reflux disease. There has been a dramatic increase in the incidence of adenocarcinoma in developed countries in parallel with migration of both esophageal and gastric adenocarcinomas towards the gastro-esophageal junction.

  4. The Changing Face of Esophageal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melhado, Rachel E., E-mail: raye732001@yahoo.co.uk; Alderson, Derek; Tucker, Olga [Academic Department of Surgery, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, University Hospitals Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-28

    The two main histological esophageal cancer types, adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, differ in incidence, geographic distribution, ethnic pattern and etiology. This article focuses on epidemiology with particular reference to geographic and temporal variations in incidence, along with a review of the evidence supporting environmental and genetic factors involved in esophageal carcinogenesis. Squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus remains predominantly a disease of the developing world. In contrast, esophageal adenocarcinoma is mainly a disease of western developed societies, associated with obesity and gastro-esophageal reflux disease. There has been a dramatic increase in the incidence of adenocarcinoma in developed countries in parallel with migration of both esophageal and gastric adenocarcinomas towards the gastro-esophageal junction.

  5. The Changing Face of Esophageal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melhado, Rachel E.; Alderson, Derek; Tucker, Olga

    2010-01-01

    The two main histological esophageal cancer types, adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, differ in incidence, geographic distribution, ethnic pattern and etiology. This article focuses on epidemiology with particular reference to geographic and temporal variations in incidence, along with a review of the evidence supporting environmental and genetic factors involved in esophageal carcinogenesis. Squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus remains predominantly a disease of the developing world. In contrast, esophageal adenocarcinoma is mainly a disease of western developed societies, associated with obesity and gastro-esophageal reflux disease. There has been a dramatic increase in the incidence of adenocarcinoma in developed countries in parallel with migration of both esophageal and gastric adenocarcinomas towards the gastro-esophageal junction

  6. Assessment of gastro-esophageal dysfunction in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyman, S.

    1997-01-01

    Scintigraphic methods to assess esophageal transit, gastro-esophageal reflux and gastric emptying are widely used in pediatric patients. This review describes the methodology and considers the clinical application of these techniques as well as the utility of alternative diagnostic studies

  7. Assessment of gastro-esophageal dysfunction in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyman, S. [The Children`s Hospital, Philadelphia (United States). Div. of Nuclear Medicine

    1997-12-01

    Scintigraphic methods to assess esophageal transit, gastro-esophageal reflux and gastric emptying are widely used in pediatric patients. This review describes the methodology and considers the clinical application of these techniques as well as the utility of alternative diagnostic studies.

  8. Clinical and radiological characteristic of the gastroesophageal reflux disease in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brankov, O.; Racheva, G.; Totev, M.; Antonova, D.

    2007-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) in children is a normal physiologic process that can progress to gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) when pathologic symptoms and complications appear. The pathogenesis of GER is related to a decrease pressure and transient relaxations of the lower esophageal sphincter, which is the most important factors contributing to reflux. If the history and physical examination reveal concerns of GERD further evaluation is necessary: esophageal pH monitoring, endoscopy, barium swallowing. The gold standard for the diagnosis of GERD is the 24-hour pH probe. Barium contrast radiography is useful to detect anatomic abnormalities, such as gaped cardia, reflux of contrast material, hiatal hernia, esophageal stricture and shortened esophagus. When compared to esophageal pH monitoring, the upper Gl series is less sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of GER, but is helpful as widely used first-step diagnosis in cases with symptomatic GERD. (authors)

  9. Gastrointestinal transit and reflux studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, R.L.; Kochan, J.

    1988-01-01

    Current imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography provide anatomic resolution far beyond that achievable with the current methods of scintigraphic imaging. Consequently, the strength of nuclear medicine has shifted and now lies in its ability to provide physiologic data noninvasively and simply. This ability is well illustrated by the scintigraphic techniques developed for evaluation of the alimentary tract. Studies of esophageal transit, gastroesophageal reflux, and gastric emptying are now widely available. Evaluation of small and large intestinal transit have also been investigated. These techniques are discussed in the present chapter

  10. Gastroesophageal reflux and gastric emptying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, P.; Treves, S.T.

    1985-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) may be defined as a dysfunction of the distal esophagus causing return of gastric contents into the esophagus. GER is a rather common problem during infancy, with an incidence estimated as 1 in 500 infants. Several methods are available to diagnose and quantitate GER. These include fluoroscopy after barium feedings, in conjunction with an upper gastrointestinal series; esophageal manometry; endoscopy; pH probe monitoring, in conjunction with a Tuttle Test; and extended pH probe evaluation for a 24-h period. Gastroesophageal scintigraphy has been advocated as an alternative noninvasive study requiring no sedation. Scintigraphy offers the advantages of prolonged observation, high sensitivity, and low radiation exposure

  11. TREATMENT FOR GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE AMONG CHILDREN, SUFFERING FROM JUVENILE ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Bzarova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the evaluation results of esomeprazol efficacy in the complex therapy for gastroesophageal reflux disease among 152 children aged between 3 and 18, suffering from juvenile arthritis. The treatment scheme used in treatment induced the remission of gastro esophageal reflux disease among 45% of patients, conduced to considerable decrease of the esophagus affect intensity among 53% of patients, epithelized erosions of the mucous coat of esophagus among 30 of 32 children. The medication did not cause any clinically significant side responses among the cured children (even younger ones and may be applied to treat gastro esophageal reflux disease among the patients, suffering from juvenile arthritis.Key words: gastroesophageal reflux disease, children, treatment, reflux, esomeprazol, esophagitis, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.

  12. Reflux in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    What are reflux (GER) and GERD? The esophagus is the tube that carries food from your mouth to your stomach. If your child has reflux, his or ... into the esophagus. Another name for reflux is gastroesophageal reflux (GER). GERD stands for gastroesophageal reflux disease. It ...

  13. Reflux in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    What are reflux (GER) and GERD? The esophagus is the tube that carries food from your mouth to your stomach. If your baby has reflux, his or ... into the esophagus. Another name for reflux is gastroesophageal reflux (GER). GERD stands for gastroesophageal reflux disease. It ...

  14. Different risk factors between reflux symptoms and mucosal injury in gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chung-Hsien; Hsieh, Tsung-Cheng; Hsiao, Tsung-Hsien; Wang, Pin-Chao; Tseng, Tai-Chung; Lin, Hans Hsienhong; Wang, Chia-Chi

    2015-06-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is diagnosed based on typical symptoms in clinical practice. It can be divided into two groups using endoscopy: erosive and nonerosive reflux disease (NERD). This study aims to determine the risk factors of reflux symptoms and mucosal injury. This was a two-step case-control study derived from a cohort of 998 individuals having the data of reflux disease questionnaire (RDQ) and endoscopic findings. Those with minor reflux symptoms were excluded. The first step compared symptomatic GERD patients with healthy controls. The 2(nd) step compared patients with erosive esophagitis with healthy controls. In this study, the prevalence of symptomatic GERD and erosive esophagitis were 163 (16.3%) and 166 (16.6%), respectively. A total of 507 asymptomatic individuals without mucosal injury of the esophagus on endoscopy were selected as healthy controls. Compared with healthy controls, multivariate analyses showed that symptomatic GERD patients had a higher prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia [odds ratio (OR), 1.83; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13-2.96] and obesity (OR, 1.85; 95% CI 1.08-3.02). By contrast, male sex (OR, 2.24; 95% CI 1.42-3.52), positive Campylo-like organism (CLO) test (OR, 0.56; 95% CI 0.37-0.84), and hiatus hernia (OR, 14.36; 95% CI 3.05-67.6) were associated with erosive esophagitis. In conclusion, obesity and hypertriglyceridemia were associated with reflux symptoms. By contrast, male sex, negative infection of Helicobacter pylori, and hiatus hernia were associated with mucosal injury. Our results suggested that risk factors of reflux symptoms or mucosal injury might be different in GERD patients. The underlying mechanism awaits further studies to clarify. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  15. Different risk factors between reflux symptoms and mucosal injury in gastroesophageal reflux disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Hsien Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD is diagnosed based on typical symptoms in clinical practice. It can be divided into two groups using endoscopy: erosive and nonerosive reflux disease (NERD. This study aims to determine the risk factors of reflux symptoms and mucosal injury. This was a two-step case-control study derived from a cohort of 998 individuals having the data of reflux disease questionnaire (RDQ and endoscopic findings. Those with minor reflux symptoms were excluded. The first step compared symptomatic GERD patients with healthy controls. The 2nd step compared patients with erosive esophagitis with healthy controls. In this study, the prevalence of symptomatic GERD and erosive esophagitis were 163 (16.3% and 166 (16.6%, respectively. A total of 507 asymptomatic individuals without mucosal injury of the esophagus on endoscopy were selected as healthy controls. Compared with healthy controls, multivariate analyses showed that symptomatic GERD patients had a higher prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia [odds ratio (OR, 1.83; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.13–2.96] and obesity (OR, 1.85; 95% CI 1.08–3.02. By contrast, male sex (OR, 2.24; 95% CI 1.42–3.52, positive Campylo-like organism (CLO test (OR, 0.56; 95% CI 0.37–0.84, and hiatus hernia (OR, 14.36; 95% CI 3.05–67.6 were associated with erosive esophagitis. In conclusion, obesity and hypertriglyceridemia were associated with reflux symptoms. By contrast, male sex, negative infection of Helicobacter pylori, and hiatus hernia were associated with mucosal injury. Our results suggested that risk factors of reflux symptoms or mucosal injury might be different in GERD patients. The underlying mechanism awaits further studies to clarify.

  16. [Underlying Mechanisms and Management of Refractory Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang Jae

    2015-08-01

    The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in South Korea has increased over the past 10 years. Patients with erosive reflux disease (ERD) shows better response to proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) than those with non-erosive reflux disease (NERD). NERD is a heterogeneous condition, showing pathological gastroesophageal reflux or esophageal hypersensitivity to reflux contents. NERD patients with pathological gastroesophageal reflux or hypersensitivity to acid may respond to PPIs. However, many patients with esophageal hypersensitivity to nonacid or functional heartburn do not respond to PPIs. Therefore, careful history and investigations are required when managing patients with refractory GERD who show poor response to conventional dose PPIs. Combined pH-impedance studies and a PPI diagnostic trial are recommended to reveal underlying mechanisms of refractory symptoms. For those with ongoing reflux-related symptoms, split dose administration, change to long-acting PPIs or PPIs less influenced by CYP2C19 genotypes, increasing dose of PPIs, and the addition of alginate preparations, prokinetics, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, or tricyclic antidepressants can be considered. Pain modulators, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, or tricyclic antidepressants are more likely to be effective for those with reflux-unrelated symptoms. Surgery or endoscopic per oral fundoplication may be effective in selected patients.

  17. Assessment of Gastroesophageal Reflux in Children(2-12 Month) Based on Clinical Findings and Ultrasonography

    OpenAIRE

    F Jassemi Zergani; R Farahi Rostami; F Hakim; Z Jannat Alipour; K Karimi; Z Fotokian

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Gastroesophageal reflux is a common gastrointestinal disorder among infants, which can cause complications, such as esophagitis and Barrett's esophagus if its diagnosis and treatment are delayed. On the other hand, similarity of Gastro esophageal Reflux symptoms with symptoms of other childhood diseases makes its diagnosis and treatment difficult. So a proper tool for early screening and diagnostic test is essential. Methods: This study was conducted on 221 infants(2 to 12 month...

  18. Laparoscopic Anti-Reflux (GERD) Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Humanitarian Efforts Login Laparoscopic Anti-Reflux (GERD) Surgery Patient Information from SAGES Download PDF Find a SAGES Surgeon Surgery for “Heartburn” If you suffer from moderate to ...

  19. Insight Into the Relationship Between Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaezi, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common condition that presents with symptoms of heartburn and regurgitation. Asthma is an equally common medical condition that often coexists with GERD. The clinical scenario of difficult-to-treat asthma in the setting of concomitant GERD leads to the possibility of GERD-induced asthma. However, asthma may also induce GERD, so confusion has developed about the role of GERD in patients with moderate to severe asthma. Acid-suppressive therapy may be initiated in patients with asthma, but controlled studies have recently questioned the role of such therapy and, thus, have caused further confusion in this field. Recent advancements in the field of esophageal physiologic testing in GERD have introduced the concept of impedance–pH monitoring, which suggests a possible role of nonacid reflux in those who continue to be symptomatic despite acid-suppressive therapy. However, recent data caution about the role of surgical fundoplication based solely on the results of impedance monitoring. This article reviews current knowledge in the fields of GERD and asthma and suggests a possible treatment option for this group of patients. PMID:28435409

  20. Assessment of esophageal involvement in systemic sclerosis and morphea (localized scleroderma) by clinical, endoscopic, manometric and pH metric features: a prospective comparative hospital based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Tasleem; Masood, Qazi; Singh, Jaswinder; Hassan, Iffat

    2015-02-15

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a generalized disorder of unknown etiology affecting the connective tissue of the body. It affects the skin and various internal organs. Gastrointestinal tract involvement is seen in almost 90% of the patients. Esophagus is the most frequently affected part of the gastrointestinal tract. Esophageal motility disturbance classically manifests as a reduced lower esophageal sphincter pressure (LESP) and loss of distal esophageal body peristalsis. Consequently, SSc patients may be complicated by erosive esophagitis and eventually by Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma. Morphea, also known as localized scleroderma, is characterized by predominant skin involvement, with occasional involvement of subjacent muscles and usually sparing the internal organs. The involvement of esophagus in morphea has been studied very scarcely. The proposed study will investigate the esophageal involvement in the two forms of scleroderma (systemic and localized), compare the same and address any need of upper gastrointestinal evaluation in morphea (localized scleroderma) patients. 56 and 31 newly and already diagnosed cases of SSc and morphea respectively were taken up for the study. All the patients were inquired about the dyspeptic symptoms (heartburn and/or acid regurgitation and/or dysphagia). Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, esophageal manometry and 24-hour pH monitoring were done in 52, 47 and 41 patients of SSc; and 28, 25 and 20 patients of morphea respectively. Esophageal symptoms were present in 39 cases (69.6%) of SSc which were mild in 22 (39.3%), moderate in 14 (25%), severe in three (5.3%); while only four cases (7.1%) of morphea had esophageal symptoms all of which were mild in severity. Reflux esophagitis was seen in 17 cases (32.7%) of SSc and only two cases (7.14%) of morphea. Manometric abnormalities were seen in 32 cases (68.1%) of SSc and none in morphea. Ambulatory 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring documented abnormal reflux in

  1. Unmet Needs in the Treatment of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, Ram; Maradey-Romero, Carla; Gingold-Belfer, Rachel; Fass, Ronnie

    2015-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a highly prevalent gastrointestinal disorder. Proton pump inhibitors have profoundly revolutionized the treatment of GERD. However, several areas of unmet need persist despite marked improvements in the therapeutic management of GERD. These include the advanced grades of erosive esophagitis, nonerosive reflux disease, maintenance treatment of erosive esophagitis, refractory GERD, postprandial heartburn, atypical and extraesophageal manifestations of GERD, Barrett’s esophagus, chronic protein pump inhibitor treatment, and post-bariatric surgery GERD. Consequently, any future development of novel therapeutic modalities for GERD (medical, endoscopic, or surgical), would likely focus on the aforementioned areas of unmet need. PMID:26130628

  2. Laryngopharyngeal reflux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Šereg-Bahar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 4–10 % of patients with gastroesophageal reflux (GER some atypical symptoms are found (cough, hoarseness, globus pharyngeus, dyspnea which are characteristic for laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR. The signs of LPR can be detected in more than 50 % of dysphonic patients. In the diagnostics of LPR, a meticulous history and a videoendoscopy of the larynx and pharynx are the most important procedures. The diagnosis of LPR can be confirmed by the 24-hour double probe pH monitoring and the treatment test with proton pump inhibitors. The best diagnostic results can be obtained with a combination of several diagnostic procedures.Conclusions: An otorhinolaryngologist can start a treatment test with proton pump inhibitors in a patient in whom a laryngopharyngeal reflux is suspected on the basis of history and laryngopharyngeal endoscopy. A successful treatment requires at least 12 weeks regimen with high doses 20 mg twice a day. In the case of alarm signs and unsuccessful treatment a gastroenterologic intervention is necessary.

  3. Effects of anxiety and depression in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessing, Boudewijn F.; Bredenoord, Albert J.; Saleh, Caroline M. G.; Smout, André J. P. M.

    2015-01-01

    Increased levels of anxiety and depression have been associated with esophageal hyperalgesia and an increased risk of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). We investigated the effects of anxiety and depression on GERD symptoms and the perception of reflux episodes in a well-characterized group of

  4. Evaluation of methods for assessment of esophageal motility disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endert, G.; Nagel, F.; Erler, M.; Hasse, C.; Ritter, E.P.; Nowak, W. (Medical Academy Erfurt, Clinic of Radiology and Clinic of Surgery (Germany))

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare two forms of parametric imaging of esophageal motility, the condensed image and the esophageal kinetogram, with a standard esophageal transit study in 64 patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease. The diagnosis was confirmed by endoscopy. A multiple swallow test with a liquid tracer of 150 MBq {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA was used. During the investigation-time of 9 min 300 pictures were recorded and with the KANDI DS-system the parametric images generated and the clearance time, the transit time and the index of reflux were determined. The comparison of kinetogram and condensed image shows a higher sensitivity to detect functional disturbances in the multiple swallow test (kinetogram). In the diagnosis of the reflux disease the transit study and the parametric imaging demonstrated a comparable sensitivity. (orig.).

  5. Evaluation of methods for assessment of esophageal motility disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endert, G.; Nagel, F.; Erler, M.; Hasse, C.; Ritter, E.P.; Nowak, W.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare two forms of parametric imaging of esophageal motility, the condensed image and the esophageal kinetogram, with a standard esophageal transit study in 64 patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease. The diagnosis was confirmed by endoscopy. A multiple swallow test with a liquid tracer of 150 MBq 99m Tc-DTPA was used. During the investigation-time of 9 min 300 pictures were recorded and with the KANDI DS-system the parametric images generated and the clearance time, the transit time and the index of reflux were determined. The comparison of kinetogram and condensed image shows a higher sensitivity to detect functional disturbances in the multiple swallow test (kinetogram). In the diagnosis of the reflux disease the transit study and the parametric imaging demonstrated a comparable sensitivity. (orig.)

  6. Relação entre o tamanho de hérnia hiatal e tempo de exposição ácida esofágica nas doenças do refluxo erosiva e não-erosiva Relationship between the size of hiatal hernia and esophageal acid exposure time in erosive and non-erosive reflux disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz João Abrahão Jr.

    2006-03-01

    erosiva e doença do refluxo não-erosiva.BACKGROUND: In the last few years studies have demonstrated that hiatal hernias have an important role in the pathogenesis of reflux disease, promoting reflux by many different mechanisms, emphasizing that the larger the hiatal hernia, the higher the reflux intensity and erosive esophagitis prevalence. AIM: To correlate the size of hiatal hernias (small or large with reflux intensity (measured by pH monitoring parameters in patients with non-erosive and erosive reflux disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed pH monitoring from patients with typical reflux symptoms (heartburn previously submitted to upper endoscopy. Reflux intensity was measured by the % of total time of pH 5 cm. RESULTS: A total of 192 patients were included, being 115 in erosive reflux disease group and 77 in non-erosive reflux disease group. In erosive reflux disease patients, there were 94 (81% with small hiatal hernias and 21 (19% with large ones and in non-erosive reflux disease patients there were 66 (85% with small and 11(15% with large hiatal hernias. In erosive reflux disease group, the %TT, %UT and %ST were of 13.1 + 7.1; 13.4 + 7.4 and 12.3 + 11.5 in small hiatal hernias and 20.2 + 12.3; 17.8 + 14.1 and 20.7 + 14.1 in large hiatal hernias, respectively (P <0,05 for %TT and %TS. In non-erosive reflux disease patients, %TT, %UT and %ST were 9.6 + 4.8; 10.8 + 6.8 and 8.6 + 7.3 in small hiatal hernias and of 14.6 + 13.3; 11.2 + 7.5 and 18.1 + 21.0 in large hiatal hernias respectively (P <0,05 for %TT and %TS. CONCLUSION: Large hiatal hernias increase acid exposure time only in supine position in erosive esophagitis patients and in non-erosive patients.

  7. Esophageal scintigraphy: A comparison with esophagoscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjellen, G.; Andersson, P.; Sandstroem, S.

    1987-01-01

    Fifty consecutive patients with different esophageal symtoms were investigated with esophageal endoscopy, transit scintigraphy, and gastroesophageal (GE) scintigraphy with extra-abdominal compression. Scintigraphic findings were abnormal in 27 of those 31 patients (87%) who were classified as abnormal at endoscopy. A prolonged transit time was the commonest finding, but hiatal hernia and GE reflux were also found. However, the scintigraphic procedure showed abnormalities in 6 of 19 (31%) patients who were classified as normal at endoscopy. Esophageal scintigraphy is recommended as a screening test before endoscopy is decided on. 20 refs.

  8. Vesicoureteral reflux and reflux nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen, H.S.

    1985-01-01

    Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is mainly a primary phenomenon due to incompetence of the ureterovesical junction, mostly affecting a pediatric population. During micturition cystourethrography (MCU) reflux into the kidney - intrarenal reflux (IRR) - is occasionally seen. In areas with IRR the kidney surface may subsequently be depressed and the papillae retracted (reflux nephropathy (RN)). VUR may lead to hypertension and/or end-stage renal failure. Most commonly, VUR is discovered during evaluation for urinary tract infection, but it may also be present in patients with hypertension, toxemia of pregnancy, chronic renal failure and proteinuria, and it may be found in siblings of patients with VUR. For the time being VUR is demonstrated at radiographic MCU, whereas RN is diagnosed by demonstration of focal scars and of abnormal parenchymal thickness at urography. In children with VUR and no abnormalities of calyces or parenchymal defects standardized measurement of the parenchymal thickness at three sites may identify kidneys which are likely to develop focal scars. Quantitation of focal scarring should be performed in connection with a measure of the overall kidney size. The occurrence of IRR is dependent of the papillary morphology, intrapelvic pressure and urine flow. There may be an important relationship between renal ischemia and IRR in producing a 'vicious circle of deleterious effects' which, combined with parenchymal extravasation, may lead to RN. Treatment of VUR includes medical and surgical management. Since renal scarring may occur in infancy, prevention should focus on infants and young children. Infants and young children with severe VUR may have normal urograms. Therefore a MCU should also be performed, preferably with the recommended standardized technique. (orig.)

  9. Management of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, C Prakash; Fass, Ronnie

    2018-01-01

    Management of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) commonly starts with an empiric trial of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy and complementary lifestyle measures, for patients without alarm symptoms. Optimization of therapy (improving compliance and timing of PPI doses), or increasing PPI dosage to twice daily in select circumstances, can reduce persistent symptoms. Patients with continued symptoms can be evaluated with endoscopy and tests of esophageal physiology, to better determine their disease phenotype and optimize treatment. Laparoscopic fundoplication, magnetic sphincter augmentation, and endoscopic therapies can benefit patients with well-characterized GERD. Patients with functional diseases that overlap with or mimic GERD can also be treated with neuromodulators (primarily antidepressants), or psychological interventions (psychotherapy, hypnotherapy, cognitive and behavioral therapy). Future approaches to treatment of GERD include potassium-competitive acid blockers, reflux-reducing agents, bile acid binders, injection of inert substances into the esophagogastric junction, and electrical stimulation of the lower esophageal sphincter. Copyright © 2018 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. TGF-Beta Gene Polymorphisms in Food Allergic versus Non-Food Allergic Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    esophageal dysfunction (i.e. dysphagia, anorexia, early satiety, failure to thrive) in whom gastro - esophageal reflux disease has been ruled out by...W81XWH-11-1-0741 TITLE: TGF-Beta Gene Polymorphisms in Food Allergic versus Non-Food Allergic Eosinophilic Esophagitis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...versus Non-Food Allergic Eosinophilic Esophagitis 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0741 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) David Broide MB

  11. Novel device to sample the esophageal microbiome--the esophageal string test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie A Fillon

    Full Text Available A growing number of studies implicate the microbiome in the pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation. Previous work has shown that adults with esophagitis related to gastroesophageal reflux disease have altered esophageal microbiota compared to those who do not have esophagitis. In these studies, sampling of the esophageal microbiome was accomplished by isolating DNA from esophageal biopsies obtained at the time of upper endoscopy. The aim of the current study was to identify the esophageal microbiome in pediatric individuals with normal esophageal mucosa using a minimally invasive, capsule-based string technology, the Enterotest™. We used the proximal segment of the Enterotest string to sample the esophagus, and term this the "Esophageal String Test" (EST. We hypothesized that the less invasive EST would capture mucosal adherent bacteria present in the esophagus in a similar fashion as mucosal biopsy. EST samples and mucosal biopsies were collected from children with no esophageal inflammation (n = 15 and their microbiome composition determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Microbiota from esophageal biopsies and ESTs produced nearly identical profiles of bacterial genera and were different from the bacterial contents of samples collected from the nasal and oral cavity. We conclude that the minimally invasive EST can serve as a useful device for study of the esophageal microbiome.

  12. [Intraesophageal pH in children with suspected reflux].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calva-Rodríguez, R; García-Aranda, J A; Bendimez-Cano, A; Estrada-Saavedra, R

    1989-05-01

    We study 22 children with clinical symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux. The main manifestations were: frequent vomiting, failure to thrive and repetitive pneumonia. In all of them we perform barium esophagogram (SEGD) with fluoroscopy, esophageal manometry (EM) and a four hours intraesophageal pH measurement. Thirteen of the twenty two children present a pathologic reflux (ERGE); in 16 we found SEGD that show reflux; three of them had an abnormal EM, the other 13 were normal. Seven patients showed alteration of the intraesophageal pH measurement. In conclusion the intraesophageal pH measurement in short period of time (4 hours) is a good method in the diagnosis of patients with ERGE.

  13. Hiatial hernia in gastroesophageal reflux disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaul, B.; Petersen, H.; Myrvold, H.E.; Grette, K.; Roeysland, P.; Halvorsen, T.

    1986-01-01

    Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and radiologic examination were performed in 101 patients with symptoms strongly suggestive of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) disease. Hiatus hernia (HH) was found in 50 patients diagnosed by radiography or endoscopy, or both, in 22, 19, and 9 patients respectively. Severe endoscopic esophagitis (grades III and IV) was found more often in the patients with HH than in those without. The same was true for the early positive timed acid perfusion tests. Furthermore, the patients with HH more often had reflux by the standard acid reflux test (42 og 50 versus 28 of 51, gastroesophageal scintigraphy (47 of 50 versus 40 of 51; and radiography (20 of 50 versus 2 of 51; than the patients without HH. The results show that severe GER disease can occur without an associated HH and indicate that patients with symptoms of GER disease and associated HH are likely to have a more severe GER disease than those without HH.

  14. esophageal carcinoma complicating achalasia, 25 years post

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mine

    Some degree of stasis usually persists despite adequate treatment and relief of symptoms. Complications or recurrent symptoms include dysphagia, esophageal reflux, stricture and carcinoma. 5. This case report suggests that long term surveillance of the patient with achalasia is essential even after successful treatment.

  15. Evaluation of Current Operations for the Prevention of Gastroesophageal Reflux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeester, Tom R.; Johnson, Lawrence F.; Kent, Alfred H.

    1974-01-01

    A prospective randomized study was done on 45 patients to evaluate the effectiveness of the Hill, Nissen or Belsey anti-reflux procedure. All patients had symptoms of GE reflux unresponsive to medical therapy, a + standard acid reflux test (SART), and esophagitis (38/45) or + Burnstein test (7/45). Esophageal symptomatic, radiographic, manometric and pH (SART and 24-hr monitoring) evaluation was done pre- and 154 days (ave.) postsurgery. All procedures improved the symptoms of pyrosis. The best improvement was seen after the Nissen repair. All procedures increased the distal esophageal sphincter (DES) pressures over preoperative levels. The Nissen and Belsey increased it more than the Hill. Sphincter length and dynamics remained unchanged. The Nissen procedure placed more of the manometric sphincter below the respiratory inversion point in the positive pressure environment of the abdomen. The esophageal length was increased by the Nissen and Hill repairs. This was thought to account for the high incidence of temporary postsurgery dysphagia following the Nissen and Hill repairs and the lower incidence following the Belsey repair. Reflux was most effectively prevented by the Nissen repair, as shown by the SART and the 24-hr esophageal pH monitoring, a sensitive measurement of frequency and duration of reflux. The average length of hospital stay was 20 days for Belsey and 12 days for both Nissen and Hill procedure. Postsurgery complications were more common following the thoracic than the abdominal approach. Ability to vomit postrepair was greatest with the Hill and least with the Belsey and Nissen repair. All procedures temporarily increased amount of flatus. It is concluded that the Nissen repair best controls reflux and its symptoms by providing the greatest increase in DES pressure and placing more of the sphincter in the positive abdominal environment. This is accomplished with the lowest morbidity but at the expense of temporary postoperative dysphagia and a 50

  16. Proton Pump Inhibitors in Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: Friend or Foe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, C Prakash

    2017-09-01

    Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) has been redefined, in light of recent advances highlighting GERD phenotypes that respond to PPIs, and fresh revelations of potential risks of long-term PPI therapy. Erosive esophagitis predicts excellent response to PPI therapy, but non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) with abnormal reflux parameters on ambulatory reflux monitoring also demonstrates a similar response. In contrast, response is suboptimal in the absence of abnormal reflux parameters. In this setting, if an alternate appropriate indication for PPI therapy does not coexist, risks may outweigh benefits of PPI therapy. Adverse events from long-term PPI therapy continue to be reported, most based on association rather than cause-and-effect. Appropriate indications need to be established before embarking on long-term PPI therapy. Future research will define true risks of long-term PPI therapy, and develop alternate management options for acid peptic diseases.

  17. Esophageal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from your throat to your stomach. Early esophageal cancer usually does not cause symptoms. Later, you may ... You're at greater risk for getting esophageal cancer if you smoke, drink heavily, or have acid ...

  18. Prevalence of reflux esophagitis among patients undergoing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ahmed Gado

    2013-10-25

    Oct 25, 2013 ... Data from Africa and the Middle East are sparse. Aim: The .... The endoscopy unit pro- vides an ... low education state of a big category of our patients, assess- ... was suspected in seven patients (2%) and histologically con-.

  19. Esophageal motor disorders in adults with eosinophilic esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moawad, Fouad J; Maydonovitch, Corinne L; Veerappan, Ganesh R; Bassett, John T; Lake, Jason M; Wong, Roy K H

    2011-05-01

    An association between eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) and esophageal motility disorders has been described in small studies. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of esophageal motor disorders in a large cohort of adults with EoE and examine whether an association exists between esophageal dysmotility and dysphagia. A retrospective review of esophageal manometry studies in adult EoE patients was performed. Tracings were reviewed for abnormalities including nutcracker esophagus and ineffective swallows, defined as low amplitude peristalsis (esophagus was found in three patients. There was no significant difference in eosinophil count among the motility groups: normal 46.5 ± 3.1, mild IEM 56.9 ± 36.9, moderate IEM 45.5 ± 23.7, severe IEM 34.3 ± 12.6 (P = 0.157). In this cohort of EoE patients, the majority had normal esophageal motility studies, although a subset of these patients had some esophageal dysmotility. It is unlikely that esophageal dysmotility is a major contributing factor to dysphagia, although it is reasonable to consider esophageal manometry testing in EoE patients to identify potential abnormalities of the smooth muscle esophagus.

  20. Epidemiology of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Asia: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Ethnic and geographical differences are important factors in studying disease frequencies, because they may highlight the environmental or genetic influences in the etiology. We retrieved the studies which have been published regarding the epidemiologic features of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in Asia, based on the definitions of GERD, study settings, publication years and geographical regions. From the population-based studies, the prevalence of symptom-based GERD in Eastern Asia was found to be 2.5%-4.8% before 2005 and 5.2%-8.5% from 2005 to 2010. In Southeast and Western Asia, it was 6.3%-18.3% after 2005, which was much higher than those in Eastern Asia. There were robust epidemiologic data of endoscopic reflux esophagitis in medical check-up participants. The prevalence of endoscopic reflux esophagitis in Eastern Asia increased from 3.4%-5.0% before 2000, to 4.3%-15.7% after 2005. Although there were only limited studies, the prevalence of extra-esophageal syndromes in Asia was higher in GERD group than in controls. The prevalence of Barrett's esophagus was 0.06%-0.84% in the health check-up participants, whereas it was 0.31%-2.00% in the referral hospital settings. In summary, the prevalence of symptom-based GERD and endoscopic reflux esophagitis has increased in Asian countries. However, the prevalence of Barrett's esophagus in Asia has not changed and also still rare. PMID:21369488

  1. The acid pocket: a target for treatment in reflux disease?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kahrilas, Peter J.; McColl, Kenneth; Fox, Mark; O'Rourke, Lisa; Sifrim, Daniel; Smout, Andre J. P. M.; Boeckxstaens, Guy

    2013-01-01

    The nadir esophageal pH of reflux observed during pH monitoring in the postprandial period is often more acidic than the concomitant intragastric pH. This paradox prompted the discovery of the "acid pocket", an area of unbuffered gastric acid that accumulates in the proximal stomach after meals and

  2. Gastric emptying of solid food in patients with gastroesophageal reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shay, S.; Eggli, D.; Van Nostrand, D.; Johnson, L.

    1985-01-01

    While delayed solid gastric emptying (GE) has been reported in patients with gastroesophageal reflux (GER), the relationship of GE to daytime and/or nighttime reflux patterns, and the severity of endoscopic esophagitis are unknown. The authors measured GE in a study population of symptomatic patients (n=33) with abnormal 24 hour pH monitoring (24 hr pH). The study population was divided into two groups by esophagoscopy; those with (E+=22); and 2) those without (E-=11) erosive esophagitis and/or Barrett's esophagus. GE was measured in all patients and in 15 normal volunteers (NL) by the in vivo labelling of chicken liver with Tc-99m-SC, which was in turn diced into 1 cm. cubes and given in 7 1/2 oz. of beef stew. Upright one minute anterior and posterior digital images were obtained every 15 min. for 2.5 hours. 24 hour pH was divided into daytime (upright) and nighttime (supine) segments, and acid exposure was defined as % time pH < 4 for that posture. There was no correlation between GE T 1/2 and acid exposure, daytime or nighttime, for the patient population as a whole. However, patients with the longest GE T1/2 tended to have severe daytime reflux. The authors rarely found delayed solid food gastric emptying in patients with reflux; moreover, they found no association between GE and either diurnal reflux patterns on 24 hr pH or the severity of endoscopic esophagitis

  3. Congenital esophageal stenosis in 3 children: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mackenzie C. Lees

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Congenital esophageal stenosis (CES is rare condition found in 1 per 25,000 to 50,000 live births. It is characterized by intrinsic narrowing of the esophagus secondary to congenital malformation of the esophageal wall architecture. Diagnosis is often difficult to definitively establish as the symptoms are often initially attributed to esophageal strictures secondary to reflux, or occur within the context of a tracheo-esophageal fistula (TEF in the newborn. Endoscopic dilation and surgical repair are the mainstays of treatment. We report a series of three cases seen recently at our institution, the University of Alberta/Stollery Children's Hospital.

  4. Esophageal motility in eosinophilic esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, A H; Iorio, N; Schey, R

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the esophagus and is a potential cause of dysphagia and food impaction, most commonly affecting young men. Esophageal manometry findings vary from normal motility to aperistalsis, simultaneous contractions, diffuse esophageal spasm, nutcracker esophagus or hypotonic lower esophageal sphincter (LES). It remains unclear whether esophageal dysmotility plays a significant role in the clinical symptoms of EoE. Our aim is to review the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and effect of treatment on esophageal dysmotility in EoE. A literature search utilizing the PubMed database was performed using keywords: eosinophilic esophagitis, esophageal dysmotility, motility, manometry, impedance planimetry, barium esophagogram, endoscopic ultrasound, and dysphagia. Fifteen studies, totaling 387 patients with eosinophilic esophagitis were identified as keeping in accordance with the aim of this study and included in this review. The occurrence of abnormal esophageal manometry was reported to be between 4 and 87% among patients with EoE. Esophageal motility studies have shown reduced distensibility, abnormal peristalsis, and hypotonicity of the LES in patients with EoE, which may also mimic other esophageal motility disorders such as achalasia or nutcracker esophagus. Studies have shown conflicting results regarding the presence of esophageal dysmotility and symptoms with some reports suggesting a higher rate of food impaction, while others report no correlation between motor function and dysphagia. Motility dysfunction of the esophagus in EoE has not been well reported in the literature and studies have reported conflicting evidence regarding the clinical significance of dysmotility seen in EoE. The correlation between esophageal dysmotility and symptoms of EoE remains unclear. Larger studies are needed to investigate the incidence of esophageal dysmotility, clinical implications, and effect of treatment on

  5. Prevalence of laryngeal alterations in patients with erosive esophagitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coelho, Marina Serrato

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The association between gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD and laryngeal disorders has been much debated in recent years. Recent studies suggest an association between laryngeal symptoms and pharyngeal symptoms extra-esophageal reflux, as atypical presentation of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease. Objectives: To correlate the presence of laryngeal to the grades of erosive esophagitis. Methods: A prospective study. Patients with findings of esophagitis on endoscopy were categorized according to LosAngeles and submitted a questionnaire followed by laryngoscopy. The chi-square test was used for statistical analysis (p<0.05. Results: Patients with typical symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease accounted for 96.6%. Eighteen had changes consistent with class A (60%, class B with seven (7% and 5 with classes C + D (16.6%. The presence of laryngeal changes were more prevalent in more severe esophagitis (grades C and D Los Angeles when compared to milder forms (classes A and B, a statistically significant difference (p<0.05. Conclusion: The laryngeal disorders are frequent findings in patients with esophagitis, more frequent the greater the degree of esophageal injury.

  6. Barrett associated MHC and FOXF1 variants also increase esophageal carcinoma risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dura, P.; Veen, E.M. van; Salomon, J.; Morsche, R.H.M. te; Roelofs, H.M.J.; Kristinsson, J.O.; Wobbes, T.; Witteman, B.J.; Tan, A.C.; Drenth, J.P.H.; Peters, W.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    Barrett's esophagus, with gastroesophageal reflux disease and obesity as risk factors, predisposes to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Recently a British genome wide association study identified two Barrett's esophagus susceptibility loci mapping within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC;

  7. Effect of baclofen on esophagogastric motility and gastroesophageal reflux in children with gastroesophageal reflux disease: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omari, Taher I.; Benninga, Marc A.; Sansom, Lloyd; Butler, Ross N.; Dent, John; Davidson, Geoffrey P.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of baclofen, a gamma-amino-butyric-acid B receptor agonist that inhibits transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation (TLESR), on the rates of TLESR, gastroesophageal reflux (GER), and gastric emptying (GE) in children with GER disease. STUDY DESIGN: The efficacy

  8. Increased proximal reflux in a hypersensitive esophagus might explain symptoms resistant to proton pump inhibitors in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohof, Wout O; Bennink, Roelof J; de Jonge, Hugo; Boeckxstaens, Guy E

    2014-10-01

    Approximately 30% of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease have symptoms resistant to treatment with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). Several mechanisms such as esophageal hypersensitivity, increased mucosal permeability, and possibly the position of the gastric acid pocket might underlie a partial response to PPIs. To what extent these mechanisms interact and contribute to PPI-resistant symptoms, however, has not been investigated previously. In 18 gastroesophageal reflux disease patients (9 PPI responders and 9 PPI partial responders), esophageal sensitivity, mucosal permeability, and postprandial reflux parameters were determined during PPI use. Esophageal sensitivity for distension was measured by gradual balloon inflation at 5 and 15 cm above the lower esophageal sphincter. The mucosal permeability of 4 esophageal biopsy specimens per patient was determined in Ussing chambers by measuring the transepithelial electrical resistance and transmucosal flux of fluorescein. Postprandial reflux parameters were determined using concurrent high-resolution manometry/pH impedance after a standardized meal. In addition, the acid pocket was visualized using scintigraphy. No difference in the rate of postprandial acid reflux, in the pH of the acid pocket (PPI responders 3.7 ± 0.7 vs PPI partial responders 4.2 ± 0.4; P = .54), or in the position of the acid pocket was observed in PPI partial responders compared with PPI responders. In addition, the permeability of the esophageal mucosa was similar in both groups, as shown by a similar transepithelial electrical resistance and flux of fluorescein. PPI partial responders had more reflux episodes with a higher mean proximal extent, compared with PPI responders, and were more sensitive to balloon distension, both in the upper and lower esophagus. PPI-resistant symptoms most likely are explained by increased proximal reflux in a hypersensitive esophagus and less likely by increased mucosal permeability or the position of

  9. Doxycycline induced Esophagitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Karakus Yilmaz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Esophagitis is a hazardous condition such as acid reflux of esophageal mucosa, infection, systemic diseases, radiation, drugs and trauma. Drug- induced esophagial injury (DIEI is a disease with the use of variety of drugs that caused serious damage and ulcer in the mucosa of the esophagus. The most commonly implicated drugs are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, chloride and especially antibiotics. Thirty-six year-old female patient presented to the emergency department with odynophagia during swallowing and complaining of retrosternal pain. One week before 100 mg doxycycline (2x1 PO for therapeutic abortion were prescribed. It was learned that in the third day of the initiation of medication, the patient\\'s symptoms began and stopped using drug by the fourth day due to advers effect of drugs, but her symptoms didn’t regressed although she didn’t use them. Endoscopy appointment was taken, proton pump inhibitor and antiacid treatment was given, than patient was discharged from the emergency department. In the endoscopy, 20 mm segment esophageal ulcer was seen approximately in the 30.th cm of the esophagius. DIEI is a relatively common, although under-recognized, so this case was presented for remainding DIEI to emergency medicine personals and reweiving its diagnosis, treatment and follow-up.

  10. Scintigraphy, radiology and pH-manometry in patients after anti-reflux surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crisci, R.; Lococo, A.; Coloni, G.F.; De Vincentis, N.; Lenti, R.; Pona, C.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the scintigraphic assessment of esophageal transit times in the diagnosis of the esophageal motor disorders after anti-reflux surgery for gastro-esophageal reflux. In particular, we studied 12 patients with scintigraphy, radiology and manometry. The patients were previously operated on with anti-reflux surgery. Two of them, after Nissen fundoplication, reported dysphagia. The esophagogram and the pH-manometric test did not demonstrate any esophageal motor abnormality. The study of the transit times with a dense bolus showed that both the esophageal transit time (ETT) and the regional emptying time (RET) were more prolonged than in nirmals, even though they were remarkebly better than in patients affected by gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) and not operated. On the basis of these results the Authors also estimate that a dysphagia is likely to be present for ETT greater then 30 sec. and RET greater then 20 sec. It must be specified, however, that while the diagnostic specificity of the ETT was 67%, for the RET it was 100%. This study confirms, therefore, the higher capability of scintigraphy for identifying esophageal motor disorders compared to radiology and pH-manometry

  11. Association between follicular tracheitis and gastroesophageal reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Melanie; Meier, Jeremy; Asfour, Fadi; Jackson, Daniel; Grimmer, J Fredrik; Muntz, Harlan R; Park, Albert H

    2016-03-01

    Follicular tracheitis (also known as tracheal cobblestoning) is an entity that is poorly described and of unclear significance. The objective of this study was to better define follicular tracheitis and determine the association between the clinical finding of follicular tracheitis on bronchoscopy and objective evidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Retrospective chart review of children with recurrent croup having undergone a rigid bronchoscopy and an investigation for gastroesophageal reflux between 2001 and 2013. 117 children with recurrent croup children age 6-144 months were included in the study. Follicular tracheitis was noted on 41% of all bronchoscopies. Fifty-nine percent of all children who underwent bronchoscopy were diagnosed with gastroesophageal reflux on at least one investigation. Forty-nine of 117 children underwent a pH probe study, and 51% were found to have evidence of reflux on this study. Nine children were diagnosed with eosinophilic esophagitis. Three patients underwent a biopsy of the follicular tracheitis lesions, which revealed chronic inflammation. There was no evidence of an association between findings of follicular tracheitis and a positive test for gastroesophageal reflux (p=0.52) or a positive pH probe study (p=0.64). There was no association between follicular tracheitis and subglottic stenosis (p=0.33) or an history of asthma and/or atopy (p=0.19). In children with recurrent croup, follicular tracheitis remains an unspecific finding associated with an inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Inhibitory Effect of Nasal Intermittent Positive Pressure Ventilation on Gastroesophageal Reflux.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Cantin

    Full Text Available Non-invasive intermittent positive pressure ventilation can lead to esophageal insufflations and in turn to gastric distension. The fact that the latter induces transient relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter implies that it may increase gastroesophageal refluxes. We previously reported that nasal Pressure Support Ventilation (nPSV, contrary to nasal Neurally-Adjusted Ventilatory Assist (nNAVA, triggers active inspiratory laryngeal closure. This suggests that esophageal insufflations are more frequent in nPSV than in nNAVA. The objectives of the present study were to test the hypotheses that: i gastroesophageal refluxes are increased during nPSV compared to both control condition and nNAVA; ii esophageal insufflations occur more frequently during nPSV than nNAVA. Polysomnographic recordings and esophageal multichannel intraluminal impedance pHmetry were performed in nine chronically instrumented newborn lambs to study gastroesophageal refluxes, esophageal insufflations, states of alertness, laryngeal closure and respiration. Recordings were repeated without sedation in control condition, nPSV (15/4 cmH2O and nNAVA (~ 15/4 cmH2O. The number of gastroesophageal refluxes recorded over six hours, expressed as median (interquartile range, decreased during both nPSV (1 (0, 3 and nNAVA [1 (0, 3] compared to control condition (5 (3, 10, (p < 0.05. Meanwhile, the esophageal insufflation index did not differ between nPSV (40 (11, 61 h-1 and nNAVA (10 (9, 56 h-1 (p = 0.8. In conclusion, nPSV and nNAVA similarly inhibit gastroesophageal refluxes in healthy newborn lambs at pressures that do not lead to gastric distension. In addition, the occurrence of esophageal insufflations is not significantly different between nPSV and nNAVA. The strong inhibitory effect of nIPPV on gastroesophageal refluxes appears identical to that reported with nasal continuous positive airway pressure.

  13. Contribution of hiatal hernia to asthma in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Tong; Ji, Feng; Han, Xin-Wei; Gu, Lin-Xia; Wang, Li; Yue, Yong-Qiang; Wang, Zhong-Gao

    2018-05-01

    To determine the correlation between asthma and hiatal hernia (HH) in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)-related asthma requiring laparoscopic anti-reflux surgery. One hundred and thirty-six GERD patients with medically refractory asthma with (80 patients) or without HH (56 patients) were enrolled. Gastroesophageal reflux disease was assessed by endoscopy, esophageal manometry, reflux monitoring and symptom questionnaires, and treated with laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication (LNF) or LNF with concomitant hiatal hernia repair (LNF-HHR). The outcome measures included patients' satisfaction and drug independence. The patients with HH had lower esophageal sphincters (P = .005) and higher DeMeester scores (P = .014) than those without HH. After an average follow-up of 24 months, symptom scores were significantly decreased from the preoperative values (P reflux, but also controlled asthma symptoms. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Refluxo gastroesofágico e asma na infância: um estudo de sua relação através de monitoramento do pH esofágico Gastroesophageal reflux and asthma in childhood: a study on their relationship using esophageal PH monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz C. Teixeira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Este trabalho tem como objetivo verificar a prevalência do refluxo gastroesofágico em crianças com asma e avaliar se o índice de refluxo tem uma boa sensibilidade e especificidade para o diagnóstico de refluxo gastroesofágico. MÉTODOS: Foram estudadas 69 crianças de 1 a 5 anos, com asma, através do exame de pHmetria de 24 horas. RESULTADOS: A idade das crianças variou de 12,4 a 63,1 meses, com uma média de 30,79, sendo que 62,3% eram do sexo masculino. O refluxo gastroesofágico foi observado em 68,1% das crianças. Quando separados os pacientes em duas categorias (asma moderada e grave, a associação foi de 58,5 e 82,1%, respectivamente. O refluxo gastroesofágico oculto ocorreu em 31,8% dos casos. O índice de refluxo mostrou uma sensibilidade de 89,4%, especificidade de 95,5%, valor preditivo positivo de 97,7% e valor preditivo negativo de 80,8%. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados obtidos neste estudo indicam uma elevada associação entre o refluxo gastroesofágico e a asma e sugerem que o índice de refluxo, como parâmetro único, tem uma boa sensibilidade e especificidade para o diagnóstico da doença do refluxo gastroesofágico.OBJECTIVES: This study aims at verifying the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux in asthmatic children, and at determining the sensitivity and specificity of the reflux index for the diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease. METHODS: Sixty-nine children, aged 1-5 years, with asthma, were studied by 24-hour pH monitoring. The patients were randomly selected. RESULTS: Ages varied from 12.4 to 63.1 months, mean age = 30.79 months, and 62.3% were males. Gastroesophageal reflux was observed in 68.1% of the children. The patients were divided into two groups, moderate and severe asthma, and gastroesophageal reflux was diagnosed in 58.5 and 82.1% of the cases, respectively. Occult gastroesophageal reflux occurred in 31.8% of the cases. The reflux index showed an sensitivity of 89.4%, specificity of

  15. Reflux and GERD (in Children)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition Nurses Print Share Reflux GERD Reflux occurs during or after a meal when ... tube connecting the mouth to the stomach). Reflux & GERD The Difference Between Reflux and GERD in Kids ...

  16. Chronic xerostomia increases esophageal acid exposure and is associated with esophageal injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsten, M.A.; Rosman, A.S.; Fishbein, S.; Shlein, R.D.; Goldberg, H.E.; Biener, A. (Gastrointestinal Section, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Bronx, New York (USA))

    1991-06-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of chronic xerostomia on parameters of gastroesophageal reflux and esophagitis. DESIGN: Observational study of a cohort of male patients with xerostomia and age-matched control subjects. SETTING: Tertiary-care Veterans Affairs Medical Center. SUBJECTS: Sixteen male patients with chronic xerostomia secondary to radiation for head and neck cancers or medications. Nineteen age-matched male control subjects with comparable alcohol and smoking histories. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Esophageal motility was similar in patients with xerostomia and controls. Clearance of acid from the esophagus and 24-hour intraesophageal pH were markedly abnormal in patients with xerostomia. Symptoms and signs of esophagitis were significantly more frequent in subjects with xerostomia. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic xerostomia may predispose to esophageal injury, at least in part, by decreasing the clearance of acid from the esophagus and altering 24-hour intraesophageal pH. Esophageal injury is a previously unreported complication of long-term salivary deficiency.

  17. Chronic xerostomia increases esophageal acid exposure and is associated with esophageal injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korsten, M.A.; Rosman, A.S.; Fishbein, S.; Shlein, R.D.; Goldberg, H.E.; Biener, A.

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of chronic xerostomia on parameters of gastroesophageal reflux and esophagitis. DESIGN: Observational study of a cohort of male patients with xerostomia and age-matched control subjects. SETTING: Tertiary-care Veterans Affairs Medical Center. SUBJECTS: Sixteen male patients with chronic xerostomia secondary to radiation for head and neck cancers or medications. Nineteen age-matched male control subjects with comparable alcohol and smoking histories. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Esophageal motility was similar in patients with xerostomia and controls. Clearance of acid from the esophagus and 24-hour intraesophageal pH were markedly abnormal in patients with xerostomia. Symptoms and signs of esophagitis were significantly more frequent in subjects with xerostomia. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic xerostomia may predispose to esophageal injury, at least in part, by decreasing the clearance of acid from the esophagus and altering 24-hour intraesophageal pH. Esophageal injury is a previously unreported complication of long-term salivary deficiency

  18. Esophageal manometry findings and degree of acid exposure in short and long Barrett's esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helman, Laura; Biccas, Beatriz Nunes; Lemme, Eponina M O; Novais, Paula; Fittipaldi, Viviane

    2012-01-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) is characterized by intestinal metaplasia in the distal esophagus and is classified as short-segment (3 cm - LSSBE). It is suggested that LSSBE is associated with more severe esophageal motor abnormalities and increased acid exposure time than SSBE. To evaluate the prevalence of esophageal manometriy abnormalities and acid exposure times in patients with SSBE and LSSBE. Barrett's esophagus patients identified by upper endoscopy and confirmed by histopathology were, retrospectively, reviewed and divided into two groups: SSBE and LSBE. Demographic data, symptom duration, prevalence of hiatal hernia, lower esophagus sphincter basal pressure, prevalence of esophageal body abnormalities and acid exposure times were evaluated. Forty-six patients with SSBE (24 males - 52.2%, mean age of 55.2 years) and 28 patients with LSBE (18 males - 64.3%, mean age of 50.5 years). Mean symptom duration was 9.9 years for SSBE and 12.9 years for LSSBE. Hiatal hernia was present in 84.2% of SSBE, 96.3% of LSBE; average lower esophagus sphincter pressure in SSBE 9.15 mm Hg, in LSBE 6.99 mm Hg; lower esophagus sphincter hypotension in SSBE was 65.9%, in LSSBE 82.1%; aperistalsis in SSBE 6.5%, LSSBE 3.6%; mild/moderate ineffective esophageal motility in SSBE 34.8%, LSBE 46.4%; severe moderate ineffective esophageal motility in SSBE 10.9%, LSBE 7,1%; nutcracker esophagus/segmental nutcracker esophagus in SSBE 8.6%, LSBE 0%; normal body in SSBE 39.1%, in LSBE 42.9%, no statistical difference for any of these values (Pmotor disorders in patients with SSBE and LSSBE. Acid reflux in upright and supine positions was more intense in LSBE.

  19. How to differentiate non-erosive reflux disease from functional heartburn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Mei Yun

    2012-12-01

    Heartburn is a common symptom in gastroesophageal reflux disease. Endoscopic examination can differentiate between reflux esophagitis and non-erosive reflux disease (NERD), but not between NERD and functional heartburn. With the development of new techniques, more NERD patients could be identified among those previously diagnosed with functional heartburn. Most patients with NERD, however, could be identified based on their clinical characteristics and response to proton pump inhibitors and/or integrated anti-gastroesophageal reflux therapy. © 2012 The Author. Journal of Digestive Diseases © 2012 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. Gastroesophageal reflux and respiratory diseases in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatima, S.; Saeed, M.A.; Jafri, S.R.A.; Raza, M.; Kundi, Z.U.; Hyder, S.W.

    2002-01-01

    The association of gastroesophageal reflux disease and its pulmonary manifestation is well known however the exact underlying mechanism is unclear. The medical literature is deluged with studies on relationship between Gear and its pulmonary manifestations. The aim of this study was to 1) determine prevalence of GER in children with rLRTI, wheezing and asthma. 2) determine prevalence of asymptomatic respiratory anomalies in children with clinical reflux 3) determine effectiveness of anti-reflux therapy in clinical control of asthma, wheezing and rLRTI. Children were included in the study if they presented either with rLRTI, wheezing, Bronchial asthma or Clinical suspicion of GER without any respiratory symptoms. The GER study comprised esophageal transit, gastroesophageal reflux and lung aspiration studies. Acquisition and processing were according to predetermined protocol. Segmental and global esophageal transit times, GER according to duration of episode and volume of refluxed liquid, Reflux severity, Gastric retention at 30 minutes, Gastric emptying time, Presence of lung aspiration were calculated for each study. All children underwent Barium studies on a separate day. Clinical follow-up was done every 3 months and GER study was repeated every 6 months up to one year. The patient's therapy was determined by local protocols at discretion of clinicians. GER scintigraphy was performed in 43 patients (age range 5 months -12 years). Gastroesophageal reflux of varying degrees was observed in 10 children (23.25%) in all groups. The severity of clinical symptoms was directly related to severity of GER. The direct correlation was found between GER and reflux index. The results of GER scintigraphy were compared with Barium studies and results were found to be superior in terms of sensitivity, specificity and accuracy in detecting disease. It was possible to objectively evaluate and monitor response to therapy after medical treatment in few cases with help of follow

  1. [The Additional Role of Symptom-Reflux Association Analysis of Diagnosis of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Using Bravo Capsule pH Test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyoungwon; Park, Moo In; Park, Seun Ja; Moon, Won; Kim, Sung Eun; Kim, Jae Hyun

    2017-10-25

    Since the development of ambulatory esophageal pH monitoring test to diagnose gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), several parameters have been introduced. The aim of this study was to assess whether using the symptom index (SI), symptom sensitivity index (SSI), and symptom association probability (SAP), in addition to the DeMeester score (DS), would be useful for interpreting the Bravo pH monitoring test. A retrospective study, which included 68 patients with reflux symptoms refractory to proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy who underwent a Bravo capsule pH test between October 2006 and May 2015, was carried out. Acid reflux parameters and symptom reflux association parameters were analyzed. The median percent time of total pHvariation in percent time of total pHpH test, diagnosis of GERD, including reflux hypersensitivity, can be improved by performing an analysis of the symptom-reflux association and of the day-to-day variation.

  2. PET-CT manifestation of Candida esophagitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Yong Whee [Sung-Ae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); O, Joo Hyun [Kangnam St. Mary' s Hospital, Catholic University Medical School, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Candida esophagitis (moniliasis) is the most common infection of the gullet and has generally been attributed to as a complication of immune suppressed state. However, as the current case. Holt found the disease to occur in 3 of his 13 patients without predisposing condition. Predisposing factors other than immune deficient conditions include aplastic anemia, alcoholism and Parkinson's disease and age, diabetes mellitus, and disruption of mucosal integrity. Growing prevalence of Candida esophagitis in recent years is accounted for by an increase in the number of patients with organ transplantation, malignancy and AIDS as well as populrization of endoscopy. Microorganisms that reached the esophagus in oral secretions are rarely cultured from the esophageal surface. Of many species C. albicans is the most common offender although C. tropicalis has also been isolated with high prevalence, particularly in the patients with cancer and disseminated candidiasis. Clinically, the patients with Candida esophagitis seek medical care for esophageal or retrosternal pain, dysphagia or distress. Candida esophagitis may be the extension from oropharyngeal infection but in the majority the esophagus is the sole site of infection. The middle and lower thirds of the esophagus are more typically affected than the upper third. Diagnosis can be indicated by double contrast esophagography or endoscopy and confirmed by potassium hydroxide (KOH) stain or biopsy. It is to be noted that the more presence of Candida in smear or cultured specimen cannot indict Candida as definitive offender. Differential diagnosis includes herpes simplex infection, cytomegalovirus infection, reflux esophagitis or radiation esophagitis.

  3. PET-CT manifestation of Candida esophagitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahk, Yong Whee; O, Joo Hyun

    2007-01-01

    Candida esophagitis (moniliasis) is the most common infection of the gullet and has generally been attributed to as a complication of immune suppressed state. However, as the current case. Holt found the disease to occur in 3 of his 13 patients without predisposing condition. Predisposing factors other than immune deficient conditions include aplastic anemia, alcoholism and Parkinson's disease and age, diabetes mellitus, and disruption of mucosal integrity. Growing prevalence of Candida esophagitis in recent years is accounted for by an increase in the number of patients with organ transplantation, malignancy and AIDS as well as populrization of endoscopy. Microorganisms that reached the esophagus in oral secretions are rarely cultured from the esophageal surface. Of many species C. albicans is the most common offender although C. tropicalis has also been isolated with high prevalence, particularly in the patients with cancer and disseminated candidiasis. Clinically, the patients with Candida esophagitis seek medical care for esophageal or retrosternal pain, dysphagia or distress. Candida esophagitis may be the extension from oropharyngeal infection but in the majority the esophagus is the sole site of infection. The middle and lower thirds of the esophagus are more typically affected than the upper third. Diagnosis can be indicated by double contrast esophagography or endoscopy and confirmed by potassium hydroxide (KOH) stain or biopsy. It is to be noted that the more presence of Candida in smear or cultured specimen cannot indict Candida as definitive offender. Differential diagnosis includes herpes simplex infection, cytomegalovirus infection, reflux esophagitis or radiation esophagitis

  4. Feeding Difficulties in Children with Esophageal Atresia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Lisa; Rosen, Rachel

    2016-06-01

    The current available literature evaluating feeding difficulties in children with esophageal atresia was reviewed. The published literature was searched through PubMed using a pre-defined search strategy. Feeding difficulties are commonly encountered in children and adults with repaired esophageal atresia [EA]. The mechanism for abnormal feeding includes both esophageal and oropharyngeal dysphagia. Esophageal dysphagia is commonly reported in patients with EA and causes include dysmotility, anatomic lesions, esophageal outlet obstruction and esophageal inflammation. Endoscopic evaluation, esophageal manometry and esophograms can be useful studies to evaluate for causes of esophageal dysphagia. Oropharyngeal dysfunction and aspiration are also important mechanisms for feeding difficulties in patients with EA. These patients often present with respiratory symptoms. Videofluoroscopic swallow study, salivagram, fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing and high-resolution manometry can all be helpful tools to identify aspiration. Once diagnosed, management goals include reduction of aspiration during swallowing, reducing full column reflux into the oropharynx and continuation of oral feeding to maintain skills. We review specific strategies which can be used to reduce aspiration of gastric contents, including thickening feeds, changing feeding schedule, switching formula, trialing transpyloric feeds and fundoplication. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Medical therapy of gastroesophageal reflux. Evaluation of the activity of clebopride by continuous intraluminal pH measurement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvisi, V; Onofrio, W; Intrieri, L; D'Ambrosi, A

    1987-10-15

    Seven female and three male outpatients (mean age 45, range 37-54), suffering from gastroesophageal reflux underwent therapy with clebopride, a new selective antidopaminergic agent. Before and after treatment (1 mg b.i.d. for ten days) 24 h-continuous monitoring of esophageal pH was done. Clebopride significantly lowered the number and the extension of gastroesophageal acid refluxes.

  6. Herpetic esophagitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shortsleeve, M.J.; Gauvin, G.P.; Gardner, R.C.; Greenberg, M.S.

    1981-01-01

    Four patients with herpetic esophagitis were examined. In three of them, the presenting symptom was odynophagia. Early in the course of herpetic esophagitis, shallow round and oval ulcers were seen on barium esophagograms. Later, the ulcers filled with fibrinous exudate, forming nodular plaques that projected into the esophageal lumen. Although these findings are diagnostic of esophagitis, they are not specific for a herpes virus infection. The definitive diagnosis must be established by histologic examination, which demonstrates the cytopathic effect of the herpes virus infection within the squamous epithelium

  7. Reversal of lower esophageal sphincter hypotension and esophageal aperistalsis after treatment for hypothyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eastwood, G.L.; Braverman, L.E.; White, E.M.; Vander Salm, T.J.

    1982-08-01

    A 65-year-old woman suffered from both chronic gastroesophageal reflux, which was complicated by columnar metaplasia (Barrett's epithelium), and profound hypothyroidism. An esophageal motility tracing showed absence of peristalsis in the lower esophagus and the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) could not be identified. Thyroid replacement therapy, in conjunction with antacid and cimetidine treatment, was associated not only with improvement in the gastroesophageal reflux symptoms, but also with a return of esophageal peristalsis and LES pressure to normal. To support our clinical observations, we rendered four cats hypothyroid with /sup 131/I and documented a fall in LES pressure. We propose that abnormal smooth-muscle function of the esophagus may be another manifestation of the gastrointestinal motility disturbances which are associated with hypothyroidism.